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Sample records for calibrators performance evaluation

  1. Radionuclide calibrators performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Ramirez, E.; Zeledon Fonseca, P.; Jimenez Cordero, M.

    2008-01-01

    Radionuclide calibrators are used to estimate accurately activity prior to administration to a patient, so it is very important that this equipment meets its performance requirements. The purpose of this paper is to compare the commercially available 'Calicheck' (Calcorp. Inc), used to assess linearity, versus the well-known source decay method, and also to show our results after performing several recommended quality control tests. The parameters that we wanted to evaluate were carried on using the Capintec CRC-15R and CRC-15 β radionuclide calibrators. The evaluated tests were: high voltage, display, zero adjust, background, reproducibility, source constancy, accuracy, precision and linearity. The first six tests were evaluated on the daily practice, here we analyzed the 2007 recorded data; and the last three were evaluated once a year. During the daily evaluation both calibrators performance were satisfactory comparing with the manufacture's requirements. The accuracy test show result within the ± 10% allowed for a field instrument. Precision performance is within the ± 1 % allowed. On the other hand, the linearity test shows that using the source decay method the relative coefficient is 0.9998, for both equipment and using the Calicheck the relative coefficient is 0.997. However, looking the percentage of error, during the 'Calicheck' test, its range goes from 0.0 % up to -25.35%, and using the source decay method, the range goes from 0.0 % up to -31.05 %, taking into account both instruments. Checking the 'Calicheck' results we can see that the results varying randomly, but using the source decay method the percentage of error increase as the source activity decrease. We conclude that both devices meet its manufactures requirements, in the case of the linearity using the decay method, decreasing the activity source, increasing the percentage of error, this may happen because of the equipment age. (author)

  2. Performance evaluation of commercial radionuclide calibrators in Indonesian hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candra, Hermawan; Marsoem, Pujadi; Wurdiyanto, Gatot

    2012-01-01

    Dose calibrator is one of the supporting equipments in the field of nuclear medicine. At the hospitals, dose calibrator is used for activity measurement of radiopharmaceutical before it is administered to patients. Comparison of activity measurements of 131 I and 99m Tc with dose calibrators was organized in Indonesia during 2007–2010 with the the aim of obtaining information dose calibrator performance in the hospitals. Seven Indonesian hospitals participated in this comparison. The measurement results were evaluated using the E n criteria. The result presented in this paper facilitated the evaluation of dose calibrator performance at several hospitals. - Highlights: ► National comparisons of 131 I and 99m Tc radionuclides in Indonesian hospitals. ► Standardization using a Centronic IG11/A20 4πγ Ionization Chamber and participants using commercial radionuclide calibrators. ► Performance radionuclide calibrator in nuclear medicine in Indonesia. ► Measurement of activity of 99m Tc and 131 I was found satisfactory.

  3. HENC performance evaluation and plutonium calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Baca, J.; Pecos, J.M.; Davidson, D.R.; McElroy, R.D.; Brochu, D.B.

    1997-10-01

    The authors have designed a high-efficiency neutron counter (HENC) to increase the plutonium content in 200-L waste drums. The counter uses totals neutron counting, coincidence counting, and multiplicity counting to determine the plutonium mass. The HENC was developed as part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between the Department of Energy and Canberra Industries. This report presents the results of the detector modifications, the performance tests, the add-a-source calibration, and the plutonium calibration at Los Alamos National Laboratory (TA-35) in 1996

  4. Site calibration for the wind turbine performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Yoon Su; Yoo, Neung Soo; Lee, Jung Wan

    2004-01-01

    The accurate wind speed information at the hub height of a wind turbine is very essential to the exact estimation of the wind turbine power performance testing. Several method on the site calibration, which is a technique to estimate the wind speed at the wind turbine's hub height based on the measured wind data using a reference meteorological mast, are introduced. A site calibration result and the wind resource assessment for the TaeKwanRyung test site are presented using three-month wind data from a reference meteorological mast and the other mast temporarily installed at the site of wind turbine. Besides, an analysis on the uncertainty allocation for the wind speed correction using site calibration is performed

  5. Evaluation of methods to calibrate radiation survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.C.; Arbeau, N.D.

    1987-04-01

    Calibration requirements for radiation survey meters used in industrial radiography have been reviewed. Information obtained from a literature search, discussions with CSLD inspectors and firms performing calibrations has been considered. Based on this review a set of minimum calibration requirements was generated which, when met, will determine that the survey meter is suited for measurements described in the current AEC Regulations that apply to industrial radiography equipment. These requirements are presented in this report and may be used as guidelines for evaluating calibration methods proposed or in use in industry. 39 refs

  6. Accuracy evaluation of optical distortion calibration by digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zeren; Zhang, Qingchuan; Su, Yong; Wu, Shangquan

    2017-11-01

    Due to its convenience of operation, the camera calibration algorithm, which is based on the plane template, is widely used in image measurement, computer vision and other fields. How to select a suitable distortion model is always a problem to be solved. Therefore, there is an urgent need for an experimental evaluation of the accuracy of camera distortion calibrations. This paper presents an experimental method for evaluating camera distortion calibration accuracy, which is easy to implement, has high precision, and is suitable for a variety of commonly used lens. First, we use the digital image correlation method to calculate the in-plane rigid body displacement field of an image displayed on a liquid crystal display before and after translation, as captured with a camera. Next, we use a calibration board to calibrate the camera to obtain calibration parameters which are used to correct calculation points of the image before and after deformation. The displacement field before and after correction is compared to analyze the distortion calibration results. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance of two commonly used industrial camera lenses for four commonly used distortion models.

  7. Evaluation of radionuclide calibrator performance with Tc-99m and I-123 in nuclear medicine centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Ji Young; Kim, Gwe Ya; Yang, Hyun Kyu; Lim, Chun Il; Lee, Hyun Koo; Kim, Byung Tae; Jeong, Hee Kyo

    2004-01-01

    To minimize unnecessary radiation dose to patients, it is important to ensure that the radiopharmaceutical administered is accurately measured. Tc-99m is one of the popular radionuclide used in nuclear medicine and I-123 is also used widely in nuclear medicine. To investigate the level of measurement performance and to provide the participants with a traceable standard to check and review their calibration factors for these particular radionuclides, Korean Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) as a national secondary standard dosimetry laboratory conducted comparison program for Tc-99m and I-123 in nuclear medicine centers. 72 nuclear medicine centers (78 calibrators) participated in the comparison program for Tc-99m in 2003 and 37 centers (41 calibrators) for I-123 in 2004. For a comparison, Tc-99m and I-123 were accurately sub-divided into a series of 4 ml aliquots in 10 ml P6 vial and delivered to participants. Participants were invited to assay their P6 vial in each of their radionuclide calibrators and to report their results directly to KFDA. For the evaluation of raionuclide, KFDA used NPL-CRC radionuclide calibrator that is traceable to NPL (National Physical Laboratory) primany standard. The difference between the value reported by the hospital (A h ospital) and of the KFDA (A k fda) is expressed as a percent deviation (DEV (%) = 100 (A h ospital - A k fda)/A k fda). If there were calibrators over 10 % deviations, those were checked again with the same procedure. In Tc-99m, 65% of the calibrators showed deviations within 5 % and 18 % were in the range of 5 % < | DEV | ≤10 %, and 17 % were over 10 % deviations. In I-123, 41 % of the calibrators were within ±5 % and 29 % were in the range of 5 % < | DEV | ≤10 % and 30 % were over 10 %. The results have shown that such comparisons are necessary to improve the accuracy of the measurement and to identify radionuclide calibrators that are malfunctioning

  8. Performance standard for dose Calibrator

    CERN Document Server

    Darmawati, S

    2002-01-01

    Dose calibrator is an instrument used in hospitals to determine the activity of radionuclide for nuclear medicine purposes. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has published IEC 1303:1994 standard that can be used as guidance to test the performance of the instrument. This paper briefly describes content of the document,as well as explains the assessment that had been carried out to test the instrument accuracy in Indonesia through intercomparison measurement.Its is suggested that hospitals acquire a medical physicist to perform the test for its dose calibrator. The need for performance standard in the form of Indonesia Standard is also touched.

  9. CryoSat SIRAL Calibration and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornari, Marco; Scagliola, Michele; Tagliani, Nicolas; Parrinello, Tommaso

    2013-04-01

    The main payload of CryoSat is a Ku band pulse-width limited radar altimeter, called SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter), that transmits pulses at a high pulse repetition frequency thus making the received echoes phase coherent and suitable for azimuth processing. This allows to reach an along track resolution of about 250 meters which is a significant improvement over traditional pulse-width limited altimeters. Due to the fact that SIRAL is a phase coherent pulse-width limited radar altimeter, a proper calibration approach has been developed, including both an internal and external calibration. The internal calibration monitors the instrument impulse response and the transfer function, like traditional altimeters. In addition to that, the interferometer requires a special calibration developed ad hoc for SIRAL. The external calibration is performed with the use of a ground transponder, located in Svalbard, which receives SIRAL signal and sends the echo back to the satellite. Internal calibration data are processed on ground by the CryoSat Instrument Processing Facility (IPF1) and then applied to the science data. By April 2013, almost 3 years of calibration data will be available, which will be shown in this poster. The external calibration (transponder) data are processed and analyzed independently from the operational chain. The use of an external transponder has been very useful to determine instrument performance and for the tuning of the on-ground processor. This poster presents the transponder results in terms of range noise and datation error.

  10. Study of the performance of diagnostic radiology instruments during calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Rodrigo N. de; Vivolo, Vitor; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The instruments used in diagnostic radiology measurements represent 8 % of the tested instruments by the calibration laboratory of IPEN annually (approximately 1600 in 2007). Considering that the calibration of this kind of instrument is performed biannually it is possible to conclude that almost 300 instruments are being used to measure the air kerma in diagnostic radiology clinics to determine the in beam values (in front of the patient), attenuated measurements (behind the patient) and scattered radiation. This work presents the results of the calibration of the instruments used in mammography, computed tomography, dental and conventional diagnostic radiology dosimetry, performed during the period of 2005 to 2007. Their performances during the calibrations measurements were evaluated. Although at the calibration laboratory there are three available series of radiation quality to this type of calibration (RQR, N and M, according to standards IEC 61267 and ISO 4037-1.), the applications can be assorted (general radiology, computed tomography, mammography, radiation protection and fluoroscopy). Depending on its design and behaviour , one kind of instrument can be used for one or more type of applications. The instruments normally used for diagnostic radiology measurements are ionization chambers with volumes varying from 3 to 1800 cm 3 , and can be cylindrical, spherical or plane parallel plates kind. They usually are sensitive to photon particles, with energies greater than 15 keV and can be used up to 1200 keV. In this work they were tested in X radiation fields from 25 to 150 kV, in specific qualities depending on the utilization of the instrument. The calibration results of 390 instruments received from 2005 to 2007 were analyzed. About 20 instruments were not able to be calibrated due to bad functioning. The calibration coefficients obtained were between 0.88 and 1.24. The uncertainties were always less than ± 3.6% to instruments used in scattered

  11. Effect of Using Extreme Years in Hydrologic Model Calibration Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goktas, R. K.; Tezel, U.; Kargi, P. G.; Ayvaz, T.; Tezyapar, I.; Mesta, B.; Kentel, E.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrological models are useful in predicting and developing management strategies for controlling the system behaviour. Specifically they can be used for evaluating streamflow at ungaged catchments, effect of climate change, best management practices on water resources, or identification of pollution sources in a watershed. This study is a part of a TUBITAK project named "Development of a geographical information system based decision-making tool for water quality management of Ergene Watershed using pollutant fingerprints". Within the scope of this project, first water resources in Ergene Watershed is studied. Streamgages found in the basin are identified and daily streamflow measurements are obtained from State Hydraulic Works of Turkey. Streamflow data is analysed using box-whisker plots, hydrographs and flow-duration curves focusing on identification of extreme periods, dry or wet. Then a hydrological model is developed for Ergene Watershed using HEC-HMS in the Watershed Modeling System (WMS) environment. The model is calibrated for various time periods including dry and wet ones and the performance of calibration is evaluated using Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE), correlation coefficient, percent bias (PBIAS) and root mean square error. It is observed that calibration period affects the model performance, and the main purpose of the development of the hydrological model should guide calibration period selection. Acknowledgement: This study is funded by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) under Project Number 115Y064.

  12. Test Takers' Performance Appraisals, Appraisal Calibration, and Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phakiti, Aek

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores the nature and relationships among test takers' performance appraisals, appraisal calibration, and reported cognitive and metacognitive strategy use in a language test situation. Performance appraisals are executive processes of strategic competence for judging test performance (e.g., evaluating the correctness or…

  13. Model performance evaluation (validation and calibration) in model-based studies of therapeutic interventions for cardiovascular diseases : a review and suggested reporting framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji Ali Afzali, Hossein; Gray, Jodi; Karnon, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    Decision analytic models play an increasingly important role in the economic evaluation of health technologies. Given uncertainties around the assumptions used to develop such models, several guidelines have been published to identify and assess 'best practice' in the model development process, including general modelling approach (e.g., time horizon), model structure, input data and model performance evaluation. This paper focuses on model performance evaluation. In the absence of a sufficient level of detail around model performance evaluation, concerns regarding the accuracy of model outputs, and hence the credibility of such models, are frequently raised. Following presentation of its components, a review of the application and reporting of model performance evaluation is presented. Taking cardiovascular disease as an illustrative example, the review investigates the use of face validity, internal validity, external validity, and cross model validity. As a part of the performance evaluation process, model calibration is also discussed and its use in applied studies investigated. The review found that the application and reporting of model performance evaluation across 81 studies of treatment for cardiovascular disease was variable. Cross-model validation was reported in 55 % of the reviewed studies, though the level of detail provided varied considerably. We found that very few studies documented other types of validity, and only 6 % of the reviewed articles reported a calibration process. Considering the above findings, we propose a comprehensive model performance evaluation framework (checklist), informed by a review of best-practice guidelines. This framework provides a basis for more accurate and consistent documentation of model performance evaluation. This will improve the peer review process and the comparability of modelling studies. Recognising the fundamental role of decision analytic models in informing public funding decisions, the proposed

  14. XRD alignment, calibration and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davy, L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The quality of any diffractometer system is very much dependent on the alignment, calibration and performance. The three subjects are very much related. Firstly, you must know how to carry out the full diffractometer alignment. XRD alignment is easy once you know how. The presentation will show you step by step to carry out the full alignment. Secondly, you need to know how to calibrate the diffractometer system. The presentation will show you how to calibrate the goniometer, detector etc. Thirdly, to prove the system is working within the manufacturer specification. The presentation will show you how to carry out the resolution, reproducibility and linearity test. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  15. Evaluating Statistical Process Control (SPC) techniques and computing the uncertainty of force calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navard, Sharon E.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years there has been a push within NASA to use statistical techniques to improve the quality of production. Two areas where statistics are used are in establishing product and process quality control of flight hardware and in evaluating the uncertainty of calibration of instruments. The Flight Systems Quality Engineering branch is responsible for developing and assuring the quality of all flight hardware; the statistical process control methods employed are reviewed and evaluated. The Measurement Standards and Calibration Laboratory performs the calibration of all instruments used on-site at JSC as well as those used by all off-site contractors. These calibrations must be performed in such a way as to be traceable to national standards maintained by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and they must meet a four-to-one ratio of the instrument specifications to calibrating standard uncertainty. In some instances this ratio is not met, and in these cases it is desirable to compute the exact uncertainty of the calibration and determine ways of reducing it. A particular example where this problem is encountered is with a machine which does automatic calibrations of force. The process of force calibration using the United Force Machine is described in detail. The sources of error are identified and quantified when possible. Suggestions for improvement are made.

  16. The Geostationary Lightning Mapper: Its Performance and Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, H. J., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    The Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) has been developed to be an operational instrument on the GOES-R series of spacecraft. The GLM is a unique instrument, unlike other meteorological instruments, both in how it operates and in the information content that it provides. Instrumentally, it is an event detector, rather than an imager. While processing almost a billion pixels per second with 14 bits of resolution, the event detection process reduces the required telemetry bandwidth by almost 105, thus keeping the telemetry requirements modest and enabling efficient ground processing that leads to rapid data distribution to operational users. The GLM was designed to detect about 90 percent of the total lightning flashes within its almost hemispherical field of view. Based on laboratory calibration, we expect the on-orbit detection efficiency to be closer to 85%, making it the highest performing, large area coverage total lightning detector. It has a number of unique design features that will enable it have near uniform special resolution over most of its field of view and to operate with minimal impact on performance during solar eclipses. The GLM has no dedicated on-orbit calibration system, thus the ground-based calibration provides the bases for the predicted radiometric performance. A number of problems were encountered during the calibration of Flight Model 1. The issues arouse from GLM design features including its wide field of view, fast lens, the narrow-band interference filters located in both object and collimated space and the fact that the GLM is inherently a event detector yet the calibration procedures required both calibration of images and events. The GLM calibration techniques were based on those developed for the Lightning Imaging Sensor calibration, but there are enough differences between the sensors that the initial GLM calibration suggested that it is significantly more sensitive than its design parameters. The calibration discrepancies have

  17. On-demand calibration and evaluation for electromagnetically tracked laparoscope in augmented reality visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyang; Plishker, William; Zaki, George; Kang, Sukryool; Kane, Timothy D; Shekhar, Raj

    2016-06-01

    Common camera calibration methods employed in current laparoscopic augmented reality systems require the acquisition of multiple images of an entire checkerboard pattern from various poses. This lengthy procedure prevents performing laparoscope calibration in the operating room (OR). The purpose of this work was to develop a fast calibration method for electromagnetically (EM) tracked laparoscopes, such that the calibration can be performed in the OR on demand. We designed a mechanical tracking mount to uniquely and snugly position an EM sensor to an appropriate location on a conventional laparoscope. A tool named fCalib was developed to calibrate intrinsic camera parameters, distortion coefficients, and extrinsic parameters (transformation between the scope lens coordinate system and the EM sensor coordinate system) using a single image that shows an arbitrary portion of a special target pattern. For quick evaluation of calibration results in the OR, we integrated a tube phantom with fCalib prototype and overlaid a virtual representation of the tube on the live video scene. We compared spatial target registration error between the common OpenCV method and the fCalib method in a laboratory setting. In addition, we compared the calibration re-projection error between the EM tracking-based fCalib and the optical tracking-based fCalib in a clinical setting. Our results suggest that the proposed method is comparable to the OpenCV method. However, changing the environment, e.g., inserting or removing surgical tools, might affect re-projection accuracy for the EM tracking-based approach. Computational time of the fCalib method averaged 14.0 s (range 3.5 s-22.7 s). We developed and validated a prototype for fast calibration and evaluation of EM tracked conventional (forward viewing) laparoscopes. The calibration method achieved acceptable accuracy and was relatively fast and easy to be performed in the OR on demand.

  18. CryoSat-2 SIRAL Calibration and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornari, M.; Scagliola, M.; Tagliani, N.; Parrinello, T.

    2012-12-01

    The main payload of CryoSat-2 is a Ku band pulse-width limited radar altimeter, called SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter), that transmits pulses at a high pulse repetition frequency thus making the received echoes phase coherent and suitable for azimuth processing. This allows to reach an along track resolution of about 250 meters which is a significant improvement over traditional pulse-width limited altimeters. Due to the fact that SIRAL is a phase coherent pulse-width limited radar altimeter, a proper calibration approach has been developed, including both an internal and external calibration. The internal calibration monitors the instrument impulse response and the transfer function, like traditional altimeters. In addition to that, the interferometer requires a special calibration developed ad hoc for SIRAL. The external calibration is performed with the use of a ground transponder, located in Svalbard, which receives SIRAL signal and sends the echo back to the satellite. Internal calibration data are processed on ground by the CryoSat-2 Instrument Processing Facility (IPF1) and then applied to the science data. In December 2012, two and a half years of calibration data will be available, which will be shown in this poster. The external calibration (transponder) data are processed and analyzed independently from the operational chain. The use of an external transponder has been very useful to determine instrument performance and for the tuning of the on-ground processor. This poster presents the transponder results in terms of range noise and datation error.

  19. Evaluation of EIT system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Mamatjan; Böhm, Stephan; Gaggero, Pascal O; Adler, Andy

    2011-07-01

    An electrical impedance tomography (EIT) system images internal conductivity from surface electrical stimulation and measurement. Such systems necessarily comprise multiple design choices from cables and hardware design to calibration and image reconstruction. In order to compare EIT systems and study the consequences of changes in system performance, this paper describes a systematic approach to evaluate the performance of the EIT systems. The system to be tested is connected to a saline phantom in which calibrated contrasting test objects are systematically positioned using a position controller. A set of evaluation parameters are proposed which characterize (i) data and image noise, (ii) data accuracy, (iii) detectability of single contrasts and distinguishability of multiple contrasts, and (iv) accuracy of reconstructed image (amplitude, resolution, position and ringing). Using this approach, we evaluate three different EIT systems and illustrate the use of these tools to evaluate and compare performance. In order to facilitate the use of this approach, all details of the phantom, test objects and position controller design are made publicly available including the source code of the evaluation and reporting software.

  20. Performance Evaluation of Irbene RT-16 Radio Telescope Receiving System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleiders M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, recent measurement results of refurbished Irbene RT-16 radio telescope receiving system performance are presented. The aim of the research is to evaluate characteristics of RT-16, which will allow carrying out necessary amplitude calibration in both single dish and VLBI observations, to improve the performance of existing system as well as to monitor, control and compare performance if possible changes in the receiving system will occur in future. The evaluated receiving system is 16 m Cassegrain antenna equipped with a cryogenic receiver with frequency range from 4.5 to 8.8 GHz, which is divided into four sub-bands. Multiple calibration sessions have been carried out by observing stable astronomical sources with known flux density by using in-house made total power registration backend. First, pointing offset calibration has been carried out and pointing model coefficients calculated and applied. Then, amplitude calibration, namely antenna sensitivity, calibration diode equivalent flux density and gain curve measurements have been carried out by observing calibration sources at different antenna elevations at each of the receiver sub-bands. Beam patterns have also been evaluated at different frequency bands. As a whole, acquired data will serve as a reference point for comparison in future performance evaluation of RT-16.

  1. In-flight calibration and performance evaluation of the fixed head star trackers for the solar maximum mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. H.; Gambardella, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft provides an excellent opportunity for evaluating attitude determination accuracies achievable with tracking instruments such as fixed head star trackers (FHSTs). As a part of its payload, SMM carries a highly accurate fine pointing Sun sensor (FPSS). The EPSS provides an independent check of the pitch and yaw parameters computed from observations of stars in the FHST field of view. A method to determine the alignment of the FHSTs relative to the FPSS using spacecraft data is applied. Two methods that were used to determine distortions in the 8 degree by 8 degree field of view of the FHSTs using spacecraft data are also presented. The attitude determination accuracy performance of the in flight calibrated FHSTs is evaluated.

  2. Performance evaluation of the reference system for calibration of IPEN activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Elaine Wirney; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.

    2011-01-01

    The formation of good quality image in nuclear medicine services depends on several factors, including the radiopharmaceutical activity, which must be well determined by a specific apparatus, in perfect operating condition, called activimeter. Therefore, the establishment of a quality control program for measuring the radiopharmaceuticals radioactivity before being administered to the patient is crucial to the safe and effective use of the radiopharmaceuticals used in diagnostic and therapeutical procedures. Two activimeters, belonging by the Laboratorio de Calibracao do Instrumentos (LCI) of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), were evaluated: the secondary standard system NPL-CRC radionuclide calibrator, manufactured by Southern Scientific, and the work standard system CRC-15BT with traceability to National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST). A set of standard sources of the radionuclides 1 '3 3 Ba, 57 Co and 137 Cs was used as reference to perform the quality control tests. The precision, accuracy and repeatability tests were in agreement with those established by the CNEN-NE 3.05 Brazilian standard, which recommends the variation limit of up to 10%, 5% and 5% respectively. The results obtained for the reproducibility tests presented a variation always below 1,5%, which means it is within the IEC 61674 international standard recommendation of up to 3%. Activimeters response regarding linearity showed concordance between the measured activities and the theoretical curve for both activimeters. (author)

  3. Calibration of PMIS pavement performance prediction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Improve the accuracy of TxDOTs existing pavement performance prediction models through calibrating these models using actual field data obtained from the Pavement Management Information System (PMIS). : Ensure logical performance superiority patte...

  4. Better Drumming Through Calibration: Techniques for Pre-Performance Robotic Percussion Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Jim; Kapur, Ajay; Carnegie, Dale

    2012-01-01

    A problem with many contemporary musical robotic percussion systems lies in the fact that solenoids fail to respond lin-early to linear increases in input velocity. This nonlinearity forces performers to individually tailor their compositions to specific robotic drummers. To address this problem, we introduce a method of pre-performance calibration using metaheuristic search techniques. A variety of such techniques are introduced and evaluated and the results of the optimized solenoid-based p...

  5. Performance Assessment and Geometric Calibration of RESOURCESAT-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhadevi, P. V.; Solanki, S. S.; Akilan, A.; Jyothi, M. V.; Nagasubramanian, V.

    2016-06-01

    Resourcesat-2 (RS-2) has successfully completed five years of operations in its orbit. This satellite has multi-resolution and multi-spectral capabilities in a single platform. A continuous and autonomous co-registration, geo-location and radiometric calibration of image data from different sensors with widely varying view angles and resolution was one of the challenges of RS-2 data processing. On-orbit geometric performance of RS-2 sensors has been widely assessed and calibrated during the initial phase operations. Since then, as an ongoing activity, various geometric performance data are being generated periodically. This is performed with sites of dense ground control points (GCPs). These parameters are correlated to the direct geo-location accuracy of the RS-2 sensors and are monitored and validated to maintain the performance. This paper brings out the geometric accuracy assessment, calibration and validation done for about 500 datasets of RS-2. The objectives of this study are to ensure the best absolute and relative location accuracy of different cameras, location performance with payload steering and co-registration of multiple bands. This is done using a viewing geometry model, given ephemeris and attitude data, precise camera geometry and datum transformation. In the model, the forward and reverse transformations between the coordinate systems associated with the focal plane, payload, body, orbit and ground are rigorously and explicitly defined. System level tests using comparisons to ground check points have validated the operational geo-location accuracy performance and the stability of the calibration parameters.

  6. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter time calibration, monitoring and performance

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00075913; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. This sampling device is made of plastic scintillating tiles alternated with iron plates and its response is calibrated to electromagnetic scale by means of several dedicated calibration systems. The accurate time calibration is important for the energy reconstruction, non-collision background removal as well as for specific physics analyses. The initial time calibration with so-called splash events and subsequent fine-tuning with collision data are presented. The monitoring of the time calibration with laser system and physics collision data is discussed as well as the corrections for sudden changes performed still before the recorded data are processed for physics analyses. Finally, the time resolution as measured with jets and isolated muons particles is presented.

  7. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT AND GEOMETRIC CALIBRATION OF RESOURCESAT-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Radhadevi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Resourcesat-2 (RS-2 has successfully completed five years of operations in its orbit. This satellite has multi-resolution and multi-spectral capabilities in a single platform. A continuous and autonomous co-registration, geo-location and radiometric calibration of image data from different sensors with widely varying view angles and resolution was one of the challenges of RS-2 data processing. On-orbit geometric performance of RS-2 sensors has been widely assessed and calibrated during the initial phase operations. Since then, as an ongoing activity, various geometric performance data are being generated periodically. This is performed with sites of dense ground control points (GCPs. These parameters are correlated to the direct geo-location accuracy of the RS-2 sensors and are monitored and validated to maintain the performance. This paper brings out the geometric accuracy assessment, calibration and validation done for about 500 datasets of RS-2. The objectives of this study are to ensure the best absolute and relative location accuracy of different cameras, location performance with payload steering and co-registration of multiple bands. This is done using a viewing geometry model, given ephemeris and attitude data, precise camera geometry and datum transformation. In the model, the forward and reverse transformations between the coordinate systems associated with the focal plane, payload, body, orbit and ground are rigorously and explicitly defined. System level tests using comparisons to ground check points have validated the operational geo-location accuracy performance and the stability of the calibration parameters.

  8. Performance evaluation of the reference system for calibration of IPEN activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Elaine Wirney; Potiens, Maria da Penha A., E-mail: ewmartins@ipen.br, E-mail: mppalbu@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The formation of good quality image in nuclear medicine services depends on several factors, including the radiopharmaceutical activity, which must be well determined by a specific apparatus, in perfect operating condition, called activimeter. Therefore, the establishment of a quality control program for measuring the radiopharmaceuticals radioactivity before being administered to the patient is crucial to the safe and effective use of the radiopharmaceuticals used in diagnostic and therapeutical procedures. Two activimeters, belonging by the Laboratorio de Calibracao do Instrumentos (LCI) of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), were evaluated: the secondary standard system NPL-CRC radionuclide calibrator, manufactured by Southern Scientific, and the work standard system CRC-15BT with traceability to National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST). A set of standard sources of the radionuclides {sup 1}'3{sup 3}Ba, {sup 57}Co and {sup 137}Cs was used as reference to perform the quality control tests. The precision, accuracy and repeatability tests were in agreement with those established by the CNEN-NE 3.05 Brazilian standard, which recommends the variation limit of up to 10%, 5% and 5% respectively. The results obtained for the reproducibility tests presented a variation always below 1,5%, which means it is within the IEC 61674 international standard recommendation of up to 3%. Activimeters response regarding linearity showed concordance between the measured activities and the theoretical curve for both activimeters. (author)

  9. Technical guidelines for personnel dosimetry calibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberson, P.L.; Fox, R.A.; Hadley, R.T.; Holbrook, K.L.; Hooker, C.D.; McDonald, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    A base of technical information has been acquire and used to evaluate the calibration, design, and performance of selected personnel systems in use at Department of Energy (DOE) facilites. A technical document was prepared to guide DOE and DOE contractors in selecting and evaluating personnel dosimetry systems and calibration. A parallel effort was initiated to intercompare the adiological calibrations standards used to calibrate DOE personnel dosimeters

  10. Evaluation of Automated Model Calibration Techniques for Residential Building Energy Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    and Ben Polly, Joseph Robertson [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Polly, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Collis, Jon [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This simulation study adapts and applies the general framework described in BESTEST-EX (Judkoff et al 2010) for self-testing residential building energy model calibration methods. BEopt/DOE-2.2 is used to evaluate four mathematical calibration methods in the context of monthly, daily, and hourly synthetic utility data for a 1960's-era existing home in a cooling-dominated climate. The home's model inputs are assigned probability distributions representing uncertainty ranges, random selections are made from the uncertainty ranges to define "explicit" input values, and synthetic utility billing data are generated using the explicit input values. The four calibration methods evaluated in this study are: an ASHRAE 1051-RP-based approach (Reddy and Maor 2006), a simplified simulated annealing optimization approach, a regression metamodeling optimization approach, and a simple output ratio calibration approach. The calibration methods are evaluated for monthly, daily, and hourly cases; various retrofit measures are applied to the calibrated models and the methods are evaluated based on the accuracy of predicted savings, computational cost, repeatability, automation, and ease of implementation.

  11. Evaluation of Automated Model Calibration Techniques for Residential Building Energy Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, J.; Polly, B.; Collis, J.

    2013-09-01

    This simulation study adapts and applies the general framework described in BESTEST-EX (Judkoff et al 2010) for self-testing residential building energy model calibration methods. BEopt/DOE-2.2 is used to evaluate four mathematical calibration methods in the context of monthly, daily, and hourly synthetic utility data for a 1960's-era existing home in a cooling-dominated climate. The home's model inputs are assigned probability distributions representing uncertainty ranges, random selections are made from the uncertainty ranges to define 'explicit' input values, and synthetic utility billing data are generated using the explicit input values. The four calibration methods evaluated in this study are: an ASHRAE 1051-RP-based approach (Reddy and Maor 2006), a simplified simulated annealing optimization approach, a regression metamodeling optimization approach, and a simple output ratio calibration approach. The calibration methods are evaluated for monthly, daily, and hourly cases; various retrofit measures are applied to the calibrated models and the methods are evaluated based on the accuracy of predicted savings, computational cost, repeatability, automation, and ease of implementation.

  12. Simultaneous calibration phantom commission and geometry calibration in cone beam CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Yang, Shuai; Ma, Jianhui; Li, Bin; Wu, Shuyu; Qi, Hongliang; Zhou, Linghong

    2017-09-01

    Geometry calibration is a vital step for describing the geometry of a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system and is a prerequisite for CBCT reconstruction. In current methods, calibration phantom commission and geometry calibration are divided into two independent tasks. Small errors in ball-bearing (BB) positioning in the phantom-making step will severely degrade the quality of phantom calibration. To solve this problem, we propose an integrated method to simultaneously realize geometry phantom commission and geometry calibration. Instead of assuming the accuracy of the geometry phantom, the integrated method considers BB centers in the phantom as an optimized parameter in the workflow. Specifically, an evaluation phantom and the corresponding evaluation contrast index are used to evaluate geometry artifacts for optimizing the BB coordinates in the geometry phantom. After utilizing particle swarm optimization, the CBCT geometry and BB coordinates in the geometry phantom are calibrated accurately and are then directly used for the next geometry calibration task in other CBCT systems. To evaluate the proposed method, both qualitative and quantitative studies were performed on simulated and realistic CBCT data. The spatial resolution of reconstructed images using dental CBCT can reach up to 15 line pair cm-1. The proposed method is also superior to the Wiesent method in experiments. This paper shows that the proposed method is attractive for simultaneous and accurate geometry phantom commission and geometry calibration.

  13. Calibration and performance testing of electronic personal dosimeters (EPD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banaga, H.A.

    2008-04-01

    In modern radiation protection practices, active personal dosimeters are becoming absolutely necessary operational tools for satisfying the ALARA principle. The aim of this work was to carry out calibration and performance testing of ten electronic personal dosimeters (EPD) used for the individual monitoring. The EPDs were calibrated in terms of operation radiation protection quantity, personal dose equivalent, Hp (10). Calibrations were carried out at three of x-ray beam qualities described in ISO 4037 namely 60, 100 and 150 kV in addition to Cs-137 gamma ray quality. The calibrations were performed using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom with dimensions 20*20*15 cm 3 . Conversion coefficient Hp (10)/K air for the phantom was also calculated. The response and linearity of the dosimeter at the specified energies were also tested. The EPDs tested showed that the calibration coefficient ranged from 0.60 to 1.31 and an equivalent response for the specified energies that ranged from 0.76 to 1.67. The study demonstrated the possibility of using non standard phantom for calibrating dosimeters used for individual monitoring. The dosimeters under study showed a good response in all energies except the response in quality 100 kV. The linearity of the dosimeters was within ±15%, with the exception of the quality 100 kV where this limit was exceeded.(Author)

  14. Iowa calibration of MEPDG performance prediction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This study aims to improve the accuracy of AASHTO Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) pavement : performance predictions for Iowa pavement systems through local calibration of MEPDG prediction models. A total of 130 : representative p...

  15. Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager On-Orbit Geometric Calibration and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Storey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Landsat 8 spacecraft was launched on 11 February 2013 carrying the Operational Land Imager (OLI payload for moderate resolution imaging in the visible, near infrared (NIR, and short-wave infrared (SWIR spectral bands. During the 90-day commissioning period following launch, several on-orbit geometric calibration activities were performed to refine the prelaunch calibration parameters. The results of these calibration activities were subsequently used to measure geometric performance characteristics in order to verify the OLI geometric requirements. Three types of geometric calibrations were performed including: (1 updating the OLI-to-spacecraft alignment knowledge; (2 refining the alignment of the sub-images from the multiple OLI sensor chips; and (3 refining the alignment of the OLI spectral bands. The aspects of geometric performance that were measured and verified included: (1 geolocation accuracy with terrain correction, but without ground control (L1Gt; (2 Level 1 product accuracy with terrain correction and ground control (L1T; (3 band-to-band registration accuracy; and (4 multi-temporal image-to-image registration accuracy. Using the results of the on-orbit calibration update, all aspects of geometric performance were shown to meet or exceed system requirements.

  16. Calibration and performance of the CHORUS calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buontempo, S.; Capone, A.; Cocco, A.G.; De Pedis, D.; Di Capua, E.; Dore, U.; Ereditato, A.; Ferroni, M.; Fiorillo, G.; Loverre, P.F.; Luppi, C.; Macina, D.; Marchetti-Stasi, F.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Migliozzi, P.; Palladino, V.; Piredda, G.; Ricciardi, S.; Righini, P.P.; Saitta, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Strolin, P.; Zucchelli, P.

    1995-01-01

    A high resolution calorimeter has been built for CHORUS, an experiment which searches for ν μ →ν τ oscillation in the CERN neutrino beam. Aim of the calorimeter is to measure the energy and direction of hadronic showers produced in interactions of the neutrinos in a nuclear emulsion target and to track through-going muons. It is a longitudinally segmented sampling device made of lead and scintillating fibers or strips. This detector has been exposed to beams of pions and electrons of defined momentum for calibration. The method used for energy calibration and results on the calorimeter performance are reported. (orig.)

  17. Students’ Performance Calibration in a Basketball Dibbling Task in Elementary Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios KOLOVELONIS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine students’ performance calibration in physical education. Onehundred fifth and sixth grade students provided estimations regarding their performance in adribbling test after practicing dribbling for 16 minutes under different self-regulatory conditions (i.e.,receiving feedback, setting goals, self-recording. Two calibration indices, calibration bias andcalibration accuracy, were calculated. The results showed that students who practiced dribbling underdifferent self-regulatory conditions (i.e., receiving feedback, setting goals did not differ in calibrationbias and accuracy. Regardless of the group, students were overconfident. Moreover, sixth gradestudents were more accurate compared to fifth grade students. These results were discussed withreference to the development of performance calibration and self-regulated learning in physicaleducation.

  18. Comparison of calibration strategies for optical 3D scanners based on structured light projection using a new evaluation methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Ölsner, Sandy; Kühmstedt, Peter; Notni, Gunther

    2017-06-01

    In this paper a new evaluation strategy for optical 3D scanners based on structured light projection is introduced. It can be used for the characterization of the expected measurement accuracy. Compared to the procedure proposed in the VDI/VDE guidelines for optical 3D measurement systems based on area scanning it requires less effort and provides more impartiality. The methodology is suitable for the evaluation of sets of calibration parameters, which mainly determine the quality of the measurement result. It was applied to several calibrations of a mobile stereo camera based optical 3D scanner. The performed calibrations followed different strategies regarding calibration bodies and arrangement of the observed scene. The results obtained by the different calibration strategies are discussed and suggestions concerning future work on this area are given.

  19. Software for evaluation of EPR-dosimetry performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishkina, E.A.; Timofeev, Yu.S.; Ivanov, D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) with tooth enamel is a method extensively used for retrospective external dosimetry. Different research groups apply different equipment, sample preparation procedures and spectrum processing algorithms for EPR dosimetry. A uniform algorithm for description and comparison of performances was designed and implemented in a new computer code. The aim of the paper is to introduce the new software 'EPR-dosimetry performance'. The computer code is a user-friendly tool for providing a full description of method-specific capabilities of EPR tooth dosimetry, from metrological characteristics to practical limitations in applications. The software designed for scientists and engineers has several applications, including support of method calibration by evaluation of calibration parameters, evaluation of critical value and detection limit for registration of radiation-induced signal amplitude, estimation of critical value and detection limit for dose evaluation, estimation of minimal detectable value for anthropogenic dose assessment and description of method uncertainty. (authors)

  20. Effect of calibration data series length on performance and optimal parameters of hydrological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-zhe Li

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the effects of calibration data series length on the performance and optimal parameter values of a hydrological model in ungauged or data-limited catchments (data are non-continuous and fragmental in some catchments, we used non-continuous calibration periods for more independent streamflow data for SIMHYD (simple hydrology model calibration. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and percentage water balance error were used as performance measures. The particle swarm optimization (PSO method was used to calibrate the rainfall-runoff models. Different lengths of data series ranging from one year to ten years, randomly sampled, were used to study the impact of calibration data series length. Fifty-five relatively unimpaired catchments located all over Australia with daily precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and streamflow data were tested to obtain more general conclusions. The results show that longer calibration data series do not necessarily result in better model performance. In general, eight years of data are sufficient to obtain steady estimates of model performance and parameters for the SIMHYD model. It is also shown that most humid catchments require fewer calibration data to obtain a good performance and stable parameter values. The model performs better in humid and semi-humid catchments than in arid catchments. Our results may have useful and interesting implications for the efficiency of using limited observation data for hydrological model calibration in different climates.

  1. Maximum respiratory pressure measuring system : calibration and evaluation of uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, J.L.; Pereira, N.C.; Oliveira Júnior, M.; Vasconcelos, F.H.; Parreira, V.F.; Tierra-Criollo, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a methodology for the evaluation of uncertainties in the measurements results obtained during the calibration of a digital manovacuometer prototype (DM) with a load cell sensor pressure device incorporated. Calibration curves were obtained for both pressure

  2. Performance of the air2stream model that relates air and stream water temperatures depends on the calibration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Adam P.; Napiorkowski, Jaroslaw J.

    2018-06-01

    A number of physical or data-driven models have been proposed to evaluate stream water temperatures based on hydrological and meteorological observations. However, physical models require a large amount of information that is frequently unavailable, while data-based models ignore the physical processes. Recently the air2stream model has been proposed as an intermediate alternative that is based on physical heat budget processes, but it is so simplified that the model may be applied like data-driven ones. However, the price for simplicity is the need to calibrate eight parameters that, although have some physical meaning, cannot be measured or evaluated a priori. As a result, applicability and performance of the air2stream model for a particular stream relies on the efficiency of the calibration method. The original air2stream model uses an inefficient 20-year old approach called Particle Swarm Optimization with inertia weight. This study aims at finding an effective and robust calibration method for the air2stream model. Twelve different optimization algorithms are examined on six different streams from northern USA (states of Washington, Oregon and New York), Poland and Switzerland, located in both high mountains, hilly and lowland areas. It is found that the performance of the air2stream model depends significantly on the calibration method. Two algorithms lead to the best results for each considered stream. The air2stream model, calibrated with the chosen optimization methods, performs favorably against classical streamwater temperature models. The MATLAB code of the air2stream model and the chosen calibration procedure (CoBiDE) are available as Supplementary Material on the Journal of Hydrology web page.

  3. Evaluation of uncertainties in the calibration of radiation survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiens, M.P.A.; Santos, G.P.

    2006-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of ISO 17025, the quantification of the expanded uncertainties of experimental data in the calibration of survey meters must be carried out using well defined concepts, like those expressed in the 'ISO-Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement'. The calibration procedure of gamma ray survey meters involves two values that have to get their uncertainties clearly known: measurements of the instrument under calibration and the conventional true values of a quantity. Considering the continuous improvement of the calibration methods and set-ups, it is necessary to evaluate periodically the involved uncertainties in the procedures. In this work it is shown how the measurement uncertainties of an individual calibration can be estimated and how it can be generalized to be valid for others radiation survey meters. (authors)

  4. Comparison and uncertainty evaluation of different calibration protocols and ionization chambers for low-energy surface brachytherapy dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candela-Juan, C., E-mail: ccanjuan@gmail.com [Radiation Oncology Department, La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital, Valencia 46026 (Spain); Vijande, J. [Department of Atomic, Molecular, and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100, Spain and Instituto de Física Corpuscular (UV-CSIC), Paterna 46980 (Spain); García-Martínez, T. [Radiation Oncology Department, Hospital La Ribera, Alzira 46600 (Spain); Niatsetski, Y.; Nauta, G.; Schuurman, J. [Elekta Brachytherapy, Veenendaal 3905 TH (Netherlands); Ouhib, Z. [Radiation Oncology Department, Lynn Regional Cancer Center, Boca Raton Community Hospital, Boca Raton, Florida 33486 (United States); Ballester, F. [Department of Atomic, Molecular, and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain); Perez-Calatayud, J. [Radiation Oncology Department, La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital, Valencia 46026, Spain and Department of Radiotherapy, Clínica Benidorm, Benidorm 03501 (Spain)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: A surface electronic brachytherapy (EBT) device is in fact an x-ray source collimated with specific applicators. Low-energy (<100 kVp) x-ray beam dosimetry faces several challenges that need to be addressed. A number of calibration protocols have been published for x-ray beam dosimetry. The media in which measurements are performed are the fundamental difference between them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface dose rate of a low-energy x-ray source with small field applicators using different calibration standards and different small-volume ionization chambers, comparing the values and uncertainties of each methodology. Methods: The surface dose rate of the EBT unit Esteya (Elekta Brachytherapy, The Netherlands), a 69.5 kVp x-ray source with applicators of 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 mm diameter, was evaluated using the AAPM TG-61 (based on air kerma) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) TRS-398 (based on absorbed dose to water) dosimetry protocols for low-energy photon beams. A plane parallel T34013 ionization chamber (PTW Freiburg, Germany) calibrated in terms of both absorbed dose to water and air kerma was used to compare the two dosimetry protocols. Another PTW chamber of the same model was used to evaluate the reproducibility between these chambers. Measurements were also performed with two different Exradin A20 (Standard Imaging, Inc., Middleton, WI) chambers calibrated in terms of air kerma. Results: Differences between surface dose rates measured in air and in water using the T34013 chamber range from 1.6% to 3.3%. No field size dependence has been observed. Differences are below 3.7% when measurements with the A20 and the T34013 chambers calibrated in air are compared. Estimated uncertainty (with coverage factor k = 1) for the T34013 chamber calibrated in water is 2.2%–2.4%, whereas it increases to 2.5% and 2.7% for the A20 and T34013 chambers calibrated in air, respectively. The output factors, measured with the PTW chambers

  5. Evaluation of multivariate calibration models transferred between spectroscopic instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Carl Emil Aae; Hansen, Per W.; Skov, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In a setting where multiple spectroscopic instruments are used for the same measurements it may be convenient to develop the calibration model on a single instrument and then transfer this model to the other instruments. In the ideal scenario, all instruments provide the same predictions for the ......In a setting where multiple spectroscopic instruments are used for the same measurements it may be convenient to develop the calibration model on a single instrument and then transfer this model to the other instruments. In the ideal scenario, all instruments provide the same predictions...... for the same samples using the transferred model. However, sometimes the success of a model transfer is evaluated by comparing the transferred model predictions with the reference values. This is not optimal, as uncertainties in the reference method will impact the evaluation. This paper proposes a new method...... for calibration model transfer evaluation. The new method is based on comparing predictions from different instruments, rather than comparing predictions and reference values. A total of 75 flour samples were available for the study. All samples were measured on ten near infrared (NIR) instruments from two...

  6. The Performance and Usability of a Factory-Calibrated Flash Glucose Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Timothy; Bode, Bruce W.; Christiansen, Mark P.; Klaff, Leslie J.; Alva, Shridhara

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance and usability of the FreeStyle? Libre? Flash glucose monitoring system (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) for interstitial glucose results compared with capillary blood glucose results. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two study participants with type 1 or type 2 diabetes were enrolled by four U.S. clinical sites. A sensor was inserted on the back of each upper arm for up to 14 days. Three factory-only calibrated s...

  7. Metrological Evaluation of a Novel Medical Robot and Its Kinematic Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfei Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The vessels are twisted in a longitudinal 3D space in the lower limbs of humans. Thus, it is difficult to perform an ultrasound scanning examination in this area. In this paper, a new medical parallel robot is introduced to effectively diagnose vessel disease in the lower limbs. The robot's position repeatability and accuracy are evaluated. Furthermore, the robot's accuracy is improved through a calibration process in which the kinematic parameters are identified through a simple identification approach.

  8. CERN Radiation Protection (RP) calibration facilities

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082069; Macián-Juan, Rafael

    Radiation protection calibration facilities are essential to ensure the correct operation of radiation protection instrumentation. Calibrations are performed in specific radiation fields according to the type of instrument to be calibrated: neutrons, photons, X-rays, beta and alpha particles. Some of the instruments are also tested in mixed radiation fields as often encountered close to high-energy particle accelerators. Moreover, calibration facilities are of great importance to evaluate the performance of prototype detectors; testing and measuring the response of a prototype detector to well-known and -characterized radiation fields contributes to improving and optimizing its design and capabilities. The CERN Radiation Protection group is in charge of performing the regular calibrations of all CERN radiation protection devices; these include operational and passive dosimeters, neutron and photon survey-meters, and fixed radiation detectors to monitor the ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), inside CERN accelera...

  9. Evaluation of radionuclide calibrators and scintigraphic cameras used in nuclear medicine in the Sergipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Ferreira, F.C.; Nascimento Souza, D. do

    2008-01-01

    A quality control program to nuclear medicine services concerns the verification of the efficiency of equipment used to diagnosis and treatment, allow the professional improvement. In this study were assessed the performance of two radionuclide calibrators (activimeters) and of two scintigraphic cameras employed in nuclear medicine in the state of Sergipe, Brazil, according to regulation CNEN -NN-3.05. Additionally, to the radionuclide calibrators it was established a nd characterized an intercomparison of activities measured by different practitioners from standard samples of sealed radioactive sources of 133 Ba and 57 Co. The evaluation of this manufacture object was made thought quality control tests on scintigraphic cameras, such as: test of spatial resolution, tomographic resolution and linearity. The results of the quality control tests were satisfactory and they one can be used as parameter in future evaluations. (author)

  10. Bayesian calibration of power plant models for accurate performance prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boksteen, Sowande Z.; Buijtenen, Jos P. van; Pecnik, Rene; Vecht, Dick van der

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Bayesian calibration is applied to power plant performance prediction. • Measurements from a plant in operation are used for model calibration. • A gas turbine performance model and steam cycle model are calibrated. • An integrated plant model is derived. • Part load efficiency is accurately predicted as a function of ambient conditions. - Abstract: Gas turbine combined cycles are expected to play an increasingly important role in the balancing of supply and demand in future energy markets. Thermodynamic modeling of these energy systems is frequently applied to assist in decision making processes related to the management of plant operation and maintenance. In most cases, model inputs, parameters and outputs are treated as deterministic quantities and plant operators make decisions with limited or no regard of uncertainties. As the steady integration of wind and solar energy into the energy market induces extra uncertainties, part load operation and reliability are becoming increasingly important. In the current study, methods are proposed to not only quantify various types of uncertainties in measurements and plant model parameters using measured data, but to also assess their effect on various aspects of performance prediction. The authors aim to account for model parameter and measurement uncertainty, and for systematic discrepancy of models with respect to reality. For this purpose, the Bayesian calibration framework of Kennedy and O’Hagan is used, which is especially suitable for high-dimensional industrial problems. The article derives a calibrated model of the plant efficiency as a function of ambient conditions and operational parameters, which is also accurate in part load. The article shows that complete statistical modeling of power plants not only enhances process models, but can also increases confidence in operational decisions

  11. Computed radiography systems performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, Clarice C.; Nersissian, Denise Y.; Furquim, Tania A.C.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of a computed radiography system was evaluated, according to the AAPM Report No. 93. Evaluation tests proposed by the publication were performed, and the following nonconformities were found: imaging p/ate (lP) dark noise, which compromises the clinical image acquired using the IP; exposure indicator uncalibrated, which can cause underexposure to the IP; nonlinearity of the system response, which causes overexposure; resolution limit under the declared by the manufacturer and erasure thoroughness uncalibrated, impairing structures visualization; Moire pattern visualized at the grid response, and IP Throughput over the specified by the manufacturer. These non-conformities indicate that digital imaging systems' lack of calibration can cause an increase in dose in order that image prob/ems can be so/ved. (author)

  12. Calibrating mechanistic-empirical pavement performance models with an expert matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tighe, S.; AlAssar, R.; Haas, R. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Zhiwei, H. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Cambridge, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Proper management of pavement infrastructure requires pavement performance modelling. For the past 20 years, the Ontario Ministry of Transportation has used the Ontario Pavement Analysis of Costs (OPAC) system for pavement design. Pavement needs, however, have changed substantially during that time. To address this need, a new research contract is underway to enhance the model and verify the predictions, particularly at extreme points such as low and high traffic volume pavement design. This initiative included a complete evaluation of the existing OPAC pavement design method, the construction of a new set of pavement performance prediction models, and the development of the flexible pavement design procedure that incorporates reliability analysis. The design was also expanded to include rigid pavement designs and modification of the existing life cycle cost analysis procedure which includes both the agency cost and road user cost. Performance prediction and life-cycle costs were developed based on several factors, including material properties, traffic loads and climate. Construction and maintenance schedules were also considered. The methodology for the calibration and validation of a mechanistic-empirical flexible pavement performance model was described. Mechanistic-empirical design methods combine theory based design such as calculated stresses, strains or deflections with empirical methods, where a measured response is associated with thickness and pavement performance. Elastic layer analysis was used to determine pavement response to determine the most effective design using cumulative Equivalent Single Axle Loads (ESALs), below grade type and layer thickness.The new mechanistic-empirical model separates the environment and traffic effects on performance. This makes it possible to quantify regional differences between Southern and Northern Ontario. In addition, roughness can be calculated in terms of the International Roughness Index or Riding comfort Index

  13. New blackbody standard for the evaluation and calibration of tympanic ear thermometers at the NPL, United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Helen C.; Simpson, Robert; Machin, Graham

    2004-04-01

    The use of infrared tympanic thermometers for monitoring patient health is widespread. However, studies into the performance of these thermometers have questioned their accuracy and repeatability. To give users confidence in these devices, and to provide credibility in the measurements, it is necessary for them to be tested using an accredited, standard blackbody source, with a calibration traceable to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). To address this need the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), UK, has recently set up a primary ear thermometer calibration (PET-C) source for the evaluation and calibration of tympanic (ear) thermometers over the range from 15 °C to 45 °C. The overall uncertainty of the PET-C source is estimated to be +/- 0.04 °C at k = 2. The PET-C source meets the requirements of the European Standard EN 12470-5: 2003 Clinical thermometers. It consists of a high emissivity blackbody cavity immersed in a bath of stirred liquid. The temperature of the blackbody is determined using an ITS-90 calibrated platinum resistance thermometer inserted close to the rear of the cavity. The temperature stability and uniformity of the PET-C source was evaluated and its performance validated. This paper provides a description of the PET-C along with the results of the validation measurements. To further confirm the performance of the PET-C source it was compared to the standard ear thermometer calibration sources of the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), Japan and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany. The results of this comparison will also be briefly discussed. The PET-C source extends the capability for testing ear thermometers offered by the NPL body temperature fixed-point source, described previously. An update on the progress with the commercialisation of the fixed-point source will be given.

  14. Accuracy, calibration and clinical performance of the EuroSCORE: can we reduce the number of variables?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranucci, Marco; Castelvecchio, Serenella; Menicanti, Lorenzo; Frigiola, Alessandro; Pelissero, Gabriele

    2010-03-01

    The European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation (EuroSCORE) is currently used in many institutions and is considered a reference tool in many countries. We hypothesised that too many variables were included in the EuroSCORE using limited patient series. We tested different models using a limited number of variables. A total of 11150 adult patients undergoing cardiac operations at our institution (2001-2007) were retrospectively analysed. The 17 risk factors composing the EuroSCORE were separately analysed and ranked for accuracy of prediction of hospital mortality. Seventeen models were created by progressively including one factor at a time. The models were compared for accuracy with a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis and area under the curve (AUC) evaluation. Calibration was tested with Hosmer-Lemeshow statistics. Clinical performance was assessed by comparing the predicted with the observed mortality rates. The best accuracy (AUC 0.76) was obtained using a model including only age, left ventricular ejection fraction, serum creatinine, emergency operation and non-isolated coronary operation. The EuroSCORE AUC (0.75) was not significantly different. Calibration and clinical performance were better in the five-factor model than in the EuroSCORE. Only in high-risk patients were 12 factors needed to achieve a good performance. Including many factors in multivariable logistic models increases the risk for overfitting, multicollinearity and human error. A five-factor model offers the same level of accuracy but demonstrated better calibration and clinical performance. Models with a limited number of factors may work better than complex models when applied to a limited number of patients. Copyright (c) 2009 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Calibration and performance test of the Very-Front-End electronics for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, J.

    2008-05-01

    A Very-Front-End (VFE) card is an important part of the on-detector read-out electronics of the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) electromagnetic calorimeter that is made of ∼ 76.000 radiation hard scintillating crystals PbWO 4 and operates on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Almost 16.000 VFE cards that shape, amplify and digitize incoming signals from photodetectors generated by interacting particles. Since any maintenance of any part of the calorimeter is not possible during the 10-year lifetime of the experiment, the extensive screening program was employed throughout the whole manufacture process. As a part of readout electronics quality assurance program, the systems for burn-in and precise calibration of the VFE boards were developed and successfully used at IPN Lyon. In addition to functionality tests, all relevant electrical properties of each card were measured and analyzed in detail to obtain their full characterization and to build a database with all required parameters which will serve for the initial calibration of the whole calorimeter. In order to evaluate the calorimeter performance and also to deliver the most precise calibration constants, several fully equipped super-modules were extensively studied and calibrated during the test beam campaigns at CERN. As an important part of these tests, accurate studies of the electronics noise and relative gains, which are needed for measurement in high energy range, were carried out to optimize amplitude reconstruction procedure and thus improve the precision of the calorimeter energy determination. The heart of the thesis consists of the calibration of all VFE boards, including optimization of the laboratory calibration system and precise analysis of measured values to delivered desired calibration constants. The second half of the thesis is focused on the accurate evaluation and optimization of the read-out electronics in real data taking conditions. The results obtained in the laboratory at IPN Lyon

  16. A parallel calibration utility for WRF-Hydro on high performance computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Wang, C.; Kotamarthi, V. R.

    2017-12-01

    A successful modeling of complex hydrological processes comprises establishing an integrated hydrological model which simulates the hydrological processes in each water regime, calibrates and validates the model performance based on observation data, and estimates the uncertainties from different sources especially those associated with parameters. Such a model system requires large computing resources and often have to be run on High Performance Computers (HPC). The recently developed WRF-Hydro modeling system provides a significant advancement in the capability to simulate regional water cycles more completely. The WRF-Hydro model has a large range of parameters such as those in the input table files — GENPARM.TBL, SOILPARM.TBL and CHANPARM.TBL — and several distributed scaling factors such as OVROUGHRTFAC. These parameters affect the behavior and outputs of the model and thus may need to be calibrated against the observations in order to obtain a good modeling performance. Having a parameter calibration tool specifically for automate calibration and uncertainty estimates of WRF-Hydro model can provide significant convenience for the modeling community. In this study, we developed a customized tool using the parallel version of the model-independent parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis tool, PEST, to enabled it to run on HPC with PBS and SLURM workload manager and job scheduler. We also developed a series of PEST input file templates that are specifically for WRF-Hydro model calibration and uncertainty analysis. Here we will present a flood case study occurred in April 2013 over Midwest. The sensitivity and uncertainties are analyzed using the customized PEST tool we developed.

  17. Mercury CEM Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Schabron; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson

    2008-02-29

    outputs of mercury generators are compared to one another using a nesting procedure which allows direct comparison of one generator with another and eliminates analyzer variability effects. The qualification portion of the EPA interim traceability protocol requires the vendors to define generator performance as affected by variables such as pressure, temperature, line voltage, and shipping. WRI is focusing efforts to determine actual generator performance related to the variables defined in the qualification portion of the interim protocol. The protocol will then be further revised by EPA based on what can actually be achieved with the generators. Another focus of the study is to evaluate approaches for field verification of generator performance. Upcoming work includes evaluation of oxidized mercury calibration generators, for which a separate protocol will be prepared by EPA. In addition, the variability of the spectrometers/analyzers under various environmental conditions needs to be defined and understood better. A main objective of the current work is to provide data on the performance and capabilities of elemental mercury generator/calibration systems for the development of realistic NIST traceability protocols for mercury vapor standards for continuous emission CEM calibration. This work is providing a direct contribution to the enablement of continuous emissions monitoring at coal-fired power plants in conformance with the CAMR. EPA Specification 12 states that mercury CEMs must be calibrated with NIST-traceable standards (Federal Register 2005). The initial draft of an elemental mercury generator traceability protocol was circulated by EPA in May 2007 for comment, and an interim protocol was issued in August 2007 (EPA 2007). Initially it was assumed that the calibration and implementation of mercury CEMs would be relatively simple, and implementation would follow the implementation of the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} monitoring, and

  18. Evaluation of a laser scanner for large volume coordinate metrology: a comparison of results before and after factory calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrucci, M; Muralikrishnan, B; Sawyer, D; Phillips, S; Petrov, P; Yakovlev, Y; Astrelin, A; Milligan, S; Palmateer, J

    2014-01-01

    Large volume laser scanners are increasingly being used for a variety of dimensional metrology applications. Methods to evaluate the performance of these scanners are still under development and there are currently no documentary standards available. This paper describes the results of extensive ranging and volumetric performance tests conducted on a large volume laser scanner. The results demonstrated small but clear systematic errors that are explained in the context of a geometric error model for the instrument. The instrument was subsequently returned to the manufacturer for factory calibration. The ranging and volumetric tests were performed again and the results are compared against those obtained prior to the factory calibration. (paper)

  19. TRACEABILITY OF ON COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINES – CALIBRATION AND PERFORMANCE VERIFICATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Savio, Enrico; Bariani, Paolo

    This document is used in connection with three exercises each of 45 minutes duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measurement traceability: 1) Performance verification of a CMM using a ball bar; 2) Calibration...... of an optical coordinate measuring machine; 3) Uncertainty assessment using the ISO 15530-3 “Calibrated workpieces” procedure....

  20. Design, Performance, and Calibration of CMS Hadron Endcap Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Baiatian, G; Emeliantchik, Igor; Massolov, V; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Stefanovich, R; Damgov, Jordan; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Piperov, Stefan; Vankov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Bencze, Gyorgy; Laszlo, Andras; Pal, Andras; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zálán, Peter; Fenyvesi, Andras; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Jas Bir; Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Dugad, Shashikant; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Katta, S; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Sudhakar, Katta; Verma, Piyush; Hashemi, Majid; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M; Paktinat, S; Babich, Kanstantsin; Golutvin, Igor; Kalagin, Vladimir; Kamenev, Alexey; Konoplianikov, V; Kosarev, Ivan; Moissenz, K; Moissenz, P; Oleynik, Danila; Petrosian, A; Rogalev, Evgueni; Semenov, Roman; Sergeyev, S; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Vishnevskiy, Alexander; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Druzhkin, Dmitry; Ivanov, Alexander; Kudinov, Vladimir; Orlov, Alexandre; Smetannikov, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Gershtein, Yuri; Ilyina, N; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kisselevich, I; Kolossov, V; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kuleshov, Sergey; Litvintsev, Dmitri; Ulyanov, A; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Demianov, A; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Teplov, V; Vardanyan, Irina; Yershov, A; Abramov, Victor; Goncharov, Petr; Kalinin, Alexey; Khmelnikov, Alexander; Korablev, Andrey; Korneev, Yury; Krinitsyn, Alexander; Kryshkin, V; Lukanin, Vladimir; Pikalov, Vladimir; Ryazanov, Anton; Talov, Vladimir; Turchanovich, L; Volkov, Alexey; Camporesi, Tiziano; de Visser, Theo; Vlassov, E; Aydin, Sezgin; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Koylu, S; Kurt, Pelin; Onengüt, G; Ozkurt, Halil; Polatoz, A; Sogut, Kenan; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankoc, K; Esendemir, Akif; Gamsizkan, Halil; Güler, M; Ozkan, Cigdem; Sekmen, Sezen; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Sever, Ramazan; Yazgan, Efe; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isiksal, Engin; Kaya, Mithat; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Grynev, B; Lyubynskiy, Vadym; Senchyshyn, Vitaliy; Hauptman, John M; Abdullin, Salavat; Elias, John E; Elvira, D; Freeman, Jim; Green, Dan; Los, Serguei; ODell, V; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Suzuki, Ichiro; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Arcidy, M; Hazen, Eric; Heering, Arjan Hendrix; Lawlor, C; Lazic, Dragoslav; Machado, Emanuel; Rohlf, James; Varela, F; Wu, Shouxiang; Baden, Drew; Bard, Robert; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Grassi, Tullio; Jarvis, Chad; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunori, Shuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Skuja, Andris; Podrasky, V; Sanzeni, Christopher; Winn, Dave; Akgun, Ugur; Ayan, S; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Miller, Michael; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Schmidt, Ianos; Akchurin, Nural; Carrell, Kenneth Wayne; Gusum, K; Kim, Heejong; Spezziga, Mario; Thomas, Ray; Wigmans, Richard; Baarmand, Marc M; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Kramer, Laird; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Cushman, Priscilla; Ma, Yousi; Sherwood, Brian; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Reidy, Jim; Sanders, David A; Karmgard, Daniel John; Ruchti, Randy; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Tully, Christopher; Bodek, Arie; De Barbaro, Pawel; Budd, Howard; Chung, Yeon Sei; Haelen, T; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Barnes, Virgil E; Laasanen, Alvin T

    2008-01-01

    Detailed measurements have been made with the CMS hadron calorimeter endcaps (HE) in response to beams of muons, electrons, and pions. Readout of HE with custom electronics and hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) shows no change of performance compared to readout with commercial electronics and photomultipliers. When combined with lead-tungstenate crystals, an energy resolution of 8\\% is achieved with 300 GeV/c pions. A laser calibration system is used to set the timing and monitor operation of the complete electronics chain. Data taken with radioactive sources in comparison with test beam pions provides an absolute initial calibration of HE to approximately 4\\% to 5\\%.

  1. Vessel calibration for accurate material accountancy at RRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Yuu; Ono, Sawako; Iwamoto, Tomonori

    2004-01-01

    RRP has a 800t·Upr capacity a year to re-process, where would be handled a large amount of nuclear materials as solution. A large scale plant like RRP will require accurate materials accountancy system, so that the vessel calibration with high-precision is very important as initial vessel calibration before operation. In order to obtain the calibration curve, it is needed well-known each the increment volume related with liquid height. Then we performed at least 2 or 3 times run with water for vessel calibration and careful evaluation for the calibration data should be needed. We performed vessel calibration overall 210 vessels, and the calibration of 81 vessels including IAT and OAT were held under presence of JSGO and IAEA inspectors taking into account importance on the material accountancy. This paper describes outline of the initial vessel calibration and calibration results based on back pressure measurement with dip tubes. (author)

  2. Practice for characterization and performance of a high-dose radiation dosimetry calibration laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This practice addresses the specific requirements for laboratories engaged in dosimetry calibrations involving ionizing radiation, namely, gamma-radiation, electron beams or X-radiation (bremsstrahlung) beams. It specifically describes the requirements for the characterization and performance criteria to be met by a high-dose radiation dosimetry calibration laboratory. The absorbed-dose range is typically between 10 and 10 5 Gy. This practice addresses criteria for laboratories seeking accreditation for performing high-dose dosimetry calibrations, and is a supplement to the general requirements described in ISO/IEC 17025. By meeting these criteria and those in ISO/IEC 17025, the laboratory may be accredited by a recognized accreditation organization. Adherence to these criteria will help to ensure high standards of performance and instill confidence regarding the competency of the accredited laboratory with respect to the services it offers

  3. Photovoltaic Device Performance Evaluation Using an Open-Hardware System and Standard Calibrated Laboratory Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Montes-Romero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a complete characterization system for photovoltaic devices designed to acquire the current-voltage curve and to process the obtained data. The proposed system can be replicated for educational or research purposes without having wide knowledge about electronic engineering. Using standard calibrated instrumentation, commonly available in any laboratory, the accuracy of measurements is ensured. A capacitive load is used to bias the device due to its versatility and simplicity. The system includes a common part and an interchangeable part that must be designed depending on the electrical characteristics of each PV device. Control software, developed in LabVIEW, controls the equipment, performs automatic campaigns of measurements, and performs additional calculations in real time. These include different procedures to extrapolate the measurements to standard test conditions and methods to obtain the intrinsic parameters of the single diode model. A deep analysis of the uncertainty of measurement is also provided. Finally, the proposed system is validated by comparing the results obtained from some commercial photovoltaic modules to the measurements given by an independently accredited laboratory.

  4. Performance Evaluation of Thermographic Cameras for Photogrammetric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yastikli, N.; Guler, E.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this research is the performance evaluation of the termographic cameras for possible use for photogrammetric documentation and deformation analyses caused by moisture and isolation problem of the historical and cultural heritage. To perform geometric calibration of the termographic camera, the 3D test object was designed with 77 control points which were distributed in different depths. For performance evaluation, Flir A320 termographic camera with 320 × 240 pixels and lens with 18 mm focal length was used. The Nikon D3X SLR digital camera with 6048 × 4032 pixels and lens with 20 mm focal length was used as reference for comparison. The size of pixel was 25 μm for the Flir A320 termographic camera and 6 μm for the Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The digital images of the 3D test object were recorded with the Flir A320 termographic camera and Nikon D3X SLR digital camera and the image coordinate of the control points in the images were measured. The geometric calibration parameters, including the focal length, position of principal points, radial and tangential distortions were determined with introduced additional parameters in bundle block adjustments. The measurement of image coordinates and bundle block adjustments with additional parameters were performed using the PHIDIAS digital photogrammetric system. The bundle block adjustment was repeated with determined calibration parameter for both Flir A320 termographic camera and Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The obtained standard deviation of measured image coordinates was 9.6 μm and 10.5 μm for Flir A320 termographic camera and 8.3 μm and 7.7 μm for Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The obtained standard deviation of measured image points in Flir A320 termographic camera images almost same accuracy level with digital camera in comparison with 4 times bigger pixel size. The obtained results from this research, the interior geometry of the termographic cameras and lens distortion was modelled efficiently

  5. Early Evaluation of the VIIRS Calibration, Cloud Mask and Surface Reflectance Earth Data Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermote, Eric; Justice, Chris; Csiszar, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Surface reflectance is one of the key products fromVIIRS and as withMODIS, is used in developing several higherorder land products. The VIIRS Surface Reflectance (SR) Intermediate Product (IP) is based on the heritageMODIS Collection 5 product (Vermote, El Saleous, & Justice, 2002). The quality and character of surface reflectance depend on the accuracy of the VIIRS Cloud Mask (VCM), the aerosol algorithms and the adequate calibration of the sensor. The focus of this paper is the early evaluation of the VIIRS SR product in the context of the maturity of the operational processing system, the Interface Data Processing System (IDPS). After a brief introduction, the paper presents the calibration performance and the role of the surface reflectance in calibration monitoring. The analysis of the performance of the cloud mask with a focus on vegetation monitoring (no snow conditions) shows typical problems over bright surfaces and high elevation sites. Also discussed is the performance of the aerosol input used in the atmospheric correction and in particular the artifacts generated by the use of the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System. Early quantitative results of the performance of the SR product over the AERONET sites showthatwith the fewadjustments recommended, the accuracy iswithin the threshold specifications. The analysis of the adequacy of the SR product (Land PEATE adjusted version) in applications of societal benefits is then presented. We conclude with a set of recommendations to ensure consistency and continuity of the JPSS mission with the MODIS Land Climate Data Record.

  6. On-line monitoring for calibration reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, M.

    2005-09-01

    On-Line Monitoring evaluates instrument channel performance by assessing its consistency with other plant indications. Elimination or reduction of unnecessary field calibrations can reduce associated labour costs, reduce personnel radiation exposure, and reduce the potential for calibration errors. On-line calibration monitoring is an important technique to implement a state-based maintenance approach and reduce unnecessary field calibrations. In this report we will look at how the concept is currently applied in the industry and what the arising needs are as it becomes more commonplace. We will also look at the PEANO System, a tool developed by the Halden Project to perform signal validation and on-line calibration monitoring. Some issues will be identified that are being addressed in the further development of these tools to better serve the future needs of the industry in this area. An outline for how to improve these points and which aspects should be taken into account is described in detail. (Author)

  7. SPOTS Calibration Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson E.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The results are presented using the procedure outlined by the Standardisation Project for Optical Techniques of Strain measurement to calibrate a digital image correlation system. The process involves comparing the experimental data obtained with the optical measurement system to the theoretical values for a specially designed specimen. The standard states the criteria which must be met in order to achieve successful calibration, in addition to quantifying the measurement uncertainty in the system. The system was evaluated at three different displacement load levels, generating strain ranges from 289 µstrain to 2110 µstrain. At the 289 µstrain range, the calibration uncertainty was found to be 14.1 µstrain, and at the 2110 µstrain range it was found to be 28.9 µstrain. This calibration procedure was performed without painting a speckle pattern on the surface of the metal. Instead, the specimen surface was prepared using different grades of grit paper to produce the desired texture.

  8. Calibration Modeling Methodology to Optimize Performance for Low Range Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Raymond A.; Commo, Sean A.; Parker, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    Calibration is a vital process in characterizing the performance of an instrument in an application environment and seeks to obtain acceptable accuracy over the entire design range. Often, project requirements specify a maximum total measurement uncertainty, expressed as a percent of full-scale. However in some applications, we seek to obtain enhanced performance at the low range, therefore expressing the accuracy as a percent of reading should be considered as a modeling strategy. For example, it is common to desire to use a force balance in multiple facilities or regimes, often well below its designed full-scale capacity. This paper presents a general statistical methodology for optimizing calibration mathematical models based on a percent of reading accuracy requirement, which has broad application in all types of transducer applications where low range performance is required. A case study illustrates the proposed methodology for the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System that employs seven strain-gage based pressure transducers mounted on the heatshield of the Mars Science Laboratory mission.

  9. Meta-analysis of prediction model performance across multiple studies: Which scale helps ensure between-study normality for the C-statistic and calibration measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Kym Ie; Ensor, Joie; Debray, Thomas Pa; Moons, Karel Gm; Riley, Richard D

    2017-01-01

    If individual participant data are available from multiple studies or clusters, then a prediction model can be externally validated multiple times. This allows the model's discrimination and calibration performance to be examined across different settings. Random-effects meta-analysis can then be used to quantify overall (average) performance and heterogeneity in performance. This typically assumes a normal distribution of 'true' performance across studies. We conducted a simulation study to examine this normality assumption for various performance measures relating to a logistic regression prediction model. We simulated data across multiple studies with varying degrees of variability in baseline risk or predictor effects and then evaluated the shape of the between-study distribution in the C-statistic, calibration slope, calibration-in-the-large, and E/O statistic, and possible transformations thereof. We found that a normal between-study distribution was usually reasonable for the calibration slope and calibration-in-the-large; however, the distributions of the C-statistic and E/O were often skewed across studies, particularly in settings with large variability in the predictor effects. Normality was vastly improved when using the logit transformation for the C-statistic and the log transformation for E/O, and therefore we recommend these scales to be used for meta-analysis. An illustrated example is given using a random-effects meta-analysis of the performance of QRISK2 across 25 general practices.

  10. Calibrations and verifications performed in view of the ILA reinstatement at JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumortier, P., E-mail: pierre.dumortier@rma.ac.be; Durodié, F. [LPP-ERM-KMS, TEC partner, Brussels (Belgium); Helou, W. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Monakhov, I.; Noble, C.; Wooldridge, E.; Blackman, T.; Graham, M. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Collaboration: EUROfusion Consortium

    2015-12-10

    The calibrations and verifications that are performed in preparation of the ITER-Like antenna (ILA) reinstatement at JET are reviewed. A brief reminder of the ILA system layout is given. The different calibration methods and results are then discussed. They encompass the calibrations of the directional couplers present in the system, the determination of the relation between the capacitor position readings and the capacitance value, the voltage probes calibration inside the antenna housing, the RF cables characterization and the acquisition electronics circuit calibration. Earlier experience with the ILA has shown that accurate calibrations are essential for the control of the full ILA close-packed antenna array, its protection through the S-Matrix Arc Detection and the new second stage matching algorithm to be implemented. Finally the voltage stand-off of the capacitors is checked and the phase range achievable with the system is verified. The system layout is modified as to allow dipole operation over the whole operating frequency range when operating with the 3dB combiner-splitters.

  11. Calibration and Performance Testing of Sodium Iodide, NaI (Tl)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    performed by the well-established method of ... gamma-rays emitted from radionuclides in a ... 1 Radiation Protection Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P. O. Box ... validation of the calibration showed that there were no significance ...

  12. Development and operational performance of a single calibration chamber for radon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Coto, I.; Bolivar, J.P.; Mas, J.L.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Vargas, A.

    2007-01-01

    This work shows the design, setup and performance of a new single radon detector calibration chamber developed at the University of Huelva (Environmental Radioactivity Group). This system is based on a certified radon source and a traceable reference radon detector, which allows radon concentrations inside the chamber radon to be obtained in steady-state conditions within a range of 400-22 000 Bq m -3 with associated uncertainties in the range of 4%. In addition, the development of a new ad hoc calibration protocol (UHU-RC/01/06 'Rachel'), which is based on the modelling of radon concentration within the chamber, allows it to be used without the reference detector. To do that, a complete characterization and calibration of the different leakage constants and the flow meter reading have been performed. The accuracy and general performance of both working methods for the same chamber (i.e., with and without the reference detector) have been tested by means of their participation in an intercomparison exercise involving five active radon monitors

  13. Development of an improved Newtonian total radiometer, its evaluation and calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castrejon G, R.; Morales, A.

    1998-01-01

    Measuring of radiant energy by optical non intrusive means is an important topic of research in many areas of science and technology. Precise evaluation of thermal energy emitted by hot bodies leads to a better understanding of the energy interchange phenomena between the body and its surroundings. To this end, a wide spectrum optical radiometer was developed. In this article we describe the construction and evaluation of this instrument and the physical principles involved in its design and operation. Among other advantages, the linear response of the instrument allows easily a precise calibration. Additionally, we give a procedure to obtain a known source of radiation that was used to calibrate the radiometer. (Author)

  14. Evaluation of the energy dependence of ionization chambers pencil type calibrated beam tomography standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes, Ladyjane Pereira; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.

    2015-01-01

    The Instrument Calibration Laboratory of IPEN (LCI - IPEN) performs calibrations of pencil-type ionization chambers (IC) used in measures of dosimetric survey on clinical systems of Computed Tomography (CT). Many users make mistakes when using a calibrated ionization chamber in their CT dosimetry systems. In this work a methodology for determination of factors of correction for quality (Kq) through the calibration curve that is specific for each ionization chamber was established. Furthermore, it was possible to demonstrate the energy dependence on an pencil-type Ionization Chamber(IC) calibrated at the LCI - IPEN. (author)

  15. Performance and quality control of radionuclide calibrators in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.J.; Baker, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The use of ionising radiations in nuclear medicine has traditionally divided itself into two specific areas. The diagnostic usage has generally been dominated by the injection or ingestion of radionuclides. The therapeutic applications, on the other hand, have usually been accomplished by the application of ionising radiation, both from machines and radionuclide sources, whereby the radiation source is external to the patient. Over recent years, this divide has become increasingly blurred and the science between diagnosis and therapy has become significantly closer. This is particularly the situation in respect of the instruments used to determine the activity or dose delivered by the radiation source. In the ideal therapeutic situation, the radiation dose would be delivered solely to the malignant tissue. With external radiation therapy, this can never be achieved completely but this ideal can be approached more closely with targeted radiotherapy wherein radionuclides are introduced directly into the malignancy either as a solid, physical source or as a solution that, by its chemistry, concentrates into the area of interest. In order to achieve the optimum efficacy of treatment, there is an associated requirement to determine accurately the activity or dose rate of the radioactive source being used. It is here that the technology used in the diagnostic field can also be used to advantage for therapeutic applications. For diagnosis, the instrument of choice is the radionuclide calibrator and this equipment is increasingly finding parallel usage for the characterisation of therapeutic sources. Despite their appearances however, radionuclide calibrators are not 'black boxes' and need to be used with care, subjected to a robust level of quality control and operated by personnel who have a fundamental understanding of their operational characteristics. A measure of the level of performance of operational radionuclide calibrators and the competence of their

  16. Evaluation of Multiple-Sampling Function used with a Microtek flatbed scanner for Radiation Dosimetry Calibration of EBT2 Film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Liyun [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan (China); Ho, Sheng-Yow [Department of Nursing, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan 71101, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Chi Mei Medical Center, Liouying, Tainan 73657, Taiwan (China); Ding, Hueisch-Jy [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Ing-Ming [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiology, Shu Zen College of Medicine and Management, Kaohsiung 82144, Taiwan (China); Chen, Pang-Yu, E-mail: pangyuchen@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sinlau Christian Hospital, Tainan 70142, Taiwan (China); Lee, Tsair-Fwu, E-mail: tflee@kuas.edu.tw [Medical Physics and Informatics Laboratory, Department of Electronics Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 80778, Taiwan (China)

    2016-10-01

    The radiochromic EBT2 film is a widely used quality assurance device for radiation therapy. This study evaluated the film calibration performance of the multiple-sampling function, a function of the ScanWizard Pro scanning software provided by the manufacturer, when used with Microtek 9800XL plus (9800XL{sup +}) flatbed scanner. By using the PDD method, each one of the eight EBT2 films, four delivered by 290 monitor unit (MU) and four by 88 MU via 6-MV photon beams, was tightly sandwiched in a 30{sup 3}-cm{sup 3} water equivalent polystyrene phantom prior to irradiation. Before and after irradiation, all films were scanned using the Microtek 9800XL{sup +} scanner with five different modes of the multiple-sampling function, which could generate the image with the averaged result of multiple-sampling. The net optical densities (netOD) on the beam central axis of film were assigned to corresponding depth doses for calibration. For each sampling mode with either delivered MU, the depth-dose uncertainty of a single film from repeated scans and that of a single scan of the four films were analyzed. Finally, the calibration error and the combined calibration uncertainty between film determined depth-doses and delivered depth-doses were calculated and evaluated for each sampling mode. All standard deviations and the calibration error were demonstrated to be unrelated to the number of sampling lines. The calibration error of the 2-line and 16-line mode was within 3 cGy and better than that of the other modes. The combined uncertainty of the 2-line mode was the lowest, which was generally less than 6 cGy except for the delivered dose around 100 cGy. The evaluation described herein revealed that the EBT2 film calibrated with the 2-line mode has relatively lower error, scanning time and combined uncertianty. Therefore, it is recommended for routine EBT2 film calibration and verification of treatment plans.

  17. Evaluation of Multiple-Sampling Function used with a Microtek flatbed scanner for Radiation Dosimetry Calibration of EBT2 Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Liyun; Ho, Sheng-Yow; Ding, Hueisch-Jy; Hwang, Ing-Ming; Chen, Pang-Yu; Lee, Tsair-Fwu

    2016-01-01

    The radiochromic EBT2 film is a widely used quality assurance device for radiation therapy. This study evaluated the film calibration performance of the multiple-sampling function, a function of the ScanWizard Pro scanning software provided by the manufacturer, when used with Microtek 9800XL plus (9800XL + ) flatbed scanner. By using the PDD method, each one of the eight EBT2 films, four delivered by 290 monitor unit (MU) and four by 88 MU via 6-MV photon beams, was tightly sandwiched in a 30 3 -cm 3 water equivalent polystyrene phantom prior to irradiation. Before and after irradiation, all films were scanned using the Microtek 9800XL + scanner with five different modes of the multiple-sampling function, which could generate the image with the averaged result of multiple-sampling. The net optical densities (netOD) on the beam central axis of film were assigned to corresponding depth doses for calibration. For each sampling mode with either delivered MU, the depth-dose uncertainty of a single film from repeated scans and that of a single scan of the four films were analyzed. Finally, the calibration error and the combined calibration uncertainty between film determined depth-doses and delivered depth-doses were calculated and evaluated for each sampling mode. All standard deviations and the calibration error were demonstrated to be unrelated to the number of sampling lines. The calibration error of the 2-line and 16-line mode was within 3 cGy and better than that of the other modes. The combined uncertainty of the 2-line mode was the lowest, which was generally less than 6 cGy except for the delivered dose around 100 cGy. The evaluation described herein revealed that the EBT2 film calibrated with the 2-line mode has relatively lower error, scanning time and combined uncertianty. Therefore, it is recommended for routine EBT2 film calibration and verification of treatment plans.

  18. Calibration methodology for energy management system of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Benming; Wang, Qingnian; Zeng, Xiaohua; Gong, Yinsheng; Song, Dafeng; Wang, Junnian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Calibration theory of EMS is proposed. • A comprehensive evaluating indicator is constructed by radar chart method. • Optimal Latin hypercube design algorithm is introduced to obtain training data. • An approximation model is established by using a RBF neural network. • Offline calibration methodology improves the actual calibration efficiency. - Abstract: This paper presents a new analytical calibration method for energy management strategy designed for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. This method improves the actual calibration efficiency to reach a compromise among the conflicting calibration requirements (e.g. emissions and economy). A comprehensive evaluating indicator covering emissions and economic performance is constructed by using a radar chart method. A radial basis functions (RBFs) neural network model is proposed to establish a precise model among control parameters and the comprehensive evaluation indicator. The optimal Latin hypercube design is introduced to obtain the experimental data to train the RBFs neural network model. And multi-island genetic algorithm is used to solve the optimization model. Finally, an offline calibration example is conducted. Results validate the effectiveness of the proposed calibration approach in improving vehicle performance and calibration efficiency.

  19. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THERMOGRAPHIC CAMERAS FOR PHOTOGRAMMETRIC MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yastikli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is the performance evaluation of the termographic cameras for possible use for photogrammetric documentation and deformation analyses caused by moisture and isolation problem of the historical and cultural heritage. To perform geometric calibration of the termographic camera, the 3D test object was designed with 77 control points which were distributed in different depths. For performance evaluation, Flir A320 termographic camera with 320 × 240 pixels and lens with 18 mm focal length was used. The Nikon D3X SLR digital camera with 6048 × 4032 pixels and lens with 20 mm focal length was used as reference for comparison. The size of pixel was 25 μm for the Flir A320 termographic camera and 6 μm for the Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The digital images of the 3D test object were recorded with the Flir A320 termographic camera and Nikon D3X SLR digital camera and the image coordinate of the control points in the images were measured. The geometric calibration parameters, including the focal length, position of principal points, radial and tangential distortions were determined with introduced additional parameters in bundle block adjustments. The measurement of image coordinates and bundle block adjustments with additional parameters were performed using the PHIDIAS digital photogrammetric system. The bundle block adjustment was repeated with determined calibration parameter for both Flir A320 termographic camera and Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The obtained standard deviation of measured image coordinates was 9.6 μm and 10.5 μm for Flir A320 termographic camera and 8.3 μm and 7.7 μm for Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The obtained standard deviation of measured image points in Flir A320 termographic camera images almost same accuracy level with digital camera in comparison with 4 times bigger pixel size. The obtained results from this research, the interior geometry of the termographic cameras and lens distortion was

  20. Evaluation of an ASM1 Model Calibration Precedure on a Municipal-Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Britta; Gernaey, Krist; Henze, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    treatment plant. In the case that was studied it was important to have a detailed description of the process dynamics, since the model was to be used as the basis for optimisation scenarios in a later phase. Therefore, a complete model calibration procedure was applied including: (1) a description......The purpose of the calibrated model determines how to approach a model calibration, e.g. which information is needed and to which level of detail the model should be calibrated. A systematic model calibration procedure was therefore defined and evaluated for a municipal–industrial wastewater...

  1. Calibration and evaluation of neutron moisturemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Zhangxiong; Hu Jiangchao; Sun Laiyan; Wang Huaihui; Wu Weixue

    1992-02-01

    Factors influencing the calibration curve of neutron moisture meter, such as soil type, texture, volume weight and depth, were studied. When the soil bulk density water content is between 15% to 45%, the calibration curve is approximately a straight line, and the intercept and slope are only influenced by the above factors. The growing plants also influence the calibration curve slightly. The measuring error for top soil (< 20 cm) is larger. The relative error between neutron method and weighing method is about 8%. The neutron method has many advantages such as non-interfering, simple, fast and non-time-delay

  2. VIIRS reflective solar bands on-orbit calibration and performance: a three-year update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junqiang; Wang, Menghua

    2014-11-01

    The on-orbit calibration of the reflective solar bands (RSBs) of VIIRS and the result from the analysis of the up-to-date 3 years of mission data are presented. The VIIRS solar diffuser (SD) and lunar calibration methodology are discussed, and the calibration coefficients, called F-factors, for the RSBs are given for the latest reincarnation. The coefficients derived from the two calibrations are compared and the uncertainties of the calibrations are discussed. Numerous improvements are made, with the major improvement to the calibration result come mainly from the improved bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) of the SD and the vignetting functions of both the SD screen and the sun-view screen. The very clean results, devoid of many previously known noises and artifacts, assures that VIIRS has performed well for the three years on orbit since launch, and in particular that the solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) is functioning essentially without flaws. The SD degradation, or H-factors, for most part shows the expected decline except for the surprising rise on day 830 lasting for 75 days signaling a new degradation phenomenon. Nevertheless the SDSM and the calibration methodology have successfully captured the SD degradation for RSB calibration. The overall improvement has the most significant and direct impact on the ocean color products which demands high accuracy from RSB observations.

  3. A Quality Evaluation of Single and Multiple Camera Calibration Approaches for an Indoor Multi Camera Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adduci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human detection and tracking has been a prominent research area for several scientists around the globe. State of the art algorithms have been implemented, refined and accelerated to significantly improve the detection rate and eliminate false positives. While 2D approaches are well investigated, 3D human detection and tracking is still an unexplored research field. In both 2D/3D cases, introducing a multi camera system could vastly expand the accuracy and confidence of the tracking process. Within this work, a quality evaluation is performed on a multi RGB-D camera indoor tracking system for examining how camera calibration and pose can affect the quality of human tracks in the scene, independently from the detection and tracking approach used. After performing a calibration step on every Kinect sensor, state of the art single camera pose estimators were evaluated for checking how good the quality of the poses is estimated using planar objects such as an ordinate chessboard. With this information, a bundle block adjustment and ICP were performed for verifying the accuracy of the single pose estimators in a multi camera configuration system. Results have shown that single camera estimators provide high accuracy results of less than half a pixel forcing the bundle to converge after very few iterations. In relation to ICP, relative information between cloud pairs is more or less preserved giving a low score of fitting between concatenated pairs. Finally, sensor calibration proved to be an essential step for achieving maximum accuracy in the generated point clouds, and therefore in the accuracy of the produced 3D trajectories, from each sensor.

  4. Evaluation of Uncertainties in hydrogeological modeling and groundwater flow analyses. Model calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, Yuji; Ono, Makoto; Sugihara, Yutaka; Shimo, Michito; Yamamoto, Hajime; Fumimura, Kenichi

    2003-03-01

    This study involves evaluation of uncertainty in hydrogeological modeling and groundwater flow analysis. Three-dimensional groundwater flow in Shobasama site in Tono was analyzed using two continuum models and one discontinuous model. The domain of this study covered area of four kilometers in east-west direction and six kilometers in north-south direction. Moreover, for the purpose of evaluating how uncertainties included in modeling of hydrogeological structure and results of groundwater simulation decreased with progress of investigation research, updating and calibration of the models about several modeling techniques of hydrogeological structure and groundwater flow analysis techniques were carried out, based on the information and knowledge which were newly acquired. The acquired knowledge is as follows. As a result of setting parameters and structures in renewal of the models following to the circumstances by last year, there is no big difference to handling between modeling methods. The model calibration is performed by the method of matching numerical simulation with observation, about the pressure response caused by opening and closing of a packer in MIU-2 borehole. Each analysis technique attains reducing of residual sum of squares of observations and results of numerical simulation by adjusting hydrogeological parameters. However, each model adjusts different parameters as water conductivity, effective porosity, specific storage, and anisotropy. When calibrating models, sometimes it is impossible to explain the phenomena only by adjusting parameters. In such case, another investigation may be required to clarify details of hydrogeological structure more. As a result of comparing research from beginning to this year, the following conclusions are obtained about investigation. (1) The transient hydraulic data are effective means in reducing the uncertainty of hydrogeological structure. (2) Effective porosity for calculating pore water velocity of

  5. The CryoSat Interferometer after 6 years in orbit: calibration and achievable performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; De Bartolomei, Maurizio; Bouffard, Jerome; Parrinello, Tommaso

    2016-04-01

    The main payload of CryoSat is a Ku-band pulse width limited radar altimeter, called SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter). When commanded in SARIn (synthetic aperture radar interferometry) mode, through coherent along-track processing of the returns received from two antennas, the interferometric phase related to the first arrival of the echo is used to retrieve the angle of arrival of the scattering in the across-track direction. In fact, the across-track echo direction can be derived by exploiting the precise knowledge of the baseline vector (i.e. the vector between the two antennas centers of phase) and simple geometry. The end-to-end calibration strategy for the CryoSat interferometer consists on in-orbit calibration campaigns following the approach described in [1]. From the beginning of the CryoSat mission, about once a year the interferometer calibration campaigns have been periodically performed by rolling left and right the spacecraft of about ±0.4 deg. This abstract is aimed at presenting our analysis of the calibration parameters and of the achievable performance of the CryoSat interferometer over the 6 years of mission. Additionally, some further studies have been performed to assess the accuracy of the roll angle computed on ground as function of the aberration (the apparent displacement of a celestial object from its true position, caused by the relative motion of the observer and the object) correction applied to the attitude quaternions, provided by the Star Tracker mounted on-board. In fact, being the roll information crucial to obtain an accurate estimate of the angle of arrival, the data from interferometer calibration campaigns have been used to verify how the application of the aberration correction affects the roll information and, in turns, the measured angle of arrival. [1] Galin, N.; Wingham, D.J.; Cullen, R.; Fornari, M.; Smith, W.H.F.; Abdalla, S., "Calibration of the CryoSat-2 Interferometer and Measurement of Across

  6. Suomi-NPP VIIRS Day-Night Band On-Orbit Calibration and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongda; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Sun, Chengbo; Chen, Xuexia; Chiang, Kwofu

    2017-01-01

    The Suomi national polar-orbiting partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument has successfully operated since its launch in October 2011. The VIIRS day-night band (DNB) is a panchromatic channel covering wavelengths from 0.5 to 0.9 microns that is capable of observing Earth scenes during both daytime and nighttime at a spatial resolution of 750 m. To cover the large dynamic range, the DNB operates at low-, middle-, and high-gain stages, and it uses an on-board solar diffuser (SD) for its low-gain stage calibration. The SD observations also provide a means to compute the gain ratios of low-to-middle and middle-to-high gain stages. This paper describes the DNB on-orbit calibration methodology used by the VIIRS characterization support team in supporting the NASA Earth science community with consistent VIIRS sensor data records made available by the land science investigator-led processing systems. It provides an assessment and update of the DNB on-orbit performance, including the SD degradation in the DNB spectral range, detector gain and gain ratio trending, and stray-light contamination and its correction. Also presented in this paper are performance validations based on Earth scenes and lunar observations, and comparisons to the calibration methodology used by the operational interface data processing segment.

  7. Thermo analytic investigation of hydrogen effusion behavior - sensor evaluation and calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ried, P.; Gaber, M.; Beyer, K.; Mueller, R.; Kipphardt, H.; Kannengiesser, T. [BAM, Federal Institute for Material Research and Testing, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The well established carrier gas analysis (CGA) method was used to test different hydrogen detectors comprising a thermal conductivity detector (TCD) and a metal oxide semiconducting (MOx) sensor. The MOx sensor provides high hydrogen sensitivity and selectivity, whereas the TCD exhibits a much shorter response time and a linear hydrogen concentration dependency. Therefore, the TCD was used for quantitative hydrogen concentration measurements above 50 {mu}mol/mol. The respective calibration was made using N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} gas mixtures. Furthermore, the hydrogen content and degassing behaviour of titanium hydride (TiH{sub 2-x}) was studied. This material turned out to be a potential candidate for a solid sample calibration. Vacuum hot extraction (VHE) coupled with a mass spectrometer (MS) was then calibrated with TiH{sub 2-x} as transfer standard. The calibration was applied for the evaluation of the hydrogen content of austenitic steel samples (1.4301) and the comparison of CGA-TCD and VHE-MS. (Copyright copyright 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Mercury CEM Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani; Susan S. Sorini

    2007-03-31

    The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005, requires that calibration of mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The traceability protocol will be written by EPA. Traceability will be based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging from about 2-40 ug/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID ICP/MS) through a chain of analyses linking the calibration unit in the power plant to the NIST ID ICP/MS. Prior to this project, NIST did not provide a recommended mercury vapor pressure equation or list mercury vapor pressure in its vapor pressure database. The NIST Physical and Chemical Properties Division in Boulder, Colorado was subcontracted under this project to study the issue in detail and to recommend a mercury vapor pressure equation that the vendors of mercury vapor pressure calibration units can use to calculate the elemental mercury vapor concentration in an equilibrium chamber at a particular temperature. As part of this study, a preliminary evaluation of calibration units from five vendors was made. The work was performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD and Joe Rovani from WRI who traveled to NIST as a Visiting Scientist.

  9. Camera calibration in a hazardous environment performed in situ with automated analysis and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePiero, F.W.; Kress, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Camera calibration using the method of Two Planes is discussed. An implementation of the technique is described that may be performed in situ, e.g., in a hazardous or contaminated environment, thus eliminating the need for decontamination of camera systems before recalibration. Companion analysis techniques used for verifying the correctness of the calibration are presented

  10. Airborne radiometric: Data evaluation and calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendt, I.; Sengpiel, K.P.; Lenz, H.

    1984-01-01

    The airborne geophysical system of the BGR (German Geological Survey) consists of a helicopter equipped with an electromagnetic system with two transmittors and two receivers, a proton resonance magnetometer and a 16 L NaJ-crystal with four channel recording. All these data together with navigation data and flight altitude above ground are recorded each second on a nine track magnetic tape for further data evaluation. Different corrections have to be applied to the rough data such as: smoothing by means of a digital filter to reduce statistical noise, altitude correction, Compton-correction, and drift correction (cross-profile evaluation). Then the corrected measuring data are combined with the navigation data in order to be able to produce iso-line maps. The final results are presented as: line plots for U, Th, and K (and EM-data and magnetometer data); actual flight line plots; iso-line maps for U, Th, and K; iso-line maps for conductivity; depth of conducting layer; and magnetometry maps. The procedures of correction and evaluation of the above mentioned data as well as the calibration of the NaJ-detector in terms of ppm U, Th, and %K are dicussed in the paper. (author)

  11. Standard guide for in-plant performance evaluation of automatic pedestrian SNM monitors

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This guide is affiliated with Guide C1112 on special nuclear material (SNM) monitors, Guide C1169 on laboratory performance evaluation, and Guide C1189 on calibrating pedestrian SNM monitors. This guide to in-plant performance evaluation is a comparatively rapid way to verify whether a pedestrian SNM monitor performs as expected for detecting SNM or SNM-like test sources. 1.1.1 In-plant performance evaluation should not be confused with the simple daily functional test recommended in Guide C1112. In-plant performance evaluation takes place less often than daily tests, usually at intervals ranging from weekly to once every three months. In-plant evaluations are also more extensive than daily tests and may examine both a monitor's nuisance alarm record and its detection sensitivity for a particular SNM or alternative test source. 1.1.2 In-plant performance evaluation also should not be confused with laboratory performance evaluation. In-plant evaluation is comparatively rapid, takes place in the monitor...

  12. Calibration and intercomparison methods of dose calibrators used in nuclear medicine facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Alessandro Martins da

    1999-01-01

    Dose calibrators are used in most of the nuclear medicine facilities to determine the amount of radioactivity administered to a patient in a particular investigation or therapeutic procedure. It is therefore of vital importance that the equipment used presents good performance and is regular;y calibrated at a authorized laboratory. This occurs of adequate quality assurance procedures are carried out. Such quality control tests should be performed daily, other biannually or yearly, testing, for example, its accuracy and precision, the reproducibility and response linearity. In this work a commercial dose calibrator was calibrated with solution of radionuclides used in nuclear medicine. Simple instrument tests, such as response linearity and the response variation of the source volume increase at a constant source activity concentration, were performed. This instrument can now be used as a working standard for calibration of other dose calibrators/ An intercomparison procedure was proposed as a method of quality control of dose calibrators used in nuclear medicine facilities. (author)

  13. Characteristics of X ray calibration fields for performance test of radiation measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Shigeru; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Sawahata, Tadahiro; Tohnami, Kohichi; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Murayama, Takashi

    1999-02-01

    Performance test and calibration of the radiation measuring instruments for low energy photons are made using the X ray calibration fields which are monochromatically characterized by filtration of continuous X ray spectrum. The X ray calibration field needs to be characterized by some quality conditions such as quality index and homogeneity coefficient. The present report describes quality conditions, spectrum and some characteristics of X ray irradiation fields in the Facility of Radiation Standard of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (FRS-JAERI). Fifty nine X ray qualities with the quality index of 0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9 were set for the tube voltages between 10 kV and 350 kV. Estimation of X ray spectrum measured with a Ge detector was made in terms of exposure, ambient dose equivalent and fluence for all the obtained qualities. Practical irradiation field was determined as the dose distribution uniformity is within ±3%. The obtained results improve the quality of X ray calibration fields and calibration accuracy. (author)

  14. Validation of a densimeter calibration procedure for a secondary calibration laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpizar Herrera, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted to quantify the need for calibration of a density measurement instrument at the research units at the Sede Rodrigo Facio of the Universidad de Costa Rica. A calibration procedure was documented for the instrument that presented the highest demand in the survey by the calibration service. A study of INTE-ISO/IEC 17025: 2005 and specifically in section 5.4 of this standard was done, to document the procedure for calibrating densimeters. Densimeter calibration procedures and standards were sought from different national and international sources. The method of hydrostatic weighing or Cuckow method was the basis of the defined procedure. Documenting the calibration procedure and creating other documents was performed for data acquisition log, intermediate calculation log and calibration certificate copy. A veracity test was performed using as reference laboratory a laboratory of calibration secondary national as part of the validation process of the documented procedure. The results of the E_n statistic of 0.41; 0.34 and 0.46 for the calibration points 90%, 50% and 10% were obtained for the densimeter scale respectively. A reproducibility analysis of the method was performed with satisfactory results. Different suppliers were contacted to estimate the economic costs of the equipment and materials, needed to develop the documented method of densimeter calibration. The acquisition of an analytical balance was recommended, instead of a precision scale, in order to improve the results obtained with the documented method [es

  15. Performance evaluation and calibration of the neuro-pet scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sank, V.J.; Brooks, R.A.; Cascio, H.E.; Di Chiro, G.; Friauf, W.S.; Leighton, S.B.

    1983-01-01

    The Neuro-PET is a circular ring seven-slice positron emission tomograph designed for imaging human heads and small animals. The scanner uses 512 bismuth germanate detectors 8.25 mm wide packed tightly together in four layers to achieve high spatial resolution (6-7 mm FWHM) without the use of beam blockers. Because of the small 38 cm ring diameter, the sensitivity is also very high: 70,000 c/s per true slice with medium energy threshold (375 keV) for a 20 cm diameter phantom containing 1 μCi/cc of positron-emitting activity, according to a preliminary measurement. There are three switch-selectable thresholds, and the sensitivity will be higher in the low threshold setting. The Neuro-PET is calibrated with a round or elliptical phantom that approximates a patient's head; this method eliminates the effects of scatter and self-attenuation to first order. Further software corrections for these artifacts are made in the reconstruction program, which reduce the measured scatter to zero, as determined with a 5 cm cold spot. With a 1 cm cold spot, the apparent activity at the center of the cold spot is 18% of the surrounding activity, which is clearly a consequence of the limits of spatial resolution, rather than scatter. The Neuro-PET has been in clinical operation since June 1982, and approximately 30 patients have been scanned to date

  16. A machine learning calibration model using random forests to improve sensor performance for lower-cost air quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Naomi; Presto, Albert A.; Kumar, Sriniwasa P. N.; Gu, Jason; Hauryliuk, Aliaksei; Robinson, Ellis S.; Robinson, Allen L.; Subramanian, R.

    2018-01-01

    it accounts for pollutant cross-sensitivities. This highlights the importance of developing multipollutant sensor packages (as opposed to single-pollutant monitors); we determined this is especially critical for NO2 and CO2. The evaluation reveals that only the RF-calibrated sensors meet the US EPA Air Sensors Guidebook recommendations of minimum data quality for personal exposure measurement. We also demonstrate that the RF-model-calibrated sensors could detect differences in NO2 concentrations between a near-road site and a suburban site less than 1.5 km away. From this study, we conclude that combining RF models with carefully controlled state-of-the-art multipollutant sensor packages as in the RAMP monitors appears to be a very promising approach to address the poor performance that has plagued low-cost air quality sensors.

  17. Surgical Treatment of Anal Stenosis with Diamond Flap Anoplasty Performed in a Calibrated Fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülen, Merter; Leventoğlu, Sezai; Ege, Bahadir; Menteş, B Bülent

    2016-03-01

    Regarding anoplasty for anal stenosis, it is not clear to what extent the final anal caliber should be targeted. The aim of this study was to investigate the results of diamond-flap anoplasty performed in a calibrated manner for the treatment of severe anal stenosis due to a previous hemorrhoidectomy. Prospectively prepared standard forms were evaluated retrospectively. Anoplasty with unilateral or bilateral diamond flaps was performed for moderate or severe anal stenosis, targeting a final anal caliber of 25 to 26 mm. The demographic characteristics, causes of anal stenosis, number of previous surgeries, anal stenosis staging (Milsom and Mazier), anal calibers (millimeter), the Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score, and the modified obstructed defecation syndrome Longo score were recorded on pre-prepared standard forms, as well as postoperative complications and the time of return to work. From January 2011 to July 2013, 18 patients (12 males, 67%) with a median age of 39 years (range, 27-70) were treated. All of the patients had a history of previous hemorrhoidectomy. The number of previous corrective interventions was 2.1 ± 1.8 (range, 0-4), and 2 patients had a history of failed anoplasty. Five patients (28%) had moderate anal stenosis and 13 (72%) had severe anal stenosis. Preoperative, intraoperative, and 12-month postoperative anal calibration values were 9 ± 3 mm (range, 5-15), 25 ± 0.75 mm (range, 24-26), and 25 ± 1 mm (range, 23-27) (p < 0.0001, for immediate postoperative and 12-month postoperative anal calibers compared with the intraoperative). Preoperative and 12-month postoperative Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Scores were 0.83 ± 1.15 (range, 0-4) and 0.39 ± 0.70 (range, 0-2) (p = 1.0). The clinical success rate was 88.9%. No severe postoperative complications were observed. This study was limited because it was a single-armed, retrospective analysis of prospectively designed data. Diamond-flap anoplasty performed in a standardized and calibrated

  18. Online calibrations and performance of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It consists of 1744 silicon sensors equipped with approximately 80 M electronic channels, providing typically three measurement points with high resolution for particles emerging from the beam-interaction region, thus allowing measuring particle tracks and secondary vertices with very high precision. The readout system of the Pixel Detector is based on a bi-directional optical data transmission system between the detector and the data acquisition system with an individual link for each of the 1744 modules. Signal conversion components are located on both ends, approximately 80 m apart. The talk will give an overview of the calibration and performance of both the detector and its optical readout. The most basic parameter to be tuned and calibrated for the detector electronics is the readout threshold of the individual pixel channels. These need to be carefully tuned to optimise position resolution a...

  19. Elementary Students' Metacognitive Processes and Post-Performance Calibration on Mathematical Problem-Solving Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Trinidad; Rodríguez, Celestino; González-Castro, Paloma; González-Pienda, Julio Antonio; Torrance, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Calibration, or the correspondence between perceived performance and actual performance, is linked to students' metacognitive and self-regulatory skills. Making students more aware of the quality of their performance is important in elementary school settings, and more so when math problems are involved. However, many students seem to be poorly…

  20. Calibration methods for the Hargreaves-Samani equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Borges Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The estimation of the reference evapotranspiration is an important factor for hydrological studies, design and management of irrigation systems, among others. The Penman Monteith equation presents high precision and accuracy in the estimation of this variable. However, its use becomes limited due to the large number of required meteorological data. In this context, the Hargreaves-Samani equation could be used as alternative, although, for a better performance a local calibration is required. Thus, the aim was to compare the calibration process of the Hargreaves-Samani equation by linear regression, by adjustment of the coefficients (A and B and exponent (C of the equation and by combinations of the two previous alternatives. Daily data from 6 weather stations, located in the state of Minas Gerais, from the period 1997 to 2016 were used. The calibration of the Hargreaves-Samani equation was performed in five ways: calibration by linear regression, adjustment of parameter “A”, adjustment of parameters “A” and “C”, adjustment of parameters “A”, “B” and “C” and adjustment of parameters “A”, “B” and “C” followed by calibration by linear regression. The performances of the models were evaluated based on the statistical indicators mean absolute error, mean bias error, Willmott’s index of agreement, correlation coefficient and performance index. All the studied methodologies promoted better estimations of reference evapotranspiration. The simultaneous adjustment of the empirical parameters “A”, “B” and “C” was the best alternative for calibration of the Hargreaves-Samani equation.

  1. Performance evaluation of portable HPGe with in situ object counting system (ISOCS) in direct thyroid radiobioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Min Seok; Kwon, Tae Eun; Pak, Min Jung; Park, Se Young; Ha, Wi Ho; Jin, Young Woo [National Radiation Emergency Medical Center (NREMC), Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    To evaluate the internal radiation dose, various methods are required to identify and quantify radionuclides in human body. Internal contamination monitoring related with the radioiodine is generally performed by direct radiobioassay which used scintillator-based thyroid monitor. Recently, a semiconductor material such as high purity germanium (HPGe) has been used for in vivo radiobioassay. In this study, broad energy germanium (BEGe) which was a kind of HPGe was used for thyroid radiobioassay. BEGe shows good performance in the radiobioassay due to its high energy resolution. In Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS) was the efficiency calibration software developed by Canberra Industries. The efficiency calibration with this system was performed by the Monte Carlo method. It was useful method as alternative method of conventional calibration. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of measuring radioiodine by means of ISOCS which is equipped with the portable HPG(Falcon 5000, Canberra Industries) in direct thyroid radiobioassay. The ISOCS software ensured compliance with the performance criteria in the radioiodine measurement. These results of participating in intercomparison program indicated the feasibility of applying ISOCS software to direct thyroid radiobioassay with more convenient procedure.

  2. Guidelines for the calibration of personnel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberson, P.L.; Holbrook, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    This guide describes minimum acceptable performance levels for personnel dosimetry systems used at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The goal is to improve both the quality of radiological calibrations and the methods of comparing reported occupational doses between DOE facilities. Reference calibration techniques are defined. A standard for evaluation of personnel dosimetry systems and recommended design parameters for personnel dosimeters are also included. Approximate intervals for the radiation energies for which these guidelines are appropriate are 15 keV to 2 MeV for photons; above 0.3 MeV for beta particles; and 1 keV to 2 MeV for neutrons. An analysis of ANSI N13.11 was completed using performance evaluations of selected personnel dosimetry systems in use at DOE facilities. The results of this analysis are incorporated in the guidelines

  3. Using Active Learning for Speeding up Calibration in Simulation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Mucahit; Ergun, Mehmet Ali; Stout, Natasha K; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Craven, Mark; Alagoz, Oguzhan

    2016-07-01

    Most cancer simulation models include unobservable parameters that determine disease onset and tumor growth. These parameters play an important role in matching key outcomes such as cancer incidence and mortality, and their values are typically estimated via a lengthy calibration procedure, which involves evaluating a large number of combinations of parameter values via simulation. The objective of this study is to demonstrate how machine learning approaches can be used to accelerate the calibration process by reducing the number of parameter combinations that are actually evaluated. Active learning is a popular machine learning method that enables a learning algorithm such as artificial neural networks to interactively choose which parameter combinations to evaluate. We developed an active learning algorithm to expedite the calibration process. Our algorithm determines the parameter combinations that are more likely to produce desired outputs and therefore reduces the number of simulation runs performed during calibration. We demonstrate our method using the previously developed University of Wisconsin breast cancer simulation model (UWBCS). In a recent study, calibration of the UWBCS required the evaluation of 378 000 input parameter combinations to build a race-specific model, and only 69 of these combinations produced results that closely matched observed data. By using the active learning algorithm in conjunction with standard calibration methods, we identify all 69 parameter combinations by evaluating only 5620 of the 378 000 combinations. Machine learning methods hold potential in guiding model developers in the selection of more promising parameter combinations and hence speeding up the calibration process. Applying our machine learning algorithm to one model shows that evaluating only 1.49% of all parameter combinations would be sufficient for the calibration. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Evaluating fossil calibrations for dating phylogenies in light of rates of molecular evolution: a comparison of three approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukoschek, Vimoksalehi; Scott Keogh, J; Avise, John C

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary and biogeographic studies increasingly rely on calibrated molecular clocks to date key events. Although there has been significant recent progress in development of the techniques used for molecular dating, many issues remain. In particular, controversies abound over the appropriate use and placement of fossils for calibrating molecular clocks. Several methods have been proposed for evaluating candidate fossils; however, few studies have compared the results obtained by different approaches. Moreover, no previous study has incorporated the effects of nucleotide saturation from different data types in the evaluation of candidate fossils. In order to address these issues, we compared three approaches for evaluating fossil calibrations: the single-fossil cross-validation method of Near, Meylan, and Shaffer (2005. Assessing concordance of fossil calibration points in molecular clock studies: an example using turtles. Am. Nat. 165:137-146), the empirical fossil coverage method of Marshall (2008. A simple method for bracketing absolute divergence times on molecular phylogenies using multiple fossil calibration points. Am. Nat. 171:726-742), and the Bayesian multicalibration method of Sanders and Lee (2007. Evaluating molecular clock calibrations using Bayesian analyses with soft and hard bounds. Biol. Lett. 3:275-279) and explicitly incorporate the effects of data type (nuclear vs. mitochondrial DNA) for identifying the most reliable or congruent fossil calibrations. We used advanced (Caenophidian) snakes as a case study; however, our results are applicable to any taxonomic group with multiple candidate fossils, provided appropriate taxon sampling and sufficient molecular sequence data are available. We found that data type strongly influenced which fossil calibrations were identified as outliers, regardless of which method was used. Despite the use of complex partitioned models of sequence evolution and multiple calibrations throughout the tree, saturation

  5. Independent System Calibration of Sentinel-1B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Schwerdt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel-1B is the second of two C-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR satellites of the Sentinel-1 mission, launched in April 2016—two years after the launch of the first satellite, Sentinel-1A. In addition to the commissioning of Sentinel-1B executed by the European Space Agency (ESA, an independent system calibration was performed by the German Aerospace Center (DLR on behalf of ESA. Based on an efficient calibration strategy and the different calibration procedures already developed and applied for Sentinel-1A, extensive measurement campaigns were executed by initializing and aligning DLR’s reference targets deployed on the ground. This paper describes the different activities performed by DLR during the Sentinel-1B commissioning phase and presents the results derived from the analysis and the evaluation of a multitude of data takes and measurements.

  6. Automated calibration of TECAN genesis liquid handling workstation utilizing an online balance and density meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Iris H; Wang, Michael H; Carpenter, Richard; Wu, Henry Y

    2004-02-01

    With robotics widely used in bioanalytical assays, accurate system performance is essential to ensure the quality and productivity of the robotics. In our lab, an automated calibration procedure has been developed to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the TECAN (Research Triangle Park, NC, U.S.A.) Genesis liquid handling system in a bioanalytical laboratory setting. The calibrations were performed by transferring and weighing the solvents automatically on a microbalance controlled by a Gemini program. From the data acquired, calibration reports were generated using a template. The novel aspect of this approach is the use of an on-line balance and a density meter, both of which combine to make the calibration process simple, efficient, and precise. For quantitative bioanalysis, a variety of solvents, including methanol, water, mixed solvents, and plasma, are typically used to prepare standards and unknown samples. Density information is usually unknown for the mixed solvents, and the density of plasma can vary from species to species. However, with the use of a universal density meter, the density could be obtained in seconds. The issue of solvent evaporation during the calibration process was also addressed. Calibration curves were set up for various liquid classes. Pipetting volumes ranged from 10 microL to 900 microL. Precision and accuracy results obtained from the semiannual performance evaluations showed this procedure to be reliable and user-friendly. Using the automated calibration procedure, the calibration and performance evaluation of the robotic system is considerably more efficient, and the incidence of unacceptable precision and accuracy is greatly reduced.

  7. A Research on Uncertainty Evaluation in Verification and Calibration on LSC facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Jin; Park, Eung-Seop; Kim, Hee-Gang [Yeong Gwang NPP Supervisory Center for Environment Radiation and Safety, Yeonggwang (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sang-Jun [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    Compared with environmental sample existing around Nuclear Power Plant, the uncertainty due to geometry difference when the calibration about Liquid Scintillation Counter using the solid H-3 Standard Source of 200,000 DPM(Disintegration Per Minute) is executed exists. Therefore, this paper intends to investigate the root cause of uncertainty due to geometry difference using Quantulus 1220 instrument and H-3 Standard source of solid and liquid form. And Teflon vial was used as a measurement cell. In this paper, it is judged that main factors which can bring about uncertainty about geometry difference are a plastic cell existing into Teflon vial and activity difference, the configuration difference of H-3 Standard Source, and evaluation on these factors are performed through experiment and measurement.

  8. A Research on Uncertainty Evaluation in Verification and Calibration on LSC facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Jin; Park, Eung-Seop; Kim, Hee-Gang; Han, Sang-Jun

    2007-01-01

    Compared with environmental sample existing around Nuclear Power Plant, the uncertainty due to geometry difference when the calibration about Liquid Scintillation Counter using the solid H-3 Standard Source of 200,000 DPM(Disintegration Per Minute) is executed exists. Therefore, this paper intends to investigate the root cause of uncertainty due to geometry difference using Quantulus 1220 instrument and H-3 Standard source of solid and liquid form. And Teflon vial was used as a measurement cell. In this paper, it is judged that main factors which can bring about uncertainty about geometry difference are a plastic cell existing into Teflon vial and activity difference, the configuration difference of H-3 Standard Source, and evaluation on these factors are performed through experiment and measurement

  9. Calibration between Undergraduate Students' Prediction of and Actual Performance: The Role of Gender and Performance Attributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Antonio P.; Price, Addison F.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated changes in male and female students' prediction and postdiction calibration accuracy and bias scores, and the predictive effects of explanatory styles on these variables beyond gender. Seventy undergraduate students rated their confidence in performance before and after a 40-item exam. There was an improvement in students'…

  10. Development of a calibration methodology and tests of kerma area product meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Nathalia Almeida

    2013-01-01

    The quantity kerma area product (PKA) is important to establish reference levels in diagnostic radiology exams. This quantity can be obtained using a PKA meter. The use of such meters is essential to evaluate the radiation dose in radiological procedures and is a good indicator to make sure that the dose limit to the patient's skin doesn't exceed. Sometimes, these meters come fixed to X radiation equipment, which makes its calibration difficult. In this work, it was developed a methodology for calibration of PKA meters. The instrument used for this purpose was the Patient Dose Calibrator (PDC). It was developed to be used as a reference to check the calibration of PKA and air kerma meters that are used for dosimetry in patients and to verify the consistency and behavior of systems of automatic exposure control. Because it is a new equipment, which, in Brazil, is not yet used as reference equipment for calibration, it was also performed the quality control of this equipment with characterization tests, the calibration and an evaluation of the energy dependence. After the tests, it was proved that the PDC can be used as a reference instrument and that the calibration must be performed in situ, so that the characteristics of each X-ray equipment, where the PKA meters are used, are considered. The calibration was then performed with portable PKA meters and in an interventional radiology equipment that has a PKA meter fixed. The results were good and it was proved the need for calibration of these meters and the importance of in situ calibration with a reference meter. (author)

  11. Evaluating and improving the performance of thin film force sensors within body and device interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likitlersuang, Jirapat; Leineweber, Matthew J; Andrysek, Jan

    2017-10-01

    Thin film force sensors are commonly used within biomechanical systems, and at the interface of the human body and medical and non-medical devices. However, limited information is available about their performance in such applications. The aims of this study were to evaluate and determine ways to improve the performance of thin film (FlexiForce) sensors at the body/device interface. Using a custom apparatus designed to load the sensors under simulated body/device conditions, two aspects were explored relating to sensor calibration and application. The findings revealed accuracy errors of 23.3±17.6% for force measurements at the body/device interface with conventional techniques of sensor calibration and application. Applying a thin rigid disc between the sensor and human body and calibrating the sensor using compliant surfaces was found to substantially reduce measurement errors to 2.9±2.0%. The use of alternative calibration and application procedures is recommended to gain acceptable measurement performance from thin film force sensors in body/device applications. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. EVALUATION OF THE MAIN CEOS PSEUDO CALIBRATION SITES USING MODIS BRDF/ALBEDO PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kharbouche

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes our findings about an evaluation of the stability and the consistency of twenty primary PICSs (Pseudo-Invariant Calibration Sites. We present an analysis of 13 years of 8-daily MODIS products of BRDF parameters and white-sky-albedos (WSA over the shortwave band. This time series of WSA and BRDFs shows the variation of the “stability” varies significantly from site to site. Using a 10x10 km window size over all the sites, the change in of WSA stability is around 4% but the isotropicity, which is an important element in inter-satellite calibration, can vary from 75% to 98%. Moreover, some PICS, especially, Libya-4 which is one of the PICS which is most employed, has significant and relatively fast changes in wintertime. PICS observations of BRDF/albedo shows that the Libya-4 PICS has the best performance but it is not too far from some sites such as Libya-1 and Mali. This study also reveals that Niger-3 PICS has the longest continuous period of high stability per year, and Sudan has the most isotropic surface. These observations have important implications for the use of these sites.

  13. Evaluation of performance of activimeter used in nuclear medicine for radiopharmaceuticals activity measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Tais Lins da; Oliveira, Antonio Eduardo de; Iwahara, Akira; Tauhata, Luiz; Ruzzarin, Anelise; Xavier, Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of radionuclide calibrators of Nuclear Medicine Centers located in Rio de Janeiro state and Porto Alegre city at the criterion of accuracy required by the standard NN-3.05 of the National Commission on Nuclear Energy for measuring of activity of radiopharmaceuticals. Of total of 203 results evaluated for 99 mTc, 131 I, 67 Ga and 201 Tl, 88% showed acceptable performance according to this criterion. Ideally, and fully attainable, the performance should be 100%, for the benefit of patients undergoing nuclear medicine procedures. (author)

  14. Calibrated Properties Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlers, C.; Liu, H.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the Calibrated Properties Model that provides calibrated parameter sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This work was performed in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan for U0035 Calibrated Properties Model REV00. These calibrated property sets include matrix and fracture parameters for the UZ Flow and Transport Model (UZ Model), drift seepage models, drift-scale and mountain-scale coupled-processes models, and Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) models as well as Performance Assessment (PA) and other participating national laboratories and government agencies. These process models provide the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions

  15. Calibration and performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter during the LHC Run 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda Alberich, L.

    2018-02-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic sampling calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). TileCal uses iron absorbers and scintillators as active material and it covers the central region | η| < 1.7. Jointly with the other sub-detectors it is designed for measurements of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. It also assists in muon identification. TileCal is regularly monitored and calibrated by several different calibration systems: a Cs radioactive source, a laser light system to check the PMT response, and a charge injection system (CIS) to check the front-end electronics. These calibration systems, in conjunction with data collected during proton-proton collisions, Minimum Bias (MB) events, provide extensive monitoring of the instrument and a means for equalizing the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal propagation. The performance of the calorimeter has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton collisions and compared to Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The response of high momentum isolated muons is also used to study the energy response at the electromagnetic scale, isolated hadrons are used as a probe of the hadronic response. The calorimeter time resolution is studied with multijet events. A description of the different TileCal calibration systems and the results on the calorimeter performance during the LHC Run 2 are presented. The results on the pile-up noise and response uniformity studies are also discussed.

  16. Another look at volume self-calibration: calibration and self-calibration within a pinhole model of Scheimpflug cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornic, Philippe; Le Besnerais, Guy; Champagnat, Frédéric; Illoul, Cédric; Cheminet, Adam; Le Sant, Yves; Leclaire, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    We address calibration and self-calibration of tomographic PIV experiments within a pinhole model of cameras. A complete and explicit pinhole model of a camera equipped with a 2-tilt angles Scheimpflug adapter is presented. It is then used in a calibration procedure based on a freely moving calibration plate. While the resulting calibrations are accurate enough for Tomo-PIV, we confirm, through a simple experiment, that they are not stable in time, and illustrate how the pinhole framework can be used to provide a quantitative evaluation of geometrical drifts in the setup. We propose an original self-calibration method based on global optimization of the extrinsic parameters of the pinhole model. These methods are successfully applied to the tomographic PIV of an air jet experiment. An unexpected by-product of our work is to show that volume self-calibration induces a change in the world frame coordinates. Provided the calibration drift is small, as generally observed in PIV, the bias on the estimated velocity field is negligible but the absolute location cannot be accurately recovered using standard calibration data. (paper)

  17. CryoSat-2: Post launch performance of SIRAL-2 and its calibration/validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Robert; Francis, Richard; Davidson, Malcolm; Wingham, Duncan

    2010-05-01

    1. INTRODUCTION The main payload of CryoSat-2 [1], SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter), is a Ku band pulse-width limited radar altimeter which transmits pulses at a high pulse repetition frequency thus making received echoes phase coherent and suitable for azimuth processing [2]. The azimuth processing in conjunction with correction for slant range improves along track resolution to about 250 meters which is a significant improvement over traditional pulse-width limited systems such as Envisat RA-2, [3]. CryoSat-2 will be launched on 25th February 2010 and this paper describes the pre and post launch measures of CryoSat/SIRAL performance and the status of mission validation planning. 2. SIRAL PERFORMANCE: INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CALIBRATION Phase coherent pulse-width limited radar altimeters such as SIRAL-2 pose a new challenge when considering a strategy for calibration. Along with the need to generate the well understood corrections for transfer function amplitude with respect to frequency, gain and instrument path delay there is also a need to provide corrections for transfer function phase with respect to frequency and AGC setting, phase variation across bursts of pulses. Furthermore, since some components of these radars are temperature sensitive one needs to be careful when the deciding how often calibrations are performed whilst not impacting mission performance. Several internal calibration ground processors have been developed to model imperfections within the CryoSat-2 radar altimeter (SIRAL-2) hardware and reduce their effect from the science data stream via the use of calibration correction auxiliary products within the ground segment. We present the methods and results used to model and remove imperfections and describe the baseline for usage of SIRAL-2 calibration modes during the commissioning phase and the operational exploitation phases of the mission. Additionally we present early results derived from external calibration of SIRAL via

  18. Instrument evaluation, calibration, and installation for the heater experiments at Stripa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrauf, T.; Pratt, H.; Simonson, E.; Hustrulid, W.; Nelson, P.; DuBois, A.; Binnall, E.; Haught, R.

    1979-12-01

    Borehole instrumentation for the measurement of temperature, displacement, and stress was evaluated, modified, calibrated, and installed in an underground site at Stripa, Sweden where experiments are currently underway to investigate the suitability of granite as a storage medium for nuclear waste. Three arrays of borehole instrumentation measure the thermomechanical effects caused by electrical heaters which simulate the thermal output of canisters of radioactive waste. Because most rock mechanics investigations are carried out at modest temperatures, a sustained operating temperature as high as 200 0 C was an unusual and most important criterion governing the instrumentation program. Extensive laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effect of high temperature on instrument behavior and also to develop calibration and data-reduction procedures. The rod extensometers were tested for anchor creep, the selection of a suitable high-temperature pressurizing fluid, and the thermal stability of the grout. Four temperature corrections are incorporated into the data reduction of the USBM borehole deformation measurement: the bridge voltage offset correction, the change in calibration factor induced by temperature, and the thermal expansion of the gage and of the rock. The vibrating wire gages were calibrated in the laboratory by loading gages installed in a granite block at pressures up to 13 MPa and at temperatures ranging from 20 0 to 200 0 C. Both the slope and offset of the response equation are corrected for temperature effects. Most thermocouples were calibrated in an oven at the field site. Thermocouples were emplaced with individual gages and into holes backfilled with sand or grout

  19. Scanner calibration revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozhitkov Alexander E

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calibration of a microarray scanner is critical for accurate interpretation of microarray results. Shi et al. (BMC Bioinformatics, 2005, 6, Art. No. S11 Suppl. 2. reported usage of a Full Moon BioSystems slide for calibration. Inspired by the Shi et al. work, we have calibrated microarray scanners in our previous research. We were puzzled however, that most of the signal intensities from a biological sample fell below the sensitivity threshold level determined by the calibration slide. This conundrum led us to re-investigate the quality of calibration provided by the Full Moon BioSystems slide as well as the accuracy of the analysis performed by Shi et al. Methods Signal intensities were recorded on three different microarray scanners at various photomultiplier gain levels using the same calibration slide from Full Moon BioSystems. Data analysis was conducted on raw signal intensities without normalization or transformation of any kind. Weighted least-squares method was used to fit the data. Results We found that initial analysis performed by Shi et al. did not take into account autofluorescence of the Full Moon BioSystems slide, which led to a grossly distorted microarray scanner response. Our analysis revealed that a power-law function, which is explicitly accounting for the slide autofluorescence, perfectly described a relationship between signal intensities and fluorophore quantities. Conclusions Microarray scanners respond in a much less distorted fashion than was reported by Shi et al. Full Moon BioSystems calibration slides are inadequate for performing calibration. We recommend against using these slides.

  20. Calibrating EEG-based motor imagery brain-computer interface from passive movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Kai Keng; Guan, Cuntai; Wang, Chuanchu; Phua, Kok Soon; Tan, Adrian Hock Guan; Chin, Zheng Yang

    2011-01-01

    EEG data from performing motor imagery are usually collected to calibrate a subject-specific model for classifying the EEG data during the evaluation phase of motor imagery Brain-Computer Interface (BCI). However, there is no direct objective measure to determine if a subject is performing motor imagery correctly for proper calibration. Studies have shown that passive movement, which is directly observable, induces Event-Related Synchronization patterns that are similar to those induced from motor imagery. Hence, this paper investigates the feasibility of calibrating EEG-based motor imagery BCI from passive movement. EEG data of 12 healthy subjects were collected during motor imagery and passive movement of the hand by a haptic knob robot. The calibration models using the Filter Bank Common Spatial Pattern algorithm on the EEG data from motor imagery were compared against using the EEG data from passive movement. The performances were compared based on the 10×10-fold cross-validation accuracies of the calibration data, and off-line session-to-session transfer kappa values to other sessions of motor imagery performed on another day. The results showed that the calibration performed using passive movement yielded higher model accuracy and off-line session-to-session transfer (73.6% and 0.354) than the calibration performed using motor imagery (71.3% and 0.311), and no significant differences were observed between the two groups (p=0.20, 0.23). Hence, this study shows that it is feasible to calibrate EEG-based motor imagery BCI from passive movement.

  1. Development of rapid, continuous calibration techniques and implementation as a prototype system for civil engineering materials evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M. L.; Gagarin, N.; Mekemson, J. R.; Chintakunta, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, civil engineering material calibration data could only be obtained from material sample cores or via time consuming, stationary calibration measurements in a limited number of locations. Calibration data are used to determine material propagation velocities of electromagnetic waves in test materials for use in layer thickness measurements and subsurface imaging. Limitations these calibration methods impose have been a significant impediment to broader use of nondestructive evaluation methods such as ground-penetrating radar (GPR). In 2006, a new rapid, continuous calibration approach was designed using simulation software to address these measurement limitations during a Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) research and development effort. This continuous calibration method combines a digitally-synthesized step-frequency (SF)-GPR array and a data collection protocol sequence for the common midpoint (CMP) method. Modeling and laboratory test results for various data collection protocols and materials are presented in this paper. The continuous-CMP concept was finally implemented for FHWA in a prototype demonstration system called the Advanced Pavement Evaluation (APE) system in 2009. Data from the continuous-CMP protocol is processed using a semblance/coherency analysis to determine material propagation velocities. Continuously calibrated pavement thicknesses measured with the APE system in 2009 are presented. This method is efficient, accurate, and cost-effective.

  2. An Evaluation of Antarctica as a Calibration Target for Passive Microwave Satellite Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Passive microwave remote sensing at L-band (1.4 GHz) is sensitive to soil moisture and sea surface salinity, both important climate variables. Science studies involving these variables can now take advantage of new satellite L-band observations. The first mission with regular global passive microwave observations at L-band is the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), launched November, 2009. A second mission, NASA's Aquarius, was launched June, 201l. A third mission, NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) is scheduled to launch in 2014. Together, these three missions may provide a decade-long data record -- provided that they are intercalibrated. The intercalibration is best performed at the radiance (brightness temperature) level, and Antarctica is proving to be a key calibration target. However, Antarctica has thus far not been fully characterized as a potential target. This paper will present evaluations of Antarctica as a microwave calibration target for the above satellite missions. Preliminary analyses have identified likely target areas, such as the vicinity of Dome-C and larger areas within East Antarctica. Physical sources of temporal and spatial variability of polar firn are key to assessing calibration uncertainty. These sources include spatial variability of accumulation rate, compaction, surface characteristics (dunes, micro-topography), wind patterns, and vertical profiles of density and temperature. Using primarily SMOS data, variability is being empirically characterized and attempts are being made to attribute observed variability to physical sources. One expected outcome of these studies is the potential discovery of techniques for remotely sensing--over all of Antarctica--parameters such as surface temperature.

  3. Cuban-Brazilian comparison of the calibration procedures for surface contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, Gonzalo W.; Garcia, Jose A.T.; Ramos, Manoel M.O.

    2007-01-01

    The calibration laboratory of the CPHR, Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, is the only laboratory that performs calibrations of radiation protection instruments in Cuba. Recently they started a cooperation project with IAEA, code number CUB3002-01 with the task title 'Assuring and Demonstrating the safety of radioactive Waste Management'. Within the frame of this project they have a compromise to implement the calibration service for surface contamination monitors, for which they received instruments and sources. In 2006 the Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI) from the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, IRD/CNEN, was invited to perform a mission to CPHR in order to evaluate the level of implementation of the service trough the insertion of the service in the Quality Assurance System of their laboratory, and perform a comparison exercise to test the calibration method implemented. The results were evaluated by the methodology recommended in the ISO/IEC 43-1 standard. These results show that all values from both laboratories are comparable for most radionuclides except for Cl-36. The preliminary investigation about this situation is presented in the paper. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the homogeneity of reference flat sources used in calibration of surface contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Junior, I.A.; Xavier, M.; Siqueira, P.T.D.; Potiens, M.P.A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to re-evaluate the uniformity of the wide area reference sources of the Calibration Laboratory of Instruments (LCI-IPEN) used in the calibration of surface contamination monitors, according the recommendations of the ISO 8769 standard and the NRPB. In this work used six wide area reference sources of 150 cm 2 of 241 Am, 14 C, 36 Cl, 137 Cs, 90 Sr+ 90 Y and 99 Tc with reference dates between 1996 and 1997 and three sources of 100 cm 2 of 14 C, 137 Cs and 60 Co were used with reference dates 2007. Measurements were performed with a radiation monitor of the Thermo, model FH40GX with a pancake probe, model FHZ732GM. We also made several models on paper with the objective of define each measurement position and an aluminum plate with a square hole (6.25 cm 2 ) in its center, allowing the passage of the radiation only through the hole. Each wide area reference source was positioned in setup and measurements were performed in order to cover the entire surface of the source. The values of the uniformity obtained partially confirm previous data obtained in another study conducted by LCI-IPEN, showing that some wide area reference sources 150 cm 2 in disagree with ISO 8769. In the former work, just the source of 241 Am (7.3%) was within the range specified by the standard, now have sources of 241 Am (5.7%), 137 Cs (8.8%), 90 Sr+ 9 '0Y (8, 8%) and 99 Tc (9.2%) with values within the specified uniformity. The sources of 14 C (53.3%) and 36 Cl (16.6%) were outside the specified. The wide area reference sources of 100 cm 2 , show disagreement in values of uniformity of the sources 14 C (46.7%) and 60 Co (10.4%). The values of the uniformity of the wide area reference sources show that some fonts can not be used in calibrations, because not in accordance with the value of uniformity specified in ISO 8769:2010, this is a conditions to believe a laboratory according to ISO 17025, show the laboratory performs its services with a high quality. The

  5. Calibrated Properties Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlers, C.F.; Liu, H.H.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the Calibrated Properties Model that provides calibrated parameter sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This work was performed in accordance with the AMR Development Plan for U0035 Calibrated Properties Model REV00 (CRWMS M and O 1999c). These calibrated property sets include matrix and fracture parameters for the UZ Flow and Transport Model (UZ Model), drift seepage models, drift-scale and mountain-scale coupled-processes models, and Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) models as well as Performance Assessment (PA) and other participating national laboratories and government agencies. These process models provide the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions

  6. Two laboratory methods for the calibration of GPS speed meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yin; Sun, Qiao; Du, Lei; Yu, Mei; Bai, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The set-ups of two calibration systems are presented to investigate calibration methods of GPS speed meters. The GPS speed meter calibrated is a special type of high accuracy speed meter for vehicles which uses Doppler demodulation of GPS signals to calculate the measured speed of a moving target. Three experiments are performed: including simulated calibration, field-test signal replay calibration, and in-field test comparison with an optical speed meter. The experiments are conducted at specific speeds in the range of 40–180 km h −1 with the same GPS speed meter as the device under calibration. The evaluation of measurement results validates both methods for calibrating GPS speed meters. The relative deviations between the measurement results of the GPS-based high accuracy speed meter and those of the optical speed meter are analyzed, and the equivalent uncertainty of the comparison is evaluated. The comparison results justify the utilization of GPS speed meters as reference equipment if no fewer than seven satellites are available. This study contributes to the widespread use of GPS-based high accuracy speed meters as legal reference equipment in traffic speed metrology. (paper)

  7. CERN radiation protection (RP) calibration facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi, Fabio

    2016-04-14

    Radiation protection calibration facilities are essential to ensure the correct operation of radiation protection instrumentation. Calibrations are performed in specific radiation fields according to the type of instrument to be calibrated: neutrons, photons, X-rays, beta and alpha particles. Some of the instruments are also tested in mixed radiation fields as often encountered close to high-energy particle accelerators. Moreover, calibration facilities are of great importance to evaluate the performance of prototype detectors; testing and measuring the response of a prototype detector to well-known and -characterized radiation fields contributes to improving and optimizing its design and capabilities. The CERN Radiation Protection group is in charge of performing the regular calibrations of all CERN radiation protection devices; these include operational and passive dosimeters, neutron and photon survey-meters, and fixed radiation detectors to monitor the ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), inside CERN accelerators and at the CERN borders. A new state-of-the-art radiation protection calibration facility was designed, constructed and commissioned following the related ISO recommendations to replace the previous ageing (more than 30 years old) laboratory. In fact, the new laboratory aims also at the official accreditation according to the ISO standards in order to be able to release certified calibrations. Four radiation fields are provided: neutrons, photons and beta sources and an X-ray generator. Its construction did not only involve a pure civil engineering work; many radiation protection studies were performed to provide a facility that could answer the CERN calibration needs and fulfill all related safety requirements. Monte Carlo simulations have been confirmed to be a valuable tool for the optimization of the building design, the radiation protection aspects, e.g. shielding, and, as consequence, the overall cost. After the source and irradiator installation

  8. Calibration of hydrological models using flow-duration curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Westerberg

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The degree of belief we have in predictions from hydrologic models will normally depend on how well they can reproduce observations. Calibrations with traditional performance measures, such as the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency, are challenged by problems including: (1 uncertain discharge data, (2 variable sensitivity of different performance measures to different flow magnitudes, (3 influence of unknown input/output errors and (4 inability to evaluate model performance when observation time periods for discharge and model input data do not overlap. This paper explores a calibration method using flow-duration curves (FDCs to address these problems. The method focuses on reproducing the observed discharge frequency distribution rather than the exact hydrograph. It consists of applying limits of acceptability for selected evaluation points (EPs on the observed uncertain FDC in the extended GLUE approach. Two ways of selecting the EPs were tested – based on equal intervals of discharge and of volume of water. The method was tested and compared to a calibration using the traditional model efficiency for the daily four-parameter WASMOD model in the Paso La Ceiba catchment in Honduras and for Dynamic TOPMODEL evaluated at an hourly time scale for the Brue catchment in Great Britain. The volume method of selecting EPs gave the best results in both catchments with better calibrated slow flow, recession and evaporation than the other criteria. Observed and simulated time series of uncertain discharges agreed better for this method both in calibration and prediction in both catchments. An advantage with the method is that the rejection criterion is based on an estimation of the uncertainty in discharge data and that the EPs of the FDC can be chosen to reflect the aims of the modelling application, e.g. using more/less EPs at high/low flows. While the method appears less sensitive to epistemic input/output errors than previous use of limits of

  9. Simulation and Evaluation of ECT Signals From MRPC Probe in Combo Calibration Standard Tube Using Electromagnetic Numerical Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Joo Young; Song, Sung Jin; Jung, Hee Jun; Kong, Young Bae

    2006-01-01

    Signals captured from a Combo calibration standard tube play a crucial role in the evaluation of motorized rotating pancake coil (MRPC) probe signals from steam generator (SG) tubes in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Therefore, the Combo tube signals should be consistent and accurate. However, MRPC probe signals are very easily affected by various factors around the tubes so that they can be distorted in their amplitudes and phase angles which are the values specifically used in the evaluation. To overcome this problem, in this study, we explored possibility of simulation to be used as a practical calibration tool far the evaluation of real field signals. For this purpose, we investigated the characteristics of a MRPC probe and a Combo tube. And then using commercial software (VIC-3D) we simulated a set of calibration signals and compared to the experimental signals. From this comparison, we verified the accuracy of the simulated signals. Finally, we evaluated two defects using the simulated Combo tube signals, and the results were compared with those obtained using the actual field calibration signals

  10. Comparison of Performance between Genetic Algorithm and SCE-UA for Calibration of SCS-CN Surface Runoff Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hong Jeon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Global optimization methods linked with simulation models are widely used for automated calibration and serve as useful tools for searching for cost-effective alternatives for environmental management. A genetic algorithm (GA and shuffled complex evolution (SCE-UA algorithm were linked with the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment (L-THIA model, which employs the curve number (SCS-CN method. The performance of the two optimization methods was compared by automatically calibrating L-THIA for monthly runoff from 10 watersheds in Indiana. The selected watershed areas ranged from 32.7 to 5844.1 km2. The SCS-CN values and total five-day rainfall for adjustment were optimized, and the objective function used was the Nash-Sutcliffe value (NS value. The GA method rapidly reached the optimal space until the 10th generating population (generation, and after the 10th generation solutions increased dispersion around the optimal space, called a cross hair pattern, because of mutation rate increase. The number of looping executions influenced the performance of model calibration for the SCE-UA and GA method. The GA method performed better for the case of fewer loop executions than the SCE-UA method. For most watersheds, calibration performance using GA was better than for SCE-UA until the 50th generation when the number of model loop executions was around 5150 (one generation has 100 individuals. However, after the 50th generation of the GA method, the SCE-UA method performed better for calibrating monthly runoff compared to the GA method. Optimized SCS-CN values for primary land use types were nearly the same for the two methods, but those for minor land use types and total five-day rainfall for AMC adjustment were somewhat different because those parameters did not significantly influence calculation of the objective function. The GA method is recommended for cases when model simulation takes a long time and the model user does not have sufficient time

  11. Low-cost programmable pulse generator for particle telescope calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, S; Seisdedos, M; Meziat, D; Carbajo, M; Medina, J; Bronchalo, E; Peral, L D; Rodríguez-Pacheco, J

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we present a new calibration system for particle telescopes including multipulse generator and digital controller. The calibration system generates synchronized pulses of variable height for every detector channel on the telescope. The control system is based on a commercial microcontroller linked to a personal computer through an RS-232 bidirectional line. The aim of the device is to perform laboratory calibration of multi-detector telescopes prior to calibration at accelerator. This task includes evaluation of linearity and resolution of each detector channel, as well as coincidence logic. The heights of the pulses sent to the detectors are obtained by Monte Carlo simulation of telescope response to a particle flux of any desired geometry and composition.

  12. An Integrated Calibration Technique for Stereo Vision Systems (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    technique for stereo vision systems has been developed. To demonstrate and evaluate this calibration technique, multiple Wii Remotes (Wiimotes) from Nintendo ...from Nintendo were used to form stereo vision systems to perform 3D motion capture in real time. This integrated technique is a two-step process...Wiimotes) used in Nintendo Wii games. Many researchers have successfully dealt with the problem of camera calibration by taking images from a 2D

  13. Selection and evaluation of gamma decay standards for detector calibration using coincidence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlavac, S.

    2000-01-01

    Coincidence method for calibration of gamma detectors using suitable calibration standards with two cascading gamma rays is analyzed. From the list of recommended gamma ray standards currently under reevaluation by the CRP, 14 radionuclides were selected as the potential source candidates for the coincidence method. The following sources were selected 24 Na, 46 Sc, 60 Co, 66 Ga, 75 Se, 88 Y, Nb 94 , 111 In, 123m Te, 133 Ba, 134 Cs, 152 Eu, 154 Eu and 207 Bi. Reaction 11 B (p,γ) 12 C* was also selected as a source of high energy gamma rays. Experimental data on angular correlation coefficients for selected sources were collected from the literature and evaluated according to the recommended procedure. Theoretical angular correlation coefficients were calculated and compared to the evaluated data. (author)

  14. Dynamic size spectrometry of airborne microorganisms: Laboratory evaluation and calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yinge; Willeke, Klaus; Ulevicius, Vidmantas; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Donnelly, Jean

    Bioaerosol samplers need to be calibrated for the microorganisms of interest. The Aerosizer, a relatively new aerodynamic size spectrometer, is shown to be a suitable dynamic instrument for the evaluation and calibration of such samplers in the laboratory, prior to their use in the field. It provides the necessary reference count against which the microbiological response of the sampler can be compared. It measures the health-significant aerodynamic diameters of microorganisms down to 0.5 μm, thus including most of the bacteria, fungi and pollen found in outdoor and indoor air environments. Comparison tests with a laser size spectrometer indicate that the suspension of microorganisms needs to be washed several times before aerosolization to avoid coating of the airborne microorganisms with nutrients and microbial slime from the suspension, and to reduce the residue particles to sizes below the lowest size of the aerosolized microorganisms.

  15. Standard guide to In-Plant performance evaluation of Hand-Held SNM monitors

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This guide is one of a series on the application and evaluation of special nuclear material (SNM) monitors. Other guides in the series are listed in Section 2, and the relationship of in-plant performance evaluation to other procedures described in the series is illustrated in Fig. 1. Hand-held SNM monitors are described in of Guide C1112, and performance criteria illustrating their capabilities can be found in Appendix X1. 1.2 The purpose of this guide to in-plant performance evaluation is to provide a comparatively rapid procedure to verify that a hand-held SNM monitor performs as expected for detecting SNM or alternative test sources or to disclose the need for repair. The procedure can be used as a routine operational evaluation or it can be used to verify performance after a monitor is calibrated. 1.3 In-plant performance evaluations are more comprehensive than daily functional tests. They take place less often, at intervals ranging from weekly to once every three months, and derive their result fr...

  16. Intercomparison and calibration of dose calibrators used in nuclear medicine facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, A M D

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to establish a working standard for intercomparison and calibration of dose calibrators used in most of nuclear medicine facilities for the determination of the activity of radionuclides administered to patients in specific examinations or therapeutic procedures. A commercial dose calibrator, a set of standard radioactive sources, and syringes, vials and ampoules with radionuclide solutions used in nuclear medicine were utilized in this work. The commercial dose calibrator was calibrated for radionuclide solutions used in nuclear medicine. Simple instrument tests, such as linearity response and variation response with the source volume at a constant source activity concentration were performed. This instrument may be used as a reference system for intercomparison and calibration of other activity meters, as a method of quality control of dose calibrators utilized in nuclear medicine facilities.

  17. Calibration And Performance Verification Of LSC Packard 1900TR AFTER REPAIRING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satrio; Evarista-Ristin; Syafalni; Alip

    2003-01-01

    Calibration process and repeated verification of LSC Packard 1900TR at Hydrology Section-P3TlR has been done. In the period of middle 1997 to July 2000, the counting system of the instrument has damaged and repaired for several times. After repairing, the system was recalibrated and then verified. The calibration and verification were conducted by using standard 3 H, 14 C and background unquenched. The result of calibration shows that background count rates of 3 H and 14 C is 12.3 ± 0.79 cpm and 18.24 ± 0.69 cpm respectively; FOM 3 H and 14 C is 285.03 ± 15.95 and 641.06 ± 16.45 respectively; 3 H and 14 C efficiency is 59.13 ± 0.28 % and 95.09 ± 0.31 %. respectively. From the verification data's, the parameter of SIS and tSIE for 14 C is to be in range of limit. And then 3 H and 14 C efficiency is still above minimum limit. Whereas, the background fluctuation still show normal condition. It could be concluded that until now the performance of LSC Packard 1900TR is well condition and could be used for counting. (author)

  18. Dental hygiene faculty calibration in the evaluation of calculus detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Kandis V; Newell, Kathleen J

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the impact of faculty calibration training on intra- and interrater reliability regarding calculus detection. After IRB approval, twelve dental hygiene faculty members were recruited from a pool of twenty-two for voluntary participation and randomized into two groups. All subjects provided two pre- and two posttest scorings of calculus deposits on each of three typodonts by recording yes or no indicating if they detected calculus. Accuracy and consistency of calculus detection were evaluated using an answer key. The experimental group received three two-hour training sessions to practice a prescribed exploring sequence and technique for calculus detection. Participants immediately corrected their answers, received feedback from the trainer, and reconciled missed areas. Intra- and interrater reliability (pre- and posttest) was determined using Cohen's Kappa and compared between groups using repeated measures (split-plot) ANOVA. The groups did not differ from pre- to posttraining (intrarater reliability p=0.64; interrater reliability p=0.20). Training had no effect on reliability levels for simulated calculus detection in this study. Recommendations for future studies of faculty calibration when evaluating students include using patients for assessing rater reliability, employing larger samples at multiple sites, and assessing the impact on students' attitudes and learning outcomes.

  19. Evaluation of VIIRS and MODIS Thermal Emissive Band Calibration Stability Using Ground Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriharsha Madhavan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The S-NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS instrument, a polar orbiting Earth remote sensing instrument built using a strong MODIS background, employs a similarly designed on-board calibrating source—a V-grooved blackbody for the Thermal Emissive Bands (TEB. The central wavelengths of most VIIRS TEBs are very close to those of MODIS with the exception of the 10.7 µm channel. To ensure the long term continuity of climate data records derived using VIIRS and MODIS TEB, it is necessary to assess any systematic differences between the two instruments, including scenes with temperatures significantly lower than blackbody operating temperatures at approximately 290 K. Previous work performed by the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST at NASA/GSFC used the frequent observations of the Dome Concordia site located in Antarctica to evaluate the calibration stability and consistency of Terra and Aqua MODIS over the mission lifetime. The near-surface temperature measurements from an automatic weather station (AWS provide a direct reference useful for tracking the stability and determining the relative bias between the two MODIS instruments. In this study, the same technique is applied to the VIIRS TEB and the results are compared with those from the matched MODIS TEB. The results of this study show a small negative bias when comparing the matching VIIRS and Aqua MODIS TEB, implying a higher brightness temperature for S-VIIRS at the cold end. Statistically no significant drift is observed for VIIRS TEB performance over the first 3.5 years of the mission.

  20. Calibration and Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter During the LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Cerda Alberich, Leonor; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic sampling calorimeter of ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). TileCal uses iron absorbers and scintillators as active material and it covers the central region |η| < 1.7. Jointly with the other calorimeters it is designed for measurements of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. It also assists in muon identification. TileCal is regularly monitored and calibrated by several different calibration systems: a Cs radioactive source that illuminates the scintillating tiles directly, a laser light system to directly test the PMT response, and a charge injection system (CIS) for the front-end electronics. These calibrations systems, in conjunction with data collected during proton-proton collisions, provide extensive monitoring of the instrument and a means for equalizing the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal propagation. The performance of the calorimeter has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sa...

  1. Assessment of applicability of portable HPGe detector with in situ object counting system based on performance evaluation of thyroid radiobioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Min Seok; Kwon, Tae Eun; Pak, Min Jung; Park, Se Young; Ha, Wi Ho; Jin, Young Woo [National Radiation Emergency Medical Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Different cases exist in the measurement of thyroid radiobioassays owing to the individual characteristics of the subjects, especially the potential variation in the counting efficiency. An In situ Object Counting System (ISOCS) was developed to perform an efficiency calibration based on the Monte Carlo calculation, as an alternative to conventional calibration methods. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the applicability of ISOCS to thyroid radiobioassays by comparison with a conventional thyroid monitoring system. The efficiency calibration of a portable high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector was performed using ISOCS software. In contrast, the conventional efficiency calibration, which needed a radioactive material, was applied to a scintillator-based thyroid monitor. Four radioiodine samples that contained 125I and 131I in both aqueous solution and gel forms were measured to evaluate radioactivity in the thyroid. ANSI/HPS N13.30 performance criteria, which included the relative bias, relative precision, and root-mean-squared error, were applied to evaluate the performance of the measurement system. The portable HPGe detector could measure both radioiodines with ISOCS but the thyroid monitor could not measure 125I because of the limited energy resolution of the NaI(Tl) scintillator. The 131I results from both detectors agreed to within 5% with the certified results. Moreover, the 125I results from the portable HPGe detector agreed to within 10% with the certified results. All measurement results complied with the ANSI/HPS N13.30 performance criteria. The results of the intercomparison program indicated the feasibility of applying ISOCS software to direct thyroid radiobioassays. The portable HPGe detector with ISOCS software can provide the convenience of efficiency calibration and higher energy resolution for identifying photopeaks, compared with a conventional thyroid monitor with a NaI(Tl) scintillator. The application of ISOCS software in a radiation

  2. Performance evaluation of the food and environmental monitoring radio-analytical laboratory in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agyeman, Lilian Ataa

    2016-06-01

    Since the establishment of the Radiation Protection Institute’s Food and Environmental Laboratory in 1988, there has never been any thorough evaluation of the activities of the facility to provide assurance of the quality of analytical results produced by the laboratory. The objective of this study, therefore, was to assess the performance level of the Food and Environmental monitoring laboratory with respect to the requirements for a standard analytical laboratory (IAEA, 1989) and ISO 17025. The study focused on the performance of the Gamma Spectrometry laboratory of the Radiation Protection Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission which has been involved in monitoring of radionuclides in food and environmental samples. In doing that, data from 1988 to 2015 was reviewed to ascertain whether the Laboratory has being performing as required in providing quality results on food and environmental samples measured. Besides this data (records kept), the evaluation also covered some Technical Quality Control measures, such as Energy and Efficiency Calibration, that need to be put in place for such laboratories. The laboratory meets almost all conditions and equipment requirements of IAEA (1989), however the laboratory falls short of the management requirements of ISO 17025. Based on the results it was recommended, among others, that management of the laboratory should ensure there are procedures for how calibration and testing is performed for different types of equipment and also the competence of all who operate specific equipment, perform tests, evaluate results and sign test reports ensured. (au)

  3. Skew redundant MEMS IMU calibration using a Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafari, M; Sahebjameyan, M; Moshiri, B; Najafabadi, T A

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel calibration procedure for skew redundant inertial measurement units (SRIMUs) based on micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) is proposed. A general model of the SRIMU measurements is derived which contains the effects of bias, scale factor error and misalignments. For more accuracy, the effect of lever arms of the accelerometers to the center of the table are modeled and compensated in the calibration procedure. Two separate Kalman filters (KFs) are proposed to perform the estimation of error parameters for gyroscopes and accelerometers. The predictive error minimization (PEM) stochastic modeling method is used to simultaneously model the effect of bias instability and random walk noise on the calibration Kalman filters to diminish the biased estimations. The proposed procedure is simulated numerically and has expected experimental results. The calibration maneuvers are applied using a two-axis angle turntable in a way that the persistency of excitation (PE) condition for parameter estimation is met. For this purpose, a trapezoidal calibration profile is utilized to excite different deterministic error parameters of the accelerometers and a pulse profile is used for the gyroscopes. Furthermore, to evaluate the performance of the proposed KF calibration method, a conventional least squares (LS) calibration procedure is derived for the SRIMUs and the simulation and experimental results compare the functionality of the two proposed methods with each other. (paper)

  4. Effects of line fiducial parameters and beamforming on ultrasound calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Golafsoun; Baxter, John S H; McLeod, A Jonathan; Peters, Terry M; Chen, Elvis C S

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound (US)-guided interventions are often enhanced via integration with an augmented reality environment, a necessary component of which is US calibration. Calibration requires the segmentation of fiducials, i.e., a phantom, in US images. Fiducial localization error (FLE) can decrease US calibration accuracy, which fundamentally affects the total accuracy of the interventional guidance system. Here, we investigate the effects of US image reconstruction techniques as well as phantom material and geometry on US calibration. It was shown that the FLE was reduced by 29% with synthetic transmit aperture imaging compared with conventional B-mode imaging in a Z-bar calibration, resulting in a 10% reduction of calibration error. In addition, an evaluation of a variety of calibration phantoms with different geometrical and material properties was performed. The phantoms included braided wire, plastic straws, and polyvinyl alcohol cryogel tubes with different diameters. It was shown that these properties have a significant effect on calibration error, which is a variable based on US beamforming techniques. These results would have important implications for calibration procedures and their feasibility in the context of image-guided procedures.

  5. Evaluation of measuring results, statement of uncertainty in dosimeter calibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, H.

    1978-05-01

    The method described starts from the requirement that the quantitative statement of a measuring result in dosimetry should contain at least three figures: 1) the measured value or the best estimate of the quantity to be measured, 2) the uncertainty of this value given by a figure, which indicates a certain range around the measured value, and which is strongly linked with 3) a figure for the confidence level of this range, i.e. the probability that the (unknown) correct value is embraced by the given uncertainty range. How the figures 2) and 3) can be obtained and how they should be quoted in calibration certificates is the subject of these lectures. In addition, the means by which the method may be extended on determining the uncertainty of a measurement performed under conditions which deviate from the calibration conditt ions is briefly described. (orig.) [de

  6. Updates on the Performance and Calibration of HST/STIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Sean A.; Monroe, TalaWanda R.; Ogaz, Sara; Branton, Doug; Carlberg, Joleen K.; Debes, John H.; Jedrzejewski, Robert I.; Proffitt, Charles R.; Riley, Allyssa; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Sonnentrucker, Paule; Walborn, Nolan R.; Welty, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has been in orbit for 21 years and continues to produce high quality scientific results using a diverse complement of operating modes. These include spatially resolved spectroscopy in the UV and optical, high spatial resolution echelle spectroscopy in the UV, and solar-blind imaging in the UV. In addition, STIS possesses unique visible-light coronagraphic modes that keep the instrument at the forefront of exoplanet and debris-disk research. As the instrument's characteristics evolve over its lifetime, the instrument team at the Space Telescope Science Institute monitors its performance and works towards improving the quality of its data products. Here we present updates on the status of the STIS CCD and FUV & NUV MAMA detectors, as well as changes to the CalSTIS reduction pipeline. We also discuss progress toward the recalibration of the E140M/1425 echelle mode. The E140M grating blaze function shapes have changed since flux calibration was carried out following SM4, which limits the relative photometric flux accuracy of some spectral orders up to 5-10% at the edges. In Cycle 25 a special calibration program was executed to obtain updated sensitivity curves for the E140M/1425 setting.

  7. Calibration and performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter during the Run 2 of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Solovyanov, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is a hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. It is a non-compensating sampling calorimeter comprised of steel and scintillating plastic tiles which are read-out by photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The TileCal is regularly monitored and calibrated by several different calibration systems: a Cs radioactive source that illuminates the scintillating tiles directly, a laser light system to directly test the PMT response and a charge injection system (CIS) for the front-end electronics. These calibrations systems, in conjunction with data collected during proton-proton collisions, provide extensive monitoring of the instrument and a means for equalising the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal propagation. The performance of the calorimeter and its calibration has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton collisions to study the energy response at the electromagnetic scale, probe of the hadron...

  8. Calibration and Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter During the Run 2 of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Solovyanov, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is a hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. It is a non-compensating sampling calorimeter comprised of steel and scintillating plastic tiles which are read-out by photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The TileCal is regularly monitored and calibrated by several di erent calibration systems: a Cs radioactive source that illuminates the scintillating tiles directly, a laser light system to directly test the PMT response, and a charge injection system (CIS) for the front-end electronics. These calibrations systems, in conjunction with data collected during proton-proton collisions, provide extensive monitoring of the instrument and a means for equalizing the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal propagation. The performance of the calorimeter and its calibration has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton collisions to study the energy response at the electromagnetic scale, probe of the hadroni...

  9. Development and performance of a calibration system for a large calorimeter array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenton, M.; Dawson, J.; Ditzler, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    Experiment 609 at Fermilab is a study of the properties of high-p/sub t/ collisions using a large segmented hadron calorimeter. The calibration and monitoring of such a large calorimeter array is a difficult undertaking. This paper describes the systems developed by E609 for automatic monitoring of the phototube gains and performance of the associated electronics

  10. Mercury Continuous Emmission Monitor Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster; Joseph Rovani

    2009-03-12

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMs) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks throughput the U.S. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor calibrators/generators. These devices are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 and vacated by a Federal appeals court in early 2008 required that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Despite the vacature, mercury emissions regulations in the future will require NIST traceable calibration standards, and EPA does not want to interrupt the effort towards developing NIST traceability protocols. The traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued a conceptual interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The EPA traceability protocol document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of calibrator models by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the calibrators that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma

  11. Non-Uniformity Correction Using Nonlinear Characteristic Performance Curves for Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, McKenna Roberts

    Infrared imaging is an expansive field with many applications. Advances in infrared technology have lead to a greater demand from both commercial and military sectors. However, a known problem with infrared imaging is its non-uniformity. This non-uniformity stems from the fact that each pixel in an infrared focal plane array has its own photoresponse. Many factors such as exposure time, temperature, and amplifier choice affect how the pixels respond to incoming illumination and thus impact image uniformity. To improve performance non-uniformity correction (NUC) techniques are applied. Standard calibration based techniques commonly use a linear model to approximate the nonlinear response. This often leaves unacceptable levels of residual non-uniformity. Calibration techniques often have to be repeated during use to continually correct the image. In this dissertation alternates to linear NUC algorithms are investigated. The goal of this dissertation is to determine and compare nonlinear non-uniformity correction algorithms. Ideally the results will provide better NUC performance resulting in less residual non-uniformity as well as reduce the need for recalibration. This dissertation will consider new approaches to nonlinear NUC such as higher order polynomials and exponentials. More specifically, a new gain equalization algorithm has been developed. The various nonlinear non-uniformity correction algorithms will be compared with common linear non-uniformity correction algorithms. Performance will be compared based on RMS errors, residual non-uniformity, and the impact quantization has on correction. Performance will be improved by identifying and replacing bad pixels prior to correction. Two bad pixel identification and replacement techniques will be investigated and compared. Performance will be presented in the form of simulation results as well as before and after images taken with short wave infrared cameras. The initial results show, using a third order

  12. Development of portable flow calibrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Kiyomitsu; Iijima, Nobuo

    1995-01-01

    In the nuclear facilities, air sniffer system is often utilized to evaluate atmospheric concentration of radioactivity in the working environment. The system collects airborne dust on the filter during some sampling period. In this method, total air flow during the sampling period is an important parameter to evaluate the radioactivity concentration correctly. Therefore, calibration for the flow meter of air sniffer system must be done periodically according to Japan Industry Standards (JIS). As we have had to available device to calibrate the flow meter in the working area, we had to remove the flow meters from the installed place and carry them to another place where calibration can be made. This work required a great deal of labor. Now we have developed a portable flow calibrator for air sniffer system which enables us to make in-site calibration of the flow meter in the working area more easily. This report describes the outline of portable flow calibrator and it's experimental results. (author)

  13. Impact of automatic calibration techniques on HMD life cycle costs and sustainable performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Richard P.; Herz, Norman E., Jr.

    2000-06-01

    Automatic test and calibration has become a valuable feature in many consumer products--ranging from antilock braking systems to auto-tune TVs. This paper discusses HMDs (Helmet Mounted Displays) and how similar techniques can reduce life cycle costs and increase sustainable performance if they are integrated into a program early enough. Optical ATE (Automatic Test Equipment) is already zeroing distortion in the HMDs and thereby making binocular displays a practical reality. A suitcase sized, field portable optical ATE unit could re-zero these errors in the Ready Room to cancel the effects of aging, minor damage and component replacement. Planning on this would yield large savings through relaxed component specifications and reduced logistic costs. Yet, the sustained performance would far exceed that attained with fixed calibration strategies. Major tactical benefits can come from reducing display errors, particularly in information fusion modules and virtual `beyond visual range' operations. Some versions of the ATE described are in production and examples of high resolution optical test data will be discussed.

  14. The New Sun-Sky-Lunar Cimel CE318-T Multiband Photometer - A Comprehensive Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Africa; Cuevas, Emilio; Granados-Munoz, Maria-Jose; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Romero, Pedro M.; Grobner, Julian; Kouremeti, Natalia; Almansa, Antonio F.; Stone, Tom; Toledano, Carlos; hide

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the new photometer CE318-T, able to perform daytime and night-time photometric measurements using the sun and the moon as light source. Therefore,this new device permits a complete cycle of diurnal aerosol and water vapour measurements valuable to enhance atmospheric monitoring to be extracted. In this study wehave found significantly higher precision of triplets when comparing the CE318-T master instrument and the Cimel AErosol RObotic NET work (AERONET) master (CE318-AERONET) triplets as a result of the new CE318-T tracking system. Regarding the instrument calibration, two new methodologies to transfer the calibration from a reference instrument using only daytime measurements (Sun Ratio and Sun-Moon gain factor techniques) are presented and discussed. These methods allow the reduction of the previous complexities inherent to nocturnal calibration. A quantitative estimation of CE318-T AOD uncertainty by means of error propagation theory during daytime revealed AOD uncertainties (u(sup D)(sub AOD)) for Langley-calibrated instruments similar to the expected values for other reference instruments (0.002-0.009). We have also found u(sup D)(sub AOD) values similar to the values reported in sun photometry for field instruments (approximately 0.015). In the case of the night-time period, the CE318-T-estimated standard combined uncertainty (u(sup N)(sub AOD)) is dependent not only on the calibration technique but also on illumination conditions and the instrumental noise. These values range from 0.011-0.018 for Lunar Langley-calibrated instruments to 0.012-0.021 for instruments calibrated using the Sun Ratio technique. In the case of moon-calibrated instruments using the Sun-Moon gain factor method and sun calibrated using the Langley technique, we found u(sup N)(sub AOD) ranging from 0.016 to 0.017 (up to 0.019 in 440 nm channel), not dependent on any lunar irradiance model. A subsequent performance evaluation including CE318-T and collocated

  15. The GERDA calibration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudis, Laura; Froborg, Francis; Tarka, Michael; Bruch, Tobias; Ferella, Alfredo [Physik-Institut, Universitaet Zuerich (Switzerland); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    A system with three identical custom made units is used for the energy calibration of the GERDA Ge diodes. To perform a calibration the {sup 228}Th sources are lowered from the parking positions at the top of the cryostat. Their positions are measured by two independent modules. One, the incremental encoder, counts the holes in the perforated steel band holding the sources, the other measures the drive shaft's angular position even if not powered. The system can be controlled remotely by a Labview program. The calibration data is analyzed by an iterative calibration algorithm determining the calibration functions for different energy reconstruction algorithms and the resolution of several peaks in the {sup 228}Th spectrum is determined. A Monte Carlo simulation using the GERDA simulation software MAGE has been performed to determine the background induced by the sources in the parking positions.

  16. On Lack of Robustness in Hydrological Model Development Due to Absence of Guidelines for Selecting Calibration and Evaluation Data: Demonstration for Data-Driven Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Feifei; Maier, Holger R.; Wu, Wenyan; Dandy, Graeme C.; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Zhang, Tuqiao

    2018-02-01

    Hydrological models are used for a wide variety of engineering purposes, including streamflow forecasting and flood-risk estimation. To develop such models, it is common to allocate the available data to calibration and evaluation data subsets. Surprisingly, the issue of how this allocation can affect model evaluation performance has been largely ignored in the research literature. This paper discusses the evaluation performance bias that can arise from how available data are allocated to calibration and evaluation subsets. As a first step to assessing this issue in a statistically rigorous fashion, we present a comprehensive investigation of the influence of data allocation on the development of data-driven artificial neural network (ANN) models of streamflow. Four well-known formal data splitting methods are applied to 754 catchments from Australia and the U.S. to develop 902,483 ANN models. Results clearly show that the choice of the method used for data allocation has a significant impact on model performance, particularly for runoff data that are more highly skewed, highlighting the importance of considering the impact of data splitting when developing hydrological models. The statistical behavior of the data splitting methods investigated is discussed and guidance is offered on the selection of the most appropriate data splitting methods to achieve representative evaluation performance for streamflow data with different statistical properties. Although our results are obtained for data-driven models, they highlight the fact that this issue is likely to have a significant impact on all types of hydrological models, especially conceptual rainfall-runoff models.

  17. Calibration of TLD cards to beta ray spectra of 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Shachar, B.; German, U.; Naim, E.

    1994-01-01

    The results of the evaluation of TLD chips are received in nC, and we need to transform these values to mGy, in order to obtain the penetrating and the non-penetrating dose. The calibration factors were determined experimentally by irradiation the TLD chips with an uranium source. Beta rays having other spectra can cause incorrect values when estimating the non-penetrating dose. If the spectrum of the beta source is known, a specific evaluation of the calibration factor can be performed. In this report, the estimation of the calibration factor for a 32 P source is presented. LiF:Ti,Mg TLD cards were irradiated calibrated source of 90 Sr/ 90 Y and 204 Tl and non-calibrated source of 32 P, in order to find the beta correction factor for the spectrum of 32 P. Calculations of the beta correction factor were performed too, by applying the Loevinger equations to the geometry of the TLD chips used in our routine measurements. The calculated values of the beta correction factors are lower than the experimental ones. When comparing the ratios, between the beta factors of 32 P and 90 Sr/ 90 Y received from the experiments and from the calculation, we found them to be constant up to ±5%. (authors) 15 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  18. Laboratory Performance of Five Selected Soil Moisture Sensors Applying Factory and Own Calibration Equations for Two Soil Media of Different Bulk Density and Salinity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matula, Svatopluk; Báťková, Kamila; Legese, Wossenu Lemma

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive soil water content determination is a fundamental component for many agricultural and environmental applications. The accuracy and costs of the sensors define the measurement scheme and the ability to fit the natural heterogeneous conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate five commercially available and relatively cheap sensors usually grouped with impedance and FDR sensors. ThetaProbe ML2x (impedance) and ECH2O EC-10, ECH2O EC-20, ECH2O EC-5, and ECH2O TE (all FDR) were tested on silica sand and loess of defined characteristics under controlled laboratory conditions. The calibrations were carried out in nine consecutive soil water contents from dry to saturated conditions (pure water and saline water). The gravimetric method was used as a reference method for the statistical evaluation (ANOVA with significance level 0.05). Generally, the results showed that our own calibrations led to more accurate soil moisture estimates. Variance component analysis arranged the factors contributing to the total variation as follows: calibration (contributed 42%), sensor type (contributed 29%), material (contributed 18%), and dry bulk density (contributed 11%). All the tested sensors performed very well within the whole range of water content, especially the sensors ECH2O EC-5 and ECH2O TE, which also performed surprisingly well in saline conditions. PMID:27854263

  19. Development and evaluation of a method of calibrating medical displays based on fixed adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sund, Patrik, E-mail: patrik.sund@vgregion.se; Månsson, Lars Gunnar; Båth, Magnus [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg SE-41345, Sweden and Department of Radiation Physics, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg SE-41345 (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate a new method for calibration of medical displays that includes the effect of fixed adaptation and by using equipment and luminance levels typical for a modern radiology department. Methods: Low contrast sinusoidal test patterns were derived at nine luminance levels from 2 to 600 cd/m{sup 2} and used in a two alternative forced choice observer study, where the adaptation level was fixed at the logarithmic average of 35 cd/m{sup 2}. The contrast sensitivity at each luminance level was derived by establishing a linear relationship between the ten pattern contrast levels used at every luminance level and a detectability index (d′) calculated from the fraction of correct responses. A Gaussian function was fitted to the data and normalized to the adaptation level. The corresponding equation was used in a display calibration method that included the grayscale standard display function (GSDF) but compensated for fixed adaptation. In the evaluation study, the contrast of circular objects with a fixed pixel contrast was displayed using both calibration methods and was rated on a five-grade scale. Results were calculated using a visual grading characteristics method. Error estimations in both observer studies were derived using a bootstrap method. Results: The contrast sensitivities for the darkest and brightest patterns compared to the contrast sensitivity at the adaptation luminance were 37% and 56%, respectively. The obtained Gaussian fit corresponded well with similar studies. The evaluation study showed a higher degree of equally distributed contrast throughout the luminance range with the calibration method compensated for fixed adaptation than for the GSDF. The two lowest scores for the GSDF were obtained for the darkest and brightest patterns. These scores were significantly lower than the lowest score obtained for the compensated GSDF. For the GSDF, the scores for all luminance levels were statistically

  20. The effects of model complexity and calibration period on groundwater recharge simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeck, Christian; Van Freyberg, Jana; Schirmer, Mario

    2017-04-01

    A significant number of groundwater recharge models exist that vary in terms of complexity (i.e., structure and parametrization). Typically, model selection and conceptualization is very subjective and can be a key source of uncertainty in the recharge simulations. Another source of uncertainty is the implicit assumption that model parameters, calibrated over historical periods, are also valid for the simulation period. To the best of our knowledge there is no systematic evaluation of the effect of the model complexity and calibration strategy on the performance of recharge models. To address this gap, we utilized a long-term recharge data set (20 years) from a large weighting lysimeter. We performed a differential split sample test with four groundwater recharge models that vary in terms of complexity. They were calibrated using six calibration periods with climatically contrasting conditions in a constrained Monte Carlo approach. Despite the climatically contrasting conditions, all models performed similarly well during the calibration. However, during validation a clear effect of the model structure on model performance was evident. The more complex, physically-based models predicted recharge best, even when calibration and prediction periods had very different climatic conditions. In contrast, more simplistic soil-water balance and lumped model performed poorly under such conditions. For these models we found a strong dependency on the chosen calibration period. In particular, our analysis showed that this can have relevant implications when using recharge models as decision-making tools in a broad range of applications (e.g. water availability, climate change impact studies, water resource management, etc.).

  1. Site Calibration report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes site calibration measurements carried out on a site in Denmark. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. The site calibration is carried out before a power performance measurement on a given turbine to clarify the influence from the terrain on the ratio...

  2. Performance and calibration of the CHORUS scintillating fiber tracker and opto-electronics readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annis, P.; Aoki, S.; Brunner, J.; De Jong, M.; Fabre, J.P.; Ferreira, R.; Flegel, W.; Frekers, D.; Gregoire, G.; Herin, J.; Kobayashi, M.; Konijn, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Macina, D.; Meijer Drees, R.; Meinhard, H.; Michel, L.; Mommaert, C.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Niwa, K.; Niu, E.; Panman, J.; Riccardi, F.; Rondeshagen, D.; Sato, O.; Stefanini, G.; Vander Donckt, M.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Winter, K.; Wong, H.T.

    1995-01-01

    An essential component of the CERN WA95/CHORUS experiment is a scintillating fiber tracker system for precise track reconstruction of particles. The tracker design, its opto-electronics readout and calibration system are discussed. Performances of the detector are presented. (orig.)

  3. Accuracy of subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring in critically ill adults: improved sensor performance with enhanced calibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelarathna, Lalantha; English, Shane W; Thabit, Hood; Caldwell, Karen; Allen, Janet M; Kumareswaran, Kavita; Wilinska, Malgorzata E; Nodale, Marianna; Haidar, Ahmad; Evans, Mark L; Burnstein, Rowan; Hovorka, Roman

    2014-02-01

    Accurate real-time continuous glucose measurements may improve glucose control in the critical care unit. We evaluated the accuracy of the FreeStyle(®) Navigator(®) (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) device in critically ill adults using two methods of calibration. In a randomized trial, paired CGM and reference glucose (hourly arterial blood glucose [ABG]) were collected over a 48-h period from 24 adults with critical illness (mean±SD age, 60±14 years; mean±SD body mass index, 29.6±9.3 kg/m(2); mean±SD Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation score, 12±4 [range, 6-19]) and hyperglycemia. In 12 subjects, the CGM device was calibrated at variable intervals of 1-6 h using ABG. In the other 12 subjects, the sensor was calibrated according to the manufacturer's instructions (1, 2, 10, and 24 h) using arterial blood and the built-in point-of-care glucometer. In total, 1,060 CGM-ABG pairs were analyzed over the glucose range from 4.3 to 18.8 mmol/L. Using enhanced calibration median (interquartile range) every 169 (122-213) min, the absolute relative deviation was lower (7.0% [3.5, 13.0] vs. 12.8% [6.3, 21.8], P<0.001), and the percentage of points in the Clarke error grid Zone A was higher (87.8% vs. 70.2%). Accuracy of the Navigator CGM device during critical illness was comparable to that observed in non-critical care settings. Further significant improvements in accuracy may be obtained by frequent calibrations with ABG measurements.

  4. Calibration of dosemeters and survey instruments for photon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamares, A.L.; Caseria, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), the country's regulatory agency, through its Radiation Protection Unit of the Nuclear Regulations Licensing and Safeguard Division provides the calibration services of nuclear instruments used by various institutions. The periodic calibration and standardization of radiation and protection survey instruments are done to insure correct and valid radiation readings. It is also a regulatory requirement for radiation workers to use only operable and precalibrated survey instruments for their work with radioactive materials. The PNRI maintains and operates the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL). It provides the periodic calibration and standardization of radiation monitoring and protection survey instruments, and also the radiological hazard and performance evaluation surveys of radiotherapy facilities and others. For the calibration of survey instruments, the standard sources of Cs-137 and Co-60 are used. The calibration procedures for survey meters and pocket dosimeters are explained. The clients served are shown. The personnel dosimetry using film badges, the application of ICRU operational quantities, and the problems encountered and recommendations are reported. (K.I.)

  5. Comparative evaluations of surface contamination detectors calibration with radioactive sources - used in the Goiania accident, and standard sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, P.H.B.; Marecha, M.H.H.

    1997-01-01

    The construction of Cs-137 standard flat sources for calibration of surface contamination detectors, used in the Goiania accident in 1987, is described and the procedures adopted are reported. At that time, standard sources were not available. Nowadays the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria has standard sources acquired from Amersham which are used as calibration standards for surface contamination detectors. Comparative evaluations between the standard flat sources constructed for the accident and the calibrated ones are presented

  6. Development of composite calibration standard for quantitative NDE by ultrasound and thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Vinay; Benedict, Zach G.; Bhatnagar, Nishtha; Harper, Adam G.

    2018-04-01

    Inspection of aircraft components for damage utilizing ultrasonic Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) is a time intensive endeavor. Additional time spent during aircraft inspections translates to added cost to the company performing them, and as such, reducing this expenditure is of great importance. There is also great variance in the calibration samples from one entity to another due to a lack of a common calibration set. By characterizing damage types, we can condense the required calibration sets and reduce the time required to perform calibration while also providing procedures for the fabrication of these standard sets. We present here our effort to fabricate composite samples with known defects and quantify the size and location of defects, such as delaminations, and impact damage. Ultrasonic and Thermographic images are digitally enhanced to accurately measure the damage size. Ultrasonic NDE is compared with thermography.

  7. High Gain Antenna Calibration on Three Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmall, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the alignment calibration of spacecraft High Gain Antennas (HGAs) for three missions. For two of the missions (the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Solar Dynamics Observatory) the calibration was performed on orbit. For the third mission (the Global Precipitation Measurement core satellite) ground simulation of the calibration was performed in a calibration feasibility study. These three satellites provide a range of calibration situations-Lunar orbit transmitting to a ground antenna for LRO, geosynchronous orbit transmitting to a ground antenna fer SDO, and low Earth orbit transmitting to TDRS satellites for GPM The calibration results depend strongly on the quality and quantity of calibration data. With insufficient data the calibration Junction may give erroneous solutions. Manual intervention in the calibration allowed reliable parameters to be generated for all three missions.

  8. A Preliminary Design of a Calibration Chamber for Evaluating the Stability of Unsaturated Soil Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H.-H.

    2012-04-01

    The unsaturated soil slopes, which have ground water tables and are easily failure caused by heavy rainfalls, are widely distributed in the arid and semi-arid areas. For analyzing the stability of slope, in situ tests are the direct methods to obtain the test site characteristics. The cone penetration test (CPT) is a popular in situ test method. Some of the CPT empirical equations established from calibration chamber tests. The CPT performed in calibration chamber was commonly used clean quartz sand as testing material in the past. The silty sand is observed in many actual slopes. Because silty sand is relatively compressible than quartz sand, it is not suitable to apply the correlations between soil properties and CPT results built from quartz sand to silty sand. The experience on CPT calibration in silty sand has been limited. CPT calibration tests were mostly performed in dry or saturated soils. The condition around cone tip during penetration is assumed to be fully drained or fully undrained, yet it was observed to be partially drained for unsaturated soils. Because of the suction matrix has a great effect on the characteristics of unsaturated soils, they are much sensitive to the water content than saturated soils. The design of an unsaturated calibration chamber is in progress. The air pressure is supplied from the top plate and the pore water pressure is provided through the high air entry value ceramic disks located at the bottom plate of chamber cell. To boost and uniform distribute the unsaturated effect, four perforated burettes are installed onto the ceramic disks and stretch upwards to the midheight of specimen. This paper describes design concepts, illustrates this unsaturated calibration chamber, and presents the preliminary test results.

  9. parameters affecting the calibration uniformity and traceability of gamma measuring devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, S.K.; Henaish, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    One of the problems which usually defeats the dosimetric evaluations performed by the health and safety experts is the absence of the reproducibility and accuracy of the used measuring devices systems. Furthermore, the traceability of the dose evaluation done by the users themselves are not achieved. Also the uniformity and homogeneity between the various users dosimeters and that available at specified central organization are not maintained. The present manuscript is scoping to deal with such various problems such as: a) dosimeter accuracy, b) traceability of the various users dosimeters and measuring devices. This paper also suggests a programme for the minimum facilities which are required for operating a central calibration laboratory. the responsibility of that central calibration lab., beside the linking chain between the different users and that calibration lab. are stated and discussed in detail. Furthermore, the authors experiences gained in operating the secondary standards calibration laboratory are also reviewed. 2 fig

  10. New approach for calibration the efficiency of HPGe detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alnour, I.A.; Wagiran, H.; Suhaimi Hamzah; Siong, W.B.; Mohd Suhaimi Elias

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: This work evaluates the efficiency calibrating of HPGe detector coupled with Canberra GC3018 with Genie 2000 software and Ortec GEM25-76-XLB-C with Gamma Vision software; available at Neutron activation analysis laboratory in Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NM). The efficiency calibration curve was constructed from measurement of an IAEA, standard gamma point sources set composed by 214 Am, 57 Co, 133 Ba, 152 Eu, 137 Cs and 60 Co. The efficiency calibrations were performed for three different geometries: 5, 10 and 15 cm distances from the end cap detector. The polynomial parameters functions were simulated through a computer program, MATLAB in order to find an accurate fit to the experimental data points. The efficiency equation was established from the known fitted parameters which allow for the efficiency evaluation at particular energy of interest. The study shows that significant deviations in the efficiency, depending on the source-detector distance and photon energy. (author)

  11. Results of the PEP`93 intercomparison of reference cell calibrations and newer technology performance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterwald, C.R.; Emery, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Anevsky, S. [All-Union Research Inst. for Optophysical Measurements, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an international intercomparison of photovoltaic (PV) performance measurements and calibrations. The intercomparison, which was organized and operated by a group of experts representing national laboratories from across the globe (i.e., the authors of this paper), was accomplished by circulating two sample sets. One set consisted of twenty silicon reference cells that would, hopefully, form the basis of an international PV reference scale. A qualification procedure applied to the calibration results gave average calibration numbers with an overall standard deviation of less than 2% for the entire set. The second set was assembled from a wide range of newer technologies that present unique problems for PV measurements. As might be expected, these results showed much larger differences among laboratories. Methods were then identified that should be used to measure such devices, along with problems to avoid.

  12. In-Flight Calibration Processes for the MMS Fluxgate Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromund, K. R.; Leinweber, H. K.; Plaschke, F.; Strangeway, R. J.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Nakamura, R.; Anderson, B. J.; Russell, C. T.; Baumjohann, W.; Chutter, M.; Torbert, R. B.; Le, G.; Slavin, J. A.; Kepko, L.

    2015-12-01

    The calibration effort for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) Analog Fluxgate (AFG) and Digital Fluxgate (DFG) magnetometers is a coordinated effort between three primary institutions: University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA); Space Research Institute, Graz, Austria (IWF); and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Since the successful deployment of all 8 magnetometers on 17 March 2015, the effort to confirm and update the ground calibrations has been underway during the MMS commissioning phase. The in-flight calibration processes evaluate twelve parameters that determine the alignment, orthogonalization, offsets, and gains for all 8 magnetometers using algorithms originally developed by UCLA and the Technical University of Braunschweig and tailored to MMS by IWF, UCLA, and GSFC. We focus on the processes run at GSFC to determine the eight parameters associated with spin tones and harmonics. We will also discuss the processing flow and interchange of parameters between GSFC, IWF, and UCLA. IWF determines the low range spin axis offsets using the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI). UCLA determines the absolute gains and sensor azimuth orientation using Earth field comparisons. We evaluate the performance achieved for MMS and give examples of the quality of the resulting calibrations.

  13. In-flight calibration of satellite ion composition data using artificial intelligence methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldemark, J.

    1995-11-01

    The scope of this report is to evaluate some of the cognitive analyzing techniques that are available and that might be useful for calibration, validation and data analysis of a satellite measurement system. As an example, these cognitive techniques are used to perform a post launch calibration of the three-dimensional ion composition, TICS, on the Freja satellite. 17 refs, 28 figs, 6 tabs

  14. Calibrating nacelle lidars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, M.

    2013-01-15

    Nacelle mounted, forward looking wind lidars are beginning to be used to provide reference wind speed measurements for the power performance testing of wind turbines. In such applications, a formal calibration procedure with a corresponding uncertainty assessment will be necessary. This report presents four concepts for performing such a nacelle lidar calibration. Of the four methods, two are found to be immediately relevant and are pursued in some detail. The first of these is a line of sight calibration method in which both lines of sight (for a two beam lidar) are individually calibrated by accurately aligning the beam to pass close to a reference wind speed sensor. A testing procedure is presented, reporting requirements outlined and the uncertainty of the method analysed. It is seen that the main limitation of the line of sight calibration method is the time required to obtain a representative distribution of radial wind speeds. An alternative method is to place the nacelle lidar on the ground and incline the beams upwards to bisect a mast equipped with reference instrumentation at a known height and range. This method will be easier and faster to implement and execute but the beam inclination introduces extra uncertainties. A procedure for conducting such a calibration is presented and initial indications of the uncertainties given. A discussion of the merits and weaknesses of the two methods is given together with some proposals for the next important steps to be taken in this work. (Author)

  15. Absolute calibration of the neutron yield measurement on JT-60 Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishitani, Takeo; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Barnes, C.W.

    1991-10-01

    Absolutely calibrated measurements of the neutron yield are important for the evaluation of the plasma performance such as the fusion gain Q in DD operating tokamaks. Total neutron yield is measured with 235 U and 238 U fission chambers and 3 He proportional counters in JT-60 Upgrade. The in situ calibration was performed by moving the 252 Cf neutron source toroidally through the JT-60 vacuum vessel. Detection efficiencies of three 235 U and two 3 He detectors were measured for 92 locations of the neutron point source in toroidal scans at two different major radii. The total detection efficiency for the torus neutron source was obtained by averaging the point efficiencies over the whole toroidal angle. The uncertainty of the resulting absolute plasma neutron source calibration is estimated to be ± 10%. (author)

  16. Evaluation of the performance of diagnosis monitors in use in Salvador city: pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Igor; Geambastiani, Paulo; Ferreira, Mario; Macedo, Eric; Navarro, Marcus; Navarro, Valeria; Pereira, Lara; Jesus, Evandro de; Leite, Handerson Jorge Dourado

    2016-01-01

    Radiologically, the image quality is the accuracy of the representation of the patient's anatomy. Considering the importance of the performance of the monitors to the overall effectiveness of a practice of diagnostic imaging, the objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of diagnostic monitors in use, using the method described in the report 03 of the AAPA and Spanish protocol, using calibrated instrumentation traceable to NIST and to RBC. The results of the monitors evaluated to date show 100% compliance for geometric distortion tests and internal reflection and 0% compliance to the dependence of luminance test. (author)

  17. On the performance of a calibrated nanoparticle generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backman, Ulrika; Lyyraenen, Jussi; Tapper, Unto; Auvinen, Ari; Jokiniemi, Jorma

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for nanoparticle generators with well characterised properties in many fields. For instance the calibration of measurement instruments can be done in place and the downtime for the instrument hence decreased. Also in nanoparticle toxicity experiments it is very important to have a well characterised particle source. The aim of this study was to develop a calibrated nanoparticle generator with stable particle production. The number concentration should be regulated over many orders of magnitude and the particle size should also be adjustable. In this paper the design of the nanoparticle generator and the properties of the produced nanoparticles at one furnace temperature are presented.

  18. Evaluation of Hydrologic Simulations Developed Using Multi-Model Synthesis and Remotely-Sensed Data within a Portfolio of Calibration Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, J.; Hay, L.; Markstrom, S. L.

    2016-12-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a National Hydrologic Model (NHM) to support coordinated, comprehensive and consistent hydrologic model development, and facilitate the application of hydrologic simulations within the conterminous United States (CONUS). As many stream reaches in the CONUS are either not gaged, or are substantially impacted by water use or flow regulation, ancillary information must be used to determine reasonable parameter estimations for streamflow simulations. Hydrologic models for 1,576 gaged watersheds across the CONUS were developed to test the feasibility of improving streamflow simulations linking physically-based hydrologic models with remotely-sensed data products (i.e. snow water equivalent). Initially, the physically-based models were calibrated to measured streamflow data to provide a baseline for comparison across multiple calibration strategy tests. In addition, not all ancillary datasets are appropriate for application to all parts of the CONUS (e.g. snow water equivalent in the southeastern U.S., where snow is a rarity). As it is not expected that any one data product or model simulation will be sufficient for representing hydrologic behavior across the entire CONUS, a systematic evaluation of which data products improve hydrologic simulations for various regions across the CONUS was performed. The resulting portfolio of calibration strategies can be used to guide selection of an appropriate combination of modeled and measured information for hydrologic model development and calibration. In addition, these calibration strategies have been developed to be flexible so that new data products can be assimilated. This analysis provides a foundation to understand how well models work when sufficient streamflow data are not available and could be used to further inform hydrologic model parameter development for ungaged areas.

  19. Calibration of higher eigenmodes of cantilevers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labuda, Aleksander; Kocun, Marta; Walsh, Tim; Meinhold, Jieh; Proksch, Tania; Meinhold, Waiman; Anderson, Caleb; Proksch, Roger; Lysy, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A method is presented for calibrating the higher eigenmodes (resonant modes) of atomic force microscopy cantilevers that can be performed prior to any tip-sample interaction. The method leverages recent efforts in accurately calibrating the first eigenmode by providing the higher-mode stiffness as a ratio to the first mode stiffness. A one-time calibration routine must be performed for every cantilever type to determine a power-law relationship between stiffness and frequency, which is then stored for future use on similar cantilevers. Then, future calibrations only require a measurement of the ratio of resonant frequencies and the stiffness of the first mode. This method is verified through stiffness measurements using three independent approaches: interferometric measurement, AC approach-curve calibration, and finite element analysis simulation. Power-law values for calibrating higher-mode stiffnesses are reported for several cantilever models. Once the higher-mode stiffnesses are known, the amplitude of each mode can also be calibrated from the thermal spectrum by application of the equipartition theorem.

  20. Calibration of higher eigenmodes of cantilevers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labuda, Aleksander; Kocun, Marta; Walsh, Tim; Meinhold, Jieh; Proksch, Tania; Meinhold, Waiman; Anderson, Caleb; Proksch, Roger [Asylum Research, an Oxford Instruments Company, Santa Barbara, California 93117 (United States); Lysy, Martin [Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2016-07-15

    A method is presented for calibrating the higher eigenmodes (resonant modes) of atomic force microscopy cantilevers that can be performed prior to any tip-sample interaction. The method leverages recent efforts in accurately calibrating the first eigenmode by providing the higher-mode stiffness as a ratio to the first mode stiffness. A one-time calibration routine must be performed for every cantilever type to determine a power-law relationship between stiffness and frequency, which is then stored for future use on similar cantilevers. Then, future calibrations only require a measurement of the ratio of resonant frequencies and the stiffness of the first mode. This method is verified through stiffness measurements using three independent approaches: interferometric measurement, AC approach-curve calibration, and finite element analysis simulation. Power-law values for calibrating higher-mode stiffnesses are reported for several cantilever models. Once the higher-mode stiffnesses are known, the amplitude of each mode can also be calibrated from the thermal spectrum by application of the equipartition theorem.

  1. Online examiner calibration across specialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Nancy; Wong, Wai Yee; Turner, Jane; Allan, Chris

    2017-09-26

    Integrating undergraduate medical curricula horizontally across clinical medical specialties may be a more patient-centred and learner-centred approach than rotating students through specialty-specific teaching and assessment, but requires some interspecialty calibration of examiner judgements. Our aim was to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of an online pilot of interdisciplinary examiner calibration. Fair clinical assessment is important to both medical students and clinical teachers METHODS: Clinical teachers were invited to rate video-recorded student objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) performances and join subsequent online discussions using the university's learning management system. Post-project survey free-text and Likert-scale participant responses were analysed to evaluate the acceptability of the pilot and to identify recommendations for improvement. Although 68 clinicians were recruited to participate, and there were 1599 hits on recordings and discussion threads, only 25 clinical teachers rated at least one student performance, and 18 posted at least one comment. Participants, including rural doctors, appeared to value the opportunity for interdisciplinary rating calibration and discussion. Although the asynchronous online format had advantages, especially for rural doctors, participants reported considerable IT challenges. Our findings suggest that fair clinical assessment is important to both medical students and clinical teachers. Interspecialty discussions about assessment may have the potential to enrich intraspecialty perspectives, enhance interspecialty engagement and collaboration, and improve the quality of clinical teacher assessment. Better alignment of university and hospital systems, a face to face component and other modifications may have enhanced clinician engagement with this project. Findings suggest that specialty assessment cultures and content expertise may not be barriers to pursuing more integrated

  2. Quality control of radionuclide calibrators used in nuclear medicine services in the Brazilian northeast region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragoso, Maria C.F.; Albuquerque, Antonio M.S.; Oliveira, Mercia L.; Lima, Ricardo A.; Lima, Fabiana F.

    2011-01-01

    The radionuclide calibrators are essential instruments in nuclear medicine services in order to activity determination of radiopharmaceuticals which will be administered to the patients. Inappropriate performance of these equipment could provide underestimation or overestimation of the activity, compromising the success of diagnosis or therapeutic procedures. To ensure the satisfactory performance of the radionuclide calibrators, quality control tests are recommended by national and international guides. The aim of this work was evaluate the establishment of the quality control program in the radionuclide calibrators at medicine nuclear services in the Brazilian northeast region, highlighting the tests and their frequencies. (author)

  3. Review and evaluation of performance measures for survival prediction models in external validation settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shafiqur Rahman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When developing a prediction model for survival data it is essential to validate its performance in external validation settings using appropriate performance measures. Although a number of such measures have been proposed, there is only limited guidance regarding their use in the context of model validation. This paper reviewed and evaluated a wide range of performance measures to provide some guidelines for their use in practice. Methods An extensive simulation study based on two clinical datasets was conducted to investigate the performance of the measures in external validation settings. Measures were selected from categories that assess the overall performance, discrimination and calibration of a survival prediction model. Some of these have been modified to allow their use with validation data, and a case study is provided to describe how these measures can be estimated in practice. The measures were evaluated with respect to their robustness to censoring and ease of interpretation. All measures are implemented, or are straightforward to implement, in statistical software. Results Most of the performance measures were reasonably robust to moderate levels of censoring. One exception was Harrell’s concordance measure which tended to increase as censoring increased. Conclusions We recommend that Uno’s concordance measure is used to quantify concordance when there are moderate levels of censoring. Alternatively, Gönen and Heller’s measure could be considered, especially if censoring is very high, but we suggest that the prediction model is re-calibrated first. We also recommend that Royston’s D is routinely reported to assess discrimination since it has an appealing interpretation. The calibration slope is useful for both internal and external validation settings and recommended to report routinely. Our recommendation would be to use any of the predictive accuracy measures and provide the corresponding predictive

  4. SPRT Calibration Uncertainties and Internal Quality Control at a Commercial SPRT Calibration Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiandt, T. J.

    2008-06-01

    The Hart Scientific Division of the Fluke Corporation operates two accredited standard platinum resistance thermometer (SPRT) calibration facilities, one at the Hart Scientific factory in Utah, USA, and the other at a service facility in Norwich, UK. The US facility is accredited through National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP), and the UK facility is accredited through UKAS. Both provide SPRT calibrations using similar equipment and procedures, and at similar levels of uncertainty. These uncertainties are among the lowest available commercially. To achieve and maintain low uncertainties, it is required that the calibration procedures be thorough and optimized. However, to minimize customer downtime, it is also important that the instruments be calibrated in a timely manner and returned to the customer. Consequently, subjecting the instrument to repeated calibrations or extensive repeated measurements is not a viable approach. Additionally, these laboratories provide SPRT calibration services involving a wide variety of SPRT designs. These designs behave differently, yet predictably, when subjected to calibration measurements. To this end, an evaluation strategy involving both statistical process control and internal consistency measures is utilized to provide confidence in both the instrument calibration and the calibration process. This article describes the calibration facilities, procedure, uncertainty analysis, and internal quality assurance measures employed in the calibration of SPRTs. Data will be reviewed and generalities will be presented. Finally, challenges and considerations for future improvements will be discussed.

  5. Using automatic calibration method for optimizing the performance of Pedotransfer functions of saturated hydraulic conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Abdelbaki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pedotransfer functions (PTFs are an easy way to predict saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat without measurements. This study aims to auto calibrate 22 PTFs. The PTFs were divided into three groups according to its input requirements and the shuffled complex evolution algorithm was used in calibration. The results showed great modification in the performance of the functions compared to the original published functions. For group 1 PTFs, the geometric mean error ratio (GMER and the geometric standard deviation of error ratio (GSDER values were modified from range (1.27–6.09, (5.2–7.01 to (0.91–1.15, (4.88–5.85 respectively. For group 2 PTFs, the GMER and the GSDER values were modified from (0.3–1.55, (5.9–12.38 to (1.00–1.03, (5.5–5.9 respectively. For group 3 PTFs, the GMER and the GSDER values were modified from (0.11–2.06, (5.55–16.42 to (0.82–1.01, (5.1–6.17 respectively. The result showed that the automatic calibration is an efficient and accurate method to enhance the performance of the PTFs.

  6. Line fiducial material and thickness considerations for ultrasound calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Golafsoun; McLeod, A. J.; Baxter, John S. H.; Chen, Elvis C. S.; Peters, Terry M.

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound calibration is a necessary procedure in many image-guided interventions, relating the position of tools and anatomical structures in the ultrasound image to a common coordinate system. This is a necessary component of augmented reality environments in image-guided interventions as it allows for a 3D visualization where other surgical tools outside the imaging plane can be found. Accuracy of ultrasound calibration fundamentally affects the total accuracy of this interventional guidance system. Many ultrasound calibration procedures have been proposed based on a variety of phantom materials and geometries. These differences lead to differences in representation of the phantom on the ultrasound image which subsequently affect the ability to accurately and automatically segment the phantom. For example, taut wires are commonly used as line fiducials in ultrasound calibration. However, at large depths or oblique angles, the fiducials appear blurred and smeared in ultrasound images making it hard to localize their cross-section with the ultrasound image plane. Intuitively, larger diameter phantoms with lower echogenicity are more accurately segmented in ultrasound images in comparison to highly reflective thin phantoms. In this work, an evaluation of a variety of calibration phantoms with different geometrical and material properties for the phantomless calibration procedure was performed. The phantoms used in this study include braided wire, plastic straws, and polyvinyl alcohol cryogel tubes with different diameters. Conventional B-mode and synthetic aperture images of the phantoms at different positions were obtained. The phantoms were automatically segmented from the ultrasound images using an ellipse fitting algorithm, the centroid of which is subsequently used as a fiducial for calibration. Calibration accuracy was evaluated for these procedures based on the leave-one-out target registration error. It was shown that larger diameter phantoms with lower

  7. Comparison of Performance between Genetic Algorithm and SCE-UA for Calibration of SCS-CN Surface Runoff Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Ji-Hong; Park, Chan-Gi; Engel, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Global optimization methods linked with simulation models are widely used for automated calibration and serve as useful tools for searching for cost-effective alternatives for environmental management. A genetic algorithm (GA) and shuffled complex evolution (SCE-UA) algorithm were linked with the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment (L-THIA) model, which employs the curve number (SCS-CN) method. The performance of the two optimization methods was compared by automatically calibrating L-THI...

  8. Dose calibrator user and quality control guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchis, Philippe; Amiot, Marie-Noelle; Moune, Muriel; Bellanger, Anne-Christine; Chauvenet, Bruno; Verdeau, Eric; Gardin, Isabelle; Martineau, Antoine; Ricard, Marcel; Caselles, Olivier; Guilhem, Marie-Therese; Hapdey, Sebastien; Lisbona, Albert; Bonnot-Lours, Sophie; Dumont, Agnes; Lemercier, Valerie; Rizzo-Padoin, Nathalie

    2006-06-01

    This document is a practical guide for the use and control of dose calibrators which are instruments used for radioactivity measurements. After a recall of the calibrator operation principle, the authors describe all the operations performed on this apparatus all along its lifetime: controls to be performed for device acceptance, aspects to be addressed during installation, controls to be performed before any use, daily controls, more detailed controls, and operations to be performed for maintenance, in case of dysfunctions or for re-calibration

  9. X-ray and gamma-ray standards for detector calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The IAEA established a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Measurements and Evaluation of X- and Gamma-Ray Standards for Detector Efficiency Calibration in 1986 with the aim of alleviating the generation of such discrepancies. Within the framework of this CRP, representatives of nine research groups from six Member States and one international organization performed a number of precise measurements and systematic in-depth evaluations of the required decay data. They have also contributed to the development of evaluation methodology and measurement techniques, and stimulated a number of such studies at laboratories not directly involved in the IAEA project. The results of the work of the CRP, which was finished in 1990, are presented in this report. Recommended values of half-lives and photon emission probabilities are given for a carefully selected set of radionuclides that are suitable for detector efficiency calibration (X-rays from 5 to 90 keV and gamma-rays from 30 to about 3000 keV). Detector efficiency calibration for higher gamma-ray energies (up to 14 MeV) is also considered. The evaluation procedures used to obtain the recommended values and their estimated uncertainties are reported, and a summary of the remaining discrepancies is given. Refs and tabs

  10. Comparison of ionization chamber calibration for mimeographs in W/Mo and W/Al qualities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Lara; Macedo, Eric; Navarro, Marcus; Ferreira, Mario; Garcia, Igor; Pires, Evandro; Leite, Handerson; Navarro, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    The calibration of ionization chambers for mammography laboratories seek to keep pace with technological advancement of manufacturers who have used new combinations anode/filter in mammography beyond the classic combinations of molybdenum and rhodium. This paper proposes to investigate the equivalence between calibrations of chambers different using the combinations W/Mo and W/Al at LABPROSAUD. The results showed a variation less than 1% on relationship between the calibration coefficients obtained in the evaluated combinations anode/filter for an uncertainty of 2.4%. The excellent performance of the chambers suggests a new possibility of calibration in the mammography quality at LABPROSAUD. (author)

  11. Review of technological advancements in calibration systems for laser vision correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arba-Mosquera, Samuel; Vinciguerra, Paolo; Verma, Shwetabh

    2018-02-01

    Using PubMed and our internal database, we extensively reviewed the literature on the technological advancements in calibration systems, with a motive to present an account of the development history, and latest developments in calibration systems used in refractive surgery laser systems. As a second motive, we explored the clinical impact of the error introduced due to the roughness in ablation and its corresponding effect on system calibration. The inclusion criterion for this review was strict relevance to the clinical questions under research. The existing calibration methods, including various plastic models, are highly affected by various factors involved in refractive surgery, such as temperature, airflow, and hydration. Surface roughness plays an important role in accurate measurement of ablation performance on calibration materials. The ratio of ablation efficiency between the human cornea and calibration material is very critical and highly dependent on the laser beam characteristics and test conditions. Objective evaluation of the calibration data and corresponding adjustment of the laser systems at regular intervals are essential for the continuing success and further improvements in outcomes of laser vision correction procedures.

  12. Strategy for reduced calibration sets to develop quantitative structure-retention relationships in high-performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, Jan P.M. [University of Professional Education, Department of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 90116, 4800 RA Breda (Netherlands); Claessens, Henk A. [University of Professional Education, Department of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 90116, 4800 RA Breda (Netherlands); Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry, P.O. Box 513 (Helix, STW 1.35), 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Heyden, Yvan Vander [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel-VUB, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Brussels (Belgium); Buydens, Lutgarde M.C., E-mail: L.Buydens@science.ru.nl [Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2009-10-12

    In high-performance liquid chromatography, quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRRs) are applied to model the relation between chromatographic retention and quantities derived from molecular structure of analytes. Classically a substantial number of test analytes is used to build QSRR models. This makes their application laborious and time consuming. In this work a strategy is presented to build QSRR models based on selected reduced calibration sets. The analytes in the reduced calibration sets are selected from larger sets of analytes by applying the algorithm of Kennard and Stone on the molecular descriptors used in the QSRR concerned. The strategy was applied on three QSRR models of different complexity, relating logk{sub w} or log k with either: (i) log P, the n-octanol-water partition coefficient, (ii) calculated quantum chemical indices (QCI), or (iii) descriptors from the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER). Models were developed and validated for 76 reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography systems. From the results we can conclude that it is possible to develop log P models suitable for the future prediction of retentions with as few as seven analytes. For the QCI and LSER models we derived the rule that three selected analytes per descriptor are sufficient. Both the dependent variable space, formed by the retention values, and the independent variable space, formed by the descriptors, are covered well by the reduced calibration sets. Finally guidelines to construct small calibration sets are formulated.

  13. ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars: Integration, Test, and Ground Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Morris, Matthew; Aldoroty, Lauren; Kurucz, Robert; McCandliss, Stephan; Rauscher, Bernard; Kimble, Randy; Kruk, Jeffrey; Wright, Edward L.; Feldman, Paul; Riess, Adam; Gardner, Jonathon; Bohlin, Ralph; Deustua, Susana; Dixon, Van; Sahnow, David J.; Perlmutter, Saul

    2018-01-01

    Establishing improved spectrophotometric standards is important for a broad range of missions and is relevant to many astrophysical problems. Systematic errors associated with astrophysical data used to probe fundamental astrophysical questions, such as SNeIa observations used to constrain dark energy theories, now exceed the statistical errors associated with merged databases of these measurements. ACCESS, “Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars”, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments designed to enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35‑1.7μm bandpass. To achieve this goal ACCESS (1) observes HST/ Calspec stars (2) above the atmosphere to eliminate telluric spectral contaminants (e.g. OH) (3) using a single optical path and (HgCdTe) detector (4) that is calibrated to NIST laboratory standards and (5) monitored on the ground and in-flight using a on-board calibration monitor. The observations are (6) cross-checked and extended through the generation of stellar atmosphere models for the targets. The ACCESS telescope and spectrograph have been designed, fabricated, and integrated. Subsystems have been tested. Performance results for subsystems, operations testing, and the integrated spectrograph will be presented. NASA sounding rocket grant NNX17AC83G supports this work.

  14. Sandia WIPP calibration traceability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuhen, M.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dean, T.A. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the work performed to establish calibration traceability for the instrumentation used by Sandia National Laboratories at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during testing from 1980-1985. Identifying the calibration traceability is an important part of establishing a pedigree for the data and is part of the qualification of existing data. In general, the requirement states that the calibration of Measuring and Test equipment must have a valid relationship to nationally recognized standards or the basis for the calibration must be documented. Sandia recognized that just establishing calibration traceability would not necessarily mean that all QA requirements were met during the certification of test instrumentation. To address this concern, the assessment was expanded to include various activities.

  15. Sandia WIPP calibration traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuhen, M.D.; Dean, T.A.

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the work performed to establish calibration traceability for the instrumentation used by Sandia National Laboratories at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during testing from 1980-1985. Identifying the calibration traceability is an important part of establishing a pedigree for the data and is part of the qualification of existing data. In general, the requirement states that the calibration of Measuring and Test equipment must have a valid relationship to nationally recognized standards or the basis for the calibration must be documented. Sandia recognized that just establishing calibration traceability would not necessarily mean that all QA requirements were met during the certification of test instrumentation. To address this concern, the assessment was expanded to include various activities

  16. Automation of dosimeters calibration for radiotherapy in secondary dosimetric calibration laboratory of the CPHR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, Andy L. Romero; Lores, Stefan Gutierrez

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an automated system for measurements in the calibration of reference radiation dosimeters. It was made a software application that performs the acquisition of the measured values of electric charge, calculated calibration coefficient and automates the calibration certificate issuance. These values are stored in a log file on a PC. The use of the application improves control over the calibration process, helps to humanize the work and reduces personnel exposure. The tool developed has been applied to the calibration of dosimeters radiation patterns in the LSCD of the Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Cuba

  17. Calibration and performance of the MARK II drift chamber vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrett, D.; Ford, W.T.; Hinshaw, D.A.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.; Weber, P.

    1990-05-01

    We have calibrated and studied the performance of the MARK II drift chamber vertex detector with cosmic ray tracks collected with the chamber inside the MARK II detector at the SLC. The chamber achieves 30 μm impact parameter resolution and 500 μm track-pair resolution using CO 2 /C 2 H 6 H 6 (92/8) at 2 atmospheres pressure. The chamber has successfully recorded Z 0 decays at the SLC, and resolved tracks in dense hadronic jets with good efficiency and high accuracy. 5 refs., 13 figs

  18. A new method to calibrate Lagrangian model with ASAR images for oil slick trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Siyu; Huang, Xiaoxia; Li, Hongga

    2017-03-15

    Since Lagrangian model coefficients vary with different conditions, it is necessary to calibrate the model to obtain optimal coefficient combination for special oil spill accident. This paper focuses on proposing a new method to calibrate Lagrangian model with time series of Envisat ASAR images. Oil slicks extracted from time series images form a detected trajectory of special oil slick. Lagrangian model is calibrated by minimizing the difference between simulated trajectory and detected trajectory. mean center position distance difference (MCPD) and rotation difference (RD) of Oil slicks' or particles' standard deviational ellipses (SDEs) are calculated as two evaluations. The two parameters are taken to evaluate the performance of Lagrangian transport model with different coefficient combinations. This method is applied to Penglai 19-3 oil spill accident. The simulation result with calibrated model agrees well with related satellite observations. It is suggested the new method is effective to calibrate Lagrangian model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of the uncertainties of several European low-dose calibration facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, H.; Cornejo Díaz, N. A.; Toni, M. P.; Mihelic, M.; Röttger, A.

    2018-04-01

    The typical uncertainty of a low-dose rate calibration of a detector, which is calibrated in a dedicated secondary national calibration laboratory, is investigated, including measurements in the photon field of metrology institutes. Calibrations at low ambient dose equivalent rates (at the level of the natural ambient radiation) are needed when environmental radiation monitors are to be characterised. The uncertainties of calibration measurements in conventional irradiation facilities above ground are compared with those obtained in a low-dose rate irradiation facility located deep underground. Four laboratories quantitatively evaluated the uncertainties of their calibration facilities, in particular for calibrations at low dose rates (250 nSv/h and 1 μSv/h). For the first time, typical uncertainties of European calibration facilities are documented in a comparison and the main sources of uncertainty are revealed. All sources of uncertainties are analysed, including the irradiation geometry, scattering, deviations of real spectra from standardised spectra, etc. As a fundamental metrological consequence, no instrument calibrated in such a facility can have a lower total uncertainty in subsequent measurements. For the first time, the need to perform calibrations at very low dose rates (< 100 nSv/h) deep underground is underpinned on the basis of quantitative data.

  20. Energy calibration of a silicon detector using pure beta-emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, C.; Los Arcos, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    Energy calibration of Si detectors used in electron spectroscopy is commonly performed with conversion electron sources or monoenergetic electrons beams, which are preferred against beta emitters due to the problems arising from their continuous spectra. This paper presents a simple calibration procedure for a PIP-type silicon detector, using 1 4C, 1 47m, 9 9Tc and 4 5Ca, that is based on the correspondence between the average channel observed in the experimental spectrum and the mean energy evaluated from the theoretical Fermi distribution for each nuclide. First, a method for evaluating the average channel in the experimental spectrum distorted by the electronic noise is described and its uncertainty estimated. Then, the channel-energy relation ship is established by least squares fitting modified to account for uncertainties in both variables. The calibration has been successfully verified with 147Pm and 109Cs source, showing discrepancies not greater than 2.5%, within the uncertainties due to the detector resolution and the sources features. (author)

  1. Energy Calibration of a Silicon Detector Using Pure Beta-Emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, C.; Arcos, J. M. los

    1992-01-01

    Energy calibration of SI detectors used in electron spectroscopy 13 commonly performed with conversion electron sources or monoenergetic electrons beams, which are preferred against beta emitters due to the problems arising from their continuous spectra. This paper presents a simple calibration procedure for a PIP-type silicon detector, using 14C, 147Pm, 99 T c and 45Ca sources, that is based on the correspondence between the average channel observed in the experimental spectrum and the mean energy evaluated from the theoretical Fermi distribution for each nuclide. First, a method for evaluating the average channel in the experimental spectrum distorted by the electronic noise is described and its uncertainty estimated. Then, the channel-energy relation ship is established by least squares fitting modified to account for uncertainties in both variables.The calibration has been successfully verified with 147Pm and '09cd sources, showing discrepaneles not greater than 2.5%, within the uncertainties due to the detector resolution and the sources features. (Author)

  2. MoDOT pavement preservation research program volume VII, re-calibration of triggers and performance models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this task is to develop the concept and framework for a procedure to routinely create, re-calibrate, and update the : Trigger Tables and Performance Models. The scope of work for Task 6 includes a limited review of the recent pavemen...

  3. Calibration of X-ray densitometers for the determination of uranium and plutonium concentrations in reprocessing input and product solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottmar, H.; Eberle, H.; Michel-Piper, I.; Kuhn, E.; Johnson, E.

    1985-11-01

    In June 1985 a calibration exercise has been carried out, which included the calibration of the KfK K-Edge Densitometer for uranium assay in the uranium product solutions from reprocessing, and the calibration of the Hybrid K-Edge/K-XRF Instrument for the determination of total uranium and plutonium in reprocessing input solutions. The calibration measuremnts performed with the two X-ray densitometers are described and analyzed, and calibration constants are evaluated from the obtained results. (orig.)

  4. Optical Calibration Process Developed for Neural-Network-Based Optical Nondestructive Evaluation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    2004-01-01

    A completely optical calibration process has been developed at Glenn for calibrating a neural-network-based nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method. The NDE method itself detects very small changes in the characteristic patterns or vibration mode shapes of vibrating structures as discussed in many references. The mode shapes or characteristic patterns are recorded using television or electronic holography and change when a structure experiences, for example, cracking, debonds, or variations in fastener properties. An artificial neural network can be trained to be very sensitive to changes in the mode shapes, but quantifying or calibrating that sensitivity in a consistent, meaningful, and deliverable manner has been challenging. The standard calibration approach has been difficult to implement, where the response to damage of the trained neural network is compared with the responses of vibration-measurement sensors. In particular, the vibration-measurement sensors are intrusive, insufficiently sensitive, and not numerous enough. In response to these difficulties, a completely optical alternative to the standard calibration approach was proposed and tested successfully. Specifically, the vibration mode to be monitored for structural damage was intentionally contaminated with known amounts of another mode, and the response of the trained neural network was measured as a function of the peak-to-peak amplitude of the contaminating mode. The neural network calibration technique essentially uses the vibration mode shapes of the undamaged structure as standards against which the changed mode shapes are compared. The published response of the network can be made nearly independent of the contaminating mode, if enough vibration modes are used to train the net. The sensitivity of the neural network can be adjusted for the environment in which the test is to be conducted. The response of a neural network trained with measured vibration patterns for use on a vibration isolation

  5. Radiometric calibration of the in-flight blackbody calibration system of the GLORIA interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Monte

    2014-01-01

    Atmosphere is an airborne, imaging, infrared Fourier transform spectrometer that applies the limb-imaging technique to perform trace gas and temperature measurements in the Earth's atmosphere with three-dimensional resolution. To ensure the traceability of these measurements to the International Temperature Scale and thereby to an absolute radiance scale, GLORIA carries an on-board calibration system. Basically, it consists of two identical large-area and high-emissivity infrared radiators, which can be continuously and independently operated at two adjustable temperatures in a range from −50 °C to 0 °C during flight. Here we describe the radiometric and thermometric characterization and calibration of the in-flight calibration system at the Reduced Background Calibration Facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. This was performed with a standard uncertainty of less than 110 mK. Extensive investigations of the system concerning its absolute radiation temperature and spectral radiance, its temperature homogeneity and its short- and long-term stability are discussed. The traceability chain of these measurements is presented.

  6. Volume corrections factors in the measurement of 99mTc and 123I activities in radionuclide calibrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, Amanda Ribeiro; Rezende, Eduarda Alexandre; Iwahara, Akira; Oliveira, Antonio Eduardo de; Oliveira, Estela Maria de; Tauhata, Luiz; Chaves, Taina Olivieri

    2012-01-01

    To determine correction factors for the variation in volume of radiopharmaceuticals in containers of different geometries, comparing the influence of such factors on the determination of 99m Tc and 123 I activity with two types of calibrators - one with ionization chamber and another with Geiger-Mueller (G-M) detector -; and to evaluate calibrators performance in the measurement of 99m Tc and 1 '2 3 I activities. Materials and Methods: Eight calibrators, 10R glass vials, 3 and 5 mL plastic syringes and 99m Tc and 123 I solutions were utilized. The correction factors were determined with basis on practical measurements of the variation in the calibrators' response according to the volume of radionuclide solution in the glass vials. The performance was evaluated according to the acceptance criterion of +- 10% accuracy required by the Brazilian standard. Results: The variation of the calibrators' response according to the variation in radionuclide volume was reasonably greater in the calibrator with G-M detector. It was also greater for 123 I than for 99m Tc. Conclusion: The results confirm that the calibrators' response depends on the radionuclide volume contained in the vials. Such dependence is more critical for the calibrators equipped with G-M detector and for 123 I as compared with 99m Tc. (author)

  7. Lidar to lidar calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Garcia, Sergio; Villanueva, Héctor

    This report presents the result of the lidar to lidar calibration performed for ground-based lidar. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference lidar wind speed measurements with measurement uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding...... lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from the reference lidar measurements are given for information only....

  8. Calibrations and evaluation of the quality assurance during 1999 at the National Laboratory for ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grindborg, Jan-Erik; Israelsson, Karl-Erik; Kylloenen, Jan-Erik; Samuelson, Goeran

    2000-06-01

    The Swedish Radiation Protection Institute is the National Laboratory for the dosimetric quantities kerma, absorbed dose and dose equivalent. The activity is based on established calibration procedures and a quality assurance program for the used standards. This report gives a brief summary of the calibrations performed during 1999 and a more detailed description and analysis of the quality assurance during this year. The report makes it easier to draw conclusions about the long-term stability and possible malfunctions

  9. The KLOE online calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasqualucci, E.; Alexander, G.; Aloisio, A.

    2001-01-01

    Based on all the features of the KLOE online software, the online calibration system performs current calibration quality checking in real time and starts automatically new calibration procedures when needed. A calibration manager process controls the system, implementing the interface to the online system, receiving information from the run control and translating its state transitions to a separate state machine. It acts as a 'calibration run controller' and performs failure recovery when requested by a set of process checkers. The core of the system is a multi-threaded OO histogram server that receives histogramming commands by remote processes and operates on local ROOT histograms. A client library and C, fortran and C++ application interface libraries allow the user to connect and define his own histogram or read histograms owned by others using an book-like interface. Several calibration processes running in parallel in a distributed, multiplatform environment can fill the same histograms, allowing fast external information check. A monitor thread allow remote browsing for visual inspection. Pre-filtered data are read in non-privileged spy mode from the data acquisition system via the Kloe Integrated Dataflow. The main characteristics of the system are presented

  10. Calibration factor or calibration coefficient?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meghzifene, A.; Shortt, K.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The IAEA/WHO network of SSDLs was set up in order to establish links between SSDL members and the international measurement system. At the end of 2001, there were 73 network members in 63 Member States. The SSDL network members provide calibration services to end-users at the national or regional level. The results of the calibrations are summarized in a document called calibration report or calibration certificate. The IAEA has been using the term calibration certificate and will continue using the same terminology. The most important information in a calibration certificate is a list of calibration factors and their related uncertainties that apply to the calibrated instrument for the well-defined irradiation and ambient conditions. The IAEA has recently decided to change the term calibration factor to calibration coefficient, to be fully in line with ISO [ISO 31-0], which recommends the use of the term coefficient when it links two quantities A and B (equation 1) that have different dimensions. The term factor should only be used for k when it is used to link the terms A and B that have the same dimensions A=k.B. However, in a typical calibration, an ion chamber is calibrated in terms of a physical quantity such as air kerma, dose to water, ambient dose equivalent, etc. If the chamber is calibrated together with its electrometer, then the calibration refers to the physical quantity to be measured per electrometer unit reading. In this case, the terms referred have different dimensions. The adoption by the Agency of the term coefficient to express the results of calibrations is consistent with the 'International vocabulary of basic and general terms in metrology' prepared jointly by the BIPM, IEC, ISO, OIML and other organizations. The BIPM has changed from factor to coefficient. The authors believe that this is more than just a matter of semantics and recommend that the SSDL network members adopt this change in terminology. (author)

  11. Uncertainty Evaluation of the Thermal Expansion of Gd2O3-ZrO2 with a System Calibration Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Je; Kang, Kweon Ho; Na, Sang Ho; Song, Kee Chan

    2007-01-01

    Both gadolinia (Gd 2 O 3 ) and zirconia (ZrO 2 ) are widely used in the nuclear industry, including a burnable absorber and additives in the fabrication of a simulated fuel. Thermal expansions of a mixture of gadolinia (Gd 2 O 3 ) 20 mol% and zirconia (ZrO 2 ) 80 mol% were measured by using a dilatometer (DIL402C) from room temperature to 1500 .deg. C. Uncertainties in the measurement should be quantified based on statistics. Referring to the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) guide, the uncertainties of the thermal expansion were quantified for three parts - the initial length, the length variation, and the system calibration factor. The whole system, the dilatometer, is composed of many complex sub-systems and in fact it is difficult to consider all the uncertainties of the sub-systems. Thus, the system calibration factor was introduced with a standard material for the uncertainty evaluation. In this study, a new system calibration factor was formulated in a multiplicative way. Further, the effect of calibration factor with random deviation was investigated for the uncertainty evaluation of a thermal expansion

  12. Application of single-image camera calibration for ultrasound augmented laparoscopic visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyang; Su, He; Kang, Sukryool; Kane, Timothy D; Shekhar, Raj

    2015-03-01

    Accurate calibration of laparoscopic cameras is essential for enabling many surgical visualization and navigation technologies such as the ultrasound-augmented visualization system that we have developed for laparoscopic surgery. In addition to accuracy and robustness, there is a practical need for a fast and easy camera calibration method that can be performed on demand in the operating room (OR). Conventional camera calibration methods are not suitable for the OR use because they are lengthy and tedious. They require acquisition of multiple images of a target pattern in its entirety to produce satisfactory result. In this work, we evaluated the performance of a single-image camera calibration tool ( rdCalib ; Percieve3D, Coimbra, Portugal) featuring automatic detection of corner points in the image, whether partial or complete, of a custom target pattern. Intrinsic camera parameters of a 5-mm and a 10-mm standard Stryker ® laparoscopes obtained using rdCalib and the well-accepted OpenCV camera calibration method were compared. Target registration error (TRE) as a measure of camera calibration accuracy for our optical tracking-based AR system was also compared between the two calibration methods. Based on our experiments, the single-image camera calibration yields consistent and accurate results (mean TRE = 1.18 ± 0.35 mm for the 5-mm scope and mean TRE = 1.13 ± 0.32 mm for the 10-mm scope), which are comparable to the results obtained using the OpenCV method with 30 images. The new single-image camera calibration method is promising to be applied to our augmented reality visualization system for laparoscopic surgery.

  13. Application of single-image camera calibration for ultrasound augmented laparoscopic visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyang; Su, He; Kang, Sukryool; Kane, Timothy D.; Shekhar, Raj

    2015-03-01

    Accurate calibration of laparoscopic cameras is essential for enabling many surgical visualization and navigation technologies such as the ultrasound-augmented visualization system that we have developed for laparoscopic surgery. In addition to accuracy and robustness, there is a practical need for a fast and easy camera calibration method that can be performed on demand in the operating room (OR). Conventional camera calibration methods are not suitable for the OR use because they are lengthy and tedious. They require acquisition of multiple images of a target pattern in its entirety to produce satisfactory result. In this work, we evaluated the performance of a single-image camera calibration tool (rdCalib; Percieve3D, Coimbra, Portugal) featuring automatic detection of corner points in the image, whether partial or complete, of a custom target pattern. Intrinsic camera parameters of a 5-mm and a 10-mm standard Stryker® laparoscopes obtained using rdCalib and the well-accepted OpenCV camera calibration method were compared. Target registration error (TRE) as a measure of camera calibration accuracy for our optical tracking-based AR system was also compared between the two calibration methods. Based on our experiments, the single-image camera calibration yields consistent and accurate results (mean TRE = 1.18 ± 0.35 mm for the 5-mm scope and mean TRE = 1.13 ± 0.32 mm for the 10-mm scope), which are comparable to the results obtained using the OpenCV method with 30 images. The new single-image camera calibration method is promising to be applied to our augmented reality visualization system for laparoscopic surgery.

  14. Self-calibration of a cone-beam micro-CT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, V.; Chityala, R. N.; Hoffmann, K. R.; Ionita, C. N.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

    2009-01-01

    Use of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is becoming more frequent. For proper reconstruction, the geometry of the CBCT systems must be known. While the system can be designed to reduce errors in the geometry, calibration measurements must still be performed and corrections applied. Investigators have proposed techniques using calibration objects for system calibration. In this study, the authors present methods to calibrate a rotary-stage CB micro-CT (CBμCT) system using only the images acquired of the object to be reconstructed, i.e., without the use of calibration objects. Projection images are acquired using a CBμCT system constructed in the authors' laboratories. Dark- and flat-field corrections are performed. Exposure variations are detected and quantified using analysis of image regions with an unobstructed view of the x-ray source. Translations that occur during the acquisition in the horizontal direction are detected, quantified, and corrected based on sinogram analysis. The axis of rotation is determined using registration of antiposed projection images. These techniques were evaluated using data obtained with calibration objects and phantoms. The physical geometric axis of rotation is determined and aligned with the rotational axis (assumed to be the center of the detector plane) used in the reconstruction process. The parameters describing this axis agree to within 0.1 mm and 0.3 deg with those determined using other techniques. Blurring due to residual calibration errors has a point-spread function in the reconstructed planes with a full-width-at-half-maximum of less than 125 μm in a tangential direction and essentially zero in the radial direction for the rotating object. The authors have used this approach on over 100 acquisitions over the past 2 years and have regularly obtained high-quality reconstructions, i.e., without artifacts and no detectable blurring of the reconstructed objects. This self-calibrating approach not only obviates

  15. A Gold Standards Approach to Training Instructors to Evaluate Crew Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David P.; Dismukes, R. Key

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Qualification Program requires that airlines evaluate crew performance in Line Oriented Simulation. For this evaluation to be meaningful, instructors must observe relevant crew behaviors and evaluate those behaviors consistently and accurately against standards established by the airline. The airline industry has largely settled on an approach in which instructors evaluate crew performance on a series of event sets, using standardized grade sheets on which behaviors specific to event set are listed. Typically, new instructors are given a class in which they learn to use the grade sheets and practice evaluating crew performance observed on videotapes. These classes emphasize reliability, providing detailed instruction and practice in scoring so that all instructors within a given class will give similar scores to similar performance. This approach has value but also has important limitations; (1) ratings within one class of new instructors may differ from those of other classes; (2) ratings may not be driven primarily by the specific behaviors on which the company wanted the crews to be scored; and (3) ratings may not be calibrated to company standards for level of performance skill required. In this paper we provide a method to extend the existing method of training instructors to address these three limitations. We call this method the "gold standards" approach because it uses ratings from the company's most experienced instructors as the basis for training rater accuracy. This approach ties the training to the specific behaviors on which the experienced instructors based their ratings.

  16. Modeling and Calibration of a Novel One-Mirror Galvanometric Laser Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyi Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A laser stripe sensor has limited application when a point cloud of geometric samples on the surface of the object needs to be collected, so a galvanometric laser scanner is designed by using a one-mirror galvanometer element as its mechanical device to drive the laser stripe to sweep along the object. A novel mathematical model is derived for the proposed galvanometer laser scanner without any position assumptions and then a model-driven calibration procedure is proposed. Compared with available model-driven approaches, the influence of machining and assembly errors is considered in the proposed model. Meanwhile, a plane-constraint-based approach is proposed to extract a large number of calibration points effectively and accurately to calibrate the galvanometric laser scanner. Repeatability and accuracy of the galvanometric laser scanner are evaluated on the automobile production line to verify the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed calibration method. Experimental results show that the proposed calibration approach yields similar measurement performance compared with a look-up table calibration method.

  17. Local Strategy Combined with a Wavelength Selection Method for Multivariate Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Chang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential factors influencing the prediction accuracy of multivariate calibration models is the quality of the calibration data. A local regression strategy, together with a wavelength selection approach, is proposed to build the multivariate calibration models based on partial least squares regression. The local algorithm is applied to create a calibration set of spectra similar to the spectrum of an unknown sample; the synthetic degree of grey relation coefficient is used to evaluate the similarity. A wavelength selection method based on simple-to-use interactive self-modeling mixture analysis minimizes the influence of noisy variables, and the most informative variables of the most similar samples are selected to build the multivariate calibration model based on partial least squares regression. To validate the performance of the proposed method, ultraviolet-visible absorbance spectra of mixed solutions of food coloring analytes in a concentration range of 20–200 µg/mL is measured. Experimental results show that the proposed method can not only enhance the prediction accuracy of the calibration model, but also greatly reduce its complexity.

  18. SCIAMACHY Level 1 data: calibration concept and in-flight calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, G.; Kleipool, Q.; Krijger, J. M.; van Soest, G.; van Hees, R.; Tilstra, L. G.; Acarreta, J. R.; Aben, I.; Ahlers, B.; Bovensmann, H.; Chance, K.; Gloudemans, A. M. S.; Hoogeveen, R. W. M.; Jongma, R. T. N.; Noël, S.; Piters, A.; Schrijver, H.; Schrijvers, C.; Sioris, C. E.; Skupin, J.; Slijkhuis, S.; Stammes, P.; Wuttke, M.

    2006-11-01

    The calibration of SCIAMACHY was thoroughly checked since the instrument was launched on-board ENVISAT in February 2002. While SCIAMACHY's functional performance is excellent since launch, a number of technical difficulties have appeared, that required adjustments to the calibration. The problems can be separated into three types: (1) Those caused by the instrument and/or platform environment. Among these are the high water content in the satellite structure and/or MLI layer. This results in the deposition of ice on the detectors in channels 7 and 8 which seriously affects the retrievals in the IR, mostly because of the continuous change of the slit function caused by scattering of the light through the ice layer. Additionally a light leak in channel 7 severely hampers any retrieval from this channel. (2) Problems due to errors in the on-ground calibration and/or data processing affecting for example the radiometric calibration. A new approach based on a mixture of on-ground and in-flight data is shortly described here. (3) Problems caused by principal limitations of the calibration concept, e.g. the possible appearance of spectral structures after the polarisation correction due to unavoidable errors in the determination of atmospheric polarisation. In this paper we give a complete overview of the calibration and problems that still have to be solved. We will also give an indication of the effect of calibration problems on retrievals where possible. Since the operational processing chain is currently being updated and no newly processed data are available at this point in time, for some calibration issues only a rough estimate of the effect on Level 2 products can be given. However, it is the intention of this paper to serve as a future reference for detailed studies into specific calibration issues.

  19. Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Finsterle

    2004-09-02

    The purpose of this Model Report is to document the Seepage Calibration Model (SCM). The SCM was developed (1) to establish the conceptual basis for the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (SMPA), and (2) to derive seepage-relevant, model-related parameters and their distributions for use in the SMPA and seepage abstraction in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). This Model Report has been revised in response to a comprehensive, regulatory-focused evaluation performed by the Regulatory Integration Team [''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Evaluation of Analysis and Model Reports Supporting the TSPA-LA'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169653])]. The SCM is intended to be used only within this Model Report for the estimation of seepage-relevant parameters through calibration of the model against seepage-rate data from liquid-release tests performed in several niches along the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Main Drift and in the Cross-Drift. The SCM does not predict seepage into waste emplacement drifts under thermal or ambient conditions. Seepage predictions for waste emplacement drifts under ambient conditions will be performed with the SMPA [''Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167652])], which inherits the conceptual basis and model-related parameters from the SCM. Seepage during the thermal period is examined separately in the Thermal Hydrologic (TH) Seepage Model [see ''Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170338])]. The scope of this work is (1) to evaluate seepage rates measured during liquid-release experiments performed in several niches in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) and in the Cross-Drift, which was excavated for enhanced characterization of the repository block (ECRB); (2) to evaluate air-permeability data measured in boreholes above the niches and the Cross

  20. Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finsterle, S.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this Model Report is to document the Seepage Calibration Model (SCM). The SCM was developed (1) to establish the conceptual basis for the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (SMPA), and (2) to derive seepage-relevant, model-related parameters and their distributions for use in the SMPA and seepage abstraction in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). This Model Report has been revised in response to a comprehensive, regulatory-focused evaluation performed by the Regulatory Integration Team [''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Evaluation of Analysis and Model Reports Supporting the TSPA-LA'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169653])]. The SCM is intended to be used only within this Model Report for the estimation of seepage-relevant parameters through calibration of the model against seepage-rate data from liquid-release tests performed in several niches along the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Main Drift and in the Cross-Drift. The SCM does not predict seepage into waste emplacement drifts under thermal or ambient conditions. Seepage predictions for waste emplacement drifts under ambient conditions will be performed with the SMPA [''Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167652])], which inherits the conceptual basis and model-related parameters from the SCM. Seepage during the thermal period is examined separately in the Thermal Hydrologic (TH) Seepage Model [see ''Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170338])]. The scope of this work is (1) to evaluate seepage rates measured during liquid-release experiments performed in several niches in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) and in the Cross-Drift, which was excavated for enhanced characterization of the repository block (ECRB); (2) to evaluate air-permeability data measured in boreholes above the niches and the Cross-Drift to obtain the permeability structure for the seepage model

  1. Calibration Under Uncertainty.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiler, Laura Painton; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2005-03-01

    This report is a white paper summarizing the literature and different approaches to the problem of calibrating computer model parameters in the face of model uncertainty. Model calibration is often formulated as finding the parameters that minimize the squared difference between the model-computed data (the predicted data) and the actual experimental data. This approach does not allow for explicit treatment of uncertainty or error in the model itself: the model is considered the %22true%22 deterministic representation of reality. While this approach does have utility, it is far from an accurate mathematical treatment of the true model calibration problem in which both the computed data and experimental data have error bars. This year, we examined methods to perform calibration accounting for the error in both the computer model and the data, as well as improving our understanding of its meaning for model predictability. We call this approach Calibration under Uncertainty (CUU). This talk presents our current thinking on CUU. We outline some current approaches in the literature, and discuss the Bayesian approach to CUU in detail.

  2. Multispectral calibration to enhance the metrology performance of C-mount camera systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Robson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Low cost monochrome camera systems based on CMOS sensors and C-mount lenses have been successfully applied to a wide variety of metrology tasks. For high accuracy work such cameras are typically equipped with ring lights to image retro-reflective targets as high contrast image features. Whilst algorithms for target image measurement and lens modelling are highly advanced, including separate RGB channel lens distortion correction, target image circularity compensation and a wide variety of detection and centroiding approaches, less effort has been directed towards optimising physical target image quality by considering optical performance in narrow wavelength bands. This paper describes an initial investigation to assess the effect of wavelength on camera calibration parameters for two different camera bodies and the same ‘C-mount’ wide angle lens. Results demonstrate the expected strong influence on principal distance, radial and tangential distortion, and also highlight possible trends in principal point, orthogonality and affinity parameters which are close to the parameter estimation noise level from the strong convergent self-calibrating image networks.

  3. A graphical method to evaluate spectral preprocessing in multivariate regression calibrations: example with Savitzky-Golay filters and partial least squares regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delwiche, Stephen R; Reeves, James B

    2010-01-01

    In multivariate regression analysis of spectroscopy data, spectral preprocessing is often performed to reduce unwanted background information (offsets, sloped baselines) or accentuate absorption features in intrinsically overlapping bands. These procedures, also known as pretreatments, are commonly smoothing operations or derivatives. While such operations are often useful in reducing the number of latent variables of the actual decomposition and lowering residual error, they also run the risk of misleading the practitioner into accepting calibration equations that are poorly adapted to samples outside of the calibration. The current study developed a graphical method to examine this effect on partial least squares (PLS) regression calibrations of near-infrared (NIR) reflection spectra of ground wheat meal with two analytes, protein content and sodium dodecyl sulfate sedimentation (SDS) volume (an indicator of the quantity of the gluten proteins that contribute to strong doughs). These two properties were chosen because of their differing abilities to be modeled by NIR spectroscopy: excellent for protein content, fair for SDS sedimentation volume. To further demonstrate the potential pitfalls of preprocessing, an artificial component, a randomly generated value, was included in PLS regression trials. Savitzky-Golay (digital filter) smoothing, first-derivative, and second-derivative preprocess functions (5 to 25 centrally symmetric convolution points, derived from quadratic polynomials) were applied to PLS calibrations of 1 to 15 factors. The results demonstrated the danger of an over reliance on preprocessing when (1) the number of samples used in a multivariate calibration is low (<50), (2) the spectral response of the analyte is weak, and (3) the goodness of the calibration is based on the coefficient of determination (R(2)) rather than a term based on residual error. The graphical method has application to the evaluation of other preprocess functions and various

  4. Hearing Tests on Mobile Devices: Evaluation of the Reference Sound Level by Means of Biological Calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masalski, Marcin; Kipiński, Lech; Grysiński, Tomasz; Kręcicki, Tomasz

    2016-05-30

    Hearing tests carried out in home setting by means of mobile devices require previous calibration of the reference sound level. Mobile devices with bundled headphones create a possibility of applying the predefined level for a particular model as an alternative to calibrating each device separately. The objective of this study was to determine the reference sound level for sets composed of a mobile device and bundled headphones. Reference sound levels for Android-based mobile devices were determined using an open access mobile phone app by means of biological calibration, that is, in relation to the normal-hearing threshold. The examinations were conducted in 2 groups: an uncontrolled and a controlled one. In the uncontrolled group, the fully automated self-measurements were carried out in home conditions by 18- to 35-year-old subjects, without prior hearing problems, recruited online. Calibration was conducted as a preliminary step in preparation for further examination. In the controlled group, audiologist-assisted examinations were performed in a sound booth, on normal-hearing subjects verified through pure-tone audiometry, recruited offline from among the workers and patients of the clinic. In both the groups, the reference sound levels were determined on a subject's mobile device using the Bekesy audiometry. The reference sound levels were compared between the groups. Intramodel and intermodel analyses were carried out as well. In the uncontrolled group, 8988 calibrations were conducted on 8620 different devices representing 2040 models. In the controlled group, 158 calibrations (test and retest) were conducted on 79 devices representing 50 models. Result analysis was performed for 10 most frequently used models in both the groups. The difference in reference sound levels between uncontrolled and controlled groups was 1.50 dB (SD 4.42). The mean SD of the reference sound level determined for devices within the same model was 4.03 dB (95% CI 3

  5. Vicarious Calibration of Beijing-1 Multispectral Imagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengchao Chen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available For on-orbit calibration of the Beijing-1 multispectral imagers (Beijing-1/MS, a field calibration campaign was performed at the Dunhuang calibration site during September and October of 2008. Based on the in situ data and images from Beijing-1 and Terra/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, three vicarious calibration methods (i.e., reflectance-based, irradiance-based, and cross-calibration were used to calculate the top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiance of Beijing-1. An analysis was then performed to determine or identify systematic and accidental errors, and the overall uncertainty was assessed for each individual method. The findings show that the reflectance-based method has an uncertainty of more than 10% if the aerosol optical depth (AOD exceeds 0.2. The cross-calibration method is able to reach an error level within 7% if the images are selected carefully. The final calibration coefficients were derived from the irradiance-based data for 6 September 2008, with an uncertainty estimated to be less than 5%.

  6. Online Calibration and Performance of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, M

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It consists of 1744 silicon sensors equipped with approximately 80 million electronic channels, providing typically three measurement points with high resolution for particles emerging from the beam-interaction region, thus allowing measuring particle tracks and secondary vertices with very high precision. The readout system of the Pixel Detector is based on a bi-directional optical data transmission system between the detector and the data acquisition system with an individual link for each of the 1744 modules. Signal conversion components are located on both ends, approximately 80 m apart. This paper describes the tuning and calibration of the optical links and the detector modules, including measurements of threshold, noise, charge measurement, timing performance and the sensor leakage current.

  7. Infusion of SMAP Data into Offline and Coupled Models: Evaluation, Calibration, and Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawston, P.; Santanello, J. A., Jr.; Dennis, E. J.; Kumar, S.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of the land surface on the water and energy cycle is modulated by its coupling to the planetary boundary layer (PBL), and begins at the local scale. A core component of the local land-atmosphere coupling (LoCo) effort requires understanding the `links in the chain' between soil moisture and precipitation, most notably through surface heat fluxes and PBL evolution. To date, broader (i.e. global) application of LoCo diagnostics has been limited by observational data requirements of the coupled system (and in particular, soil moisture) that are typically only met during localized, short-term field campaigns. SMAP offers, for the first time, the ability to map high quality, near-surface soil moisture globally every few days at a spatial resolution comparable to current modeling efforts. As a result, there are numerous potential avenues for SMAP model-data fusion that can be explored in the context of improving understanding of L-A interaction and NWP. In this study, we assess multiple points of intersection of SMAP products with offline and coupled models and evaluate impacts using process-level diagnostics. Results will inform upon the importance of high-resolution soil moisture mapping for improved coupled prediction and model development, as well as reconciling differences in modeled, retrieved, and measured soil moisture. Specifically, NASA model (LIS, NU-WRF) and observation (SMAP, NLDAS-2) products are combined with in-situ standard and IOP measurements (soil moisture, flux, and radiosonde) over the ARM-SGP. An array of land surface model spinups (via LIS-Noah) are performed with varying atmospheric forcing, greenness fraction, and soil layering permutations. Calibration of LIS-Noah soil hydraulic parameters is then performed using an array of in-situ soil moisture and flux and SMAP products. In addition, SMAP assimilation is performed in LIS-Noah both at the scale of the observation (36 and 9km) and the model grid (1km). The focus is on the

  8. Computed radiography systems performance evaluation;Avaliacao de desempenho de sistemas de radiografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Clarice C.; Nersissian, Denise Y.; Furquim, Tania A.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    2009-07-01

    The performance of a computed radiography system was evaluated, according to the AAPM Report No. 93. Evaluation tests proposed by the publication were performed, and the following nonconformities were found: imaging p/ate (lP) dark noise, which compromises the clinical image acquired using the IP; exposure indicator uncalibrated, which can cause underexposure to the IP; nonlinearity of the system response, which causes overexposure; resolution limit under the declared by the manufacturer and erasure thoroughness uncalibrated, impairing structures visualization; Moire pattern visualized at the grid response, and IP Throughput over the specified by the manufacturer. These non-conformities indicate that digital imaging systems' lack of calibration can cause an increase in dose in order that image prob/ems can be so/ved. (author)

  9. Early Assessment of VIIRS On-Orbit Calibration and Support Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Chiang, Kwofu; McIntire, Jeffrey; Oudrari, Hassan; Wu, Aisheng; Schwaller, Mathew; Butler, James

    2012-01-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, formally the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP), provides a bridge between current and future low-Earth orbiting weather and environmental observation satellite systems. The NASA s NPP VIIRS Characterization Support Team (VCST) is designed to assess the long term geometric and radiometric performance of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument onboard the S-NPP spacecraft and to support NPP Science Team Principal Investigators (PI) for their independent evaluation of VIIRS Environmental Data Records (EDRs). This paper provides an overview of Suomi NPP VIIRS on-orbit calibration activities and examples of sensor initial on-orbit performance. It focuses on the radiometric calibration support activities and capabilities provided by the NASA VCST.

  10. Technological considerations in emergency instrumentation preparedness. Phase II-D. Evaluation testing and calibration methodology for emergency radiological instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramson, P.E.; Andersen, B.V.; Fleming, D.M.; Kathren, R.L.; Mulhern, O.R.; Newton, C.E.; Oscarson, E.E.; Selby, J.M.

    1976-09-01

    In response to recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, the Division of Operational Safety, U.S. ERDA has contracted with Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories to survey the adequacy of existing instrumentation at nuclear fuel cycle facilities to meet emergency requirements and to develop technical criteria for instrumentation systems to be used in assessment of environmental conditions following plant emergencies. This report, the fifth in a series, provides: (1) calibration methods to assure the quality of radiological measurements and (2) testing procedures for determining whether an emergency radiological instrument meets the performance specifications. Three previous reports in this series identified the emergency instrumentation needs for power reactors, mixed oxide fuel plants, and fuel reprocessing facilities. Each of these three reports contains a Section VI, which sets forth applicable radiological instrument performance criteria and calibration requirements. Testing and calibration procedures in this report have been formatted in two parts: IV and V, each divided into three subsections: (1) Power Reactors, (2) Mixed Oxide Fuel Plants, and (3) Fuel Reprocessing Facilities. The three performance criteria subsections directly coincide with the performance criteria sections of the previous reports. These performance criteria sections have been reproduced in this report as Part III with references of ''required action'' added

  11. Calibration Of A 14 MeV Neutron Generator With Reference To NBS-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimbach, Craig R.

    2011-01-01

    NBS-1 is the US national neutron reference source. It has a neutron emission rate (June 1961) of 1.257x10 6 n/s 1,2,3 with an uncertainty of 0.85%(k = 1). Neutron emission-rate calibrations performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are made in comparison to this source, either directly or indirectly. To calibrate a commercial 14 MeV neutron generator, NIST performed a set of comparison measurements to evaluate the neutron output relative to NBS-1. The neutron output of the generator was determined with an uncertainty of about 7%(k = 1). The 15-hour half-life of one of the reactions used also makes possible off-site measurements. Consideration is given to similar calibrations for a 2.5 MeV neutron generator.

  12. Calibration and performance measurements for the nasa deep space network aperture enhancement project (daep)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBelle, Remi C.; Rochblatt, David J.

    2018-06-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) has recently constructed two new 34-m antennas at the Canberra Deep Space Communications Complex (CDSCC). These new antennas are part of the larger DAEP project to add six new 34-m antennas to the DSN, including two in Madrid, three in Canberra and one in Goldstone (California). The DAEP project included development and implementation of several new technologies for the X, and Ka (32 GHz) -band uplink and downlink electronics. The electronics upgrades were driven by several different considerations, including parts obsolescence, cost reduction, improved reliability and maintainability, and capability to meet future performance requirements. The new antennas are required to support TT&C links for all of the NASA deep-space spacecraft, as well as for several international partners. Some of these missions, such as Voyager 1 and 2, have very limited link budgets, which results in demanding requirements for system G/T performance. These antennas are also required to support radio science missions with several spacecraft, which dictate some demanding requirements for spectral purity, amplitude stability and phase stability for both the uplink and downlink electronics. After completion of these upgrades, a comprehensive campaign of tests and measurements took place to characterize the electronics and calibrate the antennas. Radiometric measurement techniques were applied to characterize, calibrate, and optimize the performance of the antenna parameters. These included optical and RF high-resolution holographic and total power radiometry techniques. The methodology and techniques utilized for the measurement and calibration of the antennas is described in this paper. Lessons learned (not all discussed in this paper) from the commissioning of the first antenna (DSS-35) were applied to the commissioning of the second antenna (DSS-36). These resulted in achieving antenna aperture efficiency of 66% (for DSS-36), at Ka-Band (32-Ghz), which is

  13. The performance of the INER improved free-air ionization chamber in the comparison of air kerma calibration coefficients for medium-energy X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.-H. E-mail: jhlee@iner.gov.tw; Kotler, L.H.; Bueermann, Ludwig; Hwang, W.-S.; Chiu, J.-H.; Wang, C.-F

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes modifications to an original design, correction factors and uncertainty evaluations for an improved free-air ionization chamber constructed at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER, Taiwan). In addition, a comparison of secondary standard air kerma calibration coefficients for 100-250 kV medium-energy X-rays was performed to verify the experimental accuracy and measurement consistency of the improved chamber. The comparison results showed a satisfactory agreement in the measurements which were within the combined expanded uncertainties (k=2)

  14. Comparison of process estimation techniques for on-line calibration monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumaker, B. D.; Hashemian, H. M.; Morton, G. W.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of on-line calibration monitoring is to reduce the number of unnecessary calibrations performed each refueling cycle on pressure, level, and flow transmitters in nuclear power plants. The effort requires a baseline for determining calibration drift and thereby the need for a calibration. There are two ways to establish the baseline: averaging and modeling. Averaging techniques have proven to be highly successful in the applications when there are a large number of redundant transmitters; but, for systems with little or no redundancy, averaging methods are not always reliable. That is, for non-redundant transmitters, more sophisticated process estimation techniques are needed to augment or replace the averaging techniques. This paper explores three well-known process estimation techniques; namely Independent Component Analysis (ICA), Auto-Associative Neural Networks (AANN), and Auto-Associative Kernel Regression (AAKR). Using experience and data from an operating nuclear plant, the paper will present an evaluation of the effectiveness of these methods in detecting transmitter drift in actual plant conditions. (authors)

  15. Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, P.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this Model Report is to document the Seepage Calibration Model (SCM). The SCM is developed (1) to establish the conceptual basis for the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (SMPA), and (2) to derive seepage-relevant, model-related parameters and their distributions for use in the SMPA and seepage abstraction in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SCM is intended to be used only within this Model Report for the estimation of seepage-relevant parameters through calibration of the model against seepage-rate data from liquid-release tests performed in several niches along the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Main Drift and in the Cross Drift. The SCM does not predict seepage into waste emplacement drifts under thermal or ambient conditions. Seepage predictions for waste emplacement drifts under ambient conditions will be performed with the SMPA (see upcoming REV 02 of CRWMS M and O 2000 [153314]), which inherits the conceptual basis and model-related parameters from the SCM. Seepage during the thermal period is examined separately in the Thermal Hydrologic (TH) Seepage Model (see BSC 2003 [161530]). The scope of this work is (1) to evaluate seepage rates measured during liquid-release experiments performed in several niches in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) and in the Cross Drift, which was excavated for enhanced characterization of the repository block (ECRB); (2) to evaluate air-permeability data measured in boreholes above the niches and the Cross Drift to obtain the permeability structure for the seepage model; (3) to use inverse modeling to calibrate the SCM and to estimate seepage-relevant, model-related parameters on the drift scale; (4) to estimate the epistemic uncertainty of the derived parameters, based on the goodness-of-fit to the observed data and the sensitivity of calculated seepage with respect to the parameters of interest; (5) to characterize the aleatory uncertainty

  16. A Review of Sensor Calibration Monitoring for Calibration Interval Extension in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coble, Jamie B.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.; Hashemian, Hash; Shumaker, Brent; Cummins, Dara

    2012-08-31

    Currently in the United States, periodic sensor recalibration is required for all safety-related sensors, typically occurring at every refueling outage, and it has emerged as a critical path item for shortening outage duration in some plants. Online monitoring can be employed to identify those sensors that require calibration, allowing for calibration of only those sensors that need it. International application of calibration monitoring, such as at the Sizewell B plant in United Kingdom, has shown that sensors may operate for eight years, or longer, within calibration tolerances. This issue is expected to also be important as the United States looks to the next generation of reactor designs (such as small modular reactors and advanced concepts), given the anticipated longer refueling cycles, proposed advanced sensors, and digital instrumentation and control systems. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) accepted the general concept of online monitoring for sensor calibration monitoring in 2000, but no U.S. plants have been granted the necessary license amendment to apply it. This report presents a state-of-the-art assessment of online calibration monitoring in the nuclear power industry, including sensors, calibration practice, and online monitoring algorithms. This assessment identifies key research needs and gaps that prohibit integration of the NRC-approved online calibration monitoring system in the U.S. nuclear industry. Several needs are identified, including the quantification of uncertainty in online calibration assessment; accurate determination of calibration acceptance criteria and quantification of the effect of acceptance criteria variability on system performance; and assessment of the feasibility of using virtual sensor estimates to replace identified faulty sensors in order to extend operation to the next convenient maintenance opportunity. Understanding the degradation of sensors and the impact of this degradation on signals is key to

  17. Comparison of radiotherapy dosimetry for 3D-CRT, IMRT, and SBRT based on electron density calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartutik, K; Pawiro, S A; Wibowo, W E

    2016-01-01

    Accurate calculation of dose distribution affected by inhomogeneity tissue is required in radiotherapy planning. This study was performed to determine the ratio between radiotherapy planning using 3D-CRT, IMRT, and SBRT based on a calibrated curve of CT-number in the lung for different target's shape in 3D-CRT, IMRT, and spinal cord for SBRT. Calibration curves of CT-number were generated under measurement basis and introduced into TPS, then planning was performed for 3D-CRT, IMRT, and SBRT with 7, and 15 radiation fields. Afterwards, planning evaluation was performed by comparing the DVH curve, HI, and CI. 3D-CRT and IMRT produced the lowest HI at calibration curve of CIRS 002LFC with the value 0.24 and 10. Whereas SBRT produced the lowest HI on a linear calibration curve with a value of 0.361. The highest CI in IMRT and SBRT technique achieved using a linear calibration curve was 0.97 and 1.77 respectively. For 3D-CRT, the highest CI was obtained by using calibration curve of CIRS 062M with the value of 0.45. From the results of CI and HI, it is concluded that the calibration curve of CT-number does not significantly differ with Schneider's calibrated curve, and inverse planning gives a better result than forward planning. (paper)

  18. Experimental comparison between total calibration factors and components calibration factors of reference dosemeters used in secondary standard laboratory dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.A. da.

    1981-06-01

    A quantitative comparison of component calibration factors with the corresponding overall calibration factor was used to evaluate the adopted component calibration procedure in regard to parasitic elements. Judgement of significance is based upon the experimental uncertainty of a well established procedure for determination of the overall calibration factor. The experimental results obtained for different ionization chambers and different electrometers demonstrate that for one type of electrometer the parasitic elements have no influence on its sensitivity considering the experimental uncertainty of the calibration procedures. In this case the adopted procedure for determination of component calibration factors is considered to be equivalent to the procedure of determination of the overall calibration factor and thus might be used as a strong quality control measure in routine calibration. (Author) [pt

  19. Study of the calibration potential of HELYCON detectors with ANTARES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Tsirigotis, Apostolos; Tzamarias, Spyros

    2009-01-01

    The 'HEllenic LYceum Cosmic Observatories Network' (HELYCON) Collaboration is constructing a network of detector stations dedicated to the study of Extensive Air Showers. The use of HELYCON detectors is also envisaged for the calibration of a cubic kilometer scale Mediterranean neutrino telescope by means of an array of these detectors at the sea surface. The ANTARES framework is well suited to perform a first test of the principle: a feasibility study is on-going and a test in real conditions is foreseen. In this paper the requirements for evaluating the calibration potential of a surface array in the ANTARES context are discussed.

  20. Calibration through on-line monitoring of instruments channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    Plant technical specifications require periodic calibration of instrument channels, and this has traditionally meant calibration at fixed time intervals for nearly all instruments. Experience has shown that unnecessarily frequent calibrations reduce channel availability and reliability, impact outage durations, and increase maintenance costs. An alternative approach to satisfying existing requirements for periodic calibration consists of on-line monitoring and quantitative comparison of instrument channels during operation to identify instrument degradation and failure. A Utility Working Group has been formed by EPRI to support the technical activities necessary to achieve generic NRC acceptance of on-line monitoring of redundant instrument channels as a basis for determining when to perform calibrations. A topical report proposing NRC acceptance of this approach was submitted in August 1995, and the Working Group is currently resolving NRC technical questions. This paper describes the proposed approach and the current status of the topical report with regard to NRC review. While these activities will not preclude utilities from continuing to use existing calibration approaches, successful acceptance of this performance-based approach will allow utilities to substantially reduce the number of calibrations which are performed. Concurrent benefits will include reduced I ampersand C impact on outage durations and improved sensitivity to instrument channel performance

  1. Galileo spacecraft inertial sensors in-flight calibration design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshahi, M. H.; Lai, J. Y.

    1983-01-01

    The successful navigation of Galileo depends on accurate trajectory correction maneuvers (TCM's) performed during the mission. A set of Inertial Sensor (INS) units, comprised of gyros and accelerometers, mounted on the spacecraft, are utilized to control and monitor the performance of the TCM's. To provide the optimum performance, in-flight calibrations of INS are planned. These calibrations will take place on a regular basis. In this paper, a mathematical description is given of the data reduction technique used in analyzing a typical set of calibration data. The design of the calibration and the inertial sensor error models, necessary for the above analysis, are delineated in detail.

  2. Relative efficiency calibration between two silicon drift detectors performed with a monochromatized X-ray generator over the 0.1-1.5 keV range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, S.; Boubault, F.

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we present the first X-ray calibration performed over the 0.1-1.5 keV spectral range by means of a soft X-ray Manson source and the monochromator SYMPAX. This monochromator, based on a classical Rowland geometry, presents the novelty to be able to board simultaneously two detectors and move them under vacuum in front of the exit slit of the monochromatizing stage. This provides the great advantage to perform radiometric measurements of the monochromatic X-ray photon flux with one reference detector while calibrating another X-ray detector. To achieve this, at least one secondary standard must be operated with SYMPAX. This paper presents thereby an efficiency transfer experiment between a secondary standard silicon drift detector (SDD), previously calibrated on BESSY II synchrotron Facility, and another one ("unknown" SDD), devoted to be used permanently with SYMPAX. The associated calibration process is described as well as corresponding results. Comparison with calibrated measurements performed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) Radiometric Laboratory shows a very good agreement between the secondary standard and the unknown SDD.

  3. Radioactivity measurement of 18F in 16 ml vials for calibration of radionuclide calibrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurdiyanto, Gatot; Marsoem, Pujadi; Candra, Hermawan; Wijono, Paidi

    2012-01-01

    Fluorine-18 is obtained through the reaction 18 O(p, n) 18 F using a cyclotron that is situated in a hospital in Jakarta. Standardization of the 18 F solution is performed by gamma spectrometry using calibration sources of 152 Eu, 60 Co and 137 Cs that have traceability to the International System of units (SI). The activities in the 16 ml vials that were used for calibrating the radionuclide calibrators were between 1 and 2 GBq, with expanded uncertainties of 3.8%. The expanded uncertainty, at a coverage factor of k=2, on the derived calibration factor for the radionuclide calibrator was 6.6%. - Highlights: ► PTKMR–BATAN as a NMI of Indonesia is required to have procedures to calibrate the radionuclide calibrators. ► Standardizations were carried out on a solution of [ 18 F]FDG using gamma spectrometry. ► The volume of 18 F solutions used was 16 ml because this is the volume often used in hospitals. ► The Secondary Standard ionization chamber is a CRC-7BT Capintec radionuclide calibrator. ► A dial setting for 16 ml of [ 18 F]FDG solution in a vial is 443 for the Capintec dose calibrator.

  4. Calibration of the neutron scintillation counter threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noga, V.I.; Ranyuk, Yu.N.; Telegin, Yu.N.

    1978-01-01

    A method for calibrating the threshold of a neutron counter in the form of a 10x10x40 cm plastic scintillator is described. The method is based on the evaluation of the Compton boundary of γ-spectrum from the discrimination curve of counter loading. The results of calibration using 60 Co and 24 Na γ-sources are given. In order to eValuate the Compton edge rapidly, linear extrapolation of the linear part of the discrimination curve towards its intersection with the X axis is recommended. Special measurements have shown that the calibration results do not practically depend on the distance between the cathode of a photomultiplier and the place where collimated γ-radiation of the calibration source reaches the scintillator

  5. Online neural trigger for optimizing data acquisition during particle beam calibration tests with calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, P.V.M. da; Seixas, J.M. de; Damazio, D.O.; Ferreira, B.C.

    2004-01-01

    For LHC, the hadronic calorimetry of the ATLAS detector is performed by Tilecal, a scintillating tile calorimeter. For calibration purposes, a fraction of the Tilecal modules is placed in particle beam lines. Despite beam high quality, experimental beam contamination is observed and this masks the actual performance of the calorimeter. For optimizing the calibration task, an online neural particle classifier was developed for Tilecal. Envisaging a neural trigger for incoming particles, a neural process runs integrated to the data acquisition task and performs online training for particle identification. The neural classification performance is evaluated by correlating the neural response to classical methodology, confirming an ability for outsider identification at levels as high as 99.3%

  6. Online neural trigger for optimizing data acquisition during particle beam calibration tests with calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Da Silva, P V M; De Seixas, J M; Ferreira, B C

    2004-01-01

    For LHC, the hadronic calorimetry of the ATLAS detector is performed by Tilecal, a scintillating tile calorimeter. For calibration purposes, a fraction of the Tilecal modules is placed in particle beam lines. Despite beam high quality, experimental beam contamination is observed and this masks the actual performance of the calorimeter. For optimizing the calibration task, an online neural particle classifier was developed for Tilecal. Envisaging a neural trigger for incoming particles, a neural process runs integrated to the data acquisition task and performs online training for particle identification. The neural classification performance is evaluated by correlating the neural response to classical methodology, confirming an ability for outsider identification at levels as high as 99.3%.

  7. Performance and calibration of wave length shifting fibers for K2K SciBar detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Taichi

    2004-01-01

    The wave length shifting (WLS) fibers (Kuraray Y11 (200) MS) are used for light collection from scintillators in the SciBar detector. The performance of WLS fibers was measured before installation. Because the number of WLS fibers is about 15,000, it is necessary to make a system to measure attenuation length of WLS fibers efficiently. I will report the pre-calibration method for measurement and the performance of the WLS fibers in SciBar detector. (author)

  8. Using MCNP for in-core instrument calibration in CANDU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D.C. [Point Lepreau Generating Station, NB Power, Lepreau, New Brunswick (Canada); Anghel, V.N.P.; Sur, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The calibration of in-core instruments is important for safe and economical CANDU operation. However, in-core detectors are not normally suited to bench calibration procedures. This paper describes the use and validation of detailed neutron transport calculations for the purpose of calibrating the response of in-core neutron flux detectors. The Monte-Carlo transport code, MCNP, was used to model the thermal neutron flux distribution in the region around self-powered in-core flux detectors (ICFDs), and in the vicinity of the calandria edge. The ICFD model was used to evaluate the reduction in signal of a given detector (the 'detector shading factor') due to neutron absorption in surrounding materials, detectors, and lead-cables. The calandria edge model was used to infer the accuracy of the calandria edge position from flux scans performed by AECL's traveling flux detector (TFD) system. The MCNP results were checked against experimental results on ICFDs, and also against shading factors computed by other means. The use of improved in-core detector calibration factors obtained by this new methodology will improve the accuracy of spatial flux control performance in CANDU-6 reactors. The accurate determination of TFD based calandria edge position is useful in the quantitative measurement of changes in in-core component dimensions and position due to aging, such as pressure tube sag. (author)

  9. Hydrologic Model Development and Calibration: Contrasting a Single- and Multi-Objective Approach for Comparing Model Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadzadeh, M.; Maclean, A.; Tolson, B. A.; Burn, D. H.

    2009-05-01

    Hydrologic model calibration aims to find a set of parameters that adequately simulates observations of watershed behavior, such as streamflow, or a state variable, such as snow water equivalent (SWE). There are different metrics for evaluating calibration effectiveness that involve quantifying prediction errors, such as the Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) coefficient and bias evaluated for the entire calibration period, on a seasonal basis, for low flows, or for high flows. Many of these metrics are conflicting such that the set of parameters that maximizes the high flow NS differs from the set of parameters that maximizes the low flow NS. Conflicting objectives are very likely when different calibration objectives are based on different fluxes and/or state variables (e.g., NS based on streamflow versus SWE). One of the most popular ways to balance different metrics is to aggregate them based on their importance and find the set of parameters that optimizes a weighted sum of the efficiency metrics. Comparing alternative hydrologic models (e.g., assessing model improvement when a process or more detail is added to the model) based on the aggregated objective might be misleading since it represents one point on the tradeoff of desired error metrics. To derive a more comprehensive model comparison, we solved a bi-objective calibration problem to estimate the tradeoff between two error metrics for each model. Although this approach is computationally more expensive than the aggregation approach, it results in a better understanding of the effectiveness of selected models at each level of every error metric and therefore provides a better rationale for judging relative model quality. The two alternative models used in this study are two MESH hydrologic models (version 1.2) of the Wolf Creek Research basin that differ in their watershed spatial discretization (a single Grouped Response Unit, GRU, versus multiple GRUs). The MESH model, currently under development by Environment

  10. Modified calibration protocol evaluated in a model-based testing of SBR flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corominas, Lluís; Sin, Gürkan; Puig, Sebastià

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to refine the BIOMATH calibration protocol for SBR systems, in particular to develop a pragmatic calibration protocol that takes advantage of SBR information-rich data, defines a simulation strategy to obtain proper initial conditions for model calibration and provide...

  11. On-line monitoring for calibration reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Mario; Gran, Frauke Schmitt; Thunem, Harald P-J.

    2004-04-01

    On-Line Monitoring (OLM) of a channel's calibration state evaluates instrument channel performance by assessing its consistency with other plant indications. Industry and experience at several plants has shown this overall approach to be very effective in identifying instrument channels that are exhibiting degrading or inconsistent performance characteristics. The Halden Reactor Project has developed the signal validation system PEANO, which can be used to assist with the tasks of OLM. To further enhance the PEANO System for use as a calibration reduction tool, the following two additional modules have been developed; HRP Prox, which performs pre-processing and statistical analysis of signal data, Batch Monitoring Module (BMM), which is an off-line batch monitoring and reporting suite. The purpose and functionality of the HRP Prox and BMM modules are discussed in this report, as well as the improvements made to the PEANO Server to support these new modules. The Halden Reactor Project has established a Halden On-Line Monitoring User Group (HOLMUG), devoted to the discussion and implementation of on-line monitoring techniques in power plants. It is formed by utilities, vendors, regulatory bodies and research institutes that meet regularly to discuss implementation aspects of on-line monitoring, technical specification changes, cost-benefit analysis and regulatory issues. (Author)

  12. Spatial pattern evaluation of a calibrated national hydrological model - a remote-sensing-based diagnostic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiguren, Gorka; Koch, Julian; Stisen, Simon

    2017-11-01

    Distributed hydrological models are traditionally evaluated against discharge stations, emphasizing the temporal and neglecting the spatial component of a model. The present study widens the traditional paradigm by highlighting spatial patterns of evapotranspiration (ET), a key variable at the land-atmosphere interface, obtained from two different approaches at the national scale of Denmark. The first approach is based on a national water resources model (DK-model), using the MIKE-SHE model code, and the second approach utilizes a two-source energy balance model (TSEB) driven mainly by satellite remote sensing data. Ideally, the hydrological model simulation and remote-sensing-based approach should present similar spatial patterns and driving mechanisms of ET. However, the spatial comparison showed that the differences are significant and indicate insufficient spatial pattern performance of the hydrological model.The differences in spatial patterns can partly be explained by the fact that the hydrological model is configured to run in six domains that are calibrated independently from each other, as it is often the case for large-scale multi-basin calibrations. Furthermore, the model incorporates predefined temporal dynamics of leaf area index (LAI), root depth (RD) and crop coefficient (Kc) for each land cover type. This zonal approach of model parameterization ignores the spatiotemporal complexity of the natural system. To overcome this limitation, this study features a modified version of the DK-model in which LAI, RD and Kc are empirically derived using remote sensing data and detailed soil property maps in order to generate a higher degree of spatiotemporal variability and spatial consistency between the six domains. The effects of these changes are analyzed by using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to evaluate spatial patterns. The EOF analysis shows that including remote-sensing-derived LAI, RD and Kc in the distributed hydrological model adds

  13. Vibration transducer calibration techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, D. J.

    1980-09-01

    Techniques for the calibration of vibration transducers used in the Aeronautical Quality Assurance Directorate of the British Ministry of Defence are presented. Following a review of the types of measurements necessary in the calibration of vibration transducers, the performance requirements of vibration transducers, which can be used to measure acceleration, velocity or vibration amplitude, are discussed, with particular attention given to the piezoelectric accelerometer. Techniques for the accurate measurement of sinusoidal vibration amplitude in reference-grade transducers are then considered, including the use of a position sensitive photocell and the use of a Michelson laser interferometer. Means of comparing the output of working-grade accelerometers with that of previously calibrated reference-grade devices are then outlined, with attention given to a method employing a capacitance bridge technique and a method to be used at temperatures between -50 and 200 C. Automatic calibration procedures developed to speed up the calibration process are outlined, and future possible extensions of system software are indicated.

  14. Calibration and field performance of membrane-enclosed sorptive coating for integrative passive sampling of persistent organic pollutants in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrana, Branislav; Paschke, Albrecht; Popp, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Membrane-enclosed sorptive coating (MESCO) is a miniaturised monitoring device that enables integrative passive sampling of persistent, hydrophobic organic pollutants in water. The system combines the passive sampling with solventless preconcentration of organic pollutants from water and subsequent desorption of analytes on-line into a chromatographic system. Exchange kinetics of chemicals between water and MESCO was studied at different flow rates of water, in order to characterize the effect of variable environmental conditions on the sampler performance, and to identify a method for in situ correction of the laboratory-derived calibration data. It was found that the desorption of chemicals from MESCO into water is isotropic to the absorption of the analytes onto the sampler under the same exposure conditions. This allows for the in situ calibration of the uptake of pollutants using elimination kinetics of performance reference compounds and more accurate estimates of target analyte concentrations. A field study was conducted to test the sampler performance alongside spot sampling. A good agreement of contaminant patterns and water concentrations was obtained by the two sampling techniques. - A robust calibration method of a passive sampling device for monitoring of persistent organic pollutants in water is described

  15. Calibration of reference KAP-meters at SSDL and cross calibration of clinical KAP-meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetland, Per O.; Friberg, Eva G.; Oevreboe, Kirsti M.; Bjerke, Hans H.

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of 2007 the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL) in Norway established a calibration service for reference air-kerma product meter (KAP-meter). The air-kerma area product, PKA, is a dosimetric quantity that can be directly related to the patient dose and used for risk assessment associated with different x-ray examinations. The calibration of reference KAP-meters at the SSDL gives important information on parameters influencing the calibration factor for different types of KAP-meters. The use of reference KAP-meters calibrated at the SSDL is an easy and reliable way to calibrate or verify the PKA indicated by the x-ray equipment out in the clinics. Material and methods. Twelve KAP-meters were calibrated at the SSDL by use of the substitution method at five diagnostic radiation qualities (RQRs). Results. The calibration factors varied from 0.94 to 1.18. The energy response of the individual KAP-meters varied by a total of 20% between the different RQRs and the typical chamber transmission factors ranged from 0.78 to 0.91. Discussion. It is important to use a calibrated reference KAP-meter and a harmonised calibration method in the PKA calibration in hospitals. The obtained uncertainty in the PKA readings is comparable with other calibration methods if the information in the calibration certificate is correct used, corrections are made and proper positioning of the KAP-chamber is performed. This will ensure a reliable estimate of the patient dose and a proper optimisation of conventional x-ray examinations and interventional procedures

  16. Evaluation applications of instrument calibration research findings in psychology for very small samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, W. P., Jr.; Petry, P.

    2016-11-01

    Many published research studies document item calibration invariance across samples using Rasch's probabilistic models for measurement. A new approach to outcomes evaluation for very small samples was employed for two workshop series focused on stress reduction and joyful living conducted for health system employees and caregivers since 2012. Rasch-calibrated self-report instruments measuring depression, anxiety and stress, and the joyful living effects of mindfulness behaviors were identified in peer-reviewed journal articles. Items from one instrument were modified for use with a US population, other items were simplified, and some new items were written. Participants provided ratings of their depression, anxiety and stress, and the effects of their mindfulness behaviors before and after each workshop series. The numbers of participants providing both pre- and post-workshop data were low (16 and 14). Analysis of these small data sets produce results showing that, with some exceptions, the item hierarchies defining the constructs retained the same invariant profiles they had exhibited in the published research (correlations (not disattenuated) range from 0.85 to 0.96). In addition, comparisons of the pre- and post-workshop measures for the three constructs showed substantively and statistically significant changes. Implications for program evaluation comparisons, quality improvement efforts, and the organization of communications concerning outcomes in clinical fields are explored.

  17. Performance evaluation of radiant cooling system application on a university building in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satrio, Pujo; Sholahudin, S.; Nasruddin

    2017-03-01

    The paper describes a study developed to estimate the energy savings potential of a radiant cooling system installed in an institutional building in Indonesia. The simulations were carried out using IESVE to evaluate thermal performance and energy consumption The building model was calibrated using the measured data for the installed radiant system. Then this calibrated model was used to simulate the energy consumption and temperature distribution to determine the proportional energy savings and occupant comfort under different systems. The result was radiant cooling which integrated with a Dedicated Outside Air System (DOAS) could make 41,84% energy savings compared to the installed cooling system. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation showed that a radiant system integrated with DOAS provides superior human comfort than a radiant system integrated with Variable Air Volume (VAV). Percentage People Dissatisfied was kept below 10% using the proposed system.

  18. Evaluation of uncertainties in the calibration of radiation personal monitor with Cesium-137 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirapalheta, Tatiane; Alexandre, Anderson; Costa, Camila; Batista, Gilmar; Paulino, Thyago; Albuquerque, Marcos; Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    2016-01-01

    This work shows the entire calibration process of an individual monitor, focusing on radiation protection, in health, correlating these measures associated uncertainties. The results show an expanded uncertainty of 5.81% for dose rate measurements and an expanded uncertainty of 5.61% for integrated dose measurements, these uncertainties have been evaluated the type A and type B with its components. (author)

  19. Bowtie filter and water calibration in the improvement of cone beam CT image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Minghui; Dai Jianrong; Zhang Ke

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the improvement of cone beam CT (CBCT) image quality by using bewtie filter (F 1 ) and water calibration. Methods: First the multi-level gain calibration of the detector panel with the method of Cal 2 calibration was performed, and the CT images of CATPHAN503 with F 0 and bowtie filter were collected, respectively. Then the detector panel using water calibration kit was calibrated, and images were acquired again. Finally, the change of image quality after using F 1 and (or) water calibration method was observed. The observed indexes included low contrast visibility, spatial uniformity, ring artifact, spatial resolution and geometric accuracy. Results: Comparing with the traditional combination of F 0 filter and Cal 2 calibration, the combination of bowtie filter F 1 and water calibration improves low contrast visibility by 13.71%, and spatial uniformity by 54. 42%. Water calibration removes ring artifacts effectively. However, none of them improves spatial resolution and geometric accuracy. Conclusions: The combination of F 1 and water calibration improves CBCT image quality effectively. This improvement is aid to the registration of CBCT images and localization images. (authors)

  20. Evaluation of the AMSR-E Data Calibration Over Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoku, E.; Chan, T.; Crosson, W.; Limaye, A.

    2004-01-01

    Land observations by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), particularly of soil and vegetation moisture changes, have numerous applications in hydrology, ecology and climate. Quantitative retrieval of soil and vegetation parameters relies on accurate calibration of the brightness temperature measurements. Analyses of the spectral and polarization characteristics of early versions of the AMSR-E data revealed significant calibration biases over land at 6.9 GHz. The biases were estimated and removed in the current archived version of the data Radiofrequency interference (RFI) observed at 6.9 GHz is more difficult to quanti@ however. A calibration analysis of AMSR-E data over land is presented in this paper for a complete annual cycle from June 2002 through September 2003. The analysis indicates the general high quality of the data for land applications (except for RFI), and illustrates seasonal trends of the data for different land surface types and regions.

  1. Systematic calibration of an integrated x-ray and optical tomography system for preclinical radiation research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yidong, E-mail: yidongyang@med.miami.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33136 (United States); Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Wong, John W. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 (United States); Eslami, Sohrab; Iordachita, Iulian I. [Laboratory for Computational Sensing and Robotics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Patterson, Michael S. [Juravinski Cancer Centre and Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S4K1 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) guided small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) has been developed for focal tumor irradiation, allowing laboratory researchers to test basic biological hypotheses that can modify radiotherapy outcomes in ways that were not feasible previously. CBCT provides excellent bone to soft tissue contrast, but is incapable of differentiating tumors from surrounding soft tissue. Bioluminescence tomography (BLT), in contrast, allows direct visualization of even subpalpable tumors and quantitative evaluation of tumor response. Integration of BLT with CBCT offers complementary image information, with CBCT delineating anatomic structures and BLT differentiating luminescent tumors. This study is to develop a systematic method to calibrate an integrated CBCT and BLT imaging system which can be adopted onboard the SARRP to guide focal tumor irradiation. Methods: The integrated imaging system consists of CBCT, diffuse optical tomography (DOT), and BLT. The anatomy acquired from CBCT and optical properties acquired from DOT serve as a priori information for the subsequent BLT reconstruction. Phantoms were designed and procedures were developed to calibrate the CBCT, DOT/BLT, and the entire integrated system. Geometrical calibration was performed to calibrate the CBCT system. Flat field correction was performed to correct the nonuniform response of the optical imaging system. Absolute emittance calibration was performed to convert the camera readout to the emittance at the phantom or animal surface, which enabled the direct reconstruction of the bioluminescence source strength. Phantom and mouse imaging were performed to validate the calibration. Results: All calibration procedures were successfully performed. Both CBCT of a thin wire and a euthanized mouse revealed no spatial artifact, validating the accuracy of the CBCT calibration. The absolute emittance calibration was validated with a 650 nm laser source, resulting in a 3

  2. Systematic calibration of an integrated x-ray and optical tomography system for preclinical radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yidong; Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Wong, John W.; Eslami, Sohrab; Iordachita, Iulian I.; Patterson, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) guided small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) has been developed for focal tumor irradiation, allowing laboratory researchers to test basic biological hypotheses that can modify radiotherapy outcomes in ways that were not feasible previously. CBCT provides excellent bone to soft tissue contrast, but is incapable of differentiating tumors from surrounding soft tissue. Bioluminescence tomography (BLT), in contrast, allows direct visualization of even subpalpable tumors and quantitative evaluation of tumor response. Integration of BLT with CBCT offers complementary image information, with CBCT delineating anatomic structures and BLT differentiating luminescent tumors. This study is to develop a systematic method to calibrate an integrated CBCT and BLT imaging system which can be adopted onboard the SARRP to guide focal tumor irradiation. Methods: The integrated imaging system consists of CBCT, diffuse optical tomography (DOT), and BLT. The anatomy acquired from CBCT and optical properties acquired from DOT serve as a priori information for the subsequent BLT reconstruction. Phantoms were designed and procedures were developed to calibrate the CBCT, DOT/BLT, and the entire integrated system. Geometrical calibration was performed to calibrate the CBCT system. Flat field correction was performed to correct the nonuniform response of the optical imaging system. Absolute emittance calibration was performed to convert the camera readout to the emittance at the phantom or animal surface, which enabled the direct reconstruction of the bioluminescence source strength. Phantom and mouse imaging were performed to validate the calibration. Results: All calibration procedures were successfully performed. Both CBCT of a thin wire and a euthanized mouse revealed no spatial artifact, validating the accuracy of the CBCT calibration. The absolute emittance calibration was validated with a 650 nm laser source, resulting in a 3

  3. Optimization, evaluation and calibration of a cross-strip DOI detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, F. P.; Kolb, A.; Pichler, B. J.

    2018-02-01

    This study depicts the evaluation of a SiPM detector with depth of interaction (DOI) capability via a dual-sided readout that is suitable for high-resolution positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance (PET/MR) imaging. Two different 12  ×  12 pixelated LSO scintillator arrays with a crystal pitch of 1.60 mm are examined. One array is 20 mm-long with a crystal separation by the specular reflector Vikuiti enhanced specular reflector (ESR), and the other one is 18 mm-long and separated by the diffuse reflector Lumirror E60 (E60). An improvement in energy resolution from 22.6% to 15.5% for the scintillator array with the E60 reflector is achieved by taking a nonlinear light collection correction into account. The results are FWHM energy resolutions of 14.0% and 15.5%, average FWHM DOI resolutions of 2.96 mm and 1.83 mm, and FWHM coincidence resolving times of 1.09 ns and 1.48 ns for the scintillator array with the ESR and that with the E60 reflector, respectively. The measured DOI signal ratios need to be assigned to an interaction depth inside the scintillator crystal. A linear and a nonlinear method, using the intrinsic scintillator radiation from lutetium, are implemented for an easy to apply calibration and are compared to the conventional method, which exploits a setup with an externally collimated radiation beam. The deviation between the DOI functions of the linear or nonlinear method and the conventional method is determined. The resulting average of differences in DOI positions is 0.67 mm and 0.45 mm for the nonlinear calibration method for the scintillator array with the ESR and with the E60 reflector, respectively; Whereas the linear calibration method results in 0.51 mm and 0.32 mm for the scintillator array with the ESR and the E60 reflector, respectively; and is, due to its simplicity, also applicable in assembled detector systems.

  4. A multilaboratory comparison of calibration accuracy and the performance of external references in analytical ultracentrifugation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaying Zhao

    Full Text Available Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC is a first principles based method to determine absolute sedimentation coefficients and buoyant molar masses of macromolecules and their complexes, reporting on their size and shape in free solution. The purpose of this multi-laboratory study was to establish the precision and accuracy of basic data dimensions in AUC and validate previously proposed calibration techniques. Three kits of AUC cell assemblies containing radial and temperature calibration tools and a bovine serum albumin (BSA reference sample were shared among 67 laboratories, generating 129 comprehensive data sets. These allowed for an assessment of many parameters of instrument performance, including accuracy of the reported scan time after the start of centrifugation, the accuracy of the temperature calibration, and the accuracy of the radial magnification. The range of sedimentation coefficients obtained for BSA monomer in different instruments and using different optical systems was from 3.655 S to 4.949 S, with a mean and standard deviation of (4.304 ± 0.188 S (4.4%. After the combined application of correction factors derived from the external calibration references for elapsed time, scan velocity, temperature, and radial magnification, the range of s-values was reduced 7-fold with a mean of 4.325 S and a 6-fold reduced standard deviation of ± 0.030 S (0.7%. In addition, the large data set provided an opportunity to determine the instrument-to-instrument variation of the absolute radial positions reported in the scan files, the precision of photometric or refractometric signal magnitudes, and the precision of the calculated apparent molar mass of BSA monomer and the fraction of BSA dimers. These results highlight the necessity and effectiveness of independent calibration of basic AUC data dimensions for reliable quantitative studies.

  5. A Multilaboratory Comparison of Calibration Accuracy and the Performance of External References in Analytical Ultracentrifugation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Huaying

    2015-05-21

    Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) is a first principles based method to determine absolute sedimentation coefficients and buoyant molar masses of macromolecules and their complexes, reporting on their size and shape in free solution. The purpose of this multi-laboratory study was to establish the precision and accuracy of basic data dimensions in AUC and validate previously proposed calibration techniques. Three kits of AUC cell assemblies containing radial and temperature calibration tools and a bovine serum albumin (BSA) reference sample were shared among 67 laboratories, generating 129 comprehensive data sets. These allowed for an assessment of many parameters of instrument performance, including accuracy of the reported scan time after the start of centrifugation, the accuracy of the temperature calibration, and the accuracy of the radial magnification. The range of sedimentation coefficients obtained for BSA monomer in different instruments and using different optical systems was from 3.655 S to 4.949 S, with a mean and standard deviation of (4.304 ± 0.188) S (4.4%). After the combined application of correction factors derived from the external calibration references for elapsed time, scan velocity, temperature, and radial magnification, the range of s-values was reduced 7-fold with a mean of 4.325 S and a 6-fold reduced standard deviation of ± 0.030 S (0.7%). In addition, the large data set provided an opportunity to determine the instrument-to-instrument variation of the absolute radial positions reported in the scan files, the precision of photometric or refractometric signal magnitudes, and the precision of the calculated apparent molar mass of BSA monomer and the fraction of BSA dimers. These results highlight the necessity and effectiveness of independent calibration of basic AUC data dimensions for reliable quantitative studies.

  6. A Multilaboratory Comparison of Calibration Accuracy and the Performance of External References in Analytical Ultracentrifugation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Huaying; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Alfonso, Carlos; Arisaka, Fumio; Attali, Ilan; Bain, David L.; Bakhtina, Marina M.; Becker, Donald F.; Bedwell, Gregory J.; Bekdemir, Ahmet; Besong, Tabot M.D.; Birck, Catherine; Brautigam, Chad A.; Brennerman, William; Byron, Olwyn; Bzowska, Agnieszka; Chaires, Jonathan B.; Chaton, Catherine T.; Cö lfen, Helmut; Connaghan, Keith D.; Crowley, Kimberly A.; Curth, Ute; Daviter, Tina; Dean, William L.; Dí ez, Ana I.; Ebel, Christine; Eckert, Debra M.; Eisele, Leslie E.; Eisenstein, Edward; England, Patrick; Escalante, Carlos; Fagan, Jeffrey A.; Fairman, Robert; Finn, Ron M.; Fischle, Wolfgang; de la Torre, José Garcí a; Gor, Jayesh; Gustafsson, Henning; Hall, Damien; Harding, Stephen E.; Cifre, José G. Herná ndez; Herr, Andrew B.; Howell, Elizabeth E.; Isaac, Richard S.; Jao, Shu-Chuan; Jose, Davis; Kim, Soon-Jong; Kokona, Bashkim; Kornblatt, Jack A.; Kosek, Dalibor; Krayukhina, Elena; Krzizike, Daniel; Kusznir, Eric A.; Kwon, Hyewon; Larson, Adam; Laue, Thomas M.; Le Roy, Aline; Leech, Andrew P.; Lilie, Hauke; Luger, Karolin; Luque-Ortega, Juan R.; Ma, Jia; May, Carrie A.; Maynard, Ernest L.; Modrak-Wojcik, Anna; Mok, Yee-Foong; Mü cke, Norbert; Nagel-Steger, Luitgard; Narlikar, Geeta J.; Noda, Masanori; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Nourse, Amanda; Obsil, Tomas; Park, Chad K.; Park, Jin-Ku; Pawelek, Peter D.; Perdue, Erby E.; Perkins, Stephen J.; Perugini, Matthew A.; Peterson, Craig L.; Peverelli, Martin G.; Prag, Gali; Prevelige, Peter E.; Raynal, Bertrand D. E.; Rezabkova, Lenka; Richter, Klaus; Ringel, Alison E.; Rosenberg, Rose; Rowe, Arthur J.; Rufer, Arne C.; Swygert, Sarah G.; Scott, David J.; Seravalli, Javier G.; Solovyova, Alexandra S.; Song, Renjie; Staunton, David; Stoddard, Caitlin; Stott, Katherine; Strauss, Holger M.; Streicher, Werner W.; Sumida, John P.; Szczepanowski, Roman H.; Tessmer, Ingrid; Toth, Ronald T.; Tripathy, Ashutosh; Uchiyama, Susumu; Uebel, Stephan F. W.; Unzai, Satoru; Gruber, Anna Vitlin; von Hippel, Peter H.; null; Wandrey, Christine; Wang, Szu-Huan; Weitzel, Steven E.; Wielgus-Kutrowska, Beata; Wolberger, Cynthia; Wolff, Martin; Wright, Edward; Wu, Yu-Sung; Wubben, Jacinta M.; Schuck, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) is a first principles based method to determine absolute sedimentation coefficients and buoyant molar masses of macromolecules and their complexes, reporting on their size and shape in free solution. The purpose of this multi-laboratory study was to establish the precision and accuracy of basic data dimensions in AUC and validate previously proposed calibration techniques. Three kits of AUC cell assemblies containing radial and temperature calibration tools and a bovine serum albumin (BSA) reference sample were shared among 67 laboratories, generating 129 comprehensive data sets. These allowed for an assessment of many parameters of instrument performance, including accuracy of the reported scan time after the start of centrifugation, the accuracy of the temperature calibration, and the accuracy of the radial magnification. The range of sedimentation coefficients obtained for BSA monomer in different instruments and using different optical systems was from 3.655 S to 4.949 S, with a mean and standard deviation of (4.304 ± 0.188) S (4.4%). After the combined application of correction factors derived from the external calibration references for elapsed time, scan velocity, temperature, and radial magnification, the range of s-values was reduced 7-fold with a mean of 4.325 S and a 6-fold reduced standard deviation of ± 0.030 S (0.7%). In addition, the large data set provided an opportunity to determine the instrument-to-instrument variation of the absolute radial positions reported in the scan files, the precision of photometric or refractometric signal magnitudes, and the precision of the calculated apparent molar mass of BSA monomer and the fraction of BSA dimers. These results highlight the necessity and effectiveness of independent calibration of basic AUC data dimensions for reliable quantitative studies.

  7. Beyond discrimination: A comparison of calibration methods and clinical usefulness of predictive models of readmission risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Colin G; Sharman, Kavya; Hripcsak, George

    2017-12-01

    Prior to implementing predictive models in novel settings, analyses of calibration and clinical usefulness remain as important as discrimination, but they are not frequently discussed. Calibration is a model's reflection of actual outcome prevalence in its predictions. Clinical usefulness refers to the utilities, costs, and harms of using a predictive model in practice. A decision analytic approach to calibrating and selecting an optimal intervention threshold may help maximize the impact of readmission risk and other preventive interventions. To select a pragmatic means of calibrating predictive models that requires a minimum amount of validation data and that performs well in practice. To evaluate the impact of miscalibration on utility and cost via clinical usefulness analyses. Observational, retrospective cohort study with electronic health record data from 120,000 inpatient admissions at an urban, academic center in Manhattan. The primary outcome was thirty-day readmission for three causes: all-cause, congestive heart failure, and chronic coronary atherosclerotic disease. Predictive modeling was performed via L1-regularized logistic regression. Calibration methods were compared including Platt Scaling, Logistic Calibration, and Prevalence Adjustment. Performance of predictive modeling and calibration was assessed via discrimination (c-statistic), calibration (Spiegelhalter Z-statistic, Root Mean Square Error [RMSE] of binned predictions, Sanders and Murphy Resolutions of the Brier Score, Calibration Slope and Intercept), and clinical usefulness (utility terms represented as costs). The amount of validation data necessary to apply each calibration algorithm was also assessed. C-statistics by diagnosis ranged from 0.7 for all-cause readmission to 0.86 (0.78-0.93) for congestive heart failure. Logistic Calibration and Platt Scaling performed best and this difference required analyzing multiple metrics of calibration simultaneously, in particular Calibration

  8. Characterization of the Sonoran desert as a radiometric calibration target for Earth observing sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angal, Amit; Chander, Gyanesh; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Choi, Tae-young; Wu, Aisheng

    2011-01-01

    To provide highly accurate quantitative measurements of the Earth's surface, a comprehensive calibration and validation of the satellite sensors is required. The NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Characterization Support Team, in collaboration with United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation and Science Center, has previously demonstrated the use of African desert sites to monitor the long-term calibration stability of Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+). The current study focuses on evaluating the suitability of the Sonoran Desert test site for post-launch long-term radiometric calibration as well as cross-calibration purposes. Due to the lack of historical and on-going in situ ground measurements, the Sonoran Desert is not usually used for absolute calibration. An in-depth evaluation (spatial, temporal, and spectral stability) of this site using well calibrated L7 ETM+ measurements and local climatology data has been performed. The Sonoran Desert site produced spatial variability of about 3 to 5% in the reflective solar regions, and the temporal variations of the site after correction for view-geometry impacts were generally around 3%. The results demonstrate that, barring the impacts due to occasional precipitation, the Sonoran Desert site can be effectively used for cross-calibration and long-term stability monitoring of satellite sensors, thus, providing a good test site in the western hemisphere.

  9. Prelaunch calibrations and on-orbit performance analysis of FY-2D SVISSR infrared channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Chen, Fuchun

    2014-10-01

    Meteorological satellites have become an irreplaceable weather and ocean-observing tool in China. These satellites are used to monitor natural disasters and improve the efficiency of many sectors of Chinese national economy. FY-2 series satellites are one of the key components of Chinese meteorological observing system and application system. In this paper, the operational satellite- FY-2D's infrared channels were focused and analyzed. The instruments' background was introduced briefly. The main payload SVISSR specifications were compared with its ancestral VISSR. The optical structure of the SVISSR was also expressed. FY-2D prelaunch calibrations methodology was introduced and the accuracies of the absolute radiometric calibration were analyzed. Some key optics on-orbit performance of FY-2D SVISSR were analyzed include onboard blackbody, cold FPA and detector noise level. All of these works show that FY- 2D's main payload SVISSR was in a healthy status.

  10. Microscope self-calibration based on micro laser line imaging and soft computing algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinar Muñoz Rodríguez, J.

    2018-06-01

    A technique to perform microscope self-calibration via micro laser line and soft computing algorithms is presented. In this technique, the microscope vision parameters are computed by means of soft computing algorithms based on laser line projection. To implement the self-calibration, a microscope vision system is constructed by means of a CCD camera and a 38 μm laser line. From this arrangement, the microscope vision parameters are represented via Bezier approximation networks, which are accomplished through the laser line position. In this procedure, a genetic algorithm determines the microscope vision parameters by means of laser line imaging. Also, the approximation networks compute the three-dimensional vision by means of the laser line position. Additionally, the soft computing algorithms re-calibrate the vision parameters when the microscope vision system is modified during the vision task. The proposed self-calibration improves accuracy of the traditional microscope calibration, which is accomplished via external references to the microscope system. The capability of the self-calibration based on soft computing algorithms is determined by means of the calibration accuracy and the micro-scale measurement error. This contribution is corroborated by an evaluation based on the accuracy of the traditional microscope calibration.

  11. Design of a tracked ultrasound calibration phantom made of LEGO bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Ryan; Soehl, Marie; Rankin, Adam; Lasso, Andras; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2014-03-01

    PURPOSE: Spatial calibration of tracked ultrasound systems is commonly performed using precisely fabricated phantoms. Machining or 3D printing has relatively high cost and not easily available. Moreover, the possibilities for modifying the phantoms are very limited. Our goal was to find a method to construct a calibration phantom from affordable, widely available components, which can be built in short time, can be easily modified, and provides comparable accuracy to the existing solutions. METHODS: We designed an N-wire calibration phantom made of LEGO® bricks. To affirm the phantom's reproducibility and build time, ten builds were done by first-time users. The phantoms were used for a tracked ultrasound calibration by an experienced user. The success of each user's build was determined by the lowest root mean square (RMS) wire reprojection error of three calibrations. The accuracy and variance of calibrations were evaluated for the calibrations produced for various tracked ultrasound probes. The proposed model was compared to two of the currently available phantom models for both electromagnetic and optical tracking. RESULTS: The phantom was successfully built by all ten first-time users in an average time of 18.8 minutes. It cost approximately $10 CAD for the required LEGO® bricks and averaged a 0.69mm of error in the calibration reproducibility for ultrasound calibrations. It is one third the cost of similar 3D printed phantoms and takes much less time to build. The proposed phantom's image reprojections were 0.13mm more erroneous than those of the highest performing current phantom model The average standard deviation of multiple 3D image reprojections differed by 0.05mm between the phantoms CONCLUSION: It was found that the phantom could be built in less time, was one third the cost, compared to similar 3D printed models. The proposed phantom was found to be capable of producing equivalent calibrations to 3D printed phantoms.

  12. Offline Calibration of b-Jet Identification Efficiencies

    CERN Document Server

    Lowette, Steven; Heyninck, Jan; Vanlaer, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    A new method to calibrate b-tagging algorithms can be exploited at the LHC, due to the high energy and luminosity of the accelerator. The abundantly produced ttbar pairs can be used to isolate jet samples with a highly enriched b-jet content, on which the b-jet identification algorithms can be calibrated. Two methods are described to extract a b-enriched jet sample in ttbar events, using the semileptonic and the fully leptonic decay modes. The selection of jets is based on a likelihood ratio method. On the selected b-jet enriched jet samples the b-tagging performance is measured, taking into account the impurities of the samples. The most important contributions to the systematic uncertainties are evaluated, resulting in an estimate of the expected precision on the measurement of the b-jet identification performance. For 1 fb-1 (10 fb-1) of integrated luminosity the relative accuracy on the b-jet identification efficiency is expected to be about 6% (4%) in the barrel region and about 10% (5%) in the endcaps.

  13. Identifying influential data points in hydrological model calibration and their impact on streamflow predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David; Thyer, Mark; Westra, Seth

    2015-04-01

    Highly influential data points are those that have a disproportionately large impact on model performance, parameters and predictions. However, in current hydrological modelling practice the relative influence of individual data points on hydrological model calibration is not commonly evaluated. This presentation illustrates and evaluates several influence diagnostics tools that hydrological modellers can use to assess the relative influence of data. The feasibility and importance of including influence detection diagnostics as a standard tool in hydrological model calibration is discussed. Two classes of influence diagnostics are evaluated: (1) computationally demanding numerical "case deletion" diagnostics; and (2) computationally efficient analytical diagnostics, based on Cook's distance. These diagnostics are compared against hydrologically orientated diagnostics that describe changes in the model parameters (measured through the Mahalanobis distance), performance (objective function displacement) and predictions (mean and maximum streamflow). These influence diagnostics are applied to two case studies: a stage/discharge rating curve model, and a conceptual rainfall-runoff model (GR4J). Removing a single data point from the calibration resulted in differences to mean flow predictions of up to 6% for the rating curve model, and differences to mean and maximum flow predictions of up to 10% and 17%, respectively, for the hydrological model. When using the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency in calibration, the computationally cheaper Cook's distance metrics produce similar results to the case-deletion metrics at a fraction of the computational cost. However, Cooks distance is adapted from linear regression with inherit assumptions on the data and is therefore less flexible than case deletion. Influential point detection diagnostics show great potential to improve current hydrological modelling practices by identifying highly influential data points. The findings of this

  14. Calibration and reconstruction performances of the KLOE electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adinolfi, M.; Aloisio, A.; Ambrosino, F.; Andryakov, A.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Anulli, F.; Bacci, C.; Bankamp, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Bellini, F.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Bulychjov, S.A.; Cabibbo, G.; Calcaterra, A.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Carboni, G.; Cardini, A.; Casarsa, M.; Cataldi, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervelli, F.; Cevenini, F.; Chiefari, G.; Ciambrone, P.; Conetti, S.; Conticelli, S.; Lucia, E. De; Robertis, G. De; Sangro, R. De; Simone, P. De; Zorzi, G. De; Dell'Agnello, S.; Denig, A.; Domenico, A. Di; Donato, C. Di; Falco, S. Di; Doria, A.; Drago, E.; Elia, V.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Felici, G.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franceschi, A.; Franzini, P.; Gao, M.L.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Golovatyuk, V.; Gorini, E.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grandegger, W.; Graziani, E.; Guarnaccia, P.; Hagel, U.V.; Han, H.G.; Han, S.W.; Huang, X.; Incagli, M.; Ingrosso, L.; Jang, Y.Y.; Kim, W.; Kluge, W.; Kulikov, V.; Lacava, F.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Lomtadze, F.; Luisi, C.; Mao, C.S.; Martemianov, M.; Matsyuk, M.; Mei, W.; Merola, L.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Moalem, A.; Moccia, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Napolitano, M.; Nedosekin, A.; Panareo, M.; Pacciani, L.; Pages, P.; Palutan, M.; Paoluzi, L.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passaseo, M.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, G.; Picca, D.; Pirozzi, G.; Pistillo, C.; Pollack, M.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Ruggieri, F.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schwick, C.; Sciascia, B.; Pirozzi, G.; Sciubba, A.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Shan, J.; Silano, P.; Spadaro, T.; Spagnolo, S.; Spiriti, E.; Stanescu, C.; Tong, G.L.; Tortora, L.; Valente, E.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Veneziano, S.; Wu, Y.; Xie, Y.G.; Zhao, P.P.; Zhou, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The main aim of the KLOE experiment at DAPHINE, the Frascati phi-factory, is to study CP violation in the K 0 -K-bar 0 system. Requirements on shower detection are very stringent. An hermetic, lead-scintillating fiber sampling calorimeter has been chosen and built. A review of the methods used to calibrate and reconstruct energy and timing is reported in this paper. Emphasis is given to the calibration procedures developed using the 2.4 pb -1 collected in 1999. An energy resolution of 5.7% E/GeV is achieved together with a linearity in energy response better than 1% above 50 MeV. A time resolution of ∼54 ps E/GeV is also measured on samples of radiative Bhabha and PHI decays

  15. Post-launch performance evaluation of the OMPS Nadir Mapper and Nadir Profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotenhuis, Michael G.; Wu, Xiangqian; Flynn, Larry; Beach, Eric; Niu, Jianguo; Yu, Wei

    2014-09-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) represents the latest generation of polar-orbiting satellites operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The first in the JPSS series of satellites, the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft was launched in November 2011 to bridge the gap between the current Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and the future JPSS-1. The Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite (OMPS) is a suite of hyperspectral instruments onboard the Suomi NPP spacecraft designed to continue atmospheric ozone records through both atmospheric profiles and global distribution mapping. OMPS will also be included on the future JPSS payloads. In order to properly extend measurements from previous ozone instruments, including the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) instrument on POES, proper OMPS calibration is necessary. In this study, the postlaunch performance of the OMPS Nadir Mapper (NM) and Nadir Profiler (NP) are evaluated through their Sensor Data Records (SDRs), which validates their end-to-end calibration. This is achieved through stability monitoring and intercomparison.

  16. An Evaluation of Antarctica as a Calibration Target for Passive Microwave Satellite Missions with Climate Data Record Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Passive microwave remote sensing at L-band (1.4 GHz) is sensitive to soil moisture and sea surface salinity, both important climate variables. Science studies involving these variables can now take advantage of new satellite L-band observations. The first mission with regular global passive microwave observations at L-band is the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), launched November, 2009. A second mission, NASA's Aquarius, was launched June, 201 I. A third mission, NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) is scheduled to launch in 2014. Together, these three missions may provide a decade-long data record-provided that they are intercalibrated. The intercalibration is best performed at the radiance (brightness temperature) level, and Antarctica is proving to be a key calibration target. However, Antarctica has thus far not been fully characterized as a potential target. This paper will present evaluations of Antarctica as a microwave calibration target for the above satellite missions. Preliminary analyses have identified likely target areas, such as the vicinity of Dome-C and larger areas within East Antarctica. Physical sources of temporal and spatial variability of polar firn are key to assessing calibration uncertainty. These sources include spatial variability of accumulation rate, compaction, surface characteristics (dunes, micro-topography), wind patterns, and vertical profiles of density and temperature. Using primarily SMOS data, variability is being empirically characterized and attempts are being made to attribute observed variability to physical sources. One expected outcome of these studies is the potential discovery of techniques for remotely sensing--over all of Antarctica-parameters such as surface temperature.

  17. Study of the calibration potential of HELYCON detectors with ANTARES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre [Universite de Haute Alsace, 61 rue Albert Camus, F68100 Mulhouse (France)], E-mail: ernenwein@cppm.in2p3.fr; Tsirigotis, Apostolos; Tzamarias, Spyros [School of Science and Technology, Hellenic Open University, Tsamadou 13-15 and Aghiou Andrea, Patras 26222 (Greece)

    2009-04-11

    The 'HEllenic LYceum Cosmic Observatories Network' (HELYCON) Collaboration is constructing a network of detector stations dedicated to the study of Extensive Air Showers. The use of HELYCON detectors is also envisaged for the calibration of a cubic kilometer scale Mediterranean neutrino telescope by means of an array of these detectors at the sea surface. The ANTARES framework is well suited to perform a first test of the principle: a feasibility study is on-going and a test in real conditions is foreseen. In this paper the requirements for evaluating the calibration potential of a surface array in the ANTARES context are discussed.

  18. Reactor operations, inspection and maintenance. PNGS Calibration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, E.

    1997-01-01

    The PNGS Calibration Program is being implemented as a response to various concerns identified in recent PEER evaluations and AECB audits. Identified areas of concern were the approach to instrument calibration of Special Safety Systems (SSS). The implementation of a calibration program is a significant improvement in operating practices. A systematic and comprehensive approach to calibration of instrumentation will improve the quality of operation of the plant with a positive contribution to PNGS safety of operation and economic objectives. This paper describes the strategy to implement the proposed calibration program and describes its calibration data requirements. (DM)

  19. Automated Attitude Sensor Calibration: Progress and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlak, Joseph; Hashmall, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes ongoing work a NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center to improve the quality of spacecraft attitude sensor calibration and reduce costs by automating parts of the calibration process. The new calibration software can autonomously preview data quality over a given time span, select a subset of the data for processing, perform the requested calibration, and output a report. This level of automation is currently being implemented for two specific applications: inertial reference unit (IRU) calibration and sensor alignment calibration. The IRU calibration utility makes use of a sequential version of the Davenport algorithm. This utility has been successfully tested with simulated and actual flight data. The alignment calibration is still in the early testing stage. Both utilities will be incorporated into the institutional attitude ground support system.

  20. First Evaluation of the Climatological Calibration Algorithm in the Real-time TMPA Precipitation Estimates over Two Basins at High and Low Latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Bin; Ren, Liliang; Hong, Yang; Gourley, Jonathan; Tian, Yudong; Huffman, George J.; Chen, Xi; Wang, Weiguang; Wen, Yixin

    2013-01-01

    The TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) system underwent a crucial upgrade in early 2009 to include a climatological calibration algorithm (CCA) to its realtime product 3B42RT, and this algorithm will continue to be applied in the future Global Precipitation Measurement era constellation precipitation products. In this study, efforts are focused on the comparison and validation of the Version 6 3B42RT estimates before and after the climatological calibration is applied. The evaluation is accomplished using independent rain gauge networks located within the high-latitude Laohahe basin and the low-latitude Mishui basin, both in China. The analyses indicate the CCA can effectively reduce the systematic errors over the low-latitude Mishui basin but misrepresent the intensity distribution pattern of medium-high rain rates. This behavior could adversely affect TMPA's hydrological applications, especially for extreme events (e.g., floods and landslides). Results also show that the CCA tends to perform slightly worse, in particular, during summer and winter, over the high-latitude Laohahe basin. This is possibly due to the simplified calibration-processing scheme in the CCA that directly applies the climatological calibrators developed within 40 degrees latitude to the latitude belts of 40 degrees N-50 degrees N. Caution should therefore be exercised when using the calibrated 3B42RT for heavy rainfall-related flood forecasting (or landslide warning) over high-latitude regions, as the employment of the smooth-fill scheme in the CCA bias correction could homogenize the varying rainstorm characteristics. Finally, this study highlights that accurate detection and estimation of snow at high latitudes is still a challenging task for the future development of satellite precipitation retrievals.

  1. Development of basic system for sensor calibration support in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusumi, Naohiro; Ohga, Yukiharu; Fukuda, Mitsuko; Ishizaki, Yuuichi; Koyama, Mikio; Maeda, Akihiko

    2004-01-01

    It is strongly desirable to reduce maintenance costs and shorten the time of periodic inspections in nuclear power plants. Therefore, it is important to reduce the amount of maintenance work during the inspection. In Japan, sensor calibration is usually performed at every periodic inspection, and the sensor calibration requires a large amount of work. A system for sensor calibration support has been developed to reduce sensor calibration work. The system is composed of two subsystems: a statistical analysis subsystem and a drift detection subsystem, as well as a human-machine interface, which offers support information. The statistical analysis subsystem supports the decision of the sensor calibration intervals based on the statistical analysis of sensor calibration data. There is the possibility that sensor drift increases beyond an allowance value before the sensor calibration intervals determined by the statistical analysis subsystem because of malfunctions, etc. To cope with this, the drift detection subsystem detects the sensor drift online during the plant operation. By combining the statistical analysis subsystem and the drift detection subsystem, a reliable sensor calibration support system is realized. The basic system composed of two subsystems was developed and evaluated using real plant data. The results showed that the sensor calibration intervals can be extended beyond current intervals and that the system is capable of detecting the sensor drift online. (author)

  2. Optimization of SPECT calibration for quantification of images applied to dosimetry with iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Samira Marques de

    2018-01-01

    SPECT systems calibration plays an essential role in the accuracy of the quantification of images. In this work, in its first stage, an optimized SPECT calibration method was proposed for 131 I studies, considering the partial volume effect (PVE) and the position of the calibration source. In the second stage, the study aimed to investigate the impact of count density and reconstruction parameters on the determination of the calibration factor and the quantification of the image in dosimetry studies, considering the reality of clinical practice in Brazil. In the final step, the study aimed evaluating the influence of several factors in the calibration for absorbed dose calculation using Monte Carlo simulations (MC) GATE code. Calibration was performed by determining a calibration curve (sensitivity versus volume) obtained by applying different thresholds. Then, the calibration factors were determined with an exponential function adjustment. Images were performed with high and low counts densities for several source positions within the simulator. To validate the calibration method, the calibration factors were used for absolute quantification of the total reference activities. The images were reconstructed adopting two approaches of different parameters, usually used in patient images. The methodology developed for the calibration of the tomographic system was easier and faster to implement than other procedures suggested to improve the accuracy of the results. The study also revealed the influence of the location of the calibration source, demonstrating better precision in the absolute quantification considering the location of the target region during the calibration of the system. The study applied in the Brazilian thyroid protocol suggests the revision of the calibration of the SPECT system, including different positions for the reference source, besides acquisitions considering the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of the images. Finally, the doses obtained with the

  3. Calibration of high resolution digital camera based on different photogrammetric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, N F A; Ahmad, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents method of calibrating high-resolution digital camera based on different configuration which comprised of stereo and convergent. Both methods are performed in the laboratory and in the field calibration. Laboratory calibration is based on a 3D test field where a calibration plate of dimension 0.4 m × 0.4 m with grid of targets at different height is used. For field calibration, it uses the same concept of 3D test field which comprised of 81 target points located on a flat ground and the dimension is 9 m × 9 m. In this study, a non-metric high resolution digital camera called Canon Power Shot SX230 HS was calibrated in the laboratory and in the field using different configuration for data acquisition. The aim of the calibration is to investigate the behavior of the internal digital camera whether all the digital camera parameters such as focal length, principal point and other parameters remain the same or vice-versa. In the laboratory, a scale bar is placed in the test field for scaling the image and approximate coordinates were used for calibration process. Similar method is utilized in the field calibration. For both test fields, the digital images were acquired within short period using stereo and convergent configuration. For field calibration, aerial digital images were acquired using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system. All the images were processed using photogrammetric calibration software. Different calibration results were obtained for both laboratory and field calibrations. The accuracy of the results is evaluated based on standard deviation. In general, for photogrammetric applications and other applications the digital camera must be calibrated for obtaining accurate measurement or results. The best method of calibration depends on the type of applications. Finally, for most applications the digital camera is calibrated on site, hence, field calibration is the best method of calibration and could be employed for obtaining accurate

  4. Physiotherapy ultrasound calibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gledhill, M.

    1996-01-01

    Calibration of physiotherapy ultrasound equipment has long been a problem. Numerous surveys around the world over the past 20 years have all found that only a low percentage of the units tested had an output within 30% of that indicatd. In New Zealand, a survey carried out by the NRL in 1985 found that only 24% had an output, at the maximum setting, within + or - 20% of that indicated. The present performance Standard for new equipment (NZS 3200.2.5:1992) requires that the measured output should not deviate from that indicated by more than + or - 30 %. This may be tightened to + or - 20% in the next few years. Any calibration is only as good as the calibration equipment. Some force balances can be tested with small weights to simulate the force exerted by an ultrasound beam, but with others this is not possible. For such balances, testing may only be feasible with a calibrated source which could be used like a transfer standard. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  5. Calibration pipeline for VIR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, F.; Fonte, S.; Coradini, A.; Filacchione, G.; de Sanctis, M. C.; Ammannito, E.; Capria, M. T.; Cartacci, M.; Noschese, R.; Tosi, F.; Capaccioni, F.

    2011-10-01

    During the second quarter of 2011 VIR-MS (VIS and IR Mapping Spectrometer) [1] aboard Dawn mission [2] has approached Vesta in order to start a long period of acquisitions that will end at the beginning of 2012. Data acquired by each instrument always require a calibration process in order to remove all the instrument effects that could affect the scientific evaluations and analysis. VIR-MS instrument team has realized a calibration pipeline which has the goal of producing calibrated (1b level) data starting from the raw (1a level) ones. The other goal of the tool has been the check of the goodness of acquired data by means of the evaluation of a series of minimum requisites of each data file, such as the percentage of the saturated pixels, the presence of spikes or the mean S/N ratio of each qube.

  6. Astrometric Calibration and Performance of the Dark Energy Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, G. M.; Armstrong, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Walker, A. R.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Allam, S.; Bechtol, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; Costa, L. N. da; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Eifler, T. F.; Fernandez, E.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kent, S.; Krause, E.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Li, T. S.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Reil, K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.

    2017-05-30

    We characterize the variation in photometric response of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) across its 520~Mpix science array during 4 years of operation. These variations are measured using high signal-to-noise aperture photometry of $>10^7$ stellar images in thousands of exposures of a few selected fields, with the telescope dithered to move the sources around the array. A calibration procedure based on these results brings the RMS variation in aperture magnitudes of bright stars on cloudless nights down to 2--3 mmag, with <1 mmag of correlated photometric errors for stars separated by $\\ge20$". On cloudless nights, any departures of the exposure zeropoints from a secant airmass law exceeding >1 mmag are plausibly attributable to spatial/temporal variations in aperture corrections. These variations can be inferred and corrected by measuring the fraction of stellar light in an annulus between 6" and 8" diameter. Key elements of this calibration include: correction of amplifier nonlinearities; distinguishing pixel-area variations and stray light from quantum-efficiency variations in the flat fields; field-dependent color corrections; and the use of an aperture-correction proxy. The DECam response pattern across the 2-degree field drifts over months by up to $\\pm7$ mmag, in a nearly-wavelength-independent low-order pattern. We find no fundamental barriers to pushing global photometric calibrations toward mmag accuracy.

  7. Establishment of a procedure to calculate the measurement uncertainties in radiation survey meters calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoli, J.E.; Potiens, M.P.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Calibration Laboratory of Sao Paulo calibrates more than one thousand gamma ray survey meters a year; beside other kinds of radiotherapy, radiodiagnostic and radiation protection instruments. It has a standard (600 cm 3 ) cylinder ionization chamber (Nuclear Enterprises Ltd. model 2511/3) traceable to the Brazilian Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) whose instruments are traceable to the BIPM. Annually the beam dosimetry is performed using this chamber and the results are used as the true values for calibration purposes. The uncertainties present in every direct or indirect measurement during the calibration procedure must be evaluated for purposes of laboratory quality control. All calculation steps in the propagation of errors are presented in this work staging from the ionization chamber charge measured with the standard instrument. Such a propagation was made in space and time, considering even the environmental quantities uncertainties. The propagation was necessary in space, because the ionization chamber measurements were performed at only one space position. The time propagation was essential due to the fact that the activity is a peculiar physical quantity which changes with time according to precise relations for a specific radionuclide. The clear indication of every measurement uncertainty is always important to quantify the quality of this measurement. Nowadays the achievement of calibration laboratory quality systems requires the expression of all uncertainties and the procedure used to evaluate it. An example of this procedure in the case of the calibration of a typical portable radiation survey meter is presented. The direct exposure rate instrument measurement was compared with the true value given by the standard instrument properly propagated and all quantities used have their uncertainties shown. (author)

  8. Development of moderated neutron calibration fields simulating workplaces of MOX fuel facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimura, Norio; Yoshida, Tadayoshi; Takada, Chie

    2005-01-01

    It is important for the MOX fuel facilities to control neutrons produced by the spontaneous fission of plutonium isotopes and those from (α,n) reactions between 18 O and α particles emitted by 238 Pu. Neutron dose meters should be calibrated for measuring these neutrons. We have developed moderated-neutron calibration fields employing a 252 Cf neutron source and moderators mainly for the characteristics evaluation and the calibration of neutron detectors used in MOX fuel facilities. Neutron energy spectrum can be adjusted by changing the position of the 252 Cf neutron source and combining different moderators to simulate the neutron field of the MOX fuel facility. This performance is realized owing to using an existing neutron irradiation room. (K. Yoshida)

  9. PLEIADES ABSOLUTE CALIBRATION : INFLIGHT CALIBRATION SITES AND METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lachérade

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In-flight calibration of space sensors once in orbit is a decisive step to be able to fulfil the mission objectives. This article presents the methods of the in-flight absolute calibration processed during the commissioning phase. Four In-flight calibration methods are used: absolute calibration, cross-calibration with reference sensors such as PARASOL or MERIS, multi-temporal monitoring and inter-bands calibration. These algorithms are based on acquisitions over natural targets such as African deserts, Antarctic sites, La Crau (Automatic calibration station and Oceans (Calibration over molecular scattering or also new extra-terrestrial sites such as the Moon and selected stars. After an overview of the instrument and a description of the calibration sites, it is pointed out how each method is able to address one or several aspects of the calibration. We focus on how these methods complete each other in their operational use, and how they help building a coherent set of information that addresses all aspects of in-orbit calibration. Finally, we present the perspectives that the high level of agility of PLEIADES offers for the improvement of its calibration and a better characterization of the calibration sites.

  10. Preliminary assessment of the operating performance and calibration of rectilinear scanners and dose calibrators in Rio de Janeiro - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, L.; Wegst, A.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty rectilinear scanners and ten dose calibrators were tested for a variety of operating conditions. The test for rectilinear scanners were based on image quality obtained with phantoms of the brain, liver (Williams phantom) and thyroid. The parameters investigated specifically for rectilinear scanners included those under direct control of the operator, such as proper setting of the focal distance, the velocity, the photopeak calibration, contrast correct collimator, line spacing, and background count. (E.G.) [pt

  11. Carbon resistor pressure gauge calibration at low stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, Bruce; Vandersall, Kevin S.; Niles, Angela M.; Greenwood, Daniel W.; Garcia, Frank; Forbes, Jerry W.; Wilson, William H.

    2002-01-01

    The 470 Ohm carbon resistor gauge has been used in the stress range up to 4-5 GPa for highly heterogeneous materials and/or divergent flow experiments. The attractiveness of the gauge is its rugged nature, simple construction, low cost, reproducibility, and survivability in dynamic events. Gauge drawbacks are the long time response to pressure equilibration and gauge resistance hysteresis. In the regime below 0.4 GPa, gauge calibration has been extrapolated. Because of the need for calibration data within this low stress regime, calibration experiments were performed using a split-Hopkinson bar, drop tower apparatus, and gas pressure chamber. Since the performance of the gauge at elevated temperatures is a concern, the change in resistance due to heating at atmospheric pressure was also investigated. Details of the various calibration arrangements and the results are discussed and compared to a calibration curve fit to previously published calibration data

  12. LANL MTI calibration team experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Steven C.; Atkins, William H.; Clodius, William B.; Little, Cynthia K.; Christensen, R. Wynn

    2004-01-01

    The Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) was designed as an imaging radiometer with absolute calibration requirements established by Department of Energy (DOE) mission goals. Particular emphasis was given to water surface temperature retrieval using two mid wave and three long wave infrared spectral bands, the fundamental requirement was a surface temperature determination of 1K at the 68% confidence level. For the ten solar reflective bands a one-sigma radiometric performance goal of 3% was established. In order to address these technical challenges a calibration facility was constructed containing newly designed sources that were calibrated at NIST. Additionally, the design of the payload and its onboard calibration system supported post launch maintenance and update of the ground calibration. The on-orbit calibration philosophy also included vicarious techniques using ocean buoys, playas and other instrumented sites; these became increasingly important subsequent to an electrical failure which disabled the onboard calibration system. This paper offers various relevant lessons learned in the eight-year process of reducing to practice the calibration capability required by the scientific mission. The discussion presented will include observations pertinent to operational and procedural issues as well as hardware experiences; the validity of some of the initial assumptions will also be explored.

  13. Nitrogen dioxide and kerosene-flame soot calibration of photoacoustic instruments for measurement of light absorption by aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, W. Patrick; Moosmu''ller, Hans; Walker, John W.

    2000-01-01

    A nitrogen dioxide calibration method is developed to evaluate the theoretical calibration for a photoacoustic instrument used to measure light absorption by atmospheric aerosols at a laser wavelength of 532.0 nm. This method uses high concentrations of nitrogen dioxide so that both a simple extinction and the photoacoustically obtained absorption measurement may be performed simultaneously. Since Rayleigh scattering is much less than absorption for the gas, the agreement between the extinction and absorption coefficients can be used to evaluate the theoretical calibration, so that the laser gas spectra are not needed. Photoacoustic theory is developed to account for strong absorption of the laser beam power in passage through the resonator. Findings are that the photoacoustic absorption based on heat-balance theory for the instrument compares well with absorption inferred from the extinction measurement, and that both are well within values represented by published spectra of nitrogen dioxide. Photodissociation of nitrogen dioxide limits the calibration method to wavelengths longer than 398 nm. Extinction and absorption at 532 and 1047 nm were measured for kerosene-flame soot to evaluate the calibration method, and the single scattering albedo was found to be 0.31 and 0.20 at these wavelengths, respectively

  14. e-Calibrations: using the Internet to deliver calibration services in real time at lower cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desrosiers, Marc; Nagy, Vitaly; Puhl, James; Glenn, Robert; Densock, Robert; Stieren, David; Lang, Brian; Kamlowski, Andreas; Maier, Diether; Heiss, Arthur

    2002-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is expanding into a new frontier in the delivery of measurement services. The Internet will be employed to provide industry with electronic traceability to national standards. This is a radical departure from the traditional modes of traceability and presents many new challenges. The traditional mail-based calibration service relies on sending artifacts to the user, who then mails them back to NIST for evaluation. The new service will deliver calibration results to the industry customer on-demand, in real-time, at a lower cost. The calibration results can be incorporated rapidly into the production process to ensure the highest quality manufacturing. The service would provide the US radiation processing industry with a direct link to the NIST calibration facilities and its expertise, and provide an interactive feedback process between industrial processing and the national measurement standard. Moreover, an Internet calibration system should contribute to the removal of measurement-related trade barriers

  15. Sensor Calibration Design Based on D-Optimality Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajiyev Chingiz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a procedure for optimal selection of measurement points using the D-optimality criterion to find the best calibration curves of measurement sensors is proposed. The coefficients of calibration curve are evaluated by applying the classical Least Squares Method (LSM. As an example, the problem of optimal selection for standard pressure setters when calibrating a differential pressure sensor is solved. The values obtained from the D-optimum measurement points for calibration of the differential pressure sensor are compared with those from actual experiments. Comparison of the calibration errors corresponding to the D-optimal, A-optimal and Equidistant calibration curves is done.

  16. Calibration-free optical chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrandpre, Michael D.

    2006-04-11

    An apparatus and method for taking absorbance-based chemical measurements are described. In a specific embodiment, an indicator-based pCO2 (partial pressure of CO2) sensor displays sensor-to-sensor reproducibility and measurement stability. These qualities are achieved by: 1) renewing the sensing solution, 2) allowing the sensing solution to reach equilibrium with the analyte, and 3) calculating the response from a ratio of the indicator solution absorbances which are determined relative to a blank solution. Careful solution preparation, wavelength calibration, and stray light rejection also contribute to this calibration-free system. Three pCO2 sensors were calibrated and each had response curves which were essentially identical within the uncertainty of the calibration. Long-term laboratory and field studies showed the response had no drift over extended periods (months). The theoretical response, determined from thermodynamic characterization of the indicator solution, also predicted the observed calibration-free performance.

  17. Calibration procedure for Slocum glider deployed optical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinić, Ivona; Toro-Farmer, Gerardo; Ragan, Matthew; Oberg, Carl; Jones, Burton H

    2009-08-31

    Recent developments in the field of the autonomous underwater vehicles allow the wide usage of these platforms as part of scientific experiments, monitoring campaigns and more. The vehicles are often equipped with sensors measuring temperature, conductivity, chlorophyll a fluorescence (Chl a), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence, phycoerithrin (PE) fluorescence and spectral volume scattering function at 117 degrees, providing users with high resolution, real time data. However, calibration of these instruments can be problematic. Most in situ calibrations are performed by deploying complementary instrument packages or water samplers in the proximity of the glider. Laboratory calibrations of the mounted sensors are difficult due to the placement of the instruments within the body of the vehicle. For the laboratory calibrations of the Slocum glider instruments we developed a small calibration chamber where we can perform precise calibrations of the optical instruments aboard our glider, as well as sensors from other deployment platforms. These procedures enable us to obtain pre- and post-deployment calibrations for optical fluorescence instruments, which may differ due to the biofouling and other physical damage that can occur during long-term glider deployments. We found that biofouling caused significant changes in the calibration scaling factors of fluorescent sensors, suggesting the need for consistent and repetitive calibrations for gliders as proposed in this paper.

  18. A Study on Relative Radiometric Calibration without Calibration Field for YG-25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Guo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available YG-25 is the first agility optical remote sensing satellite of China to acquire the sub-meter imagery of the earth. The side slither calibration technique is an on-orbit maneuver that has been used to flat-field image data acquired over the uniform calibration field. However, imaging to the single uniform calibration field cannot afford to calibrate the full dynamic response range of the sensor and reduces the efficiency. The paper proposes a new relative radiometric calibration method that a 90-degree yaw maneuver is performed over any non-uniform features of the Earth for YG-25. Meanwhile, we use an enhanced side slither image horizontal correction method based on line segment detector(LSDalgorithm to solve the side slither image over-shifted problem.The shifted results are compared with other horizontal correction method. The histogram match algorithm is used to calculate the relative gains of all detectors. The correctness and validity of the proposed method are validated by using the YG-25 on-board side slither data. The results prove that the mean streaking metrics of relative correction images of YG-25 is better 0.07%, the noticeable striping artifact and residual noise are removed, the calibration accuracy of side slither technique based on non-uniform features is superior to life image statistics of sensor's life span.

  19. Inertial Sensor Error Reduction through Calibration and Sensor Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Lambrecht

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison between cooperative and local Kalman Filters (KF for estimating the absolute segment angle, under two calibration conditions. A simplified calibration, that can be replicated in most laboratories; and a complex calibration, similar to that applied by commercial vendors. The cooperative filters use information from either all inertial sensors attached to the body, Matricial KF; or use information from the inertial sensors and the potentiometers of an exoskeleton, Markovian KF. A one minute walking trial of a subject walking with a 6-DoF exoskeleton was used to assess the absolute segment angle of the trunk, thigh, shank, and foot. The results indicate that regardless of the segment and filter applied, the more complex calibration always results in a significantly better performance compared to the simplified calibration. The interaction between filter and calibration suggests that when the quality of the calibration is unknown the Markovian KF is recommended. Applying the complex calibration, the Matricial and Markovian KF perform similarly, with average RMSE below 1.22 degrees. Cooperative KFs perform better or at least equally good as Local KF, we therefore recommend to use cooperative KFs instead of local KFs for control or analysis of walking.

  20. Fuel conditioning facility electrorefiner volume calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucher, R.G.; Orechwa, Y.

    1995-01-01

    In one of the electrometallurgical process steps of the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF), die in-process nuclear material is dissolved in the electrorefiner tank in an upper layer of a mixture of liquid LiCl-KCl salt and a lower layer of liquid cadmium. The electrorefiner tank, as most process tanks, is not a smooth right-circular cylinder for which a single linear volume calibration curve could be fitted over the whole height of the tank. Rather, the tank contains many internal components, which cause systematic deviations from a single linear function. The nominal operating temperature of the electrorefiner is 500 degrees C although the salt and cadmium are introduced at 410 degrees C. The operating materials and temperatures preclude multiple calibration runs at operating conditions. In order to maximize the calibration information, multiple calibration runs were performed with water at room temperature. These data allow identification of calibration segments, and preliminary estimation of the calibration function and calibration uncertainties. The final calibration function is based on a combination of data from die water calibrations and the measurements made during the filling of the electrorefiner with salt and cadmium for operation

  1. Instrument calibration optimization at Bruce Power: ECI loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chugh, V.; Angelova, M.; Ghias, S.; Parmar, R.; Wang, V.; Xie, H.; Higgs, J.; Schut, J.; Cruchley, I.

    2011-01-01

    Most instruments in a nuclear power plant are calibrated at regular intervals to ensure consistency with the assumptions in the plant Technical Specifications and/or Safe Operating Envelope (SOE) compliance limits (e.g., As-Found Tolerance). In the Instrument Uncertainty Calculations (IUC), As-Found Tolerance for instrument drift is estimated based on statistical analysis of As-Found and As-Left calibration data such as that carried out for Bruce NGS by EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) in 1998. Bruce specific drift values were found to compare favorably with industry benchmarks. Recently a significant amount of work has been done by EPRI and IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) on extending calibration intervals of safety related instruments. Reduction in calibration frequency reduces time commitments on the part of Authorized Nuclear Operators and safety system qualified Control Maintenance Technicians, and allows more schedule flexibility. To establish the proof of concept, As-Left/As-Found tolerances and available margins have been evaluated for the Bruce B Emergency Coolant Injection (ECI) system instrument loops to determine whether an extension of the calibration period from one or two year to three years is justifiable on the basis that these loops will still be in compliance with SOE. The analysis showed that 60% of instruments in the ECI system are qualified for calibration interval extension up to three years. Sensitivity assessment of the effect of proposed changes in calibration intervals for 60% of the instruments on the ECI system unavailability has also been performed using the current Bruce Power ECI unavailability model. The results show that, the largest ECI Predicted Future Unavailability (PFU) is 9.2E-4 year/year for in-core LOCA accident. This value is still below the target unavailability of 1.0E-3 year/year. (author)

  2. Instrument calibration optimization at Bruce Power: ECI loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, V.; Angelova, M.; Ghias, S.; Parmar, R.; Wang, V.; Xie, H. [AMEC NSS, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Higgs, J.; Schut, J.; Cruchley, I. [Bruce Power, Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Most instruments in a nuclear power plant are calibrated at regular intervals to ensure consistency with the assumptions in the plant Technical Specifications and/or Safe Operating Envelope (SOE) compliance limits (e.g., As-Found Tolerance). In the Instrument Uncertainty Calculations (IUC), As-Found Tolerance for instrument drift is estimated based on statistical analysis of As-Found and As-Left calibration data such as that carried out for Bruce NGS by EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) in 1998. Bruce specific drift values were found to compare favorably with industry benchmarks. Recently a significant amount of work has been done by EPRI and IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) on extending calibration intervals of safety related instruments. Reduction in calibration frequency reduces time commitments on the part of Authorized Nuclear Operators and safety system qualified Control Maintenance Technicians, and allows more schedule flexibility. To establish the proof of concept, As-Left/As-Found tolerances and available margins have been evaluated for the Bruce B Emergency Coolant Injection (ECI) system instrument loops to determine whether an extension of the calibration period from one or two year to three years is justifiable on the basis that these loops will still be in compliance with SOE. The analysis showed that 60% of instruments in the ECI system are qualified for calibration interval extension up to three years. Sensitivity assessment of the effect of proposed changes in calibration intervals for 60% of the instruments on the ECI system unavailability has also been performed using the current Bruce Power ECI unavailability model. The results show that, the largest ECI Predicted Future Unavailability (PFU) is 9.2E-4 year/year for in-core LOCA accident. This value is still below the target unavailability of 1.0E-3 year/year. (author)

  3. Evaluation of medium-range ensemble flood forecasting based on calibration strategies and ensemble methods in Lanjiang Basin, Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Gao, Chao; Xuan, Weidong; Xu, Yue-Ping

    2017-11-01

    Ensemble flood forecasts by hydrological models using numerical weather prediction products as forcing data are becoming more commonly used in operational flood forecasting applications. In this study, a hydrological ensemble flood forecasting system comprised of an automatically calibrated Variable Infiltration Capacity model and quantitative precipitation forecasts from TIGGE dataset is constructed for Lanjiang Basin, Southeast China. The impacts of calibration strategies and ensemble methods on the performance of the system are then evaluated. The hydrological model is optimized by the parallel programmed ε-NSGA II multi-objective algorithm. According to the solutions by ε-NSGA II, two differently parameterized models are determined to simulate daily flows and peak flows at each of the three hydrological stations. Then a simple yet effective modular approach is proposed to combine these daily and peak flows at the same station into one composite series. Five ensemble methods and various evaluation metrics are adopted. The results show that ε-NSGA II can provide an objective determination on parameter estimation, and the parallel program permits a more efficient simulation. It is also demonstrated that the forecasts from ECMWF have more favorable skill scores than other Ensemble Prediction Systems. The multimodel ensembles have advantages over all the single model ensembles and the multimodel methods weighted on members and skill scores outperform other methods. Furthermore, the overall performance at three stations can be satisfactory up to ten days, however the hydrological errors can degrade the skill score by approximately 2 days, and the influence persists until a lead time of 10 days with a weakening trend. With respect to peak flows selected by the Peaks Over Threshold approach, the ensemble means from single models or multimodels are generally underestimated, indicating that the ensemble mean can bring overall improvement in forecasting of flows. For

  4. Streamflow characteristics from modelled runoff time series: Importance of calibration criteria selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Sandra; Vis, Marc; Knight, Rodney; Seibert, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Ecologically relevant streamflow characteristics (SFCs) of ungauged catchments are often estimated from simulated runoff of hydrologic models that were originally calibrated on gauged catchments. However, SFC estimates of the gauged donor catchments and subsequently the ungauged catchments can be substantially uncertain when models are calibrated using traditional approaches based on optimization of statistical performance metrics (e.g., Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency). An improved calibration strategy for gauged catchments is therefore crucial to help reduce the uncertainties of estimated SFCs for ungauged catchments. The aim of this study was to improve SFC estimates from modeled runoff time series in gauged catchments by explicitly including one or several SFCs in the calibration process. Different types of objective functions were defined consisting of the Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency, single SFCs, or combinations thereof. We calibrated a bucket-type runoff model (HBV – Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenavdelning – model) for 25 catchments in the Tennessee River basin and evaluated the proposed calibration approach on 13 ecologically relevant SFCs representing major flow regime components and different flow conditions. While the model generally tended to underestimate the tested SFCs related to mean and high-flow conditions, SFCs related to low flow were generally overestimated. The highest estimation accuracies were achieved by a SFC-specific model calibration. Estimates of SFCs not included in the calibration process were of similar quality when comparing a multi-SFC calibration approach to a traditional model efficiency calibration. For practical applications, this implies that SFCs should preferably be estimated from targeted runoff model calibration, and modeled estimates need to be carefully interpreted.

  5. Accuracy improvement in a calibration test bench for accelerometers by a vision system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Emilia, Giulio; Di Gasbarro, David; Gaspari, Antonella; Natale, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    A procedure is described in this paper for the accuracy improvement of calibration of low-cost accelerometers in a prototype rotary test bench, driven by a brushless servo-motor and operating in a low frequency range of vibrations (0 to 5 Hz). Vibration measurements by a vision system based on a low frequency camera have been carried out, in order to reduce the uncertainty of the real acceleration evaluation at the installation point of the sensor to be calibrated. A preliminary test device has been realized and operated in order to evaluate the metrological performances of the vision system, showing a satisfactory behavior if the uncertainty measurement is taken into account. A combination of suitable settings of the control parameters of the motion control system and of the information gained by the vision system allowed to fit the information about the reference acceleration at the installation point to the needs of the procedure for static and dynamic calibration of three-axis accelerometers.

  6. Accuracy improvement in a calibration test bench for accelerometers by a vision system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Emilia, Giulio, E-mail: giulio.demilia@univaq.it; Di Gasbarro, David, E-mail: david.digasbarro@graduate.univaq.it; Gaspari, Antonella, E-mail: antonella.gaspari@graduate.univaq.it; Natale, Emanuela, E-mail: emanuela.natale@univaq.it [University of L’Aquila, Department of Industrial and Information Engineering and Economics (DIIIE), via G. Gronchi, 18, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy)

    2016-06-28

    A procedure is described in this paper for the accuracy improvement of calibration of low-cost accelerometers in a prototype rotary test bench, driven by a brushless servo-motor and operating in a low frequency range of vibrations (0 to 5 Hz). Vibration measurements by a vision system based on a low frequency camera have been carried out, in order to reduce the uncertainty of the real acceleration evaluation at the installation point of the sensor to be calibrated. A preliminary test device has been realized and operated in order to evaluate the metrological performances of the vision system, showing a satisfactory behavior if the uncertainty measurement is taken into account. A combination of suitable settings of the control parameters of the motion control system and of the information gained by the vision system allowed to fit the information about the reference acceleration at the installation point to the needs of the procedure for static and dynamic calibration of three-axis accelerometers.

  7. visCOS: An R-package to evaluate model performance of hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Daniel; Herrnegger, Mathew; Wesemann, Johannes; Schulz, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    The evaluation of model performance is a central part of (hydrological) modelling. Much attention has been given to the development of evaluation criteria and diagnostic frameworks. (Klemeš, 1986; Gupta et al., 2008; among many others). Nevertheless, many applications exist for which objective functions do not yet provide satisfying summaries. Thus, the necessity to visualize results arises in order to explore a wider range of model capacities, be it strengths or deficiencies. Visualizations are usually devised for specific projects and these efforts are often not distributed to a broader community (e.g. via open source software packages). Hence, the opportunity to explicitly discuss a state-of-the-art presentation technique is often missed. We therefore present a comprehensive R-package for evaluating model performance by visualizing and exploring different aspects of hydrological time-series. The presented package comprises a set of useful plots and visualization methods, which complement existing packages, such as hydroGOF (Zambrano-Bigiarini et al., 2012). It is derived from practical applications of the hydrological models COSERO and COSEROreg (Kling et al., 2014). visCOS, providing an interface in R, represents an easy-to-use software package for visualizing and assessing model performance and can be implemented in the process of model calibration or model development. The package provides functions to load hydrological data into R, clean the data, process, visualize, explore and finally save the results in a consistent way. Together with an interactive zoom function of the time series, an online calculation of the objective functions for variable time-windows is included. Common hydrological objective functions, such as the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency and the Kling-Gupta Efficiency, can also be evaluated and visualized in different ways for defined sub-periods like hydrological years or seasonal sections. Many hydrologists use long-term water-balances as a

  8. Calibration of Nanopositioning Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Tan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accuracy is one of the most important criteria for the performance evaluation of micro- and nanorobots or systems. Nanopositioning stages are used to achieve the high positioning resolution and accuracy for a wide and growing scope of applications. However, their positioning accuracy and repeatability are not well known and difficult to guarantee, which induces many drawbacks for many applications. For example, in the mechanical characterisation of biological samples, it is difficult to perform several cycles in a repeatable way so as not to induce negative influences on the study. It also prevents one from controlling accurately a tool with respect to a sample without adding additional sensors for closed loop control. This paper aims at quantifying the positioning repeatability and accuracy based on the ISO 9283:1998 standard, and analyzing factors influencing positioning accuracy onto a case study of 1-DoF (Degree-of-Freedom nanopositioning stage. The influence of thermal drift is notably quantified. Performances improvement of the nanopositioning stage are then investigated through robot calibration (i.e., open-loop approach. Two models (static and adaptive models are proposed to compensate for both geometric errors and thermal drift. Validation experiments are conducted over a long period (several days showing that the accuracy of the stage is improved from typical micrometer range to 400 nm using the static model and even down to 100 nm using the adaptive model. In addition, we extend the 1-DoF calibration to multi-DoF with a case study of a 2-DoF nanopositioning robot. Results demonstrate that the model efficiently improved the 2D accuracy from 1400 nm to 200 nm.

  9. Vicarious absolute radiometric calibration of GF-2 PMS2 sensor using permanent artificial targets in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaokai; Li, Chuanrong; Ma, Lingling; Wang, Ning; Qian, Yonggang; Tang, Lingli

    2016-10-01

    GF-2, launched on August 19 2014, is one of the high-resolution land resource observing satellite of the China GF series satellites plan. The radiometric performance evaluation of the onboard optical pan and multispectral (PMS2) sensor of GF-2 satellite is very important for the further application of the data. And, the vicarious absolute radiometric calibration approach is one of the most useful way to monitor the radiometric performance of the onboard optical sensors. In this study, the traditional reflectance-based method is used to vicarious radiometrically calibrate the onboard PMS2 sensor of GF-2 satellite using three black, gray and white reflected permanent artificial targets located in the AOE Baotou site in China. Vicarious field calibration campaign were carried out in the AOE-Baotou calibration site on 22 April 2016. And, the absolute radiometric calibration coefficients were determined with in situ measured atmospheric parameters and surface reflectance of the permanent artificial calibration targets. The predicted TOA radiance of a selected desert area with our determined calibrated coefficients were compared with the official distributed calibration coefficients. Comparison results show a good consistent and the mean relative difference of the multispectral channels is less than 5%. Uncertainty analysis was also carried out and a total uncertainty with 3.87% is determined of the TOA radiance.

  10. Hand-eye calibration for rigid laparoscopes using an invariant point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen; Stoyanov, Danail; Schneider, Crispin; Gurusamy, Kurinchi; Ourselin, Sébastien; Davidson, Brian; Hawkes, David; Clarkson, Matthew J

    2016-06-01

    Laparoscopic liver resection has significant advantages over open surgery due to less patient trauma and faster recovery times, yet it can be difficult due to the restricted field of view and lack of haptic feedback. Image guidance provides a potential solution but one current challenge is in accurate "hand-eye" calibration, which determines the position and orientation of the laparoscope camera relative to the tracking markers. In this paper, we propose a simple and clinically feasible calibration method based on a single invariant point. The method requires no additional hardware, can be constructed by theatre staff during surgical setup, requires minimal image processing and can be visualised in real time. Real-time visualisation allows the surgical team to assess the calibration accuracy before use in surgery. In addition, in the laboratory, we have developed a laparoscope with an electromagnetic tracking sensor attached to the camera end and an optical tracking marker attached to the distal end. This enables a comparison of tracking performance. We have evaluated our method in the laboratory and compared it to two widely used methods, "Tsai's method" and "direct" calibration. The new method is of comparable accuracy to existing methods, and we show RMS projected error due to calibration of 1.95 mm for optical tracking and 0.85 mm for EM tracking, versus 4.13 and 1.00 mm respectively, using existing methods. The new method has also been shown to be workable under sterile conditions in the operating room. We have proposed a new method of hand-eye calibration, based on a single invariant point. Initial experience has shown that the method provides visual feedback, satisfactory accuracy and can be performed during surgery. We also show that an EM sensor placed near the camera would provide significantly improved image overlay accuracy.

  11. Development of pre-critical excore detector linear subchannel calibration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yoo Sun; Goo, Bon Seung; Cha, Kyun Ho; Lee, Chang Seop; Kim, Yong Hee; Ahn, Chul Soo; Kim, Man Soo

    2001-01-01

    The improved pre-critical excore detector linear subchannel calibration method has been developed to improve the applicability of pre-critical calibration method. The existing calibration method does not always guarantee the accuracy of pre-critical calibration because the calibration results of the previous cycle are not reflected into the current cycle calibration. The developed method has a desirable feature that calibration error would not be propagated in the following cycles since the calibration data determined in previous cycle is incorporated in the current cycle calibration. The pre-critical excore detector linear calibration is tested for YGN unit 3 and UCN unit 3 to evaluate its characteristics and accuracy

  12. Evaluation, Calibration and Comparison of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) National Hydrologic Model (NHM) Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS) Gridded Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, P. A., II; Haj, A. E., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    The United States Geological Survey is currently developing a National Hydrologic Model (NHM) to support and facilitate coordinated and consistent hydrologic modeling efforts at the scale of the continental United States. As part of this effort, the Geospatial Fabric (GF) for the NHM was created. The GF is a database that contains parameters derived from datasets that characterize the physical features of watersheds. The GF was used to aggregate catchments and flowlines defined in the National Hydrography Dataset Plus dataset for more than 100,000 hydrologic response units (HRUs), and to establish initial parameter values for input to the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS). Many parameter values are adjusted in PRMS using an automated calibration process. Using these adjusted parameter values, the PRMS model estimated variables such as evapotranspiration (ET), potential evapotranspiration (PET), snow-covered area (SCA), and snow water equivalent (SWE). In order to evaluate the effectiveness of parameter calibration, and model performance in general, several satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS) gridded datasets including ET, PET, SCA, and SWE were compared to PRMS-simulated values. The MODIS and SNODAS data were spatially averaged for each HRU, and compared to PRMS-simulated ET, PET, SCA, and SWE values for each HRU in the Upper Missouri River watershed. Default initial GF parameter values and PRMS calibration ranges were evaluated. Evaluation results, and the use of MODIS and SNODAS datasets to update GF parameter values and PRMS calibration ranges, are presented and discussed.

  13. Regional Calibration of SCS-CN L-THIA Model: Application for Ungauged Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hong Jeon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Estimating surface runoff for ungauged watershed is an important issue. The Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN method developed from long-term experimental data is widely used to estimate surface runoff from gaged or ungauged watersheds. Many modelers have used the documented SCS-CN parameters without calibration, sometimes resulting in significant errors in estimating surface runoff. Several methods for regionalization of SCS-CN parameters were evaluated. The regionalization methods include: (1 average; (2 land use area weighted average; (3 hydrologic soil group area weighted average; (4 area combined land use and hydrologic soil group weighted average; (5 spatial nearest neighbor; (6 inverse distance weighted average; and (7 global calibration method, and model performance for each method was evaluated with application to 14 watersheds located in Indiana. Eight watersheds were used for calibration and six watersheds for validation. For the validation results, the spatial nearest neighbor method provided the highest average Nash-Sutcliffe (NS value at 0.58 for six watersheds but it included the lowest NS value and variance of NS values of this method was the highest. The global calibration method provided the second highest average NS value at 0.56 with low variation of NS values. Although the spatial nearest neighbor method provided the highest average NS value, this method was not statistically different than other methods. However, the global calibration method was significantly different than other methods except the spatial nearest neighbor method. Therefore, we conclude that the global calibration method is appropriate to regionalize SCS-CN parameters for ungauged watersheds.

  14. Field calibration of cup anemometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, L.; Jensen, G.; Hansen, A.; Kirkegaard, P.

    2001-01-01

    An outdoor calibration facility for cup anemometers, where the signals from 10 anemometers of which at least one is a reference can be recorded simultaneously, has been established. The results are discussed with special emphasis on the statistical significance of the calibration expressions. It is concluded that the method has the advantage that many anemometers can be calibrated accurately with a minimum of work and cost. The obvious disadvantage is that the calibration of a set of anemometers may take more than one month in order to have wind speeds covering a sufficiently large magnitude range in a wind direction sector where we can be sure that the instruments are exposed to identical, simultaneous wind flows. Another main conclusion is that statistical uncertainty must be carefully evaluated since the individual 10 minute wind-speed averages are not statistically independent. (au)

  15. The pre-flight calibration setup of the instrument SIMBIO-SYS onboard the mission BepiColombo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, F.; Rodriguez-Ferreira, J.; Arondel, A.; Dassas, K.; Eng, P.; Lami, P.; Langevin, Y.; Longval, Y.; Pradel, P.; Dami, M.

    2015-11-01

    BepiColombo, an European Space Agency (ESA) mission being conducted in cooperation with the Japan space agency, will explore Mercury with a set of eleven instruments onboard the spacecraft Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO). Among them, SIMBIO-SYS (Spectrometers and Imagers for MPO BepiColombo Integrated Observatory SYStem) is a complex instrument that will provide images and spectra in the 400-2000 nm wavelength range of the entire surface of Mercury. Pre-flight calibration of the SYMBIO-SYS instrument is mandatory for reliable scientific interpretation of images and spectra returned from the planet Mercury. This paper presents the calibration device designed and implemented for the specific requirements of this instrument. It mainly consists of a thermal vacuum chamber simulating the space environment, an optical bench collecting calibration sources and optical elements that simulate the conditions of Mercury observations, mechanical interfaces used for positioning the three channels inside the vacuum chamber, thermal interfaces to explore the operating temperatures, computer interfaces that allow to communicate with both the instrument and the calibration elements and synchronize the calibrations sequences with the status of the calibration device. As the major goal is the characterization of the radiometric performances of the three channels of SIMBIO-SYS, radiometric performances of the test setup evaluated by simulations and measurements are emphasized.

  16. Calibration of spent fuel measurement assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koleska, Michal; Viererbl, Ladislav; Marek, Milan

    2014-01-01

    The LVR-15 research reactor (Czech Republic) had been converted from the highly enriched IRT-2M to the low enriched IRT-4M fuel. For the possibility of the independent pre-transport evaluation of IRT-2M burnup, a spectrometric system was developed. This spectrometric system consists of the fuel holder, the collimator and the portable Canberra Big MAC HPGe (High Purity Germanium) detector. In order to have well reproducible and reliable experimental data for modeling of the measurement system, calibration with the 110m Ag isotope with known activity was performed. This isotope was chosen for having energies similar to isotopes measured in fuel assemblies. The 110m Ag isotope was prepared by irradiating of the silver foil in LVR-15 research reactor; its activity was evaluated in the LVR-15's spectrometric laboratory. From the measured data, an efficiency curve of the spectrometric system has been determined. The experimental data were compared to the calculation results with the MCNPX model of the spectrometric system. - Highlights: • Calibration of research reactor spent fuel measurement assembly. • On-site prepared 110m Ag isotope used for the measurement. • Calculated self-shielding factor for the IRT-2M fuel. • Applicable to other research reactor fuel geometries

  17. ONE-STEP AND TWO-STEP CALIBRATION OF A PORTABLE PANORAMIC IMAGE MAPPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-C. Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A Portable Panoramic Image Mapping System (PPIMS is proposed for rapid acquisition of three-dimensional spatial information. By considering the convenience of use, cost, weight of equipment, precision, and power supply, the designed PPIMS is equipped with 6 circularly arranged cameras to capture panoramic images and a GPS receiver for positioning. The motivation for this design is to develop a hand-held Mobile Mapping System (MMS for some difficult accessing areas by vehicle MMS, such as rugged terrains, forest areas, heavily damaged disaster areas, and crowed places etc. This PPIMS is in fact a GPS assisted close-range photogrammetric system. Compared with the traditional close-range photogrammetry, PPIMS can reduce the need of ground control points significantly. Under the condition of knowing the relative geometric relationships of the equipped sensors, the elements of exterior orientation of each captured image can be solved. However, the procedure of a system calibration should be done accurately to determine the relative geometric relationships of multi-cameras and the GPS antenna center, before the PPIMS can be applied for geo-referenced mapping. In this paper, both of one-step and two-step calibration procedures for PPIMS are performed to determine the lever-arm offsets and boresight angles among cameras and GPS. The performance of the one-step and two-step calibration is evaluated through the analysis of the experimental results. The comparison between these two calibration procedures was also conducted. The two-step calibration method outperforms the one-step calibration method in terms of calibration accuracy and operation convenience. We expect that the proposed two-step calibration procedure can also be applied to other platform-based MMSs.

  18. Method of calibration for portable detectors of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, Carlos; Carrizales, Lila; Guacaran, Douglas; Moreno, Ailed; Duran, Jose

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The LSCD is beginning a process of accreditation by the national authority of Venezuela (CENCAMER), so we felt the need to modify existing protocols calibration, suggested by the IAEA (Technical Reports Series No 133) to be adjusted in accordance with international standards of ISO 17025 EA-4/02 and Mexican standard NOM-021-NUCL-2002, adapting the calibration procedure of portable radiation detectors to those standards. The procedure used in the LSCD, conducts an intercomparison between measures between the standard reference and to calibrate the instrument, thus verifying the correct operation of the equipment and its usefulness to the individual or environmental radiation monitoring, not to exceed the limits primary for the public and occupationally Staff Exposed (POE), and propose a simple way to perform this calibration procedure and comply with the standard international and national standards, ensuring the proper functioning of the instruments calibrated. One of the calculations that has proven to be a useful tool in the verification of the conditions of operating the same, it is uncertainty, this procedure allows to characterize the response of individual detector, depending on the constraints specified by the manufacturer, to optimize the calibration is necessary to consider the multiple factors that can affect the measure and evaluate the response of the same, so it is vitally important estimating the typical uncertainty associated with the calibration technique employed, but this calculation is not trivial, depends on the type of detector found usually between 5% to 20%, both in uncertainty as the linearity, which are the parameters that are set to consider an instrument in good or bad condition. Typical are calibrated are: monitors air Geiger-Muller, Ionization cameras, detector of Neutron's, Proportional Counter, Personal dosimeters. (author)

  19. Wind Tunnel Balance Calibration: Are 1,000,000 Data Points Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Ray D.; Parker, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    Measurement systems are typically calibrated based on standard practices established by a metrology standards laboratory, for example the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST), or dictated by an organization's metrology manual. Therefore, the calibration is designed and executed according to an established procedure. However, for many aerodynamic research measurement systems a universally accepted standard, traceable approach does not exist. Therefore, a strategy for how to develop a calibration protocol is left to the developer or user to define based on experience and recommended practice in their respective industry. Wind tunnel balances are one such measurement system. Many different calibration systems, load schedules and procedures have been developed for balances with little consensus on a recommended approach. Especially lacking is guidance the number of calibration data points needed. Regrettably, the number of data points tends to be correlated with the perceived quality of the calibration. Often, the number of data points is associated with ones ability to generate the data rather than by a defined need in support of measurement objectives. Hence the title of the paper was conceived to challenge recent observations in the wind tunnel balance community that shows an ever increasing desire for more data points per calibration absent of guidance to determine when there are enough. This paper presents fundamental concepts and theory to aid in the development of calibration procedures for wind tunnel balances and provides a framework that is generally applicable to the characterization and calibration of other measurement systems. Questions that need to be answered are for example: What constitutes an adequate calibration? How much data are needed in the calibration? How good is the calibration? This paper will assist a practitioner in answering these questions by presenting an underlying theory on how to evaluate a calibration based on

  20. WE-D-9A-06: Open Source Monitor Calibration and Quality Control Software for Enterprise Display Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevins, N; Vanderhoek, M; Lang, S; Flynn, M [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Medical display monitor calibration and quality control present challenges to medical physicists. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate and share experiences with an open source package that allows for both initial monitor setup and routine performance evaluation. Methods: A software package, pacsDisplay, has been developed over the last decade to aid in the calibration of all monitors within the radiology group in our health system. The software is used to calibrate monitors to follow the DICOM Grayscale Standard Display Function (GSDF) via lookup tables installed on the workstation. Additional functionality facilitates periodic evaluations of both primary and secondary medical monitors to ensure satisfactory performance. This software is installed on all radiology workstations, and can also be run as a stand-alone tool from a USB disk. Recently, a database has been developed to store and centralize the monitor performance data and to provide long-term trends for compliance with internal standards and various accrediting organizations. Results: Implementation and utilization of pacsDisplay has resulted in improved monitor performance across the health system. Monitor testing is now performed at regular intervals and the software is being used across multiple imaging modalities. Monitor performance characteristics such as maximum and minimum luminance, ambient luminance and illuminance, color tracking, and GSDF conformity are loaded into a centralized database for system performance comparisons. Compliance reports for organizations such as MQSA, ACR, and TJC are generated automatically and stored in the same database. Conclusion: An open source software solution has simplified and improved the standardization of displays within our health system. This work serves as an example method for calibrating and testing monitors within an enterprise health system.

  1. WE-D-9A-06: Open Source Monitor Calibration and Quality Control Software for Enterprise Display Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevins, N; Vanderhoek, M; Lang, S; Flynn, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Medical display monitor calibration and quality control present challenges to medical physicists. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate and share experiences with an open source package that allows for both initial monitor setup and routine performance evaluation. Methods: A software package, pacsDisplay, has been developed over the last decade to aid in the calibration of all monitors within the radiology group in our health system. The software is used to calibrate monitors to follow the DICOM Grayscale Standard Display Function (GSDF) via lookup tables installed on the workstation. Additional functionality facilitates periodic evaluations of both primary and secondary medical monitors to ensure satisfactory performance. This software is installed on all radiology workstations, and can also be run as a stand-alone tool from a USB disk. Recently, a database has been developed to store and centralize the monitor performance data and to provide long-term trends for compliance with internal standards and various accrediting organizations. Results: Implementation and utilization of pacsDisplay has resulted in improved monitor performance across the health system. Monitor testing is now performed at regular intervals and the software is being used across multiple imaging modalities. Monitor performance characteristics such as maximum and minimum luminance, ambient luminance and illuminance, color tracking, and GSDF conformity are loaded into a centralized database for system performance comparisons. Compliance reports for organizations such as MQSA, ACR, and TJC are generated automatically and stored in the same database. Conclusion: An open source software solution has simplified and improved the standardization of displays within our health system. This work serves as an example method for calibrating and testing monitors within an enterprise health system

  2. Calibration of Ground -based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Yordanova, Ginka

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...

  3. Calibration with near-continuous spectral measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Rasmussen, Michael; Madsen, Henrik

    2001-01-01

    In chemometrics traditional calibration in case of spectral measurements express a quantity of interest (e.g. a concentration) as a linear combination of the spectral measurements at a number of wavelengths. Often the spectral measurements are performed at a large number of wavelengths and in thi...... by an example in which the octane number of gasoline is related to near infrared spectral measurements. The performance is found to be much better that for the traditional calibration methods....

  4. Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.

  5. Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig [Cancer Prevention and Control Division, Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1603 W. Taylor St., Chicago, Illinois 60612 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.

  6. Proportional Counter Calibration and Analysis for 12C + p Resonance Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Austin; Rogachev, Grigory; Uberseder, Ethan; Hooker, Josh; Koshchiy, Yevgen

    2014-09-01

    Light exotic nuclei provide a unique opportunity to test the predictions of modern ab initio theoretical calculations near the drip line. In ab initio approaches, nuclear structure is described starting from bare nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon interactions. Calculations are very heavy and can only be performed for the lightest nuclei (A objective of this project was to test the performance and perform position calibration of this proportional counter array. The test was done using 12C beam. The excitation function for 12C + p elastic scattering was measured and calibration of the proportional counter was performed using known resonances in 13N. The method of calibration, including solid angle calculations, normalization corrections, and position calibration will be presented. Light exotic nuclei provide a unique opportunity to test the predictions of modern ab initio theoretical calculations near the drip line. In ab initio approaches, nuclear structure is described starting from bare nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon interactions. Calculations are very heavy and can only be performed for the lightest nuclei (A objective of this project was to test the performance and perform position calibration of this proportional counter array. The test was done using 12C beam. The excitation function for 12C + p elastic scattering was measured and calibration of the proportional counter was performed using known resonances in 13N. The method of calibration, including solid angle calculations, normalization corrections, and position calibration will be presented. Funded by DOE and NSF-REU Program; Grant No. PHY-1263281.

  7. Calibration of three-axis magnetometers with differential evolution algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Hongfeng; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Wei; Wang, Junya; Li, Ji; Luo, Shitu; Wan, Chengbiao; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of three-axis magnetometers is influenced by different scale and bias of each axis and nonorthogonality between axes. One limitation of traditional iteration methods is that initial parameters influence the calibration, thus leading to the local optimal or wrong results. In this paper, a new method is proposed to calibrate three-axis magnetometers. To employ this method, a nonmagnetic rotation platform, a proton magnetometer, a DM-050 three-axis magnetometer and the differential evolution (DE) algorithm are used. The performance of this calibration method is analyzed with simulation and experiment. In simulation, the calibration results of DE, unscented Kalman filter (UKF), recursive least squares (RLS) and genetic algorithm (GA) are compared. RMS error using DE is least, which is reduced from 81.233 nT to 1.567 nT. Experimental results show that comparing with UKF, RLS and GA, the DE algorithm has not only the least calibration error but also the best robustness. After calibration, RMS error is reduced from 68.914 nT to 2.919 nT. In addition, the DE algorithm is not sensitive to initial parameters, which is an important advantage compared with traditional iteration algorithms. The proposed algorithm can avoid the troublesome procedure to select suitable initial parameters, thus it can improve the calibration performance of three-axis magnetometers. - Highlights: • The calibration results and robustness of UKF, GA, RLS and DE algorithm are analyzed. • Calibration error of DE is the least in simulation and experiment. • Comparing with traditional calibration algorithms, DE is not sensitive to initial parameters. • It can improve the calibration performance of three-axis magnetometers

  8. Innovative methodology for intercomparison of radionuclide calibrators using short half-life in situ prepared radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, P. A.; Santos, J. A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: An original radionuclide calibrator method for activity determination is presented. The method could be used for intercomparison surveys for short half-life radioactive sources used in Nuclear Medicine, such as 99m Tc or most positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals. Methods: By evaluation of the resulting net optical density (netOD) using a standardized scanning method of irradiated Gafchromic XRQA2 film, a comparison of the netOD measurement with a previously determined calibration curve can be made and the difference between the tested radionuclide calibrator and a radionuclide calibrator used as reference device can be calculated. To estimate the total expected measurement uncertainties, a careful analysis of the methodology, for the case of 99m Tc, was performed: reproducibility determination, scanning conditions, and possible fadeout effects. Since every factor of the activity measurement procedure can influence the final result, the method also evaluates correct syringe positioning inside the radionuclide calibrator. Results: As an alternative to using a calibrated source sent to the surveyed site, which requires a relatively long half-life of the nuclide, or sending a portable calibrated radionuclide calibrator, the proposed method uses a source preparedin situ. An indirect activity determination is achieved by the irradiation of a radiochromic film using 99m Tc under strictly controlled conditions, and cumulated activity calculation from the initial activity and total irradiation time. The irradiated Gafchromic film and the irradiator, without the source, can then be sent to a National Metrology Institute for evaluation of the results. Conclusions: The methodology described in this paper showed to have a good potential for accurate (3%) radionuclide calibrators intercomparison studies for 99m Tc between Nuclear Medicine centers without source transfer and can easily be adapted to other short half-life radionuclides

  9. Acoustic Calibration and Trials (HB0707, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Operational objectives are to: (1) calibrate the EK60 Scientific Sounder, (2) calibrate the ME70, (3) collect acoustic data during the transit, (4) evaluate and...

  10. Design and performance evaluation of a broadband three dimensional acoustic intensity measuring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Khalid H; Hixon, Elmer L

    2010-04-01

    A seven-microphone three dimensional (3D) intensity measuring system has been developed and evaluated for performance for a broad frequency band (200 Hz-6.5 kHz). Six microphones are arranged in a concentric array with one microphone at the center of the probe. The screw adjustable center microphone is the probe reference microphone, and is used for calibrations of the other microphones in the probe. This probe addresses limitations of the traditional two-microphone system in measuring acoustical properties in a 3D space from the one dimensional measurements. This probe also eliminates the need of spacers used in the existing 3D probes for broadband measurements. Diffraction and reflection effects on calibrations due to presence of the microphones and the probe supporting structure are negligible. This seven-microphone probe provided better results in the intensity measurements for the wide frequency band than that of a similar four-microphone array probe.

  11. Spectrophotometric calibration system for DECam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheault, J.-P.; DePoy, D. L.; Marshall, J. L.; Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Wise, J.; Martin, E.; Williams, P.

    2012-09-01

    We describe a spectrophotometric calibration system that is being implemented as part of the DES DECam project at the Blanco 4 meter at CTIO. Our calibration system uses a 1nm wide tunable source to measure the instrumental response function of the telescope optics and detector from 300nm up to 1100nm. This calibration will be performed regularly to monitor any change in the transmission function of the telescope during the 5 year survey. The system consists of a monochromator based tunable light source that provides illumination on a dome flat that is monitored by calibrated photodiodes that allow us to measure the telescope throughput as a function of wavelength. Our system has a peak output power of 2 mW, equivalent to a flux of approximately 800 photons/s/pixel on DECam.

  12. Data fusion for a vision-aided radiological detection system: Calibration algorithm performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnikia, Kelsey; Henderson, Kristofer; Martin, Allan; Riley, Phillip; Koppal, Sanjeev; Enqvist, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    In order to improve the ability to detect, locate, track and identify nuclear/radiological threats, the University of Florida nuclear detection community has teamed up with the 3D vision community to collaborate on a low cost data fusion system. The key is to develop an algorithm to fuse the data from multiple radiological and 3D vision sensors as one system. The system under development at the University of Florida is being assessed with various types of radiological detectors and widely available visual sensors. A series of experiments were devised utilizing two EJ-309 liquid organic scintillation detectors (one primary and one secondary), a Microsoft Kinect for Windows v2 sensor and a Velodyne HDL-32E High Definition LiDAR Sensor which is a highly sensitive vision sensor primarily used to generate data for self-driving cars. Each experiment consisted of 27 static measurements of a source arranged in a cube with three different distances in each dimension. The source used was Cf-252. The calibration algorithm developed is utilized to calibrate the relative 3D-location of the two different types of sensors without need to measure it by hand; thus, preventing operator manipulation and human errors. The algorithm can also account for the facility dependent deviation from ideal data fusion correlation. Use of the vision sensor to determine the location of a sensor would also limit the possible locations and it does not allow for room dependence (facility dependent deviation) to generate a detector pseudo-location to be used for data analysis later. Using manually measured source location data, our algorithm-predicted the offset detector location within an average of 20 cm calibration-difference to its actual location. Calibration-difference is the Euclidean distance from the algorithm predicted detector location to the measured detector location. The Kinect vision sensor data produced an average calibration-difference of 35 cm and the HDL-32E produced an average

  13. Calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greacen, E.L.; Correll, R.L.; Cunningham, R.B.; Johns, G.G.; Nicolls, K.D.

    1981-01-01

    Procedures common to different methods of calibration of neutron moisture meters are outlined and laboratory and field calibration methods compared. Gross errors which arise from faulty calibration techniques are described. The count rate can be affected by the dry bulk density of the soil, the volumetric content of constitutional hydrogen and other chemical components of the soil and soil solution. Calibration is further complicated by the fact that the neutron meter responds more strongly to the soil properties close to the detector and source. The differences in slope of calibration curves for different soils can be as much as 40%

  14. Improvement of gamma calibration procedures with commercial management software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucena, Rodrigo F.; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.; Santos, Gelson P.; Vivolo, Vitor

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the gamma calibration procedure of the Instruments Calibration Laboratory (LCI) of the IPEN-CNEN-SP was improved with the use of the commercial management software Autolab TM from Automa Company. That software was adapted for our specific use in the calibration procedures. The evaluation of the uncertainties in gamma calibration protocol was improved by the LCI staff and yet the all worksheets and final calibration report lay-out was developed in commercial software like Excell TM and Word TM from Microsft TM . (author)

  15. Assessing the Predictive Capability of the LIFEIV Nuclear Fuel Performance Code using Sequential Calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stull, Christopher J.; Williams, Brian J.; Unal, Cetin

    2012-01-01

    This report considers the problem of calibrating a numerical model to data from an experimental campaign (or series of experimental tests). The issue is that when an experimental campaign is proposed, only the input parameters associated with each experiment are known (i.e. outputs are not known because the experiments have yet to be conducted). Faced with such a situation, it would be beneficial from the standpoint of resource management to carefully consider the sequence in which the experiments are conducted. In this way, the resources available for experimental tests may be allocated in a way that best 'informs' the calibration of the numerical model. To address this concern, the authors propose decomposing the input design space of the experimental campaign into its principal components. Subsequently, the utility (to be explained) of each experimental test to the principal components of the input design space is used to formulate the sequence in which the experimental tests will be used for model calibration purposes. The results reported herein build on those presented and discussed in (1,2) wherein Verification and Validation and Uncertainty Quantification (VU) capabilities were applied to the nuclear fuel performance code LIFEIV. In addition to the raw results from the sequential calibration studies derived from the above, a description of the data within the context of the Predictive Maturity Index (PMI) will also be provided. The PMI (3,4) is a metric initiated and developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to quantitatively describe the ability of a numerical model to make predictions in the absence of experimental data, where it is noted that 'predictions in the absence of experimental data' is not synonymous with extrapolation. This simply reflects the fact that resources do not exist such that each and every execution of the numerical model can be compared against experimental data. If such resources existed, the justification for numerical models

  16. Calibration method for a radwaste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulama, C.; Dobrin, R.; Toma, Al.; Paunoiu, C.

    2004-01-01

    A waste assay system entirely designed and manufactured in the Institute for Nuclear Research is used in radwaste treatment and conditioning stream to ensure compliance with national repository radiological requirements. Usually, waste assay systems are calibrated by using various experimental arrangements including calibration phantoms. The paper presents a comparative study concerning the efficiency calibration performed by shell source method and a semiempirical, computational method based on a Monte Carlo algorithm. (authors)

  17. Calibration of the APEX Model to Simulate Management Practice Effects on Runoff, Sediment, and Phosphorus Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Ammar B; Nelson, Nathan O; Sweeney, Daniel W; Baffaut, Claire; Lory, John A; Senaviratne, Anomaa; Pierzynski, Gary M; Janssen, Keith A; Barnes, Philip L

    2017-11-01

    Process-based computer models have been proposed as a tool to generate data for Phosphorus (P) Index assessment and development. Although models are commonly used to simulate P loss from agriculture using managements that are different from the calibration data, this use of models has not been fully tested. The objective of this study is to determine if the Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) model can accurately simulate runoff, sediment, total P, and dissolved P loss from 0.4 to 1.5 ha of agricultural fields with managements that are different from the calibration data. The APEX model was calibrated with field-scale data from eight different managements at two locations (management-specific models). The calibrated models were then validated, either with the same management used for calibration or with different managements. Location models were also developed by calibrating APEX with data from all managements. The management-specific models resulted in satisfactory performance when used to simulate runoff, total P, and dissolved P within their respective systems, with > 0.50, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency > 0.30, and percent bias within ±35% for runoff and ±70% for total and dissolved P. When applied outside the calibration management, the management-specific models only met the minimum performance criteria in one-third of the tests. The location models had better model performance when applied across all managements compared with management-specific models. Our results suggest that models only be applied within the managements used for calibration and that data be included from multiple management systems for calibration when using models to assess management effects on P loss or evaluate P Indices. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. Calibration of photographic dosemeters to evaluate the personal equivalent dose, Hp (10), irradiated by different radiation qualities and angles of incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, Christiana; Antonio Filho, Joao

    2013-01-01

    To use radiation detectors, should periodically perform tests and calibrations on instruments in order to verify its good functionality. One way to ascertain the quality of the instrument is to conduct a study of the angular dependence of the response of the radiation detectors. The photographic dosimetry has been used widely to quantify the radiation doses and to estimate levels of doses received by workers involved with X-and gamma radiation. Photographic dosimeters are used because provide wide range of exposure and good accuracy. One of the sources of error have been introduced by different irradiation geometries between calibration and measurement in radiation fields used in x-ray and gamma ray sources, therefore, there is a need for an evaluation of the sensitivity of dosimeters with variation of the angle of the incident beam. In this study were tested 190 photographic dosemeters in the Metrology Laboratory of the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE) using the phantom H p (10), where the dosimeters are evaluated on the basis of the new operational magnitude for individual monitoring, the equivalent personal dose, H p (10). Angular dependence of these radiation detectors was studied in X radiation fields (in the range of 45 keV energy to 164 keV) and gamma radiation ( 137 Cs-662 keV e 60 Co - 1250 keV)

  19. Improving integrity of on-line grammage measurement with traceable basic calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangasrääsiö, Juha

    2010-07-01

    The automatic control of grammage (basis weight) in paper and board production is based upon on-line grammage measurement. Furthermore, the automatic control of other quality variables such as moisture, ash content and coat weight, may rely on the grammage measurement. The integrity of Kr-85 based on-line grammage measurement systems was studied, by performing basic calibrations with traceably calibrated plastic reference standards. The calibrations were performed according to the EN ISO/IEC 17025 standard, which is a requirement for calibration laboratories. The observed relative measurement errors were 3.3% in the first time calibrations at the 95% confidence level. With the traceable basic calibration method, however, these errors can be reduced to under 0.5%, thus improving the integrity of on-line grammage measurements. Also a standardised algorithm, based on the experience from the performed calibrations, is proposed to ease the adjustment of the different grammage measurement systems. The calibration technique can basically be applied to all beta-radiation based grammage measurements. 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Automatic Calibration of High Density Electric Muscle Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knibbe, Jarrod; Strohmeier, Paul; Boring, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    . (2) EMS requires time consuming, expert calibration -- confining these interaction techniques to the lab. EMS arrays have been shown to increase stimulation resolution, but as calibration complexity increases exponentially as more electrodes are used, we require heuristics or automated procedures......Electric muscle stimulation (EMS) can enable mobile force feedback, support pedestrian navigation, or confer object affordances. To date, however, EMS is limited by two interlinked problems. (1) EMS is low resolution -- achieving only coarse movements and constraining opportunities for exploration...... for successful calibration. We explore the feasibility of using electromyography (EMG) to auto-calibrate high density EMS arrays. We determine regions of muscle activity during human-performed gestures, to inform stimulation patterns for EMS-performed gestures. We report on a study which shows that auto...

  1. Changes in deviation of absorbed dose to water among users by chamber calibration shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayose, Tetsurou; Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Igari, Mitsunobu; Chang, Weishan; Hashimoto, Shimpei; Morioka, Mie

    2017-07-01

    The JSMP01 dosimetry protocol had adopted the provisional 60 Co calibration coefficient [Formula: see text], namely, the product of exposure calibration coefficient N C and conversion coefficient k D,X . After that, the absorbed dose to water D w  standard was established, and the JSMP12 protocol adopted the [Formula: see text] calibration. In this study, the influence of the calibration shift on the measurement of D w among users was analyzed. The intercomparison of the D w using an ionization chamber was annually performed by visiting related hospitals. Intercomparison results before and after the calibration shift were analyzed, the deviation of D w among users was re-evaluated, and the cause of deviation was estimated. As a result, the stability of LINAC, calibration of the thermometer and barometer, and collection method of ion recombination were confirmed. The statistical significance of standard deviation of D w was not observed, but that of difference of D w among users was observed between N C and [Formula: see text] calibration. Uncertainty due to chamber-to-chamber variation was reduced by the calibration shift, consequently reducing the uncertainty among users regarding D w . The result also pointed out uncertainty might be reduced by accurate and detailed instructions on the setup of an ionization chamber.

  2. Size-selective performance evaluation of candidate aerosol inlets using polydisperse aerosols

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Presented are detailed techniques for the generation, collection, and analysis of polydisperse calibration aerosols for wind tunnel evaluation of size-selective...

  3. Quality control of online calibration in computerized assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    In computerized adaptive testing, updating item parameter estimates using adaptive testing data is often called online calibration. This study investigated how to evaluate whether the adaptive testing data used for online calibration sufficiently fit the item response model used. Three approaches

  4. Variations in performance of LCDs are still evident after DICOM gray-scale standard display calibration.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lowe, Joanna M

    2010-07-01

    Quality assurance in medical imaging is directly beneficial to image quality. Diagnostic images are frequently displayed on secondary-class displays that have minimal or no regular quality assurance programs, and treatment decisions are being made from these display types. The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of calibration on physical and psychophysical performance of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and the extent of potential variance across various types of LCDs.

  5. Description and performance of the OGSE for VNIR absolute spectroradiometric calibration of MTG-I satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glastre, W.; Marque, J.; Compain, E.; Deep, A.; Durand, Y.; Aminou, D. M. A.

    2017-09-01

    respect to primary standards down to 3% (k=3) coupled with constraining environment (vacuum), large dynamic (up to factor 100), high spectral resolution of 3 nm. Another main difficulty is to adapt the specific MOTA etendue (300 mm pupil, 9 mrad field) to available primary standards. Each of these constraints were addressed by specific tool design and production, a fine optimization of the calibration procedure with a large involvement of metrology laboratories. This paper introduces the missions of MTG satellites and particularly of the FCI instrument. The requirements regarding the absolute calibration over the different spectrometric channels and the global strategy to fulfill them are described. The MOTA architecture and calibration strategy are then discussed and final expected results are presented, showing state of the art performances.

  6. Calibration of Ground-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...... uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from wind vanes...

  7. Calibration of the TVO spent BWR reference fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, M.; Baecklin, A.; Haakanson, A.

    1992-02-01

    In 1989 the Support Programmes of Finland (FSP) and Sweden (SSP) initiated a joint task to cross calibrate the burnup of the IAEA spent BWR reference fuel assembly at the TVO AFR storage facility (TVO KPA-STORE) in Finland. The reference assembly, kept separately under the IAEA seal, is used for verification measurements of spent fuel by GBUV method (SG-NDA-38). The cross calibration was performed by establishing a calibration curve, 244 Cm neutron rate versus burnup, using passive neutron assay (PNA) measurements. The declared burnup of the reference assembly was compared with the burnup value deduced from the calibration curve. A calibration line was also established by using the GBUV method with the aid of high resolution gamma ray spectrometry (HRGS). Normalization between the two different facilities was performed using sealed neutron and gamma calibration sources. The results of the passive neutron assay show consistency, better than 1 %, between the declared mean burnup of the reference assembly and the burnup deduced from the calibration curve. The corresponding consistency is within +-2 % for the HRGS measurements

  8. Calibration and performance of a stirred benthic chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholtz-ten Brink, M. R.; Gust, G.; Chavis, D.

    1989-07-01

    The physical and chemical boundary layer parameters characteristic for a benthic chamber were cross-calibrated by the use of two methods in the laboratory: (1) flush-mounted hot-film sensors, which measure the friction velocity u ∗, and (2) the alabaster dissolution technique, which measures the equivalent film thickness z. Tests of five stirring devices were made, using both techniques, to improve the stirring mechanism in the MANOP Lander flux chambers. The stirring device that was finally implemented consisted of four rods and produced spatially averaged friction velocities u ∗ ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 cm s -1 (i.e. mean film thickness z from 500 to 180 μm) when running at speeds from 3 to 9 rpm. The friction velocity field at the sediment surface is related to the rpm of the stirring device and the penetration depth of the chamber into the sediments; combinations of both can create z and u ∗ inside the chamber that duplicate those of many natural environments. The log-log calibration relationship found between u ∗ and transfer coefficients K' also provides a means to predict the mass-transfer resistance of solutes at the sediment-water interface from measurements of mean bottom stress.

  9. Recommended inorganic chemicals for calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, J.R.; Greenberg, R.R.; Pratt, K.W.; Rains, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    All analytical techniques depend on the use of calibration chemicals to relate analyte concentration to an instrumental parameter. A fundamental component in the preparation of calibration solutions is the weighing of a pure chemical or metal before preparing a solution standard. The analyst must be assured that the purity, stoichiometry, and assay of the chemical are known. These terms have different meanings, and each has an important influence. This report is intended to assist the analyst in the selection and use of chemical standards for instrumental calibration. Purity, stoichiometry, and preparation of solutions for different purposes are discussed, and a critical evaluation of the best materials available for each element is presented for use in preparing solutions or calibration standards. Information on the chemical form, source, purity, drying, and appropriate precautions is given. In some cases, multiple sources or chemical forms are available. Certain radioactive elements, the transuranic elements, and the noble gases are not considered

  10. A DXA Whole Body Composition Cross-Calibration Experience: Evaluation With Humans, Spine, and Whole Body Phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Diane; Libber, Jessie; Sanfilippo, Jennifer; Yu, Hui Jing; Horvath, Blaine; Miller, Colin G; Binkley, Neil

    2016-01-01

    New densitometer installation requires cross-calibration for accurate longitudinal assessment. When replacing a unit with the same model, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry recommends cross-calibrating by scanning phantoms 10 times on each instrument and states that spine bone mineral density (BMD) should be within 1%, whereas total body lean, fat, and %fat mass should be within 2% of the prior instrument. However, there is limited validation that these recommendations provide adequate total body cross-calibration. Here, we report a total body cross-calibration experience with phantoms and humans. Cross-calibration between an existing and new Lunar iDXA was performed using 3 encapsulated spine phantoms (GE [GE Lunar, Madison, WI], BioClinica [BioClinica Inc, Princeton, NJ], and Hologic [Hologic Inc, Bedford, MA]), 1 total body composition phantom (BioClinica), and 30 human volunteers. Thirty scans of each phantom and a total body scan of human volunteers were obtained on each instrument. All spine phantom BMD means were similar (within 1%; g/cm2 bias) between the existing and new dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry unit. The BioClinica body composition phantom (BBCP) BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) values were within 2% with biases of 0.005 g/cm2 and -3.4 g. However, lean and fat mass and %fat differed by 4.6%-7.7% with biases of +463 g, -496 g, and -2.8%, respectively. In vivo comparison supported BBCP data; BMD and BMC were within ∼2%, but lean and fat mass and %fat differed from 1.6% to 4.9% with biases of +833 g, -860 g, and -1.1%. As all body composition comparisons exceeded the recommended 2%, the new densitometer was recalibrated. After recalibration, in vivo bias was lower (g, respectively. Similarly, BBCP lean and fat agreement improved. In conclusion, the BBCP behaves similarly, but not identical, to human in vivo measurements for densitometer cross-calibration. Spine phantoms, despite good BMD and BMC agreement, did not detect

  11. Comparison of global optimization approaches for robust calibration of hydrologic model parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, I. W.

    2015-12-01

    Robustness of the calibrated parameters of hydrologic models is necessary to provide a reliable prediction of future performance of watershed behavior under varying climate conditions. This study investigated calibration performances according to the length of calibration period, objective functions, hydrologic model structures and optimization methods. To do this, the combination of three global optimization methods (i.e. SCE-UA, Micro-GA, and DREAM) and four hydrologic models (i.e. SAC-SMA, GR4J, HBV, and PRMS) was tested with different calibration periods and objective functions. Our results showed that three global optimization methods provided close calibration performances under different calibration periods, objective functions, and hydrologic models. However, using the agreement of index, normalized root mean square error, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency as the objective function showed better performance than using correlation coefficient and percent bias. Calibration performances according to different calibration periods from one year to seven years were hard to generalize because four hydrologic models have different levels of complexity and different years have different information content of hydrological observation. Acknowledgements This research was supported by a grant (14AWMP-B082564-01) from Advanced Water Management Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  12. Calibration of radiation protection area monitoring instruments in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliman, I.I.; Youssif, B.E.; Beineen, A.A.; Hassan, M.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents results of measurements for the calibration of radiation protection area monitoring instruments carried out during the period 2006-2008 at Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory of Sudan. The work performed included quality assurance measurements, measurements for the dosimeter calibrations and uncertainty analysis. Calibrations were performed using 137 Cs gamma ray sources produced by OB 85 and OB 34/1 gamma calibrators producing air kerma rate that ranged from 10 μGy/h to 50 mGy/h. Area monitoring instruments were calibrated in terms of ambient dose equivalent, H*(10) derived using air kerma to ambient dose equivalent conversion coefficients. Results are presented for 78 area monitoring instruments representing most commonly used types in Sudan. Radioactive check source measurements for the reference chamber showed deviation within 1% limit. The accuracy in the beam output measurements was within 5% internationally considered as acceptable. The results highlighted the importance of radiation protection calibrations. Regulations are further need to ensure safety aspect really meet the required international standards.

  13. Initial tank calibration at NUCEF critical facility. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Hiroshi

    1994-07-01

    Analyses on initial tank calibration data were carried out for the purpose of the nuclear material accountancy and control for critical facilities in NUCEF: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility. Calibration functions to evaluate volume of nuclear material solution in accountancy tanks were determined by regression analysis on the data considering dimension and shape of the tank. The analyses on dip-tube separation (probe separation), which are necessary to evaluate solution density in the tanks, were also carried out. As a result, regression errors of volume calculated with the calibration functions were within 0.05 lit. (0.01%) at a nominal level of Pu accountancy tanks. Errors of the evaluated dip-tube separations were also small, e.g. within 0.2mm (0.11%). Therefore, it was estimated that systematic errors of bulk measurements would satisfy the target value of NUCEF critical facilities (0.3% for Pu accountancy tanks). This paper summarizes the data analysis methods, results of analysis and evaluated errors. (author)

  14. Reconstructing the calibrated strain signal in the Advanced LIGO detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viets, A. D.; Wade, M.; Urban, A. L.; Kandhasamy, S.; Betzwieser, J.; Brown, Duncan A.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Cahillane, C.; Goetz, E.; Izumi, K.; Karki, S.; Kissel, J. S.; Mendell, G.; Savage, R. L.; Siemens, X.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Weinstein, A. J.

    2018-05-01

    Advanced LIGO’s raw detector output needs to be calibrated to compute dimensionless strain h(t) . Calibrated strain data is produced in the time domain using both a low-latency, online procedure and a high-latency, offline procedure. The low-latency h(t) data stream is produced in two stages, the first of which is performed on the same computers that operate the detector’s feedback control system. This stage, referred to as the front-end calibration, uses infinite impulse response (IIR) filtering and performs all operations at a 16 384 Hz digital sampling rate. Due to several limitations, this procedure currently introduces certain systematic errors in the calibrated strain data, motivating the second stage of the low-latency procedure, known as the low-latency gstlal calibration pipeline. The gstlal calibration pipeline uses finite impulse response (FIR) filtering to apply corrections to the output of the front-end calibration. It applies time-dependent correction factors to the sensing and actuation components of the calibrated strain to reduce systematic errors. The gstlal calibration pipeline is also used in high latency to recalibrate the data, which is necessary due mainly to online dropouts in the calibrated data and identified improvements to the calibration models or filters.

  15. Review of Calibration Methods for Scheimpflug Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Scheimpflug camera offers a wide range of applications in the field of typical close-range photogrammetry, particle image velocity, and digital image correlation due to the fact that the depth-of-view of Scheimpflug camera can be greatly extended according to the Scheimpflug condition. Yet, the conventional calibration methods are not applicable in this case because the assumptions used by classical calibration methodologies are not valid anymore for cameras undergoing Scheimpflug condition. Therefore, various methods have been investigated to solve the problem over the last few years. However, no comprehensive review exists that provides an insight into recent calibration methods of Scheimpflug cameras. This paper presents a survey of recent calibration methods of Scheimpflug cameras with perspective lens, including the general nonparametric imaging model, and analyzes in detail the advantages and drawbacks of the mainstream calibration models with respect to each other. Real data experiments including calibrations, reconstructions, and measurements are performed to assess the performance of the models. The results reveal that the accuracies of the RMM, PLVM, PCIM, and GNIM are basically equal, while the accuracy of GNIM is slightly lower compared with the other three parametric models. Moreover, the experimental results reveal that the parameters of the tangential distortion are likely coupled with the tilt angle of the sensor in Scheimpflug calibration models. The work of this paper lays the foundation of further research of Scheimpflug cameras.

  16. Test surfaces useful for calibration of surface profilometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V; McKinney, Wayne R; Takacs, Peter Z

    2013-12-31

    The present invention provides for test surfaces and methods for calibration of surface profilometers, including interferometric and atomic force microscopes. Calibration is performed using a specially designed test surface, or the Binary Pseudo-random (BPR) grating (array). Utilizing the BPR grating (array) to measure the power spectral density (PSD) spectrum, the profilometer is calibrated by determining the instrumental modulation transfer.

  17. Compact blackbody calibration sources for in-flight calibration of spaceborne infrared instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiding, S.; Driescher, H.; Walter, I.; Hanbuch, K.; Paul, M.; Hartmann, M.; Scheiding, M.

    2017-11-01

    High-emissivity blackbodies are mandatory as calibration sources in infrared radiometers. Besides the requirements on the high spectral emissivity and low reflectance, constraints regarding energy consumption, installation space and mass must be considered during instrument design. Cavity radiators provide an outstanding spectral emissivity to the price of installation space and mass of the calibration source. Surface radiation sources are mainly limited by the spectral emissivity of the functional coating and the homogeneity of the temperature distribution. The effective emissivity of a "black" surface can be optimized, by structuring the substrate with the aim to enlarge the ratio of the surface to its projection. Based on the experiences of the Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS) calibration source MBB3, the results of the surface structuring on the effective emissivity are described analytically and compared to the experimental performance. Different geometries are analyzed and the production methods are discussed. The high-emissivity temperature calibration source features values of 0.99 for wavelength from 5 μm to 10 μm and emissivity larger than 0.95 for the spectral range from 10 μm to 40 μm.

  18. The Principle of Pooled Calibrations and Outlier Retainment Elucidates Optimum Performance of Ion Chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Mikolajczak, Maria; Wojtachnio-Zawada, Katarzyna Olga

    A new principle of statistical data treatment is presented. Since the majority of scientists and costumers are interested in determination of the true amount of analyte in real samples, the focus of attention should be directed towards the concept of accuracy rather than precision. By exploiting...... that the principle of pooled calibrations provides a more realistic picture of the analytical performance with the drawback however, that generally higher levels of uncertainties should be accepted, as compared to contemporary literature values. The implications to the science of analytical chemistry in general...

  19. The principle of pooled calibrations and outlier retainment elucidates optimum performance of ion chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens; Mikolajczak, Maria; Wojtachnio-Zawada, Katarzyna Olga

    2012-01-01

    A principle with quality assurance of ion chromatography (IC) is presented. Since the majority of scientists and costumers are interested in the determination of the true amount of analyte in real samples, the focus of attention should be directed towards the concept of accuracy rather than...... investigations of method validations where it was found that the principle of pooled calibrations provides a more realistic picture of the analytical performance with the drawback, however, that generally higher levels of uncertainties should be accepted, as compared to contemporary literature values...

  20. Embedded Electro-Optic Sensor Network for the On-Site Calibration and Real-Time Performance Monitoring of Large-Scale Phased Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Kyoung

    2005-01-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the Phase I SBIR project entitled "Embedded Electro-Optic Sensor Network for the On-Site Calibration and Real-Time Performance Monitoring of Large-Scale Phased Arrays...

  1. Calibration and intercomparison methods of dose calibrators used in nuclear medicine facilities; Metodos de calibracao e de intercomparacao de calibradores de dose utilizados em servicos de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Alessandro Martins da

    1999-07-01

    Dose calibrators are used in most of the nuclear medicine facilities to determine the amount of radioactivity administered to a patient in a particular investigation or therapeutic procedure. It is therefore of vital importance that the equipment used presents good performance and is regular;y calibrated at a authorized laboratory. This occurs of adequate quality assurance procedures are carried out. Such quality control tests should be performed daily, other biannually or yearly, testing, for example, its accuracy and precision, the reproducibility and response linearity. In this work a commercial dose calibrator was calibrated with solution of radionuclides used in nuclear medicine. Simple instrument tests, such as response linearity and the response variation of the source volume increase at a constant source activity concentration, were performed. This instrument can now be used as a working standard for calibration of other dose calibrators/ An intercomparison procedure was proposed as a method of quality control of dose calibrators used in nuclear medicine facilities. (author)

  2. Novel Real-time Alignment and Calibration of the LHCb detector in Run2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Maurizio; LHCb Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    LHCb has introduced a novel real-time detector alignment and calibration strategy for LHC Run2. Data collected at the start of the fill are processed in a few minutes and used to update the alignment parameters, while the calibration constants are evaluated for each run. This procedure improves the quality of the online reconstruction. For example, the vertex locator is retracted and reinserted for stable beam conditions in each fill to be centred on the primary vertex position in the transverse plane. Consequently its position changes on a fill-by-fill basis. Critically, this new real-time alignment and calibration procedure allows identical constants to be used in the online and offline reconstruction, thus improving the correlation between triggered and offline-selected events. This offers the opportunity to optimise the event selection in the trigger by applying stronger constraints. The required computing time constraints are met thanks to a new dedicated framework using the multi-core farm infrastructure for the trigger. The motivation for a real-time alignment and calibration of the LHCb detector is discussed from both the operational and physics performance points of view. Specific challenges of this novel configuration are discussed, as well as the working procedures of the framework and its performance.

  3. LHCb full-detector real-time alignment and calibration: latest developments and perspective

    CERN Multimedia

    Dziurda, Agnieszka

    2018-01-01

    A key ingredient of the data taking strategy used by the LHCb experiment at CERN in Run 2 is the novel real-time detector alignment and calibration. Data collected at the start of the fill are processed within minutes and used to update the alignment, while the calibration constants are evaluated hourly. This is one of the key elements which allow the reconstruction quality of the software trigger in Run-II to be as good as the offline quality of Run 1. The most recent developments of the real-time alignment and calibration paradigm enable the fully automated updates of the RICH detectors' mirror alignment and a novel calibration of the calorimeter systems. Both evolutions improve the particle identification performance stability resulting in higher purity selections. The latter leads also to an improvement in the energy measurement of neutral particles, resulting in a 15% better mass resolution of radiative b-hadron decays. A large variety of improvements has been explored for the last year of Run 2 data tak...

  4. Evaluating performance characteristics of x-ray equipment and film systems without the use of electronic measurement and/or special instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, M.F.; DeNitto, C.; Liscio, A.; Scala, N.

    2004-01-01

    Measurement and control of characteristics of NDT equipment and system that produce output to be interpreted by inspector is one of the most important tools for NDT reliability. Control activity should be based on: initial accurate measurement and calibration; periodical check to assure maintenance of calibration status; and, immediate verification and corrective action when any malfunctioning is suspected. 'Self-calibration' intended as capability of NDT facility to calibrate and control its own equipment and systems is very important for continuous and reliable activity. Typical approach based on this philosophy is ASTM E317 'Standard Practice for Evaluating Performance Characteristics of Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo Examination Instruments and Systems Without the Use of Electronic Measurement Instruments' that is applicable to shop or field conditions. Is 'Self-calibration' applicable to radiographic system too? Many characteristics can be self-determined according to existing practices and methods, but other ones require assistance and cooperation of supplier both for film system and x-ray equipment. A certified film system being controlled by pre-exposed filmstrips can be adopted as 'measurement device' for X-ray output concerning both intensity and contrast. Basically x-ray equipment manufacturer performs initial accurate measurement and calibration using electronic measurement and/or special instrumentation as necessary. Then specific film set on 'low-price' blocks and specimens is produced according to standard practice whose guidelines are supplied by this paper. Film set, blocks, specimens and results referred to specific film system will be the reference kit for periodical check in NDT facility. This paper supplies some guidelines for standard practice based on testing using mainly GE Inspection Technologies radiographic system being available in Avio facilities. (author)

  5. Analysis of thermal power calibration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagar, T.; Ravnik, M.; Persic, A.

    2000-01-01

    The methods for determining fuel element burnup have recently become interesting because of activities related to the shipment of highly enriched fuel elements back to the United States for final disposal before 2009. The most common and practical method for determining fuel element burnup in research reactors is reactor calculation. Experience has shown that burnup calculations become complicated and biased with uncertainties if a long period of reactor operation must be reproduced. Besides this, accuracy of calculated burnup is always limited with accuracy of reactor power calibration, since burnup calculation is based on calculated power density distribution, which is usually expressed in terms of power released per fuel element and normalised to the reactor power It is obvious that reactor thermal power calibration is very important for precise fuel element burnup calculation. Calculated fuel element burnup is linearly dependent on the thermal reactor power. The reactor power level may be determined from measured absolute thermal flux distribution across the core in the horizontal and vertical planes. Flux distributions are measured with activation of cadmium covered and bare foils irradiated by the steady reactor power. But it should be realised that this method is time consuming and not accurate. This method is practical only for zero power reactors and is in practice very seldom performed for other reactors (e.g. for TRIGA reactor in Ljubljana absolute thermal flux distribution was not performed since reactor reconstruction in 1991). In case of power reactors and research reactors in which a temperature rise across the core is produced and measured than a heat balance method is the most common and accurate method of determining the power output of the core. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the accuracy of calorimetric reactor power calibration method and to analyse the influence of control rod position on nuclear detector reading for TRIGA reactors

  6. Calibration of quantitative neutron radiography method for moisture measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, T.; Jeraj, R.

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of moisture and hydrogenous matter in building materials by neutron radiography (NR) are regularly performed at TRIGA Mark II research of 'Jozef Stefan' Institute in Ljubljana. Calibration of quantitative method is performed using standard brick samples with known moisture content and also with a secondary standard, plexiglas step wedge. In general, the contribution of scattered neutrons to the neutron image is not determined explicitly what introduces an error to the measured signal. Influence of scattered neutrons is significant in regions with high gradients of moisture concentrations, where the build up of scattered neutrons causes distortion of the moisture concentration profile. In this paper detailed analysis of validity of our calibration method for different geometrical parameters is presented. The error in the measured hydrogen concentration is evaluated by an experiment and compared with results obtained by Monte Carlo calculation with computer code MCNP 4B. Optimal conditions are determined for quantitative moisture measurements in order to minimize the error due to scattered neutrons. The method is tested on concrete samples with high moisture content.(author)

  7. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Schauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociological methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy. Results In ordinary life people who assess other peoplersaquos judgments typically take into account the other judgments of those they are assessing in order to calibrate the judgment presently being assessed. The restaurant and hotel rating website TripAdvisor is exemplary because it facilitates calibration by providing access to a raterrsaquos previous ratings. Such information allows a user to see whether a particular rating comes from a rater who is enthusiastic about every place she patronizes or instead from someone who is incessantly hard to please. And even when less systematized as in assessing a letter of recommendation or college transcript calibration by recourse to the decisional history of those whose judgments are being assessed is ubiquitous. Yet despite the ubiquity and utility of such calibration the legal system seems perversely to reject it. Appellate courts do not openly adjust their standard of review based on the previous judgments of the judge whose decision they are reviewing nor do judges in reviewing legislative or administrative decisions magistrates in evaluating search warrant representations or jurors in assessing witness perception. In most legal domains calibration by reference to the prior decisions of the reviewee is invisible either because it does not exist or because reviewing bodies are unwilling to admit using what they in fact know and employ. Scientific novelty for the first

  8. Characteristic Performance Evaluation of a new SAGe Well Detector for Small and Large Sample Geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adekola, A.S.; Colaresi, J.; Douwen, J.; Jaederstroem, H.; Mueller, W.F.; Yocum, K.M.; Carmichael, K.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental scientific research requires a detector that has sensitivity low enough to reveal the presence of any contaminant in the sample at a reasonable counting time. Canberra developed the germanium detector geometry called Small Anode Germanium (SAGe) Well detector, which is now available commercially. The SAGe Well detector is a new type of low capacitance germanium well detector manufactured using small anode technology capable of advancing many environmental scientific research applications. The performance of this detector has been evaluated for a range of sample sizes and geometries counted inside the well, and on the end cap of the detector. The detector has energy resolution performance similar to semi-planar detectors, and offers significant improvement over the existing coaxial and Well detectors. Energy resolution performance of 750 eV Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) at 122 keV γ-ray energy and resolution of 2.0 - 2.3 keV FWHM at 1332 keV γ-ray energy are guaranteed for detector volumes up to 425 cm 3 . The SAGe Well detector offers an optional 28 mm well diameter with the same energy resolution as the standard 16 mm well. Such outstanding resolution performance will benefit environmental applications in revealing the detailed radionuclide content of samples, particularly at low energy, and will enhance the detection sensitivity resulting in reduced counting time. The detector is compatible with electric coolers without any sacrifice in performance and supports the Canberra Mathematical efficiency calibration method (In situ Object Calibration Software or ISOCS, and Laboratory Source-less Calibration Software or LABSOCS). In addition, the SAGe Well detector supports true coincidence summing available in the ISOCS/LABSOCS framework. The improved resolution performance greatly enhances detection sensitivity of this new detector for a range of sample sizes and geometries counted inside the well. This results in lower minimum detectable

  9. Characteristic Performance Evaluation of a new SAGe Well Detector for Small and Large Sample Geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adekola, A.S.; Colaresi, J.; Douwen, J.; Jaederstroem, H.; Mueller, W.F.; Yocum, K.M.; Carmichael, K. [Canberra Industries Inc., 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, CT 06450 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Environmental scientific research requires a detector that has sensitivity low enough to reveal the presence of any contaminant in the sample at a reasonable counting time. Canberra developed the germanium detector geometry called Small Anode Germanium (SAGe) Well detector, which is now available commercially. The SAGe Well detector is a new type of low capacitance germanium well detector manufactured using small anode technology capable of advancing many environmental scientific research applications. The performance of this detector has been evaluated for a range of sample sizes and geometries counted inside the well, and on the end cap of the detector. The detector has energy resolution performance similar to semi-planar detectors, and offers significant improvement over the existing coaxial and Well detectors. Energy resolution performance of 750 eV Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) at 122 keV γ-ray energy and resolution of 2.0 - 2.3 keV FWHM at 1332 keV γ-ray energy are guaranteed for detector volumes up to 425 cm{sup 3}. The SAGe Well detector offers an optional 28 mm well diameter with the same energy resolution as the standard 16 mm well. Such outstanding resolution performance will benefit environmental applications in revealing the detailed radionuclide content of samples, particularly at low energy, and will enhance the detection sensitivity resulting in reduced counting time. The detector is compatible with electric coolers without any sacrifice in performance and supports the Canberra Mathematical efficiency calibration method (In situ Object Calibration Software or ISOCS, and Laboratory Source-less Calibration Software or LABSOCS). In addition, the SAGe Well detector supports true coincidence summing available in the ISOCS/LABSOCS framework. The improved resolution performance greatly enhances detection sensitivity of this new detector for a range of sample sizes and geometries counted inside the well. This results in lower minimum detectable

  10. Multidetector calibration for mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Donohue, D.L.; Fiedler, R.

    1994-06-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's Safeguards Analytical Laboratory has performed calibration experiments to measure the different efficiencies among multi-Faraday detectors for a Finnigan-MAT 261 mass spectrometer. Two types of calibration experiments were performed: (1) peak-shift experiments and (2) peak-jump experiments. For peak-shift experiments, the ion intensities were measured for all isotopes of an element in different Faraday detectors. Repeated measurements were made by shifting the isotopes to various Faraday detectors. Two different peak-shifting schemes were used to measure plutonium (UK Pu5/92138) samples. For peak-jump experiments, ion intensities were measured in a reference Faraday detector for a single isotope and compared with those measured in the other Faraday detectors. Repeated measurements were made by switching back-and-forth between the reference Faraday detector and a selected Faraday detector. This switching procedure is repeated for all Faraday detectors. Peak-jump experiments were performed with replicate measurements of 239 Pu, 187 Re, and 238 U. Detector efficiency factors were estimated for both peak-jump and peak-shift experiments using a flexible calibration model to statistically analyze both types of multidetector calibration experiments. Calculated detector efficiency factors were shown to depend on both the material analyzed and the experimental conditions. A single detector efficiency factor is not recommended for each detector that would be used to correct routine sample analyses. An alternative three-run peak-shift sample analysis should be considered. A statistical analysis of the data from this peak-shift experiment can adjust the isotopic ratio estimates for detector differences due to each sample analysis

  11. Multi-projector auto-calibration and placement optimization for non-planar surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Xie, Jinghui; Zhao, Lu; Zhou, Lijing; Weng, Dongdong

    2015-10-01

    Non-planar projection has been widely applied in virtual reality and digital entertainment and exhibitions because of its flexible layout and immersive display effects. Compared with planar projection, a non-planar projection is more difficult to achieve because projector calibration and image distortion correction are difficult processes. This paper uses a cylindrical screen as an example to present a new method for automatically calibrating a multi-projector system in a non-planar environment without using 3D reconstruction. This method corrects the geometric calibration error caused by the screen's manufactured imperfections, such as an undulating surface or a slant in the vertical plane. In addition, based on actual projection demand, this paper presents the overall performance evaluation criteria for the multi-projector system. According to these criteria, we determined the optimal placement for the projectors. This method also extends to surfaces that can be parameterized, such as spheres, ellipsoids, and paraboloids, and demonstrates a broad applicability.

  12. 40 CFR 92.119 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... concentrations. (5) Perform a linear least square regression on the data generated. Use an equation of the form y... periodic calibration: (a) Initial and periodic optimization of detector response. Prior to introduction... to find the linear chart deflection (z) for each calibration gas concentration (y). (7) Determine the...

  13. Ergonomics Calibration Training Utilizing Photography for Dental Hygiene Faculty Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partido, Brian B

    2017-10-01

    Dental and dental hygiene clinical faculty members often do not provide consistent instruction, especially since most procedures involve clinical judgment. Although instructional variations frequently translate into variations in student performance, the effect of inconsistent instruction is unknown, especially related to ergonomics. The aim of this study was to determine whether photography-assisted calibration training would improve interrater reliability among dental hygiene faculty members in ergonomics evaluation. The photography-assisted ergonomics calibration program incorporated features to improve accessibility and optimize the quality of the training. The study used a two-group repeated measures design with a convenience sample of 11 dental hygiene faculty members (eight full-time and three part-time) during the autumn 2016 term at one U.S. dental school. At weeks one and seven, all participants evaluated imaged postures of five dental students using a modified-dental operator posture assessment instrument. During weeks three and five, training group participants completed calibration training using independent and group review of imaged postures. All pre-training and post-training evaluations were evaluated for interrater reliability. Two-way random effects intraclass coefficient (ICC) values were calculated to measure the effects of the training on interrater reliability. The average measure of ICC of the training group improved from 0.694 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.001 to 0.965 (F(4,8)=3.465, p>0.05) to 0.766 with a 95% CI of 0.098 to 0.972 (F(4,8)=7.913, p<0.01). The average measure of ICC of the control group improved from 0.821 with a 95% CI of 0.480 to 0.978 (F(4,28)=7.702, p<0.01) to 0.846 with a 95% CI of 0.542 to 0.981 (F(4,28)=8.561, p<0.01). These results showed that the photography-assisted calibration training with the opportunity to reconcile different opinions resulted in improved agreement among these faculty members.

  14. High-dose secondary calibration laboratory accreditation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, J.C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    There is a need for high-dose secondary calibration laboratories to serve the multi-billion dollar radiation processing industry. This need is driven by the desires of industry for less costly calibrations and faster calibration-cycle response time. Services needed include calibration irradiations of routine processing dosimeters and the supply of reference standard transfer dosimeters for irradiation in the production processing facility. In order to provide measurement quality assurance and to demonstrate consistency with national standards, the high-dose secondary laboratories would be accredited by means of an expansion of an existing National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program. A laboratory performance criteria document is under development to implement the new program.

  15. High-dose secondary calibration laboratory accreditation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    There is a need for high-dose secondary calibration laboratories to serve the multi-billion dollar radiation processing industry. This need is driven by the desires of industry for less costly calibrations and faster calibration-cycle response time. Services needed include calibration irradiations of routine processing dosimeters and the supply of reference standard transfer dosimeters for irradiation in the production processing facility. In order to provide measurement quality assurance and to demonstrate consistency with national standards, the high-dose secondary laboratories would be accredited by means of an expansion of an existing National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program. A laboratory performance criteria document is under development to implement the new program

  16. Calibration of neutron detectors on the Joint European Torus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistoni, Paola; Popovichev, S; Conroy, S; Lengar, I; Čufar, A; Abhangi, M; Snoj, L; Horton, L

    2017-10-01

    The present paper describes the findings of the calibration of the neutron yield monitors on the Joint European Torus (JET) performed in 2013 using a 252 Cf source deployed inside the torus by the remote handling system, with particular regard to the calibration of fission chambers which provide the time resolved neutron yield from JET plasmas. The experimental data obtained in toroidal, radial, and vertical scans are presented. These data are first analysed following an analytical approach adopted in the previous neutron calibrations at JET. In this way, a calibration function for the volumetric plasma source is derived which allows us to understand the importance of the different plasma regions and of different spatial profiles of neutron emissivity on fission chamber response. Neutronics analyses have also been performed to calculate the correction factors needed to derive the plasma calibration factors taking into account the different energy spectrum and angular emission distribution of the calibrating (point) 252 Cf source, the discrete positions compared to the plasma volumetric source, and the calibration circumstances. All correction factors are presented and discussed. We discuss also the lessons learnt which are the basis for the on-going 14 MeV neutron calibration at JET and for ITER.

  17. Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML) calibration and assessment of the ATR SPING-3 stack effluent monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppen, L.D.; Rogers, J.W.; Simpson, O.D.

    1983-12-01

    An evaluation, calibration and assessment of the Eberline SPING-3 ATR stack effluent monitor was conducted. This unit which monitors particulate, iodine and noble gas effluents was producing abnormal results following the initial installation and operational testing. The purposes of this work were to find the causes of the abnormal results and correct them if possible; check the calibrations and adjust them if necessary; and to provide a better in-depth understanding of what the unit is monitoring and how well it performs under this application. Results have shown that there were some problems associated with the unit as initially installed and tested. These problems have been identified and suggested alternatives shown, the monitor was found to be applicable to some extent under the current conditions. The calibrations have been checked and adjustments made. More operation testing and evaluation is needed to assess how well this works under a variety of ATR operating conditions. 2 references, 10 figures, 3 tables

  18. Regression analysis with categorized regression calibrated exposure: some interesting findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjartåker Anette

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regression calibration as a method for handling measurement error is becoming increasingly well-known and used in epidemiologic research. However, the standard version of the method is not appropriate for exposure analyzed on a categorical (e.g. quintile scale, an approach commonly used in epidemiologic studies. A tempting solution could then be to use the predicted continuous exposure obtained through the regression calibration method and treat it as an approximation to the true exposure, that is, include the categorized calibrated exposure in the main regression analysis. Methods We use semi-analytical calculations and simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach compared to the naive approach of not correcting for measurement error, in situations where analyses are performed on quintile scale and when incorporating the original scale into the categorical variables, respectively. We also present analyses of real data, containing measures of folate intake and depression, from the Norwegian Women and Cancer study (NOWAC. Results In cases where extra information is available through replicated measurements and not validation data, regression calibration does not maintain important qualities of the true exposure distribution, thus estimates of variance and percentiles can be severely biased. We show that the outlined approach maintains much, in some cases all, of the misclassification found in the observed exposure. For that reason, regression analysis with the corrected variable included on a categorical scale is still biased. In some cases the corrected estimates are analytically equal to those obtained by the naive approach. Regression calibration is however vastly superior to the naive method when applying the medians of each category in the analysis. Conclusion Regression calibration in its most well-known form is not appropriate for measurement error correction when the exposure is analyzed on a

  19. Improvement in QEPAS system utilizing a second harmonic based wavelength calibration technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinduan; Chang, Jun; Wang, Fupeng; Wang, Zongliang; Xie, Yulei; Gong, Weihua

    2018-05-01

    A simple laser wavelength calibration technique, based on second harmonic signal, is demonstrated in this paper to improve the performance of quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) gas sensing system, e.g. improving the signal to noise ratio (SNR), detection limit and long-term stability. Constant current, corresponding to the gas absorption line, combining f/2 frequency sinusoidal signal are used to drive the laser (constant driving mode), a software based real-time wavelength calibration technique is developed to eliminate the wavelength drift due to ambient fluctuations. Compared to conventional wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS), this method allows lower filtering bandwidth and averaging algorithm applied to QEPAS system, improving SNR and detection limit. In addition, the real-time wavelength calibration technique guarantees the laser output is modulated steadily at gas absorption line. Water vapor is chosen as an objective gas to evaluate its performance compared to constant driving mode and conventional WMS system. The water vapor sensor was designed insensitive to the incoherent external acoustic noise by the numerical averaging technique. As a result, the SNR increases 12.87 times in wavelength calibration technique based system compared to conventional WMS system. The new system achieved a better linear response (R2 = 0 . 9995) in concentration range from 300 to 2000 ppmv, and achieved a minimum detection limit (MDL) of 630 ppbv.

  20. Novel Real-time Calibration and Alignment Procedure for LHCb Run II

    CERN Multimedia

    Prouve, Claire

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve optimal detector performance the LHCb experiment has introduced a novel real-time detector alignment and calibration strategy for Run II of the LHC. For the alignment tasks, data is collected and processed at the beginning of each fill while the calibrations are performed for each run. This real time alignment and calibration allows the same constants being used in both the online and offline reconstruction, thus improving the correlation between triggered and offline selected events. Additionally the newly computed alignment and calibration constants can be instantly used in the trigger, making it more efficient. The online alignment and calibration of the RICH detectors also enable the use of hadronic particle identification in the trigger. The computing time constraints are met through the use of a new dedicated framework using the multi-core farm infrastructure for the LHCb trigger. An overview of all alignment and calibration tasks is presented and their performance is shown.

  1. Study of the indirect calibration of clinical air kerma-area meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida Junior, Jose N.; Terini, Ricardo A.; Herdade, Silvio B.

    2011-01-01

    Kerma-area product (P KA ) is a quantity which is independent of the distance to the X-ray tube focal spot and that can be used to assess the effective dose in patients. Clinical P KA meters are usually calibrated on-site by measuring the air kerma with an ion chamber and evaluating the irradiated area by means of a radiographic image. This work presents a preliminary metrological evaluation of the calibration of a device marketed recently (PDC, Patient Dose Calibrator, Radcal), designed for calibrating clinical P KA meters. Results are also shown of applying the PDC to the cross calibration of a clinical P KA meter from a radiology equipment. Results confirm a lower energy dependence of the PDC relative to the tested clinical meter. (author)

  2. Evaluation of IsoCal geometric calibration system for Varian linacs equipped with on-board imager and electronic portal imaging device imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Du, Weiliang; Balter, Peter; Munro, Peter; Jeung, Andrew

    2014-05-08

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of the IsoCal geometric calibration system for kilovoltage (kV) and megavoltage (MV) imagers on Varian C-series linear accelerators (linacs). IsoCal calibration starts by imaging a phantom and collimator plate using MV images with different collimator angles, as well as MV and kV images at different gantry angles. The software then identifies objects on the collimator plate and in the phantom to determine the location of the treatment isocenter and its relation to the MV and kV imager centers. It calculates offsets between the positions of the imaging panels and the treatment isocenter as a function of gantry angle and writes a correction file that can be applied to MV and kV systems to correct for those offsets in the position of the panels. We performed IsoCal calibration three times on each of five Varian C-series linacs, each time with an independent setup. We then compared the IsoCal calibrations with a simplified Winston-Lutz (WL)-based system and with a Varian cubic phantom (VC)-based system. The maximum IsoCal corrections ranged from 0.7 mm to 1.5 mm for MV and 0.9 mm to 1.8 mm for kV imagers across the five linacs. The variations in the three calibrations for each linac were less than 0.2 mm. Without IsoCal correction, the WL results showed discrepancies between the treatment isocenter and the imager center of 0.9 mm to 1.6 mm (for the MV imager) and 0.5 mm to 1.1 mm (for the kV imager); with IsoCal corrections applied, the differences were reduced to 0.2 mm to 0.6 mm (MV) and 0.3 mm to 0.6 mm (kV) across the five linacs. The VC system was not as precise as the WL system, but showed similar results, with discrepancies of less than 1.0 mm when the IsoCal corrections were applied. We conclude that IsoCal is an accurate and consistent method for calibration and periodic quality assurance of MV and kV imaging systems.

  3. Development of a calibration methodology and tests of kerma area product meters; Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia de calibracao e testes de medidores de produto Kerma-Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Nathalia Almeida

    2013-07-01

    The quantity kerma area product (PKA) is important to establish reference levels in diagnostic radiology exams. This quantity can be obtained using a PKA meter. The use of such meters is essential to evaluate the radiation dose in radiological procedures and is a good indicator to make sure that the dose limit to the patient's skin doesn't exceed. Sometimes, these meters come fixed to X radiation equipment, which makes its calibration difficult. In this work, it was developed a methodology for calibration of PKA meters. The instrument used for this purpose was the Patient Dose Calibrator (PDC). It was developed to be used as a reference to check the calibration of PKA and air kerma meters that are used for dosimetry in patients and to verify the consistency and behavior of systems of automatic exposure control. Because it is a new equipment, which, in Brazil, is not yet used as reference equipment for calibration, it was also performed the quality control of this equipment with characterization tests, the calibration and an evaluation of the energy dependence. After the tests, it was proved that the PDC can be used as a reference instrument and that the calibration must be performed in situ, so that the characteristics of each X-ray equipment, where the PKA meters are used, are considered. The calibration was then performed with portable PKA meters and in an interventional radiology equipment that has a PKA meter fixed. The results were good and it was proved the need for calibration of these meters and the importance of in situ calibration with a reference meter. (author)

  4. Robot-assisted automatic ultrasound calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalamifar, Fereshteh; Cheng, Alexis; Kim, Younsu; Hu, Xiao; Zhang, Haichong K; Guo, Xiaoyu; Boctor, Emad M

    2016-10-01

    Ultrasound (US) calibration is the process of determining the unknown transformation from a coordinate frame such as the robot's tooltip to the US image frame and is a necessary task for any robotic or tracked US system. US calibration requires submillimeter-range accuracy for most applications, but it is a time-consuming and repetitive task. We provide a new framework for automatic US calibration with robot assistance and without the need for temporal calibration. US calibration based on active echo (AE) phantom was previously proposed, and its superiority over conventional cross-wire phantom-based calibration was shown. In this work, we use AE to guide the robotic arm motion through the process of data collection; we combine the capability of the AE point to localize itself in the frame of the US image with the automatic motion of the robotic arm to provide a framework for calibrating the arm to the US image automatically. We demonstrated the efficacy of the automated method compared to the manual method through experiments. To highlight the necessity of frequent ultrasound calibration, it is demonstrated that the calibration precision changed from 1.67 to 3.20 mm if the data collection is not repeated after a dismounting/mounting of the probe holder. In a large data set experiment, similar reconstruction precision of automatic and manual data collection was observed, while the time was reduced by 58 %. In addition, we compared ten automatic calibrations with ten manual ones, each performed in 15 min, and showed that all the automatic ones could converge in the case of setting the initial matrix as identity, while this was not achieved by manual data sets. Given the same initial matrix, the repeatability of the automatic was [0.46, 0.34, 0.80, 0.47] versus [0.42, 0.51, 0.98, 1.15] mm in the manual case for the US image four corners. The submillimeter accuracy requirement of US calibration makes frequent data collections unavoidable. We proposed an automated

  5. Calibration of radiation monitors at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudreau, L.; Miller, A.D.; Naughton, M.D.

    1994-03-01

    This work was performed to provide guidance to the utilities in the primary and secondary calibration of the radiation monitoring systems (RMS) installed in nuclear power plants. These systems are installed in nuclear power plants to monitor ongoing processes, identify changing radiation fields, predict and limit personnel radiation exposures and measure and control discharge of radioactive materials to the environment. RMS are checked and calibrated on a continuing basis to ensure their precision and accuracy. This report discusses various approaches towards primary and secondary calibrations of the RMS equipment in light of accepted practices at typical power plants and recent interpretations of regulatory guidance. Detailed calibration techniques and overall system responses, trends, and practices are discussed. Industry, utility, and regulatory sources were contacted to create an overall consensus of the most reasonable approaches to optimizing the performance of this equipment

  6. Calibration of Ge gamma-ray spectrometers for complex sample geometries and matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semkow, T.M., E-mail: thomas.semkow@health.ny.gov [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer, NY 12144 (United States); Bradt, C.J.; Beach, S.E.; Haines, D.K.; Khan, A.J.; Bari, A.; Torres, M.A.; Marrantino, J.C.; Syed, U.-F. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Kitto, M.E. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer, NY 12144 (United States); Hoffman, T.J. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Curtis, P. [Kiltel Systems, Inc., Clyde Hill, WA 98004 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    A comprehensive study of the efficiency calibration and calibration verification of Ge gamma-ray spectrometers was performed using semi-empirical, computational Monte-Carlo (MC), and transfer methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the quantification of gamma-emitting radionuclides in complex matrices normally encountered in environmental and food samples. A wide range of gamma energies from 59.5 to 1836.0 keV and geometries from a 10-mL jar to 1.4-L Marinelli beaker were studied on four Ge spectrometers with the relative efficiencies between 102% and 140%. Density and coincidence summing corrections were applied. Innovative techniques were developed for the preparation of artificial complex matrices from materials such as acidified water, polystyrene, ethanol, sugar, and sand, resulting in the densities ranging from 0.3655 to 2.164 g cm{sup −3}. They were spiked with gamma activity traceable to international standards and used for calibration verifications. A quantitative method of tuning MC calculations to experiment was developed based on a multidimensional chi-square paraboloid. - Highlights: • Preparation and spiking of traceable complex matrices in extended geometries. • Calibration of Ge gamma spectrometers for complex matrices. • Verification of gamma calibrations. • Comparison of semi-empirical, computational Monte Carlo, and transfer methods of Ge calibration. • Tuning of Monte Carlo calculations using a multidimensional paraboloid.

  7. Calibration of Ge gamma-ray spectrometers for complex sample geometries and matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semkow, T.M.; Bradt, C.J.; Beach, S.E.; Haines, D.K.; Khan, A.J.; Bari, A.; Torres, M.A.; Marrantino, J.C.; Syed, U.-F.; Kitto, M.E.; Hoffman, T.J.; Curtis, P.

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the efficiency calibration and calibration verification of Ge gamma-ray spectrometers was performed using semi-empirical, computational Monte-Carlo (MC), and transfer methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the quantification of gamma-emitting radionuclides in complex matrices normally encountered in environmental and food samples. A wide range of gamma energies from 59.5 to 1836.0 keV and geometries from a 10-mL jar to 1.4-L Marinelli beaker were studied on four Ge spectrometers with the relative efficiencies between 102% and 140%. Density and coincidence summing corrections were applied. Innovative techniques were developed for the preparation of artificial complex matrices from materials such as acidified water, polystyrene, ethanol, sugar, and sand, resulting in the densities ranging from 0.3655 to 2.164 g cm −3 . They were spiked with gamma activity traceable to international standards and used for calibration verifications. A quantitative method of tuning MC calculations to experiment was developed based on a multidimensional chi-square paraboloid. - Highlights: • Preparation and spiking of traceable complex matrices in extended geometries. • Calibration of Ge gamma spectrometers for complex matrices. • Verification of gamma calibrations. • Comparison of semi-empirical, computational Monte Carlo, and transfer methods of Ge calibration. • Tuning of Monte Carlo calculations using a multidimensional paraboloid

  8. The ENEA calibration service for ionising radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteventi, F.; Sermenghi, I.

    1999-01-01

    The report describes all the facilities available at the the service of the ENEA Calibration Service for Ionising Radiations at Bologna (Italy). It gives a detailed description of all equipments qualified for photon fields metrology including the secondary standards and the calibration procedures performed for radiation monitoring devices and dosemeters [it

  9. Calibration of Avent Wind IRIS SN 01030167

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courtney, Michael

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for a two-beam nacelle based lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement un...

  10. Automatic multi-camera calibration for deployable positioning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Maria; Karlsson, Mikael; Rudner, Staffan

    2012-06-01

    Surveillance with automated positioning and tracking of subjects and vehicles in 3D is desired in many defence and security applications. Camera systems with stereo or multiple cameras are often used for 3D positioning. In such systems, accurate camera calibration is needed to obtain a reliable 3D position estimate. There is also a need for automated camera calibration to facilitate fast deployment of semi-mobile multi-camera 3D positioning systems. In this paper we investigate a method for automatic calibration of the extrinsic camera parameters (relative camera pose and orientation) of a multi-camera positioning system. It is based on estimation of the essential matrix between each camera pair using the 5-point method for intrinsically calibrated cameras. The method is compared to a manual calibration method using real HD video data from a field trial with a multicamera positioning system. The method is also evaluated on simulated data from a stereo camera model. The results show that the reprojection error of the automated camera calibration method is close to or smaller than the error for the manual calibration method and that the automated calibration method can replace the manual calibration.

  11. A laser calibration system for the STAR TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, A

    2002-01-01

    A Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the primary tracking detector for the STAR experiment at RHIC. A laser calibration system was built to calibrate and monitor the TPC tracking performance. The laser system uses a novel design which produces approx 500 thin, ionizing beams distributed throughout the tracking volume. This new approach is significantly simpler than the traditional ones, and provides complete TPC coverage at a reduced cost. The laser system was used during the RHIC 2000 summer run to measure drift velocities with about 0.02% accuracy and to monitor the TPC performance. Calibration runs were made with and without a magnetic field to check B field map corrections.

  12. HPS instrument calibration laboratory accreditation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, F.X; Eisenhower, E.H.; Swinth, K.L.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an accurate overview of the development and structure of the program established by the Health Physics Society (HPS) for accrediting instrument calibration laboratories relative to their ability to accurately calibrate portable health physics instrumentation. The purpose of the program is to provide radiation protection professionals more meaningful direct and indirect access to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) national standards, thus introducing a means for improving the uniformity, accuracy, and quality of ionizing radiation field measurements. The process is designed to recognize and document the continuing capability of each accredited laboratory to accurately perform instrument calibration. There is no intent to monitor the laboratory to the extent that each calibration can be guaranteed by the program; this responsibility rests solely with the accredited laboratory.

  13. Calibrated Properties Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghezzehej, T.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the calibrated properties model that provides calibrated property sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models (UZ models). The calibration of the property sets is performed through inverse modeling. This work followed, and was planned in, ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Sections 1.2.6 and 2.1.1.6). Direct inputs to this model report were derived from the following upstream analysis and model reports: ''Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170038]); ''Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169855]); ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170007]); ''Geologic Framework Model'' (GFM2000) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170029]). Additionally, this model report incorporates errata of the previous version and closure of the Key Technical Issue agreement TSPAI 3.26 (Section 6.2.2 and Appendix B), and it is revised for improved transparency

  14. Calibration and assessment of electrochemical air quality sensors by co-location with regulatory-grade instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Hagan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of low-cost air quality sensors for air pollution research has outpaced our understanding of their capabilities and limitations under real-world conditions, and there is thus a critical need for understanding and optimizing the performance of such sensors in the field. Here we describe the deployment, calibration, and evaluation of electrochemical sensors on the island of Hawai`i, which is an ideal test bed for characterizing such sensors due to its large and variable sulfur dioxide (SO2 levels and lack of other co-pollutants. Nine custom-built SO2 sensors were co-located with two Hawaii Department of Health Air Quality stations over the course of 5 months, enabling comparison of sensor output with regulatory-grade instruments under a range of realistic environmental conditions. Calibration using a nonparametric algorithm (k nearest neighbors was found to have excellent performance (RMSE < 7 ppb, MAE < 4 ppb, r2 > 0.997 across a wide dynamic range in SO2 (< 1 ppb, > 2 ppm. However, since nonparametric algorithms generally cannot extrapolate to conditions beyond those outside the training set, we introduce a new hybrid linear–nonparametric algorithm, enabling accurate measurements even when pollutant levels are higher than encountered during calibration. We find no significant change in instrument sensitivity toward SO2 after 18 weeks and demonstrate that calibration accuracy remains high when a sensor is calibrated at one location and then moved to another. The performance of electrochemical SO2 sensors is also strong at lower SO2 mixing ratios (< 25 ppb, for which they exhibit an error of less than 2.5 ppb. While some specific results of this study (calibration accuracy, performance of the various algorithms, etc. may differ for measurements of other pollutant species in other areas (e.g., polluted urban regions, the calibration and validation approaches described here should be widely applicable

  15. SU-F-T-05: Dosimetric Evaluation and Validation of Newlydeveloped Well Chamber for Use in the Calibration of Brachytherapy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saminathan, S; Godson, H; Ponmalar, R; Manickam, R [Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); Mazarello, J [Rosalina India private limited, Mumbai, Maharastra (India)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric characteristics of newly developed well type ionization chamber and to validate the results with the commercially available calibrated well chambers that are being used for the calibration of brachytherapy sources. Methods: The newly developed well type ionization chamber (BDS 1000) has been designed for the convenient use in brachytherapy which is open to atmospheric condition. The chamber has a volume of 240 cm3 and weight of 2.5 Kg. The calibration of the radioactive source with activities from 0.01 mCi to 20 Ci can be carried out using this chamber. The dosimetric parameters such as leakage current, stability, scattering effect, ion collection efficiency, reference air kerma rate and nominal response with energy were carried out with the BDS 1000 well type ion chamber. The evaluated dosimetric characteristics of BDS1000 well chamber were validated with two other commercially available well chambers (HDR 1000 plus and BTC/3007). Results: The measured leakage current observed was negligible for the newly developed BDS 1000 well type ion chamber. The ion collection efficiency was close to 1 and the response of the chamber was found to be very stable. The determined sweet spot was at 42 mm from bottom of the chamber insert. The reference air kerma rate was found to be 4.634 × 105 Gym2hr-1A-1 for the BDS 1000 well chamber. The overall dosimetric characteristics of BDS 1000 well chamber was in good agreement with the dosimetric properties of other two well chambers. Conclusion: The dosimetric study shows that the newly developed BDS 1000 well type ionization chamber is high sensitive and reliable chamber for reference air kerma strength calibration. The results obtained confirm that this chamber can be used for the calibration of HDR and LDR brachytherapy sources.

  16. Calibration and assessment of electrochemical air quality sensors by co-location with regulatory-grade instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, David H.; Isaacman-VanWertz, Gabriel; Franklin, Jonathan P.; Wallace, Lisa M. M.; Kocar, Benjamin D.; Heald, Colette L.; Kroll, Jesse H.

    2018-01-01

    The use of low-cost air quality sensors for air pollution research has outpaced our understanding of their capabilities and limitations under real-world conditions, and there is thus a critical need for understanding and optimizing the performance of such sensors in the field. Here we describe the deployment, calibration, and evaluation of electrochemical sensors on the island of Hawai`i, which is an ideal test bed for characterizing such sensors due to its large and variable sulfur dioxide (SO2) levels and lack of other co-pollutants. Nine custom-built SO2 sensors were co-located with two Hawaii Department of Health Air Quality stations over the course of 5 months, enabling comparison of sensor output with regulatory-grade instruments under a range of realistic environmental conditions. Calibration using a nonparametric algorithm (k nearest neighbors) was found to have excellent performance (RMSE 0.997) across a wide dynamic range in SO2 ( 2 ppm). However, since nonparametric algorithms generally cannot extrapolate to conditions beyond those outside the training set, we introduce a new hybrid linear-nonparametric algorithm, enabling accurate measurements even when pollutant levels are higher than encountered during calibration. We find no significant change in instrument sensitivity toward SO2 after 18 weeks and demonstrate that calibration accuracy remains high when a sensor is calibrated at one location and then moved to another. The performance of electrochemical SO2 sensors is also strong at lower SO2 mixing ratios (pollutant species in other areas (e.g., polluted urban regions), the calibration and validation approaches described here should be widely applicable to a range of pollutants, sensors, and environments.

  17. Radiation protection dosimetry and calibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhavere, Ph.

    2007-01-01

    At the SCK-CEN different specialised services are delivered for a whole range of external and internal customers in the radiation protection area. For the expertise group of radiation protection dosimetry and calibrations, these services are organized in four different laboratories: dosimetry, anthropogammametry, nuclear calibrations and non-nuclear calibrations. The services are given by a dedicated technical staff who has experience in the handling of routine and specialised cases. The scientific research that is performed by the expertise group makes sure that state-of-the-art techniques are being used, and that constant improvements and developments are implemented. Quality Assurance is an important aspect for the different services, and accreditation according national and international standards is achieved for all laboratories

  18. A Statistical Approach To Prediction Of The CMM Drift Behaviour Using A Calibrated Mechanical Artefact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta Eduardo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multivariate regression predictive model of drift on the Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM behaviour. Evaluation tests on a CMM with a multi-step gauge were carried out following an extended version of an ISO evaluation procedure with a periodicity of at least once a week and during more than five months. This test procedure consists in measuring the gauge for several range volumes, spatial locations, distances and repetitions. The procedure, environment conditions and even the gauge have been kept invariables, so a massive measurement dataset was collected over time under high repeatability conditions. A multivariate regression analysis has revealed the main parameters that could affect the CMM behaviour, and then detected a trend on the CMM performance drift. A performance model that considers both the size of the measured dimension and the elapsed time since the last CMM calibration has been developed. This model can predict the CMM performance and measurement reliability over time and also can estimate an optimized period between calibrations for a specific measurement length or accuracy level.

  19. Calibration of a compact magnetic proton recoil neutron spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianfu, E-mail: zhang_jianfu@163.com [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China); Ouyang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xianpeng [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China); Ruan, Jinlu [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China); Zhang, Guoguang [Applied Institute of Nuclear Technology, China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Zhang, Xiaodong [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China); Qiu, Suizheng, E-mail: szqiu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Chen, Liang; Liu, Jinliang; Song, Jiwen; Liu, Linyue; Yang, Shaohua [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China)

    2016-04-21

    Magnetic proton recoil (MPR) neutron spectrometer is considered as a powerful instrument to measure deuterium–tritium (DT) neutron spectrum, as it is currently used in inertial confinement fusion facilities and large Tokamak devices. The energy resolution (ER) and neutron detection efficiency (NDE) are the two most important parameters to characterize a neutron spectrometer. In this work, the ER calibration for the MPR spectrometer was performed by using the HI-13 tandem accelerator at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), and the NDE calibration was performed by using the neutron generator at CIAE. The specific calibration techniques used in this work and the associated accuracies were discussed in details in this paper. The calibration results were presented along with Monte Carlo simulation results.

  20. The calibrated laparoscopic Heller myotomy with fundoplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, Natale; Marano, Luigi; Torelli, Francesco; Schettino, Michele; Porfidia, Raffaele; Reda, Gianmarco; Grassia, Michele; Petrillo, Marianna; Braccio, Bartolomeo

    2013-01-01

    Esophageal achalasia is the most common primary esophageal motor disorder. Laparoscopic Heller's myotomy combined with fundoplication represents the treatment of choice for this disease, achieving good results in about 90% of patients. However, about 10% of treated patients refer persistent or recurrent dysphagia. Many Authors showed that this failure rate is related to inadequate myotomy. To verify, from experimental to clinical study, the modifications induced by Heller's myotomy of the esophago- gastric junction on LES pressure (LES-P profile, using a computerized manometric system. From 2002 to 2010 105 patients with achalasia underwent laparoscopic calibrated Heller myotomy followed by antireflux surgery. The calibrated Heller myotomy was extended for at least 2.5 cm on the esophagus and for 3 cm on the gastric side. Each step was evaluated by intraoperative manometry. Moreover, intraoperative manometry and endoscopy were used to calibrate the fundoplication. The preoperative mean LES-P was 37.73 ± 12.21. After esophageal and gastric myotomy the mean pressure drop was 21.3% and 91.9%, respectively. No mortality was reported. Laparoscopic calibrated Heller myotomy with fundoplication achieves a good outcome in the surgical treatment of achalasia. The use of intraoperative manometry enables an adequate calibration of myotomy, being effective in the evaluation of the complete pressure drop, avoiding too long esophageal myotomy and, especially, too short gastric myotomy, that may be the cause of surgical failure.

  1. An Investigation of a Novel Cross-Calibration Method of FY-3C/VIRR against NPP/VIIRS in the Dunhuang Test Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiometric cross-calibration of Earth observation sensors is an effective approach to evaluate instrument calibration performance, identify and diagnose calibration anomalies, and quantify the consistency of measurements from different sensors. In this study a novel cross-calibration method is proposed, taking into account the spectral and viewing angle differences adequately; the method is applied to the FY-3C/Visible Infrared Radiometer (VIRR, taking the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (NPP/Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS as a reference. The results show that the relative difference between the two sets increases from January to May 2014, and becomes lower for the data on 24 July, 11 September, and 16 September, within approximately 10%. This phenomenon is caused by the updating of the calibration coefficients in the VIRR datasets with results from a vicarious method on June 2014. After performing an approximate estimation of the uncertainty, it is demonstrated that this calibration has a total uncertainty of 5.5%–6.0%, which is mainly from the uncertainty of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function model.

  2. A calculation and uncertainty evaluation method for the effective area of a piston rod used in quasi-static pressure calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Tingwei; Kong, Deren; Shang, Fei; Chen, Jing

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes the merits and demerits of different sensors for measuring propellant gas pressure, the applicable range of the frequently used dynamic pressure calibration methods, and the working principle of absolute quasi-static pressure calibration based on the drop-weight device. The main factors affecting the accuracy of pressure calibration are analyzed from two aspects of the force sensor and the piston area. To calculate the effective area of the piston rod and evaluate the uncertainty between the force sensor and the corresponding peak pressure in the absolute quasi-static pressure calibration process, a method for solving these problems based on the least squares principle is proposed. According to the relevant quasi-static pressure calibration experimental data, the least squares fitting model between the peak force and the peak pressure, and the effective area of the piston rod and its measurement uncertainty, are obtained. The fitting model is tested by an additional group of experiments, and the peak pressure obtained by the existing high-precision comparison calibration method is taken as the reference value. The test results show that the peak pressure obtained by the least squares fitting model is closer to the reference value than the one directly calculated by the cross-sectional area of the piston rod. When the peak pressure is higher than 150 MPa, the percentage difference is less than 0.71%, which can meet the requirements of practical application.

  3. A calibration facility for radon fluxmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xianjie; Qiu Shoukang; Zhou Jianliang; Liu Chunkui; Pan Jialin; Yang Mingli

    1998-01-01

    Calibration facilities for radon fluxmeter with three kinds of different emanation medium have been developed. The stability of radon flux is 5%, 9% (RSD) respectively. The uniformity of radon flux is 4.5%, 8.5% (RSD) respectively. These specifications fulfill the calibration requirement for radon fluxmeter. The determination of radon flux of facility takes full account of eliminating the main error source-attenuation effect (including leakage and back diffusion etc.): not only prevent attenuation and make a relevant correction. Therefore the accuracy of determination is assured. The calibration, intercomparison of radon flux meter and the quantitatively evaluation on the measurement method of radon flux are made to be possible by the successful establishment of this facility. (author)

  4. 40 CFR 63.2354 - What performance tests, design evaluations, and performance evaluations must I conduct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluations, and performance evaluations must I conduct? 63.2354 Section 63.2354 Protection of Environment... tests, design evaluations, and performance evaluations must I conduct? (a)(1) For each performance test... procedures specified in subpart SS of this part. (3) For each performance evaluation of a continuous emission...

  5. In-Flight Calibration Processes for the MMS Fluxgate Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromund, K. R.; Leinweber, H. K.; Plaschke, F.; Strangeway, R. J.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Nakamura, R.; Anderson, B. J.; Russell, C. T.; Baumjohann, W.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The calibration effort for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) Analog Fluxgate (AFG) and DigitalFluxgate (DFG) magnetometers is a coordinated effort between three primary institutions: University of California, LosAngeles (UCLA); Space Research Institute, Graz, Austria (IWF); and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Since thesuccessful deployment of all 8 magnetometers on 17 March 2015, the effort to confirm and update the groundcalibrations has been underway during the MMS commissioning phase. The in-flight calibration processes evaluatetwelve parameters that determine the alignment, orthogonalization, offsets, and gains for all 8 magnetometers usingalgorithms originally developed by UCLA and the Technical University of Braunschweig and tailored to MMS by IWF,UCLA, and GSFC. We focus on the processes run at GSFC to determine the eight parameters associated with spin tonesand harmonics. We will also discuss the processing flow and interchange of parameters between GSFC, IWF, and UCLA.IWF determines the low range spin axis offsets using the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI). UCLA determines the absolutegains and sensor azimuth orientation using Earth field comparisons. We evaluate the performance achieved for MMS andgive examples of the quality of the resulting calibrations.

  6. An information theoretic approach to use high-fidelity codes to calibrate low-fidelity codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Allison, E-mail: lewis.allison10@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Smith, Ralph [Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Williams, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Figueroa, Victor [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    For many simulation models, it can be prohibitively expensive or physically infeasible to obtain a complete set of experimental data to calibrate model parameters. In such cases, one can alternatively employ validated higher-fidelity codes to generate simulated data, which can be used to calibrate the lower-fidelity code. In this paper, we employ an information-theoretic framework to determine the reduction in parameter uncertainty that is obtained by evaluating the high-fidelity code at a specific set of design conditions. These conditions are chosen sequentially, based on the amount of information that they contribute to the low-fidelity model parameters. The goal is to employ Bayesian experimental design techniques to minimize the number of high-fidelity code evaluations required to accurately calibrate the low-fidelity model. We illustrate the performance of this framework using heat and diffusion examples, a 1-D kinetic neutron diffusion equation, and a particle transport model, and include initial results from the integration of the high-fidelity thermal-hydraulics code Hydra-TH with a low-fidelity exponential model for the friction correlation factor.

  7. A Vision-Based Self-Calibration Method for Robotic Visual Inspection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shibin; Ren, Yongjie; Zhu, Jigui; Yang, Shourui; Ye, Shenghua

    2013-01-01

    A vision-based robot self-calibration method is proposed in this paper to evaluate the kinematic parameter errors of a robot using a visual sensor mounted on its end-effector. This approach could be performed in the industrial field without external, expensive apparatus or an elaborate setup. A robot Tool Center Point (TCP) is defined in the structural model of a line-structured laser sensor, and aligned to a reference point fixed in the robot workspace. A mathematical model is established to formulate the misalignment errors with kinematic parameter errors and TCP position errors. Based on the fixed point constraints, the kinematic parameter errors and TCP position errors are identified with an iterative algorithm. Compared to the conventional methods, this proposed method eliminates the need for a robot-based-frame and hand-to-eye calibrations, shortens the error propagation chain, and makes the calibration process more accurate and convenient. A validation experiment is performed on an ABB IRB2400 robot. An optimal configuration on the number and distribution of fixed points in the robot workspace is obtained based on the experimental results. Comparative experiments reveal that there is a significant improvement of the measuring accuracy of the robotic visual inspection system. PMID:24300597

  8. In-flight calibration of the ISGRI camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrier, R.; Lebrun, F.; Belanger, G.; Blondel, C.; David, P.; Goldoni, P.; Goldwurm, A.; Gros, A.; Laurent, P.; Malaguti, G.; Sauvageon, A.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P.; Segreto, A.; Malaguti, G.; Bird, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    ISGRI, the IBIS low energy camera (15 keV-1 MeV) on board INTEGRAL, is the first large CdTe gamma-ray imager in orbit. We present here an overview of the ISGRI in-flight calibrations performed during the first months after launch. We discuss the stability of the camera as well as the CdTe pixels response under cosmic radiation. The energy calibrations were done using lead and tungsten fluorescence lines and the 22 Na calibration unit. Thermal effects and charge correction algorithm are discussed, and the resulting energy resolution is presented. The ISGRI background spatial and spectral non-uniformity is also described, and some image correction results are presented. ISGRI, despite a few unexpected features like zero rise time events, performs well with only 4,5% noisy or disabled pixels. Thermal effects are at the origin of the largest difference between ground and in-flight data. Correcting for these effects yields good spectral performances close to the expectations with 8.4% at 59.3 keV and 4.9% at 511 keV. The resolution in the high energy band is broader than before launch because of residual rise time gains uncertainties. Handling of these errors requires a larger amount of calibration data than what is available today

  9. IMU Calibration and Validation in a Factory, Remote on Land and at Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Juhl; Paccagnan, Dario; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2014-01-01

    relevance for gyro-compassing grade optical gyroscopes and force-rebalanced pendulous accelerometers: Scale factor, bias and sensor axes misalignments. Focus is on low-dynamic marine applications e.g., subsea construction and survey. Two different methods of calibration are investigated: Kalman smoothing...... using an Aided Inertial Navigation System (AINS) framework, augmenting the error state Kalman filter (ESKF) to include the full set of IMU calibration parameters and a least squares approach, where the calibration parameters are determined by minimizing the magnitude of the INS error differential...... equation output. A method of evaluating calibrations is introduced and discussed. The two calibration methods are evaluated for factory use and results compared to a legacy proprietary method as well as in-field calibration/verification on land and at sea. The calibration methods shows similar navigation...

  10. Distance measurement using frequency-modulated continuous-wave ladar with calibration by a femtosecond frequency comb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yang, Linghui; Lin, Jiarui; Zhu, Jigui

    2018-01-01

    Precise distance measurement is of interest for large-scale manufacturing, future space satellite missions, and other industrial applications. The ranging system with femtosecond optical frequency comb (FOFC) could offer high accuracy, stability and direct traceability to SI definition of the meter. Here, we propose a scheme for length measurement based on the frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) ladar with a FOFC. In this scheme, the reference interferometer in the FMCW ladar is calibrated by the intensity detection using the FOFC in the time domain within an optical wavelength resolution. With analysis of the theoretical model, this system has the potential to a high-speed, high-accuracy absolute distance measurement. Then, based on the experimental results, the evaluation of the performance of the calibration of the reference arm is discussed. In addition, the performance of this system is evaluated by a single position measurement with different tuning velocities of wavelength. The experimental results show that the reproducibility of the distance measurement is 10-5 level.

  11. Calibration issues for neutron diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadler, G.J.; Adams, J.M.; Barnes, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    The performance of diagnostic systems are limited by their weakest constituents, including their calibration issues. Neutron diagnostics are notorious for problems encountered while determining their absolute calibrations, due mainly to the nature of the neutron transport problem. In order to facilitate the determination of an accurate and precise calibration, the diagnostic design should be such as to minimize the scattered neutron flux. ITER will use a comprehensive set of neutron diagnostics--comprising radial and vertical neutron cameras, neutron spectrometers, a neutron activation system and internal and external fission chambers--to provide accurate measurements of fusion power and power densities as a function of time. The calibration of such an important diagnostic system merits careful consideration. Some thoughts have already been given to this subject during the conceptual design phase in relation to the time-integrated neutron activation and time-dependent neutron yield monitors. However, no overall calibration strategy has been worked out so far. This paper represents a first attempt to address this vital issue. Experience gained from present large tokamaks (JET, TFTR and JT60U) and proposals for ITER are reviewed. The need to use a 14-MeV neutron generator as opposed to radioactive sources for in-situ calibration of D-T diagnostics will be stressed. It is clear that the overall absolute determination of fusion power will have to rely on a combination of nuclear measuring techniques, for which the provision of accurate and independent calibrations will constitute an ongoing process as ITER moves from one phase of operation to the next

  12. A calibration rig for multi-component internal strain gauge balance using the new design-of-experiment (DOE) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, N. M.; Mostafapour, K.; Kamran, M.

    2018-02-01

    In a closed water-tunnel circuit, the multi-component strain gauge force and moment sensor (also known as balance) are generally used to measure hydrodynamic forces and moments acting on scaled models. These balances are periodically calibrated by static loading. Their performance and accuracy depend significantly on the rig and the method of calibration. In this research, a new calibration rig was designed and constructed to calibrate multi-component internal strain gauge balances. The calibration rig has six degrees of freedom and six different component-loading structures that can be applied separately and synchronously. The system was designed based on the applicability of formal experimental design techniques, using gravity for balance loading and balance positioning and alignment relative to gravity. To evaluate the calibration rig, a six-component internal balance developed by Iran University of Science and Technology was calibrated using response surface methodology. According to the results, calibration rig met all design criteria. This rig provides the means by which various methods of formal experimental design techniques can be implemented. The simplicity of the rig saves time and money in the design of experiments and in balance calibration while simultaneously increasing the accuracy of these activities.

  13. The Impact of Indoor and Outdoor Radiometer Calibration on Solar Measurements: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, Aron; Sengupta, Manajit; Andreas, Afshin; Reda, Ibrahim; Robinson, Justin

    2016-07-01

    Accurate solar radiation data sets are critical to reducing the expenses associated with mitigating performance risk for solar energy conversion systems, and they help utility planners and grid system operators understand the impacts of solar resource variability. The accuracy of solar radiation measured by radiometers depends on the instrument performance specification, installation method, calibration procedure, measurement conditions, maintenance practices, location, and environmental conditions. This study addresses the effect of calibration methodologies and the resulting calibration responsivities provided by radiometric calibration service providers such as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and manufacturers of radiometers. Some of these radiometers are calibrated indoors, and some are calibrated outdoors. To establish or understand the differences in calibration methodology, we processed and analyzed field-measured data from these radiometers. This study investigates calibration responsivities provided by NREL's broadband outdoor radiometer calibration (BORCAL) and a few prominent manufacturers. The reference radiometer calibrations are traceable to the World Radiometric Reference. These different methods of calibration demonstrated 1% to 2% differences in solar irradiance measurement. Analyzing these values will ultimately assist in determining the uncertainties of the radiometer data and will assist in developing consensus on a standard for calibration.

  14. Calibration bench of flowmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremond, J.; Da Costa, D.; Calvet, A.; Vieuxmaire, C.

    1966-01-01

    This equipment is devoted to the comparison of signals from two turbines installed in the Cabri experimental loop. The signal is compared to the standard turbine. The characteristics and the performance of the calibration bench are presented. (A.L.B.)

  15. Quality control of on-line calibration in computerized assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    1998-01-01

    In computerized adaptive testing, updating parameter estimates using adaptive testing data is often called online calibration. In this paper, how to evaluate whether the adaptive testing model used for online calibration fits the item response model used sufficiently is studied. Three approaches are

  16. Calibration of the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator for the new 10R Schott, Type 1+ vials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.

    2005-01-01

    For many years, P6 vials have been used for the distribution of a wide range of diagnostic and therapeutic radioactive solutions. The activity measurements were performed in this geometry and, in time, the UK calibration system for nuclear medicine was based on this container as a standard. However, one major supplier of radiopharmaceuticals has replaced the P6 vial with the 10R Type 1+ Schott vial. As the dimensions of the new vial are different from those of the P6 vial and the responses of radionuclide calibrators are known to be container dependent, the need for re-calibration became apparent. Preliminary measurements made on some typical radionuclide calibrators for 125 I solution indicated a difference in response of about 10% between the two vials. The master ionisation chamber of the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator has been re-calibrated and new calibration factors and volume correction factors for 10R Schott vials have been derived for the relevant medical radionuclides. The standard holder was also modified to accommodate the new larger vial. The complete list of factors and the method used to determine them is presented in this paper. The availability of these new factors will improve the quality of activity measurements in nuclear medicine, as calibration services can now be provided by NPL for the new container. These factors can also be employed for all commercial NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrators (now known as the NPL-CRC and previously as the 671 or ISOCAL IV)

  17. Influence of rainfall observation network on model calibration and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bárdossy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this study is to investigate the influence of the spatial resolution of the rainfall input on the model calibration and application. The analysis is carried out by varying the distribution of the raingauge network. A meso-scale catchment located in southwest Germany has been selected for this study. First, the semi-distributed HBV model is calibrated with the precipitation interpolated from the available observed rainfall of the different raingauge networks. An automatic calibration method based on the combinatorial optimization algorithm simulated annealing is applied. The performance of the hydrological model is analyzed as a function of the raingauge density. Secondly, the calibrated model is validated using interpolated precipitation from the same raingauge density used for the calibration as well as interpolated precipitation based on networks of reduced and increased raingauge density. Lastly, the effect of missing rainfall data is investigated by using a multiple linear regression approach for filling in the missing measurements. The model, calibrated with the complete set of observed data, is then run in the validation period using the above described precipitation field. The simulated hydrographs obtained in the above described three sets of experiments are analyzed through the comparisons of the computed Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient and several goodness-of-fit indexes. The results show that the model using different raingauge networks might need re-calibration of the model parameters, specifically model calibrated on relatively sparse precipitation information might perform well on dense precipitation information while model calibrated on dense precipitation information fails on sparse precipitation information. Also, the model calibrated with the complete set of observed precipitation and run with incomplete observed data associated with the data estimated using multiple linear regressions, at the locations treated as

  18. Online Sensor Calibration Assessment in Nuclear Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coble, Jamie B.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Meyer, Ryan M.; Hashemian, Hash

    2013-01-01

    Safe, efficient, and economic operation of nuclear systems (nuclear power plants, fuel fabrication and storage, used fuel processing, etc.) relies on transmission of accurate and reliable measurements. During operation, sensors degrade due to age, environmental exposure, and maintenance interventions. Sensor degradation can affect the measured and transmitted signals, including sensor failure, signal drift, sensor response time, etc. Currently, periodic sensor recalibration is performed to avoid these problems. Sensor recalibration activities include both calibration assessment and adjustment (if necessary). In nuclear power plants, periodic recalibration of safety-related sensors is required by the plant technical specifications. Recalibration typically occurs during refueling outages (about every 18 to 24 months). Non-safety-related sensors also undergo recalibration, though not as frequently. However, this approach to maintaining sensor calibration and performance is time-consuming and expensive, leading to unnecessary maintenance, increased radiation exposure to maintenance personnel, and potential damage to sensors. Online monitoring (OLM) of sensor performance is a non-invasive approach to assess instrument calibration. OLM can mitigate many of the limitations of the current periodic recalibration practice by providing more frequent assessment of calibration and identifying those sensors that are operating outside of calibration tolerance limits without removing sensors or interrupting operation. This can support extended operating intervals for unfaulted sensors and target recalibration efforts to only degraded sensors

  19. 40 CFR 86.519-90 - Constant volume sampler calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... total calibration. Allow the system to stabilize for 3 minutes and repeat the data acquisition. (7) Data... decrease as reflected by lower values for M. Calibrations should be performed at pump startup and after...

  20. UNIVERSAL AUTO-CALIBRATION FOR A RAPID BATTERY IMPEDANCE SPECTRUM MEASUREMENT DEVICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon P. Christophersen; John L. Morrison; William H. Morrison

    2014-03-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has been shown to be a valuable tool for diagnostics and prognostics of energy storage devices such as batteries and ultra-capacitors. Although measurements have been typically confined to laboratory environments, rapid impedance spectrum measurement techniques have been developed for on-line, embedded applications as well. The prototype hardware for the rapid technique has been validated using lithium-ion batteries, but issues with calibration had also been identified. A new, universal automatic calibration technique was developed to address the identified issues while also enabling a more simplified approach. A single, broad-frequency range is used to calibrate the system and then scaled to the actual range and conditions used when measuring a device under test. The range used for calibration must be broad relative to the expected measurement conditions for the scaling to be successful. Validation studies were performed by comparing the universal calibration approach with data acquired from targeted calibration ranges based on the expected range of performance for the device under test. First, a mid-level shunt range was used for calibration and used to measure devices with lower and higher impedance. Next, a high excitation current level was used for calibration, followed by measurements using lower currents. Finally, calibration was performed over a wide frequency range and used to measure test articles with a lower set of frequencies. In all cases, the universal calibration approach compared very well with results acquired following a targeted calibration. Additionally, the shunts used for the automated calibration technique were successfully characterized such that the rapid impedance measurements compare very well with laboratory-scale measurements. These data indicate that the universal approach can be successfully used for onboard rapid impedance spectra measurements for a broad set of test devices and range of

  1. Measurements for the energy calibration of the TANSY neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdowicz, K.; Hoek, M.; Aronsson, D.

    1990-05-01

    The report describes measurements performed for the energy calibration of the TANSY neutron detectors (two arrays of 16 detectors each one). The calibration procedure determines four calibration parameters for each detector. Results of the calibration measurements are given and test measurements are presented. A relation of the neutron detector calibration parameters to producer's data for the photomulipliers is analysed. Also the tests necessary during normal operation of the TANSY neutron spectrometer are elaborated (passive and active tests). A method how to quickly get the calibration parameters for a spare detector in an array of the neutron detectors is included

  2. Evaluating uncertainties in the cross-calibration of parallel ion chambers used in electron beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Ernani; Travassos, Paulo; Ferreira, Max da Silva; Carvalho, Samira Marques de; Silva, Michele Maria da; Peixoto, Jose Guilherme Pereira; Salmon Junior, Helio Augusto

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to estimative the combined standard uncertainty for a detector parallel plate used for dosimetry of electron beams in linear accelerators for radiotherapy, which has been calibrated by the cross-calibration method. Keeping the combined standard uncertainty next of the uncertainty informed in the calibration certificate of the reference chamber, become possible establish the calibration factor of the detector. The combined standard uncertainty obtained in this study was 2.5 %. (author)

  3. The study of new calibration features in the Harshaw TLD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, L.Z.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In the Harshaw TLD system, there are three key calibration procedures; the reader, the dosimeter and the algorithm. These procedures must be properly calibrated for the system to achieve the optimum results. For the conventional reader and dosimeter calibration, Harshaw recommends a pre-fade and a post-fade of 24 - 48 hours when calibrating the system. Harshaw also emphasizes that keeping the fade time consistent is important to maintain the quality of the system performance. In recent years, new calibration features have been introduced into the operating system. These new features are auto calibration, auto QC and auto blank, and they give the user the ability to set up the clear-expose-read performed automatically in a sequence for each dosimeter. This saves processing time and keeps the fade time the same. However, since the fade time is near zero, will it affect the TLD system calibration factors? What should the user expect? This paper presents a study of the effect of auto calibration / auto QC to the TLD operation. (author)

  4. Optimized star sensors laboratory calibration method using a regularization neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengfen; Niu, Yanxiong; Zhang, Hao; Lu, Jiazhen

    2018-02-10

    High-precision ground calibration is essential to ensure the performance of star sensors. However, the complex distortion and multi-error coupling have brought great difficulties to traditional calibration methods, especially for large field of view (FOV) star sensors. Although increasing the complexity of models is an effective way to improve the calibration accuracy, it significantly increases the demand for calibration data. In order to achieve high-precision calibration of star sensors with large FOV, a novel laboratory calibration method based on a regularization neural network is proposed. A multi-layer structure neural network is designed to represent the mapping of the star vector and the corresponding star point coordinate directly. To ensure the generalization performance of the network, regularization strategies are incorporated into the net structure and the training algorithm. Simulation and experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve high precision with less calibration data and without any other priori information. Compared with traditional methods, the calibration error of the star sensor decreased by about 30%. The proposed method can satisfy the precision requirement for large FOV star sensors.

  5. CALIBRATION PROCEDURES ON OBLIQUE CAMERA SETUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kemper

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Beside the creation of virtual animated 3D City models, analysis for homeland security and city planning, the accurately determination of geometric features out of oblique imagery is an important task today. Due to the huge number of single images the reduction of control points force to make use of direct referencing devices. This causes a precise camera-calibration and additional adjustment procedures. This paper aims to show the workflow of the various calibration steps and will present examples of the calibration flight with the final 3D City model. In difference to most other software, the oblique cameras are used not as co-registered sensors in relation to the nadir one, all camera images enter the AT process as single pre-oriented data. This enables a better post calibration in order to detect variations in the single camera calibration and other mechanical effects. The shown sensor (Oblique Imager is based o 5 Phase One cameras were the nadir one has 80 MPIX equipped with a 50 mm lens while the oblique ones capture images with 50 MPix using 80 mm lenses. The cameras are mounted robust inside a housing to protect this against physical and thermal deformations. The sensor head hosts also an IMU which is connected to a POS AV GNSS Receiver. The sensor is stabilized by a gyro-mount which creates floating Antenna –IMU lever arms. They had to be registered together with the Raw GNSS-IMU Data. The camera calibration procedure was performed based on a special calibration flight with 351 shoots of all 5 cameras and registered the GPS/IMU data. This specific mission was designed in two different altitudes with additional cross lines on each flying heights. The five images from each exposure positions have no overlaps but in the block there are many overlaps resulting in up to 200 measurements per points. On each photo there were in average 110 well distributed measured points which is a satisfying number for the camera calibration. In a first

  6. Performance Evaluation of Fabry-Perot Temperature Sensors in Nuclear Power Plant Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hanying; Miller, Don W.; Talnagi, Joseph W.

    2003-01-01

    The Fiso Fabry-Perot fiber-optic temperature sensor was selected for performance evaluation and for potential application in nuclear power plants because of its unique interferometric sensing mechanism and data-processing technique, and its commercial availability. It employs a Fizeau interferometer and a charge-coupled device array to locate the position of the maximum interference fringe intensity, which is directly related to the environmental temperature. Consequently, the basic sensing mechanism is independent of the absolute transmitted light intensity, which is the most likely parameter to be affected by external harsh environments such as nuclear irradiation, high pressure/temperature, and cyclical vibration.This paper reports research on the performance of two Fiso Fabry-Perot temperature sensors in environmental conditions expected in nuclear power plants during both normal and abnormal (i.e., accident) conditions. The environmental conditions simulated in this paper include gamma-only ( 60 Co) irradiation, pressure/temperature environmental transient, and mixed neutron/gamma field, respectively.The first sensor exhibited no failure or degradation in performance during and following gamma-only irradiation in which a total dose of 15 kGy was delivered at a dose rate of 2.5 kGy/h. Following gamma irradiation, this sensor was then tested for 10.75 days in a thermohydraulic environment prescribed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IEEE323-1983. Intermittent behavior was observed throughout the latter portions of this test, and degradation in performance occurred after the test. Visual evaluation after opening the sensor head indicated that the internal welding methodology was the primary contributor to the observed behavior during this test. Further consultation with the vendor shows that the robustness and reliability of Fiso sensors can be substantially improved by modifying the internal welding methods.The second Fiso temperature

  7. Calibration and performance testing of the IAEA Aquila Active Well Coincidence Counter (Unit 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O..; Siebelist, R.; Wenz, T.R.

    1996-01-01

    An Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) and a portable shift register (PSR-B) produced by Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., have been tested and cross-calibrated with existing AWCCs used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report summarizes the results of these tests and the cross-calibration of the detector. In addition, updated tables summarizing the cross-calibration of existing AWCCs and AmLi sources are also included. Using the Aquila PSR-B with existing IAEA software requires secondary software also supplied by Aquila to set up the PSR-B with the appropriate measurement parameters

  8. Optimization of procedure for calibration with radiometer/photometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detilly, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    A test procedure for the radiometer/photometer calibrations mark International Light at the Laboratorio de Fotometria y Tecnologia Laser (LAFTA) de la Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica de la Universidad de Costa Rica is established. Two photometric banks are used as experimental set and two calibrations were performed of the International Light. A basic procedure established in the laboratory, is used for calibration from measurements of illuminance and luminous intensity. Some dependent variations of photometric banks used in the calibration process, the programming of the radiometer/photometer and the applied methodology showed the results. The procedure for calibration with radiometer/photometer can be improved by optimizing the programming process of the measurement instrument and possible errors can be minimized by using the recommended procedure. (author) [es

  9. Computerized 50 liter volume calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proffitt, T.H.

    1990-01-01

    A system has been designed for the Savannah River Site that will be used to calibrate product shipping containers. For accountability purposes, it is necessary that these containers be calibrated to a very high precision. The Computerized 50 Liter Volume Calibration System (CVCS), which is based on the Ideal Gas Law (IGL), will use reference volumes with precision of no less ±0.03%, and helium to calibrate the containers to have a total error of no greater than ±0.10%. A statistical interpretation of the system has given a theoretical total calculated error of ±0.08%. Tests with the system will be performed once fabrication is complete to experimentally verify the calculated error. Since the total error was calculated using the worst case scenario, the actual error should be significantly less than the calculated value. The computer controlled, totally automated system is traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The design, calibration procedure, and statistical interpretation of the system will be discussed. 1 ref

  10. Decoder calibration with ultra small current sample set for intracortical brain-machine interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Ma, Xuan; Chen, Luyao; Zhou, Jin; Wang, Changyong; Li, Wei; He, Jiping

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Intracortical brain-machine interfaces (iBMIs) aim to restore efficient communication and movement ability for paralyzed patients. However, frequent recalibration is required for consistency and reliability, and every recalibration will require relatively large most current sample set. The aim in this study is to develop an effective decoder calibration method that can achieve good performance while minimizing recalibration time. Approach. Two rhesus macaques implanted with intracortical microelectrode arrays were trained separately on movement and sensory paradigm. Neural signals were recorded to decode reaching positions or grasping postures. A novel principal component analysis-based domain adaptation (PDA) method was proposed to recalibrate the decoder with only ultra small current sample set by taking advantage of large historical data, and the decoding performance was compared with other three calibration methods for evaluation. Main results. The PDA method closed the gap between historical and current data effectively, and made it possible to take advantage of large historical data for decoder recalibration in current data decoding. Using only ultra small current sample set (five trials of each category), the decoder calibrated using the PDA method could achieve much better and more robust performance in all sessions than using other three calibration methods in both monkeys. Significance. (1) By this study, transfer learning theory was brought into iBMIs decoder calibration for the first time. (2) Different from most transfer learning studies, the target data in this study were ultra small sample set and were transferred to the source data. (3) By taking advantage of historical data, the PDA method was demonstrated to be effective in reducing recalibration time for both movement paradigm and sensory paradigm, indicating a viable generalization. By reducing the demand for large current training data, this new method may facilitate the application

  11. In-situ Calibration of Ground -based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Villanueva, Héctor

    This report presents the result of the lidar in-situ calibration performed at DTU’s test site for large wind turbine at Østerild, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement uncertainties provided by mea...

  12. A Development of the Calibration Tool Applied on Analog I/O Modules for Safety-related Controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Kyun; Yun, Dong-Hwa; Lee, Myeong-Kyun; Yoo, Kwan-Woo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop the calibration tool for analog input/output(I/O) modules. Those modules are components in POSAFE-Q which is a programmable logic controller(PLC) that has been developed for the evaluation of safety-related. In this paper, performance improvement of analog I/O modules is presented by developing and applying the calibration tool for each channel in analog I/O modules. With this tool, the input signal to an analog input module and the output signal from an analog output module are able to be satisfied with a reference value of sensor type and an accuracy of all modules. With RS-232 communication, the manual calibration tool is developed for analog I/O modules of an existing and up-to-date version in POSAFE-Q PLC. As a result of applying this tool, the converted value is performant for a type of input sensor and an accuracy of analog I/O modules

  13. Cloud-Based Model Calibration Using OpenStudio: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, E.; Lisell, L.; Goldwasser, D.; Macumber, D.; Dean, J.; Metzger, I.; Parker, A.; Long, N.; Ball, B.; Schott, M.; Weaver, E.; Brackney, L.

    2014-03-01

    OpenStudio is a free, open source Software Development Kit (SDK) and application suite for performing building energy modeling and analysis. The OpenStudio Parametric Analysis Tool has been extended to allow cloud-based simulation of multiple OpenStudio models parametrically related to a baseline model. This paper describes the new cloud-based simulation functionality and presents a model cali-bration case study. Calibration is initiated by entering actual monthly utility bill data into the baseline model. Multiple parameters are then varied over multiple iterations to reduce the difference between actual energy consumption and model simulation results, as calculated and visualized by billing period and by fuel type. Simulations are per-formed in parallel using the Amazon Elastic Cloud service. This paper highlights model parameterizations (measures) used for calibration, but the same multi-nodal computing architecture is available for other purposes, for example, recommending combinations of retrofit energy saving measures using the calibrated model as the new baseline.

  14. Construction of calibration curve for accountancy tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takayuki; Goto, Yoshiki; Nidaira, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    Tanks are equipped in a reprocessing plant for accounting solution of nuclear material. The careful measurement of volume in tanks is very important to implement rigorous accounting of nuclear material. The calibration curve relating the volume and level of solution needs to be constructed, where the level is determined by differential pressure of dip tubes. Several calibration curves are usually employed, but it's not explicitly decided how many segment are used, where to select segment, or what should be the degree of polynomial curve. These parameters, i.e., segment and degree of polynomial curve are mutually interrelated to give the better performance of calibration curve. Here we present the construction technique of giving optimum calibration curves and their characteristics. (author)

  15. Effective radiation attenuation calibration for breast density: compression thickness influences and correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jerry A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calibrating mammograms to produce a standardized breast density measurement for breast cancer risk analysis requires an accurate spatial measure of the compressed breast thickness. Thickness inaccuracies due to the nominal system readout value and compression paddle orientation induce unacceptable errors in the calibration. Method A thickness correction was developed and evaluated using a fully specified two-component surrogate breast model. A previously developed calibration approach based on effective radiation attenuation coefficient measurements was used in the analysis. Water and oil were used to construct phantoms to replicate the deformable properties of the breast. Phantoms consisting of measured proportions of water and oil were used to estimate calibration errors without correction, evaluate the thickness correction, and investigate the reproducibility of the various calibration representations under compression thickness variations. Results The average thickness uncertainty due to compression paddle warp was characterized to within 0.5 mm. The relative calibration error was reduced to 7% from 48-68% with the correction. The normalized effective radiation attenuation coefficient (planar representation was reproducible under intra-sample compression thickness variations compared with calibrated volume measures. Conclusion Incorporating this thickness correction into the rigid breast tissue equivalent calibration method should improve the calibration accuracy of mammograms for risk assessments using the reproducible planar calibration measure.

  16. The Influence of Sub-Block Position on Performing Integrated Sensor Orientation Using In Situ Camera Calibration and Lidar Control Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe A. L. Costa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of photogrammetric and Lidar dataset integration is dependent on the quality of a group of parameters that models accurately the conditions of the system at the moment of the survey. In this sense, this paper aims to study the effect of the sub-block position in the entire image block to estimate the interior orientation parameters (IOP in flight conditions to be used in integrated sensor orientation (ISO. For this purpose, five sub-blocks were extracted in different regions of the entire block. Then, in situ camera calibrations were performed using sub-blocks and sets of Lidar control points (LCPs, computed by a three planes’ intersection extracted from the Lidar point cloud on building roofs. The ISO experiments were performed using IOPs from in situ calibrations, the entire image block, and the exterior orientation parameters (EOP from the direct sensor orientation (DSO. Analysis of the results obtained from the ISO experiments performed show that the IOP from the sub-block positioned at the center of the entire image block can be recommended.

  17. Tracked ultrasound calibration studies with a phantom made of LEGO bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soehl, Marie; Walsh, Ryan; Rankin, Adam; Lasso, Andras; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2014-03-01

    In this study, spatial calibration of tracked ultrasound was compared by using a calibration phantom made of LEGO® bricks and two 3-D printed N-wire phantoms. METHODS: The accuracy and variance of calibrations were compared under a variety of operating conditions. Twenty trials were performed using an electromagnetic tracking device with a linear probe and three trials were performed using varied probes, varied tracking devices and the three aforementioned phantoms. The accuracy and variance of spatial calibrations found through the standard deviation and error of the 3-D image reprojection were used to compare the calibrations produced from the phantoms. RESULTS: This study found no significant difference between the measured variables of the calibrations. The average standard deviation of multiple 3-D image reprojections with the highest performing printed phantom and those from the phantom made of LEGO® bricks differed by 0.05 mm and the error of the reprojections differed by 0.13 mm. CONCLUSION: Given that the phantom made of LEGO® bricks is significantly less expensive, more readily available, and more easily modified than precision-machined N-wire phantoms, it prompts to be a viable calibration tool especially for quick laboratory research and proof of concept implementations of tracked ultrasound navigation.

  18. Thrust Stand for Vertically Oriented Electric Propulsion Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Trevor; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-01-01

    A variation of a hanging pendulum thrust stand capable of measuring the performance of an electric thruster operating in the vertical orientation is presented. The vertical orientation of the thruster dictates that the thruster must be horizontally offset from the pendulum pivot arm, necessitating the use of a counterweight system to provide a neutrally-stable system. Motion of the pendulum arm is transferred through a balance mechanism to a secondary arm on which deflection is measured. A non-contact light-based transducer is used to measure displacement of the secondary beam. The members experience very little friction, rotating on twisting torsional pivots with oscillatory motion attenuated by a passive, eddy current damper. Displacement is calibrated using an in situ thrust calibration system. Thermal management and self-leveling systems are incorporated to mitigate thermal and mechanical drifts. Gravitational restoring force and torsional spring constants associated with flexure pivots provide restoring moments. An analysis of the design indicates that the thrust measurement range spans roughly four decades, with the stand capable of measuring thrust up to 12 N for a 200 kg thruster and up to approximately 800 mN for a 10 kg thruster. Data obtained from calibration tests performed using a 26.8 lbm simulated thruster indicated a resolution of 1 mN on 100 mN-level thrusts, while those tests conducted on 200 lbm thruster yielded a resolution of roughly 2.5 micro at thrust levels of 0.5 N and greater.

  19. Thrust stand for vertically oriented electric propulsion performance evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Trevor [University of Tennessee Space Institute, Tullahoma, Tennessee 37388 (United States); Polzin, Kurt A. [NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    A variation of a hanging pendulum thrust stand capable of measuring the performance of an electric thruster operating in the vertical orientation is presented. The vertical orientation of the thruster dictates that the thruster must be horizontally offset from the pendulum pivot arm, necessitating the use of a counterweight system to provide a neutrally stable system. Motion of the pendulum arm is transferred through a balance mechanism to a secondary arm on which deflection is measured. A noncontact light-based transducer is used to measure displacement of the secondary beam. The members experience very little friction, rotating on twisting torsional pivots with oscillatory motion attenuated by a passive, eddy-current damper. Displacement is calibrated using an in situ thrust calibration system. Thermal management and self-leveling systems are incorporated to mitigate thermal and mechanical drifts. Gravitational force and torsional spring constants associated with flexure pivots provide restoring moments. An analysis of the design indicates that the thrust measurement range spans roughly four decades, with the stand capable of measuring thrust up to 12 N for a 200 kg thruster and up to approximately 800 mN for a 10 kg thruster. Data obtained from calibration tests performed using a 26.8 lbm simulated thruster indicated a resolution of 1 mN on 100 mN level thrusts, while those tests conducted on a 200 lbm thruster yielded a resolution of roughly 2.5 mN at thrust levels of 0.5 N and greater.

  20. Thrust stand for vertically oriented electric propulsion performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Trevor; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-01-01

    A variation of a hanging pendulum thrust stand capable of measuring the performance of an electric thruster operating in the vertical orientation is presented. The vertical orientation of the thruster dictates that the thruster must be horizontally offset from the pendulum pivot arm, necessitating the use of a counterweight system to provide a neutrally stable system. Motion of the pendulum arm is transferred through a balance mechanism to a secondary arm on which deflection is measured. A noncontact light-based transducer is used to measure displacement of the secondary beam. The members experience very little friction, rotating on twisting torsional pivots with oscillatory motion attenuated by a passive, eddy-current damper. Displacement is calibrated using an in situ thrust calibration system. Thermal management and self-leveling systems are incorporated to mitigate thermal and mechanical drifts. Gravitational force and torsional spring constants associated with flexure pivots provide restoring moments. An analysis of the design indicates that the thrust measurement range spans roughly four decades, with the stand capable of measuring thrust up to 12 N for a 200 kg thruster and up to approximately 800 mN for a 10 kg thruster. Data obtained from calibration tests performed using a 26.8 lbm simulated thruster indicated a resolution of 1 mN on 100 mN level thrusts, while those tests conducted on a 200 lbm thruster yielded a resolution of roughly 2.5 mN at thrust levels of 0.5 N and greater.

  1. Calibration of the 7—Equation Transition Model for High Reynolds Flows at Low Mach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonia, S.; Leble, V.; Steijl, R.; Barakos, G.

    2016-09-01

    The numerical simulation of flows over large-scale wind turbine blades without considering the transition from laminar to fully turbulent flow may result in incorrect estimates of the blade loads and performance. Thanks to its relative simplicity and promising results, the Local-Correlation based Transition Modelling concept represents a valid way to include transitional effects into practical CFD simulations. However, the model involves coefficients that need tuning. In this paper, the γ—equation transition model is assessed and calibrated, for a wide range of Reynolds numbers at low Mach, as needed for wind turbine applications. An aerofoil is used to evaluate the original model and calibrate it; while a large scale wind turbine blade is employed to show that the calibrated model can lead to reliable solutions for complex three-dimensional flows. The calibrated model shows promising results for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows, even if cross-flow instabilities are neglected.

  2. Geometric Parameters Estimation and Calibration in Cone-Beam Micro-CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintao Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The quality of Computed Tomography (CT images crucially depends on the precise knowledge of the scanner geometry. Therefore, it is necessary to estimate and calibrate the misalignments before image acquisition. In this paper, a Two-Piece-Ball (TPB phantom is used to estimate a set of parameters that describe the geometry of a cone-beam CT system. Only multiple projections of the TPB phantom at one position are required, which can avoid the rotation errors when acquiring multi-angle projections. Also, a corresponding algorithm is derived. The performance of the method is evaluated through simulation and experimental data. The results demonstrated that the proposed method is valid and easy to implement. Furthermore, the experimental results from the Micro-CT system demonstrate the ability to reduce artifacts and improve image quality through geometric parameter calibration.

  3. Calibration of PKA meters against ion chambers of two geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida Junior, Jose N.; Terini, Ricardo A.; Pereira, Marco A.G.; Herdade, Silvio B.

    2011-01-01

    Kerma-area product (KAP or PKA) is a quantity that is independent of the distance to the X-ray tube focal spot and that can be used in radiological exams to assess the effective dose in patients. Clinical KAP meters are generally fixed in tube output and they are usually calibrated on-site by measuring the air kerma with an ion chamber and by evaluating the irradiated area by means of a radiographic image. Recently, a device was marketed (PDC, Patient Dose Calibrator, Radcal Co.), which was designed for calibrating clinical KAP meters with traceability to a standard laboratory. This paper presents a metrological evaluation of two methods that can be used in standard laboratories for the calibration of this device, namely, against a reference 30 cc ionization chamber or a reference parallel plates monitor chamber. Lower energy dependence was also obtained when the PDC calibration was made with the monitor chamber. Results are also shown of applying the PDC in hospital environment to the cross calibration of a clinical KAP meter from a radiology equipment. Results confirm lower energy dependence of the PDC relatively to the tested clinical meter. (author)

  4. Calibration uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Anglov, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Methods recommended by the International Standardization Organisation and Eurachem are not satisfactory for the correct estimation of calibration uncertainty. A novel approach is introduced and tested on actual calibration data for the determination of Pb by ICP-AES. The improved calibration...

  5. Evaluation of Some Dose Calibration for Measuring of 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroh; Erni-Juita; Hermawan-Candra

    2001-01-01

    99m Tc is a prime radionuclide in nuclear medicine because of worthwhile in many diagnoses. According to ALARA concept, the lowest risk should be considered in the use of radioactive materials especially for health. Center for development of Radioisotopes and Radiopharmacy-BATAN, Serpong, serves several nuclear medicine departments supplying all their 99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals on a daily basis. It was observed that there was very poor consistency between the assays as determined by P3KRBin and those determined in the various nuclear medicine, using Dose-Calibrator. Investigation has been done to correct measurements result of 99m Tc using several Dose-Calibrators in some hospitals in Java island and the correction factors were vary from 0.91 to 1.16. The same survey done by researcher in Canada using a mock 99m Tc ( 57 Co) and 99m Tc and the correction factors were between 0.74 and 1. Investigation of influences of various environmental conditions on the Calibrator function was also carried out. Influences factors obtained from the survey were vary from 1 to 1.19. (author)

  6. Comparing Hp(3) evaluated from the conversion coefficients from air kerma to personal dose equivalent for eye lens dosimetry calibrated on a new cylindrical PMMA phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esor, J.; Sudchai, W.; Monthonwattana, S.; Pungkun, V.; Intang, A.

    2017-06-01

    Based on a new occupational dose limit recommended by ICRP (2011), the annual dose limit for the lens of the eye for workers should be reduced from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y averaged over 5 consecutive years in which no single year exceeding 50 mSv. This new dose limit directly affects radiologists and cardiologists whose work involves high radiation exposure over 20 mSv/y. Eye lens dosimetry (Hp(3)) has become increasingly important and should be evaluated directly based on dosimeters that are worn closely to the eye. Normally, Hp(3) dose algorithm was carried out by the combination of Hp(0.07) and Hp(10) values while dosimeters were calibrated on slab PMMA phantom. Recently, there were three reports from European Union that have shown the conversion coefficients from air kerma to Hp(3). These conversion coefficients carried out by ORAMED, PTB and CEA Saclay projects were performed by using a new cylindrical head phantom. In this study, various delivered doses were calculated using those three conversion coefficients while nanoDot, small OSL dosimeters, were used for Hp(3) measurement. These calibrations were performed with a standard X-ray generator at Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL). Delivered doses (Hp(3)) using those three conversion coefficients were compared with Hp(3) from nanoDot measurements. The results showed that percentage differences between delivered doses evaluated from the conversion coefficient of each project and Hp(3) doses evaluated from the nanoDots were found to be not exceeding -11.48 %, -8.85 % and -8.85 % for ORAMED, PTB and CEA Saclay project, respectively.

  7. Uncertainty Evaluations of the CRCS In-orbit Field Radiometric Calibration Methods for Thermal Infrared Channels of FENGYUN Meteorological Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Rong, Z.; Min, M.; Hao, X.; Yang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Meteorological satellites have become an irreplaceable weather and ocean-observing tool in China. These satellites are used to monitor natural disasters and improve the efficiency of many sectors of Chinese national economy. It is impossible to ignore the space-derived data in the fields of meteorology, hydrology, and agriculture, as well as disaster monitoring in China, a large agricultural country. For this reason, China is making a sustained effort to build and enhance its meteorological observing system and application system. The first Chinese polar-orbiting weather satellite was launched in 1988. Since then China has launched 14 meteorological satellites, 7 of which are sun synchronous and 7 of which are geostationary satellites; China will continue its two types of meteorological satellite programs. In order to achieve the in-orbit absolute radiometric calibration of the operational meteorological satellites' thermal infrared channels, China radiometric calibration sites (CRCS) established a set of in-orbit field absolute radiometric calibration methods (FCM) for thermal infrared channels (TIR) and the uncertainty of this method was evaluated and analyzed based on TERRA/AQUA MODIS observations. Comparisons between the MODIS at pupil brightness temperatures (BTs) and the simulated BTs at the top of atmosphere using radiative transfer model (RTM) based on field measurements showed that the accuracy of the current in-orbit field absolute radiometric calibration methods was better than 1.00K (@300K, K=1) in thermal infrared channels. Therefore, the current CRCS field calibration method for TIR channels applied to Chinese metrological satellites was with favorable calibration accuracy: for 10.5-11.5µm channel was better than 0.75K (@300K, K=1) and for 11.5-12.5µm channel was better than 0.85K (@300K, K=1).

  8. Analysis of ANSI N13.11: the performance algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberson, P.L.; Hadley, R.T.; Thorson, M.R.

    1982-06-01

    The method of performance testing for personnel dosimeters specified in draft ANSI N13.11, Criteria for Testing Personnel Dosimetry Performance is evaluated. Points addressed are: (1) operational behavior of the performance algorithm; (2) dependence on the number of test dosimeters; (3) basis for choosing an algorithm; and (4) other possible algorithms. The performance algorithm evaluated for each test category is formed by adding the calibration bias and its standard deviation. This algorithm is not optimal due to a high dependence on the standard deviation. The dependence of the calibration bias on the standard deviation is significant because of the low number of dosimeters (15) evaluated per category. For categories with large standard deviations the uncertainty in determining the performance criterion is large. To have a reasonable chance of passing all categories in one test, we required a 95% probability of passing each category. Then, the maximum permissible standard deviation is 30% even with a zero bias. For test categories with standard deviations <10%, the bias can be as high as 35%. For intermediate standard deviations, the chance of passing a category is improved by using a 5 to 10% negative bias. Most multipurpose personnel dosimetry systems will probably require detailed calibration adjustments to pass all categories within two rounds of testing

  9. Lidar to lidar calibration of Ground-based Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Garcia, Sergio; Courtney, Michael

    This report presents the result of the lidar to lidar calibration performed for ground-based lidar. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference lidar wind speed measurements with measurement uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding...... lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from the reference lidar measurements are given for information only....

  10. Ionosphere Delay Calibration and Calibration Errors for Satellite Navigation of Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ian; Manucci, Anthony; Iijima, Byron; Lindqwister, Ulf; Muna, Demitri; Pi, Xiaoqing; Wilson, Brian

    2000-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is implementing a satellite-based navigation system for aircraft using the Global Positioning System (GPS). Positioning accuracy of a few meters will be achieved by broadcasting corrections to the direct GPS signal. These corrections are derived using the wide-area augmentation system (WAAS), which includes a ground network of at least 24 GPS receivers across the Continental US (CONUS). WAAS will provide real-time total electron content (TEC) measurements that can be mapped to fixed grid points using a real-time mapping algorithm. These TECs will be converted into vertical delay corrections for the GPS L1 frequency and broadcast to users every five minutes via geosynchronous satellite. Users will convert these delays to slant calibrations along their own lines-of-sight (LOS) to GPS satellites. Uncertainties in the delay calibrations will also be broadcast, allowing users to estimate the uncertainty of their position. To maintain user safety without reverting to excessive safety margins an empirical model of user calibration errors has been developed. WAAS performance depends on factors that include geographic location (errors increase near WAAS borders), and ionospheric conditions, such as the enhanced spatial electron density gradients found during ionospheric storms.

  11. Hydrology and sediment yield calibration for the Barasona reservoir catchment (Spain) using SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazón, Leticia; Navas, Ana

    2013-04-01

    deviate water out of the catchment and a badland area were parameterized in the SWAT model to finally calibrate the hydrology and the sediment yield of the catchment. The model was manually calibrated by a process of trial and error. Model performance during the calibration was evaluated using several statistical parameters, such as the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NSE) and average runoff volume deviation (Dv). The hydrology was calibrated using continuous measured streamflow data from two gauge stations. The sediment yield calibration was based in specific sediment yield calculated from bathymetric surveys in the Barasona reservoir. The introduction of these improvements in the model performed better results than previous simulations enhancing the calibration of SWAT for the Barasona catchment. The final calibration of the model allows modeling water and sediment production closer to reality and therefore the study of the catchment processes would be more reliable.

  12. The CMS tracker calibration workflow: Experience with cosmic ray data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frosali, Simone

    2010-01-01

    During the second part of 2008 a CMS commissioning was performed with the acquisition of cosmic events in global runs. Cosmic rays detected in the muon chambers were used to trigger the readout of all CMS subdetectors in the general data acquisition system. A total of about 300M of tracks were collected by the CMS Muon Chambers with a 3.8T magnetic field produced by the CMS superconducting solenoid, 6M of which pointing to the tracker region and reconstructed by the Si-Strip Tracker (SST) detectors. Other 1M of cosmic tracks were collected with the magnetic field off. Using the cosmic data available it was possible to validate the performances of the CMS tracker calibration workflows. In this paper the adopted calibration workflow is described. In particular, the three main calibration workflows requested for the low level reconstruction of the SST, i.e. gain calibration, Lorentz angle calibration and bad components identification, are described. The results obtained using cosmic tracks for these three calibration workflows are also presented.

  13. Novel crystal timing calibration method based on total variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xingjian; Isobe, Takashi; Watanabe, Mitsuo; Liu, Huafeng

    2016-11-01

    A novel crystal timing calibration method based on total variation (TV), abbreviated as ‘TV merge’, has been developed for a high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) system. The proposed method was developed for a system with a large number of crystals, it can provide timing calibration at the crystal level. In the proposed method, the timing calibration process was formulated as a linear problem. To robustly optimize the timing resolution, a TV constraint was added to the linear equation. Moreover, to solve the computer memory problem associated with the calculation of the timing calibration factors for systems with a large number of crystals, the merge component was used for obtaining the crystal level timing calibration values. Compared with other conventional methods, the data measured from a standard cylindrical phantom filled with a radioisotope solution was sufficient for performing a high-precision crystal-level timing calibration. In this paper, both simulation and experimental studies were performed to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the TV merge method. We compare the timing resolutions of a 22Na point source, which was located in the field of view (FOV) of the brain PET system, with various calibration techniques. After implementing the TV merge method, the timing resolution improved from 3.34 ns at full width at half maximum (FWHM) to 2.31 ns FWHM.

  14. Aging evaluation of active components by using performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, S. K.; Jin, T. E.; Kim, J. S.; Jung, I. S.; Kim, T. R.

    2003-01-01

    Risk analysis and performance evaluation methodology were applied to the aging evaluation of active components in the periodic safety review of Wolsung unit 1. We conclude that evaluation of performance is more effective to discriminate the aging degradation of active component than the evaluation of aging mechanism. It is essential to analyze the common cause failures of low performance components to evaluate the properness of present maintenance system. Past 10 years failure history is used for establishing the performance criteria. Past 2 years failure history is used for the evaluating the recent performance condition. We analyze the failure mode of the components to improve the maintenance system. Performance evaluation methodology is useful for the quantitative evaluation of aging degradation of active components. Analysis on the repeated failures can be useful for the feedback to maintenance plan and interval

  15. The Performance and Usability of a Factory-Calibrated Flash Glucose Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Timothy; Bode, Bruce W; Christiansen, Mark P; Klaff, Leslie J; Alva, Shridhara

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance and usability of the FreeStyle(®) Libre™ Flash glucose monitoring system (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) for interstitial glucose results compared with capillary blood glucose results. Seventy-two study participants with type 1 or type 2 diabetes were enrolled by four U.S. clinical sites. A sensor was inserted on the back of each upper arm for up to 14 days. Three factory-only calibrated sensor lots were used in the study. Sensor glucose measurements were compared with capillary blood glucose (BG) results (approximately eight per day) obtained using the BG meter built into the reader (BG reference) and with the YSI analyzer (Yellow Springs Instrument, Yellow Springs, OH) reference tests at three clinic visits (32 samples per visit). Sensor readings were masked to the participants. The accuracy of the results was demonstrated against capillary BG reference values, with 86.7% of sensor results within Consensus Error Grid Zone A. The percentage of readings within Consensus Error Grid Zone A on Days 2, 7, and 14 was 88.4%, 89.2%, and 85.2%, respectively. The overall mean absolute relative difference was 11.4%. The mean lag time between sensor and YSI reference values was 4.5±4.8 min. Sensor accuracy was not affected by factors such as body mass index, age, type of diabetes, clinical site, insulin administration, or hemoglobin A1c. Interstitial glucose measurements with the FreeStyle Libre system were found to be accurate compared with capillary BG reference values, with accuracy remaining stable over 14 days of wear and unaffected by patient characteristics.

  16. Calibration of Avent Wind IRIS SN. WI01030176

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Courtney, Michael

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for a two-beam nacelle based lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement un...

  17. The study of new calibration features in the Harshaw TLD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, L. Z.

    2007-01-01

    The Harshaw TLD system has three key calibration procedures: the Reader, the Dosemeter and the Algorithm. These functions must be properly calibrated for the system to achieve the optimum results. For the conventional reader and dosemeter calibration, Harshaw TLD recommends a pre-fade and a post-fade of 24-48 h when calibrating the system for LiF:Mg,Ti type dosemeter. It is also recommended that keeping the fade time consistent is important to maintain the quality of the system performance. In recent years, new calibration features have been introduced into the Harshaw TLD models 6600 and 8800 operating systems. These new features are Auto Calibration, Auto QC and Auto Blank, and they give the user the ability to set up the clear-expose-read process to be performed automatically in a sequence for each dosemeter. This saves processing time and keeps the fade time the same. However, since the fade time is near zero, will it affect the TLD system calibration factors? What should the user expect? This paper presents a study of the effect of Auto Calibration/Auto QC to the TLD operation. (authors)

  18. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomont, Arthur; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), located on the outside of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises cesium radioactive sources, Laser and charge injection elements, and allows for monitoring and equalization of the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scintillation light to