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Sample records for calf thymus dna

  1. Intercalation of Epinephrine with Calf-thymus ds-DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A strong interaction between double stranded calf-thymus DNA (ds-DNA) and epinephrine but no interaction between single stranded calf-thymus DNA (ss-DNA) and epinephrine were observed by the use of UV-spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. It is suggested that the interaction leads to an intercalation of EP molecules into the groove of ds-DNA and the formation of ds-DNA(EP)n complex.

  2. Calf thymus histone H1 is a recombinase that catalyzes ATP-independent DNA strand transfer.

    OpenAIRE

    Kawasaki, I; Sugano, S; Ikeda, H.

    1989-01-01

    An activity that catalyzes the strand transfer from linear double-stranded tetracycline-resistance gene (tetr) DNA to circular M13mp8-tetr viral DNA was detected in a crude extract from calf thymus. This activity was purified to near, if not complete, homogeneity as judged by NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. We have tentatively named this protein calf thymus strand-transfer protein 1 (CTST1). The apparent molecular mass of the protein was 35 kDa by gel electrophoresis. Its sedimen...

  3. Study of calf thymus DNA irradiated in vitro with MeV fluorine ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the fragments of DNA irradiated with MeV ions is important for the understanding of the DNA damage mechanism and the subsequent biological effects (induced by heavy ions). In this experiment, the products of calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) irradiated with MeV fluorine ions were analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis, modified time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the molecular mass of the fragments were concentrated around 831 bp with agarose gel electrophoresis, there was no observable product in the range of 1,000-30,000 (m/q) using MALDI-TOF, and small biomolecules were separated from the products. The results of this study indicated that the strand breaks of calf thymus DNA induced by MeV fluorine ions were nonrandom. (authors)

  4. Study of calf thymus DNA irradiated in vitro with MeV fluorine ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A study of the fragments of DNA irradiated with MeV ions is important for the understanding of the DNA damage mechanism and the subsequent biological effects (induced by heavy ions). In this experiment, the products of calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) irradiated with MeV fluorine ions were analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis,modified time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).The results showed that the molecular mass of the fragments were concentrated around 831 bp with agarose gel electrophoresis, there was no observable product in the range of 1,000- 30,000 (m/q) using MALDI-TOF, and small biomolecules were separated from the products. The results of this study indicated that the strand breaks of calf thymus DNA induced by MeV fluorine ions were nonrandom.

  5. Conformation and Rheological Properties of Calf-Thymus DNA in Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes Mónica Bravo-Anaya; Marguerite Rinaudo; Félix Armando Soltero Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Studies of DNA molecule behavior in aqueous solutions performed through different approaches allow assessment of the solute-solvent interactions and examination of the strong influence of conformation on its physicochemical properties, in the presence of different ionic species and ionic concentrations. Firstly, the conformational behavior of calf-thymus DNA molecules in TE buffer solution is presented as a function of temperature. Secondly, their rheological behavior is discussed, as well as...

  6. Study on the Interaction between Isatin-β-Thiosemicarbazone and Calf Thymus DNA by Spectroscopic Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Pakravan, Parvaneh; Masoudian, Shahla

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between isatin-β-thiosemicarbazone (IBT) and calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated in physiological buffer (pH 7.4) using Neutral Red (NR) dye as a spectral probe by UV–Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, as well as viscosity measurements. The IBT is stabilized by intercalation in the DNA (K [IBT –DNA] = 1.03×105 M−1), and displaces the NR dye from the NR–DNA complex. The binding constants Kf and number of binding sites (n≈1) of IBT with DNA were obtained by fluor...

  7. Hexamminecobalt(III)-induced condensation of calf thymus DNA: circular dichroism and hydration measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Kankia, Besik I.; Buckin, Vitaly; Bloomfield, Victor A

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of hexamminecobalt(III), Co(NH3)63+, with 160 and 3000–8000 bp length calf thymus DNA has been investigated by circular dichroism, acoustic and densimetric techniques. The acoustic titration curves of 160 bp DNA revealed three stages of interaction: (i) Co(NH3)63+ binding up to the molar ratio [Co(NH3)63+]/[P] = 0.25, prior to DNA condensation; (ii) a condensation process between [Co(NH3)63+]/[P] = 0.25 and 0.30; and (iii) precipitation after [Co(NH...

  8. Interaction between insulin and calf thymus DNA, and quantification of insulin and calf thymus DNA by a resonance Rayleigh scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of insulin with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ctDNA) leads to a complex that displays remarkably enhanced resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS). The complex and its formation were investigated by atomic force microscopy and by absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopies. We show that the Tyr B16, Tyr B26 and Phe B24 amino acids near the active center (Phe B25) were influenced by the interaction, whereas Tyr A14, Tyr A19 and Phe B1 (which are located far away from the active center) were less influenced. The interaction provide a way in the quantitation of both ctDNA and insulin with high sensitivity. When ctDNA is used as a probe to quantify insulin, the detection limit (3σ) is 6.0 ng mL-1. If, inversely, insulin is used as a probe to quantify ctDNA, the detection limit (3σ) is 7.2 ng mL-1. The analysis of synthetic DNA samples and an insulin infection sample provided satisfactory results. (author)

  9. Rheology of semi-dilute solutions of calf-thymus DNA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ranjini Bandyopadhyay; A K Sood

    2002-04-01

    We study the rheology of semi-dilute solutions of the sodium salt of calf-thymus DNA in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The frequency response data can be fitted very well to the hybrid model with two dominant relaxation times 0 and 1. The ratio (0/1)∼ 5 is seen to be fairly constant on changing the temperature from 20 to 30°C. The shear rate dependence of viscosity can be fitted to the Carreau model.

  10. Synthesis and characterisation of platinum (II) salphen complex and its interaction with calf thymus DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A platinum (II) salphen complex was synthesised by condensation reaction of 2,4-dihydroxylbenzaldehyde and o-phenylenediamine with potassium tetrachloroplatinate to obtain N,N′-Bis-4-(hydroxysalicylidene)-phenylenediamine-platinum (II). The structure of the complex was confirmed by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, CHN elemental analyses and ESI-MS spectrometry. The platinum (II) salphen complex with four donor atoms N2O2 from its salphen ligand coordinated to platinum (II) metal centre were determined. The binding mode and interaction of this complex with calf thymus DNA was determined by UV/Vis DNA titration and emission titration. The intercalation between the DNA bases by π-π stacking due to its square planar geometry and aromatic rings structures was proposed

  11. Synthesis and characterisation of platinum (II) salphen complex and its interaction with calf thymus DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukri, Shahratul Ain Mohd; Heng, Lee Yook; Karim, Nurul Huda Abd [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43650 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    A platinum (II) salphen complex was synthesised by condensation reaction of 2,4-dihydroxylbenzaldehyde and o-phenylenediamine with potassium tetrachloroplatinate to obtain N,N′-Bis-4-(hydroxysalicylidene)-phenylenediamine-platinum (II). The structure of the complex was confirmed by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, CHN elemental analyses and ESI-MS spectrometry. The platinum (II) salphen complex with four donor atoms N{sub 2}O{sub 2} from its salphen ligand coordinated to platinum (II) metal centre were determined. The binding mode and interaction of this complex with calf thymus DNA was determined by UV/Vis DNA titration and emission titration. The intercalation between the DNA bases by π-π stacking due to its square planar geometry and aromatic rings structures was proposed.

  12. Investigation on the toxic interaction of typical plasticizers with calf thymus DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interactions of typical plasticizers dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling. Experimental results indicated that the characteristic fluorescence intensity of phthalic acid rose with the increase of DNA concentration; while the characteristic fluorescence intensities of plasticizers decreased with the increase of DNA concentration. Experiments on native and denatured DNA determined that plasticizers interacted with DNA both in groove and electrostatic binding mode. The molecular modeling results further illustrated that there is groove binding between them; hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals interactions were the main forces. With the extension of branched-chains, the binding effects between plasticizers and DNA were weakened, which could be related to the increased steric hindrance. - Highlights: • This work established the binding mode of plasticizers with DNA on molecular level. • The mechanism was explored by fluorescence spectroscopic and molecular docking methods. • There are two kinds of binding mode between DMP, DEP, DBP and DNA, electrostatic and groove. • With the branched chain extension, the binding effect of plasticizers and DNA has been weakened

  13. Study on the Interaction between Isatin-β-Thiosemicarbazone and Calf Thymus DNA by Spectroscopic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakravan, Parvaneh; Masoudian, Shahla

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between isatin-β-thiosemicarbazone (IBT) and calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated in physiological buffer (pH 7.4) using Neutral Red (NR) dye as a spectral probe by UV–Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, as well as viscosity measurements. The IBT is stabilized by intercalation in the DNA (K [IBT –DNA] = 1.03×105 M−1), and displaces the NR dye from the NR–DNA complex. The binding constants Kf and number of binding sites (n≈1) of IBT with DNA were obtained by fluorescence quenching method at different temperatures. Furthermore, the enthalpy and entropy of the reaction between IBT and CT-DNA showed that the reaction is enthalpy-favored and entropy-disfavored. The changes in the base stacking of CT-DNA upon the binding of IBT are reflected in the circular dichroic (CD) spectral studies. The viscosity increase of CT-DNA solution is another evidence to indicate that, IBT is able to be intercalated in the DNA base pairs. PMID:25561917

  14. Investigation on the toxic interaction of typical plasticizers with calf thymus DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiaojing [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, China–America CRC for Environment & Health, Shandong University, 27# Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100, Shandong Province (China); Zong, Wansong, E-mail: gaocz@sdu.edu.cn [College of Population, Resources and Environment, Shandong Normal University, 88# East Wenhua Road, Jinan 250014 (China); Liu, Chunguang; Liu, Yang [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, China–America CRC for Environment & Health, Shandong University, 27# Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100, Shandong Province (China); Gao, Canzhu, E-mail: rutaoliu@sdu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, China–America CRC for Environment & Health, Shandong University, 27# Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100, Shandong Province (China); Liu, Rutao [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, China–America CRC for Environment & Health, Shandong University, 27# Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100, Shandong Province (China)

    2015-05-15

    The interactions of typical plasticizers dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling. Experimental results indicated that the characteristic fluorescence intensity of phthalic acid rose with the increase of DNA concentration; while the characteristic fluorescence intensities of plasticizers decreased with the increase of DNA concentration. Experiments on native and denatured DNA determined that plasticizers interacted with DNA both in groove and electrostatic binding mode. The molecular modeling results further illustrated that there is groove binding between them; hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals interactions were the main forces. With the extension of branched-chains, the binding effects between plasticizers and DNA were weakened, which could be related to the increased steric hindrance. - Highlights: • This work established the binding mode of plasticizers with DNA on molecular level. • The mechanism was explored by fluorescence spectroscopic and molecular docking methods. • There are two kinds of binding mode between DMP, DEP, DBP and DNA, electrostatic and groove. • With the branched chain extension, the binding effect of plasticizers and DNA has been weakened.

  15. Study on the Interaction between Isatin-β-Thiosemicarbazone and Calf Thymus DNA by Spectroscopic Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakravan, Parvaneh; Masoudian, Shahla

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between isatin-β-thiosemicarbazone (IBT) and calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated in physiological buffer (pH 7.4) using Neutral Red (NR) dye as a spectral probe by UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, as well as viscosity measurements. The IBT is stabilized by intercalation in the DNA (K [IBT -DNA] = 1.03×10(5) M(-1)), and displaces the NR dye from the NR-DNA complex. The binding constants Kf and number of binding sites (n≈1) of IBT with DNA were obtained by fluorescence quenching method at different temperatures. Furthermore, the enthalpy and entropy of the reaction between IBT and CT-DNA showed that the reaction is enthalpy-favored and entropy-disfavored. The changes in the base stacking of CT-DNA upon the binding of IBT are reflected in the circular dichroic (CD) spectral studies. The viscosity increase of CT-DNA solution is another evidence to indicate that, IBT is able to be intercalated in the DNA base pairs. PMID:25561917

  16. Binding interaction between sorafenib and calf thymus DNA: Spectroscopic methodology, viscosity measurement and molecular docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jie-Hua; Chen, Jun; Wang, Jing; Zhu, Ying-Yao

    2015-02-01

    The binding interaction of sorafenib with calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) was studied using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence emission spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD), viscosity measurement and molecular docking methods. The experimental results revealed that there was obvious binding interaction between sorafenib and ct-DNA. The binding constant (Kb) of sorafenib with ct-DNA was 5.6 × 103 M-1 at 298 K. The enthalpy and entropy changes (ΔH0 and ΔS0) in the binding process of sorafenib with ct-DNA were -27.66 KJ mol-1 and -21.02 J mol-1 K-1, respectively, indicating that the main binding interaction forces were van der Waals force and hydrogen bonding. The docking results suggested that sorafenib preferred to bind on the minor groove of A-T rich DNA and the binding site of sorafenib was 4 base pairs long. The conformation change of sorafenib in the sorafenib-DNA complex was obviously observed and the change was close relation with the structure of DNA, implying that the flexibility of sorafenib molecule played an important role in the formation of the stable sorafenib-ct-DNA complex.

  17. The effects of polyols on the thermal stability of calf thymus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, P; Esposito, D; Ricchi, L; Barone, G

    1999-05-01

    The effects on thermal denaturation of calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) and its conformational changes induced by the presence in solution of different polyols, namely glycerol, i-erytritol, L( -- ) and D( + ) arabitol, D-mannitol, D-sorbitol and myo-inositol, have been investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and circular dichroism (CD). By increasing the concentration of these additives a decrease in both the denaturation enthalpy (deltadH) and temperature of the maximum of the denaturation peak (Tmax) of DNA is observed. The values of these thermodynamic parameters depend on both the nature and concentration of the solute. The overall destabilization of DNA molecule has been related to the different capability of polyhydric alcohols to interact with the polynucleotide solvation sites replacing water and to the modification of the electrostatic interactions between the polynucleotide and its surrounding atmosphere of counterions. The particular behaviour of L( -- ) arabitol, which showed a much greater destabilizing ability compared to the other polyols, was further investigated and attributed to a direct more effective interaction with the double helix of DNA. CD spectra showed only a slight alteration of DNA-B structure in the presence of all the molecules here studied, except for L( -- ) arabitol where the DNA molecule seems to undergo a meaningful conformational change. The salt concentration dependence of DNA thermal stability in the presence of L( -- ) arabitol indicates a conformational change of polynucleotide towards a more extended conformation. PMID:10408643

  18. Comparison on the interaction of Al3+/nano-Al13 with calf thymus DNA /salmon sperm DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Ma, Yue; Du, Changwen; Yang, Xiaodi; Shen, Renfang

    2015-11-01

    The conformation change, binding mode and binding site between Al3+/nano-Al13 and calf thymus DNA/salmon sperm DNA were investigated by UV-vis absorption, FTIR spectra, Raman spectroscopy and CD spectra, as well as melting curves measurement. The UV-vis spectra and circular dichroism spectra results suggested that the phosphate group structure was changed when Al3+ interacted with DNA, while the double-helix was distorted when nano-Al13 interacted with DNA. The FTIR and Raman spectroscopy revealed that the binding sites were Al3+ … PO2, Al3+ … N7/guanine PO2 … Al13 … N7-C8/guanine with calf thymus DNA, and Al3+ … N3-O2/cytosine, Al3+ … N7-C8/guanine, PO2 … Al13 … N7-C8/guanine, PO2 … Al13 … N1/adenine with salmon sperm DNA, respectively. The electrostatic binding was existed between Al3+ and DNA, and the electrostatic binding and complexing were found between nano-Al13 and DNA.

  19. Photophysical and photochemical studies of a novel amphiphilic zinc phthalocyanine and its interaction with calf thymus DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Linxin; Gui, Li; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Quanquan; Zhou, Lin; Wei, Shaohua

    2016-04-01

    β-tetra (aminophenoxy) sulfonic substituted zinc phthalocyanines (SNZnPc), a novel amphiphilic zinc phthalocyanine (Pc), was synthesized. The photophysical, photochemical, and photobiology properties were studied. Results indicated that the synthesized SNZnPc has good amphiphilic property and high reactive oxygen species (ROSs) generation ability. Furthermore, SNZnPc has strong affinity to calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) through intercalation ways and can effectively cleavage CT-DNA after irradiation by light with appropriate wavelength.

  20. Binding Interactions of Naringenin and Naringin with Calf Thymus DNA and the Role of β-Cyclodextrin in the Binding

    OpenAIRE

    Yousuf, Sameena; Enoch, Israel V. Muthu Vijayan

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of naringenin (Nar) and its neohesperidoside, naringin (Narn), with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ctDNA) in the absence and the presence of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was investigated. The interaction of Nar and Narn with β-CD/ctDNA was analyzed by using absorption, fluorescence, and molecular modeling techniques. Docking studies showed the existence of hydrogen bonding, electrostatic and phobic interaction of Nar and Narn with β-CD/DNA. 1:2 stoichiometric inclusion complexes ...

  1. In vitro study on the interaction of 4,4-dimethylcurcumin with calf thymus DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bing-Mi, E-mail: liubingmi@163.com [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Bai, Chong-Liang [Centre for Molecular Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhang, Jun; Liu, Yang; Dong, Bo-Yang; Zhang, Yi-Tong [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Liu, Bin, E-mail: liubinzehao@163.com [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China)

    2015-10-15

    The interaction of 4,4-dimethylcurcumin (DMCU), a synthesized analog of curcumin, with calf-thymus DNA (ct-DNA) was investigated using fluorescence, absorption, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, coupled with viscosity measurements and molecular docking techniques. DMCU was found to bind to ct-DNA with moderate binding affinity through groove binding as evidenced by a decrease in the absorption intensity in combination with no obvious change in the relative specific viscosity of ct-DNA and the CD spectrum. Thermodynamic analysis of the fluorescence data obtained at different temperatures suggested that the binding process was spontaneous and was primarily driven by hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces. Furthermore, competitive binding experiments with ethidium bromide and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole as probes showed that DMCU could preferentially bind in the minor groove of double-stranded DNA. The results obtained from the molecular docking studies were consistent with these experimental results. This study explored the potential applicability of the spectroscopic properties of DMCU for studying its interactions with relevant biological or biomimicking targets. - Highlights: • 4,4-dimethylcurcumin (DMCU) has strong fluorescence characteristics. • DMCU could bind to DNA through groove binding. • Docking studies revealed that DMCU bound to the A–T region in the minor groove.

  2. Binding of an anticancer Rutaceae plant flavonoid glycoside with calf thymus DNA: Biophysical and electrochemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, we report the interaction of a bioactive Rutaceae plant flavonoid glycoside, diosmin (DIO) with calf thymus DNA employing ethidium bromide as a fluorescence probe. The mode of binding between DIO and DNA was investigated by UV absorption, fluorescence, 3D-fluorescence, fluorescence polarization, FT-IR, circular dichroism, melting temperature (Tm) measurements and differential pulse voltammogram studies. The results revealed the intercalative mode of binding between DIO and DNA. Further, the values of thermodynamic parameters, ∆H° (−388.32 kJ mol−1) and ∆S° (−1.22 kJ mol−1 K−1) indicated that the van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond played a major role in the binding of DIO to DNA. The observed negative ∆G° values revealed the spontaneity of interaction process. The binding of DIO to DNA–EB was found to be stronger in the presence of coexisting substances. -- Highlights: • Mechanism of interaction of diosmin with DNA was studied by spectroscopic methods. • Ethidium bromide was used as a fluorescence probe in the present study. • The van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond played a significant role in the interaction. • Intercalative mode of binding was proposed between DIO and DNA

  3. Binding of an anticancer Rutaceae plant flavonoid glycoside with calf thymus DNA: Biophysical and electrochemical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishnan, Sandhya; Jaldappagari, Seetharamappa, E-mail: jseetharam@yahoo.com

    2013-10-15

    In the present work, we report the interaction of a bioactive Rutaceae plant flavonoid glycoside, diosmin (DIO) with calf thymus DNA employing ethidium bromide as a fluorescence probe. The mode of binding between DIO and DNA was investigated by UV absorption, fluorescence, 3D-fluorescence, fluorescence polarization, FT-IR, circular dichroism, melting temperature (T{sub m}) measurements and differential pulse voltammogram studies. The results revealed the intercalative mode of binding between DIO and DNA. Further, the values of thermodynamic parameters, ∆H° (−388.32 kJ mol{sup −1}) and ∆S° (−1.22 kJ mol{sup −1} K{sup −1}) indicated that the van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond played a major role in the binding of DIO to DNA. The observed negative ∆G° values revealed the spontaneity of interaction process. The binding of DIO to DNA–EB was found to be stronger in the presence of coexisting substances. -- Highlights: • Mechanism of interaction of diosmin with DNA was studied by spectroscopic methods. • Ethidium bromide was used as a fluorescence probe in the present study. • The van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond played a significant role in the interaction. • Intercalative mode of binding was proposed between DIO and DNA.

  4. In vitro study on the interaction of 4,4-dimethylcurcumin with calf thymus DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of 4,4-dimethylcurcumin (DMCU), a synthesized analog of curcumin, with calf-thymus DNA (ct-DNA) was investigated using fluorescence, absorption, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, coupled with viscosity measurements and molecular docking techniques. DMCU was found to bind to ct-DNA with moderate binding affinity through groove binding as evidenced by a decrease in the absorption intensity in combination with no obvious change in the relative specific viscosity of ct-DNA and the CD spectrum. Thermodynamic analysis of the fluorescence data obtained at different temperatures suggested that the binding process was spontaneous and was primarily driven by hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces. Furthermore, competitive binding experiments with ethidium bromide and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole as probes showed that DMCU could preferentially bind in the minor groove of double-stranded DNA. The results obtained from the molecular docking studies were consistent with these experimental results. This study explored the potential applicability of the spectroscopic properties of DMCU for studying its interactions with relevant biological or biomimicking targets. - Highlights: • 4,4-dimethylcurcumin (DMCU) has strong fluorescence characteristics. • DMCU could bind to DNA through groove binding. • Docking studies revealed that DMCU bound to the A–T region in the minor groove

  5. Interaction studies between biosynthesized silver nanoparticle with calf thymus DNA and cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Swarup; Sadhukhan, Ratan; Ghosh, Utpal; Das, Tapan Kumar

    2015-04-01

    The interaction of calf thymus DNA (CTDNA) with silver nanoparticles (SNP) has been investigated following spectroscopic studies, analysis of melting temperature (Tm) curves and hydrodynamic measurement. In spectrophotometric titration and thermal denaturation studies of CTDNA it was found that SNP can form a complex with double-helical DNA and the increasing value of Tm also supported the same. The association constant of SNP with DNA from UV-Vis study was found to be 4.1 × 103 L/mol. The fluorescence emission spectra of intercalated ethidium bromide (EB) with increasing concentration of SNP represented a significant reduction of EB intensity and quenching of EB fluorescence. The results of circular dichroism (CD) suggested that SNP can change the conformation of DNA. From spectroscopic, hydrodynamic, and DNA melting studies, SNP has been found to be a DNA groove binder possessing partial intercalating property. Cell cytotoxicity of SNP was compared with that of normal silver salt solution on HeLa cells. Our results show that SNP has less cytotoxicity compared to its normal salt solution and good cell staining property.

  6. Equilibrium dialysis studies of WR-33278 and WR-1065 binding to calf thymus DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioprotection by WR-2721, S-2-(3-aminopropylamino) ethyl phosphorothioate, is thought to involve its corresponding thiol (WR-1065) or symmetrical disulfide (WR-33278). It has been suggested that these metabolites concentrate close to the DNA target molecule. As one test of this hypothesis the authors measured the ability of these metabolites to bind or concentrate with DNA in vitro in order to achieve a high local concentration. The binding of WR-33278 (0.05-0.4mM) to calf thymus DNA (6mM, with respect to phosphate) was determined at 50, 100, and 150mM-KCl in 1mM-Tris, pH 7.0, by equilibrium dialysis. Drug levels were analyzed by derivatization with monobrombimane, and quantitated by Fluoresence HPLC, (samples were reduced with dithiothreitol prior to analysis). Preliminary studies with WR-1065 indicate that it also binds to DNA but with larger Kd values. Results suggest that concentration of WR-33278 and WR-1065 by electrostatic attraction to DNA phosphate can be a significant factor in the mechanism of radioprotection by WR-2721

  7. A naproxen complex of dysprosium intercalates into calf thymus DNA base pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Binding mode to ctDNA was studied by various methods. • Intercalation is the most possible binding mode. • Dynamic and static quenching occurred simultaneously. • Hydrophobic force played a major role. • Binding characteristic of rare earth complexes to DNA are dependent on the element. - Abstract: The binding mode and mechanism of dysprosium–naproxen complex (Dy–NAP) with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ctDNA) were studied using UV–vis and fluorescence spectra in physiological buffer (pH 7.4). The results showed that more than one type of quenching process occurred and the binding mode between Dy–NAP with ctDNA might be intercalation. In addition, ionic strength, iodide quenching and fluorescence polarization experiments corroborated the intercalation binding mode between Dy–NAP and ctDNA. The calculated thermodynamic parameters ΔG, ΔH and ΔS at different temperature demonstrated that hydrophobic interaction force played a major role in the binding process

  8. A naproxen complex of dysprosium intercalates into calf thymus DNA base pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Mengsi; Jin, Jianhua; Xu, Guiqing [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Cui, Fengling, E-mail: fenglingcui@hotmail.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Luo, Hongxia [Department of Chemistry, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Binding mode to ctDNA was studied by various methods. • Intercalation is the most possible binding mode. • Dynamic and static quenching occurred simultaneously. • Hydrophobic force played a major role. • Binding characteristic of rare earth complexes to DNA are dependent on the element. - Abstract: The binding mode and mechanism of dysprosium–naproxen complex (Dy–NAP) with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ctDNA) were studied using UV–vis and fluorescence spectra in physiological buffer (pH 7.4). The results showed that more than one type of quenching process occurred and the binding mode between Dy–NAP with ctDNA might be intercalation. In addition, ionic strength, iodide quenching and fluorescence polarization experiments corroborated the intercalation binding mode between Dy–NAP and ctDNA. The calculated thermodynamic parameters ΔG, ΔH and ΔS at different temperature demonstrated that hydrophobic interaction force played a major role in the binding process.

  9. Deciphering the groove binding modes of tau-fluvalinate and flumethrin with calf thymus DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Mo; Zhang, Guowen; Pan, Junhui; Xiong, Chunhong

    2016-02-01

    Tau-fluvalinate (TFL) and flumethrin (FL), widely used in agriculture and a class of synthetic pyrethroid pesticides with a similar structure, may cause a potential security risk. Herein, the modes of binding in vitro of TFL and FL with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) were characterized by fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy with the aid of viscosity measurements, melting analyses and molecular docking studies. The fluorescence titration indicated that both TFL and FL bound to ctDNA forming complexes through hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces. The binding constants of TFL and FL with ctDNA were in the range of 104 L mol- 1, and FL exhibited a higher binding propensity than TFL. The iodide quenching effect, single/double-stranded DNA effects, and ctDNA melting and viscosity measurements demonstrated that the binding of both TFL and FL to ctDNA was groove mode. The FT-IR analyses suggested the A-T region of the minor groove of ctDNA as the preferential binding for TFL and FL, which was confirmed by the displacement assays with Hoechst 33258 probe, and the molecular docking visualized the specific binding. The changes in CD spectra indicated that both FL and TFL induced the perturbation on the base stacking and helicity of B-DNA, but the disturbance caused by FL was more obvious. Gel electrophoresis analyses indicated that both TFL and FL did not cause significant DNA cleavage. This study provides novel insights into the binding properties of TFL/FL with ctDNA and its toxic mechanisms.

  10. Conformation and Rheological Properties of Calf-Thymus DNA in Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Mónica Bravo-Anaya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of DNA molecule behavior in aqueous solutions performed through different approaches allow assessment of the solute-solvent interactions and examination of the strong influence of conformation on its physicochemical properties, in the presence of different ionic species and ionic concentrations. Firstly, the conformational behavior of calf-thymus DNA molecules in TE buffer solution is presented as a function of temperature. Secondly, their rheological behavior is discussed, as well as the evidence of the critical concentrations, i.e., the overlap and the entanglement concentrations (C* and Ce, respectively from steady state flow and oscillatory dynamic shear experiments. The determination of the viscosity in the Newtonian plateau obtained from flow curves η ( allows estimation of the intrinsic viscosity and the specific viscosities at zero shear when C[η] < 40. At end, a generalized master curve is obtained from the variation of the specific viscosity as a function of the overlap parameter C[η]. The variation of the exponent s obtained from the power law η~ −s for both flow and dynamic results is discussed in terms of Graessley’s analysis. In the semi-dilute regime with entanglements, a dynamic master curve is obtained as a function of DNA concentration (CDNA > 2.0 mg/mL and temperature (10 °C < T < 40 °C.

  11. Dependence of surface-enhanced Raman scattering from Calf thymus DNA on anions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Dependence of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) from Calf thymus DNA on anions is investigated.With the silver colloid,the bands at 732,960 and 1333 cm-1 for adenine (A),1466 cm-1 for deoxyribose,and 1652 cm-1 for the C=O group of thymine (T) are observably enhanced.With the presence of the Cl- or SO42- anions,the bands at 732 and 1326/1329 cm-1 for the symmetric stretching and skeletal vibrational modes of adenine (A) are dramatically enhanced,and the enhancement effect with the SO24- ion is more than that with the Cl- ion.The experimental results show that the DNA molecule can be adsorbed on the silver colloid particles through the C6N and N7 of adenine (A),the C=O of thymine (T) and deoxyribose.Moreover,the formed hydrogen bonding of the Cl- or S2O4- ions to the C6NH2 group of adenine (A) can induce larger C6N electronegativity,which is favor for the C6N/N7 cooperative adsorption on the (Ag)+n colloid particles.

  12. Site-specific mutagenesis of Drosophila proliferating cell nuclear antigen enhances its effects on calf thymus DNA polymerase δ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Holly

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We and others have shown four distinct and presumably related effects of mammalian proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA on DNA synthesis catalyzed by mammalian DNA polymerase δ(pol δ. In the presence of homologous PCNA, pol δ exhibits 1 increased absolute activity; 2 increased processivity of DNA synthesis; 3 stable binding of synthetic oligonucleotide template-primers (t1/2 of the pol δ•PCNA•template-primer complex ≥2.5 h; and 4 enhanced synthesis of DNA opposite and beyond template base lesions. This last effect is potentially mutagenic in vivo. Biochemical studies performed in parallel with in vivo genetic analyses, would represent an extremely powerful approach to investigate further, both DNA replication and repair in eukaryotes. Results Drosophila PCNA, although highly similar in structure to mammalian PCNA (e.g., it is >70% identical to human PCNA in amino acid sequence, can only substitute poorly for either calf thymus or human PCNA (~10% as well in affecting calf thymus pol δ. However, by mutating one or only a few amino acids in the region of Drosophila PCNA thought to interact with pol δ, all four effects can be enhanced dramatically. Conclusions Our results therefore suggest that all four above effects depend at least in part on the PCNA-pol δ interaction. Moreover unlike mammals, Drosophila offers the potential for immediate in vivo genetic analyses. Although it has proven difficult to obtain sufficient amounts of homologous pol δ for parallel in vitro biochemical studies, by altering Drosophila PCNA using site-directed mutagenesis as suggested by our results, in vitro biochemical studies may now be performed using human and/or calf thymus pol δ preparations.

  13. Internal charge transfer based ratiometric interaction of anionic surfactant with calf thymus DNA bound cationic surfactant: Study I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Abhijit; Chaudhuri, Tandrima; Moulik, Satya Priya; Banerjee, Manas

    2016-01-01

    Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) binds calf thymus (ct-) DNA like anionic biopolymers electrostatically and established equilibrium both in the ground as well as in excited state in aqueous medium at pH 7. Anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) does not show even hydrophobic interaction with ct-DNA at low concentration. On contrary, SDS can establish well defined equilibrium with DNA bound CTAB in ground state where the same CTAB-DNA isosbestic point reappears. First report of internal charge transfer (ICT) based binding of CTAB with ct-DNA as well as ICT based interaction of anionic SDS with DNA bound CTAB that shows dynamic quenching contribution also. The reappearance of anodic peak and slight increase in cathodic peak current with increasing concentration (at lower range) of anionic SDS, possibly reflect the release of CTAB from DNA bound CTAB by SDS.

  14. Luminescence Studies on Interaction of an Isoquinoline Alkaloid with Calf Thymus DNA in Aqueous Medium and on Solid Substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun-fen; SHI Wen-tao; HAN Xiu-ying; DONG Chuan; CHOI Martin M.F.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of calf thymus DNA(ctDNA) with berberinc(Ber) was systematically investigated via UV-Vis,fluorescence and phosphorescence spectroscopies in aqueous solution and on solid substrate.The very weak fluorescence intensity of Ber at 525 nm in aqueous solution can be greatly enhanced by ctDNA.The UV-Vis spectrum shows that Ber could bind with DNA by intercalation.In addition,strong fluorescence of Ber alone could be observed on filter paper substrate and can be quenched by ctDNA effectively,and the increase of fluorescence polarization of Ber on the filter paper implies the intercalation binding.Ber emits phosphorescence at 619 nm in the presence of thallium(Ⅰ) acetate.The lifetime of Ber increased from 38.4 ms to 43.4 ms with the increase of ctDNA.The increase of lifetime is possibly attributed to the increase of rigidity of Ber after its intercalating into the ctDNA base pairs.This explanation is also augmented by the anionic quenching results.Ber behaves as a typical intercalating agent into ctDNA.The intrinsic binding constant between Ber and ctDNA is (1.84±0.12)× 104 L/mol and n=0.16.

  15. Development and Validation of A Spectrofluorimetric Determination of Calf Thymus DNA Using a Terbium-Danofloxacin Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Soltani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Analysis of biomolecules is required in many biomedical research areas. A spectrofluorimetric method is proposed for determination of calf thymus DNA (ctDNA based on the fluorescence enhancement of terbium-danofloxacin (Tb3+-Dano in the presence of ctDNA. Methods: A probe with maximum excitation and emission wavelengths of 347 nm and 545 nm, respectively, was developed. The enhanced fluorescence intensity of Tb3+-Dano system was proportional to the concentration of ctDNA. The effective factors and the optimum conditions for the determination of ctDNA were studied. Under the optimum conditions of [Tris buffer]= 0.01 mol L-1 (pH 7.8, [ Tb3+]= 1×10-5 mol L-1 and [Dano]= 5×10-5 mol L-1, the maximum response was achieved. The developed method was evaluated in terms of accuracy, precision and limit of detection. Results: The linear concentration range for quantification of ctDNA was 36-3289 ng mL-1 and the detection limit (S/N=3 was 8 ng mL-1. The concentration of DNA extracted from Escherichia coli as an extracted sample was also determined using the developed probe. The concentration of DNA in extracted sample was determined using UV assay and developed method, the results were satisfactory. Conclusion: The proposed method is a simple, practical and relatively interference free method to follow up the concentrations of ctDNA.

  16. Synthesis and bioactive evaluations of novel benzotriazole compounds as potential antimicrobial agents and the interaction with calf thymus DNA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yu Ren; Hui Zhen Zhang; Shao Lin Zhang; Yun Lei Luo; Ling Zhang; Cheng He Zhou; Rong Xia Geng

    2015-12-01

    A novel series of benzotriazole derivatives were synthesized and characterized by NMR, IR and MS spectra. The bioactive assay manifested that most of the new compounds exhibited moderate to good antibacterial and antifungal activities against the tested strains in comparison to reference drugs chloromycin, norfloxacin and fluconazole. Especially, 2,4-dichlorophenyl substituted benzotriazole derivative 6f displayed good antibacterial activity against MRSA with MIC value of 4 g/mL, which was 2-fold more potent than Chloromycin, and it also displayed 3-fold stronger antifungal activity (MIC = 4 g/mL) than fluconazole (MIC = 16 g/mL) against Beer yeast. The preliminary interactive investigations of compound 6f with calf thymus DNA revealed that compound 6f could effectively intercalate into DNA to form compound 6f–DNA complex which might block DNA replication to exert antimicrobial activities. Molecular docking experiments suggested that compound 6f projected into base-pairs of DNA hexamer duplex forming two hydrogen bonds with guanine of DNA. The theoretical calculations were in accordance with the experimental results.

  17. Binding of the Bi (III Complex of Naringin with β-Cyclodextrin/Calf Thymus DNA: Absorption and Fluorescence Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameena Yousuf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Naringin-Bi (III complex (Narb was prepared and analysed by UV-Visible absorption and fluorescence measurements. The inclusion complex of Narb with β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD was characterized by the UV-Visible absorption, Infrared, scanning dlectron microscopic, and X-ray diffractometric techniques. The stoichiometry of the inclusion complex of Narb with β-CD was 1 : 1 with a binding constant of 5.18 × 102 mol−1 dm3. The interaction of Narb with Calf Thymus DNA (ctDNA was investigated in the presence and the absence of β-CD. The binding constants for the interaction of Narb with ctDNA in the absence and the presence of β-CD were 1.29 × 105 mol−1 dm3 and 6.89 × 104 mol−1 dm3, respectively. The Stern-Volmer constants for the interaction of Narb with ctDNA in the absence and the presence of β-CD were 1.25 × 104 mol−1 dm3 and 5.10 × 103 mol−1 dm3, respectively. The lowering of the binding affinity and the Ksv were observed for the interaction of Narb with ctDNA in the presence of β-CD.

  18. Calf thymus DNA binding/bonding properties of CC-1065 and analogs as related to their biological activities and toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, W C; Prairie, M D

    1992-03-01

    CC-1065 is a potent natural antitumor antibiotic that binds non-covalently and covalently (N-3 adenine adduct) in the minor groove of B-form DNA. Synthetic analogs of CC-1065 do not exhibit the delayed death toxicity of CC-1065 and are efficacious anticancer agents, some of them curative in murine tumor models. In an attempt to understand the different biological properties of CC-1065 and analogs, we have determined the following quantities for CC-1065, enantiomeric CC-1065, and three biologically active analogs and their enantiomers: the calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) induced molar ellipticity of the adduct (or how rigidly the adduct is held in the right-hand conformation of the minor groove); the stability of the adduct with respect to long incubation times and to digestion by snake venom phosphodiesterase I (SVPD); the stabilizing effect on the CT-DNA helix of the covalently and non-covalently bound species with respect to thermal melting; and the CT-DNA binding/bonding (non-covalent/covalent) profiles at a low molar ratio of nucleotide to drug. The major observations from these studies are as follows: (i) molecules which show large DNA interaction parameters, stable adducts, and significant non-covalent binding exhibit delayed death toxicity; (ii) molecules which show intermediate DNA interaction parameters and stable adducts, but do not show significant non-covalent binding, do not exhibit delayed death toxicity and are biologically active; (iii) molecules which show small DNA interaction parameters and unstable DNA adducts are biologically inactive. The results suggest that a window exists in the affinity for the minor groove of DNA wherein an analog may possess the correct balance of toxicity and activity to make a useful anticancer agent. Outside of this window, the analog causes delayed deaths or has no significant biological activity. PMID:1312395

  19. Isolation of methylcarbamoyl-adducts of adenine and cytosine following in vitro reaction of methyl isocyanate with calf thymus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, A; Solomon, J J; Li, F J

    1989-01-01

    Methylisocyanate (MIC) is the direct-acting acylating compound involved in the Bhopal, India disaster which occurred on December 3rd, 1984. The accidental release of MIC resulted in at least 2000 deaths, thousands of injuries and exposure of at least 200,000 people to varying amounts of MIC. We have studied how MIC reacts with 2'-deoxyribonucleosides at pH 7.0 and 37 degrees C for 1 h. MIC acylates exocyclic amino groups resulting in the following methylcarbamoyl (MC) adducts: N6-MC-Ade (0.5% yield) and N4-MC-dCyd (6%). No adducts were detected with dThd and dGuo. UV, NMR and mass spectrometry were employed to spectroscopically characterize these adducts. MIC was reacted with calf thymus DNA (pH 7.0, 37 degrees C, 1 h) and yielded N6-MC-Ade (0.3 nmol/mg DNA) and N4-MC-dCyd (2.0 nmol/mg DNA). The inability of others to observe genetic mutations by MIC in Salmonella and Drosophila is consistent with the exocyclic adducts at N4 of Cyt and N6 of Ade where normal hydrogen bonding can occur after rotation of the methylcarbamoyl group anti to the Watson-Crick side of the molecule assuming that MIC binds to DNA within the intact cell. PMID:2731306

  20. Synthesis, biological investigation, calf thymus DNA binding and docking studies of the sulfonyl hydrazides and their derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Shahzad; Shamim, Saima; Kousar, Naghmana; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Sirajuddin, Muhammad; Rana, Usman Ali

    2016-03-01

    The present study describes the syntheses and biological investigations of sulfonyl hydrazides and their novel derivatives. The detailed investigations involved the characterization of the newly synthesized compounds using FTIR, NMR, mass spectrometry and by single crystal X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis techniques. The binding tendencies of these compounds with CT-DNA (calf thymus DNA) have been explored by electronic absorption (UV) spectroscopy and viscosity measurement. The binding constant (K) and Gibb's free energy (ΔG) values were also calculated accordingly. In addition, we also investigated the biological activities such as antioxidant, antibacterial, enzyme inhibition and DNA interactions. The antioxidant activity was assayed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, while antibacterial activity was investigated against four bacterial strains (viz. Escherichia coli, Crynibacteria bovius, Staphylococcus auras and Bacillus antherasis) by employing the common disc diffusion method. Enzyme inhibition activity of the synthesized compounds was examined against butyrylcholinestrase. The results of enzyme inhibition activity and the DNA binding interaction studies were also collected through molecular docking program using computational analysis. Our study reveals that the newly synthesized compounds possess moderate to good biological activities.

  1. The influence of β-cyclodextrin on the interaction of hesperetin and its bismuth (III) complex with calf thymus DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction between hesperetin (Hes)/hesperetin–Bi (III) complex (Bhes) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was analyzed in the solid and the solution phase. The interaction of hesperetin [5,7,3′-trihydroxyl-4′-methoxyl-flavanone] and its bismuth complex with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) in the absence and the presence of β-CD was studied by absorption and fluorescence techniques. Docking of Hes with β-CD/DNA was carried out to study the binding theoretically. Hyperchromic and fluorescence enhancement was observed for the interaction between Hes/Bhes and β-CD. Hes interact with β-CD to form 1:2 complexes whereas Bhes shows 1:1 complexation. The effect of β-CD on the binding strength of Hes/Bhes with ctDNA was observed. Hyperchromic effect and fluorescence quenching were observed for the binding of Hes/Bhes and ctDNA in the absence and the presence of β-CD. Significant enhancement in the fluorescence intensity of Hes–ctDNA and Bhes–ctDNA was noticed in the β-CD solution. The fluorescence study showed that the quenching of Hes–ctDNA interaction was of static type, whereas Bhes–ctDNA is of dynamic type. Low Stern–Volmer quenching constant of β-CD-bound-Hes, in comparison with Hes was observed which might be due to cleavage of Hes from DNA by inclusion complexation between Hes and β-CD. The similar order of magnitude of Stern–Volmer quenching of Bhes in the aqueous and the β-CD solutions might be due to electrostatic interaction between the Bi and DNA predominantly. The study on the interaction of Hes/Bhes with ctDNA in competition with methylene blue (MB) supported the existence of electrostatic interaction. -- Highlights: ► Hesperetin forms a 1:2 complex and hesperetin–Bi (III) forms a 1:1 with β-CD. ► The effect of β-CD on ctDNA interacted hesperetin/hesperetin–Bi (III) is reported. ► Hesperetin and its β-CD complex bind more strongly with ctDNA than Hes–Bi (III) complex. ► 1:1 stoichiometry is observed for Hes/Bhes with ctDNA in

  2. The influence of β-cyclodextrin on the interaction of hesperetin and its bismuth (III) complex with calf thymus DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sameena, Y. [Department of Chemistry, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641 114 (India); Enoch, Israel V.M.V., E-mail: israelenoch@karunya.edu [Department of Chemistry, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641 114 (India)

    2013-06-15

    The interaction between hesperetin (Hes)/hesperetin–Bi (III) complex (Bhes) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was analyzed in the solid and the solution phase. The interaction of hesperetin [5,7,3′-trihydroxyl-4′-methoxyl-flavanone] and its bismuth complex with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) in the absence and the presence of β-CD was studied by absorption and fluorescence techniques. Docking of Hes with β-CD/DNA was carried out to study the binding theoretically. Hyperchromic and fluorescence enhancement was observed for the interaction between Hes/Bhes and β-CD. Hes interact with β-CD to form 1:2 complexes whereas Bhes shows 1:1 complexation. The effect of β-CD on the binding strength of Hes/Bhes with ctDNA was observed. Hyperchromic effect and fluorescence quenching were observed for the binding of Hes/Bhes and ctDNA in the absence and the presence of β-CD. Significant enhancement in the fluorescence intensity of Hes–ctDNA and Bhes–ctDNA was noticed in the β-CD solution. The fluorescence study showed that the quenching of Hes–ctDNA interaction was of static type, whereas Bhes–ctDNA is of dynamic type. Low Stern–Volmer quenching constant of β-CD-bound-Hes, in comparison with Hes was observed which might be due to cleavage of Hes from DNA by inclusion complexation between Hes and β-CD. The similar order of magnitude of Stern–Volmer quenching of Bhes in the aqueous and the β-CD solutions might be due to electrostatic interaction between the Bi and DNA predominantly. The study on the interaction of Hes/Bhes with ctDNA in competition with methylene blue (MB) supported the existence of electrostatic interaction. -- Highlights: ► Hesperetin forms a 1:2 complex and hesperetin–Bi (III) forms a 1:1 with β-CD. ► The effect of β-CD on ctDNA interacted hesperetin/hesperetin–Bi (III) is reported. ► Hesperetin and its β-CD complex bind more strongly with ctDNA than Hes–Bi (III) complex. ► 1:1 stoichiometry is observed for Hes/Bhes with ctDNA in

  3. Molecular weight and polydispersity of calf-thymus DNA: Static light-scattering and size-exclusion chromatography with dual detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Porsch, Bedřich; Laga, Richard; Horský, Jiří; Koňák, Čestmír; Ulbrich, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 11 (2009), s. 3148-3150. ISSN 1525-7797 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100500501; GA AV ČR IAA4050403; GA AV ČR KAN200200651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : calf-thymus DNA * size exclusion chromatography * static light-scattering Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.502, year: 2009

  4. Detection of anti-dsDNA by IgG ELISA test using two different sources of antigens: calf thymus versus E.coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi M

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Anti-dsDNA antibodies frequently found in the sera Systemic Lupus Erythematosus patients, particularly in active disease stage. Nowadays exploit different eukaryotic and prokaryotic dsDNA as antigen source and different reagents as binder. The aim of this study to compared two dsDNA different sources and tow different kinds of reagents for binder in ELISA test. "nMethods: In this study bacterial genomic DNA from E.coli (ATCC 25922 and genomic DNA from calf thymus extracted with high purity and were used as antigens for IgG anti-dsDNA detection by ELISA. To coat dsDNA in microtiter wells, tow different kinds of reagents including methylated -BSA and poly-l-lysine (for pre-coating are used. Sera from systemic lupus erythematosus patients and from normal blood donors are used to assess sensitivity and specificity of our ELISA test in compared with IF test and commercial kits. "nResults: Our results displayed pre-coating of microtiter plates with methylated -BSA reduce nonspecific binding reaction and the relative sensitivity and specificity of ELISA increased when calf thymus DNA is employed as antigenic source in compared with IF test and commercial kits 80%, 88% and 100%, 98% respectively, but when E.coli DNA is used 73%, 69% and 85%, 79%, respectively. "nConclusion: The genomic DNA from calf thymus is a potentially useful source of antigen for detection of anti-dsDNA by ELISA. Also the use of methylatted- BSA could have an effective role in reducing of nonspecific binding reactions.

  5. Studies of the binding mode of TXNHCH2COOH with calf thymus DNA by spectroscopic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataci, Nese; Arsu, Nergis

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a thioxanthone derivative named 2-(9-oxo-9H-thioxanthen-2ylamino) acetic acid (TX-NHCH2COOH) was used to investigate small molecule and DNA binding interactions. Absorption and fluorescence emission spectroscopy were used and melting studies were used to explain the binding mode of TXNHCH2COOH-DNA. Intrinsic binding constant Kb TXNHCH2COOH was found 6×10(5)M(-1)from UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Fluorescence emmision intensity increased by adding ct-DNA to the TXNHCH2COOH and KI quenching experiments resulted with low Ksv value. Additionally, 3.7°C increase for Tm was observed. The observed quenching of EB and ct-DNA complex and increase viscosity values of ct-DNA by addition of TXNHCH2COOH was determined. All those results indicate that TXNHCH2COOH can intercalate into DNA base pairs. Fluorescence microscopy helped to display imaging of the TXNHCH2COOH-DNA solution. PMID:27367618

  6. Zinc(II) complexes of carboxamide derivatives: Crystal structures and interaction with calf thymus DNA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biplab Mondal; Buddhadeb Sen; Ennio Zangrando; Pabitra Chattopadhyay

    2015-10-01

    Two mononuclear zinc(II) complexes of newly designed carboxamide derivatives, formulated as [Zn(L1)3](ClO4)2 (1) and [Zn(L2)3](ClO4)2 (2) [where L1 = -(furan-2-ylmethyl)-2-pyridinecarboxamide and L2 = -(thiophen-2-ylmethyl)-2-pyridine-carboxamide], have been isolated in pure form in the reaction of perchlorate salts of Zn(II) with ligands L1 and L2, respectively. The two complexes were characterized by physicochemical and spectroscopic tools, and by X-ray crystal structures of both ligands and the complex 1. In complex 1, zinc(II) is chelated by three ligands with a distorted octahedral geometry. The DNA-binding properties of zinc complexes 1 and 2 have been investigated by spectroscopic methods and viscosity measurements. The results suggest that both complexes 1 and 2 bind to DNA in an intercalation mode between the uncoordinated furan or thiophene chromophore and the base pairs of DNA.

  7. Synthesis, Characterization, Spectroscopic Properties of 2-(4-Dimethylaminophenyl)-5-fluoro-6-(morpholin-4-yl)-1H-benzimidazole and its Interaction with Calf Thymus DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Tian TANG; Yi WANG; Xin Qi LIU; Shao Wen HU; Tai Wei CHU; Xiang Yun WANG

    2005-01-01

    2-(4-Dimethylaminophenyl)-5-fluoro-6-(morpholin-4-yl)- 1H-benzimidazole(1) has been synthesized and characterized by 1H-NMR, MS and elemental analysis. UV-Vis spectra of the aqueous solutions at different pH values reveal that compound 1 can combine three protons. Its three protonation constants are determined by spectrophotometry and calculated by non-linear least squares. The results of steady-state fluorescence measurements indicate that a special interaction occurs between compound 1 and calf thymus DNA, of which the binding constant, Kb, is (2.30 ±0.10)×l04 L/mol. Compound 1 in the concentration range of 10-8 to 1.2×l0-6 mol/L could be used for quantitative determination of DNA.

  8. A fluorescent sensor based on methyldopa drug modified γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles for ultrasensitive detection of calf thymus DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Maghsudi, Maryam; Kashanian, Soheila

    2016-03-01

    We reported the study of calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) adsorption by the polymer of methyldopa (2-amino-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-methyl acid, propanoic) (PMDP), magnetofluorescent PMDP-γ-Fe2O3 nanocrystal. The method is based on the extraordinarily high quenching efficiency of ct-DNA and the specific interaction between ct-DNA and PMDP-γ-Fe2O3 via guanine base and metal coordination, probably. It was found that the designed magnetic nanoparticles can adsorb ct-DNA in nM levels in the presence of NaCl and KCl. In acetate and phosphate buffers DNA were adsorbed completely. Also, we found that pH plays an important role in DNA adsorption onto PMDP-γ-Fe2O3 nanocrystal. PMDP-γ-Fe2O3 nanocrystal is highly hydrophilic and DNA desorption wasn't observed. We believe this study will further stimulate the application of PMDP-γ-Fe2O3 nanocrystal in bioanalytical chemistry and nanotechnology. PMDP-γ-Fe2O3 nanocrystal possesses the ability to interact with ct-DNA via a partial intercalative binding mechanism, as demonstrated by fluorescence displacement experiments and a significant red shift (ca, 10 nm) in UV-vis spectra.

  9. Efficacy of golden rain tree against free radicals and H2O2-induced damage to pUC18/calf thymus DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manish Kumar; Madhu Chandel; Neha Sharma; Subodh Kumar; Satwinderjeet Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antioxidant and genoprotective potential of the methanol extract (METH-KP) along with its hexane fraction (HEX-KP) from the leaves of Koelreuteria paniculata (K. paniculata) Laxm. Methods: The antioxidant potential was checked using metal chelation assay, ABTS, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl), reducing power and superoxide anion radical scavenging assay, Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity (FCR assay), Total flavonoid content (TFC assay) and genoprotective activity against the DNA damage induced by Fenton's reagent using pUC18/calf thymus. Results: Results showed that radical scavenging activities of the both test extract/fraction revealed a concentration-dependent antiradical activity in all the assays. In Metal chelation assay, METH-KP and HEX-KP showed 39.04% and 32.51% of scavenging at highest tested concentrations. The METH-KP exhibited IC50 of 54.54 μg/mL in ABTS, 115 μg/mL in DPPH, 110 μg/mL in reducing power and 135 μg/mL in superoxide anion radical scavenging assay while that HEX-KP was found to be very poor in radical scavenging in all the above assays. The phytochemical analysis showed good amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in METH-KP while the HEX-KP fraction lacks phenols. The METH-KP extract and HEX-KP fraction both showed DNA protective effect in Calf thymus/pUC18 DNA protection studies. Conclusions: The activity of METH-KP may be attributed to its polyphenolic constituents which needs further isolation of its active constituents which may lead to the development of novel drugs to combat cancer.

  10. Multi-spectroscopic method study the interaction of anti-inflammatory drug ketoprofen and calf thymus DNA and its analytical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongqin; Cai, Changqun; Gong, Hang; Chen, Xiaoming

    2011-06-01

    Interactions of the anti-inflammatory drug ketoprofen with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) in aqueous solution have been studied by multi-spectroscopic method including resonance light scattering (RLS) technique, ultraviolet spectra (UV), 1H NMR, etc. The characteristics of RLS spectra, the effective factors and optimum conditions of the reaction have been unequivocally investigated. Mechanism investigations have shown that ketoprofen can bind to ctDNA by groove binding and form large particles, which resulted in the enhancement of RLS intensity. In Critic acid-Na 2HPO 4 buffer (pH = 6.5), ketoprofen has a maximum peak 451.5 nm and the RLS intensity is remarkably enhanced by trace amount of ctDNA due to the interaction between ketoprofen and ctDNA. The enhancement of RLS signal is directly proportional to the concentration of ctDNA in the range of 1.20 × 10 -6-1.0 × 10 -5 mol/L, and its detection limit (3 σ) is 1.33 × 10 -9 mol/L. The method is simple, rapid, practical and relatively free from interference generated by coexisting substance, and was applied to the determination of trace amounts of nucleic acid in synthetic samples with satisfactory results.

  11. A dysprosium-based metal-organic framework: Synthesis, characterization, crystal structure and interaction with calf thymus-DNA and bovine serum albumin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biplab Mondal; Buddhadeb Sen; Ennio Zangrando; Pabitra Chattopadhyay

    2014-07-01

    A dysprosium-based metallo-organic framework (MOF) containing calcium ions formulated as {Dy(pyda)3Ca1.5(H2O)6} · 5.5H2O (1) (H2pyda = pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid) was solvothermally synthesized in ethanolic medium and characterized by physico-chemical and spectroscopic tools. A detailed structural analysis of the solid state structure of 1 by single crystal X-ray diffraction study showed a tricapped trigonal prism geometry for lanthanide in the [Dy(pyda)3]3− fragment. The mode of interaction of 1 with calf thymus- DNA and with protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated by using absorption and emission spectroscopic tools. The apparent association constant of complex 1 with CT-DNA was deduced from an absorption spectral study (b = 4.08 × 104 M-1). Spectral and viscosity measurements indicated a groove-binding mode of 1 with CT-DNA, and from spectroscopic study the formation of a metal complex-BSA adduct was assumed to be the result of the interaction of 1 with BSA.

  12. Binding affinities of Schiff base Fe(II) complex with BSA and calf-thymus DNA: Spectroscopic investigations and molecular docking analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudra, Suparna; Dasmandal, Somnath; Patra, Chiranjit; Kundu, Arjama; Mahapatra, Ambikesh

    2016-09-01

    The binding interaction of a synthesized Schiff base Fe(II) complex with biological macromolecules viz., bovine serum albumin (BSA) and calf thymus(ct)-DNA have been investigated using different spectroscopic techniques coupled with viscosity measurements at physiological pH and 298K. Regular amendments in emission intensities of BSA upon the action of the complex indicate significant interaction between them, and the binding interaction have been characterized by Stern Volmer plots and thermodynamic binding parameters. On the basis of this quenching technique one binding site with binding constant (Kb=(7.6±0.21)×10(5)) between complex and protein have been obtained at 298K. Time-resolved fluorescence studies have also been encountered to understand the mechanism of quenching induced by the complex. Binding affinities of the complex to the fluorophores of BSA namely tryptophan (Trp) and tyrosine (Tyr) have been judged by synchronous fluorescence studies. Secondary structural changes of BSA rooted by the complex has been revealed by CD spectra. On the other hand, hypochromicity of absorption spectra of the complex with the addition of ct-DNA and the gradual reduction in emission intensities of ethidium bromide bound ct-DNA in presence of the complex indicate noticeable interaction between ct-DNA and the complex with the binding constant (4.2±0.11)×10(6)M(-1). Life-time measurements have been studied to determine the relative amplitude of binding of the complex to ct-DNA base pairs. Mode of binding interaction of the complex with ct-DNA has been deciphered by viscosity measurements. CD spectra have also been used to understand the changes in ct-DNA structure upon binding with the metal complex. Density functional theory (DFT) and molecular docking analysis have been employed in highlighting the interactive phenomenon and binding location of the complex with the macromolecules. PMID:27214273

  13. Binding of 12-s-12 dimeric surfactants to calf thymus DNA: Evaluation of the spacer length influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrión, Beatriz; Bernal, Eva; Martín, Victoria Isabel; López-López, Manuel; López-Cornejo, Pilar; García-Calderón, Margarita; Moyá, María Luisa

    2016-08-01

    Several cationic dimeric surfactants have shown high affinity towards DNA. Bis-quaternary ammonium salts (m-s-m) have been the most common type of dimeric surfactants investigated and it is generally admitted that those that posses a short spacer (s≤3) show better efficiency to bind or compact DNA. However, experimental results in this work show that 12-s-12 surfactants with long spacers make the surfactant/ctDNA complexation more favorable than those with short spacers. A larger contribution of the hydrophobic interactions, which control the binding Gibbs energy, as well as a higher average charge of the surfactant molecules bound to the nucleic acid, which favors the electrostatic attractions, could explain the experimental observations. Dimeric surfactants with intermediate spacer length seem to be the less efficient for DNA binding. PMID:27108208

  14. Sequence dependent modulating effect of camptothecin on the DNA-cleaving activity of the calf thymus type I topoisomerase.

    OpenAIRE

    Gromova, I I; Buchman, V L; Abagyan, R A; Ulyanov, A V; Bronstein, I B

    1990-01-01

    High-resolution mapping of topol cleavages in the regions of human DNA including the oncogene c-Ha-ras and p53, has revealed three kinds of topol cleavage sites: cleavage sites not affected by camptothecin; cleavage sites reinforced only in the presence of camptothecin, and cleavage sites which weaken in the presence of camptothecin. Statistical analysis of sequences revealed certain nucleotide or dinucleotide preferences for three groups studied. The preferences in camptothecin-reduced sites...

  15. Influence of Ni(II) and Fe(III) complexes of 1,2 dihydroxy 9,10 anthraquinone on the modification in calf thymus DNA upon gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation when allowed to fall upon cells or DNA, the radicals produced modify the base-pair region of the double strands. Radiation-induced double-strand modifications in calf thymus DNA were detected using Ni(II) and Fe(III) complexes of 1,2 dihydroxy 9,10 anthraquinone (DHA). 60Co was used as the source for γ-radiation and ethidium bromide (EB) as the fluorescent dye for detecting double-strand modifications caused in DNA. Results show that the Fe(III)-DHA complex is more efficient in modifying the base-pair region in double-stranded DNA in comparison to DHA or the Ni(II)-DHA complex

  16. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) acid nanoencapsulation of a synthetic coumarin: Cytotoxicity and bio-distribution in mice, in cancer cell line and interaction with calf thymus DNA as target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several naturally occurring coumarin compounds, including scopoletin (7 hydroxy-6 methoxycoumarin), of plant origin have been reported to have anti-cancer potentials. A related but chemically synthesized coumarin, 4-methyl-7-hydroxy coumarin (SC), was also shown to have similar anti-cancer potentials. In the present study, to test if nano-encapsulated SC could be a more potent anti-cancer agent, we encapsulated SC with poly lactide-co-glycolide acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (Nano Coumarin; NC) and tested its potentials with a variety of protocols. NC demonstrated greater efficiency of drug uptake and showed anti-cancer potentials in melanoma cell line A375, as revealed from scanning electronic and atomic force microscopies. To test its possible interaction with target DNA, the combined data of circular dichroism spectra (CD) and melting temperature profile (Tm) of calf thymus DNA treated with NC were analyzed. Results indicated a concentration dependent interaction of NC with calf thymus DNA, bringing in effective change in structure and conformation, and forming a new complex that increased its stability. Particle size and morphology of NC determined through polydispersity index and zeta potential using dynamic light scattering qualified NC to be a more potent anti-cancer agent than SC. Further, SC and NC showed negligible cytotoxic effects on normal skin cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of mice. Distribution assay of PLGA nanoparticles in different tissues like brain, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, and spleen in mice revealed the presence of nanoparticles in different tissues including brain, indicating that the particles could cross the blood brain barrier, significant information for drug design. - Graphical abstract: Nanoencapsulated coumarin (NC) were characterized for their size and morphology by scanning electron (SEM) and atomic force microscopies (AFM).The physical interaction of the NC with calf thymus DNA was studied through circular dichroism

  17. Aspects of γ-radiation induced modification of calf thymus DNA in the presence of sodium 1,4-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone-2-sulfonate and its transition metal complexes with Cu2+ and Ni2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guin, Partha Sarathi; Mandal, Parikshit Chandra; Das, Saurabh

    2013-08-01

    Radiation-induced double-strand modification of DNA was studied in the absence and presence of sodium 1,4-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (NaQSH2) and its metal (Cu2+ and Ni2+) complexes in aerated, de-aerated (Argon saturated) and N2O saturated aqueous media at pH 7.4. Ethidium bromide, an established DNA intercalator was used to estimate DNA remaining after interaction with γ-radiation, by measuring loss of fluorescence of the ethidium bromide-DNA adduct. In de-aerated (Argon saturated) and N2O saturated aqueous media radiation-induced double-strand modification of calf thymus DNA was comparatively less in presence of NaQSH2 and its Ni(II) complex than standard control indicating the compounds behaved as radio-protectors. However, in presence of the Cu(II) complex radiation-induced double-strand modification increased significantly. In N2O saturated medium, double-strand modification of DNA was almost double in all cases than that observed in de-aerated (Argon saturated) medium indicating OH radicals played a major role in modifying DNA. That OH radicals were important was verified by repeating experiments using tertiary-butanol that showed significant decrease in DNA modification. Another important observation was in aerated medium NaQSH2, Ni(II)-NaQSH2 did not show radioprotection while Cu(II)-NaQSH2 was an almost equally effective radiosensitizer as that observed in N2O saturated medium. Role of molecular oxygen as radiosensitizer was thus realized.

  18. Aspects of γ-radiation induced modification of calf thymus DNA in the presence of sodium 1,4-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone-2-sulfonate and its transition metal complexes with Cu2+ and Ni2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced double-strand modification of DNA was studied in the absence and presence of sodium 1,4-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (NaQSH2) and its metal (Cu2+ and Ni2+) complexes in aerated, de-aerated (Argon saturated) and N2O saturated aqueous media at pH 7.4. Ethidium bromide, an established DNA intercalator was used to estimate DNA remaining after interaction with γ-radiation, by measuring loss of fluorescence of the ethidium bromide–DNA adduct. In de-aerated (Argon saturated) and N2O saturated aqueous media radiation-induced double-strand modification of calf thymus DNA was comparatively less in presence of NaQSH2 and its Ni(II) complex than standard control indicating the compounds behaved as radio-protectors. However, in presence of the Cu(II) complex radiation-induced double-strand modification increased significantly. In N2O saturated medium, double-strand modification of DNA was almost double in all cases than that observed in de-aerated (Argon saturated) medium indicating ·OH radicals played a major role in modifying DNA. That ·OH radicals were important was verified by repeating experiments using tertiary-butanol that showed significant decrease in DNA modification. Another important observation was in aerated medium NaQSH2, Ni(II)–NaQSH2 did not show radioprotection while Cu(II)–NaQSH2 was an almost equally effective radiosensitizer as that observed in N2O saturated medium. Role of molecular oxygen as radiosensitizer was thus realized. - Highlights: • γ-radiation induced DNA modification was studied by ethidium bromide fluorescence. • In de-aerated and N2O saturated medium NaQSH2 and Ni(II)–NaQSH2 were radioprotectors. • Cu(II)–NaQSH2 showed radiosensitization that was attributed to Fenton reactions. • In aerated medium, NaQSH2 and complexes showed radiosensitization through participation of molecular oxygen. • ·OH had the major role in double strand modification of DNA

  19. Formation of cyclic 1,N2-propanodeoxyguanosine and thymidine adducts in the reaction of the mutagen 2-bromoacrolein with calf thymus DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of the mutagen 2-bromoacrolein (2BA) with DNA and thymidine was studied in vitro by reaction of [3-3H]2BA with thymidine, RNA, single-stranded DNA, and double-stranded DNA in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). After purification of the nucleic acids, they were incubated at alkaline pH to convert any (hydroxybromo)propano(deoxy)-guanosine adducts to their dihydroxy analogues. After acid or enzymatic hydrolysis, the hydrolysates were analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. At a concentration of 1.6 mM, the fraction of 2BA that became covalently bound to DNA was 2.3% of the amount added. Only 3% of the radioactivity bound to DNA after extensive purification could be accounted for as cyclic 1,N2-(6,7-dihydroxy)-propanoguanine adducts. More 2BA became covalently bound to single-stranded DNA and RNA as compared with double-stranded DNA. However, high-performance liquid chromatographic analyses showed that formation of cyclic 1,N2-(6,7-dihydroxy)propanoguanine adducts was also a minor reaction with these macromolecules. Because these data showed that other type(s) of reaction(s) are more important in the reaction of 2BA with nucleic acids, we have investigated the reaction of 2BA with other nucleosides. It was found that 2BA reacted well with thymidine in vitro, and the major product was identified by 500 MHz 1H and 75.43 MHz 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and thermospray mass spectrometry as 3-(2-bromo-3-oxopropyl)thymidine. This adduct was unstable and decomposed upon storage. After enzymatic hydrolysis of [3H]2BA-modified double-stranded DNA and subsequent analysis of the hydrolysate by high-performance liquid chromatography, 22% of the covalently bound radioactivity to DNA coeluted with decomposition products of the 3-(bromooxypropyl)thymidine adduct

  20. Analysis of 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP)-gold nanoparticles behaviour in solution and of their interaction with calf thymus DNA and living cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biver, T., E-mail: tarita@dcci.unipi.it [University of Pisa, Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry Department (Italy); Corti, A. [University of Pisa, Experimental Pathology Department BMIE (Italy); Eltugral, N. [University of Pisa, Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry Department (Italy); Lorenzini, E.; Masini, M.; Paolicchi, A. [University of Pisa, Experimental Pathology Department BMIE (Italy); Pucci, A.; Ruggeri, G.; Secco, F.; Venturini, M. [University of Pisa, Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry Department (Italy)

    2012-02-15

    4-(Dimethylamino)pyridine-coated gold nanoparticles (DMAP-Au NPs) were synthesized, characterised and their interaction with DNA and living cells was analysed. Concerning the interaction of the DMAP-Au NPs with DNA, absorbance titrations indicate that a non-covalent interaction between DNA and the external surface of the NPs does take place. The binding constant was evaluated to be (2.8 {+-} 0.8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sup -1}. Exposure of cultured cells to NPs revealed a dose-dependent effect on cell proliferation which was increased or reduced in dependence of DMAP-Au NPs concentrations. Subcellular localisation by transmission electron microscopy showed mitochondrial and nuclear localisations of NPs, thus suggesting their direct involvement in the mitochondrial alterations observed and a possible direct interaction with cell DNA. These findings clearly indicate that DMAP-Au NPs can strongly interact with living cells and confirm the importance of systematic evaluations of NPs properties, also in the perspective of their arising diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  1. Study on the interaction of anticancer drug mitoxantrone with DNA by fluorescence and Raman spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lingjuan; Sun, Zhenrong; Guo, Jianyu; Wang, Zugeng

    2006-02-01

    Mitoxantrone, a clinically useful antitumour antibiotic for leukaemia and breast cancer, has received more attentions. In this paper, the interaction between mitoxantrone and calf thymus DNA is investigated by Raman and fluorescence spectroscopies, and the binding site of mitoxantrone to calf thymus DNA is explored. The results showed that mitoxantrone interacts with calf thymus DNA bases by the intercalation of anthracycline into the base pair plane of adenine (A) and thymine (T), and it results in the disruption of the hydrogen bonds between calf thymus DNA bases, and thus the calf thymus DNA double-strand can be disrupted into the B-form DNA double-strand segments.

  2. Study on the interaction of anticancer drug mitoxantrone with DNA by fluorescence and Raman spectroscopies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingjuan Tang; Zhenrong Sun; Jianyu Guo; Zugeng Wang

    2006-01-01

    @@ Mitoxantrone, a clinically useful antitumour antibiotic for leukaemia and breast cancer, has received more attentions. In this paper, the interaction between mitoxantrone and calf thymus DNA is investigated by Raman and fluorescence spectroscopies, and the binding site of mitoxantrone to calf thymus DNA is explored. The results showed that mitoxantrone interacts with calf thymus DNA bases by the intercalation of anthracycline into the base pair plane of adenine (A) and thymine (T), and it results in the disruption of the hydrogen bonds between calf thymus DNA bases, and thus the calf thymus DNA double-strand can be disrupted into the B-form DNA double-strand segments.

  3. Voltammetry of the Anticancer Drug Mitoxantrone and DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Erdem, Arzum; ÖZSÖZ, Mehmet

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of mitoxantrone (MTX) with calf thymus double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and calf thymus single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) was studied electrochemically by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) at a carbon paste electrode (CPE). The changes in the experimental parameters (the concentration of MTX, the concentration of DNA and the accumulation time of MTX) were studied by DPV; in addition, the detection limit and the reproducibility were determined....

  4. Study on the Interaction between CdTe Quantum Dot-Acridine Orange-Calf Thymus DNA by Fluorescence Reversible Control%荧光可逆调控研究CdTe量子点-吖啶橙-小牛胸腺DNA的相互作用及分析应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚会平; 刘绍璞; 殷鹏飞; 闫曙光; 范小青; 何佑秋

    2011-01-01

    水相合成了谷胱甘肽(GSH)修饰的CdTe量子点(QDs).在PH=7.4的Tris-HCl缓冲溶液中,吖啶橙(AO)通过静电引力吸附到GSH-CdTe QDs的表面,与GSH-CdTe QDs形成了基态复合物,导致GSH-CdTe QDs的荧光猝灭.在GSH-CdTe QDs-AO体系中加入小牛胸腺DNA(ctDNA),ctDNA诱导AO从GSH-CdTe QDs表面脱落嵌入其双螺旋结构中,导致GSH-CdTe QDs的荧光恢复.根据GSH-CdTe QDs荧光的猝灭和恢复,实现了量子点荧光的可逆调控.ctDNA引起GSH-CdTe QDs-AO体系荧光恢复强度与ctDNA浓度成良好的线性关系,检出限为0.13 ng mL-1,据此提出了简便快捷、准确、高灵敏测定ctDNA的新方法.还结合共振瑞利散射(RRS)光谱、吸收光谱和原子力显微镜照片研究了GSH-CdTe QDs-AO-ctDNA三者之间的相互作用,对相互作用机理进行了讨论并提出了相应的作用模型.%Glutathione(GSH)-capped CdTe quantum dots(GSH-CdTe QDs) were synthesized in aqueous solution.In pH 7.4 Tris-HCl buffer medium,acridine orange(AO) was adsorbed to the surfaces of GSH-CdTe QDs via electrostatic attraction and formed ground state complex,which resulted in the quenching of the fluorescence of GSH-CdTe QDs.Adding ctDNA to GSH-CdTe QDs-AO system leaded to the fluorescence intensity of GSH-CdTe QDs recover,which can be explained by that the addition of ctDNA to the system induced AO to dissociate from the surface of GSH-CdTe QDs and embed into its double helix structure.According to the fluorescence quencher and restoration for GSH-CdTe QDs,fluorescence reversible control of QDs was realized.The fluorescence intensity change of GSH-CdTe QDs-AO system aroused by the addition of ctDNA was proportional to the ctDNA concentration in a certain range,and its detection limit was 0.13 ngomL-1.Based on it,the simple,rapid,accurate and sensitive methods had been proposed to determine ctDNA.The interaction of GSH-CdTe QDs-AO-ctDNA was studied by resonance Rayleigh scattering

  5. Evidence implying DNA polymerase beta function in excision repair.

    OpenAIRE

    Siedlecki, J A; Szyszko, J.; Pietrzykowska, I; Zmudzka, B

    1980-01-01

    Comparison was made of the ability of calf thymus DNA polymerases alpha and beta to replicate the following templates: native E. coli CR-34 DNA (T-DNA), calf thymus DNA activated by DNase I (act.DNA), BU-DNA (from E. coli CR-34 cells cultured on BUdR-containing medium) with damages resulting from incomplete excision repair, as well as thermally denatured act.DNA and BU-DNA (s.s.act.DNA and s.s.BU-DNA). 3H-TTP incorporation during extensive replication of act.DNA was similar for both enzymes, ...

  6. On the Formation of Thymine Photodimers in Thymine Single Strands and Calf Thymus DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Lisbeth Munksgård; Hoffmann, S.V.; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted

    2014-01-01

    Solar light leads to thymine dimers that are mutagenic and primary cause of skin cancer. Here, we report absorption and synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (CD) spectra of Tn single strands with different number n of bases (n = 2–7, 10, 11) recorded after various 254 nm irradiation times. Fr...

  7. Spectroscopic Evaluation of DNA-Borate Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ayse; Sarioglu, Omer Faruk; Tekinay, Turgay

    2015-12-01

    We describe the binding characteristics of two natural borates (colemanite and ulexite) to calf thymus DNA by UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and a competitive DNA binding assay. Our results suggest that colemanite and ulexite interact with calf thymus DNA under a non-intercalative mode of binding and do not alter the secondary structure of the DNA helix. The FT-IR spectroscopy results indicate that the two borates might interact with DNA through sugar-phosphate backbone binding. PMID:25994227

  8. A change in the composition of DNA-bound nonhistone protein in the thymus and liver of gamma-irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A supramolecular DNA complex (SC DNA) and DNA of a phenol nuclear matrix (PNM DNA) were extracted, by the phenol method, from rat thymus and liver 15 min following 10 Gy γ-irradiation. The method of electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel was used to study a composition of nonhistone proteins firmly bound to these DNA fractions. Irradiation was shown to induce the occurrence of new proteins and redistribution of proteins between SC DNA and PNN DNA of rat organs

  9. Specific interaction of histone H1 with eukaryotic DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Diez-Caballero, T; Avilés, F X; Albert, A.

    1981-01-01

    The interaction of calf thymus histone H1 with homologous and heterologous DNA has been studied at different ionic strengths. It has been found that about 0.5 M NaCl histone H1, and its fragments N-H1 (residues 1-72) and C-H1 (residues 73-C terminal), precipitate selectively a small fraction of calf thymus DNA. This selective precipitation is preserved up to very high values (less than 2.0) of the input histone H1/DNA ratio. The percentage of DNA insolubilized by histone H1 under these ionic ...

  10. Thymus Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell. These cells help protect you from infections. Cancer of the thymus is rare. You are more ... Sometimes there are no symptoms. Other times, thymus cancer can cause A cough that doesn't go ...

  11. Binding of the Bi (III) Complex of Naringin with β-Cyclodextrin/Calf Thymus DNA: Absorption and Fluorescence Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Sameena Yousuf; Israel V. Muthu Vijayan Enoch

    2014-01-01

    Naringin-Bi (III) complex (Narb) was prepared and analysed by UV-Visible absorption and fluorescence measurements. The inclusion complex of Narb with β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) was characterized by the UV-Visible absorption, Infrared, scanning dlectron microscopic, and X-ray diffractometric techniques. The stoichiometry of the inclusion complex of Narb with β-CD was 1 : 1 with a binding constant of 5.18 × 102 mol−1 ...

  12. Hydrodynamic caracterization and molecular weight stimation of ultrasonically sheared DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sedimentation coefficients and intrinsec viscosities of ultrasonically sheared calf thymus DNA have been determined. The molecular weight stimation according to this parameters have been compared with the ones obtained from the electrophoretic migration rates based on the calibration proposed using the known molecular weight restriction fragments of lambds-DNA. (author)

  13. DNA damage by smoke: Protection by turmeric and other inhibitors of ROS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivas, L.; Shalini, V.K. (Department of Nutrition and Food Safety, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore (India))

    1991-01-01

    Twigs-dry leaves smoke condensate (TDS), as a source of clastogenic ROS and carcinogenic PAH, was investigated for its in vitro DNA-damaging effect in calf thymus DNA and human peripheral lymphocytes. An aqueous turmeric component--Aq.T--with an established antioxidant activity, was tested as a DNA protectant. TDS induced 13-fold damage to calf thymus DNA as judged by the emergence of a DNA damage specific, fluorescent product (em: 405 nm). Aq.T at 800 ng/microL extended 69% protection to calf thymus DNA and was comparable to the other protectants such as curcumin, BHA, vitamin E, SOD, and CAT. In human peripheral lymphocytes, TDS induced extensive DNA damage in comparison with the tumor promoter TPA, as judged by FADU. Aq.T at 300 ng/microL extended 90% protection to human lymphocyte DNA against TDS-induced damage, and was more effective than the other protectants--DABCO, D-mannitol, sodium benzoate, vitamin E (ROS quenchers), SOD, CAT (antioxidant enzymes), tannic acid, flufenamic acid, BHA, BHT, n-PG, curcumin and quercetin (antioxidants). Aq.T offered 65% protection to human lymphocyte DNA against TPA-induced damage and was comparable to SOD. The above results indicate that TDS induces substantial DNA damage in calf thymus DNA and human lymphocytes and Aq.T is an efficient protectant.

  14. The role of lipid component in the mechanism of postirradiation degradation and reduction of supramolecular dna of rat thymus and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of thin-layer chromatography was used to study the composition of neutral lipids bound with supramolecular DNA of rat thymus and liver in norm and after ν-irradiation with a dose of 9.7 Gy. A primary radiation effect, at the level of a lipid component of supramolecular DNA, is manifested by the increase, in the thymus, and decrease, in the liver, of all fractions of neutral lipids especially cholesterol. A correlation was revealed between restoration of viscoelasticity of supramolecular DNA in the liver of exposed animals and the content of free cholesterol. It is concluded that free cholesterol plays an important role in the structure of supramolecular DNA

  15. DNA Condensing Effects and Sequence Selectivity of DNA Binding of Antitumor Noncovalent Polynuclear Platinum Complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malina, Jaroslav; Farrell, N. P.; Brabec, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2014), s. 1662-1671. ISSN 0020-1669 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-08273S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH13096 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : INTERSTRAND CROSS-LINKS * LASER -LIGHT SCATTERING * CALF THYMUS DNA Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.762, year: 2014

  16. Hydrodynamic characterization and molecular weight estimation of ultrasonically sheared DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sedimentation coefficients and intrinsic viscosities of ultrasonically sheared calf thymus DNA have been determined. The molecular weight estimation according to this parameters have been compared with the ones obtained from the electrophoretic migration rates based on the calibration proposed using the known molecular weight restriction fragments of X-ENA. (Author) 35 refs

  17. Electrons on the double helix: optical experiments on native DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Helgren, E.; Gruner, G.; Omerzu, A.; Mihailovic, D.; Podgornik, R.; Grimm, H

    2001-01-01

    Optical experiments on calf thymus DNA films subjected to different buffer environments are reported. The optical conductivity is that of a disordered or lightly doped semiconductor with a well-defined band-gap for charge excitations and low frequency transport determined by a small number of strongly localized electron states.

  18. Spectral and Electrochemical Investigation of Intercalations of Adrenaline and CT-DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑赛晶; 林祥钦

    2003-01-01

    A strong interaction between double stranded calf-thymus DNA (ds-DNA) and adrenaline in solution, but no interaction between single stranded calf-thymus DNA (ss-DNA) and adrenaline was observed by the use of UV-visible spectroscopy and voltammetric techniques. It is suggested that the interaction leads to an intercalation of adrenaline molecules into the groove of ds-DNA and the formation of ds-DNA (adrenallne)n complex. The binding site size of the interaction of adrenaline with CT-DNA in nucleotide phosphate [ NP] has been determined as 25. The interaction of different concentration adrenaline with DNA modified GCE shows that the DNA modified GCE can be a good tool to detect lower concentration adrenaline.

  19. Hydrodynamic characterization and molecular weight estimation of ultrasonically sheared DNA; Caracterizacion hidrodinamica y estimacion de pesos moleculares de DNA degradado por ultrasonidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casal, J. I.; Garces, F.; Garcia-Sacristan, A.

    1981-07-01

    The sedimentation coefficients and intrinsic viscosities of ultrasonically sheared calf thymus DNA have been determined. The molecular weight estimation according to this parameters have been compared with the ones obtained from the electrophoretic migration rates based on the calibration proposed using the known molecular weight restriction fragments of X-ENA. (Author) 35 refs.

  20. DNA-Binding Interaction Studies of Microwave Assisted Synthesized Sulfonamide Substituted 8-Hydroxyquinoline Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, Ritu B.; Patel, Tarosh S.; Vanparia, Satish F.; Kunjadiya, Anju P.; Keharia, Harish R.; Dixit, Bharat C.

    2011-01-01

    Sulfonamide substituted 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives were prepared using a microwave synthesizer. The interaction of sulfonamide substituted 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives and their transition metal complexes with Plasmid (pUC 19) DNA and Calf Thymus DNA were investigated by UV spectroscopic studies and gel electrophoresis measurements. The interaction between ligand/metal complexes and DNA was carried out by increasing the concentration of DNA from 0 to 12 μl in UV spectroscopic study, whi...

  1. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  2. Spectroscopic, Viscositic and Molecular Modeling Studies on the Interaction of 3′-Azido-Daunorubicin Thiosemicarbazone with DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Fengling; Liu, Qingfeng; Luo, Hongxia; Zhang, Guisheng

    2013-01-01

    A new daunorubicin has been synthesized and structurally characterized. The interaction of native calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) with 3′-azido-daunorubicin thiosemicarbazone (ADNRT) was investigated under simulated physiological conditions by multi-spectroscopic techniques, viscometric measurements and molecular modeling study. It concluded that ADNRT could intercalate into the base pairs of ctDNA, and the fluorescence quenching by ctDNA was static quenching type. Thermodynamic parameters calculated...

  3. Isolation of cDNA clones encoding an enzyme from bovine cells that repairs oxidative DNA damage in vitro: homology with bacterial repair enzymes.

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, C.N.; Milne, A M; Pappin, D J; Hickson, I. D.

    1991-01-01

    Ionizing radiation and radiomimetic compounds, such as hydrogen peroxide and bleomycin, generate DNA strand breaks with fragmented deoxyribose 3' termini via the formation of oxygen-derived free radicals. These fragmented sugars require removal by enzymes with 3' phosphodiesterase activity before DNA synthesis can proceed. An enzyme that reactivates bleomycin-damaged DNA to a substrate for Klenow polymerase has been purified from calf thymus. The enzyme, which has a Mr of 38,000 on SDS-PAGE, ...

  4. Comparison of DNA adducts from exposure to complex mixtures in various human tissues and experimental systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lewtas, Joellen; Mumford, Judy; Everson, Richard B; Hulka, Barbara; Wilcosky, Tim; Kozumbo, Walter; Thompson, Claudia; George, Michael; Dobiáš, Lubomir; Šrám, Radim; Li, Xueming; Gallagher, Jane

    1993-01-01

    DNA adducts derived from complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic compounds emitted from tobacco smoke are compared to industrial pollution sources (e.g., coke ovens and aluminum smelters), smoky coal burning, and urban air pollution. Exposures to coke oven emissions and smoky coal, both potent rodent skin tumor initiators and lung carcinogens in humans, result in high levels of DNA adducts compared to tobacco smoke in the in vitro calf thymus DNA model system, in cultured lymphocytes, and in ...

  5. Interaction between Ternary Rare Earth Complexes of Cinnamic Acid and Phenanthroline with DNA by Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Dongfang; Ye Yan; Zeng Zhengzhi

    2005-01-01

    The interaction of ternary complexes [RE(phen)(cin)3(H2O)](RE= Nd (III),Ce(III),Eu(III))with calf thymus DNA was investigated by electronic absorption spectroscopy, ethidium bromide(EB)-DNA quenching fluorescent spectra and resonance light scattering. All experimental results indicate that the three complexes bind to DNA by the electrostatic mode and the intercalative mode. It is predicted that these complexes show high anticancer activity or other biologic activity.

  6. Synthesis, DNA Binding, and Antiproliferative Activity of Novel Acridine-Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Sinara Mônica Vitalino de Almeida; Elizabeth Almeida Lafayette; Lúcia Patrícia Bezerra Gomes da Silva; Cézar Augusto da Cruz Amorim; Tiago Bento de Oliveira; Ana Lucia Tasca Gois Ruiz; João Ernesto de Carvalho; Ricardo Olímpio de Moura; Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro Beltrão; Maria do Carmo Alves de Lima; Luiz Bezerra de Carvalho Júnior

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the acridine nucleus was used as a lead-compound for structural modification by adding different substituted thiosemicarbazide moieties. Eight new (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide derivatives (3a–h) were synthesized, their antiproliferative activities were evaluated, and DNA binding properties were performed with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) by electronic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. Both hyperchromic and hypochromic effects, as well as re...

  7. Microwave Synthesis, Characterization and DNA-binding Properties of a New Cobalt(Ⅱ) Complex with 2,6-Bis(benzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nian Yuan TAN; Xiao Ming XIAO; Ze Lin LI; Takeko MATSUMURA-INOUE

    2004-01-01

    A new cobalt(Ⅱ) complex with tridentate ligand 2, 6-bis (benzimidazol- 2-yl)pyridine has been synthesized by microwave irradiation method and characterized by elemental analysis, electrochemical and spectral methods. The binding of the complex with calf thymus DNA has also been investigated by absorption and fluorescence spectra.

  8. Investigação eletroquímica e calorimétrica da interação de novos agentes antitumorais biscatiônicos com DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Láuris Lucia da Silva; Claudio Luis Donnici; Júlio César Dias Lopes; Marília Oliveira Fonseca Goulart; Fabiane Caxico de Abreu; Francine Santos de Paula; Carlos E. Salas Bravo; Marcelo Matos Santoro; Ângelo Márcio Leite Denadai; Alexandre Martins Costa Santos; Carlos Alberto Montanari

    2012-01-01

    Biscationic amidines bind in the DNA minor groove and present biological activity against a range of infectious diseases. Two new biscationic compounds (bis-α,ω-S-thioureido, amino and sulfide analogues) were synthesized in good yields and fully characterized, and their interaction with DNA was also investigated. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to measure the thermodynamic properties of binding interactions between DNA and these ligands. A double stranded calf thymus DNA immob...

  9. Interaction between DNA and chromosomal proteins HMGB1 and H1 studied by IR/VCD spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyanichko, Alexander; Chikhirzhina, Elena

    2013-07-01

    Binary complexes of calf thymus DNA with calf thymus non-histone chromosomal protein HMGB1 and linker histone H1 were studied using FTIR/VCD spectroscopy. The spectroscopic data showed that the interaction of the protein HMGB1 and histone H1 with DNA resulted in formation of two different types of the macromolecular complexes. Histone H1 retained its native structure even at high concentrations and induced DNA condensation upon binding at the protein to DNA ratio r (w/w) in the complex r ⩾ 0.3. HMGB1 demonstrated the ability to form soluble complexes at considerably higher protein to DNA ratios. The obtained data suggest that the HMGB1 also participated in the protein-protein interactions via its C-terminal domain.

  10. Histone-DNA interactions within chromatin. Isolation of histones from DNA adducts induced in nuclei by UV light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method has been developed by which to isolate histones that have been crosslinked to DNA following irradiation of calf thymus nuclei by UV light. The procedure involves separation of protein-DNA adducts from uncrosslinked protein by Sepharose 4B chromatography under dissociating conditions. Histones which are crosslinked to DNA are released by chemical hydrolysis of the DNA and identified by SDS gel electrophoresis. The results indicate that, of the histones, H1 and H3 become crosslinked to the DNA most readily under our irradiation conditions. (author)

  11. Interaction of Hypocrellin B or Mono-cysteine Substituted Hypocrellin B with CT-DNA by Spectral Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Hong ZHOU; Sheng Qin XIA; Xue Song WANG; Bao Wen ZHANG; Yi CAO

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of the anticancer drag hypocrellin B (HB) or the mono-cysteinesubstituted hypocrellin B (MCHB) and calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (CT-DNA) has beeninvestigated using spectral methods. The results of UV-visible spectra show that the HB andMCHB could intercalate into the base-stacking domain of the CT-DNA double helix. The studiesof fluorescence spectra and circular dichroism(CD) spectra also support the interacalationmechanism.

  12. Raman study of the effects of polyamines on DNA:spermine and histamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Chica, J.; Medina, M. A.; Sánchez-Jiménez, F.; Ramírez, F. J.

    1999-05-01

    Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the interaction of spermine and histamine with calf-thymus DNA. Polyamine-DNA solutions at different polyamine concentrations ranging from 5 mM to 75 mM were prepared. For spermine, solutions no higher than 15 mM were prepared because this molecule induces condensation and aggregation on DNA at upper concentrations. Possible sites of bindings for polyamine-DNA complexes were discussed on the basis of the spectral changes observed with respect to the Raman spectra of DNA. The results seem to indicate that one spermine molecule induces on DNA a similar effect to two or more histamine molecules.

  13. STUDY ON GMA-DNA ADDUCTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Objective. DNA modification fixed as mutations in the cells may be an essential factor in the initiation step of chemical carcinogenesis. In order to explore the mechanism of gene mutation and cell transformation induced by glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), the current test studied the characteristics of GMA-DNA adducts formation in vitro.Methods. In vitro test, dAMP, dCMP, dGMP, dTMP and calf thymus DNA were allowed to react with GMA (Glycidyl Methacrylate). After the reaction, the mixtures were detected by UV and subjected to reversed-phase HPLC on ultrasphere ODS reversed-phase column, the reaction products were eluted with a linear gradients of methanol (solvent A) and 10mmol/L ammonium formate, pH5.0 (solvent B). The synthesized adducts were then characterized by UV spectroscopy in acid (pH1.0), neutral (pH7.2), alkaline (pH11.0) and by mass spectroscopy.Results. The results showed that GMA could bind with dAMP, dCMP, dGMP and calf thymus DNA by covalent bond, and the binding sites were specific (N6 of adenine, N3 of cytosine). Meanwhile, a main GMA-DNA adduct in the reaction of GMA with calf thymus DNA was confirmed as N3-methacrylate-2-hydroxypropy1-dCMP.Conclusions. GMA can react with DNA and /or deoxynucleotide monophosphate and generate some adducts such as N6-methacrylate-2-hydroxypropyl-dAMP and N3-methacrylate-2-hydroxypropyl-dCMP, ets. Formation of GMA-DNA adducts is an important molecular event in gene mutation and cell transformation induced by GMA.

  14. Electrochemical studies of reaction of ciprofloxcin and DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiaocui SHI; Sufen WANG; Bin ZHU; Min JI

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of ciprofloxacin (CFX) and its interaction with the natural calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) is studied by using pulse difference voltammetry on a carbon electrode. CFX shows a well-defined oxidative peak at+0.88 V. As a result of reaction with ctDNA,the oxidative peak of CFX decreased markedly. According to the electrochemical equation deduced in this paper, the binding constant of 1.36 × 105 (mol/L)-1 and the binding size of 1.94 (base pairs) of CFX with ctDNA were obtained by nonlinear fit analysis of the electrochemical data. The mechanism of the interaction was explored.

  15. Effect of DNA type on response of DNA biosensor for carcinogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Nor Diyana bt. Md.; Heng, Lee Yook; Surif, Salmijah; Lazim, Azwani Mat

    2013-11-01

    Carcinogens are cancer causing chemicals that can bind to DNA and cause damage to the DNA. These chemicals are available everywhere including in water, air, soil and food. Therefore, a sensor that can detect the presence of these chemicals will be a very useful tool. Since carcinogens bind to DNA, DNA can be used as the biological element in a biosensor. This study has utilized different types of DNA in a biosensor for carcinogen detection. The DNAs include double stranded calf thymus DNA, single stranded calf thymus DNA and guanine rich single stranded DNA. The modified SPE was exposed to a carcinogen followed by interaction with methylene blue which acts as the electroactive indicator. The SPE was then analysed using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Optimization studies were conducted for MB concentration and accumulation time, DNA concentration, as well as effect of buffer concentration, buffer pH and ionic strength. The performance of the biosensor was tested on a group 1 carcinogen, formaldehyde. The results indicated that the usage of guanine rich single stranded DNA also gives higher response as carcinogens prefer to bind with guanine compared to other bases.

  16. Inhibition of Pro-oxidant induced DNA Damage in isolated human peripheral lymphocytes by methanolic extract of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) leaves.

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrashekar S; Umesha S,; Chethan Kumar M,; Chandan S

    2010-01-01

    The present preliminary investigation reveals the anti-oxidant effects of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) leaves. Dried and powdered leaves of Tinospora cordifolia was subjected to methanol extraction, and total phenols, sugars and proteins were determined. DNA fragmentation was carried out using isolated human peripheral lymphocytes and Calf thymus DNA as a model system. The results showed that the methanol extract of Tinospora cordifolia is rich in total polyphenols (>3 mg/g) in comparison t...

  17. DNA structure, binding mechanism and biology functions of polypyridyl complexes in biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    There is considerable research interest and vigorous debate about the DNA binding of polypyridyl complexes including the electron transfer involving DNA. In this review, based on the fluorescence quenching experiments, it was proposed that DNA might serve as a conductor. From the time-interval CD spectra, the different binding rates of D- and L-enantiomer to calf thymus DNA were observed. The factors influencing the DNA-binding of polypyridyl complexes, and the potential bio-functions of the complexes are also discussed.

  18. Hair Dye–DNA Interaction: Plausible Cause of Mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Swati Maiti; Sudarson Sekhar Sinha; Mukesh Singh

    2015-01-01

    Hair dye is one of the most popular cosmetic products which are used more widely and frequently to improve an individual’s appearance. Although the genotoxic effects of dye ingredients are widely reported, hair dye in its usable form is not reported extensively. In this contribution, we report the possible mode of interaction of hair dye with DNA which leads to genotoxicity. The effect of dye DNA interaction was studied on the most popular and globally used hair dye with Calf Thymus DNA and p...

  19. Human neuronal tau promoting the melting temperature of DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The hyperchromic effect of ultraviolet spectroscopy shows that adding recombinant human neuronal tau to the solution of calf thymus DNA will promote the melting temperature (Tm) from 67℃ to 81℃. Similar result has been detected when adding tau to plasmid pBluescript-Ⅱ SK, by raising Tm from 75℃ to 85℃. The kinetics of thermal denaturation of DNA with tau is much slower than that of control. It suggests that tau may stabilize the double helix conformation of DNA.

  20. Determination of size distribution of small DNA fragments by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Size distribution determination of DNA fragments can be normally determined by the agarose gel electrophoresis, including the normal DNA banding pattern analysis. However this method is only good for large DNA, such as the DNA of the size of kilo base pairs to mega base pairs range. DNA of size less than kilo base pairs is difficult to be quantified by the agarose gel method. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis however can be used to measure the quantity of DNA fragments of size less than kilo base pairs in length, down to less than ten base pairs. This method is good for determining the quantity of the smaller size DNA, single stranded polymers or even some proteins, if the known standards are available. In this report detail description of the method of preparing the polyacrylamide gel, and the experimental set up is discussed. Possible uses of this method, and the comparison with the standard sizes of DNA is also shown. This method is used to determine the distribution of the amount of the fragmented DNA after the Calf-thymus DNA has been exposed to various types of radiation and of different doses. The standards were used to determine the sizes of the fragmented Calf-thymus DNA. The higher the dose the higher is the amount of the smaller size DNA measured

  1. Studies on rat thymus. III. Phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, J.F.; Carttar, M.S.; Neff, J.B.

    1950-12-31

    Because of the rapid decrease in concentration of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in the thymus of rats following gamma irradiation from a Co{sup 60} source, it was of interest to further investigate this phenomenon. As a first consideration, we have studied the capacity of thymus homogenates to esterify inorganic phosphate, an imperative step in endergonic processes, such as nucleic acid synthesis, the energy for which is provided by high-energy phosphate bonds maintained by catabolic processes. Three hours after exposure to 800 r, the thymuses of irradiated rats showed a decreased capacity to esterify inorganic phosphate. This impairment of phosphorylation was not accompanied by a decreased rate of oxygen consumption. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. DNA adduct formation by alachlor metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extent of DNA adduct formation by alachlor [ArN(CH2OCH3)C(O)CH2Cl wherein Ar is 2,6-diethylphenyl] and its metabolites is used as a guide to deduce the causal agent(s) in the carcinogenicity of this major herbicide. [14C-phenyl]Alachlor is compared to its two metabolic cleavage products, [14C-phenyl] 2-chloro-N-(2,6-diethylphenyl)acetamide (CDEPA) [ArNHC(O)CH2Cl] and [14C-phenyl]2,6-diethylaniline (DEA) (ArNH2), and to [14C-methoxy]alachlor in various in vitro and in vivo systems. Horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide activate DEA, but not CEDPA or alachlor, for formation of adducts with calf thymus DNA, which probably involves 2,6-diethylnitrosobenzene (ArNO) as an intermediate. Mouse liver microsomes and NADPH are both required to enhance the binding from each labeled preparation to calf thymus DNA; 4-fold higher labeling is observed from [14C-methoxy]- than from [14C-phenyl]alachlor. This 4-fold preferential DNA labeling from the 14C-methoxy compound is likewise found in the liver of mice treated intraperitoneally. Mouse liver protein and hemoglobin are also labeled, in vivo, with [14C-phenyl]alachlor, -CDEPA and -DEA, and, as with the DNA, the labeling of these proteins is 1.5- to 2-fold higher with [14C-methoxy]alachlor

  3. Thermodynamics of interaction and structure of DNA complexes with phenacylimidazo[5,1-a]isoquinoline derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinnikova, D. N.; Moroshkina, E. B.; Glushkina, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Interaction of native calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) with phenacylimidazo[5,1- a]isoquinoline derivatives was studied by the methods of spectrophotometry, viscometry, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and dynamic birefringence. It was found that both of investigated compounds form complexes with the DNA molecule, the structure of compounds affects the mode of binding these ligands to DNA. The primary binding mode can not be described by the classical models of groove binding or intercalation. It has been suggested that the primary mode of binding is "partial intercalation".

  4. Comparison of the binding of the therapeutically active nucleosides to DNA molecules with different level of lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglova, E. B.; Gladkovskaya, N. A.

    2002-12-01

    Recently we have shown that DNA molecules extracted from epididymis of the Wistar male rats exposed to low doses of gamma radiation interact with some pyrimidine nucleosides. The bindign affinities of NUC to control DNA molecules are unessential. Comparing the UV melting curves for the various DNA sammples we show that observed differences are related to conformational chagnes in the DNA double helix. The samples of the damaged DNA have been obtained by partial denaturation of the calf thymus DNA in the salt-free aqueous solutions. The level of DNA damages in the model DNA smplase depends on the DNA concentration. It was shown that damages in the DNA molecules lead to changes of the melting curves of DNA-NUC mixtures that are similar to those for the DNA samples extracted from irradiated tissues. ALso it has been found that the binding mechanisms to cytosine arabinoside and 6-azacytosine to DNA molecuels having modifeid secondary structures are different.

  5. Bleomycin-induced DNA synthesis in a cell-free system using a permeable mouse sarcoma cell Extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seki,Shuji

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available To investigate factors involved in excision repair DNA synthesis, a soluble extract was prepared from permeable mouse sarcoma (SR-C3H/He cells by homogenization and ultracentrifugation. DNA synthesis measured by using native calf thymus DNA as the template-primer and the extract as the polymerase source showed low activity. The DNA synthesis was enhanced more than ten-fold by the addition of an appropriate concentration of bleomycin, a radiomimetic DNA-damaging drug. Using selective inhibitors of DNA polymerases, it was shown that the DNA polymerase involved in the bleomycin-induced DNA synthesis was DNA polymerase beta. In addition to DNA polymerase beta, an exonuclease which converts bleomycin-damaged DNA into suitable template-primers for repair DNA synthesis appeared to be present in the permeable cell extract.

  6. Effects of proteolysis on the adenosinetriphosphatase activities of thymus myosin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, N.D.; Wagner, P.D.

    1987-07-28

    Limited proteolysis was used to identify regions on the heavy chains of calf thymus myosin which may be involved in ATP and actin binding. Assignments of the various proteolytic fragments to different parts of the myosin heavy chain were based on solubility, gel filtration, electron microscopy, and binding of /sup 32/P-labeled regulatory light chains. Chymotrypsin rapidly cleaved within the head of thymus myosin to give a 70,000-dalton N-terminal fragment and a 140,000-dalton C-terminal fragment. These two fragments did not dissociate under nondenaturing conditions. Cleavage within the myosin tail to give heavy meromyosin occurred more slowly. Cleavage at the site 70,000 daltons from the N-terminus of the heavy chain caused about a 30-fold decrease in the actin concentration required to achieve half-maximal stimulation of the magnesium-adenosinetriphosphatase (Mg-ATPase) activity of unphosphorylated thymus myosin. The actin-activated ATPase activity of this digested myosin was only slightly affected by light chain phosphorylation. Actin inhibited the cleavage at this site by chymotrypsin. In the presence of ATP, chymotrypsin rapidly cleaved the thymus myosin heavy chain at an additional site about 4000 daltons from the N-terminus. Cleavage at this site caused a 2-fold increase in the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-ATPase activity and 3-fold decreases in the Ca/sup 2 +/- and Mg-ATPase activities of thymus myosin. Thus, cleavage at the N-terminus of thymus myosin was affected by ATP, and this cleavage altered ATPase activity. Papain cleaved the thymus myosin heavy chain about 94,000 daltons from the N-terminus to give subfragment 1. Although this subfragment 1 contained intact light chains, its actin-activated ATPase activity was not affected by light chain phosphorylation.

  7. Thymus dependent immune competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies are described which are concerned with changes in cellular immunocompetance in ageing and tumour-bearing animals. The possible therapeutical application of thymic humoral factors in restoration of diminished T cell functions initiated the more fundamental studies on the humoral function of the thymus are also described. Irradiated mice and rats were used. (Auth.)

  8. A Novel Cobalt(Ⅲ) Mixed-polypyridyl Complex: Synthesis,Characterization and DNA Binding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN,Hui-Li(陈绘丽); YANG,Pin(杨频)

    2002-01-01

    A novel complex[Co(phen)2HPIP]Cl3[phen=phenanethroline,HPIP=2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanethroline]has been synthesized and structurally characterized by elemental analysis,UV,IR and 1H NMR spectroscopies. The interaction of the complex with calf thymus DNA(CT DNA)has been studied using absorption and emission spectroscopy, DNA melting techniques and cyclic voltammetry. The compound shows absorption hypochromicity, fluorescence enhancement and DNA melting temperature increment when binding to CT DNA. CV measurement shows a shift in reduction potential and a change in peak current with addition of DNA.These results prove that the compound inserts into DNA base pairs. The shift of peak potential indicates the ion interaction mode between the complex and DNA. The binding constant of the compound to DNA is 4.37×104. The complex also seems to be an efficient photocleavage reagent.

  9. Concentration of viruses and dissolved DNA from aquatic environments by vortex flow filtration.

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, J H; Jiang, S. C.; Rose, J B

    1991-01-01

    Vortex flow filtration (VFF) was used to concentrate viruses and dissolved DNA from freshwater and seawater samples taken in Florida, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Bahamas Bank. Recoveries of T2 phage and calf thymus DNA added to artificial seawater and concentrated by VFF were 72.8 and 80%, respectively. Virus concentrations determined by transmission electron microscopy of VFF-concentrated samples ranged from 3.4 x 10(7)/ml for a eutrophic Tampa Bay sample to 2.4 x 10(5) for an oligotrophic o...

  10. Radicals derived from histone hydroperoxides damage nucleobases in RNA and DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luxford, C; Dean, R T; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    ,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) are formed, with the yield dependent on the individual histone protein, the presence of hydroperoxide functions, and the concentration of metal ion. These studies demonstrate that initial oxidative damage to individual histone proteins or histone octamers can result in...... cross-linked adduct species which have been identified by EPR spectroscopy. HPLC analysis of the products generated on reaction of histone hydroperoxide-derived radicals with 2'-deoxyguanosine, or intact calf thymus DNA, has shown that significant levels of the mutagenic oxidized DNA base 8-oxo-7...

  11. DNA-binding, catalytic oxidation, C—C coupling reactions and antibacterial activities of binuclear Ru(II) thiosemicarbazone complexes: Synthesis and spectral characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Arumugam Manimaran; Chinnasamy Jayabalakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    New hexa-coordinated binuclear Ru(II) thiosemicarbazone complexes of the type {[(B)(EPh3)(CO)ClRu]2L} (where, E = P or As; B = PPh3 or AsPh3 or pyridine; L = mononucleating NS donor of N-substituted thiosemicarbazones) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV–vis and 31P{1H} NMR cyclic voltammetric studies. The DNA-binding studies of Ru(II) complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were investigated by UV–vis, viscosity measurements, gel-electrophoresis and fluor...

  12. Disposable electrochemical DNA biosensor for environmental monitoring of toxicant 2-aminoanthracene in the presence of chlorine in real samples

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Motaghed Mazhabi; M Arvand

    2014-07-01

    A simple procedure for the voltammetric detection of the DNA damage using a disposable electrochemical DNA biosensor is reported. The DNA biosensor is assembled by immobilizing the double stranded calf thymus DNA (dsDNA) on the surface of a disposable carbon screen-printed electrode. The interaction of 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) with calf thymus dsDNA was studied electrochemically based on the oxidation signals of guanine (G) and adenine (A) by using square wave voltammetry (SWV) at screen printed electrode (SPE). The oxidation signals of the guanine and adenine bases, obtained by a square wave voltammetric scan, were used as analytical signal to detect the DNA damage. The presence of this aromatic amine compound with affinity for nucleic acids was measured by its effect on the guanine and adenine oxidation peaks. The response was obtained in the range of 0.05-20 mg L-1 for 2-AA concentration on dsDNA-modified SPE. This test has been used due to its rapid, easy handling and cost effective responses for the toxicity assessment in real water and bleach solution samples.

  13. A monoclonal antibody to triplex DNA binds to eucaryotic chromosomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, J. S.; Burkholder, G D; Latimer, L J; Haug, B L; Braun, R P

    1987-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (Jel 318) was produced by immunizing mice with poly[d(TmC)].poly[d(GA)].poly[d(mCT) which forms a stable triplex at neutral pH. Jel 318 did not bind to calf thymus DNA or other non pyrimidine.purine DNAs such as poly[d(TG)].poly[d(CA)]. In addition the antibody did not recognize pyrimidine.purine DNAs containing mA (e.g. poly[d(TC)].poly[d(GmA)]) which cannot form a triplex since the methyl group blocks Hoogsteen base-pairing. The binding of Jel 318 to chromosomes was as...

  14. Effects of xenogeneic, allogeneic and isogeneic thymus grafts on lymphocyte populations in peripheral lymphoid organs of the nude rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Klausen, B; Stenvang, J P;

    1987-01-01

    In order to gain information about the effect of xenografted, allografted and isografted thymic tissue on peripheral lymphoid organs of immune-deficient rats, athymic nude LEW rats of ninth backcross-intercross were grafted with fetal calf and neonatal BDIX and LEW thymus. Adrenalectomy was also...

  15. Electrochemical and calorimetric investigation of interaction of novel biscationic anticancer agents with DNA; Investigacao eletroquimica e calorimetrica da interacao de novos agentes antitumorais biscationicos com DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lauris Lucia da; Donnici, Claudio Luis; Lopes, Julio Cesar Dias, E-mail: cdonnici@terra.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica; Goulart, Marilia Oliveira Fonseca; Abreu, Fabiane Caxico de; Paula, Francine Santos de [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Campus A.C. Simoes. Inst. de Quimica e Biotecnologia; Bravo, Carlos E. Salas; Santoro, Marcelo Matos [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia; Denadai, Angelo Marcio Leite [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica, Timoteo, MG (Brazil). Campus VII; Santos, Alexandre Martins Costa [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Fisiologicas; Montanari, Carlos Alberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    Biscationic amidines bind in the DNA minor groove and present biological activity against a range of infectious diseases. Two new biscationic compounds (bis-{alpha}-{omega}-S-thioureido, amino and sulfide analogues) were synthesized in good yields and fully characterized, and their interaction with DNA was also investigated. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to measure the thermodynamic properties of binding interactions between DNA and these ligands. A double stranded calf thymus DNA immobilized on an electrode surface was used to study the possible DNA-interacting abilities of these compounds towards dsDNA in situ. A remarkable interaction of these compounds with DNA was demonstrated and their potential application as anticancer agents was furthered. (author)

  16. Ionizing radiation and the thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the effects of whole body irradiation with fast fission neutrons and X-rays on the murine thymus are studied. Young adult CBA mice were exposed to whole body irradiation with either fast fission neutrons or X-rays. The results of the investigation of short- and long-term effects of the irradiation on the thymus showed a biphasic regeneration pattern followed by a marked decrease in relative thymus weight and cellularity which lasted up to at least 250 days. This late effect is attributed to possible loss of pluripotent stem cells and residual damage in the surviving stem cells in the bone marrow. The immunohistology of T cell subpopulations in the thymus of normal CBA/H mice was analyzed in order to describe the T cell composition of the irradiated thymus. The effects of irradiation with fast fission neutrons on the stromal cells of the thymus are studied in order to investigate whether the thymic stromal cells are involved in the regeneration process. The effect of graded doses of fission neutrons or X-rays on the lymphoid compartment on the thymus are studied in order to investigate the radiosensitivity of thymocyte subpopulations for these radiation types. Also the effects on the stromal compartment of the thymus are investigated. (Auth.)

  17. Two half-sandwiched ruthenium (II compounds containing 5-fluorouracil derivatives: synthesis and study of DNA intercalation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Jun Li

    Full Text Available Two novel coordination compounds of half-sandwiched ruthenium(II containing 2-(5-fluorouracil-yl-N-(pyridyl-acetamide were synthesized, and their intercalation binding modes with calf thymus DNA were revealed by hyperchromism of ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy; the binding constants were determined according to a Langmuir adsorption equation that was deduced on the base of careful cyclic voltammetry measurements. The two compounds exhibited DNA intercalation binding activities with the binding constants of 1.13×106 M-1 and 5.35 ×105 M-1, respectively.

  18. In Vitro Antitumor Activity of a Keggin Vanadium-Substituted Polyoxomolybdate and Its ctDNA Binding Properties

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A Keggin vanadium-substituted polyoxomolybdate, K5PMo10V2O40 (PMo10V2), has been synthesized and it’s antitumor effect against Hela cells was investigated. The calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) binding ability of PMo10V2 was also evaluated by UV-Vis absorption spectra and fluorescence spectra. The identity and high purity of PMo10V2 was confirmed by elemental analysis and IR analysis. And the antitumor activity test of PMo10V2 was carried out on Hela cancer cells line by MTT assay. The results of MTT ...

  19. Microrheology of concentrated DNA solutions using optical tweezers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arun S Rajkumar; B M Jaffar Ali

    2008-06-01

    Semiflexible biopolymers play a vital role in shaping cellular structure and rigidity. In this work, we report the determination of microrheological properties of concentrated, double-stranded calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) solutions using passive, laser-scattering based particle-tracking methodology. From power spectral analysis, we obtain dynamic shear moduli of the polymer solutions stretching over three decades of frequency (100–103 Hz) and over concentration ranges spanning from very dilute to concentrated regime. We also study the effects of altered ionic strength and denaturation on the shear modulus. Our results indicate that (CT-DNA) exhibits predominantly elastic behaviour in the concentration range we probed. From the measurements of the plateau shear modulus, p, we conclude that DNA generally behaves like a semiflexible polymer in a good solvent even at low ionic strength. We have thus demonstrated application of passive microrheological method using optical tweezers to DNA solutions. Further extensions of the technique and its applications are discussed.

  20. Determination of the cationic amphiphilic drug-DNA binding mode and DNA-assisted fluorescence resonance energy transfer amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Zahid; Banday, Abdul Rouf; Hussain, Mohammed Aamir; Tabish, Mohammad; Kabir-ud-Din

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the mechanism of drug-DNA binding is crucial for predicting the potential genotoxicity of drugs. Agarose gel electrophoresis, absorption, steady state fluorescence, and circular dichroism have been used in exploring the interaction of cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs) such as amitriptyline hydrochloride (AMT), imipramine hydrochloride (IMP), and promethazine hydrochloride (PMT) with calf thymus or pUC19 DNA. Agarose gel electrophoresis assay, along with absorption and steady state fluorescence studies, reveal interaction between the CADs and DNA. A comparative study of the drugs with respect to the effect of urea, iodide induced quenching, and ethidium bromide (EB) exclusion assay reflects binding of CADs to the DNA primarily in an intercalative fashion. Circular dichroism data also support the intercalative mode of binding. Besides quenching, there is fluorescence exchange energy transfer (FRET) in between CADs and EB using DNA as a template.

  1. DNA Binding and Photocleavage Studies of Cobalt(III Polypyridine Complexes: [Co(en2PIP]3+, [Co(en2IP]3+, and [Co(en2phen-dione]3+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penumaka Nagababu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, three complexes of type [Co(en2PIP]3+(PIP=2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f][1,10,] phenanthroline(1, [Co(en2IP]3+ (IP=imidazo[4,5-f][1,10,] phenanthroline(2, and [Co(en2phen-dione]3+(1,10 phenanthroline 5,6,dione(3 have been synthesized and characterized by UV/VIS, IR, 1H NMR spectral methods. Absorption spectroscopy, emission spectroscopy, viscosity measurements, and DNA melting techniques have been used for investigating the binding of these two complexes with calf thymus DNA, and photocleavage studies were used for investigating these binding of these complexes with plasmid DNA. The spectroscopic studies together with viscosity measurements and DNA melting studies support that complexes 1 and 2 bind to CT DNA(=calf thymus DNA by intercalation mode via IP or PIP into the base pairs of DNA, and complex 3 is binding as groove mode. Complex 1 binds more avidly to CT DNA than 2 and 3 which is consistent with the extended planar ring π system of PIP. Noticeably, the two complexes have been found to be efficient photosensitisers for strand scissions in plasmid DNA.

  2. One-pot solvent free synthesis and DNA binding studies of thieno[2,3-b]-1,8-naphthyridines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Tangali R Ravikumar; Naik, Halehatty S Bhojya; Prabhakara, Mustur C

    2008-01-01

    With the aim of evaluating interaction between double-stranded calf thymus (ds)DNA and sulphur containing fused planar rings, the derivatives of 1,8-naphthyridine containing thiono groups were synthesized by the condensation of 2-mercapto-3-formyl[1,8]naphthyridines using 1-chloroacetone, 2-chloroacetamide, chloroaceticacid, and 2-chloro-1-phenylethanone in the presence of anhydrous potassium carbonate as s catalyst under solvent free microwave irradiation. The structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, (1)H NMR, and mass spectra. The interaction of thieno[2,3-b]-1,8-naphthyridine-2-carboxylic acid (TNC) (3a) with ct-DNA was studied by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, viscosity, thermal denaturation, as well as cyclic voltammetry experiments. On binding to DNA, the absorption spectrum underwent bathochromic and hypochromic shifts. Binding parameters, determined from spectrophotometric measurements indicated a binding constant of Kb=2.1 x 10(6) M(-1). The thieno[2,3-b]-1,8-naphthyridine-2-carboxylic acid (3a) increases the viscosity of sonicated rod-like DNA fragments. The binding of TNC to DNA increased the melting temperature by about 4 degrees C. The decrease in peak current heights and shifts of peak potential values are observed by the addition of calf thymus DNA in cyclic voltammetry studies. PMID:18080916

  3. Inter-laboratory validation of procedures for measuring 8-oxo-7,8-dihydrooxoguanine/8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2`-deoxyguanosine in DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collins, A.R.; Gedik, C.M.; Wood, S.; Bubois, J.; Duez, P.; Rees, J.F.; Legall, R.; Degand, L.; Loft, Steffen; Jensen, A.; Poulsen, H.; Weimann, A.; Jensen, B.R.; Cadet, J.; Douki, Thierry; Ravanat, J.L.; Faure, H.; Tripier, M.; Morel, I.; Sergent, O.; Cillard, P.; Morin, B.; Epe, B.; Phoa, N.; Hartwig, A.; Pelzer, A.; Dolara, P.; Casalini, C.; Guglielmi, F.; Luceri, C.; Kasai, H.; Kido, R.; Olinski, R.; Bialkowski, K.; Duracková, Z.; Hlinchikova, L.; Korytar, P.; Dusinska, M.; Mislanova, C.; Vina, J.; Lloret, A.; Möller, L.; Hofer, T.; Gremaud, E.; Fay, L.; Stadler, R.; Eakins, J.; Progna, F.; O`Brien, J.; Elliott, R.; Astley, S.B.; Bailley, A.; Herbert, K.; Chauhan, D.; Kelly, F.; Dunster, C.; Lunec, J.; Podmore, I.; Patel, P.; Johnson, S.; Evans, M.; White, A.; Tyrrell, R.; Gordon, Matthew; Wild, Chris; Hardie, Laura

    G for analysis. About half the results returned (for 8-oxodG) were within 20% of the median values. Coefficients of variation (for three identical samples) were commonly around 10%. A sample of calf thymus DNA was sent, dry, to all laboratories. Analysis of 8-oxoGua/8-oxodG in this sample was a test of...... hydrolysis methods. Almost half the reported results were within 20% of the median value, and half obtained a CVof less than 10%. In order to test sensitivity, as well as precision, DNA was treated with photosensitiser and light to introduce increasing amounts of 8-oxoGua and samples were sent to members...

  4. Determination of the DNA sugar pucker using 13C NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy of a series of crystalline nucleosides and nucleotides allows direct measurement of the effect of the deoxyribose ring conformation on the carbon chemical shift. It is found that 3'-endo conformers have 3' and 5' chemical shifts significantly (5-10 ppm) upfield of comparable 3'-exo and 2'-endo conformers. The latter two conformers may be distinguished by smaller but still significant differences in the carbon chemical shifts at the C-2' and C-4' positions. High-resolution solid-state NMR of three modifications of fibrous calf thymus DNA shows that these trends are maintained in high-molecular-weight DNA and confirms that the major ring pucker in A-DNA is 3'-endo, while both B-DNA and C-DNA are largely 2'-endo. The data show that 13C NMR spectroscopy is a straightforward and useful probe of DNA ring pucker in both solution and the solid state

  5. Spectroscopic study one thiosemicarbazone derivative with ctDNA using ethidium bromide as a fluorescence probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Shaoguang; Wu, Qing; Shi, Lei; Cui, Fengling

    2013-09-01

    In this study, a thiosemicarbazone derivative (E)-2-((1,4-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone-2-yl)methylene)-N-(4-fluorophenyl)hydrazinecarbothioamide (DAFPT) was synthesized, and the interaction of DAFPT with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) was explored using ethidium bromide (EB) as a fluorescence probe. The binding mode between DAFPT and ctDNA was investigated by UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular docking. The fluorescence quenching mechanism of EB-ctDNA by DAFPT might be a combined quenching type. Thermodynamic parameters showed that the reaction was spontaneous. According to ionic strength, fluorescence polarization and melting temperature (T(m)) curve results, DAFPT-ctDNA interaction was groove binding. The molecular modeling results indicated that DAFPT could slide into the A-T rich region of ctDNA. PMID:23769721

  6. Feasibility of using DNA-immobilized nanocellulose-based immunoadsorbent for systemic lupus erythematosus plasmapheresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Changgang; Carlsson, Daniel O; Mihranyan, Albert

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this project was to study the feasibility of using a DNA-immobilized nanocellulose-based immunoadsorbent for possible application in medical apheresis such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) treatment. Calf thymus DNA was bound to high surface area nanocellulose membrane at varying concentrations using UV-irradiation. The DNA-immobilized samples were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and phosphorus elemental analysis. The anti-ds-DNA IgG binding was tested in vitro using ELISA. The produced sample showed high affinity in vitro to bind anti-ds-DNA-antibodies from mice, as much as 80% of added IgG was bound by the membrane. Furthermore, the binding efficiency was quantitatively dependent on the amount of immobilized DNA onto nanocellulose membrane. The described nanocellulose membranes are interesting immunoadsorbents for continued clinical studies. PMID:27011345

  7. Protein-DNA crosslinks induced by primary and secondary radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double-stranded DNA from calf thymus was irradiated in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) at a ratio of 1:10 by mass under air, N2 or N2O, with and without ethanol, tert-butanol or isopropanol in 10-2mol dm-3 sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0. The irradiated solutions were analysed by a nitrocellulose filter assay and by high-performance liquid gel chromatography. The results show that OH. radicals as well as hydrated electrons induce protein-DNA crosslinks. Further, alcohol radicals react with BSA producing protein radicals which become crosslinked to DNA. If OH radicals are scavenged by alcohol, strand breakage of DNA does not occur. (author)

  8. The thymus reconstituted nude rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Klausen, B

    1987-01-01

    The monoclonal antibodies OX6, OX19, W3/13, OX7, OX8, and W3/25 were used to gain information about the distribution of different lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral lymphoid organs of neonatally isogeneic and allogeneic thymus reconstituted nude rats. Splenic mitogen responsiveness, xenogeneic...... cell response is far better following isografting. We, therefore, conclude that isogeneic thymus grafting is an easy method of reconstituting the nude rat immunologically....

  9. ct-DNA Binding and Antibacterial Activity of Octahedral Titanium (IV) Heteroleptic (Benzoylacetone and Hydroxamic Acids) Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Raj; Thakur, Sheetal; Nehra, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Five structurally related titanium (IV) heteroleptic complexes, [TiCl2(bzac)(L(1-4))] and [TiCl3(bzac)(HL(5))]; bzac = benzoylacetonate; L(1-5) = benzohydroximate (L(1)), salicylhydroximate (L(2)), acetohydroximate (L(3)), hydroxyurea (L(4)), and N-benzoyl-N-phenyl hydroxylamine (L(5)), were used for the assessment of their antibacterial activities against ten pathogenic bacterial strains. The titanium (IV) complexes (1-5) demonstrated significant level of antibacterial properties as measured using agar well diffusion method. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopic technique was applied, to get a better insight into the nature of binding between titanium (IV) complexes with calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA). On the basis of the results of UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, the interaction between ct-DNA and the titanium (IV) complexes is likely to occur through the same mode. Results indicated that titanium (IV) complex can bind to calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) via an intercalative mode. The intrinsic binding constant (K b ) was calculated by absorption spectra by using Benesi-Hildebrand equation. Further, Gibbs free energy was also calculated for all the complexes. PMID:27119022

  10. Studies of interaction between histone F2b and DNA from normal and exposed to X-radiation calf lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affinity chromatography has been used to compare the specificity of interaction between DNA and histone F2b. Histone-sepharose gels were prepared by binding the F2b protein to CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B (Pharmacia, Sweden). DNA was applied to columns formed from the gels, and a linear gradient of concentration of NaCl used for elution. Absorption at 260 nm, and derivative melting points were measured for those samples of effluent containing DNA. The results indicated that the fractionation of DNA was not conditioned only by the composition of the DNA bases. There were significant differences in the interaction with DNA of gels prepared from histone F2b molecules from X-irradiated and normal lymph nodes. It is concluded that histone F2b remaining in lymph nodes after irradiation had properties which differed from protein in normal tissue. (U.K.)

  11. Angiofibrolipoma of the calf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Uwale Eyesan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Angiofibrolipoma is a neoplasm composed of fibrocytes, capillaries and matured adipose tissues. It is a rare histopathologic variant of lipoma, characterized by matured adipocytes, blood vessels and dense collagenous tissues. It is an extremely rare tumor with very few cases reported in the literature. We are reporting a 9-year-old boy who presented with a right calf swelling noticed since birth, slowly increasing in size which became painful about a year prior to presentation (at about the age of 8 years. The mass extended from the popliteal fossa to the junction of the gastro-soleus. Mid calf circumference on the right was 44 cm and 24 cm on the left. Clinically there was no foot drop. He had neither preceding trauma nor fall. He had no systemic symptom. Pre-operative plain radiographs, incisional biopsy and other ancillary investigations were done. Histopathology result after excisional biopsy revealed angiofibrolipoma and post-operative clinical improvement was significant. To our knowledge, such a case has not been previously reported in the literature.

  12. Study on the Binding Mode of a Co(Ⅱ) Complex with DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qing-Hua; YANG Pin

    2005-01-01

    The mode of binding of CoLCl2, here L=bis(2-benzimidazolylmethyl)amine, with calf thymus DNA has been investigated by fluorescence measurements, equilibrium dialysis, viscosity experiments and gel electrophoresis. The complex was found to bind but weakly to DNA, with binding constant of 1.96× 104 L/mol determind at 20 ℃ in a solution containing 5 mmol/L Tris-HCl (pH 7.1) and 50 mmol/L NaCl. Polyelectrolyte theory was applied to analyse these values. Viscosity experiments show that binding did not alter the relative viscosity of DNA with any complexes to an appreciable extent. Electrophoresis test displayed that the compound could not cleave the DNA.These results show that the complex is essentially electrostatically bound to DNA.

  13. Thermodynamic and spectrographic studies on the interactions of ct-DNA with 5-fluorouracil and tegafur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interactions of calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ct-DNA) with two antitumour drugs (5-fluorouracil and tegafur) in aqueous buffer solution (pH 7.40) have been investigated using nano-watt-scale isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), circular dichroism (CD), ultraviolet absorption (UV) and fluorescence spectroscopy. Thermodynamic parameters, i.e., binding proportions and constants, standard changes of enthalpy (ΔHo), Gibbs free energy (ΔGo) and entropy (ΔSo) have been derived from the calorimetric data. The binding ratios of 5-fluorouracil and tegafur with base pairs in ct-DNA are 1:3 and 1:4, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters have been discussed according to the influence of drugs on molecular structure of the DNA shown spectrogram. The results indicate that molecule of 5-fluorouracil or tegafur can intercalate itself into the intra-molecular space formed by DNA double helix and cause some changes in the secondary structure of DNA molecule.

  14. Spontaneous condensation in DNA-polystyrene- b-poly(l-lysine) polyelectrolyte block copolymer mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletto, V.; Hamley, I. W.; Kerstens, S. L. H.; Deacon, S.; Thomas, C. D.; Lübbert, A.; Klok, H.-A.

    2006-05-01

    We investigated the condensation of calf thymus DNA by amphiphilic polystyrenem-b-poly(l-lysine)n block copolymers ( PSm-b- PLysn, m, n = degree of polymerization), using small-angle X-ray scattering, polarized optical microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy. Microscopy studies showed that the DNA condenses in the form of fibrillar precipitates, with an irregular structure, due to electrostatic interactions between PLys and DNA. This is not modified by the presence of hydrophobic PS block. Scattering experiments show that the structure of the polyplexes corresponds to a local order of DNA rods which becomes more compact upon increasing n. It can be concluded that for DNA/ PSm-b- PLysn polyplexes, the balance between the PLys block length and the excess charge in the system plays an essential role in the formation of a liquid crystalline phase.

  15. Liquid chromatography-thermospray mass spectrometry of DNA adducts formed with mitomycin C, porfiromycin and thiotepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, S M; Pan, S S; Callery, P S

    1989-07-14

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and thermospray mass spectrometry were combined for the analysis of DNA adducts formed from the interaction of the anticancer drugs mitomycin C, porfiromycin and thiotepa with calf thymus DNA. The adducts formed from reaction of mitomycin C and porfiromycin with DNA were separated from unmodified nucleosides by HPLC on a C18 column and identified by thermospray mass spectrometry. Thiotepa DNA adducts readily depurinated from DNA and were chromatographed and identified by thermospray liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry as the modified bases without the ribose moiety attached. The utility of thermospray mass spectrometry for the identification of microgram quantities of nucleoside adducts and depurinated base adducts of these anticancer drugs was demonstrated. PMID:2504760

  16. Resonance light scattering spectroscopy of procyanidin-CPB-DNA ternary system and its potential application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Bi, Shuyun; Zhou, Huifeng; Zhao, Tingting

    2015-07-01

    A new method for the determination of calf thymus DNA at nanogram level was proposed based on the enhanced resonance light scattering (RLS) signals of DNA in the presence of procyanidin and cetylpyridinium bromide dihydrate (CPB). Under the experimental conditions, the RLS intensity of DNA at 291.0 nm was greatly enhanced by procyanidin-CPB at pH 7.0. There was a good linear relationship (r = 0.9993) between the enhanced RLS intensity (ΔIRLS) and DNA concentration of 0.0084-3.36 μg mL-1. The limit of detection (LOD) was 2.27 ng mL-1 (3S0/S). Three synthetic DNA samples were measured with satisfactory, and the recovery was 102.3-107.2%.

  17. Spectroscopic, viscositic and molecular modeling studies on the interaction of 3'-azido-daunorubicin thiosemicarbazone with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Fengling; Liu, Qingfeng; Luo, Hongxia; Zhang, Guisheng

    2014-01-01

    A new daunorubicin has been synthesized and structurally characterized. The interaction of native calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) with 3'-azido-daunorubicin thiosemicarbazone (ADNRT) was investigated under simulated physiological conditions by multi-spectroscopic techniques, viscometric measurements and molecular modeling study. It concluded that ADNRT could intercalate into the base pairs of ctDNA, and the fluorescence quenching by ctDNA was static quenching type. Thermodynamic parameters calculated suggested that the binding of ADNRT to ctDNA was mainly driven by hydrophobic interactions. The relative viscosity of ctDNA increased with the addition of ADNRT, which confirmed the intercalation mode. Furthermore, molecular modeling studies corroborate the above experimental results. PMID:23974700

  18. Actions of exogenous histones and other proteins on [3H]-thymidine incorporation into DNA of Novikoff hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of exogenous proteins on the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine into DNA was studied in Novikoff hepatoma ascites cells incubated in Eagle's minimal essential medium. A liver cytosol fraction (8 mg protein/ml) caused approximately 80% inhibition of isotope incorporation. The inhibitory activity of cytosol fractions from Morris hepatomas 9618A2, 5123C and 20 were inversely related to their growth rate. Under conditions in which there appeared to be a density dependent inhibition of growth, a mean 10 to 20% stimulation of isotope incorporation was observed after addition of total calf thymus histones and individual fractions in the concentration range of 100 to 400μg/ml. In experiments with lower cell concentrations, a 60% or greater increase in [3H]-thymidine incorporation could be obtained with total calf thymus histone and with Fl and arginine-rich histones from rat liver. At concentrations of 1 to 2 mg/ml, histones inhibited DNA synthesis. Bovine serum albumin had little effect on DNA synthesis. Polylysine caused an 80 to 90% inhibition at a concentration of 1 mg/ml, but stimulatory effects were detected under certain conditions at 10μg/ml. The results suggest critical dependence on the ratio of cell and exogenous protein concentration in the action of proteins on DNA synthesis. (author)

  19. Structure and mechanism of hydroxyl radical-induced formation of a DNA-protein cross-link involving thymine and lysine in nucleohistone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroxyl radical-induced formation of a DNA-protein cross-link involving thymine and lysine in calf thymus nucleohistone in vitro is reported. Basic amino acids such as lysine constitute a very high proportion of the amino acids of histones, and help histones to bind to DNA in chromatin. For this reason, basic amino acids are likely to participate in DNA-protein cross-linking. For identification of the thymine-lysine cross-link in nucleohistone, hydroxyl radical-induced cross-linking of thymine to lysine was investigated first using a model system, i.e., an aqueous mixture of thymine and lysine. Hydroxyl radicals were generated by exposure of this mixture to ionizing radiation after N2O saturation. The technique of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyze the samples for possible cross-links. One thymine-lysine cross-link was found and its structure was elucidated. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring, this thymine-lysine cross-link was identified in acidic hydrolysates of calf thymus nucleohistone gamma-irradiated in N2O-saturated aqueous solution. The yield of this DNA-protein cross-link was also measured and found to be a linear function of radiation dose between 15 and 200 Gy. This yield amounted to 0.0085 mumol/J. Possible mechanisms for the formation of this DNA-protein cross-link in nucleohistone were proposed

  20. Protection against apoptosis in chicken bursa and thymus cells by phorbol ester in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakawa, J.; Thorbecke, G.J. (Univ. of New York, New York (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Programmed suicide or apoptosis, due to activation of endogenous nucleases, occurs in immature CD4{sup {minus}}85{sup {minus}} mammalian thymus cells. Like the thymus, the bursa of Fabricius is a site of massive lymphopoiesis accompanied by cell death in vivo. In the present study the authors have, therefore, examined whether chicken bursa and thymus cells exhibit apoptosis. Bursa and thymus cells from SC chickens, 4-10 weeks of age, were incubated for 8-24 hrs with various reagents. Genomic DNA was isolated, electrophoresed in 3% Nusieve agarose gels, and examined for patterns of DNA fragmentation. A laddering of DNA in multiples of 200 base pairs, indicative of apoptosis, was observed with both bursa and thymus cells. These patterns of DNA fragmentation from bursa cells could be prevented by adding phorbol myristic acetate during culture and, more effectively, by PMA plus ionomycin, but not by ionomycin alone or by anti-{mu}. PMA did not affect the patterns of DNA fragmentation seen with spleen cells. Addition of the protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporin inhibited the preventive effect of PMA on apoptosis. PMA also greatly promoted the survival of bursa cells in culture, as assayed by percentage cell death and by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation. It is concluded that bursa and thymus cells from the chicken exhibit apoptosis. The data further suggest that protein kinase C activation protects apoptosis in cultured bursa cells.

  1. Gray Whale Calf Production Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gray whale calf production is estimated from data collected during the northbound migration as whales return to their feeding grounds in the Arctic. Counts of adult...

  2. Effect of γ-irradiated DNA on the activity of DNA polymerase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cell-free assay was developed to measure the effect of γ-irradiated DNA template on the ability of DNA polymerase to copy unirradiated template. Doses as low as 1 krad were able to decrease (approx. 15%) the activity of both bacterial and mammalian DNA polymerases in the assay. The percentage of polymerase activity decreased as the dose received by the template increased. The reduction in DNA polymerase activity was shown to be due to an inhibition of the enzyme by the irradiated DNA. Irradiated poly(dA-dT) was more effective in reducing polymerase activity than calf thymus DNA. Thus the polymerase-inhibition site(s) appears to be associated with base damage, specifically adenine or thymine. Using a free-radical scavenger, OH radicals were found to be involved in producing the damage sites. The interaction between irradiated DNA and DNA polymerase was found to be specific for the enzyme and not for other proteins present in the assay. The inhibition of DNA polymerase occurred prior to or during the initiation of DNA synthesis rather than after initiation of synthesis, i.e., during elongation

  3. Formation of intermolecular crosslinks by the actinocin derivatives with DNA in interaction under conditions of semidilute solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interaction of native calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) with the actinocin derivatives containing protonated diethylamino groups, dimethylamino groups and unsubstituted amino groups and having different length of the alkyl chain have been studied by the method of viscometry. An anomalous hydrodynamic behavior of solutions of DNA with very low amount of ligands prepared under conditions of semidilute solution was revealed. We assumed that such an anomalous behavior of solutions of DNA complexes with actinocin derivatives associated with the formation of intermolecular crosslinks while the preparation of the complex was in terms of overlapping of macromolecular coils in solution. Comparative study of the hydrodynamic behavior of the DNA complexes with various actinocin structures lead us to the conclusion of the formation of crosslinks by the compounds containing protonated diethylamino groups

  4. Investigação eletroquímica e calorimétrica da interação de novos agentes antitumorais biscatiônicos com DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Láuris Lucia da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biscationic amidines bind in the DNA minor groove and present biological activity against a range of infectious diseases. Two new biscationic compounds (bis-α,ω-S-thioureido, amino and sulfide analogues were synthesized in good yields and fully characterized, and their interaction with DNA was also investigated. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC was used to measure the thermodynamic properties of binding interactions between DNA and these ligands. A double stranded calf thymus DNA immobilized on an electrode surface was used to study the possible DNA-interacting abilities of these compounds towards dsDNA in situ. A remarkable interaction of these compounds with DNA was demonstrated and their potential application as anticancer agents was furthered.

  5. Gel electrophoresis study of radioprotective effect of hydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives on DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioprotective effect exerted by hydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives on the radiation damage of DNA, such as double-strand break (DSB) and intermolecular crosslinking (CL), has been studied by gel electrophoresis. The molecular length distribution of DNA can be measured by this method, and by comparing average molecular length of DNA before and after irradiation, the frequency of DSB and CL can be determined quantitatively. The radioprotective effect of caffeic acid and sinapine on calf thymus DNA in binary system at room temperature have been determined. Both caffeic acid and sinapine reveal apparent protective effects and the former is stronger than the latter. The mechanism of radioprotection at room temperature has been discussed. Based on this finding, combined with the previous ESR study and an analysis of the molecular structure on these two protectors, it is suggested that the target is protected as a result of hydrogen atom transfering from protector to target

  6. Multispectral studies of DNA binding, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of a new pyranochromene derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordi, Mahvash Farajzadeh; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Mahdavi, Majid; Hosseinpour Feizi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-06-01

    The binding properties of a new pyranochromene derivative, 2-amino-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-5-oxo-4H, 5H-pyrano-[3, 2-c] chromene-3-carbonitrile (3-HC) with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) have been investigated by UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy and viscosity measurement. These results indicated that 3-HC can interact with DNA through non-intercalative mode and the intrinsic binding constant (Kb) for 3-HC with DNA was estimated to be 3.6 × 103 M-1. The antioxidant activity experiments show that 3-HC also exhibit good antioxidant activity in DPPH free radical scavenging and ferric reducing ability methods. Moreover, 3-HC exhibited cytotoxic activity against K562, human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells, with IC50 value of 146 μM and the cells responded to the treatment with mostly through apoptosis.

  7. Photochemical Reaction of 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA and Formation of DNA Covalent Adducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. Fu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available DMBA, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, is a widely studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that has long been recognized as a probable human carcinogen. It has been found that DMBA is phototoxic in bacteria as well as in animal or human cells and photomutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA102. This article tempts to explain the photochemistry and photomutagenicity mechanism. Light irradiation converts DMBA into several photoproducts including benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione, 7-hydroxy-12-keto-7-methylbenz[a]anthracene, 7,12-epidioxy-7,12-dihydro-DMBA, 7-hydroxymethyl-12-methylbenz[a]anthracene and 12-hydroxymethyl-7-methylbenz[a]anthracene. Structures of these photoproducts have been identified by either comparison with authentic samples or by NMR/MS. At least four other photoproducts need to be assigned. Photo-irradiation of DMBA in the presence of calf thymus DNA was similarly conducted and light-induced DMBA-DNA adducts were analyzed by 32P-postlabeling/TLC, which indicates that multiple DNA adducts were formed. This indicates that formation of DNA adducts might be the source of photomutagenicity of DMBA. Metabolites obtained from the metabolism of DMBA by rat liver microsomes were reacted with calf thymus DNA and the resulting DNA adducts were analyzed by 32P-postlabeling/TLC under identical conditions. Comparison of the DNA adduct profiles indicates that the DNA adducts formed from photo-irradiation are different from the DNA adducts formed due to the reaction of DMBA metabolites with DNA. These results suggest that photo-irradiation of DMBA can lead to genotoxicity through activation pathways different from those by microsomal metabolism of DMBA.

  8. Hydroxyl-radical-dependent DNA damage by ambient particulate matter from contrasting sampling locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been reported to be associated with increased respiratory, cardiovascular, and malignant lung disease. Previously we have shown that PM can induce oxidative DNA damage in A549 human lung epithelial cells. The aims of the present study were to investigate the variability of the DNA-damaging properties of PM sampled at different locations and times and to relate the observed effects to the hydroxyl-radical (·OH)-generating activities of these samples. Weekly samples of coarse (10-2.5 μm) and fine (<2.5 μm) PM from four sites (Nordrheim Westfalen, Germany) were analyzed for hydrogen-peroxide-dependent ·OH formation using electron paramagnetic resonance and formation of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in calf thymus DNA using an immuno-dot-blot assay. DNA strand breakage by fine PM in A549 human lung epithelial cells was quantified using the alkaline comet assay. Both PM size distribution fractions elicited ·OH generation and 8-OHdG formations in calf thymus DNA. Significantly higher ·OH generation was observed for PM sampled at urban/industrial locations and for coarse PM. Samples of fine PM also caused DNA strand breakage in A549 cells and this damage could be prevented using the hydroxyl-radical scavengers 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide and dimethyl sulfoxide. The observed DNA strand breakage appeared to correlate with the hydroxyl-radical-generating capacities of the PM samples but with different profiles for rural versus urban/industrial samples. In conclusion, when considered at equal mass, ·OH formation of PM shows considerable variability with regard to the sampling location and time and is correlated with its ability to cause DNA damage

  9. Selective condensation of DNA by aminoglycoside antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopaczynska, M; Schulz, A; Fraczkowska, K; Kraszewski, S; Podbielska, H; Fuhrhop, J H

    2016-05-01

    The condensing effect of aminoglycoside antibiotics on the structure of double-stranded DNA was examined. The selective condensation of DNA by small molecules is an interesting approach in biotechnology. Here, we present the interaction between calf thymus DNA and three types of antibiotic molecules: tobramycin, kanamycin, and neomycin. Several techniques were applied to study this effect. Atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy images, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra showed that the interaction of tobramycin with double-stranded DNA caused the rod, toroid, and sphere formation and very strong condensation of DNA strands, which was not observed in the case of other aminoglycosides used in the experiment. Studies on the mechanisms by which small molecules interact with DNA are important in understanding their functioning in cells, in designing new and efficient drugs, or in minimizing their adverse side effects. Specific interactions between tobramycin and DNA double helix was modeled using molecular dynamics simulations. Simulation study shows the aminoglycoside specificity to bend DNA double helix, shedding light on the origins of toroid formation. This phenomenon may lighten the ototoxicity or nephrotoxicity issues, but also other adverse reactions of aminoglycoside antibiotics in the human body. PMID:26646261

  10. Hair Dye–DNA Interaction: Plausible Cause of Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Maiti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye is one of the most popular cosmetic products which are used more widely and frequently to improve an individual’s appearance. Although the genotoxic effects of dye ingredients are widely reported, hair dye in its usable form is not reported extensively. In this contribution, we report the possible mode of interaction of hair dye with DNA which leads to genotoxicity. The effect of dye DNA interaction was studied on the most popular and globally used hair dye with Calf Thymus DNA and plasmid DNA. This interaction of dye DNA was studied by spectroscopic analyses and gel electrophoresis. The result had shown positive interaction of dye with DNA. Gel electrophoresis study confirms the binding of dye with DNA which results in linearization and fragmentation of the plasmid DNA. Dye–DNA interaction causes fragmentation and oxidation of DNA in absence of any catalyst, implies high toxicity of commercial hair dyes. Thus, it can be deduced from the present studies that hair dye in its usable form may lead to its penetration through skin affecting genomic DNA possesses genotoxic property and can be treated as one of the most common mutagen.

  11. Structural features of DNA interaction with caffeine and theophylline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafisi, Shohreh; Manouchehri, Firouzeh; Tajmir-Riahi, Heidar-Ali; Varavipour, Maryam

    2008-03-01

    Caffeine and theophylline are strong antioxidants that prevent DNA damage. The anticancer and antiviral activities of these natural products are implicated in their mechanism of actions. However, there has been no information on the interactions of these xanthine derivatives with individual DNA at molecular level. The aim of this study was to examine the stability and structural features of calf-thymus DNA complexes with caffeine and theophylline in aqueous solution, using constant DNA concentration (6.25 mM) and various caffeine or theophylline/DNA(P) ratios of 1/80, 1/40, 1/20, 1/10, 1/5, 1/2 and 1/1. FTIR, UV-visible spectroscopic methods were used to determine the ligand external binding modes, the binding constant and the stability of caffeine, theophylline-DNA complexes in aqueous solution. Spectroscopic evidence showed that the complexation of caffeine and theophylline with DNA occurred via G-C and A-T and PO 2 group with overall binding constants of K(caffeine-DNA) = 9.7 × 10 3 M -1 and K(theophylline-DNA) = 1.7 × 10 4 M -1. The affinity of ligand-DNA binding is in the order of theophylline > caffeine. A partial B to A-DNA transition occurs upon caffeine and theophylline complexation.

  12. Clonally Expanding Thymocytes Having Lineage Capability in Gamma-Ray-Induced Mouse Atrophic Thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To characterize, in the setting of γ-ray-induced atrophic thymus, probable prelymphoma cells showing clonal growth and changes in signaling, including DNA damage checkpoint. Methods and Materials: A total of 111 and 45 mouse atrophic thymuses at 40 and 80 days, respectively, after γ-irradiation were analyzed with polymerase chain reaction for D-J rearrangements at the TCRβ locus, flow cytometry for cell cycle, and Western blotting for the activation of DNA damage checkpoints. Results: Limited D-J rearrangement patterns distinct from normal thymus were detected at high frequencies (43 of 111 for 40-day thymus and 21 of 45 for 80-day thymus). Those clonally expanded thymocytes mostly consisted of CD4+CD8+ double-positive cells, indicating the retention of lineage capability. They exhibited pausing at a late G1 phase of cell cycle progression but did not show the activation of DNA damage checkpoints such as γH2AX, Chk1/2, or p53. Of interest is that 17 of the 52 thymuses showing normal D-J rearrangement patterns at 40 days after irradiation showed allelic loss at the Bcl11b tumor suppressor locus, also indicating clonal expansion. Conclusion: The thymocytes of clonal growth detected resemble human chronic myeloid leukemia in possessing self-renewal and lineage capability, and therefore they can be a candidate of the lymphoma-initiating cells.

  13. Mixed-ligand complexes of ruthenium(II) incorporating a diazo ligand: Synthesis, characterization and DNA binding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Megha S Deshpande; Avinash S Kumbhar

    2005-03-01

    Mixed-ligand complexes of the type [Ru(N-N)2(dzdf)]Cl2, where N-N is 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and 9-diazo-4,5-diazafluorene (dzdf), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, UV-Vis, IR and NMR spectroscopy. Binding of these complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) has been investigated by absorption spectroscopy, steady-state emission spectroscopy and viscosity measurements. The experimental results indicate that the size and shape of the intercalating ligands have marked effect on the binding affinity of the complexes to CT-DNA. The complex [Ru(phen)2(dzdf)]Cl2 binds with CT-DNA through an intercalative binding mode, while the complex [Ru(bpy)2(dzdf)]Cl2 binds electrostatically.

  14. The interaction of taurine-salicylaldehyde Schiff base copper(II) complex with DNA and the determination of DNA using the complex as a fluorescence probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Qianru; Yang, Zhousheng

    2010-09-01

    The interaction of taurine-salicylaldehyde Schiff base copper(II) (Cu(TSSB) 22+) complex with DNA was explored by using UV-vis, fluorescence spectrophotometry, and voltammetry. In pH 7.4 Tris-HCl buffer solution, the binding constant of the Cu(TSSB) 22+ complex interaction with DNA was 3.49 × 10 4 L mol -1. Moreover, due to the fluorescence enhancing of Cu(TSSB) 22+ complex in the presence of DNA, a method for determination of DNA with Cu(TSSB) 22+ complex as a fluorescence probe was developed. The fluorescence spectra indicated that the maximum excitation and emission wavelength were 389 nm and 512 nm, respectively. Under optimal conditions, the calibration graphs are linear over the range of 0.03-9.03 μg mL -1 for calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA), 0.10-36 μg mL -1 for yeast DNA and 0.01-10.01 μg mL -1 for salmon DNA (SM-DNA), respectively. The corresponding detection limits are 7 ng mL -1 for CT-DNA, 3 ng mL -1 for yeast DNA and 3 ng mL -1 for SM-DNA. Using this method, DNA in synthetic samples was determined with satisfactory results.

  15. Effect of the peptide bronchogen (Ala-Asp-Glu-Leu) on DNA thermostability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaselidze, J R; Khavinson, V Kh; Gorgoshidze, M Z; Khachidze, D G; Lomidze, E M; Jokhadze, T A; Lezhava, T A

    2011-01-01

    Thermodynamic parameters of DNA melting in the presence of a peptide bronchogen in various concentrations were estimated on a differential scanning microcalorimeter. Bronchogen was shown to serve as a DNA-stabilizing agent. Bronchogen increased the melting temperature of DNA from calf thymus and mouse liver by 3.1°C in a narrow range of r (molar ratio of bronchogen/DNA b.p., 0.01-0.055). A further increase in r was not accompanied by changes in the melting temperature. The complex melting enthalpy (ΔH(melt)) remained unchanged in this range of r (0.01-1.0). ΔH(melt) for DNA from the thymus and mouse liver was 11.4 and 12.7 cal/g, respectively. Our results indicate that bronchogen is not an adenine-thymine-specific or guanine-cytosine-specific ligand. The type of binding is considered as strong and occasional. The binding occurs with both strands of DNA (mainly with nitrogen bases). PMID:21240358

  16. Novel luminescent nanoparticles for DNA detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ling; Yang, Zhihua; Zhang, Yi; Zhu, Yanyu; Wang, Lun; Wang, Leyu

    2010-05-01

    Highly luminescent LaF 3:Ce 3+/Tb 3+ nanocrystals were successfully prepared and surface functionalized via Layer-by-Layer technology. These as-prepared nanocrystals are highly resistant to photobleaching and pretty dispersible in aqueous solution. Due to the efficient luminescence quenching of the nanocrystals by nucleic acids, a facile fluorescence quenching method was developed for the detection of trace amount of nucleic acids. Under optimal conditions, the fluorescence intensity was proportional to the DNA concentration over the range of 0.60-25.0 μg mL -1 for calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) and 0.60-30.0 μg mL -1 for herring sperm DNA (hs-DNA), respectively. The corresponding detection limit is 0.21 μg mL -1 for ct-DNA and 0.31 μg mL -1 for hs-DNA, respectively. The results indicated that the reported method is simple and rapid with wide linear range. Also, the recovery and relative standard deviation of this method are reasonable and satisfactory.

  17. Interaction of cationic porphyrins with DNA: Importance of the number and position of the charges and minimum structural requirements for intercalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-three porphyrins or metalloporphyrins corresponding to the general formula [meso-[N-methyl-4(or 3 or 2)-pyridiniumyl]n(aryl)4-nporphyrin]M (M = H2, CuII, or ClFeIII), with n = 2-4, have been synthesized and characterized by UV-visible and 1H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. These porphyrins differ not only in the number (2-4) and position of their cationic charges but also in the steric requirements to reach even temporarily a completely planar geometry. Interaction of these porphyrins or metalloporphyrins with calf thymus DNA has been studied and their apparent affinity binding constants have been determined by use of a competition method with ethidium bromide which was applicable not only for all the free base porphyrins but also for their copper (II) or iron (III) complexes. Whatever their mode of binding may be, their apparent affinity binding constants were relatively high and a linear decrease of log Kapp with the number of porphyrin charges was observed. Studies of porphyrin-DNA interactions by UV and fluorescence spectroscopy, viscosimetry, and fluorescence energy transfer experiments showed that not only the tetracationic meso-tetrakis[N-methyl-4(or 3)-pyridiniumyl]porphyrins, which both involved four freely rotating meso-aryl groups, but also the corresponding tri- and dicationic porphyrins were able to intercalate into calf thymus DNA. These results show that only half of the porphyrin ring is necessary for intercalation to occur

  18. Regeneration of rat thymus after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regeneration processes were investigated in the rat thymus after heavy dose irradiation (6 and 8 Gy). The weight of thymus was gradually recovered to normal level in 6 Gy irradiated thymus, however it recovered only up to 65% of normal level in 8 Gy irradiated thymus. The ED2 positive macrophages were increased on day 3, and then gradually decreased to normal level in 6 Gy irradiated thymus. Inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IFN-γ and TNF-α) mRNA expressions were gradually recovered from day 7, however IL-6 mRNA was expressed transiently on day 7 after 8 Gy irradiation. These observations suggest that regeneration processes of irradiated thymus may be intimately regulated by cytokine networks. (author)

  19. Synthesis of new heterometallic macromolecules: Their DNA binding, cleavage activity and in vitro model electrochemotherapy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Sartaj; Bhat, Irshad-ul-Haq; Arjmand, Farukh

    2009-12-01

    The homodinuclear C 16H 30N 8O 5Sn 2Cl 4 ( 1), heterotetranuclear C 16H 38N 8O 9Sn 2Cu 2Cl 8 ( 2) and C 16H 38N 8O 9Sn 2Mn 2Cl 8 ( 3) macrocyclic complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic techniques and molar conductance measurements. The interaction studies of 1-3 with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were carried out by UV-vis titration, fluorescence, cyclic voltammetry and viscosity measurements. These results were further authenticated by carrying out interaction studies of 1-3 with plasmid pBR322 DNA employing gel electrophoresis. To overcome the dose resistance, auto toxicity of the drugs, a model study based on electrochemotherapy (ECT) was carried out and the results were compared in the presence and in the absence of the applied electrical potential.

  20. Synthesis, characterization, DNA binding and cleavage studies of chiral Ru(II) salen complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Noor-ul H.; Pandya, Nirali; Kureshy, Rukhsana I.; Abdi, Sayed H. R.; Agrawal, Santosh; Bajaj, Hari C.; Pandya, Jagruti; Gupte, Akashya

    2009-09-01

    Interaction of chiral Ru(II) salen complexes (S)-1 and (R)-1 with Calf Thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was studied by absorption spectroscopy, competitive binding study, viscosity measurements, CD measurements, thermal denaturation study and cleavage studies by agarose gel electrophoresis. The DNA binding affinity of (S)-1 (6.25 × 10 3 M -1) was found to be greater than (R)-1 (3.0 × 10 3 M -1). The antimicrobial studies of these complexes on five different gram (+)/(-) bacteria and three different fungal organisms showed selective inhibition of the growth of gram (+) bacteria and were not affective against gram (-) and fungal organisms. Further, the (S)-1 enantiomer inhibited the growth of organisms to a greater extent as compared to (R)-1 enantiomer.

  1. Thymus vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Pablo Ferrer-Gallego; Albert J. Navarro Peris; Emilio Laguna Lumbreras; Gonzalo Mateo Sanz

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN: Se describe una nueva subespecie de Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae); Th. vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov., caracterizada por presentar un hábito postrado, tallos estoloníferos, decumbentes y radicantes, hojas muy estrechas y una floración otoñal. ABSTRACT: Thymus vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov. (Lamiaceae). A new subspecies of Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae); Th. vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov. is described. This new subspecies is characterized by its prost...

  2. CT findings of the thymus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Yun Hwan; Seol, Hae Young; Chung, Woun Kyun; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-02-15

    In 14 cases of normal and abnormal thymus proved surgically and histopathologically in korea University Hae Wha Hospital during recent 6 years, the clinical and CT findings were analyzed. 1. Of 14 cases, 2 cases were normal thymus, 5 cases were thymic hyperplasia, 4 cases were benign thymoma, 2 case were malignant thymoma and 1 case was thymic cyst. 2. Of 14 cases, 10 cases were associated with myasthenia gravis, and 7 of these 10 cases were 3rd to 5th decades females. Among 10 cases with myasthenia gravis. 5 cases were thymic hyperplasia, 1 case was benign thymoma, 2 cases were malignant thymoma, and 2 cases were normal thymus. 3. All 5 thymic hyperplasia were associated with myasthenia gravis. CT findings of thymic hyperplasia were normal in 4 cases and increased lobe thickness in 1 case. 4. Of 4 cases of benign thymoma, only 1 case was associated with myasthenia gravis, and all 4 cases were positive findings in CT scan. CT findings of benign thymoma were round or oval soft tissue mass in anterior mediastinum, and 1 case had punctuate calcifications. 5. Of 2 cases of malignant thymoma, all 2 cases were associated with myasthenia gravis and positive findings in CT scan. CT findings of malignant thymoma were anterior mediastinal soft tissue mass with obliteration of the normal fat planes surrounding great vessels. SVC compression, and pleural tumor implants. 6. CT yielded significant diagnostic information of differential diagnosis between thymoma and thymoma hyperplasia in myasthenia gravis patients. Also CT was highly sensitive test in detection of thymoma and determined the extent and invasiveness of thymoma.

  3. CT findings of the thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 14 cases of normal and abnormal thymus proved surgically and histopathologically in korea University Hae Wha Hospital during recent 6 years, the clinical and CT findings were analyzed. 1. Of 14 cases, 2 cases were normal thymus, 5 cases were thymic hyperplasia, 4 cases were benign thymoma, 2 case were malignant thymoma and 1 case was thymic cyst. 2. Of 14 cases, 10 cases were associated with myasthenia gravis, and 7 of these 10 cases were 3rd to 5th decades females. Among 10 cases with myasthenia gravis. 5 cases were thymic hyperplasia, 1 case was benign thymoma, 2 cases were malignant thymoma, and 2 cases were normal thymus. 3. All 5 thymic hyperplasia were associated with myasthenia gravis. CT findings of thymic hyperplasia were normal in 4 cases and increased lobe thickness in 1 case. 4. Of 4 cases of benign thymoma, only 1 case was associated with myasthenia gravis, and all 4 cases were positive findings in CT scan. CT findings of benign thymoma were round or oval soft tissue mass in anterior mediastinum, and 1 case had punctuate calcifications. 5. Of 2 cases of malignant thymoma, all 2 cases were associated with myasthenia gravis and positive findings in CT scan. CT findings of malignant thymoma were anterior mediastinal soft tissue mass with obliteration of the normal fat planes surrounding great vessels. SVC compression, and pleural tumor implants. 6. CT yielded significant diagnostic information of differential diagnosis between thymoma and thymoma hyperplasia in myasthenia gravis patients. Also CT was highly sensitive test in detection of thymoma and determined the extent and invasiveness of thymoma.

  4. Reaction of dithiothreitol and para-nitroacetophenone with different radical precursors of .OH radical-induced strand break formation of single-stranded DNA in anoxic aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yields of single-strand breakage (ssb) in single-stranded calf thymus DNA (ssDNA) have been determined after 60Co γ-irradiation of aqueous anoxic solutions in the presence of different concentrations of dithiothreitol (DTT), ascorbate or trans-4,5-dihydroxy-1,2-dithiane, using low-angle laser light scattering. The influence of DTT on the kinetics of ssb formation has been determined by conductivity measurements in pulse radiolysis. The results suggest that strand breakage in ssDNA proceeds via two modes of about equal contribution and with half-lives of about 7 ms and 0.8 s, respectively. Both modes reflect reactions of at least two DNA radicals, which react with DTT by hydrogen-atom transfer reactions with similar rate constants of about 5-9 x 105dm3mol-1s-1. (Author)

  5. Thymus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads Other Endocrine Glands Review Quiz Cardiovascular System Heart Structure of the Heart Physiology of the Heart Blood Classification & Structure of Blood ...

  6. Molecular pharmacology of hepsulfam, NSC 3296801: identification of alkylated nucleosides, alkylation site, and site of DNA cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeper, R T; Cotter, R J; Colvin, M E; Hilton, J; Colvin, O M

    1995-04-01

    We have determined that hepsulfam, in common with its structural homologue busulfan, alkylates both free guanosine and GMP in DNA at the 7 nitrogen. Mass spectral analysis of the products of the reaction of hepsulfam with guanosine has identified the mono- and bis-alkylated guanosine adducts. UV spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry were used to confirm that alkylation occurred at the 7 nitrogen by following the formation of the formamidopyrimidyl form of the hepsulfam-guanosine adduct at high pH. We have also isolated and identified 1-guanyl,7-hydroxyheptane, 1-guanyl,7-sulfamylheptane, and 1,7-bis(guanyl)heptane from in vitro reaction mixtures of hepsulfam and calf thymus DNA. We have isolated bis-(7-formamidopyrimidyldeoxyguanosinyl)-heptane from an enzymatic digest of DNA treated with hepsulfam. Finally, we have found that hepsulfam forms interstrand cross-links at 5'-GXC-3' sites in model oligonucleotides. PMID:7882358

  7. Danos ao DNA promovidos por ácido 5-aminolevulínico: possível associação com o desenvolvimento de carcinoma hepatocelular em portadores de porfiria aguda intermitente DNA damage induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid: a possible association with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in acute intermittent porphyria patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Onuki

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA is a heme precursor accumulated in acute intermittent porphyria (AIP, which might be associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in symptomatic patients. Under metal catalyzed oxidation, ALA and its cyclic dimerization product, 3,6-dihydropyrazine-2,5-dipropanoic acid, produce reactive oxygen species that damage plasmid and calf thymus DNA bases, increase the steady state level of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2´-deoxyguanosine in liver DNA and promote mitochondrial DNA damage. The final product of ALA, 4,5-dioxovaleric acid (DOVA, is able to alkylate guanine moieties, producing adducts. ALA and DOVA are mutagenic in bacteria. This review shows an up-to-date literature data that reinforce the hypothesis that the DNA damage induced by ALA may be associated with the development of HCC in AIP patients.

  8. Studies on the interaction of cupric isonicotinohydrazide with DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divakar, S.; Vasudevachari, M.B.; Antony, A.; Easwaran, K.R.K.

    1987-06-30

    The interaction of cupric isonicotinohydrazide (Cu/sup II/INH), antiviral compound, with calf thymus DNA was investigated by circular dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Gel electrophoresis of DNA incubated with Cu/sup II/INH showed cleavage of DNA to various extents. This cleavage was found to be time and concentration dependent. In the presence of Cu/sup II/INH the positive CD band at 274 nm disappeared and the negative band at 246 nm showed a decrease in the mean residual ellipticity value, indicating binding of Cu/sup II/INH to DNA. /sup 31/P NMR studies indicated that the binding of copper in Cu/sup II/INH is to the phosphate oxygen of the DNA backbone. The binding of Cu/sup II/INH was also found to be reversible. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid to the Cu/sup II/INH-DNA complex resulted in breaking of the complex and restoring the original structure features of the B family of DNA in the resulting fragments. At the concentration level of Cu/sup II/INH employed, both CuSO/sub 4/ and INH independently did not show any interaction with DNA.

  9. Identification and analysis of a novel protein-tyrosine kinase from bovine thymus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zioncheck, T.F.; Harrison, M.L.; Geahlen, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    A cytosolic protein-tyrosine kinase has been identified and purified to near homogeneity from calf thymus by using the phosphorylation of the tyrosine-containing peptide angiotensin I as an assay. Specific peptide phosphorylating activity was enhanced by carrying out the assay at high ionic strength (2M NaCl). The inclusion of NaCl at this concentration acts to stimulate endogenous protein-tyrosine kinase activity while simultaneously inhibiting other endogenous kinases. The purification procedure involved extraction of the enzyme from calf-thymus and sequential chromatography on columns of DEAE-cellulose, heparin-agarose, casein-sepharose, butylagarose, and Sephadex G-75. Analysis of the most highly purified preparations by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a single Coomassie blue-stained band of 41 KDa. This molecular weight was consistent with results obtained from gel filtration, indicating that the enzyme exists as a monomer. The enzyme has also been found to catalyze an autophosphorylation reaction. Incubation of the enzyme with Mn/sup 2 +/ and (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP led to its modification on a tyrosine residue. Phosphopeptide mapping experiments indicated that the 41 KDa kinase was distinct from p56, the major membrane-associated protein-tyrosine kinase in T lymphocytes.

  10. Identification and analysis of a novel protein-tyrosine kinase from bovine thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cytosolic protein-tyrosine kinase has been identified and purified to near homogeneity from calf thymus by using the phosphorylation of the tyrosine-containing peptide angiotensin I as an assay. Specific peptide phosphorylating activity was enhanced by carrying out the assay at high ionic strength (2M NaCl). The inclusion of NaCl at this concentration acts to stimulate endogenous protein-tyrosine kinase activity while simultaneously inhibiting other endogenous kinases. The purification procedure involved extraction of the enzyme from calf-thymus and sequential chromatography on columns of DEAE-cellulose, heparin-agarose, casein-sepharose, butylagarose, and Sephadex G-75. Analysis of the most highly purified preparations by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a single Coomassie blue-stained band of 41 KDa. This molecular weight was consistent with results obtained from gel filtration, indicating that the enzyme exists as a monomer. The enzyme has also been found to catalyze an autophosphorylation reaction. Incubation of the enzyme with Mn2+ and [γ-32P]ATP led to its modification on a tyrosine residue. Phosphopeptide mapping experiments indicated that the 41 KDa kinase was distinct from p56, the major membrane-associated protein-tyrosine kinase in T lymphocytes

  11. Promiscuous Gene Expression in the Thymus: The Root of Central Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle A. R. Magalhães

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The thymus is a complex organ with an epithelium formed by two main cell types, the cortical thymic epithelial (cTECs and medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs, referred to as stroma. Immature thymocytes arising from the bone marrow, macrophages and dendritic cells also populate the thymus. Thymocytes evolve to mature T cells featuring cell differentiation antigens (CDs, which characterize the phenotypically distinct stages, defined as double-negative (DN, double positive (DP and single positive (SP, based on expression of the coreceptors CD4 and CD8. The thymus is therefore implicated in T cell differentiation and during development into T cells thymocytes are in close association with the stroma. Recent evidence showed that mTECs express a diverse set of genes coding for parenchymal organ specific proteins. This phenomenon has been termed promiscuous gene expression (PGE and has led to the reconsideration of the role of the thymus in central T cell tolerance to self-antigens, which prevents autoimmunity. The evidence of PGE is causing a reanalysis in the scope of central tolerance understanding. We summarize the evidence of PGE in the thymus, focusing particularly the use of cDNA microarray technology for the broad characterization of gene expression and demarcation of PGE emergence during thymus ontogeny.

  12. Luminescence and binding properties of two isoquinoline alkaloids chelerythrine and sanguinarine with ctDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junfen; Li, Baohong; Wu, Yanbo; Shuang, Shaomin; Dong, Chuan; Choi, Martin M. F.

    2012-09-01

    The binding mode and mechanism of the interactions between two planar cationic alkaloids chelerythrine (Che) and sanguinarine (San) with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) were systematically investigated at pH 5.40 using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Che and San show strong fluorescence at 570 and 589 nm, respectively. Che displays fluorescence enhancement with ctDNA whereas the fluorescence of San is quenched on interaction with ctDNA. In addition, UV-vis spectra of both alkaloids show apparent hypochromicity and are bathochromic shifted, indicating that they could intercalate into ctDNA bases. The fluorescence polarization of Che and San increases in the presence of ctDNA, again implying the intercalation of two alkaloids with ctDNA. This conclusion was also supported by the results obtained from anion quenching and cyclic voltammetry. The binding constants of both alkaloids with ctDNA were calculated in the order of 105 L/mol. San binds with ctDNA 3-fold stronger than Che. The stoichiometric bindings are five nucleotides per Che or San. Electrostatic binding also exists between the alkaloids and DNA helix. Finally, theoretical calculations show that only certain parts of Che and San molecules intercalate into the DNA helix.

  13. Role of E.coli DNA in systemic inflammatory response syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Wen-dong; ZHOU Hong; ZHENG Jiang; XIA Pei-yuan; QIN Xiao-jian; LU Yong-ling; XIAO Guang-xia

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether bacterial DNA involving in the pathogenesis of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and possible mechanism. Methods: Escherichia coli DNA (EC DNA) was extracted from Escherichia coli 25922 with alkaline lysis method. The mice mortality was observed after EC DNA was injected into mice via caudal vein. The changes of serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels in rats were measured with ELISA after rats were given EC DNA. Calf thymus DNA and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used as the control, respectively. Results: EC DNA led mice to death with notable dose-effect relationship (LD50=11.51 mg/kg), but CT DNA didn't. The peak level of TNF-αwas lower in EC DNA group than in LPS group (P<0. 05), though the former reaching the peak I h earlier than the latter. However, they had coordinate ability to induce IL-6 release in rats, and no significant difference was seen in serum IL-6 peak level between 2 groups. Conclusion: EC DNA leads mice to death, and induces the increases of serum TNF-αand IL-6 levels in rats. EC DNA has the effect equal to LPS in inducing SIRS by triggering cytokines cascade.

  14. Detection of possible DNA repair enzymes on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels by protein blotting to damaged DNA-fixed membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel method for detecting possible DNA repair enzymes on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels by blotting them onto a damaged DNA-fixed membrane is presented. To prepare the membrane, highly polymerized calf thymus DNA immobilized on a nylon membrane is damaged chemically. Enzymes, either homogeneous or crude, that are possibly involved in the priming step of DNA repair are fractionated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and are renatured to active form by incubating the gel in an appropriate buffer. The renatured enzyme is then blotted onto the damaged DNA-fixed membrane, a process during which incision and/or excision are introduced to the damaged DNA by the enzymes. The incision and/or excision provide priming sites for repair DNA synthesis in the subsequent step in which the membrane is incubated with DNA polymerase in the presence of alpha-32P-labeled substrate. The site of substrate incorporation on the membrane reflecting the molecular weight of the repair enzyme is finally visualized by autoradiography. The present technique is established using Escherichia coli exonuclease III and a DNA-fixed membrane treated with bleomycin or acid-depurinated. By application of this method, a priming factor (an exonuclease) involved in the initiation of bleomycin-induced DNA repair is detected in the extract of mouse ascites sarcoma cells, and thus the molecular weight of the enzyme is estimated. Some apurinic/apyrimidinic endonucleases of mammals are also detected by the present procedure

  15. An electrochemical DNA-based biosensor to study the effects of CdTe quantum dots on UV-induced damage of DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A DNA-based biosensor is presented that can be applied to the detection of DNA damage caused by UV-C radiation (254 nm) in the presence of CdTe quantum dots (QDs). The sensor is composed of a glassy carbon electrode whose surface was modified with a layer of dsDNA and another layer of CdTe QDs. The response of this sensor is based on (a) the intrinsic anodic signal of the guanine moiety in the DNA that is measured by square-wave voltammetry, and (b) the cyclic voltammetric response of the redox indicator system hexacyanoferrate(III/II). Depending on the size of the QDs, they exert a significant effect on the rate of the degradation of dsDNA by UV-C light, and even by visible light. Time-dependent structural changes of DNA include opening of the double helix (as indicated by an increase in the redox response of the guanine moiety due to easy electron exchange with the electrode when compared to the original helix state and by an increase in the voltammetric peak current of the hexacyanoferrate(III/II) anion after degradation of the negatively charged DNA backbone on the electrode). The effects of QDs were verified for salmon sperm DNA and calf thymus DNA, and further corroborated by experiments in which DNA solutions were irradiated in the presence of QDs. (author)

  16. Fluorescence dynamics of interactions between polyamide PyPyPyβDp and DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The photophysical properties of the polyamide PyPyPyβDp (PPP) were investigated by means of steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies, as well as time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. It was found that the excited-state properties of PPP are very sensitive to solvents. In TKMC buffer PPP exhibited weak fluorescence with a decay time constant of 16 ps, while with the decrease of the solvent polarity PPP showed the blue-shifted peak position, increased intensity and lengthened life-time for its fluorescence behavior. In the presence of calf thymus DNA, it was observed that the fluorescence intensity was enhanced and the fluorescence lifetime increased from 16 to 32 ps for PPP, which verified that PPP bound into the minor groove of DNA duplex.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and DNA cleavage activity of nickel(II adducts with aromatic heterocyclic bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. PHILIP

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed ligand complexes of nickel(II with 2,4-dihydroxyaceto-phenone oxime (DAPO and 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone oxime (DBPO as primary ligands, and pyridine (Py and imidazole (Im as secondary ligands were synthesized and characterized by molar conductivity, magnetic moments measurements, as well as by electronic, IR, and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Electrochemical studies were performed by cyclic voltammetry. The active signals are assignable to the NiIII/II and NiII/I redox couples. The binding interactions between the metal complexes and calf thymus DNA were investigated by absorption and thermal denaturation. The cleavage activity of the complexes was determined using double-stranded pBR322 circular plasmid DNA by gel electrophoresis. All complexes showed increased nuclease activity in the presence of the oxidant H2O2. The nuclease activities of mixed ligand complexes were compared with those of the parent copper(II complexes.

  18. Synthesis of isatin thiosemicarbazones derivatives: In vitro anti-cancer, DNA binding and cleavage activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Amna Qasem; Teoh, Siang Guan; Salhin, Abdussalam; Eltayeb, Naser Eltaher; Khadeer Ahamed, Mohamed B.; Majid, A. M. S. Abdul

    New derivatives of thiosemicarbazone Schiff base with isatin moiety were synthesized L1-L6. The structures of these compounds were characterized based on the spectroscopic techniques. Compound L6 was further characterized by XRD single crystal. The interaction of these compounds with calf thymus (CT-DNA) exhibited high intrinsic binding constant (kb = 5.03-33.00 × 105 M-1) for L1-L3 and L5 and (6.14-9.47 × 104 M-1) for L4 and L6 which reflect intercalative activity of these compounds toward CT-DNA. This result was also confirmed by the viscosity data. The electrophoresis studies reveal the higher cleavage activity of L1-L3 than L4-L6. The in vitro anti-proliferative activity of these compounds against human colon cancer cell line (HCT 116) revealed that the synthesized compounds (L3, L6 and L2) exhibited good anticancer potency.

  19. Thymus: the next (re)generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Mohammed S; Velardi, Enrico; Dudakov, Jarrod A; van den Brink, Marcel R M

    2016-05-01

    As the primary site of T-cell development, the thymus plays a key role in the generation of a strong yet self-tolerant adaptive immune response, essential in the face of the potential threat from pathogens or neoplasia. As the importance of the role of the thymus has grown, so too has the understanding that it is extremely sensitive to both acute and chronic injury. The thymus undergoes rapid degeneration following a range of toxic insults, and also involutes as part of the aging process, albeit at a faster rate than many other tissues. The thymus is, however, capable of regenerating, restoring its function to a degree. Potential mechanisms for this endogenous thymic regeneration include keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) signaling, and a more recently described pathway in which innate lymphoid cells produce interleukin-22 (IL-22) in response to loss of double positive thymocytes and upregulation of IL-23 by dendritic cells. Endogenous repair is unable to fully restore the thymus, particularly in the aged population, and this paves the way toward the need for exogenous strategies to help regenerate or even replace thymic function. Therapies currently in clinical trials include KGF, use of the cytokines IL-7 and IL-22, and hormonal modulation including growth hormone administration and sex steroid inhibition. Further novel strategies are emerging in the preclinical setting, including the use of precursor T cells and thymus bioengineering. The use of such strategies offers hope that for many patients, the next regeneration of their thymus is a step closer. PMID:27088907

  20. Calf Contouring with Endoscopic Fascial Release, Calf Implant, and Structural Fat Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Karacaoglu, MD

    2013-08-01

    Conclusions: A novel endoscopic approach for lower leg contouring is discussed. Endoscopic fasciotomy technique with calf implant and structural fat grafting for improved lower leg aesthetics is a simple, effective, reliable, and predictable technique for calf contouring.

  1. Degradation of DNA by iron-bleomycin: mechanistic implications of product 18O incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interaction of d(CGCGCG) with Bleomycin (BLM), activated either with Fe(III) and H2O2 or Fe(II), O2 and one electron, results in production of cytosine and a modified oligonucleotide strand (1). Reduction of 1 with NaBD4 followed by enzymatic digestion, derivatization, and GC-MS permits the identification of 2-deoxypentitols-1,4-d2 as their tetra-trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives. Similar products have also been isolated from calf thymus DNA and poly(dG-dC). These results provide unequivocal evidence for the intermediacy of a 4' ketone, 1' aldehyde modified carbohydrate. An alternate mode of DNA degradation requires additional O2 and leads to formation of 3' phosphoglycolate termini and base propenals. Glycolate (GA), released from calf thymus DNA, poly(dA-dT) or d(CGCGCG) by enzymatic digestion, can be isolated by chromatography on DEAE Sephadex, silylated and analyzed by GC-MS. This analysis, after incubation with Fe(II) x 18O2 x BLM or Fe(III) x H216O2 x BLM plus 18O2, reveals the incorporation of a single atom of 18O at the C-1 position. Pulse-chase experiments demonstrate that it is the excess molecular oxygen and not the O2 required for drug activation that is incorporated into the carboxylate group of 3' phosphoglycolate and provide evidence for the proposed addition of O2 to a C4' carbon radical. Isotopic enrichments of the other products of DNA oxidation, formed in the presence of 18O2 are also being determined

  2. Synthesis, DNA interaction and antimicrobial activities of three rimantadine analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interactions of three rimantadine analogues (RAs) with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ct-DNA) in buffer solution (pH 7.4) were investigated using berberine (BR) as a probe by various methods. Fluorescence studies revealed that the RAs interacted with DNA in vitro and the quenchings were all static. Furthermore, the binding modes of these compounds to DNA were disclosed as groove binding supported by absorption spectroscopy, viscosity measurement and denatured DNA experiment. The antimicrobial activities of the RAs were also evaluated in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and they all exhibited good bacteriostasic effects. The results might provide an important reference for investigation of the molecular mechanism associated with the DNA binding of the RAs. - Highlights: • Three rimantadine analogues were synthesized. • The RAs effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of DNA via a static combination. • These analogues can bind to DNA via groove binding mode. • The antimicrobial activities of three analogues were also evaluated by the disk diffusion method

  3. Synthesis, DNA interaction and antimicrobial activities of three rimantadine analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bing-Mi; Zhang, Jun [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Wang, Xin, E-mail: wangxinlnu@163.com [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Zhang, Li-Ping; Liu, Yang [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Niu, Hua-Ying [Jinan Dachpharm Development Co., Ltd., Jinan 250100 (China); Liu, Bin, E-mail: liubinzehao@163.com [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China)

    2015-03-15

    The interactions of three rimantadine analogues (RAs) with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ct-DNA) in buffer solution (pH 7.4) were investigated using berberine (BR) as a probe by various methods. Fluorescence studies revealed that the RAs interacted with DNA in vitro and the quenchings were all static. Furthermore, the binding modes of these compounds to DNA were disclosed as groove binding supported by absorption spectroscopy, viscosity measurement and denatured DNA experiment. The antimicrobial activities of the RAs were also evaluated in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and they all exhibited good bacteriostasic effects. The results might provide an important reference for investigation of the molecular mechanism associated with the DNA binding of the RAs. - Highlights: • Three rimantadine analogues were synthesized. • The RAs effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of DNA via a static combination. • These analogues can bind to DNA via groove binding mode. • The antimicrobial activities of three analogues were also evaluated by the disk diffusion method.

  4. Selective detection of Escherichia coli DNA using fluorescent carbon spindles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anurag; Chatterjee, Sabyasachi; Pramanik, Srikrishna; Devi, Parukuttyamma Sujatha; Suresh Kumar, Gopinatha

    2016-04-28

    We investigate the interaction of hydrophilic blue emitting carbon spindles with various deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) having different base pair compositions, such as Herring testes (HT), calf thymus (CT), Escherichia coli (EC) and Micrococcus lysodeikticus (ML) DNA, to understand the mode of interaction. Interestingly, the fluorescent carbon spindles selectively interacted with E. coli DNA resulting in enhanced fluorescence of the former. Interaction of the same carbon with other DNAs exhibited insignificant changes in fluorescence. In addition, in the presence of EC DNA, the D band in the Raman spectrum attributed to the defect state completely disappeared, resulting in enhanced crystallinity. Microscopy images confirmed the wrapping of DNA on the carbon spindles leading to the assembly of spindles in the form of flowers. Dissociation of double-stranded DNA occurred upon interaction with carbon spindles, resulting in selective E. coli DNA interaction. The carbon spindles also exhibited a similar fluorescence enhancement upon treating with E. coli bacteria. These results confirm the possibility of E. coli detection in water and other liquid foods using such fluorescent carbon. PMID:27081680

  5. Gold electrode modified by self-assembled monolayers of thiols to determine DNA sequences hybridization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mízia M S Silva; Igor T Cavalcanti; M Fátima Barroso; M Goreti F Sales; Rosa Fireman Dutra

    2010-11-01

    The process of immobilization of biological molecules is one of the most important steps in the construction of a biosensor. In the case of DNA, the way it exposes its bases can result in electrochemical signals to acceptable levels. The use of self-assembled monolayer that allows a connection to the gold thiol group and DNA binding to an aldehydic ligand resulted in the possibility of determining DNA hybridization. Immobilized single strand of DNA (ssDNA) from calf thymus pre-formed from alkanethiol film was formed by incubating a solution of 2-aminoethanothiol (Cys) followed by glutaraldehyde (Glu). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to characterize the self-assembled monolayer on the gold electrode and, also, to study the immobilization of ssDNA probe and hybridization with the complementary sequence (target ssDNA). The ssDNA probe presents a well-defined oxidation peak at +0.158 V. When the hybridization occurs, this peak disappears which confirms the efficacy of the annealing and the DNA double helix performing without the presence of electroactive indicators. The use of SAM resulted in a stable immobilization of the ssDNA probe, enabling the hybridization detection without labels. This study represents a promising approach for molecular biosensor with sensible and reproducible results.

  6. Copper(I) halide complexes of 2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazolidine-4-thione: Synthesis, structures, luminescence, thermal stability and interaction with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiadou, D; Psomas, G; Lalia-Kantouri, M; Hatzidimitriou, A G; Aslanidis, P

    2016-11-01

    Five neutral mononuclear copper(I) halide complexes containing 2,2,5,5-tetramethylimidazolidine-4-thione (tmimdtH) and triphenylphosphane (PPh3) or tri-o-tolylphosphane (totp) have been prepared and structurally characterized by X-ray single-crystal analysis. The complexes containing PPh3 adopt the usual distorted tetrahedral geometry, while the presence of the bulkier totp forces the formation of three-coordinated trigonal planar species. The interaction of the compounds with calf-thymus DNA was monitored directly via UV-vis spectroscopy, DNA-viscosity measurements and indirectly via its competition with ethidium bromide for DNA studied by fluorescence emission spectroscopy. Intercalation was revealed as the most possible mode of binding. Furthermore, luminescent properties and thermal stabilities of the complexes were investigated. PMID:27524018

  7. Synthesis, DNA binding and cleavage activities of copper (II) thiocyanate complex with 4-( N, N-dimethylamino)pyridine and N, N-dimethylformamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng-juan; Xu, Min; Xi, Pin-xian; Liu, Hong-yang; Zeng, Zheng-zhi

    2011-10-01

    Two novel copper(II) thiocyanate complexes with 4-( N, N-dimethylamino) pyridine and N, N-dimethylformamide( 1) and with4-( N, N-dimethylamino) pyridine ( 2) have been synthesized and characterized. The crystal and molecular structures of complexes 1 and 2 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Antioxidative activity tests in vitro showed that complex 1 has significant antioxidative activity against hydroxyl free radicals from the Fenton reaction and also oxygen free radicals, which is better than standard antioxidants like vitamin C and mannitol. The interaction of complex 1 with calf thymus DNA was investigated by spectroscopic, cyclic voltammetry, and viscosity measurements. Results suggest that complex 1 can bind to DNA via partial intercalation mode. Moreover, complex 1 has been found to cleavage of plasmid DNA pBR322.

  8. CT evaluation of thymus in myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between myasthenia gravis and the thymus was well establish and myasthenia gravis occurs in the presence of thymic hyperplasia or thymoma or occasionally in histologically normal thymus. Since not every patients with myasthenia gravis is a candidate for thymectomy, unless a thymoma is present, the differentiation of normal and hyperplastic thymus from thymoma becomes important. Authors reviewed retrospectively clinical records and chest CT scans of 18 patients with myasthenia gravis who underwent thymectomy during recent 5 years, to evaluate the role of CT scan. The results were as follows. 1 Of total 18 cases, 5 cases had normal thymus, 6 cases had thymic hyperplasia, 4 cases had benign thymoma and 3 cases had malignant thymoma. 2. Of 5 cases of normal thymus, no false positive cases were noted in CT scan. 3. Of 6 cases of thymic hyperplasia, CT findings were normal except 1 cases of thickened left thymic lobe. 4. Of 7 cases of thymoma, no false negative cases were noted in CT scan. 5. CT findings of benign thymoma were round or oval shaped, discrete, slightly enhancing soft tissue mass in anterior mediastinum. 6. CT findings of malignant thymoma were lobulated contoured, infiltrative, soft tissue mass lesion in anterior mediastinum with calcifications, pleural tumor implants, and SVC compression. CT yielded valuable information on differential diagnosis of thymoma, thymic hyperplasia and normal thymus. Also CT was a highly sensitive method in the detection of thymoma and determining the extent and invasiveness

  9. CT evaluation of thymus in myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Guk Hee [Insung Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Eun Young; Lee, Nam Joon; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    The relationship between myasthenia gravis and the thymus was well establish and myasthenia gravis occurs in the presence of thymic hyperplasia or thymoma or occasionally in histologically normal thymus. Since not every patients with myasthenia gravis is a candidate for thymectomy, unless a thymoma is present, the differentiation of normal and hyperplastic thymus from thymoma becomes important. Authors reviewed retrospectively clinical records and chest CT scans of 18 patients with myasthenia gravis who underwent thymectomy during recent 5 years, to evaluate the role of CT scan. The results were as follows. 1 Of total 18 cases, 5 cases had normal thymus, 6 cases had thymic hyperplasia, 4 cases had benign thymoma and 3 cases had malignant thymoma. 2. Of 5 cases of normal thymus, no false positive cases were noted in CT scan. 3. Of 6 cases of thymic hyperplasia, CT findings were normal except 1 cases of thickened left thymic lobe. 4. Of 7 cases of thymoma, no false negative cases were noted in CT scan. 5. CT findings of benign thymoma were round or oval shaped, discrete, slightly enhancing soft tissue mass in anterior mediastinum. 6. CT findings of malignant thymoma were lobulated contoured, infiltrative, soft tissue mass lesion in anterior mediastinum with calcifications, pleural tumor implants, and SVC compression. CT yielded valuable information on differential diagnosis of thymoma, thymic hyperplasia and normal thymus. Also CT was a highly sensitive method in the detection of thymoma and determining the extent and invasiveness.

  10. Study on the toxic interactions of Ni2+ with DNA using neutral red dye as a fluorescence probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction between Ni2+ and calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) was investigated in simulated physiological buffer (pH 7.4) using the Neutral Red (NR) dye as a spectral probe by UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, as well as CD spectra. The experimental results showed that the conformational changes in DNA helix induced by Ni2+ are the reason for the fluorescence quenching of the DNA-NR system. From the experimental results, conclusion can be drawn that Ni2+ can cause structural changes of ctDNA and bind with DNA by electrostatic interaction. At the same time, the paper proved that conformation changes of DNA can also lead to the fluorescence decrease of DNA-probe systems. - Research Highlights: → The formation of new non-fluorescence complex or competing binding sites between small molecules and probe are usually the reason of fluorescence quenching in DNA-probe systems. This study proved that conformation changes of DNA induced by Ni2+ can also lead to the fluorescence decrease of DNA-probe systems.

  11. Effects of spaceflight on human calf hemodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watenpaugh, D. E.; Buckey, J. C.; Lane, L. D.; Gaffney, F. A.; Levine, B. D.; Moore, W. E.; Wright, S. J.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    2001-01-01

    Chronic microgravity may modify adaptations of the leg circulation to gravitational pressures. We measured resting calf compliance and blood flow with venous occlusion plethysmography, and arterial blood pressure with sphygmomanometry, in seven subjects before, during, and after spaceflight. Calf vascular resistance equaled mean arterial pressure divided by calf flow. Compliance equaled the slope of the calf volume change and venous occlusion pressure relationship for thigh cuff pressures of 20, 40, 60, and 80 mmHg held for 1, 2, 3, and 4 min, respectively, with 1-min breaks between occlusions. Calf blood flow decreased 41% in microgravity (to 1.15 +/- 0.16 ml x 100 ml(-1) x min(-1)) relative to 1-G supine conditions (1.94 +/- 0.19 ml x 100 ml(-1) x min(-1), P = 0.01), and arterial pressure tended to increase (P = 0.05), such that calf vascular resistance doubled in microgravity (preflight: 43 +/- 4 units; in-flight: 83 +/- 13 units; P 0.2). Calf vasoconstriction in microgravity qualitatively agrees with the "upright set-point" hypothesis: the circulation seeks conditions approximating upright posture on Earth. No calf hemodynamic result exhibited obvious mechanistic implications for postflight orthostatic intolerance.

  12. Fluorescent labelling of DNA on superparamagnetic nanoparticles by a perylene bisimide derivative for cell imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N,N′-Bis[tris-(2-aminoethyl) amine]-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PBI-TRIS), nonfluorescent dye was used to fluorescent labelling of DNA. For this aim, (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTS) modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were synthesized to provide a suitable surface for binding of DNA. Amine functionalized nanoparticles showed a high immobilization capacity (82.70%) at 25 mg of nanoparticle concentration for Calf thymus DNA. Binding capacity of PBI-TRIS to DNA-SPION was also found as 1.93 μM on 25 mg of nanoparticles by using UV–vis spectroscopy. Binding of PBI-TRIS to DNA onto nanoparticles was also characterized by scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The confocal images of PBI-TRIS labelled DNA-SPION and breast cells were taken at 488 and 561.7 nm of excitation wavelengths. Cell image was also compared with a commercial dye, DAPI at 403.7 nm of excitation wavelength. Results showed that PBI-TRIS can be used for cell staining. - Highlights: • Functionalized SPIONs were synthesized and treated with DNA. • The binding of PBI-TRIS with DNA was studied. • The image of PBI-TRIS labelled DNA-SPION was detected by a confocal microscope

  13. Fluorescent labelling of DNA on superparamagnetic nanoparticles by a perylene bisimide derivative for cell imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltas, Esra, E-mail: maltasesra@gmail.com [Selcuk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Malkondu, Sait [Selcuk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Uyar, Pembegul [Selcuk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Selcuk University, Advanced Technology Research and Application Center, Konya (Turkey); Ozmen, Mustafa [Selcuk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 42075 Konya (Turkey)

    2015-03-01

    N,N′-Bis[tris-(2-aminoethyl) amine]-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PBI-TRIS), nonfluorescent dye was used to fluorescent labelling of DNA. For this aim, (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTS) modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were synthesized to provide a suitable surface for binding of DNA. Amine functionalized nanoparticles showed a high immobilization capacity (82.70%) at 25 mg of nanoparticle concentration for Calf thymus DNA. Binding capacity of PBI-TRIS to DNA-SPION was also found as 1.93 μM on 25 mg of nanoparticles by using UV–vis spectroscopy. Binding of PBI-TRIS to DNA onto nanoparticles was also characterized by scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The confocal images of PBI-TRIS labelled DNA-SPION and breast cells were taken at 488 and 561.7 nm of excitation wavelengths. Cell image was also compared with a commercial dye, DAPI at 403.7 nm of excitation wavelength. Results showed that PBI-TRIS can be used for cell staining. - Highlights: • Functionalized SPIONs were synthesized and treated with DNA. • The binding of PBI-TRIS with DNA was studied. • The image of PBI-TRIS labelled DNA-SPION was detected by a confocal microscope.

  14. Synthesis, DNA Binding, and Antiproliferative Activity of Novel Acridine-Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinara Mônica Vitalino de Almeida

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the acridine nucleus was used as a lead-compound for structural modification by adding different substituted thiosemicarbazide moieties. Eight new (Z-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide derivatives (3a–h were synthesized, their antiproliferative activities were evaluated, and DNA binding properties were performed with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA by electronic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. Both hyperchromic and hypochromic effects, as well as red or blue shifts were demonstrated by addition of ctDNA to the derivatives. The calculated binding constants ranged from 1.74 × 104 to 1.0 × 106 M−1 and quenching constants from −0.2 × 104 to 2.18 × 104 M−1 indicating high affinity to ctDNA base pairs. The most efficient compound in binding to ctDNA in vitro was (Z-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene-N- (4-chlorophenyl hydrazinecarbothioamide (3f, while the most active compound in antiproliferative assay was (Z-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (3a. There was no correlation between DNA-binding and in vitro antiproliferative activity, but the results suggest that DNA binding can be involved in the biological activity mechanism. This study may guide the choice of the size and shape of the intercalating part of the ligand and the strategic selection of substituents that increase DNA-binding or antiproliferative properties.

  15. Synthesis, DNA Binding, and Antiproliferative Activity of Novel Acridine-Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Sinara Mônica Vitalino; Lafayette, Elizabeth Almeida; da Silva, Lúcia Patrícia Bezerra Gomes; Amorim, Cézar Augusto da Cruz; de Oliveira, Tiago Bento; Ruiz, Ana Lucia Tasca Gois; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; de Moura, Ricardo Olímpio; Beltrão, Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro; de Lima, Maria do Carmo Alves; de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the acridine nucleus was used as a lead-compound for structural modification by adding different substituted thiosemicarbazide moieties. Eight new (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide derivatives (3a-h) were synthesized, their antiproliferative activities were evaluated, and DNA binding properties were performed with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) by electronic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. Both hyperchromic and hypochromic effects, as well as red or blue shifts were demonstrated by addition of ctDNA to the derivatives. The calculated binding constants ranged from 1.74 × 10(4) to 1.0 × 10(6) M(-1) and quenching constants from -0.2 × 10(4) to 2.18 × 10(4) M(-1) indicating high affinity to ctDNA base pairs. The most efficient compound in binding to ctDNA in vitro was (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N- (4-chlorophenyl) hydrazinecarbothioamide (3f), while the most active compound in antiproliferative assay was (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (3a). There was no correlation between DNA-binding and in vitro antiproliferative activity, but the results suggest that DNA binding can be involved in the biological activity mechanism. This study may guide the choice of the size and shape of the intercalating part of the ligand and the strategic selection of substituents that increase DNA-binding or antiproliferative properties. PMID:26068233

  16. A cell-free system for DNA repair synthesis using purified enzymes from the Novikoff hepatoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikoff DNA polymerase-β and Novikoff DNase V have been used in a cell-free DNA excision repair system for UV-irradiated substrates to determine their DNA repair capabilities. The repair system was shown to depend upon UV-irradiated DNA, incision by phage T4 UV-endonuclease, excision by DNase V and synthesis by DNA polymerase-β; ligation was not included. Highly purified calf thymus DNA was UV-irradiated at 500-750 J/m2 and incised by T4 UV-endonuclease. The repair system was used to follow the purification of DNase V and DNA polymerase-β. For increased specificity, the parameters of UV-irradiation, incision, excision and synthesis were confirmed on highly supercoiled, covalently closed, phage PM2 DNA. Optimal DNA and Mg2+ concentrations were determined for the repair assay, which was shown to be linear with respect to time. Excision of the 3'-apyrimidinic site and the 5'-pyrimidine dimer by bidirectional DNase V, presumed to occur from the above experiments, was studied more thoroughly using lightly UV-irradiated [3H]poly(dT)poly (dA), labeled in both the base and the sugar, and incised with T4 UV-endonuclease

  17. Energetics, Thermodynamics, and Molecular Recognition of Piperine with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, P; Mary, Varughese; Haridas, M; Sudarsanakumar, C

    2015-12-28

    Piperine, the bioactive phytochemical from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), is a nontoxic natural compound exhibiting many physiological and pharmacological properties. They include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antitumor, antiapoptotic, antigenotoxic, antiarthritic, antifungal, antimicrobial, antidepressant, anti-HBV, and gastro-protective activities. It also enhances the bioavailability of phytochemicals and drugs. The molecular mechanism of action of piperine with DNA has not yet been addressed, while its pharmacological activities have been reported. In this work we report for the first time the interaction of piperine molecule with DNA duplex. We have carried out UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy to confirm the binding of piperine with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA). The energetics of interaction of piperine with ctDNA was monitored by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and melting temperature (Tm) analysis were also performed, confirming a minor groove mode of binding of piperine with ctDNA. The binding free energy ΔG values obtained from molecular dynamics simulation studies agree well with ITC values and reveal a sequence dependent minor groove binding exhibiting a specificity toward AT rich sequences. PMID:26523930

  18. Study on a hidden protein-DNA binding in salmon sperm DNA sample by dynamic kinetic capillary isoelectric focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclease P1 is an important enzyme that hydrolyzes RNA or single-stranded DNA into nucleotides, and complete digestion is an essential basis for assays based on this enzyme. To digest a doubled-stranded DNA, the enzyme is usually combined with heat denaturing, which breaks doubled-stranded DNA into single strands. This paper presents an un-expected phenomenon that nuclease P1, in combination with heat denaturing, fails to completely digest a DNA sample extracted from salmon sperm. Under the experimental conditions used, at which nuclease P1 can completely digest calf thymus DNA, the digestion yield of salmon sperm DNA was only 89.5%. Spectrometric measurement indicated that a total protein of 4.7% is present in the DNA sample. To explain the reason for this phenomenon, the dynamic kinetic capillary isoelectric focusing (DK-CIEF) approach proposed previously, which allows for the discrimination of different types of protein-DNA interactions and the measurement of the individual dissociation rate constants, was modified and applied to examine possible protein-DNA interactions involved. It was found that a non-specific DNA-protein binding occurs in the sample, the dissociation rate constant for which was measured to be 7.05 ± 0.83 x 10-3 s-1. The formation of DNA-protein complex was suggested to be the main reason for the incomplete digestion of the DNA sample. The modified DK-CIEF approach can be applied as general DNA samples, with the advantages of fast speed and low sample consumption.

  19. cDNA: 40711 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus + Mm.41523 Mus musculus adult male thymus cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched library, ... lone:5830492N08 product:hypothetical Mitochondrial energy ... transfer proteins (carrier protein) containing pro ...

  20. Induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 isozymes, benzo(a)pyrene metabolism and DNA binding following exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon residues generated during repeated fish fried oil in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study the effect of repeated fish fried oil (RFFO) and its extract (RFFE) on hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes, benzo(a)pyrene (BP) metabolism and DNA adduct formation was undertaken. HPLC analysis of RFFO showed the presence of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. CYP in microsomes from control and RFFO-treated animals showed a peak at 450 nm; however, a shift of 2 nm in the SORET region along with significant induction was observed in microsomes prepared from 3-methylcholanthrene (MC)- and RFFE-treated animals. Activities of hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, methoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and erythromycin-N-demethylase were found to be significantly (P 3H]-BP to calf thymus DNA. The overall results suggest that exposure to RFFE may induce hepatic CYP isozymes thereby producing enhanced reactive metabolites with a potential to bind with DNA that may result in cancer

  1. Synthesis and characterization of transition metal 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid derivatives, interactions of Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes with DNA in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sadaf; Nami, Shahab A. A.; Siddiqi, K. S.; Husain, Eram; Naseem, Imrana

    2009-03-01

    Mononuclear complexes M(L)Cl 2 where M = Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) and (L = N,N-diethylpiperazinyl,2,6-pyridinedicarboxylate), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR spectroscopy, UV-vis, magnetic moment, TGA/DSC, cyclic voltammetry and conductivity measurement data. The spectral data suggests that the dipicolinic acid acts as a bidentate ligand and is coordinated to the metal ion through the carboxylate oxygen. The cyclic voltammogram for Cu(L)Cl 2 complex was found to display two reversible Cu(II)/Cu(I) and Cu(II)/Cu(III) redox couple. The ligand exhibits a two-step thermolytic pattern while the complexes decompose in three stages respectively. An octahedral geometry has been proposed for both the complexes. The investigation of the interaction of the complexes with calf thymus DNA has been performed with absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence quenching experiments, which showed that the complexes are avid binders of calf thymus DNA. Also the interaction of the Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes with plasmid DNA (pUC 19) was studied using agarose gel electrophoresis. The results revealed that these complexes can act as effective DNA cleaving agents resulting in the nicked form of DNA (pUC 19) under physiological conditions. The gel was run both in the absence and presence of an oxidizing agent (H 2O 2). The ligand and its complexes have also been screened against microbes in order to study their antibacterial action. The results revealed that the Cu(II) complex has activity comparable with the reference drugs gentamycin and flucanzole.

  2. 5-Methylchrysene metabolism in mouse epidermis in vivo, diol epoxide--DNA adduct persistence, and diol epoxide reactivity with DNA as potential factors influencing the predominance of 5-methylchrysene-1,2-diol-3,4-epoxide--DNA adducts in mouse epidermis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    5-Methylchrysene (5-MeC) can form two bay region dihydrodiol epoxides: 1,2-dihydroxy-3,4-epoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-5-methylchrysene (DE-I) which has the methyl group and the epoxide ring in the same bay region, and 7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-7,8,10-tetrahydro-5-methylchrysene (DE-II). In a previous study, we observed that the ratio of DE-I:DNA adducts to DE-II:DNA adducts in mouse epidermis, 24 h after application of [3H]5-MeC metabolites was 2.7 to 1. To investigate the basis for this observation we have now studies: (i) the formation of [3H]5-MeC in mouse epidermis in vivo at various time intervals from 0.33 to 24 h; (ii) the persistence of DE-I:DNA adducts and DE-II:DNA adducts in mouse epidermis at 4-48 h after application of [3H]5-MeC; and (iii) the reactions of DE-I and DE-II with calf thymus DNA in vitro. In contrast to results obtained with mouse liver 9000 grams supernatant, the dihydrodiol precursors of DE-I and DE-II were present in equivalent quantities in mouse epidermis in vivo at every time point studied. The ratio of DE-I:DNA adducts to DE-II:DNA adducts in mouse epidermis was constant throughout the time period studied. However, the extent of formation of DE-I:DNA adducts was greater than that of DE-II:DNA adducts upon reaction of DE-I or DE-II with calf thymus DNA in vitro. These results suggest that differences in reactivity with DNA of DE-I and DE-II may bw responsible for the higher levels in mouse epidermis of DE-I:DNA adducts compared with DE-II:DNA adducts and provide a possible basis for the observed enhancing effect of a bay region methyl group on the carcinogenicity of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons

  3. Unveiling the Mode of Interaction of Berberine Alkaloid in Different Supramolecular Confined Environments: Interplay of Surface Charge between Nano-Confined Charged Layer and DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Niloy; Roy, Arpita; Banik, Debasis; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2016-02-18

    In this Article, we demonstrate a detailed characterization of binding interaction of berberine chloride (BBCl) with calf-thymus DNA (CT-DNA) in buffer solution as well as in two differently charged reverse micelles (RMs). The photophyscial properties of this alkaloid have been modulated within these microheterogeneous bioassemblies. The mode of binding of this alkaloid with DNA is of debate to date. However, fluorescence spectroscopic measurements, circular dichroism (CD) measurement, and temperature-dependent study unambiguously establish that BBCl partially intercalates into the DNA base pairs. The nonplanarity imposed by partial saturation in their structure causes the nonclassical types of intercalation into DNA. Besides the intercalation, electrostatic interactions also play a significant role in the binding between BBCl and DNA. DNA structure turns into a condensed form after encapsulation into RMs, which is followed by the CD spectra and microscopy study. The probe location and dynamics in the nanopool of the RMs depended on the electrostatic interaction between the charged surfactants and cationic berberine. The structural alteration of CT-DNA from B form to condensed form and the interplay of surface charge between RMs and DNA determine the interaction between the alkaloid and DNA in RMs. Time-resolved study and fluorescence anisotropy measurements successfully provide the binding interaction of BBCl in the nanopool of the RMs in the absence and in the presence of DNA. This study motivates us to judge further the potential applicability of this alkaloid in other biological systems or other biomimicking organized assemblies. PMID:26756221

  4. Synthesis, spectral characterization and eukaryotic DNA degradation of thiosemicarbazones and their platinum(IV) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hazmi, G. A.; El-Metwally, N. M.; El-Gammal, O. A.; El-Asmy, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    The condensation products of acetophenone (or its derivatives), salicylaldehyde and o-hydroxy- p-methoxybenzophenone with thiosemicarbazide and ethyl- or phenyl-thiosemicarbazide are the investigated thiosemicarbazones. Their reactions with H 2PtCl 6 produced Pt(IV) complexes characterized by elemental, thermal, mass, IR and electronic spectral studies. The coordination modes were found mononegative bidentate in the acetophenone derivatives and binegative tridentate in the salicylaldehyde derivatives. The complexes were analyzed thermogravimetrically and found highly stable. Some ligands and their complexes were screened against Sarcina sp. and E. coli using the cup-diffusion technique. [Pt( oHAT)(OH)Cl] shows higher activity against E. coli than the other compounds. The degradation power of the tested compounds on the calf thymus DNA supports their selectivity against bacteria and not against the human or related eukaryotic organisms.

  5. Adiposity of calf- and yearling-fed Brangus steers raised to constant-age and constant-body weight endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S B; Chapman, A A; Lunt, D K; Harris, J J; Savell, J W

    2007-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that fatty acid biosynthesis and adipocyte diameter and volume would be greater in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues of calf-fed steers than in yearling-fed steers at a constant BW, due to the greater time on feed for the calf-fed steers. Conversely, we predicted that the capacity for s.c. and i.m. preadipocytes to divide, as estimated by 3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA, would be greater in the less mature adipose tissues of calf-fed steers and in yearling-fed steers at 16 mo of age than in yearling-fed steers fed to 18 mo of age. Brangus steers were fed a corn-based finishing diet as calves (calf-fed; n = 9) or yearlings (n = 4) to 16 mo of age (CA yearling-fed); another group of yearlings (n = 5) was fed to a constant-BW end point of 530 kg (CW yearling-fed). Both groups of yearling-fed steers had free access to native pasture until 12 mo of age. At slaughter, the fifth to eighth thoracic rib section of the LM was removed, and fresh s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues were removed for in vitro incubations. There were no differences in the number of s.c. adipocytes/g or mean peak volumes of adipocytes across production groups (P > or = 0.14). However, s.c. adipose tissue of CA yearling-fed steers contained greater proportions of smaller adipocytes (<1,500 pL) than calffed or CW yearling-fed steers, and similar results were observed for i.m. adipose tissue. Acetate incorporation into total lipids was greater (P = 0.02) in s.c. adipose tissue of CA yearling-fed steers than in calf-fed or CW yearling-fed steers, and tended to be different (P = 0.10) across production groups in i.m. adipose tissue. The production system x cell fraction interaction was significant (P = 0.03) for s.c. adipose tissue DNA synthesis, which was greatest in adipocytes from CA yearling-fed steers, whereas there were no differences across production system in stromal vascular (SV) DNA synthesis. For i.m. adipose tissue, DNA synthesis was greatest in adipocytes and SV cells

  6. An enzyme activity in normal and ataxia telangiectasia cell lines which is involved in the repair of γ-irradiation-induced DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An enzyme that enhances the activity of DNA polymerase I (EC 2.7.7.7) for γ-irradiated calf thymus DNA was demonstrated in cellular extracts of normal human fibroblasts and lymphoid-cell lines. This enzyme was found to be deficient in all cellular extracts of fibroblasts and lymphoid-cell lines examined from patients with the autosomal recessive disease ataxia telangiectasia. The activity in cellular extracts from normal fibroblasts was removed when heated to 1000C for 2 min or when the assay was performed at 40C. No significant deficiency in primer activating enzyme activity was observed in cell-free extracts of lymphoid lines from patients with xeroderma pigmentosum, Huntington's chorea or neurofibromatosis, or from an ataxia telangiectasia heterozygote. (author)

  7. What Should You Ask Your Doctor about Thymus Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... after treatment for thymus cancer? What should you ask your doctor about thymus cancer? It’s important to ... your work schedule. Or you may want to ask about clinical trials for which you may qualify. ...

  8. Meningoencephalitis associated with disseminated sarcocystosis in a free-ranging moose (Alces alces) calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Madhu; Patel, Jagdish; Pybus, Margo; Coleman, James K; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2015-08-01

    A wild moose (Alces alces) calf was presented for necropsy due to severe neurologic signs. Histopathologic examination revealed multisystemic inflammation with intralesional mature and immature schizonts. Schizonts in the brain reacted positively to Sarcocystis spp. polyclonal antibodies. Gene sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA identified the species as Sarcocystis alceslatrans. PMID:26246636

  9. Chemical compositions of two different Thymus species essential oils

    OpenAIRE

    Samira Jaberi; Mahmoodreza Moein; Azizolah Jafari; Forough Karami

    2015-01-01

    Thymus is one of the most important members of Lamiaceae family. Aerial parts of the plant have been widely used in medicine. It has been reported that most of these effects are related to phenolic compounds especially thymol and carvacrol in Thymus essential oil. In this study, aerial parts of Thymus daenensis and Thymus lancifolius were collected from Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad, Iran. Essential oils of aerial parts of these plants were gained by the hydrodistillation method and the chemical...

  10. Analysis of interaction between tamoxifen and ctDNA in vitro by multi-spectroscopic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Changqun; Chen, Xiaoming; Ge, Fei

    2010-07-01

    Multi-spectroscopic methods including resonance light scattering (RLS), ultraviolet spectra (UV), fluorescence spectra, 1H NMR spectroscopy, coupled with thermo-denaturation experiments were firstly used to study the interaction of antitumor drug tamoxifen (TMX) with calf thymus (ctDNA) in acetate buffer solutions (pH 4.55). The interaction of TMX with ctDNA could cause a significant enhancement of RLS intensity, the hyperchromic effect, red shift of absorption spectra and the fluorescence quenching of TMX, indicating that there is an inserting interaction between TMX and ctDNA. This inference was confirmed by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The chemical shift of the benzene proton changes significantly which indicates that TMX could insert into the base pairs of ctDNA. These studies are valuable for a better understanding the mode of TMX-ctDNA interaction further, which are important and useful for designing of new ctDNA targeted drug. And the antitumor drug TMX inserted directly into ctDNA in vitro, which can provide a lot of useful information to explore the development of new and highly effective anti-cancer drugs.

  11. Strand breaks and lethal damage in plasmid DNA subjected to 60CO-γirradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments with calf thymus DNA subjected to extracellular irradiation yield information on the role of direct and indirect effects in single-strand breakage, if this is evaluated with reference to the scavenger activity in respect of OH radicals. The role of the two processes in the occurrence of double-stand breaks and further damage leading to cell decay has so far remained largely obscure. It was the aim of the study described here to contribute to research in this field by performing in vitro experiments on biologically active DNA. For this purpose, DNA from pBR322 plasmids was irradiated in the presence of OH-radical scavengers. The number of single-strand and double-strand breaks was determined on the basis of the system's ability to eliminate OH radicals. In order to asses the influence of irradiation processes on the biological activity of DNA, investigations were carried out in E. coli for transformations caused by irradiated plasmid DNA. The results were interpreted in the light of theories about inhomogenous reaction kinetics put forward by Mark et al. (1989). It was finally discussed, which of the gamma-irradiation injuries occurring in DNA was to be held responsible for the inactivation of plasmid DNA and which enzymatic processes were additionally at work here. (orig./MG)

  12. Scrutinizing the DNA damaging and antimicrobial abilities of triazole appended metal complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utthra, Ponnukalai Ponya; Pravin, Narayanaperumal; Raman, Natarajan

    2016-05-01

    New mononuclear transition metal complexes 1-12 bearing the bioactive triazole analogues were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic techniques. The interaction of calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) with the synthesized compounds was studied at physiological pH by spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric, cyclic voltammetry, and viscometric techniques. The entire DNA binding results suggested the intercalative mode of binding for the synthesized compounds. Interestingly, the binding strength of the complexes is found to be greater than that of the free ligands. Among the complexes explored, complex 5 reveals strong hypochromism and a slight red shift as compared to the other complexes highlighting its higher DNA binding propensity. The intrinsic binding constant values of the complexes compared to cisplatin reveal that all the complexes are greater in magnitude than that of cisplatin. Fluorescence titrations show that the Cu(II) complexes have the ability to displace DNA-bound ethidium bromide. Also, these compounds induce cleavage in pBR322 plasmid DNA as indicated in gel electrophoresis and exhibit excellent nuclease activity in the presence of H2O2. Moreover, the complexes were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity along with free ligands and solvent control. The outcome is that the complexes possess good activity than the free ligands. These complexes may have further scope in developing them into antimicrobial drugs and DNA probes. PMID:26971279

  13. The size of the thymus: an important immunological diagnostic tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth

    2003-01-01

    thymus relevant to its function and could measurement of the thymus be a useful immunological diagnostic tool in the investigation of thymic function in humans with a depressed immune system? Conclusion: Studies using the size of the thymus as an immunological diagnostic tool should be encouraged....

  14. Visualization of the thymus in myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated whether CT had any advantage over pneumomediastinography (PMG) for the visualization of thymus in twenty-one patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). In two cases of thymoma which had been suspected with chest radiography, CT demonstrated an anterior mediastinal tumor distinguishable from other mediastinal organs, and for these cases PMG was not performed. Excluding three patients who were submitted to PMG only, CT of the anterior mediastinum was carried out in sixteen patients of MG, revealing thymic shadows in seven (44%). PMG followed by conventional tomography was done subsequently in three of these seven cases, for whom thymectomy was indicated because of uncontrollable myasthenic symptoms, and in all patients finger-like thymic shadows were disclosed. The vertical extension of thymus was more easily demonstrable by PMG than CT. PMG was carried out in six of nine patients in whom CT was negative, and in all cases thymic shadows were obvious with subsequent conventional tomography. Consequently, false negative rate of CT was at least 38% (6/16) with regard to the visualization of the nontumorous thymus. Although CT of the anterior mediastinum is useful as a screening method because of its non-invasiveness, its negative result does not rule out an absence of the pathologic thymus in view of its high false negative rate. In this regard, PMG is still necessary for the final determination of the thymic configuration in the MG patients. (J.P.N.)

  15. Co(III and Ni(II Complexes Containing Bioactive Ligands: Synthesis, DNA Binding, and Photocleavage Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Prabhakara

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available DNA binding and photocleavage characteristics of a series of mixed ligand complexes of the type [M(bpy2qbdp](PF6n⋅xH2O (where M=Co(III or Ni(II, bpy=2.2′-bipryidine, qbdp = Quinolino[3,2-b]benzodiazepine, n=3 or 2 and x=5 or 2 have been investigated. The DNA binding property of the complexes with calf thymus DNA has been investigated by using absorption spectra, viscosity measurements, as well as thermal denaturation studies. Intrinsic binding constant (Kb has been estimated under similar set of experimental conditions. Absorption spectral studies indicate that the Co(III and Ni(II complexes intercalate between the base pairs of the CT-DNA tightly with intrinsic DNA binding constant of 1.3×106 and 3.1×105 M-1 in Tris-HCl buffer containing 50 mM NaCl, respectively. The proposed DNA binding mode supports the large enhancement in the relative viscosity of DNA on binding to quinolo[3,2-b]benzodiazepine. The oxidative as well as photo-induced cleavage reactions were monitered by gel electrophoresis for both complexes. The photocleavage experiments showed that the cobalt(III complex can cleave pUC19 DNA effectively in the absence of external additives as an effective inorganic nuclease.

  16. Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial, DNA-cleavage and antioxidant activities of 3-((5-chloro-2-phenyl-1H-indol-3-ylimino)methyl)quinoline-2(1H)-thione and its metal complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekanand, B.; Mahendra Raj, K.; Mruthyunjayaswamy, B. H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Schiff base 3-((5-chloro-2-phenyl-1H-indol-3-ylimino)methyl)quinoline-2(1H)-thione and its Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Fe(III), complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, UV-Visible, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectra, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility, ESR and TGA data. The ligand and its metal complexes have been screened for their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus in minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) by cup plate method respectively, antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), which was compared with that of standard drugs vitamin-C and vitamin-E and DNA cleavage activity using calf-thymus DNA.

  17. DNA binding studies of 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol pesticide metabolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashanian, Soheila; Shariati, Zohreh; Roshanfekr, Hamideh; Ghobadi, Sirous

    2012-07-01

    3, 5, 6-Trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) is a stable metabolite of two major pesticides, Chlopyrifos insecticide and Triclopyr herbicide, which are widely used in the world. The potential health hazard associated with TCP is identified due to its high affinity to the DNA molecule. Therefore, in this study, the interaction of native calf thymus DNA with TCP has been investigated using spectrophotometric, circular dichroism (CD), spectrofluorometric, viscometric and voltametric techniques. It was found that TCP molecules could interact with DNA via a groove-binding mode, as evidenced by hyperchromism, with no red shift in the UV absorption band of TCP, no changes in K(b) values in the presence of salt, no significant changes in the specific viscosity and CD spectra of DNA, and a decrease in peak currents with no shift in the voltamogram. In addition, TCP is able to release Hoechst 33258, a strong groove binder, in the DNA solutions. The results are indicative of the groove-binding mode of TCP to DNA. PMID:22519761

  18. Study of DNA light switch Ru(II) complexes: synthesis, characterization, photocleavage and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yata, Praveen Kumar; Shilpa, M; Nagababu, P; Reddy, M Rajender; Kotha, Laxma Reddy; Gabra, Nazar Md; Satyanarayana, S

    2012-05-01

    The three Ru(II) complexes of [Ru(phen)(2)dppca](2+) (1) [Ru(bpy)(2)dppca](2+) (2) and [Ru(dmb)(2)dppca](2+) (3) (where phen = 1,10 phenanthroline, bpy = 2,2-bipyridine, dmb = 2 ,2-dimethyl 2',2'-bipyridine and polypyridyl ligand containing a single carboxylate functionality dppca ligand (dipyridophenazine-11-carboxylic acid) have been synthesized and characterized. These complexes have been shown to act as promising calf thymus DNA intercalators and a new class of DNA light switches, as evidenced by UV-visible and luminescence titrations with Co(2+) and EDTA, steady-state emission quenching by [Fe(CN)(6)](4-) and KI, DNA competitive binding with ethidium bromide, viscosity measurements, and DNA melting experiments. The results suggest that 1, 2, and 3 complexes bind to CT-DNA through intercalation and follows the order 1 > 2 > 3. Under irradiation at 365 nm, the three complexes have also been found to promote the photocleavage of plasmid pBR322 DNA. PMID:22194001

  19. Repair of DNA treated with. gamma. -irradiation and chemical carcinogens. Progress report, June 1, 1975--January 31, 1976. [MMS, methylnitrosourea, 7-bromomethyl-12-methylbenz(a)-anthracene, Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldthwait, D.A.

    1976-02-01

    Enzymatic mechanisms of DNA repair are under investigation. From E. coli an endonuclease active on apurinic acid has been separated from endonuclease II active on DNA treated with methylmethane sulfonate, methylnitrosourea, 7-bromomethyl-12-methylbenz(a)anthracene and ..gamma..-irradiation. Mutants have been identified for each enzyme. The purification of both enzymes is proceeding and the mechanism of action of endonuclease II which has both an N-glycosidase and a phosphodiester hydrolase activity is under investigation. Evidence demonstrating exonuclease III is an enzyme separate from the apurinic acid endonuclease and endonuclease II has been accumulated but this is still under investigation. Work has been completed on 7-bromomethyl-12-methylbenz(a)anthracene treated DNA as a substrate and is being continued on the inhibitory effects of phorbol ester on endonuclease II. Finally, the properties of an enzyme from calf liver active on depurinated DNA have been compared with those of a comparable enzyme from calf thymus. Evidence that they are isozymes has been found.

  20. Interaction of DNA with aromatic hydrocarbons fraction in atmospheric particulates of Xigu District of Lanzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Voluminously epidemiological studies show that the relationships exist between the air pollution and human health and cancer. Aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs) in air form a large class of organic pollutants, which are widely in environment and many of them are known to be carcinogenic and/or mutagenic and contribute to ambient air pollution. In the past decades, bioassays mainly have been used to evaluate the toxicity of chemical mixtures in atmospheric particulates or aqueous environment. However, it is well known that the covalent complexes formed by carcinogens with DNA may be exert negative results in bioassay. So the main aim of this paper is to develop an evaluation method of toxicity effects of chemical mixtures in atmospheric particulates from chemical standpoint. In this study, the in virto interaction of the AHs with DNA was investigated by absorption, fluorescence and resonance light scattering (RLS) spectroscopic techniques. The results showed that the AHs in the atmospheric particulates could combine with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) and herring sperm DNA (hsDNA) without being activated or metabolized by organism, respectively. Intercalation may be present in the mechanism of interaction. The binding constants of the AHs with ctDNA and hsDNA were 2.5×102 and 2.0×103, respectively, which indicated that the interaction of the AHs with hsDNA is stronger than that with ctDNA. In addition, the relationships of dose-effect between the total mole concentration of chemical components and the ability of binding ct DNA and hsDNA were confirmed. This research made it possible to study the toxicity effects of chemical mixtures in atmospheric particulates by chemical method. It is believed that the composition and contents of unknown AHs and the interaction of DNA with AHs in atmospheric particulates of Xigu District of Lanzhou City, China are first reported in the past twenty years.

  1. Investigation of DNA binding, DNA photocleavage, topoisomerase I inhibition and antioxidant activities of water soluble titanium(IV) phthalocyanine compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özel, Arzu; Barut, Burak; Demirbaş, Ümit; Biyiklioglu, Zekeriya

    2016-04-01

    The binding mode of water soluble peripherally tetra-substituted titanium(IV) phthalocyanine (Pc) compounds Pc1, Pc2 and Pc3 with calf thymus (CT) DNA was investigated by using UV-Vis spectroscopy and thermal denaturation studies in this work. The results of DNA binding constants (Kb) and the changes in the thermal denaturation profile of DNA with the addition of Pc compounds indicated that Pc1, Pc2 and Pc3 are able to bind to CT-DNA with different binding affinities. DNA photocleavage studies of Pc compounds were performed in the absence and presence of oxidizing agents such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ascorbic acid (AA) and 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) using the agarose gel electrophoresis method at irradiation 650nm. According to the results of electrophoresis studies, Pc1, Pc2 and Pc3 cleaved of supercoiled pBR322 DNA via photocleavage pathway. The Pc1, Pc2 and Pc3 compounds were examined for topoisomerase I inhibition by measuring the relaxation of supercoiled pBR322 DNA. The all of Pc compounds inhibited topoisomerase I at 20μM concentration. A series of antioxidant assays, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, superoxide radical scavenging (SOD) assay and metal chelating effect assay were performed for Pc1, Pc2 and Pc3 compounds. The results of antioxidant assays indicated that Pc1, Pc2 and Pc3 compounds have remarkable superoxide radical scavenging activities, moderate 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl activities and metal chelating effect activities. All the experimental studies showed that Pc1, Pc2 and Pc3 compounds bind to CT-DNA via minor groove binding, cleave of supercoiled pBR322 DNA via photocleavage pathway, inhibit topoisomerase I and have remarkable superoxide radical scavenging activities. Thanks to these properties the Pc1, Pc2 and Pc3 compounds are suitable agents for photo dynamic therapy. PMID:26882290

  2. Evaluation of DNA binding, DNA cleavage, protein binding, radical scavenging and in vitro cytotoxic activities of ruthenium(II) complexes containing 2,4-dihydroxy benzylidene ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanraj, Maruthachalam; Ayyannan, Ganesan; Raja, Gunasekaran; Jayabalakrishnan, Chinnasamy

    2016-12-01

    The new ruthenium(II) complexes with hydrazone ligands, 4-Methyl-benzoic acid (2,4-dihydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazide (HL(1)), 4-Methoxy-benzoic acid (2,4-dihydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazide (HL(2)), 4-Bromo-benzoic acid (2,4-dihydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazide (HL(3)), were synthesized and characterized by various spectro analytical techniques. The molecular structures of the ligands were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The DNA binding studies of the ligands and complexes were examined by absorption, fluorescence, viscosity and cyclic voltammetry methods. The results indicated that the ligands and complexes could interact with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) through intercalation. The DNA cleavage activity of the complexes was evaluated by gel electrophoresis assay, which revealed that the complexes are good DNA cleaving agents. The binding interaction of the ligands and complexes with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopic method. Antioxidant studies showed that the complexes have a strong radical scavenging properties. Further, the cytotoxic effect of the complexes examined on cancerous cell lines showed that the complexes exhibit significant anticancer activity. PMID:27612830

  3. Identification and characterization of a DNA primase activity present in herpes simplex virus type 1-infected HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel DNA primase activity has been identified in HeLa cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Such an activity has not been detected in mock-infected cells. The primase activity coeluted with a portion of HSV-1 DNA polymerase from single-stranded DNA agarose columns loaded with high-salt extracts derived from infected cells. This DNA primase activity could be distinguished from host HeLa cell DNA primase by several criteria. First, the pH optimum of the HSV primase was relatively broad and peaked at 8.2 to 8.7 pH units. Second, freshly isolated HSV DNA primase was less salt sensitive than the HeLa primase. Third, antibodies raised against individual peptides of the calf thymus DNA polymerase:primase complex cross-reacted with the HeLa primase but did not react with the HSV DNA primase. Fourth, freshly prepared HSV DNA primase appeared to be associated with the HSV polymerase, but after storage at 4 degree C for several weeks, the DNA primase separated from the viral DNA polymerase. This free DNA primase had an apparent molecular size of approximately 40 kilodaltons, whereas free HeLa DNA primase had an apparent molecular size of approximately 110 kilodaltons. On the basis of these data, the authors believe that the novel DNA primase activity in HSV-infected cells may be virus coded and that this enzyme represents a new and important function involved in the replication of HSV DNA

  4. Ultrasonographic analysis of normal thymus in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the ultrasonographic findings of normal thymus in infants and determine the pathologic findings. Forty two infants without a history of chronic disease, tumor or steroid therapy were scanned in the axial planes with a 7.0 MHz sector transducer. Bilaterality, homogeneity, and the shape and intensity of thymic echogenicity were analysed; shapes were classified as one of three types, namely bilobate, quandrangular or triangular. The intensities of thymic echogenicity were compared with those of the liver and spleen under the same conditions (time-gain compensation, depth and gain). The usual findings of normal thymus in infants are bilaterality and homogeneity, convex or shaight outer border, and echo intensity less than or equal to that of the liver and spleen. The possibility of thymic pathology is suggested when ultrasonography shows unilaterality, inhomogeneous echogenicity, and echogenicity greater than that of the liver and spleen. (author). 11 refs., 3 figs

  5. Overview on mentha and thymus polyphenols

    OpenAIRE

    Olívia R. Pereira; Cardoso, Susana M.

    2013-01-01

    Mentha and Thymus are important genera of the Lamiaceae family widely distributed in the entire World and commonly used in traditional medicine. Indeed, many species of the two genera have been credited with a large list of health-benefit effects, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, analgesic, neuroprotective and anticarcinogenic. In turn, these properties have been associated to the polyphenolic composition of the plants. The present review summarizes the phe...

  6. The mystery of the thymus gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daniel; Ellis, Harold

    2016-09-01

    The thymus is the last organ in the human body to have its mechanisms fully understood, having had its function fully delineated more than 50 years ago (Miller , Tissue Antigens 63:509-517). Prior to this, the thymus gland has had an interesting history with theories having included a role in fetal growth and development before becoming more sinisterly, a cause of sudden infant death in the late 19th century known as status lymphaticus (Paltauf , Wien Klin Wochenschr 2:877-881). Until Miller (, Lancet 278:748-749) eventually proved its primarily immunological role, the history of this mysterious gland has closely mirrored the history of medicine itself, troubling the minds of pathologists such as Virchow (, Ueber die Chlorose und die damit zusammenhängenden Anomalien im Gefässapparate, insbesondere über "Endocarditis puerperalis," vorgetragen in der Sitzung der Berliner Geburtshülflichen Gesellschaft vom 12) and Grawitz (, Deut Med Wochenschr 22:429-431), surgeons such as Astley Cooper (, The Anatomy of the Thymus Gland) and Keynes (1953, Ann R Coll Surg 12:88), and eminent medical epidemiologists such as Greenwood and Woods [, J Hyg (Lond) 26:305-326]. This article will hopefully be of interest therefore to both clinician and historian alike. Clin. Anat. 29:679-684, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27037529

  7. Spectroscopic and molecular modeling study on the interaction of ctDNA with 3′-deoxy-3′-azido doxorubicin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Shaoguang; Cui, Yanrui; Liu, Qingfeng [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Cui, Fengling, E-mail: fenglingcui@hotmail.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Zhang, Guisheng; Chi, Yanwei [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Peng, Hao [School of Environment, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China)

    2013-09-15

    The method of synthesizing 3′-deoxy-3′-azido doxorubicin (ADOX) directly from doxorubicin has been developed. This study presents the interaction between ADOX and calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ctDNA) by using spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling techniques. Iodide quenching, fluorescence polarization, viscosity and molecular modeling studies of ADOX–ctDNA interactions indicated that ADOX was an intercalator of ctDNA and preferentially bound to C–G rich regions of ctDNA. Simultaneously, spectroscopic results indicated that the quenching mechanism of ADOX–ctDNA was a static quenching. According to thermodynamic parameters, electrostatic force played roles in the interaction of ADOX with ctDNA. -- Highlights: ●An approach to 3′-deoxy-3′-azido doxorubicin (ADOX) from doxorubicin was developed. ●The quenching mechanism of ADOX with ctDNA was a static quenching type. ●The binding mode between ADOX and ctDNA was intercalative binding. ●The results of molecular docking corroborated results of spectra investigations.

  8. Characterization of the binding of paylean and DNA by fluorescence, UV spectroscopy and molecular docking techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huifeng; Bi, Shuyun; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Tingting

    2016-06-01

    The interaction of paylean (PL) with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy, UV absorption, melting studies, ionic strength, viscosity experiments and molecular docking under simulated physiological conditions. Values for the binding constant Ka between PL and DNA were 5.11 × 10(3) , 2.74 × 10(3) and 1.74 × 10(3)  L mol(-1) at 19, 29 and 39°C respectively. DNA quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of PL via a static quenching procedure as shown from Stern-Volmer plots. The relative viscosity and the melting temperature of DNA were basically unchanged in the presence of PL. The fluorescence intensity of PL-DNA decreased with increasing ionic strength. The value of Ka for PL with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) was larger than that for PL with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). All the results revealed that the binding mode was groove binding, and molecular docking further indicated that PL was preferentially bonded to A-T-rich regions of DNA. The values for ΔH, ΔS and ΔG suggested that van der Waals forces or hydrogen bonding might be the main acting forces between PL and DNA. The binding distance was determined to be 3.37 nm based on the theory of Förster energy transference, which indicated that a non-radiation energy transfer process occurred. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26597997

  9. 9 CFR 113.41 - Calf safety test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calf safety test. 113.41 Section 113... Procedures § 113.41 Calf safety test. The calf safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... Each of two calves shall be injected with the equivalent of 10 doses of vaccine administered in...

  10. Thigh-calf contact force measurements in deep knee flexion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelle, J.G.; Barink, M.; Loeffen, R.; Waal Malefijt, M.C. de; Verdonschot, N.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knee models often do not contain thigh-calf contact which occurs in deep knee flexion. Thigh-calf contact is expected to reduce muscle forces and thereby affects internal stresses in the knee joint. The purpose of this study was to measure thigh-calf contact forces. Two deep knee flexion

  11. Structure elucidation and DNA binding specificity of natural compounds from Cassia siamea leaves: A biophysical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Mehtab; Ahmad, Faheem; Malla, Ali Mohammed; Khan, Mohd Sohrab; Rehman, Sayeed Ur; Tabish, Mohammad; Silva, Manuela Ramos; Silva, P S Pereira

    2016-06-01

    A novel isoflavone, 5,6,7-trimethoxy-3-(3',4',5'-trimethoxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one (1) along with a known pyranocoumarin, Seselin (2) have been isolated from the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Cassia siamea (Family: Fabaceae). Compound 1 has been reported for the first time from any natural source and has not been synthesized so far. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physical evidences viz. elemental analysis, UV, FT-IR, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and mass spectral analysis. Structure of compound (1) was further authenticated by single-crystal X-ray analysis and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. A multi-technique approach employing UV-Visible spectroscopy, fluorescence, KI quenching studies, competitive displacement assay, circular dichroism and viscosity studies have been utilized to probe the extent of interaction and possible binding modes of isolated compounds (1-2) with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA). Both the compounds were found to interact with DNA via non-intercalative binding mode with moderate proficiencies. Groove binding was the major interaction mode in the case of compound 2 while compound 1 probably interacts with DNA through electrostatic interactions. These studies provide deeper insight in understanding of DNA-drug (natural products) interaction which could be helpful to improve their bioavailability for therapeutic purposes. PMID:27085054

  12. Synthesis, Characterization, Molecular Modeling, and DNA Interaction Studies of Copper Complex Containing Food Additive Carmoisine Dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Akbari, Alireza; Jamshidbeigi, Mina; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2016-06-01

    A copper complex of carmoisine dye; [Cu(carmoisine)2(H2O)2]; was synthesized and characterized by using physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The binding of this complex with calf thymus (ct) DNA was investigated by circular dichroism, absorption studies, emission spectroscopy, and viscosity measurements. UV-vis results confirmed that the Cu complex interacted with DNA to form a ground-state complex and the observed binding constant (2× 10(4) M(-1)) is more in keeping with the groove bindings with DNA. Furthermore, the viscosity measurement result showed that the addition of complex causes no significant change on DNA viscosity and it indicated that the intercalation mode is ruled out. The thermodynamic parameters are calculated by van't Hoff equation, which demonstrated that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions played major roles in the reaction. The results of circular dichroism (CD) suggested that the complex can change the conformation of DNA from B-like form toward A-like conformation. The cytotoxicity studies of the carmoisine dye and its copper complex indicated that both of them had anticancer effects on HT-29 (colon cancer) cell line and they may be new candidates for treatment of the colon cancer. PMID:27152751

  13. Endonuclease activities in extracts of Micrococcus luteus that act on γ-irradiated DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several protein fractions containing endonuclease activity against γ-irradiated DNA (γ-endonuclease) were isolated from M.luteus. The crude extract was eluted on a phosphocellulose column and chromatographed on TEAE cellulose and subsequently on hydroxypatite. Five peaks of γ-endonuclease were obtained from each preparation. Repeated experiments showed comparable chromatographic behaviour of the fractions. There was no detectable activity of U.V.-endonuclease in the fractions with γ-endonuclease but a small contamination of endonuclease against unirradiated DNA and against DNA with apurinic sites. The γ-endonuclease was stimulated by, but was not dependent on, magnesium. Several tests for endonuclease activity have been used: the analysis of strand breaks in calf-thymus DNA or in PM2 DNA, and the determination of end-groups formed by endonuclease, either 3'OH end-groups or phosphomonoester end groups. From the results obtained it can be assumed that the strand breaks induced by the γ-endonuclease carry 3'OH and 5' phosphate end groups. (author)

  14. Copper(II) complexes with 4-hydroxyacetophenone-derived acylhydrazones: Synthesis, characterization, DNA binding and cleavage properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gup, Ramazan; Gökçe, Cansu; Aktürk, Selçuk

    2015-01-01

    Two new Cu(II) complexes of Schiff base-hydrazone ligands, hydroxy-N‧-[(1Z)-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylidene]benzohydrazide [H3L1] and ethyl 2-(4-(1-(2-(4-(2-ethoxy-2-oxoethoxy)benzoyl)hydrazono)ethyl)phenoxy)acetate (HL2) have been synthesized and then characterized by microcopy and spectral studies. X-ray powder diffraction illustrates that [Cu(L2)2] complex is crystalline in nature whereas [Cu(H2L1)2]·2H2O has an amorphous structure. Binding of the copper complexes with Calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) has been investigated by UV-visible spectra, exhibiting non-covalent binding to CT-DNA. DNA cleavage experiments have been also investigated by agarose gel electrophoresis in the presence and absence of an oxidative agent (H2O2). The effect of complex concentration on the DNA cleavage reaction has been also studied. Both copper complexes show nuclease activity, which significantly depends on concentrations of the complexes, in the presence of H2O2 through oxidative mechanism whereas they slightly cleavage DNA in the absence an oxidative agent.

  15. Enhanced fluorescence of the Eu{sup 3+}-naphthalenediimide derivative-phenanthroline ternary complex and the determination of DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juskowiak, Bernard; Grzybowska, Ilona; Galezowska, Elzbieta; Takenaka, Shigeori

    2004-06-04

    The naphthalenediimide derivative carrying a single bis({beta}-diketone)-o-terphenyl moiety (NDI-BHHCT) and its chelates formed with europium(III) were studied using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The effect of solvent on the spectral properties and solubility of the system was investigated. Enhancement of the europium fluorescence as a function of 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and yttrium(III) ions was examined in the presence and in the absence of DNA. On the basis of these studies, a system Eu{sup 3+}/Y{sup 3+}/NDI-BHHCT/phen was applied for the determination of calf thymus DNA. In the presence of DNA, the Eu{sup 3+} and Y{sup 3+} ternary complexes intercalate to DNA that results in their proper arrangement on the DNA helix, thus enabling energy transfer between the non-fluorescent Y{sup 3+} and fluorescent Eu{sup 3+} chelates. As the result, the enhancement of Eu emission due to the co-fluorescence effect is observed in the presence of DNA. The calibration graph was linear up to 1.3 {mu}g ml{sup -1} with a detection limit of 12 ng ml{sup -1}.

  16. Calf health from birth to weaning. III. housing and management of calf pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenz Ingrid; Earley Bernadette; Gilmore John; Hogan Ian; Kennedy Emer; More Simon J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Calfhood diseases have a major impact on the economic viability of cattle operations. A three part review series has been developed focusing on calf health from birth to weaning. In this paper, the last of the three part series, we review disease prevention and management with particular reference to pneumonia, focusing primarily on the pre-weaned calf. Pneumonia in recently weaned suckler calves is also considered, where the key risk factors are related to the time of weaning. Weani...

  17. Computed tomography of the thymus in myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparison of preoperative CT diagnosis and histopathological diagnosis for the thymus were studied in 39 patients with myasthenia gravis. The patients consisted of 10 patients with thymoma and 29 without thymoma confirmed at the operation. CT diagnosis was 11 thymomas, 18 thymic hyperplasias and 10 normal thymuses. Eleven thymomas revealed histopathologically 9 thymomas, one follicular lymphoid hyperplasia (FLH) and one involved thymus. Out of 18 thymic hyperplasias 15 cases were FLH and 3 involved thymus. There were 5 involved thymuses, 4 FLHs and one thymoma in the 10 normal thymuses on CT. The finding of 'reticular pattern', many small nodules scattered reticularly in the thymus, in computed tomography could be regarded as a sign suggesting FLH of the thymus. The accuracy of this finding of CT was 83% for FLH. The finding of thymoma on CT revealed 82% of the accuracy. Therefore, CT was very useful in the diagnosis of the localization of the thymoma but not for the diagnosis of FLH of the thymus. Nevertheless the finding of 'reticular pattern' on CT was helpful in the diagnosis of FLH. (author)

  18. Computed tomography of the thymus in myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanimura, Shigeo; Sakaguchi, Kozo; Tomoyasu, Hiroshi; Banba, Jiro; Masaki, Mikio; Kurosaki, Atsuko; Matsushita, Hisashi [Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of preoperative CT diagnosis and histopathological diagnosis for the thymus were studied in 39 patients with myasthenia gravis. The patients consisted of 10 patients with thymoma and 29 without thymoma confirmed at the operation. CT diagnosis was 11 thymomas, 18 thymic hyperplasias and 10 normal thymuses. Eleven thymomas revealed histopathologically 9 thymomas, one follicular lymphoid hyperplasia (FLH) and one involved thymus. Out of 18 thymic hyperplasias 15 cases were FLH and 3 involved thymus. There were 5 involved thymuses, 4 FLHs and one thymoma in the 10 normal thymuses on CT. The finding of `reticular pattern`, many small nodules scattered reticularly in the thymus, in computed tomography could be regarded as a sign suggesting FLH of the thymus. The accuracy of this finding of CT was 83% for FLH. The finding of thymoma on CT revealed 82% of the accuracy. Therefore, CT was very useful in the diagnosis of the localization of the thymoma but not for the diagnosis of FLH of the thymus. Nevertheless the finding of `reticular pattern` on CT was helpful in the diagnosis of FLH. (author).

  19. Exploration of cellular DNA lesion, DNA-binding and biocidal ordeal of novel curcumin based Knoevenagel Schiff base complexes incorporating tryptophan: Synthesis and structural validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekar, Thiravidamani; Raman, Natarajan

    2016-07-01

    A few novel Schiff base transition metal complexes of general formula [MLCl] (where, L = Schiff base, obtained by the condensation reaction of Knoevenagel condensate of curcumin, L-tryptophan and M = Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), and Zn(II)), were prepared by stencil synthesis. They were typified using UV-vis, IR, EPR spectral techniques, micro analytical techniques, magnetic susceptibility and molar conductivity. Geometry of the metal complexes was examined and recognized as square planar. DNA binding and viscosity studies revealed that the metal(II) complexes powerfully bound via an intercalation mechanism with the calf thymus DNA. Gel-electrophoresis technique was used to investigate the DNA cleavage competence of the complexes and they establish to approve the cleavage of pBR322 DNA in presence of oxidant H2O2. This outcome inferred that the synthesized complexes showed better nuclease activity. Moreover, the complexes were monitored for antimicrobial activities. The results exposed that the synthesized compounds were forceful against all the microbes under exploration.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of 6,6’-bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)-2,2’-bipyridine ligand and its interaction with ct-DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tetradentate ligand with four donor atoms OONN was synthesized. Bis(phenoxy)bipyridine ligand was prepared by Suzuki coupling reaction between 6,6’-dibromo-2,2’-bipyridyl and 2-hydroxyphenylboronic acid with presence of palladium (II) acetate. Bis(phenoxy)bipyridine ligand was also synthesized by demethylating of 6,6’-bis(2-methoxyphenyl)-2,2’-bipyridyl ligand through solvent free reaction using pyridine hydrocloride. The formation of both phenoxy and methoxy ligands was confirmed by 1H, 2D cosy and 13C NMR spectroscopy, ESI-MS spectrometry, FTIR spectroscopy. The purity of the ligand was confirmed by melting point. Binding studies of small molecules with DNA are useful to understand the reaction mechanism and to provide guidance for the application and design of new and more efficient drugs targeted to DNA. In this study, the binding interaction between the synthesized ligand with calf thymus-DNA (ct-DNA) has been investigated by UV/Vis DNA titration study. From the UV/Vis DNA study, it shows that bis(phenoxy)bipyridine ligand bind with ct-DNA via outside binding with binding contant Kb = 1.19 × 103 ± 0.08 M−1

  1. Synthesis and characterization of 6,6'-bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)-2,2'-bipyridine ligand and its interaction with ct-DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, Norhidayah; Heng, Lee Yook; Hassan, Nurul Izzaty; Karim, Nurul Huda Abd

    2015-09-01

    The tetradentate ligand with four donor atoms OONN was synthesized. Bis(phenoxy)bipyridine ligand was prepared by Suzuki coupling reaction between 6,6'-dibromo-2,2'-bipyridyl and 2-hydroxyphenylboronic acid with presence of palladium (II) acetate. Bis(phenoxy)bipyridine ligand was also synthesized by demethylating of 6,6'-bis(2-methoxyphenyl)-2,2'-bipyridyl ligand through solvent free reaction using pyridine hydrocloride. The formation of both phenoxy and methoxy ligands was confirmed by 1H, 2D cosy and 13C NMR spectroscopy, ESI-MS spectrometry, FTIR spectroscopy. The purity of the ligand was confirmed by melting point. Binding studies of small molecules with DNA are useful to understand the reaction mechanism and to provide guidance for the application and design of new and more efficient drugs targeted to DNA. In this study, the binding interaction between the synthesized ligand with calf thymus-DNA (ct-DNA) has been investigated by UV/Vis DNA titration study. From the UV/Vis DNA study, it shows that bis(phenoxy)bipyridine ligand bind with ct-DNA via outside binding with binding contant Kb = 1.19 × 103 ± 0.08 M-1.

  2. DNA Binding and Photocleavage Properties, Cellular Uptake and Localization, and in-Vitro Cytotoxicity of Dinuclear Ruthenium(II) Complexes with Varying Lengths in Bridging Alkyl Linkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Wu, Bao-Yan; Liu, Jin; Dai, Yong-Cheng; Wang, You-Jun; Wang, Ke-Zhi

    2016-02-15

    Two new dinuclear Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes containing three and ten methylene chains in their bridging linkers are synthesized and characterized. Their calf thymus DNA-binding and plasmid DNA photocleavage behaviors are comparatively studied with a previously reported, six-methylene-containing analog by absorption and luminescence spectroscopy, steady-state emission quenching by [Fe(CN)6](4-), DNA competitive binding with ethidium bromide, DNA viscosity measurements, DNA thermal denaturation, and agarose gel electrophoresis analyses. Theoretical calculations applying the density functional theory (DFT) method for the three complexes are also performed to understand experimentally observed DNA binding properties. The results show that the two complexes partially intercalate between the base pairs of DNA. Cellular uptake and colocalization studies have demonstrated that the complexes could enter HeLa cells efficiently and localize within lysosomes. The in-vitro antitumor activity against HeLa and MCF-7 tumor cells of the complexes are studied by MTT cytotoxic analysis. A new method, high-content analysis (HCA), is also used to assess cytotoxicity, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of the three complexes. The results show that the lengths of the alkyl linkers could effectively tune their biological properties and that HCA is suitable for rapidly identifying cytotoxicity and can be substituted for MTT assays to evaluate the cell cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:26811966

  3. Synthesis and characterization of 6,6’-bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)-2,2’-bipyridine ligand and its interaction with ct-DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selamat, Norhidayah; Heng, Lee Yook; Hassan, Nurul Izzaty; Karim, Nurul Huda Abd [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43650 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    The tetradentate ligand with four donor atoms OONN was synthesized. Bis(phenoxy)bipyridine ligand was prepared by Suzuki coupling reaction between 6,6’-dibromo-2,2’-bipyridyl and 2-hydroxyphenylboronic acid with presence of palladium (II) acetate. Bis(phenoxy)bipyridine ligand was also synthesized by demethylating of 6,6’-bis(2-methoxyphenyl)-2,2’-bipyridyl ligand through solvent free reaction using pyridine hydrocloride. The formation of both phenoxy and methoxy ligands was confirmed by {sup 1}H, 2D cosy and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, ESI-MS spectrometry, FTIR spectroscopy. The purity of the ligand was confirmed by melting point. Binding studies of small molecules with DNA are useful to understand the reaction mechanism and to provide guidance for the application and design of new and more efficient drugs targeted to DNA. In this study, the binding interaction between the synthesized ligand with calf thymus-DNA (ct-DNA) has been investigated by UV/Vis DNA titration study. From the UV/Vis DNA study, it shows that bis(phenoxy)bipyridine ligand bind with ct-DNA via outside binding with binding contant K{sub b} = 1.19 × 10{sup 3} ± 0.08 M{sup −1}.

  4. Transfection with extracellularly UV-damaged DNA induces human and rat cells to express a mutator phenotype towards parvovirus H-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinsart, C.; Cornelis, J.J.; Klein, B.; van der Eb, A.J.; Rommelaere, J.

    1984-02-01

    Human and rat cells transfected with UV-irradiated linear double-stranded DNA from calf thymus displayed a mutator activity. This phenotype was identified by growing a lytic thermosensitive single-stranded DNA virus (parvovirus H-1) in those cells and determining viral reversion frequencies. Likewise, exogenous UV-irradiated closed circular DNAs, either double-stranded (simian virus 40) or single-stranded (phi X174), enhanced the ability of recipient cells to mutate parvovirus H-1. The magnitude of mutator activity expression increased along with the number of UV lesions present in the inoculated DNA up to a saturation level. Unirradiated DNA displayed little inducing capacity, irrespective of whether it was single or double stranded. Deprivation of a functional replication origin did not impede UV-irradiated simian virus 40 DNA from providing rat and human cells with a mutator function. Our data suggest that in mammalian cells a trans-acting mutagenic signal might be generated from UV-irradiated DNA without the necessity for damaged DNA to replicate.

  5. Binding of cationic surfactants to DNA, protein and DNA-protein mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, S A; Chattoraj, D K; Mukherjee, D C

    1999-06-01

    Extent of binding (gamma 2(1)) of cationic surfactants cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), myristyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (MTAB) and dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB) to calf-thymus DNA, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and to their binary mixture respectively have been measured as function of bulk concentration of the surfactant by using equilibrium dialysis technique. Binding of CTAB has been studied at different pH, ionic strength (mu), temperature and biopolymer composition and with native and denatured states of the biopolymers. The chain-length of different long chain amines plays a significant role in the extent of binding under identical solution condition. The binding ratios for CTAB to collagen, gelatin, DNA-collagen and DNA-gelatin mixtures respectively have also been determined. The conformational structures of different biopolymers are observed to play significant role in macromolecular interactions between protein and DNA in the presence of CTAB. From the experimental values of the maximum binding ratio (gamma 2m) at the saturation level for each individual biopolymer, ideal values (gamma 2m)id have been theoretically calculated for binary mixtures of biopolymers using additivity rule. The protein-DNA-CTAB interaction in mixture has been explained in terms of the deviation (delta) of (gamma 2m) from (gamma 2m)id in the presence of a surfactant in bulk. The binding of surfactants to biopolymers and to their binary mixtures are compared more precisely in terms of the Gibbs' free energy decrease (-delta G degree) for the saturation of the binding sites in the biopolymers or biopolymer mixtures with the change of the bulk surfactant activity from zero to unity in the rational mole fraction scale. PMID:10650715

  6. Computer tomographic examination of the thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic value of CT in follicular thymic hyperplasia and in thymomas in 8 patients with myasthenia gravis and in 12 patients without myasthenia gravis suffering from thymic tumors was evaluated by correlating CT-findings to surgical results and pathological-histological findings. Thymic size of the six patients with histologically proven follicular hyperplasia were scattered within the normal range, but half of them were at the upper limit. Thymic tumors were differentiated between invasive and non invasive tumors by CT staging. Solid tumors with different histology could not be further classified; the attenuation values ranging from 15-55 HU were the same in tumors, follicular hyperplasia and normal thymus. (orig.)

  7. Structure, DNA binding and cleavage of a new Zn(II)Mn(II) macrocyclic complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing-Jing; Mei, Yu; Pan, Zhiquan; Zhou, Hong

    2012-12-01

    A new heterodinuclear complex of an unsymmetrical macrocycle [ZnMnL(CH3O)2]·H2O has been synthesized by the cyclocondensation between N,N'-bis(3-formyl-5-chlorosalicylidene)ethylenediimine and 2-hydroxyl-1,3-propanediamine in the presence of the metal ions, and characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra and X-ray determination. The interactions of the complex with DNA have been investigated by UV absorption, fluorescence spectroscopy, viscosity measurements and electrochemical studies. Absorption spectroscopic investigation reveals that the complex has good binding propensity to calf thymus DNA by intercalation with a binding constant of 2.52 × 105 M-1. Fluorescence spectroscopy shows that the complex can displace ethidium bromide and bind to DNA, with a quenching constant of 4.37 × 103 M-1. The agarose gel electrophoresis studies show that pBR322 plasmid DNA can be transformed to nicked form and linear form in air by the complex.

  8. K, Ca complexes with a sulfonic ligand: Structure and DNA-binding properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiahe; Ma, Zhaorong; Liang, Huang; Chen, Jiwen; Zeng, Zhengzhi

    2012-05-01

    A novel 4-(2,4-dihydroxybenzylideneamino)benzenesulfonic acid (HL), and its kalium(I), calcium(II) complexes [M(L)n]·2nH2O·Cln (M = K(1) n = 1, M = Ca(2) n = 2), have been prepared and characterized. The crystal and molecular structures of 1 and 2 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The interaction of 1, 2 and ligand (L) with calf thymus DNA was investigated by UV-visible (UV-vis), fluorescence and viscosity measurements. Experimental results indicate that 1, 2 and L could bind to DNA via the intercalation mode, and the binding affinity of 1 is stronger than that of 2 and L. The intrinsic binding constants of 1, 2 and L were 5.60 × 105, 6.53 × 105 and 1.44 × 105 M-1, respectively. The cleavage reaction on plasmid DNA has been monitored by agarose gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that 1 and 2 could cleave pBR322 DNA.

  9. Study of transient luminescence of three kinds of Ru complexes bound to DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The transient luminescence of three kinds of ruthenium complexes [Ru(bpy)2(7-CH3-dppz)]2+, [Ru(bpy)2(7-F-dppz)]2+ and [Ru(phen)2(7-F-dppz)]2+ bound to calf thy-mus DNA (ctDNA) has been studied by using the time-resolved spectroscopy. The results show that the luminescence is due to the radiative decay from the charge-transfer states to the ground state. By the interaction with DNA, the radia-tiveless rate of the photoexcited Ru complex molecules decreases, which results in the increase of luminescence lifetime and efficiency. The structure of the Ru com-plex has an important impact on the interaction with DNA. The [Ru(bpy)2(7-CH3-dppz)]2+ shows the longest luminescence lifetime (about 382 ns), while the [Ru(bpy)2(7-F-dppz)]2+ shows the shortest lifetime (about 65 ns). The possible origin of the luminescence dynamics is discussed.

  10. Synthesis, DNA Binding and Topoisomerase I Inhibition Activity of Thiazacridine and Imidazacridine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Almeida Lafayette

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Thiazacridine and imidazacridine derivatives have shown promising results as tumors suppressors in some cancer cell lines. For a better understanding of the mechanism of action of these compounds, binding studies of 5-acridin-9-ylmethylidene-3-amino-2-thioxo-thiazolidin-4-one, 5-acridin-9-ylmethylidene-2-thioxo-thiazolidin-4-one, 5-acridin-9-ylmethylidene-2-thioxo-imidazolidin-4-one and 3-acridin-9-ylmethyl-thiazolidin-2,4-dione with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA by electronic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy were performed. The binding constants ranged from 1.46 × 104 to 6.01 × 104 M−1. UV-Vis, fluorescence and circular dichroism measurements indicated that the compounds interact effectively with ctDNA, both by intercalation or external binding. They demonstrated inhibitory activities to human topoisomerase I, except for 5-acridin-9-ylmethylidene-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one. These results provide insight into the DNA binding mechanism of imidazacridines and thiazacridines.

  11. What Are the Risk Factors for Thymus Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? What are the risk factors for thymus cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting ... Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Thymus Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating ...

  12. Gamma irradiation or hydrocortisone treatment of rats increases the proteinase activity associated with histones of thymus nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increase in the activity of histone-associated rat thymus nucleus proteinases specific for histones H2A, H2B and H1 was shown after γ irradiation or hydrocortisone treatment of animals. Histone H1-specific proteinase activity is dependent on DNA and increases in the presence of denatured DNA, whereas proteinases specific for core histones are inhibited in the presence of denatured DNA. The increase in the activity of histone-associated proteinases depends on the radiation dose and the time after irradiation or hydrocortisone injection. In the presence of dithiothreitol and sodium dodecyl sulfate, these proteinases dissociate from histones. It was found by gel electrophoresis that several proteinases of various molecular masses are closely associated with histones obtained from thymus nuclei of irradiated or hydrocortisone-treated rats. 43 refs., 7 figs

  13. Synthesis, characterization and multi-spectroscopic DNA interaction studies of a new platinum complex containing the drug metformin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Heidari, Leila

    2014-07-01

    A new platinum(II) complex; [Pt(Met)(DMSO)Cl]Cl in which Met = metformin and DMSO: dimethylsulfoxide, was synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, IR, UV-Vis spectra, molar conductivity and computational methods. Binding interaction of this complex with calf thymus (CT) DNA has been investigated by using absorption, emission, circular dichroism, viscosity measurements, differential pulse voltammetry and cleavage studies by agarose gel electrophoresis. UV-Vis absorption studies showed hyperchromism. CD studies showed less perturbation on the base stacking and helicity bands in the CD spectrum of CT-DNA (B → C structural transition). In fluorimeteric studies, the Pt(II) complex can bind with DNA-NR complex and forms a new non-fluorescence adduct. The anodic peak current in the differential pulse voltammogram of the Pt(II) complex decreased gradually with the addition of DNA. Cleavage experiments showed that the Pt(II) complex does not induce any cleavage under the experimental setup. Finally all results indicated that Pt(II) complex interact with DNA via groove binding mode.

  14. Detection of DNA damage by exploiting the distance dependence of the electrochemiluminescence energy transfer between quantum dots and gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a platform to detect DNA damage induced by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) by measuring the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of a layer-by-layer electrostatic assembly. Gold nanoparticles were electrodeposited on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and then drop coated with calf thymus DNA. The surface of the GCE was then modified by sequential drop coating with polyethyleneimine and CdSe quantum dots (QDs). The electrode surface was characterized by atomic force microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. DNA damage was determined by measuring the ECL of the QDs, which decreases when exposed to PFOA. This is because DNA damage decreases the distance between the QDs and gold nanoparticles. Eventually, this leads to the energy transfer of ECL. The process is highly sensitive to distance. ECL intensity is logarithmically related to the concentration of PFOA in the range from 10 μmol L−1 to 10 pmol L−1, and the detection limit is 10−12 mol L−1 (at an S/N ratio of 3). This ECL-based sensor represents a powerful tool for detecting PFOA and for fabricating in vitro gene vector platforms to study DNA damage. (author)

  15. Synthesis of novel fluorescent probe Tb(III)-7-carboxymethoxy-4-methylcoumarin complex for sensing of DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, Belal H.M., E-mail: belalhussein102@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Azab, Hassan A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Fathalla, Walid [Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Port-Said University, Port-Said (Egypt); Ali, Sherin A.M. [Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt)

    2013-02-15

    New fluorescent probe Tb(III) (7-carboxymethoxy-4-methylcoumarin)2(SCN) (C2H5OH)(H2O) was synthesized and characterized by spectroscopy and thermal analysis. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of 7-carboxymethoxy-4-methylcoumarin (CMMC) and Tb(III)-CMMC complex have been measured in different solvents. The interactions of Tb(III)-CMMC complex with calf thymus nucleic acid (CT-DNA) have been investigated using steady state fluorescence measurements. The changes in the fluorescence intensity have been used for the quantitative determination of DNA with LOD of 3.45 ng in methanol-water (9:1, v/v). The association constants of DNA with Tb(III)-CMMC complex was found to be 2.62 Multiplication-Sign 1010 M{sup -1}. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New fluorescent probe Terbium (III)-7-carboxy methoxy-4-methylcoumarin complex has been synthesized and characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FTIR spectrum of Tb(III)-complex shows a characteristic band for thiocyanate group. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA interaction with Terbium (III)-7-carboxy methoxy-4-methylcoumarin has been studied by fluorescence techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The change in the fluorescence intensity has been used for the quantitative determination of DNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result was better than most of the well-known methods including the ethidium bromide method.

  16. New mixed ligand complexes of ruthenium(II) that incorporate a modified phenanthroline ligand: Synthesis, spectral characterization and DNA binding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Murali; C V Sastri; Bhaskar G Maiya

    2002-08-01

    The hexafluorophosphate and chloride salts of two ruthenium(II) complexes, viz. [Ru(phen)(ptzo)2]2+ and [Ru(ptzo)3]2+, where ptzo = 1,10-phenanthrolino[5,6-]1,2,4-triazine-3-one (ptzo) - a new modified phenanthroline (phen) ligand, have been synthesised. These complexes have been characterised by infrared, UV-Vis, steady-state emission and 1H NMR spectroscopic methods. Results of absorption and fluorescence titration as well as thermal denaturation studies reveal that both the bis- and tris-complexes of ptzo show moderately strong affinity for binding with calf thymus (CT) DNA with the binding constants being close to 105M-1 in each case. An intercalative mode of DNA binding has been suggested for both the complexes. Emission studies carried out in non-aqueous solvents and in aqueous media without DNA reveal that both [Ru(phen)(ptzo)2]2+ and [Ru(ptzo)3]2+ are weakly luminescent under these solution conditions. Successive addition of CT DNA to buffered aqueous solutions containing [Ru(phen)(ptzo)2]2+ results in an enhancement of the emission. These results have been discussed in the light of the dependence of the structure-specific deactivation processes of the MLCT state of the metallointercalator with the characteristic features of its DNA interaction. In doing so, attempts have been made to compare and contrast its properties with those of the analogous phenanthroline-based complexes including the ones reported by us previously.

  17. DNA修饰电极的制备及扫描电化学显微镜表征%THE CHARACTERIZATION AND SCANNING ELECTROCHEMICAL MICROSCOPIC IMAGING OF SURFACE-CONFINED DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 卓琳; 康敬万; 董树清; 卢小泉

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1实验部分 1.1仪器与试剂美国CH仪器公司CHI 900扫描电化学显微镜,以直径为25 μm的Pt微电极为SECM的探针,其制备参见文献[1],裸金电极及DNA修饰电极为基底,Ag/AgCl(饱和KCl)为参比电极,Pt丝为对电极.Calf thymus DNA(sigma),EDAC(sigma),铁氰化钾(K3Fe(CN)6),氯化钾(KCl)均为分析纯.实验用水为二次蒸馏水,每次实验前用高纯氮除氧.实验均在室温(25±2℃)下进行.

  18. BENZO[a]PYRENE METABOLITES EXAGGERATE DNA OXIDATIVE DAMAGE UPON THE INVOLVEMENT OF FREE RADICALS%苯并[a]比代谢产物在自由基参与下加速DNA的氧化损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗云敬; GAO Da-yuan; WEI Hua-chen

    2003-01-01

    @@ Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),which constitute a major class of environmental pollu tants are posing a threat to human health. Benzopyrene,an index of PAH levels omnipresent in the everyday environment ,becomes toxic only when being metabolically and/or photo-activated,i. e. ,in the pres ence of UV light. Free radicals such as superoxide anions ('O2),hydrogen peroxide (H2O2),hydroxyl radicals ('OH) and singlet oxygen (1O2) are involved in carcinogenesis. Wei CE etc[1] studied the effects of different scavengers of active oxygen species (superoxide dismutase,catalase,mannitol and dimethyfu ran) on promoting B[a]P mutagenicity. Bryla P ete[2] investigated the roles of several ROS scavengers in the oxidation and binding of B[a]P to calf thymus DNA using the 32p-postlabeling assay.

  19. CONJOINED TWIN CALF IN A BUFFALO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maqbool Ahmad, A. Khan1 and H.A. Samad

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The present case was a conjoined female twin calf joined at thorax having symmetrical two heads, two necks, four forelimbs, two hind limbs, single belly, distally separated two tails and single vulva (Dicephalus dipus tetrabrachius. When skin was incised and thoracic and abdominal cavities were opened, partial bifurcation of thoracic to lumbar vertebrae was observed. There were incompletely doubled lungs and hearts. The two esophagi joined .the common gastrointestinal tract. The urogenital system was single.

  20. MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES AND MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF HUMAN FETAL THYMUS GLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Havila Hasini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thymus is one of the central lymphoid organs. It plays an important role in the differentiation, selection and maturation of T-lymphocytes. In the recent years morphology and morphometry of the thymus gland in the newborn is gaining significance as it demonstrates great variability between individual infants and in the same infant at different times. Materials and methods: In the present study 45 thymus specimens from aborted human fetuses of 16 to 40 weeks gestational age and both sexes were studied by autopsy for morphological and morphometric features. The morphometric parameters were measured using pachymeter. Results: The thymus gland was located in the superior mediastinum. 60% (27/45 specimens showed cervical extensions. Brachiocephalic vein anterior to thymus was observed in 3 cases which is an important anomaly to be observed in thymectomy procedure. Thymuses were greyish pink to greyish brown in colour. Variations were also observed in the number of lobes of glands in which one is single lobed, most of the glands are bilobed and few are trilobed. There is progressive increase in all morphometric dimensions of the thymus in relation to gestational age. Most of the specimens were less than 4cm in length. Half of the specimens were below 2cm in width and other half were 2.0 to 5.0 cm in width. For 90% of the specimens thickness of the organ was less than 0.5cm. The thymus gland was 0.2% of fetal body weight. Conclusion: The morphological observations of thymus gland shows great variations which has to be considered in thymectomy. In addition to anthropometric parameters of fetus, morphometric parameters of thymus glands present significant relation to the gestational age of fetuses. It is possible to determine the thymic morphometric parameters in relation to gestational age.

  1. Dyskospondylitis and paravertebral abscesses in a calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of progressive spastic paraparesis due to a dyskospondylitis at the level of T9-T10 is described in a four-month old Holstein female calf. The calf was recumbent, but bright, alert and willing to suckle. Despite repeated attempts, the calf was not able to assume the sternal recumbency. The radiological findings were decisive for the in life diagnosis. Spinal radiography of the thoraco-lumbar region revealed lysis and collapse of T9 and T10 vertebral bodies; irregular proliferative new bone was evident. Lumbo-sacral myelography showed a narrowing and dorsal displacement of the ventral contrast column at the same spinal level, indicating a severe ventral extradural compression of the spinal cord. At the level of the thoracic cavity, a 20 x 15 cm diameter opacity extending ventrally to T8-T13 and caudo-dorsally to the heart was also evident. At gross necroscopy, two approximately 15 cm diameter encapsulated paravertebral abscesses were evident in the thoracis cavity just below the spinal column. A pure culture of Fusobacterium necrophorum was obtained from them. A saggital section of the spine showed an erosive suppurative process of T9 and T10 vertebral bodies that provoked the compression of the thoracic tract of the spinal cord

  2. The relationship of cow size and calf birth weight to calf weaning weight in a commercial Brangus cow/calf operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profitability and sustainability of cow/calf operations are dependent on cow efficiency. Annual forage consumption is a logical input component included in cow efficiency models and large cows generally consume more forage annually than small cows. The ratio of additional kg of calf weaning BW to ea...

  3. Cytotoxic and DNA-topoisomerase effects of lapachol amine derivatives and interactions with DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Esteves-Souza

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The cytotoxic activity of amino (3a-e, aza-1-antraquinone (4a-e lapachol derivatives against Ehrlich carcinoma and human K562 leukemia cells was investigated. Cell viability was determined using MTT assay, after 48 (Ehrlich or 96 h (K562 of culture, and vincristine (for K562 leukemia and quercetin (for Ehrlich carcinoma were used as positive controls. The results showed dose-dependent growth-inhibiting activities and that the amino derivatives were active against the assayed cells, whereas the 4a-e derivatives were not. The allylamine derivative 3a was the most active against Ehrlich carcinoma, with IC50 = 16.94 ± 1.25 µM, and against K562 leukemia, with IC50 = 14.11 ± 1.39 µM. The analogous lawsone derivative, 5a, was also active against Ehrlich carcinoma (IC50 = 23.89 ± 2.3 µM, although the 5d and 5e derivatives showed lower activity. The interaction between 3a-d and calf thymus DNA was investigated by fluorimetric titration and the results showed a hyperchromic effect indicating binding to DNA as presented of ethidium bromide, used as positive control. The inhibitory action on DNA-topoisomerase II-a was also evaluated by a relaxation assay of supercoiled DNA plasmid, and the etoposide (200 µM was used as positive control. Significant inhibitory activities were observed for 3a-d at 200 µM and a partial inhibitory action was observed for lapachol and methoxylapachol.

  4. Racemic R,S-venlafaxine hydrochloride-DNA interaction: Experimental and computational evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Hadidi, Saba; Ghasemian, Zeinab; Taherpour, Avat(Arman)

    2015-06-01

    The interaction of racemic R,S-venlafaxine hydrochloride (rac-VEN) drug with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ct-DNA) was studied using various physico-chemical techniques and molecular docking at simulated physiological conditions (pH = 7.4). The fluorescence study shows that ct-DNA interacted with rac-VEN and quenched its intrinsic fluorescence in a static quenching process. These results are further supported by UV-Vis spectra. The binding constant of rac-VEN with ct-DNA (0.57 × 104) obtained from the spectroscopic techniques, which is more in keeping with the groove binding with DNA. Furthermore, the competition experiment using Hoechst33258 indicated that rac-VEN may bind to ct-DNA by a minor groove binding mode. In addition, iodide quenching effect on the fluorescence of rac-VEN before and after the interaction with ct-DNA is another evidence to groove binding. The thermodynamic parameters are calculated by van't Hoff equation, which demonstrated that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions played major roles in the binding reaction. Molecular simulation studies carried out by using the AutoDock4 and Spartan10 programs. From the best docking map, we found that R and S-isomers fit in the A6T7T8/T19A18A17 region in minor groove of B-DNA. Finally, these results indicated that the docking of S-VEN-B-DNA is more stable than R-VEN-B-DNA.

  5. The effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on carcass cutability and tenderness of calf-fed Holstein steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmyn, A J; Shook, J N; VanOverbeke, D L; Beckett, J L; Delmore, R J; Yates, D A; Allen, D M; Hilton, G G

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on carcass cutability and tenderness of calf-fed Holstein steers, calf-fed Holstein carcasses (n = 102) were selected from a pool of 2,300 steers that were fed 0 or 8.3 mg/kg (DM basis) of ZH. Zilpaterol hydrochloride was supplemented the last 20 d of the finishing period and withdrawn for 3 d before slaughter. Carcasses were selected based on carcass weight as well as predetermined USDA Yield grade categories. For tenderness evaluation, steaks from the strip loin, bottom round, and top round (n = 54 per subprimal) were aged for 14 or 21 d postmortem. Carcasses from ZH-fed steers had more (P 0.05); however, ZH increased thawing loss (P = 0.05) but reduced cooking loss (P = 0.05) in bottom round steaks. Shear force values of LM and inside round steaks increased with ZH inclusion (P 0.05). Steaks aged for 21 d had smaller (P 0.05) in sensory juiciness, tenderness, or flavor variables of LM or inside round steaks, except ZH steaks from the LM received smaller scores for sustained juiciness (P = 0.01) and overall tenderness (P = 0.04) than control steaks. Although LM steaks from ZH cattle were tougher than control steaks, the ZH-treated steaks had an average WBS value of 4.10 kg, which would be classified as intermediate in tenderness, with trained panelists rating ZH steaks slightly to moderately tender. Feeding ZH improved carcass cutability of calf-fed Holstein steers; however, tenderness was reduced in LM and inside round steaks. The interaction of postmortem tenderization techniques should be investigated to evaluate their impact on palatability in cattle supplemented with beta-agonists to allow the beef industry to take full advantage of the enhancement in performance and carcass yield. PMID:20382878

  6. De novo design, synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of chiral benzimidazole-derived amino acid Zn(II) complexes: Development of tryptophan-derived specific hydrolytic DNA artificial nuclease agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Shazia; Arjmand, Farukh

    2012-01-01

    Novel ternary dizinc(II) complexes 1- 3, derived from 1,2-bis(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)ethane-1,2-diol and L-form of amino acids (viz., tryptophan, leucine and valine) were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic (IR, 1H NMR, UV-vis, ESI-MS) and other analytical methods. To evaluate the biological preference of chiral drugs for inherently chiral target DNA, interaction of 1- 3 with calf thymus DNA in Tris-HCl buffer was studied by various biophysical techniques which reveal that all these complexes bind to CT DNA non-covalently via electrostatic interaction. The higher Kb value of L-tryptophan complex 1 suggested greater DNA binding propensity. Further, to evaluate the mode of action at the molecular level, interaction studies of complexes 1 and 2 with nucleotides (5'-GMP and 5'-TMP) were carried out by UV-vis titrations, 1H and 31P NMR which implicates the preferential selectivity of these complexes to N3 of thymine rather than N7 of guanine. Furthermore, complex 1 exhibits efficient DNA cleavage with supercoiled pBR322. The complex 1 cleaves DNA efficiently involving hydrolytic cleavage pathway. Such chiral synthetic hydrolytic nucleases with asymmetric centers are gaining considerable attention owing to their importance in biotechnology and drug design, in particular to cleave DNA with sequence selectivity different from that of the natural enzymes.

  7. cDNA: 44744 [ASTRA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.29756 Mus musculus 0 day neonate thymus cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched librar ... 1 product:hypothetical Eukaryotic thiol (cysteine) proteases ... active site containing protein, full insert sequen ...

  8. Irradiated fetal thymus transplantation in a patient with combined immunodeficiency with predominant T cell defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Shigenori; Yanabe, Yasuhide; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Akahoshi, Izumi; Migita, Masahiro; Matsuda, Ichiro (Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Udaka, Keiji

    1993-02-01

    A 6 month old boy was diagnosed as a case of combined immunodeficiency (with predominant T cell defect by previous classification). His T cell count was decreased, his B cell count in peripheral blood was increased, his serum IgG level was decreased, his serum IgM level was normal and the thymus was not evident on CT scans and magnetic resonance imaging. Administration of the thymus hormone, thymosin, led to a partial recovery of T cell function without normalization of the T cell count. At age 26 months the patient received an irradiated thymus transplantation from a 16 week old female fetus. After the transplantation, the T cell count (mainly CD4[sup +] cells) increased by 50-70%. A mild graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR) occurred and several immunosuppressants were prescribed. Chromosome analysis showed that the T cells have both 46 XY and 46 XX karyotypes while the B cells have the 46 XY karyotype alone. His cellular immunity (skin tests, DNA synthesis, mixed lymphocyte reaction, cytotoxic activity and natural killer cell function) and his serum IgG level remained low. However, being on regular [gamma]-globulin therapy and oral anti-fungal drugs, he is now living normally with almost no trouble at age 6 years and 3 months. This case showed that irradiated thymus transplantation might be a useful method when an adequate donor for bone marrow transplantation is not available. The unexpected observation that the increased T cells were mainly CD4 may be related to the mild GVHR and the clinical improvement. (author).

  9. Synthesis, structural characterization and biological activity of a trinuclear zinc(II) complex: DNA interaction study and antimicrobial activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhaskar Biswas; Niranjan Kole; Moumita Patra; Shampa Dutta; Mousumi Ganguly

    2013-11-01

    A trinuclear zinc(II) complex [Zn3L2(-O2CCH3)2(H2O)2]·H2O·2CH3OH (1) was synthesized from an in situ reaction between zinc acetate and a Schiff base ligand (H2L = 2-((2-hydroxyphenylimino) methyl)-6-methoxyphenol). The ligand was prepared by (1:1) condensation of ortho-vanillin and ortho-aminophenol. The ligand and zinc(II) complex were characterized by elemental analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), UV-Vis spectroscopy, Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) and thermogravimetric analysis. 1 crystallizes in P-1 space group with = 11.9241(3) Å, = 12.19746 Å, = 20.47784 Å with unit cell volume is 2674.440 (Å)3. Binding property of the complex with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) has been investigated using absorption and emission studies. Thermal melting and viscosity experiments were further performed to determine the mode of binding of 1 with CT-DNA. Spectroscopic and viscosity investigations revealed an intercalative binding mode of 1 with CT-DNA. The ligand and its zinc complex were screened for their biological activity against bacterial species and fungi. Activity data show that the metal complex has more antibacterial and antifungal activity than the parent Schiff base ligand and against those bacterial or fungi species.

  10. DNA binding mode of novel tetradentate amino acid based 2-hydroxybenzylidene-4-aminoantipyrine complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, N.; Sobha, S.; Selvaganapathy, M.; Mahalakshmi, R.

    2012-10-01

    Few transition metal complexes of tetradentate N2O2 donor Schiff base ligands containing 2-hydroxybenzylidene-4-aminoantipyrine and amino acids (alanine/valine) abbreviated to KHL1/KHL2 have been synthesized. All the metal complexes have been fully characterized with the help of elemental analyses, molecular weights, molar conductance values, magnetic moments and spectroscopic data. The Schiff bases KHL1/KHL2 are found to act as tetradentate ligands using N2O2 donor set of atoms leading to a square-planar geometry for the complexes around the metal ions. The binding behaviors of the complexes to calf thymus DNA have been investigated by absorption spectra, viscosity measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The DNA binding constants reveal that all these complexes interact with DNA through minor groove binding mode. The studies on mechanism of photocleavage reveal that singlet oxygen (1O2) and superoxide anion radical (O2rad -) may play an important role in the photocleavage. The Schiff bases and their metal complexes have been screened for their in vitro antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger, Fusarium solani, Culvularia lunata, Rhizoctonia bataicola and Candida albicans by MIC method.

  11. Antiproliferative activity of bicyclic benzimidazole nucleosides: synthesis, DNA-binding and cell cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontakke, Vyankat A; Lawande, Pravin P; Kate, Anup N; Khan, Ayesha; Joshi, Rakesh; Kumbhar, Anupa A; Shinde, Vaishali S

    2016-04-26

    An efficient route was developed for synthesis of bicyclic benzimidazole nucleosides from readily available d-glucose. The key reactions were Vörbruggen glycosylation and ring closing metathesis (RCM). Primarily, to understand the mode of DNA binding, we performed a molecular docking study and the binding was found to be in the minor groove region. Based on the proposed binding model, UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques using calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) demonstrated a non-intercalative mode of binding. Antiproliferative activity of nucleosides was tested against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines and found to be active at low micromolar concentrations. Compounds and displayed significant antiproliferative activity as compared to and with the reference anticancer drug, doxorubicin. Cell cycle analysis showed that nucleoside induced cell cycle arrest at the S-phase. Confocal microscopy has been performed to validate the induction of cellular apoptosis. Based on these findings, such modified bicyclic benzimidazole nucleosides will make a significant contribution to the development of anticancer drugs. PMID:27074628

  12. DNA interaction and efficient antimicrobial activities of 4N chelating metal complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packianathan, S; Arun, T; Raman, N

    2015-07-01

    A new series of metal(II) complexes using a symmetric Schiff base ligand, obtained by the condensation reaction of 4-formyl-N,N-dimethylaniline with benzene-1,2-diamine were synthesized and characterized. The various physico-chemical data indicate that the complexes have octahedral geometry. The intrinsic binding constant of the complexes with DNA is explored. The UV-Vis., circular dichorism, fluorescence emission spectral data and the viscosity measurements indicate that the complexes bind to calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) by intercalative mode. The intrinsic binding constants of Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) complexes are found to be 7.1×10(4), 5.2×10(4), 1.8×10(5) and 6.3×10(4) M(-1), respectively. The cleavage studies of these complexes are investigated by gel electrophoresis method in the presence of peroxide. The complexes exhibit enhanced biological activities compared to the free ligand. PMID:25931401

  13. Synthesis, spectral characterization, DNA interaction, radical scavenging and cytotoxicity studies of ruthenium(II) hydrazone complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanraj, Maruthachalam; Ayyannan, Ganesan; Raja, Gunasekaran; Jayabalakrishnan, Chinnasamy

    2016-05-01

    Three new ruthenium(II) complexes with hydrazone ligands, furan-2-carboxylic acid (2,4-dihydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazide (HL(1)), furan-2-carboxylic acid [4-(ethyl-propyl-amino)-2-hydroxy-benzylidene]-hydrazide (HL(2)) and furan-2-carboxylic acid (3-ethoxy-2-hydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazide (HL(3)) were synthesized and characterized by various spectro-analytical techniques. The hydrazone ligands act as a tridendate ligand with ONO as the donor sites and are preferably found in the enol form in all the complexes. The molecular structure of the ligands was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The interaction of the ligands and the complexes with CT-DNA were evaluated by an absorption titration method which revealed that the compounds interact with CT-DNA through intercalation. Gel electrophoresis assay demonstrated the ability of the complexes to cleave the calf thymus DNA hydrolytically. Antioxidant studies showed that the ruthenium(II) complexes have a strong radical-scavenging properties. Further, the cytotoxic effect of the compounds examined on cancerous cell lines showed that the complexes exhibited substantial anticancer activity. PMID:26974577

  14. Nickel (II) Ions Interaction with Polynucleotides and DNA of Different GC Composition

    CERN Document Server

    Bregadze, Vasil G; Melikishvili, Sophie Z; Melikishvili, Zaza G

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the work was to study the role of GC alternative dimmers in the binding of DNA with Ni (II) ions. The method of ultraviolet difference spectroscopy has been applied to investigate Ni (II) ions interactions with DNA extracted from Clostridium perfringens, Mice liver (C3HA line), Calf thymus, Salmon sperm, Herring sperm, E.coli, Micrococcus luteus and polynucleotides Poly (dA-dT)xPoly (dA-dT), Poly (dG)x Poly (dC), Poly (dG-dC)xPoly (dG-dC). It is shown that Ni (II) ions at outer-spherical binding with DNA double helix from the side of the major groove choose more stable dimmers 3^'-C-G-5^' . . 5^'-G-C-3^' and get bound with N7 atoms of both guanines in dimmer forming G-G interstrand crosslink. It directly correlates to the process of forming point defects of Watson-Crick wrong pair type (creation of rare keto-enolic and amino-imino tautomeric forms) and depurinization.

  15. 32P-postlabelling analysis of DNA adducted with urinary mutagens from smokers of black tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, M; Castegnaro, M; Malaveille, C; Talaska, G; Vineis, P; Kadlubar, F; Bartsch, H

    1990-08-01

    In order to characterize the tobacco-derived mutagens excreted in the urine of tobacco smokers, 32P-postlabelling techniques were used to examine DNA adducts formed from these mutagens with calf thymus DNA in the presence of a metabolic activation system (rat liver S9, Aroclor 1254-induced, with or without acetyl coenzyme A). Using either nuclease P1 or butanol extraction procedures, four-six and three spots, respectively, were reproducibly found on the autoradiograms in the case of the urine extract from two smokers of black tobacco. Using the urinary extract from a non-smoker, only three faint spots were detected after nuclease P1 enrichment. DNA adducts produced in smokers' urine were then compared with those formed by four N-hydroxyarylamines, N-hydroxy-2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, N-hydroxy-2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, N-hydroxy-2-naphthylamine and N-hydroxy-4-aminobiphenyl. Visual inspection revealed that none of the reference aromatic amines contributed to the adduct pattern produced by the urinary mutagen(s). However, primary aromatic amines are mainly implicated as urinary mutagens because: (i) they produce frameshift mutations in Salmonella typhimurium strains, (ii) they are easily extractable with blue cotton and (iii) their mutagenicity is abolished by a nitrite treatment procedure for deamination. PMID:2387016

  16. Novel insights into the apoptosis mechanism of DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor isoliquiritigenin on HCC tumor cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inhibitory effect of DNA topoisomerase (Top I) by isoliquiritigenin(ISO) were investigated and their interaction mechanism was evaluated using methods including UV–vis absorption, fluorescence, coupled with molecular simulation, and using the MTT method of inhibition rate of HCC tumor cell SNU475 proliferation assay, finally, the interaction of ISO with calf thymus DNA was investigated by melting measurements and molecular docking studies. It was found that isoliquiritigenin reversibly inhibited DNA Top I in a competitive manner with the concentrations of ISO resulting in 50% activity lost (IC50) were estimated to be 0.178 ± 0.12 mM. Isoliquiritigenin exhibited a strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of Top I through a static quenching procedure. The positive values of enthalpy change and entropy change suggested that the binding of isoliquiritigenin to Top I was driven mainly by hydrophobic interactions. The molecular docking results revealed isoliquiritigenin actually interacted with the primary amino acid residues on the active site of Top I, and the detection results of fluorescence staining and the inhibitory effect on the growth of HCC SUN475 showed that isoliquiritigenin induced the apoptosis cells increased gradually. The interaction of ISO with DNA can cause the denaturation temperature to be increased, which indicated that the stabilization of the DNA helix was increased in the presence of ISO, which indicated that the results provide strong evidence for intercalative binding of ISO with DNA. - Highlights: • ISO reversibly inhibits TOP I activity in an A dose dependent manner. • Hydrophobic interactions play a major role in ISO–TOP I interaction. • ISO has a high affinity close to the active site pocket of TOP I. • The binding of ISO to DNA induces the stability of the structure of DNA

  17. Novel insights into the apoptosis mechanism of DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor isoliquiritigenin on HCC tumor cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ze-xin; Li, Jian; Li, Yan; You, Kun; Xu, Hongwei; Wang, Jianguo, E-mail: wangjianguoxx@163.com

    2015-08-21

    The inhibitory effect of DNA topoisomerase (Top I) by isoliquiritigenin(ISO) were investigated and their interaction mechanism was evaluated using methods including UV–vis absorption, fluorescence, coupled with molecular simulation, and using the MTT method of inhibition rate of HCC tumor cell SNU475 proliferation assay, finally, the interaction of ISO with calf thymus DNA was investigated by melting measurements and molecular docking studies. It was found that isoliquiritigenin reversibly inhibited DNA Top I in a competitive manner with the concentrations of ISO resulting in 50% activity lost (IC{sub 50}) were estimated to be 0.178 ± 0.12 mM. Isoliquiritigenin exhibited a strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of Top I through a static quenching procedure. The positive values of enthalpy change and entropy change suggested that the binding of isoliquiritigenin to Top I was driven mainly by hydrophobic interactions. The molecular docking results revealed isoliquiritigenin actually interacted with the primary amino acid residues on the active site of Top I, and the detection results of fluorescence staining and the inhibitory effect on the growth of HCC SUN475 showed that isoliquiritigenin induced the apoptosis cells increased gradually. The interaction of ISO with DNA can cause the denaturation temperature to be increased, which indicated that the stabilization of the DNA helix was increased in the presence of ISO, which indicated that the results provide strong evidence for intercalative binding of ISO with DNA. - Highlights: • ISO reversibly inhibits TOP I activity in an A dose dependent manner. • Hydrophobic interactions play a major role in ISO–TOP I interaction. • ISO has a high affinity close to the active site pocket of TOP I. • The binding of ISO to DNA induces the stability of the structure of DNA.

  18. Inhibition of Pro-oxidant induced DNA Damage in isolated human peripheral lymphocytes by methanolic extract of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekar S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The present preliminary investigation reveals the anti-oxidant effects of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia leaves. Dried and powdered leaves of Tinospora cordifolia was subjected to methanol extraction, and total phenols, sugars and proteins were determined. DNA fragmentation was carried out using isolated human peripheral lymphocytes and Calf thymus DNA as a model system. The results showed that the methanol extract of Tinospora cordifolia is rich in total polyphenols (>3 mg/g in comparison to sugars (<2 mg/g and protein (<1 mg/g. DNA fragmentation was measured by diphenylamine method. The polyphenols rich fraction of Tinospora cordifolia leaves were found to offer 64% protection on Fe:As (10:100μmole induced DNA fragmentation, where as BHA offered protection by 88% and was found to have direct correlation between the total polyphenols and its protective against pro-oxidant induced DNA fragmentation. The in-vitro anti-oxidant activity of Tinospora cordifolia justifies the medicinal use of this plant.

  19. Hetero-metallic trigonal cage-shaped dimeric Ni3K core complex of L-proline ligand: Synthesis, structural, electrochemical and DNA binding and cleavage activities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Nagasubramanian; A Jayamani; V Thamilarasan; G Aravindan; V Ganesan; N Sengottuvelan

    2014-05-01

    Hetero-metallic trigonal cage-shaped dimeric Ni3K core complex of L-proline ligand has been synthesized and characterized. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the hetero-metallic Ni(II)-K(I) complex has a dimeric structure with nine coordinated potassium atoms and six coordinated nickel atoms. The cyclic voltammograms of the complex exhibited two successive quasireversible reduction waves at ($E^{1}_{pc} = −1.02$ V and $E^{2}_{pc} = −1.33$ V) and two successive irreversible oxidation waves ($E^{1}_{pa} = 0.95$ V and $E^{2}_{pa} = 1.45$ V) versus Ag/AgCl in DMF solution. Interaction of the complex with calf-thymus DNA (CT DNA) has been studied using spectroscopic techniques. The complex is an avid DNA binder with a binding constant of 3.6 × 108 M-1. The complex showed efficient oxidative cleavage of supercoiled pBR322 DNA in the presence of the reducing agent hydrogen peroxide involving hydroxyl radical (°OH) species. As evidenced from the control experiment, DNA cleavage in the presence of °OH radical was inhibited by quenchers, viz. DMSO and KI. The complex showed in vitro antimicrobial activity against four bacteria and two fungi and the activity is greater than that of the free ligand.

  20. Performance and Health of Group-Housed Calves Kept in Igloo Calf Hutches and Calf Barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Wójcik*, Renata Pilarczyk, Anna Bilska, Ottfried Weiher1 and Peter Sanftleben1

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Group-reared calves are usually housed in common buildings, such as calf barns of all sorts; however, there are concerns about this practice due to problems such as an increased incidence of diseases and poor performance of the calves. Group calf rearing using igloo hutches may be a solution combining the benefits of individual and group housing systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate group-reared calves housed in Igloo-type hutches compared with those housed in common calf barns. The experiment was carried out on a large private dairy farm located in Vorpommern, Germany. A total of 90 Deutsche-Holstein bull calves were assigned to 2 treatment groups: the calf-barn group, with calves grouped in pens in a building, and the Igloo-hutch group, with calves housed in outdoor enclosures with an access to group igloo-style hutches. Calves entering the 84-day experiment were at an average age of about three weeks, with the mean initial body weight of about 50 kg. The calves housed in the group Igloo hutches attained higher daily weight gains compared to those housed in the calf barn (973 vs 721 g/day, consumed more solid feeds (concentrate, corn grain and maize silage: (1.79 vs 1.59 kg/day, and less milk replacer (5.51 vs 6.19 kg/day, had also a lower incidence of respiratory diseases (1.24 vs 3.57% with a shorter persistence of the illness.

  1. Three chemokine receptors cooperatively regulate homing of hematopoietic progenitors to the embryonic mouse thymus

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón, Lesly; Boehm, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The thymus lacks self-renewing hematopoietic cells, and thymopoiesis fails rapidly when the migration of progenitor cells to the thymus ceases. Hence, the process of thymus homing is an essential step for T-cell development and cellular immunity. Despite decades of research, the molecular details of thymus homing have not been elucidated fully. Here, we show that chemotaxis is the key mechanism regulating thymus homing in the mouse embryo. We determined the number of early thymic progenitors ...

  2. Microsatellites for genetic and taxonomic research on thyme (Thymus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Karaca, Mehmet; İNCE, Ayşe Gül; AYDIN, Adnan; ELMASULU, Safinaz Y.; TURGUT, Kenan

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellites are considered the marker of choice in modern research. However, there is no application of microsatellites in the research on the genus Thymus due to the scarcity of specific primer pairs. Using in silico data of several genera in the family Lamiaceae, 23 microsatellite primer pairs (LT) were developed and evaluated in 48 samples representing 9 species and subspecies of the genus Thymus. Codominant and multiallelic LT microsatellite markers were not only useful in the determi...

  3. Drafting mechanisms between a dolphin mother and calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoele, Kourosh; Zhu, Qiang

    2015-10-01

    We numerically study the drafting mechanisms between a dolphin mother and her calf swimming near the free surface. Formation locomotion between the cetacean mother-calf pair provides a way for the mother to assist the calf in its locomotion. Depending on the age and size of the calf, it swims at neonate, echelon, and infant positions. At each position, the effects of the calf's size, swimming speed, proximity to the free surface and the formation pattern are investigated and the optimal configurations predicted by the model based on the swimming hydrodynamics are compared with previous observations. It is shown that the neonate position is the optimal formation for controlling the separation of the calf, and the echelon position is the most hydrodynamically efficient position in transferring the thrust force from the mother to the calf. The infant position, on the other hand, avoids the energy loss due to wave generation so that it improves the self-propulsion performance of an older calf. PMID:26235288

  4. Quantitative assessment of calf circumference in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenakker, EAC; de Vries, Joeke; Fock, JM; van Tol, M; Brouwer, OF; Maurits, NM; van der Hoeven, JH

    2002-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is clinically characterised by progressive muscle weakness and a gradual increase in the size of some affected muscles, especially calf muscles. The extent of calf enlargement is usually determined by subjective visual assessment. The purpose of this study was to determin

  5. Repeated occurrence of jejuno-jejunal intussusception in a calf

    OpenAIRE

    Pravettoni, Davide; Morandi, Nicola; Rondena, Marco; Riccaboni, Pietro; Zani, Davide D; Scandella, Massimiliano; Belloli, Angelo G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the clinical findings, diagnostic imaging, surgical management, and necropsy of an unusual case of jejuno-jejunal intussusception in a calf that was diagnosed with the use of ultrasonography, and treated surgically by resection and end-to-end anastomosis. The calf fatally relapsed 8 d after laparotomy. Necropsy and histology revealed enteritis and myenteric ganglionitis.

  6. CalfScience: Extension Education at Many Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dale A.; Tellessen, Kathlyn; Sischo, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The issue of antimicrobial resistance in food animal agriculture was addressed by conducting clinical trials to assess alternatives to antimicrobials in dairy calf-raising and developing outreach to three different audiences. Current research was integrated into Extension programs for calf-raisers, animal science and veterinary students, and food…

  7. Radiographical diagnosis of the thymus in myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparison of radiographical findings of the thymus between pneumomediastinography and computed tomography were studied in 35 patients with myasthenia gravis. The patients consisted of 10 patients with thymoma and 25 without thymoma confirmed at the operations. Pneumomediastinography was very useful to discern whether the thymoma was invasive or noninvasive, but not contributory to know whether the thymus was composed of folicular lymphoid hyperplasia or normal thyimic tissues. Computed tomography was also useful to dertermine the localization and the invasiveness of the thymoma, but not helpful to know whether the thymus was of follicular lymphoid hyperplasia or normal tissues. However, the finding of ''reticular pattern''-many small nodules scattered resicularly in the thymus-in computed tomography could be regarded as a sign suggesting follicular lymphoid hyperplasia of the thymus. Therfore, both pneumomediastinography and computed tomography were very useful in the diagnosis of the localization and the invasiveness of the thymoma but not for the diagnosis of follicular lymphoid hyperplasia of the thymus. Neverethless the finding of ''reticular pattern'' computred tomography was helpful in the diagnosis of follicular lymphoid hyperplasia. (author)

  8. Thermodynamics of the DNA binding of biogenic polyamines: Calorimetric and spectroscopic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► DNA binding of spermine > spermidine >> putrescine > cadaverine. ► Binding of the polyamines stabilized the DNA melting temperature by 6–17 K. ► Binding was entropy driven with small enthalpy contribution at all temperatures. ► Electrostatic interaction is the major contributing force to the Gibbs energy term. ► Small but negative heat capacity changes indicate the role of hydrophobic forces. - Abstract: The thermodynamics of the reaction of biogenic polyamines spermine, spermidine, putrescine and cadaverine with calf thymus DNA was studied by thermal melting, differential scanning calorimetry and isothermal titration calorimetry experiments. These results were supplemented by ethidium bromide displacement and circular dichroism experiments. Melting studies show enhanced stabilization of DNA melting temperature by spermine (17 K) > spermidine (11 K) > putrescine (7 K) > cadaverine (6 K). The binding affinity of the polyamines to DNA as determined from calorimetry experiments was in the order, spermine > spermidine > putrescine > cadaverine with KiSPM = 6.20 × 105 M−1, KiSPD = 3.10 × 105 M−1, KiPUT = 1.80 × 104 M−1, and KiCAD = 1.60 × 104 M−1 at T = 293.15 K, which correlated with their increasing number of positive charges. The trend in the binding affinity was also in agreement with the IC50 values of ethidium bromide displacement ability and circular dichroism perturbations. Absorbance and circular dichroism studies showed perturbation of DNA conformation within the B-form by spermine to be the highest and that by cadaverine to be the least. The binding of all the four polyamines was entropy driven with small enthalpy contributions that were unfavourable. Electrostatic interaction is judged to be the major contributing force to the Gibbs energy term. The heat capacity values denote some extent of hydrophobic interaction between the polyamines and DNA.

  9. Psychosocial factors are associated with the antibody response to both thymus-dependent and thymus-independent vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Stephen; Phillips, Anna C.; Ferraro, Alastair J; Drayson, Mark T; Carroll, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the association between psychological stress, social support and antibody response to both thymus-dependent and thymus-independent vaccinations. Stressful life events in the previous year and customary social support were measured by standard questionnaires at baseline in 75 (41 females) healthy students. Antibody status was assessed at baseline, 4 and 18 weeks following vaccination with formaldehyde inactivated hepatitis A virus and pneumococcal polysaccharides, wh...

  10. Inhibition of thymus cell proliferation: possibilities of elociting natural cell death with the organ and its contribution to the induced interphase death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parallelism was noted between the suppression of proliferation and the amount of cells dying in mouse thymus after the effects inducing cell destruction. However, inhibition of DNA synthesis under the effect of nontoxic doses of arabinoside cytosine increased insignificantly the number of dying cells as compared to normal. This indicated the absence of the masking effect of reutilization of degradation products of dying cells, minor amounts of cells normally dying in the thymus and their insignificant contribution to the induced cell death after the effects leading to inhibition of cell proliferation

  11. The Effect of the LysoPC-induced Endothelial Cell Conditioned Medium on Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen Expression of the Calf Thoracic Aorta Smooth Muscle Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周洪莲; 姚济华; 余枢

    2002-01-01

    In order to study the effect of and mechanism of lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) on proliferation of the calf thoracic aorta smooth muscle cells (ASMCs), the ASMCs were used to observe the effects of LysoPC-induced endothelial cell conditioned medium on the DNA content and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in the calf thoracic ASMCs by flow cytometry and Western Blot technique. It was found that LysoPC-induced endothelial cell conditioned medium could significantly promote PCNA expression of the calf ASMCs, induce the converting of ASMCs from G0/G1 phase to S phase of DNA synthesis, and increase the tyrosine phosphorylation protein expression. Tyrosine protein kinase inhibitor (TPKi) RG50864 could obviously inhibit proliferation of LysoPC-induced ASMCs in a dose-dependence manner. The results indicated that the effect of LysoPC promoting the proliferation of ASMCs is partly evoked by endothelial cell derived growth factors such as PDGF and so on.

  12. Thymus size at 6 months of age and subsequent child mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garly, M.L.; Trautner, S.L.; Marx, C.; Danebod, K.; Nielsen, J.; Ravn, Henrik; Martins, C.L.; Bale, C.; Aaby, P.; Lisse, I.M.

    2008-01-01

    Guinea-Bissau. RESULTS: Thymus size was strongly associated with anthropometric measurements. Boys had larger thymuses than girls, controlling for anthropometry. Crying during sonography made the thymus appear smaller. Children who were not vaccinated with Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) or were vaccinated......OBJECTIVE: To examine determinants of thymus size at age 6 months and investigate whether thymus size at this age is a determinant of subsequent mortality. STUDY DESIGN: Thymus size was measured by transsternal sonography in 923 6-month-old children participating in a measles vaccination trial in...... with BCG in the preceding 4 weeks before inclusion into the study had larger thymuses. Children who had malaria or had been treated with chloroquine or Quinimax in the previous week before inclusion had smaller thymuses. Controlled for background factors associated with thymus size and mortality, small...

  13. DNA binding and cleavage studies of new sulfasalazine-derived dipeptide Zn(II) complex: Validation for specific recognition with 5 Prime -TMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabassum, Sartaj, E-mail: tsartaj62@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP 202002 (India); Al-Asbahy, Waddhaah M.; Afzal, Mohd.; Shamsi, Manal; Arjmand, Farukh [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP 202002 (India)

    2012-11-15

    A new water soluble complex [Zn(glygly)(ssz)(H{sub 2}O)]{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O, 1 derived from dipeptide (glycyl glycine) and sulfasalazine was synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic (IR, UV-vis, NMR, ESI-MS) and analytical methods. The in vitro DNA binding studies of complex 1 with calf-thymus DNA were carried out by employing various biophysical methods and molecular docking technique which reveals strong electrostatic binding via phosphate backbone of DNA helix, in addition to partial intercalation. To gain further insight into the molecular recognition at the target site, interaction studies of complex 1 with 5 Prime -TMP and 5 Prime -GMP were carried out by UV-vis titration which was validated by {sup 1}H and {sup 31}P NMR with 5 Prime -TMP, which implicate the preferential selectivity of 1 towards N3 of thymine. Complex 1 is accessible to minor groove of DNA and cleaved pBR322 DNA via hydrolytic pathway (validated by T4 ligase assay). - Graphical abstract: Synthesis, characterization, DNA binding and cleavage studies of [Zn(glygly)(ssz)(H{sub 2}O)]{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O (1) containing glycyl glycine and sulfasalazine ligand. Complex 1 recognize minor groove of DNA and show hydrolytic DNA cleavage. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel Zn(II) complex 1 bearing bioactive glycyl glycine and sulfasalazine ligand scaffold. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cleavage activity of 1 was enhanced in presence of activators: H{sub 2}O{sub 2}>MPA>GSH>Asc. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complex 1 recognize minor groove as depicted in the cleavage pattern and molecular docking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complex 1 cleaves pBR322 DNA via hydrolytic mechanism and validated by T4 DNA ligase experiments.

  14. The entry of the prothymocyte into the thymus after lethal irradiation and bone marrow transplantation. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time of entry of prothymocytes into the thymus after lethal irradiation and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) was determined by exposing the thymus only or the whole body with the thymus shielded to a second irradiation after different intervals. The repopulation of the thymus by donor type cells was determined by a thymus repopulation assay using donor specific markers. Reirradiation of the thymus kills the prothymocytes that have entered the thymus during the interval. It was found that reirradiation of the thymus from 48 hours after BMT onwards increasingly delayed thymus regeneration. This shows that donor prothymocytes do not enter the thymus until about 2 days after BMT and that they continue to do so during at least 3 subsequent days. In the second reirradiation protocol thymus regeneration occurred earlier in the shielded thymus than in thymuses of whole body irradiated mice. Earlier thymus regeneration was not seen in mice that were reirradiated at 24 hours after BMT, but occurred only when irradiation took place at 48 hours and later. These data are consistent with those obtained in the first protocol. The results are in contradiction with results of direct homing experiments, which showed entrance of donor cells within 3 hours after BMT. A functional assay demonstrated that the early appearing cells cannot be prothymocytes. In retransplantation experiments it was shown that the bone marrow may indeed be the initial homing site of prothymocytes. 14 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table

  15. Preparation of Fe 3O 4/poly(styrene-butyl acrylate-[2-(methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization and its interaction with DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolong; Liu, Guoqiang; Yan, Wei; Chu, Paul K.; Yeung, Kelvin W. K.; Wu, Shuilin; Yi, Changfeng; Xu, Zushun

    2012-04-01

    Cationic magnetic polymer particles Fe3O4/poly(styrene-butyl acrylate-[2-(methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride), a type of potential gene carrier, were prepared by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization with oleic acid modified magnetite Fe3O4, styrene, butyl acrylate and [2-(methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) (METAC). The morphology of the particles was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and the composites of particles were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction. These results showed that magnetic particles were well dispersed in polymers with the content of about 15%(wt/wt). The composites exhibited superparamagnetism and possessed a certain level of magnetic response. The interactions between the particles with calf-thymus DNA (ct DNA) were confirmed by zeta potential measurement, UV-vis spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The DNA-binding capacity determined by the agarose gel electrophoresis showed good binding capacity of the emulsion to DNA. These results suggested the potential of the cationic magnetic polymer emulsion as gene target delivery carrier.

  16. Synthesis, characterization, DNA/protein interaction and cytotoxicity studies of Cu(II) and Co(II) complexes derived from dipyridyl triazole ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Yao, Di; Wei, Yi; Tang, Jie; Bian, He-Dong; Huang, Fu-Ping; Liang, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Four different transition metal complexes containing dipyridyl triazole ligands, namely [Cu(abpt)2Cl2]·2H2O (1), [Cu(abpt)2(ClO4)2] (2), [Co2(abpt)2(H2O)2Cl2]·Cl2·4H2O (3) and [Co2(Hbpt)2(CH3OH)2(NO3)2] (4) have been designed, synthesized and further structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography, ESI-MS, elemental analysis, IR and Raman spectroscopy. In these complexes, the both ligands act as bidentate ligands with N, N donors. DNA binding interactions with calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) of the ligand and its complexes 1 ~ 4 were investigated via electronic absorption, fluorescence quenching, circular dichroism and viscosity measurements as well as confocal Laser Raman spectroscopy. The results show these complexes are able to bind to DNA via the non-covalent mode i.e. intercalation and groove binding or electrostatic interactions. The interactions with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were also studied using UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopic methods which indicated that fluorescence quenching of BSA by these compounds was the presence of both static and dynamic quenching. Moreover, the in vitro cytotoxic effects of the complexes against four cell lines SK-OV-3, HL-7702, BEL7404 and NCI-H460 showed the necessity of the coordination action on the biological properties on the respective complex and that all four complexes exhibited substantial cytotoxic activity.

  17. Luminescent Behavior of Ru(II) Polypyridyl Morpholine Complexes, Synthesis, Characterization, DNA, Protein Binding, Sensor Effect of Ions/Solvents and Docking Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuradi, Ravi Kumar; Putta, Venkat Reddy; Nancherla, Deepika; Sirasani, Satyanarayana

    2016-03-01

    New three ruthenium (II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(phen)2mpip](2+)(1) {mpip = 2-(4-morpholinophenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline}, (phen = 1,10-Phenanthrolene), [Ru(bpy)2mpip](2+)(2) (bpy = 2,2'bipyridyl), [Ru(dmb)2mpip](2+)(3) (dmb = 4, 4-dimethyl 2, 2'-bipyridine) have been synthesized and characterized by spectral studies IR, UV-vis, (1)H, (13)C-NMR, mass and elemental analysis. The binding properties of these three complexes towards calf-thymus DNA (CT-DNA) have been investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, different fluorescence methods and viscosity measurements, indicating that all the complexes bind to CT-DNA by means of intercalation, but with different binding affinities. Sensor effect of ions/solvents and BSA (Bovine Serum Albumin) binding studies of these complexes were also studied. Docking studies also reveals that complexes will bind in between base pairs (Intercalate) of DNA and gives information about the binding strength. PMID:26708008

  18. Unexpected regiospecific formation and DNA binding of new 3-(acridin-9-yl)methyl-2-iminothiazolidin-4-ones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ján Imrich; Danica Sabolová; Mária Vilková; Júlia Kudláčová

    2016-02-01

    New 3-(acridin-9-yl)methyl-2-substituted imino-1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones were regiospecifically synthesized from unstable (acridin-9-yl)methyl thioureas and methyl bromoacetate (MBA) or bromoacetyl bromide (BAB). Unexpected formation of only one thiazolidinone regioisomer with both the reagents was due to a new mechanism involving a transient spiro 9,10-dihydroacridine intermediate. These results are in contrast with the reactions of acridin-9-yl thioureas with MBA/BAB that afforded two different thiazolidinone regioisomers with these reagents. UV-vis titrations, CD spectra, and fluorescence quenching have shown that new products intercalated into calf thymus (CT) DNA, and displaced ethidium bromide (EB) from a CT DNA–EB complex. Intrinsic binding constants, , and Stern-Volmer constants, , were found in the range 0.79✕105 – 2.85✕105 M−1 and 17950 – 3360M−1, respectively. The strongest binding affinity was found for an electrondonated 2-(4-methoxyphenylimino) thiazolidinone. Additional evidence for DNA intercalation was obtained from thermal denaturation studies. Gel electrophoresis has proven that thiazolidinone products nicked the supercoiled plasmid DNA in 5.0 M concentration.

  19. Synthesis,Crystal Structure and Interaction with DNA of a Novel Chromium(Ⅲ) Complex Containing Salicylaldehyde Semicarbazone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Lei; ZHOU Yin-Zhuang; LIU Jin-Li; TU Shu-Jie; XIAO Ling-Mei

    2009-01-01

    The novel chromium(Ⅲ) complex with salicylaldehydc semicarbazone was synthe-sized and characterized by IR spectra and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.The crystal bclongs to the orthorhombic system,space group Pbca with a=8.9849(13),b=12.0475(16),c=34.522(5) A,V=3736.9(9) A3,Z=8,C16H18ClCrN6O5,Mr=461.81,De=1.642 g/cm3,F(000)=1896,μ(MoKa)=0.799 mm-1,the final R=0.0370 and wR=0.0827 for 2908 observed reflections with I > 20(I).The interaction between the chromium(Ⅲ) complex with calf thymus DNA (Ct-DNA) has been investigated by absorption spectroscopy,fluorescence spectroscopy and viscosity measurements.The results indicated that the complex was bonded to Ct-DNA through a non-classical intercalativc mode.

  20. Calf Contouring with Endoscopic Fascial Release, Calf Implant, and Structural Fat Grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Ercan Karacaoglu, MD; Richard J. Zienowicz, MD; Iulian Balan, MD

    2013-01-01

    Background: Curved lower legs cause psychological stress for women. In evaluating the shape, if thickness is the main contributing factor of leg aesthetic, then lipoplasty or calf reducing procedures will be the option. If the legs are slender and have no muscle hypertrophy but still have some indentation or bulges on both sides and lack an aesthetic shape what will be the options? The answer to the question is discussed in detail in this article. Methods: Twenty-two patients, operated ove...

  1. Songlike vocalizations from a Sumatran rhinoceros calf (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Muggenthaler, Elizabeth; Reinhart, Paul

    2003-04-01

    Within the last ten years the Sumatran rhino population has dropped 50%, and only 200-300 individuals exist, with five in captivity. Their native habitat is dense tropical forest and they are solitary, therefore much of their behavior remains unknown. Sumatrans are the smallest living rhino, standing 0.9-1.5 m tall, and are covered in coarse, reddish-brown hair. The first Sumatran rhinoceros born in captivity in 112 years, and the first calf ever recorded, is 17 months old and weighs 448 kg. At the Cincinnati Zoo this male calf was recorded from 1-3 m, using two Statham radio microphones, and one TCD-D8 Sony DAT recorder (9 Hz-22 kHz). Analysis, including power spectrums, spectrographic functions, and cross correlations were performed using National Instrument's Polynesia. Preliminary analysis indicates that the calf's vocalizations are similar in structure to adult Sumatran vocalizations, although there are some distinctions. ``Eeps'' and ``whales'' that are found in adult repertoires are produced by the calf. However, signals from the calf are higher in frequency, and the calf does not vocalize as consistently as the adults. The calf has yet to produce a ``whistle blow,'' which is an adult vocalization that has a strong infrasonic component.

  2. Changes in Mouse Thymus and Spleen after Return from the STS-135 Mission in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridley, Daila S.; Mao, Xiao Wen; Stodieck, Louis S.; Ferguson, Virginia L.; Bateman, Ted A.; Moldovan, Maria; Cunningham, Christopher E.; Jones, Tamako A.; Slater, Jerry M.; Pecaut, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Our previous results with flight (FLT) mice showed abnormalities in thymuses and spleens that have potential to compromise immune defense mechanisms. In this study, the organs were further evaluated in C57BL/6 mice after Space Shuttle Atlantis returned from a 13-day mission. Thymuses and spleens were harvested from FLT mice and ground controls housed in similar animal enclosure modules (AEM). Organ and body mass, DNA fragmentation and expression of genes related to T cells and cancer were determined. Although significance was not obtained for thymus mass, DNA fragmentation was greater in the FLT group (P<0.01). Spleen mass alone and relative to body mass was significantly decreased in FLT mice (P<0.05). In FLT thymuses, 6/84 T cell-related genes were affected versus the AEM control group (P<0.05; up: IL10, Il18bp, Il18r1, Spp1; down: Ccl7, IL6); 15/84 cancer-related genes had altered expression (P<0.05; up: Casp8, FGFR2, Figf, Hgf, IGF1, Itga4, Ncam1, Pdgfa, Pik3r1, Serpinb2, Sykb; down: Cdc25a, E2F1, Mmp9, Myc). In the spleen, 8/84 cancer-related genes were affected in FLT mice compared to AEM controls (P<0.05; up: Cdkn2a; down: Birc5, Casp8, Ctnnb1, Map2k1, Mdm2, NFkB1, Pdgfa). Pathway analysis (apoptosis signaling and checkpoint regulation) was used to map relationships among the cancer–related genes. The results showed that a relatively short mission in space had a significant impact on both organs. The findings also indicate that immune system aberrations due to stressors associated with space travel should be included when estimating risk for pathologies such as cancer and infection and in designing appropriate countermeasures. Although this was the historic last flight of NASA’s Space Shuttle Program, exploration of space will undoubtedly continue. PMID:24069384

  3. DNA binding, anti-tumour activity and reactivity toward cell thiols of acridin-9-ylalkenoic derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O Salem; M Vilkova; J Plsikova; A Grolmusova; M Burikova; M Prokaiova; H Paulikova; J Imrich; M Kozurkova

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we describe the synthesis, biochemical properties and biological activity of a series of new 9-substituted acridine derivatives with a reactive alkene moiety: 9-[(E)-2-phenylethenyl] acridine (1) and methyl (2E)-3-(acridin-9-yl)-prop-2-enoate (2). The interaction of derivatives 1 and 2 with calf thymus DNA was investigated using UV-Vis, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The binding constants K were estimated as being in the range of 1.9 to 7.1 × 105 M−1, and the percentage of hypochromism was found to be 40–57% (from spectral titration). UV-Vis, fluorescence, and CD measurements indicate that the compounds were effective DNA-intercalating agents. Electrophoretic separation proved that ligands 1 and 2 relaxed topoisomerase I at a concentration of 5 M. Ester 2 was shown to have a stronger cytostatic effect on leukemia cell line L1210 than alkene 1. The incubation of ligands 1 and 2 with the ovarian carcinoma cell line A2780 confirmed their extensive cytotoxic effects, an effect which was particularly pronounced in the case of ligand 2. Cytotoxicity tests against A2780 cells demonstrate that a conjugate of compound 2 with -cysteine (3) is less cytotoxic than compound 2, especially at concentrations greater than 10 M.

  4. Synthesis, structural characterization, cytotoxic properties and DNA binding of a dinuclear copper(II) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, B J M Leite; Brandão, P; Meireles, M; Martel, Fátima; Correia-Branco, Ana; Fernandes, Diana M; Santos, T M; Félix, V

    2016-08-01

    In this study a novel dinuclear copper(II) complex with adenine and phenanthroline has been synthesized and its structure determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. In the dinuclear complex [Cu₂(μ-adenine)₂(phen)₂(H2O)2](NO3)4·0.5H2O (phen=1,10-phenanthroline) (1) the two Cu(II) centres exhibit a distorted square pyramidal coordination geometry linked by two nitrogen donors from adenine bridges leading to a Cu-Cu distance of 3.242(3)Å. Intramolecular and intermolecular π⋯π interactions as well as an H-bonding network were observed. The antitumor capacity of the complex has been tested in vitro against human cancer cell lines, cervical carcinoma (HeLa) and colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2), by metabolic tests, using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide as reagent. The complex 1 has remarkable low IC50 values of 0.87±0.06μM (HeLa) and 0.44±0.06μM (Caco-2), when compared with values for cisplatin against the same cell lines. The interaction of complex 1 with calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) was further investigated by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic methods. A binding constant of 5.09×10(5)M(-1) was obtained from UV-vis absorption studies. PMID:27157979

  5. Glycosaminoglycan and DNA Binding Induced Intra- and Intermolecular Exciton Coupling of the bis-4-Aminoquinoline Surfen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsila, Ferenc

    2015-09-01

    Despite the diverse biological activities of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) antagonist surfen, the molecular details of its interaction with biomacromolecules remain poorly understood. Therefore, heparin and DNA binding properties of surfen were studied by circular dichroism (CD) and UV absorption spectroscopy methods. High-affinity (Ka  ~ 10(7)  M(-1)) association of surfen to the chiral heparin chain gives rise to a characteristic biphasic CD pattern due to the conformational twist of the aminoquinoline moieties around the central urea bridge. At higher drug loading, intermolecular stacking of surfen molecules alters the induced CD profile and also provokes strong UV hypochromism. In contrast to the right-handed heparin template, binding of surfen to the left-helicity chondroitin sulfate chains produces inverted CD pattern. Large UV hypochromism as well as polyphasic induced ellipticity bands indicate that surfen intercalates between the base pairs of calf-thymus DNA. Extensive CD spectroscopic changes observed at higher drug binding ratios refer to cooperative binding interactions between the intercalated drug molecules. The inherent conformational flexibility of surfen demonstrated here for the first time is important in its binding to distinct macromolecular targets and should be considered for rational drug design of novel GAG antagonists. PMID:26096963

  6. A unified theory of central tolerance in the thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Jun

    2006-05-01

    Non-deletional tolerance resulting in the generation of regulatory T cells within the thymus is a key mechanism for the establishment of immunological self-tolerance. How the high-affinity self-reactive regulatory T cells escape negative selection and what type of antigen-presenting cells positively select them within the thymus are unsolved questions. Previous studies suggest that thymic epithelial cells are crucial for the positive selection of regulatory T cells in thymus. A recent study from my group shows that a subset of dendritic cells (that have been "educated" by the thymic stromal lymphopoietin molecule produced by a thymic cell type known as Hassall's corpuscles) positively select regulatory T cells within the medulla of human thymus. Here, I discuss the implications and historical context of this new result and suggest that a subset of mature dendritic cells within the thymic medulla protects the medium- to high-affinity self-reactive T cells from negative deletion and induces their differentiation into regulatory T cells in the thymus. PMID:16580260

  7. Degradation of DNA and chromatin in cells of mouse lymphoid organs after irradiation and administration of PHA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) adminiestered to irradiated mice did not influence the postirradiation degradation of DNA and the yield of polydeoxynucleotides (PDN) in cells of thymus, spleen and bone marrow. The degree of degradation of DNA and chromatin was higher in the thymus as compared to other studied organs. A possible mechanism of the radiotherapeutic action of PHA is discussed

  8. Myth and reality: practical test system for the measurement of anti-DNA antibodies in the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Laura J; Christner, Paul; Jacobs-Kosmin, Dana; Jaskowski, Troy D; Hill, Harry R; Lakos, Gabriella; Teodorescu, Marius

    2010-01-01

    The myth persists that only the labor intensive Farr radioimmunoassay and Crithidia luciliae immunofluorescence (CL-IFA) are systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-specific tests. We compared them to ELISA with bacteriophage lambda DNA (EL-dsDNA) and denatured calf thymus DNA (EL-ssDNA). By percentile ranking, the specificity cut-off level was set both out of clinical context (SOCC) on 100 blood bank donors, and in clinical context (SICC) on 100 patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or scleroderma (50/50). Clinical sensitivity was calculated on 100 random SLE patients. At 95% SICC, the sensitivity of Farr, CL-IFA, EL-dsDNA, and EL-ssDNA was similar (95%CI): 76% (66-84), 76% (66-84), 63% (53-72), and 75% (65-83), respectively; 87% of the patients were positive by at least one method and 55%by all methods. At 99% SICC, the sensitivity was also similar (95% CI): 57% (47-67), 47% (37-57), 58% (47-67), and 43% (33-53), respectively. The areas under ROC curve were similar (95% CI) when patients were used as controls for specificity. At 99% SOCC, EL-ssDNA identified 89% positive, 2 negative but positive by another method at 95% SICC, and 9 negative (i.e. 89/2/9), followed by CL-IFA (80/6/14), Farr (76/12/12), and EL-dsDNA (64/23/13). Thus, at relatively low cost and easy automation, under the same conditions of specificity, the two ELISA tests combined were at least as good, if not superior, to CL-IFA or Farr: they showed similar clinical sensitivity and also identified more patients with anti-DNA antibodies. PMID:20333761

  9. Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation of the thyroid (CASTLE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuying; Wang, Li; Wang, Yan; Yang, Xibiao; Li, Qiu

    2013-10-01

    Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE) is a rare intrathyroidal neoplasm, probably arising from ectopic thymus or branchial pouch remnants. The tumor was first reported by Miyauchi et al. [1].The clinical and pathological features of this tumor were classified by Chan et al. [2] into 4 groups: ectopic hamartomatous thymoma, ectopic cervical thymoma, spindle ephithelial tumor with thymic-like differentiation (SETTLE), and carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE). Recently, CASTLE has been designated as an independent clinicopathologic entity of thyroid tumors in the most recent edition of the World Health Organization classification of tumors of endocrine organs[3].To our knowledge, less than 100 cases of CASTLE have been reported in the literature, 45 cases of which (including one of the authors' patient) have been identified in China. We report a new case of this entity and suggest recommendations for diagnosis. PMID:23920320

  10. Coxsackievirus B4 Infection of Murine Foetal Thymus Organ Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Brilot, F; Jaidane, H.; Geenen, Vincent; Hober, D

    2008-01-01

    The infection of foetal thymus with coxsackievirus B4 (CV-B4) E2 has been studied ex vivo by using CD-1 mice on foetal day 14, as a ready source of organs for experimentation to investigate the hypothesis of the role of thymic viral infections in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. The replication of CV-B4 E2 in murine foetal thymus organ cultures has been demonstrated by evaluating the levels of positive- and negative-stranded viral RNA in cells by using a real-time quantitative RT-PCR meth...

  11. ALTERED HISTOLOGY OF THE THYMUS AND SPLEEN IN CONTAMINANT-EXPOSED JUVENILE AMERICAN ALLIGATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological difference in spleen and thymus are closely related to functional immune differences. Hormonal regulation of the immune system has been demonstrated in reptilian splenic and thymic tissue. Spleens and thymus were obtained from juvenile alligators at two reference si...

  12. Effects of phyto-oestrogens on veal calf prostate histology

    OpenAIRE

    Groot, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    In veal calf production plant-based proteins are frequently included in milk replacer fed to the animals. Since soy products, which are mostly used, are known for their high levels of phyto-oestrogens, the effects of these feeds on the veal calf prostate were examined. Goal was to determine whether these compounds could interfere with histological screening for oestrogenic growth promoters. In a feeding experiment, four groups of veal calves fed plant-based protein-supplemented milk replacer ...

  13. Computer tomography diagnosis of meningoencephalocele in a calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 24-day-old female Holstein calf had a soft, painless fluctuating swelling on the median plane in the frontal region, but did not show any clinical symptoms including neurological signs. Computer tomography (CT) distinctly showed the cyst filled with fluid and part of the encephalon. Hence, this swelling was diagnosed as meningoencephalocele, but not meningocele. The meningoencephalocele was successfully repaired surgically. Meningoencephalocele can thus be easily recognised by CT in a calf

  14. Arteriovenous Fistula in the Orbit of a Calf

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, Christopher R.; Naylor, Jonathan M.

    1985-01-01

    An Ayrshire calf with a protruding left eye and a fluctuant swelling dorsal to the orbit was examined. A diagnosis of arteriovenous fistula was made based on the findings of pulsation, a palpable thrill and a machinery-like bruit on auscultation over the swelling. Arteriography failed to outline the full extent of the fistula. The calf was euthanized and the fistula dissected. An enlarged superficial temporal artery communicated with a branch of the maxillary vein by way of a tortuous mass of...

  15. Congenital absence of superficial posterior compartment calf muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Tibrewal, Saket; Alyas, Faisal; Vemulapalli, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Although various congenital abnormalities have been described, congenital absence of calf musculature is extremely rare, with only one report on its complete absence. We are the first to describe a case of congenital absence of muscles of the superficial posterior compartment of the calf presenting in a toddler. The child presented with a history of a painless limp, however no significant difference was found in functional gait analysis. We suggest that such cases should be monitored and pare...

  16. Congenital infiltrative lipomas and retroperitoneal perirenal lipomas in a calf

    OpenAIRE

    Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; McEvoy, Fintan; Goldschmidt, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Congenital lipocytic tumours have rarely been reported in cattle. Lipomas are benign tumours, but infiltrative lipomas have significant health implications due to their aggressive infiltrative growth pattern. Case presentation A calf was born with skeletal malformations and soft tissue proliferations, primarily on the external thoracic wall. The calf was euthanized for welfare reasons and submitted for post mortem examination. Necropsy, histopathology and post mortem computed tomog...

  17. Lissencephaly-pachygyria and cerebellar hypoplasia in a calf

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca Lemos dos Santos; Maria Cecília Florisbal Damé; Ana Carolina Barreto Coelho; Plínio Aguiar de Oliveira; Clairton Marcolongo-Pereira; Ana Lucia Schild

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: A case of lissencephaly-pachygyria and cerebellar hypoplasia diagnosed in a Charolais x Tabapuã calf is described. The calf presented since birth, clinical signs characterized by apathy, prolonged recumbency, tremors of the head and neck, ataxia, hypermetria, difficulty walking, blindness and swelling of the joints of the four limbs. Due to the unfavorable prognosis, the animal was euthanized and necropsied at 34 days of age. At necropsy, a rudimentary development of the brain folds...

  18. Culling practices of Ontario cow-calf producers.

    OpenAIRE

    McDermott, J J; Allen, O B; Martin, S W

    1992-01-01

    This study describes the distribution of herd culling rates for 123 Ontario cow-calf herds maintaining individual animal records. Associations between culling and factors at both the individual and herd level were examined. In addition, the relative importance of individual animal and herd level influences on culling were investigated. The following individual cow culling risk factors: nonpregnancy, age, weaning weight index, calf outcome, abortion, prolapsed vagina, prolapsed uterus, calving...

  19. Intravenous isotope calf scanning in the assessment of intermittent claudication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of hyperaemic calf scanning using a bolus injection of 99Tcsup(m) pertechnetate into an arm vein is described and evaluated in 26 patients with intermittent claudication. From the calf image displayed on a visual display unit after 21/2 minutes' scanning with a gamma camera, an assessment of the patency of the lower popliteal artery and run-off vessels can be made and of the distribution of blood flow to the calf muscles. The technique enables the measurement of a calf 'perfusion index', which was found to be reproducible and to correlate well with the severity of disease in the proximal arteries leading to the calf, as assessed by the resting ankle/brachial pressure index (r = 0.65, P<0.001) and the ankle pressure response to exercise (r = 0.71, P<=0.001). The perfusion index correlated with maximum walking time (r = 0.57, P <0.01) but not with claudication time measured on a treadmill (r = 0.30). Calf scanning is useful in the initial assessment of patients with claudication, and when combined with ankle pressure measurements it can provide objective flow and pressure data for evaluation of the progression of disease in conservatively managed patients with claudication, and for assessment of the results of operation. (author)

  20. Calf health from birth to weaning. III. housing and management of calf pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Ingrid

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calfhood diseases have a major impact on the economic viability of cattle operations. A three part review series has been developed focusing on calf health from birth to weaning. In this paper, the last of the three part series, we review disease prevention and management with particular reference to pneumonia, focusing primarily on the pre-weaned calf. Pneumonia in recently weaned suckler calves is also considered, where the key risk factors are related to the time of weaning. Weaning of the suckler calf is often combined with additional stressors including a change in nutrition, environmental change, transport and painful husbandry procedures (castration, dehorning. The reduction of the cumulative effects of these multiple stressors around the time of weaning together with vaccination programmes (preconditioning can reduce subsequent morbidity and mortality in the feedlot. In most studies, calves housed individually and calves housed outdoors with shelter, are associated with decreased risk of disease. Even though it poses greater management challenges, successful group housing of calves is possible. Special emphasis should be given to equal age groups and to keeping groups stable once they are formed. The management of pneumonia in calves is reliant on a sound understanding of aetiology, relevant risk factors, and of effective approaches to diagnosis and treatment. Early signs of pneumonia include increased respiratory rate and fever, followed by depression. The single most important factor determining the success of therapy in calves with pneumonia is early onset of treatment, and subsequent adequate duration of treatment. The efficacy and economical viability of vaccination against respiratory disease in calves remains unclear.

  1. Changes in the infrared microspectroscopic characteristics of DNA caused by cationic elements, different base richness and single-stranded form.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza S Mello

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The infrared (IR analysis of dried samples of DNA and DNA-polypeptide complexes is still scarce. Here we have studied the FT-IR profiles of these components to further the understanding of the FT-IR signatures of chromatin and cell nuclei. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Calf thymus and salmon testis DNA, and complexes of histone H1, protamine, poly-L-lysine and poly-L-arginine (histone-mimic macromolecules with DNA were analyzed in an IR microspectroscope equipped with an attenuated total reflection diamond objective and Grams software. Conditions including polypeptides bound to the DNA, DNA base composition, and single-stranded form were found to differently affect the vibrational characteristics of the chemical groups (especially, PO(2(- in the nucleic acid. The antisymmetric stretching (ν(as of the DNA PO(2(- was greater than the symmetric stretching (ν(s of these groups and increased in the polypeptide-DNA complexes. A shift of the ν(as of the DNA PO(2(- to a lower frequency and an increased intensity of this vibration were induced especially by lysine-rich histones. Lysine richness additionally contributed to an increase in the vibrational stretching of the amide I group. Even in simple molecules such as inorganic phosphates, the vibrational characteristics of the phosphate anions were differently affected by different cations. As a result of the optimization of the DNA conformation by binding to arginine-rich polypeptides, enhancements of the vibrational characteristics in the FT-IR fingerprint could be detected. Although different profiles were obtained for the DNA with different base compositions, this situation was no longer verified in the polypeptide-DNA complexes and most likely in isolated chromatin or cell nuclei. However, the ν(as PO(2(-/ν(s PO(2(- ratio could discriminate DNA with different base compositions and DNA in a single-stranded form. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: FT-IR spectral profiles are a valuable tool

  2. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride feeding duration on beef and calf-fed Holstein strip loin steak color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, H R; Brooks, J C; Hunt, M C; Hilton, G G; VanOverbeke, D L; Killefer, J; Lawrence, T E; Delmore, R J; Johnson, B J; Allen, D M; Streeter, M N; Nichols, W T; Hutcheson, J P; Yates, D A; Martin, J N; Miller, M F

    2010-03-01

    Two studies using beef and calf-fed Holstein cattle were conducted to determine the effect of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) supplementation on the color of strip loin steaks packaged in traditional and modified-atmosphere packaging. Select (USDA) strip loins were obtained from the carcasses of beef (n = 118) or calf-fed Holstein (n = 132) cattle fed ZH (6.8 g/ton on a 90% DM basis) for the last 0, 20, 30, or 40 d of feeding. One portion of the strip loin was moisture enhanced, cut into steaks, and packaged in an atmosphere containing 80% oxygen and 20% carbon dioxide. The remaining portion of the strip loin was vacuum-packaged until further processing. At 14 d postmortem, the vacuum-packaged loins were portioned and packaged in traditional retail packaging. Traditionally packaged and modified-atmosphere-packaged steaks were then placed in retail cases at -1 to 3 degrees C for 5 d and evaluated by both trained and consumer panelists. Instrumental color values and purge loss were also recorded. Zilpaterol hydrochloride duration had no effect on the color and purchase intention scores of consumer panelists for beef and calf-fed Holstein strip loin steaks. Zilpaterol hydrochloride feeding duration had no effect on the color or discoloration scores of trained panelists for enhanced, modified-atmosphere-packaged beef strip steaks. Traditionally packaged beef steaks from cattle treated with ZH for 20 d had more desirable (P < 0.05) lean color scores than steaks from cattle not treated with ZH on d 2, 3, and 4 of display and had similar discoloration scores on d 1, 2, and 3 of display. The color scores of trained panelists for enhanced calf-fed Holstein steaks were more desirable (P < 0.05) for steaks from cattle not treated with ZH than for steaks from cattle treated with ZH for 20 d on d 1, 2, 3, and 4 of display. However, the discoloration scores of trained panelists for enhanced and modified-atmosphere-packaged calf-fed Holstein steaks were similar for steaks from

  3. Induction of DNA strand breaks by RSU-1069, a nitroimidazole-aziridine radiosensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [2-14C]-RSU-1069 [1-(2-nitro-1-imidazolyl)-3-(1-aziridino)-2-propanol], either as a parent or following radiation reduction, binds to calf thymus DNA in vitro. Radiation-reduced RSU-1069 binds to a greater extent and more rapidly than the parent compound. RSU-1137, a non-aziridino analogue of RSU-1069, binds following radiation reduction. Radiation-reduced misonidazole exhibits binding ratios a thousand-fold less than those of reduced RSU-1069. Both parent and reduced RSU-1069 cause single strand breaks (ssbs) in pSV2 gpt plasmid DNA with the reduced compound causing a greater number of breaks. Parent and reduced RSU-1137 and misonidazole do not cause ssbs. It is inferred that the aziridine moiety present in both parent and reduced RSU-1069 is required for ssb production. RSU-1069 reacts with inorganic phosphate probably via nucleophilic ring-opening of the aziridine fragment. Incubation of plasmid DNA with reduced RSU-1069 in the presence of either phosphate or deoxyribose-5-phosphate at concentrations greater than 0.35 mol dm-3 prevents strand breakage, whereas 1.2 mol dm-3 deoxyribose does not protect against strand breakage formation. It is proposed that the observed binding to DNA occurs via the aziridine and the reduced nitro group of RSU-1069 and that these two have different target sites. Binding to DNA via the reduced nitro group may serve to increase aziridine attack due to localization at or near its target. (author)

  4. Improvements in the analytical method for 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in nuclear DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, S; Zeisig, M; Möller, L

    1995-02-01

    Modifications at two points in the sequence of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) analysis have contributed to a more accurate and simplified determination of 8-OH-dG in DNA. The first was an improvement in the detection limit for 8-OH-dG in high-performance liquid chromatography analysis and the second was a pronase digestion and ethanol precipitation method (pronase/ethanol method) for DNA isolation which could minimize artificial formation of 8-OH-dG. Since the changes in background current from electrochemical detection are regularly periodical, it was possible to reduce this background change by connecting a pressure damper, degassing the eluent before use and finally subtracting its theoretical function. After this background correction, the detection limit for 8-OH-dG was improved one order of magnitude, from 20 fmol (5.68 pg) to 1.76 fmol (0.5 pg). Therefore, 0.005 8-OH-dG/10(5) dG can be detected from 50 micrograms DNA. This improvement will allow the analysis of small samples, tissues from needle biopsies, measurements. The pronase/ethanol method resulted in lower levels of 8-OH-dG than the phenol method in analyses of both rat liver and calf thymus DNA, even after 6 h incubation at 45 degrees C. The level obtained by the pronase/ethanol method with butylated hydroxytoluene was approximately equal to or lower than the 8-OH-dG levels reported in normal rat liver. The pronase/ethanol method for DNA isolation can replace the phenol or other methods in 8-OH-dG analysis. This method also omits the use of highly toxic organic solvents. PMID:7859356

  5. Biosensor for bisphenol A leaching from baby bottles using a glassy carbon electrode modified with DNA and single walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a biosensor for highly sensitive and selective determination of the endocrinic disruptor bisphenol A (BPA). It is based on glassy carbon electrode modified with calf thymus DNA and a composite prepared from single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) and Nafion. The interaction between BPA and DNA was studied by voltammetry. The binding constant was determined to be 3.55 × 103 M−1, and the binding site has a length of 4.3 base pairs. These electrochemical studies provide further information for a better understanding of the toxicity and carcinogenicity of BPA. Under optimal conditions, the biosensor displays a linear electrochemical response to BPA in the 10 nM to 20 μM concentration range, with a detection limit as low as 5.0 nM (at an S/N of 3). The method was successfully applied to the quantification of BPA in leachates from plastic baby bottles. Recoveries range from 94.0 % to 106.0 % which underpins the excellent performance of this SWNT-based DNA sensor. (author)

  6. DNA binding, cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction activity of a mixed-ligand copper(II) complex with taurine Schiff base and imidazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; kong, Lin Lin; Gou, Yi; Yang, Feng; Liang, Hong

    2014-07-01

    A novel binuclear copper(II) complex (complex 1) with taurine Schiff base and imidazole has been synthesized and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, ESI-MS spectrometry, UV-vis and IR spectroscopy. Single-crystal analysis revealed that 1 displays the sulfonate-bridged dinuclear copper(II) centers. Both copper atoms are five-coordinated and exhibit slightly distorted square pyramidal geometries. Each of copper atom is surrounded by three oxygen atoms and one nitrogen atom from different taurine Schiff base ligands, and one nitrogen atom from one imidazole ligand. The interaction between 1 and calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated by UV-vis, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) spectra and agarose gel electrophoresis. The experimental results indicated that 1 could bind to CT-DNA via an intercalative mode and show efficient cleavage activity. In addition, 1 showed an antitumor effect on cell cycle and apoptosis. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that MGC-803 cells were arrested in the S phase after treatment with 1. Fluorescence microscopic observation indicated that 1 could induce apoptosis of MGC-803 cells.

  7. DNA-binding, catalytic oxidation, C—C coupling reactions and antibacterial activities of binuclear Ru(II thiosemicarbazone complexes: Synthesis and spectral characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Manimaran

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available New hexa-coordinated binuclear Ru(II thiosemicarbazone complexes of the type {[(B(EPh3(COClRu]2L} (where, E = P or As; B = PPh3 or AsPh3 or pyridine; L = mononucleating NS donor of N-substituted thiosemicarbazones have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV–vis and 31P{1H} NMR cyclic voltammetric studies. The DNA-binding studies of Ru(II complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA were investigated by UV–vis, viscosity measurements, gel-electrophoresis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The new complexes have been used as catalysts in C—C coupling reaction and in the oxidation of alcohols to their corresponding carbonyl compounds by using NMO as co-oxidant and molecular oxygen (O2 atmosphere at ambient temperature. Further, the new binucleating thiosemicarbazone ligands and their Ru(II complexes were also screened for their antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella sp., Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. From this study, it was found out that the activity of the complexes almost reaches the effectiveness of the conventional bacteriocide.

  8. Antioxidant, DNA binding and nuclease activities of heteroleptic copper(II) complexes derived from 2-((2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethylimino)methyl)-4-substituted phenols and diimines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, J.; Gurumoorthy, P.; Imran Musthafa, M. A.; Kalilur Rahiman, A.

    2014-12-01

    A series of heteroleptic copper(II) complexes of the type [CuL1-4(diimine)](ClO4)2 (1-8) [L1-4 = 2-((2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethylimino)methyl)-4-substituted phenols, and diimine = 2,2‧-bipyridyl (bpy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen)], have been synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic methods. The IR spectra of complexes indicate the presence of uncoordinated perchlorate anions and the electronic spectra revealed the square pyramidal geometry with N4O coordination environment around copper(II) nuclei. Electrochemical studies of the mononuclear complexes evidenced one-electron irreversible reduction wave in the cathodic region. The EPR spectra of complexes with g|| (2.206-2.214) and A|| (154-172 × 10-4 cm-1) values support the square-based CuN3O coordination chromophore and the presence of unpaired electron localized in dx-y ground state. Antioxidant studies against DPPH revealed effective radical scavenging properties of the synthesized complexes. Binding studies suggest that the heteroleptic copper(II) complexes interact with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) through minor-groove and electrostatic interaction, and all the complexes display pronounced nuclease activity against supercoiled pBR322 DNA.

  9. Alterations in benzo(A)pyrene metabolism and in vivo binding to hepatic DNA in rats red diets containing menhaden oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, A.E.; Dharwadkar, S.

    1987-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids of the omega-6 type have been shown to support the mixed function oxidases (MFO) responsible for carcinogen activation and to promote tumorigenesis in laboratory animals. The omega-3 fatty acids contained in menhaden oil (MO) have been shown to enhance MFO activity and increase the binding of Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) metabolites to calf thymus DNA in an in vitro microsomal system. Rats fed two levels of MO (0.5% and 20%) for 11 days received a single i.p. dose of (/sup 3/H)B(a)P (5 m Ci/kg) dissolved in DMSO. At selected time intervals thereafter rats were killed, blood withdrawn, livers removed and DNA extracted. Hepatic microsomes were recovered from control rats on each diet at the time of B(a)P administration to assess MFO activities. Binding of B(a)P to DNA was higher in rats fed the 20% MO diet suggesting an increased rate of B(a)P activation. Blood levels of B(a)P were elevated at 16 and 24 hours post B(a)P, however no differences in urine concentrations were observed. Elevations in concentration of cytochrome P-450, ethoxycoumarin dealkylase, and glutathione S-transferase suggest that omega-3 fatty acids of menhaden fish oil support MFO related reactions not unlike the omega-6 fatty acids.

  10. Synthesis, crystal structure and interaction of L-valine Schiff base divanadium(V) complex containing a V2O3 core with DNA and BSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiong; Li, Lianzhi; Dong, Jianfang; Liu, Hongyan; Xu, Tao; Li, Jinghong

    2013-04-01

    A divanadium(V) complex, [V2O3(o-van-val)2] (o-van-val = Schiff base derived from o-vanillin and L-valine), has been synthesized and structurally characterized. The crystal structure shows that both of the vanadium centers in the complex have a distorted octahedral coordination environment composed of tridentate Schiff base ligand. A V2O3 core in molecular structure adopts intermediate between cis and trans configuration with the O1dbnd V1⋯V1Adbnd O1A torsion angle 115.22 (28)° and the V1⋯V1A distance 3.455 Å. The binding properties of the complex with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) have been investigated by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, CD spectra and viscosity measurement. The results indicate that the complex binds to CT-DNA in non-classical intercalative mode. Meanwhile, the interaction of the complex with bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been studied by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence and CD spectra. Results indicated that the complex can markedly quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA via a static quenching process, and cause its conformational change. The calculated apparent binding constant Kb was 1.05 × 106 M-1 and the binding site number n was 1.18.

  11. Most frequent calf diseases in industrial breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Sava

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to conduct an analysis of the incidence of viral diseases in calves if these diseases are divided into two basic groups. One group comprises diseases of respiratory organs which are manifested by symptoms of a respiratory syndrome, and the second group comprises diseases of digestive tract organs in the form of a gastrointestinal syndrome. It is considered that viruses have the dominant role in the complex etiology of the respiratory syndrome, primarily the IBR virus or the Bovine Herpes Virus-1 (BHV-1, followed by the parainfluenza 3 virus (RSV, the Bovine Viral Diahrrea Virus (BVDV, the bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV, but also other viruses, such as adenoviruses, rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, can also influence the appearance of the respiratory syndrome. The respiratory syndrome is rarely caused by a single viral agent, but most frequently by mixed viruses, but also by bacterial infections. Mixed viral infections often have a lethal outcome. Investigations of the etiology of the gastrointestinal syndrome so far indicate that, in addition to bacteria, viruses can also be a significant etiological factor. Rotaviruses, coronaviruses, adenoviruses parvoviruses, herpesviruses (the IBR virus, pestiviruses (BVDV, can be the causes of a gastrointestinal syndrome. It is believed that viruses can be the cause in about 10% cases in the ethiopathogenesis of this syndrome. The paper describes the etiopathogenesis of calf diseases of viral etiology which are most often found in the local conditions of industrial breeding of calves.

  12. CHAPA, BEEF COW/CALF HEALTH AND PRODUCTIVITY AUDIT, PART II: BEEF COW/CALF REPRODUCTIVE AND NUTRITIONAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Dargatz, David

    1994-01-01

    As part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS ), USDA:APHIS:Veterinary Services conducted a national study of beef production, the Beef Cow/Calf Health and Productivity Audit (CHAPA). This study was designed to provide both participants and the industry with information on cow/calf health, productivity, and management practices. Data for Part II: Nutritional & Reproductive Management Practices, were collected by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) from beef pr...

  13. In vitro biotransformation and genotoxicity of the drinking water disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane: DNA binding mediated by glutathione transferase theta 1-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The drinking water disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2) was previously shown to be mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium that overexpress rat glutathione transferase theta 1-1 (GSTT1-1). Several experimental approaches were undertaken in this study to investigate the DNA covalent binding potential of reactive intermediates generated by GSTT1-1-mediated metabolism of CHBrCl2. First, rodent hepatic cytosol incubations containing [14C]CHBrCl2, supplemented glutathione (GSH), and calf thymus DNA resulted in approximately 3-fold (rat liver cytosol) and 7-fold (mouse liver cytosol) greater amounts of total radioactivity (RAD) associated with the purified DNA as compared to a control (absence of rodent cytosol) following liquid scintillation counting (LSC) of isolated DNA. The relative increase in DNA labeling is consistent with the conjugation activity of these rodent cytosols toward CHBrCl2. Second, exposure of GSTT1-1-expressing S. typhimurium to [14C]CHBrCl2 resulted in a concentration-dependent increase of bacterial DNA-associated total radioactivity. Characterization of DNA-associated radioactivity could not be assigned to a specific deoxynucleoside adduct(s) following enzymatic hydrolysis of DNA and subsequent HPLC analysis. A possible explanation for this observation was formation of a 'transient' adduct that was unstable in the DNA isolation and hydrolysis procedures employed. To circumvent problems of adduct instability, reactions of [14C]CHBrCl2 with GSH catalyzed by recombinant rat GSTT1-1 were performed in the presence of calf thymus DNA or, alternatively, the model nucleophile deoxyguanosine. Hydroxyapatite chromatography of [14C]-labeled DNA or HPLC chromatography of [14C]-labeled deoxyguanosine derivatives demonstrated the covalent binding of [14C]CHBrCl2-derived metabolites to DNA and deoxyguanosine in low yield (approximately 0.02% of [14C]CHBrCl2 biotransformed by GSTT1-1 resulted in DNA adducts). Cytochrome P450 (CYP)- and GST

  14. Effects of Thyme Extract Oils (from Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis, and Thymus hyemalis on Cytokine Production and Gene Expression of oxLDL-Stimulated THP-1-Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ocaña

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of thyme extracts from three different species (Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis, and Thymus hyemalis were examined. Two oil fractions from each species were obtained by CO2 supercritical fluid extraction. Main compounds presented in the supercritical extracts of the three thyme varieties were 1,8 cineole, thymol, camphor, borneol, and carvacrol. As a cellular model of inflammation/atherogenesis, we use human macrophages derived from THP-1 monocytes and activated by oxidized LDLs. These cells were incubated with the thyme fraction oils, and the productions and gene expressions of the inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1B, IL-6, and IL-10 were determined. Thyme extracts significantly reduced production and gene expression of the proinflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1B, and IL-6 and highly increased these parameters on the anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine. Changes on production and gene expressions were dose dependent and according to the thyme content of each species. Taken together, these results may suggest that thyme extracts could have anti-inflammatory effects.

  15. Formation of bismuth oxide nanowires by simultaneous templating and electrochemical adhesion of DNA on Si/SiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, Michael G. [School of Chemistry, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Little, Ross; Salem, Mohamed Ali [School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Hedley, Joseph H.; Horrocks, Benjamin R. [School of Chemistry, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Siller, Lidija, E-mail: Lidija.Siller@ncl.ac.uk [School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-templated growth of Bi/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires attached to the Si surface was obtained by electrochemical reduction of Bi(III) at an n-type Si electrode in aqueous Bi(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}/HNO{sub 3} at pH 2.5 with calf thymus DNA. The nanowires had a mean diameter of 5 nm and a range of lengths from 1.4 {mu}m to 6.1 {mu}m. The composition and structure of the wires were determined by atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The dominant component of the material is Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} owing to the rapid re-oxidation of nanoscale Bi in the presence of air and water. Our method has the potential to construct complex architectures of Bi/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostrucures on high quality Si substrates. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have developed an electrochemical method to grow Bi/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires on silicon. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bi/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires are templated by deoxyribonucleic acid molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The procedure also adheres the nanowires to the electrode for characterization.

  16. Chemical compositions of two different Thymus species essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Jaberi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thymus is one of the most important members of Lamiaceae family. Aerial parts of the plant have been widely used in medicine. It has been reported that most of these effects are related to phenolic compounds especially thymol and carvacrol in Thymus essential oil. In this study, aerial parts of Thymus daenensis and Thymus lancifolius were collected from Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad, Iran. Essential oils of aerial parts of these plants were gained by the hydrodistillation method and the chemical compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography/ Mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The major components of the essential oil of T. daenensis were thymol (39.91%, carvacrol (29.93%, linalool (5.55%, caryophyllene (3.5% and geraniol (3.09%, whereas the major components of the essential oil of T. lancifolius were: carvacrol (25.55%, thymol (20.79%, linalool (16.8%, α-terpineol (6.34%, borneol (4.00%, caryophyllene (3.98%, p-cymene (3.38% and cis-linalool oxide (3.21%. Linalool was reported as another major component in T. lancifolius

  17. Cavernous hemangioma in the thymus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ose, Naoko; Kobori, Yuko; Takeuchi, Yukiyasu; Susaki, Yoshiyuki; Taniguchi, Seiji; Maeda, Hajime

    2016-12-01

    Cavernous hemangioma is not a neoplasm, but rather a congenital venous malformation with the potential to develop in all parts of the body, though it is very rarely seen in the thymus. We report a case of cavernous hemangioma in the thymus partially resected. A 71-year-old woman presented with pericardial discomfort, and chest computed tomography (CT) showed a left lateral mediastinal mass which was 2.0 × 1.2 × 1.8 cm in size, with border regularity and without calcification. Its interior was partially enhanced. Three-dimensional chest computed tomography image showed a tortuous vessel connecting to the tumor. Surgical resection was performed for the purpose of providing a definitive diagnosis and treatment because a mediastinal tumor such as thymoma or teratoma was suspected. Partial resection of the thymus including the mass was done by utilizing a three-port, left-sided video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) approach with hoisting of the third rib with the patient in a spinal position. A wine-colored mass bulging from the surface of the left lobe of the thymus was identified along with the communicating vessel which could only be cut with an energy device. It is considered that thymic partial resection using VATS is a better option for small and non-infiltrative lesions. PMID:26943686

  18. Carcinoid tumor of the thymus visualized with I 131-MIBG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine 131 Metaiodobenzylguanidine is usually used in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma, neuroblastoma and bronchus and gut carcinoid tumors. This radiopharmaceutical is sometimes applied in therapy. We report the case of a patient with an exceptional carcinoid tumor of the thymus studied by I 131-MIBG scintigraphy before and after surgery. The results are in agreement with the other investigations

  19. The effects of heavy ion irradiation on medaka thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medaka is a teleost fish native to the Asian countries. It has long been the study object of biology in various fields including radiation biology, especially in Japan. Documented data on radiation effects in the medaka system are accumulating. Recently, the establishment of a transgenic medaka, rag ragl-egfp, makes it possible to directly visualize the thymus in vivo in a real time manner. In our previous investigation, decrease in the volume of thymus was confirmed in the ragl-egfp medaka after exposure to a dose from 5 to 10 Gy of X-rays. To comparatively study the effects between low and high linear energy transfer (LET) irradiations on medaka thymus, in the present work, irradiations from accelerated Fe ions was verified. A total of 24 medaka fish were used in the control and the experimental groups exposed to a dose of 0.5, 1, 2, or 5 Gy. The preliminary data obtained so far showed that decrease in the volume of thymus in few medaka could be detectable in the 0.5 Gy-irradiated group, while this effect was observable in all the medaka receiving a dose at 2 Gy or more. Further investigations are needed to determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of Fe-ion irradiations in this system. (author)

  20. Application of the adductome approach to assess intertissue DNA damage variations in human lung and esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for determining the differential susceptibility of human organs to DNA damage have not yet been explored to any large extent due to technical constraints. The development of comprehensive analytical approaches by which to detect intertissue variations in DNA damage susceptibility may advance our understanding of the roles of DNA adducts in cancer etiology and as exposure biomarkers at least. A strategy designed for the detection and comparison of multiple DNA adducts from different tissue samples was applied to assess esophageal and peripherally- and centrally-located lung tissue DNA obtained from the same person. This adductome approach utilized LC/ESI-MS/MS analysis methods designed to detect the neutral loss of 2'-deoxyribose from positively ionized 2'-deoxynucleoside adducts transmitting the [M+H]+ > [M+H-116]+ transition over 374 transitions. In the final analyses, adductome maps were produced which facilitated the visualization of putative DNA adducts and their relative levels of occurrence and allowed for comprehensive comparisons between samples, including a calf thymus DNA negative control. The largest putative adducts were distributed similarly across the samples, however, differences in the relative amounts of putative adducts in lung and esophagus tissue were also revealed. The largest-occurring lung tissue DNA putative adducts were 90% similar (n = 50), while putative adducts in esophagus tissue DNA were shown to be 80 and 84% similar to central and peripheral lung tissue DNA respectively. Seven DNA adducts, N2-ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (N2-ethyl-dG), 1,N6-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (εdA), α-S- and α-R-methyl-γ-hydroxy-1,N2-propano-2'-deoxyguanosine (1,N2-PdG1, 1,N2-PdG2), 3-(2'-deoxyribosyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-8-hydroxy-pyrimido[1,2-a] purine-(3H)-one (8-OH-PdG) and the two stereoisomers of 3-(2'-deoxyribosyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-6-hydroxypyrimido[1,2-a] purine-(3H)-one (6-OH-PdG) were unambiguously detected in all tissue DNA samples by

  1. Value of radiologic imaging of the thymus gland in myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiologic imaging in myasthenia gravis is used for the evaluation of pathologic changes of the thymus gland. Computed tomography can demonstrate tumors of the anterior mediastinum in nearly 90% and is therefore superior to conventional radiography.Because of the variety of size and shape of the normal thymus gland, differentiation between normal thymus, follicular hyperplasia and thymoma is rarely possible especially in younger patients. In elderly patients with myasthenia gravis and involution of the thymus gland tumors of the thymus are reliably detected by computed tomography, whereas the ability of computed tomography to predict the histological diagnosis is poor even with intravenous administration of contrast media. (orig.)

  2. Quantifying antimicrobial resistance at veal calf farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela B Bosman

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine a sampling strategy to quantify the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance on veal calf farms, based on the variation in antimicrobial resistance within and between calves on five farms. Faecal samples from 50 healthy calves (10 calves/farm were collected. From each individual sample and one pooled faecal sample per farm, 90 selected Escherichia coli isolates were tested for their resistance against 25 mg/L amoxicillin, 25 mg/L tetracycline, 0.5 mg/L cefotaxime, 0.125 mg/L ciprofloxacin and 8/152 mg/L trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (tmp/s by replica plating. From each faecal sample another 10 selected E. coli isolates were tested for their resistance by broth microdilution as a reference. Logistic regression analysis was performed to compare the odds of testing an isolate resistant between both test methods (replica plating vs. broth microdilution and to evaluate the effect of pooling faecal samples. Bootstrap analysis was used to investigate the precision of the estimated prevalence of resistance to each antimicrobial obtained by several simulated sampling strategies. Replica plating showed similar odds of E. coli isolates tested resistant compared to broth microdilution, except for ciprofloxacin (OR 0.29, p ≤ 0.05. Pooled samples showed in general lower odds of an isolate being resistant compared to individual samples, although these differences were not significant. Bootstrap analysis showed that within each antimicrobial the various compositions of a pooled sample provided consistent estimates for the mean proportion of resistant isolates. Sampling strategies should be based on the variation in resistance among isolates within faecal samples and between faecal samples, which may vary by antimicrobial. In our study, the optimal sampling strategy from the perspective of precision of the estimated levels of resistance and practicality consists of a pooled faecal sample from 20 individual animals, of which

  3. Age-related changes in CT attenuation of the thymus in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. The CT appearance of the normal and abnormal thymus and its age-related changes have been described. However, there is no information regarding the change in thymus CT attenuation values in children. Objective. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the normal CT attenuation of the thymus in infants and children and discover when the decline begins. Materials and methods. CT attenuation values of the thymus were retrospectively evaluated in 152 children between ages of 1 day and up to 14 years. For each patient the mean value of the CT thymus attenuation was calculated and compared to CT attenuation of the chest wall and cardiac muscles. We also examined the correlation between thymic attenuation, gender, and disease. The statistical analysis used was multivariate linear regression. Results. CT attenuation of the thymus declines with age, beginning only after the 1st year of life. The thymus is more hyperdense than the chest wall and cardiac muscles in infants less than 1 year. The thymus is denser in males than females. In malignant conditions, in infants less than 1 year, thymus CT attenuation is decreased. In older children thymus attenuation was similar to that for the chest wall and cardiac muscles. Conclusion. The decline in thymic CT attenuation with age is consistent with fatty infiltration of the gland. The measurements given in this report can serve as a basis for comparison to determine whether the thymus of a young child is normal or pathological. (orig.)

  4. Experimental and molecular modeling studies of the interaction of the polypyridyl Fe(II) and Fe(III) complexes with DNA and BSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnamfar, Mohammad Taghi; Hadadzadeh, Hassan; Simpson, Jim; Darabi, Farivash; Shahpiri, Azar; Khayamian, Taghi; Ebrahimi, Malihe; Amiri Rudbari, Hadi; Salimi, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Two mononuclear iron complexes, [Fe(tppz)2](PF6)2·H2O (1) and Fe(tppz)Cl3·2CHCl3 (2) where tppz is (2,3,5,6-tetra(2-pyridyl)pyrazine), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic methods (UV-Vis and IR) and single crystal X-ray structure analysis. The interaction of (1) as the nitrate salt ([Fe(tppz)2](NO3)2) with calf-thymus DNA (CT-DNA) has been monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy, competitive fluorescence titration, circular dichroism (CD), voltammetric techniques, viscosity measurement, and gel electrophoresis. Gel electrophoresis of DNA with [Fe(tppz)2](NO3)2 demonstrated that the complex also has the ability to cleave supercoiled plasmid DNA. The results have indicated that the complex binds to CT-DNA by three binding modes, viz., electrostatic, groove and partial insertion of the pyridyl rings between the base stacks of double-stranded DNA. Molecular docking of [Fe(tppz)2](NO3)2 with the DNA sequence d(ACCGACGTCGGT)2 suggests the complex fits into the major groove. The water-insoluble complex (2) can catalyze the cleavage of BSA at 40 °C. There are no reports of the catalytic effect of polypyridyl metal complexes on the BSA cleavage. Molecular docking of (2) with BSA suggests that, when the chloro ligands in the axial positions are replaced by water molecules, the BSA can interact with the Fe(III) complex more easily.

  5. DNA damaging, cell cytotoxicity and serum albumin binding efficacy of the rutin-Cu(ii) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Atanu Singha; Tripathy, Debi Ranjan; Samanta, Sintu; Ghosh, Sudip K; Dasgupta, Swagata

    2016-04-26

    Flavonoids are widely used as anti-oxidants, anti-cancer agents and possess metal ion chelation properties. In this report we have investigated the DNA binding (and damaging), cell cytotoxicity and serum albumin (SA) binding efficacy of the rutin-Cu(ii) complex using differential spectroscopic methods. The rutin-Cu(ii) complex was able to intercalate into calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) at lower concentrations and its DNA damaging properties were also confirmed from the agarose gel based assay, fluorescence and UV-vis studies. The copper complex was found to be effective against the growth of HeLa cells in vivo. The binding constants (Kb) of the rutin-Cu(ii) complex towards HSA and BSA were found to be (0.98 ± 0.03) and (1.05 ± 0.02) × 10(5) M(-1), respectively, at 299 K and observed to increase with the increase in temperature. Site selectivity studies revealed that the rutin-Cu(ii) complex binds near site 1 (subdomain IIA) of SAs. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that the mode of interaction of rutin and its copper complex with SAs are different from each other. Both ΔH° and ΔS° were observed to be positive for the interaction of the rutin-Cu(ii) complex with SAs, indicating the presence of hydrophobic association in binding. The values of ΔH° were estimated to be negative (-42.07 ± 2.92 and -23.29 ± 2.33 kJ mol(-1) for HSA and BSA respectively) in the binding of rutin with SAs. It implies that after chelation with Cu(ii) ion, rutin alters its binding mode which could have varying applications to its other physicochemical activities. PMID:27035097

  6. Transcriptomic analysis supports similar functional roles for the two thymuses of the tammar wallaby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renfree Marilyn B

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The thymus plays a critical role in the development and maturation of T-cells. Humans have a single thoracic thymus and presence of a second thymus is considered an anomaly. However, many vertebrates have multiple thymuses. The tammar wallaby has two thymuses: a thoracic thymus (typically found in all mammals and a dominant cervical thymus. Researchers have known about the presence of the two wallaby thymuses since the 1800s, but no genome-wide research has been carried out into possible functional differences between the two thymic tissues. Here, we used pyrosequencing to compare the transcriptomes of a cervical and thoracic thymus from a single 178 day old tammar wallaby. Results We show that both the tammar thoracic and the cervical thymuses displayed gene expression profiles consistent with roles in T-cell development. Both thymuses expressed genes that mediate distinct phases of T-cells differentiation, including the initial commitment of blood stem cells to the T-lineage, the generation of T-cell receptor diversity and development of thymic epithelial cells. Crucial immune genes, such as chemokines were also present. Comparable patterns of expression of non-coding RNAs were seen. 67 genes differentially expressed between the two thymuses were detected, and the possible significance of these results are discussed. Conclusion This is the first study comparing the transcriptomes of two thymuses from a single individual. Our finding supports that both thymuses are functionally equivalent and drive T-cell development. These results are an important first step in the understanding of the genetic processes that govern marsupial immunity, and also allow us to begin to trace the evolution of the mammalian immune system.

  7. Practical considerations for ventilating calf barns in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlund, Kenneth V

    2008-03-01

    The use of air sampling devices to measure the concentrations of airborne bacteria in clinical investigations and research trials in calf barns has indicated that traditional systems of ventilation are problematic in cold weather. Individual pen designs should have two solid sides, but the front and rear should be as open as possible. Thermal stress should be managed by providing deep bedding and not by enclosing the pen. Air hygiene can be improved by reducing stocking density and using supplemental positive-pressure ventilation systems to deliver small amounts of air to each pen. Implementation of these recommendations can produce calf barns that seem to equal calf hutches in minimizing disease and provide better working conditions for the caregivers. PMID:18299031

  8. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterisation, thermal analysis, DNA interaction and antibacterial activity of copper(I) complexes with N, N‧- disubstituted thiourea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetana, P. R.; Srinatha, B. S.; Somashekar, M. N.; Policegoudra, R. S.

    2016-02-01

    copper(I) complexes [Cu(4MTU)2Cl] (2), [Cu(4MTU) (B)Cl] (3), [Cu(6MTU)2Cl] (5) and [Cu(6MTU) (B)Cl] (6) where 4MTU = 1-Benzyl-3-(4-methyl-pyridin-2-yl)-thiourea (1) and 6MTU = 1-Benzyl-3-(6-methyl-pyridin-2-yl)-thiourea (4), B is a N,N-donor heterocyclic base, viz. 1,10-phenanthroline (phen 3, 6), were synthesized, characterized by various physico-chemical and spectroscopic techniques. The elemental analysis suggests that the stoichiometry to be 1:2 (metal:ligand) for 2, 5 1:1:1 (metal:ligand:B) for 3, 6. X-ray powder diffraction illustrates that the complexes have crystalline nature. IR data coupled with electronic spectra and molar conductance values suggest that the complex 2, 5 show the presence of a trigonal planar geometry and the complex 3, 6 show the presence of a tetrahedral geometry about the Cu(I) centre. The binding affinity towards calf thymus (CT) DNA was determined using UV-Vis, fluorescence spectroscopic titrations and viscosity studies. These studies showed that the tested phen complexes 3, 6 bind moderately (in the order of 105 M-1) to CT DNA. The complex 2, 5 does not show any apparent binding to the DNA and hence poor cleavage efficiency. Complex 3, 6 shows efficient oxidative cleavage of plasmid DNA in the presence of H2O2 involving hydroxyl radical species as evidenced from the control data showing inhibition of DNA cleavage in the presence of DMSO and KI. The in vitro antibacterial assay indicates that these complexes are good antimicrobial agents against various pathogens. Anti-bacterial activity is higher when thiourea coordinates to metal ion than the thiourea alone.

  9. Synthesis, characterization, DNA binding studies, photocleavage, cytotoxicity and docking studies of ruthenium(II) light switch complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabra, Nazar Mohammed; Mustafa, Bakheit; Kumar, Yata Praveen; Devi, C Shobha; Srishailam, A; Reddy, P Venkat; Reddy, Kotha Laxma; Satyanarayana, S

    2014-01-01

    A new ligand 3-(1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthrolin-2yl)phenylboronic acid and its (IPPBA) three ruthenium(II) complexes [Ru(phen)2(IPPBA)](ClO4)2 (1), [Ru(bpy)2(IPPBA)](ClO4)2 (2) and [Ru(dmb)2(IPPBA)](ClO4)2 (3) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, UV/VIS, IR, (1)H-NMR,(13)C-NMR and mass spectra. The binding behaviors of the three complexes to calf thymus DNA were investigated by absorption spectra, emission spectroscopy, viscosity measurements, thermal denaturation and photoactivated cleavage. The DNA-binding constants for complexes 1, 2 and 3 have been determined to be 7.9 × 10(5) M(-1), 6.7 × 10(5) M(-1) and 2.9 × 10(5) M(-1). The results suggest that these complexes bound to double-stranded DNA in an intercalation mode. Upon irradiation at 365 nm, three ruthenium complexes were found to promote the cleavage of plasmid pBR322 DNA from super coiled form І to nicked form ІІ. Further in the presence of Co(2+), the emission of DNA-Ru(ΙΙ) complexes can be quenched. And when EDTA was added, the emission was recovered. The experimental results show that all three complexes exhibited the "on-off-on" properties of molecular "light switch". The highest Cytotoxicity potential of the complex1 was observed on the Human alveolar adenocarcinoma (A549) cell line. Good agreement was generally found between the spectroscopic techniques and molecular docked model which provides further evidence of groove binding. PMID:23982735

  10. DNA binding and anti-cancer activity of redox-active heteroleptic piano-stool Ru(II), Rh(III), and Ir(III) complexes containing 4-(2-methoxypyridyl)phenyldipyrromethene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Pandey, Rampal; Sharma, Gunjan; Prasad, Ritika; Koch, Biplob; Srikrishna, Saripella; Li, Pei-Zhou; Xu, Qiang; Pandey, Daya Shankar

    2013-04-01

    The synthesis of four novel heteroleptic dipyrrinato complexes [(η(6)-arene)RuCl(2-pcdpm)] (η(6)-arene = C6H6, 1; C10H14, 2) and [(η(5)-C5Me5)MCl(2-pcdpm)] (M = Rh, 3; Ir, 4) containing a new chelating ligand 4-(2-methoxypyridyl)-phenyldipyrromethene (2-pcdpm) have been described. The complexes 1-4 have been fully characterized by various physicochemical techniques, namely, elemental analyses, spectral (ESI-MS, IR, (1)H, (13)C NMR, UV/vis) and electrochemical studies (cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV)). Structures of 3 and 4 have been determined crystallographically. In vitro antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity of these complexes has been evaluated by trypan blue exclusion assay, cell morphology, apoptosis, acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EtBr) fluorescence staining, and DNA fragmentation assay in Dalton lymphoma (DL) cell lines. Interaction of 1-4 with calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) has also been supported by absorption titration and electrochemical studies. Our results suggest that in vitro antitumor activity of 1-4 lies in the order 2 > 1 > 4 > 3. PMID:23477351

  11. Interaction with DNA of a heteronuclear [Na2Cu4] coordination cluster obtained from the assembly of two hydroxo-bridged [Cu(II)2] units by a dimeric sodium nitrate template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Debashree; Chauhan, Mala; Arjmand, Farukh; Aromí, Guillem; Ray, Debashis

    2009-11-14

    The heteronuclear [Na(2)Cu(4)(bemp)(2)(OH)(2)(NO(3))(2)(OH(2))(4)] x 5 H(2)O (1 x 5H(2)O; H(3)bemp: 2,6-bis-[(2-hydroxyethylimino)-methyl]-4-methyl-phenol) cluster has been synthesized in aqueous-methanol at room temperature and structurally characterized. The water soluble complex is obtained from the template assembly of two [Cu(2)(bemp)(OH)] neutral fragments through their weak oxophillic interactions with two interconnected NaNO(3) units as core. Four [Na(2)Cu(4)] units form a metal-organic cage arrangement in the crystal lattice that traps a (H(2)O)(7) cluster. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements (2-300 K) reveals a strong antiferromagnetic coupling between the Cu(II) ions within the dimers with J = -124.1 cm(-1) (in the H = -2JS(1)S(2) convention). The interaction of complex 1 x 3H(2)O with calf thymus DNA (binding constant K(b), 4.6 x 10(4) M(-1)) in Tris buffer was studied by UV-visible and emission titration, and cyclic voltammetry. The hexanuclear Na(2)Cu(4) complex also binds double-stranded supercoiled plasmid pBR322 DNA and displays efficient hydrolytic cleavage. The hydrolytic mechanism is supported by evidence from DNA relegation employing T4 ligase assay and reactive oxygen species (ROS) quenching cleavage experiments. PMID:20449195

  12. Phosphorus Spectroscopy of Calf Muscles before and after Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Wcisło, Bożena; Cichocka, Monika; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to determine 31PMRS reference spectrum and intracellular pH of calf muscles in the dominant limb of healthy, young, male volunteers before and after intense physical effort. Material/Methods Examinations were performed with a 1.5 T MR system. FID CSI (Free Induction Decay Chemical Shift Imaging) sequence was used with the following parameters: TR=4000 ms, FA=90°, NEX=2 and VOI (Volume Of Interest)=8×8×8 cm3 (512 cm3) involving in calf muscles. Raw ...

  13. Gap junction modulation by extracellular signaling molecules: the thymus model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves L.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Gap junctions are intercellular channels which connect adjacent cells and allow direct exchange of molecules of low molecular weight between them. Such a communication has been described as fundamental in many systems due to its importance in coordination, proliferation and differentiation. Recently, it has been shown that gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC can be modulated by several extracellular soluble factors such as classical hormones, neurotransmitters, interleukins, growth factors and some paracrine substances. Herein, we discuss some aspects of the general modulation of GJIC by extracellular messenger molecules and more particularly the regulation of such communication in the thymus gland. Additionally, we discuss recent data concerning the study of different neuropeptides and hormones in the modulation of GJIC in thymic epithelial cells. We also suggest that the thymus may be viewed as a model to study the modulation of gap junction communication by different extracellular messengers involved in non-classical circuits, since this organ is under bidirectional neuroimmunoendocrine control.

  14. Regeneration of the aged thymus by a single transcription factor

    OpenAIRE

    Bredenkamp, N.; Nowell, C. S.; Blackburn, C C

    2014-01-01

    Thymic involution is central to the decline in immune system function that occurs with age. By regenerating the thymus, it may therefore be possible to improve the ability of the aged immune system to respond to novel antigens. Recently, diminished expression of the thymic epithelial cell (TEC)-specific transcription factor Forkhead box N1 (FOXN1) has been implicated as a component of the mechanism regulating age-related involution. The effects of upregulating FOXN1 function in the aged thymu...

  15. Exosomes in the Thymus: Antigen Transfer and Vesicles

    OpenAIRE

    Skogberg, Gabriel; Telemo, Esbjörn; Ekwall, Olov

    2015-01-01

    Thymocytes go through several steps of maturation and selection in the thymus in order to form a functional pool of effector T-cells and regulatory T-cells in the periphery. Close interactions between thymocytes, thymic epithelial cells, and dendritic cells are of vital importance for the maturation, selection, and lineage decision of the thymocytes. One important question that is still unanswered is how a relatively small epithelial cell population can present a vast array of self-antigens t...

  16. Essential Oils Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Three Thymus Species

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzeh Amiri

    2011-01-01

    The essential oils of three wild-growing Thymus species, collected from west of Iran during the flowering stage, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Under the optimum extraction and analysis conditions, 44, 38, and 38 constituents (mainly monoterpenes compounds) were identified in T. kotschyanus Boiss. and Hohen, T. eriocalyx (Ronniger) Jalas, and T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak) Jalas which represe...

  17. Supercritical CO2 extraction of essential oils from Thymus vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. B. VIEIRA DE MELO; G.M.N. Costa; R. Garau; A. Casula; B. Pittau

    2000-01-01

    Supercritical CO2 extraction of essential oil from Thymus vulgaris leaves was studied using experimental data recently obtained in the Florys S.p.A. laboratory. Mass transfer coefficients in the supercritical and solid phases from extraction curves at 40°C and 20 MPa were evaluated using a mathematical model based on the local adsorption equilibrium of essential oil on lipid in leaves. The adsorption equilibrium constant was fitted to these experimental data, and internal and external mass tr...

  18. Glandular Trichomes and Essential Oil of Thymus quinquecostatus

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Jia; Hanzhu Liu; Ting Gao; Hua Xin

    2013-01-01

    The distribution and types of glandular trichomes and essential oil chemistry of Thymus quinquecostatus were studied. The glandular trichomes are distributed on the surface of stem, leaf, rachis, calyx and corolla, except petiole, pistil and stamen. Three morphologically distinct types of glandular trichomes are described. Peltate trichomes, consisting of a basal cell, a stalk cell and a 12-celled head, are distributed on the stem, leaf, corolla and outer side of calyx. Capitate trichomes, co...

  19. Nickel(II) complexes of N2S2 donor set ligand and halide/pseudohalides: Synthesis, crystal structure, DNA and bovine/human serum albumin interaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Animesh Patra; Biplab Mondal; Buddhadeb Sen; Ennio Zangrando; Pabitra Chattopadhyay

    2015-11-01

    A series of neutral hexacoordinated nickel(II) complexes of formula [NiII (L)X2] (where L = 3,4-bis(2-pyridylmethylthio)toluene with tetradentate N2S2 donor set and X = chloride (1), azide (2), cyanate (3) and isothiocyanate anion (4)) have been synthesized and isolated in pure form. The complexes were characterized by physicochemical and spectroscopic methods along with detailed structural characterization of 1,2 and 3 by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. The structural study showed that the nickel(II) ion has a distorted octahedral geometry being chelated by the tetradentate N2S2 ligand and bound to cis- located choride or pseudohalide anions. In dimethylformamide solution the complexes showed quasi-reversible NiII/NiIII redox couples in cyclic voltammograms with E1/2 values of +0.723, +0.749, +0.768 and +0.868 V for 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The study of interaction of the complexes with calf thymus DNA, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) using spectroscopic and physicochemical tools clearly indicates that the complexes interact with DNA via groove binding mode.

  20. Immunochemical detection of a primase activity related subunit of DNA polymerase. cap alpha. from human and mouse cells using the monoclonal antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagura, T.; Kozu, T.; Seno, T.; Tanaka, S.

    1987-12-01

    A hybrid cell line (HDR-854-Er) secreting monoclonal antibody (E4 antibody) against a subunit of human DNA polymerase ..cap alpha.. was established by immunizing mice with DNA replicase complex (DNA polymerase ..cap alpha..-primase complex) prepared from HeLa cells. The E4 antibody immunoprecipitates DNA replicase complex from both human and mouse cells. The E4 antibody neutralized the primase activity as assessed either by the direct primase assay (incorporation of (..cap alpha..-/sup 32/P)AMP) or by assay of DNA polymerase activity coupled with the primase activity using unprimed poly(dT) as a template. The E4 antibody does not neutralize DNA polymerase ..cap alpha.. activity with the activated calf thymus DNA as a template. Western immunoblotting analysis shows that the E4 antibody binds to a polypeptide of 77 kilodaltons (kDa) which is tightly associated with DNA polymerase ..cap alpha... The 77-kDa polypeptide was distinguished from the catalytic subunit (160 and 180 kDA) for DNA synthesis which was detected by another monoclonal antibody, HDR-863-A5. Furthermore, it is unlikely that the 77-kDa peptide is the primase, since we found that the E4 antibody also immunoprecipitates the mouse 7.3 S DNA polymerase ..cap alpha.. which has no primase activity, and Western immunoblotting analysis shows that the 77-kDa polypeptide is a subunit of the 7.3S DNA polymerase ..cap alpha... Furthermore, after dissociation of the primase from mouse DNA replicase by chromatography on a hydroxyapatite column in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide and ethylene glycol, the 77-kDA polypeptide is associated with DNA polymerase ..cap alpha.., and not with the primase. These results indicate that the 77-kDa polypeptide detected with the E4 antibody is not the primase but is a subunit firmly bound to DNA polymerase ..cap alpha.. catalytic polypeptide and yet influences the activity of the associated DNA primase.

  1. CALF BLOOD-FLOW AND POSTURE - DOPPLER ULTRASOUND MEASUREMENTS DURING AND AFTER EXERCISE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLEEUWEN, BE; BARENDSEN, GJ; LUBBERS, J; DEPATER, L

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the joint effects of body posture and calf muscle pump, the calf blood flow of eight healthy volunteers was measured with pulsed Doppler equipment during and after 3 min of rhythmic exercise on a calf ergometer in the supine, sitting, and standing postures. Muscle contractions serious

  2. The inflatable thymus herniation of the normal mediastinal thymus: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuut, Marijn; van Zwieten, Gusta; Straetmans, Jos M; Lacko, Martin; Stumpel, Constance T R M

    2016-04-01

    Anterior neck masses in young children can be a diagnostic challenge for otolaryngologists and radiologists. We present a rare case of herniation of normal mediastinal thymus in a four-year-old girl. Additional medical features as an inguinal hernia and trochlear nerve paresis raised the question whether there is a causal relationship or an association. A connective tissue disorder could not be diagnosed as possible causal factor to the abnormal movement of the mediastinal thymus. Awareness and recognition of this benign phenomenon is important in order to avoid unnecessary biopsy or surgery. Diagnosis can be confirmed by ultrasonography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging might be valuable in order to obtain more information about the extension of the mass. PMID:26968057

  3. Cysticercosis of Soleus muscle presenting as isolated calf pain

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Pallav; Pandey, Divya; Tripathi, Brajendra N.

    2014-01-01

    CNS is the most common site of involvement by cysticercosis. Symptomatic involvement of isolated skeletal muscle by solitary cysticercosis cyst is extremely rare. We report a rare and unusual case of cysticercosis presenting as acute calf pain, which is a diagnostic challenge. But the diagnosis was reached by sero-radiological examination and patient was managed conservatively by medical means.

  4. Calf Strength Loss During Mechanical Unloading: Does It Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, K. L.; Mulavara, A.; Bloomberg, J.; Ploutz-Snyder, LL

    2016-01-01

    During the mechanical unloading of spaceflight and its ground-based analogs, muscle mass and muscle strength of the calf are difficult to preserve despite exercise countermeasures that effectively protect these parameters in the thigh. It is unclear what effects these local losses have on balance and whole body function which will be essential for successful performance of demanding tasks during future exploration missions.

  5. Acidification of calf bedding reduces fly development and bacterial abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental stressors, such as high fly density, can impact calf well-being. Sodium bisulfate (SBS) is an acidifier that reduces the pH of flooring and bedding, creating a medium that neither bacteria nor immature flies (also known as larvae or maggots) can thrive in. Two experiments were conducte...

  6. Synthesis, structure information, DNA/BSA binding affinity and in vitro cytotoxic studies of mixed ligand copper(II) complexes containing a phenylalanine derivative and diimine co-ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annaraj, B; Balakrishnan, C; Neelakantan, M A

    2016-07-01

    Binary [Cu(PAIC)(H2O)2]·H2O (1) and mixed ligand [Cu(PAIC)(L)]·2H2O complexes, where PAIC=phenylalanine imidazole carboxylic acid, L=diimine coligands [2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) (2) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) (3)] have been synthesized and fully characterized by analytical and spectral techniques. The X-ray structure of [Cu(PAIC)(phen)]·2H2O (3) shows a N4O coordination with square pyramidal geometry around the copper (II) atom. The spin Hamiltonian parameters calculated for the complexes account for the distorted square planar structure and rules out the possibility of a trigonal bipyramidal structure. Interaction of the complexes (1-3) with calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) was studied by using different techniques (absorption titration, fluorescence quenching and thermal melting) and the studies suggest that these complexes bind to CT DNA through intercalation. The DNA-binding affinity of the complexes has further been explained by DFT computational results. Binding activity of Bovine serum albumin (BSA) reveals that the complexes can strongly quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA through a static quenching mechanism. DNA cleavage experiments using plasmid DNA pUC 19 show that the complexes exhibit efficient chemical nuclease activity even in the absence of any external additives. The cytotoxicity of the complexes against human normal cell line (HBL 100) and human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) shows that metal complexation of the ligands results in a significant enhancement in the cell death of MCF-7. Finally, docking studies on DNA and protein binding interactions were performed. PMID:27155593

  7. Synthesis and antitumor activity evaluation of a novel combi-nitrosourea prodrug: Designed to release a DNA cross-linking agent and an inhibitor of O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guohui; Zhang, Na; Zhao, Lijiao; Fan, Tengjiao; Zhang, Shufen; Zhong, Rugang

    2016-05-01

    The drug resistance of CENUs induced by O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT), which repairs the O(6)-alkylated guanine and subsequently inhibits the formation of dG-dC cross-links, hinders the application of CENU chemotherapies. Therefore, the discovery of CENU analogs with AGT inhibiting activity is a promising approach leading to novel CENU chemotherapies with high therapeutic index. In this study, a new combi-nitrosourea prodrug 3-(3-(((2-amino-9H-purin-6-yl)oxy)methyl)benzyl)-1-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (6), designed to release a DNA cross-linking agent and an inhibitor of AGT, was synthesized and evaluated for its antitumor activity and ability to induce DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs). The results indicated that 6 exhibited higher cytotoxicity against mer(+) glioma cells compared with ACNU, BCNU, and their respective combinations with O(6)-benzylguanine (O(6)-BG). Quantifications of dG-dC cross-links induced by 6 were performed using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Higher levels of dG-dC cross-link were observed in 6-treated human glioma SF763 cells (mer(+)), whereas lower levels of dG-dC cross-link were observed in 6-treated calf thymus DNA, when compared with the groups treated with BCNU and ACNU. The results suggested that the superiority of 6 might result from the AGT inhibitory moiety, which specifically functions in cells with AGT activity. Molecular docking studies indicated that five hydrogen bonds were formed between the O(6)-BG analogs released from 6 and the five residues in the active pocket of AGT, which provided a reasonable explanation for the higher AGT-inhibitory activity of 6 than O(6)-BG. PMID:27041398

  8. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CALF MORTALITY ON DAIRY FARMS IN KUWAIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. RAZZAQUE, M. BEDAIR, S. ABBAS AND T. AL-MUTAWA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this study was to investigate the economic impact of mortality of pre-weaned calves on dairy cattle enterprise in Kuwait. Cost/benefit analysis model was applied to two different situations: in the first situation, a baseline scenario, field survey data without intervention using 1,280 newborn calves was used in first calving season. In the second situation, the intervention scenario (improved management, 665 newborn calves were used in second calving season during the following year. Calving seasons extended for 7 months from September to March. Calf performance studies were conducted from birth to weaning. Economic model was constructed on Microsoft Excel and used to evaluate the impact of calf mortality on calf enterprise. Results showed that gross margins increased from 13 to 35% as a result of implementation of intervention measures during the second calving season over baseline scenario. A significant correlation between increased veterinary expenses and an increase in revenues (r2 = 0.65, P<0.05 was observed. If the intervention measures such as colostrum feeding, nutrition and hygiene had not been implemented, the farms would have lose income from 12 to 51% of the gross revenues. Net income was influenced by costs of feeds, veterinary services and laborers. Discounted cash flow studies on a whole farm basis revealed that the impact of interventions was small (0-3%. Calf mortality could not be isolated from whole farm for assessing its impact on dairy farm economics. Economic studies demonstrated the cost/benefits of using the improved techniques of calf rearing.

  9. T-Cell Reconstitution after Thymus Xenotransplantation Induces Hair Depigmentation and Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Furmanski, A. L.; O Shaughnessy, R. F.; Saldana, J. I.; Blundell, M. P.; Thrasher, A. J.; Sebire, N J; Davies, E G; Crompton, T.

    2013-01-01

    Here we present a mouse model for T-cell targeting of hair follicles, linking the pathogenesis of alopecia to that of depigmentation disorders. Clinically, thymus transplantation has been successfully used to treat T-cell immunodeficiency in congenital athymia, but is associated with autoimmunity. We established a mouse model of thymus transplantation by subcutaneously implanting human thymus tissue into athymic C57BL/6 nude mice. These xenografts supported mouse T-cell development. Surprisin...

  10. DNA binding, BSA interaction and SOD activity of two new nickel(II) complexes with glutamine Schiff base ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiang; Dong, Jianfang; Zhao, Peiran; Li, Manman; Cheng, Fengling; Kong, Jinming; Li, Lianzhi

    2016-08-01

    Two hexacoordinated octahedral nickel(II) complexes, [Ni(o-van-gln)(phen)(H2O)](1) and [Ni(sal-gln)(phen)(H2O)](2) [o-van-gln=a Schiff base derived from o-vanillin and glutamine, sal-gln=a Schiff base derived from salicylaldehyde and glutamine, phen=1,10-phenanthroline], have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra and single crystal X-ray diffraction. X-ray studies showed that nickel atoms of both 1 and 2 exhibit distorted NiN3O3 octahedral geometry. In each crystal, intermolecular hydrogen bonds form a two-dimensional network structure. DNA-binding properties of these two nickel(II) complexes were investigated by using UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies and viscosity measurements. Results indicated that the two complexes can bind to calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) via an intercalative mode, and complex 1 exhibits higher interaction with CT-DNA than complex 2. Furthermore, the interactions between the nickel(II) complexes with bovine serum albumin (BSA) have been studied by spectroscopies. The results indicated that both complexes could quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA in a static quenching process. The binding constants (Kb) and the numbers of binding sites (n) obtained are 1.10×10(5)M(-1) and 1.05 for complex 1 and 5.05×10(4)M(-1) and 0.997 for complex 2, respectively. Site-selective competitive binding investigation indicated that the binding sites of both the complexes are located in site I of sub-domains IIA of BSA. Assay of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of the nickel(II) complexes revealed that they exhibit significant superoxide scavenging activity with IC50=3.4×10(-5)M for complex 1 and 4.3×10(-5)M for complex 2, respectively. PMID:27295415

  11. Effects of counterion valency on the damping of phonons propagating along the axial direction of liquid-crystalline DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Chen, Sow-Hsin; Berti, Debora; Baglioni, Piero; Alatas, Ahmet; Sinn, Harald; Alp, Ercan; Said, Ayman

    2005-12-01

    The phonon propagation and damping along the axial direction of films of aligned 40wt% calf-thymus DNA rods are studied by inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS). The IXS spectra are analyzed with the generalized three effective eigenmode theory, from which we extract the dynamic structure factor S (Q,E) as a function of transferred energy E =ℏω, and the magnitude of the transferred wave vector Q. S (Q,E) of a DNA sample typically consists of three peaks, one central Rayleigh scattering peak, and two symmetric Stokes and anti-Stokes Brillouin side peaks. By analyzing the Brillouin peaks, the phonon excitation energy and damping can be extracted at different Q values from about 4 to 30nm-1. A high-frequency sound speed is obtained from the initial slope of the linear portion of the dispersion relation below Q =4nm-1. The high-frequency sound speed obtained in this Q range is 3100m /s, which is about twice faster than the ultrasound speed of 1800m/s, measured by Brillouin light scattering at Q ˜0.01nm-1 at the similar hydration level. Our observations provide further evidence of the strong coupling between the internal dynamics of a DNA molecule and the dynamics of the solvent. The effect on damping and propagation of phonons along the axial direction of DNA rods due to divalent and trivalent counterions has been studied. It is found that the added multivalent counterions introduce stronger phonon damping. The phonons at the range between ˜12.5 and ˜22.5nm-1 are overdamped by the added counterions according to our model analyses. The intermediate scattering function is extracted and it shows a clear two-step relaxation with the fast relaxation time ranging from 0.1 to 4ps.

  12. Four Cu(ii) complexes based on antitumor chelators: synthesis, structure, DNA binding/damage, HSA interaction and enhanced cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya-Hong; Li, Ang; Shao, Jia; Xie, Cheng-Zhi; Song, Xue-Qing; Bao, Wei-Guo; Xu, Jing-Yuan

    2016-05-10

    Four novel copper(ii) complexes [Cu(II)(Bp4mT)(μ-Cl)]2 (), [Cu(II)(μ-Bp4mT)Br]2 (), [Cu(II)(HBpT)Cl] (), and [Cu(II)(HBpT)Br] () (Bp4mT = 2-benzoylpyridine-4-methylthiosemicarbazone, HBpT = 2-benzoylpyridine thiosemicarbazone), were synthesized and characterized using single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, infrared, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. X-ray analysis revealed that complexes and based on the Bp4mT ligand presented dimeric structures in which the Cu(ii) ions were located in a five-coordinated distorted square-pyramidal geometry, whereas both and complexes were mononuclear with the Cu(ii) ions exhibiting a tetracoordinated square planar configuration. Their interactions with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were investigated using viscosity measurements and fluorescence spectroscopy. Multispectroscopic evidence has shown interactions between these complexes and human serum albumin (HSA). All these complexes have exhibited efficient oxidative cleavage of supercoiled DNA in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, presumably via an oxidative mechanism. Furthermore, in vitro cytotoxicity studies of against human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG-2), human large cell lung carcinoma cells (NCI-H460), and human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa) indicated their promising antitumor activity with quite low IC50 values in the range of 0.08-1.98 μM, which are 83 times lower than those of cisplatin. The mechanistic studies revealed that four complexes, which induced early apoptosis, were involved in reactive oxygen species generation and DNA cleavage for their antitumor activities. PMID:27071545

  13. Postirradiation dynamics of T-lymphocyte precusors and regeneration of thymus in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of CBA mice elicits a pronounced response of intrathymus and bone marrow precursors of T-lymphocytes (PTL) which is manifested by an increase in a relative content of PTL in the thymus and their transfer from bone marrow to thymus. The estimate of the regenerative potency of the thymus most adequately reflects the cellular events leading to regeneration thereof. The differences in the thymus regeneration dynamics between CBA and AKR mice are associated with different radiation response of the intrathymic SC-1-PTL in mice of these strains

  14. DNA damage and cytotoxicity in type II lung epithelial (A549 cell cultures after exposure to diesel exhaust and urban street particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Møller Peter

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to air pollution particles has been acknowledged to be associated with excess generation of oxidative damage to DNA in experimental model systems and humans. The use of standard reference material (SRM, such as SRM1650 and SRM2975, is advantageous because experiments can be reproduced independently, but exposure to such samples may not mimic the effects observed after exposure to authentic air pollution particles. This study was designed to compare the DNA oxidizing effects of authentic street particles with SRM1650 and SRM2975. The authentic street particles were collected at a traffic intensive road in Copenhagen, Denmark. Results All of the particles generated strand breaks and oxidized purines in A549 lung epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner and there were no overt differences in their potency. The exposures also yielded dose-dependent increase of cytotoxicity (as lactate dehydrogenase release and reduced colony forming ability with slightly stronger cytotoxicity of SRM1650 than of the other particles. In contrast, only the authentic street particles were able to generate 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG in calf thymus DNA, which might be due to the much higher level of transition metals. Conclusion Authentic street particles and SRMs differ in their ability to oxidize DNA in a cell-free environment, whereas cell culture experiments indicate that the particle preparations elicit a similar alteration of the level of DNA damage and small differences in cytotoxicity. Although it cannot be ruled out that SRMs and authentic street particles might elicit different effects in animal experimental models, this study indicates that on the cellular level, SRM1650 and SRM2975 are suitable surrogate samples for the study of authentic street particles.

  15. Mixed ligand complexes of Cu(II)/Zn(II) ions containing (m-)/(p-) carboxylato phenyl azo pentane 2,4-dione and 2,2‧-bipyridine/1,10 phenanthroline: Synthesis, characterization, DNA binding, nuclease and topoisomerase I inhibitory activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md. Amin; Kumari, Niraj; Singh, Kanhaiya; Singh, Kiran; Mishra, Lallan

    2016-01-01

    Metal complexes of type [Cu(L1H)2(bpy)] (1), [Zn(L1H)2(bpy)] (2), [Cu(L2H)2(bpy)] (3) and [Cu(L2H)2(Phen)] (4) (L1H2 = 3-[N‧-(1-acetyl-2-oxo-propylidene)-hydrazino]-benzoic acid, L2H2 = 4-[N‧-(1-acetyl-2-oxo-propylidene)-hydrazino]-benzoic acid, bpy = 2,2‧-bipyridine, Phen = 1,10 phenanthroline) are synthesized and characterized using spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, electronic absorption and emission) and elemental analysis data. The assembly of the complexes involving intramolecular H-bonding is displayed using corresponding crystal structure. Binding of the complexes separately with Calf Thymus DNA is monitored using UV-vis spectral titrations. The displacement of ethidium bromide (EB) bound to DNA by the complexes, in phosphate buffer solution (pH ∼ 7.2) is monitored using fluorescence spectral titrations. Nuclease activity of the complexes follow the order 4 > 3 > 1 > 2. The gel electrophoretic mobility assay measurement in presence of minor groove binder 4‧,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), suggests that complexes preferably bind with the minor groove of DNA. Topoisomerase I inhibitory activity of the complexes 3 and 4 inhibit topoisomerase I activity with IC50 values of 112 and 87 μM respectively.

  16. Supercritical CO2 extraction of essential oils from Thymus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A.B. Vieira de Melo

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical CO2 extraction of essential oil from Thymus vulgaris leaves was studied using experimental data recently obtained in the Florys S.p.A. laboratory. Mass transfer coefficients in the supercritical and solid phases from extraction curves at 40°C and 20 MPa were evaluated using a mathematical model based on the local adsorption equilibrium of essential oil on lipid in leaves. The adsorption equilibrium constant was fitted to these experimental data, and internal and external mass transfer resistances were calculated, allowing identification of the mechanism controlling the extraction process.

  17. Computer tomographic examination of the thymus. Normal and pathological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, C.; Dinkel, E.; Wimmer, B.; Grosser, G.; Schildge, J.

    1987-09-01

    The diagnostic value of CT in follicular thymic hyperplasia and in thymomas in 8 patients with myasthenia gravis and in 12 patients without myasthenia gravis suffering from thymic tumors was evaluated by correlating CT-findings to surgical results and pathological-histological findings. Thymic size of the six patients with histologically proven follicular hyperplasia were scattered within the normal range, but half of them were at the upper limit. Thymic tumors were differentiated between invasive and non invasive tumors by CT staging. Solid tumors with different histology could not be further classified; the attenuation values ranging from 15-55 HU were the same in tumors, follicular hyperplasia and normal thymus.

  18. Effect of laser radiation on thymus hormones production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of the epithelial cells from human (cell line HTSC) by arsenid-gallium laser (0.89 nm, 1500 Hz) induces an enhancement of thymic hormone production. The concentration of α-1-thymosin was substantionally increased on the days 1 and 5 in culture after irradiation. The increase of thymulin level in cultural supernatants was less pronounced and displayed after irradiation during 3-4 minutes. Local laser irradiation of thymus region of rats (5 minutes, 10 times) induce the increase of serum concentration of α-1-thymosin and the decrease of serum level of thymulin 2 days after irradiation. 10 refs.; 2 figs

  19. Preparation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/poly(styrene-butyl acrylate-[2-(methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization and its interaction with DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaolong; Liu Guoqiang; Yan Wei [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Yeung, Kelvin W.K. [Division of Spine Surgery, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam (Hong Kong); Wu Shuilin; Yi Changfeng [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Division of Spine Surgery, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam (Hong Kong); Xu Zushun, E-mail: zushun25@yahoo.com.cn [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Division of Spine Surgery, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam (Hong Kong)

    2012-04-15

    Cationic magnetic polymer particles Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/poly(styrene-butyl acrylate-[2-(methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride), a type of potential gene carrier, were prepared by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization with oleic acid modified magnetite Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, styrene, butyl acrylate and [2-(methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) (METAC). The morphology of the particles was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and the composites of particles were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction. These results showed that magnetic particles were well dispersed in polymers with the content of about 15%(wt/wt). The composites exhibited superparamagnetism and possessed a certain level of magnetic response. The interactions between the particles with calf-thymus DNA (ct DNA) were confirmed by zeta potential measurement, UV-vis spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The DNA-binding capacity determined by the agarose gel electrophoresis showed good binding capacity of the emulsion to DNA. These results suggested the potential of the cationic magnetic polymer emulsion as gene target delivery carrier. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new type of cationic magnetic polymer particles was synthesized by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural, morphological, and magnetic properties of the composite were evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The interaction between cationic magnetic polymer particles with DNA was confirmed by zeta potential measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-vis spectrophotometry, fluorescent spectroscopy and agarose gel electrophoresis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This process may have potential applications to gene carrier and DNA separation.

  20. CpG序列诱发抗dsDNA抗体的免疫学特性分析%IMMUNOCHEMICAL PROPERTY OF ANTI-dsDNA ANTIBODIES INDUCED BY IMMUNIZATION OF CPG MOTIF IN NORMAL MICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李智铭; 黄鹏; 陈俊; 崔大祥

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the immunochemical propertyies of anti - dsDNA antibodies induced in normal mice by immunization with a cytosine guanine dinucleotides ( CpG) motif as adjuvant in normal mice. Methods Using oligonucleotide containing CpG motif as an adjuvant, native calf thymus DNA was used as the mimic self antigen to immunize normal BALB/c mice. After immunization, the specificity and immunochemical properties of anti - DNA antibodies induced in normal mice were analyzed. Results The induced and spontaneous anti - DNA antibodies had a similar ranges in avidity and binding kinetics. The induced antibodies displayed a predominance of IgG2a which could bind to DNA from three different species. Conclusion The CpG motif can promote normal mice to produce anti - dsDNA antibodies that resemble those in spontaneous systemic lupus erythematosus.%目的 研究胞嘧啶鸟嘌呤二核苷酸(cytosine guanine dinucleotides,CpG)序列诱生抗dsDNA抗体的免疫特征.方法 以CpG序列为生物佐剂,用天然的小牛胸腺DNA模拟自身抗原,免疫正常的BALB/c小鼠.免疫结束后,分析小鼠血清中抗dsDNA抗体的特征.结果 CpG序列诱生的抗dsDNA抗体类似自发性狼疮小鼠体内的自身抗体,主要为IgG2a型,且能与多种DNA抗原反应.结论 CpG序列能促进正常小鼠产生类似自发性狼疮小鼠体内的抗dsDNA抗体.

  1. Study on the Repair Ability of Ant Extract on DNA - Protein Crosslinks%蚂蚁提取液对DNA -蛋白质交联修复能力的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖静; 周梦晨; 王娜娜; 杨旭

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨蚂蚁提取液(ant extract,AE)对DNA -蛋白质交联(DPC)的修复能力.方法 以甲醛为染毒液,预处理小牛胸腺DNA和卵清蛋白混合液,使之形成DPC,再用不同浓度的AE处理,最后采用SDS - KCI沉淀法来检测不同处理组的DPC修复情况.结果 当甲醛染毒浓度为0.544mol/L时,10μg/ml的小牛胸腺DNA和10μg/ml的卵清蛋白DNA -蛋白质交联程度最高;制备2%的AE时,选择pH 7.6的磷酸氢二钠-磷酸二氢钠缓冲液作为组织匀浆液,AE具有最强的DPC修复能力,且用pH 3.6的柠檬酸-柠檬酸三钠缓冲液制备的AE也具有部分DPC修复能力;0.002%、0.02%、0.2%和2%的AE具有一定的DPC修复能力,且存在明显的浓度-效应关系.结论 本研究确定了蚂蚁提取液制备过程中缓冲液的最佳pH值,并证明了蚂蚁提取液具有一定的DPC修复能力.%Objective To investigate the repair capacity of ant extract (AE) on the DNA - protein crosslinks ( DPC). Methods Calf thymus DNA and ovalbumin mixture with formaldehyde solution were pretreated and they were made to form DPC. Then different concentrations of AE were used for DPC repair, and finally SDS - KC1 precipitation method was used to detect DPC repair capacity of different AE groups. Results When the formaldehyde exposure concentration was at 0.544mol/L for treating the mixture of 10μg/ml calf thymus DNA and 10μg/ml ovalbumin, the DNA - protein crosslink was up to the highest level. When 2% AE solution was made with pH =7. 6 disodium phosphate - sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer, the AE had the highest capacity to repair the DPC, and when 2% AE solution was made with pH =3. 6 citric acid - sodium citrate buffer, the AE also had some capacity to repair the DPC. Along with AE concentration increasing,(0. 002% , 0.02% , 0. 2% and 2% ) the DPC repair capacity of AE solution increased, and an obvious dose - response effect between AE concentration and DPC repair capacity of AE can be found

  2. Visualization of calf veins by color flow imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bemmelen, P S; Bedford, G; Strandness, D E

    1990-01-01

    Both indirect and direct noninvasive tests have been shown to be useful for the detection of deep venous thrombi involving the proximal veins (popliteal to inferior vena cava). However, thrombi that are confined to the calf veins will not affect venous outflow and cannot be detected by the plethysmographic methods. B-mode imaging, while excellent for the major deep veins, is also limited in the calf region because the veins are small, and imaging resolution is not always adequate to permit visualization of these smaller veins. With the availability of duplex scanning with "slow flow" color capability, these veins lend themselves to study. In 30 normal subjects, we were able to visualize all paired veins from the level of the ankle to the popliteal fossa. The clinical implications of this approach are discussed. PMID:2181759

  3. A case of perosomus elumbis in a Holstein calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perosomus elumbis is an occasionally found congenital anomaly of unknown etiology and is characterized by partial or complete agenesis of lumbar, sacral and coccygeal vertebrae and ankylosis of the hindlimbs. A 2-day-old female Holstein calf presented nearly normal forelimbs but flexure and ankylosis of the hindlimbs. The vertebrae and pelvic malformations and agenesis were radiographed and then necropsied. Mild ankylosis of the hindlimbs, absence of cauda equina, left scoliosis in state of fusion of T11 and T12 and complete fusion of L4 and L5, narrowed pelvic canal and misshapen ilium were confirmed. However, abnormal development or agenesis was not observed in the urogenital and intestinal system in this calf

  4. Long axis torsion of the mesentery in a calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 30-days-old Holstein male calf suddenly became restless and showed signs of acute abdominal pain, such as repeatedly lying down and getting up and kicking its abdomen while standing. Decreased fecal output, progressive abdominal distension and splashing sounds in the abdomen on shaking were also recorded. Hematology tests showed an extremely elevated white blood cell count. Radiography of the abdomen showed gas-filled loops of the small intestine all over the abdominal cavity. Exploratory laparotomy through a right paralumbar incision also revealed gas-filled loops of the small intestine filling up the abdominal cavity. A 180 deg anti-clock wise torsion of the mesenteric root was palpated, and this was corrected through manual manipulation. The calf recovered rapidly after the surgery

  5. Calf heads on a trophy sign: Miyoshi myopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mundayadan Shyma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Miyoshi myopathy is an autosomal recessive distal myopathy with predominant involvement of the posterior calf muscles attributed to mutations in the dysferlin gene. We report a 26-year-old male, born of nonconsanginous parentage. He noticed weakness and atrophy of leg muscles with inability to walk on his heels. The creatine kinase concentration was high. The electromyography showed myopathic pattern and the muscle biopsy disclosed dystrophic changes with absence of dysferlin. Miyoshi myopathy may be distinct among the hereditary distal myopathies. There are only few reported cases of Miyoshi myopathy in the world literature. In India only 12 cases were reported who had classical features of Miyoshi myopathy. Our′s is a typical case of Miyoshi myopathy, with an affected twin sister as well. He also had "calf heads on a trophy sign" on physical examination, which is considered to be pathognomonic of this disease.

  6. Complex Vertebral Malformation (CVM) in an Italian Holstein calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complex Vertebral Malformation, a congenital and lethal genetic defect of Holstein breed, has been recently observed in different Countries all over the world. In this paper the AA describe the clinical and radiological aspects of CVM in a two day old female calf. The disease was characterized by low body weight, symmetrical arthrogryposis and partial rotation of all legs and scoliosis. Calf was alert and showed physiological appetite, but was not able to maintain the quadrupedal stance. Radiographs of the vertebral column showed multiple vertebral anomalies, including hemivertebrae, fused and misshapen vertebrae and ribs and scoliosis, that affected mainly the caudal, cervical and thoracic regions. At necropsy, besides the skeleton anomalies, complex malformation of the heart was observed, which included atrial and interventricular defects and patent ductus arteriosus. This is the first case of CVM completely documented and genetically tested in Italy

  7. Thymus medulla under construction: Time and space oddities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Nuno L; Ribeiro, Ana R

    2016-04-01

    The development of effective T-cell-based immunotherapies to treat infection, cancer, and autoimmunity should incorporate the ground rules that control differentiation of T cells in the thymus. Within the thymus, thymic epithelial cells (TECs) provide microenvironments supportive of the generation and selection of T cells that are responsive to pathogen-derived antigens, and yet tolerant to self-determinants. Defects in TEC differentiation cause syndromes that range from immunodeficiency to autoimmunity, which makes the study of TECs of fundamental and clinical importance to comprehend how immunity and tolerance are balanced. Critical to tolerance induction are medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs), which purge autoreactive T cells, or redirect them to a regulatory T-cell lineage. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, studies by Baik et al. and Mayer et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2016. 46: XXXX-XXXX and 46: XXXX-XXXX]) document novel spatial-temporal singularities in the lineage specification and maintenance of mTECs. While Baik et al. define a developmental checkpoint during mTEC specification in the embryo, Mayer et al. reveal that the generation and maintenance of the adult mTEC compartment is temporally controlled in vivo. The two reports described new developmentally related, but temporally distinct principles that underlie the homeostasis of the thymic medulla across life. PMID:26947141

  8. Is the thymus a target organ in infectious diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Savino

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The thymus is a central lymphoid organ, in wich T cell precursors differentiale and generate most of the so-called T cell reprtoire. Along with a variety of acute infectious diseases, we and others determined important changes in both microenvironmental and lymphoid compartments of the organ. For example, one major and common feature observed in acute viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases, is a depletion of cortical thymocytes, mostly those bearing the CD4-CD8 double positive phenotype. This occurs simmultaneously to the relative enrichment in medullary CD4 or CD8 single positive cells, expressing high densities of the CD3 complex. Additionally we noticed a variety of changes in the thymic microenvironment (and particularly is epithelial component, comprising abnormal location of thymic epithelial cell subsets as well has a denser Ia-bearing cellular network. Moreover, the extracellular matrix network was altered with an intralobular increase of basement membrane proteins that positively correlated with the degree of thymocyte death. Lastly, anti-thymic cell antibodies were detected in both human and animal models of infectious diseases, and in some of them a phenomenon of molecular mimicry could be evidenced. Taken together, the data receiwed herein clearly show that the thymus should be regarded as a target in infectious diseases.

  9. Biomechanical evaluation of an expansive pedicle screw in calf vertebrae

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Wei; Wu, Zixiang

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to evaluate biomechanically a newly designed expansive pedicle screw (EPS) using fresh pedicles from calf lumber vertebrae in comparison with conventional pedicle screws, (CDH) CD Horizon, Universal Spine System pedicle screw (USS) and Tenor (Sofamor Denek). Pull-out and turning-back tests were performed on these pedicle screws to compare their holding strength. Additionally, revision tests were undertaken to evaluate the mechanical properties of EPS...

  10. DOWN MARKET EFFECTS IN BEEF COW-CALF HERDS

    OpenAIRE

    Ott, Stephen L.

    1998-01-01

    In 1995 and 1996, prices for weaned calves were at the lowest point for the current cattle market cycle. The National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) Beef ,97 Study examined the effects of the down market on beef cow-calf herd management practices. Most producers did not alter management practices in response to the down market. Among producers who made changes, costs were cut largely in the area of herd health management. Specific management practices in which costs were cut included...

  11. Factors influencing dairy calf and replacement heifer mortality in France.

    OpenAIRE

    Raboisson, Didier; MAIGNE, Elise; Sans, Pierre; Allaire, Gilles; Cahuzac, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Herd-level risk factors for dairy calf and heifer mortality in France were identified by calculating herd-level variables (including mortality risk or rate) using the National Bovine Identification Database (2005 and 2006). Eleven dairy production areas representing different livestock systems were also included. Statistical analyses were based on a probit model (mortality risk or rate=0 or >0) and a linear model (mortality risk or rate >0) corrected by the sample bias Heckman method. The sam...

  12. Clostridium chauvoei-associated meningoencephalitis in a calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-16

    ·Meningoencephalitis in a calf associated with Clostridium chauvoei infection. ·Bovine papular stomatitis in calves. ·Otitis media due to Mycoplasma bovis in calves. ·Sporadic porcine abortion due to Nocardia species. ·Spotty liver disease in hens. These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for September 2015 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:26769810

  13. Cow-Calf Farm Management: Farm survey evidence from 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Nehring, Richard F.; Peel, Derrell S.; Nulph, David

    2009-01-01

    This study describes and compares cow-calf operations and assesses their relative competitiveness, developing performance measures for a sample of U.S. farms. We find that larger operations tend to be significantly more scale and technically efficient than smaller operations. However, we do not find significant differences in net farm returns by size except on medium large operations—showing virtually no net return on farm assets in 2007. While larger operations are clearly more scale and tec...

  14. Calf heads on a trophy sign: Miyoshi myopathy

    OpenAIRE

    M Mundayadan Shyma; P Sreedharan Roopchand; K Mohan Ram; C Velayudhan Shaji

    2015-01-01

    Miyoshi myopathy is an autosomal recessive distal myopathy with predominant involvement of the posterior calf muscles attributed to mutations in the dysferlin gene. We report a 26-year-old male, born of nonconsanginous parentage. He noticed weakness and atrophy of leg muscles with inability to walk on his heels. The creatine kinase concentration was high. The electromyography showed myopathic pattern and the muscle biopsy disclosed dystrophic changes with absence of dysferlin. Miyoshi myopath...

  15. Congenital multi-organ malformations in a Holstein calf

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbenaghi, Rahim; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram; Nazarizadeh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    A 5-day-old female Holstein calf was necropsied because of lethargy, recumbency and anorexia. At necropsy, multiple gross defects were evident in several organs, including unclosed sutures of skull bones, asymmetrical orbits, doming of the skull bones, hydrocephalus, hydranencephaly, cleft palate, brachygnathia, ventricular septal defect, mitral valve dysplasia and rudimentary lungs. On microscopic examination, pulmonary hypoplasia was characterized by reduced number of alveoli, replacement o...

  16. An unusual case of acute painful calf swelling

    OpenAIRE

    Sohoni, Chandrashekhar A; Dipti C Sohoni

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis commonly involves central nervous system. Isolated involvement of skeletal muscles is rare. We have reported a case of cysticercosis herein presented as acute painful calf swelling, which is an extremely unusual presentation and, hence, a diagnostic challenge. The diagnosis was strongly suspected on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The laboratory findings of peripheral eosinophilia and a positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for IgG antibod...

  17. Metabolic heterogeneity in human calf muscle during maximal exercise.

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenborne, K; McCully, K; Kakihira, H; Prammer, M; Bolinger, L; Detre, J A; De Meirlier, K; Walter, G; Chance, B; Leigh, J S

    1991-01-01

    Human skeletal muscle is composed of various muscle fiber types. We hypothesized that differences in metabolism between fiber types could be detected noninvasively with 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy during maximal exercise. This assumes that during maximal exercise all fiber types are recruited and all vary in the amount of acidosis. The calf muscles of seven subjects were studied. Two different coils were applied: an 11-cm-diameter surface coil and a five-segment meander coil. ...

  18. Can Treadmill Perturbations Evoke Stretch Reflexes in the Calf Muscles?

    OpenAIRE

    Sloot, Lizeth H.; van den Noort, Josien C; van der Krogt, Marjolein M.; Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Jaap Harlaar

    2015-01-01

    Disinhibition of reflexes is a problem amongst spastic patients, for it limits a smooth and efficient execution of motor functions during gait. Treadmill belt accelerations may potentially be used to measure reflexes during walking, i.e. by dorsal flexing the ankle and stretching the calf muscles, while decelerations show the modulation of reflexes during a reduction of sensory feedback. The aim of the current study was to examine if belt accelerations and decelerations of different intensiti...

  19. Thymus recovery after intensive physical exercise under conditions of immunocorrection and without it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapin, M R; Tkachuk, M G

    2005-11-01

    Exogenous antioxidants, e.g. tocopherol, prevent undesirable changes in the thymus and accelerate its recovery after intensive physical exercise. Four weeks after the end of training (swimming) the general structure of the thymus and content of LPO products in rats treated with tocopherol corresponded to the control values, in contrast to animals receiving no correction. PMID:16758627

  20. Chemical composition of essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species and their antifungal activities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.D.; Vukojevic, J.; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.D.; Vajs, V.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2009-01-01

    The potential antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus tosevii L., Mentha spicata L., and Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae) essential oils and their components against 17 micromycetal food poisoning, plant, animal and human pathogens are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodestil

  1. Assessment of calf muscle contraction by diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deux, J.F.; Luciani, A.; Zerbib, P.; Kobeiter, H.; Rahmouni, A. [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire H. Mondor, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Service d' Imagerie Medicale, Creteil (France); Malzy, P. [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Lariboisiere, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Service d' Imagerie Medicale, Paris (France); Paragios, N. [Ecole Centrale de Paris, Chatenay Malabris (France); Bassez, G. [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire H. Mondor, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Service des Maladies Neuro-Musculaires, Creteil (France); Roudot-Thoraval, F. [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire H. Mondor, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Centre d' Investigation Clinique, Creteil (France); Vignaud, A. [Siemens Medical Division, Paris (France)

    2008-10-15

    The goal of this study was to assess the changes of water diffusion during contraction and elongation of calf muscles using diffusion tensor (DT) MRI in normal volunteers. Twenty volunteers (mean age, 29 {+-} 4 years) underwent DT MRI examination of the right calf. Echo planar imaging sequence was performed at rest, during dorsal flexion and during plantar flexion. The three eigenvalues ({lambda}1, {lambda}2, and {lambda}3), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the diffusion tensor were calculated for medial gastrocnemius (mGM) and tibialis anterior (TA). A fiber tractography was performed on both muscles. Non-parametric Wilcoxon and Mann Whitney tests were used for statistical evaluation. At rest, {lambda}1, {lambda}2 and ADC of mGM were higher than their counterparts of TA (P < 0.01). During dorsal flexion, the three eigenvalues and ADC of TA significantly increased (P < 0.05) as their counterparts of mGM slightly decreased (P=NS). Opposite variations were detected during plantar flexion of the foot. Visual analysis evidenced a relationship between 3D representations of MRI fibers and physiological state of muscles. Contraction of calf muscles produces changes in DT parameters, which are related to the physiological state of the muscle. (orig.)

  2. The significance of calf deep vein thrombosis in pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controversy exists about the occurrence of pulmonary embolism (PE) in deep venous thrombosis (DVT) limited to the calf below the popliteal vein. The authors prospectively evaluated 54 such patients; 52 of 54 had undergone recent major orthopedic surgery. Ventilation perfusion (V/Q) scans were performed prior to the orthopedic surgery in 43 of 52 patients. All preoperative V/Q scans were either normal or had low probability for PE. Venography was performed on the 7th postoperative day, and all patients had isolated calf DVT. Post-phlebography V/Q scans were performed within 18 hours after venography. Thirty-five of 43 (82%) of the V/Q scans were unchanged postoperatively, while eight of 43 (18%) showed new segmental and subsegmental perfusion abnormalities without associated ventilatory changes, suggesting that pulmonary emboli had occurred. Only two of eight patients had symptoms suggestive of PE. Based on these results, the authors believe that pulmonary emboli do occur with isolated calf DVT. Baseline V/Q scans are helpful for detecting PE in population groups at high risk for developing DVT

  3. Assessment of calf muscle contraction by diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this study was to assess the changes of water diffusion during contraction and elongation of calf muscles using diffusion tensor (DT) MRI in normal volunteers. Twenty volunteers (mean age, 29 ± 4 years) underwent DT MRI examination of the right calf. Echo planar imaging sequence was performed at rest, during dorsal flexion and during plantar flexion. The three eigenvalues (λ1, λ2, and λ3), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the diffusion tensor were calculated for medial gastrocnemius (mGM) and tibialis anterior (TA). A fiber tractography was performed on both muscles. Non-parametric Wilcoxon and Mann Whitney tests were used for statistical evaluation. At rest, λ1, λ2 and ADC of mGM were higher than their counterparts of TA (P < 0.01). During dorsal flexion, the three eigenvalues and ADC of TA significantly increased (P < 0.05) as their counterparts of mGM slightly decreased (P=NS). Opposite variations were detected during plantar flexion of the foot. Visual analysis evidenced a relationship between 3D representations of MRI fibers and physiological state of muscles. Contraction of calf muscles produces changes in DT parameters, which are related to the physiological state of the muscle. (orig.)

  4. Establishment and improvement of model of vascularized heart-thymus composite transplantation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Hai-bo; XIA Sui-sheng; WEN Hao; HUANG Zu-fa; YE Qi-fa

    2005-01-01

    Objective To establish and improve the model of heart-thymus composite transplantation. Methods Vascularized both lobes of the thymus is transplanted heterotopically with the heart as a composite graft in rats.This technique was developed and assessed, and viability of the grafts was evaluated histologically. Results Donor operation costed 38. 5 ± 3. 52 min, vascular anastomosis costed 25.0 ± 3. 28 min, operating successful rate was 90%, acute rejection was observed in SD-Wistar group, viable thymus with normal microarchitecture was maintained in Wistar-Wistar group. Conclusions The improved novel technique for combined heart-thymus transplantation is a valuable method for study of the role of thymus in transplantation immunity.

  5. Diagnostic potentialities of pneumomediastinography and selective phlebography in the evaluation of thymus evolution in myasthenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basing on an analysis of X-ray, intraoperative and histological findings in 124 operated on patients (thymectomy) with myasthenia the authors describe potentialities of pneumomediastinography (PMG) (pheumomediastinotomography-PMTG) in the determination of its main variants (hyperplasia, involUtion, tumor). Clear knowledge of the variants of x-ray image of the normal anatomical structures of the anterior mediastinum and age peculiarities of the thymus for correct interpretation of pneumomediastinograms is necessary. The importance of selective phlebography of the thymus for differential diagnosis of thymomas and nodular indurations of the fatty tissue in the anterior mediastinum, thymomas and fatty involution of the thymus, residual thymus and zones of fibrous-adipose tissue in the mediastinum is stressed. Selective phlebography is a simple and safe method that adds to PMG (PMTG) potentialities in the evaluation of thymus evolution in myasthenia

  6. Diagnostic potentialities of pneumomediastinography and selective phlebography in the evaluation of thymus evolution in myasthenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasil' ev, V.N.; Bel' chikova, N.S.; Kuksinskij, V.E. (Leningradskij Inst. Usovershenstvovaniya Vrachej (USSR))

    1983-01-01

    Based on an analysis of X-ray, intraoperative and histological findings in 124 operated on patients (thymectomy) with myasthenia the authors describe potentialities of pneumomediastinography (PMG) (pheumomediastinotomography-PMTG) in the determination of its main variants (hyperplasia, involution, tumor). Clear knowledge of the variants of x-ray image of the normal anatomical structures of the anterior mediastinum and age peculiarities of the thymus for correct interpretation of pneumomediastinograms is necessary. The importance of selective phlebography of the thymus for differential diagnosis of thymomas and nodular indurations of the fatty tissue in the anterior mediastinum, thymomas and fatty involution of the thymus, residual thymus and zones of fibrous-adipose tissue in the mediastinum is stressed. Selective phlebography is a simple and safe method that adds to PMG (PMTG) potentialities in the evaluation of thymus evolution in myasthenia.

  7. Thymus is enlarged in children with current atopic dermatitis. A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Braae; Andersen, G.; Jeppesen, D.L.;

    2005-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common skin disorder of unknown aetiology with peak incidence in early childhood. The disease is associated with peripheral T-cell accumulation in the skin. The thymus is a key organ of the cellular immune response early in life. We hypothesized that atopic dermatitis is...... associated with an unbalanced establishment of the peripheral T-lymphocyte system. This cross-sectional study was performed to compare thymus sizes in patients with atopic dermatitis and healthy controls. Thirty-seven children with current atopic dermatitis were enrolled and compared with 29 healthy controls....... An interview and medical examination were performed by one doctor, an ultrasound scan was performed within 3 days of the examination, and the thymus index, a marker of thymus size, was measured. The thymus index was on average 32% higher (95% CI 3%-67%) in children with active atopic dermatitis...

  8. Metabolic Activation of the Tumorigenic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid, Retrorsine, Leading to DNA Adduct Formation In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming W. Chou

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are naturally occurring genotoxic chemicals produced by a large number of plants. The high toxicity of many pyrrolizidine alkaloids has caused considerable loss of free-ranging livestock due to liver and pulmonary lesions. Chronic exposure of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids to laboratory animals induces cancer. This investigation studies the metabolic activation of retrorsine, a representative naturally occurring tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, and shows that a genotoxic mechanism is correlated to the tumorigenicity of retrorsine. Metabolism of retrorsine by liver microsomes of F344 female rats produced two metabolites, 6, 7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP, at a rate of 4.8 ± 0.1 nmol/mg/min, and retrorsine-N-oxide, at a rate of 17.6±0.5 nmol/mg/min. Metabolism was enhanced 1.7-fold by using liver microsomes prepared from dexamethasone-treated rats. DHP formation was inhibited 77% and retrorsine N-oxide formation was inhibited 29% by troleandomycin, a P450 3A enzyme inhibitor. Metabolism of retrorsine with lung, kidney, and spleen microsomes from dexamethasone-treated rats also generated DHP and the N-oxide derivative. When rat liver microsomal metabolism of retrorsine occurred in the presence of calf thymus DNA, a set of DHP-derived DNA adducts was formed; these adducts were detected and quantified by using a previously developed 32P-postlabeling/HPLC method. These same DNA adducts were also found in liver DNA of rats gavaged with retrorsine. Since DHP-derived DNA adducts are suggested to be potential biomarkers of riddelliine-induced tumorigenicity, our results indicate that (i similar to the metabolic activation of riddelliine, the mechanism of retrorsine-induced carcinogenicity in rats is also through a genotoxic mechanism involving DHP; and (ii the set of DHP-derived DNA adducts found in liver DNA of rats gavaged with retrorsine or riddelliine can serve as biomarkers for the

  9. Determination of apurinic/apyrimidinic lesions in DNA with high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kenneth P; Sobrino, Justin A; Payton, Julie; Mason, Lavinnia B; Turesky, Robert J

    2006-02-01

    free 5'-dRp-NBHA. The 5'-dRp-NBHA product was partially purified by solid phase extraction and quantified by LC-MS/MS using several transitions of the deprotonated molecule ([M - H]- at m/z 363) and isotopically labeled 5'-dRp-NBHA as an internal standard. Further experiments with 5',3'-bisphosphate-deoxyribose and heat/acid-treated calf thymus DNA showed similar labeling, digestion, and detection results. Initial results show a quantification limit with 100 mug of DNA to be 100 fmol (three abasic sites per 10(7) bases). PMID:16485907

  10. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activities of Pendant Arm-Pyridyltetrazole Copper(II) Complexes: DNA Binding/Cleavage Activity and Cytotoxic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Shaik; Rao, Bommuluri Umamaheswara; Surendrababu, Manubolu Surya; Raju, Kalidindi Krishnam; Rao, Gollapalli Nageswara

    2015-10-01

    2-(1H-Tetrazol-5-yl)pyridine (L) has been reacted separately with Me2NCH2CH2Cl⋅HCl and ClCH2CH2OH to yield two regioisomers in each case, N,N-dimethyl-2-[5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-tetrazol-1-yl]ethanamine (L1)/N,N-dimethyl-2-[5-(pyridin-2-yl)-2H-tetrazol-2-yl]ethanamine (L2) and 2-[5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-tetrazol-1-yl]ethanol (L3)/2-[5-(pyridin-2-yl)-2H-tetrazol-2-yl]ethanol (L4), respectively. These ligands, L1-L4, have been coordinated with CuCl2 ⋅H2O in 1 : 1 composition to furnish the corresponding complexes 1-4. EPR Spectra of Cu complexes 1 and 3 were characteristic of square planar geometry, with nuclear hyperfine spin 3/2. Single X-ray crystallographic studies of 3 revealed that the Cu center has a square planar structure. DNA binding studies were carried out by UV/VIS absorption; viscosity and thermal denaturation studies revealed that each of these complexes are avid binders of calf thymus DNA. Investigation of nucleolytic cleavage activities of the complexes was carried out on double-stranded pBR322 circular plasmid DNA by using a gel electrophoresis experiment under various conditions, where cleavage of DNA takes place by oxidative free-radical mechanism (OH(⋅)). In vitro anticancer activities of the complexes against MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) cells revealed that the complexes inhibit the growth of cancer cells. The IC50 values of the complexes showed that Cu complexes exhibit comparable cytotoxic activities compared to the standard drug cisplatin. PMID:26460557

  11. Isolation, identification, and assay of [3H]-porfiromycin adducts of EMT6 mouse mammary tumor cell DNA: effects of hypoxia and dicumarol on adduct patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasz, M; Hughes, C S; Chowdary, D; Keyes, S R; Lipman, R; Sartorelli, A C; Rockwell, S

    1991-07-01

    [3H]-(N-la-methyl) Porfiromycin (POR) was employed to detect and identify the radiolabeled mono- and bis-adducts formed in living EMT6 mouse mammary tumor cells under different conditions. To provide authentic standard adducts, calf-thymus DNA was treated with POR under reductive activation, then digested to nucleosides and POR-nucleoside adducts. The three major adducts formed were isolated by HPLC and authenticated. Two were mono-adducts, composed of deoxyguanosine linked at its N2-position to C-1 of POR and of 10-decarbamoyl POR. The third was a bis-adduct, in which POR was crosslinked to two deoxyguanosines at their N2-positions. DNA from [3H]-POR treated EMT6 cells was digested an analyzed by HPLC. DNA-associated label was located in thymidine and in two mono-adducts and one bis-adduct identical to those described above. Label in thymidine resulted from N-demethylation of POR and reincorporation of label into new thymidylate residues. Adducts were formed more abundantly in hypoxia than in air. In addition, the mono-adduct to crosslink ratios were different, approximately 1:1 and 2:1 for hypoxic and aerobic cells, respectively. The different patterns of alkylation in air and hypoxia may be related to the greater toxicity of POR in hypoxia. When cells were treated simultaneously with POR and dicumarol, adduct levels were lower, and a new, unknown adduct was observed primarily under hypoxia; these changes may be related to the altered toxicity of POR in the presence of dicumarol. The HPLC assay detected simultaneously the full array of stable mono- and bis-adducts in DNA with good sensitivity (greater than or equal to 2 x 10(6) adducts/nucleotide) and excellent reproducibility. This assay should be generally applicable to all cells and tissues when MC or POR with high specific radioactivity can be employed. PMID:1714285

  12. Synthesis, characterization, DNA/protein interaction and cytotoxicity studies of Cu(II) and Co(II) complexes derived from dipyridyl triazole ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Yao, Di; Wei, Yi; Tang, Jie; Bian, He-Dong; Huang, Fu-Ping; Liang, Hong

    2016-06-15

    Four different transition metal complexes containing dipyridyl triazole ligands, namely [Cu(abpt)2Cl2]·2H2O (1), [Cu(abpt)2(ClO4)2] (2), [Co2(abpt)2(H2O)2Cl2]·Cl2·4H2O (3) and [Co2(Hbpt)2(CH3OH)2(NO3)2] (4) have been designed, synthesized and further structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography, ESI-MS, elemental analysis, IR and Raman spectroscopy. In these complexes, the both ligands act as bidentate ligands with N, N donors. DNA binding interactions with calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) of the ligand and its complexes 1~4 were investigated via electronic absorption, fluorescence quenching, circular dichroism and viscosity measurements as well as confocal Laser Raman spectroscopy. The results show these complexes are able to bind to DNA via the non-covalent mode i.e. intercalation and groove binding or electrostatic interactions. The interactions with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were also studied using UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopic methods which indicated that fluorescence quenching of BSA by these compounds was the presence of both static and dynamic quenching. Moreover, the in vitro cytotoxic effects of the complexes against four cell lines SK-OV-3, HL-7702, BEL7404 and NCI-H460 showed the necessity of the coordination action on the biological properties on the respective complex and that all four complexes exhibited substantial cytotoxic activity. PMID:27043870

  13. cDNA: 37672 [ASTRA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.315626 Mus musculus adult male thymus cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched library, ... 10 product:MODULATOR OF ANTIGEN RECEPTOR SIGNALING MARS , full insert sequence gnl|UG|Mm#S10847064 AK030877 ...

  14. cDNA: 37673 [ASTRA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.315626 Mus musculus 2 days neonate thymus thymic cells cDNA, RIKEN full-length ... 24 product:MODULATOR OF ANTIGEN RECEPTOR SIGNALING MARS , full insert sequence gnl|UG|Mm#S10833741 AK088672 ...

  15. cDNA: 35982 [ASTRA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M. musculus - Mm.122430 Mus musculus 14 days embryo thymus cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched libr ... 0401J04 product:hypothetical Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes ... containing protein, full insert sequence gnl|UG|Mm ...

  16. Evidence of epimeletic behavior involving a Pontoporia blainvillei calf (Cetacea, Pontoporiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Tonello Júnior

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper constitutes the second record of epimeletic behavior for the toninha, Pontoporia blainvillei. A toninha calf carcass was recovered at Enseada Beach, São Francisco do Sul, southern Brazil (26o13’S - 48o31’W on October 9, 2001. Its total length indicated that it was a neonate or a premature calf. The calf had many parallel scratches on it, which were freshly made and produced by adult teeth. There were scratches on the fin, flukes and flippers, and the position and size of the marks demonstrated the intention of the adult to rescue the calf. The anterior region of the body showed net marks, suggesting that the calf had been accidentally entangled. The epimeletic behavior evidenced by the tooth marks could have occurred during the entanglement and/or after its liberation, and we suggest that the causa mortis of the calf was drowning.

  17. Bilateral calf chronic compartment syndrome in an elderly male: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Siau, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Leg pain is a common presentation to the outpatient department. Bilateral calf chronic compartment syndrome is a rare cause of bilateral calf pain. Although this condition has been well documented in young athletes, it has rarely been reported in the elderly. We present the case of a 68-year-old male bodybuilder with bilateral calf chronic compartment syndrome, describe the presentation and evaluation of the condition, and provide a review of the literature herewith.

  18. Calf management practices and associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality on beef cow-calf operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C F; Fick, L J; Pajor, E A; Barkema, H W; Jelinski, M D; Windeyer, M C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate calf management practices on beef cow-calf operations and determine associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality of pre-weaned calves. A 40-question survey about management practices, morbidity and mortality was administered to cow-calf producers by distributing paper surveys and by circulating an online link through various media. A total of 267 producers completed the survey. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and multivariable linear regression models. Average herd-level treatment risk for pre-weaning calf diarrhea (PCD) and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) were 4.9% and 3.0%, respectively. Average herd-level mortality within the first 24 h of life (stillbirth), from 1 to 7 days and 7 days to weaning were 2.3%, 1.1%, and 1.4%, respectively. Operations that never intervened at parturition had 4.7% higher PCD than those that occasionally did. On operations using small elastrator bands for castration, PCD was 1.9% higher than those using other methods. For every increase of 100 cows in herd size, BRD decreased by 1.1%. The association between BRD and PCD varied by when calving season began. Operations that used off-farm, frozen colostrum had a 1.1% increase in stillbirths. Operations that verified a calf had suckled had 0.7% lower mortality from 1 to 7 days of age. Those that intervened when colostrum was abnormal or that used small elastrator bands for castration had 1.9% and 1.4% higher mortality during the 1st week of life, respectively, compared with other operations. Mortality from 7 days to weaning was lower by 0.7% when calving season started in April compared with January or February and was higher by 1.0% for each additional week of calving season. Operations that intervened with colostrum consumption for assisted calvings had lower mortality from 7 days to weaning by 0.8% compared with those that did not. For every 1.0% increase in BRD, mortality from 7 days to weaning increased by 1

  19. RAPD and phytochemical analysis of Thymus moroderi plantlets after cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Medina, Ana; Casas, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Cryopreservation is at present the most reliable strategy to preserve plant germplasm. When aromatic plants are the object of conservation it is necessary to assess not only the genetic but also the phytochemical stability to ensure that plant material maintains its qualities after storage. In this work we present molecular and phytochemical stability data related to a previously described vitrification-based cryopreservation protocol for Thymus moroderi Pau ex Martínez. RAPD markers have been used to assess the genetic stability of T. moroderi explants and revealed 0.34 percent of variation in the cryopreserved material studied. Phytochemical data collected from GC-MS analysis of dichloromethane extracts from cryopreserved plantlets rendered a profile in which 1,8-cineole (14.5 percent), camphor (5.9 percent) and borneol (5.2 percent) were the major components. Both data confirmed the suitability of the cryopreservation protocol applied. PMID:23625080

  20. Structural changes in mature rat thymus under the systematic exposure to +Gx acceleration and Glutarginum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim A. Kriventsov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Experimental work was designed primary to study morphological and functional changes in the mature rat's thymus under systematic exposure to +Gx acceleration. Secondary task is to determine a possible corrective potential of Glutarginum (L-arginine and L-glutamic acid. Methods: Mature male Wistar rats were exposed to systematic +Gx acceleration (9G, 10 min daily, 10 times. Morphology of the thymus was investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Results: Analysis of changes in the thymus of the mature rats under systematic exposure to +Gx acceleration showed marked structural transformation, which is characterized by a process of accidental involution and microcirculatory disturbances caused by the systematic action of gravitational forces. Such changes were potentiated by the age-related involution. Proliferation and expanding of the connective tissue structures, replacement of the parenchyma by the adipose tissue, degeneration of the epithelial component are characteristics of mature rat's thymus. At the same time, histoarchitecture of the thymus was characterized by typical stress-induced changes. Concomitant usage of Glutarginum promotes less pronounced circulatory injuries and involutive changes than in the experiments without Glutarginum treatment. Conclusion: Systematic action of +Gx acceleration causes significant alteration of normal structural organisation of the thymus of the matured rats. Using L-arginine + L-glutamate increases the adaptive capacity of the thymus. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(2.000: 87-92

  1. The entry of the prothymocyte into the thymus after lethal irradiation and bone marrow transplantation. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone marrow (BM) cells arrive in the thymus of lethally irradiated mice as early as three hours after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). They can be recognized by labelling of the injected cells with Hoechst 33342. In order to relate the immigrated BM cells to thymocyte precursor cells, direct homing and thymus repopulation experiments were compared. It was shown that homing of BM cells depends on the time between lethal irradiation and BMT, while it was previously shown that thymus repopulation does not. A cell population obtained from normal BM cells and enriched in stem cells was previously shown to repopulate the thymus similarly as BM cells from mice pretreated in vivo with 5-fluorouracil (FUBM). Both cell suspensions showed a delayed thymus repopulation when compared to normal BM. This is indicative for a depletion of prothymocytes in these cell suspensions. In the direct homing assay, however, it was found that relatively many cells from FUBM seeded into the thymus, while purified stem cells did not. These results indicate that most if not all donor cells that are present in the thymus at three hours after BMT are not thymocyte precursor cells. 21 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  2. The usefulness of MRI for detection of the thymus gland in myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokezu, Youichi; Kaseda, Syun; Arimura, Kimiyoshi; Osame, Mitsuhiro; Baba, Kuniaki (Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Ohkubo, Koichi; Hagiwara, Hiroshi

    1989-08-01

    Seven patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) were examined to find thymus or thymoma employing chest radiographs, computed tomography (CT), pneumomediastinography (PMG), computed tomography after pneumomediastinography (PMG-CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). X-ray CT examination could reveal thymus only in half out of 6 cases scanned. On the other hand, MRI confirmed thymus or thymoma in 6 out of 7 patients. PMG and PMG-CT confirmed thymus or thymoma clearly in all of the 4 cases studied. PMG and PMG-CT examinations revealed thymus or thymoma more clearly than MRI. MRI is, however, an examination causing no pain to the patients and also more superior to X-ray CT in distinguishing between a thymus and mediastinal fat or vascular structure. In addition, MRI could reveal even capsules in thymoma which were never revealed by X-ray CT. We concluded that MRI could be an alternative method to CT and PMG in detection of thymus or thymoma in MG. (author).

  3. The usefulness of MRI for detection of the thymus gland in myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) were examined to find thymus or thymoma employing chest radiographs, computed tomography (CT), pneumomediastinography (PMG), computed tomography after pneumomediastinography (PMG-CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). X-ray CT examination could reveal thymus only in half out of 6 cases scanned. On the other hand, MRI confirmed thymus or thymoma in 6 out of 7 patients. PMG and PMG-CT confirmed thymus or thymoma clearly in all of the 4 cases studied. PMG and PMG-CT examinations revealed thymus or thymoma more clearly than MRI. MRI is, however, an examination causing no pain to the patients and also more superior to X-ray CT in distinguishing between a thymus and mediastinal fat or vascular structure. In addition, MRI could reveal even capsules in thymoma which were never revealed by X-ray CT. We concluded that MRI could be an alternative method to CT and PMG in detection of thymus or thymoma in MG. (author)

  4. Determination of O6-butylguanine in DNA by immunoaffinity extraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive, specific, and rapid method for quantitating the minor adduct O6-butylguanine (O6BuG) in hydrolyzed DNA has been developed by combining immunoaffinity chromatography and high resolution gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry. Polyclonal antibodies raised against O6BuG were coupled to CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B and used for sample clean-up and extraction of the specific O6-alkylguanine. After addition of O6BuG and its deuterium labeled analogue (O6BuG-D7), used as internal standard, hydrolyzed DNA was applied on the immunoaffinity column and washed with water, and the immunoadsorbed butylated guanines were eluted with acetone/water cetome/water (95/5) before gas chromatographic derivatization. O6BuG and O6BuG-D7 were analyzed and quantitated by high resolution gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry as their pentafluorobenzyl-trimethylsilyl derivatives. Immunoaffinity column capacity and O6BuG recovery from this column were 1.53 nmol O6BuG/column and 62 +/- 5%, respectively. The method was applied to evaluate O6BuG levels in DNA butylated in vitro with 10 mM N-nitroso-Nr-butylurea or isolated from rats given an i.p. dose of 185 mg/kg N-nitroso-N-butylurea or N-nitrosodibutylamine. In the first case the level of modifications present in calf thymus DNA was 104 mumol O6BuG/mol guanine, and in the second case O6BuG in liver DNA was about 6 times higher after N-nitroso-N-butylurea (2.11 mumol O6BuG/mol guanine) than after N-nitrosodibutylamine (0.34 mumol O6BuG/mol guanine) treatment. These results indicate that O6BuG formed in vivo can be isolated and quantitated by this method, which may also be useful for studying DNA damage and repair mechanisms

  5. Can Treadmill Perturbations Evoke Stretch Reflexes in the Calf Muscles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth H Sloot

    Full Text Available Disinhibition of reflexes is a problem amongst spastic patients, for it limits a smooth and efficient execution of motor functions during gait. Treadmill belt accelerations may potentially be used to measure reflexes during walking, i.e. by dorsal flexing the ankle and stretching the calf muscles, while decelerations show the modulation of reflexes during a reduction of sensory feedback. The aim of the current study was to examine if belt accelerations and decelerations of different intensities applied during the stance phase of treadmill walking can evoke reflexes in the gastrocnemius, soleus and tibialis anterior in healthy subjects. Muscle electromyography and joint kinematics were measured in 10 subjects. To determine whether stretch reflexes occurred, we assessed modelled musculo-tendon length and stretch velocity, the amount of muscle activity, as well as the incidence of bursts or depressions in muscle activity with their time delays, and co-contraction between agonist and antagonist muscle. Although the effect on the ankle angle was small with 2.8±1.0°, the perturbations caused clear changes in muscle length and stretch velocity relative to unperturbed walking. Stretched muscles showed an increasing incidence of bursts in muscle activity, which occurred after a reasonable electrophysiological time delay (163-191 ms. Their amplitude was related to the muscle stretch velocity and not related to co-contraction of the antagonist muscle. These effects increased with perturbation intensity. Shortened muscles showed opposite effects, with a depression in muscle activity of the calf muscles. The perturbations only slightly affected the spatio-temporal parameters, indicating that normal walking was retained. Thus, our findings showed that treadmill perturbations can evoke reflexes in the calf muscles and tibialis anterior. This comprehensive study could form the basis for clinical implementation of treadmill perturbations to functionally

  6. Efficiency of calf production of cows from two genetic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Vinhas Ítavo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of weight, age and production efficiency of cows from genetic groups based on the calf weight at calving and at weaning. For a period of five years, data of 120 cows (60 Angus-Nellore (AN and 60 Simmental-Nellore (SN at four to nine-years of age were evaluated. All cows were maintained on Brachiaria decumbens pastures, with two forage availability levels (high and low, distributed in a randomized-block design. The cows were placed together with Canchim bulls to generate the crossbred calves. A supplement, consisting of 200 g/kg crude protein and 820 g/kg of total digestible nutrients, was provided to the calves in creep feeding until 210 days-old (weaning. Supplement had a significant effect on the weight of the cow at calving and weaning. The average weights of the Angus-Nellore cows were 529.19 and 514.23 kg at calving and on the weaning day, respectively. These values were higher for Simmental-Nellore cows, which presented 569.60 and 542.59 kg, respectively. The male-calf weight at weaning was 254.69 kg, which was higher than the females (237.70 kg. Genetic group had no effect on weaning weight. The average weight for Canchim × Angus-Nellore calves was 243.41 kg and for Canchim × Simmental-Nellore it was 248.98 kg. Cow age affected weaning weight, promoting a linear increase of 0.804 kg in the weaning weight each year. Younger and smaller cows (Angus-Nellore are more efficient for calf production.

  7. Possible association of thymus dysfunction with fading syndromes in puppies and kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J A

    1987-05-01

    "Wasting" or "fading" syndromes are common causes of puppy and kitten mortality. Numerous infectious and toxic, metabolic, or nutritional factors could potentially be responsible for wasting and death in young animals. Evidence has been presented that infectious canine hepatitis virus infection, beta-hemolytic streptococcus infection, and feline infectious peritonitis virus infection are responsible for a significant number of deaths due to wasting syndrome. However, many cases of wasting syndrome cannot be attributed to infectious agents or other specific etiologies. The thymus gland warrants special attention when one is evaluating an animal with a wasting syndrome because it is known that, in some species, neonatal thymectomy results in wasting and death. Unfortunately, most reports describing fading syndromes in puppies and kittens do not mention the gross or histologic appearance of the thymus gland at postmortem examination. When examining the thymus gland, one must keep in mind that the thymus may be hypoplastic owing to a congenital or genetic defect in its structure and function or it may be atrophic secondary to whatever is causing the fading syndrome. If a thorough history, clinical examination, and/or postmortem examination do not reveal a cause for the fading syndrome, then defective thymus function should be considered as a possible causative or contributing factor to the fading syndrome. In these cases, therapy designed to replace or improve the defective thymus function should be considered. At least one form of wasting syndrome in puppies (immunodeficient dwarfism) has been found to respond to short-term therapy with a thymus hormone (thymosin fraction 5) or with bovine growth hormone (which is thymotropic) in limited clinical trials. It is possible that other forms of wasting or fading syndromes would also respond to therapy with thymus hormone or growth hormone. Certain thymus hormones (thymopoietin pentapeptide, thymosin alpha 1, facteur

  8. Clone of Chinese Jinan red-cross yellow cattle and evaluation of reproductive characteristics of cloned calf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Yunping; LI Ning; LIAN Zhengxing; ZHU Huabin; GONG Guochun; WANG Lili; WANG Haiping; ZHAO Zhihui; ZHU Qinghong; FEI Jing

    2005-01-01

    Somatic cell clone technology is a viable approach to preserving endangered livestock and wildlife genetic resources. In the present research, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) was performed using granulose cells from the critical endangered Chinese red-cross yellow cattle as donor cells. A total of 211 oocytes were manipulated and 166 (79%) of them were successfully enucleated. 112 (67.4%) SCNT embryos were reconstructed, 94 (83%) of them cleaved, and 48 (43%) of them developed to blastocyst stage. SCNT blastocysts were transferred to 6 Holstein recipients, and 2 (33%) of them were found to be pregnant. One of them maintained to term and delivered a calf, whereas another aborted. Effect of different fusion buffer (mannitol vs. Zimmerman fusion buffer) and different activation methods (calcium ionophore+6-DMAP vs. cycloheximide+CB) on fusion rate and development of SCNT embryos were investigated. The results indicated that: (i) on condition of two DC pulses of 2.5 kV/cm for 10 μs each, fusion rates were higher in mannitol solution than in Zimmerman fusion buffer (71% vs. 61%, respectively, p<0.05), but the blastocysts rates did not differ between two treatments (36% vs. 39%, p>0.05 ); (ii) There was no significant difference in development rates to the blastocyst stage for SCNT embryos activated by calcium ionophore+6-DMAP or by cycloheximide+CB (42% vs. 46%, respectively, p>0.05). Microsatellite DNA analysis examining 28 loci confirmed that the cloned calf was genetically identical to the donor Jinan red-cross yellow cattle and different from the recipient females. Growth and reproductive performance of cloned cow were evaluated, and there were no difference i cross-red n it between cloned and normal control Jinan yellow cattle. Furthermore, the cloned yellow cow has delivered a healthy yellow calf.

  9. Linguine sign in musculoskeletal imaging: calf silicone implant rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging findings of breast silicone implant rupture are well described in the literature. On MRI, the linguine sign indicates intracapsular rupture, while the presence of silicone particles outside the fibrous capsule indicates extracapsular rupture. The linguine sign is described as the thin, wavy hypodense wall of the implant within the hyperintense silicone on T2-weighted images indicative of rupture of the implant within the naturally formed fibrous capsule. Hyperintense T2 signal outside of the fibrous capsule is indicative of an extracapsular rupture with silicone granuloma formation. We present a rare case of a patient with a silicone calf implant rupture and discuss the MRI findings associated with this condition. (orig.)

  10. Twofold trauma of vertebral column in a calf (case report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double spinal cord trauma of an eight weeks old calf is reported, born on pasture from a heifer as a premature birth at the beginning of month 9. Observations made were rupture of intervertebral disk at the crossing of cervical to thoracic vertebrae followed by syndesmosis or synchondrosis resp., as well as a comminutet fracture of the 1st lumbar vertebra including both the adjoining vertebrae, with succeeding reactive callus formation. It is concluded that this traumatization has occurred during parturition. Motoric or sensoric disturbances were observed neither

  11. Factors influencing dairy calf and replacement heifer mortality in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboisson, D; Maigne, E; Sans, P; Allaire, G; Cahuzac, E

    2014-01-01

    Herd-level risk factors for dairy calf and heifer mortality in France were identified by calculating herd-level variables (including mortality risk or rate) using the National Bovine Identification Database (2005 and 2006). Eleven dairy production areas representing different livestock systems were also included. Statistical analyses were based on a probit model (mortality risk or rate=0 or >0) and a linear model (mortality risk or rate >0) corrected by the sample bias Heckman method. The same associations were reported for 2005 and 2006. The mortality risks or rates for calves and heifers were positively associated with the proportion of purchased cows or being a Milk Control Program member and negatively associated with adhering to the Good Breeding Practices charter and having an autumn calving peak. The associations between mortality and the breeds or the production areas were positive or negative, depending on the classes of animal. Mortality and having a beef herd in addition to the dairy herd were negatively associated for noncrossed birth to 2-d-old calves, noncrossed 3-d- to 1-mo-old calves, and 3-d- to 1-mo-old heifers. Having a beef herd probably provides specific know-how related to newborn and young calf management that makes it easier to attain low mortality in pure-breed dairy calves. The proportion of males born was positively associated with mortality for the birth to 2-d-old calves (all classes) and for the 3-d- to 1-mo-old beef-crossed calves, but negatively for all classes of heifers. This indicates that heifer management was improved when the availability of newborn heifers decreased, resulting in low mortality. This lower mortality is apparent for all classes of heifers present on the farm during the year when the proportion of males was low, and demonstrates an anticipatory effect. In conclusion, this study shows that the presence of a beef herd in addition to the dairy herd within a farm is associated with decreased dairy calf mortality. It

  12. Linguine sign in musculoskeletal imaging: calf silicone implant rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duryea, Dennis; Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, H066, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth E. [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Pathology, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Walker, Eric A. [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, H066, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bethesda, MD, 20814 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Imaging findings of breast silicone implant rupture are well described in the literature. On MRI, the linguine sign indicates intracapsular rupture, while the presence of silicone particles outside the fibrous capsule indicates extracapsular rupture. The linguine sign is described as the thin, wavy hypodense wall of the implant within the hyperintense silicone on T2-weighted images indicative of rupture of the implant within the naturally formed fibrous capsule. Hyperintense T2 signal outside of the fibrous capsule is indicative of an extracapsular rupture with silicone granuloma formation. We present a rare case of a patient with a silicone calf implant rupture and discuss the MRI findings associated with this condition. (orig.)

  13. An unusual case of acute painful calf swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar A Sohoni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis commonly involves central nervous system. Isolated involvement of skeletal muscles is rare. We have reported a case of cysticercosis herein presented as acute painful calf swelling, which is an extremely unusual presentation and, hence, a diagnostic challenge. The diagnosis was strongly suspected on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The laboratory findings of peripheral eosinophilia and a positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test for IgG antibodies against Taenia solium further supported the diagnosis. Complete clinical recovery was seen after 6 weeks of oral therapy with albendazole.

  14. Effect of Calf Health on Feedlot Performance and Carcass Value

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Shana

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses if calf health does affect feedlot performance and carcass value. The physiological aspects of this question as well as a regression analysis to further evaluate this problem will be addressed in this paper. A large set of data that can help to explain this health and value question has been made available for this study. These data were collected from the years 1990 - 2005 from a cattle feeding and carcass program in Coyle, Oklahoma as part of an Oklahoma State Universit...

  15. Lactobacillus acidophilus attenuates Aeromonas hydrophila induced cytotoxicity in catla thymus macrophages by modulating oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhakti; Kumar, Premranjan; Banerjee, Rajanya; Basu, Madhubanti; Pal, Arttatrana; Samanta, Mrinal; Das, Surajit

    2016-07-01

    The pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila, a potent fish pathogen, is attributed to its ability to cause motile aeromonad septicaemia leading to apoptosis in a myriad of fish species, including freshwater carp Catla catla. However, the underlying mechanism of antagonistic activity of probiotics against A. hydrophila induced apoptosis is not elucidated due to lack of appropriate in-vitro models. This study reported that the exposure of catla thymus macrophages (CTM) to A. hydrophila markedly induced cellular injuries as evidenced by elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), increased apoptosis, DNA damage and decreased cellular viability. Flow cytometry analysis and Annexin-V/propidium iodide assay further confirmed increased ROS positive cells leading to cell death after infection. The quantitative real-time PCR analysis, also revealed upregulation of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNFα), cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) and downregulation of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10). Pretreatment of cells with probiotic, Lactobacillus acidophilus attenuated A. hydrophila induced apoptosis as evident from the decrease in the levels of ROS, RNS and DNA damage. Significant increase (P≤0.05) in expression of TNFα and IL-10 and decrease in iNOS and COX-2 was observed on probiotic stimulation. In-vivo study using catla fingerlings confirmed similar pattern of ROS, iNOS, NO production and cytokine expression in thymus. This study provides a comprehensive insight into the mechanistic basis of L. acidophilus induced macrophage mediated inflammatory response against A. hydrophila in CTM cells. Further, it speculates the possibility of using cost-effective in-vitro models for screening probiotic candidates of therapeutic potential in aquaculture industry. PMID:27262084

  16. Study of the degradation the products of DNP from the rat thymus by methods of gel filtration on sepharose 4B and ultracentrifuging in a suerose gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of ultracentrifuging, in a gradient of sucrose, of DNP degradation products obtained by gel filtration on Sepharose 4B of salt extracts from the rat thymus (six hours after irradiation and administration of degranol), heterogeneity of their DNA-protein complex has been shown on the one hand and similarity in the fragment sets after irradiation and administration of degranol, on the other. These results and those obtained earlier support the idea of similar pathways of DNP degradation in thymocytes to be the response to the irreversible lesions of these cells

  17. Structure of a gene encoding a murine thymus leukemia antigen, and organization of Tla genes in the BALB/c mouse

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    We have determined the DNA sequence of a gene encoding a thymus leukemia (TL) antigen in the BALB/c mouse, and have more definitively mapped the cloned BALB/c Tla-region class I gene clusters. Analysis of the sequence shows that the Tla gene is less closely related to the H-2 genes than H-2 genes are to one another or to a Qa-2,3-region genes. The Tla gene, 17.3A, contains an apparent gene conversion. Comparison of the BALB/c Tla genes with those from C57BL shows that BALB/c has more Tla-regi...

  18. Comparative effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride and ractopamine hydrochloride on live performance and carcass characteristics of calf-fed Holstein steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T R; Sexten, A K; Lawrence, T E; Miller, M F; Thomas, C L; Yates, D A; Hutcheson, J P; Hodgen, J M; Brooks, J C

    2014-09-01

    either β-agonist to calf-fed Holstein steers increased live performance through increased BW, BW gain, and ADG. Furthermore, supplementing calf-fed Holstein steers with ZH provides greater improvements in HCW, LM area, and yield grade components, with a slight decrease in quality grade when compared to calf-fed Holstein steers supplemented with RH. PMID:25006068

  19. Antibacterial, DNA interaction and cytotoxic activities of pendant-armed polyamine macrocyclic dinuclear nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthi, P.; Haleel, A.; Srinivasan, P.; Prabhu, D.; Arulvasu, C.; Kalilur Rahiman, A.

    2014-08-01

    A series of dinuclear nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes (1-6) of hexaaza macrocycles of 2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol with three different benzoyl pendant-arms, 2,2‧-benzoyliminodi(ethylamine) trihydrochloride (L), 2,2‧-4-nitrobenzoyliminodi(ethylamine) trihydrochloride (L‧) and 2,2‧-3,5-dinitrobenzoyliminodi(ethylamine) trihydrochloride (L″) have been synthesized and characterized by spectral methods. The electrochemical studies of these complexes depict two irreversible one electron reduction processes around E1pc = -0.62 to -0.76 V and E2pc = -1.21 to -1.31, and nickel(II) complexes (1-3) exhibit two irreversible one electron oxidation processes around E1pa = 1.08 to 1.14 V and E2pa = 1.71 to 1.74 V. The room temperature magnetic moment values (μeff, 1.52-1.54 BM) indicate the presence of an antiferromagnetic interaction in the binuclear copper(II) complexes (4-6) which is also observed from the broad ESR spectra with a g value of 2.14-2.15. The synthesized complexes (1-6) were screened for their antibacterial activity. The results of DNA interaction studies indicate that the dinuclear complexes can bind to calf thymus DNA by intercalative mode and display efficient cleavage of plasmid DNA. Further, the cytotoxic activity of complexes 2, 5 and 6 on human liver adenocarcinoma (HepG2) cell line has been examined. Nuclear-chromatin cleavage has also been observed with PI staining and comet assays.

  20. “Turn-off-on” fluorescent sensor for (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin -DNA and G-quadruplex interactions based on ZnCdSe quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dan; Fan, Yao; Gao, Fang; Yang, Tian-ming, E-mail: tmyang@mail.scuec.edu.cn

    2015-08-12

    As a new detection model, the reversible fluorescence “turn-off-on” sensor based on quantum dots (QDs) has already been successfully employed in the detections of many biochemical materials, especially in the researches on the interactions between anticancer drugs. The previous studies, however, mainly focused on simple-structured oligonucleotides and Calf thymus DNA. G-quadruplex, an important target for anti-cancer drug with special secondary structure, has been stimulating increasing research interests. In this paper, we report a new detection method based on the fluorescence “turn-off-on” model with water-soluble ZnCdSe QDs as the fluorescent probe, to analyze the interactions between anticancer drug (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (TMPyP) and nucleic acid, especially the G-quadruplex. The fluorescence of QDs can be quenched by TMPyP via photo-induced electron transfer and fluorescence resonance energy transfer, while on the other hand, the combination between TMPyP and G-quadruplex releases QDs from their quenchers and thus recovers the fluorescence. Most importantly, the fluorescence “turn-off-on” model has been employed, for the first time, to analyze the impacts of special factors on the interaction between TMPyP and G-quadruplex. The excellent selectivity of the system has been verified in the studies of the interactions between TMPyP and different DNAs (double-stranded DNA, single-stranded G-quadruplex, and different types of G-quadruplexes) in Na{sup +} or K{sup +}-containing buffer. - Highlights: • Reversible fluorescence sensor was firstly used on TMPyP and G-quadruplex study. • SsDNA and various G-quadruplexes were successfully recognized by fluorescence. • The new quantum dot is hypotoxicity and can be extensively applied.

  1. Calf health from birth to weaning. I. General aspects of disease prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenz Ingrid; Mee John F; Earley Bernadette; More Simon J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Calfhood diseases have a major impact on the economic viability of cattle operations. This is the first in a three part review series on calf health from birth to weaning, focusing on preventive measures. The review considers both pre- and periparturient management factors influencing calf health, colostrum management in beef and dairy calves and further nutrition and weaning in dairy calves.

  2. CALF BLOOD-FLOW AND POSTURE - DOPPLER ULTRASOUND CALIBRATED BY PLETHYSMOGRAPHY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLEEUWEN, BE; LUBBERS, J; BARENDSEN, GJ; DEPATER, L

    1992-01-01

    A procedure was developed that enables measurement of rapid variations in calf blood flow during voluntary rhythmic contraction of the calf muscles in supine, sitting, and standing positions. During the exercise, maximum blood velocity is measured by Doppler ultrasound equipment in the popliteal art

  3. Examining dolphin hydrodynamics provides clues to calf-loss during tuna fishing

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Pete

    2004-01-01

    A combination of mathematical modeling and direct observation of the swimming behavior of dolphin mother-calf pairs has shown how the calf can gain much of the energy required for swimming if it is positioned correctly relative to the mother, a situation that may be disrupted during the chases that result from tuna-fishing practices.

  4. What Happens in the Thymus Does Not Stay in the Thymus: How T Cells Recycle the CD4+-CD8+ Lineage Commitment Transcriptional Circuitry To Control Their Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacchio, Melanie S; Bosselut, Rémy

    2016-06-15

    MHC-restricted CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells are at the core of most adaptive immune responses. Although these cells carry distinct functions, they arise from a common precursor during thymic differentiation, in a developmental sequence that matches CD4 and CD8 expression and functional potential with MHC restriction. Although the transcriptional control of CD4(+)-CD8(+) lineage choice in the thymus is now better understood, less was known about what maintains the CD4(+) and CD8(+) lineage integrity of mature T cells. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms that establish in the thymus, and maintain in postthymic cells, the separation of these lineages. We focus on recent studies that address the mechanisms of epigenetic control of Cd4 expression and emphasize how maintaining a transcriptional circuitry nucleated around Thpok and Runx proteins, the key architects of CD4(+)-CD8(+) lineage commitment in the thymus, is critical for CD4(+) T cell helper functions. PMID:27260768

  5. Calf training for loading onto vehicle at weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukasawa, Michiru

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether calf training for loading at the weaning period improves later loading. Five calves were allocated to the trained group and the control group, respectively. Calves in the trained group were loaded onto a livestock trailer for 5 successive days at weaning. Trainers led or hauled the calves by rope only. When loading was completed, trainers fed calves with sugar cubes as rewards. Calves in the control group were weaned without any treatment. Five weeks after weaning, tests were carried out under similar conditions as the trained group. Loading efficiency, physical effort on the handler and handling stress on calves between groups were compared. Trained calves were loaded significantly faster than control calves. Trained calves balked less during loading than control calves. Heart rates of handlers after loading were significantly lower in the trained group than in the control group; however, salivary amylase activity and cortisol concentration was not different between groups. Physical effort and stress on handlers would be almost the same in both groups. Heart rate, plasma cortisol, NEFA and CPK of calves were significantly increased only in the control group after loading. These results show calf training improves loading efficiency and reduces stress on calves. PMID:23126329

  6. Caribou calf deaths from intraspecific strife — a debatable diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank L. Miller

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available led to the deaths of several newborn barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus calves within a short period of time and on a small area. This event took place during calving in June 1958 on the calving ground of the Beverly caribou herd in the Northwest Territories. The lack of other examples of multiple deaths of newborn caribou calves from intraspecific strife and our findings on the same calving ground during a study of calf mortality in June 1981, 1982, and 1983 and a study of cow-calf behaviour in June 1981 and 1982 cause us to question the published explanation. As we rarely saw aggressive behaviour among cows and newborn calves that involved actual physical contact and none that resulted in injury or death and because we found instances of multiple killings of calves by wolves {Canis lupus we suggest that a probable alternative explanation of the 1958 findings is surplus killing by wolves. Most importantly, only direct observation of an event allows separation of a death caused by injuries due to intraspecific strife from a death caused by accidental injuries.

  7. New bioactive 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(p-chlorophenylthiosemicarbazone) ligand and its Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes: synthesis, characterization, cytotoxic activity and DNA binding ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matesanz, Ana I; Hernández, Carolina; Souza, Pilar

    2014-09-01

    Preparation and characterization of 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis((4)N-p-chlorophenylthiosemicarbazone) ligand, H2L, and its palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes [PdL] and [PtL], is described. The molecular structure of the two new complexes has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The ligand acts as dianionic tetradentate donor coordinating to the metal center in a square planar geometry through the pyridine nitrogen atom and the azomethine nitrogen and thione sulfur atoms from one thiosemicarbazone arm, the fourth coordination position is occupied by the hydrazine nitrogen atom of the other arm. New free ligand and its metal complexes have been evaluated for antiproliferative activity in vitro against NCI-H460, T-47D, A2780 and A2780cisR human cancer cell lines. The cytotoxicity data suggest that these compounds may be endowed with important antitumor properties, especially H2L and [PtL] since they are capable of not only circumvent cisplatin resistance in A2780cisR cells but also exhibit high antiproliferative activity in breast cancer T-47D cells. The interaction of H2L with calf thymus DNA was also investigated and its binding constant (Kb) determined. PMID:24857803

  8. Synthesis, spectral properties and DNA binding and nuclease activity of lanthanide (III) complexes of 2-benzoylpyridine benzhydrazone: X-ray crystal structure, Hirshfeld studies and nitrate- interactions of cerium(III) complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karreddula Raja; Akkili Suseelamma; Katreddi Hussain Reddy

    2016-01-01

    The lanthanide(III) complexes of general formula of [Ln(BPBH)2(NO3)3] (where, Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd and BPBH = 2-benzoylpyridine benzhydrazone) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, spectroscopic (UV, IR), electrochemical and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The coordination mode of the ligand and the geometry of [Ce(BPBH)2(NO3)3] are confirmed by single crystal X-ray studies. The crystals are monoclinic with C2/c crystallographic symmetry. The central metal is 12 coordinated and the coordination polyhedron around the cerium atom can be described as a distorted icosahedron. The existence of nitrate. . . and CH. . . stacking interactions in the [Ce(BPBH)2(NO3)3] leads to a supramolecular arrangement in its network. The binding properties of these complexes with calf-thymus DNA have been investigated by viscosity measurements. The complexes show more nuclease activity in the presences of H2O2.

  9. Lymphocyte development in irradiated thymuses: dynamics of colonization by progenitor cells and regeneration of resident cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymphocyte development in irradiated thymuses was analyzed using two complementary strategies: an in vitro experimental model and computer simulations. In the in vitro model, fetal thymus lobes were irradiated and the regeneration of cells that survived irradiation were examined, with the results compared to those of reconstitution of the thymus by donor bone marrow cells and their competition with the thymic resident cells. In vitro measurements of resident cell kinetics showed that cell proliferation is slowed down significantly after a relatively low (10Gy) irradiation dose. Although the number of thymocytes that survived irradiation remained low for several days post-irradiation, further colonization by donor cells was not possible, unless performed within 6 h after irradiation. These experimental results, coupled with the analysis by computer simulations, suggest that bone marrow cell engraftment in the irradiated thymus may be limited by the presence of radiation-surviving thymic resident cells and the reduced availability of seeding niches. (Author)

  10. Linkages in Pisum L. Pt. 7. Locus for the sterile gene calf (cabbage leaf)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recessive, pleiotropic gene calf, artificially induced was described by Sharma in 1975. An identical mutant gene at the same locus was isolated in this research. Two lines were included in the Pisum gene bank - the type line for the gene calf - Wt 15873 and the representative line - Wt 16024. In linkage studies the representative line was crossed with tester lines bearing gene markers. Analyses of dihybrid segregation in F2 generations revealed linkages of the gene calf with chromosome 2 markers. Two isozymic markers helped to reveal the calf locus on chromosome 2 with the following order: Orp - Calf - K Pgm-p Fum. This is agriment with the current Pisum linkage map

  11. A Case Report of Fungal Diarrhea in a Preweaned Calf in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azimpour

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Diarrhea is the most common cause of death in neonatal calves. The most important agents of diarrhea in young calves include bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Only limited attention has been paid to the role of fungi in calves’ diarrhea. Case Presentation We report on a neonatal calf with fungal diarrhea caused by Candida albicans. The calf has had dysentery in the previous 10 days despite good appetite. The calf was then treated with oxytetracycline tabulations for 5 days. Conclusions Yeasts and molds are sometimes associated with lesions in the stomach or intestines of scouring calves, but there is very limited information about their role in calf diarrhea. In this study, C. albicans was isolated in a 15-day-old dysenteric calf. These organisms are not a primary cause of diarrhea in calves, but like in children, they are possibly opportunistic pathogens that proliferate and invade the intestinal mucosa following antibiotic therapy.

  12. Prevention of postoperative venous thromboembolism by external pneumatic calf compression in patients with gynecologic malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred seven patients undergoing major surgery for gynecologic malignancy participated in a controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of pneumatic calf compression in the prevention of postoperative deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. External pneumatic calf compression was applied intraoperatively and for five postoperative days. All patients were prospectively screened for deep venous thrombosis with impedance plethysmography and 125I-fibrinogen leg counting. Deep venous thrombosis and/or pulmonary emboli were detected in 18 of 52 control group patients (34.6%) whereas in seven of 55 (12.7%) of those treated with external pneumatic calf compression. External pneumatic calf compression was most effective during the first five days postoperatively and also reduced the incidence of deep venous thrombosis in patients at highest risk. When applied during surgery and for five days postoperatively, external pneumatic calf compression significantly reduces the incidence of postoperative venous thrombosis

  13. Chemical Composition of Essential Oilsof Thymus and Mentha Speciesand Their Antifungal Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Van Griensven, Leo J. L. D.; Vlatka Vajs; Dejan D. Brkić; Petar D. Marin; Jelena Vukojević; Marina D. Soković

    2009-01-01

    The potential antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus tosevii L., Mentha spicata L., and Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae) essential oils and their components against 17 micromycetal food poisoning, plant, animal and human pathogens are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodestillation of dried plant material. Their composition was determined by GC-MS. Identification of individual constituents was made by comparison with analytical standards, and by computer matching mass ...

  14. Chemical composition, antitumor and antimicrobial activity of Thymus vulgaris and T. algeriensis essential oils

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolic, Milos; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.; Ricardo C. Calhelha; Perić, Tamara; Marković, Dejan; Giweli, Abdulhamed; Soković, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Plants from genus Thymus are often used in traditional medicine. Some of these species are important medicinal plants that are used in ethnomedicine. In this work, analysis of phytochemicals and bioactivity evaluation of Thymus vulgaris and T. algericnsis essential oils were done. The chemical composition of oils were evaluated using GC/MS; cytotoxic activity was tested against five human tumor cell lines MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma), NCI-H460 (non-small cell lung cancer), ...

  15. Chemical composition of essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species and their antifungal activities.

    OpenAIRE

    Sokovic,, M.D.; Vukojevic,, J.; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.D.; Vajs, V.; Griensven, van, L.J.L.D.

    2009-01-01

    The potential antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus tosevii L., Mentha spicata L., and Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae) essential oils and their components against 17 micromycetal food poisoning, plant, animal and human pathogens are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodestillation of dried plant material. Their composition was determined by GC-MS. Identification of individual constituents was made by comparison with analytical standards, and by computer matching mass ...

  16. Morphometric Characteristics of Fetal Thymus Características morfométricas del timo fetal

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Niurka Piña Loyola; Marta Rosa González Debén; Alfredo Quiñonez Ceballos

    2012-01-01

    Background: Classical medicine texts include morphological patterns such as thymus, but reported values vary. Objective: To determine morphometric parameters of the thymus and its relation to gestational age, fetal weight and sex. Methods: A prospective and descriptive study was conducted from May 2003 to May 2008 in the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima General University H...

  17. Structural changes in mature rat thymus under the systematic exposure to +Gx acceleration and Glutarginum

    OpenAIRE

    Maxim A. Kriventsov; Gennady A. Moroz

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Experimental work was designed primary to study morphological and functional changes in the mature rat's thymus under systematic exposure to +Gx acceleration. Secondary task is to determine a possible corrective potential of Glutarginum (L-arginine and L-glutamic acid). Methods: Mature male Wistar rats were exposed to systematic +Gx acceleration (9G, 10 min daily, 10 times). Morphology of the thymus was investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Results: Analysis o...

  18. Non-cytotoxic Thymus capitata extracts prevent Bovine herpesvirus-1 infection in cell cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Boubaker–Elandalousi, Ramzi; Mekni–Toujani, Marwa; Kaabi, Belhassen; Larbi, Imen; Diouani, Mohamed-Fethi; Gharbi, Mohamed; Akkari, Hafidh; B’chir, Fatma; Ghram, Abdeljelil

    2014-01-01

    Background Bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1) still causes great economic loss to the livestock industry and trade because there aren’t any available drugs that proved to be fully effective against it. In this study, the cytotoxicity and the antiviral activities of the Thymus capitata extracts were evaluated for the development of new, non toxic and specific anti-herpesvirus drug. Aqueous extracts (AE), ethanolic extracts (EE) and essential oil (EO) of the aerial parts of Thymus capitata were...

  19. [The role of the pineal-thymus system in the regulation of autoimmunity, aging and lifespan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, György

    2016-07-01

    Thymus is an immunoendocrine organ, the hormones of which mainly influence its own lymphatic elements. It has a central role in the immune system, the neonatal removal causes the collapse of immune system and the whole organism. The thymic nurse cells select the bone marrow originated lymphocytes and destroy the autoreactive ones, while thymus originated Treg cells suppress the autoreactive cells in the periphery. The involution of the organ starts after birth, however, this truly happens in the end of puberty only, as before this it is overcompensated by developmental processes. From the end of adolescence the involution allows the life, proliferation and enhanced functioning of some autoreactive cells, which gradually wear down the cells and intercellular materials, causing the aging. The enhanced and mass function of autoreactive cells lead to the autoimmune diseases and natural death. This means that the involution of thymus is not a part of the organismic involution, but an originator of it, which is manifested in the lifespan-pacemaker function. In this case aging can be comprehended as a thymus-commanded slow autoimmune process. The neonatal removal of pineal gland leads to the complete destruction of the thymus and the crashing down of the immune system, as well as to wasting disease. The involution of the pineal and thymus runs parallel, because the two organs form a functional unit. It is probable that the pineal gland is responsible for the involution of thymus and also regulates its lifespan determining role. The data reviewed do not prove the exclusive role of pineal-thymus system in the regulation of aging and lifespan, however, calls attention to the suitability of solving this problem alone. PMID:27346473

  20. Phenotypic characterization of early events of thymus repopulation in radiation bone marrow chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phenotype of murine thymocytes repopulating the thymus of radiation bone marrow chimeras shortly after irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution was analyzed by immunofluorescence and flow microfluorometry. Thymuses in these chimeras, while essentially devoid of lymphoid cells at day 7, were repopulated by days 10 to 12 after irradiation. It was found that this initial repopulation arose from a radioresistant intrathymic precursor that expanded to an almost complete complement of host-type thymocytes. However, these host-derived thymocytes were unusual in that they were relatively deficient in Lyt 1+2- and peanut agglutinin ''dull'' cells as compared with normal thymocytes. Donor bone-marrow-derived cells first appeared in the irradiated chimeric thymuses between days 12 and 15 after irradiation and bone marrow transfer. By day 19, chimeric thymuses contained more than 98% donor cells. This course was identical for three chimeric combinations, each made across different genetic barriers. In contrast to the cells that populate the fetal thymus during normal ontogeny, the first donor bone-marrow-derived cells that can be detected within the irradiated chimeric thymuses already expressed phenotypically normal adult T cell subpopulations in that they contained significant numbers both of Lyt 1+2- and of Lyt 1+2+ thymocytes. Thus, the Lyt phenotype of donor cells that initially repopulate an adult thymus after irradiation is markedly different from the Lyt phenotype of cells that initially populate the fetal thymus. The differences between adult and fetal thymic development that are observed in radiation bone marrow chimeras may be important in our understanding of T cell differentiation in these animals

  1. Use of embryonal thymus transplantation in combined treatment of oncologic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of combined treatment of 102 patients with mammary gland cancer and of 46 patients with pulmonary cancer are studied. In 75 patients (52 patients with mammary gland cancer and 23 - with pulmonary cancer) embryonal thymus transplantation was carried out; 73 patients entered a test group. It is stated that a single embryonal thymus transplantation is an active immunostimulator and in the process of combined therapy of patients permits to improve

  2. VEGF-mediated cross-talk within the neonatal murine thymus

    OpenAIRE

    Cuddihy, Andrew R.; Ge, Shundi; Zhu, Judy; Jang, Julie; Chidgey, Ann; Thurston, Gavin; Boyd, Richard; Crooks, Gay M.

    2009-01-01

    Although the mechanisms of cross-talk that regulate the hematopoietic and epithelial compartments of the thymus are well established, the interactions of these compartments with the thymic endothelium have been largely ignored. Current understanding of the thymic vasculature is based on studies of adult thymus. We show that the neonatal period represents a unique phase of thymic growth and differentiation, marked by endothelium that is organized as primitive, dense networks of capillaries dep...

  3. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the thymus: A case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhefeng; Jin, Feng; Sun, Liguang; Wu, Hao; Chen, Bing; Cui, Youbin

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory pseudotumors are rare benign tumors consisting of cellular and stromal elements of a localized reactive process. While inflammatory pseudotumors are commonly detected in the lung and occasionally in other organs, only one case of inflammatory pseudotumor of the thymus has been reported in the literature to date. This report presents a 54-year-old male patient with inflammatory pseudotumor of the thymus accompanied by pulmonary inflammation. The patient presented with chest pain a...

  4. Effects of noxious stimulation to the back or calf muscles on gait stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hug, François; Hodges, Paul W; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2015-11-26

    Gait stability is the ability to deal with small perturbations that naturally occur during walking. Changes in motor control caused by pain could affect this ability. This study investigated whether nociceptive stimulation (hypertonic saline injection) in a low back (LBP) or calf (CalfP) muscle affects gait stability. Sixteen participants walked on a treadmill at 0.94ms(-1) and 1.67ms(-1), while thorax kinematics were recorded using 3D-motion capture. From 110 strides, stability (local divergence exponent, LDE), stride-to-stride variability and root mean squares (RMS) of thorax linear velocities were calculated along the three movement axes. At 0.94ms(-1), independent of movement axes, gait stability was lower (higher LDE) and stride-to-stride variability was higher, during LBP and CalfP than no pain. This was more pronounced during CalfP, likely explained by the biomechanical function of calf muscles in gait, as supported by greater mediolateral RMS and stance time asymmetry than in LBP and no pain. At 1.67ms(-1), independent of movement axes, gait stability was greater and stride-to-stride variability was smaller with LBP than no pain and CalfP, whereas CalfP was not different from no pain. Opposite effects of LBP on gait stability between speeds suggests a more protective strategy at the faster speed. Although mediolateral RMS was greater and participants had more asymmetric stance times with CalfP than LBP and no pain, limited effect of CalfP at the faster speed could relate to greater kinematic constraints and smaller effects of calf muscle activity on propulsion at this speed. In conclusion, pain effects on gait stability depend on pain location and walking speed. PMID:26602375

  5. Normal thymus in adults: appearance on CT and associations with age, sex, BMI and smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Tetsuro [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Gao, Wei [Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); Dupuis, Josee [Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Hunninghake, Gary M.; Washko, George R. [Harvard Medical School, The Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Murakami, Takamichi [Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); O' Connor, George T. [The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Boston University School of Medicine, Pulmonary Center and Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    To investigate CT appearance and size of the thymus in association with participant characteristics. 2540 supposedly healthy participants (mean age 58.9 years, 51 % female) were evaluated for the CT appearance of thymic glands with four-point scores (according to the ratio of fat and soft tissue), size and morphology. These were correlated with participants' age, sex, BMI and smoking history. Of 2540 participants, 1869 (74 %) showed complete fatty replacement of the thymus (Score 0), 463 (18 %) predominantly fatty attenuation (Score 1), 172 (7 %) half fatty and half soft-tissue attenuation (Score 2) and 36 (1 %) solid thymic gland with predominantly soft-tissue attenuation (Score 3). Female participants showed less fatty degeneration of the thymus with higher thymic scores within age 40-69 years (P < 0.001). Participants with lower thymic scores showed higher BMI (P < 0.001) and were more likely to be former smokers (P < 0.001) with higher pack-years (P = 0.04). Visual assessment with four-point thymic scores revealed a sex difference in the fatty degeneration of the thymus with age. Women show significantly higher thymic scores, suggesting less fat content of the thymus, during age 40-69 years. Cigarette smoking and high BMI are associated with advanced fatty replacement of the thymus. (orig.)

  6. What happens to the thymus in children who have undergone a median sternotomy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thymus grows rapidly during fetal life and continues to grow during childhood. When a child undergoes a median sternotomy during cardiac surgery, most of the thymus is removed to gain access to the mediastinum. What happens to the residual thymic tissue in the long term ?To test the hypothesis that residual thymic tissue left after sternotomy regenerates into an identifiable thymus and is visible on MRI. We retrospectively reviewed the cardiac MR images obtained over a 14-month period in all children under the age of 17 years who had undergone a median sternotomy (n=62) to establish the presence/absence of a thymus. We also reviewed the cardiac MR images obtained over the same time period in children who had never undergone open cardiac surgery (n=37). In the sternotomy group, 18 patients (29%) had an identifiable thymus on MR images, compared to 92% (n=34) in the nonsternotomy group. This difference was statistically significant. The majority of children in the study group did not have a visible thymus on MR images, which suggests that in these children any residual thymic tissue left postoperatively does not regenerate. (orig.)

  7. Essential Microenvironment for Thymopoiesis is Preserved in Human Adult and Aged Thymus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Shiraishi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal human thymuses at various ages were immunohistologically examined in order to determine whether adult or aged thymus maintained the microenvironment for the T cell development and thymopoiesis was really ongoing. To analyze the thymic microenvironment, two monoclonal antibodies (MoAb were employed. One is MoAb to IL-1 receptor (IL-1R recognizing medullary and subcapsular cortical epithelial cells of normal infant human thymus. The other is UH-1 MoAb recognizing thymic epithelial cells within the cortex, which are negative with IL-1R-MoAb. Thymus of subjects over 20 years of age was split into many fragments and dispersed in the fatty tissue. However, the microenvironment of each fragment was composed of both IL-1R positive and UH-1 positive epithelial cells, and the UH-1 positive portion was populated with lymphocytes showing a follicle-like appearance. Lymphocytes in these follicle-like portions were mostly CD4+CD8+ double positive cells and contained many proliferating cells as well as apoptotic cells. Thus these follicle-like portions in adult and aged thymus were considered to be functioning as cortex as in infant thymus. Proliferative activity of thymocytes in the thymic cortex and the follicle-like portions definitely declined with advance of age, while incidence of apoptotic thymocytes increased with aging.

  8. Radiographical diagnosis of the thymus in myasthenia gravis. Comparison of pneumomediastinography and computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanimura, Shigeo; Banba, Jiro; Masaki, Mikio; Irimoto, Masahiro; Matsushita, Akira

    1987-11-01

    Comparison of radiographical findings of the thymus between pneumomediastinography and computed tomography were studied in 35 patients with myasthenia gravis. The patients consisted of 10 patients with thymoma and 25 without thymoma confirmed at the operations. Pneumomediastinography was very useful to discern whether the thymoma was invasive or noninvasive, but not contributory to know whether the thymus was composed of folicular lymphoid hyperplasia or normal thyimic tissues. Computed tomography was also useful to dertermine the localization and the invasiveness of the thymoma, but not helpful to know whether the thymus was of follicular lymphoid hyperplasia or normal tissues. However, the finding of ''reticular pattern''-many small nodules scattered resicularly in the thymus-in computed tomography could be regarded as a sign suggesting follicular lymphoid hyperplasia of the thymus. Therfore, both pneumomediastinography and computed tomography were very useful in the diagnosis of the localization and the invasiveness of the thymoma but not for the diagnosis of follicular lymphoid hyperplasia of the thymus. Neverethless the finding of ''reticular pattern'' computred tomography was helpful in the diagnosis of follicular lymphoid hyperplasia.

  9. Normal thymus in adults: appearance on CT and associations with age, sex, BMI and smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate CT appearance and size of the thymus in association with participant characteristics. 2540 supposedly healthy participants (mean age 58.9 years, 51 % female) were evaluated for the CT appearance of thymic glands with four-point scores (according to the ratio of fat and soft tissue), size and morphology. These were correlated with participants' age, sex, BMI and smoking history. Of 2540 participants, 1869 (74 %) showed complete fatty replacement of the thymus (Score 0), 463 (18 %) predominantly fatty attenuation (Score 1), 172 (7 %) half fatty and half soft-tissue attenuation (Score 2) and 36 (1 %) solid thymic gland with predominantly soft-tissue attenuation (Score 3). Female participants showed less fatty degeneration of the thymus with higher thymic scores within age 40-69 years (P < 0.001). Participants with lower thymic scores showed higher BMI (P < 0.001) and were more likely to be former smokers (P < 0.001) with higher pack-years (P = 0.04). Visual assessment with four-point thymic scores revealed a sex difference in the fatty degeneration of the thymus with age. Women show significantly higher thymic scores, suggesting less fat content of the thymus, during age 40-69 years. Cigarette smoking and high BMI are associated with advanced fatty replacement of the thymus. (orig.)

  10. Antioxidative effect of thyme (Thymus vulgaris in sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Zaborowska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Lipid oxidation is a main problem during food processing, storage and consumption leading to losses of quality, stability, safety and nutritive value. Antioxidants have been used to prevent oxidation changes and off – flavor development in food products. Aim of the research was to evaluate antioxidative effect of thyme ethanol extract on sunflower oil during its storage in different temperature conditions. Oil samples were stored in darkness at 4°C, 18°C, 38°C. Material and methods. Samples of thyme (thymus vulgaris were purchased at a local pharmacy in Poznań, Poland and sunflower oil was acquired from a local supermarket. Thyme extract was characterized by total polyphenol content. Antioxidant activity was estimated with use of DPPHand ABTSradicals scavenging methods. Ethanol extract of thyme at 1% level was added to sunflower oil. Peroxide value (PV, anisidine value (AV, totox value (TxV and fatty acids (FA content were taken as parameters for evaluation of effectiveness of thyme extract in stabilization of sunflower oil. Results. High polyphenol content, DPPHand ABTSradicals scavenging activity of ethanol thyme extract were evaluated. Results from different parameters were in agreement with other researchers, suggesting the antioxidant effect of thyme on antioxidant stability. Results show that thyme extract prolonged stability of sunflower oil and it may be a potent antioxidant for its stabilization. Conclusions. Ethanol thyme extract may be used as a natural antioxidant to prolong stability of oils.  

  11. Essential Oils Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Three Thymus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzeh Amiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of three wild-growing Thymus species, collected from west of Iran during the flowering stage, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Under the optimum extraction and analysis conditions, 44, 38, and 38 constituents (mainly monoterpenes compounds were identified in T. kotschyanus Boiss. and Hohen, T. eriocalyx (Ronniger Jalas, and T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak Jalas which represented 89.9%, 99.7%, and 95.8% of the oils, respectively. The main constituents were thymol (16.4–42.6%, carvacrol (7.6–52.3%, and γ-terpinene (3–11.4%. Antioxidant activity was employed by two complementary test systems, namely, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free-radical scavenging and β-carotene/linoleic acid systems. Antioxidant activity of polar subfraction of T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak Jalas was found to be higher than those of the others in DPPH assay, while nonpolar subfraction of T. eriocalyx (Ronniger Jalas has most antioxidant activity in β-carotene/linoleic acid test (19.1±0.1 μg/mL and 96.1±0.8% inhibition rate, resp..

  12. Nicotinamide coenzymes in the rat thymus during the postirradiation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the contents of NADP and NADPN, the activity of glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase and the contents of NAD, NADP, SH-groups and ATP were first investigated in the thymus of γ-irradiated (900 R) rats. A decrease in the contents of all the nicotinamide coenzymes and SH-groups was detected during the first minutes after irradiation. In an hour, the NADPN content exceeded normal by 43.2 per cent while the other parameters under study normalized. In 4 to 24 hours a repeated reduction in the content of all the nicotinamide coenzymes was accompanied by the ATP decrease. After 72 hours the level of the nicotinamide coenzymes normalized and the ATP content remained below normal. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase was 25-30-per cent higher during the first 60 minutes after irradiation; the activity of glutathione reductase was invariable. Mechanisms of the postirradiation changes in the nicotinamide coenzymes and their association with the state of the thiolo-disulphide system, bioenergetics and carbohydrate metabolism were discussed

  13. Chemotaxonomic study on Thymus xtoletanus Ladero and its parental species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B. Salas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the essential oils of cultivated material of Thymus xtoletanus Ladero and its parents, Th. mastichina (L. L. and Th. villosus subsp. lusitanicus (Boiss. Coutinho, with seeds from the same locality in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. The essential oil of Th. xtoletanus, which had not been analyzed previously, presented 1,8-cineole as the major component (25.5%, as was also the case for Th. mastichina (76.1%. Other components with a major presence in Th. xtoletanus and Th. villosus subsp. lusitanicus were [(Z-β-ocimene (8.1%; camphor (4.5%; sabinene (3.2%; α-pinene (2.8%], and [(Z-β-ocimene (4.1%, camphor (9.8%, sabinene (2.8%, α-pinene (7.1%], respectively. However, in the hybrid the components β-phelandrene (14.5%, limonene (6.9%, (E-γ-bisabolene (3.5%, and viridiflorol (3.3% stood out, inter alia, whereas their presence in the parents was limited. The study confirms the hybrid origin of Th. xtoletanus as intermediate between Th. mastichina and Th. villosus subsp. lusitanicus.

  14. Histomorphological changes in thymus and spleen after cyclooxygenase inhibitors treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poeta O.N.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cyclooxygenase inhibitors on the lymphoid organs histomorphology has been examined in the matured outbread white mice. Diclofenac, meloxicam, celecoxib, but not rofecoxib has shown depressive action on the im-munocompetetive organs histomorphologic structure. Macroscopic study has revealed a decrease in the weight of the spleen and thymus. Light microscopy has shown a decrease in the number of thymocytes, due to degradation of cortex area. In the lobular medulla it has been observed microcirculation changes in the view of venules and capillaries distention, arteriolar wall thickening. In the spleen it has been shown a decrease in the white pulp volume, disappearing of the reactive centers in follicles. Also subcapsular edema and relative stroma volume increase has been seen frequently. The use of highly selective COG-2 inhibitor rofecoxib has not revealed statistically truthful changes in microscopic examination in comparison to the control group. That could vote for the absence of depressive action on the immune organ histomorphologic structure.

  15. Glandular Trichomes and Essential Oil of Thymus quinquecostatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Jia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and types of glandular trichomes and essential oil chemistry of Thymus quinquecostatus were studied. The glandular trichomes are distributed on the surface of stem, leaf, rachis, calyx and corolla, except petiole, pistil and stamen. Three morphologically distinct types of glandular trichomes are described. Peltate trichomes, consisting of a basal cell, a stalk cell and a 12-celled head, are distributed on the stem, leaf, corolla and outer side of calyx. Capitate trichomes, consisting of a unicellular base, a 1–2-celled stalk and a unicellular head, are distributed more diffusely than peltate ones, existing on stem, leaf, rachis and calyx. Digitiform trichomes are just distributed on the outer side of corolla, consisting of 1 basal cell, 3 stalk cells and 1 head cell. All three types of glandular trichomes can secrete essential oil, and in small capitate trichomes of rachis, all peltate trichomes and digitiform trichomes, essential oil is stored in a large subcuticular space, released by cuticle rupture, whereas, in other capitate trichomes, essential oil crosses the thin cuticle. The essential oil of T. quinquecostatus is yellow, and its content is highest in the growth period. 68 constituents were identified in the essential oils. The main constituent is linalool.

  16. Mixed-ligand copper(ii) Schiff base complexes: the role of the co-ligand in DNA binding, DNA cleavage, protein binding and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Wen-Jing; Wang, Xin-Tian; Xie, Cheng-Zhi; Tian, He; Song, Xue-Qing; Pan, He-Ting; Qiao, Xin; Xu, Jing-Yuan

    2016-05-31

    Four novel mononuclear Schiff base copper(ii) complexes, namely, [Cu(L)(OAc)]·H2O (), [Cu(HL)(C2O4)(EtOH)]·EtOH (), [Cu(L)(Bza)] () and [Cu(L)(Sal)] () (HL = 1-(((2-((2-hydroxypropyl)amino)ethyl)imino)methyl)naphthalene-2-ol), Bza = benzoic acid, Sal = salicylic acid), were synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography, elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy. Single-crystal diffraction analysis revealed that all the complexes were mononuclear molecules, in which the Schiff base ligand exhibited different coordination modes and conformations. The N-HO and O-HO inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonding interactions linked these molecules into multidimensional networks. Their interactions with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were investigated by UV-visible and fluorescence spectrometry, as well as by viscosity measurements. The magnitude of the Kapp values of the four complexes was 10(5), indicating a moderate intercalative binding mode between the complexes and DNA. Electrophoresis results showed that all these complexes induced double strand breaks of pUC19 plasmid DNA in the presence of H2O2 through an oxidative pathway. In addition, the fluorescence spectrum of human serum albumin (HSA) with the complexes suggested that the quenching mechanism of HSA by the complexes was a static process. Moreover, the antiproliferative activity of the four complexes against HeLa (human cervical carcinoma) and HepG-2 (human liver hepatocellular carcinoma) cells evaluated by colorimetric cell proliferation assay and clonogenic assay revealed that all four complexes had improved cytotoxicity against cancer cells. Inspiringly, complex , with salicylic acid as the auxiliary ligand, displayed a stronger anticancer activity, suggesting that a synergistic effect of the Schiff base complex and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug may be involved in the cell killing process. The biological features of mixed-ligand copper(ii) Schiff base complexes and how acetic auxiliary

  17. Binding of 2,7-diaminomitosene to DNA: model for the precovalent recognition of DNA by activated mitomycin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G S; He, Q Y; Behr-Ventura, D; Tomasz, M

    1995-02-28

    Mitomycin C (MC), mitomycin A, porfiromycin, BMY-25067, and BMY-25287, antitumor antibiotics collectively termed "mitosanes", were found to have no appreciable binding affinity to various natural and synthetic DNAs, as tested by UV spectrophotometry and equilibrium dialysis. Further tests of DNA binding applied to MC including thermal melting measurements, displacement of ethidium fluorescence, and unwinding of closed circular DNA were similarly negative. In contrast, 2,7-diaminomitosene (2,7-DAM), a major end product of the reductive activation of MC, binds to the same series of DNAs by all of these criteria. In the presence of DNA its UV absorbance at the 313 nm maximum decreased and underwent a slight red shift. This effect was used for determining DNA binding constants (Kb) by the spectrophotometric titration method. At pH 6.0 the Kbs of three natural DNAs with varying GC content, as well as poly(dA-dT).poly(dA-dT), and poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC), were all in the range of (1.2-5.3) x 10(4) (M nucleotide)-1, with no apparent specificity of binding. Poly(dG-m5dC).poly(dG-m5dC) displayed a slightly higher Kb ((7.5-8.4) x 10(4)). Binding of other, closely related mitosenes was tested to calf thymus DNA by equilibrium dialysis. Neither the presence of a 1-OH substituent, removal of the 10-carbamoyl group, nor methylation of the 2-amino group modifies the binding affinity of the mitosenes significantly. The 1-phosphate substituent abolishes binding. The binding of 2,7-DAM to DNA increased with decreasing pH and decreasing ionic strength. It was determined that 2,7-DAM is protonated at the 2-amino group with a pKa = 7.55, and this correlated well with the observed pH dependence of the binding, indicating that the binding affinity has a strong electrostatic component. This was confirmed by the finding that the extrapolated Kb to 1 M Na+ concentration diminishes to only 10% of the value of Kb at 0.01 M Na+ concentration. Viscosity tests showed conclusively that 2,7-DAM

  18. Influence of environmental health in the cow-calf dyad system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayná Barcelos Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Health factors influence the cow-calf dyad system in the postpartum period until the first suckling. The use of maternity paddock is a recommended management to facilitate the monitoring of parturient cows and calves. However, side effects occur due to environmental health conditions of maternity paddock that can affect the behaviour of the cow and result in the separation of calf from the mother, undermining sucking and the formation of the cow-calf dyad. To improve the understanding of this complex and dynamic system we built a conceptual model using the technique of causal loop diagram, Figure 1. By hypothesis, the environmental variables that act in maternity paddock influence the variable "Sources of pathogens in maternity". Those sources present a positive effect (in the same direction in the infection process of the calf and cow. Thus, a recommended practice is exposing the parturient cow to pathogens in maternity for sufficient period to stimulate their immune system and build disease resistance. That process contributes to improve the quality of colostrum that will be consumed by the calf during the first hours postpartum which has the function of increasing calf immunity, minimizing the occurrence of infections. In the model, sanitary environmental factors work in two Balance feedback loops (B1 and B2. The B1 cycle refers to the production of a healthy cow with a low level of infection by means of the variables: “Vaccine”, "Stimulation of cow immune system" and "Health resistance" with delay. The variable "Cow infection" has a negative influence (in the opposite direction in the "Maternal behaviour", thus the more infected the cow, the less investment will occur in maternal behaviour. The B2 cycle refers to the calf’s health condition, which is positively influenced by “Calf infection” which, in turn, has positive influence, contributing to the increase of "Calf diseases". The increase in “Calf diseases” generates an

  19. Synthesis, characterization, and binding properties towards CT-DNA and lipoxygenase of mixed-ligand silver(I) complexes with 2-mercaptothiazole and its derivatives and triphenylphosphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyros, L; Banti, C N; Kourkoumelis, N; Kubicki, M; Sainis, I; Hadjikakou, S K

    2014-03-01

    Mixed-ligand silver(I) complexes of formulae [AgCl(TPP)2(MTZD)] (1), {[AgCl(TPP)2(MBZT)]·(MBZT)·2(toluene)} (2), and [AgCl(TPP)2(CMBZT)] (3) were obtained by refluxing toluene solutions of silver(I) chloride with triphenylphosphine (TPP) and the appropriate heterocyclic thioamides 2-mercaptothiazolidine (MTZD), 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBZT), and 5-chloro-2-mercaptobenzothiazole (CMBZT). The complexes were characterized by the melting point, vibrational spectroscopy (Fourier transform mid-IR), (1)H-NMR spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. DNA binding tests indicate the ability of complexes 1-3 to modify the activity of cells. The binding constants of 1-3 towards calf-thymus DNA (CT-DNA) [(3.5 ± 8.5) × 10(4) M(-1) for 1, (10.0 ± 0.0) × 10(4) M(-1) for 2, and (46.4 ± 7.0) × 10(4) M(-1) for 3] indicate strong interaction of 3. Changes in the fluorescence of ethidium bromide in the presence of DNA suggest intercalation into or electrostatic interactions with DNA. The corresponding apparent binding constants (K app) towards CT-DNA calculated through fluorescence spectra are (3.5 ± 0.7) × 10(4) M(-1) for 1, (10.0 ± 0.0) × 10(4) M(-1) for 2, and (46.4 ± 7.0) × 10(4) M(-1) for 3. Docking studies on DNA complexes confirm the binding of 1 and 2 in the major groove of CT-DNA and of 3 in the minor groove. Moreover, the influence of 1-3 on the catalytic peroxidation of linoleic acid to hydroperoxylinoleic acid by the enzyme lipoxygenase was studied kinetically and theoretically. The antibacterial effect of 1-3 against the bacterial species Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli was evaluated. Complex 1 exhibits the strongest activity. PMID:24445998

  20. UVA activation of N-dialkylnitrosamines releasing nitric oxide, producing strand breaks as well as oxidative damages in DNA, and inducing mutations in the Ames test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the photo-mutagenicity and photo-genotoxicity of N-dialkylnitrosamines and its mechanisms of UVA activation. With simultaneous irradiation of UVA, photo-mutagenicity of seven N-dialkylnitrosamines was observed in Ames bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium TA1535) in the absence of metabolic activation. Mutagenicity of pre-irradiated N-dialkylnitrosamines was also observed with S. typhimurium hisG46, TA100, TA102 and YG7108 in the absence of metabolic activation. UVA-mediated mutation with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) decreased by adding either the NO or OH radical scavenger. When superhelical DNA was irradiated with N-dialkylnitrosamines, nicked circular DNA appeared. Ten N-dialkylnitrosamines examined produced strand breaks in the treated DNA in the presence of UVA. The level of single-strand breaks in φX174 DNA mediated by N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) and UVA decreased by adding either a radical scavenger or superoxide dismutase. When calf thymus DNA was treated with N-dialkylnitrosamines (NDMA, NDEA, NMOR, N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) and N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP)) and UVA, the ratio of 8-oxodG/dG in the DNA increased. Action spectra were obtained to determine if nitrosamine acts as a sensitizer of UVA. Both mutation frequency and NO formation were highest at the absorption maximum of nitrosamines, approximately 340 nm. The plots of NO formation and mutation frequency align with the absorption curve of NPYR, NMOR and NDMA. A significant linear correlation between the optical density of N-dialkynitrosamines at 340 nm and NO formation in each irradiated solution was revealed by ANOVA. We would like to propose the hypothesis that the N-nitroso moiety of N-dialkylnitrosamines absorbs UVA photons, UVA-photolysis of N-dialkylnitrosamines brings release of nitric oxide, and subsequent production of alkyl radical cations and active oxygen species follow as secondary events, which cause DNA strand breaks, oxidative and

  1. UVA activation of N-dialkylnitrosamines releasing nitric oxide, producing strand breaks as well as oxidative damages in DNA, and inducing mutations in the Ames test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arimoto-Kobayashi, Sakae, E-mail: arimoto@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 1-1-1 Tsushima, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sano, Kayoko; Machida, Masaki; Kaji, Keiko; Yakushi, Keiko [Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 1-1-1 Tsushima, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)

    2010-09-10

    We investigated the photo-mutagenicity and photo-genotoxicity of N-dialkylnitrosamines and its mechanisms of UVA activation. With simultaneous irradiation of UVA, photo-mutagenicity of seven N-dialkylnitrosamines was observed in Ames bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium TA1535) in the absence of metabolic activation. Mutagenicity of pre-irradiated N-dialkylnitrosamines was also observed with S. typhimurium hisG46, TA100, TA102 and YG7108 in the absence of metabolic activation. UVA-mediated mutation with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) decreased by adding either the NO or OH radical scavenger. When superhelical DNA was irradiated with N-dialkylnitrosamines, nicked circular DNA appeared. Ten N-dialkylnitrosamines examined produced strand breaks in the treated DNA in the presence of UVA. The level of single-strand breaks in {phi}X174 DNA mediated by N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) and UVA decreased by adding either a radical scavenger or superoxide dismutase. When calf thymus DNA was treated with N-dialkylnitrosamines (NDMA, NDEA, NMOR, N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) and N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP)) and UVA, the ratio of 8-oxodG/dG in the DNA increased. Action spectra were obtained to determine if nitrosamine acts as a sensitizer of UVA. Both mutation frequency and NO formation were highest at the absorption maximum of nitrosamines, approximately 340 nm. The plots of NO formation and mutation frequency align with the absorption curve of NPYR, NMOR and NDMA. A significant linear correlation between the optical density of N-dialkynitrosamines at 340 nm and NO formation in each irradiated solution was revealed by ANOVA. We would like to propose the hypothesis that the N-nitroso moiety of N-dialkylnitrosamines absorbs UVA photons, UVA-photolysis of N-dialkylnitrosamines brings release of nitric oxide, and subsequent production of alkyl radical cations and active oxygen species follow as secondary events, which cause DNA strand breaks, oxidative and

  2. XML Investigating the Phytochemical, Antibacterial and Antifungal Effects of Thymus Vulgaris and Cuminum Cyminum Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghra Valizadeh (MSc

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition, antibacterial and antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris and Cuminum Cyminum essential oils against foodborne pathogens and Candida species in vitro. Methods: The essential oils were extracted from the aerial parts of Thymus vulgaris and dried Cuminum Cyminum seeds using a Clevenger apparatus for 3 hours. Analysis of the essential oils’ constituents was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry. The antibacterial activity of Cuminum Cyminum essential oil and essential oil of Thymus vulgaris against Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium were evaluated in agar culture medium. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of these essential oils against fungal strains of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. dubliniensis was measured. Results: Thymol (64.45% and cuminaldehyde (29.02% were the main components of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris and Cuminum Cyminum, respectively. The largest inhibition zone diameter in the essential oils of Thymus vulgaris and Cuminum Cyminum in the agar disk diffusion method was related to B. cereus with 30 and 21 mm diameter, respectively. The largest growth inhibition zone diameter by the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris in the well diffusion method was 21 mm and against B. cereus. The MIC of essential oil of Thymus vulgaris in the microdilution method was 0.09% against all the four Candida strains. The MIC of Cuminum Cyminum essential oil against strains of C. albicans and C. tropicalis was 0.39%, while it was found as 0.19% against C. parapsilosis and C. dubliniensis. Conclusion: In this study, Cuminum Cyminum essential oil and essential oil of Thymus vulgaris show suitable inhibitory effects against the growth of bacteria using well and disk diffusion methods. Regarding the antifungal effects, the MIC of essential oil of Thymus vulgaris is

  3. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils from Two Species of Thymus Growing Wild in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice Senatore

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents of the aerial parts of two samples of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl, collected in Campania and in Sicily, and two samples of Thymus pulegioides L. from the same regions, were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed. Considering the four oils together, seventy-eight different compounds were identified: 57 for Thymus longicaulis from Sicily (91.1% of the total oil, 40 for Thymus longicaulis from Campania (91.5% of the oil, 39 for Thymus pulegioides from Sicily (92.5% of the oil and 29 for Thymus pulegioides from Campania (90.1% of the oil. The composition of the oils is different, although the most abundant components are identical in T. pulegioides. The essential oils showed antibacterial activity against eight selected microorganisms.

  4. Genetic analysis of calf and heifer losses in Danish Holstein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuerst-Walti, B; Sørensen, Morten Kargo

    2010-01-01

    genetic parameters, linear and threshold sire models were applied. Effects accounted for were the random effects herd × year × season and sire as well as the fixed effects year × month, number of dam's parity (parities >5 were set to 5), calf size, and calving ease. In total, the pedigree consisted of 4......,643 sires and 20,821 animals. Heritabilities for the linear model were low, ranging from 0.006 (P3) to 0.042 (P5). Heritabilities estimated by threshold models showed a wider range, from not significantly different from zero for periods with low frequencies to 0.082 for P1. The mortality rate until first...

  5. Lymphoma and broncho-pneumonia in a calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A one and a half month old Holstein calf was presented with a chronic respiratory condition. Clinical examination revealed cachexia and lymphadenopathy and wheezes and crepitations on auscultation. Blood cell count indicated a non-regenerative microcytic anaemia and marked lymphopenia. Broncho-pneumonia due to Mycoplasma bovis was diagnosed after radiography and cytobacteriology of transtracheal lavage. A large cell lymphoma was suspected after finding a high proportion of large lymphocytes in a lymph node puncture aspirate. Serology for bovine leukosis was negative. A diagnosis of juvenile lymphoma associated with M. bovis broncho-pneumonia was established. The diagnosis was confirmed on post-mortem. Juvenile lymphoma is rare. Affected animals are aged between two and six months and systematically present generalised lymphadenopathy. This disease is always fatal. When an animal is presented with generalised lymphadenopathy, this condition should be eliminated by lymph node puncture of a moderately hypertrophied lymph node before other tests are performed

  6. Ionizing radiation and the thymus : effects of whole-body irradiation with fast fission neutrons and X-rays on the murine thymus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Huiskamp (René)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractAs described in Chapter I of this thesis, the thymus is an extremely complex lympho-epithelial organ in which bone marrow-derived lymphoid precursor cells, i.e. prothymocytes, differentiate and mature in a stromal matrix. During their differentiation in this specialized microenvironment,

  7. Phosphorus Spectroscopy of Calf Muscles before and after Exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine 31PMRS reference spectrum and intracellular pH of calf muscles in the dominant limb of healthy, young, male volunteers before and after intense physical effort. Examinations were performed with a 1.5 T MR system. FID CSI (Free Induction Decay Chemical Shift Imaging) sequence was used with the following parameters: TR=4000 ms, FA=90°, NEX=2 and VOI (Volume Of Interest)=8×8×8 cm3 (512 cm3) involving in calf muscles. Raw data was preprocessed using SAGE (GE) software. Authors analyzed relative concentrations ratios of selected metabolites: PCr/ATP and PCr/Pi. Intracellular pH and relative concentrations ratios of each metabolite (Pi, PCr, α-ATP, β-ATP, γ-ATP, ATP) were also calculated relative to the sum of concentrations of all metabolites. Results were compared with a t-test. Based on statistical analysis of results significant differences (p<0.05) were demonstrated for some of the studied metabolites and for intracellular pH. Increase in PCr concentration in relation to the sum of concentrations of all metabolites and to ATP concentration was noted. However, β-ATP, α-ATP and ATP concentrations relative to the sum of concentrations of all metabolites become reduced. Decrease in pH after physical effort was demonstrated. There were no significant differences (p<0.05) in concentrations of remaining metabolites before and after exercise. Increase in PCr concentration relative to Pi concentration and decrease of Pi and γ-ATP concentration relative to the sum of concentrations of all metabolites were demonstrated. The 31PMRS method enables assessment of concentrations of phosphorus-containing metabolites as well as intercellular pH before and after exercise. This method is still under examination, but it has already shown promise as a diagnostic tool for the future

  8. Early Thymus Involution--Manifestation of an Aging Program or a Program of Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalyavkin, A V; Krut'ko, V N

    2015-12-01

    "I see no physical reason why it should not have been possible for life to construct ageless individuals", said Carl von Weizsacker in 1979 at the Conference on DNA. An obvious biological reason for senescence may be the action of a built-in aging program. Many gerontologists believe that early thymic involution is an argument in favor of the existence of such a program. On the other hand, this involution may be a result of the program of development rather than aging. According to the concepts of noninfectious immunology, the immune system of vertebrates is also designed for immune surveillance over initial tumor development and for tissue-specific regulation of cell proliferation both in ontogenesis and during physiological and reparative regeneration of organs and tissues. Natural anti-tissue autoantibodies are the main effectors of such regulation. Therefore, the number of inherited genes of the variable part of immunoglobulin (V-genes) is not less than the number of all proliferative-competent cell types (~100). For the same reason, the maximal rate of growth, which is usually observed in the prepubertal period, coincides with the maximal thymus index and the maximal number of immunoglobulin-secreting cells as well as the minimal force of mortality during ontogeny. Thus, the circa-pubertal beginning of thymic involution is probably caused by the programmed deceleration of the growth rate in ontogeny, and not by the early manifestation of an aging program. This approach allows us to understand the mechanism of the well-known antitumor effect of the regeneration process of the organ homologous to the tumor, and hence we can try to use it in practical oncology. PMID:26638688

  9. Thoracic computer tomography for the evaluation of the thymus gland in cases of myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druschky, K.F.; Stadler, H.W.; Daun, H.

    1981-01-01

    Hyperplasia of the thymus gland is observed in 65% of all patients with myasthenia gravis, while the incidence of thymus tumor is reported to be 8.5-28%. Conventional radiological techniques provide little information in the diagnosis of mediastinal lesions. Even a clearly developed thymus tumor can escape clinical detection. Since March 1978 thoracic computer tomography has been performed in addition to X-rays of the chest in a series of 19 patients with myasthenia ravis, 10 women and 9 men ranging in age from 15-71 years and in 3 patients with suspected thymomas but without myasthenia gravis. These examinations were carried out with a Somatom II (Siemens) since September 1979. On the average 15-20 scans were made at the level of the upper two-third of the sternum. The chest X-rays in 2 planes revealed signs of a thymus tumor in 3 female patients. Thoracic computer tomography showed definite signs of a space-occupying lesion in the anterior mediastinum in 11 cases. At thymectomy 6 patients were found to have hyperplasia of the thymus, 2 patients had a benign thymoma and 3 patients a malignant thymoma. In 6 cases computer tomography showed only slight changes and in 5 patients no pathological findings could be demonstrated in the thymus gland. Thoracic computer tomography is a relatively harmless diagnostic measure without any risk for the patient. It has a high resolution and great accuracy in the evaluation of the thymus gland and is therefore the method of choice for the diagnosis of patients with myasthenia gravis.

  10. Thoracic computer tomography for the evaluation of the thymus gland in cases of myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperplasia of the thymus gland is observed in 65% of all patients with myasthenia gravis, while the incidence of thymus tumor is reported to be 8.5-28%. Conventional radiological techniques provide little information in the diagnosis of mediastinal lesions. Even a clearly developed thymus tumor can escape clinical detection. Since March 1978 thoracic computer tomography has been performed in addition to X-rays of the chest in a series of 19 patients with myasthenia ravis, 10 women and 9 men ranging in age from 15-71 years and in 3 patients with suspected thymomas but without myasthenia gravis. These examinations were carried out with a Somatom II (Siemens) since September 1979. On the average 15-20 scans were made at the level of the upper two-third of the sternum. The chest X-rays in 2 planes revealed signs of a thymus tumor in 3 female patients. Thoracic computer tomography showed definite signs of a space-occupying lesion in the anterior mediastinum in 11 cases. At thymectomy 6 patients were found to have hyperplasia of the thymus, 2 patients had a benign thymoma and 3 patients a malignant thymoma. In 6 cases computer tomography showed only slight changes and in 5 patients no pathological findings could be demonstrated in the thymus gland. Thoracic computer tomography is a relatively harmless diagnostic measure without any risk for the patient. It has a high resolution and great accuracy in the evaluation of the thymus gland and is therefore the method of choice for the diagnosis of patients with myasthenia gravis. (orig.)

  11. Mechanical responses of human hypothenar and calf muscles in normal and pathological states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto E. P. Sica

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available A study has been made of the isometric twitches of hypothenar and calf muscles in man. The twitch contraction time for hypothenar muscles ranged between 55 and 78 ms, while for the calf muscles it ranged between 90 and 125 ms. According to their speed of contractions the hypothenar muscles were considered belonging to the so called intermedious group while the calf muscles integrate the slow group. It has been also demonstrated that these techniques can successfully be applied to the investigation of several neuromuscular disorders.

  12. Zinc Methionine Supplementation Impacts Gene and Protein Expression in Calf-Fed Holstein Steers with Minimal Impact on Feedlot Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenreder, J E; Legako, J F; Dinh, T T N; Spivey, K S; Baggerman, J O; Broadway, P R; Beckett, J L; Branine, M E; Johnson, B J

    2016-06-01

    Providing cattle a more bioavailable zinc (Zn) source prior to administering a beta adrenergic agonist (βAA) may enhance the metabolic pool of primary nutrients that will influence the magnitude of the βAA response. Calf-fed Holstein steers were supplemented with a Zn methionine supplement (ZnMet; ZINPRO(®); Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN) for 115 ± 5 days prior to harvest along with zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; Zilmax(®); Merck Animal Health, Summit, NJ) for the last 20 days with a 3-day withdrawal to evaluate the effects on growth and carcass performance together with gene and protein expression of skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and fatty acid composition of polar and neutral lipid depots. Steers (n = 1296; initial weight = 468.5 ± 0.5 kg) were sorted by weight, blocked by harvest date, and randomly assigned to pens (n = 12) and treatments: control (90 ppm Zn from ZnSO4) and ZnMet (Control plus 720 mg Zn from ZnMet/hd/d). There were no differences (P > 0.05) in growth performance or carcass characteristics. The ZnMet-fed cattle had reduced (P muscle tissue. The ZnMet cattle had greater (P fibers (P fibers (P < 0.05). The combination of ZnMet and ZH had positive biological effects on musculoskeletal tissue; however, these molecular effects were not significant enough to impact overall feedlot and carcass performance. PMID:26446862

  13. Theoretical calculations, DNA interaction, topoisomerase I and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase studies of water soluble mixed-ligand nickel(II) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurumoorthy, Perumal; Mahendiran, Dharmasivam; Kalilur Rahiman, Aziz

    2016-03-25

    Eight water soluble mixed-ligand nickel(II) complexes of the type [NiL(1-4)(diimine)H2O]·(ClO4)2, (1-8) where L(1-4) = 2-((2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethylimino)methyl)-4-substituted phenols, and diimine = 2,2'-bipyridyl (bpy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic methods. The uncoordinated perchlorate anions was ascertained form IR spectra of the complexes, and the absorption spectra reveal the octahedron geometry around nickel(II) ion with tridentate Schiff base ligand, diimine and a coordinated water molecule. Cyclic voltammograms of the complexes indicate the one-electron irreversible processes in the cathodic and anodic region. In vitro antioxidant activity proved the significant radical scavenging activity of the complexes against DPPH radical. The groove/electrostatic binding nature of complexes with CT-DNA (calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid) were affirmed by absorption, hydrodynamic and voltammetric titration experiments and docking analysis. All the complexes exhibit significant cleavage activity on plasmid DNA via hydrolytic and oxidatively, in which the oxidative mechanism involves hydroxyl radicals and supports the possibility of minor-groove binding. The complex 4 shows significant topoisomerase I (Topo-I) inhibitory activity. The molecular modeling analysis of complexes with phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) receptor indicate the hydrogen bonding with Met1039, Asp837 and Leu1027, and hydrophobic interactions with Ser488, Asn498, Asp500, Gln662, Lys668, Ile844, Ile847, Ile850, Val941, Leu942, Leu1020, Met1034, Leu1035, Thr1037, Met1039, Gln1041 and Ile1051 of subdomain IIA of BSA. The complexes show σ-π interaction between diimines and amino groups of Leu1030 and Arg839. PMID:26874211

  14. MRI manifestations of thymus in myasthenia gravis (MG) patients in various age groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study MRI findings of the thymus in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) in different age groups and to analyze the relationship between the morphological changes of thymus and the MG. Methods: In total 90 patients with MG (male: female=43:47) received MR scan and were divided into four groups (group A, B, C and D) by age. Fourteen patients out of 90 received additional enhanced scan. Group A included 33 patients aged under 10 years (m:f=18:15); 27 patients aged 11-25 years were in group B (m:f=12:15); group C had 17 patients aged 26-50 years (m:f=6:11); and in group D there were 13 patients whose ages were over 51 years (m:f=7:6). And 30 Non-MG patients aged 8-75 years were selected as control group, in which the thickness, the fat collection, and glandulous atrophy of thymus was studied on CT. Results: 1) The thymus was unremarkable in 44 cases out of 90 (48.88%). 2) Enlarged thymus was shown in 42 cases out of 90 (46.66%), in which non-nodular enlargement was revealed in 34 cases and nodular enlargement in 8 cases. There were 27 cases with abnormality of thymus out of 33 (81.81%) in group A, 12 cases out of 27 (44.44%) in group B and 3 cases in group C, but no abnormality was found in group D. 3) Only 4/90 patients (4.44%) had thymic mass that respectively seen in one case of group B, two of group C and one of group D. No evidence of the involvement of the adjacent structure was found on MRI in the cases of thymic mass. No thymus enlargement was revealed in control group. Fat collection in thymus was seen in both study groups and control group. Conclusion: Intimate relationship between the abnormality of the thymus gland and MG exists in children and teenagers. While in the middle-aged patients or the seniors, further studies should be made to find out whether there is a correlation

  15. Expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase type 2 in human thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanzar, Giovanni; Mayerl, Christina; Seitz, Jan-Christoph; Höfner, Kerstin; Brunner, Andrea; Wild, Vanessa; Jahn, Daniel; Geier, Andreas; Fassnacht, Martin; Prelog, Martina

    2016-06-01

    11beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) is a high affinity dehydrogenase which rapidly inactivates physiologically-active glucocorticoids to protect key tissues. 11β-HSD2 expression has been described in peripheral cells of the innate and the adaptive immune system as well as in murine thymus. In absence of knowledge of 11β-HSD2 expression in human thymus, the study aimed to localize 11β-HSD2 in human thymic tissue. Thymic tissue was taken of six healthy, non-immunologically impaired male infants below 12months of age with congenital heart defects who had to undergo correction surgery. 11β-HSD2 protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Kidney tissue, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were taken as positive controls. Significant expression of 11β-HSD2 protein was found at single cell level in thymus parenchyma, at perivascular sites of capillaries and small vessels penetrating the thymus lobuli and within Hassall's bodies. The present study demonstrates that 11β-HSD2 is expressed in human thymus with predominant perivascular expression and also within Hassall's bodies. To our knowledge, this is the first report confirming 11β-HSD2 expression at the protein level in human thymic tissue underlining a potential role of this enzyme in regulating glucocorticoid function at the thymic level. PMID:27025972

  16. Experimental investigation of an indirect-mode forced convection solar dryer for drying thymus and mint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Photograph of the experimental set-up. - Highlights: • Thermal performance of an indirect-mode solar dryer is investigated. • Mathematical models are obtained for thin layer drying of thymus and mint. • Both thymus and mint show the constant and falling rate drying periods. - Abstract: An indirect-mode forced convection solar dryer was designed and fabricated. The thermal performance of the solar dryer under Tanta (latitude, 30° 47′ N and longitude, 31° E) prevailing weather conditions was experimentally investigated. The system consists of a double pass v-corrugated plate solar air heater connected to a drying chamber. A blower was used to force the heated air to the drying chamber. Drying experiments were performed for thymus (initial moisture content 95% on wet basis) and mint (initial moisture content 85% on wet basis) at an initial temperature of 29 °C. The final moisture contents for thymus and mint were reached after 34 and 5 h, respectively. Fourteen mathematical models of thin layer drying were tested to specify the suitable model for describing the drying behavior of the studied products. It was found that, Midilli and Kucuk model is convenient to describe the thin layer solar drying of mint. However, the Page and modified Page models were found to be the best among others for describing the drying curves of thymus

  17. Protecting Effects of Dexamethasone on Thymus of Rats with Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Hua

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the protecting effects of dexamethasone on thymus of rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP. Methods. The SAP rats were randomly assigned to the model group and dexamethasone-treated group, the other normal healthy rats were assigned to the sham operation group. The rat survival, thymus pathological changes, apoptotic index, as well as expression levels of NF-κB, P-selectin, Bax, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3 protein of all groups were observed, respectively, at 3 hours, 6 hours, and 12 hours. The contents of amylase and endotoxin in plasma as well as the contents of TNF-α, PLA2, and NO in serum were determined. Results. There was no marked difference between the model group and treated group in survival. The contents of different indexes in blood of treated group were lower than those of the model group to various degrees at different time points. The thymus pathological score was lower in treated group than in model group at 12 hours.The treated group in Caspase-3 protein expression of thymus significantly exceeded the model group at 12 hours. The apoptotic index was significantly higher in treated group than in model group. Conclusion. Dexamethasone has protecting effects on thymus of SAP rats.

  18. Collection of Macaca fascicularis cDNAs derived from bone marrow, kidney, liver, pancreas, spleen, and thymus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kameoka Yosuke

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consolidating transcriptome data of non-human primates is essential to annotate primate genome sequences, and will facilitate research using non-human primates in the genomic era. Macaca fascicularis is a macaque monkey that is commonly used for biomedical and ecological research. Findings We constructed cDNA libraries of Macaca fascicularis, derived from tissues obtained from bone marrow, liver, pancreas, spleen, and thymus of a young male, and kidney of a young female. In total, 5'-end sequences of 56,856 clones were determined. Including the previously established cDNA libraries from brain and testis, we have isolated 112,587 cDNAs of Macaca fascicularis, which correspond to 56% of the curated human reference genes. Conclusion These sequences were deposited in the public sequence database as well as in-house macaque genome database http://genebank.nibio.go.jp/qfbase/. These data will become valuable resources for identifying functional parts of the genome of macaque monkeys in future studies.

  19. Evaluation of techniques for assessing neonatal caribou calf mortality in the Porcupine Caribou Herd

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses the evaluation of techniques for assessing neonatal caribou calf mortality in the Porcupine caribou herd in Arctic National Wildlife Refuge....

  20. Experiments for inactivation of mycoplasms and bacteria in calf sera, using 60Co irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of 60Co gamma radiation to inactivate mycoplasms in calf serum, newborn calf serum, and fetal calf serum is reported. A dose of 3 kGy, independent of dose rate, was found to be sufficient for inactivation in the above sera of several mycoplasms, including Acholeplasma laidlawii, Mycoplasma orale, M. arginini, M. hyorhinis, and M. bovis. The critical dose proved to be at 2 kGy. No difference was found to exist between the above species in susceptibility to irradiation in diluted sera (50% and 10% in Eagle MEM). Sensibility of wild mycoplasm strains was found to be identical with that of laboratory strains. Hence, 60Co gamma irradiation of sera appears to be a safe method by which to make sera free of mycoplasms. Bacillus subtilis in calf serum was inactivated by doses above 18 kGy, with the critical dose being 15 kGy. (author)