WorldWideScience

Sample records for calf thymus dna

  1. Comparison on the interaction of Al3+/nano-Al13 with calf thymus DNA /salmon sperm DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Ma, Yue; Du, Changwen; Yang, Xiaodi; Shen, Renfang

    2015-11-01

    The conformation change, binding mode and binding site between Al3+/nano-Al13 and calf thymus DNA/salmon sperm DNA were investigated by UV-vis absorption, FTIR spectra, Raman spectroscopy and CD spectra, as well as melting curves measurement. The UV-vis spectra and circular dichroism spectra results suggested that the phosphate group structure was changed when Al3+ interacted with DNA, while the double-helix was distorted when nano-Al13 interacted with DNA. The FTIR and Raman spectroscopy revealed that the binding sites were Al3+ … PO2, Al3+ … N7/guanine PO2 … Al13 … N7-C8/guanine with calf thymus DNA, and Al3+ … N3-O2/cytosine, Al3+ … N7-C8/guanine, PO2 … Al13 … N7-C8/guanine, PO2 … Al13 … N1/adenine with salmon sperm DNA, respectively. The electrostatic binding was existed between Al3+ and DNA, and the electrostatic binding and complexing were found between nano-Al13 and DNA.

  2. Interaction between insulin and calf thymus DNA, and quantification of insulin and calf thymus DNA by a resonance Rayleigh scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, L.; Liu, Z.; Hu, X.; Liu, S.; Li, W.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of insulin with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ctDNA) leads to a complex that displays remarkably enhanced resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS). The complex and its formation were investigated by atomic force microscopy and by absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopies. We show that the Tyr B16, Tyr B26 and Phe B24 amino acids near the active center (Phe B25) were influenced by the interaction, whereas Tyr A14, Tyr A19 and Phe B1 (which are located far away from the active center) were less influenced. The interaction provide a way in the quantitation of both ctDNA and insulin with high sensitivity. When ctDNA is used as a probe to quantify insulin, the detection limit (3σ) is 6.0 ng mL -1 . If, inversely, insulin is used as a probe to quantify ctDNA, the detection limit (3σ) is 7.2 ng mL -1 . The analysis of synthetic DNA samples and an insulin infection sample provided satisfactory results. (author)

  3. Molecular spectroscopic and thermodynamic studies on the interaction of anti-platelet drug ticlopidine with calf thymus DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrin, Shumaila; Rahman, Yusra; Sarwar, Tarique; Husain, Mohammed Amir; Ali, Abad; Shamsuzzaman; Tabish, Mohammad

    2017-11-01

    Ticlopidine is an anti-platelet drug which belongs to the thienopyridine structural family and exerts its effect by functioning as an ADP receptor inhibitor. Ticlopidine inhibits the expression of TarO gene in S. aureus and may provide protection against MRSA. Groove binding agents are known to disrupt the transcription factor DNA complex and consequently inhibit gene expression. Understanding the mechanism of interaction of ticlopidine with DNA can prove useful in the development of a rational drug designing system. At present, there is no such study on the interaction of anti-platelet drugs with nucleic acids. A series of biophysical experiments were performed to ascertain the binding mode between ticlopidine and calf thymus DNA. UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopic experiments confirmed the formation of a complex between ticlopidine and calf thymus DNA. Moreover, the values of binding constant were found to be in the range of 103 M- 1, which is indicative of groove binding between ticlopidine and calf thymus DNA. These results were further confirmed by studying the effect of denaturation on double stranded DNA, iodide quenching, viscometric studies, thermal melting profile as well as CD spectral analysis. The thermodynamic profile of the interaction was also determined using isothermal titration calorimetric studies. The reaction was found to be endothermic and the parameters obtained were found to be consistent with those of known groove binders. In silico molecular docking studies further corroborated well with the experimental results.

  4. In vitro study of DNA Adduct 8-OHdG Formation by using Bisphenol A in Calf Thymus DNA and 2’-Deoxyguanosine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiawan; Cahaya Dani, Intan; Bakri, Ridla; Handayani, Sri; Ratna Dewi, Evi

    2018-01-01

    The in vitro study of DNA Adduct 8-OHdG Formation due to BisphenolA (BPA) as xenobiotics has been conducted by using calf thymus DNA and 2’deoxyguanosine. The method of study was conducted by incubating calf thymus DNA and 2’dG with compounds trigger to radicals in the variation of pH (7.4 and 8.4), temperature (37°C and 60°C), and BPA concentrations (2 ppm and 10 ppm). To represent the work of CYP 450 enzyme in metabolic process of xenobiotics in the body and the effect of metal presence to the formation of radicals that can lead to 8-OHdG formation, we used iron(II) solution and also fenton reagent (Fe(II) and H2O2). The DNA used has 1.8 purity ratio (checked at λ260/λ280 by using Spectrophotometry UV-Vis). The results by using HPLC method showed that BPA could interact with DNA and DNA base (represent as calf thymus and 2’dG) and potentially induced 8-OHdG formation. The presence of iron(II) metal and Fenton reagent also induced the higher 8-OHdG formation. The higher of pH, temperature and concentrations also lead to 8-OHdG formation (ranger between 4 - 70 ppb).

  5. Detection of anti-dsDNA by IgG ELISA test using two different sources of antigens: calf thymus versus E.coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi M

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Anti-dsDNA antibodies frequently found in the sera Systemic Lupus Erythematosus patients, particularly in active disease stage. Nowadays exploit different eukaryotic and prokaryotic dsDNA as antigen source and different reagents as binder. The aim of this study to compared two dsDNA different sources and tow different kinds of reagents for binder in ELISA test. "nMethods: In this study bacterial genomic DNA from E.coli (ATCC 25922 and genomic DNA from calf thymus extracted with high purity and were used as antigens for IgG anti-dsDNA detection by ELISA. To coat dsDNA in microtiter wells, tow different kinds of reagents including methylated -BSA and poly-l-lysine (for pre-coating are used. Sera from systemic lupus erythematosus patients and from normal blood donors are used to assess sensitivity and specificity of our ELISA test in compared with IF test and commercial kits. "nResults: Our results displayed pre-coating of microtiter plates with methylated -BSA reduce nonspecific binding reaction and the relative sensitivity and specificity of ELISA increased when calf thymus DNA is employed as antigenic source in compared with IF test and commercial kits 80%, 88% and 100%, 98% respectively, but when E.coli DNA is used 73%, 69% and 85%, 79%, respectively. "nConclusion: The genomic DNA from calf thymus is a potentially useful source of antigen for detection of anti-dsDNA by ELISA. Also the use of methylatted- BSA could have an effective role in reducing of nonspecific binding reactions.

  6. Bioelectrochemical sensing of promethazine with bamboo-type multiwalled carbon nanotubes dispersed in calf-thymus double stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Emiliano N; Oviedo, M Belén; Sánchez, Cristián G; Rubianes, María D; Rivas, Gustavo A

    2014-10-01

    We report the quantification of promethazine (PMZ) using glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) modified with bamboo-like multi-walled carbon nanotubes (bCNT) dispersed in double stranded calf-thymus DNA (dsDNA) (GCE/bCNT-dsDNA). Cyclic voltammetry measurements demonstrated that PMZ presents a thin film-confined redox behavior at GCE/bCNT-dsDNA, opposite to the irreversibly-adsorbed behavior obtained at GCE modified with bCNT dispersed in ethanol (GCE/bCNT). Differential pulse voltammetry-adsorptive stripping with medium exchange experiments performed with GCE/bCNT-dsDNA and GCE modified with bCNTs dispersed in single-stranded calf-thymus DNA (ssDNA) confirmed that the interaction between PMZ and bCNT-dsDNA is mainly hydrophobic. These differences are due to the intercalation of PMZ within the dsDNA that supports the bCNTs, as evidenced from the bathochromic displacement of UV-Vis absorption spectra of PMZ and quantum dynamics calculations at DFTB level. The efficient accumulation of PMZ at GCE/bCNT-dsDNA made possible its sensitive quantification at nanomolar levels (sensitivity: (3.50±0.05)×10(8) μA·cm(-2)·M(-1) and detection limit: 23 nM). The biosensor was successfully used for the determination of PMZ in a pharmaceutical product with excellent correlation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Interaction of a copper (II) complex containing an artificial sweetener (aspartame) with calf thymus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Khodaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Kashanian, Soheila; Kheirdoosh, Fahimeh

    2014-01-01

    A copper (II) complex containing aspartame (APM) as ligand, Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O, was synthesized and characterized. In vitro binding interaction of this complex with native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was studied at physiological pH. The interaction was studied using different methods: spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric, competition experiment, circular dichroism (CD) and viscosimetric techniques. Hyperchromicity was observed in UV absorption band of Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O. A strong fluorescence quenching reaction of DNA to Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O was observed and the binding constants (Kf) and corresponding numbers of binding sites (n) were calculated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (ΔH) and entropy change (ΔS) were calculated to be+89.3 kJ mol(-1) and+379.3 J mol(-1) K(-1) according to Van't Hoff equation which indicated that reaction is predominantly entropically driven. Experimental results from spectroscopic methods were comparable and further supported by viscosity measurements. We suggest that Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O interacts with calf thymus DNA via a groove interaction mode with an intrinsic binding constant of 8×10+4 M(-1). Binding of this copper complex to DNA was found to be stronger compared to aspartame which was studied recently. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanism of Exciplex Formation Between Cu-Porphyrin and Calf-thymus DNA as Revealed by Saturation Resonance Raman Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shvedko, A.G.; Kruglik, S.; Kruglik, S.G.; Ermolenkov, V.V.; Turpin, P.Y.; Greve, Jan; Otto, Cornelis

    1999-01-01

    The excited-state complex (exciplex) formation that results from the photoinduced interaction of water-soluble cationic copper(II) 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(N-methylpyridyl)]porphyrin [Cu(TMpy-P4)] with calf-thymus DNA has been studied in detail by resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy using both ~10 ns

  9. A naproxen complex of dysprosium intercalates into calf thymus DNA base pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Mengsi; Jin, Jianhua; Xu, Guiqing; Cui, Fengling; Luo, Hongxia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Binding mode to ctDNA was studied by various methods. • Intercalation is the most possible binding mode. • Dynamic and static quenching occurred simultaneously. • Hydrophobic force played a major role. • Binding characteristic of rare earth complexes to DNA are dependent on the element. - Abstract: The binding mode and mechanism of dysprosium–naproxen complex (Dy–NAP) with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ctDNA) were studied using UV–vis and fluorescence spectra in physiological buffer (pH 7.4). The results showed that more than one type of quenching process occurred and the binding mode between Dy–NAP with ctDNA might be intercalation. In addition, ionic strength, iodide quenching and fluorescence polarization experiments corroborated the intercalation binding mode between Dy–NAP and ctDNA. The calculated thermodynamic parameters ΔG, ΔH and ΔS at different temperature demonstrated that hydrophobic interaction force played a major role in the binding process

  10. Spectroscopic studies of the interaction between pirimicarb and calf thymus DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guowen; Hu, Xing; Pan, Junhui

    2011-02-01

    The interaction between pirimicarb and calf thymus DNA in physiological buffer (pH 7.4) was investigated with the use of Neutral Red (NR) dye as a spectral probe by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, as well as viscosity measurements and DNA melting techniques. The results revealed that an intercalation binding should be the interaction mode of pirimicarb to DNA. CD spectra indicated that pirimicarb induced conformational changes of DNA. The binding constants of pirimicarb with DNA were obtained by the fluorescence quenching method. The thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (Δ Hθ) and entropy change (Δ Sθ) were calculated to be -52.13 ± 2.04 kJ mol -1 and -108.8 ± 6.72 J mol -1 K -1 according to the van't Hoff equation, which suggested that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces might play a major role in the binding of pirimicarb to DNA. Further, the alternative least squares (ALS) method was applied to resolve a complex two-way array of the absorption spectra data, which provided simultaneously the concentration information for the three reaction components, pirimicarb, NR and DNA-NR. This ALS analysis indicated that the intercalation of pirimicarb into the DNA by substituting for NR in the DNA-NR complex.

  11. Investigation on the toxic interaction of typical plasticizers with calf thymus DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiaojing [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, China–America CRC for Environment & Health, Shandong University, 27# Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100, Shandong Province (China); Zong, Wansong, E-mail: gaocz@sdu.edu.cn [College of Population, Resources and Environment, Shandong Normal University, 88# East Wenhua Road, Jinan 250014 (China); Liu, Chunguang; Liu, Yang [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, China–America CRC for Environment & Health, Shandong University, 27# Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100, Shandong Province (China); Gao, Canzhu, E-mail: rutaoliu@sdu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, China–America CRC for Environment & Health, Shandong University, 27# Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100, Shandong Province (China); Liu, Rutao [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, China–America CRC for Environment & Health, Shandong University, 27# Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100, Shandong Province (China)

    2015-05-15

    The interactions of typical plasticizers dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling. Experimental results indicated that the characteristic fluorescence intensity of phthalic acid rose with the increase of DNA concentration; while the characteristic fluorescence intensities of plasticizers decreased with the increase of DNA concentration. Experiments on native and denatured DNA determined that plasticizers interacted with DNA both in groove and electrostatic binding mode. The molecular modeling results further illustrated that there is groove binding between them; hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals interactions were the main forces. With the extension of branched-chains, the binding effects between plasticizers and DNA were weakened, which could be related to the increased steric hindrance. - Highlights: • This work established the binding mode of plasticizers with DNA on molecular level. • The mechanism was explored by fluorescence spectroscopic and molecular docking methods. • There are two kinds of binding mode between DMP, DEP, DBP and DNA, electrostatic and groove. • With the branched chain extension, the binding effect of plasticizers and DNA has been weakened.

  12. On the Formation of Thymine Photodimers in Thymine Single Strands and Calf Thymus DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Lisbeth Munksgård; Hoffmann, S.V.; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted

    2014-01-01

    a principal component analysis of the CD spectra, we extract fingerprint spectra of both the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and the pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoadduct (64PP). Extending the CD measurements to the vacuum ultraviolet region in combination with systematic examinations of size effects...... of terminal thymines, i.e., the reaction does not occur preferentially at the extremities of the single strands as previously stated. It is even possible to form two dimers with only two bridging thymines. Finally, experiments conducted on calf thymus DNA provided a similar signature of the photodimer...

  13. Spectroscopic studies of the interaction between pirimicarb and calf thymus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guowen; Hu, Xing; Pan, Junhui

    2011-02-01

    The interaction between pirimicarb and calf thymus DNA in physiological buffer (pH 7.4) was investigated with the use of Neutral Red (NR) dye as a spectral probe by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, as well as viscosity measurements and DNA melting techniques. The results revealed that an intercalation binding should be the interaction mode of pirimicarb to DNA. CD spectra indicated that pirimicarb induced conformational changes of DNA. The binding constants of pirimicarb with DNA were obtained by the fluorescence quenching method. The thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (ΔHθ) and entropy change (ΔSθ) were calculated to be -52.13±2.04 kJ mol(-1) and -108.8±6.72 J mol(-1) K(-1) according to the van't Hoff equation, which suggested that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces might play a major role in the binding of pirimicarb to DNA. Further, the alternative least squares (ALS) method was applied to resolve a complex two-way array of the absorption spectra data, which provided simultaneously the concentration information for the three reaction components, pirimicarb, NR and DNA-NR. This ALS analysis indicated that the intercalation of pirimicarb into the DNA by substituting for NR in the DNA-NR complex. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Direct Determination of Molecular Weight Distribution of Calf-Thymus DNAs and Study of Their Fragmentation under Ultrasonic and Low-Energy IR Irradiations. A Charge Detection Mass Spectrometry Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Mohammad A; Bertorelle, Franck; Doussineau, Tristan; Antoine, Rodolphe

    2018-06-09

    Calf-thymus (CT-DNA) is widely used as binding agent. The commercial samples are known to be "highly polymerized DNA" samples. CT-DNA is known to be fragile in particular upon ultrasonic wave irradiation. Degradation products might have dramatic consequence on its bio-sensing activity, and an accurate determination of the molecular weight distribution and stability of commercial samples is highly demanded. We investigated the sensitivity of charge detection mass spectrometry (CDMS), a single-molecule MS method, both with single-pass and ion trap CDMS ("Benner" trap) modes to the determination of the composition and stability (under multiphoton IR irradiation) of calf-thymus DNAs. We also investigated the changes of molecular weight distributions in the course of sonication by irradiating ultrasonic wave to CT-DNA. We report for the first time, the direct molecular weight (MW) distribution of DNA sodium salt from calf-thymus revealing two populations at high (~10 MDa) and low (~3 MDa) molecular weights. We evidence a transition between the high-MW to the low-MW distribution, confirming that the low-MW distribution results from degradation of CT-DNA. Finally, we report also IRMPD experiments carried out on trapped single-stranded linear DNAs from calf-thymus allowing to extract their activation energy for unimolecular dissociation. We show that single-pass CDMS is a direct, efficient and accurate MS-based approach to determine the composition of calf-thymus DNAs. Furthermore, ion trap CDMS allows us to evaluate the stability (both under multiphoton IR irradiation and in the course of sonication by irradiating ultrasonic wave) of calf-thymus DNAs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Stopped-flow kinetic studies of poly(amidoamine) dendrimer-calf thymus DNA to form dendriplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Debabrata; Kumar, Santosh; Maiti, Souvik; Dhara, Dibakar

    2013-11-07

    Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers are known to be highly efficient nonviral carriers in gene delivery. Dendrimer-mediated transfection is known to be a function of the dendrimer to DNA charge ratio as well as the size of the dendrimer. In the present study, the binding kinetics of four PAMAM dendrimers (G1, G2, G3, and G4) with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) has been studied using stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopy. The effect of dendrimer-to-DNA charge ratio and dendrimer generation on the binding kinetics was investigated. In most cases, the results of dendrimer-CT-DNA binding can be explained by a two-step reaction mechanism: a rapid electrostatic binding between the dendrimer and DNA, followed by a conformational change of the dendrimer-DNA complex that ultimately leads to DNA condensation. It was observed that the charge ratio on the dendrimer and the DNA phosphate groups, as well as the dendrimer generation (size), has a marked effect on the kinetics of binding between the DNA and the dendrimers. The rate constant (k'1) of the first step was much higher compared to that of the second step (k'2), and both were found to increase with an increase in dendrimer concentration. Among the four generations of dendrimers, G4 exhibited significantly faster binding kinetics compared to the three smaller generation dendrimers.

  16. In vitro study on the interaction of 4,4-dimethylcurcumin with calf thymus DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bing-Mi, E-mail: liubingmi@163.com [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Bai, Chong-Liang [Centre for Molecular Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhang, Jun; Liu, Yang; Dong, Bo-Yang; Zhang, Yi-Tong [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Liu, Bin, E-mail: liubinzehao@163.com [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China)

    2015-10-15

    The interaction of 4,4-dimethylcurcumin (DMCU), a synthesized analog of curcumin, with calf-thymus DNA (ct-DNA) was investigated using fluorescence, absorption, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, coupled with viscosity measurements and molecular docking techniques. DMCU was found to bind to ct-DNA with moderate binding affinity through groove binding as evidenced by a decrease in the absorption intensity in combination with no obvious change in the relative specific viscosity of ct-DNA and the CD spectrum. Thermodynamic analysis of the fluorescence data obtained at different temperatures suggested that the binding process was spontaneous and was primarily driven by hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces. Furthermore, competitive binding experiments with ethidium bromide and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole as probes showed that DMCU could preferentially bind in the minor groove of double-stranded DNA. The results obtained from the molecular docking studies were consistent with these experimental results. This study explored the potential applicability of the spectroscopic properties of DMCU for studying its interactions with relevant biological or biomimicking targets. - Highlights: • 4,4-dimethylcurcumin (DMCU) has strong fluorescence characteristics. • DMCU could bind to DNA through groove binding. • Docking studies revealed that DMCU bound to the A–T region in the minor groove.

  17. The influence of calf thymus DNA and deoxyribonucleosides on the induction of different mutation types in Drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrej, M.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of an exogenous DNA on the induction of mutations by X rays was compared with the influence of an equimolar mixture of four deoxyribonucleosides. Pre-treatment and post-treatment with the calf thymus DNA did not influence mutation frequency in the specific loci dp, b, cn and bw as well as Minute mutations induced in the Drosophila sperm by X radiation. Pre-treatment with the equimolar mixture of four deoxyribonucleosides increased the frequency of the Minutes but did not affect mutation frequency in the loci dp, b, cn, bw. The equimolar mixture of nucleosides alone induced a low frequency of Minute mutations in the Drosophila sperm. DNA alone induced a low frequency of recessive lethals. These lethals arose as mosaics of small sectors of the gonads of the F 1 females and were revealed as late as in the F 3 generation. (author)

  18. Interaction studies of resistomycin from Streptomyces aurantiacus AAA5 with calf thymus DNA and bovine serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayabharathi, R.; Sathyadevi, P.; Krishnamoorthy, P.; Senthilraja, D.; Brunthadevi, P.; Sathyabama, S.; Priyadarisini, V. Brindha

    2012-04-01

    Resistomycin, a secondary metabolite produced by Streptomyces aurantiacus AAA5. The binding interaction of resistomycin with calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated by spectrophotometry, spectrofluorimetry, circular dichroism (CD) and synchronous fluorescence techniques under physiological conditions in vitro. Absorption spectral studies along with the fluorescence competition with ethidium bromide measurements and circular dichroism clearly suggest that the resistomycin bind with CT DNA relatively strong via groove binding. BSA interaction results revealed that the drug was found to quench the fluorescence intensity of the protein through a static quenching mechanism. The number of binding sites 'n' and apparent binding constant 'K' calculated according to the Scatchard equation exhibit a good binding property to bovine serum albumin protein. In addition, the results observed from synchronous fluorescence measurements clearly demonstrate the occurrence of conformational changes of BSA upon addition of the test compound.

  19. Spectroscopic profiling and computational study of the binding of tschimgine: A natural monoterpene derivative, with calf thymus DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajeh, Masoumeh Ashrafi; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Dastmalchi, Siavoush; Shaghaghi, Masoomeh; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2018-03-01

    DNA is a major target for a number of anticancer substances. Interaction studies between small molecules and DNA are essential for rational drug designing to influence main biological processes and also introducing new probes for the assay of DNA. Tschimgine (TMG) is a monoterpene derivative with anticancer properties. In the present study we tried to elucidate the interaction of TMG with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) using different spectroscopic methods. UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies as well as molecular docking study revealed formation of complex between TMG and CT-DNA. Binding constant (Kb) between TMG and DNA was 2.27 × 104 M- 1, that is comparable to groove binding agents. The fluorescence spectroscopic data revealed that the quenching mechanism of fluorescence of TMG by CT-DNA is static quenching. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔH TMG with CT-DNA. Competitive binding assay with methylene blue (MB) and Hoechst 33258 using fluorescence spectroscopy displayed that TMG possibly binds to the minor groove of CT-DNA. These observations were further confirmed by CD spectral analysis, viscosity measurements and molecular docking.

  20. A selective chemosensor for fluoride ion and its interaction with Calf Thymus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Soumen; Al Masum, Abdulla; Ganguly, Aniruddha; Islam, Md Maidul; Alam, Md Akhtarul; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2017-05-05

    The amido-Schiff base 1 (N 1 , N 3 -bis (2-nitrobenzylidene)benzene-1,3-dicabohydrazide) containing a CONH group and CHN linkage has been synthesized by the condensation between isophthalic acid dihydrazide and o-nitrobenzaldehyde. This molecule can act as a fluoride ion sensor with high selectivity and sensitivity. Presence of nitro group in the phenyl ring may be responsible for the detection of fluoride ion visually with a dramatic color change from colorless to deep red in aqueous dimethyl sulphoxide solution. This Schiff base can be used as test kit for sensing of fluoride ion in the solid state. Compound 1 can detect fluoride also in commercially available toothpaste. As the compound has adequate solubility in DMSO-water mixture (7:93, v/v) and having some hydrogen bond donor and acceptor centers, we have investigated its nature of binding with Calf Thymus-DNA (CT-DNA) using theoretical molecular modelling and other experimental methods like UV-vis spectroscopy, circular dichroic and thermal melting studies. Thermodynamic parameters have been obtained using the well known Van't Hoff's equation. From both theoretical and experimental findings it has been observed that it can interact effectively with CT-DNA with binding energy -7.55kcal/mol to -7.50kcal/mol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) acid nanoencapsulation of a synthetic coumarin: Cytotoxicity and bio-distribution in mice, in cancer cell line and interaction with calf thymus DNA as target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Soumya Sundar; Paul, Saili; De, Arnab; Das, Durba; Samadder, Asmita; Boujedaini, Naoual; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Several naturally occurring coumarin compounds, including scopoletin (7 hydroxy-6 methoxycoumarin), of plant origin have been reported to have anti-cancer potentials. A related but chemically synthesized coumarin, 4-methyl-7-hydroxy coumarin (SC), was also shown to have similar anti-cancer potentials. In the present study, to test if nano-encapsulated SC could be a more potent anti-cancer agent, we encapsulated SC with poly lactide-co-glycolide acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (Nano Coumarin; NC) and tested its potentials with a variety of protocols. NC demonstrated greater efficiency of drug uptake and showed anti-cancer potentials in melanoma cell line A375, as revealed from scanning electronic and atomic force microscopies. To test its possible interaction with target DNA, the combined data of circular dichroism spectra (CD) and melting temperature profile (T m ) of calf thymus DNA treated with NC were analyzed. Results indicated a concentration dependent interaction of NC with calf thymus DNA, bringing in effective change in structure and conformation, and forming a new complex that increased its stability. Particle size and morphology of NC determined through polydispersity index and zeta potential using dynamic light scattering qualified NC to be a more potent anti-cancer agent than SC. Further, SC and NC showed negligible cytotoxic effects on normal skin cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of mice. Distribution assay of PLGA nanoparticles in different tissues like brain, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, and spleen in mice revealed the presence of nanoparticles in different tissues including brain, indicating that the particles could cross the blood brain barrier, significant information for drug design. - Graphical abstract: Nanoencapsulated coumarin (NC) were characterized for their size and morphology by scanning electron (SEM) and atomic force microscopies (AFM).The physical interaction of the NC with calf thymus DNA was studied through circular dichroism

  2. Thermodynamic study of rhodamine 123-calf thymus DNA interaction: determination of calorimetric enthalpy by optical melting study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, Abdulla Al; Chakraborty, Maharudra; Pandya, Prateek; Halder, Umesh Chandra; Islam, Md Maidul; Mukhopadhyay, Subrata

    2014-11-20

    In this paper, the interaction of rhodamine123 (R123) with calf thymus DNA has been studied using molecular modeling and other biophysical methods like UV-vis spectroscopy, fluoremetry, optical melting, isothermal titration calorimetry, and circular dichroic studies. Results showed that the binding energy is about -6 to -8 kcal/mol, and the binding process is favored by both negative enthalpy change and positive entropy change. A new method to determine different thermodynamic properties like calorimetric enthalpy and heat capacity change has been introduced in this paper. The obtained data has been crossed-checked by other methods. After dissecting the free-energy contribution, it was observed that the binding was favored by both negative hydrophobic free energy and negative molecular free energy which compensated for the positive free energies due to the conformational change loss of rotational and transitional freedom of the DNA helix.

  3. HPLC analysis of 4',5'-monoadduct formation in calf thymus DNA and synthetic polynucleotides treated with UVA and 8-methoxypsoralen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparro, F.P.; Bagel, J.; Edelson, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    8-methoxypsoralen monoadduct formation in calf thymus DNA irradiated with subbands of ultraviolet A light has been quantitated by HPLC analysis of the enzymatic hydrolysates of the DNA. Normalization of the yield of monoadducts for the variation in source output and the absorptivity of 8-MOP at each of the irradiating wavelengths showed that the 4',5'-furan monoadduct was the principal photoproduct and the efficiency of its formation was independent of irradiating wavelength. Synthetic polynucleotides irradiated with ultraviolet A light demonstrated a base composition and sequence dependence for 8-MOP photoreactivity: (poly(dAdT.dAdT)>poly(dA.dT)>poly(dGdC.dGdC) in both the B and Z forms>poly(dT). (author)

  4. Influence of Ni(II) and Fe(III) complexes of 1,2 dihydroxy 9,10 anthraquinone on the modification in calf thymus DNA upon gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Saurabh; Mandal, Parikshit C.

    2009-01-01

    Ionizing radiation when allowed to fall upon cells or DNA, the radicals produced modify the base-pair region of the double strands. Radiation-induced double-strand modifications in calf thymus DNA were detected using Ni(II) and Fe(III) complexes of 1,2 dihydroxy 9,10 anthraquinone (DHA). 60 Co was used as the source for γ-radiation and ethidium bromide (EB) as the fluorescent dye for detecting double-strand modifications caused in DNA. Results show that the Fe(III)-DHA complex is more efficient in modifying the base-pair region in double-stranded DNA in comparison to DHA or the Ni(II)-DHA complex

  5. A new insight into the interaction of ZnO with calf thymus DNA through surface defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sumita; Chatterjee, Sabyasachi; Pramanik, Srikrishna; Devi, Parukuttyamma Sujatha; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2018-01-01

    Experimental evidences on the binding interaction of ZnO and Calf Thymus (CT) DNA using several biophysical techniques are the centre of interest of the present study. The interaction of ZnO with CT DNA has been investigated in detail by absorption spectral study, fluorescence titration, Raman analysis, zeta potential measurement, viscometric experiment along with thermal melting study and microscopic analysis. Steady-state fluorescence study revealed the quenching (48%) of the surface defect related peak intensity of ZnO on interaction with DNA. The optimized concentration of ZnO and DNA to obtain this level of quenching has been found to be 0.049mM and 1.027μM, respectively. Additional fluorescence study with 8-hydroxy-5-quinoline (HQ) as a fluorescence probe for Zn 2+ ruled out the dissolution effect of ZnO under the experimental conditions. DNA conjugation on the surface of ZnO was also supported by Raman study. The quantitative variation in conductivity as well as electrophoretic mobility indicated significant interaction of ZnO with the DNA molecule. Circular dichroism (CD) and viscometry titrations provided clear evidence in support of the conformational retention of the DNA on interaction with ZnO. The binding interaction was found to be predominantly entropy driven in nature. The bio-physical studies presented in this paper exploring ZnO-CT DNA interaction could add a new horizon to understand the interaction between metal oxide and DNA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Development and Validation of A Spectrofluorimetric Determination of Calf Thymus DNA Using a Terbium-Danofloxacin Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Soltani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Analysis of biomolecules is required in many biomedical research areas. A spectrofluorimetric method is proposed for determination of calf thymus DNA (ctDNA based on the fluorescence enhancement of terbium-danofloxacin (Tb3+-Dano in the presence of ctDNA. Methods: A probe with maximum excitation and emission wavelengths of 347 nm and 545 nm, respectively, was developed. The enhanced fluorescence intensity of Tb3+-Dano system was proportional to the concentration of ctDNA. The effective factors and the optimum conditions for the determination of ctDNA were studied. Under the optimum conditions of [Tris buffer]= 0.01 mol L-1 (pH 7.8, [ Tb3+]= 1×10-5 mol L-1 and [Dano]= 5×10-5 mol L-1, the maximum response was achieved. The developed method was evaluated in terms of accuracy, precision and limit of detection. Results: The linear concentration range for quantification of ctDNA was 36-3289 ng mL-1 and the detection limit (S/N=3 was 8 ng mL-1. The concentration of DNA extracted from Escherichia coli as an extracted sample was also determined using the developed probe. The concentration of DNA in extracted sample was determined using UV assay and developed method, the results were satisfactory. Conclusion: The proposed method is a simple, practical and relatively interference free method to follow up the concentrations of ctDNA.

  7. Multi-spectroscopic method study the interaction of anti-inflammatory drug ketoprofen and calf thymus DNA and its analytical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongqin; Cai, Changqun; Gong, Hang; Chen, Xiaoming

    2011-06-01

    Interactions of the anti-inflammatory drug ketoprofen with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) in aqueous solution have been studied by multi-spectroscopic method including resonance light scattering (RLS) technique, ultraviolet spectra (UV), 1H NMR, etc. The characteristics of RLS spectra, the effective factors and optimum conditions of the reaction have been unequivocally investigated. Mechanism investigations have shown that ketoprofen can bind to ctDNA by groove binding and form large particles, which resulted in the enhancement of RLS intensity. In Critic acid-Na 2HPO 4 buffer (pH = 6.5), ketoprofen has a maximum peak 451.5 nm and the RLS intensity is remarkably enhanced by trace amount of ctDNA due to the interaction between ketoprofen and ctDNA. The enhancement of RLS signal is directly proportional to the concentration of ctDNA in the range of 1.20 × 10 -6-1.0 × 10 -5 mol/L, and its detection limit (3 σ) is 1.33 × 10 -9 mol/L. The method is simple, rapid, practical and relatively free from interference generated by coexisting substance, and was applied to the determination of trace amounts of nucleic acid in synthetic samples with satisfactory results.

  8. Interaction of dinuclear cadmium(II) 5-Cl-salicylaldehyde complexes with calf-thymus DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristovic, Maja Sumar [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studenski Trg 12-16, Belgrade (Serbia); Zianna, Ariadni; Psomas, George; Hatzidimitriou, Antonios G. [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Coutouli-Argyropoulou, Evdoxia [Department of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Lalia-Kantouri, Maria, E-mail: lalia@chem.auth.gr [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2016-04-01

    Five dinuclear Cd(II) complexes with the anion of 5-Cl-salicylaldehyde (5-Cl-saloH) were synthesized in the absence or presence of the α-diimines: 2,2′-bipyridine (bipy), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (neoc) or 2,2′-dipyridylamine (dpamH) and characterized as [Cd(5-Cl-salo){sub 2}(CH{sub 3}OH)]{sub 2} (1), [Cd(5-Cl-salo){sub 2}(bipy)]{sub 2} (2), [Cd(5-Cl-salo){sub 2}(phen)]{sub 2} (3), [Cd(5-Cl-salo)(neoc)(ONO{sub 2})]{sub 2} (4) and [Cd(5-Cl-salo)(dpamΗ)(ONO{sub 2})]{sub 2} (5). The complexes were characterized by spectroscopic techniques (IR, UV‐vis, {sup 1}H-NMR and {sup 13}C–NMR), elemental analysis and molar conductivity measurements. The structures of four complexes (1–3 and 5) were determined by X-ray crystallography, providing all three possible coordination modes of the ligand 5-Cl-salicylaldehyde, i.e. bidentate or tridentate chelating and/or bridging mode. The complexes bind to calf-thymus (CT) DNA mainly by intercalation, as concluded by the viscosity measurements and present relatively high DNA-binding constants. The complexes exhibit significant ability to displace ethidium bromide (EB) from the EB-DNA complex, thus indirectly proving the intercalation as the most possible binding mode to CT DNA. - Graphical abstract: Cadmium complexes of the formulae [Cd(5-Cl-salo){sub 2}(CH{sub 3}OH)]{sub 2} and [Cd(5-Cl-salo){sub 2}(α-diimine)]{sub 2} or [Cd(5-Cl-salo)(α-diimine)(ONO{sub 2})]{sub 2} have been synthesized and characterized. The complexes bind tightly to CT DNA probably by intercalation competing with ethidium bromide for the intercalation site of DNA. - Highlights: • Synthesis of a series of dinuclear Cd complexes • The complexes characterized by diverse techniques. • The crystal structures of four complexes have been determined. • Intercalation is the most possible binding mode of the complexes to DNA. • The complexes compete with ethidium bromide for the DNA-intercalating sites.

  9. Binding of Bisphenol-F, a bisphenol analogue, to calf thymus DNA by multi-spectroscopic and molecular docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Afia; Ahmad, Masood

    2017-08-01

    BPF (Bisphenol-F), a member of the bisphenol family, having a wide range of industrial applications is gradually replacing Bisphenol-A. It is a recognized endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC). EDCs have been implicated in increased incidences of breast, prostate and testis cancers besides diabetes, obesity and decreased fertility. Due to the adverse effects of EDCs on human health, attempts have been directed towards their mechanism of toxicity especially at the molecular level. Hence, to understand the mechanism at the DNA level, interaction of BPF with calf thymus DNA was studied employing multi-spectroscopic, voltammetric and molecular docking techniques. Fluorescence spectra, cyclic voltammetry (CV), circular dichroism (CD) and molecular docking studies of BPF with DNA were suggestive of minor groove binding of BPF. UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectra suggested static quenching due to complex formation between BPF and ctDNA. Hoechst 33258 (HO) and ethidium bromide (EB) displacement studies further confirmed such mode of BPF interaction. Thermodynamic and molecular docking parameters revealed the mechanism of binding of BPF with ctDNA to be favorable and spontaneous due to negative ΔG and occurring through hydrogen bonds and van der waals interactions. BPF induced DNA cleavage under in vitro conditions by plasmid nicking assay suggested it to be genotoxic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Multi-spectroscopic and molecular docking studies on the interaction of darunavir, a HIV protease inhibitor with calf thymus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jie-Hua; Zhou, Kai-Li; Lou, Yan-Yue; Pan, Dong-Qi

    2018-03-15

    Molecular interaction of darunavir (DRV), a HIV protease inhibitor with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ct-DNA) was studied in physiological buffer (pH7.4) by multi-spectroscopic approaches hand in hand with viscosity measurements and molecular docking technique. The UV absorption and fluorescence results together revealed the formation of a DRV-ct-DNA complex having binding affinities of the order of 10 3 M -1 , which was more in keeping with the groove binding. The results that DRV bound to ct-DNA via groove binding mode was further evidenced by KI quenching studies, viscosity measurements, competitive binding investigations with EB and Rhodamine B and CD spectral analysis. The effect of ionic strength indicated the negligible involvement of electrostatic interaction between DRV and ct-DNA. The thermodynamic parameters regarding the binding interaction of DRV with ct-DNA in terms of enthalpy change (ΔH 0 ) and entropy change (ΔS 0 ) were -63.19kJ mol -1 and -141.92J mol -1 K -1 , indicating that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces played a predominant role in the binding process. Furthermore, molecular simulation studies suggested that DRV molecule was prone to bind in the A-T rich region of the minor groove of DNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Platinum(II/palladium(II complexes with n-propyldithiocarbamate and 2,2′-bipyridine: synthesis, characterization, biological activity and interaction with calf thymus DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mansouri-Torshizi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two Pd(II and Pt(II complexes ([Pt(bpy(pr-dtc]Br and [Pd(bpy(pr-dtc]Br, where bpy=2, 2′-bipyridine and pr-dtc = n-propyldithiocarbamate were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis (CHN, molar conductivity measurements, Fourier transform infrared, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and UV–visible techniques. In these complexes, the dithiocarbamato ligand coordinates to Pt(II or Pd(II center as bidentate with two sulfur atoms. The binding of these complexes to calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA was investigated using various physicochemical methods such as spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric and gel filtration technique. The experimental results indicate that Pt(II and Pd(II complexes interact with CT-DNA in the intercalative mode. Both complexes unexpectedly denatured DNA at low concentration. Gel filtration studies indicated that the binding of complexes with DNA is strong enough and does not break readily. The cytotoxic activity of these metal complexes has been tested against human cell tumor lines (K562 and revealed much lower 50% cytotoxic concentration (Cc50 less than that of cisplatin. Several binding and thermodynamic parameters are also described.

  12. Complexes of poly(ethylene glycol)-based cationic random copolymer and calf thymus DNA: a complete biophysical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisha, C K; Manorama, Sunkara V; Ganguli, Munia; Maiti, Souvik; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N

    2004-03-16

    Complete biophysical characterization of complexes (polyplexes) of cationic polymers and DNA is needed to understand the mechanism underlying nonviral therapeutic gene transfer. In this article, we propose a new series of synthesized random cationic polymers (RCPs) from methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) monomethacrylate (MePEGMA) and (3-(methacryloylamino)propyl)trimethylammonium chloride with different mole ratios (32:68, 11:89, and 6:94) which could be used as a model system to address and answer the basic questions relating to the mechanism of the interaction of calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) and cationic polymers. The solubility of the complexes of CT-DNA and RCP was followed by turbidity measurements. It has been observed that complexes of RCP with 68 mol % MePEGMA precipitate near the charge neutralization point, whereas complexes of the other two polymers are water-soluble and stable at all compositions. Dnase 1 digestion experiments show that DNA is inaccessible when it forms complexes with RCP. Ethidium bromide exclusion and gel electrophoretic mobility show that both polymers are capable of binding with CT-DNA. Atomic force microscopy images in conjunction with light scattering experiments showed that the complexes are spherical in nature and 75-100 nm in diameter. Circular dichroism spectroscopy studies indicated that the secondary structure of DNA in the complexes is not perturbed due to the presence of poly(ethylene glycol) segments in the polymer. Furthermore, we used a combination of spectroscopic and calorimetric techniques to determine complete thermodynamic profiles accompanying the helix-coil transition of CT-DNA in the complexes. UV and differential scanning calorimetry melting experiments revealed that DNA in the complexes is more stable than in the free state and the extent of stability depends on the polymer composition. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments showed that the binding of these RCPs to CT-DNA is associated with small exothermic

  13. Binding affinities of Schiff base Fe(II) complex with BSA and calf-thymus DNA: Spectroscopic investigations and molecular docking analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudra, Suparna; Dasmandal, Somnath; Patra, Chiranjit; Kundu, Arjama; Mahapatra, Ambikesh

    2016-09-01

    The binding interaction of a synthesized Schiff base Fe(II) complex with biological macromolecules viz., bovine serum albumin (BSA) and calf thymus(ct)-DNA have been investigated using different spectroscopic techniques coupled with viscosity measurements at physiological pH and 298 K. Regular amendments in emission intensities of BSA upon the action of the complex indicate significant interaction between them, and the binding interaction have been characterized by Stern Volmer plots and thermodynamic binding parameters. On the basis of this quenching technique one binding site with binding constant (Kb = (7.6 ± 0.21) × 105) between complex and protein have been obtained at 298 K. Time-resolved fluorescence studies have also been encountered to understand the mechanism of quenching induced by the complex. Binding affinities of the complex to the fluorophores of BSA namely tryptophan (Trp) and tyrosine (Tyr) have been judged by synchronous fluorescence studies. Secondary structural changes of BSA rooted by the complex has been revealed by CD spectra. On the other hand, hypochromicity of absorption spectra of the complex with the addition of ct-DNA and the gradual reduction in emission intensities of ethidium bromide bound ct-DNA in presence of the complex indicate noticeable interaction between ct-DNA and the complex with the binding constant (4.2 ± 0.11) × 106 M- 1. Life-time measurements have been studied to determine the relative amplitude of binding of the complex to ct-DNA base pairs. Mode of binding interaction of the complex with ct-DNA has been deciphered by viscosity measurements. CD spectra have also been used to understand the changes in ct-DNA structure upon binding with the metal complex. Density functional theory (DFT) and molecular docking analysis have been employed in highlighting the interactive phenomenon and binding location of the complex with the macromolecules.

  14. Selenium nanoparticles synthesized in aqueous extract of Allium sativum perturbs the structural integrity of Calf thymus DNA through intercalation and groove binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezhuthupurakkal, Preedia Babu; Polaki, Lokeswara Rao; Suyavaran, Arumugam; Subastri, Ariraman; Sujatha, Venugopal; Thirunavukkarasu, Chinnasamy

    2017-01-01

    Biomedical application of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) demands the eco-friendly composite for synthesis of SeNPs. The present study reports an aqueous extract of Allium sativum (AqEAS) plug-up the current need. Modern spectroscopic, microscopic and gravimetric techniques were employed to characterize the synthesized nanoparticles. Characterization studies revealed the formation of crystalline spherical shaped SeNPs. FTIR spectrum brings out the presence of different functional groups in AqEAS, which influence the SeNPs formation and stabilization. Furthermore the different aspects of the interaction between SeNPs and CT-DNA were scrutinized by various spectroscopic and cyclic voltametric studies. The results reveals the intercalation and groove binding mode of interaction of SeNPs with stacked base pair of CT-DNA. The Stern–Volmer quenching constant (K SV ) were found to be 7.02 × 10 6 Mˉ 1 (ethidium bromide), 4.22 × 10 6 Mˉ 1 (acridine orange) and 7.6 × 10 6 Mˉ 1 (Hoechst) indicating strong binding of SeNPs with CT–DNA. The SeNPs - CT-DNA interactions were directly visualized by atomic force microscopy. The present study unveils the cost effective, innocuous, highly stable SeNPs intricate mechanism of DNA interaction, which will be a milestone in DNA targeted chemotherapy. - Graphical abstract: Highly stable, innocuous, biocompatible SeNPs nanoparticle has been synthesized using Allium sativum (garlic) extract as reductant. The purity and crystallinity were characterized, further divulge the base pare interaction with CalfThymus DNA through various spectroscopic methods and atomic force microscopy. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Synthesis of SeNPs in aqueous extract of Allium sativum. • Characterization of synthesized SeNPs using high throughput techniques. • SeNPs directly interact with CT-DNA through intercalation and groove binding.

  15. Selenium nanoparticles synthesized in aqueous extract of Allium sativum perturbs the structural integrity of Calf thymus DNA through intercalation and groove binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezhuthupurakkal, Preedia Babu; Polaki, Lokeswara Rao; Suyavaran, Arumugam; Subastri, Ariraman [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry 605 014 (India); Sujatha, Venugopal [Department of Chemistry, Periyar University, Salem 636011 (India); Thirunavukkarasu, Chinnasamy, E-mail: tchinnasamy@hotmail.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry 605 014 (India)

    2017-05-01

    Biomedical application of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) demands the eco-friendly composite for synthesis of SeNPs. The present study reports an aqueous extract of Allium sativum (AqEAS) plug-up the current need. Modern spectroscopic, microscopic and gravimetric techniques were employed to characterize the synthesized nanoparticles. Characterization studies revealed the formation of crystalline spherical shaped SeNPs. FTIR spectrum brings out the presence of different functional groups in AqEAS, which influence the SeNPs formation and stabilization. Furthermore the different aspects of the interaction between SeNPs and CT-DNA were scrutinized by various spectroscopic and cyclic voltametric studies. The results reveals the intercalation and groove binding mode of interaction of SeNPs with stacked base pair of CT-DNA. The Stern–Volmer quenching constant (K{sub SV}) were found to be 7.02 × 10{sup 6} Mˉ{sup 1} (ethidium bromide), 4.22 × 10{sup 6} Mˉ{sup 1} (acridine orange) and 7.6 × 10{sup 6} Mˉ{sup 1} (Hoechst) indicating strong binding of SeNPs with CT–DNA. The SeNPs - CT-DNA interactions were directly visualized by atomic force microscopy. The present study unveils the cost effective, innocuous, highly stable SeNPs intricate mechanism of DNA interaction, which will be a milestone in DNA targeted chemotherapy. - Graphical abstract: Highly stable, innocuous, biocompatible SeNPs nanoparticle has been synthesized using Allium sativum (garlic) extract as reductant. The purity and crystallinity were characterized, further divulge the base pare interaction with CalfThymus DNA through various spectroscopic methods and atomic force microscopy. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Synthesis of SeNPs in aqueous extract of Allium sativum. • Characterization of synthesized SeNPs using high throughput techniques. • SeNPs directly interact with CT-DNA through intercalation and groove binding.

  16. Chemiluminescence determination of ultramicro DNA with a flow-injection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hui; Zhou Min; Jin Xiaoyong; Song Yumin; Zhang Ziyu; Ma Yongjun

    2002-01-01

    A high sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence method for determination of calf thymus DNA and herring sperm DNA has been developed. The method is based on the chemiluminescence reaction of Rhodamine B-cerium(IV)-thermally denatured DNAs in sulfuric acid media. The proposed procedure allows quantitation of DNAs in the range 2.6x10 -5 to 0.26 μg ml -1 for calf thymus DNA and 5.0x10 -8 to 5.0x10 -5 μg ml -1 for herring sperm DNA with correlation coefficients 0.9998 and 0.9996 (both n=11), respectively. The detection limits (3σ) are 6.5x10 -6 μg ml -1 for calf thymus DNA and 4.3x10 -8 μg ml -1 for herring sperm DNA. The possible mechanism of chemiluminescence in the system is discussed

  17. Photophysicochemical, calf thymus DNA binding and in vitro photocytotoxicity properties of tetra-morpholinoethoxy-substituted phthalocyanines and their water-soluble quaternized derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçan, Halit; Kaya, Kerem; Özçeşmeci, İbrahim; Sesalan, B Şebnem; Göksel, Meltem; Durmuş, Mahmut; Burat, Ayfer Kalkan

    2017-12-01

    In this study, morpholinoethoxy-substituted metal-free (3), zinc(II) (4) and indium(III) (5) phthalocyanines were synthesized. These phthalocyanines were converted to their water-soluble quaternized derivatives (3Q-5Q) using excess methyl iodide as a quaternization agent. All these phthalocyanines (Pcs) were characterized by elemental analysis and different spectroscopic methods such as FT-IR, 1 H NMR, UV-Vis and mass spectrometry. The photophysical and photochemical properties such as fluorescence and generation of singlet oxygen were investigated for determination of these phthalocyanines as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy (PDT) applications. The binding properties of quaternized phthalocyanines (3Q-5Q) to calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were investigated by UV-Vis and fluorescence spectrophotometric methods. The quenching effect of all quaternized phthalocyanines on the fluorescence intensity of SYBR Green-DNA complex was determined. The mixtures of 3Q, 4Q or 5Q and DNA solutions were used to determine the change in T m of double helix DNA with thermal denaturation profile. In addition, thermodynamic parameters considering their aggregation in buffer solution, which shows the spontaneity of the reactions between DNA and quaternized Pcs were investigated. On the other hand, in vitro phototoxicity and cytotoxicity behavior of the quaternized water-soluble phthalocyanine photosensitizers (3Q-5Q) were tested against the cervical cancer cell line named HeLa for evaluation of their suitability for treatment of cancer by PDT method. Peripherally tetra-substituted neutral and quaternized metal-free and metallophthalocyanines (MPcs) (Zn, In) bearing morpholinoethoxy groups were prepared. The binding of quaternized compounds (3Q-5Q) to CT-DNA were examined using UV-Vis, fluorescence spectra, thermal denaturation profiles and K SV values. Besides, thermodynamic studies indicated that binding of 3Q-5Q to DNA was spontaneous. On the other hand, in vitro phototoxicity and

  18. Chemiluminescence determination of ultramicro DNA with a flow-injection method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Hui; Zhou Min; Jin Xiaoyong; Song Yumin; Zhang Ziyu; Ma Yongjun

    2002-02-12

    A high sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence method for determination of calf thymus DNA and herring sperm DNA has been developed. The method is based on the chemiluminescence reaction of Rhodamine B-cerium(IV)-thermally denatured DNAs in sulfuric acid media. The proposed procedure allows quantitation of DNAs in the range 2.6x10{sup -5} to 0.26 {mu}g ml{sup -1} for calf thymus DNA and 5.0x10{sup -8} to 5.0x10{sup -5} {mu}g ml{sup -1} for herring sperm DNA with correlation coefficients 0.9998 and 0.9996 (both n=11), respectively. The detection limits (3{sigma}) are 6.5x10{sup -6} {mu}g ml{sup -1} for calf thymus DNA and 4.3x10{sup -8} {mu}g ml{sup -1} for herring sperm DNA. The possible mechanism of chemiluminescence in the system is discussed.

  19. DNA damage by smoke: Protection by turmeric and other inhibitors of ROS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivas, L.; Shalini, V.K. (Department of Nutrition and Food Safety, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore (India))

    1991-01-01

    Twigs-dry leaves smoke condensate (TDS), as a source of clastogenic ROS and carcinogenic PAH, was investigated for its in vitro DNA-damaging effect in calf thymus DNA and human peripheral lymphocytes. An aqueous turmeric component--Aq.T--with an established antioxidant activity, was tested as a DNA protectant. TDS induced 13-fold damage to calf thymus DNA as judged by the emergence of a DNA damage specific, fluorescent product (em: 405 nm). Aq.T at 800 ng/microL extended 69% protection to calf thymus DNA and was comparable to the other protectants such as curcumin, BHA, vitamin E, SOD, and CAT. In human peripheral lymphocytes, TDS induced extensive DNA damage in comparison with the tumor promoter TPA, as judged by FADU. Aq.T at 300 ng/microL extended 90% protection to human lymphocyte DNA against TDS-induced damage, and was more effective than the other protectants--DABCO, D-mannitol, sodium benzoate, vitamin E (ROS quenchers), SOD, CAT (antioxidant enzymes), tannic acid, flufenamic acid, BHA, BHT, n-PG, curcumin and quercetin (antioxidants). Aq.T offered 65% protection to human lymphocyte DNA against TPA-induced damage and was comparable to SOD. The above results indicate that TDS induces substantial DNA damage in calf thymus DNA and human lymphocytes and Aq.T is an efficient protectant.

  20. New porphyrins bearing positively charged peripheral groups linked by a sulfonamide group to meso-tetraphenylporphyrin: interactions with calf thymus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manono, Janet; Marzilli, Patricia A; Marzilli, Luigi G

    2009-07-06

    New water-soluble cationic meso-tetraarylporphyrins (TArP, Ar = 4-C(6)H(4)) and some metal derivatives have been synthesized and characterized. One main goal was to assess if N-methylpyridinium (N-Mepy) groups must be directly attached to the porphyrin core for intercalative binding of porphyrins to DNA. The new porphyrins have the general formula, [T(R(2)R(1)NSO(2)Ar)P]X(4/8) (R(1) = CH(3) or H and R(2) = N-Mepy-n-CH(2) with n = 2, 3, or 4; or R(1) = R(2) = Et(3)NCH(2)CH(2)). Interactions of selected porphyrins and metalloporphyrins (Cu(II), Zn(II)) with calf thymus DNA were investigated by visible circular dichroism (CD), absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopies. The DNA-induced changes in the porphyrin Soret region (a positive induced CD feature and, at high DNA concentration, increases in the Soret band and fluorescence intensities) indicate that the new porphyrins interact with DNA in an outside, non-self-stacking binding mode. Several new metalloporphyrins did not increase DNA solution viscosity and thus do not intercalate, confirming the conclusion drawn from spectroscopic studies. Porphyrins known to intercalate typically bear two or more N-Mepy groups directly attached to the porphyrin ring, such as the prototypical meso-tetra(N-Mepy)porphyrin tetracation (TMpyP(4)). The distances between the nitrogens of the N-Mepy group are estimated to be approximately 11 A (cis) and 16 A (trans) for the relatively rigid TMpyP(4). For the new flexible porphyrin, [T(N-Mepy-4-CH(2)(CH(3))NSO(2)Ar)P]Cl(4), the distances between the nitrogens are estimated to be able to span the range from approximately 9 to approximately 25 A. Thus, the N-Mepy groups in the new porphyrins can adopt the same spacing as in known intercalators such as TMpyP(4). The absence of intercalation by the new porphyrins indicates that the propensity for the N-Mepy group to facilitate DNA intercalation of cationic porphyrins requires direct attachment of N-Mepy groups to the porphyrin core.

  1. Characterizing DNA condensation and conformational changes in organic solvents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyou Ke

    Full Text Available Organic solvents offer a new approach to formulate DNA into novel structures suitable for gene delivery. In this study, we examined the in situ behavior of DNA in N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF at low concentration via laser light scattering (LLS, TEM, UV absorbance and Zeta potential analysis. Results revealed that, in DMF, a 21bp oligonucleotide remained intact, while calf thymus DNA and supercoiled plasmid DNA were condensed and denatured. During condensation and denaturation, the size was decreased by a factor of 8-10, with calf thymus DNA forming spherical globules while plasmid DNA exhibited a toroid-like conformation. In the condensed state, DNA molecules were still able to release the counterions to be negatively charged, indicating that the condensation was mainly driven by the excluded volume interactions. The condensation induced by DMF was reversible for plasmid DNA but not for calf thymus DNA. When plasmid DNA was removed from DMF and resuspended in an aqueous solution, the DNA was quickly regained a double stranded configuration. These findings provide further insight into the behavior and condensation mechanism of DNA in an organic solvent and may aid in developing more efficient non-viral gene delivery systems.

  2. Comparative In Vitro Binding Studies of TiCl2(dpme2, Ti(ada2(bzac2, and TiCl2(bzac(bpme Titanium Complexes with Calf-Thymus DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamita Awasthi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The binding of TiCl2(dpme2 (1, (dpme = 6,6′-dimethyl-2,2′-bipyridine, Ti(ada2(bzac2 (2, (ada = adamantylamine; bzac = benzoylacetone, and TiCl2(bzac(bpme (3, (bpme = 4,4′-dimethyl-2,2′-bipyrdine with calf thymus (ct DNA has been studied by UV-visible spectroscopy, thermal denaturation, and circular dichroism spectroscopy. In UV-visible study complexes 1, 2, and 3 showed red, blue, and red shifts, respectively, upon the addition of ct-DNA along with a significant hyperchromism. The intrinsic binding constants (Kb calculated from UV-visible absorption studies were 2.3 × 103 M−1, 3.3 × 103 M−1 and, 7.1 × 103 M−1 for complexes 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The change in melting temperature (ΔTm was calculated to be 2-3°C for each complex. Circular dichroism (CD study showed blue shift for complex 2 and red shift for complexes 1 and 3 along with rise in molecular ellipticity upon the addition of complexes. Results suggest a binding mode of complex 2 different than 1 and 3.

  3. Flow-injection chemiluminescence assay for ultra-trace determination of DNA using rhodamine B-Ce(IV)-DNA ternary system in sulfuric acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yongjun; Zhou Min; Jin Xiaoyong; Zhang Ziyu; Teng Xiulan; Chen Hui

    2004-01-01

    A novel flow-injection chemiluminescence method for the determination of DNA at ultra-trace level has been established. In 0.8 M sulfuric acid media, the chemiluminescence of the rhodamine B-cerium (IV) or Ce(IV) system is enhanced by DNA, activated previously by imidazole-HCl buffer solution (pH 7.0). The enhanced intensity of chemiluminescence is in proportion to log DNA concentration 1.0x10 -8 to 0.1 μg ml -1 for herring sperm DNA and 2.0x10 -6 to 0.2 μg ml -1 for calf thymus DNA with 3σ detection limits of 8.3x10 -9 μg ml -1 for herring sperm DNA and 3.5x10 -7 μg ml -1 for calf thymus DNA, respectively. The relative standard deviation for 1.0x10 -4 μg ml -1 herring sperm DNA was 0.99% and 2.0x10 -3 μg ml -1 for calf thymus DNA was 1.1% (n=11). Using the optimized system, DNA contents in six synthetic samples has been determined with recoveries of 99.5-109.0%. The possible mechanism has also been studied in this paper

  4. Flow-injection chemiluminescence assay for ultra-trace determination of DNA using rhodamine B-Ce(IV)-DNA ternary system in sulfuric acid media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Yongjun; Zhou Min; Jin Xiaoyong; Zhang Ziyu; Teng Xiulan; Chen Hui

    2004-01-09

    A novel flow-injection chemiluminescence method for the determination of DNA at ultra-trace level has been established. In 0.8 M sulfuric acid media, the chemiluminescence of the rhodamine B-cerium (IV) or Ce(IV) system is enhanced by DNA, activated previously by imidazole-HCl buffer solution (pH 7.0). The enhanced intensity of chemiluminescence is in proportion to log DNA concentration 1.0x10{sup -8} to 0.1 {mu}g ml{sup -1} for herring sperm DNA and 2.0x10{sup -6} to 0.2 {mu}g ml{sup -1} for calf thymus DNA with 3{sigma} detection limits of 8.3x10{sup -9} {mu}g ml{sup -1} for herring sperm DNA and 3.5x10{sup -7} {mu}g ml{sup -1} for calf thymus DNA, respectively. The relative standard deviation for 1.0x10{sup -4} {mu}g ml{sup -1} herring sperm DNA was 0.99% and 2.0x10{sup -3} {mu}g ml{sup -1} for calf thymus DNA was 1.1% (n=11). Using the optimized system, DNA contents in six synthetic samples has been determined with recoveries of 99.5-109.0%. The possible mechanism has also been studied in this paper.

  5. The study of DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-2‧deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) formation of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and its metabolite ter-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) through in vitro reaction with Calf Thymus DNA and 2‧deoxyguanosine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiawan; Purwaningsih, S. S.; Cahaya, D. I.

    2017-04-01

    Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA) and its metabolite Tert-Butyl Hydroquinone (TBHQ) are synthetic antioxidants, commonly used as food and beverage preservatives. Although WHO declared their safety, the use of these preservatives are still controversial because some studies showed that BHA induced proliferative effects in animal testing and TBHQ is considered as carcinogenic and causes DNA cleavage. This study is aimed to analyze the interaction between Calf Thymus DNA with BHA and TBHQ which are mediated with Copper (II) Chloride. The result of the study in spectrophotometric showed there was bathochromic shift as much as 2-3 nm in DNA treated with TBHQ. The next analysis used HPLC method in stationary phase of ODS, mobile phase of 10mM Natrium Hydrogen Phosphate Buffer and Methanol (85 : 15) for DNA adduct formation, 8-Hydroxy-2-Deoxyguanosine (8-OHDG) as biomarker of risk cancer. The resultof the study showed the formation of DNA adduct 8-OHDG in the interaction between DNA and 20-500 ppm of TBHQ. The 8-OHdG formation was greatly increased by the higher concentration of TBHQ. The relative amount of 8 OHDG which formed was reached 946/105 deoxyguanosine in DNA bases. Confirmation test by LCMS/MS was characterized with the detection of mother ion peak (m/z 284); fragment ion peaks at m/z 167.9, and 139.9; at retention time 3.52 min. Meanwhile the interaction between DNA and 50-250 ppm BHA did not induce 8-OHDG.

  6. Cytotoxicity, DNA binding and localisation of novel bis-naphthalimidopropyl polyamine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, V; Kong Thoo Lin, P; Rodilla, V

    2001-07-31

    Bis-naphthalimidopropyl spermidine (BNIPSpd), spermine (BNIPSpm) and oxa-spermine (BNIPOSpm) showed high in vitro cytotoxicity against human breast cancer MCF-7 cells with IC(50) values of 1.38, 2.91 and 8.45 microM, respectively. These compounds were found to effectively displace the intercalating agent ethidium bromide bound to the calf thymus DNA using fluorimetric methods (C(50) 0.08-0.12 microM) and their apparent equilibrium binding constants (K(app)) were calculated to be in the range of 10.5-18 x 10(7) M(-1). Furthermore, strong stabilisation of calf thymus DNA duplex in the presence of bis-naphthalimidopropyl polyamine derivatives (BNIPSpd, BNIPSpm and BNIPOSpm) was observed by UV spectrophotometric analysis (T(m)=93.3-97 degrees C compared with 75 degrees C for calf thymus DNA without drug). Because of their inherent fluorescence, these compounds were localised preferentially inside the nucleus as evidenced by their direct observation under the fluorescence microscope. The results obtained suggest that the cytotoxic activity of the bis-naphthalimidopropyl polyamines may be in part, caused by their effects on DNA.

  7. Crystal structures of palladium(II) ternary complexes of 5-x-2-aminobenzoic acid with 1,10-phenanthroline and their interaction with calf thymus DNA (where X=Cl, Br and I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Okabe, Nobuo; Odoko, Mamiko

    2005-10-01

    The crystal structures of a series of three palladium(II) ternary complexes of 5-halogeno-2-aminobenzoic acid (5-X-AB, where X=Cl, Br and I) with 1,10-phenanthroline [Pd(5-Cl-AB)(phen)] (1), [Pd(5-Br-AB)(phen)] (2) and [Pd(5-I-AB)(phen)] (3) have been determined, and their coordination geometries and the crystal architecture characterized. All of the complexes are an isostructure in which each Pd(II) atom has basically similar square planar coordination geometry. The substitute halogen group at 5-position of AB plays an important role in producing the coordination bonds of the carboxylate and amino groups in which the carboxylate O atom and the amino N atom act as the negative monodentate ligand atoms. The coordination bond distances of O-Pd increase in the order 1<2<3, while those of N-Pd decrease in the same order. The binding of the complexes to the calf thymus DNA has also been studied by the fluorescence method. Each of the complexes shows high binding propensity to DNA which can be reflected as the relative order 1<2<3.

  8. Monoaddition of dictamnine to synthetic double-stranded polydeoxyribonucleotides in UVA and the effect of photomodified DNA on template activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfyffer, G.E.; Pfyffer, B.U.; Towers, G.H.N. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada))

    1982-06-01

    The photoreactivity of dictamnine, a furoquinoline alkaloid, towards different synthetic DNAs has been studied. The ratio of the photobinding of (/sup 3/H)-dictamnine to poly(dA-dT).poly(dA-dT):poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC):poly(dA-dU).poly(dA-dU):poly(dA).poly(dT), in relation to that of calf thymus DNA, is 18:1:0.5:0.3. Prior treatment of calf thymus DNA with dictamnine in light inhibits the subsequent incorporation of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP). These results suggest that the sites in DNA for the photobinding of dictamnine are probably identical with those for monoadducts of 8-MOP. Furthermore, the template activity of photomodified DNA in the RNA polymerase reaction is considerably inhibited for poly(dA-dT).poly(dA-dT), to a lesser extent for calf thymus DNA, but almost not affected for the linear copolymer, poly(dA).poly(dT).

  9. Microrheology of concentrated DNA solutions using optical tweezers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . In this work, we report the determination of microrheological properties of concentrated, double-stranded calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) solutions using passive, laser-scattering based particle-tracking methodology. From power spectral analysis, ...

  10. Effect of DNA type on response of DNA biosensor for carcinogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Nor Diyana bt. Md.; Heng, Lee Yook; Surif, Salmijah; Lazim, Azwani Mat

    2013-11-01

    Carcinogens are cancer causing chemicals that can bind to DNA and cause damage to the DNA. These chemicals are available everywhere including in water, air, soil and food. Therefore, a sensor that can detect the presence of these chemicals will be a very useful tool. Since carcinogens bind to DNA, DNA can be used as the biological element in a biosensor. This study has utilized different types of DNA in a biosensor for carcinogen detection. The DNAs include double stranded calf thymus DNA, single stranded calf thymus DNA and guanine rich single stranded DNA. The modified SPE was exposed to a carcinogen followed by interaction with methylene blue which acts as the electroactive indicator. The SPE was then analysed using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Optimization studies were conducted for MB concentration and accumulation time, DNA concentration, as well as effect of buffer concentration, buffer pH and ionic strength. The performance of the biosensor was tested on a group 1 carcinogen, formaldehyde. The results indicated that the usage of guanine rich single stranded DNA also gives higher response as carcinogens prefer to bind with guanine compared to other bases.

  11. DNA binding studies of tartrazine food additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashanian, Soheila; Zeidali, Sahar Heidary

    2011-07-01

    The interaction of native calf thymus DNA with tartrazine in 10 mM Tris-HCl aqueous solution at neutral pH 7.4 was investigated. Tartrazine is a nitrous derivative and may cause allergic reactions, with a potential of toxicological risk. Also, tartrazine induces oxidative stress and DNA damage. Its DNA binding properties were studied by UV-vis and circular dichroism spectra, competitive binding with Hoechst 33258, and viscosity measurements. Tartrazine molecules bind to DNA via groove mode as illustrated by hyperchromism in the UV absorption band of tartrazine, decrease in Hoechst-DNA solution fluorescence, unchanged viscosity of DNA, and conformational changes such as conversion from B-like to C-like in the circular dichroism spectra of DNA. The binding constants (K(b)) of DNA with tartrazine were calculated at different temperatures. Enthalpy and entropy changes were calculated to be +37 and +213 kJ mol(-1), respectively, according to the Van't Hoff equation, which indicated that the reaction is predominantly entropically driven. Also, tartrazine does not cleave plasmid DNA. Tartrazine interacts with calf thymus DNA via a groove interaction mode with an intrinsic binding constant of 3.75 × 10(4) M(-1).

  12. Isolation of thymus gland fractions and the determination of their biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILENA RADETA

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A calf thymus extract was prepared and fractionated into lipid and non-lipid fractions. The non-lipid fraction was isolated from the calf thymus extract using the Folch method. The components isolated from the non-lipid fraction were characterized by IR, NMR, biuret and HPLC method. The results of the analyses indicated the presence of peptides. The lipid fraction contained phospholipids, glycolipids and neutral lipids. The biological activity of both the isolated lipid and peptide fractions was determined by the in vivo hemolytic plaques method in Wistar rats with an involuted thymus. The peptide and phospholipid fractions of the thymus extract showed a significant increase of hemolytic plaques. The glycolipid and neutral lipid fraction failed to express a significant immunological response.

  13. Desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis in vitro by thymus and spleen cells of the rat after hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempel, K.; Spath, A.

    1988-03-01

    The inhibition of the semiconservative and restorative DNA synthesis caused by hyperthermia (30 to 60 min, 43/sup 0/C) was significantly higher in spleen cells than in thymus cells. The DNA repair synthesis of thymus cells measured at 37/sup 0/C was increased by about two times the initial value after a pre-incubation of 30 to 90 min and 30 to 60 min, respectively, with 37 and 43/sup 0/C, respectively. Under the same conditions, the /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation into the DNA of spleen cells diminished proportionally to the pre-incubation time after a pre-incubation of 30 and 45 min, respectively, with 43 and 37/sup 0/C, respectively. When hyperthermia and inhibitors of DNA synthesis or DNA repair (hydroxyurea, 1-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, 3', 5'-didesoxythymidine, and 3-aminobenzamide) were combined, overadditive effects - without cellspecific particularities - were seen only in the case of 3-aminobenzamide. Only in thymus cells, the inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase II novobiocin caused an overadditive reinforcement of the inhibition induced by hyperthermia of the semiconservative DNA synthesis. The stimulation of DNA repair synthesis in thymus cells caused by novobiocin with the aid of DNA polymerase ..beta.. could be compensated by hyperthermia. The sedimentation of thymus and spleen cell nucleoids was increased after hyperthermia. The results suggest a special importance of DNA topology and of the DNA polymerase ..beta.. activity for the cellular effect of hyperthermia.

  14. Application of capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to chemical characterization of radiation-induced base damage of DNA: implications for assessing DNA repair processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dizdaroglu, M.

    1985-01-01

    The application of capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to the chemical characterization of radiation-induced base products of calf thymus DNA is presented. Samples of calf thymus DNA irradiated in N 2 O-saturated aqueous solution were hydrolyzed with HCOOH, trimethylsilylated, and subjected to GC-MS analysis using a fused-silica capillary column. Hydrolysis conditions suitable for the simultaneous analysis of the radiation-induced products of all four DNA bases in a single run were determined. The trimethylsilyl derivatives of these products had excellent GC properties and easily interpretable mass spectra; an intense molecular ion (M+.) and a characteristic (M-CH 3 )+ ion were observed. The complementary use of t-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives was also demonstrated. These derivatives provided an intense characteristic (M-57)+ ion, which appeared as either the base peak or the second most intense ion in the spectra. All mass spectra obtained are discussed

  15. Is photocleavage of DNA by YOYO-1 using a synchrotron radiation light source sequence dependent?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilroy, Emma L.; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Jones, Nykola C.

    2011-01-01

    ) throughout the irradiation period. The dependence of LD signals on DNA sequences and on time in the intense light beam was explored and quantified for single-stranded poly(dA), poly[(dA-dT)2], calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) and Micrococcus luteus DNA (mlDNA). The DNA and ligand regions of the spectrum showed...

  16. Hydrodynamic caracterization and molecular weight stimation of ultrasonically sheared DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garces, F.; Casal, J.I.; Garcia, A.

    1981-01-01

    The sedimentation coefficients and intrinsec viscosities of ultrasonically sheared calf thymus DNA have been determined. The molecular weight stimation according to this parameters have been compared with the ones obtained from the electrophoretic migration rates based on the calibration proposed using the known molecular weight restriction fragments of lambds-DNA. (author) [es

  17. FT-Raman and QM/MM study of the interaction between histamine and DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Chica, A.J.; Soriano, A.; Tunon, I.; Sanchez-Jimenez, F.M.; Silla, E.; Ramirez, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between histamine and highly polymerized calf-thymus DNA has been investigated using FT-Raman spectroscopy and the hybrid QM/MM (quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics) methodology. Raman spectra of solutions containing histamine and calf-thymus DNA, at different molar ratios, were recorded. Solutions were prepared at physiological settings of pH and ionic strength, using both natural and heavy water as the solvent. The analysis of the spectral changes on the DNA Raman spectra when adding different concentrations of histamine allowed us to identify the reactive sites of DNA and histamine, which were used to built two minor groove and one intercalated binding models. They were further used as starting points of the QM/MM theoretical study. However, minimal energy points were only reached for the two minor groove models. For each optimized structure, we calculated analytical force constants of histamine molecule in order to perform the vibrational dynamics. Normal mode descriptions allowed us to compare calculated wavenumbers for DNA-interacting histamine to those measured in the Raman spectra of DNA-histamine solutions

  18. Synthesis and characterization of mononuclear copper(II complex of tetradentate N2S2 donor set and the study of DNA and bovine serum albumin binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandipan Sarkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One mononuclear copper(II complex, containing neutral tetradentate NSSN-type ligands, of formulation [Cu II(L 1Cl]ClO 4 (1, was synthesized and isolated in pure form [where L 1˭ 1,3-bis(3-pyridylmethylthiopropane]. Green-colored copper(II complex was characterized by physicochemical, spectroscopic methods and conductivity measurement. These experimental data matched well with the proposed structure of the complex. Biological activity of the complex (1 toward calf thymus DNA and bovine serum albumin has been examined systematically and groove-binding behavior of the Copper(II complex 1 with calf thymus DNA has been observed from the spectral study.

  19. A change in the composition of supramolecular DNA-bound phospholipids in thymus and liver of gamma-irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasichkova, Z.I.; Strazhevskaya, N.B.

    1984-01-01

    The composition of supramolecular DNA (SM DNA)-bound phospholipids (PL) of thymus and liver of intact rats and those 2 min, 2, 6 and 24 h after γ-irradiation (9.7 Gy) was studied. In norm, supramolecular DNA of the thymus was shown to contain 6.7 μg PL/mg DNA, and that of the liver, 6.1 μg PL/mg DNA, the main components of PL being cardiolipin (CL) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PEA). Substantial changes were detected in the PL composition of SM DNA of γ,irradiated rat organs. During the postirradiation period the concentration of PEA and CL in thymus SM DNA changed symbatically and irreversibly decAeased to traces; whereas in SM DNA of the liver, their concentrations changed antibatically and decreased only to a definite level thus maintaining the necessary ''lipid volume''. It was shown that PL were not restored in SM DNA of the radiopesistant liver

  20. [Proteolytic activity of IgG-antibodies of mice, immunized by calf thymus histones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kit, Iu Ia; Korniĭ, N; Kril', I Ĭ; Mahorivs'ka, I B; Tkachenko, V; Bilyĭ, R O; Stoĭka, R S

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to determine the ability of histones to induce production of the proteolytically active IgG-antibodies in BALB/c mice. In order to perform this study 8 mice were immunized with the fraction of total calf thymus histones. IgGs were isolated from the serum of the immunized and not immunized animals by means of precipitation with 33% ammonium sulfate, followed by affinity chromatography on protein G-Sepharose column. Histones, myelin basic protein (MBP), lysozyme, BSA, ovalbumin, macroglobulin, casein and cytochrome c served as substrates for determining the proteolytic activity. It was found that IgGs from the blood serum of immunized mice are capable of hydrolyzing histone H1, core histone and MBP. On the contrary, the proteolytic activity of IgGs from the blood serum of not immunized mice was not detected. The absence of proteolytical enzymes in the fraction of IgGs was proven by HPLC chromatography. High levels of proteolytic activity toward histones have been also detected in affinity purified IgGs from blood serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but not in healthy donors. These data indicate that eukaryotic histones may induce production of protabzymes in mammals. The possible origin of these protabzymes and their potential biological role in mammalians is discussed.

  1. Anomalous Swelling in Wet-Spin Films of Divalent Calf-Thymus DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, R. L.; Lee, S. A.; Rupprecht, A.

    2004-03-01

    The dimension of wet-spun oriented films of Ca- and MgDNA in the direction perpendicular to the helical axis has been measured using optical microscopy as a function of relative humidity (RH). Earlier work on monovalent DNA films found that the perpendicular dimension increases monotonically with RH. In contrast, both Ca - and MgDNA films display a 15% shrinkage in the perpendicular direction at about 93% RH and expand at higher values of RH.

  2. In vitro DNA binding studies of Aspartame, an artificial sweetener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashanian, Soheila; Khodaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Kheirdoosh, Fahimeh

    2013-03-05

    A number of small molecules bind directly and selectively to DNA, by inhibiting replication, transcription or topoisomerase activity. In this work the interaction of native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) with Aspartame (APM), an artificial sweeteners was studied at physiological pH. DNA binding study of APM is useful to understand APM-DNA interaction mechanism and to provide guidance for the application and design of new and safer artificial sweeteners. The interaction was investigated using spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric competition experiment and circular dichroism (CD). Hypochromism and red shift are shown in UV absorption band of APM. A strong fluorescence quenching reaction of DNA to APM was observed and the binding constants (Kf) of DNA with APM and corresponding number of binding sites (n) were calculated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy changes (ΔH) and entropy changes (ΔS) were calculated to be +181kJmol(-1) and +681Jmol(-1)K(-1) according to Van't Hoff equation, which indicated that reaction is predominantly entropically driven. Moreover, spectrofluorometric competition experiment and circular dichroism (CD) results are indicative of non-intercalative DNA binding nature of APM. We suggest that APM interacts with calf thymus DNA via groove binding mode with an intrinsic binding constant of 5×10(+4)M(-1). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydrodynamic characterization and molecular weight estimation of ultrasonically sheared DNA; Caracterizacion hidrodinamica y estimacion de pesos moleculares de DNA degradado por ultrasonidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casal, J I; Garces, F; Garcia-Sacristan, A

    1981-07-01

    The sedimentation coefficients and intrinsic viscosities of ultrasonically sheared calf thymus DNA have been determined. The molecular weight estimation according to this parameters have been compared with the ones obtained from the electrophoretic migration rates based on the calibration proposed using the known molecular weight restriction fragments of X-ENA. (Author) 35 refs.

  4. Determination of size distribution of small DNA fragments by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau How Mooi

    1998-01-01

    Size distribution determination of DNA fragments can be normally determined by the agarose gel electrophoresis, including the normal DNA banding pattern analysis. However this method is only good for large DNA, such as the DNA of the size of kilo base pairs to mega base pairs range. DNA of size less than kilo base pairs is difficult to be quantified by the agarose gel method. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis however can be used to measure the quantity of DNA fragments of size less than kilo base pairs in length, down to less than ten base pairs. This method is good for determining the quantity of the smaller size DNA, single stranded polymers or even some proteins, if the known standards are available. In this report detail description of the method of preparing the polyacrylamide gel, and the experimental set up is discussed. Possible uses of this method, and the comparison with the standard sizes of DNA is also shown. This method is used to determine the distribution of the amount of the fragmented DNA after the Calf-thymus DNA has been exposed to various types of radiation and of different doses. The standards were used to determine the sizes of the fragmented Calf-thymus DNA. The higher the dose the higher is the amount of the smaller size DNA measured

  5. Crystallization of DNA fragments from water-salt solutions, containing 2-methylpentane-2,3-diol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osica, V D; Sukharevsky, B Y; Vasilchenko, V N; Verkin, B I; Polyvtsev, O F

    1976-09-01

    Fragments of calf thymus DNA have been crystallized by precipitation from water-salt solutions, containing 2-methylpentane-2,3-diol (MPD). DNA crystals usually take the form either of spherulites up to 100 mu in diameter or of needles with the length up to 50 mu. No irreversible denaturation of DNA occurs during the crystallization process. X-ray diffraction from dense slurries of DNA crystals yields crystalline powder patterns.

  6. Hydrodynamic characterization and molecular weight estimation of ultrasonically sheared DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casal, J. I.; Garces, F.; Garcia-Sacristan, A.

    1981-01-01

    The sedimentation coefficients and intrinsic viscosities of ultrasonically sheared calf thymus DNA have been determined. The molecular weight estimation according to this parameters have been compared with the ones obtained from the electrophoretic migration rates based on the calibration proposed using the known molecular weight restriction fragments of X-ENA. (Author) 35 refs

  7. Raman microspectroscopic study on low-pH-induced DNA structural transitions in the presence of magnesium ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muntean, C.M.; Puppels, G.J.; Greve, Jan; Segers-Nolten, Gezina M.J.; Cinta-Pinzaru, S.

    2002-01-01

    Low-pH-induced DNA structural changes were investigated in the pH range 6.8-2.10 by Raman microspectroscopy. Measurements were carried out on calf thymus DNA in the presence of low concentrations of Mg2+ ions. Vibrational spectra are presented in the wavenumber region 500-1650 cm-1. Large changes in

  8. ct-DNA Binding and Antibacterial Activity of Octahedral Titanium (IV Heteroleptic (Benzoylacetone and Hydroxamic Acids Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kaushal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Five structurally related titanium (IV heteroleptic complexes, [TiCl2(bzac(L1–4] and [TiCl3(bzac(HL5]; bzac = benzoylacetonate; L1–5 = benzohydroximate (L1, salicylhydroximate (L2, acetohydroximate (L3, hydroxyurea (L4, and N-benzoyl-N-phenyl hydroxylamine (L5, were used for the assessment of their antibacterial activities against ten pathogenic bacterial strains. The titanium (IV complexes (1–5 demonstrated significant level of antibacterial properties as measured using agar well diffusion method. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopic technique was applied, to get a better insight into the nature of binding between titanium (IV complexes with calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA. On the basis of the results of UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, the interaction between ct-DNA and the titanium (IV complexes is likely to occur through the same mode. Results indicated that titanium (IV complex can bind to calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA via an intercalative mode. The intrinsic binding constant (Kb was calculated by absorption spectra by using Benesi-Hildebrand equation. Further, Gibbs free energy was also calculated for all the complexes.

  9. Synthesis, characterization, DNA interaction and antimicrobial screening of isatin-based polypyridyl mixed-ligand Cu(II and Zn(II complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATARAJAN RAMAN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Several mixed ligand Cu(II/Zn(II complexes using 3-(phenyl-imino-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one (obtained by the condensation of isatin and aniline as the primary ligand and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen/2,2’-bipyridine (bpy as an additional ligand were synthesized and characterized analytically and spectroscopically by elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility and molar conductance measurements, as well as by UV–Vis, IR, NMR and FAB mass spectroscopy. The interaction of the complexes with calf thymus (CT DNA was studied using absorption spectra, cyclic voltammetric and viscosity measurements. They exhibit absorption hypochromicity, and the specific viscosity increased during the binding of the complexes to calf thymus DNA. The shifts in the oxidation–reduction potential and changes in peak current on addition of DNA were shown by CV measurements. The Cu(II/Zn(II complexes were found to promote cleavage of pUC19 DNA from the supercoiled form I to the open circular form II and linear form III. The complexes show enhanced antifungal and antibacterial activities compared with the free ligand.

  10. Effects of polyamines and methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) on hepatic nuclear structure and deoxyribonucleic acid template activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K B; Nelson, N F; Brown, D G

    1975-12-01

    1. The interaction of polyamines and methylglyoxal bis(guanythydrazone) (1, 1'-[(methylethanediylidene)-dinitrilo]diguanidine) with isolated rat liver nuclei was investigated by electron microscopy. 2. At 4mM, putrescine was without effect; however, spermidine, spermine or methylglyoxal bis(guanythydrazone) resulted in dispersed chromatin and alterations in nucleolar structure. In addition, spermidine or methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) caused marked aggregation of interchromatin granules. 3. The DNA template property of calf thymus DNA was examined by using DNA polymerases from Escherichia coli, Micrococcus lysodeikticus and calf thymus in the presence of 0-5 mM-amine. 4. In the presence of DNA polymerase, spermine or methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) inhibited activity, whereas putrescine or spermidine had much less effect or in some cases stimulated [3H]dTMP incorporation. 5. Template activity which was inhibited by spermine or methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) could be partially restored by additional DNA or enzyme. 6. When mixed with calf thymus DNA, calf thymus histone inhibited template activity as measured with E. coli DNA polymerase. The template activity of such a 'histone-nucleate' could not be restored by putrescine, spermidine, spermine or methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone). 7. DNA template activity of isolated rat liver nuclei was tested by using E. coli DNA polymerase. None of the amines was able to increase the template activity of the nuclear DNA in vitro.

  11. Fragmentation of chromatin DNA in mouse thymus cells after whole body γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Kang; Liu Xueying; Zhu Xuefen

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of soluble chromatin in mouse thymus nuclei after whole body γ-irradiation were investigated by means of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. After deproteinization and electrophoresis eight regular DNA bands were revealed. The molecular weights of these bands were estimated by comparing their migration rates with those of the standard fragments obtained from PBR 322 digested completely by restrictive endonuclease Hae III. The molecular weight of the first band was calculated to be 186 base pairs corresponding approximately to the size of DNA fragment from a single nucleosome, and those of other bands appeared to be its multiples. The results suggested that the disintegration of chromatin DNA after γ-irradiation might have occurred at the linkage regions of chromatin. The autolysis product of normal thymus chromatin under sterile condition were also analyzed and its electrophoretic pattern was found to be just the same as that of the postirradiation product. It seems, therefore, that the endonuclease existing in normal tissues might be responsible for the postirradiation chromatin degradation. The mechanism of this kind of enzymatic digestion remains to be elucidated in further investigation. (author)

  12. Preferential recognition of auto-antibodies against 4-hydroxynonenal modified DNA in the cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Mohammad; Shahab, Uzma; Alatar, Abdulrahman A; Ahmad, Saheem

    2017-11-01

    The structural perturbations in DNA molecule may be caused by a break in a strand, a missing base from the backbone, or a chemically changed base. These alterations in DNA that occurs naturally can result from metabolic or hydrolytic processes. DNA damage plays a major role in the mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, aging and various other patho-physiological conditions. DNA damage can be induced through hydrolysis, exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other reactive carbonyl metabolites including 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). 4-HNE is an important lipid peroxidation product which has been implicated in the mutagenesis and carcinogenesis processes. The present study examines to probe the presence of auto-antibodies against 4-hydroxynonenal damaged DNA (HNE-DNA) in various cancer subjects. In this study, the purified calf thymus DNA was damaged by the action of 4-HNE. The DNA was incubated with 4-HNE for 24 h at 37°C temperature. The binding characteristics of cancer auto-antibodies were assessed by direct binding and competitive inhibition ELISA. DNA modifications produced hyperchromicity in UV spectrum and decreased fluorescence intensity. Cancer sera exhibited enhanced binding with the 4-HNE modified calf thymus DNA as compared to its native conformer. The 4-HNE modified DNA presents unique epitopes which may be one of the factors for the auto-antibody induction in cancer patients. The HNE modified DNA presents unique epitopes which may be one of the factors for the autoantibody induction in cancer patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Raman microspectroscopic study of effects of Na(I) and Mg(II) ions on low pH induced DNA structural changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muntean, C.M.; Segers-Nolten, Gezina M.J.

    2003-01-01

    In this work a confocal Raman microspectrometer is used to investigate the influence of Na+ and Mg2+ ions on the DNA structural changes induced by low pH. Measurements are carried out on calf thymus DNA at neutral pH (7) and pH 3 in the presence of low and high concentrations of Na+ and Mg2+ ions,

  14. Residual DNA-bound proteins are a source of in vitro transcription inhibitor peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venanzi, F.M.

    1989-01-01

    Enzymatic breakdown of residual proteins occurs at mild alkaline pH (pH optimum 8.5) as monitored by using radioiodinated, purified genomic DNA from calf thymus. These DNA fibers also possess a differential ability to hydrolyze added exogenous small and linker histones. The results described argue strongly that a putative protease activity, co-purified with DNA, is the source of short chain peptides which inhibit transcription in vitro. Therefore, we propose that RNA repressor peptides must be of higher molecular weight than previously reported

  15. DNA polymerase. beta. reaction with ultraviolet-irradiated DNA incised by correndonuclease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, R; Zarebska, Z [Instytut Onkologii, Warsaw (Poland); Zmudzka, B [Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw. Inst. Biochemii i Biofizyki

    1980-09-19

    Covalently closed circular Col E1 DNA was ultraviolet-irradiated with a dose of 60 J/m/sup 2/, thus introducing about 3.2 pyrimidine dimers per DNA molecule. Treatment of irradiated Col E1 DNA with Micrococcus luteus correndonuclease resulted, in the vicinity of pyrimidine dimers, in an average of 3.3 incisions per DNA molecule, and converted DNA to the open circular form. Incised Col E1 DNA stimulated no reaction with calf thymus DNA polymerase ..cap alpha.. but was recognized as a template by DNA polymerase ..beta... The latter enzyme incorporated about 1.6 molecules of dTMP (corresponding to 6 molecules of dNMP) per one correndonuclease incision. The length of the DNA polymerase ..beta.. product was comparable to the anticipated length of the DNA region within which the hydrogen bonds were disrupted owing to dimer formation. The enzyme required Mg/sup 2 +/ and four dNTPs for reaction and was resistant to N-ethylmaleimide or p-mercuribenzoate.

  16. Photo-degradation of CT-DNA with a series of carbothioamide ruthenium (II) complexes - Synthesis and structural analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuraj, V.; Umadevi, M.

    2018-04-01

    The present research article is related with the method of preparation, structure and spectroscopic properties of a series of carbothioamide ruthenium (II) complexes with N and S donor ligands namely, 2-((6-chloro-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)methylene) hydrazine carbothioamide (ClChrTs)/2-((6-methoxy-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)methylene)hydrazine carbothioamide (MeOChrTS). The synthesized complexes were characterized by several techniques using analytical methods as well as by spectral techniques such as FT-IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, ESI mass and thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). The IR spectra shows that the ligand acts as a neutral bidentate with N and S donor atoms. The biological activity of the prepared compounds and metal complexes were tested against cell line of calf-thymus DNA via an intercalation mechanism (MCF-7). In addition, the interaction of Ru(II) complexes and its free ligands with CT-DNA were also investigated by titration with UV-Vis spectra, fluorescence spectra, and Circular dichroism studies. Results suggest that both of the two Ru(II) complexes can bind with calf-thymus DNA via an intercalation mechanism.

  17. Inter-specific relationships among two Tunisian Thymus taxa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic relationships between two sympatric species Thymus capitatus Hoffm. et Link. and Thymus algeriensis Boiss. et Reut. (Thymus hirtus Willd. subsp. algeriensis Boiss. et Reut.) were assessed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Eighteen natural populations from different geographical and ...

  18. Cytotoxic Activities and DNA Binding Properties of 1-Methyl-7H-indeno[1,2-b]Quinolinium-7-(4-dimethylamino) Benzylidene Triflate

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wen; Ji, Yuan Yuan; Wang, Jian Wen; Zhu, Yong Ming

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) with a novel synthesized pyrazolo[1,5-a]indole compound 1-methyl-7H-indeno[1,2-b]quinolinium-7-(4-dimethylamino) benzylidene triflate (MIDBT) was extensively studied by various spectroscopic techniques, viscosity measurements, and gel electrophoresis. The UV-visible observation implied that the compound interacted with ct-DNA by two binding modes, intercalating into the DNA base pairs and attaching to the helix exterior of DNA. The results of the fl...

  19. A proposal of a novel DNA modification mechanism induced by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Toshitaka

    2016-01-01

    This article depicts a proposal of a novel DNA modification mechanism induced by irradiation, and is written as an award work from Japanese Society of Radiation Chemistry. The mechanism of DNA modification induced by K-shell photoabsorption of nitrogen and oxygen atoms was investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance and x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements of calf thymus DNA film. The EPR intensities for DNA film were twofold times larger than those estimated based on the photoabsorption cross section. This suggests that the DNA film itself forms unpaired electron species through the excitation of enhanced electron recapturing, known as the postcollision interaction process. (author)

  20. Electrochemical and calorimetric investigation of interaction of novel biscationic anticancer agents with DNA; Investigacao eletroquimica e calorimetrica da interacao de novos agentes antitumorais biscationicos com DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lauris Lucia da; Donnici, Claudio Luis; Lopes, Julio Cesar Dias, E-mail: cdonnici@terra.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica; Goulart, Marilia Oliveira Fonseca; Abreu, Fabiane Caxico de; Paula, Francine Santos de [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Campus A.C. Simoes. Inst. de Quimica e Biotecnologia; Bravo, Carlos E. Salas; Santoro, Marcelo Matos [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia; Denadai, Angelo Marcio Leite [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica, Timoteo, MG (Brazil). Campus VII; Santos, Alexandre Martins Costa [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Fisiologicas; Montanari, Carlos Alberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    Biscationic amidines bind in the DNA minor groove and present biological activity against a range of infectious diseases. Two new biscationic compounds (bis-{alpha}-{omega}-S-thioureido, amino and sulfide analogues) were synthesized in good yields and fully characterized, and their interaction with DNA was also investigated. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to measure the thermodynamic properties of binding interactions between DNA and these ligands. A double stranded calf thymus DNA immobilized on an electrode surface was used to study the possible DNA-interacting abilities of these compounds towards dsDNA in situ. A remarkable interaction of these compounds with DNA was demonstrated and their potential application as anticancer agents was furthered. (author)

  1. Electrochemical study of the interaction between dsDNA and copper(I) using carbon paste and hanging mercury drop electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanić, Z; Girousi, S

    2008-06-30

    The interaction of copper(I) with double-stranded (ds) calf thymus DNA was studied in solution and at the electrode surface by means of transfer voltammetry using a carbon paste electrode (CPE) as working electrode in 0.2 M acetate buffer solution (pH 5.0). As a result of the interaction of Cu(I) between the base pairs of the dsDNA, the characteristic peaks of dsDNA, due to the oxidation of guanine and adenine, increased and after a certain concentration of Cu(I) a new peak at +1.37 V appeared, probably due to the formation of a purine-Cu(I) complex (dsDNA-Cu(I) complex). Accordingly, the interaction of copper(I) with calf thymus dsDNA was studied in solution as well as at the electrode surface using hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) by means of alternating current voltammetry (AC voltammetry) in 0.3 M NaCl and 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 8.5) as supporting electrolyte. Its interaction with DNA is shown to be time dependent. Significant changes in the characteristic peaks of dsDNA were observed after addition of higher concentration of Cu(I) to a solution containing dsDNA, as a result of the interaction between Cu(I) and dsDNA. All the experimental results indicate that Cu(I) can bind to DNA by electrostatic binding and form an association complex.

  2. Raman spectroscopy of DNA-metal complexes. II. The thermal denaturation of DNA in the presence of Sr2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, and Cd2+.

    OpenAIRE

    Duguid, J G; Bloomfield, V A; Benevides, J M; Thomas, G J

    1995-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry, laser Raman spectroscopy, optical densitometry, and pH potentiometry have been used to investigate DNA melting profiles in the presence of the chloride salts of Ba2+, Sr2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, and Cd2+. Metal-DNA interactions have been observed for the molar ratio [M2+]/[PO2-] = 0.6 in aqueous solutions containing 5% by weight of 160 bp mononucleosomal calf thymus DNA. All of the alkaline earth metals, plus Mn2+, elevate the melting temperature of ...

  3. Comparative investigations about the DNA synthesis by thymus and spleen cells of rats in vitro under the influence of X-rays, UV radiation and radiomimetic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempel, K.; Schmerold, I.; Pfahler, W.; Goette, A.

    1984-06-01

    In order to further characterize the different repairing behavior of thymus and spleen cells of rats in vitro under the influence of X-rays, UV radiation and methylmethanesulfonate (MMS), the effect of bleomycine (BM), L-cysteine (CY-E), N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), I-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (araC), dideoxythymidine (ddT), and novobiocine (NB) on the semiconservative and restorative DNA synthesis as well as on the behavior of DNA under the alkaline elution was studied. The semiconservative DNA synthesis was inhibited by all examined agents except ddT, the restorative DNA synthesis only by NEM, araC, and NB. The stimulation of the restorative DNA synthesis was increased by UV radiation and MMS in spleen cells and by X-rays, BM and CY-E in thymus cells. Under the conditions of alkaline elution, there was a more sensitive reaction of spleen cells than of thymus cells to X-rays, BM and CY-E. The results show that thymus cells are especially qualified for the repair of short chains and spleen cells for the repair of long chains.

  4. Binding of anthracene to cellular macromolecules in the presence of light. [DNA, HSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, B K; Chignell, C F [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA)

    1983-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (> 295 nm) induced covalent binding of anthracene to DNA which increased with time and was not affected by oxygen. Irradiation in the presence of anthracene induced nicking of Col E/sub 1/ circular DNA and decreased the thermal denaturation temperature of calf thymus DNA. These effects were oxygen dependent, and were decreased by GMP. Irradiation of anthracene and human serum albumin resulted in covalent binding of the hydrocarbon to the protein accompanied by crosslinking of the protein. Protein crosslinking decreased under anaerobic conditions. Irradiation of anthracene bound to liposomes induced lipid peroxidation which was not affected by superoxide dismutase or catalase.

  5. Photochemical Reaction of 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA and Formation of DNA Covalent Adducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. Fu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available DMBA, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, is a widely studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that has long been recognized as a probable human carcinogen. It has been found that DMBA is phototoxic in bacteria as well as in animal or human cells and photomutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA102. This article tempts to explain the photochemistry and photomutagenicity mechanism. Light irradiation converts DMBA into several photoproducts including benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione, 7-hydroxy-12-keto-7-methylbenz[a]anthracene, 7,12-epidioxy-7,12-dihydro-DMBA, 7-hydroxymethyl-12-methylbenz[a]anthracene and 12-hydroxymethyl-7-methylbenz[a]anthracene. Structures of these photoproducts have been identified by either comparison with authentic samples or by NMR/MS. At least four other photoproducts need to be assigned. Photo-irradiation of DMBA in the presence of calf thymus DNA was similarly conducted and light-induced DMBA-DNA adducts were analyzed by 32P-postlabeling/TLC, which indicates that multiple DNA adducts were formed. This indicates that formation of DNA adducts might be the source of photomutagenicity of DMBA. Metabolites obtained from the metabolism of DMBA by rat liver microsomes were reacted with calf thymus DNA and the resulting DNA adducts were analyzed by 32P-postlabeling/TLC under identical conditions. Comparison of the DNA adduct profiles indicates that the DNA adducts formed from photo-irradiation are different from the DNA adducts formed due to the reaction of DMBA metabolites with DNA. These results suggest that photo-irradiation of DMBA can lead to genotoxicity through activation pathways different from those by microsomal metabolism of DMBA.

  6. Exploration of disulfiram dealings with calf thymus DNA using spectroscopic, electrochemical and molecular docking techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subastri, A.; Durga, A.; Harikrishna, K.; Sureshkumar, M.; Jeevaratnam, K.; Girish, K.S.; Thirunavukkarasu, C.

    2016-01-01

    Disulfiram (C 10 H 20 N 2 S 4 ) is an acetaldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor used in the treatment of chronic alcoholism and it has also been subjected to the clinical trial for cancer in recent times. However, there is no report on the binding effect of this emerging drug with DNA. Hence, the present investigation was taken up to study the binding effect of disulfiram on DNA under physiological conditions. UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence emission spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and molecular docking techniques were employed to determine the interaction mode of disulfiram with DNA. Further, DNA cleavage property of disulfiram was carried out by using agarose gel electrophoresis. The UV–vis absorption, emission and cyclic voltammetry measurements revealed that disulfiram showed the intercalative mode of interaction with DNA. The circular dichroism study exhibited structural changes of partial transition from B-conformation to A-conformation in DNA upon addition of disulfiram. Molecular docking study of disulfiram with DNA depicted intercalative mode of binding by formation of hydrogen and hydrophobic interaction along with docking score of −3.07 kcal/mol. The DNA cleavage study revealed that low concentration of disulfiram (50 µM) protected the DNA from oxidative damage sequentially, while high concentration of disulfiram (100 µM) showed less protective activity. Conversely, it caused DNA damage in the presence of hydroxyl radical oxidative system. Hence, the results obtained from the present investigations provide detailed discernment into DNA interaction effects of disulfiram.

  7. Exploration of disulfiram dealings with calf thymus DNA using spectroscopic, electrochemical and molecular docking techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subastri, A.; Durga, A. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry 605014 (India); Harikrishna, K.; Sureshkumar, M. [Centre for Bioinformatics, Pondicherry University, Puducherry 605014 (India); Jeevaratnam, K. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry 605014 (India); Girish, K.S. [Department of Studies & Research in Biochemistry, Tumkur University, Tumkur, Karnataka (India); Thirunavukkarasu, C., E-mail: tchinnasamy@hotmail.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry 605014 (India)

    2016-02-15

    Disulfiram (C{sub 10}H{sub 20}N{sub 2}S{sub 4}) is an acetaldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor used in the treatment of chronic alcoholism and it has also been subjected to the clinical trial for cancer in recent times. However, there is no report on the binding effect of this emerging drug with DNA. Hence, the present investigation was taken up to study the binding effect of disulfiram on DNA under physiological conditions. UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence emission spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and molecular docking techniques were employed to determine the interaction mode of disulfiram with DNA. Further, DNA cleavage property of disulfiram was carried out by using agarose gel electrophoresis. The UV–vis absorption, emission and cyclic voltammetry measurements revealed that disulfiram showed the intercalative mode of interaction with DNA. The circular dichroism study exhibited structural changes of partial transition from B-conformation to A-conformation in DNA upon addition of disulfiram. Molecular docking study of disulfiram with DNA depicted intercalative mode of binding by formation of hydrogen and hydrophobic interaction along with docking score of −3.07 kcal/mol. The DNA cleavage study revealed that low concentration of disulfiram (50 µM) protected the DNA from oxidative damage sequentially, while high concentration of disulfiram (100 µM) showed less protective activity. Conversely, it caused DNA damage in the presence of hydroxyl radical oxidative system. Hence, the results obtained from the present investigations provide detailed discernment into DNA interaction effects of disulfiram.

  8. Actions of exogenous histones and other proteins on [3H]-thymidine incorporation into DNA of Novikoff hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barra, R.; Beres, B.; Koch, M.R.; Lea, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of exogenous proteins on the incorporation of [ 3 H]-thymidine into DNA was studied in Novikoff hepatoma ascites cells incubated in Eagle's minimal essential medium. A liver cytosol fraction (8 mg protein/ml) caused approximately 80% inhibition of isotope incorporation. The inhibitory activity of cytosol fractions from Morris hepatomas 9618A 2 , 5123C and 20 were inversely related to their growth rate. Under conditions in which there appeared to be a density dependent inhibition of growth, a mean 10 to 20% stimulation of isotope incorporation was observed after addition of total calf thymus histones and individual fractions in the concentration range of 100 to 400μg/ml. In experiments with lower cell concentrations, a 60% or greater increase in [ 3 H]-thymidine incorporation could be obtained with total calf thymus histone and with Fl and arginine-rich histones from rat liver. At concentrations of 1 to 2 mg/ml, histones inhibited DNA synthesis. Bovine serum albumin had little effect on DNA synthesis. Polylysine caused an 80 to 90% inhibition at a concentration of 1 mg/ml, but stimulatory effects were detected under certain conditions at 10μg/ml. The results suggest critical dependence on the ratio of cell and exogenous protein concentration in the action of proteins on DNA synthesis. (author)

  9. Identification and analysis of a novel protein-tyrosine kinase from bovine thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zioncheck, T.F.; Harrison, M.L.; Geahlen, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    A cytosolic protein-tyrosine kinase has been identified and purified to near homogeneity from calf thymus by using the phosphorylation of the tyrosine-containing peptide angiotensin I as an assay. Specific peptide phosphorylating activity was enhanced by carrying out the assay at high ionic strength (2M NaCl). The inclusion of NaCl at this concentration acts to stimulate endogenous protein-tyrosine kinase activity while simultaneously inhibiting other endogenous kinases. The purification procedure involved extraction of the enzyme from calf-thymus and sequential chromatography on columns of DEAE-cellulose, heparin-agarose, casein-sepharose, butylagarose, and Sephadex G-75. Analysis of the most highly purified preparations by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a single Coomassie blue-stained band of 41 KDa. This molecular weight was consistent with results obtained from gel filtration, indicating that the enzyme exists as a monomer. The enzyme has also been found to catalyze an autophosphorylation reaction. Incubation of the enzyme with Mn 2+ and [γ- 32 P]ATP led to its modification on a tyrosine residue. Phosphopeptide mapping experiments indicated that the 41 KDa kinase was distinct from p56, the major membrane-associated protein-tyrosine kinase in T lymphocytes

  10. Repair of DNA treated with γ-irradiation and chemical carcinogens. Progress report, June 1, 1975--January 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldthwait, D.A.

    1976-02-01

    Enzymatic mechanisms of DNA repair are under investigation. From E. coli an endonuclease active on apurinic acid has been separated from endonuclease II active on DNA treated with methylmethane sulfonate, methylnitrosourea, 7-bromomethyl-12-methylbenz[a]anthracene and γ-irradiation. Mutants have been identified for each enzyme. The purification of both enzymes is proceeding and the mechanism of action of endonuclease II which has both an N-glycosidase and a phosphodiester hydrolase activity is under investigation. Evidence demonstrating exonuclease III is an enzyme separate from the apurinic acid endonuclease and endonuclease II has been accumulated but this is still under investigation. Work has been completed on 7-bromomethyl-12-methylbenz[a]anthracene treated DNA as a substrate and is being continued on the inhibitory effects of phorbol ester on endonuclease II. Finally, the properties of an enzyme from calf liver active on depurinated DNA have been compared with those of a comparable enzyme from calf thymus. Evidence that they are isozymes has been found

  11. Effect of γ-irradiated DNA on the activity of DNA polymerase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leadon, S.A.; Ward, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    A cell-free assay was developed to measure the effect of γ-irradiated DNA template on the ability of DNA polymerase to copy unirradiated template. Doses as low as 1 krad were able to decrease (approx. 15%) the activity of both bacterial and mammalian DNA polymerases in the assay. The percentage of polymerase activity decreased as the dose received by the template increased. The reduction in DNA polymerase activity was shown to be due to an inhibition of the enzyme by the irradiated DNA. Irradiated poly(dA-dT) was more effective in reducing polymerase activity than calf thymus DNA. Thus the polymerase-inhibition site(s) appears to be associated with base damage, specifically adenine or thymine. Using a free-radical scavenger, OH radicals were found to be involved in producing the damage sites. The interaction between irradiated DNA and DNA polymerase was found to be specific for the enzyme and not for other proteins present in the assay. The inhibition of DNA polymerase occurred prior to or during the initiation of DNA synthesis rather than after initiation of synthesis, i.e., during elongation

  12. The regiochemical distribution of positive charges along cholesterol polyamine carbamates plays significant roles in modulating DNA binding affinity and lipofection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geall, A J; Eaton, M A; Baker, T; Catterall, C; Blagbrough, I S

    1999-10-15

    We have quantified the effects of the regiochemical distribution of positive charges along the polyamine moiety in lipopolyamines for DNA molecular recognition. High affinity binding leads to charge neutralisation, DNA condensation and ultimately to lipofection. Binding affinities for calf thymus DNA were determined using an ethidium bromide displacement assay and condensation was detected by changes in turbidity using light scattering. The in vitro transfection competence of cholesterol polyamine carbamates was measured in CHO cells. In the design of DNA condensing and transfecting agents for non-viral gene therapy, the interrelationship of ammonium ions, not just their number, must be considered.

  13. Two half-sandwiched ruthenium (II compounds containing 5-fluorouracil derivatives: synthesis and study of DNA intercalation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Jun Li

    Full Text Available Two novel coordination compounds of half-sandwiched ruthenium(II containing 2-(5-fluorouracil-yl-N-(pyridyl-acetamide were synthesized, and their intercalation binding modes with calf thymus DNA were revealed by hyperchromism of ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy; the binding constants were determined according to a Langmuir adsorption equation that was deduced on the base of careful cyclic voltammetry measurements. The two compounds exhibited DNA intercalation binding activities with the binding constants of 1.13×106 M-1 and 5.35 ×105 M-1, respectively.

  14. Reaction of misonidazole with DNA radicals and its effect on the template activity of DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoh, Daiji; Kuwabara, Mikinori; Sato, Fumiaki; Yoshii, Giichi.

    1985-01-01

    After calf thymus DNA was gamma-irradiated in the solid state in vacuo and subsequently dissolved in aqueous solution containing misonidazole (3 mM) under hypoxic condition, the frequency of single-strand breaks and alkali-labile sites in DNA and the amount of misonidazole bound to DNA were measured. The presence of misonidazole converted the precursor radicals, which otherwise results in single-strand breaks, to alkali-labile sites, and the amount of alkali-labile sites increased linearly with increasing radiation dose. The amount of misonidazole bound to DNA also increased linearly with increasing radiation dose. The biological meaning of the changes in the frequency of single-strand breaks and alkali-labile sites by the reaction of misonidazole with DNA radicals and of binding misonidazole with DNA was examined using a model system to measure the template activity of DNA for RNA synthesis in vitro. The conversion of DNA radicals to alkali-labile sites protected the radiation-induced decrease in the template activity of DNA, while the adduct formation of misonidazole had no effect on it. (author)

  15. Effects of proteolysis on the adenosinetriphosphatase activities of thymus myosin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu, N.D.; Wagner, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    Limited proteolysis was used to identify regions on the heavy chains of calf thymus myosin which may be involved in ATP and actin binding. Assignments of the various proteolytic fragments to different parts of the myosin heavy chain were based on solubility, gel filtration, electron microscopy, and binding of 32 P-labeled regulatory light chains. Chymotrypsin rapidly cleaved within the head of thymus myosin to give a 70,000-dalton N-terminal fragment and a 140,000-dalton C-terminal fragment. These two fragments did not dissociate under nondenaturing conditions. Cleavage within the myosin tail to give heavy meromyosin occurred more slowly. Cleavage at the site 70,000 daltons from the N-terminus of the heavy chain caused about a 30-fold decrease in the actin concentration required to achieve half-maximal stimulation of the magnesium-adenosinetriphosphatase (Mg-ATPase) activity of unphosphorylated thymus myosin. The actin-activated ATPase activity of this digested myosin was only slightly affected by light chain phosphorylation. Actin inhibited the cleavage at this site by chymotrypsin. In the presence of ATP, chymotrypsin rapidly cleaved the thymus myosin heavy chain at an additional site about 4000 daltons from the N-terminus. Cleavage at this site caused a 2-fold increase in the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-ATPase activity and 3-fold decreases in the Ca 2+ - and Mg-ATPase activities of thymus myosin. Thus, cleavage at the N-terminus of thymus myosin was affected by ATP, and this cleavage altered ATPase activity. Papain cleaved the thymus myosin heavy chain about 94,000 daltons from the N-terminus to give subfragment 1. Although this subfragment 1 contained intact light chains, its actin-activated ATPase activity was not affected by light chain phosphorylation

  16. DNA-binding, DNA cleavage and cytotoxicity studies of two anthraquinone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholivand, M B; Kashanian, S; Peyman, H

    2012-02-15

    The interaction of native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) with two anthraquinones including quinizarin (1,4-dihydroxy anthraquinone) and danthron (1,8-dihydroxy anthraquinone) in a mixture of 0.04M Brittone-Robinson buffer and 50% of ethanol were studied at physiological pH by spectrofluorometric and cyclic voltammetry techniques. The former technique was used to calculate the binding constants of anthraquinones-DNA complexes at different temperatures. Thermodynamic study indicated that the reactions of both anthraquinone-DNA systems are predominantly entropically driven. Furthermore, the binding mechanisms on the reaction of the two anthraquinones with DNA and the effect of ionic strength on the fluorescence property of the system have also been investigated. The results of the experiments indicated that the binding modes of quinizarin and danthron with DNA were evaluated to be groove binding. Moreover, the cytotoxic activity of both compounds against human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cell line and DNA cleavage were investigated. The results indicated that these compounds slightly cleavage pUC18 plasmid DNA and showed minor antitumor activity against K562 (human chronic myeloid leukemia) cell line. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. DNA strand scission by the novel antitumor antibiotic leinamycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Mitsunobu; Saitoh, Yutaka; Nakano, Hirofumi

    1990-01-01

    Leinamycin is a recently discovered antitumor antibiotic with an unusual 1,3-dioxo-1,2-dithiolane structure. It preferentially inhibits the incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine into the acid-insoluble fraction of Bacillus subtilis. In vitro, leinamycin causes single-strand cleavage of supercoiled double-helical pBR322 DNA in the presence of thiol cofactors. Scavengers of oxygen radical did not suppress the DNA-cleaving activity. Thiol-activated leinamycin binds calf thymus DNA at 4 degree C and thermal treatment of the leinamycin-DNA adduct released a chemically modified leinamycin from the complex. The lack of cytotoxicity and DNA-cleaving activity for S-deoxyleinamycin indicates that the 1,3-dioxo-1,2-dithiolane moiety is essential for the activity of leinamycin. Thus, the primary cellular target of leinamycin appears to be DNA. It binds DNA and causes single-strand break at low concentrations, which may account for the potent antitumor activity

  18. Structural changes of ultraviolet-irradiated DNA derived from hydrodynamic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triebel, H.; Reinert, K.E.; Baeer, H.; Lang, H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper reports on sedimentation and viscosity measurements performed on ultraviolet-irradiated DNA from T7 phage and calf thymus. From the hydrodynamic data the relative changes in the mean molecular weight, radius of gyration, and effective Kuhn statistical segment length were calculated. The results show that ultraviolet irradiation (254 nm) leads to a significant decrease of the effective statistical segment length of DNA which may be due to small local helix kinks (produced by the generation of photodimers) and a local increase of chain flexibility. Alterations in the overall DNA conformation may be observed even at low fluence where the mean molecular weight almost stays constant. The locally distorted helix regions possibly may serve as recognition sites in the first step of excision repair. (Auth.)

  19. Detection and quantification of 4-ABP adducts in DNA from bladder cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Beatriz; Stillwell, Sara W; Wishnok, John S; Trudel, Laura J; Skipper, Paul; Yu, Mimi C; Tannenbaum, Steven R; Wogan, Gerald N

    2007-02-01

    We analyzed bladder DNA from 27 cancer patients for dG-C8-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-ABP) adducts using the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method with a 700 attomol (1 adduct in 10(9) bases) detection limit. Hemoglobin (Hb) 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) adduct levels were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. After isolation of dG-C8-ABP by immunoaffinity chromatography and further purification, deuterated (d9) dG-C8-ABP (MW=443 Da) was added to each sample. Structural evidence and adduct quantification were determined by selected reaction monitoring, based on the expected adduct ion [M+H+]+1, at m/z 435 with fragmentation to the product ion at m/z 319, and monitoring of the transition for the internal standard, m/z 444-->328. The method was validated by analysis of DNA (100 microg each) from calf thymus; livers from ABP-treated and untreated rats; human placentas; and TK6 lymphoblastoid cells. Adduct was detected at femtomol levels in DNA from livers of ABP-treated rats and calf thymus, but not in other controls. The method was applied to 41 DNA samples (200 microg each) from 27 human bladders; 28 from tumor and 14 from surrounding non-tumor tissue. Of 27 tissues analyzed, 44% (12) contained 5-80 dG-C8-ABP adducts per 10(9) bases; only 1 out of 27 (4%) contained adduct in both tumor and surrounding tissues. The Hb adduct was detected in samples from all patients, at levels of 12-1960 pg per gram Hb. There was no correlation between levels of DNA and Hb adducts. The presence of DNA adducts in 44% of the subjects and high levels of Hb adducts in these non-smokers indicate environmental sources of exposure to 4-ABP.

  20. 7-cysteine-pyrrole conjugate: A new potential DNA reactive metabolite of pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaobo; Xia, Qingsu; Ma, Liang; Fu, Peter P

    2016-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) require metabolic activation to exert cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and tumorigenicity. We previously reported that (±)-6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-derived DNA adducts are responsible for PA-induced liver tumor formation in rats. In this study, we determined that metabolism of riddelliine and monocrotaline by human or rat liver microsomes produced 7-cysteine-DHP and DHP. The metabolism of 7-glutathionyl-DHP by human and rat liver microsomes also generated 7-cysteine-DHP. Further, reaction of 7-cysteine-DHP with calf thymus DNA in aqueous solution yielded the described DHP-derived DNA adducts. This study represents the first report that 7-cysteine-DHP is a new PA metabolite that can lead to DNA adduct formation.

  1. Raman spectroscopy of DNA-metal complexes. I. Interactions and conformational effects of the divalent cations: Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Pd, and Cd

    OpenAIRE

    Duguid, J.; Bloomfield, V.A.; Benevides, J.; Thomas Jr, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    Interactions of divalent metal cations (Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Sr2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Pd2+, and Cd2+) with DNA have been investigated by laser Raman spectroscopy. Both genomic calf-thymus DNA (> 23 kilobase pairs) and mononucleosomal fragments (160 base pairs) were employed as targets of metal interaction in solutions containing 5 weight-% DNA and metal:phosphate molar ratios of 0.6:1. Raman difference spectra reveal that transition metal cations (Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Pd2+, and Cd2+) ind...

  2. On the effect of small radiation doses: Desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis and DNA repair of thymus, spleen, and bone marrow cells in the rat after fractionated total body X-ray irradiation. Zur Wirkung kleiner Strahlendosen: Desoxyribonukleinsaeure-(DNA-)Synthese und DNA-Reparatur von Thymus-, Milz- und Knochenmarkszellen der Ratte nach fraktionierter Ganzkoerperroentgenbestrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempel, K.; Ehling, G. (Muenchen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Pharmakologie, Toxikologie und Pharmazie)

    1989-09-01

    After three to seven days following to fractionated total body X-ray irradiation (TBI) (four expositions with doses of 0.3 to 5.0 cGy per fraction at intervals of 24 hours), a maximum 50 percent stimulation of the semiconservative DNA synthesis (SDS) of spleen cells was measured in vitro. This was not dependent of the fact if an acute high-dose (400 and/or 800 cGy) unique irradiation was applied after the fractionated TBI at the moment of stimulation. A significant increase of {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation into the DNA of bone marrow and thymus cells was only found when doses of 1.25 cGy per fraction had been used. After fractionated TBI with doses of {ge}5 cGy per fraction, an increase of DNA synthesis resistant to hydroxyurea ('unprogrammed' DNA synthesis, UDS) was demonstrated in spleen cells. The UV-simulated UDS decreased proportionately. The sedimentation of thymus, spleen, and bone marrow nucleoids in a neutral saccharose gradient gave no evidence of an increased DNA repair capacity after fractionated TBI. Whereas the SDS stimulation by fractionated TBI with small doses can be explained by a modified proliferation behavior of exposed cells, the UDS behavior of spleen cells after considerably higher radiation doses suggests regenerative processes correlated with an increased number of cells resistant to hydroxyurea and cells presenting an UV repair deficiency. These findings can be considered to be a further proof of the assumed immune-stimulating effect of small radiation doses. (orig.).

  3. Asbestos induced oxidative injury to DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, N; Khan, S G; Ali, S; Athar, M; Rahman, Q

    1993-06-01

    DNA-damaging effects of asbestos in the presence of organic peroxides and hydroperoxides were investigated. The destabilization of the secondary structure of DNA, damage to deoxyribose sugar and DNA fidelity were measured, respectively, by S-1 nuclease hydrolysis, the formation of thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-reacting species and a melting temperature (Tm) profile using calf thymus DNA. S-1 nuclease hydrolysis and Tm determinations have shown that the presence of benzoylperoxide (BOOB), cumene hydroperoxide (COOH) or tertiary-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) increased asbestos-mediated DNA damage by a large factor compared either to asbestos alone or to peroxide or hydroperoxide alone. However, no formation of TBA-reacting species could be observed in this system. The quenchers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) afforded protection against DNA damage. These results suggest that asbestos in the presence of organic peroxides and hydroperoxides damage the DNA which is mediated by the generation of oxygen free radicals. The significance of these results in relation to the development of cancer of the respiratory tract among the asbestos exposed population is discussed.

  4. Thymus function in drug-induced lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, R L; Salomon, D R; Guerrero, R S

    2001-01-01

    Autoimmunity develops when a lupus-inducing drug is introduced into the thymus of normal mice, but the relevance of this model to the human disorder is unclear in part because it is widely assumed that the thymus is non-functional in the adult. We compared thymus function in 10 patients with symptomatic procainamide-induced lupus to that in 13 asymptomatic patients who only developed drug-induced autoantibodies. T cell output from the thymus was quantified using a competitive polymerase chain reaction that detects T cell receptor DNA excision circles in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Despite the advanced age of the patient population under study, newly generated T cells were detected in all subjects. Although there was no overall quantitative difference between the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, we found a positive correlation between the level of T cell receptor excision circles in peripheral lymphocytes and serum IgG anti-chromatin antibody activity in patients with drug-induced lupus. The association between autoantibodies and nascent peripheral T cells supports the requirement for T cells in autoantibody production. Our observations are consistent with findings in mice in which autoreactive T cells derived from drug-induced abnormalities in T cell development in the thymus.

  5. Detection of endonuclease III- and 8-oxoguanine glycosylase-sensitive base modifications in γ-irradiated DNA and cells by the aldehyde reactive probe (ARP) assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsin Ali, M.; Kurisu, Satofumi; Yoshioka, Yoshihiro; Terato, Hiroaki; Ohyama, Yoshihiko; Ide Hiroshi; Kubo, Kihei

    2004-01-01

    Ionizing radiation generates diverse DNA lesions that differentially induce cell death and mutations. In the present study, calf thymus DNA (400 μg/ml) and HeLa cells were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays, and abasic (AP) sites and endonuclease (Endo) III- and 8-oxoguanine glycosylase (hOGG1)-sensitive base modifications in DNA were quantitated by the aldehyde reactive probe (ARP) assay. The irradiation of calf thymus DNA in phosphate buffer generated 91 Endo III- and 100 hOGG1-sensitive base modifications and 110 AP sites per 10 6 base pairs (bp) per Gy. The yield of the lesions in Tris buffer was 41- to 91-fold lower than that in phosphate, demonstrating a radioprotective effect of Tris. The HeLa cell chromosomal DNA contained 12 Endo III- and 3.8 hOGG1-sensitive base modifications and less than 1 AP sites per 10 6 bp as endogenous damage, and their level was increased by irradiation. The yields of the damage at 1 Gy (roughly equivalent to the lethal dose of HeLa cells [1.6-1.8 Gy]) were 0.13 Endo III, 0.091 hOGG1, and 0.065 AP sites per 10 6 bp, showing that irradiation with a lethal dose brought about only a marginal increase in base damage relative to an endogenous one. A comparison of the present data with those reported for DNA strand breaks supports the primary importance of double-strand breaks and clustered lesions as lethal damages formed by ionizing radiation. (author)

  6. Effect of uv irradiation on lambda DNA transcription

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranade, S S [Cancer Research Inst., Bombay (India)

    1977-05-01

    The effect of uv irradiation of template DNA has been studied in vitro in the E.coli RNA polymerase system with native and uv treated lambda DNA. Lambda DNA was more susceptible to uv than was calf-thymus DNA, yet a residual activity was observed at a uv dose of 0.5 x 10/sup 4/ erg/mm/sup 2/. From the kinetic analysis of the reaction and the incorporation of lambda /sup 32/P-labelled nucleoside triphosphates, it seems reasonable to conclude that uv irradiation probably did not affect the DNA initiation sites, recognizable by RNA polymerase. The transcription products made with uv irradiated lambda DNA were asymmetrical, and hybridized to the right half (R) and the left half (L) of lambda DNA with the ratio of R/L=4/1, and they showed a lower hybridizability than the transcripts with native lambda DNA. The initiation sites recognizable by RNA polymerase seemed to be the same on both native and uv irradiated lambda DNA, though the transcription of uv treated lambda DNA appeared to terminate with rather short RNA chains.

  7. Feasibility of using DNA-immobilized nanocellulose-based immunoadsorbent for systemic lupus erythematosus plasmapheresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Changgang; Carlsson, Daniel O; Mihranyan, Albert

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this project was to study the feasibility of using a DNA-immobilized nanocellulose-based immunoadsorbent for possible application in medical apheresis such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) treatment. Calf thymus DNA was bound to high surface area nanocellulose membrane at varying concentrations using UV-irradiation. The DNA-immobilized samples were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and phosphorus elemental analysis. The anti-ds-DNA IgG binding was tested in vitro using ELISA. The produced sample showed high affinity in vitro to bind anti-ds-DNA-antibodies from mice, as much as 80% of added IgG was bound by the membrane. Furthermore, the binding efficiency was quantitatively dependent on the amount of immobilized DNA onto nanocellulose membrane. The described nanocellulose membranes are interesting immunoadsorbents for continued clinical studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthesis, Characterization and DNA Binding Activity of a Potential DNA Intercalator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Norain Harun; Yaakob Razak; Haslina Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    A novel complex, (Ru(dppz) 2 (p-MOPIP)) 2+ (dppz = dipyrido-(3,2-a:20,30-c]phenazine, p-MOPIP = 2-(4-methoxyphenyl) imidazo(4,5-f)(1,10]phenanthroline) has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, 1 H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, Fourier Transform Infrared analysis, Ultra Violet visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. Herein, the complex was designed by adding p-MOPIP as an intercalating ligand and dppz as the ancillary ligand. The DNA binding properties of the complex with Calf Thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were investigated using spectroscopic methods. The UV-visible absorption band observed at 460 nm corresponded to the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) while bands at 358 and 281 nm corresponded to intra-ligand (IL) π-π * transitions of the ligand scaffold in p-MOPIP and dppz. The intrinsic binding constant, K b for this complex was 1.67x10 6 M -1 and this suggested that this complex, (Ru(dppz) 2 (p-MOPIP)) 2+ bound to DNA via the intercalative mode. Interestingly, the interaction of this complex with CT-DNA also had a molecular light switch effect. (author)

  9. Sharp kink of DNA at psoralen-cross-link site deduced from crystal structure of psoralen-thymine monoadduct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Peckler, S.; Graves, B.; Kanne, D.; Rapoport, H.; Hearst, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Light-induced cross-linking of double-stranded nucleic acids by psoralens has been exploited to locate, in vivo or in vitro, those double-helical regions of DNA or RNA that can accommodate any structural changes caused by the psoralen cross-links. To determine three-dimensional structural parameters of the cross-link, we have solved the crystal structure of the psoralen-thymine monoadduct formed in photoreaction between calf thymus DNA and 8-methoxypsoralen (8MOP). There are eight possible configurations for psoralen-thymine monoadducts and 64 for diadducts. We describe here the structural details of a psoralen-thymine monoadduct obtained in a biological environment and the consequences of the photo-cross-link between 8MOP and double-helical DNA

  10. Interaction of cationic porphyrins with DNA: Importance of the number and position of the charges and minimum structural requirements for intercalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, M.A.; Battioni, J.P.; Dupre, D.; Mansuy, D.; Le Pecq, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-three porphyrins or metalloporphyrins corresponding to the general formula [meso-[N-methyl-4(or 3 or 2)-pyridiniumyl] n (aryl) 4-n porphyrin]M (M = H 2 , Cu II , or ClFe III ), with n = 2-4, have been synthesized and characterized by UV-visible and 1 H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. These porphyrins differ not only in the number (2-4) and position of their cationic charges but also in the steric requirements to reach even temporarily a completely planar geometry. Interaction of these porphyrins or metalloporphyrins with calf thymus DNA has been studied and their apparent affinity binding constants have been determined by use of a competition method with ethidium bromide which was applicable not only for all the free base porphyrins but also for their copper (II) or iron (III) complexes. Whatever their mode of binding may be, their apparent affinity binding constants were relatively high and a linear decrease of log K app with the number of porphyrin charges was observed. Studies of porphyrin-DNA interactions by UV and fluorescence spectroscopy, viscosimetry, and fluorescence energy transfer experiments showed that not only the tetracationic meso-tetrakis[N-methyl-4(or 3)-pyridiniumyl]porphyrins, which both involved four freely rotating meso-aryl groups, but also the corresponding tri- and dicationic porphyrins were able to intercalate into calf thymus DNA. These results show that only half of the porphyrin ring is necessary for intercalation to occur

  11. Clonally Expanding Thymocytes Having Lineage Capability in Gamma-Ray-Induced Mouse Atrophic Thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Morita, Shin-ichi; Go, Rieka; Obata, Miki; Katsuragi, Yoshinori; Fujita, Yukari; Maeda, Yoshitaka; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Aoyagi, Yutaka; Ichikawa, Hitoshi; Mishima, Yukio; Kominami, Ryo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize, in the setting of γ-ray-induced atrophic thymus, probable prelymphoma cells showing clonal growth and changes in signaling, including DNA damage checkpoint. Methods and Materials: A total of 111 and 45 mouse atrophic thymuses at 40 and 80 days, respectively, after γ-irradiation were analyzed with polymerase chain reaction for D-J rearrangements at the TCRβ locus, flow cytometry for cell cycle, and Western blotting for the activation of DNA damage checkpoints. Results: Limited D-J rearrangement patterns distinct from normal thymus were detected at high frequencies (43 of 111 for 40-day thymus and 21 of 45 for 80-day thymus). Those clonally expanded thymocytes mostly consisted of CD4 + CD8 + double-positive cells, indicating the retention of lineage capability. They exhibited pausing at a late G1 phase of cell cycle progression but did not show the activation of DNA damage checkpoints such as γH2AX, Chk1/2, or p53. Of interest is that 17 of the 52 thymuses showing normal D-J rearrangement patterns at 40 days after irradiation showed allelic loss at the Bcl11b tumor suppressor locus, also indicating clonal expansion. Conclusion: The thymocytes of clonal growth detected resemble human chronic myeloid leukemia in possessing self-renewal and lineage capability, and therefore they can be a candidate of the lymphoma-initiating cells.

  12. Ultraviolet enhancement of DNA base release by bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakinuma, J.; Tanabe, M.; Orii, H.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of UV irradiation on base-releasing activity of bleomycin was studied on bleomycin A 2 -DNA reaction mixture in the presence of Fe(II) and 2-mercaptoethanol. This effect was measured by the release of free bases from calf thymus DNA with high-performance liquid chromatography. UV irradiation enhanced DNA base-releasing activity of bleomycin and simultaneously caused disappearance of fluorescence emission maximum at 355 nm assigned to bithiazole rings and increase in the intensity of a peak at 400 nm. UV irradiation at 295 nm, the UV absorption maximum of bleomycin, is the most effective in releasing free bases and in changing fluorescence emission patterns. From these results, we suggest that some alterations in the bithiazole group of bleomycin molecule were initiated by UV irradiation and contributed to increased base-releasing activity of bleomycin through a yet unexplained mechanism, presumably through bleomycin dimer formation. (orig.)

  13. A comprehensive approach to ascertain the binding mode of curcumin with DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, P.; Mary, Varughese; Aparna, P.; Dileep, K. V.; Sudarsanakumar, C.

    2017-03-01

    Curcumin is a natural phytochemical from the rhizoma of Curcuma longa, the popular Indian spice that exhibits a wide range of pharmacological properties like antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antiviral activities. In the published literatures we can see different studies and arguments on the interaction of curcumin with DNA. The intercalative binding, groove binding and no binding of curcumin with DNA were reported. In this context, we conducted a detailed study to understand the mechanism of recognition of dimethylsulfoxide-solubilized curcumin by DNA. The interaction of curcumin with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) was confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The nature of binding and energetics of interaction were studied by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), UV-visible, fluorescence and melting temperature (Tm) analysis. The experimental data were compared with molecular modeling studies. Our investigation confirmed that dimethylsulfoxide-solubilized curcumin binds in the minor groove of the ctDNA without causing significant structural alteration to the DNA.

  14. High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry for the analysis of modified bases in DNA: 7-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine, the major ethylene oxide-DNA adduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, L; Laurent, C; De Pauw, E

    1997-05-15

    A method was developed for the analysis of 7-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine (7HEG), the major DNA adduct formed after exposure to ethylene oxide (EO). The method is based on DNA neutral thermal hydrolysis, adduct micro-concentration, and final characterization and quantification by HPLC coupled to single-ion monitoring electrospray mass spectrometry (HPLC/SIR-ESMS). The method was found to be selective, sensitive, and easy to handle with no need for enzymatic digestion or previous sample derivatization. Detection limit was found to be close to 1 fmol of adduct injected (10(-10) M), thus allowing the detection of approximately three modified bases on 10(8) intact nucleotides in blood sample analysis. Quantification results are shown for 7HEG after calf thymus DNA and blood exposure to various doses of EO, in both cases obtaining clear dose-response relationships.

  15. Interaction of nogalamycin and analogs with DNA and other biopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, W C [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis; Pschigoda, L M; Schpok, S L.F.; Moscowitz, A.; McGovren, J P; Neta, P; Merritt, M V; Li, L H

    1981-01-01

    The interaction with calf thymus DNA of the anthracycline antibiotics, nogalamycin and its analogs, was studied by electronic absorption, circular dichroism (CD), thermal denaturation, solvent partition and pulse radiolysis techniques. The Scatchard, thermal denaturation (..delta..T/sub m/), difference circular dichroism (..delta..CD) and solvent partition binding parameters gave the same order of relative binding on a given lot of DNA, but some parameters were DNA-lot-dependent. In general, molecules containing the sugar moiety nogalose at C-7 or those having the natural or dis stereochemistry of nogalamycin at C-7 bound more strongly to DNA than did the molecules lacking nogalose or those with the opposite configuration at C-7 (con stereochemistry). This stereochemical-binding correlation differs from that found for adriamycin which has the con stereochemistry, but which binds strongly to DNA. Scatchard binding parameters could not be obtained from the pulse radiolysis or solvent partition techniques because of solubility difficulties.

  16. Macromolecular mechanisms of sputum inhibition of tobramycin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, B E; Weber, A; Berger, A; Ramsey, B; Smith, A L

    1995-01-01

    Tobramycin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, is used in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Tobramycin bioactivity, however, is antagonized by sputum. Glycoproteins (mucins) and high-molecular-weight DNA make up 2 to 3% (P. L. Masson and J. F. Heremans, p. 412-475, In M. J. Dulfano, ed., Sputum: Fundamentals and Clinical Pathology, 1973) and 3 to 10% (W. S. Chernick and G. J. Barbero, Pediatrics 24:739-745, 1959, and R. Picot, I. Das, and L. Reid, Thorax 33:235-242, 1978) of the dry weight of sputum, respectively. tobramycin binds to both mucins and DNA obtained from sputum (R. Ramphal, M. Lhermitte, M. Filliat, and P. Roussel, J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 22:483-490, 1988). In vitro, recombinant human DNase (rhDNase) hydrolyzes high-molecular-weight DNA of > 50 kb within sputum to fragments of 2 to 4 kb. Studying dialyzable tobramycin, we examined drug binding to whole sputum and to "mock sputum," which consisted of porcine gastric mucin and calf thymus DNA. We also studied the effects of rhDNase treatments of sputum, mock sputum, and calf thymus DNA on tobramycin binding. We found that treatments of sputum, mock sputum, and calf thymus DNA with rhDNase did not significantly increase the tobramycin bioactivity within the dialysates; surprisingly, sputum binding of tobramycin was increased by rhDNase. We conclude that rhDNase does not increase the bioactivity of tobramycin in sputum.

  17. Hair Dye–DNA Interaction: Plausible Cause of Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Maiti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye is one of the most popular cosmetic products which are used more widely and frequently to improve an individual’s appearance. Although the genotoxic effects of dye ingredients are widely reported, hair dye in its usable form is not reported extensively. In this contribution, we report the possible mode of interaction of hair dye with DNA which leads to genotoxicity. The effect of dye DNA interaction was studied on the most popular and globally used hair dye with Calf Thymus DNA and plasmid DNA. This interaction of dye DNA was studied by spectroscopic analyses and gel electrophoresis. The result had shown positive interaction of dye with DNA. Gel electrophoresis study confirms the binding of dye with DNA which results in linearization and fragmentation of the plasmid DNA. Dye–DNA interaction causes fragmentation and oxidation of DNA in absence of any catalyst, implies high toxicity of commercial hair dyes. Thus, it can be deduced from the present studies that hair dye in its usable form may lead to its penetration through skin affecting genomic DNA possesses genotoxic property and can be treated as one of the most common mutagen.

  18. DNA-repair after irradiation of cells with gamma-rays and neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, H.

    1975-11-01

    The structural alterations of calf thymus DNA produced by neutron or gamma irradiation were observed by absorption spectra, sedimentation rate and viscosity measurements. Mixed neutron-gamma irradiation produced fewer single and double strand breaks compared with pure gamma irradiation. RBE-values for mixed neutron-gamma radiation were less than 1, and DNA damage decreased with increasing neutron dose rate. Repair processes of DNA occuring after irradiation were measured in mouse spleen suspensions and human lymphocytes using autoradiographic methods and gradient centrifugations. The number of labelled cells was smaller after mixed neutron-gamma irradiation than after gamma irradiation. The rejoining of strand breaks in alkaline and neutral sucrose was more efficient after gamma irradiation than after mixed neutron-gamma irradiation. Finally, the effect of detergents Tween 80 and Nonident P40 on unscheduled DNA synthesis was studied by autoradiography after mixed neutron-gamma irradiation (Dn=5 krad). The results showed that the DNA synthesis was inhibited by detergent solutions of 0.002%

  19. Effects of radiation on DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braddock, M.

    1985-07-01

    The hydroxyl radical (OH radical) is the most damaging radical produced by the effect of ionizing radiation in water. The rate of reaction of the OH radical with purified, native and isodisperse DNA has been determined as compared with calf thymus DNA. This has been achieved by direct observation of the rate of formation of the DNA-OH radical adduct, and by competition with SCN - . Results obtained from direct observation are consistent with calculations which have been performed using the encounter frequency model of Braams and Ebert. However, results obtained for OH radical with DNA derived from competition plots suggest a rate constant somewhat lower than that obtained from direct observation. The relative merits of both techniques are discussed. In order to study the effect of energy deposited directly in the DNA, dry films of purified plasmid DNA have been irradiated in a system where the indirect effects of radical interaction have been minimized. The present results indicate that with different molecular lengths of plasmid DNA, non-random breakage may occur, and that additional damage may be brought about at sites of previously existing damage. Differences in the sensitivity of plasmid DNA molecules of varying lengths to radiation induced double strand breaks have been demonstrated. (author)

  20. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Binding property of the complex with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) has been investigated using absorption and emission studies. Thermal melting and viscosity experiments were further performed to determine the mode of binding of 1 with CT-DNA. Spectroscopic and viscosity investigations revealed an intercalative binding ...

  1. Photoreactivity of 5-methoxypsoralen with calf thymus DNA upon excitation in the UV A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa E Melo, T.; Santus, R. (Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris (France)); Morliere, P.; Dubertret, L. (Hopital Franco-Musulman, 93 - Bobigny (France))

    1984-01-01

    The photoaddition of 5-methoxy-psoralen to DNA has been studied as a function of the excitation wavelength in the 310-405 nm region. The predominant monoadduct formed in these irradiation conditions (quantum yield: 3x10/sup -3/) is the fluorescent 4',5' monoadduct (fluorescence quantum yield: 0.1) which is stable under irradiation at wavelength lambda > 370 nm. This cycloadduct is rapidly transformed into the diadduct with a quantum yield of 0.03 upon irradiation at shorter wavelengths.

  2. Photoreactivity of 5-methoxypsoralen with calf thymus DNA upon excitation in the UV A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa E Melo, T.; Santus, R.; Morliere, P.; Dubertret, L.

    1984-01-01

    The photoaddition of 5-methoxy-psoralen to DNA has been studied as a function of the excitation wavelength in the 310-405 nm region. The predominant monoadduct formed in these irradiation conditions (quantum yield: 3x10 -3 ) is the fluorescent 4',5' monoadduct (fluorescence quantum yield: 0.1) which is stable under irradiation at wavelength lambda > 370 nm. This cycloadduct is rapidly transformed into the diadduct with a quantum yield of 0.03 upon irradiation at shorter wavelengths. (orig.)

  3. DNA interaction studies of sesamol (3,4-methylenedioxyphenol) food additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashanian, Soheila; Tahmasian Ghobadi, Ameneh; Roshanfekr, Hamideh; Shariati, Zohreh

    2013-02-01

    The interaction of native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) with sesamol (3,4-methylenedioxyphenol) in Tris-HCl buffer at neutral pH 7.4 was monitored by absorption spectrophotometry, viscometry and spectrofluorometry. It is found that sesamol molecules could interact with DNA outside and/or groove binding modes, as are evidenced by: hyperchromism in UV absorption band, very slow decrease in specific viscosity of DNA, and small increase in the fluorescence of methylene blue (MB)-DNA solutions in the presence of increasing amounts of sesamol, which indicates that it is able to partially release the bound MB. Furthermore, the enthalpy and entropy of the reaction between sesamol and CT-DNA showed that the reaction is enthalpy-favored and entropy-disfavored (ΔH = -174.08 kJ mol(-1); ΔS = -532.92 J mol(-1) K(-1)). The binding constant was determined using absorption measurement and found to be 2.7 × 10(4) M(-1); its magnitude suggests that sesamol interacts to DNA with a high affinity.

  4. Aryl-1H-imidazole[4,5f][1,10]phenanthroline Cu(II) complexes: Electrochemical and DNA interaction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajebhosale, Bharati S; Dongre, Shivali N; Deshpande, Sameer S; Kate, Anup N; Kumbhar, Anupa A

    2017-10-01

    The reaction of aryl imidazo[4,5f] [1,10]phenanthrolines with Cu(NO 3 ) 2 lead to the formation of Cu(II) complexes of the type [Cu(L)(NO 3 ) 2 ] where L=PIP, 2-(phenyl) [4,5f] imidazo phenanthroline; HPIP=2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)imidazo [4,5f] phenanthroline and NIP=2-(naphthyl) [4,5f] imidazo phenanthroline. The interaction of these complexes with calf thymus DNA has been studied using viscosity measurements, UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. Chemical nuclease activity of these complexes has also been investigated. All complexes cleave DNA via oxidative pathway involving singlet oxygen. Molecular docking studies revealed that these complexes bind to DNA through minor groove. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Construction of Thymus Organoids from Decellularized Thymus Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Asako; Pradhan, Isha; Geng, Xuehui; Trucco, Massimo; Fan, Yong

    2016-10-12

    One of the hallmarks of modern medicine is the development of therapeutics that can modulate immune responses, especially the adaptive arm of immunity, for disease intervention and prevention. While tremendous progress has been made in the past decades, manipulating the thymus, the primary lymphoid organ responsible for the development and education of T lymphocytes, remains a challenge. One of the major obstacles is the difficulty to reproduce its unique extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment that is essential for maintaining the function and survival of thymic epithelial cells (TECs), the predominant population of cells in the thymic stroma. Here, we describe the construction of functional thymus organoids from decellularized thymus scaffolds repopulated with isolated TECs. Thymus decellularization was achieved by freeze-thaw cycles to induce intracellular ice crystal formation, followed by detergent-induced cell lysis. Cellular debris was removed with extensive wash. The decellularized thymus scaffolds can largely retain the 3D extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment that can support the recolonization of TECs. When transplanted into athymic nude mice, the reconstructed thymus organoids can effectively promote the homing of bone marrow-derived lymphocyte progenitors and support the development of a diverse and functional T cell repertoire. Bioengineering of thymus organoids can be a promising approach to rejuvenate/modulate the function of T-cell mediated adaptive immunity in regenerative medicine.

  6. Intercalation of a Zn(II) complex containing ciprofloxacin drug between DNA base pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Asadian, Ali Ashraf; Mahdavi, Mryam

    2017-11-02

    In this study, an attempt has been made to study the interaction of a Zn(II) complex containing an antibiotic drug, ciprofloxacin, with calf thymus DNA using spectroscopic methods. It was found that Zn(II) complex could bind with DNA via intercalation mode as evidenced by: hyperchromism in UV-Vis spectrum; these spectral characteristics suggest that the Zn(II) complex interacts with DNA most likely through a mode that involves a stacking interaction between the aromatic chromophore and the base pairs of DNA. DNA binding constant (K b = 1.4 × 10 4 M -1 ) from spectrophotometric studies of the interaction of Zn(II) complex with DNA is comparable to those of some DNA intercalative polypyridyl Ru(II) complexes 1.0 -4.8 × 10 4 M -1 . CD study showed stabilization of the right-handed B form of DNA in the presence of Zn(II) complex as observed for the classical intercalator methylene blue. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔH DNA-MB, indicating that it binds to DNA in strong competition with MB for the intercalation.

  7. Thymus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The removal of thymus of mice at birth before the leukemia virus was injected ..... finger proteins which mediate the differentiation of erythroid, myeloid, and lymphoid .... thymus undergoes an acute loss in thymic architecture and cellu- larity.

  8. Interaction of multiwalled carbon nanotube produces structural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) has been found to produce structural changes in Calf Thymus-DNA (CT-DNA). The interaction or binding of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) was investigated in order to discover if it brings about any significant changes of the DNA double helix using CD spectra ...

  9. Endonuclease activities in extracts of Micrococcus luteus that act on. gamma. -irradiated DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoen-Bopp, A; Schaefer, G; Hagen, U [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Strahlenbiologie

    1977-03-01

    Several protein fractions containing endonuclease activity against ..gamma..-irradiated DNA (..gamma..-endonuclease) were isolated from M.luteus. The crude extract was eluted on a phosphocellulose column and chromatographed on TEAE cellulose and subsequently on hydroxypatite. Five peaks of ..gamma..-endonuclease were obtained from each preparation. Repeated experiments showed comparable chromatographic behaviour of the fractions. There was no detectable activity of uv-endonuclease in the fractions with ..gamma..-endonuclease but a small contamination of endonuclease against unirradiated DNA and against DNA with apurinic sites. The ..gamma..-endonuclease was stimulated by, but was not dependent on, magnesium. Several tests for endonuclease activity have been used: the analysis of strand breaks in calf-thymus DNA or in PM2 DNA, and the determination of end-groups formed by endonuclease, either 3'OH end-groups or phosphomonoester end groups. From the results obtained it can be assumed that the strand breaks induced by the ..gamma..-endonuclease carry 3'OH and 5' phosphate end groups.

  10. The effect of U.V.-irradiation on lambda DNA transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranade, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of U.V.-irradiation of template DNA has been studied in vitro in the E.coli RNA polymerase system with native and U.V.-treated lambda DNA. Lambda DNA was more susceptible to U.V. than was calf-thymus DNA, yet a residual activity was observed at a U.V. dose of 0.5 x 10 4 erg/mm 2 . From the kinetic analysis of the reaction and the incorporation of lambda 32 P-labelled nucleoside triphosphates, it seems reasonable to conclude that U.V.-irradiation probably did not affect the DNA initiation sites, recognizable by RNA polymerase. The transcription products made with U.V.-irradiated lambda DNA were asymmetrical, and hybridized to the right half (R) and the left half (L) of lambda DNA with the ratio of R/L=4/1, and they showed a lower hybridizability than the transcripts with native lambda DNA. The initiation sites recognizable by RNA polymerase seemed to be the same on both native and U.V.-irradiated lambda DNA, though the transcription of U.V.-treated lambda DNA appeared to terminate with rather short RNA chains. (author)

  11. Activation Kinetics and Off-Target Effects of Thymus-Initiated Cre Transgenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianjun; Petrie, Howard T.

    2012-01-01

    The bacteriophage enzyme Cre is a site-specific recombinase widely used to delete loxP-flanked DNA sequences in lineage-specific fashion. Several mouse lines that direct Cre expression to lymphoid progenitors in the thymus have been established, but a side-by-side comparison of when they first become active, and/or their relative efficiency at various developmental stages, has been lacking. In this study, we evaluated these in four common Cre transgenic strains with thymus-initiated promoters (Lck, Cd2, or Cd4). We found that while all of them eventually labeled nearly all thymocytes, their kinetics were dramatically different, and other than Cd4[Cre], did not faithfully recapitulate the expression pattern of the corresponding endogenous gene. Perhaps even more importantly, while thymuses from some strains compared favorably to thymuses from control (Cre-negative) mice, we found that Cre expression could also result in off-target effects, including moderate to severe decreases in thymic cellularity. These effects occurred in the absence of loxP-flanked DNA target genes, and were dose and copy number dependent. Loss of cellularity was attributable to a specific decrease in CD4+8+ immature cells, and corresponds to an increased rate of programmed cell death. In addition to a comprehensive analysis of activation kinetics in thymus-initiated Cre transgenes, our data show that Cre is toxic to CD4+8+ cells in a dose-dependent fashion, and emphasize that the choice of thymus-initiated Cre strain is critically important for minimizing off-target effects of Cre. PMID:23049709

  12. Comparison of the electrophoretic method with the sedimentation method for the analysis of DNA strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Osamu; Ogawa, Masaaki; Hoshi, Masaharu

    1982-01-01

    Application of electrophoresis to the analysis of DNA strand breaks was studied comparing with the sedimentation analysis. A BRL gel electrophoresis system (Type V16) was used for this study. Calf thymus DNA (1 mg/ml) irradiated with 60 Co gamma-rays in SSC solution was applied to both the electrophoretic analysis and the sedimentation analysis. Lamda phage DNA and its fragments were employed as the standard size molecules. In a range from 1 k base pairs to 6 k base pairs in length for double stranded DNA or from 2 k bases to 12 k bases for single stranded DNA, the calculated average molecular weight from the electrophoresis coincided with that from the sedimentation. Number of single strand breaks and double strand breaks were 1.34 x 10 11 breaks/mg/rad (G = 0.215) and 0.48 x 10 5 breaks/mg/rad 2 , respectively. (author)

  13. Energetic and binding properties of DNA upon interaction with dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathaie, S Z; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A; Saboury, A A

    1999-02-15

    The interaction of dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), a cationic surfactant, with calf thymus DNA has been studied by various methods, including potentiometric technique using DTAB-selective plastic membrane electrode at 27 and 37 degreesC, isothermal titration microcalorimetry and UV spectrophotometry at 27 degreesC using 0.05 M Tris buffer and 0.01 M NaCl at pH 7.4. The free energy is calculated from binding isotherms on the basis of Wyman binding potential theory and the enthalpy of binding according to van't Hoff relation. The enthalpy of unfolding has been determined by subtraction of the enthalpy of binding from the microcalorimetric enthalpy. The results show that, after the interaction of first DTAB molecule to DNA (base molarity) through the electrostatic interaction, the second DTAB molecule also binds to DNA through electrostatic interaction. At this stage, the predom-inant DNA conformational change occurs. Afterwards up to 20 DTAB molecules, below the critical micelle concentration of DTAB, bind through hydrophobic interactions.

  14. Three year progress report and renewal request

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, E.L.

    1980-08-01

    A review of research accomplisments during the contract period is presented. Reported projects include: (1) metals as radiation sensitizers of spores; (2) studies on transforming and calf thymus DNA; (3) pulse radiolysis studies on DNA components; (4) studies of metal complexes of DNA compounds; and (5) dosimetry of the pulsed electron beam

  15. Absorption spectrum of DNA for wavelengths greater than 300 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, J.C.; Griffin, K.P.

    1981-01-01

    Although DNA absorption at wavelengths greater than 300 nm is much weaker than that at shorter wavelengths, this absorption seems to be responsible for much of the biological damage caused by solar radiation of wavelengths less than 320 nm. Accurate measurement of the absorption spectrum of DNA above 300 nm is complicated by turbidity characteristic of concentrated solutions of DNA. We have measured the absorption spectra of DNA from calf thymus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, salmon testis, and human placenta using procedures which separate optical density due to true absorption from that due to turbidity. Above 300 nm, the relative absorption of DNA increases as a function of guanine-cytosine content, presumably because the absorption of guanine is much greater than the absorption of adenine at these wavelengths. This result suggests that the photophysical processes which follow absorption of a long-wavelength photon may, on the average, differ from those induced by shorter-wavelength photons. It may also explain the lower quantum yield for the killing of cells by wavelengths above 300 nm compared to that by shorter wavelengths

  16. AFFINITY BIOSENSOR BASED ON SCREEN-PRINTED ELECTRODE MODIFIED WITH DNA FOR GENOTOXIC COMPOUNDS DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Kuswandi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical method for the detection of the genotoxic compounds using a DNA-modified electrode was developed. This electrode was successfully used for the electrochemical detection of genotoxic compounds in water samples. The electrochemical results clearly demonstrated that, the development is related to the molecular interaction between the surface-linked DNA obtained from calf thymus and the target compounds, such as pollutants, in order to develop a simple device for rapid screening of genotoxic compounds in environmental samples. The detection of such compounds was measured by their effect on the oxidation signal of the guanine peak of the DNA immobilised on the surface of carbon based Screen-Printed Electrode (SPE in disposable mode, and monitored by square-wave voltametric analysis. The DNA biosensor is able to detect known intercalating and groove-binding genotoxic compounds such as Dioxin, Bisphenol A, PCBs, and Phtalates. Application to real water samples is discussed and reported.   Keywords: electrochemical, screen-printed electrode, DNA biosensor, genotoxic compounds

  17. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Binding of these complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) has been investigated by absorption spectroscopy, steady-state emission spectroscopy and viscosity measurements. The experimental results indicate that the size and shape of the intercalating ligands have marked effect on the binding affinity of the complexes ...

  18. Golden rain tree leaf extracts as potential inhibitor of lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the peroxyl radical scavenging capacity and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) protective effect of extract/fractions of Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. (Golden rain tree) in lipid peroxidation assay and calf thymus DNA protection assay. The leaves of the plant were extracted with different ...

  19. Development of laser-induced fluorescence detection to assay DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, M.; Freund, H.G.

    1991-01-01

    A precolumn derivation method has been developed for high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of DNA damage using fluorescence detection. The modified nucleotide, having excised enzymatically from the exposed DNA, is enriched from the normal nucleotides and labeled with a fluorescent reagent. The labeling procedure involves phosphoramidation of the nucleotide with ethylenediamine (EDA) followed by conjugation of the free amino end of the phosphoramidate with 5-dimethylaminonaphthalene 1-sulfonyl chloride, commonly known as Dansyl chloride. The dansylated nucleotide can be analyzed with a sub-picomole limit of detection (LOD) by conventional HPLC using a conventional fluorescence detector. By combining microbore HPLC with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection, the authors present the development of an analytical system that has sub-femtomole LOD for real-time analysis of the dansylated nucleotide. In this paper the application of the developed system in fluorescence postlabeling assay of a small alkyl-modified nucleotide (5-methyl CMP) in calf-thymus DNA is discussed

  20. Synthesis, DNA Binding and Topoisomerase I Inhibition Activity of Thiazacridine and Imidazacridine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Almeida Lafayette

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Thiazacridine and imidazacridine derivatives have shown promising results as tumors suppressors in some cancer cell lines. For a better understanding of the mechanism of action of these compounds, binding studies of 5-acridin-9-ylmethylidene-3-amino-2-thioxo-thiazolidin-4-one, 5-acridin-9-ylmethylidene-2-thioxo-thiazolidin-4-one, 5-acridin-9-ylmethylidene-2-thioxo-imidazolidin-4-one and 3-acridin-9-ylmethyl-thiazolidin-2,4-dione with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA by electronic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy were performed. The binding constants ranged from 1.46 × 104 to 6.01 × 104 M−1. UV-Vis, fluorescence and circular dichroism measurements indicated that the compounds interact effectively with ctDNA, both by intercalation or external binding. They demonstrated inhibitory activities to human topoisomerase I, except for 5-acridin-9-ylmethylidene-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one. These results provide insight into the DNA binding mechanism of imidazacridines and thiazacridines.

  1. 7-N-Acetylcysteine-pyrrole conjugate-A potent DNA reactive metabolite of pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaobo; Ma, Liang; Xia, Qingsu; Fu, Peter P

    2016-10-01

    Plants containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are widespread throughout the world and are the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. PAs require metabolic activation to form reactive dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids (dehydro-PAs) that are capable of alkylating cellular DNA and proteins, form (±)-6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-DNA and DHP-protein adducts, and lead to cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and tumorigenicity. In this study, we determined that the metabolism of riddelliine and monocrotaline by human and rat liver microsomes in the presence of N-acetylcysteine both produced 7-N-acetylcysteine-DHP (7-NAC-DHP) and DHP. Reactions of 7-NAC-DHP with 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG), 2'-deoxyadenosine (dA), and calf thymus DNA in aqueous solution followed by enzymatic hydrolysis yielded DHP-dG and/or DHP-dA adducts. These results indicate that 7-NAC-DHP is a reactive metabolite that can lead to DNA adduct formation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. 7-N-Acetylcysteine-pyrrole conjugate—A potent DNA reactive metabolite of pyrrolizidine alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo He

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs are widespread throughout the world and are the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. PAs require metabolic activation to form reactive dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids (dehydro-PAs that are capable of alkylating cellular DNA and proteins, form (±-6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP-DNA and DHP-protein adducts, and lead to cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and tumorigenicity. In this study, we determined that the metabolism of riddelliine and monocrotaline by human and rat liver microsomes in the presence of N-acetylcysteine both produced 7-N-acetylcysteine-DHP (7-NAC-DHP and DHP. Reactions of 7-NAC-DHP with 2′-deoxyguanosine (dG, 2′-deoxyadenosine (dA, and calf thymus DNA in aqueous solution followed by enzymatic hydrolysis yielded DHP-dG and/or DHP-dA adducts. These results indicate that 7-NAC-DHP is a reactive metabolite that can lead to DNA adduct formation.

  3. Spectroscopic and molecular modeling study on the interaction of ctDNA with 3′-deoxy-3′-azido doxorubicin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Shaoguang; Cui, Yanrui; Liu, Qingfeng; Cui, Fengling; Zhang, Guisheng; Chi, Yanwei; Peng, Hao

    2013-01-01

    The method of synthesizing 3′-deoxy-3′-azido doxorubicin (ADOX) directly from doxorubicin has been developed. This study presents the interaction between ADOX and calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ctDNA) by using spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling techniques. Iodide quenching, fluorescence polarization, viscosity and molecular modeling studies of ADOX–ctDNA interactions indicated that ADOX was an intercalator of ctDNA and preferentially bound to C–G rich regions of ctDNA. Simultaneously, spectroscopic results indicated that the quenching mechanism of ADOX–ctDNA was a static quenching. According to thermodynamic parameters, electrostatic force played roles in the interaction of ADOX with ctDNA. -- Highlights: ●An approach to 3′-deoxy-3′-azido doxorubicin (ADOX) from doxorubicin was developed. ●The quenching mechanism of ADOX with ctDNA was a static quenching type. ●The binding mode between ADOX and ctDNA was intercalative binding. ●The results of molecular docking corroborated results of spectra investigations

  4. The interaction of taurine-salicylaldehyde Schiff base copper(II) complex with DNA and the determination of DNA using the complex as a fluorescence probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Qianru; Yang, Zhousheng

    2010-09-01

    The interaction of taurine-salicylaldehyde Schiff base copper(II) (Cu(TSSB) 22+) complex with DNA was explored by using UV-vis, fluorescence spectrophotometry, and voltammetry. In pH 7.4 Tris-HCl buffer solution, the binding constant of the Cu(TSSB) 22+ complex interaction with DNA was 3.49 × 10 4 L mol -1. Moreover, due to the fluorescence enhancing of Cu(TSSB) 22+ complex in the presence of DNA, a method for determination of DNA with Cu(TSSB) 22+ complex as a fluorescence probe was developed. The fluorescence spectra indicated that the maximum excitation and emission wavelength were 389 nm and 512 nm, respectively. Under optimal conditions, the calibration graphs are linear over the range of 0.03-9.03 μg mL -1 for calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA), 0.10-36 μg mL -1 for yeast DNA and 0.01-10.01 μg mL -1 for salmon DNA (SM-DNA), respectively. The corresponding detection limits are 7 ng mL -1 for CT-DNA, 3 ng mL -1 for yeast DNA and 3 ng mL -1 for SM-DNA. Using this method, DNA in synthetic samples was determined with satisfactory results.

  5. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  6. Synthesis, DNA binding ability and anticancer activity of 2-heteroaryl substituted benzimidazoles linked pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Ahmed; Pogula, Praveen Kumar; Khan, Mohammed Naseer Ahmed; Seshadri, Bobburi Naga; Sreekanth, Kokkonda

    2013-08-01

    As a continuation of our efforts to develop the benzimidazole-PBD conjugates as potential anticancer agents, a series of heteroaryl substituted benzimidazole linked PBD conjugates has been synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer potential in 60 human cancer cell lines. Most of the compounds exhibited promising anticancer activity and interestingly, compounds 4c and 4d displayed significant activity in most of the cell lines tested. Whereas, compound 4e showed selectivity in renal cancer cells with GI50 values of <10 and 70 nM against RXF 393 and UO-31 cell lines, respectively. Further, these compounds also showed significant DNA-binding affinity by thermal denaturation study using duplex form of calf thymus (CT) DNA.

  7. Interaction of a non-histone chromatin protein (high-mobility group protein 2) with DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, G.H.; Shooter, K.V.; Johns, E.W.

    1975-01-01

    The interaction with DNA of the calf thymus chromatin non-histone protein termed the high-mobility group protein 2 has been studied by sedimentation analysis in the ultracentrifuge and by measuring the binding of the 125 I-labelled protein to DNA. The results have been compared with those obtained previously by us [Eur. J. Biochem. (1974) 47, 263-270] for the interaction of high-mobility group protein 1 with DNA. Although the binding parameters are similar for these two proteins, high-mobility group protein 2 differs from high-mobility group protein 1 in that the former appears to change the shape of the DNA to a more compact form. The molecular weight of high-mobility group protein 2 has been determined by equilibrium sedimentation and a mean value of 26,000 was obtained. A low level of nuclease activity detected in one preparation of high-mobility group protein 2 has been investigated. (orig.) [de

  8. Transfection with extracellularly UV-damaged DNA induces human and rat cells to express a mutator phenotype towards parvovirus H-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinsart, C.; Cornelis, J.J.; Klein, B.; van der Eb, A.J.; Rommelaere, J.

    1984-01-01

    Human and rat cells transfected with UV-irradiated linear double-stranded DNA from calf thymus displayed a mutator activity. This phenotype was identified by growing a lytic thermosensitive single-stranded DNA virus (parvovirus H-1) in those cells and determining viral reversion frequencies. Likewise, exogenous UV-irradiated closed circular DNAs, either double-stranded (simian virus 40) or single-stranded (phi X174), enhanced the ability of recipient cells to mutate parvovirus H-1. The magnitude of mutator activity expression increased along with the number of UV lesions present in the inoculated DNA up to a saturation level. Unirradiated DNA displayed little inducing capacity, irrespective of whether it was single or double stranded. Deprivation of a functional replication origin did not impede UV-irradiated simian virus 40 DNA from providing rat and human cells with a mutator function. Our data suggest that in mammalian cells a trans-acting mutagenic signal might be generated from UV-irradiated DNA without the necessity for damaged DNA to replicate

  9. Design of expanded bed supports for the recovery of plasmid DNA by anion exchange adsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theodossiou, Irini; Søndergaard, M.; Thomas, Owen R. T.

    2001-01-01

    In this study we detail the rational design of new chromatographic adsorbents tailored for the capture of plasmid DNA. Features present on current chromatographic supports that can significantly enhance plasmid binding capacity have been identified in packed bed chromatography experiments...... and blueprints for improved expanded bed adsorbents have been put forward. The characterisation and testing of small (20-40 mum) high density (>3.7 g cm(-3)) pellicular expanded bed materials functionalised with various anion exchange structures is presented. In studies with calf thymus DNA, dynamic binding...... capacities of 1.2 and 3.4 mg ml(-1) were recorded for prototype diethylaminoethyl-and polyethylene imine-linked adsorbents which were respectively 25 and 70 fold higher than those of equivalently derivatised commercial expanded bed materials. The prototype polyethylene imine-coupled material exhibited severe...

  10. Syntheses of DNA adducts of two heterocyclic amines, 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeA alpha C) and 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (A alpha C) and identification of DNA adducts in organs from rats dosed with MeA alpha C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Pfau, W.

    2004-01-01

    2-Amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeAalphaC) and 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AalphaC) are mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amines formed during ordinary cooking. MeAalphaC and AalphaC are activated to mutagenic metabolites by cytochrome P450-mediated N-oxidation...... by reaction of the parent amines with acetylated guanine N3-oxide. N-2-OH-MeAalphaC and N-2-OH-AalphaC reacted with calf thymus DNA after addition of acetic anhydride. P-32-postlabelling analysis of modified DNA showed one major adduct co-migrating with N-2-(3',5'-diphospho-2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl...

  11. Thymus Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell. These cells help protect you from infections. Cancer of the thymus is rare. You are more ... Sometimes there are no symptoms. Other times, thymus cancer can cause A cough that doesn't go ...

  12. The effects of linear assembly of two carbazole groups on acid-base and DNA-binding properties of a ruthenium(II) complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Xue, Long-Xin; Ju, Chun-Chuan; Wang, Ke-Zhi

    2013-07-01

    A novel Ru(II) complex of [Ru(bpy)2(Hbcpip)](ClO4)2 {where bpy = 2,2-bipyridine, Hbcpip = 2-(4-(9H-3,9'-bicarbazol-9-yl)phenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline} is synthesized and characterized. Calf-thymus DNA-binding properties of the complex were studied by UV-vis absorption and luminescence titrations, steady-state emission quenching by [Fe(CN)6]4-, DNA competitive binding with ethidium bromide, thermal denaturation and DNA viscosity measurements. The results indicate that the complex partially intercalated into the DNA with a binding constant of (5.5 ± 1.4) × 105 M-1 in buffered 50 mM NaCl. The acid-base properties of the complex were also studied by UV-visible and luminescence spectrophotometric pH titrations, and ground- and excited-state acidity ionization constant values were derived.

  13. Determination of adducts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean, R.M.; Chess, E.K.; Thomas, B.L.; Mann, D.B.; Dankovic, D.A.; Franz, J.A.; Springer, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    Adducts to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), formed from metabolites of polynuclear aromatic compounds, are relatively persistent and correlate with bioresponse (carcinogenicity). Therefore, qualitative and quantitative analysis of adducts in the DNA of individuals may provide valuable information as to recent exposure to carcinogenic hydrocarbons. Further, the ability to detect adducts in a large segment of a population may have significant epidemiological significance. The current thrust of the analytical development at PNL is to isolate the DNA, liberate the adducted hydrocarbon residue from the DNA with acid hydrolysis, and prepare derivatives of the hydrolyzed species that will enhance its detection, quantitation, and characterization using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). They have initiated the development of the necessary techniques using benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Samples of DNA adducts of radiolabeled B[a]P have been prepared for study by reacting DNA isolated from calf thymus with benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (the ultimate carcinogenic form of B[a]P). Other DNA/B[a]P samples have been prepared by painting the skin of mice with radiolabeled B[a]P. The ability to prepare research quantities of adducts using the hepatocyte preparation method reported by Dankovic et al is a significant development to their DNA adduct analysis program

  14. Investigations on the interactions of diclofenac sodium with HSA and ctDNA using molecular modeling and multispectroscopic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanrui; Hao, Erjun; Hui, Guangquan; Guo, Wei; Cui, Fengling

    2013-06-01

    A tentative study on interaction of diclofenac sodium (DF-Na) with human serum albumin (HSA) and calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) was conducted by using multi-spectroscopic and molecular modeling techniques under simulative physiological conditions. The results of spectroscopic measurements suggested that the quenching mechanisms were static quenching. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy clearly demonstrated the occurrence of conformational changes of HSA with addition of DF-Na. In addition, competitive studies with ethidium bromide (EB) have shown that DF-Na can bind to ctDNA relatively strong via groove binding. Based on the values of thermodynamic parameters and the results of molecular modeling, it was confirmed that hydrophobic forces and hydrogen bond were the mainly binding forces in DF-Na-HSA and DF-Na-DNA systems. The binding distance between DF-Na and HSA was also determined using the theory of the Förster energy transference.

  15. Polyamine structural effects on the induction and stabilization of liquid crystalline DNA: potential applications to DNA packaging, gene therapy and polyamine therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saminathan, M; Thomas, Thresia; Shirahata, Akira; Pillai, C K S; Thomas, T J

    2002-09-01

    DNA undergoes condensation, conformational transitions, aggregation and resolubilization in the presence of polyamines, positively charged organic molecules present in all cells. Under carefully controlled environmental conditions, DNA can also transform to a liquid crystalline state in vitro. We undertook the present work to examine the ability of spermidine, N4-methylspermidine, spermine, N1-acetylspermine and a group of tetramine, pentamine and hexamine analogs of spermine to induce and stabilize liquid crystalline DNA. Liquid crystalline textures were identified under a polarizing microscope. In the absence of polyamines, calf thymus DNA assumed a diffused, planar cholesteric phase with entrapped bubbles when incubated on a glass slide at 37 degrees C. In the presence of spermidine and spermine, the characteristic fingerprint textures of the cholesteric phase, adopting a hexagonal order, were obtained. The helical pitch was 2.5 micro m. The final structures were dendrimeric and crystalline when DNA was treated with spermine homologs and bis(ethyl) derivatives. A cholesteric structure was observed when DNA was treated with a hexamine at 37 degrees C. This structure changed to a hexagonal dendrimer with fluidity on prolonged incubation. These data show a structural specificity effect of polyamines on liquid crystalline phase transitions of DNA and suggest a possible physiological function of natural polyamines.

  16. Evaluation of Global Genomic DNA Methylation in Human Whole Blood by Capillary Electrophoresis UV Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Zinellu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in global DNA methylation are implicated in various pathophysiological processes. The development of simple and quick, yet robust, methods to assess DNA methylation is required to facilitate its measurement and interpretation in clinical practice. We describe a highly sensitive and reproducible capillary electrophoresis method with UV detection for the separation and detection of cytosine and methylcytosine, after formic acid hydrolysis of DNA extracted from human whole blood. Hydrolysed samples were dried and resuspended with water and directly injected into the capillary without sample derivatization procedures. The use of a run buffer containing 50 mmol/L BIS-TRIS propane (BTP phosphate buffer at pH 3.25 and 60 mmol/L sodium acetate buffer at pH 3.60 (4 : 1, v/v allowed full analyte identification within 11 min. Precision tests indicated an elevated reproducibility with an interassay CV of 1.98% when starting from 2 μg of the extracted DNA. The method was successfully tested by measuring the DNA methylation degree both in healthy volunteers and in reference calf thymus DNA.

  17. Quantification of total phosphorothioate in bacterial DNA by a bromoimane-based fluorescent method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lu; Xiang, Yu

    2016-06-01

    The discovery of phosphorothioate (PT) modifications in bacterial DNA has challenged our understanding of conserved phosphodiester backbone structure of cellular DNA. This exclusive DNA modification in bacteria is not found in animal cells yet, and its biological function in bacteria is still poorly understood. Quantitative information about the bacterial PT modifications is thus important for the investigation of their possible biological functions. In this study, we have developed a simple fluorescence method for selective quantification of total PTs in bacterial DNA, based on fluorescent labeling of PTs and subsequent release of the labeled fluorophores for absolute quantification. The method was highly selective to PTs and not interfered by the presence of reactive small molecules or proteins. The quantification of PTs in an E. coli DNA sample was successfully achieved using our method and gave a result of about 455 PTs per million DNA nucleotides, while almost no detectable PTs were found in a mammalian calf thymus DNA. With this new method, the content of phosphorothioate in bacterial DNA could be successfully quantified, serving as a simple method suitable for routine use in biological phosphorothioate related studies. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis and bioactive evaluations of novel benzotriazole compounds as potential antimicrobial agents and the interaction with calf thymus DNA ... exhibited moderate to good antibacterial and antifungal activities against the tested strains in comparison to reference drugs chloromycin, norfloxacin and fluconazole.

  19. An electrochemical study of neutral red-DNA interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heli, H.; Bathaie, S.Z.; Mousavi, M.F.

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemical methods were used to investigate the interaction of neutral red (NR) with double-stranded calf thymus DNA, in solution as well as using a DNA-modified glassy carbon (GC-DNA) electrode. The results were compared with those obtained from bare glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The formal potential of NR was more positive when GC-DNA electrode was used although the rate of heterogeneous electron transfer is as high as that of using GC electrode. GC-DNA electrode enables preconcentration of NR for chosen times on the electrode surface, despite the fact that the mass transfer effects in the thin DNA layer adsorbed on the surface was still observed using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. Parameters, such as the diffusion coefficient of NR, binding site size in base pairs and the ratio of the binding constants for the oxidized and reduced forms of the bound species were obtained. A binding isotherm for NR at GC-DNA electrode was obtained from coulometric titrations and gave an affinity constant equal to 2.76 x 10 4 L mol -1 . From the studies of the interaction in solution, the diffusion coefficient of free and DNA-bound NR, binding constant and binding site size of the DNA-NR complex was also obtained simultaneously by non-linear fitting analysis of voltammetric data

  20. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Results of absorption and fluorescence titration as well as thermal denaturation studies reveal that both the bis- and tris-complexes of ptzo show moderately strong affinity for binding with calf thymus (CT) DNA with the binding constants being close to 105M-1 in each case. An intercalative mode of DNA binding has been ...

  1. Quantification of 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine in the DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giel-Pietraszuk, Małgorzata; Insińska-Rak, Małgorzata; Golczak, Anna; Sikorski, Marek; Barciszewska, Mirosława; Barciszewski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Methylation at position 5 of cytosine (Cyt) at the CpG sequences leading to formation of 5-methyl-cytosine (m(5)Cyt) is an important element of epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Modification of the normal methylation pattern, unique to each organism, leads to the development of pathological processes and diseases, including cancer. Therefore, quantification of the DNA methylation and analysis of changes in the methylation pattern is very important from a practical point of view and can be used for diagnostic purposes, as well as monitoring of the treatment progress. In this paper we present a new method for quantification of 5-methyl-2'deoxycytidine (m(5)C) in the DNA. The technique is based on conversion of m(5)C into fluorescent 3,N(4)-etheno-5-methyl-2'deoxycytidine (εm(5)C) and its identification by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The assay was used to evaluate m(5)C concentration in DNA of calf thymus and peripheral blood of cows bred under different conditions. This approach can be applied for measuring of 5-methylcytosine in cellular DNA from different cells and tissues.

  2. Pico-level DNA sensing by hetero-polymetalate, Na10{Dy2W10O30(µ-S)6}·80H2O, cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Taposhree; Ganguly, Jhuma; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

    2018-04-01

    The polyoxometalate dysprosium cluster, (Dy-S-W POM) , Na10[Dy2W10O30(µ-S)6]·80H2O, shows remarkable dsDNA denaturation property. In the presence of 0.22 µmol of this Dy-S-W POM, the melting temperature (Tm) of calf-thymus (CT) dsDNA is decreased to 62.35 °C. Dy-S-W POM shows bleaching of methylene blue (MB). Addition of CT-DNA in the MB bleached solution of Dy-S-W POM apparently intercalates MB. Such trapped MB by CT-DNA responds to its re-oxidation by elemental sulfur formed in the bleaching process involving Dy-S-W POM. This reduction-oxidation property of MB with Dy-S-W POM led to the detection of pico (13.20 pmol) level of DNA even by naked eye, which will be helpful for rapid trace DNA detection in forensic science and DNA-related diagnostics, complimenting time-consuming sophisticated methodology.

  3. Binding studies of guggulsterone-E to calf thymus DNA by multi-spectroscopic, calorimetric and molecular docking studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhlas, Shoeb; Ahmad, Masood

    2018-02-01

    Guggulsterone, a sterol found in plants is used as an ayurvedic medicine for many diseases such as obesity, internal tumors, ulcers etc. E and Z are two isoforms of guggulsterone, wherein guggulsterone-E (GUGE) has also been shown to have anticancer potential. Most of the anticancer drugs target nucleic acids. Therefore, we studied the mode of interaction between ctDNA and GUGE using UV-Vis, fluorescence and CD spectroscopy, isothermal calorimetry along with molecular docking studies. Hoechst 3325, ethidium bromide and rhodamine-B displacement experiments confirms that GUGE binds in the minor groove of DNA. ITC results further suggest these interactions to be feasible and spontaneous with hydrogen bond formation and van der waals interactions. Lastly, molecular docking also suggests GUGE to be a minor groove binder interacting through a single hydrogen bond formation between OH group of GUGE and nitrogen (N3) of adenosine (A6).

  4. Fluorescent labelling of DNA on superparamagnetic nanoparticles by a perylene bisimide derivative for cell imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltas, Esra, E-mail: maltasesra@gmail.com [Selcuk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Malkondu, Sait [Selcuk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Uyar, Pembegul [Selcuk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Selcuk University, Advanced Technology Research and Application Center, Konya (Turkey); Ozmen, Mustafa [Selcuk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 42075 Konya (Turkey)

    2015-03-01

    N,N′-Bis[tris-(2-aminoethyl) amine]-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PBI-TRIS), nonfluorescent dye was used to fluorescent labelling of DNA. For this aim, (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTS) modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were synthesized to provide a suitable surface for binding of DNA. Amine functionalized nanoparticles showed a high immobilization capacity (82.70%) at 25 mg of nanoparticle concentration for Calf thymus DNA. Binding capacity of PBI-TRIS to DNA-SPION was also found as 1.93 μM on 25 mg of nanoparticles by using UV–vis spectroscopy. Binding of PBI-TRIS to DNA onto nanoparticles was also characterized by scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The confocal images of PBI-TRIS labelled DNA-SPION and breast cells were taken at 488 and 561.7 nm of excitation wavelengths. Cell image was also compared with a commercial dye, DAPI at 403.7 nm of excitation wavelength. Results showed that PBI-TRIS can be used for cell staining. - Highlights: • Functionalized SPIONs were synthesized and treated with DNA. • The binding of PBI-TRIS with DNA was studied. • The image of PBI-TRIS labelled DNA-SPION was detected by a confocal microscope.

  5. Fluorescent labelling of DNA on superparamagnetic nanoparticles by a perylene bisimide derivative for cell imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltas, Esra; Malkondu, Sait; Uyar, Pembegul; Ozmen, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    N,N′-Bis[tris-(2-aminoethyl) amine]-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PBI-TRIS), nonfluorescent dye was used to fluorescent labelling of DNA. For this aim, (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTS) modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were synthesized to provide a suitable surface for binding of DNA. Amine functionalized nanoparticles showed a high immobilization capacity (82.70%) at 25 mg of nanoparticle concentration for Calf thymus DNA. Binding capacity of PBI-TRIS to DNA-SPION was also found as 1.93 μM on 25 mg of nanoparticles by using UV–vis spectroscopy. Binding of PBI-TRIS to DNA onto nanoparticles was also characterized by scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The confocal images of PBI-TRIS labelled DNA-SPION and breast cells were taken at 488 and 561.7 nm of excitation wavelengths. Cell image was also compared with a commercial dye, DAPI at 403.7 nm of excitation wavelength. Results showed that PBI-TRIS can be used for cell staining. - Highlights: • Functionalized SPIONs were synthesized and treated with DNA. • The binding of PBI-TRIS with DNA was studied. • The image of PBI-TRIS labelled DNA-SPION was detected by a confocal microscope

  6. Specific binding of a dihydropyrimidinone derivative with DNA: Spectroscopic, calorimetric and modeling investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Gongke; Yan Changling; Wang Dongchao; Li Dan; Lu Yan

    2012-01-01

    One of the dihydropyrimidinone derivative 5-(ethoxycarbonyl)-6-methyl-4-(4-methoxyphenyl) -3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one (EMMD) was synthesized, and its binding properties with calf-thymus DNA (ctDNA) were investigated using spectroscopic, viscometric, isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) and molecular modeling techniques. Fluorescence spectra suggested that the fluorescence enhancement of the binding interaction of EMMD to ctDNA was a static process with ground state complex formation. The binding constant determined with spectroscopic titration and ITC was found to be in the same order of 10 4 M −1 . According to the results of the viscosity analysis, fluorescence competitive binding experiment, fluorescence quenching studies, absorption spectral and ITC investigations, it can be concluded that EMMD is intercalative binding to ctDNA. Furthermore, the results of molecular modeling confirmed those obtained from spectroscopic, viscosimetric and ITC investigations. Additionally, ITC studies also indicated that the binding interaction is predominantly enthalpy driven. - Highlights: ► Medically important dihydropyrimidinones derivative EMMD is synthesized. ► EMMD is intercalative binding into ctDNA helix. ► Hydrogen bonding may play an essential role in the binding of EMCD with ctDNA. ► This binding interaction is predominantly enthalpy driven.

  7. Differential scanning calorimetric study of the binding between native DNA and its primary water of hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, R. L.; Lukan, A. M.; Lee, S. A.; Anthony, L.; Rupprecht, A.

    1996-03-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry was used to measure the binding strength between calf-thymus DNA and its primary water of hydration. The specific heat of wet-spun films was found to have a broad endothermic transition near 80 ^oC and a sharp exothermic transition near 250 ^oC. The broad transition is believed to be mainly due to the breaking of the bonds of the strongly bound water of hydration. This transition was found to be reversible, as expected. Kissinger analysis indicates that the activation barrier for breaking the bonds of these water molecules is about 0.6 eV. The sharp transition appeared to be an indication of a thermal decomposition of the DNA. Samples taken above this transition lost mass, showed evidence of having melted, and had turned black in color. This transition is irreversible.

  8. Study on a hidden protein-DNA binding in salmon sperm DNA sample by dynamic kinetic capillary isoelectric focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Liang; Dou Peng; Dong Mingming; Ke Xiaokang; Bian Ningsheng; Liu Zhen

    2009-01-01

    Nuclease P1 is an important enzyme that hydrolyzes RNA or single-stranded DNA into nucleotides, and complete digestion is an essential basis for assays based on this enzyme. To digest a doubled-stranded DNA, the enzyme is usually combined with heat denaturing, which breaks doubled-stranded DNA into single strands. This paper presents an un-expected phenomenon that nuclease P1, in combination with heat denaturing, fails to completely digest a DNA sample extracted from salmon sperm. Under the experimental conditions used, at which nuclease P1 can completely digest calf thymus DNA, the digestion yield of salmon sperm DNA was only 89.5%. Spectrometric measurement indicated that a total protein of 4.7% is present in the DNA sample. To explain the reason for this phenomenon, the dynamic kinetic capillary isoelectric focusing (DK-CIEF) approach proposed previously, which allows for the discrimination of different types of protein-DNA interactions and the measurement of the individual dissociation rate constants, was modified and applied to examine possible protein-DNA interactions involved. It was found that a non-specific DNA-protein binding occurs in the sample, the dissociation rate constant for which was measured to be 7.05 ± 0.83 x 10 -3 s -1 . The formation of DNA-protein complex was suggested to be the main reason for the incomplete digestion of the DNA sample. The modified DK-CIEF approach can be applied as general DNA samples, with the advantages of fast speed and low sample consumption.

  9. Study of DNA interactions with bifenthrin by spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Pan; Zhang, Guowen; Ma, Yadi; Zhang, Yepeng; Miao, Hong; Wu, Yongning

    2013-08-01

    The interaction between bifenthrin (BF) and calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) in physiological buffer (pH 7.4) was investigated by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, coupled with viscosity measurements and molecular docking techniques. It was found that BF molecular could intercalate into the base pairs of ctDNA as evidenced by significant increases in absorption intensity, fluorescence polarization and relative viscosity of ctDNA, decrease in iodide quenching effect, and induced CD spectral changes. The association constant of BF with ctDNA was evaluated to be in the order of 104 L mol-1. Thermodynamic analysis of the binding data obtained at different temperatures suggested that the binding process was primarily driven by hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces, as the values of the enthalpy change (ΔH) and the entropy change (ΔS) were calculated to be -31.13 ± 1.89 kJ mol-1 and -22.79 ± 1.21 J mol-1 K-1, respectively. The results of FT-IR spectra and molecular docking showed that a specific binding mainly existed between BF and adenine and guanine bases.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and DNA cleavage activity of nickel(II adducts with aromatic heterocyclic bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. PHILIP

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed ligand complexes of nickel(II with 2,4-dihydroxyaceto-phenone oxime (DAPO and 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone oxime (DBPO as primary ligands, and pyridine (Py and imidazole (Im as secondary ligands were synthesized and characterized by molar conductivity, magnetic moments measurements, as well as by electronic, IR, and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Electrochemical studies were performed by cyclic voltammetry. The active signals are assignable to the NiIII/II and NiII/I redox couples. The binding interactions between the metal complexes and calf thymus DNA were investigated by absorption and thermal denaturation. The cleavage activity of the complexes was determined using double-stranded pBR322 circular plasmid DNA by gel electrophoresis. All complexes showed increased nuclease activity in the presence of the oxidant H2O2. The nuclease activities of mixed ligand complexes were compared with those of the parent copper(II complexes.

  11. Ionizing radiation and the thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huiskamp, R.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis the effects of whole body irradiation with fast fission neutrons and X-rays on the murine thymus are studied. Young adult CBA mice were exposed to whole body irradiation with either fast fission neutrons or X-rays. The results of the investigation of short- and long-term effects of the irradiation on the thymus showed a biphasic regeneration pattern followed by a marked decrease in relative thymus weight and cellularity which lasted up to at least 250 days. This late effect is attributed to possible loss of pluripotent stem cells and residual damage in the surviving stem cells in the bone marrow. The immunohistology of T cell subpopulations in the thymus of normal CBA/H mice was analyzed in order to describe the T cell composition of the irradiated thymus. The effects of irradiation with fast fission neutrons on the stromal cells of the thymus are studied in order to investigate whether the thymic stromal cells are involved in the regeneration process. The effect of graded doses of fission neutrons or X-rays on the lymphoid compartment on the thymus are studied in order to investigate the radiosensitivity of thymocyte subpopulations for these radiation types. Also the effects on the stromal compartment of the thymus are investigated. (Auth.)

  12. Synthesis, DNA Binding, and Antiproliferative Activity of Novel Acridine-Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinara Mônica Vitalino de Almeida

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the acridine nucleus was used as a lead-compound for structural modification by adding different substituted thiosemicarbazide moieties. Eight new (Z-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide derivatives (3a–h were synthesized, their antiproliferative activities were evaluated, and DNA binding properties were performed with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA by electronic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. Both hyperchromic and hypochromic effects, as well as red or blue shifts were demonstrated by addition of ctDNA to the derivatives. The calculated binding constants ranged from 1.74 × 104 to 1.0 × 106 M−1 and quenching constants from −0.2 × 104 to 2.18 × 104 M−1 indicating high affinity to ctDNA base pairs. The most efficient compound in binding to ctDNA in vitro was (Z-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene-N- (4-chlorophenyl hydrazinecarbothioamide (3f, while the most active compound in antiproliferative assay was (Z-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (3a. There was no correlation between DNA-binding and in vitro antiproliferative activity, but the results suggest that DNA binding can be involved in the biological activity mechanism. This study may guide the choice of the size and shape of the intercalating part of the ligand and the strategic selection of substituents that increase DNA-binding or antiproliferative properties.

  13. Modeling techniques and fluorescence imaging investigation of the interactions of an anthraquinone derivative with HSA and ctDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zheng; Cui, Yanrui; Cui, Fengling; Zhang, Guisheng

    2016-01-01

    A new anthraquinone derivative (AORha) was synthesized. Its interactions with human serum albumin (HSA) and calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and molecular modeling. Cell viability assay and cell imaging experiment were performed using cervical cancer cells (HepG2 cells). The fluorescence results revealed that the quenching mechanism was static quenching. At different temperatures (290, 300, 310 K), the binding constants (K) and the number of binding sites (n) were determined, respectively. The positive ΔH and ΔS values showed that the binding of AORha with HSA was hydrophobic force, which was identical with the molecular docking result. Studying the fluorescence spectra, UV spectra and molecular modeling also verified that the binding mode of AORha and ctDNA might be intercalative. When HepG2 cells were treated with AORha, the fluorescence became brighter and turned green, which could be used for bioimaging.

  14. Modeling techniques and fluorescence imaging investigation of the interactions of an anthraquinone derivative with HSA and ctDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zheng; Cui, Yanrui; Cui, Fengling; Zhang, Guisheng

    2016-01-15

    A new anthraquinone derivative (AORha) was synthesized. Its interactions with human serum albumin (HSA) and calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and molecular modeling. Cell viability assay and cell imaging experiment were performed using cervical cancer cells (HepG2 cells). The fluorescence results revealed that the quenching mechanism was static quenching. At different temperatures (290, 300, 310 K), the binding constants (K) and the number of binding sites (n) were determined, respectively. The positive ΔH and ΔS values showed that the binding of AORha with HSA was hydrophobic force, which was identical with the molecular docking result. Studying the fluorescence spectra, UV spectra and molecular modeling also verified that the binding mode of AORha and ctDNA might be intercalative. When HepG2 cells were treated with AORha, the fluorescence became brighter and turned green, which could be used for bioimaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Histone H1- and other protein- and amino acid-hydroperoxides can give rise to free radicals which oxidize DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luxford, C; Morin, B; Dean, R T

    1999-01-01

    analysis has demonstrated that radicals from histone H1-hydroperoxides, and other protein and amino acid hydroperoxides, can also oxidize both free 2'-deoxyguanosine and intact calf thymus DNA to give the mutagenic oxidized base 7, 8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, 8-oxod......Exposure of amino acids, peptides and proteins to radicals, in the presence of oxygen, gives high yields of hydroperoxides. These materials are readily decomposed by transition metal ions to give further radicals. We hypothesized that hydroperoxide formation on nuclear proteins, and subsequent...... decomposition of these hydroperoxides to radicals, might result in oxidative damage to associated DNA. We demonstrate here that exposure of histone H1 and model compounds to gamma-radiation in the presence of oxygen gives hydroperoxides in a dose-dependent manner. These hydroperoxides decompose to oxygen...

  16. Recovery response of dividing cells in the thymus of whole-body γ-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suciu, D.; Uray, Z.; Maniu, M.

    1976-01-01

    Mice were irradiated with different doses of γ-rays 30 min after the administration of 32 P-orthophosphate. The dose-response curves determined at 72 hours after exposure showed an inflection point in the total activity present in the DNA in thymus and spleen. In the low dose-range, the dose-response curves have D 0 = 55 rad(n = 2.5) for thymus and D 0 = 95 rad (n = 2.5) for the spleen. Thirty minutes after the administration of 32 P-orthophosphate, the dividing cells from thymus were partially synchronized by the administration of 80 mg per kg body-weight hydroxyurea. At different time-intervals, the mice were irradiated with 80 rad, and the total activity of DNA was determined at 72 hours after synchronization. A significant maximum of recovery was found at 5 hours (S phase) after the administration of hydroxyurea. In similar conditions, the dose-response curves corresponding to the G 1 , S and M phase of the division cycle were also determined. The synchronization of dividing cells induced by hydroxyurea failed in the spleen. (author)

  17. Exploring the Potential of Nucleic Acid Bases in Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    plant sources, including salmon sperm, [ 19 ] calf thymus, [ 20 ] and vegetation [ 21 ] . After harvesting and purifi cation, DNA takes the form of a...ionized water and dried. Next, the substrates were exposed to oxygen plasma (Plasma-Preen, Terra Universal Inc.) at 500 W for 5 min. After cleaning, fi

  18. Metal based pharmacologically active complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II): synthesis, spectral, XRD, antimicrobial screening, DNA interaction and cleavage investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Natarajan; Mahalakshmi, Rajkumar; Arun, T; Packianathan, S; Rajkumar, R

    2014-09-05

    The present contribution reports a thorough characterization of newly obtained metallointercalators incorporating Schiff bases, formed by the condensation of N-acetoacetyl-o-toluidine with 1-amino-4-nitrobenzene (L(1))/1-amino-4-chlorobenzene (L(2)) as main ligand and 1,10-phenanthroline as co-ligand respectively. The characterization of newly formed metallointercalators has been done by (1)H NMR, UV-Vis, IR, EPR spectroscopy and molar conductivity studies. X-ray powder diffraction illustrates that they are crystalline nature. Binding interaction of these complexes with calf thymus (CT-DNA) has been investigated by emission, absorption, viscosity, cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. DNA binding experiments results reveal that the synthesized complexes interact with DNA through intercalative mode. The in vitro antibacterial and antifungal assay indicate that these complexes are good antimicrobial agents against various pathogens. The DNA cleavage exhibits that they act as efficient cleaving agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Regenerating computer model of the thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumb, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    This computer model simulates the cell population kinetics of the development and later degeneration of the thymus. Nutritional factors are taken into account by the growth of blood vessels in the simulated thymus. The stem cell population is kept at its maximum by allowing some stem cells to divide into two stem cells until the population reaches its maximum, thus regenerating the thymus after an insult such as irradiation. After a given number of population doublings the maximum allowed stem cell population is gradually decreased in order to simulate the degeneration of the thymus. Results show that the simulated thymus develops and degenerates in a pattern similar to that of the natural thymus. This simulation is used to evaluate cellular kinetic data for the the thymus. The results from testing the internal consistency of available data are reported. The number of generations which most represents the natural thymus includes seven dividing generations of lymphocytes and one mature, nondividing generation of small lymphocytes. The size of the resulting developed thymus can be controlled without affecting other variables by changing the maximum stem cell population allowed. In addition, recovery from irradiation is simulated

  20. Anthraquinone-chalcone hybrids: synthesis, preliminary antiproliferative evaluation and DNA-interaction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Violeta; Debeljak, Nevena; Stanojković, Tatjana; Kolundžija, Branka; Sladić, Dušan; Vujčić, Miroslava; Janović, Barbara; Tanić, Nikola; Perović, Milka; Tešić, Vesna; Antić, Jadranka; Joksović, Milan D

    2015-01-07

    Novel anthraquinone based chalcone compounds were synthesized starting from 1-acetylanthraquinone in a Claisen-Schmidt reaction and evaluated for their anticancer potential against three human cancer cell lines. Compounds 4a, 4b and 4j showed promising activity in inhibition of HeLa cells with IC50 values ranging from 2.36 to 2.73 μM and low cytotoxicity against healthy MRC-5 cell lines. The effects that compounds produces on the cell cycle were investigated by flow cytometry. It was found that 4a, 4b and 4j cause the accumulation of cells in the S and G2/M phases in a dose-dependent manner and induce caspase-dependent apoptosis. All of three compounds exhibit calf thymus DNA-binding activity. The determined binding constants by absorption titrations (2.65 × 10(3) M(-1), 1.36 × 10(3) M(-1)and 2.51 × 10(3) M(-1) of 4a/CT-DNA, 4b/CT-DNA and 4j/CT-DNA, respectively) together with fluorescence displacement analysis designate 4a, 4b and 4j as strong minor groove binders, but no cleavage of plasmid DNA was observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of minor groove width and hydration pattern on amsacrine interaction with DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak K Jangir

    Full Text Available Amsacrine is an anilinoacridine derivative anticancer drug, used to treat a wide variety of malignancies. In cells, amsacrine poisons topoisomerase 2 by stabilizing DNA-drug-enzyme ternary complex. Presence of amsacrine increases the steady-state concentration of these ternary complexes which in turn hampers DNA replication and results in subsequent cell death. Due to reversible binding and rapid slip-out of amsacrine from DNA duplex, structural data is not available on amsacrine-DNA complexes. In the present work, we designed five oligonucleotide duplexes, differing in their minor groove widths and hydration pattern, and examined their binding with amsacrine using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Complexes of amsacrine with calf thymus DNA were also evaluated for a comparison. Our results demonstrate for the first time that amsacrine is not a simple intercalator; rather mixed type of DNA binding (intercalation and minor groove takes place between amsacrine and DNA. Further, this binding is highly sensitive towards the geometries and hydration patterns of different minor grooves present in the DNA. This study shows that ligand binding to DNA could be very sensitive to DNA base composition and DNA groove structures. Results demonstrated here could have implication for understanding cytotoxic mechanism of aminoacridine based anticancer drugs and provide directions to modify these drugs for better efficacy and few side-effects.

  2. 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Nielsen, A; Poulsen, H E; Loft, S

    1992-01-01

    Oxidative DNA damage, as expressed by 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), was investigated in calf thymus DNA exposed to either ultraviolet radiation or to FeCl2/H2O2 in a Fenton-like reaction. The influence of iron (absent in the UV system and present in the FeCl2/H2O2 system) and pH (7.4 and 4.0)...

  3. Characterization of the photoreaction between DNA and aminomethyl-trimethylpsoralen using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, B.H.; Hearst, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    The use of absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy for following the progress of the photoreaction between DNA and 4'-aminomethyl-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (AMT) has been investigated. Absorption at long wavelengths and fluorescence both decline upon intercalation of AMT into the DNA helix. The loss of fluorescence from AMT and the accompanying appearance of monoadduct fluorescence upon irradiation by UV light can be easily followed by using the excitation beam of a spectrofluorometer as the source of irradiation and monitoring the changing emission spectrum. Where cross-link formation is possible, the subsequent decline of monoadduct fluorescence is seen as well. This suggests that the 4',5'-monoadduct is a precursor of cross-links. Both monoaddition and cross-linking are more rapid with poly d(A-T) than with calf thymus DNA or poly d(A.T). Excitation spectra can be helpful in resolving the levels of AMT and 4',5'-monoadduct when both are contributing to the emission spectrum. Some changes are observed in the emission spectrum of AMT-poly d(A.T) monoadducts after prolonged irradiation which indicate further photoreaction. (author)

  4. Synthesis of isatin thiosemicarbazones derivatives: in vitro anti-cancer, DNA binding and cleavage activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Amna Qasem; Teoh, Siang Guan; Salhin, Abdussalam; Eltayeb, Naser Eltaher; Khadeer Ahamed, Mohamed B; Abdul Majid, A M S

    2014-05-05

    New derivatives of thiosemicarbazone Schiff base with isatin moiety were synthesized L1-L6. The structures of these compounds were characterized based on the spectroscopic techniques. Compound L6 was further characterized by XRD single crystal. The interaction of these compounds with calf thymus (CT-DNA) exhibited high intrinsic binding constant (k(b)=5.03-33.00×10(5) M(-1)) for L1-L3 and L5 and (6.14-9.47×10(4) M(-1)) for L4 and L6 which reflect intercalative activity of these compounds toward CT-DNA. This result was also confirmed by the viscosity data. The electrophoresis studies reveal the higher cleavage activity of L1-L3 than L4-L6. The in vitro anti-proliferative activity of these compounds against human colon cancer cell line (HCT 116) revealed that the synthesized compounds (L3, L6 and L2) exhibited good anticancer potency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Strand breaks and lethal damage in plasmid DNA subjected to 60CO-γirradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimczak, U.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments with calf thymus DNA subjected to extracellular irradiation yield information on the role of direct and indirect effects in single-strand breakage, if this is evaluated with reference to the scavenger activity in respect of OH radicals. The role of the two processes in the occurrence of double-stand breaks and further damage leading to cell decay has so far remained largely obscure. It was the aim of the study described here to contribute to research in this field by performing in vitro experiments on biologically active DNA. For this purpose, DNA from pBR322 plasmids was irradiated in the presence of OH-radical scavengers. The number of single-strand and double-strand breaks was determined on the basis of the system's ability to eliminate OH radicals. In order to asses the influence of irradiation processes on the biological activity of DNA, investigations were carried out in E. coli for transformations caused by irradiated plasmid DNA. The results were interpreted in the light of theories about inhomogenous reaction kinetics put forward by Mark et al. (1989). It was finally discussed, which of the gamma-irradiation injuries occurring in DNA was to be held responsible for the inactivation of plasmid DNA and which enzymatic processes were additionally at work here. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Monoclonal antibodies to DNA modified with cis- or trans-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundquist, W.I.; Lippard, S.J.; Stollar, B.D.

    1987-01-01

    Murine monoclonal antibodies that bind selectively to adducts formed on DNA by the antitumor drug cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II), cis-DDP, or to the chemothrapeutically inactive trans isomer trans-DDP were elicited by immunization with calf thymus DNA modified with either cis- or trans-DDP at ratios of bound platinum per nucleotide, (D/N)/sub b/, of 0.06-0.08. The binding of two monoclonal antibodies to cis-DDP-modified DNA was competitively inhibited in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) by 4-6 nM concentrations of cis-DDP bound to DNA. Adducts formed by cis-DDP on other synthetic DNA polymers did not inhibit antibody binding to cis-DDP-DNA. The biologically active compounds [Pt(en)Cl 2 ], [Pt(dach)Cl 2 ], and [Pt(NH 3 ) 2 (cbdca)] (carboplatin) all formed antibody-detectable adducts on DNA, whereas the inactive platinum complexes trans-DDP and [Pt(dien)Cl]Cl (dien, diethylenetriamine) did not. The monoclonal antibodies therefore recognize a bifunctional Pt-DNA adduct with cis stereochemistry in which platinum is coordinated by two adjacent guanines or, to a lesser degree, by adjacent adenine and guanine. A monoclonal antibody raised against trans-DDP-DNA was competitively inhibited in an ELISA by 40 nM trans-DDP bound to DNA. This antibody crossreacted with unmodified, denatured DNA. The recognition of cis- or trans-DDP-modified DNAs by monoclonal antibodies thus parallels the known modes of DNA binding of these compounds and may correlate with their biological activities

  7. Mononuclear Pd(II) complex as a new therapeutic agent: Synthesis, characterization, biological activity, spectral and DNA binding approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidifar, Maryam; Mirzaei, Hamidreza; Ahmadi Nasab, Navid; Mansouri-Torshizi, Hassan

    2017-11-01

    The binding ability between a new water-soluble palladium(II) complex [Pd(bpy)(bez-dtc)]Cl (where bpy is 2,2‧-bipyridine and bez-dtc is benzyl dithiocarbamate), as an antitumor agent, and calf thymus DNA was evaluated using various physicochemical methods, such as UV-Vis absorption, Competitive fluorescence studies, viscosity measurement, zeta potential and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The Pd(II) complex was synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis, molar conductivity measurements, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and electronic spectra studies. The anticancer activity against HeLa cell lines demonstrated lower cytotoxicity than cisplatin. The binding constants and the thermodynamic parameters were determined at different temperatures (300 K, 310 K and 320 K) and shown that the complex can bind to DNA via electrostatic forces. Furthermore, this result was confirmed by the viscosity and zeta potential measurements. The CD spectral results demonstrated that the binding of Pd(II) complex to DNA induced conformational changes in DNA. We hope that these results will provide a basis for further studies and practical clinical use of anticancer drugs.

  8. Preparation of Fe 3O 4/poly(styrene-butyl acrylate-[2-(methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization and its interaction with DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolong; Liu, Guoqiang; Yan, Wei; Chu, Paul K.; Yeung, Kelvin W. K.; Wu, Shuilin; Yi, Changfeng; Xu, Zushun

    2012-04-01

    Cationic magnetic polymer particles Fe3O4/poly(styrene-butyl acrylate-[2-(methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride), a type of potential gene carrier, were prepared by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization with oleic acid modified magnetite Fe3O4, styrene, butyl acrylate and [2-(methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) (METAC). The morphology of the particles was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and the composites of particles were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction. These results showed that magnetic particles were well dispersed in polymers with the content of about 15%(wt/wt). The composites exhibited superparamagnetism and possessed a certain level of magnetic response. The interactions between the particles with calf-thymus DNA (ct DNA) were confirmed by zeta potential measurement, UV-vis spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The DNA-binding capacity determined by the agarose gel electrophoresis showed good binding capacity of the emulsion to DNA. These results suggested the potential of the cationic magnetic polymer emulsion as gene target delivery carrier.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of 6,6'-bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)-2,2'-bipyridine ligand and its interaction with ct-DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, Norhidayah; Heng, Lee Yook; Hassan, Nurul Izzaty; Karim, Nurul Huda Abd

    2015-09-01

    The tetradentate ligand with four donor atoms OONN was synthesized. Bis(phenoxy)bipyridine ligand was prepared by Suzuki coupling reaction between 6,6'-dibromo-2,2'-bipyridyl and 2-hydroxyphenylboronic acid with presence of palladium (II) acetate. Bis(phenoxy)bipyridine ligand was also synthesized by demethylating of 6,6'-bis(2-methoxyphenyl)-2,2'-bipyridyl ligand through solvent free reaction using pyridine hydrocloride. The formation of both phenoxy and methoxy ligands was confirmed by 1H, 2D cosy and 13C NMR spectroscopy, ESI-MS spectrometry, FTIR spectroscopy. The purity of the ligand was confirmed by melting point. Binding studies of small molecules with DNA are useful to understand the reaction mechanism and to provide guidance for the application and design of new and more efficient drugs targeted to DNA. In this study, the binding interaction between the synthesized ligand with calf thymus-DNA (ct-DNA) has been investigated by UV/Vis DNA titration study. From the UV/Vis DNA study, it shows that bis(phenoxy)bipyridine ligand bind with ct-DNA via outside binding with binding contant Kb = 1.19 × 103 ± 0.08 M-1.

  10. [Study of the interaction mechanism between brodifacoum and DNA by spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yun-qing; Min, Shun-geng

    2009-04-01

    The interaction between brodifacoum (3-[3-(4'-bromophenyl-4) 1,2,3,4-tetralin-10]-4-hydroxyl-coumarin) (BDF), an anticoagulant rodenticide, and calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) was studied by UV spectrum and fluorescence spectrum. The results were summarized as follows: There was a hypochromic effect of low concentration ct-DNA on the UV spectra. The fluorescence quenching studies showed a regular decrease in the fluorescence intensity after addition of ct-DNA by the static quenching mode with a quenching constant (Ksv) of 1.21 x 10(4) L x mol(-1) at 27 degrees C. The BDF possibly bonded to ct-DNA mainly via Van der Waals forces by the corresponding thermodynamics parameter. KI quenching experiment found that there was not obvious protection of ct-DNA to BDF. The fluorescence intensity of BDF/ct-DNA system changed with the variation in ionic strength Quenching of ct-DNA on the fluorescence of BDF/beta-CD inclusion complex was reduced in contrast with the free BDF, which showed that beta-CD could provide BDF with protection. So the comprehensive interaction mode of BDF with ct-DNA may be the groove binding by the above results. It was indicated that there had been static-electro interaction between BDF and ct-DNA at the same time. The conjunct action of Van der Waals forces and electrostatic attraction favorably provide BDF bonding interaction in the groove of ct-DNA.

  11. Effects of Chlorophenoxy Herbicides and Their Main Transformation Products on DNA Damage and Acetylcholinesterase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Benfeito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent pesticide transformation products (TPs are increasingly being detected among different environmental compartments, including groundwater and surface water. However, there is no sufficient experimental data on their toxicological potential to assess the risk associated with TPs, even if their occurrence is known. In this study, the interaction of chlorophenoxy herbicides (MCPA, mecoprop, 2,4-D and dichlorprop and their main transformation products with calf thymus DNA by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy has been assessed. Additionally, the toxicity of the chlorophenoxy herbicides and TPs was also assessed evaluating the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. On the basis of the results found, it seems that AChE is not the main target of chlorophenoxy herbicides and their TPs. However, the results found showed that the transformation products displayed a higher inhibitory activity when compared with the parent herbicides. The results obtained in the DNA interaction studies showed, in general, a slight effect on the stability of the double helix. However, the data found for 4-chloro-2-methyl-6-nitrophenol suggest that this transformation product can interact with DNA through a noncovalent mode.

  12. DNA damage and cytotoxicity in type II lung epithelial (A549) cell cultures after exposure to diesel exhaust and urban street particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollution particles has been acknowledged to be associated with excess generation of oxidative damage to DNA in experimental model systems and humans. The use of standard reference material (SRM), such as SRM1650 and SRM2975, is advantageous because experiments...... collected at a traffic intensive road in Copenhagen, Denmark. RESULTS: All of the particles generated strand breaks and oxidized purines in A549 lung epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner and there were no overt differences in their potency. The exposures also yielded dose-dependent increase...... of cytotoxicity (as lactate dehydrogenase release) and reduced colony forming ability with slightly stronger cytotoxicity of SRM1650 than of the other particles. In contrast, only the authentic street particles were able to generate 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in calf thymus DNA, which might...

  13. Oxidative damage and antioxidant defense in thymus of malnourished lactating rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavia-García, Graciela; González-Martínez, Haydeé; Miliar-García, Ángel; Bonilla-González, Edmundo; Rosas-Trejo, María de Los Ángeles; Königsberg, Mina; Nájera-Medina, Oralia; Luna-López, Armando; González-Torres, María Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition has been associated with oxidative damage by altered antioxidant protection mechanisms. Specifically, the aim of this study was to evaluate oxidative damage (DNA and lipid) and antioxidant status (superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione peroxidase [GPx], and catalase [CAT] mRNA, and protein expression) in thymus from malnourished rat pups. Malnutrition was induced during the lactation period by the food competition method. Oxidative DNA damage was determined quantifying 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine adduct by high-performance liquid chromatography. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. Levels of gene and protein expression of SOD, GPx, and CAT were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively. Antioxidant enzyme activities were measured spectrophotometrically. Oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation significantly increased in second-degree (MN-2) and third-degree malnourished (MN-3) rats compared with well-nourished rats. Higher amounts of oxidative damage, lower mRNA expression, and lower relative concentrations of protein, as well as decreased antioxidant activity of SOD, GPx, and CAT were associated with the MN-2 and MN-3 groups. The results of this study demonstrated that higher body-weight deficits were related to alterations in antioxidant protection, which contribute to increased levels of damage in the thymus. To our knowledge, this study demonstrated for the first time that early in life, malnutrition leads to increased DNA and lipid oxidative damage, attributable to damaged antioxidant mechanisms including transcriptional and enzymatic activity alterations. These findings may contribute to the elucidation of the causes of previously reported thymus dysfunction, and might explain partially why children and adults who have overcome child undernourishment experience immunologic deficiencies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Correlation of binding efficacies of DNA to flavonoids and their induced cellular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Asmita; Majumder, Debashis; Saha, Chabita

    2017-05-01

    Flavonoids are dietary intakes which are bestowed with several health benefits. The most studied property of flavonoids is their antioxidant efficacy. Among the chosen flavonoids Quercetin, Kaempferol and Myricetin is catagorized as flavonols whereas Apigenin and Luteolin belong to the flavone group. In the present study anti-cancer properties of flavonoids are investigated on the basis of their binding efficacy to ct-DNA and their ability to induce cytotoxicity in K562 leukaemic cells. The binding affinities of the flavonoids with calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) are in the order Quercetin>Myricetin>Luteolin>Kaempferol>Apigenin. Quercetin with fewer OH than myricetin has higher affinity towards DNA suggesting that the number and position of OH influence the binding efficacies of flavonoids to ct-DNA. CD spectra and EtBr displacement studies evidence myricetin and apigenin to be stronger intercalators of DNA compared to quercetin. From comet assay results it is observed that quercetin and myricetin when used in combination induce higher DNA damage in K562 leukemic cells than when tested individually. Higher binding efficacy has been recorded for quercetin to DNA at lower pH, which is the micro environment of cancerous cells, and hence quercetin can act as a potential anti-cancer agent. Presence of Cu also increases cellular damage as recorded by comet assay. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Analysis of 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP)-gold nanoparticles behaviour in solution and of their interaction with calf thymus DNA and living cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biver, T., E-mail: tarita@dcci.unipi.it [University of Pisa, Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry Department (Italy); Corti, A. [University of Pisa, Experimental Pathology Department BMIE (Italy); Eltugral, N. [University of Pisa, Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry Department (Italy); Lorenzini, E.; Masini, M.; Paolicchi, A. [University of Pisa, Experimental Pathology Department BMIE (Italy); Pucci, A.; Ruggeri, G.; Secco, F.; Venturini, M. [University of Pisa, Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry Department (Italy)

    2012-02-15

    4-(Dimethylamino)pyridine-coated gold nanoparticles (DMAP-Au NPs) were synthesized, characterised and their interaction with DNA and living cells was analysed. Concerning the interaction of the DMAP-Au NPs with DNA, absorbance titrations indicate that a non-covalent interaction between DNA and the external surface of the NPs does take place. The binding constant was evaluated to be (2.8 {+-} 0.8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sup -1}. Exposure of cultured cells to NPs revealed a dose-dependent effect on cell proliferation which was increased or reduced in dependence of DMAP-Au NPs concentrations. Subcellular localisation by transmission electron microscopy showed mitochondrial and nuclear localisations of NPs, thus suggesting their direct involvement in the mitochondrial alterations observed and a possible direct interaction with cell DNA. These findings clearly indicate that DMAP-Au NPs can strongly interact with living cells and confirm the importance of systematic evaluations of NPs properties, also in the perspective of their arising diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  16. Biochemical studies on the DNA binding function of the cyclic-amp reactor protein of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angulo, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The cAMP receptor protein (CRP) is an allosteric protein in which binding of cAMP effects a conformational change with a consequent increased affinity for DNA. Binding of double-stranded deoxyribopolynucleotides and calf thymus DNA by cAMP-CRP confers protection against attack by trypsin, subtilisin, Staph. aureus V8 protease and clostripain. Of the single-stranded deoxy- and ribopolynucleotides tested, only r(I)/sub n/ and r(A)/sub n/ gave significant protection against attack by these proteases. In the absence of cAMP, CRP is resistant to proteolysis. Incubation of CRP-DNA with trypsin results in the accumulation of two novel fragments. CRP-DNA is partially sensitive to digestion by chymotrypsin but resistant to attack by subtilisin, the Staph. aureus V8 protease and clostripain. Cleavage of CRP-DNA to fragments is accompanied by the loss of 3 H-cAMP binding activity. Modification of the arginines with phenylglyoxal or butanedione results in loss of DNA binding activity. cAMP-CRP incorporates more 14 C-phenylglyoxal than unliganded CRP. Titration of the arginines with 14 C-phenylglyoxal to where over 90% of the DNA binding activity is lost results in incorporation of one mole of reagent per mole of subunit

  17. Inhibition of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks by hoechst 33258: OH-radical scavenging and DNA radical quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikary, A.; Bothe, E.; Von Sonntag, C.; Adhikary, A.

    1997-01-01

    The minor-groove-binding dye Hoechst 33258 has been found to protect pBR322 DNA in aqueous solution against radiation-induced single-strand breaks (ssb). This protective effect has been assumed to be largely due to the scavenging of the strand-break-generating OH radicals by Hoechst. From D 37 values for ssb at different Hoechst concentrations the value of the OH radical scavenging constant of DNA-bound Hoechst has been estimated at k Ho/DNA = 2.7 * 10 11 dm 3 mol -1 . This unexpectedly high value has led us to study the reactions of OH radicals with Hoechst in the absence and in the presence of double-stranded calf thymus DNA (ds DNA) by pulse radiolysis, and the formation of radiation-induced ssb by low angle laser light scattering. The D 37 /D 37 0 values at different Hoechst concentrations agree with the values obtained by Martin and al. and demonstrate the protection. However, this protection cannot be explained on the basis of OH radical scavenging alone using the above rate constants. There must, in addition, be some quenching of DNA radicals. Hoechst radicals are formed in the later ms time range, i.e a long time after the disappearance of the OH radicals. This delayed Hoechst radical formation has been assigned to a a reaction of DNA radicals with Hoechst, thereby inhibiting strand breakage. In confirmation, pulse radiolysis of aqueous solution of nucleotides in the presence of Hoechst yields a similar delayed Hoechst radical formation. The data indicate that in DNA the cross-section of this quenching has a diameter of 3 to 4 base pairs per Hoechst molecule. (N.C.)

  18. Synthesis and characterization of 6,6’-bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)-2,2’-bipyridine ligand and its interaction with ct-DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selamat, Norhidayah; Heng, Lee Yook; Hassan, Nurul Izzaty; Karim, Nurul Huda Abd

    2015-01-01

    The tetradentate ligand with four donor atoms OONN was synthesized. Bis(phenoxy)bipyridine ligand was prepared by Suzuki coupling reaction between 6,6’-dibromo-2,2’-bipyridyl and 2-hydroxyphenylboronic acid with presence of palladium (II) acetate. Bis(phenoxy)bipyridine ligand was also synthesized by demethylating of 6,6’-bis(2-methoxyphenyl)-2,2’-bipyridyl ligand through solvent free reaction using pyridine hydrocloride. The formation of both phenoxy and methoxy ligands was confirmed by 1 H, 2D cosy and 13 C NMR spectroscopy, ESI-MS spectrometry, FTIR spectroscopy. The purity of the ligand was confirmed by melting point. Binding studies of small molecules with DNA are useful to understand the reaction mechanism and to provide guidance for the application and design of new and more efficient drugs targeted to DNA. In this study, the binding interaction between the synthesized ligand with calf thymus-DNA (ct-DNA) has been investigated by UV/Vis DNA titration study. From the UV/Vis DNA study, it shows that bis(phenoxy)bipyridine ligand bind with ct-DNA via outside binding with binding contant K b = 1.19 × 10 3 ± 0.08 M −1

  19. Formation of cyclic 1,N2-propanodeoxyguanosine and thymidine adducts in the reaction of the mutagen 2-bromoacrolein with calf thymus DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meerman, J.H.; Smith, T.R.; Pearson, P.G.; Meier, G.P.; Nelson, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The interaction of the mutagen 2-bromoacrolein (2BA) with DNA and thymidine was studied in vitro by reaction of [3-3H]2BA with thymidine, RNA, single-stranded DNA, and double-stranded DNA in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). After purification of the nucleic acids, they were incubated at alkaline pH to convert any (hydroxybromo)propano(deoxy)-guanosine adducts to their dihydroxy analogues. After acid or enzymatic hydrolysis, the hydrolysates were analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. At a concentration of 1.6 mM, the fraction of 2BA that became covalently bound to DNA was 2.3% of the amount added. Only 3% of the radioactivity bound to DNA after extensive purification could be accounted for as cyclic 1,N2-(6,7-dihydroxy)-propanoguanine adducts. More 2BA became covalently bound to single-stranded DNA and RNA as compared with double-stranded DNA. However, high-performance liquid chromatographic analyses showed that formation of cyclic 1,N2-(6,7-dihydroxy)propanoguanine adducts was also a minor reaction with these macromolecules. Because these data showed that other type(s) of reaction(s) are more important in the reaction of 2BA with nucleic acids, we have investigated the reaction of 2BA with other nucleosides. It was found that 2BA reacted well with thymidine in vitro, and the major product was identified by 500 MHz 1H and 75.43 MHz 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and thermospray mass spectrometry as 3-(2-bromo-3-oxopropyl)thymidine. This adduct was unstable and decomposed upon storage. After enzymatic hydrolysis of [3H]2BA-modified double-stranded DNA and subsequent analysis of the hydrolysate by high-performance liquid chromatography, 22% of the covalently bound radioactivity to DNA coeluted with decomposition products of the 3-(bromooxypropyl)thymidine adduct

  20. DNA before Watson & Crick-The Pioneering Studies of J. M. Gulland and D. O. Jordan at Nottingham

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Harold; Hey, Michael J.

    1996-10-01

    A description placed in a historical context, of the physico-chemical investigations of DNA carried out in the period 1940-1950 by a group at University College, Nottingham led by J.M.Gulland and D.O.Jordan. The isolation of a pure sample of DNA from calf thymus was followed by its analysis by potentiometric titrations and by measurements at variable pH of viscosity and streaming birefringence. Unlike the phosphoric acid groups, the primary amino and enolic hydroxyl groups could only be titrated after prior treatment with strong acid or strong base. The conclusion of Gulland and Jordan, that extremes of pH caused liberation of amino and enolic hydoxyl groups by disruption of hydrogen bonds between neighbouring polynucleotide chains, proved to be of considerable importance. The article includes life histories of Gulland and Jordan, and reference to Linus Pauling's remarkable foresight during his Sir Jesse Boot Foundation Lecture delivered at Nottingham in 1948.

  1. DNA-Binding Studies of Some Potential Antitumor 2,2'-bipyridine Pt(II)/Pd(II) Complexes of piperidinedithiocarbamate. Their Synthesis, Spectroscopy and Cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri-Torshizi, Hassan; Eslami-Moghadam, Mahboube; Divsalar, Adeleh; Saboury, Ali-Akbar

    2011-12-01

    In this study two platinum(II) and palladium(II) complexes of the type [M(bpy)(pip-dtc)]NO3 (where M=Pt(II) or Pd(II), bpy=2,2'-bipyridine, pip-dtc=piperidinedithiocarbamate) were synthesized by reaction between diaquo-2,2'-bipyridine Pt(II)/Pd(II) nitrate and sodium salt of dithiocarbamate. These cationic water soluble complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, IR, electronic and 1H NMR spectroscopic studies. The cyclic dithiocarbamate was found to coordinate as bidentate fasion with Pt(II) or Pd(II) center. Their biological activities were tested against chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line, K562, at micromolar concentration. The obtained cytotoxic concentration (IC50) values were much lower than cisplatin. The interaction of these complexes with highly polymerized calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) was extensively studied by means of electronic absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism and other measurements. The experimental results, thermodynamic and binding parameters, suggested that these complexes cooperatively bind to DNA presumably via intercalation. Moreover, the tendency of the Pt(II) complex to interact with DNA was more than that of Pd(II) complex.

  2. Selenium nanoparticles synthesized in aqueous extract of Allium sativum perturbs the structural integrity of Calf thymus DNA through intercalation and groove binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhuthupurakkal, Preedia Babu; Polaki, Lokeswara Rao; Suyavaran, Arumugam; Subastri, Ariraman; Sujatha, Venugopal; Thirunavukkarasu, Chinnasamy

    2017-05-01

    Biomedical application of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) demands the eco-friendly composite for synthesis of SeNPs. The present study reports an aqueous extract of Allium sativum (AqEAS) plug-up the current need. Modern spectroscopic, microscopic and gravimetric techniques were employed to characterize the synthesized nanoparticles. Characterization studies revealed the formation of crystalline spherical shaped SeNPs. FTIR spectrum brings out the presence of different functional groups in AqEAS, which influence the SeNPs formation and stabilization. Furthermore the different aspects of the interaction between SeNPs and CT-DNA were scrutinized by various spectroscopic and cyclic voltametric studies. The results reveals the intercalation and groove binding mode of interaction of SeNPs with stacked base pair of CT-DNA. The Stern-Volmer quenching constant (K SV ) were found to be 7.02×10 6 M- 1 (ethidium bromide), 4.22×10 6 M- 1 (acridine orange) and 7.6×10 6 M- 1 (Hoechst) indicating strong binding of SeNPs with CT-DNA. The SeNPs - CT-DNA interactions were directly visualized by atomic force microscopy. The present study unveils the cost effective, innocuous, highly stable SeNPs intricate mechanism of DNA interaction, which will be a milestone in DNA targeted chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. In vitro DNA binding studies of lenalidomide using spectroscopic in combination with molecular docking techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Hu, Yan-Xi; Li, Yan-Cheng; Zhang, Li; Ai, Hai-Xin; Liu, Yu-Feng; Liu, Hong-Sheng

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, the binding interaction between lenalidomide (LEN) and calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) was systematically studied by using fluorescence, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies under imitated physiological conditions (pH = 7.4) coupled with molecular docking. It was found that LEN was bound to ct-DNA with high binding affinity (Ka = 2.308 × 105 M-1 at 283 K) through groove binding as evidenced by a slight decrease in the absorption intensity in combination with CD spectra. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔG 0 and ΔS interaction. Furthermore, competitive binding experiments with ethidium bromide and 4‧, 6-dia-midino-2-phenylindoleas probes showed that LEN could preferentially bind in the minor groove of double-stranded DNA. The average lifetime of LEN was calculated to be 7.645 ns. The φ of LEN was measured as 0.09 and non-radiation energy transfer between LEN and DNA had occurred. The results of the molecular docking were consistent with the experimental results. This study explored the potential applicability of the spectroscopic properties of LEN and also investigated its interactions with relevant biological targets. In addition, it will provide some theoretical references for the deep research of simultaneous administration of LEN with other drugs.

  4. Evaluation of DNA binding, DNA cleavage, protein binding, radical scavenging and in vitro cytotoxic activities of ruthenium(II) complexes containing 2,4-dihydroxy benzylidene ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanraj, Maruthachalam; Ayyannan, Ganesan; Raja, Gunasekaran; Jayabalakrishnan, Chinnasamy, E-mail: drcjbstar@gmail.com

    2016-12-01

    The new ruthenium(II) complexes with hydrazone ligands, 4-Methyl-benzoic acid (2,4-dihydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazide (HL{sup 1}), 4-Methoxy-benzoic acid (2,4-dihydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazide (HL{sup 2}), 4-Bromo-benzoic acid (2,4-dihydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazide (HL{sup 3}), were synthesized and characterized by various spectro analytical techniques. The molecular structures of the ligands were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The DNA binding studies of the ligands and complexes were examined by absorption, fluorescence, viscosity and cyclic voltammetry methods. The results indicated that the ligands and complexes could interact with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) through intercalation. The DNA cleavage activity of the complexes was evaluated by gel electrophoresis assay, which revealed that the complexes are good DNA cleaving agents. The binding interaction of the ligands and complexes with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopic method. Antioxidant studies showed that the complexes have a strong radical scavenging properties. Further, the cytotoxic effect of the complexes examined on cancerous cell lines showed that the complexes exhibit significant anticancer activity. - Highlights: • Synthesis of ruthenium(II) hydrazone complexes • Molecular structure of the ligands was elucidated by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. • The ligands and complexes interact with CT-DNA via intercalation. • The complexes possess significant antioxidant activity against DPPH, OH and NO radicals. • The complex 6 shows higher IC{sub 50} value than the other complexes against cancer cells.

  5. Computed tomography of the thymus in myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanimura, Shigeo; Sakaguchi, Kozo; Tomoyasu, Hiroshi; Banba, Jiro; Masaki, Mikio; Kurosaki, Atsuko; Matsushita, Hisashi [Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of preoperative CT diagnosis and histopathological diagnosis for the thymus were studied in 39 patients with myasthenia gravis. The patients consisted of 10 patients with thymoma and 29 without thymoma confirmed at the operation. CT diagnosis was 11 thymomas, 18 thymic hyperplasias and 10 normal thymuses. Eleven thymomas revealed histopathologically 9 thymomas, one follicular lymphoid hyperplasia (FLH) and one involved thymus. Out of 18 thymic hyperplasias 15 cases were FLH and 3 involved thymus. There were 5 involved thymuses, 4 FLHs and one thymoma in the 10 normal thymuses on CT. The finding of `reticular pattern`, many small nodules scattered reticularly in the thymus, in computed tomography could be regarded as a sign suggesting FLH of the thymus. The accuracy of this finding of CT was 83% for FLH. The finding of thymoma on CT revealed 82% of the accuracy. Therefore, CT was very useful in the diagnosis of the localization of the thymoma but not for the diagnosis of FLH of the thymus. Nevertheless the finding of `reticular pattern` on CT was helpful in the diagnosis of FLH. (author).

  6. Computed tomography of the thymus in myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimura, Shigeo; Sakaguchi, Kozo; Tomoyasu, Hiroshi; Banba, Jiro; Masaki, Mikio; Kurosaki, Atsuko; Matsushita, Hisashi

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of preoperative CT diagnosis and histopathological diagnosis for the thymus were studied in 39 patients with myasthenia gravis. The patients consisted of 10 patients with thymoma and 29 without thymoma confirmed at the operation. CT diagnosis was 11 thymomas, 18 thymic hyperplasias and 10 normal thymuses. Eleven thymomas revealed histopathologically 9 thymomas, one follicular lymphoid hyperplasia (FLH) and one involved thymus. Out of 18 thymic hyperplasias 15 cases were FLH and 3 involved thymus. There were 5 involved thymuses, 4 FLHs and one thymoma in the 10 normal thymuses on CT. The finding of 'reticular pattern', many small nodules scattered reticularly in the thymus, in computed tomography could be regarded as a sign suggesting FLH of the thymus. The accuracy of this finding of CT was 83% for FLH. The finding of thymoma on CT revealed 82% of the accuracy. Therefore, CT was very useful in the diagnosis of the localization of the thymoma but not for the diagnosis of FLH of the thymus. Nevertheless the finding of 'reticular pattern' on CT was helpful in the diagnosis of FLH. (author)

  7. The importance of pKa in an analysis of the interaction of compounds with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Mouli; Nandy, Promita; Chakraborty, Mousumi; Das, Piyal; Das, Saurabh

    2018-05-01

    pK a of a compound is crucial for determining the contributions of different forms of it towards overall binding with DNA. Hence it is important to use correct pK a values in DNA interaction studies. This study takes a look at the importance of pK a values to realize binding of compounds with DNA. Since pK a of a compound determined in the presence of DNA is quite different from that determined in its absence hence, presence of different forms of a compound during interaction with DNA is different from that realized if the determination of pK a is done in normal aqueous solution in absence of DNA. Hence, calculations determining contributions of different forms of a compound interacting with DNA are affected accordingly. Two simple analogues of anthracyclines, alizarin and purpurin, were used to investigate the influence DNA has on pK a values. Indeed, they were different in presence of DNA than when determined in normal aqueous solution. pK a1 for alizarin and purpurin determined in the absence and presence of calf thymus DNA were used in equations that determine contributions of two forms (neutral and anionic) towards overall binding with DNA. The study concludes that correct pK a values, determined correctly i.e. under appropriate conditions, must be used for DNA binding experiments to evaluate contributions of individual forms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Marine natural products. XXXII. Absolute configurations of C-4 of the manoalide family, biologically active sesterterpenes from the marine sponge Hyrtios erecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, M; Okamoto, T; Hayashi, K; Yokoyama, N; Sasaki, T; Kitagawa, I

    1994-02-01

    Cytotoxic sesterterpenes, manoalide 25-acetals (1a, 1b), seco-manoalide (2), (E)-neomanoalide (3), (Z)-neomanoalide (4), and heteronemin (6), were isolated from the marine sponge Hyrtios erecta (collected at Amami Island, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan) by bioassay-guided separation and the absolute configurations of these manoalide family members have been determined. Manoalide 25-acetals (1a, 1b) were shown to exhibit in vivo antitumor activity and to inhibit the DNA-relaxing activity of mouse DNA topoisomerase I and the DNA-unknotting activity of calf thymus DNA topoisomerase II.

  9. Ultrafast spectroscopy on DNA-cleavage by endonuclease in molecular crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priya; Choudhury, Susobhan; Dutta, Shreyasi; Adhikari, Aniruddha; Bhattacharya, Siddhartha; Pal, Debasish; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2017-10-01

    The jam-packed intracellular environments differ the activity of a biological macromolecule from that in laboratory environments (in vitro) through a number of mechanisms called molecular crowding related to structure, function and dynamics of the macromolecule. Here, we have explored the structure, function and dynamics of a model enzyme protein DNase I in molecular crowing of polyethylene glycol (PEG; MW 3350). We have used steady state and picosecond resolved dynamics of a well-known intercalator ethidium bromide (EB) in a 20-mer double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) to monitor the DNA-cleavage by the enzyme in absence and presence PEG. We have also labelled the enzyme by a well-known fluorescent probe 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid ammonium salt (ANS) to study the molecular mechanism of the protein-DNA association through exited state relaxation of the probe in absence (dictated by polarity) and presence of EB in the DNA (dictated by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)). The overall and local structures of the protein in presence of PEG have been followed by circular dichroism and time resolved polarization gated spectroscopy respectively. The enhanced dynamical flexibility of protein in presence of PEG as revealed from excited state lifetime and polarization gated anisotropy of ANS has been correlated with the stronger DNA-binding for the higher nuclease activity. We have also used conventional experimental strategy of agarose gel electrophoresis to monitor DNA-cleavage and found consistent results of enhanced nuclease activities both on synthetic 20-mer oligonucleotide and long genomic DNA from calf thymus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis of novel fluorescent probe Tb(III)-7-carboxymethoxy-4-methylcoumarin complex for sensing of DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, Belal H.M.; Azab, Hassan A.; Fathalla, Walid; Ali, Sherin A.M.

    2013-01-01

    New fluorescent probe Tb(III) (7-carboxymethoxy-4-methylcoumarin)2(SCN) (C2H5OH)(H2O) was synthesized and characterized by spectroscopy and thermal analysis. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of 7-carboxymethoxy-4-methylcoumarin (CMMC) and Tb(III)–CMMC complex have been measured in different solvents. The interactions of Tb(III)–CMMC complex with calf thymus nucleic acid (CT-DNA) have been investigated using steady state fluorescence measurements. The changes in the fluorescence intensity have been used for the quantitative determination of DNA with LOD of 3.45 ng in methanol–water (9:1, v/v). The association constants of DNA with Tb(III)–CMMC complex was found to be 2.62×1010 M −1 . - Highlights: ► New fluorescent probe Terbium (III)-7-carboxy methoxy-4-methylcoumarin complex has been synthesized and characterized. ► FTIR spectrum of Tb(III)-complex shows a characteristic band for thiocyanate group. ► DNA interaction with Terbium (III)-7-carboxy methoxy-4-methylcoumarin has been studied by fluorescence techniques. ► The change in the fluorescence intensity has been used for the quantitative determination of DNA. ► The result was better than most of the well-known methods including the ethidium bromide method.

  11. DNA binding, cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction activity of a mixed-ligand copper(II) complex with taurine Schiff base and imidazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; kong, Lin Lin; Gou, Yi; Yang, Feng; Liang, Hong

    2014-07-01

    A novel binuclear copper(II) complex (complex 1) with taurine Schiff base and imidazole has been synthesized and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, ESI-MS spectrometry, UV-vis and IR spectroscopy. Single-crystal analysis revealed that 1 displays the sulfonate-bridged dinuclear copper(II) centers. Both copper atoms are five-coordinated and exhibit slightly distorted square pyramidal geometries. Each of copper atom is surrounded by three oxygen atoms and one nitrogen atom from different taurine Schiff base ligands, and one nitrogen atom from one imidazole ligand. The interaction between 1 and calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated by UV-vis, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) spectra and agarose gel electrophoresis. The experimental results indicated that 1 could bind to CT-DNA via an intercalative mode and show efficient cleavage activity. In addition, 1 showed an antitumor effect on cell cycle and apoptosis. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that MGC-803 cells were arrested in the S phase after treatment with 1. Fluorescence microscopic observation indicated that 1 could induce apoptosis of MGC-803 cells.

  12. Charge-transfer interactions of Cr species with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka, Anna M; Matysiak-Brynda, Edyta; Hepel, Maria

    2017-10-01

    Interactions of Cr species with nucleic acids in living organisms depend strongly on Cr oxidation state and the environmental conditions. As the effects of these interactions range from benign to pre-mutagenic to carcinogenic, careful assessment of the hazard they pose to human health is necessary. We have investigated methods that would enable quantifying the DNA damage caused by Cr species under varying environmental conditions, including UV, O 2 , and redox potential, using simple instrumental techniques which could be in future combined into a field-deployable instrumentation. We have employed electrochemical quartz crystal nanogravimetry (EQCN), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to evaluate the extent of DNA damage expressed in terms of guanine oxidation yield (η) and changes in specific characteristics provided by these techniques. The effects of the interactions of Cr species with DNA were analyzed using a model calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) film on a gold electrode (Au@ctDNA) in different media, including: (i) Cr(VI), (ii) Cr(VI) reduced at -0.2V, (iii) Cr(III)+UV radiation+O 2 , and Cr(III), obtaining the η values: 7.4±1.4, 1.5±0.4, 1.1±0.31%, and 0%, respectively, thus quantifying the hazard posed. The EIS measurements have enabled utilizing the decrease in charge-transfer resistance (R ct ) for ferri/ferrocyanide redox probe at an Au@ctDNA electrode to assess the oxidative ctDNA damage by Cr(VI) species. In this case, circular dichroism indicates an extensive damage to the ctDNA hydrogen bonding. On the other hand, Cr(III) species have not induced any damage to ctDNA, although the EQCN measurements show an electrostatic binding to DNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mobilization of Copper ions by Flavonoids in Human Peripheral Lymphocytes Leads to Oxidative DNA Breakage: A Structure Activity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Hussain; Rehmani, Nida; Farhan, Mohd; Ahmad, Aamir; Hadi, Sheikh Mumtaz

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked dietary consumption of plant polyphenols with lower incidence of various cancers. In particular, flavonoids (present in onion, tomato and other plant sources) induce apoptosis and cytotoxicity in cancer cells. These can therefore be used as lead compounds for the synthesis of novel anticancer drugs with greater bioavailability. In the present study, we examined the chemical basis of cytotoxicity of flavonoids by studying the structure–activity relationship of myricetin (MN), fisetin (FN), quercetin (QN), kaempferol (KL) and galangin (GN). Using single cell alkaline gel electrophoresis (comet assay), we established the relative efficiency of cellular DNA breakage as MN > FN > QN > KL > GN. Also, we determined that the cellular DNA breakage was the result of mobilization of chromatin-bound copper ions and the generation of reactive oxygen species. The relative DNA binding affinity order was further confirmed using molecular docking and thermodynamic studies through the interaction of flavonoids with calf thymus DNA. Our results suggest that novel anti-cancer molecules should have ortho-dihydroxy groups in B-ring and hydroxyl groups at positions 3 and 5 in the A-ring system. Additional hydroxyl groups at other positions further enhance the cellular cytotoxicity of the flavonoids. PMID:26569217

  14. DNA-binding, catalytic oxidation, C—C coupling reactions and antibacterial activities of binuclear Ru(II thiosemicarbazone complexes: Synthesis and spectral characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Manimaran

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available New hexa-coordinated binuclear Ru(II thiosemicarbazone complexes of the type {[(B(EPh3(COClRu]2L} (where, E = P or As; B = PPh3 or AsPh3 or pyridine; L = mononucleating NS donor of N-substituted thiosemicarbazones have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV–vis and 31P{1H} NMR cyclic voltammetric studies. The DNA-binding studies of Ru(II complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA were investigated by UV–vis, viscosity measurements, gel-electrophoresis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The new complexes have been used as catalysts in C—C coupling reaction and in the oxidation of alcohols to their corresponding carbonyl compounds by using NMO as co-oxidant and molecular oxygen (O2 atmosphere at ambient temperature. Further, the new binucleating thiosemicarbazone ligands and their Ru(II complexes were also screened for their antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella sp., Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. From this study, it was found out that the activity of the complexes almost reaches the effectiveness of the conventional bacteriocide.

  15. Antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity and DNA binding studies of carbon dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhonsi, Mariadoss Asha; Ananth, Devanesan Arul; Nambirajan, Gayathri; Sivasudha, Thilagar; Yamini, Rekha; Bera, Soumen; Kathiravan, Arunkumar

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, quantum dots (QDs) are one of the most promising nanomaterials in life sciences community due to their unexploited potential in biomedical applications; particularly in bio-labeling and sensing. In the advanced nanomaterials, carbon dots (CDs) have shown promise in next generation bioimaging and drug delivery studies. Therefore the knowledge of the exact nature of interaction with biomolecules is of great interest to designing better biosensors. In this study, the interaction between CDs derived from tamarind and calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) has been studied by vital spectroscopic techniques, which revealed that the CDs could interact with DNA via intercalation. The apparent association constant has been deduced from the absorption spectral changes of ct-DNA-CDs using the Benesi-Hildebrand equation. From the DNA induced emission quenching experiments the apparent DNA binding constant of the CDs (Kapp) have also been evaluated. Furthermore, we have analyzed the antibacterial and antifungal activity of CDs using disc diffusion assay method which exhibited excellent activity against E. coli and C. albicans with inhibition zone in the range of 7-12 mm. The biocompatible nature of CDs was confirmed by an in vitro cytotoxicity test on L6 normal rat myoblast cells by using MTT assay. The cell viability is not affected till the high dosage of CDs (200 μg/mL) for >48 h. As a consequence of the work, future development of CDs for microbial control and DNA sensing among the various biomolecules is possible in view of emerging biofields.

  16. Calf Contouring with Endoscopic Fascial Release, Calf Implant, and Structural Fat Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Karacaoglu, MD

    2013-08-01

    Conclusions: A novel endoscopic approach for lower leg contouring is discussed. Endoscopic fasciotomy technique with calf implant and structural fat grafting for improved lower leg aesthetics is a simple, effective, reliable, and predictable technique for calf contouring.

  17. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The 1:1 electrolytic one-electron paramagnetic complexes showed a d-d band near 670 nm in aqueous DMF (1:1 v/v). The crystal structure of complex 1 showed the metal in CuN4O distorted square-pyramidal geometry. Complex 2 intercalatively binds to calf-thymus (ct) DNA with a binding constant (b) of ∼105 M−1.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of 6,6’-bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)-2,2’-bipyridine ligand and its interaction with ct-DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selamat, Norhidayah; Heng, Lee Yook; Hassan, Nurul Izzaty; Karim, Nurul Huda Abd [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43650 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    The tetradentate ligand with four donor atoms OONN was synthesized. Bis(phenoxy)bipyridine ligand was prepared by Suzuki coupling reaction between 6,6’-dibromo-2,2’-bipyridyl and 2-hydroxyphenylboronic acid with presence of palladium (II) acetate. Bis(phenoxy)bipyridine ligand was also synthesized by demethylating of 6,6’-bis(2-methoxyphenyl)-2,2’-bipyridyl ligand through solvent free reaction using pyridine hydrocloride. The formation of both phenoxy and methoxy ligands was confirmed by {sup 1}H, 2D cosy and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, ESI-MS spectrometry, FTIR spectroscopy. The purity of the ligand was confirmed by melting point. Binding studies of small molecules with DNA are useful to understand the reaction mechanism and to provide guidance for the application and design of new and more efficient drugs targeted to DNA. In this study, the binding interaction between the synthesized ligand with calf thymus-DNA (ct-DNA) has been investigated by UV/Vis DNA titration study. From the UV/Vis DNA study, it shows that bis(phenoxy)bipyridine ligand bind with ct-DNA via outside binding with binding contant K{sub b} = 1.19 × 10{sup 3} ± 0.08 M{sup −1}.

  19. In vitro metabolism of the pro-carcinogen aflatoxin B1 by liver preparations of the calf, nurse shark and clearnose skate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodine, A B; Luer, C A; Gangjee, S A; Walsh, C J

    1989-01-01

    1. Liver postmitochondrial supernatant preparations of calf, clearnose skate, and nurse shark were able to metabolize the fungal toxin aflatoxin B1 to various metabolites. 2. Calf liver produced aflatoxin M1 and Q1 as the major chloroform soluble metabolites, with small amounts of aflatoxicol formed during incubation. 3. Liver preparations of the elasmobranchs, however, produced aflatoxicol as the major chloroform soluble metabolite with no other metabolite being detected. 4. The water soluble metabolite profiles for the three species were also quite different with the tris diol adduct being produced to a much greater extent in calf liver preparations. 5. Aflatoxicol production by the elasmobranch liver homogenates was reversible with the skate reconverting a large amount (30%) of aflatoxicol to AFB1. The nurse shark, however, appeared to convert a portion of aflatoxicol to an unknown metabolite more polar than AFB1. 6. Calf liver DNA bound approximately 3 x more 3H-AFB1 than shark liver DNA.

  20. Physical and chemical properties of chromatin and its fragments formed in the rat thymus during postirradiation autolysis and under the influence of DNA-ase and protease on DNP preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolaeva, N.V.; Vodolazskaya, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    It has been shown that the thymus chromatin degradation 2-8 hr after irradiation is followed by its cross-splitting and accumulation of several types of fragments differing in the degree of DNA association with the protein. Participation of proteases in the formation of fragments is hardly probable. Acid DNAase is involved in the autolysis perhaps in his maximum later 6 hr after irradiation

  1. Experimental and molecular docking studies on DNA binding interaction of adefovir dipivoxil: Advances toward treatment of hepatitis B virus infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Falsafi, Monireh

    The toxic interaction of adefovir dipivoxil with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated in vitro under simulated physiological conditions by multi-spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling study. The fluorescence spectroscopy and UV absorption spectroscopy indicated drug interacted with CT-DNA in a groove binding mode. The binding constant of UV-visible and the number of binding sites were 3.33 ± 0.2 × 104 L mol-1and 0.99, respectively. The fluorimetric studies showed that the reaction between the drug and CT-DNA is exothermic (ΔH = 34.4 kJ mol-1; ΔS = 184.32 J mol-1 K-1). Circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) was employed to measure the conformational change of CT-DNA in the presence of adefovir dipivoxil, which verified the groove binding mode. Furthermore, the drug induces detectable changes in its viscosity. The molecular modeling results illustrated that adefovir strongly binds to groove of DNA by relative binding energy of docked structure -16.83 kJ mol-1. This combination of multiple spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling methods can be widely used in the investigation on the toxic interaction of small molecular pollutants and drugs with bio macromolecules, which contributes to clarify the molecular mechanism of toxicity or side effect in vivo.

  2. Identification and characterization of a DNA primase activity present in herpes simplex virus type 1-infected HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, A.M.; Wietstock, S.M.; Ruyechan, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    A novel DNA primase activity has been identified in HeLa cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Such an activity has not been detected in mock-infected cells. The primase activity coeluted with a portion of HSV-1 DNA polymerase from single-stranded DNA agarose columns loaded with high-salt extracts derived from infected cells. This DNA primase activity could be distinguished from host HeLa cell DNA primase by several criteria. First, the pH optimum of the HSV primase was relatively broad and peaked at 8.2 to 8.7 pH units. Second, freshly isolated HSV DNA primase was less salt sensitive than the HeLa primase. Third, antibodies raised against individual peptides of the calf thymus DNA polymerase:primase complex cross-reacted with the HeLa primase but did not react with the HSV DNA primase. Fourth, freshly prepared HSV DNA primase appeared to be associated with the HSV polymerase, but after storage at 4 degree C for several weeks, the DNA primase separated from the viral DNA polymerase. This free DNA primase had an apparent molecular size of approximately 40 kilodaltons, whereas free HeLa DNA primase had an apparent molecular size of approximately 110 kilodaltons. On the basis of these data, the authors believe that the novel DNA primase activity in HSV-infected cells may be virus coded and that this enzyme represents a new and important function involved in the replication of HSV DNA

  3. A Ru(II) complex with 2-(4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5- f][1,10]phenanthroline: Synthesis, characterization, and acid-base and DNA-binding properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Yuan, Cui-Li; Jia, Hai-Shun; Wang, Ke-Zhi

    2011-09-01

    A new Ru(II) complex of [Ru(bpy) 2(Hmspip)]Cl 2 {in which bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, Hmspip = 2-(4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-1 H-imidazo[4,5- f][1,10]phenanthroline} have been synthesized and characterized. The ground- and excited-state acid-base properties of [Ru(bpy) 2(Hmspip)]Cl 2 and its parent complex of [Ru(bpy) 2(Hpip)]Cl 2 {Hpip = 2-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5- f][1,10]phenanthroline} have been studied by UV-visible (UV-vis) and emission spectrophotometric pH titrations. [Ru(bpy) 2(Hmspip)]Cl 2 acts as a calf thymus DNA intercalators with a binding constant of 4.0 × 10 5 M -1 in buffered 50 mM NaCl, as evidenced by UV-vis and luminescence titrations, steady-state emission quenching by [Fe(CN) 6] 4-, DNA competitive binding with ethidium bromide, reverse salt titrations and viscosity measurements.

  4. Role of alkaline endonucleases in the release of soluble chromatin from thymus, spleen and liver nuclei of normal and irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suciu, D.

    1979-01-01

    Thymus, spleen and liver nuclei released a large fraction of soluble chromatin in vitro when incubation was carried out in sucrose media containing low concentrations of CaCl 2 and/or MgCl 2 . A significant fraction of deoxyribopolynucleotides (DPN) was also extracted from nuclei. After 30 min of incubation at 37 0 C, the maximum release of soluble chromatin was observed near a pH of 8, which corresponds to the optimum pH of the alkaline endonuclease activity from thymus, spleen and liver. The soluble chromatin and DPN were precipitated by increasing the bivalent ion concentration of the medium. The protein/DNA ratio and the molecular weight of DNA suggest that the soluble chromatin and DPN represent nucleosome-like particles. The release of soluble chromatin in the first 4 hours of incubation was significantly increased if the nuclear fraction was isolated from the thymus and spleen of whole-body irradiated mice (1000 rad). This effect was absent in the liver nuclei. (author)

  5. Decomposition of nuclear chromatin of the rat thymus within the postirradiation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vodolazskaya, N.A.

    1975-01-01

    Fractional composition of DNP histones and of salt extracts of the thymus of rats has been studied 2 to 8 hours after γ-irradiation with 600r (Co 60 ). Simultaneously, histones/DNA ratio has been determined in the nucleoprotein and in its salt-soluble fragments after fractionation of the salt extracts on phosphatecellulose. It has been shown that 2 to 4 hours following the exposure, the histone/DNA ratio in DNP preparations does not vary from the control. Subsequently, however, it slightly decreases. It has been found that the postirradiation DNP decomposition is accompanied by the formation of fragments which, in addition to a free DNA, comprise complexes with the decreased and increased histone/DNA ratio as compared to the original DNP

  6. Formation of 7-hydroxymethyl-12-methylbenz(a)anthracene-DNA adducts from 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in mouse epidermis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGiovanni, J.; Nebzydoski, A.P.; Decina, P.C.

    1983-01-01

    The formation of DNA adducts from [ 3 H]-7-hydroxymethyl-12-methylbenz(a)anthracene (7-OHM-12-MBA) and [ 3 H]-7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in the epidermis of Sencar mice was analyzed. Comparison of Sephadex LH-20 chromatographic profiles of DNA samples isolated from mice treated with DMBA or 7-OHM-12-MBA suggested that the DMBA-treated animals contained DNA adduct(s) derived from the further metabolism of 7-OHM-12-MBA. Further analysis of DNA samples from DMBA-treated mice by high-pressure liquid chromatography demonstrated the presence of 5 DNA adducts which were chromatographically indistinguishable from the DNA adducts formed in 7-OHM-12-MBA-treated mice. Epidermal homogenates were utilized to catalyze the covalent binding of [ 3 H]DMBA and [ 3 H]-7-OHM-12-MBA to calf thymus DNA in vitro. Under conditions of limiting concentrations of [ 3 H]DMBA, the majority of the DNA adducts formed chromatographed in regions where 7-OHM-12-MBA-DNA adducts eluted. A major DMBA-DNA adduct formed in this in vitro system eluted with the same retention time as did the major 7-OHM-12-MBA-DNA adduct formed in mouse skin in vivo. These results when coupled with the in vivo data suggest that 7-OHM-12-MBA is an intermediate for at least some of the binding of DMBA to epidermal DNA in Sencar mice

  7. Induction of DNA strand breaks by RSU-1069, a nitroimidazole-aziridine radiosensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, A.R.J.; O'Neill, P.; Jenkins, T.C.

    1985-01-01

    [2- 14 C]-RSU-1069 [1-(2-nitro-1-imidazolyl)-3-(1-aziridino)-2-propanol], either as a parent or following radiation reduction, binds to calf thymus DNA in vitro. Radiation-reduced RSU-1069 binds to a greater extent and more rapidly than the parent compound. RSU-1137, a non-aziridino analogue of RSU-1069, binds following radiation reduction. Radiation-reduced misonidazole exhibits binding ratios a thousand-fold less than those of reduced RSU-1069. Both parent and reduced RSU-1069 cause single strand breaks (ssbs) in pSV2 gpt plasmid DNA with the reduced compound causing a greater number of breaks. Parent and reduced RSU-1137 and misonidazole do not cause ssbs. It is inferred that the aziridine moiety present in both parent and reduced RSU-1069 is required for ssb production. RSU-1069 reacts with inorganic phosphate probably via nucleophilic ring-opening of the aziridine fragment. Incubation of plasmid DNA with reduced RSU-1069 in the presence of either phosphate or deoxyribose-5-phosphate at concentrations greater than 0.35 mol dm -3 prevents strand breakage, whereas 1.2 mol dm -3 deoxyribose does not protect against strand breakage formation. It is proposed that the observed binding to DNA occurs via the aziridine and the reduced nitro group of RSU-1069 and that these two have different target sites. Binding to DNA via the reduced nitro group may serve to increase aziridine attack due to localization at or near its target. (author)

  8. Interaction of anthraquinone anti-cancer drugs with DNA:Experimental and computational quantum chemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otaibi, Jamelah S.; Teesdale Spittle, Paul; El Gogary, Tarek M.

    2017-01-01

    Anthraquinones form the basis of several anticancer drugs. Anthraquinones anticancer drugs carry out their cytotoxic activities through their interaction with DNA, and inhibition of topoisomerase II activity. Anthraquinones (AQ4 and AQ4H) were synthesized and studied along with 1,4-DAAQ by computational and experimental tools. The purpose of this study is to shade more light on mechanism of interaction between anthraquinone DNA affinic agents and different types of DNA. This study will lead to gain of information useful for drug design and development. Molecular structures were optimized using DFT B3LYP/6-31 + G(d). Depending on intramolecular hydrogen bonding interactions two conformers of AQ4 were detected and computed as 25.667 kcal/mol apart. Molecular reactivity of the anthraquinone compounds was explored using global and condensed descriptors (electrophilicity and Fukui functions). Molecular docking studies for the inhibition of CDK2 and DNA binding were carried out to explore the anti cancer potency of these drugs. NMR and UV-VIS electronic absorption spectra of anthraquinones/DNA were investigated at the physiological pH. The interaction of the three anthraquinones (AQ4, AQ4H and 1,4-DAAQ) were studied with three DNA (calf thymus DNA, (Poly[dA].Poly[dT]) and (Poly[dG].Poly[dC]). NMR study shows a qualitative pattern of drug/DNA interaction in terms of band shift and broadening. UV-VIS electronic absorption spectra were employed to measure the affinity constants of drug/DNA binding using Scatchard analysis.

  9. Synthesis of novel fluorescent probe Tb(III)-7-carboxymethoxy-4-methylcoumarin complex for sensing of DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, Belal H.M., E-mail: belalhussein102@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Azab, Hassan A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Fathalla, Walid [Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Port-Said University, Port-Said (Egypt); Ali, Sherin A.M. [Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt)

    2013-02-15

    New fluorescent probe Tb(III) (7-carboxymethoxy-4-methylcoumarin)2(SCN) (C2H5OH)(H2O) was synthesized and characterized by spectroscopy and thermal analysis. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of 7-carboxymethoxy-4-methylcoumarin (CMMC) and Tb(III)-CMMC complex have been measured in different solvents. The interactions of Tb(III)-CMMC complex with calf thymus nucleic acid (CT-DNA) have been investigated using steady state fluorescence measurements. The changes in the fluorescence intensity have been used for the quantitative determination of DNA with LOD of 3.45 ng in methanol-water (9:1, v/v). The association constants of DNA with Tb(III)-CMMC complex was found to be 2.62 Multiplication-Sign 1010 M{sup -1}. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New fluorescent probe Terbium (III)-7-carboxy methoxy-4-methylcoumarin complex has been synthesized and characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FTIR spectrum of Tb(III)-complex shows a characteristic band for thiocyanate group. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA interaction with Terbium (III)-7-carboxy methoxy-4-methylcoumarin has been studied by fluorescence techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The change in the fluorescence intensity has been used for the quantitative determination of DNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result was better than most of the well-known methods including the ethidium bromide method.

  10. Spontaneous calf haematoma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaidah, N H; Liew, N C

    2014-02-01

    Spontaneous calf haematoma is a rare condition and few case reports have been published in the English literature. Common conditions like deep vein thrombosis and traumatic gastrocnemius muscle tear need to be considered when a patient presents with unilateral calf swelling and tenderness. Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging are essential for confirmation of diagnosis. The purpose of this paper is to report on a rare case of spontaneous calf hematoma and its diagnosis and management.

  11. DNA binding, antioxidant, cytotoxicity (MTT, lactate dehydrogenase, NO), and cellular uptake studies of structurally different nickel(II) thiosemicarbazone complexes: synthesis, spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and X-ray crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, R; Kalaivani, P; Huang, R; Poornima, P; Vijaya Padma, V; Dallemer, F; Natarajan, K

    2013-02-01

    Three new nickel(II) thiosemicarbazone complexes have been synthesized and characterized by analytical, spectral, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. In complex 1, the ligand 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehydethiosemicarbazone coordinated as a monobasic tridentate donor, whereas in complexes 2 and 3, the ligands salicylaldehyde-4(N)-ethylthiosemicarbazone and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde-4(N)-ethylthiosemicarbazone coordinated as a dibasic tridentate donor. The DNA binding ability of the complexes in calf thymus DNA was explored by absorption and emission titration experiments. The antioxidant property of the new complexes was evaluated to test their free-radical scavenging ability. In vitro cytotoxicity assays were performed for the new complexes in A549 and HepG2 cell lines. The new compounds overcome cisplatin resistance in the A549 cell line and they were also active in the HepG2 cell line. The cellular uptake study showed the accumulation of the complexes in tumor cells depended on the nature of the ligand attached to the nickel ion.

  12. Thymus size at 6 months of age and subsequent child mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garly, May-Lill; Trautner, Sisse Lecanda; Marx, Charlotte; Danebod, Kamilla; Nielsen, Jens; Ravn, Henrik; Martins, Cesário Lourenco; Balé, Carlito; Aaby, Peter; Lisse, Ida Maria

    2008-11-01

    To examine determinants of thymus size at age 6 months and investigate whether thymus size at this age is a determinant of subsequent mortality. Thymus size was measured by transsternal sonography in 923 6-month-old children participating in a measles vaccination trial in Guinea-Bissau. Thymus size was strongly associated with anthropometric measurements. Boys had larger thymuses than girls, controlling for anthropometry. Crying during sonography made the thymus appear smaller. Children who were not vaccinated with Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) or were vaccinated with BCG in the preceding 4 weeks before inclusion into the study had larger thymuses. Children who had malaria or had been treated with chloroquine or Quinimax in the previous week before inclusion had smaller thymuses. Controlled for background factors associated with thymus size and mortality, small thymus size remained a strong and independent risk factor for mortality (hazard ratio = 0.31; 95% confidence interval = 0.18 to 0.52). Small thymus size at age 6 months is a strong risk factor for mortality. To prevent unnecessary deaths, it is important to identify preventable factors predisposing to small thymus size.

  13. Radiographical diagnosis of the thymus in myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimura, Shigeo; Banba, Jiro; Masaki, Mikio; Irimoto, Masahiro; Matsushita, Akira

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of radiographical findings of the thymus between pneumomediastinography and computed tomography were studied in 35 patients with myasthenia gravis. The patients consisted of 10 patients with thymoma and 25 without thymoma confirmed at the operations. Pneumomediastinography was very useful to discern whether the thymoma was invasive or noninvasive, but not contributory to know whether the thymus was composed of folicular lymphoid hyperplasia or normal thyimic tissues. Computed tomography was also useful to dertermine the localization and the invasiveness of the thymoma, but not helpful to know whether the thymus was of follicular lymphoid hyperplasia or normal tissues. However, the finding of ''reticular pattern''-many small nodules scattered resicularly in the thymus-in computed tomography could be regarded as a sign suggesting follicular lymphoid hyperplasia of the thymus. Therfore, both pneumomediastinography and computed tomography were very useful in the diagnosis of the localization and the invasiveness of the thymoma but not for the diagnosis of follicular lymphoid hyperplasia of the thymus. Neverethless the finding of ''reticular pattern'' computred tomography was helpful in the diagnosis of follicular lymphoid hyperplasia. (author)

  14. Mobilization of Copper ions by Flavonoids in Human Peripheral Lymphocytes Leads to Oxidative DNA Breakage: A Structure Activity Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Arif

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have linked dietary consumption of plant polyphenols with lower incidence of various cancers. In particular, flavonoids (present in onion, tomato and other plant sources induce apoptosis and cytotoxicity in cancer cells. These can therefore be used as lead compounds for the synthesis of novel anticancer drugs with greater bioavailability. In the present study, we examined the chemical basis of cytotoxicity of flavonoids by studying the structure–activity relationship of myricetin (MN, fisetin (FN, quercetin (QN, kaempferol (KL and galangin (GN. Using single cell alkaline gel electrophoresis (comet assay, we established the relative efficiency of cellular DNA breakage as MN > FN > QN > KL > GN. Also, we determined that the cellular DNA breakage was the result of mobilization of chromatin-bound copper ions and the generation of reactive oxygen species. The relative DNA binding affinity order was further confirmed using molecular docking and thermodynamic studies through the interaction of flavonoids with calf thymus DNA. Our results suggest that novel anti-cancer molecules should have ortho-dihydroxy groups in B-ring and hydroxyl groups at positions 3 and 5 in the A-ring system. Additional hydroxyl groups at other positions further enhance the cellular cytotoxicity of the flavonoids.

  15. Normal CT characteristics of the thymus in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simanovsky, Natalia, E-mail: natalias@hadassah.org.il [Department of Medical Imaging, Hadassah - Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem (Israel); Hiller, Nurith; Loubashevsky, Natali; Rozovsky, Katya [Department of Medical Imaging, Hadassah - Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2012-11-15

    Background: The thymus changes with age. Its shape and the proportion of solid tissue and fat vary between individuals, yet there is no comprehensive work describing the size and morphology of the normal thymus on CT. As a result, many adults with some preserved soft tissue in the thymus may undergo extensive work-up to exclude mediastinal tumor. Our aim was to quantify CT characteristics of the normal thymus in an adult population. Methods: CT chest scans of 194 trauma patients aged 14-78 years (mean 52.6 years), were retrospectively reviewed. The density, volume, shape and predominant side of the thymus were recorded for 56 patients in whom some solid tissue was preserved. Statistical analysis of these characteristics according to the patient age and gender was performed. Results: Thymic density and volume decreased progressively with age. No solid tissue component was seen in the thymus in patients older than 54 years. In the majority of patients, the thymus had an arrowhead shape, with middle position. However, great variability in thymic shape and border were noted. There was a highly significant relationship between density and patient age (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: We hope that our work will help in the definition of normal thymic CT parameters in adults, help to prevent unnecessary and expensive imaging procedures, and reduce patient exposure to ionizing radiation.

  16. Normal CT characteristics of the thymus in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanovsky, Natalia; Hiller, Nurith; Loubashevsky, Natali; Rozovsky, Katya

    2012-01-01

    Background: The thymus changes with age. Its shape and the proportion of solid tissue and fat vary between individuals, yet there is no comprehensive work describing the size and morphology of the normal thymus on CT. As a result, many adults with some preserved soft tissue in the thymus may undergo extensive work-up to exclude mediastinal tumor. Our aim was to quantify CT characteristics of the normal thymus in an adult population. Methods: CT chest scans of 194 trauma patients aged 14–78 years (mean 52.6 years), were retrospectively reviewed. The density, volume, shape and predominant side of the thymus were recorded for 56 patients in whom some solid tissue was preserved. Statistical analysis of these characteristics according to the patient age and gender was performed. Results: Thymic density and volume decreased progressively with age. No solid tissue component was seen in the thymus in patients older than 54 years. In the majority of patients, the thymus had an arrowhead shape, with middle position. However, great variability in thymic shape and border were noted. There was a highly significant relationship between density and patient age (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: We hope that our work will help in the definition of normal thymic CT parameters in adults, help to prevent unnecessary and expensive imaging procedures, and reduce patient exposure to ionizing radiation.

  17. Mechanisms of DNA damage by the tumor promoter and progressor benzoyl peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swauger, J.E.; Dolan, P.M.; Zweier, J.L.; Kensler, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    Benzoyl peroxide (BzPO), a tumor promoter and progressor in mouse skin, produces strand breaks in DNA of exposed cells. Previously we have reported that the metabolism of BzPO in keratinocytes proceeds via the initial cleavage of the peroxide bond, yielding benzoyloxyl radicals which, in turn, can fragment to form phenyl radicals and carbon dioxide. Benzoic acid, the product of hydrogen abstraction by the benzoyloxyl radical, is the major stable metabolite of BzPO produced by keratinocytes. In the present study we have examined the capacity of BzPO to generate strand scissions in φX-174 plasmid DNA. DNA damage was dose-dependent over a concentration range of 10-1000 μM BzPO and was dependent on the presence of copper but not other transition state metals. By contrast, benzoic acid did not produce DNA damage in this system. The inclusion of spin trapping agents (PBN, DBNBS), radical scavenging agents (Nal, GSH), or the copper chelator o-phenanthroline in incubations was found to significantly reduce the extent of DNA damage. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy studies suggested that the primary radical trapped was the benzoyloxyl radical, implying a role for this radical in the generation of the observed DNA damage. Collectively these observations suggest BzPO may be activated to DNA damaging intermediates in keratinocytes via metal-catalyzed cleavage of the peroxide bond resulting in the formation of the benzoyloxyl radical. Covalent modification of DNA was not observed when [ 14 C]BzPO was incubated with calf thymus DNA in the presence of copper. Overall, these results suggest that BzPO induces DNA damage via benzoyloxyl radical mediated proton abstraction from the DNA strand and the adduct formation with DNA is unlikely to occur

  18. Copper(II Complexes Based on Aminohydroxamic Acids: Synthesis, Structures, In Vitro Cytotoxicities and DNA/BSA Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Four complexes, [Cu2(glyha(bpy2(H2O]·2ClO4·H2O (1, [Cu2(glyha(phen2]·2ClO4 (2, [Cu2(alaha(bpy2Cl]·Cl·4H2O (3, and [{Cu2(alaha(phen2}{Cu2(alaha(phen2(NO3}]·3NO3 (4 (glyha2− = dianion glycinehydroxamic acid, alaha2− = dianion alaninehydroxamic acid, bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline have been successfully synthesized and characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction. The interactions of these complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA were studied through UV spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and circular dichroism. The results revealed that complexes 1–4 could interact with CT-DNA through intercalation. Interactions of all complexes with bovine serum albumin (BSA were confirmed by the docking study to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA in a static quenching process. Furthermore, the in vitro cytotoxic effect of the complexes was also examined on four tumor cell lines, including human lung carcinoma cell line (A549, human colon carcinoma cell line (HCT-116, human promyelocytic leukemia cell (HL-60 and cervical cancer cell line (HeLa. All complexes exhibited different antitumor activities.

  19. CT evaluation of thymus in myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Guk Hee [Insung Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Eun Young; Lee, Nam Joon; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    The relationship between myasthenia gravis and the thymus was well establish and myasthenia gravis occurs in the presence of thymic hyperplasia or thymoma or occasionally in histologically normal thymus. Since not every patients with myasthenia gravis is a candidate for thymectomy, unless a thymoma is present, the differentiation of normal and hyperplastic thymus from thymoma becomes important. Authors reviewed retrospectively clinical records and chest CT scans of 18 patients with myasthenia gravis who underwent thymectomy during recent 5 years, to evaluate the role of CT scan. The results were as follows. 1 Of total 18 cases, 5 cases had normal thymus, 6 cases had thymic hyperplasia, 4 cases had benign thymoma and 3 cases had malignant thymoma. 2. Of 5 cases of normal thymus, no false positive cases were noted in CT scan. 3. Of 6 cases of thymic hyperplasia, CT findings were normal except 1 cases of thickened left thymic lobe. 4. Of 7 cases of thymoma, no false negative cases were noted in CT scan. 5. CT findings of benign thymoma were round or oval shaped, discrete, slightly enhancing soft tissue mass in anterior mediastinum. 6. CT findings of malignant thymoma were lobulated contoured, infiltrative, soft tissue mass lesion in anterior mediastinum with calcifications, pleural tumor implants, and SVC compression. CT yielded valuable information on differential diagnosis of thymoma, thymic hyperplasia and normal thymus. Also CT was a highly sensitive method in the detection of thymoma and determining the extent and invasiveness.

  20. CT evaluation of thymus in myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Guk Hee; Kang, Eun Young; Lee, Nam Joon; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between myasthenia gravis and the thymus was well establish and myasthenia gravis occurs in the presence of thymic hyperplasia or thymoma or occasionally in histologically normal thymus. Since not every patients with myasthenia gravis is a candidate for thymectomy, unless a thymoma is present, the differentiation of normal and hyperplastic thymus from thymoma becomes important. Authors reviewed retrospectively clinical records and chest CT scans of 18 patients with myasthenia gravis who underwent thymectomy during recent 5 years, to evaluate the role of CT scan. The results were as follows. 1 Of total 18 cases, 5 cases had normal thymus, 6 cases had thymic hyperplasia, 4 cases had benign thymoma and 3 cases had malignant thymoma. 2. Of 5 cases of normal thymus, no false positive cases were noted in CT scan. 3. Of 6 cases of thymic hyperplasia, CT findings were normal except 1 cases of thickened left thymic lobe. 4. Of 7 cases of thymoma, no false negative cases were noted in CT scan. 5. CT findings of benign thymoma were round or oval shaped, discrete, slightly enhancing soft tissue mass in anterior mediastinum. 6. CT findings of malignant thymoma were lobulated contoured, infiltrative, soft tissue mass lesion in anterior mediastinum with calcifications, pleural tumor implants, and SVC compression. CT yielded valuable information on differential diagnosis of thymoma, thymic hyperplasia and normal thymus. Also CT was a highly sensitive method in the detection of thymoma and determining the extent and invasiveness

  1. Improved electrochemical nucleic acid biosensor based on polyaniline-polyvinyl sulphonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakar, Nirmal [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016 (India); Sumana, G.; Arora, Kavita [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Singh, Harpal [Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016 (India); Malhotra, B.D. [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India)], E-mail: bansi.malhotra@gmail.com

    2008-05-01

    DNA biosensor based on polyaniline (PANI)-polyvinyl sulphonate (PVS) has been fabricated using electrochemical entrapment technique for detection of organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos and malathion). These double stranded calf thymus DNA (dsCT-DNA) entrapped PANI-PVS/indium-tin-oxide (ITO) bioelectrodes have been characterized using square wave voltammetry (SWV), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance techniques, respectively. These dsCT-DNA entrapped PANI-PVS/ITO bioelectrodes have been found to have response time of 30 s, stability of about 6 months and detection limit for chlorpyrifos and malathion as 0.5 ppb and 0.01 ppm, respectively.

  2. Improved electrochemical nucleic acid biosensor based on polyaniline-polyvinyl sulphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, Nirmal; Sumana, G.; Arora, Kavita; Singh, Harpal; Malhotra, B.D.

    2008-01-01

    DNA biosensor based on polyaniline (PANI)-polyvinyl sulphonate (PVS) has been fabricated using electrochemical entrapment technique for detection of organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos and malathion). These double stranded calf thymus DNA (dsCT-DNA) entrapped PANI-PVS/indium-tin-oxide (ITO) bioelectrodes have been characterized using square wave voltammetry (SWV), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance techniques, respectively. These dsCT-DNA entrapped PANI-PVS/ITO bioelectrodes have been found to have response time of 30 s, stability of about 6 months and detection limit for chlorpyrifos and malathion as 0.5 ppb and 0.01 ppm, respectively

  3. Thymus size at 6 months of age and subsequent child mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garly, M.L.; Trautner, S.L.; Marx, C.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine determinants of thymus size at age 6 months and investigate whether thymus size at this age is a determinant of subsequent mortality. STUDY DESIGN: Thymus size was measured by transsternal sonography in 923 6-month-old children participating in a measles vaccination trial...... in Guinea-Bissau. RESULTS: Thymus size was strongly associated with anthropometric measurements. Boys had larger thymuses than girls, controlling for anthropometry. Crying during sonography made the thymus appear smaller. Children who were not vaccinated with Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) or were vaccinated...... thymus size remained a strong and independent risk factor for mortality (hazard ratio = 0.31; 95% confidence interval = 0.18 to 0.52). CONCLUSIONS: Small thymus size at age 6 months is a strong risk factor for mortality. To prevent unnecessary deaths, it is important to identify preventable factors...

  4. Synthesis And Characterization Of 6,6'-Bis (2-Hydroxyphenyl)-2,2'-Bipyridyl Ligand And Its Platinum Complex for the Interaction with CT-DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norhidayah Selamat; Heng, L.Y.; Nurul Izzaty Hassan; Nurul Huda Abd Karim

    2016-01-01

    A tetradentate ligand with four donor atoms OONN and its platinum metal complex were synthesized. Bis(phenoxy)bipyridine ligand was prepared by Suzuki coupling reaction between 6,6 ' -dibromo-2,2 ' -bipyridyl and 2-hydroxy phenylboronic acid with the presence of palladium (II) acetate. The formation of platinum complex was done by introducing the ligand with platinum (II) chloride in benzonitrile. Both ligand and complex structures were confirmed by 1 H, 2D cosy and 13 C NMR spectroscopy, ESIMS spectrometry and FTIR spectroscopy. Binding studies of small molecules with DNA are useful to understand the reaction mechanism and to provide guidance for the application and design of new and more efficient drugs or sensors targeted on DNA. In this study, the binding interaction between the synthesized ligand and complex with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) has been investigated using UV-Visible and emission DNA titration. From the UV-Visible DNA study, it showed that platinum (II) bipyridine complex had higher affinity towards CT-DNA with binding constant K b =(3.1 ± 0.02 x 10 5 ) ± 0.02 M -1 compared to that of bis(phenoxy) bipyridine ligand with binding constant (K b ) = (1.19 ± 0.08) x 10 3 M -1 . These findings will be valuable for the potential use of platinum (II) bipyridine complex as a phosphorescent probe in optical sensor DNA. (author)

  5. DNA binding studies of Sunset Yellow FCF using spectroscopy, viscometry and electrochemical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaadi, Sara; Hajian, Reza

    2017-10-01

    Color is one of the important factors in food industry. All food companies use synthetic pigments to improve the aesthetic of products. Studies on the interaction between deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and food dye molecules is important because DNA is responsible for some processes including replication and transcription of cells, mutations, genetic diseases, and some synthetic chemical nucleases. In this study, the molecular interaction between Sunset Yellow FCF (SY) as a common food coloring additive and calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) has been studied using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, spectrofluorometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and viscometry techniques. The binding constant between ct-DNA and SY in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) was calculated as 2.09 × 103 L mol-1. The non-electrostatic bonding constant (K0t) was almost consistent and the ratio of K0t/Kb increased by increasing the ionic strength in the range of 0.01-0.1 mol L-1 of KCl. This observation shows that, the molecular bonding of SY to ct-DNA is a combination of electrostatic and intercalation interactions. In the electrochemical studies, an oxidation peak at 0.71 V and a reduction peak at about 0.63 V was observed with the peak potential difference (ΔEp) of 0.08 V, showing a reversible process. The oxidation and reduction peaks were significantly decreased in the presence of ct-DNA and the reduction peak current shifted to negative values. In spectrofluorometric study, the fluorescence intensity of SY increased dramatically after successive addition of DNA due to the increasing of molecular surface area and decreasing of impact frequency between solvent and SY-DNA adduct. Moreover, viscometric study shows that the increasing of viscosity for SY solution in the presence of DNA is due to the intercalation mechanism with double strand DNA (ds-DNA).

  6. Influence of Divalent Counterions on the Dynamics in DNA as Probed by Using a Minor-Groove Binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sneha; Ahmed, Tasnim; Samanta, Anunay

    2017-08-05

    DNA dynamics, to which water, counterions, and DNA motions contribute, is a topic of considerable interest because it is closely related to the efficiency of biological functions performed by it. Simulation studies and experiments suggest that the counterion dynamics in DNA probed by a minor-groove binder are similar for various monovalent counterions. To date, the influence on DNA dynamics of higher-valence counterions, which are also present around DNA and are known to bind more strongly to it than monovalent ions, has not been studied. Herein we investigated DNA dynamics in the presence of Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ , chosen for their relative abundance in cells, by using minor-groove binder 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) as a fluorescence probe. The dynamics, as measured from the time-resolved fluorescence Stokes shifts of DAPI bound to calf thymus DNA on a subpicosecond-to-nanosecond timescale, were found to be very similar in the presence of both the divalent ions and Na + ions. The observation is explained by considering the screening of the electric field of the divalent ion by its hydration shell, preferential binding of the ions to the phosphate groups, and displacement of ions from the minor groove by DAPI due to the stronger binding interaction of the latter. Furthermore, the similarity of our results in the presence of Na + to those reported for smaller oligonucleotides suggests that the chain length of DNA does not influence the DNA dynamics. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Analysis of the Interaction of Dp44mT with Human Serum Albumin and Calf Thymus DNA Using Molecular Docking and Spectroscopic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongjie Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Di-2-pyridylketone-4,4,-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT exhibits significant antitumor activity. However, the mechanism of its pharmacological interaction with human serum albumin (HSA and DNA remains poorly understood. Here, we aimed to elucidate the interactions of Dp44mT with HSA and DNA using MTT assays, spectroscopic methods, and molecular docking analysis. Our results indicated that addition of HSA at a ratio of 1:1 did not alter the cytotoxicity of Dp44mT, but did affect the cytotoxicity of the Dp44mT-Cu complex. Data from fluorescence quenching and UV-VIS absorbance measurements demonstrated that Dp44mT could bind to HSA with a moderate affinity (Ka = approximately 104 M−1. CD spectra revealed that Dp44mT could slightly disrupt the secondary structure of HSA. Dp44mT could also interact with Ct-DNA, but had a moderate binding constant (KEB = approximately 104 M−1. Docking studies indicated that the IB site of HSA, but not the IIA and IIIA sites, could be favorable for Dp44mT and that binding of Dp44mT to HSA involved hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic force, consistent with thermodynamic results from spectral investigations. Thus, the moderate binding affinity of Dp44mT with HSA and DNA partially contributed to its antitumor activity and may be preferable in drug design approaches.

  8. Transcriptome Analysis of the Thymus in Short-Term Calorie-Restricted Mice Using RNA-seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Omeroğlu Ulu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction (CR, which is a factor that expands lifespan and an important player in immune response, is an effective protective method against cancer development. Thymus, which plays a critical role in the development of the immune system, reacts to nutrition deficiency quickly. RNA-seq-based transcriptome sequencing was performed to thymus tissues of MMTV-TGF-α mice subjected to ad libitum (AL, chronic calorie restriction (CCR, and intermittent calorie restriction (ICR diets in this study. Three cDNA libraries were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 4000 to produce 100 base pair-end reads. On average, 105 million clean reads were mapped and in total 6091 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified (p<0.05. These DEGs were clustered into Gene Ontology (GO categories. The expression pattern revealed by RNA-seq was validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR analysis of four important genes, which are leptin, ghrelin, Igf1, and adinopectin. RNA-seq data has been deposited in NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database (GSE95371. We report the use of RNA sequencing to find DEGs that are affected by different feeding regimes in the thymus.

  9. Transcriptome Analysis of the Thymus in Short-Term Calorie-Restricted Mice Using RNA-seq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeroğlu Ulu, Zehra; Ulu, Salih; Dogan, Soner; Guvenc Tuna, Bilge

    2018-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR), which is a factor that expands lifespan and an important player in immune response, is an effective protective method against cancer development. Thymus, which plays a critical role in the development of the immune system, reacts to nutrition deficiency quickly. RNA-seq-based transcriptome sequencing was performed to thymus tissues of MMTV-TGF-α mice subjected to ad libitum (AL), chronic calorie restriction (CCR), and intermittent calorie restriction (ICR) diets in this study. Three cDNA libraries were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 4000 to produce 100 base pair-end reads. On average, 105 million clean reads were mapped and in total 6091 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified (p < 0.05). These DEGs were clustered into Gene Ontology (GO) categories. The expression pattern revealed by RNA-seq was validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis of four important genes, which are leptin, ghrelin, Igf1, and adinopectin. RNA-seq data has been deposited in NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database (GSE95371). We report the use of RNA sequencing to find DEGs that are affected by different feeding regimes in the thymus. PMID:29511668

  10. Neuro-immune modulation of the thymus microenvironment (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignini, Fiorenzo; Sabbatini, Maurizio; Mattioli, Laura; Cosenza, Monica; Artico, Marco; Cavallotti, Carlo

    2014-06-01

    The thymus is the primary site for T-cell lympho-poiesis. Its function includes the maturation and selection of antigen specific T cells and selective release of these cells to the periphery. These highly complex processes require precise parenchymal organization and compartmentation where a plethora of signalling pathways occur, performing strict control on the maturation and selection processes of T lymphocytes. In this review, the main morphological characteristics of the thymus microenvironment, with particular emphasis on nerve fibers and neuropeptides were assessed, as both are responsible for neuro-immune‑modulation functions. Among several neurotransmitters that affect thymus function, we highlight the dopaminergic system as only recently has its importance on thymus function and lymphocyte physiology come to light.

  11. Thymus transplantation for complete DiGeorge syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, E Graham; Cheung, Melissa; Gilmour, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thymus transplantation is a promising strategy for the treatment of athymic complete DiGeorge syndrome (cDGS). METHODS: Twelve patients with cDGS underwent transplantation with allogeneic cultured thymus. OBJECTIVE: We sought to confirm and extend the results previously obtained in a ...

  12. Muscular Calf Injuries in Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Karl B; Rigby, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Calf pain is a common complaint among runners of all ages but is most frequent in masters athletes. This article focuses on injuries to the triceps surae or true 'calf muscles.' The most common calf injury is a tear of the medial gastrocnemius muscle (Tennis Leg) but other structures including the lateral gastrocnemius, plantaris and soleus also may be the cause of muscular pain. This article looks at the presentation, evaluation, and treatment of these injuries. We also highlight some examples of musculoskeletal ultrasound which is a valuable tool for rapid diagnosis of the cause and extent of injury.

  13. Efficacy of calf:cow ratios for estimating calf production of arctic caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, R.D.; Griffith, B.; Parrett, L.S.; White, R.G.

    2013-01-01

    Caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) calf:cow ratios (CCR) computed from composition counts obtained on arctic calving grounds are biased estimators of net calf production (NCP, the product of parturition rate and early calf survival) for sexually-mature females. Sexually-immature 2-year-old females, which are indistinguishable from sexually-mature females without calves, are included in the denominator, thereby biasing the calculated ratio low. This underestimate increases with the proportion of 2-year-old females in the population. We estimated the magnitude of this error with deterministic simulations under three scenarios of calf and yearling annual survival (respectively: low, 60 and 70%; medium, 70 and 80%; high, 80 and 90%) for five levels of unbiased NCP: 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%. We assumed a survival rate of 90% for both 2-year-old and mature females. For each NCP, we computed numbers of 2-year-old females surviving annually and increased the denominator of CCR accordingly. We then calculated a series of hypothetical “observed” CCRs, which stabilized during the last 6 years of the simulations, and documented the degree to which each 6-year mean CCR differed from the corresponding NCP. For the three calf and yearling survival scenarios, proportional underestimates of NCP by CCR ranged 0.046–0.156, 0.058–0.187, and 0.071–0.216, respectively. Unfortunately, because parturition and survival rates are typically variable (i.e., age distribution is unstable), the magnitude of the error is not predictable without substantial supporting information. We recommend maintaining a sufficient sample of known-age radiocollared females in each herd and implementing a regular relocation schedule during the calving period to obtain unbiased estimates of both parturition rate and NCP.

  14. Regular square planer bis-(4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(thiophen-2-yl)butane-1,3-dione)/copper(II) complex: Trans/cis-DFT isomerization, crystal structure, thermal, solvatochromism, hirshfeld surface and DNA-binding analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hema, M. K.; Karthik, C. S.; Warad, Ismail; Lokanath, N. K.; Zarrouk, Abdelkader; Kumara, Karthik; Pampa, K. J.; Mallu, P.

    2018-04-01

    Trans-[Cu(O∩O)2] complex, O∩O = 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(thiophen-2-yl)butane-1,3-dione was reported with high potential toward CT-DNA binder. The solved XRD-structure of complex indicated a perfect regular square-planer geometry around the Cu(II) center. The trans/cis-DFT-isomerization calculation supported the XRD seen in reflecting the trans-isomer as the kinetic-favor isomer. The desired complex structure was also characterized by conductivity measurement, CHN-elemental analyses, MS, EDX, SEM, UV-Vis., FT-IR, HAS and TG/DTG. The Solvatochromism behavior of the complex was evaluated using four different polar solvents. MPE and Hirshfeld surface analysis (HSA) come to an agreement that fluoride and thiophene protons atoms are with suitable electro-potential environment to form non-classical H-bonds of type CThsbnd H⋯F. The DNA-binding properties were investigated by viscosity tests and spectrometric titrations, the results revealed the complex as strong calf-thymus DNA binder. High intrinsic-binding constants value ∼1.8 × 105 was collected.

  15. Mononuclear zinc(II) complexes of 2-((2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethylimino)methyl)-4-substituted phenols: Synthesis, structural characterization, DNA binding and cheminuclease activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, J.; Gurumoorthy, P.; Karthick, C.; Kalilur Rahiman, A.

    2014-03-01

    Four new zinc(II) complexes [Zn(HL1-4)Cl2] (1-4), where HL1-4 = 2-((2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethylimino)methyl)-4-substituted phenols, have been isolated and fully characterized using various spectro-analytical techniques. The X-ray crystal structure of complex 4 shows the distorted trigonal-bipyramidal coordination geometry around zinc(II) ion. The crystal packing is stabilized by intermolecular NH⋯O hydrogen bonding interaction. The complexes display no d-d electronic band in the visible region due to d10 electronic configuration of zinc(II) ion. The electrochemical properties of the synthesized ligands and their complexes exhibit similar voltammogram at reduction potential due to electrochemically innocent Zn(II) ion, which evidenced that the electron transfer is due to the nature of the ligand. Binding interaction of complexes with calf thymus DNA was studied by UV-Vis absorption titration, viscometric titration and cyclic voltammetry. All complexes bind with CT DNA by intercalation, giving the binding affinity in the order of 2 > 1 ≫ 3 > 4. The prominent cheminuclease activity of complexes on plasmid DNA (pBR322 DNA) was observed in the absence and presence of H2O2. Oxidative pathway reveals that the underlying mechanism involves hydroxyl radical.

  16. The role of glutathione in DNA damage by potassium bromate in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, J L; Chipman, J K

    2000-07-01

    We have investigated the role of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the genetic toxicity of the rodent renal carcinogen potassium bromate (KBrO(3)). A statistically significant increase in the concentration of 8-oxodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) relative to deoxyguanosine was measured following incubation of calf thymus DNA with KBrO(3) and GSH or N-acetylcysteine (NACys). This was dependent on these thiols and was associated with the loss of GSH and production of oxidized glutathione. A short-lived (potassium chlorate (KClO(3)) or potassium iodate (KIO(3)) were used instead of KBrO(3), though GSH depletion also occurred with KIO(3), but not with KClO(3). Other reductants and thiols in combination with KBrO(3) did not cause a significant increase in DNA oxidation. DNA strand breakage was also induced by KBrO(3) in human white blood cells (5 mM) and rat kidney epithelial cells (NRK-52E, 1.5 mM). This was associated with an apparent small depletion of thiols in NRK-52E cells at 15 min and with an elevation of 8-oxodG at a delayed time of 24 h. Depletion of intra-cellular GSH by diethylmaleate in human lymphocytes decreased the amount of strand breakage induced by KBrO(3). Extracellular GSH, however, protected against DNA strand breakage by KBrO(3), possibly due to the inability of the reactive product to enter the cell. In contrast, membrane-permeant NACys enhanced KBrO(3)-induced DNA strand breakage in these cells. DNA damage by KBrO(3) is therefore largely dependent on access to intracellular GSH.

  17. INTERACTION OF IRON(II MIXED-LIGAND COMPLEXES WITH DNA: BASE-PAIR SPECIFICITY AND THERMAL DENATURATION STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudasir Mudasir

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A research about base-pair specificity of the DNA binding of [Fe(phen3]2+, [Fe(phen2(dip]2+ and [Fe(phen(dip2]2+ complexes and the effect of calf-thymus DNA (ct-DNA binding of these metal complexes on thermal denaturation of ct-DNA has been carried out. This research is intended to evaluate the preferential binding of the complexes to the sequence of DNA (A-T or G-C sequence and to investigate the binding strength and mode upon their interaction with DNA. Base-pair specificity of the DNA binding of the complexes was determined by comparing the equilibrium binding constant (Kb of each complex to polysynthetic DNA that contain only A-T or G-C sequence. The Kb value of the interaction was determined by spectrophotometric titration and thermal denaturation temperature (Tm was determined by monitoring the absorbance of the mixture solution of each complex and ct-DNA at λ =260 nm as temperature was elevated in the range of 25 - 100 oC. Results of the study show that in general all iron(II complexes studied exhibit a base-pair specificity in their DNA binding to prefer the relatively facile A-T sequence as compared to the G-C one. The thermal denaturation experiments have demonstrated that Fe(phen3]2+ and [Fe(phen2(dip]2+ interact weakly with double helical DNA via electrostatic interaction as indicated by insignificant changes in melting temperature, whereas [Fe(phen2(dip]2+  most probably binds to DNA in mixed modes of interaction, i.e.: intercalation and electrostatic interaction. This conclusion is based on the fact that the binding of [Fe(phen2(dip]2+ to ct-DNA moderately increase the Tm value of ct- DNA   Keywords: DNA Binding, mixed-ligand complexes

  18. Synthesis, characterization and interaction of N,N'-dipyridoxyl (1,4-butanediamine) Co(III) salen complex with DNA and HSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janati Fard, F.; Mashhadi Khoshkhoo, Z.; Mirtabatabaei, H.; Housaindokht, M. R.; Jalal, R.; Eshtiagh Hosseini, H.; Bozorgmehr, M. R.; Esmaeili, A. A.; Javan Khoshkholgh, M.

    2012-11-01

    Co(III) salen complex with N,N'-dipyridoxyl (1,4-butanediamine) Schiff-base ligand as tetradentate ligand was synthesized and characterized by the elemental and spectroscopic analysis. The interaction of this complex with calf thymus DNA (ct DNA) has been investigated in vitro using UV absorption, fluorescence spectroscopy, thermal denaturation and gel electrophoresis techniques. The binding constant has been estimated to be 1 × 104 M-1 using UV absorption. The addition of ct DNA to Co(III) salen solution resulted in a fluorescence quenching. The binding constant and site size binding have been calculated in connection with other experimental observations show that the interactive model between Co(III) salen and ct DNA is an intercalative one. The interaction between plasmid DNA (pTZ57R DNA) and this complex is confirmed by gel electrophoresis studies. Furthermore, the interaction between HSA and Co(III) salen complex was investigated by UV absorption, fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular modeling. The binding constant for the interaction of this complex with HSA were found to be 3.854 × 104 M-1 using UV absorption, which was in good agreement with the binding constant obtained from fluorescence method (3.866 × 104 M-1). The binding distance between HSA and this complex was estimated to be 2.48 nm according to Förster theory of non-radioactive energy transfer. Molecular modeling studies suggested that hydrophobic interaction was the predominant intermolecular forces stabilizing Co(III) complex-HSA system.

  19. [Induced thymus aging: radiation model and application perspective for low intensive laser radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevost'ianova, N N; Trofimov, A V; Lin'kova, N S; Poliakova, V O; Kvetnoĭ, I M

    2010-01-01

    The influence of gamma-radiation on morphofunctional state of thymus is rather like as natural thymus aging. However gamma-radiation model of thymus aging widely used to investigate geroprotectors has many shortcomings and limitations. Gamma-radiation can induce irreversible changes in thymus very often. These changes are more intensive in comparison with changes, which can be observed at natural thymus aging. Low intensive laser radiation can not destroy structure of thymus and its effects are rather like as natural thymus aging in comparison with gamma-radiation effects. There are many parameters of low intensive laser radiation, which can be changed to improve morphofunctional thymus characteristics in aging model. Using low intensive laser radiation in thymus aging model can be very perspective for investigations of aging immune system.

  20. Cytogenetic evaluation and DNA interaction studies of the food colorants amaranth, erythrosine and tartrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpountoukas, Panagiotis; Pantazaki, Anastasia; Kostareli, Efterpi; Christodoulou, Pantelitsa; Kareli, Dimitra; Poliliou, Stamatia; Mourelatos, Costas; Lambropoulou, Vasso; Lialiaris, Theodore

    2010-10-01

    Food coloring agents, amaranth, erythrosine and tartrazine have been tested at 0.02-8mM in human peripheral blood cells in vitro, in order to investigate their genotoxic, cytotoxic and cytostatic potential. Amaranth at the highest concentration (8mM) demonstrates high genotoxicity, cytostaticity and cytotoxicity. The frequency of SCEs/cell was increased 1.7 times over the control level. Additionally, erythrosine at 8, 4 and 2mM shows a high cytotoxicity and cytostaticity. Finally, tartrazine seems to be toxic at 8 and 4mM. No signs of genotoxicity were observed. Reversely, tartrazine showed cytotoxicity at 1 and 2mM. Furthermore, spectroscopic titration studies for the interaction of these food additives with DNA showed that these dyes bind to calf thymus DNA and distinct isosbestic points are observed clearly suggesting binding of the dyes to DNA. Additionally DNA electrophoretic mobility experiments showed that these colorants are obviously capable for strong binding to linear dsDNA causing its degradation. PCR amplification of all DNA fragments (which previously were pre-treated with three different concentrations of the colorants, extracted from agarose gel after separation and then purified), seems to be attenuated with a manner dye concentration-dependent reflecting in a delayed electrophoretic mobility due to the possible binding of some molecules of the dyes. Evaluation of the data and curves were obtained after quantitative and qualitative analysis of the lanes of the gel by an analyzer computer program. Our results indicate that these food colorants had a toxic potential to human lymphocytes in vitro and it seems that they bind directly to DNA. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The size of the thymus: an important immunological diagnostic tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth

    2003-01-01

    of the thymus relevant to its function and could measurement of the thymus be a useful immunological diagnostic tool in the investigation of thymic function in humans with a depressed immune system? Conclusion: Studies using the size of the thymus as an immunological diagnostic tool should be encouraged....

  2. Ontogeny of the thymus in a teleost fish, Cyprinus carpio L.: developing thymocytes in the epithelial microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, N; Taverne-Thiele, A J; Fanelli, M; Baldassini, M R; Abelli, L; Mastrolia, L; Van Muiswinkel, W B; Rombout, J H

    1999-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody, WCL9, specific for membrane molecules of a thymocyte subpopulation was used to detect these cells in situ during the ontogeny of thymus. Cryo-sections revealed WCL9+ cells in the rudiment of the thymus (day 4 post fertilization); thereafter, the positive cells were observed exclusively in the cortex from the first appearance of thymic regionalization (week 4 post fertilization) until adult age. Whole-mount immunostaining of the thymus with WCL9 revealed the three-dimensional structure of the cortex by specific staining. The presence and distribution of apoptotic cells during thymus development was studied by in situ end-labelling of fragmented DNA. From week 4 post fertilization onwards, apoptotic cells were more frequently detected in the cortex than medulla, suggesting a continuous selection of thymocytes in the cortex. Ultrastructural studies confirmed the presence of numerous cortical apoptotic cells inside macrophages. Electron microscopy provided evidence for the existence of epithelial heterogeneity in the thymus. During the ontogeny, the differentiation of epithelial cells was followed from the first weeks until the juvenile age. Cell types were classified on the basis of their localization and cytological characteristics as: i) limiting epithelial cells located in subcapsular, perivascular and peritrabecular zones; ii) reticular epithelial cells situated in medullary and cortical zones; iii) nurse-like cells at the border between the cortex and medulla, iiii) Hassall's body-like structures localized in the medulla. This study could suggest the occurrence of a wide range of lympho-epithelial interactions throughout thymocytes differentiation.

  3. Raman microspectroscopic study of effects of Na(I) and Mg(II) ions on low pH induced DNA structural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, C M; Segers-Nolten, G M J

    2003-01-01

    In this work a confocal Raman microspectrometer is used to investigate the influence of Na(+) and Mg(2+) ions on the DNA structural changes induced by low pH. Measurements are carried out on calf thymus DNA at neutral pH (7) and pH 3 in the presence of low and high concentrations of Na(+) and Mg(2+) ions, respectively. It is found that low concentrations of Na(+) ions do not protect DNA against binding of H(+). High concentrations of monovalent ions can prevent protonation of the DNA double helix. Our Raman spectra show that low concentrations of Mg(2+) ions partly protect DNA against protonation of cytosine (line at 1262 cm(-1)) but do not protect adenine and guanine N(7) against binding of H(+) (characteristic lines at 1304 and 1488 cm(-1), respectively). High concentrations of Mg(2+) can prevent protonation of cytosine and protonation of adenine (disruption of AT pairs). By analyzing the line at 1488 cm(-1), which obtains most of its intensity from a guanine vibration, high magnesium salt protect the N(7) of guanine against protonation. A high salt concentration can prevent protonation of guanine, cytosine, and adenine in DNA. Higher salt concentrations cause less DNA protonation than lower salt concentrations. Magnesium ions are found to be more effective in protecting DNA against binding of H(+) as compared with calcium ions presented in a previous study. Divalent metal cations (Mg(2+), Ca(2+)) are more effective in protecting DNA against protonation than monovalent ions (Na(+)). Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Biospectroscopy) 72: 000-000, 2003

  4. Metal based biologically active compounds: Design, synthesis, DNA binding and antidiabetic activity of 6-methyl-3-formyl chromone derived hydrazones and their metal (II) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Jessica Elizabeth; Shahid, Muhammad; Prathapachandra Kurup, M R; Velayudhan, Mohanan Puzhavoorparambil

    2017-10-01

    Two chromone hydrazone ligands HL 1 and HL 2 were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, 1 H NMR & 13 C NMR, electronic absorption and mass spectra. The reactions of the chromone hydrazones with transition metals such as Ni, Cu, and Zn (II) salts of acetate afforded mononuclear metal complexes. Characterization and structure elucidation of the prepared chromone hydrazone metal (II) complexes were done by elemental, IR, electronic, EPR spectra and thermo gravimetric analyses as well as conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The spectroscopic data showed that the ligand acts as a mono basic bidentate with coordination sites are azomethine nitrogen and hydrazonic oxygen, and they exhibited distorted geometry. The biological studies involved antidiabetic activity i.e. enzyme inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, Calf Thymus - DNA (CT-DNA) interaction and molecular docking. Potential capacity of synthesized compounds to inhibit the α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity was assayed whereas DNA interaction studies were carried out with the help UV-Vis absorption titration and viscosity method. The docking studies of chromone hydrazones show that they are minor groove binders. Complexes were found to be good DNA - intercalates. Chromone hydrazones and its transition metal complexes have shown comparable antidiabetic activity with a standard drug acarbose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Beef cow-calf production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuz, Dillon M; Umberger, Wendy J

    2003-07-01

    Cow-calf production occurs in all 50 states over varied resource bases and under vastly different environmental conditions. Multiple breeds exist and management styles and objectives are as numerous as the number of cow-calf producers. There is not one area of the country, one breed of cattle, or one management style that is most profitable for producing cows and calves. There are, however, some common strategies that can be employed by cow-calf producers to enhance profitability. Costs need to be controlled without jeopardizing cow herd productivity or net returns. It appears that the cost associated with purchased and harvested feeds varies considerably across operations. Understanding cyclic and seasonal price patterns, weight-price slides, cattle shrink, and other marketing costs can help producers enhance their profit by marketing (and not by just selling) their cattle. Producers with superior cattle genetics can become part of a specific alliance or, at a minimum, document the performance of their cattle so that they can get paid for the superior genetics. The beef industry is changing and will likely continue to change. Cow-calf producers will need to examine their own management practices to determine whether they are optimal for the current industry. Those producers who are most adept at matching their management abilities to their cattle type, their resource base, and the appropriate market outlet will be the most successful in the future.

  6. Performance and Health of Group-Housed Calves Kept in Igloo Calf Hutches and Calf Barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Wójcik*, Renata Pilarczyk, Anna Bilska, Ottfried Weiher1 and Peter Sanftleben1

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Group-reared calves are usually housed in common buildings, such as calf barns of all sorts; however, there are concerns about this practice due to problems such as an increased incidence of diseases and poor performance of the calves. Group calf rearing using igloo hutches may be a solution combining the benefits of individual and group housing systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate group-reared calves housed in Igloo-type hutches compared with those housed in common calf barns. The experiment was carried out on a large private dairy farm located in Vorpommern, Germany. A total of 90 Deutsche-Holstein bull calves were assigned to 2 treatment groups: the calf-barn group, with calves grouped in pens in a building, and the Igloo-hutch group, with calves housed in outdoor enclosures with an access to group igloo-style hutches. Calves entering the 84-day experiment were at an average age of about three weeks, with the mean initial body weight of about 50 kg. The calves housed in the group Igloo hutches attained higher daily weight gains compared to those housed in the calf barn (973 vs 721 g/day, consumed more solid feeds (concentrate, corn grain and maize silage: (1.79 vs 1.59 kg/day, and less milk replacer (5.51 vs 6.19 kg/day, had also a lower incidence of respiratory diseases (1.24 vs 3.57% with a shorter persistence of the illness.

  7. DNA incision evaluation, binding investigation and biocidal screening of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes with isoxazole Schiff bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji, Nirmala; Chityala, Vijay Kumar; Marri, Pradeep Kumar; Aveli, Rambabu; Narendrula, Vamsikrishna; Daravath, Sreenu; Shivaraj

    2017-10-01

    Two new series of binary metal complexes [M(L 1 ) 2 ] and [M(L 2 ) 2 ] where, M=Cu(II), Ni(II) & Co(II) and L 1 =4-((3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-ylimino)methyl)benzene-1,3-diol; L 2 =2-((3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-ylimino)methyl)-5-methoxyphenol were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, FT-IR, ESI mass, UV-Visible, magnetic moment, ESR, SEM and powder XRD studies. Based on these results, a square planar geometry is assigned for all the metal complexes where the Schiff base acts as uninegatively charged bidentate chelating agent via the hydroxyl oxygen and azomethine nitrogen atoms. DNA binding studies of all the complexes with calf thymus DNA have been comprehensively investigated using electronic absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence quenching and viscosity studies. The oxidative and photo cleavage affinity of metal complexes towards supercoiled pBR322 DNA has been ascertained by agarose gel electrophoresis assay. From the results, it is observed that all the metal complexes bind effectively to CT-DNA via an intercalative mode of binding and also cleave pBR322 DNA in a promising manner. Further the Cu(II) complexes have shown better binding and cleavage properties towards DNA. The antimicrobial activities of the Schiff bases and their metal complexes were studied on bacterial and fungal strains and the results denoted that the complexes are more potent than their Schiff base ligands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Value of radiologic imaging of the thymus gland in myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glathe, S.; Neufang, K.F.R.; Haupt, F.W.

    1989-01-01

    Radiologic imaging in myasthenia gravis is used for the evaluation of pathologic changes of the thymus gland. Computed tomography can demonstrate tumors of the anterior mediastinum in nearly 90% and is therefore superior to conventional radiography.Because of the variety of size and shape of the normal thymus gland, differentiation between normal thymus, follicular hyperplasia and thymoma is rarely possible especially in younger patients. In elderly patients with myasthenia gravis and involution of the thymus gland tumors of the thymus are reliably detected by computed tomography, whereas the ability of computed tomography to predict the histological diagnosis is poor even with intravenous administration of contrast media. (orig.) [de

  9. Preventative programs for respiratory disease in cow/calf operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelken, T J

    1997-11-01

    Control of respiratory disease in cow/calf operations presents many challenges. The incidence of disease in the suckling calf is not well documented and the logistics of handling range animals make control programs difficult to implement. Health programs have to be built around normal working patterns, and these patterns may not provide the best "fit" for immune management of the calf. Weaned calves undergo significant disease challenge when they enter typical marketing channels. This provides the potential for high levels of calf morbidity, mortality, medicine costs, and losses from decreased performance as they arrive at a stocker operation or feedyard. If preweaning calf health and preconditioning programs are used, they must be planned so that the producer has an opportunity to obtain a return on their investment. Options for increasing calf weight marketed, certified calf health sales, or retained ownership through the next phase of production should be evaluated carefully. Any potential increase in calf value must be weighed against program costs. This affords the veterinarian an opportunity to build on traditional disease management and prevention skills and expand their influence in overall ranch management.

  10. Thymus species in Ethiopia: Distribution, medicinal value, economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plant specimens from these localities were authenticated by experts in the National Herbarium of Addis Ababa University as Thymus serrulatus and Thymus schimperi. The plants were rated by local informants as treatments for ailments like blood pressure (30.7%), general pain syndrome (10%), influenza (10%), ...

  11. Thymus: The site for Development of Cellular Immunity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The immune system protects our bodies against infectionsand cancers. This review introduce readers to the thymus. – a primary lymphoid organ – which is the site of developmentand maturation of functional T lymphocytes. Progenitorstem cells arise from the bone marrow and undergo sequentialdevelopment in the thymus ...

  12. A 100-Year Review: Calf nutrition and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz, A F; Hill, T M; Quigley, J D; Heinrichs, A J; Linn, J G; Drackley, J K

    2017-12-01

    The first calf paper, published in the May 1919 issue of the Journal of Dairy Science (JDS), described factors affecting birth body weight of different breeds of calves. Other studies were done on nonmilk ingredients, growth charts were developed, and early weaning was followed to conserve milk fed to calves. Calf papers did not report use of statistics to control or record variation or to determine whether treatment means were different. Many experiments were more observational than comparative. Typically fewer than 5 calves, and sometimes 1 or 2 calves, were used per treatment. During the next 20 yr, calf studies increased and included colostrum feeding, milk and milk replacer feeding, minerals and vitamins, and fats and oils. Many concepts fundamental to current knowledge and understanding of digestion, rumen development, and milk replacer formulation were developed during this period. In addition, the concept of using antibiotic growth promoters in dairy calf diets was first evaluated and developed during the 1950s. During the 20-yr period of January 1957 through December 1976, a large number of universities in the United States and 1 in Canada contributed almost 150 papers on a variety of calf-related topics. These topics included genetics, physiology of the calf, review of calf immunity, antibiotic feeding, and milk replacer ingredients. This became the golden era of calf rumen development studies, which also engendered studies of calf starter rations and ingredients. A classic review of management, feeding, and housing studies summarized research related to calf feeding and management systems up to that point with an emphasis on maintaining calf growth and health while reducing labor and feed costs. It was also during this period that metric measurements replaced English units. In the 20-yr period from 1977 to 1996, more than 400 articles on calf nutrition and management were published in JDS. With the growing research interest in calves, a paper outlining

  13. Irradiated fetal thymus transplantation in a patient with combined immunodeficiency with predominant T cell defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Shigenori; Yanabe, Yasuhide; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Akahoshi, Izumi; Migita, Masahiro; Matsuda, Ichiro; Udaka, Keiji.

    1993-01-01

    A 6 month old boy was diagnosed as a case of combined immunodeficiency (with predominant T cell defect by previous classification). His T cell count was decreased, his B cell count in peripheral blood was increased, his serum IgG level was decreased, his serum IgM level was normal and the thymus was not evident on CT scans and magnetic resonance imaging. Administration of the thymus hormone, thymosin, led to a partial recovery of T cell function without normalization of the T cell count. At age 26 months the patient received an irradiated thymus transplantation from a 16 week old female fetus. After the transplantation, the T cell count (mainly CD4 + cells) increased by 50-70%. A mild graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR) occurred and several immunosuppressants were prescribed. Chromosome analysis showed that the T cells have both 46 XY and 46 XX karyotypes while the B cells have the 46 XY karyotype alone. His cellular immunity (skin tests, DNA synthesis, mixed lymphocyte reaction, cytotoxic activity and natural killer cell function) and his serum IgG level remained low. However, being on regular γ-globulin therapy and oral anti-fungal drugs, he is now living normally with almost no trouble at age 6 years and 3 months. This case showed that irradiated thymus transplantation might be a useful method when an adequate donor for bone marrow transplantation is not available. The unexpected observation that the increased T cells were mainly CD4 may be related to the mild GVHR and the clinical improvement. (author)

  14. Effects of Thyme Extract Oils (from Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis, and Thymus hyemalis on Cytokine Production and Gene Expression of oxLDL-Stimulated THP-1-Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ocaña

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of thyme extracts from three different species (Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis, and Thymus hyemalis were examined. Two oil fractions from each species were obtained by CO2 supercritical fluid extraction. Main compounds presented in the supercritical extracts of the three thyme varieties were 1,8 cineole, thymol, camphor, borneol, and carvacrol. As a cellular model of inflammation/atherogenesis, we use human macrophages derived from THP-1 monocytes and activated by oxidized LDLs. These cells were incubated with the thyme fraction oils, and the productions and gene expressions of the inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1B, IL-6, and IL-10 were determined. Thyme extracts significantly reduced production and gene expression of the proinflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1B, and IL-6 and highly increased these parameters on the anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine. Changes on production and gene expressions were dose dependent and according to the thyme content of each species. Taken together, these results may suggest that thyme extracts could have anti-inflammatory effects.

  15. Repair of X-ray-induced single-strand breaks by a cell-free system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Shuji; Ikeda, Shogo; Tsutui, Ken; Teraoka, Hirobumi

    1990-01-01

    Repair of X-ray-induced single-strand breaks of DNA was studied in vitro using an exonuclease purified from mouse ascites sarcoma (SR-C3H/He) cells. X-ray-dose-dependent unscheduled DNA synthesis was primed by the exonuclease. Repair of X-ray-induced single-strand breaks in pUC19 plasmid DNA was demonstrated by agarose gel electrophoresis after incubating the damaged DNA with the exonuclease, DNA polymerase (Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I or DNA polymerase β purified from SR-C3H/He cells), four deoxynucleoside triphosphates, ATP and DNA ligase (T4 DNA ligase or DNA ligase I purified from calf thymus). The present results suggested that the exonuclease is involved in the initiation of repair of X-ray-induced single-strand breaks in removing 3' ends of X-ray-damaged DNA. (author)

  16. [Study on the aggregation behavior of cationic porphyrins and their interaction with ctDNA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong-Min; Chen, Xin; Sun, Shu-Ting; Zhang, Li-Na; Wu, Dan; Zhu, Pei-Hua; Li, Yan; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2009-02-01

    Interest in the interaction between cationic porphyrins, particularly derivatives of meso-tetra(N-methylpyridinium-4-yl) porphyrin(TMPyP), and DNA abounds because they are versatile DNA-binding agents that could find application in photodynamic therapy, cancer detection, artificial nucleases, virus inhibition and so on. The interaction of two water-soluble cationic porphyrins, meso-tetrakis(4-N, N, N-trimethylanilinium) porphyrin (TMAP) and 5-phenyl-10,15,20-tris[4-(N-methyl) pyridinium]porphyrin (TriMPyP), with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) was studied by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and resonance light scattering technique. TriMPyP forms aggregate in water due to the molecular asymmetry while TMAP exists as monomers. At lower concentrations of ctDNA (R > 1, R = c(TMAP)/c(DNA) base pair), the interaction of TMAP with DNA leads to significant hypochromicity and bathochromic shift of absorption spectra. And the fluorescence of TMAP was quenched while it showed enhanced resonance light scattering signals. But the extent of enhancement of resonance light scattering signals is very small, so the aggregate of TMAP is not very high. These observations indicate the self-stacking of TMAP along the DNA surface. At higher concentrations of ctDNA (R TMAP association with DNA is via outside binding which is accompanied with hyperchromic effect and fluorescence enhancement while the resonance light scattering signals is reduced. DNA addition decreases the fluorescence intensity of TriMPyP and it shifts the peak to the higher wavelengths (red shift). The interaction with DNA promotes the aggregation of TriMPyP and no simple outside binding is observed even at higher concentrations of ctDNA. The steric effect of molecular distortion constrains the intercalation or further binding to DNA. The effect of ionic strength on the interaction was investigated at two DNA concentrations, 1.2 and 24.0 micromol x L(-1), for TMAP. The Interactions of both porphyrins

  17. Recurrent painful calf swelling associated with gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarsky, J; Young, M B

    1978-01-01

    A 30-year-old man had a recurrent painful calf swelling associated with gout that mimicked thrombophlebitis and possibly muscle tear. This painful calf swelling occurred in the absence of a subjective history of arthritis of the knee. A constellation of clinical signs was highly suggestive that gout was the cause of the painful calf swellings. Patients with similar conditions, after careful exclusion of thrombophlebitis, might be spared unnecessary and potentially dangerous anticoagulation or surgical intervention by early diagnosis of gout.

  18. Migration of bone marrow cells to the thymus in sublethally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlet, Andree; Lenaerts, Patrick; Houben-Defresne, M.P.; Boniver, Jacques

    1982-01-01

    In sublethally irradiated mice, thymus repopulation is due first to the proliferation of surviving thymocytes followed by the multiplication of bone marrow derived prothymocytes. The migration of bone marrow cells to the thymus after a single sublethal whole-body X irradiation was studied by using fluorescein isothiocyanate as a cell marker. Irradiation increases the permissiveness of the thymus to the immigration of bone marrow cells. Furthermore, the post-Rx regenerating bone marrow cells exhibit migration capacities greater than the normal ones. The radiation induced changes in the bone marrow thymus interaction might play an important role in thymus regeneration after sublethal irradiation [fr

  19. Radiation-induced formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and its prevention by scavengers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Nielsen, A; Jeding, I B; Loft, S

    1994-01-01

    measured 8-OHdG formation in calf thymus DNA exposed to ionizing radiation under conditions generating either hydroxyl radicals (OH.), superoxide anions (O2-) or both. Additionally, we investigated the relationship between the scavenger effect of the drug 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and increasing OH...... and 100 Gy radiation, i.e. within a wide range of OH. exposure, which is useful information considering clinical applications where the exact amount of ROS formed is unknown. Both 5-ASA and ascorbate at low concentrations (

  20. Hedgehog Signalling in the Embryonic Mouse Thymus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Barbarulo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available T cells develop in the thymus, which provides an essential environment for T cell fate specification, and for the differentiation of multipotent progenitor cells into major histocompatibility complex (MHC-restricted, non-autoreactive T cells. Here we review the role of the Hedgehog signalling pathway in T cell development, thymic epithelial cell (TEC development, and thymocyte–TEC cross-talk in the embryonic mouse thymus during the last week of gestation.

  1. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis assemblages in weaned cattle on cow-calf operations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Monica; Dargatz, David; Fayer, Ronald

    2012-02-10

    To determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in weaned beef calves on cow-calf operations in the United States, fecal specimens were collected from 819 calves (6-18 months of age) from 49 operations. After cleaning and concentration procedures to maximize recovery of cysts from feces, DNA was extracted from each of the 819 specimens. The presence of G. duodenalis was determined by nested PCR of a fragment of the SSU rRNA gene. All positive PCR products were subjected to sequence analysis. The overall sample level prevalence of Giardia was 33.5% with prevalence ranging from 0 to 100% among operations. The highest within herd prevalence of infected beef calves was found in one cow-calf operation from the South region (100%), followed by a cow-calf operation from the West region (90%), and three cow-calf operations from the Midwest region (87.5, 85, and 85%). Giardia was not detected in samples from 7 operations including 5 cow-calf operations from the South region, and 1 cow-calf operation each from the Midwest and West regions. Molecular analysis of the Giardia-positive samples identified assemblage E (or E-like) in 31.7% of all samples (260/819) and assemblage A in 1.2% (10/819). A mixed infection with assemblages A and E was observed in four calves from an operation in Midwest region. The potentially zoonotic assemblage A was detected in specimens from four operations in Midwest region. These findings indicate that most G. duodenalis found in weaned beef calves was assemblage E which represents no known zoonotic threat. However, the presence of assemblage A in a small number of animals poses a potential risk of infection to humans. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Studies on the termination of immunological tolerance in the mouse thymus cell population after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amagai, Takashi

    1981-01-01

    Immunological tolerance in the mouse thymus cell population induced by the intravenous injection of deaggregated bovine gamma globulin was terminated by whole body irradiation. After irradiation, the weight of the thymus recovered biphasically, and the termination of tolerance occurred as early as in the first phase. Both Thy-1 antigen expression and helper activity of the thymus cell population in irradiated mice recovered in parallel with the recovery of the thymus weight. Sensitivity of the regenerating thymus cells to the tolerogen was not different from that of the normal thymus cells. The first phase of thymus regeneration may be caused by the proliferation and differentiation of relatively radioresistant and tolerogen insensitive precursors residing in the thymus. Tolerogen and/or immunogen reactive thymus cells may originate from the precursor. (author)

  3. Preparation of Fe3O4/poly(styrene-butyl acrylate-[2-(methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization and its interaction with DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaolong; Liu Guoqiang; Yan Wei; Chu, Paul K.; Yeung, Kelvin W.K.; Wu Shuilin; Yi Changfeng; Xu Zushun

    2012-01-01

    Cationic magnetic polymer particles Fe 3 O 4 /poly(styrene-butyl acrylate-[2-(methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride), a type of potential gene carrier, were prepared by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization with oleic acid modified magnetite Fe 3 O 4 , styrene, butyl acrylate and [2-(methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) (METAC). The morphology of the particles was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and the composites of particles were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction. These results showed that magnetic particles were well dispersed in polymers with the content of about 15%(wt/wt). The composites exhibited superparamagnetism and possessed a certain level of magnetic response. The interactions between the particles with calf-thymus DNA (ct DNA) were confirmed by zeta potential measurement, UV–vis spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The DNA-binding capacity determined by the agarose gel electrophoresis showed good binding capacity of the emulsion to DNA. These results suggested the potential of the cationic magnetic polymer emulsion as gene target delivery carrier. - Highlights: ► A new type of cationic magnetic polymer particles was synthesized by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization. ► Structural, morphological, and magnetic properties of the composite were evaluated. ► The interaction between cationic magnetic polymer particles with DNA was confirmed by zeta potential measurements. ► UV–vis spectrophotometry, fluorescent spectroscopy and agarose gel electrophoresis. ► This process may have potential applications to gene carrier and DNA separation.

  4. Effect Of Small Doses On THE Thymus In Pediatric Chest X - Ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milkovic, Dj.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Anzic, S. A.; Zagar, I.

    2015-01-01

    The thymus, pyramid-shaped lymphoid organ is immediately beneath the breastbone at the level of the heart, therefore chest X-ray covers the position of thymus. The thymus is divided into two lobes, lying on either side of the midline of the body. Unlike most other lymphoid structures, the thymus grows rapidly and attains its greatest size relative to the rest of the body during fetal life and the first years after birth. The thymus is a specialized organ of the immune system. It has big responsibility helping the body protect itself against autoimmunity diseases. It is well known from literature data that thymus size reduced at radiotherapy irradiation. After many years of experience in X-ray chest diagnostics with children a fairly regular thymus size reduction after exposure to diagnostic low doses was noticed. Therefore it was analysed at what percentage of children patients their control radiograms would exhibit a thymus shade decrease compared to the primary image taken at the illness out-set. In the Children Hospital Srebrnjak in one year 1972 children in the age group 0 - 5 years underwent X-ray exam. In our earlier study at PA and profile projections of lung examinations of this age group 0.15 mSv and 0.11 mSv average doses were measured on the back and on the chest, respectively. From this group the radiograms of those 119 children were analysed who were exposed, according to medical indication, to control examinations. 58 of the investigated patients showed enlarged thymus at the first exam. It could be seen from the control radiogram that 52 children of these 58 patients had significant or discrete decrease in size of thymus. Taking into account that thymus has very important role in maturity of T-lymphocytes and development of immunology tolerance these empiric statements are important for radiation protection of children in X-ray diagnostic of chest. (author).

  5. The usefulness of MRI for detection of the thymus gland in myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokezu, Youichi; Kaseda, Syun; Arimura, Kimiyoshi; Osame, Mitsuhiro; Baba, Kuniaki (Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Ohkubo, Koichi; Hagiwara, Hiroshi

    1989-08-01

    Seven patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) were examined to find thymus or thymoma employing chest radiographs, computed tomography (CT), pneumomediastinography (PMG), computed tomography after pneumomediastinography (PMG-CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). X-ray CT examination could reveal thymus only in half out of 6 cases scanned. On the other hand, MRI confirmed thymus or thymoma in 6 out of 7 patients. PMG and PMG-CT confirmed thymus or thymoma clearly in all of the 4 cases studied. PMG and PMG-CT examinations revealed thymus or thymoma more clearly than MRI. MRI is, however, an examination causing no pain to the patients and also more superior to X-ray CT in distinguishing between a thymus and mediastinal fat or vascular structure. In addition, MRI could reveal even capsules in thymoma which were never revealed by X-ray CT. We concluded that MRI could be an alternative method to CT and PMG in detection of thymus or thymoma in MG. (author).

  6. The usefulness of MRI for detection of the thymus gland in myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hokezu, Youichi; Kaseda, Syun; Arimura, Kimiyoshi; Osame, Mitsuhiro; Baba, Kuniaki; Ohkubo, Koichi; Hagiwara, Hiroshi.

    1989-01-01

    Seven patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) were examined to find thymus or thymoma employing chest radiographs, computed tomography (CT), pneumomediastinography (PMG), computed tomography after pneumomediastinography (PMG-CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). X-ray CT examination could reveal thymus only in half out of 6 cases scanned. On the other hand, MRI confirmed thymus or thymoma in 6 out of 7 patients. PMG and PMG-CT confirmed thymus or thymoma clearly in all of the 4 cases studied. PMG and PMG-CT examinations revealed thymus or thymoma more clearly than MRI. MRI is, however, an examination causing no pain to the patients and also more superior to X-ray CT in distinguishing between a thymus and mediastinal fat or vascular structure. In addition, MRI could reveal even capsules in thymoma which were never revealed by X-ray CT. We concluded that MRI could be an alternative method to CT and PMG in detection of thymus or thymoma in MG. (author)

  7. Radiation effects on regeneration and T-cell-inducing function of the thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirokawa, K.; Sado, T.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation effects on regeneration and T-cell-inducing function of the thymus were studied in three sets of experiments. When TXB mice were grafted with 1-week-old thymus which had been previously irradiated at various doses, an exponential decrease was observed in the morphological regeneration of the thymus grafts and in their T-cell-inducing function at doses of 600 R and over, showing about 10% that of the control at 1500 R. When in situ thymus of adult mice was locally irradiated, the radiation effect on T-cell-inducing function was less pronounced as compared with the first experiment; i.e., about 40% of the control at 1797 R. When in situ thymus of 1-day-old newborn mice was locally irradiated, regeneration potential of 1-day-old newborn thymus was highly resistant to radiation exposure and no effect on immunological functions was observed even by local irradiation of 2000 R

  8. Developmental heterogeneity in DNA packaging patterns influences T-cell activation and transmigration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Gupta

    Full Text Available Cellular differentiation programs are accompanied by large-scale changes in nuclear organization and gene expression. In this context, accompanying transitions in chromatin assembly that facilitates changes in gene expression and cell behavior in a developmental system are poorly understood. Here, we address this gap and map structural changes in chromatin organization during murine T-cell development, to describe an unusual heterogeneity in chromatin organization and associated functional correlates in T-cell lineage. Confocal imaging of DNA assembly in cells isolated from bone marrow, thymus and spleen reveal the emergence of heterogeneous patterns in DNA organization in mature T-cells following their exit from the thymus. The central DNA pattern dominated in immature precursor cells in the thymus whereas both central and peripheral DNA patterns were observed in naïve and memory cells in circulation. Naïve T-cells with central DNA patterns exhibited higher mechanical pliability in response to compressive loads in vitro and transmigration assays in vivo, and demonstrated accelerated expression of activation-induced marker CD69. T-cell activation was characterized by marked redistribution of DNA assembly to a central DNA pattern and increased nuclear size. Notably, heterogeneity in DNA patterns recovered in cells induced into quiescence in culture, suggesting an internal regulatory mechanism for chromatin reorganization. Taken together, our results uncover an important component of plasticity in nuclear organization, reflected in chromatin assembly, during T-cell development, differentiation and transmigration.

  9. Tursiops truncatus calf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-05-15

    May 15, 1990 ... rest, changes in respiration rate appear to be strongly associated with the metabolic state of the calf. Stress ... 02-C02 respiratory control in bottlenose dolphins ..... phenomenon should be of obvious husbandry interest in.

  10. Synthesis, characterization, DNA/protein interaction and cytotoxicity studies of Cu(II) and Co(II) complexes derived from dipyridyl triazole ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Yao, Di; Wei, Yi; Tang, Jie; Bian, He-Dong; Huang, Fu-Ping; Liang, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Four different transition metal complexes containing dipyridyl triazole ligands, namely [Cu(abpt)2Cl2]·2H2O (1), [Cu(abpt)2(ClO4)2] (2), [Co2(abpt)2(H2O)2Cl2]·Cl2·4H2O (3) and [Co2(Hbpt)2(CH3OH)2(NO3)2] (4) have been designed, synthesized and further structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography, ESI-MS, elemental analysis, IR and Raman spectroscopy. In these complexes, the both ligands act as bidentate ligands with N, N donors. DNA binding interactions with calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) of the ligand and its complexes 1 ~ 4 were investigated via electronic absorption, fluorescence quenching, circular dichroism and viscosity measurements as well as confocal Laser Raman spectroscopy. The results show these complexes are able to bind to DNA via the non-covalent mode i.e. intercalation and groove binding or electrostatic interactions. The interactions with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were also studied using UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopic methods which indicated that fluorescence quenching of BSA by these compounds was the presence of both static and dynamic quenching. Moreover, the in vitro cytotoxic effects of the complexes against four cell lines SK-OV-3, HL-7702, BEL7404 and NCI-H460 showed the necessity of the coordination action on the biological properties on the respective complex and that all four complexes exhibited substantial cytotoxic activity.

  11. CalfScience: Extension Education at Many Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dale A.; Tellessen, Kathlyn; Sischo, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The issue of antimicrobial resistance in food animal agriculture was addressed by conducting clinical trials to assess alternatives to antimicrobials in dairy calf-raising and developing outreach to three different audiences. Current research was integrated into Extension programs for calf-raisers, animal science and veterinary students, and food…

  12. Unilateral notomelia in a newborn Holstein calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Tammy L; Pack, LeeAnn; Radtke, Catherine L

    2014-07-01

    A 24-hour-old Holstein bull calf with notomelia was donated to the Atlantic Veterinary College. The extra limb was on the right side of the caudal neck adjacent to the withers. The limb was surgically removed under general anesthesia. The calf was adopted and discharged with no complications.

  13. Influence of environmental health in the cow-calf dyad system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayná Barcelos Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Health factors influence the cow-calf dyad system in the postpartum period until the first suckling. The use of maternity paddock is a recommended management to facilitate the monitoring of parturient cows and calves. However, side effects occur due to environmental health conditions of maternity paddock that can affect the behaviour of the cow and result in the separation of calf from the mother, undermining sucking and the formation of the cow-calf dyad. To improve the understanding of this complex and dynamic system we built a conceptual model using the technique of causal loop diagram, Figure 1. By hypothesis, the environmental variables that act in maternity paddock influence the variable "Sources of pathogens in maternity". Those sources present a positive effect (in the same direction in the infection process of the calf and cow. Thus, a recommended practice is exposing the parturient cow to pathogens in maternity for sufficient period to stimulate their immune system and build disease resistance. That process contributes to improve the quality of colostrum that will be consumed by the calf during the first hours postpartum which has the function of increasing calf immunity, minimizing the occurrence of infections. In the model, sanitary environmental factors work in two Balance feedback loops (B1 and B2. The B1 cycle refers to the production of a healthy cow with a low level of infection by means of the variables: “Vaccine”, "Stimulation of cow immune system" and "Health resistance" with delay. The variable "Cow infection" has a negative influence (in the opposite direction in the "Maternal behaviour", thus the more infected the cow, the less investment will occur in maternal behaviour. The B2 cycle refers to the calf’s health condition, which is positively influenced by “Calf infection” which, in turn, has positive influence, contributing to the increase of "Calf diseases". The increase in “Calf diseases” generates an

  14. Hydration forces between aligned DNA helices undergoing B to A conformational change: In-situ X-ray fiber diffraction studies in a humidity and temperature controlled environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Ryan; Schollmeyer, Hauke; Kohl, Phillip; Sirota, Eric B; Pynn, Roger; Ewert, Kai E; Safinya, Cyrus R; Li, Youli

    2017-12-01

    Hydration forces between DNA molecules in the A- and B-Form were studied using a newly developed technique enabling simultaneous in situ control of temperature and relative humidity. X-ray diffraction data were collected from oriented calf-thymus DNA fibers in the relative humidity range of 98%-70%, during which DNA undergoes the B- to A-form transition. Coexistence of both forms was observed over a finite humidity range at the transition. The change in DNA separation in response to variation in humidity, i.e. change of chemical potential, led to the derivation of a force-distance curve with a characteristic exponential decay constant of∼2Å for both A- and B-DNA. While previous osmotic stress measurements had yielded similar force-decay constants, they were limited to B-DNA with a surface separation (wall-to-wall distance) typically>5Å. The current investigation confirms that the hydration force remains dominant even in the dry A-DNA state and at surface separation down to∼1.5Å, within the first hydration shell. It is shown that the observed chemical potential difference between the A and B states could be attributed to the water layer inside the major and minor grooves of the A-DNA double helices, which can partially interpenetrate each other in the tightly packed A phase. The humidity-controlled X-ray diffraction method described here can be employed to perform direct force measurements on a broad range of biological structures such as membranes and filamentous protein networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dysfunction of irradiated thymus for the development of helper T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amagai, T.; Kina, T.; Hirokawa, K.; Nishikawa, S.; Imanishi, J.; Katsura, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The development of cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells in an intact or irradiated thymus was investigated. C57BL/6 (H-2b, Thy-1.2) mice were whole body-irradiated, or were irradiated with shielding over either the thymus or right leg and tail, and were transferred with 1.5 X 10(7) bone marrow cells from B10.Thy-1.1 mice (H-2b, Thy-1.1). At various days after reconstitution, thymus cells from the recipient mice were harvested and a peanut agglutinin low-binding population was isolated. This population was further treated with anti-Thy-1.2 plus complement to remove host-derived cells and was assayed for the frequency of cytotoxic T cell precursors (CTLp) and for the activity of helper T cells (Th). In the thymus of thymus-shielded and irradiated mice, Th activity reached normal control level by day 25, whereas CTLp frequency remained at a very low level during these days. In the thymus of whole body-irradiated mice, generation of CTLp was highly accelerated while that of Th was retarded, the period required for reconstitution being 25 days and more than 42 days for CTLp and Th, respectively. Preferential development of CTLp was also seen in right leg- and tail-shielded (L-T-shielded) and irradiated recipients. Histological observation indicated that Ia+ nonlymphoid cells were well preserved in the thymus of thymus-shielded and irradiated recipients, whereas in L-T-shielded and irradiated recipients, such cells in the medulla were markedly reduced in number. These results suggest strongly that the generation of Th but not CTLp is dependent on radiosensitive thymic component(s), and that such components may represent Ia+ cells themselves in the medulla or some microenvironment related to Ia+ cells

  16. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and structural investigations of a new charge transfer complex of 2,6-diaminopyridine with 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid: DNA binding and antimicrobial studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ishaat M.; Ahmad, Afaq; Kumar, Sarvendra

    2013-03-01

    A new charge transfer (CT) complex [(DAPH)+(DNB)-] consisting of 2,6-diaminopyridine (DAP) as donor and 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid (DNB-H) as acceptor, was synthesized and characterized by FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR, ESI mass spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic techniques. The hydrogen bonding (N+-H⋯O-) plays an important role to consolidate the cation and anion together. CT complex shows a considerable interaction with Calf thymus DNA. The CT complex was also tested for its antibacterial activity against two Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and two Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains by using Tetracycline as standard, and antifungal property against Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, and Penicillium sp. by using Nystatin as standard. The results were compared with standard drugs and significant conclusions were obtained. A polymeric net work through H-bonding interactions between neighboring moieties was observed. This has been attributed to the formation of 1:1 type CT complex.

  17. The entry of the prothymocyte into the thymus after lethal irradiation and bone marrow transplantation. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, A.H.; Visser, J.W.M.; Zoetelief, J.; Bekkum, D.W. van

    1988-01-01

    The time of entry of prothymocytes into the thymus after lethal irradiation and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) was determined by exposing the thymus only or the whole body with the thymus shielded to a second irradiation after different intervals. The repopulation of the thymus by donor type cells was determined by a thymus repopulation assay using donor specific markers. Reirradiation of the thymus kills the prothymocytes that have entered the thymus during the interval. It was found that reirradiation of the thymus from 48 hours after BMT onwards increasingly delayed thymus regeneration. This shows that donor prothymocytes do not enter the thymus until about 2 days after BMT and that they continue to do so during at least 3 subsequent days. In the second reirradiation protocol thymus regeneration occurred earlier in the shielded thymus than in thymuses of whole body irradiated mice. Earlier thymus regeneration was not seen in mice that were reirradiated at 24 hours after BMT, but occurred only when irradiation took place at 48 hours and later. These data are consistent with those obtained in the first protocol. The results are in contradiction with results of direct homing experiments, which showed entrance of donor cells within 3 hours after BMT. A functional assay demonstrated that the early appearing cells cannot be prothymocytes. In retransplantation experiments it was shown that the bone marrow may indeed be the initial homing site of prothymocytes. 14 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table

  18. The effect of ionic environment and mercury(II) binding on the alternative structures of DNA. An infrared spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, P. B.; Hartman, K. A.

    Infrared spectroscopy was used to measure the effects of NaCl, NaNO 3 and HgCl 2 on the structure and structural transitions of DNA in hydrated films. The following conclusions are supported by the data. (1) The transition from the B- to the A-structural form in films of salt-free, calf-thymus DNA occurs between 86 and 75% r.h. Previous failures to obtain this transition in salt-free films and the finding that ca 4% (w/w) NaCl is needed to observe the B to A transition in films of DNA appear to be anomalies produced by the very slow kinetics for this transition. (2) The addition of NaCl to DNA increases the quantity of water absorbed at a given r.h. value and shifts the B to A transition to lower r.h. values. (3) Highly hydrated DNA (100% r.h.) with or without added NaCl exists in the B-helical structure for all samples examined. (4) DNA films containing one NaNO 3 per 6.7 nucleotide residues remained in the B-helical form to very low values of hydration. (5) The interaction of HgCl 2 with DNA to form the type I complex prevents the transition of DNA from the B- to the A-helical form but a conformational variation within the B family of structures was observed to occur between 94 and 75% r.h. (6) The primary sites of binding of Hg 2+ in the type-1 complex with the DNA are the AT base pairs. Hg 2+ binds to the N3 atom of thymine. Binding of Hg 2+ to AT pairs perturbs the CG pairs but has only a minor effect on the sugar—phosphate conformation.

  19. Visualization of the thymus in myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Midori; Tanaka, Makoto; Morimatsu, Mitsunori; Hirai, Shunsaku; Heshiki, Atsuko

    1982-01-01

    We investigated whether CT had any advantage over pneumomediastinography (PMG) for the visualization of thymus in twenty-one patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). In two cases of thymoma which had been suspected with chest radiography, CT demonstrated an anterior mediastinal tumor distinguishable from other mediastinal organs, and for these cases PMG was not performed. Excluding three patients who were submitted to PMG only, CT of the anterior mediastinum was carried out in sixteen patients of MG, revealing thymic shadows in seven (44%). PMG followed by conventional tomography was done subsequently in three of these seven cases, for whom thymectomy was indicated because of uncontrollable myasthenic symptoms, and in all patients finger-like thymic shadows were disclosed. The vertical extension of thymus was more easily demonstrable by PMG than CT. PMG was carried out in six of nine patients in whom CT was negative, and in all cases thymic shadows were obvious with subsequent conventional tomography. Consequently, false negative rate of CT was at least 38% (6/16) with regard to the visualization of the nontumorous thymus. Although CT of the anterior mediastinum is useful as a screening method because of its non-invasiveness, its negative result does not rule out an absence of the pathologic thymus in view of its high false negative rate. In this regard, PMG is still necessary for the final determination of the thymic configuration in the MG patients. (J.P.N.)

  20. Zinc Methionine Supplementation Impacts Gene and Protein Expression in Calf-fed Holstein Steers with Miniaml Impact on Feedlot Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calf-fed Holstein steers were supplemented with a zinc (Zn) methionine supplement (ZnMet; ZINPRO®; Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN) for 115±5 days prior to harvest along with zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; Zilmax®; Merck Animal Health, Summit, NJ) for the last 20 days with a 3 day withdrawal to ...

  1. SODs, DNA binding and cleavage studies of new Mn(III) complexes with 2-((3-(benzyloxy)pyridin-2-ylimino)methyl)phenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumar, L.; Shivaprasad, K.; Revanasiddappa, Hosakere D.

    2013-04-01

    Newly synthesized ligand [2-((3-(benzyloxy)pyridin-2-ylimino)methyl)phenol] (Bpmp) react with manganese(II) to form mononuclear complexes [Mn(phen)(Bpmp)(CH3COO)(H2O)]·4H2O (1), (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) and [Mn(Bpmp)2(CH3COO)(H2O)]·5H2O (2). These complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, Mass, UV-vis spectral studies. Molar conductance and thermogravimetric analysis of these complexes were also recorded. The in vitro SOD mimic activity of Mn(III) complexes were carried out and obtained with good result. The DNA-binding properties of the complexes 1 and 2 were investigated by UV-spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and viscosity measurements. The spectral results suggest that the complexes 1 and 2 can bind to Calf thymus DNA by intercalation mode. The cleavage properties of these complexes with super coiled pUC19 have been studied using the gel electrophoresis method, wherein both complexes 1 and 2 displayed chemical nuclease activity in the absence and presence of H2O2via an oxidative mechanism. All the complexes inhibit the growth of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria to competent level. The MIC was determined by microtiter method.

  2. An overview of calf diarrhea - infectious etiology, diagnosis, and intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong-il

    2014-01-01

    Calf diarrhea is a commonly reported disease in young animals, and still a major cause of productivity and economic loss to cattle producers worldwide. In the report of the 2007 National Animal Health Monitoring System for U.S. dairy, half of the deaths among unweaned calves was attributed to diarrhea. Multiple pathogens are known or postulated to cause or contribute to calf diarrhea development. Other factors including both the environment and management practices influence disease severity or outcomes. The multifactorial nature of calf diarrhea makes this disease hard to control effectively in modern cow-calf operations. The purpose of this review is to provide a better understanding of a) the ecology and pathogenesis of well-known and potential bovine enteric pathogens implicated in calf diarrhea, b) describe diagnostic tests used to detect various enteric pathogens along with their pros and cons, and c) propose improved intervention strategies for treating calf diarrhea. PMID:24378583

  3. Effect of dietary factors on mutagenesis, metabolism, and binding to DNA of benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-dihydrodiol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring plant phenol, at concentrations of 5 to 50 μg/plate, inhibited rate liver S9 protein dependent benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-induced mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 by 30-81% and B[a]P 7,8-dihydrodiol (DHD)-induced mutagenesis by 29 to 75%. EA did not significantly affect the metabolism of B[a]P or B[a]P 7,8-DHD as determined by high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the organosoluble fraction and by the quantification of water-soluble conjugates. At these concentrations EA inhibited the covalent binding of [ 3 H] B[a]P and [ 3 H] B[a]P 7,8-DHD metabolites to calf thymus DNA by 5 to 42% and 27 to 64%, respectively. Formation of benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide:deoxyguanosine (BPDE:dG) adducts was inhibited by 13 to 56% for B[a]P for B[a]P and 11 to 38% for B[a]P 7,8-DHD. These results suggest that the antimutagenic effect of EA and its inhibition of B[a]P and B[a]P 7,8-DHD metabolite-binding to DNA is not due to the inhibition of S9-mediated metabolism of these compounds. The inhibitory effect may be by previously described scavenging mechanism or by a DNA-affinity binding mechanism that prevents BPDE:DNA adduct formation

  4. Newborn calf welfare: a review focusing on mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetake, Katsuji

    2013-02-01

    Calf mortality control is vitally important for farmers, not only to improve animal welfare, but also to increase productivity. High calf mortality rates can be related to larger numbers of calves in a herd, employee performance, severe weather, and the neonatal period covering the first 4 weeks of life. Although the basic premise of preventing newborn calf mortality is early detection and treatment of calves at risk for failure of passive transfer of immunoglobulins, calf mortality due to infectious diseases such as acute diarrhea increases in the presence of these physical and psychological stressors. This suggests that farmers should not ignore the effects of secondary environmental factors. For prevention rather than cure, the quality of the environment should be improved, which will improve not only animal welfare but also productivity. This paper presents a review of the literature on newborn calf mortality and discusses its productivity implications. © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Nickel(II) and cobalt(II) complexes of lidocaine: Synthesis, structure and comparative in vitro evaluations of biological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Leila; McArdle, Patrick; Erxleben, Andrea; Chiniforoshan, Hossein

    2015-10-20

    Metal complexes of the type [Ni(LC)2(X)2], 1 and 2, [Co(LC)2(X)2], 3 and 4 (LC: lidocaine, X = dca (dicyanamide), 1 and 3, X = NCS(-), 2 and 4) have been synthesized and characterized. The geometries of 1-4 were confirmed by single crystal X-ray crystallography. The complexes are water soluble and stable in aqueous solution. The interaction of 1-4 with calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated using UV-visible and fluorescence spectrophotometric methods. A gel electrophoresis assay demonstrated that the complexes cleave pUC19 plasmid DNA. The in vitro free radical scavenging, antimicrobial activity and cytotoxic potential of all the complexes were examined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. DNA binding and cleavage studies of new sulfasalazine-derived dipeptide Zn(II) complex: Validation for specific recognition with 5 Prime -TMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabassum, Sartaj [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP 202002 (India); Al-Asbahy, Waddhaah M.; Afzal, Mohd.; Shamsi, Manal; Arjmand, Farukh [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP 202002 (India)

    2012-11-15

    A new water soluble complex [Zn(glygly)(ssz)(H{sub 2}O)]{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O, 1 derived from dipeptide (glycyl glycine) and sulfasalazine was synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic (IR, UV-vis, NMR, ESI-MS) and analytical methods. The in vitro DNA binding studies of complex 1 with calf-thymus DNA were carried out by employing various biophysical methods and molecular docking technique which reveals strong electrostatic binding via phosphate backbone of DNA helix, in addition to partial intercalation. To gain further insight into the molecular recognition at the target site, interaction studies of complex 1 with 5 Prime -TMP and 5 Prime -GMP were carried out by UV-vis titration which was validated by {sup 1}H and {sup 31}P NMR with 5 Prime -TMP, which implicate the preferential selectivity of 1 towards N3 of thymine. Complex 1 is accessible to minor groove of DNA and cleaved pBR322 DNA via hydrolytic pathway (validated by T4 ligase assay). - Graphical abstract: Synthesis, characterization, DNA binding and cleavage studies of [Zn(glygly)(ssz)(H{sub 2}O)]{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O (1) containing glycyl glycine and sulfasalazine ligand. Complex 1 recognize minor groove of DNA and show hydrolytic DNA cleavage. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel Zn(II) complex 1 bearing bioactive glycyl glycine and sulfasalazine ligand scaffold. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cleavage activity of 1 was enhanced in presence of activators: H{sub 2}O{sub 2}>MPA>GSH>Asc. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complex 1 recognize minor groove as depicted in the cleavage pattern and molecular docking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complex 1 cleaves pBR322 DNA via hydrolytic mechanism and validated by T4 DNA ligase experiments.

  7. [A swollen, painless calf caused by neurogenic muscle (pseudo)-hypertrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Zwarts, M.J.; Engelen, B.G.M. van

    2003-01-01

    Neurogenic muscle (pseudo) hypertrophy of the calf was diagnosed in a 60-year-old man, who presented with chronic, painless and unilateral calf enlargement caused by a chronic S1 radiculopathy due to a lumbar disc hernia in the L5-S1 interspace. The differential diagnosis of a swelling of the calf

  8. Synthesis and antitumor activity evaluation of a novel combi-nitrosourea prodrug: Designed to release a DNA cross-linking agent and an inhibitor of O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guohui; Zhang, Na; Zhao, Lijiao; Fan, Tengjiao; Zhang, Shufen; Zhong, Rugang

    2016-05-01

    The drug resistance of CENUs induced by O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT), which repairs the O(6)-alkylated guanine and subsequently inhibits the formation of dG-dC cross-links, hinders the application of CENU chemotherapies. Therefore, the discovery of CENU analogs with AGT inhibiting activity is a promising approach leading to novel CENU chemotherapies with high therapeutic index. In this study, a new combi-nitrosourea prodrug 3-(3-(((2-amino-9H-purin-6-yl)oxy)methyl)benzyl)-1-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (6), designed to release a DNA cross-linking agent and an inhibitor of AGT, was synthesized and evaluated for its antitumor activity and ability to induce DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs). The results indicated that 6 exhibited higher cytotoxicity against mer(+) glioma cells compared with ACNU, BCNU, and their respective combinations with O(6)-benzylguanine (O(6)-BG). Quantifications of dG-dC cross-links induced by 6 were performed using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Higher levels of dG-dC cross-link were observed in 6-treated human glioma SF763 cells (mer(+)), whereas lower levels of dG-dC cross-link were observed in 6-treated calf thymus DNA, when compared with the groups treated with BCNU and ACNU. The results suggested that the superiority of 6 might result from the AGT inhibitory moiety, which specifically functions in cells with AGT activity. Molecular docking studies indicated that five hydrogen bonds were formed between the O(6)-BG analogs released from 6 and the five residues in the active pocket of AGT, which provided a reasonable explanation for the higher AGT-inhibitory activity of 6 than O(6)-BG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Thymus dependent immune competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruisbeek, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    Studies are described which are concerned with changes in cellular immunocompetance in ageing and tumour-bearing animals. The possible therapeutical application of thymic humoral factors in restoration of diminished T cell functions initiated the more fundamental studies on the humoral function of the thymus are also described. Irradiated mice and rats were used. (Auth.)

  10. Changes in the infrared microspectroscopic characteristics of DNA caused by cationic elements, different base richness and single-stranded form.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza S Mello

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The infrared (IR analysis of dried samples of DNA and DNA-polypeptide complexes is still scarce. Here we have studied the FT-IR profiles of these components to further the understanding of the FT-IR signatures of chromatin and cell nuclei. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Calf thymus and salmon testis DNA, and complexes of histone H1, protamine, poly-L-lysine and poly-L-arginine (histone-mimic macromolecules with DNA were analyzed in an IR microspectroscope equipped with an attenuated total reflection diamond objective and Grams software. Conditions including polypeptides bound to the DNA, DNA base composition, and single-stranded form were found to differently affect the vibrational characteristics of the chemical groups (especially, PO(2(- in the nucleic acid. The antisymmetric stretching (ν(as of the DNA PO(2(- was greater than the symmetric stretching (ν(s of these groups and increased in the polypeptide-DNA complexes. A shift of the ν(as of the DNA PO(2(- to a lower frequency and an increased intensity of this vibration were induced especially by lysine-rich histones. Lysine richness additionally contributed to an increase in the vibrational stretching of the amide I group. Even in simple molecules such as inorganic phosphates, the vibrational characteristics of the phosphate anions were differently affected by different cations. As a result of the optimization of the DNA conformation by binding to arginine-rich polypeptides, enhancements of the vibrational characteristics in the FT-IR fingerprint could be detected. Although different profiles were obtained for the DNA with different base compositions, this situation was no longer verified in the polypeptide-DNA complexes and most likely in isolated chromatin or cell nuclei. However, the ν(as PO(2(-/ν(s PO(2(- ratio could discriminate DNA with different base compositions and DNA in a single-stranded form. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: FT-IR spectral profiles are a valuable tool

  11. Synthesis, characterization, DNA binding and catalytic applications of Ru(III) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoair, A F; El-Shobaky, A R; Azab, E A

    2015-01-01

    A new series of azodye ligands 5-chloro-3-hydroxy-4-(aryldiazenyl)pyridin-2(1H)-one (HLn) were synthesized by coupling of 5-chloro-3-hydroxypyridin-2(1H)-one with aniline and its p-derivatives. These ligands and their Ru(III) complexes of the type trans-[Ru(Ln)2(AsPh3)2]Cl were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, (1)H NMR and UV-Visible spectra as well as magnetic and thermal measurements. The molar conductance measurements proved that all the complexes are electrolytes. IR spectra show that the ligands (HLn) acts as a monobasic bidentate ligand by coordinating via the nitrogen atom of the azo group (NN) and oxygen atom of the deprotonated phenolic OH group, thereby forming a six-membered chelating ring and concomitant formation of an intramolecular hydrogen bond. The molecular and electronic structures of the investigated compounds (HLn) were also studied using quantum chemical calculations. The calf thymus DNA binding activity of the ligands (HLn) and their Ru(III) complexes were studied by absorption spectra and viscosity measurements. The mechanism and the catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol by trans-[Ru(Ln)2(AsPh3)2]Cl with hydrogen peroxide as co-oxidant were described. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis, structure, DNA binding and anticancer activity of mixed ligand ruthenium(II) complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilewska, Agnieszka; Masternak, Joanna; Kazimierczuk, Katarzyna; Trynda, Justyna; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Barszcz, Barbara

    2018-03-01

    In order to obtain a potential chemotherapeutic which is not affected on the normal BALB/3T3 cell line, a new arene ruthenium(II) complex {[RuCl(L1)(η6-p-cymene)]PF6}2 · H2O has been synthesized by a direct reaction of precursor, [{(η6-p-cymene)Ru(μ-Cl)}2Cl2], with N,N-chelating ligand (L1 - 2,2‧-bis(4,5-dimethylimidazole). The compound has been fully characterized by elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, IR, UV-Vis and 1H, 13C NMR spectroscopies. X-ray analysis have confirmed that the compound crystallized in the monoclinic group Cc as an inversion twin. The asymmetric unit contains two symmetrically independent cationic complexes [RuCl(L1)(η6-p-cymene)]+ whose charge is balanced by two PF6- counterions. The shape of each cationic coordination polyhedral can be described as a distorted dodecahedron and shows a typical piano-stool geometry. In addition, an analysis of the crystal structure and the Hirshfeld surface analysis were used to detect and visualize important hydrogen bonds and intermolecular interaction. Moreover, the antiproliferative behavior of the obtained complex was assayed against three human cells: MV-4-11, LoVo, MCF-7 and BALB/3T3 - normal mice fibroblast cells. To predict a binding mode, a potential interaction of ruthenium complex with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) has been explored using UV absorption and circular dichroism (CD).

  13. Expression of preprotachykinin-A and neuropeptide-Y messenger RNA in the thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, A; Geenen, V; Robert, F; Legros, J J; Vrindts-Gevaert, Y; Franchimont, P; Brene, S; Persson, H

    1990-08-01

    The preprotachykinin-A gene, the common gene of mRNAs encoding both substance-P (SP) and neurokinin-A (NKA), was shown to be expressed in Sprague-Dawley rat thymus by detection of specific mRNA in gel-blot analyses. In situ hybridization revealed dispersed PPT-A-labeled cells in sections from rat thymus, with a concentration of grains over a subpopulation of cells in the thymic medulla. Also, neuropeptide-Y mRNA-expressing cells were found in the rat thymus, primarily in the thymic medulla. Rat thymic extracts contained SP-like immunoreactivity (SP-LI), and the major part of the immunoreactivity coeluted with authentic SP and SP sulfoxide standards. SP-LI was also detected in human thymus, which contained between 0.09-0.88 ng SP-LI/g wet wt. Evidence for translation of preprotachykinin-A mRNA in the rat thymus was obtained from the demonstration of NKA-LI in thymic cells with an epithelial-like cell morphology. Combined with previous observations on the immunoregulatory roles of tachykinin peptides and the existence of specific receptors on immunocompetent cells, the demonstration of intrathymic synthesis of NKA suggests a role for NKA-LI peptides in T-cell differentiation in the thymus.

  14. Prooxidant action of furanone compounds: implication of reactive oxygen species in the metal-dependent strand breaks and the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, K; Haneda, M; Makino, T; Yoshino, M

    2007-07-01

    Prooxidant properties of furanone compounds including 2,5-furanone (furaneol, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-furan-3-one), 4,5-furanone (4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone) (sotolone) and cyclotene (2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one) were analyzed in relation to the metal-reducing activity. Only 2.5-furanone known as a "strawberry or pineapple furanone" inactivated aconitase the most sensitive enzyme to active oxygen in the presence of ferrous sulfate, suggesting the furaneol/iron-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species. 2,5-Furanone caused strand scission of pBR322 DNA in the presence of copper. Treatment of calf thymus DNA with 2,5-furanone plus copper produced 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in DNA. 2,5-Furanone showed a potent copper-reducing activity, and thus, DNA strand breaks and the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine by 2,5-furanone can be initiated by the production of superoxide radical through the reduction of cupric ion to cuprous ion, resulting in the conversion to hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical. However, an isomer and analog of 2,5-furanone, 4,5-furanone and cyclotene, respectively, did not show an inactivation of aconitase, DNA injuries including strand breakage and the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, and copper-reducing activity. Cytotoxic effect of 2,5-furanone with hydroxyketone structure can be explained by its prooxidant properties: furaneol/transition metal complex generates reactive oxygen species causing the inactivation of aconitase and the formation of DNA base damage by hydroxyl radical.

  15. HETEROGENEITY OF POLYCLONAL IMMUNOGLOBULINS NUCLEASE ACTIVITY IN RHEUMATOID AND REACTIVE ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Volkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic properties of immunoglobulins are widely studied within recent years. It was found that nuclease activity of immunoglobulins is increased in systemic autoimmune diseases. Given some pathogenetic features of rheumatoid arthritis and reactive arthritis, it is appropriate to clarify the nature of nuclease activity in these diseases. Determination of DNAse activity of immunoglobulins with different DNA substrates, and search for specific substrates for distinct clinical entities could serve these purposes. The aim of present work is to determine DNase activity of the polyclonal class G immunoglobulins in rheumatoid and reactive arthritis using various methods.Different methods are used to evaluate nuclease activity. In this paper we present newly developed and modified techniques for determination of DNAse activity of polyclonal IgGs. Particular attention was paid to the electrophoretic method of DNase activity assessment. Polyclonal IgG isolated from blood serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and reactive arthritis were used for assays. In this study, we demonstrated the presence of an inhomogeneous DNase activity of immunoglobulins in relation to different substrates.Along with calf thymus DNA, we used bacterial plasmid DNA and PCR products based on bacterial gene sequences. Levels of DNase activity by rivanol clot method with calf thymus DNA as substrate proved to be higher in patients with rheumatoid arthritis than the control values (p < 0.01. DNase abzyme activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis was elevated, as compared to the patients with reactive arthritis (p < 0.01.When examining ability of the IgG to hydrolyze procaryotic DNA (bacterial plasmid DNA and PCR products, based on bacterial genes, we obtained heterogeneous results. Different Ig samples showed varying degrees of DNA hydrolysis. Abzyme hydrolysis of DNA substrates longer than 700 bp was more pronounced, as compared to short DNA substrates (100 base pairs

  16. Sensitive detection of cyclophosphamide using DNA-modified carbon paste, pencil graphite and hanging mercury drop electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaska, P; Aritzoglou, E; Girousi, S

    2007-05-15

    The interaction of cyclophosphamide (CP) with calf thymus double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and thermally denatured single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) immobilized at the carbon paste (CPE) and pencil graphite electrodes (PGE), was studied electrochemically based on oxidation signals of guanine and adenine using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). As a result of the interaction of CP with DNA, the voltammetric signals of guanine and adenine increased in the case of dsDNA while a slight increase was observed in ssDNA. The effect of experimental parameters such as the interaction time between CP and DNA forms and the concentration of CP, were studied using DPV with CPE and PGE. Additionally, reproducibility and detection limits were determined using both electrodes. A comparison of the analytical performance between CPE and PGE was done. Our results showed that these two different DNA biosensors could be used for the sensitive, rapid and cost effective detection of CP itself as well as of CP-DNA interaction. Furthermore, the interaction of CP with dsDNA and ssDNA was studied in solution and at the electrode surface by means of alternating current voltammetry (ACV) in 0.3M NaCl and 50mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 8.5) supporting electrolyte, using a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) as working electrode. The conclusions of this study were mainly based on tensammetric peaks I (at -1.183V) and II (-1.419V) of DNA. This study involved the interaction of CP with surface-confined and solution phase DNA where experimental parameters, such as the concentration of CP and the interaction time, were studied. By increasing the concentration of CP, an increase of peak II was observed in both ds and ssDNA, while an increase of peak I was observed only in the case of dsDNA. An overall conclusion of the study using HMDE was that the interaction of CP with surface-confined DNA significantly differed from that with solution phase DNA. The increase of peaks I and II was lower in the case of

  17. Phenotypic characterization of early events of thymus repopulation in radiation bone marrow chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharrow, S.O.; Singer, A.; Hammerling, U.; Mathieson, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    The phenotype of murine thymocytes repopulating the thymus of radiation bone marrow chimeras shortly after irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution was analyzed by immunofluorescence and flow microfluorometry. Thymuses in these chimeras, while essentially devoid of lymphoid cells at day 7, were repopulated by days 10 to 12 after irradiation. It was found that this initial repopulation arose from a radioresistant intrathymic precursor that expanded to an almost complete complement of host-type thymocytes. However, these host-derived thymocytes were unusual in that they were relatively deficient in Lyt 1+2- and peanut agglutinin ''dull'' cells as compared with normal thymocytes. Donor bone-marrow-derived cells first appeared in the irradiated chimeric thymuses between days 12 and 15 after irradiation and bone marrow transfer. By day 19, chimeric thymuses contained more than 98% donor cells. This course was identical for three chimeric combinations, each made across different genetic barriers. In contrast to the cells that populate the fetal thymus during normal ontogeny, the first donor bone-marrow-derived cells that can be detected within the irradiated chimeric thymuses already expressed phenotypically normal adult T cell subpopulations in that they contained significant numbers both of Lyt 1+2- and of Lyt 1+2+ thymocytes. Thus, the Lyt phenotype of donor cells that initially repopulate an adult thymus after irradiation is markedly different from the Lyt phenotype of cells that initially populate the fetal thymus. The differences between adult and fetal thymic development that are observed in radiation bone marrow chimeras may be important in our understanding of T cell differentiation in these animals

  18. Palaeo-environmental and dietary analysis of intestinal contents of a mammoth calf (Yamal Peninsula, northwest Siberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geel, Bas; Fisher, Daniel C.; Rountrey, Adam N.; van Arkel, Jan; Duivenvoorden, Joost F.; Nieman, Aline M.; van Reenen, Guido B. A.; Tikhonov, Alexei N.; Buigues, Bernard; Gravendeel, Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Intestinal samples from the one-month-old Siberian mammoth calf 'Lyuba' were studied using light microscopy and ancient DNA to reconstruct its palaeo-environment and diet. The palynological record indicates a 'mammoth steppe'. At least some pollen of arboreal taxa was reworked, and thus the presence of trees on the landscape is uncertain. In addition to visual comparison of 11 microfossil spectra, a PCA analysis contributed to diet reconstruction. This yielded two clusters: one of samples from the small intestine and the other of large-intestine samples, indicating compositional differences in food remains along the intestinal tract, possibly reflecting different episodes of ingestion. Based on observed morphological damage we conclude that the cyperaceous plant remains and some remains of dwarf willows were originally eaten by a mature mammoth, most likely Lyuba's mother. The mammoth calf probably unintentionally swallowed well-preserved mosses and mineral particles while eating fecal material deposited on a soil surface covered with mosses. Coprophagy may have been a common habit for mammoths, and we therefore propose that fecal material should not be used to infer season of death of mammoths. DNA sequences of trnL and rbcL genes amplified from ancient DNA extracted from intestinal samples confirmed and supplemented plant identifications based on microfossils and macro-remains. Results from different extraction methods and barcoding markers complemented each other and show the value of longer protocols in addition to fast and commercially available extraction kits.

  19. Ultrasonographic findings of the various diseases presenting as calf pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Joo; Kim, Ok Hwa; Choo, Hye Jung; Park, Jun Ho; Park, Yeong-Mi; Jeong, Hae Woong; Lee, Sung Moon; Cho, Kil Ho; Choi, Jung-Ah; Jacobson, Jon A

    2016-01-01

    There are various causes of calf pain. The differential diagnoses affecting the lower leg include cystic lesions, trauma-related lesions, infection or inflammation, vascular lesions, neoplasms, and miscellaneous entities. Ultrasound (US) provide detailed anatomical information of the calf structures, and it offers the ability to confirm, other calf abnormalities, particularly when deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is ruled out. The purpose of this article is to review the causes of a painful calf presenting as DVT and incidental findings found as part of the work-up of DVT, and to provide a broad overview of US findings and clinical features of these pathologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evidence of epimeletic behavior involving a Pontoporia blainvillei calf (Cetacea, Pontoporiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Tonello Júnior

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper constitutes the second record of epimeletic behavior for the toninha, Pontoporia blainvillei. A toninha calf carcass was recovered at Enseada Beach, São Francisco do Sul, southern Brazil (26o13’S - 48o31’W on October 9, 2001. Its total length indicated that it was a neonate or a premature calf. The calf had many parallel scratches on it, which were freshly made and produced by adult teeth. There were scratches on the fin, flukes and flippers, and the position and size of the marks demonstrated the intention of the adult to rescue the calf. The anterior region of the body showed net marks, suggesting that the calf had been accidentally entangled. The epimeletic behavior evidenced by the tooth marks could have occurred during the entanglement and/or after its liberation, and we suggest that the causa mortis of the calf was drowning.

  1. Chemical modification of arginine residues in the lactose repressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitson, P.A.; Matthews, K.S.

    1987-01-01

    The lactose repressor protein was chemically modified with 2,3-butanedione and phenylglyoxal. Arginine reaction was quantitated by either amino aced analysis or incorporation of 14 C-labeled phenylglyoxal. Inducer binding activity was unaffected by the modification of arginine residues, while both operator and nonspecific DNA binding activities were diminished, although to differing degrees. The correlation of the decrease in DNA binding activities with the modification of ∼ 1-2 equiv of arginine per monomer suggests increased reactivity of a functionally essential residue(s). For both reagents, operator DNA binding activity was protected by the presence of calf thymus DNA, and the extent of reaction with phenylglyoxal was simultaneously diminished. This protection presumably results from steric restriction of reagent access to an arginine(s) that is (are) essential for DNA binding interactions. These experiments suggest that there is (are) an essential reactive arginine(s) critical for repressor binding to DNA

  2. Effects of mesenchymal stem cells on thymus tissue injury induced by ionizing radiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongyan; Qi Yali; Gong Shouliang; Song Xiangfu; Liu Liping; Chen Yubing

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the migration,colonization and repairing effects of marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on thymus tissue injury induced by ionizing radiation in mice. Methods: MSCs of C57BL/6 mice were isolated, purified and cultivated in vitro. Their migration and colorization were observed with laser confocal microscopy 1, 5 and 10 d after DAPI labeled. MSCs were injected into the thymus tissue of mice through tail vein. The model of thymus tissue injury induced by whole-body X-irradiation was established. The mice were divided into four groups: normal, irradiation, irradiation+saline, and irradiation+MSCs groups. The apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and the repairing effect of MSCs on thymus tissue injury was observed by histological method 3 months later. Results: The occurrence of MSCs in the thymus was observed 1 d after MSCs injection, the diffusion of MSCs in the thymus appeared 5 d later, and widely dispersed 10 d later. The apoptotic rate of thymocytes in irradiation group was higher than that in normal (P<0.05) and was lower than that in MSCs group (P<0.05). The structures of cortex and medulla of thymus were clear in mice in normal group, there were a large number of lymphocytes in the cortex and small number of lymphocytes in the medulla. The structures of cortex and medulla of thymus were unclear in mice in both irradiation, irradiation and saline groups. The lymphocytes in thymus showed extensive coagulation necrosis. There were remnants or newborn lymphoid tissue in the cortex and medulla in mice in irradiation+MSCs groups. Conclusion: MSCs can be rapidly enriched in thymus tissue and promote regeneration and repair of damaged thymus. (authors)

  3. Preparation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/poly(styrene-butyl acrylate-[2-(methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization and its interaction with DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaolong; Liu Guoqiang; Yan Wei [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Yeung, Kelvin W.K. [Division of Spine Surgery, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam (Hong Kong); Wu Shuilin; Yi Changfeng [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Division of Spine Surgery, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam (Hong Kong); Xu Zushun, E-mail: zushun25@yahoo.com.cn [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Division of Spine Surgery, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam (Hong Kong)

    2012-04-15

    Cationic magnetic polymer particles Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/poly(styrene-butyl acrylate-[2-(methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride), a type of potential gene carrier, were prepared by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization with oleic acid modified magnetite Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, styrene, butyl acrylate and [2-(methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) (METAC). The morphology of the particles was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and the composites of particles were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction. These results showed that magnetic particles were well dispersed in polymers with the content of about 15%(wt/wt). The composites exhibited superparamagnetism and possessed a certain level of magnetic response. The interactions between the particles with calf-thymus DNA (ct DNA) were confirmed by zeta potential measurement, UV-vis spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The DNA-binding capacity determined by the agarose gel electrophoresis showed good binding capacity of the emulsion to DNA. These results suggested the potential of the cationic magnetic polymer emulsion as gene target delivery carrier. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new type of cationic magnetic polymer particles was synthesized by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural, morphological, and magnetic properties of the composite were evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The interaction between cationic magnetic polymer particles with DNA was confirmed by zeta potential measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-vis spectrophotometry, fluorescent spectroscopy and agarose gel electrophoresis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This process may have potential applications to gene carrier and DNA separation.

  4. Activité antifongique des huiles essentielles de Thymus bleicherianus Pomel et Thymus capitatus (L. Hoffm. & Link contre les champignons de pourriture du bois d'oeuvre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarti F.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal activity of the Thymus bleicherianus Pomel and Thymus capitatus (L. Hoffm. & Link essential oils againstwood-decay fungi. Essential oils and their constituents have a long history of applications as antimicrobial agents, but theiruse as wood preservatives has rarely been reported. This study deals with the antifungal activity of two medicinal and aromaticplants essential oils of the Moroccan flora against four wood-decay fungi, in order to find new bioactive natural products. Thechemical composition of essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Thymus bleicherianus Pomel andThymus capitatus (L. Hoffm. & Link was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The major components of T. bleicherianus oil wereα-terpinene (42.2% and thymol (23.9%. Carvacrol (70.92% was the predominant constituent in the essence of T. capitatus.Minimal inhibitory concentrations of the essential oils added to malt agar medium in defined concentrations were determinedby a screening test with the agar dilution method. The oils, object of the survey, showed a strong antifungal activity againstall tested fungi.

  5. DNA-radiosensitivity and repair in mammolian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proskuryakov, S.Ya.; Ivannik, B.P.; Ryabchenko, N.I.

    1979-01-01

    Determination was made of the formation and repair of single-stranded DNA breaks (SB) in cells of rat thymus and liver and Ehrlich's ascites tumor (EAT) with the use of the method of low-gradient viscosimetry of alkaline cell lysates. The radiochemical yield of single-stranded breaks (Gsub(SB)) induced by irradiation of animals is 41.2 eV/break for hepatocytes, 96.8 eV/break, for thymocytes, and 129.7 eV/break, for EAT cells. The half-recovery time of single-stranded DNA breaks for cells of thymus and EAT exposed in vivo is 16.0 and 5.1 s -1 , correspondingly. In hepatocytes exposed in vivo and in vitro no repairs occurs for 3 h. Under conditions of inhibition of SB repair, when suspensions of thymocytes and hepatocytes were exposed in vitro at 4 deg C, Gsub(SB) is 35.5 and 38.7 eV/break, respectively. The analysis of the data obtained prompts the conclusion that under in vivo conditions, there is a correlation between DNA radiosensitivity and the rate of repair processes

  6. Sonographic evaluation of normal thymus in infants and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaitre, L.; Marconi, V.; Remy, J.; Avni, F.

    1987-05-01

    Sonography has been used to evaluate 50 'asymptomatic' infants (aged from birth up to two years) with typical appearing thymus on chest X-ray. The ultrasonic features of the normal gland are described. Moreover, the contribution of ultrasound is illustrated by five cases of partially ectopic thymus and by one case of prominent gland in a teenager. Ultrasound may help in differentiating normal gland from mediastinal masses by defining echogenicity, location and extension.

  7. Binding and thermodynamics of REV peptide-ctDNA interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar

    2017-03-01

    The thermodynamics of DNA-ligand binding is important as it provides useful information to understand the details of binding processes. HIV-1 REV response element (RRE) located in the env coding region of the viral genome is reported to be well conserved across different HIV-1 isolates. In this study, the binding characteristics of Calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) and REV peptide from HIV-1 were investigated using spectroscopic (UV-visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD)) and isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) techniques. Thermal stability and ligand binding properties of the ctDNA revealed that native ctDNA had a T m of 75.5 °C, whereas the ctDNA-REV peptide complex exhibited an incremental shift in the T m by 8 °C, indicating thermal stability of the complex. CD data indicated increased ellipticity due to large conformational changes in ctDNA molecule upon binding with REV peptide and two binding stoichiometric modes are apparent. The ctDNA experienced condensation due to large conformational changes in the presence of REV peptide and positive B→Ψ transition was observed at higher molar charge ratios. Fluorescence studies performed at several ligand concentrations revealed a gradual decrease in the fluorescence intensity of EtBr-bound ctDNA in response to increasing ligand concentrations. The fluorescence data further confirmed two stoichiometric modes of binding for ctDNA-REV peptide complex as previously observed with CD studies. The binding enthalpies were determined using ITC in the temperature range of 293 K-308 K. The ITC binding isotherm was exothermic at all temperatures examined, with low ΔH values indicating that the ctDNA-REV peptide interaction is driven largely by entropy. The heat capacity change (ΔC p ) was insignificant, an unusual finding in the area of DNA-peptide interaction studies. The variation in the values obtained for ΔH, ΔS, and ΔG with temperature further suggests that ctDNA-REV peptide interaction is entropically

  8. CT findings of the thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Yun Hwan; Seol, Hae Young; Chung, Woun Kyun; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1987-01-01

    In 14 cases of normal and abnormal thymus proved surgically and histopathologically in korea University Hae Wha Hospital during recent 6 years, the clinical and CT findings were analyzed. 1. Of 14 cases, 2 cases were normal thymus, 5 cases were thymic hyperplasia, 4 cases were benign thymoma, 2 case were malignant thymoma and 1 case was thymic cyst. 2. Of 14 cases, 10 cases were associated with myasthenia gravis, and 7 of these 10 cases were 3rd to 5th decades females. Among 10 cases with myasthenia gravis. 5 cases were thymic hyperplasia, 1 case was benign thymoma, 2 cases were malignant thymoma, and 2 cases were normal thymus. 3. All 5 thymic hyperplasia were associated with myasthenia gravis. CT findings of thymic hyperplasia were normal in 4 cases and increased lobe thickness in 1 case. 4. Of 4 cases of benign thymoma, only 1 case was associated with myasthenia gravis, and all 4 cases were positive findings in CT scan. CT findings of benign thymoma were round or oval soft tissue mass in anterior mediastinum, and 1 case had punctuate calcifications. 5. Of 2 cases of malignant thymoma, all 2 cases were associated with myasthenia gravis and positive findings in CT scan. CT findings of malignant thymoma were anterior mediastinal soft tissue mass with obliteration of the normal fat planes surrounding great vessels. SVC compression, and pleural tumor implants. 6. CT yielded significant diagnostic information of differential diagnosis between thymoma and thymoma hyperplasia in myasthenia gravis patients. Also CT was highly sensitive test in detection of thymoma and determined the extent and invasiveness of thymoma.

  9. CT findings of the thymus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Yun Hwan; Seol, Hae Young; Chung, Woun Kyun; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-02-15

    In 14 cases of normal and abnormal thymus proved surgically and histopathologically in korea University Hae Wha Hospital during recent 6 years, the clinical and CT findings were analyzed. 1. Of 14 cases, 2 cases were normal thymus, 5 cases were thymic hyperplasia, 4 cases were benign thymoma, 2 case were malignant thymoma and 1 case was thymic cyst. 2. Of 14 cases, 10 cases were associated with myasthenia gravis, and 7 of these 10 cases were 3rd to 5th decades females. Among 10 cases with myasthenia gravis. 5 cases were thymic hyperplasia, 1 case was benign thymoma, 2 cases were malignant thymoma, and 2 cases were normal thymus. 3. All 5 thymic hyperplasia were associated with myasthenia gravis. CT findings of thymic hyperplasia were normal in 4 cases and increased lobe thickness in 1 case. 4. Of 4 cases of benign thymoma, only 1 case was associated with myasthenia gravis, and all 4 cases were positive findings in CT scan. CT findings of benign thymoma were round or oval soft tissue mass in anterior mediastinum, and 1 case had punctuate calcifications. 5. Of 2 cases of malignant thymoma, all 2 cases were associated with myasthenia gravis and positive findings in CT scan. CT findings of malignant thymoma were anterior mediastinal soft tissue mass with obliteration of the normal fat planes surrounding great vessels. SVC compression, and pleural tumor implants. 6. CT yielded significant diagnostic information of differential diagnosis between thymoma and thymoma hyperplasia in myasthenia gravis patients. Also CT was highly sensitive test in detection of thymoma and determined the extent and invasiveness of thymoma.

  10. Polypyrrole-polyvinyl sulphonate film based disposable nucleic acid biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakar, Nirmal [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Arora, Kavita [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Singh, Surinder P. [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Pandey, Manoj K. [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Singh, Harpal [Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Malhotra, Bansi D. [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India)]. E-mail: bansi.malhotra@gmail.com

    2007-04-18

    Double stranded calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid entrapped polypyrrole-polyvinyl sulphonate (dsCT-DNA-PPy-PVS) films fabricated onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass plates have been used to detect organophosphates such as chlorpyrifos and malathion. These disposable dsCT-DNA-PPy-PVS/ITO bioelectrodes have been characterized using cyclic voltammetry, Fourier-transform-infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. These biosensing electrodes have a response time of 30 s, are stable for about 5 months when stored in desiccated conditions at 25 deg. C and can be used to amperometrically detect chlorpyrifos (0.0016-0.025 ppm) and malathion (0.17-5.0), respectively. The additive effect of these pesticides on the amperometric response of the disposable dsCT-DNA-PPy-PVS/ITO bioelectrodes has also been investigated.

  11. Kinetics and equilibria for the formation of a new DNA metal-intercalator: the cyclic polyamine Neotrien/copper(II) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biver, Tarita; Secco, Fernando; Tinè, Maria Rosaria; Venturini, Marcella

    2004-01-01

    A study has been performed of the kinetics and equilibria involved in complex formation between the macrocyclic polyamine 2,5,8,11-tetraaza[12]-[12](2,9)[1,10]-phenanthrolinophane (Neotrien) and Cu(II) in acidic aqueous solution and ionic strength 0.5 M (NaCl), by means of the stopped-flow method and UV spectrophotometry. Spectrophotometric titrations and kinetic experiments revealed that the binding of Cu(II) to Neotrien gives rise to several 1:1 complexes differing in their degree of protonation. Under the experimental hydrogen ion concentration range investigated, complexation occurs by two parallel paths: (a) M2+ + (H4L)4+ (MH4L)6+ and (b) M2+ + (H3L)3+ (MH3L)5+. The rate constants values found for complex formation, by paths (a) and (b), are much lower than the values expected from water exchange at copper(II) and other amine/Cu(II) complexation kinetic constants. Kinetic experiments at different NaCl concentrations indicated that this finding was not due to chloride ion competition in complex formation with Neotrien, but it was related to a ring rigidity effect. As the phenanthroline moiety could, in principle, interact with nucleic acids by intercalation or external binding, some preliminary measurements concerned with the possible interactions occurring between the Cu(II)/Neotrien complex and calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) have also been carried out. The absorption spectra of the Cu(II)/Neotrien complex change upon addition of CT-DNA at pH 7.0, revealing the occurrence of complex-nucleic acid interactions. Moreover, fluorescence titrations, carried out by adding the Cu(II)/Neotrien complex to CT-DNA, previously saturated with ethidium bromide (EB), show that the Cu(II)/Neotrien complex is able to displace EB from DNA, suggesting the complex is able to intercalate into the polynucleotide and then to cleave the phosphodiester bond of DNA.

  12. Metabolic Activation of the Tumorigenic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid, Retrorsine, Leading to DNA Adduct Formation In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming W. Chou

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are naturally occurring genotoxic chemicals produced by a large number of plants. The high toxicity of many pyrrolizidine alkaloids has caused considerable loss of free-ranging livestock due to liver and pulmonary lesions. Chronic exposure of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids to laboratory animals induces cancer. This investigation studies the metabolic activation of retrorsine, a representative naturally occurring tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, and shows that a genotoxic mechanism is correlated to the tumorigenicity of retrorsine. Metabolism of retrorsine by liver microsomes of F344 female rats produced two metabolites, 6, 7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP, at a rate of 4.8 ± 0.1 nmol/mg/min, and retrorsine-N-oxide, at a rate of 17.6±0.5 nmol/mg/min. Metabolism was enhanced 1.7-fold by using liver microsomes prepared from dexamethasone-treated rats. DHP formation was inhibited 77% and retrorsine N-oxide formation was inhibited 29% by troleandomycin, a P450 3A enzyme inhibitor. Metabolism of retrorsine with lung, kidney, and spleen microsomes from dexamethasone-treated rats also generated DHP and the N-oxide derivative. When rat liver microsomal metabolism of retrorsine occurred in the presence of calf thymus DNA, a set of DHP-derived DNA adducts was formed; these adducts were detected and quantified by using a previously developed 32P-postlabeling/HPLC method. These same DNA adducts were also found in liver DNA of rats gavaged with retrorsine. Since DHP-derived DNA adducts are suggested to be potential biomarkers of riddelliine-induced tumorigenicity, our results indicate that (i similar to the metabolic activation of riddelliine, the mechanism of retrorsine-induced carcinogenicity in rats is also through a genotoxic mechanism involving DHP; and (ii the set of DHP-derived DNA adducts found in liver DNA of rats gavaged with retrorsine or riddelliine can serve as biomarkers for the

  13. Metabolic Activation of the Tumorigenic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid, Retrorsine, Leading to DNA Adduct Formation In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Ping; Fu, Peter P.; Chou, Ming W.

    2005-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are naturally occurring genotoxic chemicals produced by a large number of plants. The high toxicity of many pyrrolizidine alkaloids has caused considerable loss of free-ranging livestock due to liver and pulmonary lesions. Chronic exposure of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids to laboratory animals induces cancer. This investigation studies the metabolic activation of retrorsine, a representative naturally occurring tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, and shows that a genotoxic mechanism is correlated to the tumorigenicity of retrorsine. Metabolism of retrorsine by liver microsomes of F344 female rats produced two metabolites, 6, 7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP), at a rate of 4.8 ± 0.1 nmol/mg/min, and retrorsine-N-oxide, at a rate of 17.6±0.5 nmol/mg/min. Metabolism was enhanced 1.7-fold by using liver microsomes prepared from dexamethasone-treated rats. DHP formation was inhibited 77% and retrorsine N-oxide formation was inhibited 29% by troleandomycin, a P450 3A enzyme inhibitor. Metabolism of retrorsine with lung, kidney, and spleen microsomes from dexamethasone-treated rats also generated DHP and the N-oxide derivative. When rat liver microsomal metabolism of retrorsine occurred in the presence of calf thymus DNA, a set of DHP-derived DNA adducts was formed; these adducts were detected and quantified by using a previously developed 32P-postlabeling/HPLC method. These same DNA adducts were also found in liver DNA of rats gavaged with retrorsine. Since DHP-derived DNA adducts are suggested to be potential biomarkers of riddelliine-induced tumorigenicity, our results indicate that (i) similar to the metabolic activation of riddelliine, the mechanism of retrorsine-induced carcinogenicity in rats is also through a genotoxic mechanism involving DHP; and (ii) the set of DHP-derived DNA adducts found in liver DNA of rats gavaged with retrorsine or riddelliine can serve as biomarkers for the tumorigenicity induced by

  14. Giant atypical ossifying fibromyxoid tumour of the calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harish, Srinivasan; Polson, Alexander; Griffiths, Meryl; Morris, Paul; Malata, Charles; Bearcroft, Philip W.P.

    2006-01-01

    We present a case of giant atypical ossifying fibromyxoid tumour (OFMT) of soft tissue, occurring in the calf, in a 77-year-old woman. The patient presented with a history of bleeding ulcer over a calf lump that had been present for over 4 years. Clinical presentation, radiological features and histopathologic findings are described, and the relevant literature is reviewed. (orig.)

  15. Structural changes in the regenerating rat thymus after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumoto, Tetsuo; Wang, Yu-Hsueh; Hashimoto, Noriko; Tokuda, Nobuko; Sawada, Tomoo [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-11-01

    The structural changes of the rat thymus after irradiation were examined. Thymocytes regenerate rapidly after irradiation and the mechanism responsible for this rapid regeneration was examined analyzing vascular and immunohistochemical changes in the thymus. Following results were obtained: Vascular fine mesh works in the cortex were destroyed on day 3 after 6 Gy irradiation, while on day 5 these changes appeared to be restored to almost normal. Massive macrophage accumulations were observed in the cortex on day 3-5 after irradiation. This may be due to clean up the damaged thymocytes, although other possibility, as production of cytokines which may contribute to the rapid proliferation must be intensively examined. Immunohistochemical staining with anti MHC class II molecule showed relatively strong staining in the medulla compared to the cortex in the normal thymus, while this finding was reversed and cortex stained heavily compared to the medulla on day 5-7 after irradiation suggesting the importance of the cortical MHC class II positive thymic epithelial cells in regeneration of thymocytes. Anti FTS antibody stained relatively strongly in the irradiated and recovering thymus compared to the normal. These results may partly explain the abrupt proliferation of thymocytes after irradiation and further studies on cytokine message changes and thymic epithelial characterization responsible to produce the cytokines for the effective thymocyte proliteration are on the way of analysis. (author)

  16. Updates in MRI characterization of the thymus in myasthenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, G A; Preda, E M; Scheau, C; Vilciu, C; Lupescu, I G

    2012-06-12

    To evaluate the imaging appearance of the thymus in the myasthenic patients by using chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging, and, to correlate the chemical shift ratio (CSR) with pathologic findings after surgical excision. In the past year, a total of 11 myasthenic patients (4 males, 7 females; age range of 26-65 years), have been investigated by MRI centered at the thymic lodge. Our protocol included a Dual-Echo technique, T1-weighted In-phase/Opposed-phase MR images in all patients. A chemical shift ratio (CSR) was calculated by comparing the signal intensity of the thymus gland with that of the chest wall muscle for quantitative analysis. For this purpose, we have used standard region-of-interest electronic cursors at a slice level of the maximum axial surface of the thymus. We have identified two patients groups: a thymic hyperplasia group and a thymic tumoral group. With the decrease in the signal intensity of the thymus gland at chemical shift, the MR imaging was evident only in the hyperplasia group. The mean CSR in the hyperplasia group was considerably lower than that in the tumor group, 0,4964 ± 0,1841, compared with 1,0398 ± 0,0244. The difference in CSR between the hyperplasia and tumor groups was statistically significant (P=0,0028). MR imaging using T1-weighted In-phase/Opposed-phase images could be a useful diagnostic tool in the preoperative assessment of the thymic lodge and may help differentiate thymic hyperplasia from tumors of the thymus gland.

  17. Antifungal and antimycotoxigenic activity of essential oils from Eucalyptus globulus, Thymus capitatus and Schinus molle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karenth LÓPEZ-MENESES

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Essential oils (EO of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus L., thymus (Thymus capitatus L. pirul (Schinus molle L. were evaluated for their efficacy to control Aspergillus parasiticus and Fusarium moniliforme growth and their ability to produce mycotoxins. Data from kinetics radial growth was used to obtain the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50. The IC50 was used to evaluate spore germination kinetic and mycotoxin production. Also, spore viability was evaluated by the MTT assay. All EO had an effect on the radial growth of both species. After 96 h of incubation, thymus EO at concentrations of 1000 and 2500 µL L–1 totally inhibited the growth of F. moniliforme and A. parasiticus, respectively. Eucalyptus and thymus EO significantly reduced spore germination of A. parasiticus. Inhibition of spore germination of F. moniliforme was 84.6, 34.0, and 30.6% when exposed to eucalyptus, pirul, and thymus EO, respectively. Thymus and eucalyptus EO reduced aflatoxin (4% and fumonisin (31% production, respectively. Spore viability was affected when oils concentration increased, being the thymus EO the one that reduced proliferation of both fungi. Our findings suggest that EO affect F. moniliforme and A. parasiticus development and mycotoxin production.

  18. CALF BLOOD-FLOW AND POSTURE - DOPPLER ULTRASOUND MEASUREMENTS DURING AND AFTER EXERCISE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLEEUWEN, BE; BARENDSEN, GJ; LUBBERS, J; DEPATER, L

    To investigate the joint effects of body posture and calf muscle pump, the calf blood flow of eight healthy volunteers was measured with pulsed Doppler equipment during and after 3 min of rhythmic exercise on a calf ergometer in the supine, sitting, and standing postures. Muscle contractions

  19. Age-related changes in the thymus gland: CT-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, A.V.; Korobkin, M.; Olanow, W.; Heaston, D.K.; Ram, P.C.; Dunnick, N.R.; Silverman, P.M.

    1983-08-01

    Recent reports suggest that computed tomography (CT) is useful for thymoma detection in patients with myasthenia gravis. However, that usefulness may be conditioned by the state of the normal thymus. To examine this concept, the CT findings in 64 consecutive patients with histologic confirmation of thymic status after thymectomy or thymic biopsy during mediastinal exploration were reviewed. The normal thymus has a bilobed, arrowhead-shaped cross section at all ages, with gradual focal or diffuse fatty infiltration of the parenchyma usually occurring between 20 and 40 years of age. A thymoma is usually a spherical or oval mass, often producing a focal, distinct bulge in the adjacent pleural reflection. The differentiation of thymoma from normal thymus should be possible in most patients if age-related changes in the normal gland are appreciated.

  20. Age-related changes in the thymus gland: CT-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, A.V.; Korobkin, M.; Olanow, W.; Heaston, D.K.; Ram, P.C.; Dunnick, N.R.; Silverman, P.M.

    1983-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that computed tomography (CT) is useful for thymoma detection in patients with myasthenia gravis. However, that usefulness may be conditioned by the state of the normal thymus. To examine this concept, the CT findings in 64 consecutive patients with histologic confirmation of thymic status after thymectomy or thymic biopsy during mediastinal exploration were reviewed. The normal thymus has a bilobed, arrowhead-shaped cross section at all ages, with gradual focal or diffuse fatty infiltration of the parenchyma usually occurring between 20 and 40 years of age. A thymoma is usually a spherical or oval mass, often producing a focal, distinct bulge in the adjacent pleural reflection. The differentiation of thymoma from normal thymus should be possible in most patients if age-related changes in the normal gland are appreciated

  1. CALFED--An experiment in science and decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kimberly A.; Jacobs, Katharine L.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2003-01-01

    The CALFED Bay-Delta Program faces a challenging assignment: to develop a collaborative state-federal management plan for the complex river system and involve multiple stakeholders (primarily municipal, agricultural, and environmental entities) whose interests frequently are in direct conflict. Although many resource-management issues involve multiple stakeholders and conflict is integral to their discussion, the CALFED experience is unique because of its shared state and federal roles, the magnitude and significance of stakeholder participation, and the complexity of the scientific issues involved.

  2. MRI manifestations of thymus in myasthenia gravis (MG) patients in various age groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Peng Xi; Li Zhizhao; Jiang Kuiming; Song Ting; Dong Tianfa; Xiao Youcheng

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study MRI findings of the thymus in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) in different age groups and to analyze the relationship between the morphological changes of thymus and the MG. Methods: In total 90 patients with MG (male: female=43:47) received MR scan and were divided into four groups (group A, B, C and D) by age. Fourteen patients out of 90 received additional enhanced scan. Group A included 33 patients aged under 10 years (m:f=18:15); 27 patients aged 11-25 years were in group B (m:f=12:15); group C had 17 patients aged 26-50 years (m:f=6:11); and in group D there were 13 patients whose ages were over 51 years (m:f=7:6). And 30 Non-MG patients aged 8-75 years were selected as control group, in which the thickness, the fat collection, and glandulous atrophy of thymus was studied on CT. Results: 1) The thymus was unremarkable in 44 cases out of 90 (48.88%). 2) Enlarged thymus was shown in 42 cases out of 90 (46.66%), in which non-nodular enlargement was revealed in 34 cases and nodular enlargement in 8 cases. There were 27 cases with abnormality of thymus out of 33 (81.81%) in group A, 12 cases out of 27 (44.44%) in group B and 3 cases in group C, but no abnormality was found in group D. 3) Only 4/90 patients (4.44%) had thymic mass that respectively seen in one case of group B, two of group C and one of group D. No evidence of the involvement of the adjacent structure was found on MRI in the cases of thymic mass. No thymus enlargement was revealed in control group. Fat collection in thymus was seen in both study groups and control group. Conclusion: Intimate relationship between the abnormality of the thymus gland and MG exists in children and teenagers. While in the middle-aged patients or the seniors, further studies should be made to find out whether there is a correlation

  3. Interplay of thymus and bone marrow regeneration in x-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiesche, K.-D.

    1975-01-01

    aim of the prepresent investigation was to study the modifying effects of bone marrow cells on regeneration, after X-irradiation, of thymus and bone marrow cell populations. Data are presented which indicate that the cellular composition of the thymus and, in particular, the frequency of the stem cells in the organ at the time of radiation exposure determines thymic regeneration for about two weeks after irradiation. After this period, regeneration depends on new precursors from the bone marrow which have previously seeded the thymus. In contrast to the thymus, cellular restoration of the bone marrow is already initially dependent on the number of protected or transplanted marrow cells. Two phases in the recovery of thymic PHA-reactivity after irradiation were observed: one initial phase which is independent on the number of the available bone marrow cells, and a subsequent phase during which PHA-reactivity is slightly increased in mice irradiated with partly protected bone marrow in comparison to in total body irradiated animals. During the entire observation period, PHA-reactivity remains at a low level not exeeding 50 % of that in untreated mice. In contrast the thymus is fully repopulated with regard to the number of nonreactive cells. Alternative pathways of thymocyte development within the thymus are discussed. Bone marrow X cells were shown to be as sensitive to in vitro treatment with a specific H-2 antiserum as were lymphocytes from normal bone marrow. This finding was teken to indicate that the X cells represent a particular lymphoid cell type. A xenogeneic rabbit-anti-mouse embryo antiserum was more toxic to pre-irradiated bone marrow, with high proportion of X cells, than to bone marrow from untreated mice, using in vitro cytotoxicity test. A possible embryonic character of the X cells is discussed. (author)

  4. Interplay of thymus and bone marrow regeneration in x-irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiesche, K D

    1975-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the modifying effects of bone marrow cells on regeneration, after X-irradiation, of thymus and bone marrow cell populations. Data are presented which indicate that the cellular composition of the thymus and, in particular, the frequency of the stem cells in the organ at the time of radiation exposure determines thymic regeneration for about two weeks after irradiation. After this period, regeneration depends on new precursors from the bone marrow which have previously seeded the thymus. In contrast to the thymus, cellular restoration of the bone marrow is already initially dependent on the number of protected or transplanted marrow cells. Two phases in the recovery of thymic PHA-reactivity after irradiation were observed: one initial phase which is independent on the number of the available bone marrow cells, and a subsequent phase during which PHA-reactivity is slightly increased in mice irradiated with partly protected bone marrow in comparison to in total body irradiated animals. During the entire observation period, PHA-reactivity remains at a low level not exeeding 50 % of that in untreated mice. In contrast the thymus is fully repopulated with regard to the number of nonreactive cells. Alternative pathways of thymocyte development within the thymus are discussed. Bone marrow X cells were shown to be as sensitive to in vitro treatment with a specific H-2 antiserum as were lymphocytes from normal bone marrow. This finding was teken to indicate that the X cells represent a particular lymphoid cell type. A xenogeneic rabbit-anti-mouse embryo antiserum was more toxic to pre-irradiated bone marrow, with high proportion of X cells, than to bone marrow from untreated mice, using in vitro cytotoxicity test. A possible embryonic character of the X cells is discussed.

  5. Action of an ionizing radiation and hydrodynamic effect on matrix properties of DNA during extracellular synthesis of RNA, and thiophosphate protection of matrix properties of T2-DNA against. gamma. -radiation. [gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekhtman, Ya L; Domashenko, A D; Kamzolova, S G; Medvedkov, A A [AN SSSR, Pushchino-na-Oke. Inst. Biologicheskoj Fiziki

    1976-05-01

    Action of an ionizing radiation and the hydrodynamic effect of the matrix activity of thymus DNA and T2 phase DNA have been studied in vitro in the RNA: polymerase system of E.coli B. Also studied have been the thiophosphate protection of matrix properties of T2-DNA against ..gamma..-radiation.

  6. Radiographical diagnosis of the thymus in myasthenia gravis. Comparison of pneumomediastinography and computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanimura, Shigeo; Banba, Jiro; Masaki, Mikio; Irimoto, Masahiro; Matsushita, Akira

    1987-11-01

    Comparison of radiographical findings of the thymus between pneumomediastinography and computed tomography were studied in 35 patients with myasthenia gravis. The patients consisted of 10 patients with thymoma and 25 without thymoma confirmed at the operations. Pneumomediastinography was very useful to discern whether the thymoma was invasive or noninvasive, but not contributory to know whether the thymus was composed of folicular lymphoid hyperplasia or normal thyimic tissues. Computed tomography was also useful to dertermine the localization and the invasiveness of the thymoma, but not helpful to know whether the thymus was of follicular lymphoid hyperplasia or normal tissues. However, the finding of ''reticular pattern''-many small nodules scattered resicularly in the thymus-in computed tomography could be regarded as a sign suggesting follicular lymphoid hyperplasia of the thymus. Therfore, both pneumomediastinography and computed tomography were very useful in the diagnosis of the localization and the invasiveness of the thymoma but not for the diagnosis of follicular lymphoid hyperplasia of the thymus. Neverethless the finding of ''reticular pattern'' computred tomography was helpful in the diagnosis of follicular lymphoid hyperplasia.

  7. Effects of phyto-oestrogens on veal calf prostate histology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    In veal calf production plant-based proteins are frequently included in milk replacer fed to the animals. Since soy products, which are mostly used, are known for their high levels of phyto-oestrogens, the effects of these feeds on the veal calf prostate were examined. Goal was to determine whether

  8. UVA activation of N-dialkylnitrosamines releasing nitric oxide, producing strand breaks as well as oxidative damages in DNA, and inducing mutations in the Ames test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimoto-Kobayashi, Sakae; Sano, Kayoko; Machida, Masaki; Kaji, Keiko; Yakushi, Keiko

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the photo-mutagenicity and photo-genotoxicity of N-dialkylnitrosamines and its mechanisms of UVA activation. With simultaneous irradiation of UVA, photo-mutagenicity of seven N-dialkylnitrosamines was observed in Ames bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium TA1535) in the absence of metabolic activation. Mutagenicity of pre-irradiated N-dialkylnitrosamines was also observed with S. typhimurium hisG46, TA100, TA102 and YG7108 in the absence of metabolic activation. UVA-mediated mutation with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) decreased by adding either the NO or OH radical scavenger. When superhelical DNA was irradiated with N-dialkylnitrosamines, nicked circular DNA appeared. Ten N-dialkylnitrosamines examined produced strand breaks in the treated DNA in the presence of UVA. The level of single-strand breaks in φX174 DNA mediated by N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) and UVA decreased by adding either a radical scavenger or superoxide dismutase. When calf thymus DNA was treated with N-dialkylnitrosamines (NDMA, NDEA, NMOR, N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) and N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP)) and UVA, the ratio of 8-oxodG/dG in the DNA increased. Action spectra were obtained to determine if nitrosamine acts as a sensitizer of UVA. Both mutation frequency and NO formation were highest at the absorption maximum of nitrosamines, approximately 340 nm. The plots of NO formation and mutation frequency align with the absorption curve of NPYR, NMOR and NDMA. A significant linear correlation between the optical density of N-dialkynitrosamines at 340 nm and NO formation in each irradiated solution was revealed by ANOVA. We would like to propose the hypothesis that the N-nitroso moiety of N-dialkylnitrosamines absorbs UVA photons, UVA-photolysis of N-dialkylnitrosamines brings release of nitric oxide, and subsequent production of alkyl radical cations and active oxygen species follow as secondary events, which cause DNA strand breaks, oxidative and

  9. UVA activation of N-dialkylnitrosamines releasing nitric oxide, producing strand breaks as well as oxidative damages in DNA, and inducing mutations in the Ames test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arimoto-Kobayashi, Sakae [Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 1-1-1 Tsushima, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sano, Kayoko; Machida, Masaki; Kaji, Keiko; Yakushi, Keiko [Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 1-1-1 Tsushima, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)

    2010-09-10

    We investigated the photo-mutagenicity and photo-genotoxicity of N-dialkylnitrosamines and its mechanisms of UVA activation. With simultaneous irradiation of UVA, photo-mutagenicity of seven N-dialkylnitrosamines was observed in Ames bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium TA1535) in the absence of metabolic activation. Mutagenicity of pre-irradiated N-dialkylnitrosamines was also observed with S. typhimurium hisG46, TA100, TA102 and YG7108 in the absence of metabolic activation. UVA-mediated mutation with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) decreased by adding either the NO or OH radical scavenger. When superhelical DNA was irradiated with N-dialkylnitrosamines, nicked circular DNA appeared. Ten N-dialkylnitrosamines examined produced strand breaks in the treated DNA in the presence of UVA. The level of single-strand breaks in {phi}X174 DNA mediated by N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) and UVA decreased by adding either a radical scavenger or superoxide dismutase. When calf thymus DNA was treated with N-dialkylnitrosamines (NDMA, NDEA, NMOR, N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) and N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP)) and UVA, the ratio of 8-oxodG/dG in the DNA increased. Action spectra were obtained to determine if nitrosamine acts as a sensitizer of UVA. Both mutation frequency and NO formation were highest at the absorption maximum of nitrosamines, approximately 340 nm. The plots of NO formation and mutation frequency align with the absorption curve of NPYR, NMOR and NDMA. A significant linear correlation between the optical density of N-dialkynitrosamines at 340 nm and NO formation in each irradiated solution was revealed by ANOVA. We would like to propose the hypothesis that the N-nitroso moiety of N-dialkylnitrosamines absorbs UVA photons, UVA-photolysis of N-dialkylnitrosamines brings release of nitric oxide, and subsequent production of alkyl radical cations and active oxygen species follow as secondary events, which cause DNA strand breaks, oxidative and

  10. Determination of nucleic acids based on the quenching effect on resonance light scattering of the Y(III)-1,6-bi(1'-phenyl-3'-methyl-5'-pyrazolone-4'-)hexane-dione system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xia; Yang, Jing He; Sun, Shuna; Guo, Changying; Ran, Dehuan; Zheng, Jinhua

    2006-01-01

    Nucleic acids can quench resonance light scattering (RLS) intensity of the Y(III)-1,6-bi(1'-phenyl-3'-methyl-5'-pyrazolone-4'-)hexane-dione(BPMPHD) complex in the pH range 5.0-5.8. Under optimal conditions, there are linear relationships between the quenching of RLS and the concentration of nucleic acids in the range 6.3 x 10(-8)-2.1 x 10(-5) g/mL for fish sperm DNA (fsDNA), 1.2 x 10(-8)-5.0 x 10(-5) g/mL for calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) and 6.0 x 10(-8)-2.0 x 10(-5) g/mL for yeast RNA (yRNA). The detection limits (3 s) of fsDNA, ctDNA and yRNA are 0.7 ng/mL, 3.8 ng/mL and 4.2 ng/mL, respectively. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Diagnostic potentialities of pneumomediastinography and selective phlebography in the evaluation of thymus evolution in myasthenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasil' ev, V.N.; Bel' chikova, N.S.; Kuksinskij, V.E. (Leningradskij Inst. Usovershenstvovaniya Vrachej (USSR))

    1983-01-01

    Based on an analysis of X-ray, intraoperative and histological findings in 124 operated on patients (thymectomy) with myasthenia the authors describe potentialities of pneumomediastinography (PMG) (pheumomediastinotomography-PMTG) in the determination of its main variants (hyperplasia, involution, tumor). Clear knowledge of the variants of x-ray image of the normal anatomical structures of the anterior mediastinum and age peculiarities of the thymus for correct interpretation of pneumomediastinograms is necessary. The importance of selective phlebography of the thymus for differential diagnosis of thymomas and nodular indurations of the fatty tissue in the anterior mediastinum, thymomas and fatty involution of the thymus, residual thymus and zones of fibrous-adipose tissue in the mediastinum is stressed. Selective phlebography is a simple and safe method that adds to PMG (PMTG) potentialities in the evaluation of thymus evolution in myasthenia.

  12. A Study on Spectro-Analytical Aspects, DNA - Interaction, Photo-Cleavage, Radical Scavenging, Cytotoxic Activities, Antibacterial and Docking Properties of 3 - (1 - (6 - methoxybenzo [d] thiazol - 2 - ylimino) ethyl) - 6 - methyl - 3H - pyran - 2, 4 - dione and its Metal Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Mudavath; Chennam, Kishan Prasad; Ushaiah, B; Eslavath, Ravi Kumar; Perugu, Shyam; Ajumeera, Rajanna; Devi, Ch Sarala

    2015-09-01

    The focus of the present work is on the design, synthesis, characterization, DNA-interaction, photo-cleavage, radical scavenging, in-vitro cytotoxicity, antimicrobial, docking and kinetic studies of Cu (II), Cd (II), Ce (IV) and Zr (IV) metal complexes of an imine derivative, 3 - (1 - (6 - methoxybenzo [d] thiazol - 2 - ylimino) ethyl) - 6 - methyl - 3H - pyran - 2, 4 - dione. The investigation of metal ligand interactions for the determination of composition of metal complexes, corresponding kinetic studies and antioxidant activity in solution was carried out by spectrophotometric methods. The synthesized metal complexes were characterized by EDX analysis, Mass, IR, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and UV-Visible spectra. DNA binding studies of metal complexes with Calf thymus (CT) DNA were carried out at room temperature by employing UV-Vis electron absorption, fluorescence emission and viscosity measurement techniques. The results revealed that these complexes interact with DNA through intercalation. The results of in vitro antibacterial studies showed the enhanced activity of chelating agent in metal chelated form and thus inferring scope for further development of new therapeutic drugs. Cell viability experiments indicated that all complexes showed significant dose dependent cytotoxicity in selected cell lines. The molecular modeling and docking studies were carried out with energy minimized structures of metal complexes to identify the receptor to metal interactions.

  13. Estimation of carcass composition using rib dissection of calf-fed Holstein steers supplemented zilpaterol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvers, T J; May, N D; Reed, J A; Walter, L J; Hutcheson, J P; Lawrence, T E

    2018-04-14

    A serial harvest was conducted every 28 d from 254 to 534 d on feed (DOF) to quantify changes in growth and composition of calf-fed Holstein steers (n = 115, initial body weight (BW) = 449.2 ± 19.9 kg). One-half were supplemented with the β-2 adrenergic agonist zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; 8.33 mg/kg 100% dry matter (DM) basis) during the final 20 d followed by a 3-d withdrawal prior to harvest; the remainder was fed a non-ZH control (CON) ration. Five steers were randomly selected and harvested after 226 DOF which served as a reference point for modeling purposes. Fabricated carcass soft tissue was ground, mixed, and subsampled for proximate analysis. Moreover, following the traditional method of rib dissection which includes the 9th, 10th, and 11th rib contained within the IMPS 103 primal, the relationship of carcass chemical composition to 9-10-11 rib composition was evaluated. Carcasses in this investigation had more (P carcasses and rib dissections. Using regression procedures, models were constructed to describe the relationship of rib dissection (RD) composition including separable lean (RDSL), separable fat (RDSF), separable bone (RDSB), ether extract (RDEE), protein (RDP), moisture (RDM), and ash (RDA) with carcass composition. Carcass lean (CL), carcass fat (CF), and carcass bone (CB) were correlated (P carcass, carcass ether extract (CEE), carcass protein (CP), carcass moisture (CM), and carcass ash (CA) were correlated (P ≤ 0.01) with simple r values of 0.75, 0.31, 0.66, and 0.37, respectively. Equations to predict carcass fatness from rib dissection variables and ZH supplementation status were only able to account for 50 and 56%, of the variability of CF and CEE, respectively. Overall, the relationships quantified and equations developed in this investigation do not support use of 9/10/11 rib dissection for estimation of carcass composition of calf-fed Holstein steers.

  14. NADPH-d activity in rat thymus after the application of retinoid acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dorko

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the localization of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d activity as the marker for synthesis of nitric oxide synthase (NOS in the rat thymus after the application of retinoid acid (RA on 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st days of gestation. The given results can build the basis for understanding of the role of NOS in rat thymus. NADPH-d positive cells were represented with dark-blue color and were localized on corticomedullar junction of the thymus. These cells were of different intensity of coloring and were shaped in oval, circle or irregular forms. NADPH-d positive nerve fibers were observed in perivascular topography. They were marked more strongly in the case of control group. The result of application of RA to gravid rats was that the birth weights of newborn rats and their thymuses were smaller, but without statistically significance.

  15. Calf health from birth to weaning. III. housing and management of calf pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Ingrid

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calfhood diseases have a major impact on the economic viability of cattle operations. A three part review series has been developed focusing on calf health from birth to weaning. In this paper, the last of the three part series, we review disease prevention and management with particular reference to pneumonia, focusing primarily on the pre-weaned calf. Pneumonia in recently weaned suckler calves is also considered, where the key risk factors are related to the time of weaning. Weaning of the suckler calf is often combined with additional stressors including a change in nutrition, environmental change, transport and painful husbandry procedures (castration, dehorning. The reduction of the cumulative effects of these multiple stressors around the time of weaning together with vaccination programmes (preconditioning can reduce subsequent morbidity and mortality in the feedlot. In most studies, calves housed individually and calves housed outdoors with shelter, are associated with decreased risk of disease. Even though it poses greater management challenges, successful group housing of calves is possible. Special emphasis should be given to equal age groups and to keeping groups stable once they are formed. The management of pneumonia in calves is reliant on a sound understanding of aetiology, relevant risk factors, and of effective approaches to diagnosis and treatment. Early signs of pneumonia include increased respiratory rate and fever, followed by depression. The single most important factor determining the success of therapy in calves with pneumonia is early onset of treatment, and subsequent adequate duration of treatment. The efficacy and economical viability of vaccination against respiratory disease in calves remains unclear.

  16. Effects of noxious stimulation to the back or calf muscles on gait stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hug, François; Hodges, Paul W; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2015-11-26

    Gait stability is the ability to deal with small perturbations that naturally occur during walking. Changes in motor control caused by pain could affect this ability. This study investigated whether nociceptive stimulation (hypertonic saline injection) in a low back (LBP) or calf (CalfP) muscle affects gait stability. Sixteen participants walked on a treadmill at 0.94ms(-1) and 1.67ms(-1), while thorax kinematics were recorded using 3D-motion capture. From 110 strides, stability (local divergence exponent, LDE), stride-to-stride variability and root mean squares (RMS) of thorax linear velocities were calculated along the three movement axes. At 0.94ms(-1), independent of movement axes, gait stability was lower (higher LDE) and stride-to-stride variability was higher, during LBP and CalfP than no pain. This was more pronounced during CalfP, likely explained by the biomechanical function of calf muscles in gait, as supported by greater mediolateral RMS and stance time asymmetry than in LBP and no pain. At 1.67ms(-1), independent of movement axes, gait stability was greater and stride-to-stride variability was smaller with LBP than no pain and CalfP, whereas CalfP was not different from no pain. Opposite effects of LBP on gait stability between speeds suggests a more protective strategy at the faster speed. Although mediolateral RMS was greater and participants had more asymmetric stance times with CalfP than LBP and no pain, limited effect of CalfP at the faster speed could relate to greater kinematic constraints and smaller effects of calf muscle activity on propulsion at this speed. In conclusion, pain effects on gait stability depend on pain location and walking speed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Binding of 125I alpha-bungarotoxin to the thymus of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima, F.; Kondo, K.; Tsubaki, T.

    1978-01-01

    Alpha-bungarotoxin is known to bind with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of skeletal muscle. Binding of iodine 125-labeled alpha bungarotoxin to the murine thymus, muscle, and liver was estimated. The toxin was bound to the muscle. The thymus was also capable of binding a considerable amount of the toxin, and the binding was obviously blocked by tubocurarine chloride. Binding to the liver, an organ containing no nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, was very slight. These results may indicate the presence of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the thymus, which could have implications in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis. Degenerating myoid cells and their receptors may represent autoantigens that induce an immunological cross-reaction with the receptors of skeletal muscles, giving rise to myasthenia gravis

  18. Quantitative assessment of calf circumference in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenakker, EAC; de Vries, Joeke; Fock, JM; van Tol, M; Brouwer, OF; Maurits, NM; van der Hoeven, JH

    2002-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is clinically characterised by progressive muscle weakness and a gradual increase in the size of some affected muscles, especially calf muscles. The extent of calf enlargement is usually determined by subjective visual assessment. The purpose of this study was to

  19. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PIGMENTS ON REGENERANTS FROM IN VITRO AND SPONTANEOUS FLORA OF THYMUS sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA M. ROŞU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the quantitative determination of pigments extract of Thymus sp. from in vitro culture and spontaneous flora. For in vitro culture were used phytohormones (indoleacetic acid-IAA, indole-3-butyric acid-IBA and benzylaminopurine-BAP in order to obtain a high yield in development of Thymus sp. plants. The source of spontaneous flora of Thymus sp. was Bacau (Magura, Romania. The biochemical investigations realised on Thymus sp. using Thin Layer Chromatography and the UV-Vis spectrophotometry showed that the production of assimilating pigments is influenced by growth and lighting conditions of plants.

  20. Diagnostic potentialities of pneumomediastinography and selective phlebography in the evaluation of thymus evolution in myasthenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, V.N.; Bel'chikova, N.S.; Kuksinskij, V.E.

    1983-01-01

    Basing on an analysis of X-ray, intraoperative and histological findings in 124 operated on patients (thymectomy) with myasthenia the authors describe potentialities of pneumomediastinography (PMG) (pheumomediastinotomography-PMTG) in the determination of its main variants (hyperplasia, involUtion, tumor). Clear knowledge of the variants of x-ray image of the normal anatomical structures of the anterior mediastinum and age peculiarities of the thymus for correct interpretation of pneumomediastinograms is necessary. The importance of selective phlebography of the thymus for differential diagnosis of thymomas and nodular indurations of the fatty tissue in the anterior mediastinum, thymomas and fatty involution of the thymus, residual thymus and zones of fibrous-adipose tissue in the mediastinum is stressed. Selective phlebography is a simple and safe method that adds to PMG (PMTG) potentialities in the evaluation of thymus evolution in myasthenia

  1. Thymus Atrophy and Double-Positive Escape Are Common Features in Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Meis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The thymus is a primary lymphoid organ in which bone marrow-derived T-cell precursors undergo differentiation, leading to migration of positively selected thymocytes to the T-cell-dependent areas of secondary lymphoid organs. This organ can undergo atrophy, caused by several endogenous and exogenous factors such as ageing, hormone fluctuations, and infectious agents. This paper will focus on emerging data on the thymic atrophy caused by infectious agents. We present data on the dynamics of thymus lymphocytes during acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection, showing that the resulting thymus atrophy comprises the abnormal release of thymic-derived T cells and may have an impact on host immune response.

  2. Ultrasonographic assessment of normal thymus in pediatric patients: Aspects and features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjumeda, A.; Romero, G.; Sanchez-Cid, M.; Ceballos, J.; Blanco, A.

    1996-01-01

    To determine the viewing rate and ultrasound features of normal thymus. We analyzed the thymuses of 60 healthy children using ultrasound. The ages of the children ranged from one month to three years. a 7.5 MHz linear transducer was used in every case. Trans, supra and para sternal approaches were employed to procure sagittal and transverse sections. We analyzed the dimensions of the gland according to age, sex and body surface. We also studied the internal architecture, echogenicity and relation to adjacent mediastinal structures. We were able to study and measure the thymus in its entirety in every case. The examination never took more than 15 minutes. In longitudinal sections, the left lobe had the appearance of a shark fin or sickle and the right lobe was tear-shaped or rhomboid. The size of the thymus did not vary significantly according to age, sex or body surface. Its internal echogenicity was homogeneous. We consider ultrasonography to be an easy, wide available and safe method for examining the features of the thymic gland in children; moreover, it aids in the assessment of suspicious plain chest x-ray images. (Author)

  3. Synthesis, molecular docking and DNA binding studies of phthalimide-based copper(II) complex: In vitro antibacterial, hemolytic and antioxidant assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Rizwan; Nayab, Pattan Sirajuddin; Ansari, Istikhar A.; Shahid, M.; Irfan, Mohammad; Alam, Shadab; Abid, Mohammad; Rahisuddin

    2018-05-01

    In the present research work, we prepared N-substituted phthalimide, 2-(-(2-(2-(2-(1,3-dioxoisoindoline-2-yl-ethylamino)ethylamino)ethyl)isoindoline-1,3-dione (DEEI) and its copper(II) complex. The ligand (DEEI) and its Cu(II) complex were structurally identified using absorption, FTIR, NMR, electron spin resonance, X-ray diffraction spectral studies, thermogravimetric and elemental analyses. The electronic spectrum and magnetic moment value proposed that Cu(II) complex has square planar geometry. The DNA interaction ability of the ligand (DEEI) and Cu(II) complex was studied by means of absorption and fluorescence spectrophotometer, viscosity measurements, cyclic voltammetery, and circular dichroism methods. The extent of DNA binding (Kb) with Calf thymus (Ct-DNA) follows the order of Cu(II) complex (1.11 × 106 M-1) > DEEI (1.0 × 105 M-1), indicating that Cu(II) complex interact with Ct-DNA through groove binding mode and more sturdily than ligand (DEEI). Interestingly, in silico predictions were corroborated with in vitro DNA binding studies. The antibacterial evaluation of these compounds was screened against a panel of bacterial strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 2453), Salmonella enterica (MTCC 3224), Streptococcus pneumoniae (MTCC 655), Enterococcus faecalis (MTCC 439), Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922). The results showed that the copper(II) complex has significant antibacterial potential (IC50 = 0.0019 μg/mL) against Salmonella enteric comparable with ligand (DEEI) and standard drug ciprofloxacin. Growth curve study of Cu(II) complex against only three bacterial strains S. enterica, E. faecalis and S. pneumoniae showed its bactericidal nature. Cu(II) complex showed less than 2% hemolysis on human RBCs indicating its non toxic nature. The results of antioxidant assay demonstrated that scavenging activity of Cu(II) complex is higher as compared to ligand and ascorbic acid as standard.

  4. Formation of formaldehyde adducts in the reactions of DNA and deoxyribonucleosides with alpha-acetates of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guang; Wang, Mingyao; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Villalta, Peter W; Hecht, Stephen S

    2008-03-01

    The cytochrome P450-mediated alpha-hydroxylation of the carcinogenic nitrosamines N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA, 1), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK, 6a), and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL, 6b) produces diazonium ions and formaldehyde. The DNA-binding properties of the diazonium ions have been thoroughly characterized, and there is no doubt that they are critical in cancer induction by these nitrosamines. However, the possibility of additional DNA damage via released formaldehyde has not been reported. In this study, we used acetoxymethylmethylnitrosamine (5), 4-(acetoxymethylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (10a), and 4-(acetoxymethylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (10b) as stable precursors to the alpha-hydroxymethylnitrosamines that would be formed in the metabolism of NDMA, NNK, and NNAL. These alpha-acetates were incubated with calf thymus DNA in the presence of esterase at pH 7.0 and 37 degrees C. The DNA was isolated and enzymatically hydrolyzed to deoxyribonucleosides, and the hydrolysates were analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring for formaldehyde DNA adducts. Convincing evidence for the formation of the formaldehyde adducts N6-hydroxymethyl-dAdo (11), N4-hydroxymethyl-dCyd (12), N2-hydroxymethyl-dGuo (13), and the cross-links di-(N6-deoxyadenosyl)methane (14), (N6-deoxyadenosyl- N2-deoxyguanosyl)methane (15), and di-(N2-deoxyguanosyl)methane (16) was obtained in these reactions. These results demonstrate that NDMA, NNK, and NNAL have the potential to be bident carcinogens, damaging DNA through the metabolic formation of both diazonium ions and formaldehyde.

  5. ALTERED HISTOLOGY OF THE THYMUS AND SPLEEN IN CONTAMINANT-EXPOSED JUVENILE AMERICAN ALLIGATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological difference in spleen and thymus are closely related to functional immune differences. Hormonal regulation of the immune system has been demonstrated in reptilian splenic and thymic tissue. Spleens and thymus were obtained from juvenile alligators at two reference si...

  6. Effect of Interleukin 1b on rat thymus microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Artico

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of interleukin 1b on the thymus of control and chemically sympathectomized adult and aged rats was studied with the aim of assessing the importance of adrenergic nerve fibres (ANF in the regulation of some immunological functions.The whole thymus was removed from normal, sympathectomized (with the neurotoxin 6-OH-dopamine and treated (interleukin 1b rats. Thymic slices were stained with eosin orange (for the recognition of microanatomical details of the thymic microenvironment and with Bodian’s method for staining of nerve fibres. Histofluorescence microscopy was employed for staining ANF and immunofluorescence was used for detecting NPY-like immunoreactivity. All images were submitted to quantitative morphometrical analysis and statistical analysis of data. Moreover, the amount of proteins and noradrenaline was measured on thymic homogenates. The results indicate that in normal conditions the formation of the thymic nerve plexi in the rat is complex: the majority of ANF are destroyed after chemical sympathectomy with 6-OH-dopamine and do not change after treatment with interleukin 1b; on the contrary, treatment with interleukin 1b induces substantial changes in the fresh weight of the thymus, the thymic microenvironment, thymic nerve fibers, ANF, NPY-like positive nerve fibres, and on the total amount of proteins and noradrenaline in rat thymic tissue homogenates.Immunostimulation with interleukin 1b induces substantial changes in the whole thymus, in its microenvironment and in ANF and NPY-like nerve fibres. After chemical sympathectomy, no significant immune response was evoked by interleukin 1b, since the majority of ANF was destroyed by chemical sympathectomy.

  7. Quantitative analysis of thymus lymphoid cells during murine radioleukemogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniver, J.; Simar, L.J.; Courtoy, R.; Betz, E.H.

    1978-01-01

    Fractionated irradiation by four doses of 150 R leads to the development of lymphoma in the thymus of C57BL mice, after a long latent period (4 to 12 months) during which thymic subcapsular blast cells undergo neoplastic transformation. Electron microscope studies on this blast cell population have revealed several types that are distinguishable on the basis of nuclear ultrastructure and activity in the cell cycle. These blast cells are lymphoblasts, ring-shaped nucleolus cells, and x-cells. A stereological analysis demonstrates that the result of the irradiations is not an increase of the thymic blast cell number during the preleukemic period, as generally thought before, but important modifications in the relative proportion of the three cell types forming the blastic population. X-cells, which essentially appear in S phase, are more numerous after the third and fourth doses of radiation. They might be more ''sensitive'' to the action of the leukemogenic virus and facilitate the leukemogenic process. In contrast, in the preleukemic atrophic thymus just before the appearance of the lymphoma, x-cells are scarce, and ring-shaped nucleolus cells are more frequent than in the controls, suggesting important changes in thymus cell kinetics. The only modification detected in the blast cells at any time after irradiation concerns the surface of Golgi membranes, which decreases in x-cells and ring-shaped nucleolus cells of the atrophic thymus. Because the same change is observed later on in the lymphomatous cells, it is suggested that the change might be related to the transformation of the thymic blast cells into cancerous cells

  8. Calf Muscle Performance Deficits Remain 7 Years After an Achilles Tendon Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brorsson, Annelie; Grävare Silbernagel, Karin; Olsson, Nicklas; Nilsson Helander, Katarina

    2018-02-01

    Optimizing calf muscle performance seems to play an important role in minimizing impairments and symptoms after an Achilles tendon rupture (ATR). The literature lacks long-term follow-up studies after ATR that describe calf muscle performance over time. The primary aim was to evaluate calf muscle performance and patient-reported outcomes at a mean of 7 years after ATR in patients included in a prospective, randomized controlled trial. A secondary aim was to evaluate whether improvement in calf muscle performance continued after the 2-year follow-up. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Sixty-six subjects (13 women, 53 men) with a mean age of 50 years (SD, 8.5 years) were evaluated at a mean of 7 years (SD, 1 year) years after their ATR. Thirty-four subjects had surgical treatment and 32 had nonsurgical treatment. Patient-reported outcomes were evaluated with Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) and Physical Activity Scale (PAS). Calf muscle performance was evaluated with single-leg standing heel-rise test, concentric strength power heel-rise test, and single-legged hop for distance. Limb Symmetry Index (LSI = injured side/healthy side × 100) was calculated for side-to-side differences. Seven years after ATR, the injured side showed decreased values in all calf muscle performance tests ( P performance did not continue after the 2-year follow-up. Heel-rise height increased significantly ( P = .002) between the 1-year (10.8 cm) and the 7-year (11.5 cm) follow-up assessments. The median ATRS was 96 (of a possible score of 100) and the median PAS was 4 (of a possible score of 6), indicating minor patient-reported symptoms and fairly high physical activity. No significant differences were found in calf muscle performance or patient-reported outcomes between the treatment groups except for the LSI for heel-rise repetitions. Continued deficits in calf muscle endurance and strength remained 7 years after ATR. No continued improvement in calf muscle performance

  9. Rearrangement of Rag-1 recombinase gene in DNA-repair deficient/immunodeficient ``wasted`` mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Weaver, P.; Churchill, M.; Chang-Liu, C-M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Libertin, C.R. [Loyola Univ., Maywood, IL (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Mice recessive for the autosomal gene ``wasted`` (wst) display a disease pattern which includes increased sensitivity to the killing effects of ionizing radiation, immunodeficiency, and neurologic dysfunction. The recent cloning and characterization of recombinase genes (Rag-l/Rag-2) expressed in lymphoid and possibly central nervous system tissues prompted us to examine expression of these genes in DNA repair-deficient/immunodeficient wasted mice. Our results revealed that in thymus tissue, a small Rag-I transcript (1.0 kb) was detected in wst/wst mice that was not evident in thymus from control mice. In wst/{sm_bullet} mice, a two-fold increase in Rag-1 mRNA was evident in thymus tissue. Rag-2 mRNA could only be detected in thymus tissue from wst/{sm_bullet} and not from wst/wst or parental control BCF, mice. Southern blots revealed a rearrangement or deletion within the Rag-1 gene of affected wasted mice that was not evident in known strain-specific parental or littermate controls. These results support the idea that the Rag-1 gene may map at or near the locus for the wasted mutation. In addition, they suggest the importance of recombinase function in normal immune and central nervous system development as well as the potential contribution of this gene family to the normal repair of radiation-induced DNA damage.

  10. Gigantic enlargement of the thymus gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regal, Mohamed A.

    2007-01-01

    True massive thymic hyperplasia is a very rare entity, characterized by an increase in the size and weight of the thymus gland without an apparent cause. Surgery has been required in patients with severe respiratory distress. We present an idiopathic true massive thymic hyperplasia in a 5-month-old boy. (author)

  11. Adrenergic nerve fibres and mast cells: correlation in rat thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Marco; Cavallotti, Carlo; Cavallotti, Daniela

    2002-10-21

    The interactions between adrenergic nerve fibres and mast cells (MCs) were studied in the thymus of adult and old rats by morphological methods and by quantitative analysis of images (QAIs). The whole thymus was drawn in adult (12 months old) rats: normal, sympathectomized or electrostimulated. Thymuses from the above-mentioned animals were weighed, measured and dissected. Thymic slices were stained with eosin orange for detection of microanatomical details and with Bodian's method for identification of the whole nerve fibres. Thymic MCs were stained with Astrablau. Histofluorescence microscopy was used for staining of adrenergic nerve fibres. Finally, all morphological results were submitted to the QAIs and statistical analysis of data. Our results suggest that after surgical sympathectomy, the greater part of adrenergic nerve fibres disappear while related MCs appear to show less evident fluorescence and few granules. On the contrary, electrostimulation of the cervical superior ganglion induced an increase in the fluorescence of adrenergic nerve fibres and of related MCs.

  12. Calf management practices and associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality on beef cow-calf operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C F; Fick, L J; Pajor, E A; Barkema, H W; Jelinski, M D; Windeyer, M C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate calf management practices on beef cow-calf operations and determine associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality of pre-weaned calves. A 40-question survey about management practices, morbidity and mortality was administered to cow-calf producers by distributing paper surveys and by circulating an online link through various media. A total of 267 producers completed the survey. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and multivariable linear regression models. Average herd-level treatment risk for pre-weaning calf diarrhea (PCD) and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) were 4.9% and 3.0%, respectively. Average herd-level mortality within the first 24 h of life (stillbirth), from 1 to 7 days and 7 days to weaning were 2.3%, 1.1%, and 1.4%, respectively. Operations that never intervened at parturition had 4.7% higher PCD than those that occasionally did. On operations using small elastrator bands for castration, PCD was 1.9% higher than those using other methods. For every increase of 100 cows in herd size, BRD decreased by 1.1%. The association between BRD and PCD varied by when calving season began. Operations that used off-farm, frozen colostrum had a 1.1% increase in stillbirths. Operations that verified a calf had suckled had 0.7% lower mortality from 1 to 7 days of age. Those that intervened when colostrum was abnormal or that used small elastrator bands for castration had 1.9% and 1.4% higher mortality during the 1st week of life, respectively, compared with other operations. Mortality from 7 days to weaning was lower by 0.7% when calving season started in April compared with January or February and was higher by 1.0% for each additional week of calving season. Operations that intervened with colostrum consumption for assisted calvings had lower mortality from 7 days to weaning by 0.8% compared with those that did not. For every 1.0% increase in BRD, mortality from 7 days to weaning increased by 1

  13. Effects of counterion valency on the damping of phonons propagating along the axial direction of liquid-crystalline DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Chen, Sow-Hsin; Berti, Debora; Baglioni, Piero; Alatas, Ahmet; Sinn, Harald; Alp, Ercan; Said, Ayman

    2005-12-01

    The phonon propagation and damping along the axial direction of films of aligned 40wt% calf-thymus DNA rods are studied by inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS). The IXS spectra are analyzed with the generalized three effective eigenmode theory, from which we extract the dynamic structure factor S (Q,E) as a function of transferred energy E =ℏω, and the magnitude of the transferred wave vector Q. S (Q,E) of a DNA sample typically consists of three peaks, one central Rayleigh scattering peak, and two symmetric Stokes and anti-Stokes Brillouin side peaks. By analyzing the Brillouin peaks, the phonon excitation energy and damping can be extracted at different Q values from about 4 to 30nm-1. A high-frequency sound speed is obtained from the initial slope of the linear portion of the dispersion relation below Q =4nm-1. The high-frequency sound speed obtained in this Q range is 3100m /s, which is about twice faster than the ultrasound speed of 1800m/s, measured by Brillouin light scattering at Q ˜0.01nm-1 at the similar hydration level. Our observations provide further evidence of the strong coupling between the internal dynamics of a DNA molecule and the dynamics of the solvent. The effect on damping and propagation of phonons along the axial direction of DNA rods due to divalent and trivalent counterions has been studied. It is found that the added multivalent counterions introduce stronger phonon damping. The phonons at the range between ˜12.5 and ˜22.5nm-1 are overdamped by the added counterions according to our model analyses. The intermediate scattering function is extracted and it shows a clear two-step relaxation with the fast relaxation time ranging from 0.1 to 4ps.

  14. Mixed ligand complexes of Cu(II)/Zn(II) ions containing (m-)/(p-) carboxylato phenyl azo pentane 2,4-dione and 2,2'-bipyridine/1,10 phenanthroline: Synthesis, characterization, DNA binding, nuclease and topoisomerase I inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md Amin; Kumari, Niraj; Singh, Kanhaiya; Singh, Kiran; Mishra, Lallan

    2016-01-05

    Metal complexes of type [Cu(L1H)2(bpy)] (1), [Zn(L1H)2(bpy)] (2), [Cu(L2H)2(bpy)] (3) and [Cu(L2H)2(Phen)] (4) (L1H2=3-[N'-(1-acetyl-2-oxo-propylidene)-hydrazino]-benzoic acid, L2H2=4-[N'-(1-acetyl-2-oxo-propylidene)-hydrazino]-benzoic acid, bpy=2,2'-bipyridine, Phen=1,10 phenanthroline) are synthesized and characterized using spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, electronic absorption and emission) and elemental analysis data. The assembly of the complexes involving intramolecular H-bonding is displayed using corresponding crystal structure. Binding of the complexes separately with Calf Thymus DNA is monitored using UV-vis spectral titrations. The displacement of ethidium bromide (EB) bound to DNA by the complexes, in phosphate buffer solution (pH∼7.2) is monitored using fluorescence spectral titrations. Nuclease activity of the complexes follow the order 4>3>1>2. The gel electrophoretic mobility assay measurement in presence of minor groove binder 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), suggests that complexes preferably bind with the minor groove of DNA. Topoisomerase I inhibitory activity of the complexes 3 and 4 inhibit topoisomerase I activity with IC50 values of 112 and 87μM respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Implementing a novel movement-based approach to inferring parturition and neonate caribou calf survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maegwin Bonar

    Full Text Available In ungulates, parturition is correlated with a reduction in movement rate. With advances in movement-based technologies comes an opportunity to develop new techniques to assess reproduction in wild ungulates that are less invasive and reduce biases. DeMars et al. (2013, Ecology and Evolution 3:4149-4160 proposed two promising new methods (individual- and population-based; the DeMars model that use GPS inter-fix step length of adult female caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou to infer parturition and neonate survival. Our objective was to apply the DeMars model to caribou populations that may violate model assumptions for retrospective analysis of parturition and calf survival. We extended the use of the DeMars model after assigning parturition and calf mortality status by examining herd-wide distributions of parturition date, calf mortality date, and survival. We used the DeMars model to estimate parturition and calf mortality events and compared them with the known parturition and calf mortality events from collared adult females (n = 19. We also used the DeMars model to estimate parturition and calf mortality events for collared female caribou with unknown parturition and calf mortality events (n = 43 and instead derived herd-wide estimates of calf survival as well as distributions of parturition and calf mortality dates and compared them to herd-wide estimates generated from calves fitted with VHF collars (n = 134. For our data, the individual-based method was effective at predicting calf mortality, but was not effective at predicting parturition. The population-based method was more effective at predicting parturition but was not effective at predicting calf mortality. At the herd-level, the predicted distributions of parturition date from both methods differed from each other and from the distribution derived from the parturition dates of VHF-collared calves (log-ranked test: χ2 = 40.5, df = 2, p < 0.01. The predicted distributions of calf

  16. Chemical Composition of Essential Oilsof Thymus and Mentha Speciesand Their Antifungal Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo J. L. D. van Griensven

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus tosevii L., Mentha spicata L., and Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae essential oils and their components against 17 micromycetal food poisoning, plant, animal and human pathogens are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodestillation of dried plant material. Their composition was determined by GC-MS. Identification of individual constituents was made by comparison with analytical standards, and by computer matching mass spectral data with those of the Wiley/NBS Library of Mass Spectra. MIC’s and MFC’s of the oils and their components were determined by dilution assays. Thymol (48.9% and p-cymene (19.0% were the main components of T. vulgaris, while carvacrol (12.8%, a-terpinyl acetate (12.3%, cis-myrtanol (11.2% and thymol (10.4% were dominant in T. tosevii. Both Thymus species showed very strong antifungal activities. In M. piperita oil menthol (37.4%, menthyl acetate (17.4% and menthone (12.7% were the main components, whereas those of M. spicata oil were carvone (69.5% and menthone (21.9%. Mentha sp. showed strong antifungal activities, however lower than Thymus sp. The commercial fungicide, bifonazole, used as a control, had much lower antifungal activity than the oils and components investigated. It is concluded that essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species possess great antifungal potential and could be used as natural preservatives and fungicides.

  17. Difference Raman spectroscopy of DNA molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhin, Andrey S; Yuzyuk, Yury I; Gorelik, Vladimir S; Dovbeshko, Galina I; Pyatyshev, Alexander Yu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the micro-Raman spectra of calf DNA for different points of DNA sample have been recorded. The Raman spectra were made with help of difference Raman spectroscopy technique. Raman spectra were recorded with high spatial resolution from different points of the wet and dry samples in different spectral range (100÷4000cm −1 ) using two lasers: argon (514.5 nm) and helium -neon (632.8 nm). The significant differences in the Raman spectra for dry and wet DNA and for different points of DNA molecules were observed. The obtained data on difference Raman scattering spectra of DNA molecules may be used for identification of DNA types and for analysis of genetic information associated with the molecular structure of this molecule

  18. Cellular toxicity of calf blood extract on human corneal epithelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Min; Kim, Su Jin; Han, Young Sang; Lee, Jong Soo

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the biologic effects of the calf blood extract on corneal epithelial cells in vitro. The effects on corneal epithelial cells were evaluated after 1, 4, 12, and 24 h of exposure to various concentrations of calf blood extract (3, 5, 8 and 16%). The MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay was performed to measure levels of cellular metabolic activity. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay was performed to determine the extent of cellular damage. Cellular morphology was examined using phase-contrast microscopy. The scratch wound assay was performed to quantify the migration of corneal epithelial cells. At the 3 and 5% concentrations of calf blood extract, MTT values were similar to those observed in the control group. However, at a concentration of 8 and 16%, cellular metabolic activity was significantly decreased after 4 h of exposure to calf blood extract. After 12 h of exposure to 8 and 16% concentrations of calf blood extract, LDH activity and cellular morphological damage to the corneal epithelial cells were significantly increased. There was no evidence of cellular migration after 12 h exposure to 5% or higher concentration of calf blood extract because of cellular toxicity. Compared with normal corneal epithelial cells, the cellular activity was decreased, and toxicity was increased after over 12 h of exposure to more than 5% concentration of calf blood extract. Further clinical studies will be necessary to determine the optimal concentration and exposure time for the topical application of eye drops containing calf blood extract.

  19. Adhesion of thymus lymphocytes to aortic endothelial cells in rats irradiated with sup 60 Co-. gamma. -rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongjian, Geng; Zijun, Mao; Zhiwei, Yin [Suzhou Medical Coll., JS (China)

    1990-03-01

    Adhesion of thymus lymphocytes to aortic endothelial cells in Wistar rats irradiated with {sup 60}Co-{gamma}-rays was preliminarily investigated with a stereological method. The results of experiments suggest that the number of lymphocytes of thymus which adhered to aortic endothelial cells significantly (p < 0.01) decreased after irradiation at doses of 2 and 8 Gy. However, when both thymus and aorta were irradiated, there were more lymphocytes adhering to endothelial cells than that when only thymus was irradiated.

  20. Bilateral calf chronic compartment syndrome in an elderly male: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Siau, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Leg pain is a common presentation to the outpatient department. Bilateral calf chronic compartment syndrome is a rare cause of bilateral calf pain. Although this condition has been well documented in young athletes, it has rarely been reported in the elderly. We present the case of a 68-year-old male bodybuilder with bilateral calf chronic compartment syndrome, describe the presentation and evaluation of the condition, and provide a review of the literature herewith.

  1. Normal thymus in adults: appearance on CT and associations with age, sex, BMI and smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Tetsuro; Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto; Gao, Wei; Dupuis, Josee; Hunninghake, Gary M.; Washko, George R.; Murakami, Takamichi; O'Connor, George T.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate CT appearance and size of the thymus in association with participant characteristics. 2540 supposedly healthy participants (mean age 58.9 years, 51 % female) were evaluated for the CT appearance of thymic glands with four-point scores (according to the ratio of fat and soft tissue), size and morphology. These were correlated with participants' age, sex, BMI and smoking history. Of 2540 participants, 1869 (74 %) showed complete fatty replacement of the thymus (Score 0), 463 (18 %) predominantly fatty attenuation (Score 1), 172 (7 %) half fatty and half soft-tissue attenuation (Score 2) and 36 (1 %) solid thymic gland with predominantly soft-tissue attenuation (Score 3). Female participants showed less fatty degeneration of the thymus with higher thymic scores within age 40-69 years (P < 0.001). Participants with lower thymic scores showed higher BMI (P < 0.001) and were more likely to be former smokers (P < 0.001) with higher pack-years (P = 0.04). Visual assessment with four-point thymic scores revealed a sex difference in the fatty degeneration of the thymus with age. Women show significantly higher thymic scores, suggesting less fat content of the thymus, during age 40-69 years. Cigarette smoking and high BMI are associated with advanced fatty replacement of the thymus. (orig.)

  2. Normal thymus in adults: appearance on CT and associations with age, sex, BMI and smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Tetsuro [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Gao, Wei [Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); Dupuis, Josee [Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Hunninghake, Gary M.; Washko, George R. [Harvard Medical School, The Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Murakami, Takamichi [Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); O' Connor, George T. [The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Boston University School of Medicine, Pulmonary Center and Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    To investigate CT appearance and size of the thymus in association with participant characteristics. 2540 supposedly healthy participants (mean age 58.9 years, 51 % female) were evaluated for the CT appearance of thymic glands with four-point scores (according to the ratio of fat and soft tissue), size and morphology. These were correlated with participants' age, sex, BMI and smoking history. Of 2540 participants, 1869 (74 %) showed complete fatty replacement of the thymus (Score 0), 463 (18 %) predominantly fatty attenuation (Score 1), 172 (7 %) half fatty and half soft-tissue attenuation (Score 2) and 36 (1 %) solid thymic gland with predominantly soft-tissue attenuation (Score 3). Female participants showed less fatty degeneration of the thymus with higher thymic scores within age 40-69 years (P < 0.001). Participants with lower thymic scores showed higher BMI (P < 0.001) and were more likely to be former smokers (P < 0.001) with higher pack-years (P = 0.04). Visual assessment with four-point thymic scores revealed a sex difference in the fatty degeneration of the thymus with age. Women show significantly higher thymic scores, suggesting less fat content of the thymus, during age 40-69 years. Cigarette smoking and high BMI are associated with advanced fatty replacement of the thymus. (orig.)

  3. A frozen-thawed in vitro-matured bovine oocyte derived calf with normal growth and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoi, T; Yamamoto, K; Koyama, N; Tachikawa, S; Suzuki, T

    1996-08-01

    The growth and fertility of a female calf obtained from a frozen-thawed bovine oocyte was assessed. The birth weight of the calf was lower than the mean birth weight of calves from in vitro fertilized embryos (IVF-controls) and calves obtained by artificial insemination (AI-controls). The growth rate of the calf up to 6 months was slower than that of the IVF-controls, but similar to that of the AI-controls. When the calf developed into a heifer (200 kg), she was inseminated with frozen semen and 280 days later delivered a male calf. The chromosoms of this cow were normal. These findings suggest that the growth and fertility of the calf derived from the frozen oocyte are normal.

  4. de Thymus fontanesii Boiss & Reut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKA BOKO

    Les huiles essentielles sont conservées à 4°C et à l'abri de la lumière. 2-3. Analyse physicochimique de l'huile essentielle du. Thymus fontanesii. Ces analyses sont faites en conformité aux normes A.F.N.O.R [4] Nous avons déterminé les: Caractères physiques : densité, indice de réfraction, pouvoir rotatoire, solubilité dans.

  5. Mixed ligand complexes of Cu(II)/Zn(II) ions containing (m-)/(p-) carboxylato phenyl azo pentane 2,4-dione and 2,2‧-bipyridine/1,10 phenanthroline: Synthesis, characterization, DNA binding, nuclease and topoisomerase I inhibitory activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md. Amin; Kumari, Niraj; Singh, Kanhaiya; Singh, Kiran; Mishra, Lallan

    2016-01-01

    Metal complexes of type [Cu(L1H)2(bpy)] (1), [Zn(L1H)2(bpy)] (2), [Cu(L2H)2(bpy)] (3) and [Cu(L2H)2(Phen)] (4) (L1H2 = 3-[N‧-(1-acetyl-2-oxo-propylidene)-hydrazino]-benzoic acid, L2H2 = 4-[N‧-(1-acetyl-2-oxo-propylidene)-hydrazino]-benzoic acid, bpy = 2,2‧-bipyridine, Phen = 1,10 phenanthroline) are synthesized and characterized using spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, electronic absorption and emission) and elemental analysis data. The assembly of the complexes involving intramolecular H-bonding is displayed using corresponding crystal structure. Binding of the complexes separately with Calf Thymus DNA is monitored using UV-vis spectral titrations. The displacement of ethidium bromide (EB) bound to DNA by the complexes, in phosphate buffer solution (pH ∼ 7.2) is monitored using fluorescence spectral titrations. Nuclease activity of the complexes follow the order 4 > 3 > 1 > 2. The gel electrophoretic mobility assay measurement in presence of minor groove binder 4‧,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), suggests that complexes preferably bind with the minor groove of DNA. Topoisomerase I inhibitory activity of the complexes 3 and 4 inhibit topoisomerase I activity with IC50 values of 112 and 87 μM respectively.

  6. Thoracic computer tomography for the evaluation of the thymus gland in cases of myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druschky, K.F.; Stadler, H.W.; Daun, H.; Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen

    1981-01-01

    Hyperplasia of the thymus gland is observed in 65% of all patients with myasthenia gravis, while the incidence of thymus tumor is reported to be 8.5-28%. Conventional radiological techniques provide little information in the diagnosis of mediastinal lesions. Even a clearly developed thymus tumor can escape clinical detection. Since March 1978 thoracic computer tomography has been performed in addition to X-rays of the chest in a series of 19 patients with myasthenia ravis, 10 women and 9 men ranging in age from 15-71 years and in 3 patients with suspected thymomas but without myasthenia gravis. These examinations were carried out with a Somatom II (Siemens) since September 1979. On the average 15-20 scans were made at the level of the upper two-third of the sternum. The chest X-rays in 2 planes revealed signs of a thymus tumor in 3 female patients. Thoracic computer tomography showed definite signs of a space-occupying lesion in the anterior mediastinum in 11 cases. At thymectomy 6 patients were found to have hyperplasia of the thymus, 2 patients had a benign thymoma and 3 patients a malignant thymoma. In 6 cases computer tomography showed only slight changes and in 5 patients no pathological findings could be demonstrated in the thymus gland. Thoracic computer tomography is a relatively harmless diagnostic measure without any risk for the patient. It has a high resolution and great accuracy in the evaluation of the thymus gland and is therefore the method of choice for the diagnosis of patients with myasthenia gravis. (orig.) [de

  7. Thoracic computer tomography for the evaluation of the thymus gland in cases of myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druschky, K.F.; Stadler, H.W.; Daun, H.

    1981-01-01

    Hyperplasia of the thymus gland is observed in 65% of all patients with myasthenia gravis, while the incidence of thymus tumor is reported to be 8.5-28%. Conventional radiological techniques provide little information in the diagnosis of mediastinal lesions. Even a clearly developed thymus tumor can escape clinical detection. Since March 1978 thoracic computer tomography has been performed in addition to X-rays of the chest in a series of 19 patients with myasthenia ravis, 10 women and 9 men ranging in age from 15-71 years and in 3 patients with suspected thymomas but without myasthenia gravis. These examinations were carried out with a Somatom II (Siemens) since September 1979. On the average 15-20 scans were made at the level of the upper two-third of the sternum. The chest X-rays in 2 planes revealed signs of a thymus tumor in 3 female patients. Thoracic computer tomography showed definite signs of a space-occupying lesion in the anterior mediastinum in 11 cases. At thymectomy 6 patients were found to have hyperplasia of the thymus, 2 patients had a benign thymoma and 3 patients a malignant thymoma. In 6 cases computer tomography showed only slight changes and in 5 patients no pathological findings could be demonstrated in the thymus gland. Thoracic computer tomography is a relatively harmless diagnostic measure without any risk for the patient. It has a high resolution and great accuracy in the evaluation of the thymus gland and is therefore the method of choice for the diagnosis of patients with myasthenia gravis.

  8. Binding of /sup 125/I alpha-bungarotoxin to the thymus of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohshima, F.; Kondo, K.; Tsubaki, T.

    1978-01-01

    Alpha-bungarotoxin is known to bind with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of skeletal muscle. Binding of iodine 125-labeled alpha bungarotoxin to the murine thymus, muscle, and liver was estimated. The toxin was bound to the muscle. The thymus was also capable of binding a considerable amount of the toxin, and the binding was obviously blocked by tubocurarine chloride. Binding to the liver, an organ containing no nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, was very slight. These results may indicate the presence of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the thymus, which could have implications in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis. Degenerating myoid cells and their receptors may represent autoantigens that induce an immunological cross-reaction with the receptors of skeletal muscles, giving rise to myasthenia gravis.

  9. Thymus transplantation and disease prevention in the diabetes-prone Bio-Breeding rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiou, H.M.; Bellgrau, D.

    1989-01-01

    Bio-Breeding rat T lymphocytes proliferate poorly in response to alloantigen. Transplantation of Bio-Breeding rats with fetal thymus tissue from diabetes resistant rats leads to an improvement in the T cell proliferative response, but only if the thymus contains bone marrow-derived, radiation-resistant thymic antigen presenting cells of the diabetes-resistant phenotype. The current study provides evidence that thymus transplantation leading to the restoration of Bio-Breeding T cell proliferative function can also significantly reduce the incidence of insulitis and prevent the development of diabetes. It appears that a defect in the bone marrow-derived thymic APC population contributes to an abnormal maturation of Bio-Breeding T lymphocytes which in turn predisposes animals to insulitis and diabetic disease

  10. Correlates of thymus size and changes during treatment of children with severe acute malnutrition: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Maren Johanne Heilskov; Namusoke, Hanifa; Ritz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impairment of immune functions associated with malnutrition may be one reason for the high mortality in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), and thymus atrophy has been proposed as a marker of this immunodeficiency. The aim of this study was to identify nutritional....... CONCLUSION: Malnutrition and inflammation are associated with thymus atrophy, and thymus area seems positively associated with plasma phosphate. Substituting therapeutic formula with unfortified rice porridge with the aim of alleviating diarrhea may impair regain of thymus size with nutritional...

  11. Thymus is enlarged in children with current atopic dermatitis. A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Braae; Andersen, Gratien; Jeppesen, Dorthe

    2005-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common skin disorder of unknown aetiology with peak incidence in early childhood. The disease is associated with peripheral T-cell accumulation in the skin. The thymus is a key organ of the cellular immune response early in life. We hypothesized that atopic dermatitis...... is associated with an unbalanced establishment of the peripheral T-lymphocyte system. This cross-sectional study was performed to compare thymus sizes in patients with atopic dermatitis and healthy controls. Thirty-seven children with current atopic dermatitis were enrolled and compared with 29 healthy controls...... of thymus is compatible with increased thymic activity and emission of T lymphocytes....

  12. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils from Two Species of Thymus Growing Wild in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice Senatore

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents of the aerial parts of two samples of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl, collected in Campania and in Sicily, and two samples of Thymus pulegioides L. from the same regions, were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed. Considering the four oils together, seventy-eight different compounds were identified: 57 for Thymus longicaulis from Sicily (91.1% of the total oil, 40 for Thymus longicaulis from Campania (91.5% of the oil, 39 for Thymus pulegioides from Sicily (92.5% of the oil and 29 for Thymus pulegioides from Campania (90.1% of the oil. The composition of the oils is different, although the most abundant components are identical in T. pulegioides. The essential oils showed antibacterial activity against eight selected microorganisms.

  13. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 5-fluorouracil-derived benzimidazoles as novel type of potential antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xue-Jie; Jeyakkumar, Ponmani; Avula, Srinivasa Rao; Zhou, Qian; Zhou, Cheng-He

    2016-06-01

    A series of 5-fluorouracil benzimidazoles as novel type of potential antimicrobial agents were designed and synthesized for the first time. Bioactive assay manifested that some of the prepared compounds exhibited good or even stronger antibacterial and antifungal activities against the tested strains in comparison with reference drugs norfloxacin, chloromycin and fluconazole. Noticeably, 3-fluorobenzyl benzimidazole derivative 5c gave remarkable antimicrobial activities against Saccharomyces cerevisiae, MRSA and Bacillus proteus with MIC values of 1, 2 and 4μg/mL, respectively. Experimental research revealed that compound 5c could effectively intercalate into calf thymus DNA to form compound 5c-DNA complex which might block DNA replication and thus exert antimicrobial activities. Molecular docking indicated that compound 5c should bind with DNA topoisomerase IA through three hydrogen bonds by the use of fluorine atom and oxygen atoms in 5-fluorouracil with the residue Lys 423. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemical composition of essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species and their antifungal activities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.D.; Vukojevic, J.; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.D.; Vajs, V.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2009-01-01

    The potential antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus tosevii L., Mentha spicata L., and Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae) essential oils and their components against 17 micromycetal food poisoning, plant, animal and human pathogens are presented. The essential oils were obtained by

  15. DN2 Thymocytes Activate a Specific Robust DNA Damage Response to Ionizing Radiation-Induced DNA Double-Strand Breaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Calvo-Asensio

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available For successful bone marrow transplantation (BMT, a preconditioning regime involving chemo and radiotherapy is used that results in DNA damage to both hematopoietic and stromal elements. Following radiation exposure, it is well recognized that a single wave of host-derived thymocytes reconstitutes the irradiated thymus, with donor-derived thymocytes appearing about 7 days post BMT. Our previous studies have demonstrated that, in the presence of donor hematopoietic cells lacking T lineage potential, these host-derived thymocytes are able to generate a polyclonal cohort of functionally mature peripheral T cells numerically comprising ~25% of the peripheral T cell pool of euthymic mice. Importantly, we demonstrated that radioresistant CD44+ CD25+ CD117+ DN2 progenitors were responsible for this thymic auto-reconstitution. Until recently, the mechanisms underlying the radioresistance of DN2 progenitors were unknown. Herein, we have used the in vitro “Plastic Thymus” culture system to perform a detailed investigation of the mechanisms responsible for the high radioresistance of DN2 cells compared with radiosensitive hematopoietic stem cells. Our results indicate that several aspects of DN2 biology, such as (i rapid DNA damage response (DDR activation in response to ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage, (ii efficient repair of DNA double-strand breaks, and (iii induction of a protective G1/S checkpoint contribute to promoting DN2 cell survival post-irradiation. We have previously shown that hypoxia increases the radioresistance of bone marrow stromal cells in vitro, at least in part by enhancing their DNA double-strand break (DNA DSB repair capacity. Since the thymus is also a hypoxic environment, we investigated the potential effects of hypoxia on the DDR of DN2 thymocytes. Finally, we demonstrate for the first time that de novo DN2 thymocytes are able to rapidly repair DNA DSBs following thymic irradiation in vivo.

  16. COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF CALF STARTER AND CONVENTIONAL RATIONS IN BUFFALO SUCKLING CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ahmad, M. A. Jabbar1, I. Ahmad2 , M. Rafique and I. Ahmad3

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four buffalo calves, having similar age and initial body weight, were divided into two groups with equal number of calves of both sexes in each group to study the effect of calf starter ration on feed intake and weight gain. Calf starter and conventional dairy rations with crude protein 18% and total digestible nutrients 75–80% along with green fodder were offered ad libitum to calves of respective groups for a period of 113 days. The average daily feed intakes were 0.95 and 0.57 kg, average daily weight gains were 0.47 and 0.34 kg and feed conversion ratio averaged 2.00 and 1.70 in calf starter and conventional groups respectively. On the overall performance, calf starter group was found better than the conventional ration.

  17. Rearrangement of Rag-1 recombinase gene in DNA-repair deficient/immunodeficient wasted'' mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Weaver, P.; Churchill, M.; Chang-Liu, C-M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Libertin, C.R. (Loyola Univ., Maywood, IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Mice recessive for the autosomal gene wasted'' (wst) display a disease pattern which includes increased sensitivity to the killing effects of ionizing radiation, immunodeficiency, and neurologic dysfunction. The recent cloning and characterization of recombinase genes (Rag-l/Rag-2) expressed in lymphoid and possibly central nervous system tissues prompted us to examine expression of these genes in DNA repair-deficient/immunodeficient wasted mice. Our results revealed that in thymus tissue, a small Rag-I transcript (1.0 kb) was detected in wst/wst mice that was not evident in thymus from control mice. In wst/[sm bullet] mice, a two-fold increase in Rag-1 mRNA was evident in thymus tissue. Rag-2 mRNA could only be detected in thymus tissue from wst/[sm bullet] and not from wst/wst or parental control BCF, mice. Southern blots revealed a rearrangement or deletion within the Rag-1 gene of affected wasted mice that was not evident in known strain-specific parental or littermate controls. These results support the idea that the Rag-1 gene may map at or near the locus for the wasted mutation. In addition, they suggest the importance of recombinase function in normal immune and central nervous system development as well as the potential contribution of this gene family to the normal repair of radiation-induced DNA damage.

  18. T cell precursor migration towards beta 2-microglobulin is involved in thymus colonization of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunon, D; Kaufman, J; Salomonsen, J

    1990-01-01

    beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) attracts hemopoietic precursors from chicken bone marrow cells in vitro. The cell population responding to beta 2m increases during the second period of thymus colonization, which takes place at days 12-14 of incubation. The precursors from 13.5 day old embryos were...... isolated after migration towards beta 2m in vitro and shown to be able to colonize a 13 day old thymus in ovo, where they subsequently acquire thymocyte markers. In contrast these beta 2m responsive precursors did not colonize embryonic bursa, i.e. differentiate into B lymphocytes. During chicken...... embryogenesis, peaks of beta 2m transcripts and of free beta 2m synthesis can only be detected in the thymus. The peak of free beta 2m synthesis in the thymus and the increase of beta 2m responding bone marrow cells both occur concomitantly with the second wave of thymus colonization in chicken embryo, facts...

  19. Raising the standards of the calf-raise test: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Newsham-West, Richard J; Schneiders, Anthony G; Sullivan, S John

    2009-11-01

    The calf-raise test is used by clinicians and researchers in sports medicine to assess properties of the calf muscle-tendon unit. The test generally involves repetitive concentric-eccentric muscle action of the plantar-flexors in unipedal stance and is quantified by the number of raises performed. Although the calf-raise test appears to have acceptable reliability and face validity, and is commonly used for medical assessment and rehabilitation of injuries, no universally acceptable test parameters have been published to date. A systematic review of the existing literature was conducted to investigate the consistency as well as universal acceptance of the evaluation purposes, test parameters, outcome measurements and psychometric properties of the calf-raise test. Nine electronic databases were searched during the period May 30th to September 21st 2008. Forty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria and were quality assessed. Information on study characteristics and calf-raise test parameters, as well as quantitative data, were extracted; tabulated; and statistically analysed. The average quality score of the reviewed articles was 70.4+/-12.2% (range 44-90%). Articles provided various test parameters; however, a consensus was not ascertained. Key testing parameters varied, were often unstated, and few studies reported reliability or validity values, including sensitivity and specificity. No definitive normative values could be established and the utility of the test in subjects with pathologies remained unclear. Although adapted for use in several disciplines and traditionally recommended for clinical assessment, there is no uniform description of the calf-raise test in the literature. Further investigation is recommended to ensure consistent use and interpretation of the test by researchers and clinicians.

  20. Influence of protein nutrition and virginiamycin supplementation on feedlot growth performance and digestive function of calf-fed Holstein steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Chavira, J; Barreras, A; Plascencia, A; Montano, M F; Navarrete, J D; Torrentera, N; Zinn, R A

    2016-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the influence of protein and virginiamycin (VM) supplementation on feedlot growth performance, digestion, and metabolizable AA (MAA) supply of calf-fed Holstein steers. Growth performance and dietary energetics were evaluated in 120 Holstein steers (127 ± 9 kg). During the initial 112-d feeding period, a steam-flaked corn-based diet was balanced to meet either 100% (MAB) or 87% (UREA) of MAA requirements. Diets were supplemented with or without 22.5 mg/kg VM in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Subsequently (d 112 to 308), all steers received the UREA diet with or without VM. During the initial 112-d, MAB increased ADG, G:F, and dietary NE ( 0.10) across initial supplementation treatments. Overall (d 1 to 308), MAB did not affect ADG ( > 0.10) but enhanced G:F efficiency ( = 0.03) and dietary NE ( = 0.05). During the initial 112-d period and through the remainder of the experiment, VM increased G:F ( 0.10) on ruminal digestion of OM, NDF, starch, microbial efficiency, or total tract digestion of OM and NDF. The MAB increased indispensable AA flow to the small intestine ( 0.10) total tract N digestion. Extrapolating from AA supplies in the metabolism study, MAB satisfied indispensable AA requirements during the initial 112-d period, whereas the UREA diet met 73.5% and 79.2% of methionine and lysine requirements, respectively. During the subsequent periods (d 112 to 308) indispensable AA supplies exceeded theoretical requirements. We conclude that enhancements in energy utilization when diets are balanced to meet MAA requirements of calf-fed Holstein steers during the initial 112-d feedlot period remain appreciable throughout time on feed. Virginiamycin enhanced efficiency of energy utilization throughout the feedlot growing-finishing period.

  1. Dyskospondylitis and paravertebral abscesses in a calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testoni, S.

    2006-01-01

    A case of progressive spastic paraparesis due to a dyskospondylitis at the level of T9-T10 is described in a four-month old Holstein female calf. The calf was recumbent, but bright, alert and willing to suckle. Despite repeated attempts, the calf was not able to assume the sternal recumbency. The radiological findings were decisive for the in life diagnosis. Spinal radiography of the thoraco-lumbar region revealed lysis and collapse of T9 and T10 vertebral bodies; irregular proliferative new bone was evident. Lumbo-sacral myelography showed a narrowing and dorsal displacement of the ventral contrast column at the same spinal level, indicating a severe ventral extradural compression of the spinal cord. At the level of the thoracic cavity, a 20 x 15 cm diameter opacity extending ventrally to T8-T13 and caudo-dorsally to the heart was also evident. At gross necroscopy, two approximately 15 cm diameter encapsulated paravertebral abscesses were evident in the thoracis cavity just below the spinal column. A pure culture of Fusobacterium necrophorum was obtained from them. A saggital section of the spine showed an erosive suppurative process of T9 and T10 vertebral bodies that provoked the compression of the thoracic tract of the spinal cord [it

  2. Simultaneous DPV determination of morphine and codeine using dsDNA modified screen printed electrode strips coupled with electromembrane extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Feizbakhsh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work a sensitive electrochemical sensor for simultaneous determination of morphine and codeine constructed by application of disposable screen printed carbon electrode strips (SPCE modified by double strand (ds calf thymus DNA. According to the results of the modified SPCE strips and experimented parameters, we observed a considerable shift between potentials of morphine and codeine current peaks. Related to these observed shifts, we studied on the effect of the concentration of modifier and pH value on the anodic oxidation pattern of morphine and codeine in the case of optimize the method to get better signals with maximum potential distance. Also to boosting the LODs of this electroanalytical method coupled with an electro-membrane preconcentration (EME step. The calibration curve which was plotted by the variation of differential pulse voltammetry (DPV currents as a function of different morphine and codeine concentration were linear within the range of 0.7– 40 µM and 2.3- 40 µM for morphine and codeine respectively. Also the limits of detection were 0.07 µM and 0.23 µM, respectively. Finally, the proposed method was able to determine morphine and codeine simultaneously and effectively in urinary real samples

  3. Carcinoma Showing Thymus-Like Differentiation (CASTLE of Thyroid: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leong-Perng Chan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE is a rare malignant neoplasm that occurs in the thyroid gland, or head and neck. This tumor arises from either ectopic thymus tissue or remnants of branchial pouches, which retain the potential to differentiate along the thymus line. Clinical presentation and imaging can be consistent with a malignant lesion such as thyroid cancer or thymic carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining with CD5 can differentiate CASTLE from other malignant thyroid neoplasms. A 54-year-old male had initially presented with a painless, left neck mass for 3 months. He underwent left thyroid lobectomy via a median sternotomy approach. Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation was the final histopathologic diagnosis. After 36 months of follow-up, no evidence of recurrence was observed. A median sternotomy is an excellent approach for CASTLE with anterior mediastinum involvement. Complete resection is important to improve the long-term survival rate and the locoregional recurrence rate.

  4. Thymus transcriptome reveals novel pathways in response to avian pathogenic Escherichia coli infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H; Liu, P; Nolan, L K; Lamont, S J

    2016-12-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) can cause significant morbidity in chickens. The thymus provides the essential environment for T cell development; however, the thymus transcriptome has not been examined for gene expression in response to APEC infection. An improved understanding of the host genomic response to APEC infection could inform future breeding programs for disease resistance and APEC control. We therefore analyzed the transcriptome of the thymus of birds challenged with APEC, contrasting susceptible and resistant phenotypes. Thousands of genes were differentially expressed in birds of the 5-day post infection (dpi) challenged-susceptible group vs. 5 dpi non-challenged, in 5 dpi challenged-susceptible vs. 5 dpi challenged-resistant birds, as well as in 5 dpi vs. one dpi challenged-susceptible birds. The Toll-like receptor signaling pathway was the major innate immune response for birds to respond to APEC infection. Moreover, lysosome and cell adhesion molecules pathways were common mechanisms for chicken response to APEC infection. The T-cell receptor signaling pathway, cell cycle, and p53 signaling pathways were significantly activated in resistant birds to resist APEC infection. These results provide a comprehensive assessment of global gene networks and biological functionalities of differentially expressed genes in the thymus under APEC infection. These findings provide novel insights into key molecular genetic mechanisms that differentiate host resistance from susceptibility in this primary lymphoid tissue, the thymus. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  5. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CALF MORTALITY ON DAIRY FARMS IN KUWAIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. RAZZAQUE, M. BEDAIR, S. ABBAS AND T. AL-MUTAWA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this study was to investigate the economic impact of mortality of pre-weaned calves on dairy cattle enterprise in Kuwait. Cost/benefit analysis model was applied to two different situations: in the first situation, a baseline scenario, field survey data without intervention using 1,280 newborn calves was used in first calving season. In the second situation, the intervention scenario (improved management, 665 newborn calves were used in second calving season during the following year. Calving seasons extended for 7 months from September to March. Calf performance studies were conducted from birth to weaning. Economic model was constructed on Microsoft Excel and used to evaluate the impact of calf mortality on calf enterprise. Results showed that gross margins increased from 13 to 35% as a result of implementation of intervention measures during the second calving season over baseline scenario. A significant correlation between increased veterinary expenses and an increase in revenues (r2 = 0.65, P<0.05 was observed. If the intervention measures such as colostrum feeding, nutrition and hygiene had not been implemented, the farms would have lose income from 12 to 51% of the gross revenues. Net income was influenced by costs of feeds, veterinary services and laborers. Discounted cash flow studies on a whole farm basis revealed that the impact of interventions was small (0-3%. Calf mortality could not be isolated from whole farm for assessing its impact on dairy farm economics. Economic studies demonstrated the cost/benefits of using the improved techniques of calf rearing.

  6. Rearrangement of RAG-1 recombinase gene in DNA-repair deficient ``wasted`` mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Libertin, C.R.; Weaver, P. [Loyola Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Churchill, M.; Chang-Liu, C.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Mice recessive for the autosomal gene ``wasted`` wst display a disease pattern which includes increased sensitivity to the killing effects of ionizing radiation, immunodeficiency, and neurologic dysfunction. The recent cloning and characterization of recombinase genes (RAG-l/RAG-2) expressed in lymphoid and possibly central nervous system tissues prompted us to examine expression of these genes in DNA repair-deficient/immunodeficient wasted mice. Our results revealed expression of RAG-1 mRNA in spinal cord (but not brain) of control mice; no expression of RAG-1 mRNA was detected in spinal cord or brain from wst/wst mice or their normal littermates (wst/{center_dot}mice). In thymus tissue, a small RAG-1 transcript (1.0 kb) was detected in wst/wst mice that was not evident in thymus from control mice. In wst/{center_dot}mice, a two-fold increase in RAG-1 mRNA was evident in thymus tissue. RAG-2 mRNA could only be detected in thymus tissue from wst/{center_dot} and not from wst/wst or parental control BCF{sub 1} mice. Southern blots revealed a rearrangement/deletion within the RAG-1 gene of affected wasted mice, not evident in known strain-specific parental or littermate controls. These results support the idea that the RAG-1 gene may map at or near the locus for the wasted mutation. In addition, they suggest the importance of recombinase function in normal immune and central nervous system development as well as the potential contribution of this gene family to the normal repair of radiation-induced DNA damage.

  7. Immunohistochemical localization of host and donor-derived cells in the regenerating thymus of radiation bone marrow chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceredig, R.; Schreyer, M.

    1984-01-01

    The anatomical distribution of CBA (Thy-1.2) host and AKR (Thy-1.1) donor-derived cells in the regenerating thymus of AKR → CBA radiation bone marrow chimeras was investigated. Cryostat sections of chimeric thymuses were incubated with biotin-conjugated monoclonal anti-Thy-1 antibodies specific for host and donor-derived cells and the distribution of the corresponding Thy-1 antigen revealed by the immunoperoxidase staining technique. The thymus was initially repopulated by Thy-1.2 + host-derived cells, but by 28 days following bone marrow reconstitution the few remaining host cells were found mostly in the thymus medulla. However, occasional Thy-1.2 + cells were still present in extramedullary, primarily cortical, sites. Donor-derived (Thy-1.1 + ) cells were first seen in the 11-day chimeric thymus as single cells frequently closely associated with blood vessels in medullary areas. By 17 days, the cortex contained many Thy-1.1 + cells, although occasional single positive cells were still present in the medulla. Changes in the anatomical distribution of host and donor-derived cells in the regenerating chimeric thymus appeared to correlate with changes in their Thy-1 fluorescence profile as determined by flow microfluorometry. (Auth.)

  8. 81-92, 2015 81 Thymus species in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Figure 1: Data/Sample Collection Sites of Thymus species for the present study ..... ly reduced level of Systolic Atrial Pressure (SAP) and ... T. schimperi is a big challenge owing to their suitabil- .... of Local Hybrid Maize Seed Production and.

  9. Prognosis of thymectomy in myasthenia gravis patients with thymus hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Liu, Chanchan; Li, Tao; Li, Chengyan

    2017-09-01

    To compare the post-thymectomy prognosis in different conditions of myasthenia gravis (MG) patients with thymus hyperplasia. Collecting medical record and carrying out the follow-up study of 123 myasthenia gravis patients with thymus hyperplasia who have underwent thymectomy during the period between 2003 and 2013. Dividing into different groups based on gender, age of onset, duration of disease and Myasthenia Gravis Association of America (MGFA) clinical classification to analyze different prognosis in different groups. Complete stable remission (CSR) was achieved in 71 of 123 patients (59.5%). There is no gender-related difference in achieving CSR. Patients with early onset of MG (≤40 years old) or disease duration less than 12 months had significantly higher CSR rates than those with late onset of MG (>40 years old) or disease duration more than 12 months respectively, while no difference was found in remission rate between MGFA clinical classification I and MGFA II. Myasthenia gravis patients with thymus hyperplasia who had thymectomy are proved to possess greater chance of achieving CSR. The onset age of disease and duration are the prognostic factors.

  10. Importance of thymus and its humoral factors in radiation syndrome treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavrova, J.

    1983-01-01

    The high radiosensitivity is emphasised of lymphoid tissues and of the immunological response of the organism. The red--uced immunity of the irradiated organism even after sublethal doses lasts for a number of months. The thymus is not only an important lymphoid organ but it also secerns hormones having lymph-stimulating effects. The shielding of the thymus during irradiation or the application of thymosine favourably affected in gamma or X-ray irradiated mice not only the regeneration of damaged lymphoid tissues and of immunological response but also the regeneration of blood formation. (A.K.)

  11. 1-Amino-4-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone - An analogue of anthracycline anticancer drugs, interacts with DNA and induces apoptosis in human MDA-MB-231 breast adinocarcinoma cells: Evaluation of structure-activity relationship using computational, spectroscopic and biochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Palash; Roy, Sanjay; Loganathan, Gayathri; Mandal, Bitapi; Dharumadurai, Dhanasekaran; Akbarsha, Mohammad A; Sengupta, Partha Sarathi; Chattopadhyay, Shouvik; Guin, Partha Sarathi

    2015-12-01

    The X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic properties of 1-amino-4-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (1-AHAQ), a simple analogue of anthracycline chemotherapeutic drugs were studied by adopting experimental and computational methods. The optimized geometrical parameters obtained from computational methods were compared with the results of X-ray diffraction analysis and the two were found to be in reasonably good agreement. X-ray diffraction study, Density Functional Theory (DFT) and natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis indicated two types of hydrogen bonds in the molecule. The IR spectra of 1-AHAQ were studied by Vibrational Energy Distribution Analysis (VEDA) using potential energy distribution (PED) analysis. The electronic spectra were studied by TDDFT computation and compared with the experimental results. Experimental and theoretical results corroborated each other to a fair extent. To understand the biological efficacy of 1-AHAQ, it was allowed to interact with calf thymus DNA and human breast adino-carcinoma cell MDA-MB-231. It was found that the molecule induces apoptosis in this adinocarcinoma cell, with little, if any, cytotoxic effect in HBL-100 normal breast epithelial cell.

  12. What happens in the thymus does not stay in the thymus: how T cells recycle the CD4+-CD8+ lineage commitment transcriptional circuitry to control their function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacchio, Melanie S.; Bosselut, Rémy

    2016-01-01

    MHC-restricted CD4+ and CD8+ T cell are at the core of most adaptive immune responses. Although these cells carry distinct functions, they arise from a common precursor during thymic differentiation, in a developmental sequence that matches CD4 and CD8 expression and functional potential with MHC restriction. While the transcriptional control of CD4+-CD8+ lineage choice in the thymus is now better understood, less was known about what maintains the CD4+- and CD8+-lineage integrity of mature T cells. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms that establish in the thymus, and maintain in post-thymic cells, the separation of these lineages. We focus on recent studies that address the mechanisms of epigenetic control of Cd4 expression and emphasize how maintaining a transcriptional circuitry nucleated around Thpok and Runx proteins, the key architects of CD4+-CD8+ lineage commitment in the thymus, is critical for CD4+ T cell helper functions. PMID:27260768

  13. Cell Proliferation during Lymphopoiesis in the Thymus of Normal and Continuously Irradiated Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J. I. [Department of Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1968-08-15

    The patterns of lymphoid cell proliferation in the thymus and spleen in normal and continuously irradiated young C57BL mice have been examined with techniques of flash and repeated labelling with tritiated thymidine and high resolution autoradiography. Changes in percentage labelling indices and labelled mitoses data have provided information on sites and rates of lymphoid cell proliferation in the thymus cortex (reticular cells, large, medium and small lymphocytes) and the spleen white pulp (germinal centre cells, large, medium and small lymphocytes). Labelling rates were fastest in the more primitive cell forms; in both lymphoid organs, the stem-cell labelling - reticular cells and germinal centre cells - reached 100% rapidly, whereas this was not the case for the different lymphocyte populations, and thymic lymphopoiesis was more rapid than splenic lymphopoiesis. Mean cycle times for thymus lymphoid cells were {approx} 12.5 hours for reticular cells, {approx} 9.5 hours for large lymphocytes, and {approx} 10.0 hours for medium and small lymphocytes; in the spleen, representative cycle times were significantly longer. Small lymphocytes were replaced at a greater rate in the thymus than in the spleen. Under continuous {gamma}-irradiation (caesium-137) at 45 rad/day and 75 rad/day for 15 days, there was a progressive depopulation of all lymphoid cell classes, an increase in the relative proportion of the more primitive forms, and a marked decrease in the numbers of small lymphocytes in both tissues. In the thymus and in the spleen, there was an increase in proliferation rates in both stem-cell populations and in all lymphoid cell forms, a decrease in mean cell cycle times to shorter values and a possible reduction in the spread of cell cycle times. In irradiated tissues, there was little evidence for lymphoid cell emigration. Tentative patterns of lymphopoiesis in the normal thymus and spleen based on the autoradiographic data aredescribed and changes in the

  14. Direct-acting DNA alkylating agents present in aqueous extracts of areca nut and its products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chiung-Wen; Chao, Mu-Rong

    2012-11-19

    Areca nut is a carcinogen to humans and has been strongly associated with oral premalignant and malignant diseases. Previous studies speculated the presence of unknown direct-acting mutagens present in aqueous extracts of areca nut. We hypothesized whether any direct-acting alkylating agents are present in areca nut and its commercial products. In this study, calf thymus DNA was treated with four different aqueous extracts obtained from unripe and ripe areca nuts or their commercial products, namely, pan masala (without tobacco) and gutkha (with tobacco). Three N-alkylated purines including N7-methylguanine (N7-MeG), N3-methyladenine (N3-MeA), and N7-ethylguanine (N7-EtG) were detected using sensitive and specific isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods. The results showed that four types of aqueous extracts significantly induced the formation of N7-MeG and N3-MeA in a linear dose-response manner. Extracts from unripe areca nut exhibited higher methylating potency than those of ripe areca nut, while gutkha had higher methylating potency than pan masala. Meanwhile, gutkha made with areca nut and tobacco, was the only extract found to induce the formation of N7-EtG. Overall, this study first demonstrated that the presence of direct-acting alkylating agents in areca nut and its commercial products exist at a level that is able to cause significant DNA damage. Our findings may provide another mechanistic rationale for areca nut-mediated oral carcinogenesis and also highlight the importance and necessity of the identification of these direct-acting alkylating agents.

  15. Calf muscle involvement in Becker muscular dystrophy: when size does not matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monforte, Mauro; Mercuri, Eugenio; Laschena, Francesco; Ricci, Enzo; Tasca, Giorgio

    2014-12-15

    Calf hypertrophy is a common feature in Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), and it is still debated to which extent fatty degeneration or true muscle hypertrophy account for it. We wanted to investigate the relative contribution of these two components using a simple image analysis approach and their possible correlation with disease severity. Twenty-nine BMD patients' MRI scans were analyzed. A semiquantitative visual score assessing fatty replacement of calf muscles (calf MRI score, CMS) was calculated and correlated with the cross sectional area (CSA) of lower leg posterior compartment muscles, digitally measured on acquired images. The correlation between CSA and CMS was not significant. CMS in contrast correlated with disease severity (p<0.001) while CSA did not (p=0.969). In BMD, a major contribution to calf hypertrophy is provided by real muscle hypertrophy rather than by fatty degeneration. CMS appears to be a potential surrogate marker of disease severity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The frequency and spectrum of thymus 2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake patterns in hyperthyroidism patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Kung; Yeh, Chia-Lu; Chen, Yen-Ling; Wang, Su-Chen; Cheng, Ru-Hwa; Kao, Pan-Fu

    2011-10-01

    Thymic hyperplasia is associated with hyperthyroidism. Increased thymus 2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake in hyperthyroidism patients has been reported. The aim of this study was to analyze the FDG positron emission tomography (PET) thymus uptake spectrum in patients with active hyperthyroidism with correlation with serum hormones. The prospective study included FDG PET scans from 65 hyperthyroidism patients and 30 subjects with euthyroid status as control group. The intensity of FDG uptake in thyroid and thymus regions was graded subjectively on a five-point scale and semi-quantitatively by measuring standard uptake value (SUV). Correlation coefficient between thymus SUV and serum thyroxine, triiodothyronine, thyrotropin, thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO Ab), thyrotropin receptor autoantibody (TR Ab), and thymulin were analyzed. Among 65 hyperthyroidism patients, 30 (46.2%) and 39 (60%) patients showed thyroid and thymus FDG uptake, respectively. The frequency of thymus uptake FDG was high in patients younger than age 40 (28/31, 90.3%). The patterns of the thymic FDG uptake include inverted V or triangular, separated triangular, united nontriangular, unilateral right or left extension, and focal midline. Focal midline FDG uptake was the most common pattern (15/39, 38.5%). None of the control group showed thymus FDG uptake. The correlation coefficient between the FDG uptake SUV levels in thymus and serum hormones, thyrotropin, TPO Ab, TR Ab, and thymulin levels were all low (P > .05). In FDG PET scan, thymus activity was common in hyperthyroidism patients; this should not be misdiagnosed as a malignancy in patients exhibiting weight loss. Copyright © 2011 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Loci associated with adult stature also affect calf birth survival in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Höglund, Johanna; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    growth and adult stature in several species. The QTL exhibited large effects on calf size and stature in Nordic Red cattle. Two deviant haplotypes (HAP1 and HAP2) were resolved which increased calf size at birth, and affected adult body conformation. However, the haplotypes also resulted in increased...

  18. Woodland caribou calf recruitment in relation to calving/post-calving landscape composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C. McCarthy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, Newfoundland’s woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou population has declined by an estimated 66%. Low calf recruitment has been associated to the decline, possibly triggered by increasing calf predation and/or decreasing resources. To investigate the role of landscape composition in this system, we studied the yearly (2005-2008 calving/post-calving range (CPCR of 104 satellite-collared females belonging to six herds. We mapped nine disturbance factors (e.g. roads, logging, etc, as well as vegetation cover types (e.g. coniferous, deciduous forests, etc, and determined the total area they occupied within CPCRs yearly for each herd. Using an information theoretic approach, we assessed the model that best explained variation in recruitment using these components. Based on corrected Akaike Information Criterion, the model that best explained variation in calf recruitment included total disturbance and deciduous forest area, both showing the expected negative relationship with calf recruitment. Other landscape variables among the models with ΔAICc < 2 were mixed forest, also with a suggested negative relationship, and barrens and wetlands with a significant positive trend. This study highlights the need to minimize total disturbance footprint and account for resulting changes in forest composition within CPCRs during land use planning. Expanding forestry operations and road infrastructure in critical woodland caribou habitat across Canada may additionally contribute to habitat loss via fragmentation. This in turn, may lead to range recession beyond the initial local avoidance footprint. We see the possibility of using calf recruitment models based on landscape parameters, among others, to predict the impact of new industrial developments on calf recruitment.

  19. Calf birth weight, gestation length, calving ease, and neonatal calf mortality in Holstein, Jersey, and crossbred cows in a pasture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, K; Maltecca, C; Cassady, J P; Baloche, G; Williams, C M; Washburn, S P

    2013-01-01

    Holstein (HH), Jersey (JJ), and crosses of these breeds were mated to HH or JJ bulls to form purebreds, reciprocal crosses, backcrosses, and other crosses in a rotational mating system. The herd was located at the Center for Environmental Farming Systems in Goldsboro, North Carolina. Data for calf birth weight (CBW), calving ease (0 for unassisted, n=1,135, and 1 for assisted, n=96), and neonatal calf mortality (0 for alive, n=1,150, and 1 for abortions recorded after mid-gestation, stillborn, and dead within 48 h, n=81) of calves (n=1,231) were recorded over 9 calving seasons from 2003 through 2011. Gestation length (GL) was calculated as the number of days from last insemination to calving. Linear mixed models for CBW and GL included fixed effects of sex, parity (first vs. later parities), twin status, and 6 genetic groups: HH, JJ, reciprocal F(1) crosses (HJ, JH), crosses >50% Holsteins (HX) and crosses >50% Jerseys (JX), where sire breed is listed first. The CBW model also included GL as a covariate. Logistic regression for calving ease and neonatal calf mortality included fixed effects of sex, parity, and genetic group. Genetic groups were replaced by linear regression using percentage of HH genes as coefficients on the above models and included as covariates to determine various genetic effects. Year and dam were included as random effects in all models. Female calves (27.57±0.54 kg), twins (26.39±1.0 kg), and calves born to first-parity cows (27.67±0.56 kg) had lower CBW than respective male calves (29.53±0.53 kg), single births (30.71±0.19 kg), or calves born to multiparous cows (29.43±0.52 kg). Differences in genetic groups were observed for CBW and GL. Increased HH percentage in the calf increased CBW (+9.3±0.57 kg for HH vs. JJ calves), and increased HH percentage in the dams increased CBW (+1.71±0.53 kg for calves from HH dams vs. JJ dams); JH calves weighed 1.33 kg more than reciprocal HJ calves. Shorter GL was observed for twin births (272.6

  20. Synthesis and Structural Investigation of New Bio-Relevant Complexes of Lanthanides with 5-Hydroxyflavone: DNA Binding and Protein Interaction Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra-Cristina Munteanu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we attempted to develop new metal coordination complexes of the natural flavonoid 5-hydroxyflavone with Sm(III, Eu(III, Gd(III, Tb(III. The resultant hydroxo complexes have been characterized by a variety of spectroscopic techniques, including fluorescence, FT-IR, UV-Vis, EPR and mass spectral studies. The general chemical formula of the complexes is [Ln(C15H9O33(OH2(H2Ox]·nH2O, where Ln is the lanthanide cation and x = 0 for Sm(III, x = 1 for Eu(III, Gd(III, Tb(III and n = 0 for Sm(III, Gd(III, Tb(III, n = 1 for Eu(III, respectively. The proposed structures of the complexes were optimized by DFT calculations. Theoretical calculations and experimental determinations sustain the proposed structures of the hydroxo complexes, with two molecules of 5-hydroxyflavone acting as monoanionic bidentate chelate ligands. The interaction of the complexes with calf thymus DNA has been explored by fluorescence titration and UV-Vis absorption binding studies, and revealed that the synthesized complexes interact with DNA with binding constants (Kb ~ 104. Human serum albumin (HSA and transferrin (Tf binding studies have also been performed by fluorescence titration techniques (fluorescence quenching studies, synchronous fluorescence spectra. The apparent association constants (Ka and thermodynamic parameters have been calculated from the fluorescence quenching experiment at 299 K, 308 K, and 318 K. The quenching curves indicate that the complexes bind to HSA with smaller affinity than the ligand, but to Tf with higher binding affinities than the ligand.

  1. Calf blood flow at rest evaluated by thermal measurement with tissue temperature and heat flow and 133Xe clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Toshiyo; Togawa, Tatsuo; Fukuoka, Masakazu; Kawakami, Kenji.

    1982-01-01

    The regional blood flow in the calf was determined simultaneously by thermal measurement and by 133 Xe clearance technique. Calf blood flow (Ft) by thermal measurement was accounted for by the equation of the form Ft=(CdT*d+Ho-Mb)/rho sub(b)c su b(D) (Ta-Td), where Cd is thermal capacitance of the calf compartment, T*d is the change of calf tissue temperature, Ta is arterila blood temperature, Td is calf tissue temperature, Ho is the heat dissipation from the compartment to the environment, Mb is estimated metabolism of the calf tissue and rho sub(b)c sub(b) is the product of density and specific heat of blood. The healthy men were chosen for the experiments. Total calf blood flow was 2.53+-1.31ml/(min-100ml calf), and muscle blood flow was 2.63+-1.69ml/(min- 100ml muscle) and skin blood flow 7.19+-3.83ml/(min-100ml skin) measured by 133 Xe clearance. On the basis of the results, an estimate has been made of the proportions of the calf volume which can be ascribed to skin and muscle respectively. Estimated muscle and skin blood flow were correlated with total calf blood flow(r=0.98). (author)

  2. A Case Study of Respiratory Disease in a Veal Calf Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palechek, Neil P.; Schoonderwoerd, Matt; Perry, Allen W.

    1987-01-01

    An outbreak of respiratory disease occurred in a central Alberta veal operation, after production capacity had been increased fourfold. Mortality rate reached 24.6% despite agressive antibiotic therapy. A review of the records revealed a cyclical disease pattern in each room. Weekly cleaning of occupied calf rooms was correlated with the disease pattern. Aerosols generated by a high pressure sprayer appeared to trigger transmission of respiratory pathogens in malnourished neonatal calves. Disease occurrence decreased and profitability increased sixfold after the introduction of the following measures: 1) discontinuing the use of the high pressure washer in the occupied calf rooms, 2) feeding calves a better quality milk replacer with supplemental milk for the poorest calves, 3) sale-yard calf purchases were abandoned in favor of direct buying. PMID:17422807

  3. Epitheliogenesis imperfecta in a crossbred Holstein calf, southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Azizi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Epitheliogenesis imperfect (EI is a rare autosomal recessive skin defect that is clinically identified with absence of cutaneous epithelium of the limbs, muzzle and nostrils as well as oral mucous membranes. This congenital newborn desease is reported mainly in domestic animals. The present study described EI in a 13 day-old, female crossbred Holstein calf. Gross examination showed epithelium agenesis of two front and hind limbs skin around the carpal and tarsal joints, and also extensive areas of the metacarpal and metatarsal regions. The calf died 5 days after antibiotic therapy and use of topical cream.

  4. Cocoa-enriched diet enhances antioxidant enzyme activity and modulates lymphocyte composition in thymus from young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro-Puig, Emma; Urpí-Sardà, Mireia; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Franch, Angels; Castellote, Cristina; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Castell, Margarida

    2007-08-08

    Cocoa is a rich source of flavonoids, mainly (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, and procyanidins. This article reports the effect of continuous cocoa intake on antioxidant capacity in plasma and tissues, including lymphoid organs and liver, from young rats. Weaned Wistar rats received natural cocoa (4% or 10% food intake) for three weeks, corresponding to their infancy. Flavonoid absorption was confirmed through the quantification of epicatechin metabolites in urine. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, were examined. Cocoa intake enhanced TAC in all tissues especially in thymus. Moreover, thymus SOD and catalase activities were also dose-dependently increased by cocoa. It was also analyzed whether the enhanced antioxidant system in thymus could influence its cellular composition. An increase in the percentage of thymocytes in advanced development stage was found. In summary, cocoa diet enhances thymus antioxidant defenses and influences thymocyte differentiation.

  5. Factors associated with night-time calf muscle cramps: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Fiona; Chuter, Vivienne; Burns, Joshua

    2013-03-01

    Although highly prevalent and painful, night-time calf muscle cramping is poorly understood, and no treatment has shown consistent efficacy or safety. One hundred sixty adults were recruited from New South Wales, Australia, including 80 who had night-time calf cramping at least once per week and 80 age- and gender-matched adults who did not. Participants were assessed using reliable tests of lower limb strength, flexibility, morphometrics, circulation, and sensation, and were questioned about health and lifestyle factors, diet, medications, exercise, symptomatology, sleeping habits, and footwear. Conditional logistic regression identified 3 factors independently associated with night-time calf muscle cramps: muscle twitching (OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.6-15.5, P = 0.01); lower limb tingling (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.6-10.3, P = 0.003); and foot dorsiflexion weakness (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03, P = 0.002), which represented other measures of lower limb weakness in the model. Night-time calf muscle cramps were associated with markers of neurological dysfunction and potential musculoskeletal therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  6. EFFECTIVENESS OF PNF STRETCHING AND CYCLIC STRETCHING OF CALF TIGHTNESS ON COLLEGE GOING GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlesha Sirari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flexibility helps with injury prevention, the reduction of soreness following a workout, and a general sense of well-being. There are different stretching techniques and protocols for improvements in calf extensibility and flexibility. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of two techniques i.e. CYCLIC and PNF stretching which improves calf flexibility. This study was done to find the effectiveness of calf Cyclic and PNF stretching technique to improve calf flexibility. Methods: 30 subjects with age group 21-22 years were randomly allocated to 2 groups equally. Group 1(n=15 were given CYCLIC and group 2(n=15 were given PNF stretching technique. Plantar flexion was used to measure the calf tightness which was done before and after the treatment. Treatment was given for 7 days and on the 7th day the calf tightness was again measured. Results: The mean difference of the CYCLIC is 4.6 and mean difference of PNF is 4.7 which indicate that CYCLIC and PNF both are effective to improve calf flexibility but PNF is more effective than CYCLIC to improve calf flexibility. Conclusion: The neurophysiological basis of PNF, stating that the excitatory efficient of the neuromuscular spindle or the inhibitory afferent of the Golgi tendon organ (GTO or both are responsible for the effects. During PNF stretch and isometric contraction of stretched agonists for extended period may cause activation of its neuromuscular spindle. The increase in tension created during the isometric contraction of the pre – lengthened agonist contracts concentrically. Both the fascia & the spindle of the agonist adjust to the nearly lengthened position. These impulses travel via causing post synaptic inhibition of the motor neuron to agonist increasing the tension from the GTO. These impulses can override the impulses coming from the neuromuscular spindles arousing the muscle to reflexly resist to the change in length, thus helping in lengthening

  7. Sedimentation of nucleoids from thymus and spleen cells of rats after X-irradiation in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzelmann, R.

    1987-01-01

    The reaction to irradiation of thymocytes was tested immediately and 6 hours after whole body X-irradiation of rats with doses from 190 cGy up to 1520 cGy by nucleoid sedimentation. For comparison, examinations of thymus and spleen cells after X-irradiation in vitro were done. Preliminary analyses should find a possible coergism between X-rays on one side and hyperthermia and inhibitors of DNA-synthesis or DNA-repair (cytosinearabinoside, dideoxythymidine, 3-amino-benzamide, ethidiumbromide, and novobiocine) on the other side. From the results the following conclusions may be drawn: 1) With respect to the detection of in vivo effects of X-irradiation, the nucleoid sedimentation is less sensitive than biochemical methods. 2) Some hours after sublethal X-irradiation in vivo, free DNA and/or polydesoxyribonucleotides appear. At the same time cross-links can be detected in the chromatin fraction. 3) The reduction of the nucleoid sedimentation immediately after high doses of whole-body irradiation is the result of primary DNA lesions. The changes detectable some hours after are due to the secondary enzymatic changes, that are connected with the interphase death of thymocytes, and coincide with the present opinions about the irradiation induced apoptosis of cells. (orig./ECB) [de

  8. Evaluation of cottonseed oil-cake meal as a protein source in calf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    were encouraged to eat the calf starter meal by placing meal into the buckets after they had finished drinking milk. Calves were weaned at 35 days of age and thereafter they received only calf starter meal ad libitum. Fresh water was freely available from day 10. The quantity of meal offered was increased on an individual ...

  9. A comparative immunohistochemical study of aplastic thymuses for lymphocytic, epithelial, proliferative and apoptotic indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahjoub F.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immune deficiency is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the modern world. Primary immunodeficiency comprises a wide range of disorders that mainly manifest in early childhood as devastating infections with opportunistic organisms. Thymic aplasia is found on autopsy of some patients afflicted with immune deficiency disorders, such as DiGeorge syndrome and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID. After a thorough search of the literature, we found little information on the cellular characteristics of these thymuses. Our study aims to elucidate role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of thymic aplasia and compare various lymphocytic and epithelial markers in normal and aplastic thymuses. Methods: We selected 12 subjects who died of severe infections with aplastic thymus found on autopsy, and 11 control subjects who died of unrelated causes, such as congenital heart disease. The presence of several markers, including Bcl2, P53, lymphocytic markers, and CD68, was examined using immunohistochemical methods on paraffin-embedded thymus sections. Positively-stained cells were counted per 1000 cells and the results stated as percentage of positive cells.                        Results: The mean age of the control group was between 7 days to 18 months (mean: 4.5 months. Parental consanguinity was present in 45.5% and 9.1% of the control and case groups, respectively; however, this was not statistically significant. We found significantly lower expression of Bcl2 in the case group (p value: 0.038. Furthermore, expression of CD68 was significantly higher in the case group. Epithelial markers were significantly higher in case subjects, although CD8 expression was higher in the control group. The presence of other markers was not significantly different between the two groups.Conclusions: Increase in apoptosis has a role in aplastic thymuses and prevention of apoptosis may halt this process. Also high CD68

  10. Myasthenia gravis: 75Se-seleno-methionine scanning of thymus gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szobor, A.; Fornet, B.

    1986-01-01

    The 75 Se-seleno-methionine isotope thymus scanning was examined in a series of patients with myasthenia gravis. The patients were given 4 μC/kg hence a total of 250-300 μC 75 Se-seleno-methionine, intravenously. The method proved useful and informative in the diagnostics of myasthenia. Prior to thymectomy, the thymic tumour or a large gland could be observed and some hints could be gained for the biological activity of the gland. After the operation, the success of thymectomy could be checked and later a possible recidive could be shown or excluded. In non-operative cases the change in thymic activity could be followed which was an important sign of a malignant or tumorous growth of the thymus. (author)

  11. Fascial relationship of the thymus: radiologic-pathologic correlation in neonatal pneumomediastinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quattromani, F.L.; Foley, L.C.; Bowen, A.D.; Weisman, L.; Hernandez, J.

    1981-01-01

    The radiographic appearance of retrothymic pneumomediastinum is quite specific. The findings include elevation of the thymus away from other mediastinal structures with increased lucency beneath it, visualization of a radiodense line extending from the inferior pole of the thymus to the midportion of the heart, and tenting of the pericardium at the point of attachment of this line. This constellation of findings will aid in the differential diagnosis of medial anterior pneumothorax, pneumopericardium, and intrapulmonary cyst in the infant with air block. The paper details the mediastinal anatomy with special emphasis on a previously undescribed layer of connective tissue that accounts for this specific radiographic appearance

  12. Anatomical variations of the thymus in relation to the left brachiocephalic vein, findings of necropsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Oscar Alonso; Moreno, Freddy

    2018-04-01

    Two cases of anatomical variations of the thymus are presented with respect to the anatomical relations with the left brachiocephalic vein and found during the necropsy process. Less than 2 days after birth with Noonan Syndrome, when the left brachiocephalic vein was scanning behind the upper thymus horns, there were other adjacent lesions consisting of three supernumerary spleens and three hepatic veins. The second case was an 8-year-old infant with child malpractice who died from urinary sepsis due to obstructive uropathy, in which case the upper lobes of the thymus were fused and formed a ring through which the left brachiocephalic vein passed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes across warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F cows in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Burke, J M; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W

    2016-01-01

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Criollo breeds, such as the Romosinuano, may have similar adaptation. The objectives were to estimate genetic effects in Romosinuano, Angus, and crossbred cows for their weights, weights of their calves, and ratios (calf weight:cow weight and cow weight change:calf weight gain) across lactation and to assess the influence of forage on traits and estimates. Cows ( = 91) were bred to Charolais bulls after their second parity. Calves ( = 214) were born from 2006 to 2009. Cows and calves were weighed in early (April and June), mid- (July), and late lactation (August and October). Animal was a random effect in analyses of calf data; sire was random in analyses of cow records and ratios. Fixed effects investigated included calf age, calf sex, cow age-year combinations, sire breed of cow, dam breed of cow, and interactions. Subsequent analyses evaluated the effect of forage grazed: endophyte-free or endophyte-infected tall fescue. Estimates of maternal heterosis for calf weight ranged from 9.3 ± 4.3 to 15.4 ± 5.7 kg from mid-lactation through weaning ( cow) were -6.8 ± 3.0 and -8.9 ± 4.2 kg for weights recorded in April and June. Calf weights and weight gains from birth were greater ( cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue except in mid-summer. Cow weight change from April to each time was negative for Angus cows and lower ( Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue were heavier ( cows had the lowest ( cow weight change:calf weight gain, indicating an energy-deficit condition. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue had more negative ( cow weight, 7.9 ± 3.0 to 15.8 ± 5.0 kg for cow weight change, and 0.07 ± 0.03 to 0.27 ± 0.1 for cow weight change:calf weight gain. Direct Romosinuano effects ranged from 14.8 ± 4.2 to 49.8 ± 7.7 kg for cow weight change and 0.2 ± 0.04 to 0.51 ± 0.14 for cow weight change:calf weight gain. The adaptive

  14. Lymphocyte development in irradiated thymuses: dynamics of colonization by progenitor cells and regeneration of resident cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehr, R.; Fridkis-Hareli, M.; Abel, L.; Segel, L.; Globerson, A.

    1995-01-01

    Lymphocyte development in irradiated thymuses was analyzed using two complementary strategies: an in vitro experimental model and computer simulations. In the in vitro model, fetal thymus lobes were irradiated and the regeneration of cells that survived irradiation were examined, with the results compared to those of reconstitution of the thymus by donor bone marrow cells and their competition with the thymic resident cells. In vitro measurements of resident cell kinetics showed that cell proliferation is slowed down significantly after a relatively low (10Gy) irradiation dose. Although the number of thymocytes that survived irradiation remained low for several days post-irradiation, further colonization by donor cells was not possible, unless performed within 6 h after irradiation. These experimental results, coupled with the analysis by computer simulations, suggest that bone marrow cell engraftment in the irradiated thymus may be limited by the presence of radiation-surviving thymic resident cells and the reduced availability of seeding niches. (Author)

  15. Effects of coagulating enzyme types (commercial calf rennet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of coagulating enzyme types (commercial calf rennet, Aspergillus niger var. awamori as recombinant chymosin and rhizomucor miehei as microbial rennet) on the chemical and sensory characteristics of white pickled cheese.

  16. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Three Thymus Taxa from Turkey with Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zehra Küçükbay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available GC-MS analysis of the essential oils from aerial parts of Thymus migricus Klokov & Des.-Shost, Thymus fallax Fisch. & Mey. and Thymus pubescens Boiss. & Kotschy ex Celak var. pubescens resulted in the identification of 26, 35 and 53 constituents, respectively. The major components in the essential oil of T. migricus were found to be α-terpineol (30.6%, thymol (20.7% and α-terpinyl acetate (14.9% while in the essentiol oil of T. fallaxcis-carveol (29.6% and α-terpineol (10.8%. Carvacrol was a dominant compound with a percentage 66.1% of the essential oil of T. pubescens var. pubescens. The data obtained indicate that the essential oils of Thymus species generally exhibit some bacteriostatic activity. The antioxidant activity of the tested essential oils were found to be slightly lower than butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA.

  17. Is the plant-associated microbiota of Thymus spp. adapted to plant essential oil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checcucci, Alice; Maida, Isabel; Bacci, Giovanni; Ninno, Cristina; Bilia, Anna Rita; Biffi, Sauro; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Flamini, Guido; Fani, Renato; Mengoni, Alessio

    2017-04-01

    We examined whether the microbiota of two related aromatic thyme species, Thymus vulgaris and Thymus citriodorus, differs in relation to the composition of the respective essential oil (EO). A total of 576 bacterial isolates were obtained from three districts (leaves, roots and rhizospheric soil). They were taxonomically characterized and inspected for tolerance to the EO from the two thyme species. A district-related taxonomic pattern was found. In particular, high taxonomic diversity among the isolates from leaves was detected. Moreover, data obtained revealed a differential pattern of resistance of the isolates to EOs extracted from T. vulgaris and T. citriodorus, which was interpreted in terms of differing chemical composition of the EO of their respective host plants. In conclusion, we suggest that bacterial colonization of leaves in Thymus spp. is influenced by the EO present in leaf glandular tissue as one of the selective forces shaping endophytic community composition. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Suppression of a thymus dependent humoral response in mice by Concanavalin A in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, H.S.; Ekstedt, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    Mice treated with Concanavalin A prior to immunization with sheep erthyrocytes exhibit a markedly reduced plaque forming spleen cell response. This immunosuppressive effect could be reversed by using higher doses of antigen or priming the animals with nonimmunizing doses of antigen prior to Concanavalin A injection designed to either by-pass or enhance thymus derived lymphocyte functions. It was also demonstrated that Concanavalin A in vivo activated the thymus derived lymphocyte subpopulation in the spleen, and this activation was dose dependent and correlated with the immunosuppression observed. Animals injected with Concanavalin A at various times prior to whole body lethal irradiation would not support the plaque forming cell response of adoptively transferred normal syngeneic spleen cells. This effect was shown to be time and dose of Concanavalin A dependent. It was also shown that the route of injection of Concanavalin A prior to irradiation determined the results observed, in that the intravenous route resulted in the suppression of transferred cells, while the intraperitoneal route showed no effect. It is suggested that Concanavalin A induced immunosuppression of the humoral, thymus dependent immune response in mice results for the activation of a subpopulation of thymus derived suppressors cells, and that the effect is short lived, radiation resistant, and dose of Concanavalin A and antigen dependent

  19. Visualization of the thymus by substance P receptor scintigraphy in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, P.M. van [Department of Immunology, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands)]|[Department of Internal Medicine III, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Breeman, W.A.P. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Reubi, J.C. [Department of Pathology, University of Berne (Switzerland); Postema, P.T.E. [Department of Internal Medicine III, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Anker-Lugtenburg, P.J. van den [Department of Hematology, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kwekkeboom, D.J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Laissue, J. [Department of Pathology, University of Berne (Switzerland); Waser, B. [Department of Pathology, University of Berne (Switzerland); Lamberts, S.W.J. [Department of Internal Medicine III, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Visser, T.J. [Department of Internal Medicine III, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Krenning, E.P. [Department of Internal Medicine III, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands)]|[Department of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1996-11-01

    In this study we present the results concerning the metabolism of the substance P analogue [{sup 111}In-DTPA-Arg{sup 1}]-substance P in man, as well as the visualization of the thymus in patients with immune-mediated diseases. Twelve selected patients were investigated, comprising five with inflammatory bowel disease, one with ophthalmic Graves` disease, one with sclerosing cholangitis, one with Sjoegren`s syndrome, one with rheumatoid arthritis, one with systemic lupus erythematosus and two with myasthenia gravis. After intravenous administration of 150-250 MBq (2.5-5.0 {mu}g) [{sup 111}In-DTPA-Arg{sup 1}]-substance P, radioactivity was measured in blood, urine and faeces for 48 h. Planar and single-photon emission tomographic images were obtained 4 and 24 h after injection. After administration of [{sup 111}In-DTPA-Arg{sup 1}]-substance P, a transient flush was observed in all patients. Degradation of [{sup 111}In-DTPA-Arg{sup 1}]-substance P started in the first minutes after administration, resulting in a half-life of 10 min for the total plasma radioactivity, and of 4 min for the intact radiopharmaceutical. Urinary excretion accounted for >95% of the radioactivity within 24 h post injection, and up to 0.05% was found in the faeces up to 60 h. In all patients uptake of radioactivity was found in the areolae mammae (in women), liver, spleen, kidneys and urinary bladder. In eight patients a high uptake of [{sup 111}In-DTPA-Arg{sup 1}]-substance P was observed in the thymus. We conclude that, despite its short half-life, [{sup 111}In-DTPA-Arg{sup 1}]-substance P can be used to visualize the thymus. This may contribute to the investigation of the role of thymus in immune-mediated diseases. In addition, inflammatory sites in various diseases could be visualized. (orig.). With 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Visualization of the thymus by substance P receptor scintigraphy in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, P.M. van; Breeman, W.A.P.; Reubi, J.C.; Postema, P.T.E.; Anker-Lugtenburg, P.J. van den; Kwekkeboom, D.J.; Laissue, J.; Waser, B.; Lamberts, S.W.J.; Visser, T.J.; Krenning, E.P.

    1996-01-01

    In this study we present the results concerning the metabolism of the substance P analogue [ 111 In-DTPA-Arg 1 ]-substance P in man, as well as the visualization of the thymus in patients with immune-mediated diseases. Twelve selected patients were investigated, comprising five with inflammatory bowel disease, one with ophthalmic Graves' disease, one with sclerosing cholangitis, one with Sjoegren's syndrome, one with rheumatoid arthritis, one with systemic lupus erythematosus and two with myasthenia gravis. After intravenous administration of 150-250 MBq (2.5-5.0 μg) [ 111 In-DTPA-Arg 1 ]-substance P, radioactivity was measured in blood, urine and faeces for 48 h. Planar and single-photon emission tomographic images were obtained 4 and 24 h after injection. After administration of [ 111 In-DTPA-Arg 1 ]-substance P, a transient flush was observed in all patients. Degradation of [ 111 In-DTPA-Arg 1 ]-substance P started in the first minutes after administration, resulting in a half-life of 10 min for the total plasma radioactivity, and of 4 min for the intact radiopharmaceutical. Urinary excretion accounted for >95% of the radioactivity within 24 h post injection, and up to 0.05% was found in the faeces up to 60 h. In all patients uptake of radioactivity was found in the areolae mammae (in women), liver, spleen, kidneys and urinary bladder. In eight patients a high uptake of [ 111 In-DTPA-Arg 1 ]-substance P was observed in the thymus. We conclude that, despite its short half-life, [ 111 In-DTPA-Arg 1 ]-substance P can be used to visualize the thymus. This may contribute to the investigation of the role of thymus in immune-mediated diseases. In addition, inflammatory sites in various diseases could be visualized. (orig.). With 6 figs., 1 tab

  1. Sport socks do not enhance calf muscle pump function but inelastic wraps do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partsch, H; Mosti, G

    2014-12-01

    Aim of the study was to measure the effect of elastic and inelastic compression on calf muscle pump function in healthy male athletes. This was an experimental study which included 21 healthy male athletes. The ejection fraction (EF) of the venous calf pump was measured comparing the effects of a variety of compression materials: 1) sport compression stockings; 2) light zinc paste bandages; 3) sport compression stockings with additional Velcro® wraps over the calf. The influence of sport stocking and wraps on the venous calibre at the largest calf circumference in the lying and standing position was investigated using MRI. Inelastic compression exerting a median pressure in the standing position of 37.5 mmHg (zinc paste) and 48 mmHg (loosely applied straps over a sport stocking) achieved a significant increase of EF up to 100%. Sport stockings alone with a standing pressure of 19-24 mmHg did not show a significant change of EF. MRI demonstrated some venous narrowing in the lying but not in the standing position. By wrapping inelastic straps over the stocking an emptying of the veins in the lying and a considerable narrowing in the standing position could be observed. Venous calf pump function in athletes is not influenced by elastic sport stockings, but inelastic wraps either alone or applied over sport stockings lead to a significant enhancement.

  2. Clinical Coenurosis (Coenurus Cerebralis and Associated Pathological Findings in a Calf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cumali Özkan*, Serkan Yildirim1 and Abdullah Kaya

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate clinical and pathological findings of a clinical Coenurus cerebralis case in a 10-month-old Simmental male calf. Clinical examination of the calf revealed incoordination, irregular gait, failure to hold the head straight, leftward head tilt, and circling. The animal was diagnosed with C. cerebralis and euthanazia was recommended. The autopsy demonstrated a cyst (9x7 cm in the caudal of the left cerebral hemisphere within the cranium. The cyst caused compression over the ventral portion of the left cerebral hemisphere, while a marked perforation of 3-4 cm diameter was found on the sphenoid bone. Histopathologically, hyperemia and perivascular mononuclear cell infiltration were observed. In conclusion, we found it beneficial to present the clinical and pathological findings of this calf infected with C. cerebralis which is known to be a rare clinical entity among cattle.

  3. CARBOXYLIC ACIDS OF HERB OF THYMUS CRETACEUS KLOK. ET SCHOST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Bubenchikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied carboxylic acids of the herb of Thymus cretaceus Klok. et Schost which is widespread on a territory of some regions (Belgorod, Voronezh. The study was carried out using gas-liquid chromatography at Agilent Technologies 6890 chromatographer with massspectrometric detector 5973 N. Acids concentration was calculated by means of inner standard.We have established that carboxylic acids of Thymus cretaceus are represented by 34 compounds. Palmitic (1779.02 mg/kg, behenic (1084.15 mg/kg, levulinic (986.24 mg/kg and linoleic acids (678.82 mg/kg predominate among fatty acids; citric (9835.14 mg/kg, malonic (447.91 mg/kg and oxalic acids (388.32 mg/kg predominate among organic acids; andferulic acid predominate amongphenolcarbonic acids.

  4. Causes and correlates of calf mortality in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khyne U Mar

    Full Text Available Juvenile mortality is a key factor influencing population growth rate in density-independent, predation-free, well-managed captive populations. Currently at least a quarter of all Asian elephants live in captivity, but both the wild and captive populations are unsustainable with the present fertility and calf mortality rates. Despite the need for detailed data on calf mortality to manage effectively populations and to minimize the need for capture from the wild, very little is known of the causes and correlates of calf mortality in Asian elephants. Here we use the world's largest multigenerational demographic dataset on a semi-captive population of Asian elephants compiled from timber camps in Myanmar to investigate the survival of calves (n = 1020 to age five born to captive-born mothers (n = 391 between 1960 and 1999. Mortality risk varied significantly across different ages and was higher for males at any age. Maternal reproductive history was associated with large differences in both stillbirth and liveborn mortality risk: first-time mothers had a higher risk of calf loss as did mothers producing another calf soon (<3.7 years after a previous birth, and when giving birth at older age. Stillbirth (4% and pre-weaning mortality (25.6% were considerably lower than those reported for zoo elephants and used in published population viability analyses. A large proportion of deaths were caused by accidents and lack of maternal milk/calf weakness which both might be partly preventable by supplementary feeding of mothers and calves and work reduction of high-risk mothers. Our results on Myanmar timber elephants with an extensive keeping system provide an important comparison to compromised survivorship reported in zoo elephants. They have implications for improving captive working elephant management systems in range countries and for refining population viability analyses with realistic parameter values in order to predict future population

  5. Gamma-irradiation produces active chlorine species (ACS) in physiological solutions: Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) scavenges ACS - A novel mechanism of DNA radioprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Om P; Popov, Anatoliy V; Pietrofesa, Ralph A; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2016-09-01

    Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the main lignan in whole grain flaxseed, is a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger with known radioprotective properties. However, the exact mechanism of SDG radioprotection is not well understood. The current study identified a novel mechanism of DNA radioprotection by SDG in physiological solutions by scavenging active chlorine species (ACS) and reducing chlorinated nucleobases. The ACS scavenging activity of SDG was determined using two highly specific fluoroprobes: hypochlorite-specific 3'-(p-aminophenyl) fluorescein (APF) and hydroxyl radical-sensitive 3'-(p-hydroxyphenyl) fluorescein (HPF). Dopamine, an SDG structural analog, was used for proton (1)H NMR studies to trap primary ACS radicals. Taurine N-chlorination was determined to demonstrate radiation-induced generation of hypochlorite, a secondary ACS. DNA protection was assessed by determining the extent of DNA fragmentation and plasmid DNA relaxation following exposure to ClO(-) and radiation. Purine base chlorination by ClO(-) and γ-radiation was determined by using 2-aminopurine (2-AP), a fluorescent analog of 6-aminopurine. Chloride anions (Cl(-)) consumed >90% of hydroxyl radicals in physiological solutions produced by γ-radiation resulting in ACS formation, which was detected by (1)H NMR. Importantly, SDG scavenged hypochlorite- and γ-radiation-induced ACS. In addition, SDG blunted ACS-induced fragmentation of calf thymus DNA and plasmid DNA relaxation. SDG treatment before or after ACS exposure decreased the ClO(-) or γ-radiation-induced chlorination of 2-AP. Exposure to γ-radiation resulted in increased taurine chlorination, indicative of ClO(-) generation. NMR studies revealed formation of primary ACS radicals (chlorine atoms (Cl) and dichloro radical anions (Cl2¯)), which were trapped by SDG and its structural analog dopamine. We demonstrate that γ-radiation induces the generation of ACS in physiological solutions. SDG treatment scavenged

  6. Effects of time of weaning, supplement, and sire breed of calf during the fall grazing period on cow and calf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, R E; Grings, E E; MacNeil, M D; Heitschmidt, R K; Haferkamp, M R; Adams, D C

    1996-07-01

    A 4-yr experiment was conducted to determine effects of protein supplementation, age at weaning, and calf sire breed on cow and calf performance during fall grazing. Each year 48 pregnant, crossbred cows nursing steer calves (mean calving date = April 8) were assigned to a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial experiment replicated in three native range pastures. Treatment factors were: 1) no supplement (NS) or an individually fed supplement (S, 3 kg of a 34% protein supplement fed to cows every 3rd d); 2) calves weaned at the beginning (W, mid to late September) or at the end (NW, mid to late December) of the trial each year; or 3) calves sired by Hereford or Charolais bulls. Data were adjusted for cow size (initial hip height and initial and final weights and condition scores) by analyses of covariance using principal component coefficients as covariates. Change in cow weight and condition score were increased by S and W (P Forage intake was decreased (P intake (forage+supplement) was not affected by S but was decreased by W (P effects of treatments were observed the next spring in cow weight, condition score, and birth weight (NW decreased birth weight by 2 kg, P effects by the next fall on weaning weights or pregnancy rates. Milk yield decreased during the experimental period, and S maintained higher milk production in late lactation (P Calf ADG was increased by S and Charolais sires (P effects of feeding a 34% protein supplement to cows were to increase calf gains and improve persistency of lactation and efficiency; 2) delaying weaning decreased cow weight and condition score; 3) effects of weaning age and protein supplementation were highly dependent on forage and environmental conditions in any given year; and 4) whatever effects existed in a given year did not carry over to effects on next year's production as measured by pregnancy rates and weaning weights.

  7. Dark reticular cells in the thymus of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaerplid, B [Foersvarets Forskningsanstalt, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1974-01-01

    The morphology and distribution of dark reticular cells in the thymus of normal mice, of irradiated mice, and of mice with thymic lymphoma are described. It is concluded that dark cells are epithelial reticular cells and the hypothesis is suggested that dark and light epithelial reticular cells may be different modes of expression of the same cell type. (auth)

  8. Quantifying antimicrobial resistance at veal calf farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, A.B.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Stegeman, A.; Vernooij, H.; Mevius, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to determine a sampling strategy to quantify the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance on veal calf farms, based on the variation in antimicrobial resistance within and between calves on five farms. Faecal samples from 50 healthy calves (10 calves/farm) were collected. From

  9. Photocytotoxicity and DNA photocleavage activity of La(III) and Gd(III) complexes of phenanthroline bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Akhtar; Saha, Sounik; Chakravarty, Akhil R.; Majumdar, Ritankar; Dighe, Rajan R.

    2011-01-01

    Lanthanide(III) complexes (La(B)(acac) 3 ) (1-3) and (Gd(B)(acac) 3 ) (4-6), where B is a N,N-donor phenanthroline base, viz., 1,10-phenanthroline (phen in 1, 4), dipyrido(3,2-d:2',3'-f)quinoxaline (dpq in 2, 5) and dipyrido(3,2-a:2',3'-c)phena-zine (dppz in 3, 6), have been prepared and characterized. The Gd(III) complexes 4 - 6 are structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography. The complexes display GdO 6 N 2 coordination with the ligands showing bidentate chelating mode of bonding. The complexes are non-electrolytic in aqueous DMF and exhibit ligand-centered absorption bands in the UV region. The dppz complexes show a band at 380 nm in DMF. The La(III) complexes are diamagnetic. The Gd(III) complexes are paramagnetic with magnetic moment that corresponds to seven unpaired electrons. The complexes are avid binders to calf thymus DNA giving K b values in the range of 4.7 x 10 4 - 6.1 x 10 5 M -1 with a relative binding order: 3, 6 (dppz) > 2, 5 (dpq) > 1, 4 (phen). The binding data suggest DNA surface and/or groove binding nature of the complexes. The dpq and dppz complexes efficiently cleave SC DNA to its nicked circular form in UV-A light of 365 nm via formation of both singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) and hydroxyl radical (HO · ) species. The dppz complexes 3 and 6 exhibit significant PDT effect in HeLa cervical cancer cells giving respective IC 50 value of 460(±50) and 530(±30) nM in UV-A light of 365 nm, and are essentially non-toxic in dark with an IC 50 value of >100 μM. The dppz ligand alone is cytotoxic in dark and UV-A light. A significant decrease in the dark toxicity of the dppz base is observed on binding to the Ln(Ill) ion while retaining its photocytotoxicity. (author)

  10. Effect of Euphorbia hirta and Thymus vulgaris powders on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ban placed on the long term use of commercial antibiotics at subtherapeutic levels for diseases control and growth promotion in livestock production necessitated a worldwide search for available, cost effective and efficacious alternatives. Accordingly, the effects of Euphorbia hirta (EH) and Thymus vulgaris (TV) ...

  11. Effect of low molecular fraction of thymus humoral factor on blood formation processes of irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolyarova, T.V.; Skobel'tsyna, E.S.; Grinberg, S.M.; Kruglikov, I.L.; Korotaev, G.K.; Tepelina, O.M.; Il'ina, T.I.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of low-molecular fraction of thymus humoral factor on blood formation in mice irradiated at 4 Gy was studied. It is shown that injection of low-molecular fraction of thymus hymoral factor to irradiated animals affects proliferative processes in spleen and bone marrow, however the degree of the effect depends on the injection scheme of the preparation. Application of mathematical planning methods of the experiment enables to analyze various injection schemes of low-molecular fraction of thymus humoral factor on the investigated indices. The optimal scheme of preparation injection is determined: 1st injection with the dose of 10 mkg/kg following 4 hour after irradiation, 2d injection - with the same dose in 7-21 days

  12. Influences of supplemental feeding on winter elk calf:cow ratios in the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Foley, Aaron; Cross, Paul C.; Christianson, David A; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Creely, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Several elk herds in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem are fed during winter to alleviate interactions with livestock, reduce damage to stored crops, and to manage for high elk numbers. The effects of supplemental feeding on ungulate population dynamics has rarely been examined, despite the fact that supplemental feeding is partially justified as necessary for maintaining or enhancing population growth rates. We used linear regression to assess how the presence of feedgrounds, snowpack, summer rainfall, indices of grizzly bear density and wolves per elk, elk population trend counts, brucellosis seroprevalence, and survey date were correlated with midwinter calf:cow ratios, a metric correlated with population growth, from 1983–2010 from 12 ecologically similar elk herd units (7 fed and 5 unfed) in Wyoming, USA. Our statistical approach allowed for rigorous tests of the hypotheses that supplemental feeding had positive effects on calf:cow ratios and reduced sensitivity of calf:cow ratios to bottom-up limitation relative to top-down limitation from native predators. Calf:cow ratios generally declined across all herd units over the study period and varied widely among units with feedgrounds. We found no evidence that the presence of feedgrounds had positive effects on midwinter calf:cow ratios in Wyoming. Further, fed elk showed stronger correlations with environmental factors, whereas calf:cow ratios for unfed elk showed stronger correlations with predator indices. Although we found no consistent association between winter feeding and higher calf:cow ratios, we did not assess late winter mortality and differences in human offtake between fed and unfed regions, which remain a priority for future research. 

  13. Arterial supply of the thoracic lobes of the thymus in dogs of the Great Dane race.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marques Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The origins, numbers and type of arterial branches responsible for the blood supply of thoracic lobes of the thymus were studied in 28 stillborn dogs of the Great Dane, of which 18 were males and 10 were females. The arterial systems of these animals were filled with aqueous solution of Neoprene Latex “450”, 50%. After, the specimens were fixed in 10% formaldehyde aqueous solution. The lobes of the thymus were supplied by direct or indirect arterial branches coming from the right and left internal thoracic arteries, pericardiacophrenicas arteries, right and left costocervicais trunks, and left subclavian artery. The left subclavian artery and brachiocephalic trunk emitted direct branches towards the left thoracic lobe of the thymus.

  14. Study of the argyrophil structures of thymus connective tissue after exposure to X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beletskij, V.K.; Beletskaya, L.V.; Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Ehpidemiologii i Mikrobiologii)

    1980-01-01

    Studied are argyrophil structures of thymus connective tissue - histiocytes (appendiculate macrophages) and reticuline fibers after the bulk of lymphoid cells has migrated from the organ due to irradiation of animals with X-rays. 10 intact and 16 experimental guinea pigs subjected to the whole-body irradiation with X-rays in the dose of 1000-3000 rad have been used for investigations. It is shown that argyrophil stroma elements of thymus connective tissue, histiocytes and reticular cells, are rather resistant to X-rays and preserve their argyrophily property in the irradiation with high doses, as well as the epithelial cells of the organ. Paraplastic structures in irradiated animals are expressed more completely being demasked as a result of lymphocyte migration and death. The expressed hypertrophy and proliferation of reticular cells and appendiculate macrophages are probably the response to the alternative process in the organ tissues caused by irradiation. A close structural connection of reticular and epithelial tissues on the territory of both layers of thymus sections is noted

  15. Use of mesenteric lymphangiography in a calf with chylothorax and chyloperitoneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, A.M.; Riley, C.B.; Macdonald, D.G.; Ferguson, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    Lymphatic abnormalities resulting in chylous effusion into a body cavity are uncommon in domestic animals. In a 6-day-old calf admitted to our hospital because of failure to suckle and abdominal distention, however, mesenteric lymphangiography revealed an obstruction of lymphatic flow. Laparoscopic examination of the abdomen was unsuccessful. Fluid accumulation was resolved in this calf by drainage. In cattle with chylothorax and concurrent chyloperitoneum in which a traumatic lesion of the thoracic duct is possible, conservative management, with drainage and supportive treatment, should be attempted prior to considering surgical intervention

  16. Synthesis and structural characterization of dioxomolybdenum and dioxotungsten hydroxamato complexes and their function in the protection of radiation induced DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Shiv Shankar; Selim, Md; Saha, Abhijit; Mukherjea, Kalyan K

    2014-02-21

    The synthesis and structural characterization of two novel dioxomolybdenum(VI) (1) and dioxotungsten(VI) (2) complexes with 2-phenylacetylhydroxamic acid (PAHH) [M(O)2(PAH)2] [M = Mo, W] have been accomplished. The dioxomolybdenum(VI) and dioxotungsten(VI) moiety is coordinated by the hydroxamate group (-CONHO(-)) of the 2-phenylacetylhydroxamate (PAH) ligand in a bi-dentate fashion. In both the complexes the PAHH ligand is coordinated through oxygen atoms forming a five membered chelate. The hydrogen atom of N-H of the hydroxamate group is engaged in intermolecular H-bonding with the carbonyl oxygen of another coordinated hydroxamate ligand, thereby forming an extended 1D chain. The ligand as well as both the complexes exhibit the ability to protect from radiation induced damage both in CTDNA as well as in pUC19 plasmid DNA. As the damage to DNA is caused by the radicals generated during radiolysis, its scavenging imparts protection from the damage to DNA. To understand the mechanism of protection, binding affinities of the ligand and the complex with DNA were determined using absorption and emission spectral studies and viscosity measurements, whereby the results indicate that both the complexes and the hydroxamate ligand interact with calf thymus DNA in the minor groove. The intrinsic binding constants, obtained from UV-vis studies, are 7.2 × 10(3) M(-1), 5.2 × 10(4) M(-1) and 1.2 × 10(4) M(-1) for the ligand and complexes 1 and 2 respectively. The Stern-Volmer quenching constants obtained from a luminescence study for both the complexes are 5.6 × 10(4) M(-1) and 1.6 × 10(4) M(-1) respectively. The dioxomolybdenum(VI) complex is found to be a more potent radioprotector compared to the dioxotungsten(VI) complex and the ligand. Radical scavenging chemical studies suggest that the complexes have a greater ability to scavenge both the hydroxyl as well as the superoxide radicals compared to the ligand. The free radical scavenging ability of the ligand and the

  17. Effects of different flooring options in outside pens of hutches on dairy calf growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growth rates of dairy calves may vary due to many different factors, including housing. The objective of this study was to determine if calf growth was affected by different flooring options in the outside penned area of a calf hutch. For this study, 33 hutches were blocked in groups of 3 by locatio...

  18. Effect of a probiotic fermented milk on the thymus in Balb/c mice under non-severe protein-energy malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Ivanna Novotny; Galdeano, Carolina Maldonado; Carmuega, Esteban; Weill, Ricardo; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra; Perdigón, Gabriela

    2013-08-28

    Protein–energy malnutrition (PEM) causes a significant impairment of the immune system, the thymus being one of the most affected organs. It has been demonstrated that the administration of probiotic fermented milk (PFM) recovered the intestinal barrier, histological alterations and mucosal and systemic immune functions in a non-severe malnutrition model using BALB/c mice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, in the same model of malnutrition, the effect of a PFM added to a re-nutrition diet on the recovery of the thymus, analysing histological and functional alterations caused by malnutrition. Mice were undernourished and divided into three groups according to the dietary supplement received during re-nutrition: milk, PFM or its bacterial-free supernatant (BFS). They were compared with well-nourished and malnourished mice. PFM was the most effective re-nutrition supplement to improve the histology of the thymus, decreasing cellular apoptosis in this organ and recovering the percentage of CD4þ/CD82 single-positive thymocytes. Immature doublepositive thymocytes were increased in the malnourished control (MC). The production of different cytokines in the thymus was increased in mice given PFM, compared with the mice that received other dietary supplements and MC. Mice given the BFS presented an improvement in the thymus similar to those that received milk. We demonstrated the importance of the whole PFM supplementation on the histological and functional recovery of the thymus in a non-severe PEM model.

  19. Integrating scientific knowledge into large-scale restoration programs: the CALFED Bay-Delta Program experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K.A.; Short, A.

    2009-01-01

    Integrating science into resource management activities is a goal of the CALFED Bay-Delta Program, a multi-agency effort to address water supply reliability, ecological condition, drinking water quality, and levees in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of northern California. Under CALFED, many different strategies were used to integrate science, including interaction between the research and management communities, public dialogues about scientific work, and peer review. This paper explores ways science was (and was not) integrated into CALFED's management actions and decision systems through three narratives describing different patterns of scientific integration and application in CALFED. Though a collaborative process and certain organizational conditions may be necessary for developing new understandings of the system of interest, we find that those factors are not sufficient for translating that knowledge into management actions and decision systems. We suggest that the application of knowledge may be facilitated or hindered by (1) differences in the objectives, approaches, and cultures of scientists operating in the research community and those operating in the management community and (2) other factors external to the collaborative process and organization.

  20. Duodenal ileus caused by a calf feeding nipple in a cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerspach Christian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this report was to describe duodenal obstruction caused by a rubber foreign body in a cow. Case Presentation The clinical, biochemical and ultrasonographic findings in a five-year-old Swiss Braunvieh cow with duodenal ileus caused by a calf feeding nipple are described. The main clinical signs were anorexia, ruminal tympany, decreased faecal output and abomasal reflux syndrome. Ultrasonographic examination revealed reticular hyperactivity and a dilated duodenum. A diagnosis of duodenal ileus was made and the cow underwent right-flank laparotomy, which revealed a dilation of the cranial part of the duodenum because of obstruction by a pliable foreign body. This was identified via enterotomy as a calf feeding nipple. The cow was healthy at the time of discharge four days after surgery and went on to complete a successful lactation. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first description of duodenal obstruction by a calf feeding nipple. This is an interesting case, which broadens the spectrum of the causes of duodenal ileus, which is usually caused by obstruction of the duodenum by a phytobezoar.

  1. Effects of gamma-rays on morphology of the thymus of the adult fish of Oryzias latipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoneum, M.M.H.; Ijiri, Ken-ichi; Egami, Nobuo

    1982-01-01

    The effects of gamma-rays on the thymus in the adult fish of Oryzias latipes were studied. Fish were subjected to a single whole-body irradiation of the dose ranging from 0 to 8 kR. Through the histological sections, the quantitative treatment was performed on the changes in thymus volume and mitotic activity of thymocytes after irradiation. The thymus in the irradiated fish exhibited a sudden drop in its volume on day 1-3 post-irradiation, subsequently followed by its regeneration. The change in mitotic index of thymocytes, especially in the regeneration phase, showed a dose-dependent behavior (same level as the control for 10 and 25 R; and overshoot for 100 and 200 R; a gradual recovery for 1 and 2 kR; no mitosis for 4 and 8 kR). (author)

  2. Influence of the thymus on the capacity of female mice to reject male skin grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Pirro, E.S.; Goldberg, E.H.

    1989-01-01

    The ability of female mice to reject H-Y-incompatible, but otherwise histocompatible, male skin grafts differs greatly from strain to strain, as is illustrated particularly by the C57BL strain (B6 and other sublines), termed ''H-Y rejector,'' because females invariably and promptly reject C57BL male skin, in comparison with the C3H strain, termed ''H-Y nonrejector,'' because females characteristically accept male C3H skin. To assess the extent to which the thymus governs this rejector vs. nonrejector status, two studies were made. In the first, lethally irradiated B6 (C57BL) and C3H females were restored with (B6 X C3H)F1 female cells, providing a graft-vs.-host-free milieu for differentiation of the same immunopoietic cell population in B6 vs. C3H hosts. With respect to (B6 X C3H)F1 male skin grafts, B6 hosts responded as rejectors and C3H hosts as nonrejectors, signifying that rejector vs. nonrejector status was determined by the host during immunopoiesis. That the main organ responsible for rejector vs. nonrejector determination is the thymus was shown in a second study. Previously thymectomized (B6 X C3H)F1 females received a histocompatible graft of thymus from either B6 or C3H neonatal females and were restored with donor-marked (B6-Ly-5a X C3H)F1 female cells after lethal irradiation. With respect to (B6 X C3H)F1 male skin grafts, the recipients of B6 thymus grafts responded generally as rejectors and the recipients of C3H thymus grafts responded uniformly as nonrejectors

  3. Diffusion tensor imaging of the human calf : Variation of inter- and intramuscle-specific diffusion parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlaffke, Lara; Rehmann, Robert; Froeling, Martijn; Kley, Rudolf; Tegenthoff, Martin; Vorgerd, Matthias; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate to what extent inter- and intramuscular variations of diffusion parameters of human calf muscles can be explained by age, gender, muscle location, and body mass index (BMI) in a specific age group (20-35 years). Materials and Methods: Whole calf muscles of 18 healthy

  4. Assessment of cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of refinery waste effluent using plant, animal and bacterial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amit Kumar; Ahmad, Masood

    2012-01-30

    The work described here presents the toxic effect of Mathura refinery wastewater (MRWW) in plant (Allium cepa), bacterial (E. coli K12) and human (blood) system. The samples were collected from adjoining area of Mathura refinery, Dist. Mathura, U.P. (India). Chromosomal aberration test and micronucleus assay in (A. cepa) system, E. coli K12 survival assay as well as hemolysis assay in human blood were employed to assess the toxicity of MRWW. MRWW exposure resulted in the formation of micronuclei and bridges in chromosomes of A. cepa cells. A significant decline occurred in survival of DNA repair defective mutants of E. coli K12 exposed to MRWW. On incubation with MRWW, calf thymus DNA-EtBr fluorescence intensity decreased and percent hemolysis of human blood cells increased. An induction in the MDA levels of MRWW treated A. cepa roots indicated lipid peroxidation also. Collectively, the results demonstrate a significant genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of MRWW. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Calf circumference and its association with gait speed in elderly participants at Peruvian Naval Medical Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Villegas, Gregory Mishell; Runzer Colmenares, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association between calf circumference and gait speed in elderly patients 65 years or older at Geriatric day clinic at Peruvian Centro Médico Naval. Cross-sectional, retrospective study. We assessed 139 participants, 65 years or older at Peruvian Centro Médico Naval including calf circumference, gait speed and Short Physical Performance Battery. With bivariate analyses and logistic regression model we search for association between variables. The age mean was 79.37 years old (SD: 8.71). 59.71% were male, the 30.97% had a slow walking speed and the mean calf circumference was 33.42cm (SD: 5.61). After a bivariate analysis, we found a calf circumference mean of 30.35cm (SD: 3.74) in the slow speed group and, in normal gait group, a mean of 33.51cm (SD: 3.26) with significantly differences. We used logistic regression to analyze association with slow gait speed, founding statistically significant results adjusting model by disability and age. Low calf circumference is associated with slow speed walk in population over 65 years old. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  6. The size of the thymus: an important immunological diagnostic tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth

    2003-01-01

    The report on the influence of seasonal factors on thymic size in early life describes a pattern of ultrasonographically measured thymic growth in Gambian infants including the finding of a smaller thymus in the hungry season. These factors raise a number of important questions: Is the size...

  7. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of novel α, β unsaturated amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmailzadeh, K; Housaindokht, M R; Moradi, A; Esmaeili, A A; Sharifi, Z

    2016-05-15

    Three derivatives of α,β unsaturated amides have been successfully synthesized via Ugi-four component (U-4CR) reaction. The interactions of the amides with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ct-DNA) have been investigated in the Tris-HCl buffer (pH=7.4) using viscometric, spectroscopic, thermal denaturation studies, and also molecular docking. By UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy studies, adding CT-DNA to the compound solution caused the hypochromism indicates that there are interactions between the compounds and DNA base pairs. In competitive fluorescence with methylene blue as an intercalator probe, adding compounds to DNA-MB solution caused an increase in emission spectra of the complex. This could be because of compound replacing, with similar binding mode of MB, between the DNA base pairs due to release of bonded MB molecules from DNA-MB complex. Thermal denaturation studies and viscometric experiments also indicated that all three investigated compounds bind to CT-DNA by non-classical intercalation mode. Additionally, molecular docking technique predicted partial intercalation binding mode for the compounds. Also, the highest binding energy was obtained for compound 5a. These results are in agreement with results obtained by empirical methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Changes in endocrine thymus function in patients with breast cancer under the action of combined treatment including non-specific active immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendyug, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    The state of endocrine thymus function in patients with breast cancer of the 1st-4th stage and in 31 patients with precancerous diseases is studied. It is established that considerable decrease of thymus serous factor (TSF) content in all patients is observed. Radiation- and polychemotherapy carried out decreases the endocrine thymus function. Inclusions of non-specific active immunotherapy in patients' treatment promote the increase of TSF content, that increases treatment efficiency

  9. Gap junction modulation by extracellular signaling molecules: the thymus model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves L.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Gap junctions are intercellular channels which connect adjacent cells and allow direct exchange of molecules of low molecular weight between them. Such a communication has been described as fundamental in many systems due to its importance in coordination, proliferation and differentiation. Recently, it has been shown that gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC can be modulated by several extracellular soluble factors such as classical hormones, neurotransmitters, interleukins, growth factors and some paracrine substances. Herein, we discuss some aspects of the general modulation of GJIC by extracellular messenger molecules and more particularly the regulation of such communication in the thymus gland. Additionally, we discuss recent data concerning the study of different neuropeptides and hormones in the modulation of GJIC in thymic epithelial cells. We also suggest that the thymus may be viewed as a model to study the modulation of gap junction communication by different extracellular messengers involved in non-classical circuits, since this organ is under bidirectional neuroimmunoendocrine control.

  10. The Effect of Calf Gender on Milk Production in Seasonal Calving Cows and Its Impact on Genetic Evaluations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie K Hess

    Full Text Available Gender of the calf whose birth initiates lactation could influence whole lactation milk yield of the dam due to hormonal influences on mammary gland development, or through calf gender effects on gestation length. Fetal gender could influence late lactation yields because cows become pregnant at peak lactation. The effects of calf gender sequences in parities 1-3 were assessed by separately fitting animal models to datasets from New Zealand comprising 274 000 Holstein Friesian and 85 000 Jersey cows, decreasing to 12 000 and 4 000 cows by parity 3. The lactation initiated by the birth of a female rather than a male calf was associated with a 0.33-1.1% (p≤0.05 higher milk yield. Female calf gender had carryover effects associated with higher milk yield in second lactations for Holstein Friesians (0.24%; p = 0.01 and third lactations for Jerseys (1.1%; p = 0.01. Cows giving birth to bull calves have 2 day longer gestations, which reduces lactation length in seasonal calving herds. Adding a covariate for lactation length to the animal model eroded some of these calf gender effects, such that calving a female led to higher milk yield only for second lactation Holstein Friesians (1.6%; p = 0.002. The interval centering method generates lower estimates of whole lactation yield when Wood's lactation curves are shifted to the right by 2 days for male calves and this explained the higher yield in female calves when differences in lactation length were considered. Correlations of estimated breeding values between models including or excluding calf gender sequence were 1.00 for bulls or cows. Calf gender primarily influences milk yield through increased gestation length of male calves, and bias associated with the interval centering method used to estimate whole lactation milk yields. Including information on calf gender is unlikely to have an effect on selection response in New Zealand dairy cattle.

  11. Differentiation of bone marrow cells to functional T lymphocytes following implantation of thymus grafts and thymic stroma in nude and ATxBM mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Splitter, G.A.; McGuire, T.C.; Davis, W.C.

    1977-01-01

    Cardiac allografts were used to compare the immunologic capacity of nude mice and adult, thymectomized, lethally irradiated, bone marrow-reconstituted (AT x BM) mice. Neither nude nor AT x BM mice were able to reject cardiac allografts of any party. However, both rejected grafts of any party following implantation of neonatal thymus or thymus from 3-week-old syngeneic mice. Irradiated syngeneic thymus grafts (800 R) were equally effective in restoring host responsiveness against allografts. In contrast, allogeneic thymus grafts restored the capacity to reject second-party heart grafts only in AT x BM mice. Second-party grafts persisted indefintely when placed on nude mice implanted with an allogeneic, unirradiated thymus graft. Third-party grafts transplanted 17 weeks after reconstitution, however, were rejected. Irradiated nude mice given normal littermate bone marrow and simultaneously grafted with second-party thymus and heart allografts also failed to reject their second-party heart grafts. The difference in ultimate capacity to respond between AT x BM and nude mice suggests that a maturational defect exists in the nude mouse environment which impedes development of precursor T lymphocytes

  12. Myo-inositol uptake by cultured calf retinal pigment epithelial cells: regulation by glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatami, M.; Rockey, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Confluent primary (P-1) or subcultured passage 2 or 3 (P-2, P-3) calf retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) were incubated with [ 3 H]-myo-inositol (MI, 100-200 μM) in balanced salt solution (BSS), for 5 to 60 min at 37 0 C. MI uptake into RPE (P-2, 5 days old) was saturable with K/sub m/ of 147 μM and V/sub max/ of 5.5 pmole/min/μg DNA. P-1 or P-2 incubated with 10 μM MI for 40 min accumulated MI against a concentration gradient ([MI]in/[MI]out > 20). Replacement of 150 mM NaCl in BSS by 150 mM choline-Cl reduced the uptake of MI by 87%. MI uptake was inhibited (39%) when cells were incubated in BSS in the absence of Ca Cl 2 . Transport of MI into RPE incubated in the presence of phloridzin, ouabain or 2,4-dinitrophenol (1 mM each) for 10 min was inhibited by 65, 37 and 21%, respectively. α-D-Glucose (20 mM) in the incubation media inhibited MI uptake into primary (or P-2) cultured RPE by 30 or 43% when cells were incubated for 10 or 60 min, respectively. The ability of RPE cells, grown in the presence of 50 mM glucose for 15-25 days, to concentrate MI (40 μM) was reduced up to 41%. Cultured RPE cells accumulated myo-inositol by an active transport system, sensitive to ouabain, DNP and phloridzin. High glucose in the incubation media or in the growth media inhibited the uptake of MI into calf RPE cells

  13. Patterns of stillbirth and dystocia in Ontario cow-calf herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, J J; Allen, O B; Martin, S W; Alves, D M

    1992-01-01

    The association between a number of individual animal and herd level factors and calving problems in beef cows and heifers were examined. Data were from the 1987 calving season for a subset of 123 herds which maintained individual-animal records, from a sample of 180 randomly selected Ontario cow-calf herds. The median herd dystocia rate was 5.8% and 24.4% of herds had no dystocias. The median herd stillbirth rate was 2.8%, and 33.3% of herds had no stillbirths. Dystocias and stillbirths were much more common in heifers than in cows. Separate statistical models of dystocia and stillbirth for cows and heifers were created. Dystocia in cows was associated with calf sex, previous calving assistance and large breed type and birth weight. Variations in 1987 cow herd dystocia rates were associated with calving season, location and density, and the herd dystocia rate in 1986. Dystocia in heifers was associated with large breed type and calf birth weight. Herd-level management practices associated with increased heifer dystocia rates included breeding heifers to calve earlier than cows and rearing heifers together with the cow herd. Stillbirths for both cows and heifers were associated with calving assistance, particularly hard assistance. Herd-level management and other factors were unassociated with stillbirths. PMID:1586893

  14. A comparison of intermittent pneumatic compression of the calf and whole leg in preventing deep venous thrombosis in urological surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderdahl, D W; Henderson, S R; Hansberry, K L

    1997-05-01

    Intermittent pneumatic compression of the calf and/or thigh effectively decreases the incidence of deep venous thrombosis and other thrombotic sequelae but clinical data comparing these modalities are currently lacking. A total of 90 patients undergoing major urological surgery was randomly assigned to receive calf length or thigh length pneumatic compression for antithrombotic prophylaxis. Duplex ultrasound of the lower extremities was performed preoperatively and twice postoperatively to evaluate for deep venous thrombosis. Health care providers in the operating room, recovery room and ward were asked to compare the compression systems, and a cost analysis was performed. A total of 47 patients wore the thigh length sequential pneumatic sleeves and 43 wore calf length uniform compression systems. A pulmonary embolus without evidence of deep venous thrombosis was detected in 1 patient (2%) using the thigh length system. A thrombus was detected in the common femoral vein by duplex ultrasonography in 1 patient (2%) with the calf length system. Nursing personnel found the calf length sleeves easier to apply and more comfortable by patient account but they were satisfied with both systems. There was a significant cost savings with the calf length pneumatic compression system. Calf and thigh length pneumatic compression systems similarly decrease the risk of deep venous thrombosis in patients undergoing urological surgery. The calf length system has the added advantage of being less expensive and easier to use.

  15. What do calves choose to eat and how do preferences affect calf behaviour and welfare?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, L.E.; Engel, B.; Berends, H.; Reenen, van C.G.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Calves raised for milk or meat are fed diets that differ from feral-herd calf diets and are based on the nutritional requirements of the ‘average calf’. These diets may not meet the dietary preferences of each individual calf. This study explored diet preferences in calves with free dietary choice,

  16. Effects of Thymus vulgaris and Mentha pulegium on colour, nutrients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Mentha pulegium (mentha) powders on meat colour, nutrient composition and malondialdehyde (MDA) where broiler chickens were under heat stress. Two hundred one-day-old male chicks were used in a completely randomized design with ...

  17. Photoactivation of Diiodido-Pt(IV) Complexes Coupled to Upconverting Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfahl, Stefanie; Natile, Marta M; Mohamad, Heba S; Helm, Christiane A; Schulzke, Carola; Natile, Giovanni; Bednarski, Patrick J

    2016-07-05

    The preparation, characterization, and surface modification of upconverting lanthanide-doped hexagonal NaGdF4 nanocrystals attached to light sensitive diiodido-Pt(IV) complexes is presented. The evaluation for photoactivation and cytotoxicity of the novel carboxylated diiodido-Pt(IV) cytotoxic prodrugs by near-infrared (NIR) light (λ = 980 nm) is also reported. We attempted two different strategies for attachment of light-sensitive diiodido-Pt(IV) complexes to Yb,Er- and Yb,Tm-doped β-NaGdF4 upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) in order to provide nanohybrids, which offer unique opportunities for selective drug activation within the tumor cells and subsequent spatiotemporal controlled drug release by NIR-to-visible light-upconversion: (A) covalent attachment of the Pt(IV) complex via amide bond formation and (B) carboxylate exchange of oleate on the surface of the UCNPs with diiodido-Pt(IV) carboxylato complexes. Initial feasibility studies showed that NIR applied by a 980 nm laser had only a slight effect on the stability of the various diiodido-Pt(IV) complexes, but when UCNPs were present more rapid loss of the ligand-metal-charge transfer (LMCT) bands of the diiodido-Pt(IV) complexes was observed. Furthermore, Pt released from the Pt(IV) complexes platinated calf-thymus DNA (ct-DNA) more rapidly when NIR was applied compared to dark controls. Of the two attachment strategies, method A with the covalently attached diiodido-Pt(IV) carboxylates via amide bond formation proved to be the most effective method for generating UCNPs that release Pt when irradiated with NIR; the released Pt was also able to bind irreversibly to calf thymus DNA. Nonetheless, only ca. 20% of the Pt on the surface of the UCNPs was in the Pt(IV) oxidation state, the rest was Pt(II), indicating chemical reduction of the diiodido-Pt(IV) prodrug by the UCNPs. Cytotoxicity studies with the various UCNP-Pt conjugates and constructs, tested on human leukemia HL60 cells in culture, indicated a

  18. Delaying postpartum supplementation in cows consuming low-quality forage does not alter cow and calf productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing the amount of supplemental feed postpartum without affecting productivity may enhance profitability of cow-calf operations. Therefore, sixteen 2-yr-old fall calving cows were used to evaluate effects of delaying postpartum supplementation on milk production, serum metabolites, cow and calf ...

  19. New dinuclear palladium(II) complexes: Studies of the nucleophilic substitution reactions, DNA/BSA interactions and cytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćoćić, Dušan; Jovanović, Snežana; Nišavić, Marija; Baskić, Dejan; Todorović, Danijela; Popović, Suzana; Bugarčić, Živadin D; Petrović, Biljana

    2017-10-01

    Six new dinuclear Pd(II) complexes, [{Pd(2,2'-bipy)Cl} 2 (μ-pz)](ClO 4 ) 2 (Pd1), [{Pd(dach)Cl} 2 (μ-pz)](ClO 4 ) 2 (Pd2), [{Pd(en)Cl} 2 (μ-pz)](ClO 4 ) 2 (Pd3), [{Pd(2,2'-bipy)Cl} 2 (μ-4,4'-bipy)](ClO 4 ) 2 (Pd4), [{Pd(dach)Cl} 2 (μ-4,4'-bipy)](ClO 4 ) 2 (Pd5) and [{Pd(en)Cl} 2 (μ-4,4'-bipy)](ClO 4 ) 2 (Pd6) (where 2,2'-bipy=2,2'-bipyridyl, pz=pyrazine, dach=trans-(±)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane, en=ethylenediamine, 4,4'-bipy=4,4'-bipyridyl) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental microanalysis, IR, 1 H NMR and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The pK a values of corresponding diaqua complexes were determined by spectrophotometric pH titration. Substitution reactions with thiourea (Tu), l-methionine (l-Met), l-cysteine (l-Cys), l-histidine (l-His) and guanosine-5'-monophosphate (5'-GMP) were studied under the pseudo-first order conditions at pH7.2. Reactions of Pd1 with Tu, l-Met and l-Cys were followed by decomposition of complexes, while structures of dinuclear complexes were preserved during the substitution with nitrogen donors. Interactions with calf-thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were followed by absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence quenching measurements. All complexes can bind to CT-DNA exhibiting high intrinsic binding constants (K b =10 4 -10 5 M -1 ). Competitive studies with ethidium bromide (EB) have shown that complexes can displace DNA-bound EB. High values of binding constants towards bovine serum albumin protein (BSA) indicate good binding affinity. Finally, all complexes showed moderate to high cytotoxic activity against HeLa (human cervical epithelial carcinoma cell lines) and MDA-MB-231 (human breast epithelial carcinoma cell lines) tumor cell lines inducing apoptotic type cell death, whereas normal fibroblasts were significantly less sensitive. The impact on cell cycle of these cells was distinctive, where Pd4, Pd5 and Pd6 showed the most prominent effect arresting MDA-MB-231 (human lung fibroblast cell lines) cell in G1/S phase of cell

  20. CALF CIRCUMFERENCE AT BIRTH: A SCREENING METHOD FOR DETECTION OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Birth Weight (LBW babies run a higher risk of morbidity and mortality in the perinatal period. However, in our country where almost 70-80% births take place at home and peripheral hospitals, taking accurate weight is a problem due to unavailability of weighing scale and trained personnel. Hence there is a constant search for newer methods to detect LBW babies so that early interventions can be instituted. Various authors have used different surrogate anthropometric measurements from different parts of our country. In the present study, an attempt was made to validate the feasibility of using calf circumference as a predictor of LBW babies that can be used by a trained or untrained person. Objectives: To study various anthropometric measurements including calf circumference in newborns and to correlate various measurements with birth weight. Methods: The present study was conducted in the department of Social & Preventive Medicine, MLB Medical College, Jhansi (UP for a period of one year. The study included 1100 consecutively delivered neonates in the maternity ward of MLB Medical College Hospital, Jhansi (UP. The birth weight (Wt, crown heel length (CHL, crown rump length (CRL, head circumference (HC, chest circumference (CC, mid arm circumference (MAC, thigh circumference (TC and calf circumference (CC by standard techniques. All the measurements were taken by a single person throughout the study period with in 24 hours of delivery. Standard statistical methods were adopted for determination of critical limit, sensitivity, specificity and correlation coefficient of different anthropometric measurements in relation to birth weight. Results: Analysis of data indicates that out of 1100 newborns, 55.64% were low birth weight. The percentage of newborns > 2500gm was 44.36. Overall average birth weight was 2348 ± 505gm. Out of 1100 newborns, 608 (55.27% were males and 492 (44.73% were females. Average birth weight for males was 2412

  1. Complex Vertebral Malformation (CVM) in an Italian Holstein calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, A.; Diana, A.; Testoni, S.; Olzi, E.

    2004-01-01

    Complex Vertebral Malformation, a congenital and lethal genetic defect of Holstein breed, has been recently observed in different Countries all over the world. In this paper the AA describe the clinical and radiological aspects of CVM in a two day old female calf. The disease was characterized by low body weight, symmetrical arthrogryposis and partial rotation of all legs and scoliosis. Calf was alert and showed physiological appetite, but was not able to maintain the quadrupedal stance. Radiographs of the vertebral column showed multiple vertebral anomalies, including hemivertebrae, fused and misshapen vertebrae and ribs and scoliosis, that affected mainly the caudal, cervical and thoracic regions. At necropsy, besides the skeleton anomalies, complex malformation of the heart was observed, which included atrial and interventricular defects and patent ductus arteriosus. This is the first case of CVM completely documented and genetically tested in Italy [it

  2. Essential Oils from Thyme (Thymus vulgaris): Chemical Composition and Biological Effects in Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetvicka, Vaclav; Vetvickova, Jana

    2016-12-01

    Thymus species are popular spices and contain volatile oils as main chemical constituents. Recently, plant-derived essential oils are gaining significant attention due to their significant biological activities. Seven different thymus-derived essential oils were compared in our study. First, we focused on their chemical composition, which was followed up by testing their effects on phagocytosis, cytokine production, chemotaxis, edema inhibition, and liver protection. We found limited biological activities among tested oils, with no correlation between composition and biological effects. Similarly, no oils were effective in every reaction. Based on our data, the tested biological use of these essential oils is questionable.

  3. Histological investigations on thymus of male rats prenatally exposed to bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Işıl; Kum, Şadiye; Tuğlu, Mehmet İbrahim

    2018-04-27

    Bisphenol A is called as a endocrine-distrupting chemical because of the its steroid-like activity and it used in the construction of plastic containing materials. It is indicated that bisphenol A can pass the human serum, urine, follicular fluid, placenta and umblical cord as a result of the use of substances containing this agent. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of bisphenol A on the development of the thymus, a primary lymphoid organ which plays an important role in the specific immunity. The adult pregnant female rats were administered orally with bisphenol A (for 21 days) and postnatal thymus samples were obtained on day 21, 45 and 90 and were performed for histochemical and immunohistochemical staining for CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD79a and TUNEL assay for the apoptotic cells. Evaluation of all groups, CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD79a stainings were decreased in the experimental groups compared with control group. The apoptotic cells were determined in the all groups on day 90 as a result of the thymus involution. It is noted that there was not any histological and morphological damages in the rats prenatally exposed the bisphenol A. The effect of the bisphenol A is unknown in the future, but there is no problem in the adult rats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cortisol decreases 2[125I] iodomelatonin binding sites in the duck thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, A.M.S.; Liu, Z.M.; Tang, F.; Pang, S.F.

    1994-01-01

    The immunosuppressive effect of chronic glucocorticoid treatment on 2[ 125 I] iodomelatonin binding in the duck thymus was studied. Two-week-old ducks were injected intraperitoneally with either 1 mg of cortisol per day (experimental group) or an equivalent volume of vehicle (control group) in the middle of the light period for seven days. 2[ 125 I] iodomelatonin binding assays were performed on thymic membranes. Cortisol injection reduced the body weight gain, size of the bursa of Fabricius and absolute weights of the primary lymphoid organs but had no effect on the spleen weights. The relative weights of the spleen were increased while those of the primary lymphoid organs were unchanged. The density of the thymus 2[ 125 I] iodomelatonin binding sites was decreased while the affinity was not affected. The modulation of the thymic 2[ 125 I] iodomelatonin binding sites by changes in the immune status of the duck suggests that these binding sites represent physiologically relevant melatonin receptors and that melatonin exerts its action on the lymphoid tissues directly. The authors findings support the hypothesis that the thymus is the target site for the immunomodulatory interactions between the pineal melatonin and the adrenal steroids. A possible inhibitory influence of adrenal steroids on the immuno-enhancing effect of melatonin is also suggested. 34 refs., 3 tabs

  5. Performance of Angus and Brangus cow-calf pairs grazing Alicia bermudagrass and common bermudagrass-dallisgrass pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, W E; Gates, R N; Blouin, D C; Saxton, A M; Nelson, B D

    1997-07-01

    This research was designed to examine genotype x environment interactions in cow-calf growth performance of grazing animals. Angus and Brangus cow-calf pairs (minimum of six per breed) were allowed to rotationally graze (14-d intervals) treatment pastures from approximately May through early October in each of 2 yr. Treatment pastures contained relatively pure stands of Alicia bermudagrass (AP) or a mixed stand of common bermudagrass and dallisgrass (CDP). Forage allowance was equalized, using "put-and-take" cow-calf pairs, among forage and breed types at the initiation of each 14-d grazing interval. Forage samples were obtained in each paddock at the initiation of each grazing interval. Forage CP concentration was greater (P < .05; 13.5 vs 11.6%) and NDF concentration was less (P < .05; 63.8 vs 70.6%) for CDP than for AP. Daily weight loss was similar for Angus and Brangus cows, but it was greater (P < .05) for cows grazing AP than for cows grazing CDP. Calf ADG during the grazing season was 35% greater (P < .05) for CDP than for AP pastures and was 23% greater (P < .01) for Brangus than for Angus calves. Relative performance of Angus and Brangus cow-calf pairs was consistent between forages; no breed x forage interactions were observed.

  6. Computer tomographic examination of the thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, C.; Dinkel, E.; Wimmer, B.; Grosser, G.; Schildge, J.

    1987-01-01

    The diagnostic value of CT in follicular thymic hyperplasia and in thymomas in 8 patients with myasthenia gravis and in 12 patients without myasthenia gravis suffering from thymic tumors was evaluated by correlating CT-findings to surgical results and pathological-histological findings. Thymic size of the six patients with histologically proven follicular hyperplasia were scattered within the normal range, but half of them were at the upper limit. Thymic tumors were differentiated between invasive and non invasive tumors by CT staging. Solid tumors with different histology could not be further classified; the attenuation values ranging from 15-55 HU were the same in tumors, follicular hyperplasia and normal thymus. (orig.) [de

  7. The effects of degradable and undegradable intake protein on the performance of lactating first-calf heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L P; Paterson, J A; Ansotegui, R P; Cecava, M; Schmutz, W

    2001-08-01

    Two 60-d experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing degradable (DIP) and(or) undegradable (UIP) intake protein on the performance of lactating first-calf heifers. Diets were formulated to meet the requirements for either DIP, metabolizable protein (MP), or both when diets contained low-quality grass hay and an efficiency of microbial protein synthesis estimate of 10%. In Exp. 1, 32 individually fed first-calf heifers (avg 395 kg) were allotted to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (main effects of DIP, MP, and DIP x MP interaction) 1 d after calving. Cows consumed a basal diet of chopped crested wheat grass hay (4.3% CP, 67% DIP) ad libitum. Supplemental DIP and UIP were supplied by varying the ratios of soybean meal (75% DIP) and a heat-treated, protected soybean meal (70% UIP). Cow weight gain was better (P calf weight gain was not increased by supplementing the cow with DIP. Supplemental UIP did not (P > 0.40) improve cow or calf weight gain. Blood urea N levels were higher (P milk production estimates were similar among treatments, as were digestibilities of OM and ADF. Nitrogen digestibility was greater when supplemental DIP was fed, but providing additional UIP did not (P = 0.15) change N digestibilities. Experiment 2 evaluated similar supplements using the same experimental design to determine changes in cow and calf weight gain, body condition score, and pregnancy rate. Seventy-two first-calf heifers (avg 441 kg) were allotted to supplement treatments 1 d after calving and were fed grass hay (5% CP, 53% DIP, 10% microbial efficiency) for ad libitum consumption for 60 d. Supplements were individually fed three times/week. Varying the ratios of soybean meal, heat-treated soybean meal, and corn gluten meal provided additional DIP and UIP. Unlike in Exp. 1, supplemental UIP improved (P calf gains. Data suggest that the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis for this forage-based diet was probably less than 10%.

  8. Uji Biologis Konsumsi Pakan, Populasi Bakteri Rumen dan pH Pellet Complete Calf Starter pada Pedet Friesian Holstein Pra Sapih

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Maharani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available (Biological test feed intake, population rumen bacteria and ph pellet complete calf starter friesian holstein on pre weaning calf  ABSTRACT. The study aims to assess the quality of the formula Complete Calf Starter (CCS with 5% molasses instead of milk to the development of rumen microbial calf Holstein Friesian (HF pre-weaning. The material used is 20 head calf FH pre weaning age of 2 weeks. Feed intake data taken from 20 respondents consisted of 16 females and 4 calf tail male calf. Data rumen bacterial populations and pH were taken from 5 head of cattle slaughtered at the age of 2 weeks (one tail, 4 weeks (2-tailed and 6 weeks (2-tailed. The study was designed as a descriptive non-parametric. Parameters measured were rumen bacterial populations, pH and feed intake. The results showed the average consumption of dry matter (DM and CCS calf milk FH ages 2, 4, 6 weeks respectively at 506, 517, 528 grams. Rumen bacterial populations in calves aged 2, 4, and 6 weeks of 80x106, 45x106 and 19x106 kol/m. ruminal pH in calves aged 2, 4 and 6 weeks was 5.71, 5.36 and 5.55. Biological test showed that the use of complete calf starter (CCS in the form of pellets FH calves at the age of 2 weeks to stimulate the development of the rumen (feed intake, the population of bacteria and pH but not in calves aged 4 and 6 weeks. This is because the number of bacterial populations declined due to impaired absorption is impaired absorption of VFA marked low rumen pH.

  9. Association between cow reproduction and calf growth traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in a multibreed herd of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzo, M A; Rae, D O; Lanhart, S E; Hembry, F G; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the association between 4 cow reproductive and weight traits, and 2 preweaning calf traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis (0 = negative, 1 = suspect, 2 = weak-positive, and 3 = positive) in a multibreed herd of cows ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman (B). Cow data were 624 gestation lengths (GL), 358 records of time open (TO), 605 calving intervals (CI), and 1240 weight changes from November to weaning in September (WC) from 502 purebred and crossbred cows. Calf data consisted of 956 birth weights (BWT), and 923 weaning weights adjusted to 205 d of age (WW205) from 956 purebred and crossbred calves. Traits were analyzed individually using multibreed mixed models that assumed homogenei