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Sample records for calf muscular metabolism

  1. Human calf muscular metabolism study with a home-made ergometer using 31P NMR spectroscopy

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    Peynsaert, J.; Achten, E.; Claeys, E. [Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Rousseaux, M. [Ghent University Hospital (Belgium). Dept. of Sport Medicine

    1995-12-01

    Phosphorus-31 NMR measurements were performed to examine the variations in the concentration of phosphate metabolites in calf muscle during exercise. Therefore, volunteers, installed in the supine position, were asked to push repetitively on the pedal of a home-made ergometer. The produced work and the changes in phosphorus containing metabolites were measured continuously. Correlations were made between the inorganic phosphate/phosphocreatine ratio and the cumulative work and between the intracellular pH and the cumulative work. The exercise protocol could be changed interactively with respect to the imposed initial pressure, the maximum pressure, the pressure increase per level and the time a certain level was held. The whole experiment could be graphically followed on-line. In the first stadium, the in vitro reproducibility of the ergometer was tested for different protocols. These tests revealed that, though the deviation in produced work was markedly the highest at high working pressures, the relative error never exceeded 3%. Consequently, the ex vitro reproducibility of the data was examined with the equipment placed in the scanner. Generally, same conclusions could be derived. In a next stage, the work will be synchronized with the biochemical data. Extreme precautions will be taken to examine each volunteer every time under the same physical and psychological conditions.

  2. Quantitative assessment of calf circumference in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenakker, EAC; de Vries, Joeke; Fock, JM; van Tol, M; Brouwer, OF; Maurits, NM; van der Hoeven, JH

    2002-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is clinically characterised by progressive muscle weakness and a gradual increase in the size of some affected muscles, especially calf muscles. The extent of calf enlargement is usually determined by subjective visual assessment. The purpose of this study was to

  3. Energy metabolism and thermoregulation in the newborn calf.

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    Vermorel, M; Dardillat, C; Vernet, J; Saido; Demigne, C

    1983-01-01

    About half of calf losses occur during the first two days of life. Mortality rate is increased by difficult parturition and adverse climatic conditions. However, thermoregulatory mechanisms are operative at birth, these including the metabolism of brown adipose tissue, shivering and physical activity. Thermoregulation is just as effective in twin as in single calves provided that calving conditions are good. Heat production of Charolais and Salers calves was lower than that of Friesian; the difference came from a lower basal metabolic rate rather from a better thermic insulation. In dystocial calves, blood pH at birth was very low, lactataemia was two or three times higher than in eutocial calves, mobilization of body lipids was reduced and plasma thyroïd hormone level were low, which can explain the lower heat production and the drop in rectal temperature. The physiological responses of calves born by caesarean parturition depend on the delay incurred during surgical removal.

  4. Replacing lactose from calf milk replacers : effects on digestion and post-absorptive metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary PhD thesis Myrthe S. Gilbert Replacing lactose from calf milk replacers – Effects on digestion and post-absorptive metabolism Veal calves are fed milk replacer (MR) and solid feed. The largest part of the energy provided to veal calves originates from

  5. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and calf circumference are protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities

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    Toshinari Takamura

    2017-07-01

    Interpretation: Weight-adjusted lean body mass and skeletal muscle area are protective against weight-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities. The calf circumference reflects lean body mass and may be useful as a protective marker against obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities.

  6. Calf tissue liquid stowage and muscular and deep vein distension in orthostatic tests after a 90-day head down bed rest

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    Arbeille, P.A.; Kerbeci, P.; Audebert, P.; Capri, A.; Pascaud, L.

    2005-08-01

    The objectives were to assess the contribution of (1) the calf veins distension and(2) the tissue liquid stowage during standtest, to orthostatic intolerance "OI" after a head down bed rest (HDBR) of 90days. Method: The population consisted of a control group (Co-gr, n=9) and an exercise Fly wheel counter-measure group (CM-gr, n=9). Calf vein cross sectional area (CSA) and surrounding tissue liquid content (tissue image darkness) were assessed by echography during pre and post HDBR stand-tests. Results: From supine to standing (post HDBR), the Tibial and muscular vein CSA increased significantly in non tolerant subjects whereas in tolerant subjects the vein CSA did not change. Post HDBR the tissue image darkness (proportional to tissue liquid content) increased more from supine to standing in non tolerant than in tolerant subjects. No significant difference were found between Co and exercise CM groups. Conclusion: High calf vein CSA and tissue liquid content increase at post-HDBR stand-test were significantly correlated with occurrence of OI but not with CM.

  7. Effects of fetal calf serum on cGMP pathway and oocyte lipid metabolism in vitro.

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    Schwarz, Kátia R L; Botigelli, Ramon Cesar; Del Collado, Maite; Cavallari de Castro, Fernanda; Fernandes, Hugo; Paschoal, Daniela M; Leal, Cláudia Lima Verde

    2017-08-01

    Intracellular levels of cyclic nucleotides, such as cGMP, are involved in the regulation of adipocyte lipolysis. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) express enzymes that both synthesise (guanylate cyclase) and degrade (phosphodiesterase (PDE) 5A) cGMP. Because serum interferes with lipid metabolism, its effects on the cGMP pathway and lipid content in bovine COCs were examined. COCs were matured in medium containing fetal calf serum (FCS; 2% or 10%) or 0.4% bovine serum albumin (BSA; control). At both 2% and 10%, FCS decreased cGMP levels in COCs compared with BSA (0.64 and 1.04 vs 9.46 fmol per COC respectively; P0.05). In addition, lipid content was higher in embryos from oocytes matured with FCS than BSA (fluorescence intensity 31.12 vs 22.31 respectively; Pbovine COCs and that this pathway is affected by FCS.

  8. Metabolic Response to Four Weeks of Muscular Endurance Resistance Training

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    John W. Farrell III

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous investigations have shown that muscular endurance resistance training (MERT is conducive in improving the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA. However, the metabolic response and time course for adaption is still unclear. Objective: The aims of the current study were to evaluate and track the metabolic response to an individual session of MERT as well as to assess performance adaptations of supplementing an aerobic exercise training program with four weeks of MERT. Methods: Seventeen aerobically active men were randomly assigned to either the experimental (EX or control group (CON, 9 EX and 8 CON. Baseline measures included a graded exercise test (GXT and 1-repetition maximum (1RM testing for leg press (LP, leg curl (LC, and leg extension (LE. CON continued their regular aerobic activity while the EX supplemented their regular aerobic exercise with 4 weeks of MERT. Results: No significant group differences were observed for all pre-training variables. Following four weeks of training no significant differences in cardiorespiratory or metabolic variables were observed for either group. However, significant improvements in LC and LE 1-RM were observed in EX compared to CON. Substantial accumulations in blood lactate were observed following each MERT session. Conclusion: Four weeks of MERT did not improve cardiorespiratory or metabolic variables, but did significantly improve LC and LE. MERT was also observed to induce a blood lactate response similar to that of HIIT. These findings suggest greater than four weeks is need to see metabolic adaptations conducive for improved aerobic performance using MERT.

  9. Response to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: The Muscular Metabolic Pathway

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    Jérémie Jaussaud

    2011-01-01

    245±140 seconds (=.01. Peak VO2, VE/VCO2, peak circulatory power and NYHA were improved after CRT (13±4 to16±5 ml/kg/min (<.05, 45±16 to 39±13 (<.01, 1805±844 to 2225±1171 mmHg.ml/kg/min (<.01 and 3±0.35 to 1.88±0.4 (=.01. In addition, left ventricular ejection fraction and end-systolic volumes were improved from 24±8 to 29±7% (<.01 and from 157±69 to 122±55 ml (<.01. Conclusion. We suggest that CRT leads to an increase in oxidative muscular metabolism and postponed anaerobic threshold reducing exaggerated hyperventilation during exercise.

  10. Severe metabolic acidosis in adult patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

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    Lo Cascio, Christian M; Latshang, Tsogyal D; Kohler, Malcolm; Fehr, Thomas; Bloch, Konrad E

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) leads to progressive paresis, respiratory failure and premature death. Long-term positive pressure ventilation can improve quality of life and survival, but previously unrecognized complications may arise. We analyzed the characteristics of severe metabolic acidosis occurring in 8 of 55 DMD patients, of 20-36 years of age, observed over a 5-year period. All patients were on positive pressure ventilation and were being treated for chronic constipation. Before admission, they had had a reduced intake of fluids and food. Upon examination, they were severely ill, dyspneic and suffering from abdominal discomfort. Metabolic acidosis with a high anion gap was noted in 5 of the 8 patients and with a normal anion gap in the other 3. They all recovered after the administration of fluids and nutrition, the regulation of bowel movements and treatment with antibiotics, as appropriate. Metabolic acidosis is a life-threatening, potentially preventable complication in older DMD patients. Early recognition, subsequent administration of fluids, nutrition and antibiotics and regulation of bowel movements seem to be essential. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Decreased Insulin Receptors but Normal Glucose Metabolism in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

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    de Pirro, Roberto; Lauro, Renato; Testa, Ivano; Ferretti, Ginofabrizio; de Martinis, Carlo; Dellantonio, Renzo

    1982-04-01

    Compared to matched controls, 17 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy showed decreased insulin binding to monocytes due to decreased receptor concentration. These patients showed no signs of altered glucose metabolism and retrospective analysis of the clinical records of a further 56 such patients revealed no modification in carbohydrate metabolism. These data suggest that reduced insulin receptor number does not produce overt modifications of glucose metabolism in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  12. Does arterial PCO2 interfere with hypoxia in muscular metabolism in man?

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    Raynaud, J; Vargas, E; Sant, M C; Bordachar, J; Escorrou, P; Bailliart, O; Legros, P; Durand, J

    1990-01-01

    To answer the question whether PCO2 affects the muscular metabolism, PO2, PCO2, pH, lactic acid concentration and hemoglobin were measured in the efferent muscular venous blood from common flexor digitorum, during forearm rhythmic exercise corresponding to VO2max. Exercise was carried out either in hypocapnic hypoxia i.e. in permanent high altitude residents and translocated lowlanders, or in hypercapnic hypoxia i.e. in chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD) patients. The results show that, during exercise: i) PO2 in muscular venous blood remains around 20 Torr in normoxia and hypocapnic hypoxia and even higher (25 torr) in COLD patients, despite low arterial PaO2, and ii) arterial and/or local PCO2 play a role in the control of the muscular blood flow. But we cannot conclude that a change in PaCO2 affects muscular metabolism itself, because lactic acid in the muscular venous blood, that we used to check this effect, is likely dependent on mechanisms other than anaerobic glycolysis, such as a change in lactic acid efflux from the myocytes. The increase in muscular venous PCO2 may enhance the myocyte permeability to lactic acid during exercise.

  13. Glucocorticoids enhance muscle endurance and ameliorate Duchenne muscular dystrophy through a defined metabolic program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison-Nozik, Alexander; Anand, Priti; Zhu, Han

    2015-01-01

    in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a genetic muscle-wasting disease. A defined molecular basis underlying these performance-enhancing properties of GCs in skeletal muscle remains obscure. Here, we demonstrate that ergogenic effects of GCs are mediated by direct induction of the metabolic transcription...

  14. Semi-automated segmentation and quantification of adipose tissue in calf and thigh by MRI: a preliminary study in patients with monogenic metabolic syndrome

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    Walcarius Rhonda

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the growing prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome, reliable quantitative imaging methods for adipose tissue are required. Monogenic forms of the metabolic syndrome include Dunnigan-variety familial partial lipodystrophy subtypes 2 and 3 (FPLD2 and FPLD3, which are characterized by the loss of subcutaneous fat in the extremities. Through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of FPLD patients, we have developed a method of quantifying the core FPLD anthropometric phenotype, namely adipose tissue in the mid-calf and mid-thigh regions. Methods Four female subjects, including an FPLD2 subject (LMNA R482Q, an FPLD3 subject (PPARG F388L, and two control subjects were selected for MRI and analysis. MRI scans of subjects were performed on a 1.5T GE MR Medical system, with 17 transaxial slices comprising a 51 mm section obtained in both the mid-calf and mid-thigh regions. Using ImageJ 1.34 n software, analysis of raw MR images involved the creation of a connectedness map of the subcutaneous adipose tissue contours within the lower limb segment from a user-defined seed point. Quantification of the adipose tissue was then obtained after thresholding the connected map and counting the voxels (volumetric pixels present within the specified region. Results MR images revealed significant differences in the amounts of subcutaneous adipose tissue in lower limb segments of FPLD3 and FPLD2 subjects: respectively, mid-calf, 15.5% and 0%, and mid-thigh, 25.0% and 13.3%. In comparison, old and young healthy controls had values, respectively, of mid-calf, 32.5% and 26.2%, and mid-thigh, 52.2% and 36.1%. The FPLD2 patient had significantly reduced subcutaneous adipose tissue compared to FPLD3 patient. Conclusion Thus, semi-automated quantification of adipose tissue of the lower extremity can detect differences between individuals of various lipodystrophy genotypes and represents a potentially useful tool for extended quantitative phenotypic

  15. Muscular strength and endurance and cardio-metabolic health in disadvantaged Hispanic children from the U.S.

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    Ryan D. Burns

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The predictive relationship between muscular strength and endurance and cardio-metabolic health, independent from aerobic fitness, is not clear in disadvantaged Hispanic children. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive relationship between muscular strength and endurance and clustered cardio-metabolic risk, controlling for aerobic fitness, in Hispanic children from low-income schools. Participants were 320 Hispanic children (Mean age = 10.1 ± 1.1 years; 164 girls, 156 boys recruited during the 2014–2015 and 2015–2016 academic years from five low-income schools from the state of Utah in the U.S. Muscular strength and endurance was assessed using the push-up and curl-up tests and estimated VO2 Peak was calculated from the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run. A clustered metabolic syndrome composite score (MetS was calculated from cardio-metabolic health measurements consisting of HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, waist circumference, blood glucose, and mean arterial pressure (MAP. Multi-level general linear mixed effects models were used to examine the predictive relationship between muscular strength and endurance and MetS, controlling for the effect of aerobic fitness and the clustering of children within classrooms and schools. Children who were in the middle and upper tertiles for muscular strength and endurance associated with a lower (more favorable MetS score (middle tertile: β = −2.59, 95% C.I. [−4.23, −0.95], p < 0.05; upper tertile: β = −1.57, 95% C.I. [−3.20, −0.16], p < 0.05. The results suggest that higher levels of muscular strength and endurance relate to lower cardio-metabolic risk, independent of aerobic fitness, in Hispanic children from low-income schools.

  16. Muscular fitness and metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers in adolescents: Results from LabMed Physical Activity Study.

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    Agostinis-Sobrinho, C A; Moreira, C; Abreu, S; Lopes, L; Sardinha, L B; Oliveira-Santos, J; Oliveira, A; Mota, J; Santos, R

    2016-11-23

    This study aimed to evaluate the associations between muscular fitness and inflammatory biomarkers and to investigate the relationship between muscular fitness and selected clustered inflammatory biomarkers in adolescents. This is a cross-sectional analysis with 529 adolescents (267 girls) aged 12-18 years. Handgrip strength and standing long jump tests assessed MF. Continuous scores of clustered inflammatory biomarkers (sum of Z-scores of C-reactive protein [CRP], C3, C4, fibrinogen, and leptin); metabolic risk factor (MRF) score (sum of Z-scores of SBP, triglycerides, ratio total cholesterol [TC]/HDL, HOMA-IR, and waist circumference [WC]) were computed. Regression analyses showed an inverse association between muscular fitness score (β=-.204; Ppubertal stage, socioeconomic status, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), MRF score, and body fat. Analysis of covariance showed that adolescents with an adverse inflammatory profile with low levels of muscular fitness exhibit the poorest MRF score (F3,525 =6.461; Ppubertal stage, socioeconomic status, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, CRF, and body fatness. The inflammatory state seems to explain a significant part of the highest MRF score and in adolescents with high inflammatory status and low muscular strength. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Evidence of Insulin Resistance and Other Metabolic Alterations in Boys with Duchenne or Becker Muscular Dystrophy

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    Maricela Rodríguez-Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Our aim was (1 to determine the frequency of insulin resistance (IR in patients with Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD, (2 to identify deleted exons of DMD gene associated with obesity and IR, and (3 to explore some likely molecular mechanisms leading to IR. Materials and Methods. In 66 patients with DMD/BMD without corticosteroids treatment, IR, obesity, and body fat mass were evaluated. Molecules involved in glucose metabolism were analyzed in muscle biopsies. Results show that 18.3%, 22.7%, and 68% were underweight, overweight, or obese, and with high adiposity, respectively; 48.5% and 36.4% presented hyperinsulinemia and IR, respectively. Underweight patients (27.3% exhibited hyperinsulinemia and IR. Carriers of deletions in exons 45 (OR = 9.32; 95% CI = 1.16–74.69 and 50 (OR = 8.73; 95% CI = 1.17–65.10 from DMD gene presented higher risk for IR than noncarriers. We observed a greater staining of cytoplasmic aggregates for GLUT4 in muscle biopsies than healthy muscle tissue. Conclusion. Obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and IR were observed in DMD/BMD patients and are independent of corticosteroids treatment. Carriers of deletion in exons 45 or 50 from DMD gene are at risk for developing IR. It is suggested that alteration in GLUT4 in muscle fibers from DMD patients could be involved in IR.

  18. Muscular and metabolic costs of uphill backpacking: are hiking poles beneficial?

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    Knight, C A; Caldwell, G E

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare pole and no-pole conditions during uphill backpacking, which was simulated on an inclined treadmill with a moderately heavy (22.4 kg, 30% body mass) backpack. Physiological measurements of oxygen consumption, heart rate, and RPE were taken during 1 h of backpacking in each condition, along with joint kinematic and electromyographic comparisons from data collected during a third test session. The results showed that although imposing no metabolic consequence, pole use elicited a longer stride length (1.27 vs 1.19 m), kinematics that were more similar to those of unloaded walking, and reduced activity in several lower extremity muscles. Although pole use evoked a greater heart rate (113.5 vs 107 bpm), subjects were backpacking more comfortably as indicated by their ratings of perceived exertion (10.8 vs 11.6). The increased cardiovascular demand was likely to support the greater muscular activity in the upper extremity, as was observed in triceps brachii. By redistributing some of the backpack effort, pole use alleviated some stress from the lower extremities and allowed a partial reversal of typical load-bearing strategies.

  19. Evidence of Insulin Resistance and Other Metabolic Alterations in Boys with Duchenne or Becker Muscular Dystrophy

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    Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Sanchez, Raúl; Escobar, Rosa E.; Cruz-Guzmán, Oriana del Rocío; López-Alarcón, Mardia; Bernabe García, Mariela; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón; Matute, Guadalupe; Velázquez Wong, Ana Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Our aim was (1) to determine the frequency of insulin resistance (IR) in patients with Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD), (2) to identify deleted exons of DMD gene associated with obesity and IR, and (3) to explore some likely molecular mechanisms leading to IR. Materials and Methods. In 66 patients with DMD/BMD without corticosteroids treatment, IR, obesity, and body fat mass were evaluated. Molecules involved in glucose metabolism were analyzed in muscle biopsies. Results show that 18.3%, 22.7%, and 68% were underweight, overweight, or obese, and with high adiposity, respectively; 48.5% and 36.4% presented hyperinsulinemia and IR, respectively. Underweight patients (27.3%) exhibited hyperinsulinemia and IR. Carriers of deletions in exons 45 (OR = 9.32; 95% CI = 1.16–74.69) and 50 (OR = 8.73; 95% CI = 1.17–65.10) from DMD gene presented higher risk for IR than noncarriers. We observed a greater staining of cytoplasmic aggregates for GLUT4 in muscle biopsies than healthy muscle tissue. Conclusion. Obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and IR were observed in DMD/BMD patients and are independent of corticosteroids treatment. Carriers of deletion in exons 45 or 50 from DMD gene are at risk for developing IR. It is suggested that alteration in GLUT4 in muscle fibers from DMD patients could be involved in IR. PMID:26089900

  20. An unusual variant of Becker muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, M.; Bakker, E.; Defesche, J. C.; Bolhuis, P. A.; van Ommen, G. J.

    1990-01-01

    We report on 5 brothers with slowly progressive limbgirdle weakness. Calf hypertrophy was absent. The levels of creatine kinase, electromyography, and findings from a muscle biopsy specimen were compatible with muscular dystrophy. The propositus's biopsy specimen also showed numerous rimmed

  1. Predictive Accuracy of Calf Circumference Measurements to Detect Decreased Skeletal Muscle Mass and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism-Defined Malnutrition in Hospitalized Older Patients.

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    Maeda, Keisuke; Koga, Takayuki; Nasu, Tomomi; Takaki, Miki; Akagi, Junji

    2017-01-01

    The ability to readily diagnose sarcopenia and malnutrition in a clinical setting is essential. This study is aimed at clarifying the calf circumference (CC) cut-off values for decreased skeletal muscle mass (SMM), according to the Asian Work Group for Sarcopenia's criteria definition of sarcopenia, and those for European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism-defined malnutrition, in hospitalized Japanese patients. The study involved 1,164 patients aged ≥65 years. Predictive CC cut-off values were determined using receiver operating curve (ROC) analyses. The predictive validity of the cut-off values was confirmed against in-hospital mortality. There were 654 females and 510 males (mean age, 83.5 ± 8.2 years). Decreased SMM and malnutrition were observed in 80.4 and 32.8% of all patients, respectively. ROC analyses identified CCs of ≤29 cm (female, area under the curve [AUC] 0.791) and ≤30 cm (male, AUC 0.832) as cut-off values for decreased SMM, and CCs of ≤26 cm (female, AUC 0.798) and ≤28 cm (male, AUC 0.837) for malnutrition. CC cut-off values for SMM and malnutrition were independently correlated with in-hospital mortality. The study determined appropriate cut-off values for CC to identify decreased SMM and malnutrition according to the relevant guidelines. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Fatness mediates the influence of muscular fitness on metabolic syndrome in Colombian collegiate students

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    Carrillo, Hugo Alejandro; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Martínez-Torres, Javier; Prieto-Benavidez, Daniel Humberto; Ramos-Sepúlveda, Jeison Alexander; Villa-González, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: to analyze the association between muscular fitness (MF) and clustering of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components, and to determine if fatness parameters mediate the association between MF and MetS clustering in Colombian collegiate students. This cross-sectional study included a total of 886 (51.9% women) healthy collegiate students (21.4 ± 3.3 years old). Standing broad jump and isometric handgrip dynamometry were used as indicators of lower and upper body MF, respectively. Also, a MF score was computed by summing the standardized values of both tests, and used to classify adults as fit or unfit. We also assessed fat mass, body mass index, waist-to-height ratio, and abdominal visceral fat, and categorized individuals as low and high fat using international cut-offs. A MetS cluster score was derived by calculating the sum of the sample-specific z-scores from the triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, fasting glucose, waist circumference, and arterial blood pressure. Linear regression models were used to examine whether the association between MF and MetS cluster was mediated by the fatness parameters. Data were collected from 2013 to 2016 and the analysis was done in 2016. Findings revealed that the best profiles (fit + low fat) were associated with lower levels of the MetS clustering (p <0.001 in the four fatness parameters), compared with unfit and fat (unfit + high fat) counterparts. Linear regression models indicated a partial mediating effect for fatness parameters in the association of MF with MetS clustering. Our findings indicate that efforts to improve MF in young adults may decrease MetS risk partially through an indirect effect on improvements to adiposity levels. Thus, weight reduction should be taken into account as a complementary goal to improvements in MF within exercise programs. PMID:28296952

  3. Exploration of Lipid Metabolism in Relation with Plasma Membrane Properties of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Cells: Influence of L-Carnitine

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    Le Borgne, Françoise; Guyot, Stéphane; Logerot, Morgan; Beney, Laurent; Gervais, Patrick; Demarquoy, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) arises as a consequence of mutations in the dystrophin gene. Dystrophin is a membrane-spanning protein that connects the cytoskeleton and the basal lamina. The most distinctive features of DMD are a progressive muscular dystrophy, a myofiber degeneration with fibrosis and metabolic alterations such as fatty infiltration, however, little is known on lipid metabolism changes arising in Duchenne patient cells. Our goal was to identify metabolic changes occurring in Duchenne patient cells especially in terms of L-carnitine homeostasis, fatty acid metabolism both at the mitochondrial and peroxisomal level and the consequences on the membrane structure and function. In this paper, we compared the structural and functional characteristics of DMD patient and control cells. Using radiolabeled L-carnitine, we found, in patient muscle cells, a marked decrease in the uptake and the intracellular level of L-carnitine. Associated with this change, a decrease in the mitochondrial metabolism can be seen from the analysis of mRNA encoding for mitochondrial proteins. Probably, associated with these changes in fatty acid metabolism, alterations in the lipid composition of the cells were identified: with an increase in poly unsaturated fatty acids and a decrease in medium chain fatty acids, mono unsaturated fatty acids and in cholesterol contents. Functionally, the membrane of cells lacking dystrophin appeared to be less fluid, as determined at 37°C by fluorescence anisotropy. These changes may, at least in part, be responsible for changes in the phospholipids and cholesterol profile in cell membranes and ultimately may reduce the fluidity of the membrane. A supplementation with L-carnitine partly restored the fatty acid profile by increasing saturated fatty acid content and decreasing the amounts of MUFA, PUFA, VLCFA. L-carnitine supplementation also restored muscle membrane fluidity. This suggests that regulating lipid metabolism in DMD cells may

  4. Effect of Non-Esterified Fatty Acids on Fatty Acid Metabolism-Related Genes in Calf Hepatocytes Cultured in Vitro

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    Peng Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: NEFA plays numerous roles in the metabolism of glucose, lipids, and proteins. A number of experimental studies have shown that NEFA may have an important role in fatty acid metabolism in the liver, especially in dairy cows that experience negative energy balance (NEB during early lactation. Methods: In this study, using fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR, ELISA, and primary hepatocytes cultured in vitro, we examined the effect of NEFA (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, and 3.2 mmol/L on fatty acid metabolism by monitoring the mRNA and protein expression of the following key enzymes: long chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL, carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA (CPT IA, long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADL, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC. Results: The mRNA and protein expression levels of ACSL and ACADL markedly increased as the concentration of NEFA in the media was increased. The mRNA and protein expression levels of CPT IA were enhanced significantly when the NEFA concentrations increased from 0 to 1.6 mmol/L and decreased significantly when the NEFA concentrations increased from 1.6 to 3.2 mmol/L. The mRNA and protein expression of ACC decreased gradually with increasing concentrations of NEFA. Conclusion: These findings indicate that increased NEFA significantly promote the activation and β-oxidation of fatty acids, but very high NEFA concentrations may inhibit the translocation of fatty acids into mitochondria of hepatocytes. This may explain the development of ketosis or liver lipidosis in dairy cows. CPT IA might be the key control enzyme of the fatty acid oxidation process in hepatocytes.

  5. Tursiops truncatus calf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Respiratory development in a captive-born bottlenose dolphin. Tursiops truncatus calf. V.M. Peddemors·. Biology Department, University of Natal, King George V Avenue, Durban, 4001 Republic of South Africa. Received 30 October 1989; accepted 15 May 1990. Changes in calf-mother association are examined and ...

  6. Effects of the level and duration of maternal diets with negative dietary cation-anion differences prepartum on calf growth, immunity, and mineral and energy metabolism.

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    Collazos, C; Lopera, C; Santos, J E P; Laporta, J

    2017-12-01

    measures of efficiency of IgG absorption. Percentage of lymphocytes and neutrophils was altered by maternal treatments; however, treatments did not affect calf morbidity. Extending the duration of feeding up to 42 d or reducing the level of negative DCAD to -180 mEq/kg in maternal diets exerted a transient metabolic acidosis in the calves and slightly affected measures of mineral, energy metabolism, and growth. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolic dysfunction and altered mitochondrial dynamics in the utrophin-dystrophin deficient mouse model of duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghna Pant

    Full Text Available The utrophin-dystrophin deficient (DKO mouse model has been widely used to understand the progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. However, it is unclear as to what extent muscle pathology affects metabolism. Therefore, the present study was focused on understanding energy expenditure in the whole animal and in isolated extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscle and to determine changes in metabolic enzymes. Our results show that the 8 week-old DKO mice consume higher oxygen relative to activity levels. Interestingly the EDL muscle from DKO mouse consumes higher oxygen per unit integral force, generates less force and performs better in the presence of pyruvate thus mimicking a slow twitch muscle. We also found that the expression of hexokinase 1 and pyruvate kinase M2 was upregulated several fold suggesting increased glycolytic flux. Additionally, there is a dramatic increase in dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp 1 and mitofusin 2 protein levels suggesting increased mitochondrial fission and fusion, a feature associated with increased energy demand and altered mitochondrial dynamics. Collectively our studies point out that the dystrophic disease has caused significant changes in muscle metabolism. To meet the increased energetic demand, upregulation of metabolic enzymes and regulators of mitochondrial fusion and fission is observed in the dystrophic muscle. A better understanding of the metabolic demands and the accompanied alterations in the dystrophic muscle can help us design improved intervention therapies along with existing drug treatments for the DMD patients.

  8. Black ginger extract increases physical fitness performance and muscular endurance by improving inflammation and energy metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuya Toda; Shoketsu Hitoe; Shogo Takeda; Hiroshi Shimoda

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) in black ginger (Kaempferia parviflora) extract (KPE) increased energy production by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in C2C12 myoblasts. We herein evaluated the effects of KPE on physical fitness performance and muscular endurance in mice. Male mice were orally administered KPE for 4 weeks, and then forced swimming test, open-field test, inclined plane test, and wire hanging test were performed. KPE significantly increased ...

  9. Skeletal Muscles With Antagonistic Muscular Actions: Morphological, Contractile And Metabolic Characteristics [músculo Esquelético Con Acción Muscular Antogonista:características Metabólicas, Contratiles Y Morfológicas

    OpenAIRE

    de Freitas C.E.A.; Freitas S.B.Z.; Lopes F.S.; dal Pai-Silva M.; Picarro I.C.

    2009-01-01

    The muscles can perform the same function in a specific segment (muscles of fast and slow contraction), and at the same time be antagonistic in relation to muscular action (flexors or extensors). The present research aimed to study the morphology, frequency and metabolism of fiber types and the contractile characteristics of extensor and flexors muscles of rabbit. We studied muscles anterior tibialis (AT), flexor digitorum supeficialis (FDS), extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and posterior tibi...

  10. Black ginger extract increases physical fitness performance and muscular endurance by improving inflammation and energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Kazuya; Hitoe, Shoketsu; Takeda, Shogo; Shimoda, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    We previously reported that polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) in black ginger (Kaempferia parviflora) extract (KPE) increased energy production by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in C2C12 myoblasts. We herein evaluated the effects of KPE on physical fitness performance and muscular endurance in mice. Male mice were orally administered KPE for 4 weeks, and then forced swimming test, open-field test, inclined plane test, and wire hanging test were performed. KPE significantly increased the swimming time, motility after swimming, and grip strength. IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression levels were decreased in the soleus muscle, whereas peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC)-1α and glycogen synthase mRNA expression levels, mitochondrial number, and glycogen content were increased. These results were in agreement with those obtained for KPE and PMFs in C2C12. Therefore, the activation of AMPK by PMFs may be one of the mechanisms by which KPE improves physical fitness performance and muscular endurance.

  11. Black ginger extract increases physical fitness performance and muscular endurance by improving inflammation and energy metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Toda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that polymethoxyflavones (PMFs in black ginger (Kaempferia parviflora extract (KPE increased energy production by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in C2C12 myoblasts. We herein evaluated the effects of KPE on physical fitness performance and muscular endurance in mice. Male mice were orally administered KPE for 4 weeks, and then forced swimming test, open-field test, inclined plane test, and wire hanging test were performed. KPE significantly increased the swimming time, motility after swimming, and grip strength. IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression levels were decreased in the soleus muscle, whereas peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC-1α and glycogen synthase mRNA expression levels, mitochondrial number, and glycogen content were increased. These results were in agreement with those obtained for KPE and PMFs in C2C12. Therefore, the activation of AMPK by PMFs may be one of the mechanisms by which KPE improves physical fitness performance and muscular endurance.

  12. The metabolic response in fish to mildly elevated water temperature relates to species-dependent muscular concentrations of imidazole compounds and free amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geda, Fikremariam; Declercq, Annelies M; Remø, Sofie C; Waagbø, Rune; Lourenço, Marta; Janssens, Geert P J

    2017-04-01

    Fish species show distinct differences in their muscular concentrations of imidazoles and free amino acids (FAA). This study was conducted to investigate whether metabolic response to mildly elevated water temperature (MEWT) relates to species-dependent muscular concentrations of imidazoles and FAA. Thirteen carp and 17 Nile tilapia, housed one per aquarium, were randomly assigned to either acclimation (25°C) or MEWT (30°C) for 14 days. Main muscular concentrations were histidine (HIS; P0.05), (NAH+HIS)/TAU ratio was markedly higher in carp versus tilapia, and decreased with MEWT only in carp (Pacids in carp metabolism (Pacids (NEFA) in carp (P=0.001), the latter shows that carp, being a fatter fish, more readily mobilises fat than tilapia at MEWT, which coincides with more intensive muscular mobilization of imidazoles. This study demonstrates that fish species differ in their metabolic response to MEWT, which is associated with species-dependent changes in muscle imidazole to taurine ratio. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of muscular and aqua aerobic combined exercise on metabolic indices in elderly women with metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Yong-Kwon; Kim, Soo-Keun; Song, Min-Sun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle strengthening exercise using elastic thera-band and aquatic aerobic combined exercise on metabolic syndrome index in elderly with metabolic syndrome. Fifty-four were assigned to muscle strengthening exercise group (n = 19), aquatic aerobic exercise group (n = 19), and combined exercise group (n = 16). The muscle strength exercise, aquatic aerobic exercise and combined exercise were provided three times a week for 12 weeks. Met...

  14. Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Devices The Search for a Cure en español Distrofia muscular About MD Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a genetic ... muscles and cause different degrees of muscle weakness. Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most common and the most ...

  15. Abnormal lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle tissue of patients with muscular dystrophy: In vitro, high-resolution NMR spectroscopy based observation in early phase of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Niraj Kumar; Yadav, Ramakant; Mukherjee, Somnath; Pal, Lily; Sinha, Neeraj

    2017-05-01

    /control individuals. Results clearly indicate alteration of lipid metabolism in patients with muscular dystrophy in early phase of the disease. Moreover, further evaluation is required to understand whether these changes are primary or secondary to muscular dystrophy. In future, these findings may prove an additional and improved approach for the diagnosis of different forms of muscular dystrophy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of muscular and aqua aerobic combined exercise on metabolic indices in elderly women with metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yong-Kwon; Kim, Soo-Keun; Song, Min-Sun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle strengthening exercise using elastic thera-band and aquatic aerobic combined exercise on metabolic syndrome index in elderly with metabolic syndrome. Fifty-four were assigned to muscle strengthening exercise group (n = 19), aquatic aerobic exercise group (n = 19), and combined exercise group (n = 16). The muscle strength exercise, aquatic aerobic exercise and combined exercise were provided three times a week for 12 weeks. Metabolic syndrome indices[Fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference] were measured before and after the program. One-way ANOVA, paired t-test and two-way repeated ANOVA were used with the SPSS program for data analysis. There was a significant difference in triglyceride (p exercise group and aquatic exercise group. HDL-C was significantly increased in combined group than muscle strength exercise group. The results indicate that combined exercise was more effective in the improvement of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity. PMID:25566424

  17. Body composition and muscular strength as predictors of bone mineral density in African American women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Yang; Hornbuckle, Lyndsey M; Ilich, Jasminka Z; Kim, Jeong-Su; Panton, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Our cross-sectional study investigated the relationships between regional bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition variables, including total body lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM), as well as muscular strength in overweight and obese African-American (AA) women with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Forty-four women ranging in age from 39 to 61 years participated. Upper and lower body strength measurements were assessed using chest press and leg extension exercises, respectively. Body composition and BMD of the total body, spine (L2-L4), hip, and radius were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. LM was positively correlated with total body, spine, hip, and radius BMD (r = .338-.603, all P BMD (r = .343, P BMD at various skeletal sites (P BMD of total hip (P BMD. In contrast, FM is a negative predictor of total body and hip BMD in overweight or obese AA women with MetS (P BMD at any skeletal sites. These results suggest an important role for LM in preventing the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis.

  18. Muscular, cardiac, ventilatory and metabolic dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis: Implications for screening, clinical care and endurance and resistance exercise therapy, a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wens, Inez; Eijnde, Bert O; Hansen, Dominique

    2016-08-15

    In the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), exercise training is now considered a cornerstone. However, most clinicians tend to focus on neurologic deficits only, and thus prefer to prescribe rehabilitation programs specifically to counteract these deficits. However, the present comprehensive review shows that patients with MS (pwMS) also experience significant muscular, cardiac, ventilatory and metabolic dysfunction, which significantly contribute, next to neurologic deficits, to exercise intolerance. In addition, these anomalies also might increase the risk for frequent hospitalization and morbidity and can reduce life expectancy. Unfortunately, the impact of exercise intervention on these anomalies in pwMS are mostly unknown. Therefore, it is suggested that pwMS should be screened systematically for muscular, cardiac, ventilatory and metabolic function during exercise testing. The detection of such anomalies should lead to adaptations and optimisation of exercise training prescription and clinical care/medical treatment of pwMS. In addition, future studies should focus on the impact of exercise intervention on muscular, cardiac, ventilatory and metabolic (dys)function in pwMS, to contribute to improved treatment and care. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Perturbation of muscle metabolism in patients with muscular dystrophy in early or acute phase of disease: In vitro, high resolution NMR spectroscopy based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Niraj Kumar; Yadav, Ramakant; Mukherjee, Somnath; Sinha, Neeraj

    2018-03-01

    with BMD as compared to FSHD. Concentration of His is significantly reduced and Glucose is higher in patients with LGMD-2B as compared to BMD. Glucose concentration is significantly reduced in patients with FSHD as compared to LGMD-2B. ROC curves supported the noticeable discrimination in between the patients with DMD and FSHD for the quantity of Gln/Glu, and patients with LGMD-2B and DMD for the quantity of Ala. Collectively, these findings showed the perturbation of muscle metabolism in muscular dystrophy. The data of presented study may be used as supporting information for existing methods of the diagnosis for patients with muscular dystrophy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Disturbed energy metabolism and muscular dystrophy caused by pure creatine deficiency are reversible by creatine intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabuurs, C I; Choe, C U; Veltien, A; Kan, H E; van Loon, L J C; Rodenburg, R J T; Matschke, J; Wieringa, B; Kemp, G J; Isbrandt, D; Heerschap, A

    2013-01-01

    Creatine (Cr) plays an important role in muscle energy homeostasis by its participation in the ATP–phosphocreatine phosphoryl exchange reaction mediated by creatine kinase. Given that the consequences of Cr depletion are incompletely understood, we assessed the morphological, metabolic and functional consequences of systemic depletion on skeletal muscle in a mouse model with deficiency of l-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT−/−), which catalyses the first step of Cr biosynthesis. In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed a near-complete absence of Cr and phosphocreatine in resting hindlimb muscle of AGAT−/− mice. Compared with wild-type, the inorganic phosphate/β-ATP ratio was increased fourfold, while ATP levels were reduced by nearly half. Activities of proton-pumping respiratory chain enzymes were reduced, whereas F1F0-ATPase activity and overall mitochondrial content were increased. The Cr-deficient AGAT−/− mice had a reduced grip strength and suffered from severe muscle atrophy. Electron microscopy revealed increased amounts of intramyocellular lipid droplets and crystal formation within mitochondria of AGAT−/− muscle fibres. Ischaemia resulted in exacerbation of the decrease of pH and increased glycolytic ATP synthesis. Oral Cr administration led to rapid accumulation in skeletal muscle (faster than in brain) and reversed all the muscle abnormalities, revealing that the condition of the AGAT−/− mice can be switched between Cr deficient and normal simply by dietary manipulation. Systemic creatine depletion results in mitochondrial dysfunction and intracellular energy deficiency, as well as structural and physiological abnormalities. The consequences of AGAT deficiency are more pronounced than those of muscle-specific creatine kinase deficiency, which suggests a multifaceted involvement of creatine in muscle energy homeostasis in addition to its role in the phosphocreatine–creatine kinase system. PMID:23129796

  1. Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a group of more than 30 inherited diseases. They all cause muscle weakness and ... ability to walk. There is no cure for muscular dystrophy. Treatments can help with the symptoms and prevent ...

  2. Increased Muscular 5α-Dihydrotestosterone in Response to Resistance Training Relates to Skeletal Muscle Mass and Glucose Metabolism in Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Horii

    Full Text Available Regular resistance exercise induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and improvement of glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients. Administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, a sex steroid hormone precursor, increases 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT synthesis and is associated with improvements in fasting blood glucose level and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether increase in muscle DHT levels, induced by chronic resistance exercise, can contribute to skeletal muscle hypertrophy and concomitant improvement of muscular glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Male 20-week-old type 2 diabetic rats (OLETF were randomly divided into 3 groups: sedentary control, resistance training (3 times a week on alternate days for 8 weeks, or resistance training with continuous infusion of a 5α-reductase inhibitor (n = 8 each group. Age-matched, healthy nondiabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO rats (n = 8 were used as controls. The results indicated that OLETF rats showed significant decrease in muscular DHEA, free testosterone, DHT levels, and protein expression of steroidogenic enzymes, with loss of skeletal muscle mass and hyperglycemia, compared to that of LETO rats. However, 8-week resistance training in OLETF rats significantly increased the levels of muscle sex steroid hormones and protein expression of steroidogenic enzymes with a concomitant increase in skeletal muscle mass, improved fasting glucose level, and insulin sensitivity index. Moreover, resistance training accelerated glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4 translocation and protein kinase B and C-ζ/λ phosphorylation. Administering the 5α-reductase inhibitor in resistance-trained OLETF rats resulted in suppression of the exercise-induced effects on skeletal muscle mass, fasting glucose level, insulin sensitivity index, and GLUT-4 signaling, with a decline in muscular DHT levels. These findings suggest that resistance training

  3. Gray Whale Calf Production Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gray whale calf production is estimated from data collected during the northbound migration as whales return to their feeding grounds in the Arctic. Counts of adult...

  4. Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tawil R, Van Der Maarel SM. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy . Muscle Nerve. Jul 2006;34(1):1-15. Congenital ( ... affected? Throat References: 1. Emery AEH. The muscular ... V. Prevalence of genetic muscle disease in Northern England: in-depth analysis of ...

  5. Duchenne muscular dystrophy: Case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupam Sinha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies are a clinically and heterogeneous group of disorders that all share clinical characteristics of progressive muscular weakness. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is the most common X-linked disorder muscular dystrophy in children, presenting in early childhood and characterized by proximal muscle weakness and calf hypertrophy in affected boys. There is usually delay in motor development and eventually wheelchair confinement followed by premature death from cardiac or respiratory complications. Treatment modalities such as corticosteroid therapy and use of intermittent positive pressure ventilation have provided improvements in function, ambulation, quality of life, and life expectancy, although novel therapies still aim to provide a cure for this devastating disorder. Here, we present a case of DMD in a 12-year-old male with remarkable clinical and oral manifestations.

  6. Duchenne muscular dystrophy: Case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rupam; Sarkar, Soumyabrata; Khaitan, Tanya; Dutta, Soumyajit

    2017-01-01

    Muscular dystrophies are a clinically and heterogeneous group of disorders that all share clinical characteristics of progressive muscular weakness. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common X-linked disorder muscular dystrophy in children, presenting in early childhood and characterized by proximal muscle weakness and calf hypertrophy in affected boys. There is usually delay in motor development and eventually wheelchair confinement followed by premature death from cardiac or respiratory complications. Treatment modalities such as corticosteroid therapy and use of intermittent positive pressure ventilation have provided improvements in function, ambulation, quality of life, and life expectancy, although novel therapies still aim to provide a cure for this devastating disorder. Here, we present a case of DMD in a 12-year-old male with remarkable clinical and oral manifestations.

  7. E2F transcription factor-1 deficiency reduces pathophysiology in the mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy through increased muscle oxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Emilie; Annicotte, Jean-Sébastien; Pradelli, Ludivine A; Hugon, Gérald; Matecki, Stéfan; Mornet, Dominique; Rivier, François; Fajas, Lluis

    2012-09-01

    E2F1 deletion leads to increased mitochondrial number and function, increased body temperature in response to cold and increased resistance to fatigue with exercise. Since E2f1-/- mice show increased muscle performance, we examined the effect of E2f1 genetic inactivation in the mdx background, a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). E2f1-/-;mdx mice demonstrated a strong reduction of physiopathological signs of DMD, including preservation of muscle structure, decreased inflammatory profile, increased utrophin expression, resulting in better endurance and muscle contractile parameters, comparable to normal mdx mice. E2f1 deficiency in the mdx genetic background increased the oxidative metabolic gene program, mitochondrial activity and improved muscle functions. Interestingly, we observed increased E2F1 protein levels in DMD patients, suggesting that E2F1 might represent a promising target for the treatment of DMD.

  8. Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inheritance patterns Muscular dystrophy Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  9. Aspiration Thrombectomy Using a Guiding Catheter in Acute Lower Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis: Usefulness of the Calf-Squeeze Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae A; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Han, Young Min; Yu, Hee Chul [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The effectiveness of the calf-squeeze technique during aspiration thrombectomy using guiding catheter in the treatment of an acute lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was evaluated by the use of imaging and the clinical follow-up of patients. A prospective analysis of ten patients (seven women, three men; median age, 56.9 years) with common iliac vein (CIV) obstruction and ipsilateral DVT was performed for this study. All patients presented with leg edema or pain and were treated with catheter-directed thrombolysis via an ipsilateral popliteal vein approach after insertion of a temporary inferior vena cava (IVC) filter. Subsequently, the patients were treated with by aspiration thrombectomy using a guiding catheter to remove the residual thrombus. The calf-squeeze technique during aspiration thrombectomy can be used to induce the proximal migration of thrombi in the popliteal, tibial, and muscular veins were used to increase venous flow. The calf-squeeze technique was employed at mean of 1.3 times (range, 1-3 times). All patients showed proximal migration of a popliteal and muscular vein thrombus during the execution of the calf-squeeze technique. Successful recanalization was achieved in all patients (100%) without any complications. On duplex ultrasonography, which was performed immediately after the aspiration thrombectomy, four patients had a residual thrombus in the soleal muscular veins. However, none of the patients had a thrombus in the popliteal and tibial veins; and, during follow-up, no DVT recurred in any patient. The use of the calf-squeeze technique during aspiration thrombectomy after catheter-directed thrombolysis can induce the proximal migration of thrombi in the popliotibial and muscular veins and is an effective method that can remove a thrombus in calf veins.

  10. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Calf Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Jacob Michael; Fields, Karl B; Draper, Ryan

    The medial head of the gastrocnemius is the third most commonly strained muscle in elite athletes after the biceps femoris and rectus femoris. The differential diagnosis of posterior calf injury includes musculoskeletal and nonmusculoskeletal causes. Classically, delineation of these injuries from one another relied primarily on historical features and physical examination findings. The utilization of musculoskeletal ultrasound (sonography) has augmented the diagnosis of these injuries by providing dynamic, real-time confirmation. A review of PubMed, OVID, and MD Consult prior to January 2016 was performed using search terms, including s oleus ultrasound, gastrocnemius ultrasound, and tennis leg. The references of the pertinent articles were further reviewed for other relevant sources. Clinical review. Level 4. There have been few reviews to date of calf injuries and the use of sonography in their diagnosis. Prompt diagnosis utilizing ultrasound allows the clinician to focus management on gastrocnemius injury if present. Two-thirds of calf injuries occur at the junction of the fascia between the medial head of the gastrocnemius and the soleus. Injuries to the lateral head of the gastrocnemius occur in up to 14% of patients in some case series, but injury may occur anywhere from the proximal origin to the mid-belly to the fascial junction with the soleus. Numerous injuries to the posterior compartment can mimic gastrocnemius strain, and musculoskeletal ultrasound can aide in their diagnosis by incorporating real-time imaging into the grading of the injury and visual confirmation of physical examination findings. Acute injury to the posterior compartment of the lower extremity can represent a diagnostic challenge. Medial gastrocnemius strain represents the most common injury of the posterior compartment of the lower extremity. Ultrasound is a useful tool to assist the clinician in determining the specific cause of calf injury, estimate the severity of the injury, and

  11. Spatially localized phosphorous metabolism of skeletal muscle in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients: 24–month follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenweerd, N.; Baligand, C.; Verschuuren, J. J. G. M.; Ronen, I.; Niks, E. H.; Webb, A. G.; Kan, H. E.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess the changes in phosphodiester (PDE)-levels, detected by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), over 24-months to determine the potential of PDE as marker for muscle tissue changes in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) patients. Methods Spatially resolved phosphorous datasets were acquired in the right lower leg of 18 DMD patients (range: 5–15.4 years) and 12 age-matched healthy controls (range: 5–14 years) at three time-points (baseline, 12-months, and 24-months) using a 7T MR-System (Philips Achieva). 3-point Dixon images were acquired at 3T (Philips Ingenia) to determine muscle fat fraction. Analyses were done for six muscles that represent different stages of muscle wasting. Differences between groups and time-points were assessed with non-parametric tests with correction for multiple comparisons. Coefficient of variance (CV) were determined for PDE in four healthy adult volunteers in high and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) datasets. Results PDE-levels were significantly higher (two-fold) in DMD patients compared to controls in all analyzed muscles at almost every time point and did not change over the study period. Fat fraction was significantly elevated in all muscles at all time points compared to healthy controls, and increased significantly over time, except in the tibialis posterior muscle. The mean within subject CV for PDE-levels was 4.3% in datasets with high SNR (>10:1) and 5.7% in datasets with low SNR. Discussion and conclusion The stable two-fold increase in PDE-levels found in DMD patients in muscles with different levels of muscle wasting over 2-year time, including DMD patients as young as 5.5 years-old, suggests that PDE-levels may increase very rapidly early in the disease process and remain elevated thereafter. The low CV values in high and low SNR datasets show that PDE-levels can be accurately and reproducibly quantified in all conditions. Our data confirms the great potential of PDE as a marker for muscle tissue

  12. Spatially localized phosphorous metabolism of skeletal muscle in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients: 24-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooijmans, M T; Doorenweerd, N; Baligand, C; Verschuuren, J J G M; Ronen, I; Niks, E H; Webb, A G; Kan, H E

    2017-01-01

    To assess the changes in phosphodiester (PDE)-levels, detected by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), over 24-months to determine the potential of PDE as marker for muscle tissue changes in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) patients. Spatially resolved phosphorous datasets were acquired in the right lower leg of 18 DMD patients (range: 5-15.4 years) and 12 age-matched healthy controls (range: 5-14 years) at three time-points (baseline, 12-months, and 24-months) using a 7T MR-System (Philips Achieva). 3-point Dixon images were acquired at 3T (Philips Ingenia) to determine muscle fat fraction. Analyses were done for six muscles that represent different stages of muscle wasting. Differences between groups and time-points were assessed with non-parametric tests with correction for multiple comparisons. Coefficient of variance (CV) were determined for PDE in four healthy adult volunteers in high and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) datasets. PDE-levels were significantly higher (two-fold) in DMD patients compared to controls in all analyzed muscles at almost every time point and did not change over the study period. Fat fraction was significantly elevated in all muscles at all time points compared to healthy controls, and increased significantly over time, except in the tibialis posterior muscle. The mean within subject CV for PDE-levels was 4.3% in datasets with high SNR (>10:1) and 5.7% in datasets with low SNR. The stable two-fold increase in PDE-levels found in DMD patients in muscles with different levels of muscle wasting over 2-year time, including DMD patients as young as 5.5 years-old, suggests that PDE-levels may increase very rapidly early in the disease process and remain elevated thereafter. The low CV values in high and low SNR datasets show that PDE-levels can be accurately and reproducibly quantified in all conditions. Our data confirms the great potential of PDE as a marker for muscle tissue changes in DMD patients.

  13. Calf Contouring with Endoscopic Fascial Release, Calf Implant, and Structural Fat Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Karacaoglu, MD

    2013-08-01

    Conclusions: A novel endoscopic approach for lower leg contouring is discussed. Endoscopic fasciotomy technique with calf implant and structural fat grafting for improved lower leg aesthetics is a simple, effective, reliable, and predictable technique for calf contouring.

  14. Kinematic, Muscular, and Metabolic Responses During Exoskeletal-, Elliptical-, or Therapist-Assisted Stepping in People With Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnaird, Catherine R.; Holleran, Carey L.; Rafferty, Miriam R.; Rodriguez, Kelly S.; Cain, Julie B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Robotic-assisted locomotor training has demonstrated some efficacy in individuals with neurological injury and is slowly gaining clinical acceptance. Both exoskeletal devices, which control individual joint movements, and elliptical devices, which control endpoint trajectories, have been utilized with specific patient populations and are available commercially. No studies have directly compared training efficacy or patient performance during stepping between devices. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate kinematic, electromyographic (EMG), and metabolic responses during elliptical- and exoskeletal-assisted stepping in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) compared with therapist-assisted stepping. Design A prospective, cross-sectional, repeated-measures design was used. Methods Participants with incomplete SCI (n=11) performed 3 separate bouts of exoskeletal-, elliptical-, or therapist-assisted stepping. Unilateral hip and knee sagittal-plane kinematics, lower-limb EMG recordings, and oxygen consumption were compared across stepping conditions and with control participants (n=10) during treadmill stepping. Results Exoskeletal stepping kinematics closely approximated normal gait patterns, whereas significantly greater hip and knee flexion postures were observed during elliptical-assisted stepping. Measures of kinematic variability indicated consistent patterns in control participants and during exoskeletal-assisted stepping, whereas therapist- and elliptical-assisted stepping kinematics were more variable. Despite specific differences, EMG patterns generally were similar across stepping conditions in the participants with SCI. In contrast, oxygen consumption was consistently greater during therapist-assisted stepping. Limitations Limitations included a small sample size, lack of ability to evaluate kinetics during stepping, unilateral EMG recordings, and sagittal-plane kinematics. Conclusions Despite specific differences in

  15. Gene expression in mdx mouse muscle in relation to age and exercise: aberrant mechanical-metabolic coupling and implications for pre-clinical studies in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerino, Giulia Maria; Cannone, Maria; Giustino, Arcangela; Massari, Ada Maria; Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Cozzoli, Anna; De Luca, Annamaria

    2014-11-01

    Weakness and fatigability are typical features of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and are aggravated in dystrophic mdx mice by chronic treadmill exercise. Mechanical activity modulates gene expression and muscle plasticity. Here, we investigated the outcome of 4 (T4, 8 weeks of age) and 12 (T12, 16 weeks of age) weeks of either exercise or cage-based activity on a large set of genes in the gastrocnemius muscle of mdx and wild-type (WT) mice using quantitative real-time PCR. Basal expression of the exercise-sensitive genes peroxisome-proliferator receptor γ coactivator 1α (Pgc-1α) and Sirtuin1 (Sirt1) was higher in mdx versus WT mice at both ages. Exercise increased Pgc-1α expression in WT mice; Pgc-1α was downregulated by T12 exercise in mdx muscles, along with Sirt1, Pparγ and the autophagy marker Bnip3. Sixteen weeks old mdx mice showed a basal overexpression of the slow Mhc1 isoform and Serca2; T12 exercise fully contrasted this basal adaptation as well as the high expression of follistatin and myogenin. Conversely, T12 exercise was ineffective in WT mice. Damage-related genes such as gp91-phox (NADPH-oxidase2), Tgfβ, Tnfα and c-Src tyrosine kinase were overexpressed in mdx muscles and not affected by exercise. Likewise, the anti-inflammatory adiponectin was lower in T12-exercised mdx muscles. Chronic exercise with minor adaptive effects in WT muscles leads to maladaptation in mdx muscles with a disequilibrium between protective and damaging signals. Increased understanding of the pathways involved in the altered mechanical-metabolic coupling may help guide appropriate physical therapies while better addressing pharmacological interventions in translational research. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Effect of short-term upper-body resistance training on muscular strength, bone metabolic markers, and BMD in premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang MT

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael TC Liang,1 Lorena Quezada,1 WY Jamie Lau,1 Bulent Sokmen,2 Thomas W Spalding11Department of Kinesiology and Health Promotion, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, CA, USA; 2Department of Kinesiology, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA, USAAbstract: To examine the effect of a 10-week upper-body resistance training program on bone turnover markers and site-specific bone mineral density (BMD in the wrist and distal half of the ulna and radius in untrained and healthy young premenopausal women.Methods: Twenty-two subjects (aged 22.1 ± 1.8 years were randomly assigned to a resistance training (n = 12 or no training control (n = 10 group. The following outcome variables were measured before and after 10 weeks of resistance training: (1 bone formation biomarker osteocalcin, and bone resorption biomarker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b; (2 BMD in the wrist and distal half of the ulna and radius; (3 isokinetic strength of the elbow and knee extensors and flexors; (4 dynamic strength of the arm extensors and flexors; and (5 maximum number of push-ups.Results: The 10-week upper body resistance training intervention resulted in improved strength performance in push-ups (resistance training versus control: P < 0.05, chest presses (P < 0.05, and pulldowns (P < 0.05. However, there was no improvement in the BMD of the wrist (P > 0.05, BMD of the distal half of the ulna and radius (P > 0.05, and metabolic biomarkers osteocalcin (P > 0.05 and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (P > 0.05, except for the osteocalcin/tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b ratio. Also, no improvement in the resistance training group was observed for isokinetic strength of the knee and elbow flexion/extension.Conclusion: Upper-body muscular strength performance, but not bone metabolic markers and BMD of the wrist, can be improved with a 10-week upper body resistance training program of the nonweight-bearing limbs in

  17. CABLES MUSCULARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gómez

    Full Text Available Los cables musculares o fibras de nitinol presentan una excelente alternativa a los actuadores convencionales, con una fuerza de actuación muy alta, equivalente a la de los actuadores hidráulicos, proporcionalmente a su peso, además de su acción silenciosa. Este material, inventado en 1963, aún no es muy conocido y de ahí que se haya realizado una recopilación de sus propiedades. Entre ellas, la temperatura de transición es la más importante, por ser la que activa la aleación. Muchos sistemas se han creado para alcanzar adecuadamente la temperatura de transición, y también se continúa en la investigación de métodos que ayuden a lograr un control preciso del movimiento de la aleación con memoria de forma (SMA.

  18. Assessment of calf volume in Congenital Talipes Equinovarus by computer analysed digital photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Simon L; Downing, Martin; Chesney, David J; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-04-01

    The development of evidence-based approaches to the Congenital Talipes Equinovarus (CTEV) is impaired by the diversity of assessment techniques available, many of which have not been validated. Highly objective evaluation techniques that reflect the deformity and permit comparison between studies may lack the necessary link to functional features that are paramount to the patient, namely pain and mobility. Calf wasting is an acknowledged but little investigated component of the pathology. The rapid evolution of digital photography and computerised analytical techniques has yielded an opportunity to explore their role in the assessment of this common paediatric Orthopaedic pathology. This study presents the use of a cost-effective digital photographic assessment technique of maximal calf circumference and calf volume. These indices reflect the muscular development in the calf and therefore have significance in the functional assessment of CTEV and may represent an index of severity. Subjectivity has been limited by computerisation of the analysis process. The technique could easily be adapted to other volumetric analyses. Copyright © 2011 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Vibration and pressure wave therapy for calf strains: a proposed treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Amol; St Louis, Marie; Fournier, Magali

    2013-04-01

    Calf (lower leg) strains have a variety of treatment regimens with variable outcomes and return to activity (RTA) time frames. These injuries involve disruption of portions or the entire gastrocnemius-soleus myo-tendinous complex. Conservative treatment initially consists of rest, ice, compression, elevation (RICE). Immediately following calf injury, patients can utilize cryotherapy, massage, passive range of motion, and progressive exercise. In general, Grade I through Grade III calf strains can take up to 6 weeks before the athlete can return to training. It can also involve the loss of more than 50% of muscle integrity. Recently, vibration therapy and radial pressure waves have been utilized to treat muscular strains and other myo-tendinous injuries that involve trigger points. Studies have suggested vibration therapy with rehabilitation can increase muscle strength and flexibility in patients. Segmental vibration therapy (SVT) is treatment to a more focal area. Vibration therapy (VT) is applied directly to the area of injury. VT is a mechanical stimulus that is thought to stimulate the sensory receptors, as well as decrease inflammatory cells and receptors. Therefore, VT could be a valuable tool in treating athlete effectively and decreasing their recovery time. The purpose of this paper is to give the reader baseline knowledge of VT and propose a treatment protocol for calf strains using this technology along with radial pressure waves.

  20. Influence of protein nutrition and virginiamycin supplementation on feedlot growth performance and digestive function of calf-fed Holstein steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Chavira, J; Barreras, A; Plascencia, A; Montano, M F; Navarrete, J D; Torrentera, N; Zinn, R A

    2016-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the influence of protein and virginiamycin (VM) supplementation on feedlot growth performance, digestion, and metabolizable AA (MAA) supply of calf-fed Holstein steers. Growth performance and dietary energetics were evaluated in 120 Holstein steers (127 ± 9 kg). During the initial 112-d feeding period, a steam-flaked corn-based diet was balanced to meet either 100% (MAB) or 87% (UREA) of MAA requirements. Diets were supplemented with or without 22.5 mg/kg VM in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Subsequently (d 112 to 308), all steers received the UREA diet with or without VM. During the initial 112-d, MAB increased ADG, G:F, and dietary NE ( dietary NE were not different ( > 0.10) across initial supplementation treatments. Overall (d 1 to 308), MAB did not affect ADG ( > 0.10) but enhanced G:F efficiency ( = 0.03) and dietary NE ( = 0.05). During the initial 112-d period and through the remainder of the experiment, VM increased G:F ( dietary NE ( 0.10) on ruminal digestion of OM, NDF, starch, microbial efficiency, or total tract digestion of OM and NDF. The MAB increased indispensable AA flow to the small intestine ( 0.10) total tract N digestion. Extrapolating from AA supplies in the metabolism study, MAB satisfied indispensable AA requirements during the initial 112-d period, whereas the UREA diet met 73.5% and 79.2% of methionine and lysine requirements, respectively. During the subsequent periods (d 112 to 308) indispensable AA supplies exceeded theoretical requirements. We conclude that enhancements in energy utilization when diets are balanced to meet MAA requirements of calf-fed Holstein steers during the initial 112-d feedlot period remain appreciable throughout time on feed. Virginiamycin enhanced efficiency of energy utilization throughout the feedlot growing-finishing period.

  1. Blood flow and oxygenation in peritendinous tissue and calf muscle during dynamic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Langberg, H; Green, Sara Marie Ehrenreich

    2000-01-01

    , and (2) whether blood flow is coupled to oxidative metabolism. 2. Seven individuals performed dynamic plantar flexion from 1 to 9 W. Radial artery and popliteal venous blood were sampled for O2, peritendinous blood flow was determined by 133Xe-washout, calf blood flow by plethysmography, cardiac output...

  2. Activity and relationships of muscular and cardiovascular systems in different states during muscular activity in athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pryimakov A.A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Revealed that the performance of high-power exercise on a bicycle ergometer to failure athletes skilled cyclists (15 men increases the activity and relationship of muscular and cardiovascular systems. At rest and fatigue manifests linear relationship between the two systems, during commissioning with stable condition - is exponential. The development of fatigue compensated without changing leadership of the quadriceps, biceps and calf muscles of the lower extremities in the efforts to change the relationship and partial role in various areas of cyclic motion, increasing their electrical activity. With the development of decompensated fatigue decreases the electrical activity and disturbed coordination of major muscles in the relationship right and left limbs.

  3. Calf respiratory disease and pen microenvironments in naturally ventilated calf barns in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, A; McGuirk, S M; Bennett, T B; Cook, N B; Nordlund, K V

    2006-10-01

    Relationships between air quality, a variety of environmental risk factors, and calf respiratory health were studied in 13 naturally ventilated calf barns during winter. A minimum of 12 preweaned calves were randomly selected and scored for the presence of respiratory disease in each barn. An air sampling device was used to determine airborne bacteria colony-forming units per cubic meter (cfu/m3) of air in calf pens and central alleys within the barns. Airborne bacteria samples were collected on sheep blood agar (BAP) and eosin methylene blue (EMB) agar plates. Temperature and relative humidity were recorded in each calf pen, the barn alley, and outside the barn. Samples of bedding were collected in each pen and DM was measured. Pen bedding type and a calf nesting score (degree to which the calves could nestle into the bedding) was assigned to each barn. Calf numbers, barn and pen dimensions, ridge, eave, and curtain openings, and exterior wind speed and direction were determined and used to estimate building ventilation rates. Factors that were significantly associated with a reduced prevalence of respiratory disease were reduced pen bacterial counts (log10 cfu/m3) on BAP, presence of a solid barrier between each calf pen, and increased ability to nest. Individual calf pen bacterial counts were significantly different from barn alley bacterial counts on both BAP and EMB. Significant factors associated with reduced calf pen bacterial counts on BAP were increasing pen area, increasing number of open planes of the calf pen, decreasing pen temperature, and wood-particle bedding. Significant factors associated with reduced alley bacterial counts on BAP were increased ventilation changes per hour, increased barn volume per kilogram of calf, reduced pen bacterial counts, and barn type.

  4. Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000705.htm Duchenne muscular dystrophy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an inherited disorder. It involves muscle weakness , ...

  5. Blood flow and oxygenation in peritendinous tissue and calf muscle during dynamic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, R; Langberg, Henning; Green, Stefan Mathias

    2000-01-01

    1. Circulation around tendons may act as a shunt for muscle during exercise. The perfusion and oxygenation of Achilles' peritendinous tissue was measured in parallel with that of calf muscle during exercise to determine (1) whether blood flow is restricted in peritendinous tissue during exercise...... with a rise in leg vascular conductance and microvascular haemoglobin volume, despite elevated systemic vascular resistance. 4. The parallel rise in calf muscle and peritendinous blood flow and fall in O2 saturation during exercise indicate that blood flow is coupled to oxidative metabolism in both tissue...... by dye dilution, arterial pressure by an arterial catheter-transducer, and muscle and peritendinous O2 saturation by spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS). 3. Calf blood flow rose 20-fold with exercise, reaching 44 +/- 7 ml (100 g)-1 min-1 (mean +/- s.e.m. ) at 9 W, while Achilles' peritendinous flow...

  6. Meaning of Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MD Living With MD en español Qué significa distrofia muscular What Is Muscular Dystrophy? Muscular dystrophy (say: MUS- ... blood test if a kid has Becker or Duchenne MD. Or the doctor might take a small piece of the muscle and look at it under a microscope to ...

  7. Bilateral Polydactyly in a Nondescript Calf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudasir Bashir Gugjoo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A 7 day old non-descript female calf was presented to the Referral Veterinary Polyclinic, Indian Veterinary Research Institute-Izatnagar with a history of limping and unusual appearance of hindlimbs from birth. Physical examination revealed additional digit on the metatarsal regions of both the hind limbs. Radiographic examination confirmed the presence of supernumerary digits unaccompanied by any other congenital malformation. It was diagnosed as Polydactyly type IV. Surgical intervention was done to remove the extra digit in both the hind limbs. This clinical article reports the successful management of bilateral polydactyly in a non-descript calf.

  8. Physiological calf responses to increased chromium supply in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yari, M; Nikkhah, A; Alikhani, M; Khorvash, M; Rahmani, H; Ghorbani, G R

    2010-09-01

    postweaning. Overall, results indicate that in summer, increased dietary Cr supply can benefit postweaning insulin metabolism, alter preweaning blood cortisol and glucose levels, and reduce respiration rate and may have only minor effects on calf growth. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantifying antimicrobial resistance at veal calf farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, A.B.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Stegeman, A.; Vernooij, H.; Mevius, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to determine a sampling strategy to quantify the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance on veal calf farms, based on the variation in antimicrobial resistance within and between calves on five farms. Faecal samples from 50 healthy calves (10 calves/farm) were collected. From

  10. Evaluation of Serial Casting for Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Kate; de Valle, Katy; Kornberg, Andrew; Ryan, Monique; Kennedy, Rachel

    2017-03-16

    To report the effects of below-knee serial casting in two boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy who presented with well-preserved strength and calf shortening. Bilateral below-knee serial casts were applied over two weeks with follow-up of daily stretching and wearing of customized night splints. Outcome measures were performed at baseline, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post-casting. These included measures of calf length, leg strength, motor function, endurance, and spatio-temporal gait parameters. Both boys completed serial casting with gains in muscle length. No adverse effects on strength or motor function were observed over a 12-month follow-up period.

  11. Atrofia muscular proximal familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Levy

    1962-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam dois casos de atrofia muscular proximal familiar, moléstia caracterizada por déficit motor e atrofias musculares de distribuição proximal, secundárias a lesão de neurônios periféricos. Assim, como em outros casos descritos na literatura, foi feito inicialmente o diagnóstico de distrofia muscular progressiva. O diagnóstico correto foi conseguido com auxílio da eletromiografia e da biopsia muscular.

  12. Non-Targeted Metabolomics Analysis of Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy-Affected Muscles Reveals Alterations in Arginine and Proline Metabolism, and Elevations in Glutamic and Oleic Acid In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Muhammad; Kornegay, Joe N; Honcoop, Aubree; Parry, Traci L; Balog-Alvarez, Cynthia J; O'Neal, Sara K; Bain, James R; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Newgard, Christopher B; Patterson, Cam; Willis, Monte S

    2017-07-29

    Like Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD) dog model of DMD is characterized by muscle necrosis, progressive paralysis, and pseudohypertrophy in specific skeletal muscles. This severe GRMD phenotype includes moderate atrophy of the biceps femoris (BF) as compared to unaffected normal dogs, while the long digital extensor (LDE), which functions to flex the tibiotarsal joint and serves as a digital extensor, undergoes the most pronounced atrophy. A recent microarray analysis of GRMD identified alterations in genes associated with lipid metabolism and energy production. We, therefore, undertook a non-targeted metabolomics analysis of the milder/earlier stage disease GRMD BF muscle versus the more severe/chronic LDE using GC-MS to identify underlying metabolic defects specific for affected GRMD skeletal muscle. Untargeted metabolomics analysis of moderately-affected GRMD muscle (BF) identified eight significantly altered metabolites, including significantly decreased stearamide (0.23-fold of controls, p = 2.89 × 10-3), carnosine (0.40-fold of controls, p = 1.88 × 10-2), fumaric acid (0.40-fold of controls, p = 7.40 × 10-4), lactamide (0.33-fold of controls, p = 4.84 × 10-2), myoinositol-2-phosphate (0.45-fold of controls, p = 3.66 × 10-2), and significantly increased oleic acid (1.77-fold of controls, p = 9.27 × 10-2), glutamic acid (2.48-fold of controls, p = 2.63 × 10-2), and proline (1.73-fold of controls, p = 3.01 × 10-2). Pathway enrichment analysis identified significant enrichment for arginine/proline metabolism (p = 5.88 × 10-4, FDR 4.7 × 10-2), where alterations in L-glutamic acid, proline, and carnosine were found. Additionally, multiple Krebs cycle intermediates were significantly decreased (e.g., malic acid, fumaric acid, citric/isocitric acid, and succinic acid), suggesting that altered energy metabolism may be underlying the observed GRMD BF muscle dysfunction. In contrast, two pathways, inosine-5

  13. Non-Targeted Metabolomics Analysis of Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy-Affected Muscles Reveals Alterations in Arginine and Proline Metabolism, and Elevations in Glutamic and Oleic Acid In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Muhammad; Kornegay, Joe N.; Honcoop, Aubree; Parry, Traci L.; Balog-Alvarez, Cynthia J.; Muehlbauer, Michael J.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Patterson, Cam

    2017-01-01

    Background: Like Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD) dog model of DMD is characterized by muscle necrosis, progressive paralysis, and pseudohypertrophy in specific skeletal muscles. This severe GRMD phenotype includes moderate atrophy of the biceps femoris (BF) as compared to unaffected normal dogs, while the long digital extensor (LDE), which functions to flex the tibiotarsal joint and serves as a digital extensor, undergoes the most pronounced atrophy. A recent microarray analysis of GRMD identified alterations in genes associated with lipid metabolism and energy production. Methods: We, therefore, undertook a non-targeted metabolomics analysis of the milder/earlier stage disease GRMD BF muscle versus the more severe/chronic LDE using GC-MS to identify underlying metabolic defects specific for affected GRMD skeletal muscle. Results: Untargeted metabolomics analysis of moderately-affected GRMD muscle (BF) identified eight significantly altered metabolites, including significantly decreased stearamide (0.23-fold of controls, p = 2.89 × 10−3), carnosine (0.40-fold of controls, p = 1.88 × 10−2), fumaric acid (0.40-fold of controls, p = 7.40 × 10−4), lactamide (0.33-fold of controls, p = 4.84 × 10−2), myoinositol-2-phosphate (0.45-fold of controls, p = 3.66 × 10−2), and significantly increased oleic acid (1.77-fold of controls, p = 9.27 × 10−2), glutamic acid (2.48-fold of controls, p = 2.63 × 10−2), and proline (1.73-fold of controls, p = 3.01 × 10−2). Pathway enrichment analysis identified significant enrichment for arginine/proline metabolism (p = 5.88 × 10−4, FDR 4.7 × 10−2), where alterations in L-glutamic acid, proline, and carnosine were found. Additionally, multiple Krebs cycle intermediates were significantly decreased (e.g., malic acid, fumaric acid, citric/isocitric acid, and succinic acid), suggesting that altered energy metabolism may be underlying the observed GRMD BF muscle

  14. Non-Targeted Metabolomics Analysis of Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy-Affected Muscles Reveals Alterations in Arginine and Proline Metabolism, and Elevations in Glutamic and Oleic Acid In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abdullah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Like Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, the Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD dog model of DMD is characterized by muscle necrosis, progressive paralysis, and pseudohypertrophy in specific skeletal muscles. This severe GRMD phenotype includes atrophy of the biceps femoris (BF as compared to unaffected normal dogs, while the long digital extensor (LDE, which functions to flex the tibiotarsal joint and serves as a digital extensor, undergoes the most pronounced atrophy. A recent microarray analysis of GRMD identified alterations in genes associated with lipid metabolism and energy production. Methods: We, therefore, undertook a non-targeted metabolomics analysis of the milder/earlier stage disease GRMD BF muscle versus the more severe/chronic LDE using GC-MS to identify underlying metabolic defects specific for affected GRMD skeletal muscle. Results: Untargeted metabolomics analysis of moderately-affected GRMD muscle (BF identified eight significantly altered metabolites, including significantly decreased stearamide (0.23-fold of controls, p = 2.89 × 10−3, carnosine (0.40-fold of controls, p = 1.88 × 10−2, fumaric acid (0.40-fold of controls, p = 7.40 × 10−4, lactamide (0.33-fold of controls, p = 4.84 × 10−2, myoinositol-2-phosphate (0.45-fold of controls, p = 3.66 × 10−2, and significantly increased oleic acid (1.77-fold of controls, p = 9.27 × 10−2, glutamic acid (2.48-fold of controls, p = 2.63 × 10−2, and proline (1.73-fold of controls, p = 3.01 × 10−2. Pathway enrichment analysis identified significant enrichment for arginine/proline metabolism (p = 5.88 × 10−4, FDR 4.7 × 10−2, where alterations in L-glutamic acid, proline, and carnosine were found. Additionally, multiple Krebs cycle intermediates were significantly decreased (e.g., malic acid, fumaric acid, citric/isocitric acid, and succinic acid, suggesting that altered energy metabolism may be underlying the observed GRMD BF muscle

  15. The Fatted Calf Dessert Menu 2017

    OpenAIRE

    The Fatted Calf

    2017-01-01

    The Fatted Calf was opened in 2010. In 2015 we moved to Church St. Athlone. Run by husband and wife team, Feargal and Fiona O'Donnell, our focus is on finding the best, fresh, seasonal and locally sourced ingredients, that the midlands has to offer. Our food, expertly executed by our head chef, Dee Adamson, is our take on "modern Irish" food, served in a relaxed, comfortable, setting. http://arrow.dit.ie/menus21c/1224/thumbnail.jpg

  16. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy is muscle weakness and loss of muscle tissue that gets ... to have children. Alternative Names Landouzy-Dejerine muscular dystrophy Images ... Superficial anterior muscles References Preston DC, Shapiro BE. Proximal, distal, and ...

  17. Co-incidence of Turner syndrome and Duchenne muscular dystrophy - an important problem for the clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczorowska, Ewa; Zimowski, Janusz; Cichoń-Kotek, Monika; Mrozińska, Agnieszka; Purzycka, Joanna; Wierzba, Jolanta; Limon, Janusz; Lipska-Ziętkiewicz, Beata S

    Turner syndrome is a relatively common chromosomal disorder which affects about one in 2000 live born females. Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an X-linked recessive disorder affecting 1:3600 live born males. Considering the above, the coexistence of these two diseases may occur only anecdotally. Here, we report a 4 ½ year-old female with classical 45,X Turner syndrome who also had Duchenne muscular dystrophy caused by a point mutation in the dystrophin gene (c.9055delG). The patient showed the typical phenotype of Turner syndrome including distinctive dysmorphic features (short neck, low posterior hairline, wide position of nipples), aortic coarctation and feet lymphedema. Besides, she presented with an unusually early beginning of muscular dystrophy symptoms with infantile-onset motor developmental delay, intellectual disability and early calf muscular hypertrophy. The coexistence of an X-linked recessive disorder should be considered in women affected by Turner syndrome presenting with additional atypical clinical features.

  18. Metabolismo do glicogênio muscular durante o exercício físico: mecanismos de regulação Muscle glycogen metabolism during exercise: mechanism of regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Eduardo Lima-Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Uma série de estudos tem sido realizada para compreensão do metabolismo de glicogênio muscular durante o exercício. Estudos clássicos apontaram uma associação entre as reservas iniciais de glicogênio muscular e o tempo de sustentação do esforço. O glicogênio muscular diminui de forma semi-logarítmica em função do tempo, mas a concentração desse substrato não chega a zero, o que sugere a participação de outros mecanismos de fadiga na interrupção do exercício prolongado. Nesse tipo de atividade, a depleção de glicogênio, primeiro, ocorre nas fibras de contração lenta, seguida pela depleção nas de contração rápida. A diminuição na taxa de utilização de glicogênio muscular está sincronicamente ligada ao aumento no metabolismo de gordura, mas o mecanismo fisiológico é pouco compreendido. Estudos recentes sugerem que uma diminuição da insulina durante o exercício limitaria o transporte de glicose pela membrana plasmática, causando um aumento no consumo de ácidos graxos. Alguns estudos têm demonstrado, também, que a própria estrutura do glicogênio muscular pode controlar a entrada de ácidos graxos livres na célula, via proteína quinase. Fisicamente, a molécula de glicogênio se apresenta de duas formas, uma com estrutura molecular menor (aproximadamente, 4,10(5 Da, Proglicogênio e outra maior (aproximadamente, 10(7 Da, Macroglicogênio. Aparentemente, a forma Proglicogênio é metabolicamente mais ativa no exercício e a Macroglicogênio mais suscetível a aumentar com dietas de supercompensação. Maior concentração de hipoxantinas e amônia no exercício com depleção de glicogênio muscular também foi relatada, mas estudos com melhor controle da intensidade do esforço podem ajudar a elucidar essa questão.A large number of studies have been conducted to understand muscle glycogen metabolism during exercise. Classical studies demonstrated a relationship between the pre-exercise muscle

  19. Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... encouraging progress. The Muscular Dystrophy Association is the leading sponsor of SMA research. The Association also provides a full program of services for individuals and families coping with SMA, and up-to-date informa- tion ...

  20. Changes in muscle sympathetic nerve activity and calf blood flow during static handgrip exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, M; Mano, T; Iwase, S

    1990-01-01

    To test the function of sympathetic vasco-constrictor nerves on blood flow in resting limbs during static muscle contraction, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) to the leg muscle was recorded from the tibial nerve microneurographically before, during and after 2 min of static handgrip (SHG). Simultaneously, calf blood flow (CBF) was measured by strain gauge plethysmography. An increase in MSNA, a decrease in CBF and an increase in calf vascular resistance (CVR) in the same resting limb occurred concomitantly during SHG. However, the increase in CVR was blunted in the second minute of handgrip when MSNA was still increasing. The results indicated that the decrease of CBF during SHG reflects the increase in MSNA, while the dissociation between MSNA and CVR at the later period of SHG may be related to metabolic change produced by the vasoconstriction.

  1. Performance and Health of Group-Housed Calves Kept in Igloo Calf Hutches and Calf Barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Wójcik*, Renata Pilarczyk, Anna Bilska, Ottfried Weiher1 and Peter Sanftleben1

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Group-reared calves are usually housed in common buildings, such as calf barns of all sorts; however, there are concerns about this practice due to problems such as an increased incidence of diseases and poor performance of the calves. Group calf rearing using igloo hutches may be a solution combining the benefits of individual and group housing systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate group-reared calves housed in Igloo-type hutches compared with those housed in common calf barns. The experiment was carried out on a large private dairy farm located in Vorpommern, Germany. A total of 90 Deutsche-Holstein bull calves were assigned to 2 treatment groups: the calf-barn group, with calves grouped in pens in a building, and the Igloo-hutch group, with calves housed in outdoor enclosures with an access to group igloo-style hutches. Calves entering the 84-day experiment were at an average age of about three weeks, with the mean initial body weight of about 50 kg. The calves housed in the group Igloo hutches attained higher daily weight gains compared to those housed in the calf barn (973 vs 721 g/day, consumed more solid feeds (concentrate, corn grain and maize silage: (1.79 vs 1.59 kg/day, and less milk replacer (5.51 vs 6.19 kg/day, had also a lower incidence of respiratory diseases (1.24 vs 3.57% with a shorter persistence of the illness.

  2. Interstitial and arterial-venous [K+] in human calf muscle during dynamic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Stefan Mathias; Langberg, Henning; Skovgaard, D

    2000-01-01

    Changes in the concentration of interstitial K+ surrounding skeletal muscle fibres ([K+]I) probably play some role in the regulation of cardiovascular adjustments to muscular activity, as well as in the aetiology of muscle pain and fatigue during high-intensity exercise. However, there is very...... little information on the response of [K+]I to exercise in human skeletal muscle. Five young healthy subjects performed plantar flexion exercise for four 5 min periods at increasing power outputs ( approximately 1-6 W) with 10 min intervening recovery periods, as well as for two 5 min periods......+. Calf muscle pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale. On average, [K+]I was 4.4 mmol l(-1) at rest and increased during minutes 3-5 of incremental exercise by approximately 1-7 mmol l(-1) as a positive function of power output. K+ release also increased as a function of exercise intensity...

  3. Early-Onset LMNA-Associated Muscular Dystrophy with Later Involvement of Contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Younggun; Lee, Jung Hwan; Park, Hyung Jun; Choi, Young Chul

    2017-10-01

    The early diagnosis of LMNA-associated muscular dystrophy is important for preventing sudden arrest related to cardiac conduction block. However, diagnosing early-onset Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) with later involvement of contracture and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1B is often delayed due to heterogeneous clinical presentations. We aimed to determine the clinical features that contribute to a delayed diagnosis. We reviewed four patients who were recently diagnosed with LMNA-associated muscular dystrophy by targeted exome sequencing and who were initially diagnosed with nonspecific or other types of muscular dystrophy. Certain clinical features such as delayed contracture involvement and calf hypertrophy were found to contribute to a delayed diagnosis. Muscle biopsies were not informative for the diagnosis in these patients. Genetic testing of single or multiple genes is useful for confirming a diagnosis of LMNA-associated muscular dystrophy. Even EDMD patients could experience the later involvement of contracture, so clinicians should consider early genetic testing for patients with undiagnosed muscular dystrophy or laminopathy.

  4. Effects of phyto-oestrogens on veal calf prostate histology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    In veal calf production plant-based proteins are frequently included in milk replacer fed to the animals. Since soy products, which are mostly used, are known for their high levels of phyto-oestrogens, the effects of these feeds on the veal calf prostate were examined. Goal was to determine whether

  5. The Economics of Organic Versus Conventional Cow-calf Production

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, Jeffrey M.; Nehring, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Costs, returns, and profitability of cow-calf farms that are organic or transitioning to organic are compared with those of cow-calf farms that are non-organic. A method of matching samples is used for the comparison. Results suggest higher cost of organic production due to higher unpaid labor, taxes and insurance, and overhead costs.

  6. CalfScience: Extension Education at Many Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dale A.; Tellessen, Kathlyn; Sischo, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The issue of antimicrobial resistance in food animal agriculture was addressed by conducting clinical trials to assess alternatives to antimicrobials in dairy calf-raising and developing outreach to three different audiences. Current research was integrated into Extension programs for calf-raisers, animal science and veterinary students, and food…

  7. Efeito do sulfato de vanadil sobre o comprometimento metabólico muscular induzido pela imobilização de membro posterior de ratos Efecto del sulfato de vanadil sobre comprometimiento metabólico muscular inducido por la inmovilización del miembro posterior en ratones Effect of the vanadyl sulphate on the muscular metabolic compromising induced by immobilization of posterior limb of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Borges Delfino

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A proposta deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do sulfato de vanadil (SV no perfil metabólico muscular de membro posterior imobilizado de ratos. Ratos Wistar foram divididos nos grupos (n = 6: controle (C, imobilizado em posição neutra do tornozelo (I, tratado com sulfato de vanadil (SV, 0,25mM, VO e imobilizado tratado com SV (I + SV durante sete dias. Após o período experimental, foram avaliadas as reservas de glicogênio (RG dos músculos sóleo (S, gastrocnêmio branco (GB e vermelho (GV, tibial anterior (TA e extensor longo dos dedos (ELD, além do peso do S e ELD. A análise estatística foi realizada pela ANOVA seguida pelo teste de Tukey (p La propuesta de este trabajo ha sido la de evaluar el efecto del sulfato de vanadil (SV en el perfil metabólico muscular de miembro posterior inmovilizado de ratones. Ratones Wistar fueron divididos en grupos (n = 6: control (C, inmovilizado en posición neutra de tobillo (I, tratado con sulfato de vanadil (SV, 0,25mM, VO e inmovilizado tratado con SV (I + SV durante 7 días. Después del periodo experimental, fueron evaluadas las reservas de glicógeno (RG de los músculos soleo (S, gastrocnemio blanco (GB y colorado (GV, tibial anterior (TA y extensor largo de los dedos (ELD, además del peso de S y ELD. El análisis estadístico fue realizado por ANOVA seguido del test de Tukey (p The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metabolic performance of immobilized skeletal muscle in rats treated with vanadyl sulphate. Male Wistar rats were divided in groups (n = 6: control (C, immobilized (I, treated with vanadyl sulphate (VS, 0,25 mM and immobilized treated with vanadyl sulphate (I + VS during seven days. The concentration of vanadyl sulphate diluted in water was 0,25 mM. After experimental stage, the glycogen content (GC was evaluated in soleus (S, white gastrocnemius (WG, red gastrocnemius (RG, tibialis anterior (TA and extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscles, besides S and EDL weight. The

  8. The effect of inactivity on reactive hyperaemia in the human calf: a study with strain gauge plethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroese, A J

    1977-02-01

    In order to study the influence of muscular inactivity on reactive hyperaemia, postischaemic blood flow was measued with strain gauge plethysmography in the calf of twenty-nine patients, who had been treated with a plaster cast for a trauma of the lower limb. The contralateral leg served as a comparison. In all but two patients postischaemic maximal flow was lower in the immobilized calf. A negative correlation existed between maximal flow and the duration of immobilization. In the course of 6 weeks after removal of the cast, the difference in maximal flow between both sides became insignificant. Venous volume and venous emptying were not different in the two limbs. The effect of inactivity on reactive hyperaemic response may be explained by an effect of inactivity on the arterioles, muscle atrophy, a decrease in capillarization and in oxidative capacity of the muscle fibres. It is concluded that inactivity and atrophy of the lower limb musculature in patients with peripheral arterial disease may be a contributing factor to the low reactive hyperaemic response in the calf of such patients.

  9. Dismorfia muscular Muscle dysmorphia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Seleri Marques Assunção

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Preocupações mórbidas com a imagem corporal eram tidas até recentemente como problemas eminentemente femininos. Atualmente estas preocupações também têm sido encontradas no sexo masculino. A dismorfia muscular é um subtipo do transtorno dismórfico corporal que ocorre principalmente em homens que, apesar da grande hipertrofia muscular, consideram-se pequenos e fracos. Além de estar associada a prejuízos sociais, ocupacionais, recreativos e em outras áreas do funcionamento do indivíduo, a dismorfia muscular é também um fator de risco para o abuso de esteróides anabolizantes. Este artigo aborda aspectos epidemiológicos, etiológicos e padrões clínicos da dismorfia muscular, além de tecer comentários sobre estratégias de tratamento para este transtorno.Morbid concern over body image was considered, until recently, a female issue. Nowadays, it has been viewed as a common male disorder. Muscle dysmorphia, a subtype of a body dysmorphic disorder, affects men who, despite having clear muscular hypertroph,y see themselves as frail and small. Besides being associated to major social, leisure and occupational dysfunction, muscle dysmorphia is also a risk factor for the abuse of steroids. This article describes epidemiological, etiological and clinical characteristics of muscle dysmorphia and comments on its treatment strategy.

  10. Microsomal activation of thioacetamide-S-oxide to a metabolite(s) that covalently binds to calf thymus DNA and other polynucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadi, H V; Neal, R A

    1981-04-01

    In the presence of NADPH liver microsomes isolated from phenobarbital-pretreated rats catalyze the conversion of [3H]thioacetamide-S-oxide to a reactive intermediate(s) which covalently binds to calf thymus DNA, calf liver RNA, polyguanylic acid (poly(G)) and polyadenylic acid (poly(A)). The highest level of binding of radioactivity was obtained with poly(G), followed by poly(A), RNA and DNA. The incorporation of radioactivity into DNA was linear for 30 min and there was a requirement for NADPH for time-dependent covalent binding to occur. Performing the microsomal incubations in an atmosphere of 80% CO/20% O2 or adding partially purified anti cytochrome P-450 immune serum to the microsomal incubations inhibited the total metabolism of thioacetamide-S-oxide and had a small, but insignificant, inhibitory effect on binding of radioactivity to calf thymus DNA. Using a reconstituted monooxygenase system containing cytochrome P-450 purified from phenobarbital-treated rats we were unable to detect any metabolism of thioacetamide-S-oxide. Only background levels of radio-activity were incorporated into calf thymus DNA when microsomes isolated from phenobarbital-treated rats were incubated with [3H]thioacetamide in the presence of NADPH. These results suggest that thioacetamide-S-oxide is an obligatory intermediate in the metabolic activation of thioacetamide to a reactive metabolite(s) which binds to calf thumus DNA.

  11. Evaluation of Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-06

    Becker Muscular Dystrophy; Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy, Type 2A (Calpain-3 Deficiency); Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy, Type 2B (Miyoshi Myopathy, Dysferlin Deficiency); Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy, Type 2I (FKRP-deficiency)

  12. Isolation of a subgroup two adenovirus from calf with weak calf syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalber, E; Renshaw, H W; Boro, C; Mattson, D; Frank, F W

    1976-01-01

    A viral agent, designated Id-1, was isolated from the buffy coat of a calf suffering from weak calf syndrome. The virus replicated on bovine salivary gland cells and caused cytopathic effect within four days after infection-Cytopathic effect was characterized by rounding and clumping of cells. Stained preparations of infected monolayers revealed multiple intranuclear inclusions. The agent was found to be resistant to chloroform, ether, trypsin, sodium desoxycholate, oxytetracycline and a pH range of three to nine. The virus was sensitive to 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine and to a temperature of 70 degrees C. Cross neutralization tests with Id-1 antiserum and bovine adenovirus type 7 (strain Fujuroi) antiserum resulted in complete neutralilation of both viruses with four or less antibody units of homologous or heterologous antiserum. Images Fig. 1. PMID:187293

  13. Calf Contouring with Endoscopic Fascial Release, Calf Implant, and Structural Fat Grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Ercan Karacaoglu, MD; Richard J. Zienowicz, MD; Iulian Balan, MD

    2013-01-01

    Background: Curved lower legs cause psychological stress for women. In evaluating the shape, if thickness is the main contributing factor of leg aesthetic, then lipoplasty or calf reducing procedures will be the option. If the legs are slender and have no muscle hypertrophy but still have some indentation or bulges on both sides and lack an aesthetic shape what will be the options? The answer to the question is discussed in detail in this article. Methods: Twenty-two patients, operated over a...

  14. Naturally occurring Tyzzer's disease in a calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, T; Shirota, K; Une, Y; Nomura, Y; Wada, Y; Goto, K; Takakura, A; Itoh, T; Fujiwara, K

    1999-05-01

    Naturally occurring Clostridium piliforme infection (Tyzzer's disease) was found in a calf. Light microscopic examination revealed multifocal coagulative necrosis in the liver, catarrhal gastroenteritis, tracheitis and pneumonia, and thymic atrophy. Warthin-Starry staining clearly showed large filamentous bacilli in bundles or criss-cross patterns within the hepatocytes and epithelium and smooth muscle cells of the ileum and cecum. Immunohistochemistry using anti-C. piliforme RT and MSK strain antisera showed positive reaction against the bacilli. Electron microscopic examination revealed bacilli within the hepatocytes that demonstrated a characteristic vegetative form, with peritrichous flagella, and spores. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) study using the paraffin-embedded liver sections, the 196-bp DNA fragment specific to 16S ribosomal RNA of C. piliforme was amplified. The characteristics of these bacilli are consistent with those of of C. piliforme. The PCR technique using paraffin-embedded sections should be useful for confirming C. piliforme infection in spontaneous cases.

  15. Virome of US bovine calf serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Yugo, Danielle M; Phan, Tung Gia; Deng, Xutao; Kanevsky, Isis; Opriessnig, Tanja; Woolums, Amelia R; Hurley, David J; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Delwart, Eric

    2017-03-01

    Using viral metagenomics we analyzed four bovine serum pools assembled from 715 calves in the United States. Two parvoviruses, bovine parvovirus 2 (BPV2) and a previously uncharacterized parvovirus designated as bosavirus (BosaV), were detected in 3 and 4 pools respectively and their complete coding sequences generated. Based on NS1 protein identity, bosavirus qualifies as a member of a new species in the copiparvovirus genus. Also detected were low number of reads matching ungulate tetraparvovirus 2, bovine hepacivirus, and several papillomaviruses. This study further characterizes the diversity of viruses in calf serum with the potential to infect fetuses and through fetal bovine serum contaminate cell cultures. Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that our son Mike, then age 4, has Duchenne muscular dystrophy, we were devastated. Immediately, our hopes and dreams ... over time, the per- son’s muscle strength declines. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) was first described by the French neurologist ...

  17. Treinamento físico durante a recuperação nutricional não afeta o metabolismo muscular da glicose de ratos La educación física durante la recuperación nutritiva no afecta el metabolismo muscular de la glucosa en ratones Physical training during nutritional recovery does not affect the muscular glucose metabolism in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Santhiago

    2006-04-01

    % de proteína, respectivamente, recibida del desmame (21 días a los 90 días de edad. Todos los animales pasaron entonces, para recibir la dieta NP y algunos fueron sometidos (entrenado - TRE o ningún (sedentario - SED educación física que consistió en carrera de cinta rodante, 25m/min., 50 minutos por día, 5 días en la semana, durante 30 días, que componen los grupos NP-SED, NP-TRE, HP/NP-SED y HP/NP-TRE. El metabolismo de la glucosa se evaluó en las muestras de músculo sóleo incubadas en presencia de insulina (100myU/L y glucosa (5,5 mM, conteniendo [C14] la glucosa y [H³] 2-deoxiglicose. Mientras que la ingestión diariamente alimentaría (el g/100g de peso corpóreo del grupo HP/NP-TRE de grupo (24,39 ± 4,07 era más grande que del grupo HP/NP-SED de grupo (21,62 ± 4,69. Las ganancias de peso (g fueron similares en los grupos HP/NP-TRE (203,80 ± 34,03 y HP/NP-SED (214,43 ± 30,54. No había diferencia entre estos dos grupos en cuanto a los parámetros: la recepción de glucosa, oxidación de glucosa y síntesis del glucógeno para el músculo sóleo. De esta manera, nosotros podríamos concluir que los entrenamientos aeróbicos no tenían el impacto sobre la recuperación nutritiva, porque no había diferencias metabólicas o somáticas entre animales recuperados en presencia o ausencia del entrenamiento.This study had the main aim to assess the food intake, the weight gain, and the muscular glucose metabolism in rats submitted to aerobic training while recovering of protean malnutrition. For this, 60 male Wistar rats were separated in two groups: normoprotean (NP and hypoprotean (HP, according to the diet: NP (17% protein, or HP (6% protein, respectively, which was received after the ablactation (21 days on their 90th day of life. Then, very animal received the NP diet, and they were submitted or not (trained TRA; sedentary SED to physical training that consisted in running on a treadmill for 25 m/min., 50 min/day for 5 days a week for 30 days

  18. Therapeutic advances in muscular dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Doris G; Wagner, Kathryn R

    2013-01-01

    The muscular dystrophies comprise a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders that produce progressive skeletal muscle weakness and wasting. There has been rapid growth and change in our understanding of these disorders in recent years, and advances in basic science are being translated into increasing numbers of clinical trials. This review will discuss therapeutic developments in 3 of the most common forms of muscular dystrophy: Duchenne muscular dystrophy, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystr...

  19. [Atypical reaction to anesthesia in Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Helga Cristina Almeida da; Hiray, Marcia; Vainzof, Mariz; Schmidt, Beny; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle; Amaral, José Luiz Gomes do

    2017-05-31

    Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy affects skeletal muscles and leads to progressive muscle weakness and risk of atypical anesthetic reactions following exposure to succinylcholine or halogenated agents. The aim of this report is to describe the investigation and diagnosis of a patient with Becker muscular dystrophy and review the care required in anesthesia. Male patient, 14 years old, referred for hyperCKemia (chronic increase of serum creatine kinase levels - CK), with CK values of 7,779-29,040IU.L -1 (normal 174IU.L -1 ). He presented with a discrete delay in motor milestones acquisition (sitting at 9 months, walking at 18 months). He had a history of liver transplantation. In the neurological examination, the patient showed difficulty in walking on one's heels, myopathic sign (hands supported on the thighs to stand), high arched palate, calf hypertrophy, winged scapulae, global muscle hypotonia and arreflexia. Spirometry showed mild restrictive respiratory insufficiency (forced vital capacity: 77% of predicted). The in vitro muscle contracture test in response to halothane and caffeine was normal. Muscular dystrophy analysis by Western blot showed reduced dystrophin (20% of normal) for both antibodies (C and N-terminal), allowing the diagnosis of Becker muscular dystrophy. On preanesthetic assessment, the history of delayed motor development, as well as clinical and/or laboratory signs of myopathy, should encourage neurological evaluation, aiming at diagnosing subclinical myopathies and planning the necessary care to prevent anesthetic complications. Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy, although it does not increase susceptibility to MH, may lead to atypical fatal reactions in anesthesia. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Limb girdle muscular dystrophies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, John

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of the study was to describe the clinical spectrum of limb girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs), the pitfalls of the current classification system for LGMDs, and emerging therapies for these conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Close to half of all LGMD subtypes have been...

  1. Pharmacodynamics of marbofloxacin for calf pneumonia pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illambas, Joanna; Potter, Timothy; Cheng, Zhangrui; Rycroft, Andrew; Fishwick, John; Lees, Peter

    2013-06-01

    The pharmacodynamic (PD) properties of the fluoroquinolone, marbofloxacin, were determined for the bovine respiratory tract pathogens Mannheima haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. For six pathogenic isolates of each organism, three in vitro indices of efficacy and potency were determined, namely, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill curves. Each parameter was determined in two matrices, Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB) and calf serum. For serum, MBC:MIC ratios were 2.7:1 (M. haemolytica) and 2.4:1 (P. multocida). The killing action of marbofloxacin had the characteristics of concentration dependency against M. haemolytica and co-dependency (on time and concentration) against P. multocida. To confirm the characteristics of the time-kill profiles, growth inhibition produced by marbofloxacin was also established ex vivo in three biological fluids, calf serum, exudate and transudate, harvested from a tissue cage model. The in vitro time-kill data were modelled with pharmacokinetic properties of marbofloxacin, established by intramuscular administration in calves at a dose of 2 mg/kg; three levels of activity, namely bacteriostatic, 3 log10 reduction and 4 log10 reduction in bacterial counts were determined. Mean AUC(24h)/MIC values (with percentage coefficients of variation indicating inter-isolate variability) for M. haemolytica, based on serum MICs, were 31.3 (41.6), 57.7 (42.4) and 79.2 (44.6) h, respectively. Corresponding values for MHB were 20.5 (58.0), 40.5 (51.8) and 51.2 (24.30) h, respectively. When allowance was made for binding of marbofloxacin to serum protein, the AUC(24h)/MIC values for serum were similar to those for MHB. Numerical AUC(24h)/MIC values for P. multocida were slightly lower than those obtained for M. haemolytica. These data establish for the first time inter-isolate variability in AUC(24h)/MIC values required for three levels of bacterial kill for two pathogenic species and thereby

  2. Muscular fatigue: considerations for dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyon, Matthew A; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2013-01-01

    Muscular fatigue can be defined as the failure to maintain an expected power output. It is a multifaceted phenomenon that incorporates metabolic, neural and neuromuscular components, among others. Metabolic causes of fatigue are associated with the ability to maintain energy supply during exercise, the speed at which homeostasis is achieved post-exercise, and the effects of high intensity exercise by-products on the peripheral neuromuscular system. Research has indicated that the central nervous system plays a protective role in preventing catastrophic muscle damage by reducing the intensity and frequency of propagation founded on biofeedback from the muscle cells. The duration and particularly the type of physical activity play a role in the development of muscle fatigue, with impact or weightbearing exercises, such as dance, producing increased symptoms compared to non-impact or non-weightbearing equivalents. The effects of prolonged exercise and the associated increased levels of muscle fatigue that may lead to compromises in neuromuscular propagation need to be considered in dance.

  3. Effects of coagulating enzyme types (commercial calf rennet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of coagulating enzyme types (commercial calf rennet, Aspergillus niger var. awamori as recombinant chymosin and rhizomucor miehei as microbial rennet) on the chemical and sensory characteristics of white pickled cheese.

  4. Veal calf performance in response to concentrate diets of different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    sasas.co.za/Sajas.html. 58. Veal calf performance in response to concentrate diets of different rumen degradable protein content. L. Holtshausen. # and C.W. Cruywagen. Dept of Animal Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, 7600, ...

  5. Comparison of machine milk out and calf nursing techniques for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milk yields by machine milk out and calf nursing techniques were estimated monthly from April to August in 24, 3- years-old, two-breed cross cows. Overall, average milk yield estimates were 16 - 18 lb/day by machine milk out and 12.79 lb/day by calf nursing, with a difference of 3.91 lb/day. The two methods were similar ...

  6. Calf venous compliance measured by venous occlusion plethysmography: methodological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Johan; Zachrisson, Helene; Lindenberger, Marcus; Ekman, Mikael; Ewerman, Lea; Länne, Toste

    2015-02-01

    Calf venous compliance (C calf) is commonly evaluated with venous occlusion plethysmography (VOP) during a standard cuff deflation protocol. However, the technique relies on two not previously validated assumptions concerning thigh cuff pressure (P cuff) transmission and the impact of net fluid filtration (F filt) on C calf. The aim was to validate VOP in the lower limb and to develop a model to correct for F filt during VOP. Strain-gauge technique was used to study calf volume changes in 15 women and 10 age-matched men. A thigh cuff was inflated to 60 mmHg for 4 and 8 min with a subsequent decrease of 1 mmHg s(-1). Intravenous pressure (P iv) was measured simultaneously. C calf was determined with the commonly used equation [Compliance = β 1 + 2β 2 × P cuff] describing the pressure-compliance relationship. A model was developed to identify and correct for F filt. Transmission of P cuff to P iv was 100 %. The decrease in P cuff correlated well with P iv reduction (r = 0.99, P < 0.001). Overall, our model showed that C calf was underestimated when F filt was not accounted for (all P < 0.01). F filt was higher in women (P < 0.01) and showed a more pronounced effect on C calf compared to men (P < 0.05). The impact of F filt was similar during 4- and 8-min VOP. P cuff is an adequate substitute for P iv in the lower limb. F filt is associated with an underestimation of C calf and differences in the effect of F filt during VOP can be accounted for with the correction model. Thus, our model seems to be a valuable tool in future studies of venous wall function.

  7. Calf health from birth to weaning. III. housing and management of calf pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Ingrid

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calfhood diseases have a major impact on the economic viability of cattle operations. A three part review series has been developed focusing on calf health from birth to weaning. In this paper, the last of the three part series, we review disease prevention and management with particular reference to pneumonia, focusing primarily on the pre-weaned calf. Pneumonia in recently weaned suckler calves is also considered, where the key risk factors are related to the time of weaning. Weaning of the suckler calf is often combined with additional stressors including a change in nutrition, environmental change, transport and painful husbandry procedures (castration, dehorning. The reduction of the cumulative effects of these multiple stressors around the time of weaning together with vaccination programmes (preconditioning can reduce subsequent morbidity and mortality in the feedlot. In most studies, calves housed individually and calves housed outdoors with shelter, are associated with decreased risk of disease. Even though it poses greater management challenges, successful group housing of calves is possible. Special emphasis should be given to equal age groups and to keeping groups stable once they are formed. The management of pneumonia in calves is reliant on a sound understanding of aetiology, relevant risk factors, and of effective approaches to diagnosis and treatment. Early signs of pneumonia include increased respiratory rate and fever, followed by depression. The single most important factor determining the success of therapy in calves with pneumonia is early onset of treatment, and subsequent adequate duration of treatment. The efficacy and economical viability of vaccination against respiratory disease in calves remains unclear.

  8. Most frequent calf diseases in industrial breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Sava

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to conduct an analysis of the incidence of viral diseases in calves if these diseases are divided into two basic groups. One group comprises diseases of respiratory organs which are manifested by symptoms of a respiratory syndrome, and the second group comprises diseases of digestive tract organs in the form of a gastrointestinal syndrome. It is considered that viruses have the dominant role in the complex etiology of the respiratory syndrome, primarily the IBR virus or the Bovine Herpes Virus-1 (BHV-1, followed by the parainfluenza 3 virus (RSV, the Bovine Viral Diahrrea Virus (BVDV, the bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV, but also other viruses, such as adenoviruses, rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, can also influence the appearance of the respiratory syndrome. The respiratory syndrome is rarely caused by a single viral agent, but most frequently by mixed viruses, but also by bacterial infections. Mixed viral infections often have a lethal outcome. Investigations of the etiology of the gastrointestinal syndrome so far indicate that, in addition to bacteria, viruses can also be a significant etiological factor. Rotaviruses, coronaviruses, adenoviruses parvoviruses, herpesviruses (the IBR virus, pestiviruses (BVDV, can be the causes of a gastrointestinal syndrome. It is believed that viruses can be the cause in about 10% cases in the ethiopathogenesis of this syndrome. The paper describes the etiopathogenesis of calf diseases of viral etiology which are most often found in the local conditions of industrial breeding of calves.

  9. A survey on relationships between thyroid hormone levels and clinical findings in dairy calf diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hajimohammadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Calf diarrhea is an important disease that occurs in association with the interaction of various infectious agents and calf susceptibility. The economic losses is associated with death loss and treatment costs, reduction of live weight gain, and reduction of productive life span, which may be considerable. Thyroid hormones previously thought mainly in thermoregulation and energy metabolism. Recently, several studies have challenged on their roles in the metabolic response of animals to certain conditions such as nutritional, environmental, or disease state. The aim of the present study was to survey relationships between thyroid hormones in calves with diarrhea in the different clinical features. Holstein calves (50 within 1 day to 2 months old with signs of diarrhea and healthy calves (40 with similar age and sex were selected. Standard clinical examinations and also dehydration degree assessment were carried out on each calf and recorded accordingly. Calves with clinical signs of diarrhea were divided in different groups based on the severity of the clinical findings, fever and degree of dehydration. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein from all calves into vacutainer tubes for serum collection.T4, fT4, T3 and fT3 concentrations were measured by validated methods. A significant increase in T4, T3 and fT3 in diarrheic calves was observed (P<0.05. Thyroid hormones in calves with severe clinical signs decreased significantly (P<0.001 compared to calves with moderate or mild systemic clinical signs. Thyroid hormones between febrile diarrheic calves compared to afebrile diarrheic calves had no significant changes. Diarrheic calves with severe dehydration compared to diarrheic calves with mild and moderate dehydration had significant decreases in their thyroid hormones (P<0.001.

  10. Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Eppie M; Kornberg, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy, an X-linked disorder, has an incidence of one in 5000 boys and presents in early childhood with proximal muscle weakness. Untreated boys become wheelchair bound by the age of 12 years and die of cardiorespiratory complications in their late teens to early 20s. The use of corticosteroids, non-invasive respiratory support, and active surveillance and management of associated complications have improved ambulation, function, quality of life and life expectancy. The clinical features, investigations and management of Duchenne muscular dystrophy are reviewed, as well as the latest in some of the novel therapies. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  11. Assessment of resveratrol, apocynin and taurine on mechanical-metabolic uncoupling and oxidative stress in a mouse model of duchenne muscular dystrophy: A comparison with the gold standard, α-methyl prednisolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Cozzoli, Anna; Mantuano, Paola; Camerino, Giulia Maria; Massari, Ada Maria; Sblendorio, Valeriana Teresa; De Bellis, Michela; Tamma, Roberto; Giustino, Arcangela; Nico, Beatrice; Montagnani, Monica; De Luca, Annamaria

    2016-04-01

    Antioxidants have a great potential as adjuvant therapeutics in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, although systematic comparisons at pre-clinical level are limited. The present study is a head-to-head assessment, in the exercised mdx mouse model of DMD, of natural compounds, resveratrol and apocynin, and of the amino acid taurine, in comparison with the gold standard α-methyl prednisolone (PDN). The rationale was to target the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via disease-related pathways that are worsened by mechanical-metabolic impairment such as inflammation and over-activity of NADPH oxidase (NOX) (taurine and apocynin, respectively) or the failing ROS detoxification mechanisms via sirtuin-1 (SIRT1)-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) (resveratrol). Resveratrol (100mg/kg i.p. 5days/week), apocynin (38mg/kg/day per os), taurine (1g/kg/day per os), and PDN (1mg/kg i.p., 5days/week) were administered for 4-5 weeks to mdx mice in parallel with a standard protocol of treadmill exercise and the outcome was evaluated with a multidisciplinary approach in vivo and ex vivo on pathology-related end-points and biomarkers of oxidative stress. Resveratrol≥taurine>apocynin enhanced in vivo mouse force similarly to PDN. All the compounds reduced the production of superoxide anion, assessed by dihydroethidium staining, with apocynin being as effective as PDN, and ameliorated electrophysiological biomarkers of oxidative stress. Resveratrol also significantly reduced plasma levels of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase. Force of isolated muscles was little ameliorated. However, the three compounds improved histopathology of gastrocnemius muscle more than PDN. Taurine>apocynin>PDN significantly decreased activated NF-kB positive myofibers. Thus, compounds targeting NOX-ROS or SIRT1/PGC-1α pathways differently modulate clinically relevant DMD-related endpoints according to their mechanism of action. With the

  12. Quantifying antimicrobial resistance at veal calf farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela B Bosman

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine a sampling strategy to quantify the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance on veal calf farms, based on the variation in antimicrobial resistance within and between calves on five farms. Faecal samples from 50 healthy calves (10 calves/farm were collected. From each individual sample and one pooled faecal sample per farm, 90 selected Escherichia coli isolates were tested for their resistance against 25 mg/L amoxicillin, 25 mg/L tetracycline, 0.5 mg/L cefotaxime, 0.125 mg/L ciprofloxacin and 8/152 mg/L trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (tmp/s by replica plating. From each faecal sample another 10 selected E. coli isolates were tested for their resistance by broth microdilution as a reference. Logistic regression analysis was performed to compare the odds of testing an isolate resistant between both test methods (replica plating vs. broth microdilution and to evaluate the effect of pooling faecal samples. Bootstrap analysis was used to investigate the precision of the estimated prevalence of resistance to each antimicrobial obtained by several simulated sampling strategies. Replica plating showed similar odds of E. coli isolates tested resistant compared to broth microdilution, except for ciprofloxacin (OR 0.29, p ≤ 0.05. Pooled samples showed in general lower odds of an isolate being resistant compared to individual samples, although these differences were not significant. Bootstrap analysis showed that within each antimicrobial the various compositions of a pooled sample provided consistent estimates for the mean proportion of resistant isolates. Sampling strategies should be based on the variation in resistance among isolates within faecal samples and between faecal samples, which may vary by antimicrobial. In our study, the optimal sampling strategy from the perspective of precision of the estimated levels of resistance and practicality consists of a pooled faecal sample from 20 individual animals, of which

  13. Body weight-supported training in Becker and Limb Girdle 2I muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente Rona; Berthelsen, Martin Peter; Husu, Edith

    2016-01-01

    (walk/run, jogging in place or high knee-lift) training 3 times/week in a lower-body positive pressure environment. Closed-kinetic-chain leg muscle strength, isometric knee strength, rate of force development (RFD), and reaction time were evaluated. RESULTS: Baseline data indicated an intact neural......INTRODUCTION: We studied the functional effects of combined strength and aerobic anti-gravity training in severely affected patients with Becker and Limb-Girdle muscular dystrophies. METHODS: Eight patients performed 10-week progressive combined strength (squats, calf raises, lunges) and aerobic...... activation pattern but showed compromised muscle contractile properties. Training (compliance 91%) improved functional leg muscle strength. Squat series performance increased 30%, calf raises 45%, and lunges 23%. CONCLUSION: Anti-gravity training improved closed-kinetic-chain leg muscle strength despite...

  14. A 100-Year Review: Calf nutrition and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz, A F; Hill, T M; Quigley, J D; Heinrichs, A J; Linn, J G; Drackley, J K

    2017-12-01

    The first calf paper, published in the May 1919 issue of the Journal of Dairy Science (JDS), described factors affecting birth body weight of different breeds of calves. Other studies were done on nonmilk ingredients, growth charts were developed, and early weaning was followed to conserve milk fed to calves. Calf papers did not report use of statistics to control or record variation or to determine whether treatment means were different. Many experiments were more observational than comparative. Typically fewer than 5 calves, and sometimes 1 or 2 calves, were used per treatment. During the next 20 yr, calf studies increased and included colostrum feeding, milk and milk replacer feeding, minerals and vitamins, and fats and oils. Many concepts fundamental to current knowledge and understanding of digestion, rumen development, and milk replacer formulation were developed during this period. In addition, the concept of using antibiotic growth promoters in dairy calf diets was first evaluated and developed during the 1950s. During the 20-yr period of January 1957 through December 1976, a large number of universities in the United States and 1 in Canada contributed almost 150 papers on a variety of calf-related topics. These topics included genetics, physiology of the calf, review of calf immunity, antibiotic feeding, and milk replacer ingredients. This became the golden era of calf rumen development studies, which also engendered studies of calf starter rations and ingredients. A classic review of management, feeding, and housing studies summarized research related to calf feeding and management systems up to that point with an emphasis on maintaining calf growth and health while reducing labor and feed costs. It was also during this period that metric measurements replaced English units. In the 20-yr period from 1977 to 1996, more than 400 articles on calf nutrition and management were published in JDS. With the growing research interest in calves, a paper outlining

  15. Vascular responses in forearm and calf to contralateral static exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duprez, D A; Essandoh, L K; Vanhoutte, P M; Shepherd, J T

    1989-02-01

    Ten normal subjects performed a 90-s isometric exercise [20, 30, and 40% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the flexor muscle of the right index finger or quadriceps muscle of the right leg. Contralateral forearm and calf blood flows (strain gauge plethysmography) and arterial blood pressure (auscultation) were measured simultaneously. Each exercise caused a decrease in forearm vascular resistance and a progressive increase in calf resistance. These changes were greatest with the 40% MVC. With finger exercise at 20 and 40% MVC, the percentage decreases in forearm vascular resistance from control were 12.3 and 22.7%, respectively (P less than 0.01). Similar decreases (9.5 and 24.9%, respectively; P less than 0.01) were noted with exercise of the quadriceps muscle. By contrast, the corresponding increases in calf vascular resistance were greater (P less than 0.01) with quadriceps exercise (13.3 and 55.4%, respectively) than with finger exercise (6.0 and 36.0%). Arrest of the circulation to the exercising muscles just before the exercise ended caused an abrupt increase in forearm vascular resistance and a decrease in calf resistance. These studies provide further evidence of the heterogeneity of responses of forearm and calf resistance vessels to certain cardiovascular stimuli.

  16. Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy (LGMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Donate Search MDA.org Close Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy (LGMD) Share print email share facebook twitter google plus linkedin Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy (LGMD) What is limb-girdle muscular dystrophy? Limb- ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy is an inherited condition that predominantly affects the ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: tibial muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Tibial muscular dystrophy Tibial muscular dystrophy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Tibial muscular dystrophy is a condition that affects the muscles at ...

  19. Cardio-Muscular Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    In the mid-sixties, Gary Graham, a Boeing designer, developed a cardiovascular conditioner for a planned Air Force orbiting laboratory. After the project was cancelled, Graham participated in space station conditioning studies for the Skylab program. Twenty years later, he used this expertise to develop the Shuttle 2000-1, a physical therapy and athletic development conditioner, available through Contemporary Designs. The machine is used by football teams, sports clinics and medical rehabilitation centers. Cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength development are promoted through both kinetic and plyometric exercises.

  20. Enzootic bovine leukosis in a two-month-old calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguma, Keisuke; Suzuki, Miho; Sentsui, Hiroshi

    2017-04-02

    A two-month-old calf was diagnosed with leukosis on the basis of the clinical sign of enlarged, superficial lymph nodes. Serological and genetic tests for bovine leukemia virus (BLV) were performed because the calf was born from a cow infected with BLV. The serum had a weakly positive BLV antibody, and the BLV provirus was detected within neoplastic cells on performing polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Analysis of the BLV provirus integration site using inverse PCR revealed that the BLV integration site location was identical on all chromosomes in all tumor tissues examined. Thus, the tumor cells monoclonally proliferated following BLV infection. The present study shows that enzootic bovine leukosis can occur in a young animal, as in the two-month-old calf in our study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development and validation of a continuous in vitro system reproducing some biotic and abiotic factors of the veal calf intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard-Champod, Marie; Blanquet-Diot, Stéphanie; Cardot, Jean-Michel; Bravo, David; Alric, Monique

    2010-08-01

    Following the January 2006 European ban of antibiotics used as growth promoters in the veal calf industry, new feed additives are needed in order to maintain animal health and growth performance. As an alternative to in vivo experiments in the testing of such additives, an in vitro system modeling the intestinal ecosystem of the veal calf was developed. Stabilization of the main cultured microbial groups and their metabolic activity were tracked in an in vitro continuous fermentor operated under anaerobiosis, at pH 6.5, and at a temperature of 38.5 degrees C and supplied with one of three different nutritive media (M1, M2, or M3). These media mainly differed in their concentrations of simple and complex carbohydrates and in their lipid sources. In vitro microbial levels and fermentative metabolite concentrations were compared to in vivo data, and the biochemical composition of the nutritive media was compared to that of the veal calf intestinal content. All three nutritive media were able to stabilize anaerobic and facultative anaerobic microflora, lactate-utilizing bacteria, bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, enterococci, and Bacteroides fragilis group bacteria at levels close to in vivo values. The microbiota was metabolically active, with high concentrations of lactate, ammonia, and short-chain fatty acids found in the fermentative medium. Comparison with in vivo data indicated that M3 outperformed M1 and M2 in simulating the conditions encountered in the veal calf intestine. This in vitro system would be useful in the prescreening of new feed additives by studying their effect on the intestinal microbiota levels and fermentative metabolite production.

  2. Muscle-specific changes in length-force characteristics of the calf muscles in the spastic Han-Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Annesofie T; Jensen, Bente R; Uhlendorf, Toni L; Cohen, Randy W; Baan, Guus C; Maas, Huub

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate muscle mechanical properties and mechanical interaction between muscles in the lower hindlimb of the spastic mutant rat. Length-force characteristics of gastrocnemius (GA), soleus (SO), and plantaris (PL) were assessed in anesthetized spastic and normally developed Han-Wistar rats. In addition, the extent of epimuscular myofascial force transmission between synergistic GA, SO, and PL, as well as between the calf muscles and antagonistic tibialis anterior (TA), was investigated. Active length-force curves of spastic GA and PL were narrower with a reduced maximal active force. In contrast, active length-force characteristics of spastic SO were similar to those of controls. In reference position (90° ankle and knee angle), higher resistance to ankle dorsiflexion and increased passive stiffness was found for the spastic calf muscle group. At optimum length, passive stiffness and passive force of spastic GA were decreased, whereas those of spastic SO were increased. No mechanical interaction between the calf muscles and TA was found. As GA was lengthened, force from SO and PL declined despite a constant muscle-tendon unit length of SO and PL. However, the extent of this interaction was not different in spastic rats. In conclusion, the effects of spasticity on length-force characteristics were muscle specific. The changes observed for GA and PL muscles are consistent with the changes in limb mechanics reported for human patients. Our results indicate that altered mechanics in spastic rats cannot be attributed to differences in mechanical interaction, but originate from individual muscular structures. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Progressive dysphagia in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Richard

    2012-02-01

    Dysphagia has not been reported in genetically confirmed limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B). A 40-year-old woman reported exercise-induced calf pain at age 34, followed by progressive lower and upper limb weakness. At age 38, progressive dysphagia for solids, and subsequently liquids, ensued. Endoscopic and videofluoroscopic-radiological findings indicated a myopathic swallowing disorder. Molecular genetic analysis confirmed two dysferlin gene mutations consistent with a compound heterozygote state. Progressive dysphagia should be considered as part of the expanding dysferlinopathy phenotype.

  4. Scintigraphic calf perfusion symmetry after exercise and prediction of cardiovascular events: One stone to kill two birds?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellier, Philippe [Centre de Medecine Nucleaire de l' Artois, Clinique Sainte Catherine, 62 223 Sainte Catherine Les Arras (France)]. E-mail: phtellier2@wanadoo.fr; Lecouffe, Pascal [Centre de Medecine Nucleaire de l' Artois, Clinique Sainte Catherine, 62 223 Sainte Catherine Les Arras (France); Zureik, Mahmoud [National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), Unit 508, Institut Pasteur de Lille (France)

    2007-02-01

    Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is commonly associated with a high cardiovascular mortality and morbidity as a marker of plurifocal atherosclerosis. Whether exercise thallium perfusion muscular asymmetry in the legs associated with PAD has prognostic value is unknown. Such a hypothesis was evaluated in a prospective study which remains the gold standard in clinical research. Methods and results: Scintigraphic calf perfusion symmetry after exercise (SCPSE) was measured at the end of a maximal or symptom-limited treadmill exercise test in 358 patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). During the follow-up period (mean 85.3{+-}32.8 months), 93 cardiovascular events and deaths (incident cases) occurred. Among those incident cases, the percentage of subjects with higher SCPSE values (third tertile) was 45.2%, versus 29.1% in controls (lower tertiles) (p=0.005). In stepwise multivariate analysis performed with the Cox proportional hazards model, previous CAD and SCPSE were the only significant independent predictors of prognosis. The multivariate relative risk of cardiovascular death or event in subjects with higher values of SCPSE was 1.94 (95% CI: 1.15-3.21; p<0.01). Conclusions: Scintigraphic calf perfusion asymmetry after exercise was independently associated with incident cardiovascular events in high-risk subjects. This index, which is easily and quickly calculated, could be used for evaluation of cardiovascular risk.

  5. Congenital absence of superficial posterior compartment calf muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibrewal, Saket; Alyas, Faisal; Vemulapalli, Krishna

    2014-06-01

    Although various congenital abnormalities have been described, congenital absence of calf musculature is extremely rare, with only one report on its complete absence. We are the first to describe a case of congenital absence of muscles of the superficial posterior compartment of the calf presenting in a toddler. The child presented with a history of a painless limp, however no significant difference was found in functional gait analysis. We suggest that such cases should be monitored and parents can be reassured that no immediate treatment is required.

  6. CALFED--An experiment in science and decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kimberly A.; Jacobs, Katharine L.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2003-01-01

    The CALFED Bay-Delta Program faces a challenging assignment: to develop a collaborative state-federal management plan for the complex river system and involve multiple stakeholders (primarily municipal, agricultural, and environmental entities) whose interests frequently are in direct conflict. Although many resource-management issues involve multiple stakeholders and conflict is integral to their discussion, the CALFED experience is unique because of its shared state and federal roles, the magnitude and significance of stakeholder participation, and the complexity of the scientific issues involved.

  7. Duchenne muscular dystrophy quantification of muscular parameters and prednisone therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenakker, Ernesto Alexander Christiaan

    2005-01-01

    The aims of the study described in this thesis were: 1. to establish reference values for muscle force, functional ability, calf circumference and echogenitcity of muscle tissue; 2. to assess disease severity in ambulant DMD patients by using these reference values;3. to determine the effects of

  8. Contractile properties are disrupted in Becker muscular dystrophy, but not in limb girdle type 2I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkken, Nicoline; Hedermann, Gitte; Thomsen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether a linear relationship between muscle strength and cross-sectional area (CSA) is preserved in calf muscles of patients with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD, n = 14) and limb-girdle type 2I muscular dystrophy (LGMD2I, n = 11), before and after correcting for muscle fat...... infiltration. The Dixon magnetic resonance imaging technique was used to quantify fat and calculate a fat-free contractile CSA. Strength was assessed by dynamometry. Muscle strength/CSA relationships were significantly lower in patients versus controls. The strength/contractile-CSA relationship was still...... severely lowered in BMD, but was almost normalized in LGMD2I. Our findings suggest close to intact contractile properties in LGMD2I, which are severely disrupted in BMD. Ann Neurol 2016;80:466-471....

  9. [A swollen, painless calf caused by neurogenic muscle (pseudo)-hypertrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Zwarts, M.J.; Engelen, B.G.M. van

    2003-01-01

    Neurogenic muscle (pseudo) hypertrophy of the calf was diagnosed in a 60-year-old man, who presented with chronic, painless and unilateral calf enlargement caused by a chronic S1 radiculopathy due to a lumbar disc hernia in the L5-S1 interspace. The differential diagnosis of a swelling of the calf

  10. CALF BLOOD-FLOW AND POSTURE - DOPPLER ULTRASOUND MEASUREMENTS DURING AND AFTER EXERCISE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLEEUWEN, BE; BARENDSEN, GJ; LUBBERS, J; DEPATER, L

    To investigate the joint effects of body posture and calf muscle pump, the calf blood flow of eight healthy volunteers was measured with pulsed Doppler equipment during and after 3 min of rhythmic exercise on a calf ergometer in the supine, sitting, and standing postures. Muscle contractions

  11. Xeroderma pigmentosum group A correcting protein from Calf Thymus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.M. Eker (André); W. Vermeulen (Wim); N. Miura; K. Tanaka (Kiyoji); N.G.J. Jaspers (Nicolaas); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); D. Bootsma (Dirk)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractA proteinous factor was purified from calf thymus and HeLa cells, which specifically corrects the excision repair defect of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XP-A) cells. Recovery of UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis after microinjection of XP-A cells was used as a

  12. Can Treadmill Perturbations Evoke Stretch Reflexes in the Calf Muscles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloot, L.H.; van den Noort, J.C.; van der Krogt, M.M.; Bruijn, S.M.; Harlaar, J.

    2015-01-01

    Disinhibition of reflexes is a problem amongst spastic patients, for it limits a smooth and efficient execution of motor functions during gait. Treadmill belt accelerations may potentially be used to measure reflexes during walking, i.e. by dorsal flexing the ankle and stretching the calf muscles,

  13. Cow and calf weight trends on mountain summer range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon M. Skovlin

    1962-01-01

    Mountain range furnishes the bulk of summer forage for commercial cow-calf operations in northeastern Oregon. Herds maintained on valley range and pasture during winter and spring months are annually trailed to mountain ranges and remain there until calves are ready for fall markets (fig. 1).

  14. commercial calf rennet, Aspergillus niger var. awamori as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aysegul

    2013-09-11

    Sep 11, 2013 ... 2Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Harran University, Şanlıurfa, Turkey. ... received wider acceptability on the industrial scale due to ..... Optimization of. Medium Composition for Production of Recombinant Calf Chymosin from Kluyveromyces lactis in Submerged Fermentation.

  15. Total parenteral nutrition in a premature rhinoceros calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, V M; Miller, R E

    1991-10-01

    A female black rhinoceros calf developed significant hypoglycemia (blood glucose, 30 mg/dL) and hypothermia (97 degrees F) within 48 hours of birth and refused to nurse. Normal gestation of the black rhinoceros is 15 months, but elongated hoof slippers and low birth weight (30 kg) suggested prematurity in this calf. Clinical symptoms of neonatal sepsis including lassitude and poor sucking continued in spite of the aggressive use of antibiotics, and the calf required mechanical ventilatory support on day 7. Nutritional support including enteral gavage feedings (Pedialyte/4 ounces of SMA [Wyeth Ayerst] with sucraflox) had been instituted and was supplemented with total parenteral nutrition on day 5. Central venous access was obtained via a jugular cutdown. The total parenteral nutrition included appropriate electrolytes and vitamins for the neonatal calf but did not include trace elements. The use of total parenteral nutrition by our zoos for therapeutic purposes is increasing. Experience with total parenteral nutrition in exotic animals such as the black rhinoceros is limited, yet this may be an important therapeutic modality in these animals, particularly those in danger of extinction.

  16. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CALF MORTALITY ON DAIRY FARMS IN KUWAIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. RAZZAQUE, M. BEDAIR, S. ABBAS AND T. AL-MUTAWA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this study was to investigate the economic impact of mortality of pre-weaned calves on dairy cattle enterprise in Kuwait. Cost/benefit analysis model was applied to two different situations: in the first situation, a baseline scenario, field survey data without intervention using 1,280 newborn calves was used in first calving season. In the second situation, the intervention scenario (improved management, 665 newborn calves were used in second calving season during the following year. Calving seasons extended for 7 months from September to March. Calf performance studies were conducted from birth to weaning. Economic model was constructed on Microsoft Excel and used to evaluate the impact of calf mortality on calf enterprise. Results showed that gross margins increased from 13 to 35% as a result of implementation of intervention measures during the second calving season over baseline scenario. A significant correlation between increased veterinary expenses and an increase in revenues (r2 = 0.65, P<0.05 was observed. If the intervention measures such as colostrum feeding, nutrition and hygiene had not been implemented, the farms would have lose income from 12 to 51% of the gross revenues. Net income was influenced by costs of feeds, veterinary services and laborers. Discounted cash flow studies on a whole farm basis revealed that the impact of interventions was small (0-3%. Calf mortality could not be isolated from whole farm for assessing its impact on dairy farm economics. Economic studies demonstrated the cost/benefits of using the improved techniques of calf rearing.

  17. Muscular Dystrophy: Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... listing of Medicaid or Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) insurance in the medical record. Age in Years ( ... Oleszek J; Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance, Tracking, and Research Network (MD STAR net ). Trends with corticosteroid use in ...

  18. Wasting Mechanisms in Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jonghyun; Tajrishi, Marjan M.; Ogura, Yuji; Kumar, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    Muscular dystrophy is a group of more than 30 different clinical genetic disorders that are characterized by progressive skeletal muscle wasting and degeneration. Primary deficiency of specific extracellular matrix, sarcoplasmic, cytoskeletal, or nuclear membrane protein results in several secondary changes such as sarcolemmal instability, calcium influx, fiber necrosis, oxidative stress, inflammatory response, breakdown of extracellular matrix, and eventually fibrosis which leads to loss of ambulance and cardiac and respiratory failure. A number of molecular processes have now been identified which hasten disease progression in human patients and animal models of muscular dystrophy. Accumulating evidence further suggests that aberrant activation of several signaling pathways aggravate pathological cascades in dystrophic muscle. Although replacement of defective gene with wild-type is paramount to cure, management of secondary pathological changes has enormous potential to improving the quality of life and extending lifespan of muscular dystrophy patients. In this article, we have reviewed major cellular and molecular mechanisms leading to muscle wasting in muscular dystrophy. PMID:23669245

  19. Learning about Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Learning About Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions Funding ...

  20. Effect of exercise on calf muscle pump function in patients with chronic venous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D; Vandongen, Y K; Stacey, M C

    1999-03-01

    Musculoskeletal dysfunction may be associated with poor calf muscle pump function in patients with chronic venous ulceration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of physical exercise on calf muscle pump function. Twenty patients were recruited into a 6-week intensive exercise programme. Calf muscle function and calf muscle pump function were assessed using an isokinetic device and air plethysmography respectively, before and after the exercise programme. There was significant improvement in calf muscle pump function, measured as increased ejection fraction and decreased residual fraction (P venous reflux was not altered (P > 0.05). Calf muscle strength and endurance parameters all increased, but not significantly (P > 0.05). Poor calf muscle pump function in patients with chronic venous ulceration can be improved by physical exercise.

  1. Ageing with Muscular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Bente; Dreyer, Pia

    2016-01-01

    The demographic development with an ageing population is predicted to be the next global public health challenge. Advances in medicine and the socioeconomic development have reduced mortality and morbidity due to infectious conditions and non-communicable diseases. The increase in longevity will not be restricted to healthy people. To understand how people with muscular diseases experience ageing. A literature review was conducted using the Matrix Method developed by Garrard (2007). This systematic method was used to identify, describe and interpret studies, irrespective of the methods applied. To avoid the exclusion of important sources, experiences and topics, we chose an integrative approach that accommodates the inclusion of studies with different methodologies. People with MD have gradually extended their life expectancy during the last 30 years. Thus, we reviewed the literature regarding MD and ageing without time limit. We identified three themes: 1) Slowing down early 2) Accepting lifelong deterioration and 3) Striving for normality. People with MD live in a field of tension between a feeling of autonomy and normality and difficulties coping with reduced physical abilities. Getting older accentuates this tension since the physical strength diminishes and it is harder to maintain autonomy. The bodily challenges may coincide with the end of the rehabilitation people living with MD have received. Seemingly, no age-related rehabilitation is offered, and people living with MD are thus at risk of an unnecessarily passive life.

  2. Dystropathology increases energy expenditure and protein turnover in the Mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The skeletal muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and the mdx mouse model lack functional dystrophin and undergo repeated bouts of necrosis, regeneration, and growth. These processes have a high metabolic cost. However, the consequences for whole body energy and protein metabolism, and on the diet...

  3. Intermittent calf and foot compression increases lower extremity blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, A R; Comerota, A J; Cisek, P L; Holland, B S; Kerr, R P; Veeramasuneni, R; Comerota, A J

    1996-08-01

    Although foot compression increases foot skin perfusion and calf compression increases popliteal artery blood flow, these compression techniques have not been evaluated in combination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether calf and foot compression applied separately and simultaneously increase popliteal artery blood flow and/or foot skin perfusion, and to assess the relative merits of compression in patients with superficial femoral artery occlusion. Twenty-two legs from 12 normal volunteers with ankle/brachial indices (ABIs) > 0.96, and 10 legs from 7 claudicator patients with angiographically documented superficial femoral artery (SFA) occlusion and patent popliteal arteries with ABIs pressure pump (Art-Assist-AA 1000; ACI Medical Inc., San Marcos, California) were applied to the subject in the sitting position. Skin blood flow of the great toe was measured with a laser doppler (Laserflo model BPM 403A; TSI Inc., St. Paul, Minnesota), and popliteal artery blood flow was measured using duplex ultrasonography (ATL-Ultramark 9; Advanced Tech Laboratory, Bothell, Washington). Foot and calf compression was applied separately and simultaneously at 120 mm Hg pressure, with a 10-second inflation and 20-second deflation cycle. Popliteal artery blood flow and foot skin perfusion were recorded and the mean of 6 cycles calculated. Precompression popliteal artery blood flow (mL/min) for volunteers was 38.86 +/- 3.94, and for patients was 86.30 +/- 14.55 (P = 0.001). Precompression foot skin perfusion (mL/min/ 100/g tissue) for volunteers was 1.67 +/- 0.29, and for patients was 4.00 +/- 0.92 (P = 0.01). With the application of calf, foot, and simultaneous calf and foot compression, the popliteal artery blood flow increased in volunteers by 124%, 54%, and 173%, respectively, and in patients by 76%, 13%, and 50%. Foot skin perfusion increased in volunteers by 260%, 500%, and 328%, respectively, and in patients by 116%, 246%, and 188%. Relative increases in popliteal

  4. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in a calf with nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, N T; Hirai, T; Nabeta, R; Fuke, N; Yamaguchi, R

    2014-01-01

    A 2-month-old Japanese black calf was presented with a history of weight loss, exophthalmos and subcutaneous oedema of the brisket. Urinalysis and serum biochemistry showed proteinuria and hypoproteinaemia suggestive of nephrotic syndrome. Microscopically, lesions in the kidney were characterized by proliferation of mesangial cells and diffuse thickening of the glomerular basement membranes with the appearance of double contours. Immune complex deposits were confirmed by electron microscopy and immunofluorescence using reagents specific for bovine immunoglobulin G, complement factor C3 and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). Consequently, the glomerular lesion in this case was diagnosed as membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. BVDV type 1 was detected in serum by nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Viral antigen was also identified in the glomeruli by immunofluorescence. These results suggest that BVDV may have been the cause of immune complex glomerulonephritis in this calf. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reversal of lower limb edema by calf muscle pump stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Ayana A; Pierce, Carolyn S; McLeod, Kenneth J

    2008-01-01

    Peripheral edema (PE) is commonly coupled with heart failure, restrictive cardiomyopathy, nephrotic syndrome, renal failure, and hypoproteinemia. Diuretics and/or limb elevation, although commonly prescribed to treat PE, are often insufficient to remove sufficient fluid to prevent complications. We assessed the ability of the calf muscle pump (CMP) stimulation to reverse PE. Fluid volume was evaluated by air plethysmography in the right legs of 54 adult women (mean age 46.7 +/- 1.5 years) following venous status assessment. Change in calf volume was assessed during 30 minutes of quiet sitting, followed by 30 minutes of sitting with CMP stimulation via micromechanical stimulation of the plantar surface. Leg volume changes demonstrated a bimodal distribution. Leg volume decreased during quiet sitting in 56% of the study group, whereas in 44% of the group, significant lower leg fluid pooling was evident (increase in calf volume of 14.0 +/- 0.3 mL/h). CMP stimulation reversed the fluid pooling in the edematous group (-2.7 +/- 0.1 mL/h) and was able to accelerate fluid removal in the nonedematous group. Approximately two fifths of adult women experience substantial pooling when their lower limbs are maintained in a dependent position. Lower-extremity edema exhibited by these women may primarily be due to inadequate calf muscle tone because exogenous stimulation of the CMP was sufficient to halt and reverse fluid pooling. Whether CMP stimulation would provide a means to treat PE in individuals with edema-related health complications, such as congestive heart failure, merits further investigation.

  6. Xanthine nephrolithiasis in a galician blond beef calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marta; Rigueira, Lucas; Suárez, María L; Carbajales, Paloma; Moure, Pablo; Fidalgo, Luis E; Failde, Daniel; Vázquez, Sonia

    2010-07-01

    A six-month-old female Galician Blond beef calf presented signs of apathy, anorexia and weight loss. The analysis of a blood sample confirmed renal failure. Bilateral nephrolithiasis was diagnosed at necropsy. Quantitative analysis revealed the nephroliths to be composed of 100 per cent xanthine. In cattle, xanthinuria has only been described in the Japanese Black breed, but never before in other breeds. Clinical history suggested a naturally occurring xanthinuria.

  7. Lesiones musculares en el deporte. Muscular injuries in sport.

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Díaz, José Fernando

    2006-01-01

    ResumenDurante la práctica de la actividad física hay una gran incidencia de lesiones musculares, si bien se han llevado a cabo pocos estudios clínicos sobre el tratamiento y la resolución de las mismas. Desde el punto de vista etiopatogénico, hay que señalar que la incidencia de lesión es mayor en aquellos músculos poliarticulares en condiciones de acumulación de fatiga y con condiciones ambientales desfavorables. La clasificación de las lesiones musculares permite distinguir entre aquellas ...

  8. Calf Venous Compliance in Supine Posture Equals that Measured with Head-up Tilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Ballard, R. E.; Breit, G. A.; Bernauer, E. M.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1995-01-01

    Calf venous compliance is measured conventionally with venous occlusion, where compliance equals calf volume elevation per mmHg thigh occlusion pressure in relaxed legs of supine subjects. Compliance may also be measured during stepwise head-up tilt (HUT) as calf volume elevation per mmHg gravitational venous pressure elevation produced by HUT. Although HUT on a tilt table with a footplate activates calf muscles which could reduce compliance, this muscle activation is relatively small (less than or = 10% of maximal voluntary levels). Therefore, we hypothesized that calf compliance measured with HUT equals that measured with conventional supine venous occlusion. The venous occlusion protocol consisted of 20, 40, 60 and 80 mmHg thigh cuff inflations held for 1, 2, 3 and 4 min, respectively, in 14 supine subjects. One min of cuff deflation to 0 mmHg separated occlusions. Nine other subjects underwent HUT through the following angles held for 30s each: -12 deg., -6 deg., 0 deg., 12 deg., 30 deg., 54 deg., and 90 deg. HUT calf venous pressure data were interpolated from Katkov and Chestukhin; these data correspond to 70-80% of calculated calf venous pressure changes (pgh). Liquid metal-in-silastic strain gauges measured calf volume for both venous occlusion and HUT compliance. Relaxed calf compliance in supine subjects equaled 4.6 +/- 0.4 ml/mmHg (X +/- SE), as measured with venous occlusion. Calf compliance during HUT equaled 4.6 +/- 1.0 ml/mmHg. Therefore, calf compliance in supine, relaxed subjects equals that measured during head-up tilt. We conclude that the minimal calf muscle activation which occurs during HUT does not importantly affect calf compliance.

  9. Spinal muscular atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Amico Adele

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease characterized by degeneration of alpha motor neurons in the spinal cord, resulting in progressive proximal muscle weakness and paralysis. Estimated incidence is 1 in 6,000 to 1 in 10,000 live births and carrier frequency of 1/40-1/60. This disease is characterized by generalized muscle weakness and atrophy predominating in proximal limb muscles, and phenotype is classified into four grades of severity (SMA I, SMAII, SMAIII, SMA IV based on age of onset and motor function achieved. This disease is caused by homozygous mutations of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1 gene, and the diagnostic test demonstrates in most patients the homozygous deletion of the SMN1 gene, generally showing the absence of SMN1 exon 7. The test achieves up to 95% sensitivity and nearly 100% specificity. Differential diagnosis should be considered with other neuromuscular disorders which are not associated with increased CK manifesting as infantile hypotonia or as limb girdle weakness starting later in life. Considering the high carrier frequency, carrier testing is requested by siblings of patients or of parents of SMA children and are aimed at gaining information that may help with reproductive planning. Individuals at risk should be tested first and, in case of testing positive, the partner should be then analyzed. It is recommended that in case of a request on carrier testing on siblings of an affected SMA infant, a detailed neurological examination should be done and consideration given doing the direct test to exclude SMA. Prenatal diagnosis should be offered to couples who have previously had a child affected with SMA (recurrence risk 25%. The role of follow-up coordination has to be managed by an expert in neuromuscular disorders and in SMA who is able to plan a multidisciplinary intervention that includes pulmonary, gastroenterology/nutrition, and orthopedic care. Prognosis

  10. How Do People Cope with Muscular Dystrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other FAQs Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Muscular Dystrophy: Other FAQs Basic information for topics, such as “ ... in this section. How do people cope with muscular dystrophy (MD)? Although MD presents many challenges in many ...

  11. What Are the Treatments for Muscular Dystrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pinterest Email Print What are the treatments for muscular dystrophy? No treatment is currently available to stop or reverse any form of muscular dystrophy (MD). Instead, certain therapies and medications aim to ...

  12. Metabolismo muscular en el ejercicio

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Martín, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Fundamentos: Cada vez son más las personas que realizan algún tipo de actividad física, pero pocas son las que poseen un verdadero conocimiento de los procesos que se desencadenan a nivel muscular y la influencia de la alimentación en la misma. El objetivo de este trabajo es ofrecer información de manera general sobre el metabolismo muscular. Métodos: Revisión bibliográfica de artículos y documentos consultando bases de datos y libros. La mayor parte del análisis ha sido ext...

  13. FIBROSIS MUSCULAR ESQUELETICA: PAPEL DE LOS FIBROBLASTOS EN LA DISTROFIA MUSCULAR

    OpenAIRE

    MEZZANO ROBINSON, VALERIA; MEZZANO ROBINSON, VALERIA

    2007-01-01

    La distrofia muscular de Duchenne (DMD) es la distrofia muscular más frecuente en niños. Se caracteriza por degeneración muscular progresiva que lleva a atrofia muscular, invalidez y muerte alrededor de la 2da década de vida. El ratón mdx ha sido ampliame 97p.

  14. A reliable, practical, and economical protocol for inducing diarrhea and severe dehydration in the neonatal calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, P G; Constable, P D; Morin, D E; Drackley, J K; Foreman, J H; Thurmon, J C

    1998-01-01

    Fifteen healthy, colostrum-fed, male dairy calves, aged 2 to 7 d were used in a study to develop a diarrhea protocol for neonatal calves that is reliable, practical, and economical. After instrumentation and recording baseline data, diarrhea and dehydration were induced by administering milk replacer [16.5 mL/kg of body weight (BW), PO], sucrose (2 g/kg in a 20% aqueous solution, p.o.), spironolactone and hydrochlorothiazide (1 mg/kg, PO) every 8 h, and furosemide (2 mg/kg, i.m., q6h). Calves were administered sucrose and diuretic agents for 48 h to induce diarrhea and severe dehydration. Clinical changes after 48 h were severe watery diarrhea, severe depression, and marked dehydration (mean, 14% BW loss). Cardiac output, stroke volume, mean central venous pressure, plasma volume, thiocyanate space, blood pH and bicarbonate concentration, base excess, serum chloride concentration, and fetlock temperature were decreased. Plasma lactate concentration, hematocrit, and serum potassium, creatinine, phosphorus, total protein and albumin concentrations were increased. This non-infectious calf diarrhea protocol has a 100% response rate, while providing a consistent and predictable hypovolemic state with diarrhea that reflects most of the clinicopathologic changes observed in osmotic/maldigestive diarrhea caused by infection with rotavirus, coronavirus or cryptosporidia. Limitations of the protocol, when compared to infectious diarrhea models, include failure to induce a severe metabolic acidosis, absence of hyponatremia, renal instead of enteric loss of chloride, renal as well as enteric loss of free water, absence of profound clinical depression and suspected differences in the morphologic and functional effect on intestinal epithelium. Despite these differences, the sucrose/diuretic protocol should be useful in the initial screening of new treatment modalities for calf diarrhea. To confirm their efficacy, the most effective treatment methods should then be examined in

  15. Evidence of epimeletic behavior involving a Pontoporia blainvillei calf (Cetacea, Pontoporiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Tonello Júnior

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper constitutes the second record of epimeletic behavior for the toninha, Pontoporia blainvillei. A toninha calf carcass was recovered at Enseada Beach, São Francisco do Sul, southern Brazil (26o13’S - 48o31’W on October 9, 2001. Its total length indicated that it was a neonate or a premature calf. The calf had many parallel scratches on it, which were freshly made and produced by adult teeth. There were scratches on the fin, flukes and flippers, and the position and size of the marks demonstrated the intention of the adult to rescue the calf. The anterior region of the body showed net marks, suggesting that the calf had been accidentally entangled. The epimeletic behavior evidenced by the tooth marks could have occurred during the entanglement and/or after its liberation, and we suggest that the causa mortis of the calf was drowning.

  16. Calf management practices and associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality on beef cow-calf operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C F; Fick, L J; Pajor, E A; Barkema, H W; Jelinski, M D; Windeyer, M C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate calf management practices on beef cow-calf operations and determine associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality of pre-weaned calves. A 40-question survey about management practices, morbidity and mortality was administered to cow-calf producers by distributing paper surveys and by circulating an online link through various media. A total of 267 producers completed the survey. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and multivariable linear regression models. Average herd-level treatment risk for pre-weaning calf diarrhea (PCD) and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) were 4.9% and 3.0%, respectively. Average herd-level mortality within the first 24 h of life (stillbirth), from 1 to 7 days and 7 days to weaning were 2.3%, 1.1%, and 1.4%, respectively. Operations that never intervened at parturition had 4.7% higher PCD than those that occasionally did. On operations using small elastrator bands for castration, PCD was 1.9% higher than those using other methods. For every increase of 100 cows in herd size, BRD decreased by 1.1%. The association between BRD and PCD varied by when calving season began. Operations that used off-farm, frozen colostrum had a 1.1% increase in stillbirths. Operations that verified a calf had suckled had 0.7% lower mortality from 1 to 7 days of age. Those that intervened when colostrum was abnormal or that used small elastrator bands for castration had 1.9% and 1.4% higher mortality during the 1st week of life, respectively, compared with other operations. Mortality from 7 days to weaning was lower by 0.7% when calving season started in April compared with January or February and was higher by 1.0% for each additional week of calving season. Operations that intervened with colostrum consumption for assisted calvings had lower mortality from 7 days to weaning by 0.8% compared with those that did not. For every 1.0% increase in BRD, mortality from 7 days to weaning increased by 1

  17. Bilateral calf chronic compartment syndrome in an elderly male: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Siau, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Leg pain is a common presentation to the outpatient department. Bilateral calf chronic compartment syndrome is a rare cause of bilateral calf pain. Although this condition has been well documented in young athletes, it has rarely been reported in the elderly. We present the case of a 68-year-old male bodybuilder with bilateral calf chronic compartment syndrome, describe the presentation and evaluation of the condition, and provide a review of the literature herewith.

  18. Analysis of the influence factors on dystocia, stillbirth and calf birth weight in Holstein Friesian cows

    OpenAIRE

    Maschurek, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Within the past ten years many studies that deal with causes of increased dystocia and calf losses have been published. Despite the knowledge high numbers of dystocia and perinatal mortality are common in dairy herds. The calf birth weight is an important factor for pathologic parturitions, particulary in Holstein heifers. It was the objective of this study to identify risk factors of dystocia and calf death at or during birth on a large dairy farm in Germany (2132 cows, 11520 kg milk yiel...

  19. Porcine models of muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a progressive, fatal, X-linked disease caused by a failure to accumulate the cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. This disease is modeled by a variety of animal models including several fish models, mice, rats, and dogs. While these models have contributed substantially t...

  20. Glucocorticoids for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigators at the Dubowitz Neuromuscular Centre, Great Ormond Street Hospital, and other centers in the UK, conducted a prospective longitudinal study across 17 neuromuscular centers in the UK of 360 boys aged 3-15 years with Duchenne muscular dystrophy who were treated with daily or intermittent (10 days on/10 days off prednisolone for a mean duration of 4 years.

  1. Deletion of exon 26 of the dystrophin gene is associated with a mild Becker muscular dystrophy phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, Nanna; Duno, Morten; Vissing, John

    2011-01-01

    With the possible introduction of exon skipping therapy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, it has become increasingly important to know the role of each exon of the dystrophin gene to protein expression, and thus the phenotype. In this report, we present two related men with an unusually mild BMD...... skipping therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This report also shows that BMD may present with a normal CK....... calf hypertrophy was noted. Creatine kinase was normal or raised maximally to 500 U/l. The muscle biopsy was myopathic with increased fiber size variation and many internal nuclei, but no dystrophy. No comorbidity was found. In both cases, western blot showed a reduced dystrophin band. Genetic...

  2. A case of cranium bifidum with meningocele in Ayrshire calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisipan, Mosiany Letura; Orenge, Caleb Oburu; Gacheru, David Njogu; Ngure, Raphael Muchangi

    2017-01-13

    Congenital cranial bone defects predispose to herniation of meninges, sometimes with brain tissue involvement, to form a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-filled cyst in the head. Such defects mainly results from focal failure of neural tube closure during fetal development and has been reported in various species of domestic mammals. A one week old Ayrshire calf with a fluctuant swelling on parieto-occipital region of the head was referred to the faculty. The calf was always lying on lateral recumbency and exhibited resistance to deep palpation around the swelling and neck flexion. Embedded to the midline of the dorso-caudal surface of the cyst's wall was a hard longitudinally oriented structure. The case was diagnosed as meningocele by means of radiographic examination. As the likelihood to full recovery was greatly reduced due to the negative impact already meted on brain tissue by intracranial pressure, the calf was euthanized on grounds of animal welfare and the diagnosis confirmed by anatomopathological findings which also revealed a circular bone defect in parieto-occipital region of the skull vault and a flattened bony structure embedded to the cyst's wall. Anatomopathological findings confirmed the diagnosis as cranial bifidum with meningocele at the parieto-occipital region of the skull vault. The presence of a bony structure embedded to the wall of meningeal sac was rather unusual and could not be sufficiently explained. It was however thought to, most likely, represent a part of interparietal bone that failed to get incorporated into squamous part of occipital bone as a result of the defect. The report also highlights challenges that work against timely delivery of urgent veterinary interventions in rural set ups of Africa and rest of the developing world, often leaving veterinarians with animal welfare consideration as main determinant of intervention measures.

  3. Can Treadmill Perturbations Evoke Stretch Reflexes in the Calf Muscles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth H Sloot

    Full Text Available Disinhibition of reflexes is a problem amongst spastic patients, for it limits a smooth and efficient execution of motor functions during gait. Treadmill belt accelerations may potentially be used to measure reflexes during walking, i.e. by dorsal flexing the ankle and stretching the calf muscles, while decelerations show the modulation of reflexes during a reduction of sensory feedback. The aim of the current study was to examine if belt accelerations and decelerations of different intensities applied during the stance phase of treadmill walking can evoke reflexes in the gastrocnemius, soleus and tibialis anterior in healthy subjects. Muscle electromyography and joint kinematics were measured in 10 subjects. To determine whether stretch reflexes occurred, we assessed modelled musculo-tendon length and stretch velocity, the amount of muscle activity, as well as the incidence of bursts or depressions in muscle activity with their time delays, and co-contraction between agonist and antagonist muscle. Although the effect on the ankle angle was small with 2.8±1.0°, the perturbations caused clear changes in muscle length and stretch velocity relative to unperturbed walking. Stretched muscles showed an increasing incidence of bursts in muscle activity, which occurred after a reasonable electrophysiological time delay (163-191 ms. Their amplitude was related to the muscle stretch velocity and not related to co-contraction of the antagonist muscle. These effects increased with perturbation intensity. Shortened muscles showed opposite effects, with a depression in muscle activity of the calf muscles. The perturbations only slightly affected the spatio-temporal parameters, indicating that normal walking was retained. Thus, our findings showed that treadmill perturbations can evoke reflexes in the calf muscles and tibialis anterior. This comprehensive study could form the basis for clinical implementation of treadmill perturbations to functionally

  4. Strains of the posterior calf musculature ("tennis leg").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, A P

    1979-01-01

    Strains of the posterior calf musculature frequently relate to overuse of the gastrocnemius muscle. The principal sports involved are the slower side-to-side sports. Treatment routine is composed of pain relief, passive stretching, exercises for the antagonists and later the agonists, and quadriceps exercises. In a series of 720 patients, over a 12-year period, this routine has been effective as evidenced by a recurrence of the condition in only 0.7% of the patients. Prevention of the injury is best obtained by regular stretching and strength development routines.

  5. Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma with Calf Muscle Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bourdeanu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL usually occurs in the lymph nodes, approximately 30–40% of the time it can have an extranodal site of involvement and it can arise in nearly every body site such as intestine, bone, breast, liver, skin, lung, and central nervous system. Muscle involvement of DLBCL is especially uncommon, comprising 0.5% of extranodal NHL. We report a case of a 72-year-old man with extranodal DLBCL of a unique manifestation in the calf muscle, involving predominantly the gastrocnemius muscle. The patient achieved complete response and remained free of local recurrence or metastasis following diagnosis.

  6. Factors influencing dairy calf and replacement heifer mortality in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboisson, D; Maigne, E; Sans, P; Allaire, G; Cahuzac, E

    2014-01-01

    Herd-level risk factors for dairy calf and heifer mortality in France were identified by calculating herd-level variables (including mortality risk or rate) using the National Bovine Identification Database (2005 and 2006). Eleven dairy production areas representing different livestock systems were also included. Statistical analyses were based on a probit model (mortality risk or rate=0 or >0) and a linear model (mortality risk or rate >0) corrected by the sample bias Heckman method. The same associations were reported for 2005 and 2006. The mortality risks or rates for calves and heifers were positively associated with the proportion of purchased cows or being a Milk Control Program member and negatively associated with adhering to the Good Breeding Practices charter and having an autumn calving peak. The associations between mortality and the breeds or the production areas were positive or negative, depending on the classes of animal. Mortality and having a beef herd in addition to the dairy herd were negatively associated for noncrossed birth to 2-d-old calves, noncrossed 3-d- to 1-mo-old calves, and 3-d- to 1-mo-old heifers. Having a beef herd probably provides specific know-how related to newborn and young calf management that makes it easier to attain low mortality in pure-breed dairy calves. The proportion of males born was positively associated with mortality for the birth to 2-d-old calves (all classes) and for the 3-d- to 1-mo-old beef-crossed calves, but negatively for all classes of heifers. This indicates that heifer management was improved when the availability of newborn heifers decreased, resulting in low mortality. This lower mortality is apparent for all classes of heifers present on the farm during the year when the proportion of males was low, and demonstrates an anticipatory effect. In conclusion, this study shows that the presence of a beef herd in addition to the dairy herd within a farm is associated with decreased dairy calf mortality. It

  7. Short communication: Antioxidant activity of calf milk replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soberon, M A; Liu, R H; Cherney, D J R

    2012-05-01

    A calf milk replacer (CMR) is designed to replace whole, saleable milk as a lower cost nutrient source for calves while striving to nourish a newborn calf, reduce calf mortality, strengthen immunity, and increase animal life span and productivity. Antioxidants (AO) can enhance immune defense by reducing oxidative damage, but CMR are traditionally not formulated for AO activity. The objective of this study was to compare total AO activities of bovine milk and 6 CMR (A to F) that vary in the amount and source of fat and protein. Calf milk replacers were donated by Milk Products LLC (Chilton, WI). Milk was obtained from the Cornell Dairy Research Farm bulk tank, representing milk produced within 24h by 455 cows. Milk replacers were mixed to 150 g/L with 40°C purified water. All samples were extracted in triplicate. Following hexane lipid extraction, both milk and CMR samples were extracted 5 times with ethyl acetate and then evaporated and reconstituted with 70% methanol:water. Samples were assessed for total AO activity using the peroxyl radical scavenging capacity assay where each sample was diluted to 5 descending concentrations, plated in triplicate. Ascorbic and gallic acids were standards for each plate. Type of protein (soy) had a positive effect on AO activity for CMR A, which exhibited the highest total AO activity. Natural bovine milk had the second highest AO activity. Many factors may explain the difference in AO activity between natural milk and formulated CMR, including fat, vitamin, and mineral contents, enzymatic AO, phenolics, flavonoids, fatty acid profile, and AA composition. When comparing AO activity of CMR, it is important to consider the diversity in feeding recommendations, which will alter the vitamin and mineral content, thus influencing AO activity. The opportunity exists to enhance AO activity of CMR to more closely mimic that of bovine milk. Future research is warranted to compare a broader range of CMR using methods that account for

  8. Calf form bovine leukosis with lameness in a Holstein heifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfeeq, Mohammad Monir; Miura, Saori; Nakanishi, Yuuki; Sugimoto, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2012-09-01

    A 12-month-old Holstein heifer with anorexia, lameness, and enlargement of peripheral lymph nodes was suspected of having bovine leukosis. Although lymphocytosis was not observed, cytology of fine needle aspirate from a superficial cervical node, and increased serum lactate dehydrogenase and thymidine kinase activities, strongly suggested lymphosarcoma. Increased numbers of mononuclear cells as well as mitotic cells were observed in synovial fluid collected from swollen joints. Pathological examination confirmed B-cell calf form bovine leukosis and joint swelling related to neoplastic cell infiltration. Both interleukin-2 receptor and thymidine kinase 1 genes were highly expressed in cells from superficial cervical lymph node aspirate.

  9. Linguine sign in musculoskeletal imaging: calf silicone implant rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duryea, Dennis; Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, H066, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth E. [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Pathology, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Walker, Eric A. [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, H066, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bethesda, MD, 20814 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Imaging findings of breast silicone implant rupture are well described in the literature. On MRI, the linguine sign indicates intracapsular rupture, while the presence of silicone particles outside the fibrous capsule indicates extracapsular rupture. The linguine sign is described as the thin, wavy hypodense wall of the implant within the hyperintense silicone on T2-weighted images indicative of rupture of the implant within the naturally formed fibrous capsule. Hyperintense T2 signal outside of the fibrous capsule is indicative of an extracapsular rupture with silicone granuloma formation. We present a rare case of a patient with a silicone calf implant rupture and discuss the MRI findings associated with this condition. (orig.)

  10. Phenotypic, genetic, and single nucleotide polymorphism marker associations between calf diseases and subsequent performance and disease occurrences of first-lactation German Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, M; Yin, T; Brügemann, K; König, S

    2017-03-01

    A total of 31,396 females born from 2010 to 2013 in 43 large-scale Holstein-Friesian herds were phenotyped for calf and cow disease traits using a veterinarian diagnosis key. Calf diseases were general disease status (cGDS), calf diarrhea (cDIA), and calf respiratory disease (cRD) recorded from birth to 2 mo of age. Incidences were 0.48 for cGDS, 0.28 for cRD, and 0.21 for cDIA. Cow disease trait recording focused on the early period directly after calving in first parity, including the interval from 10 d before calving to 200 d in lactation. For cows, at least one entry for the respective disease implied a score = 1 (sick); otherwise, score = 0 (healthy). Corresponding cow diseases were first-lactation general disease status (flGDS), first-lactation diarrhea (flDIA), and first-lactation respiratory disease (flRD). Additional cow disease categories included mastitis (flMAST), claw disorders (flCLAW), female fertility disorders (flFF), and metabolic disorders (flMET). A further cow trait category considered first-lactation test-day production traits from official test-days 1 and 2 after calving. The genotype data set included 41,256 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from 9,388 females with phenotypes. Linear and generalized linear mixed models with a logit link-function were applied to Gaussian and categorical cow traits, respectively, considering the calf disease as a fixed effect. Most of the calf diseases were not significantly associated with the occurrence of any cow disease. By trend, increasing risks for the occurrence of cow diseases were observed for healthy calves, indicating mechanisms of disease resistance with aging. Also by trend, occurrence of calf diseases was associated with decreasing milk, protein, and fat yields. Univariate linear and threshold animal models were used to estimate heritabilities and breeding values (EBV) for all calf and cow traits. Heritabilities for cGDS and cRD were 0.06 and 0.07 for cDIA. Genetic correlations among all

  11. Cyclosporine increases muscular force generation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K R; Mynhier, M A; Miller, R G

    1993-03-01

    We investigated the effect of cyclosporine (CsA) on force generation in 15 boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) by obtaining monthly measures of tetanic force and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of both anterior tibial muscles. During 4 months of a natural history phase, both tetanic force and MVC declined significantly. During 8 weeks of CsA treatment (5 mg/kg/day), significantly increased tetanic force (25.8 +/- 6.6%) and MVC (13.6 +/- 4.0%) occurred within 2 weeks. The maximum mean increase during treatment was 35.2 +/- 5.9% (tetanic force) and 19.0 +/- 4.6% (MVC). Side effects from CsA, gastrointestinal and flu-like symptoms, were transient and self-limiting. Thus, as previously reported with prednisone, CsA increases muscular force generation in the anterior tibial muscles of DMD patients.

  12. Characteristic of muscle involvement evaluated by CT scans in early stages of progressive muscular dystrophy; Comparison between Duchenne and Fukuyama types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Yumi (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1993-10-01

    Muscle CT scans were performed in order to compare the characteristic distribution of progressive muscle involvement in the early stages of Duchenne type (DMD) and Fukuyama type muscular dystrophy (FCMD). Muscle images at the levels of the 3rd lumbar vertebra, thigh and calf were assessed by visual inspection, and mean CT numbers calculated for individual muscles were statistically analysed. On visual inspection, intramuscular low density areas and muscular atrophy were observed in the muscles of older patients with either disease. These changes were, however, more extensive at thigh level in DMD, and at calf level in FCMD. Nevertheless, the mean CT numbers of muscles in which only slight changes were grossly visible on CT scans displayed progressive decreases with increasing age. Moreover, a significant negative relationship was recognizable between age and mean CT number in almost all muscles examined. Comparison of the slopes of the regression lines revealed that the so-called selective pattern of muscle involvement characteristic of the symptomatic stage had already partially manifested in the preclinical or early stages of both diseases. In FCMD, the rates of decrease in CT numbers were extremely rapid for calf muscles as compared with those in DMD, indicating that this is one reason for FCMD patients never becoming ambulatory. However, for almost all of the other muscles, the CT numbers in FCMD decreased in parallel with the corresponding CT numbers in DMD; thus, these diseases displayed a similarity in the pattern of muscle involvement, despite their different pathogenetic mechanisms and inheritance patterns. (author).

  13. The magnitude of the effect of calf muscles fatigue on postural control during bipedal quiet standing with vision depends on the eye-visual target distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillerme, Nicolas; Burdet, Cyril; Isableu, Brice; Demetz, Sylvain

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of the present experiment was to investigate whether, with vision, the magnitude of the effect of calf muscles fatigue on postural control during bipedal quiet standing depends on the eye-visual target distance. Twelve young university students were asked to stand upright as immobile as possible in three visual conditions (No vision, Vision 1m and Vision 4m) executed in two conditions of No fatigue and Fatigue of the calf muscles. Centre of foot pressure displacements were recorded using a force platform. Similar increased variances of the centre of foot pressure displacements were observed in the fatigue relative to the No fatigue condition for both the No vision and Vision 4m conditions. Interestingly, in the vision 1m condition, fatigue yielded: (1) a similar increased variance of the centre of foot pressure displacements to those observed in the No vision and Vision 4m conditions along the medio-lateral axis and (2) a weaker destabilising effect relative to the No vision and Vision 4m conditions along the antero-posterior axis. These results evidence that the ability to use visual information for postural control during bipedal quiet standing following calf muscles fatigue is dependent on the eye-visual target distance. More largely, in the context of the multisensory control of balance, the present findings suggest that the efficiency of the sensory reweighting of visual sensory cues as the neuro-muscular constraints acting on the subject change is critically linked with the quality of the information the visual system obtains.

  14. Findings in post-poliomyelitis syndrome. Weakness of muscles of the calf as a source of late pain and fatigue of muscles of the thigh after poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J; Fontaine, J D; Mulroy, S

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify overuse of muscles and other alterations in the mechanics of gait in twenty-one patients who had muscular dysfunction as a late consequence of poliomyelitis. All of the patients had good or normal strength (grade 4 or 5) of the vastus lateralis and zero to fair strength (grade 0 to 3) of the calf, as determined by manual testing. Dynamic electromyography was used, while the patients were walking, to quantify the intensity and duration of contraction of the inferior part of the gluteus maximus, the long head of the biceps femoris, the vastus lateralis, and the soleus muscles. Patterns of contact of the foot with the floor, temporal-spatial parameters, and motion of the knee and ankle were recorded. The principal mechanisms of substitution for a weak calf muscle fell into three groups: overuse of the quadriceps (twelve patients) or a hip extensor (the inferior part of the gluteus maximus in eight patients and the long head of the biceps femoris in four), or both; equinus contracture (twelve patients); and avoidance of loading-response flexion of the knee (five patients). Most patients used more than one method of substitution. These observations support the theory that post-poliomyelitis syndrome results from long-term substitutions for muscular weakness that place increased demands on joints, ligaments, and muscles and that treatment--based on the early identification of overuse of muscles and ligamentous strain--should aim at modification of lifestyle and include use of a brace.

  15. Calf muscle oxygen saturation and the effects of supervised exercise training for intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckitt, Tim A; Day, Jude; Morgan, Maria; Lamont, Peter M

    2012-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying the symptomatic improvement witnessed as a result of exercise training in intermittent claudication remain unclear. There is no reproducible evidence to support increased limb blood flow resulting from neovascularization. Changes in oxygenation of active muscles as a result of blood redistribution are hypothesized but unproven. This study sought evidence of improved gastrocnemius oxygenation resulting from exercise training. The study recruited 42 individuals with claudication. After an initial control period of exercise advice, participants undertook a 3-month supervised exercise program. Spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy monitored calf muscle oxygen saturation (Sto(2)) during exercise and after a period of cuff-induced ischemia. Comparison was made with 14 individuals undergoing angioplasty for calf claudication. Clinical outcomes of claudication distance and maximum walking distance were measured by treadmill assessment. Significant increases occurred in mean [interquartile range] claudication disease (57 [38-78] to 119 [97-142] meters; P = .01) and maximum walking distance (124 [102-147] to 241 [193-265] meters; P = .02) after supervised exercise but not after the control period. No change occurred in resting Sto(2) at any interval. Angioplasty (27% [21-34] to 19% [13-29]; P = .02) but not exercise training (26% [21-32] vs 23% [20-31]; P > .20) resulted in a reduced Sto(2) desaturation in response to submaximal exercise and an increased hyperemic hemoglobin oxygen recovery rate after ischemia (0.48 [0.39-0.55] to 0.63 [0.52-0.69] s(-1); P = .01). However supervised exercise reduced the Sto(2) recovery half-time by 17% (82 [64-101] to 68 [55-89] seconds; P = .02). Supervised exercise training is not associated with increased gastrocnemius muscle oxygenation during exercise or increased hyperemic hemoglobin flow after a model of ischemia. This suggests that the symptomatic improvement witnessed is not the result of increased

  16. The Effect of Early Feeding of Soybean and Fishmeal Based Calf S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on growth performimce and cost, it was concluded that early feeding of calves Withsoyb,eq.'!-fishmeal bas.eg ... have reached the target weaning weight, nor- mally about 60 - 70 kg. Calves may require more than 12 weeks ... calf from birth to weaning, costing 75,000 to. 100,000 Tanzanian shillings per calf. Such high.

  17. What do calves choose to eat and how do preferences affect calf behaviour and welfare?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, L.E.; Engel, B.; Berends, H.; Reenen, van C.G.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Calves raised for milk or meat are fed diets that differ from feral-herd calf diets and are based on the nutritional requirements of the ‘average calf’. These diets may not meet the dietary preferences of each individual calf. This study explored diet preferences in calves with free dietary choice,

  18. Calf muscle strain injuries in sport: a systematic review of risk factors for injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Brady; Pizzari, Tania

    2017-08-01

    To systematically review the literature to identify risk factors for calf strain injury, and to direct future research into calf muscle injuries. Systematic review DATA SOURCES: Database searches conducted for Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, AMED, AUSPORT, SportDiscus, PEDro and Cochrane Library. Manual reference checks, ahead of press searches, citation tracking. From inception to June 2016. Studies evaluating and presenting data related to intrinsic or extrinsic risk factors for sustaining future calf injury. Ten studies were obtained for review. Subjects across football, Australian football, rugby union, basketball and triathlon were reported on, representing 5397 athletes and 518 calf/ lower leg muscle injuries. Best evidence synthesis highlights chronological age and previous history of calf strain are the strongest risk factors for future calf muscle injury. Previous lower limb injuries (hamstring, quadriceps, adductor, knee) show some limited evidence for an association. Numerous factors lack evidence of an association, including height, weight, gender and side dominance. Increasing age and previous calf strain injury are the most predictive of future calf injury. The overall paucity of evidence and the trend for studies of a high risk of bias show that further research needs to be undertaken. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. CALF BLOOD-FLOW AND POSTURE - DOPPLER ULTRASOUND CALIBRATED BY PLETHYSMOGRAPHY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLEEUWEN, BE; LUBBERS, J; BARENDSEN, GJ; DEPATER, L

    A procedure was developed that enables measurement of rapid variations in calf blood flow during voluntary rhythmic contraction of the calf muscles in supine, sitting, and standing positions. During the exercise, maximum blood velocity is measured by Doppler ultrasound equipment in the popliteal

  20. Effects of different flooring options in outside pens of hutches on dairy calf growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growth rates of dairy calves may vary due to many different factors, including housing. The objective of this study was to determine if calf growth was affected by different flooring options in the outside penned area of a calf hutch. For this study, 33 hutches were blocked in groups of 3 by locatio...

  1. Examining dolphin hydrodynamics provides clues to calf-loss during tuna fishing

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Pete

    2004-01-01

    A combination of mathematical modeling and direct observation of the swimming behavior of dolphin mother-calf pairs has shown how the calf can gain much of the energy required for swimming if it is positioned correctly relative to the mother, a situation that may be disrupted during the chases that result from tuna-fishing practices.

  2. [Psoas muscular abscess in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, A M; Reis, A G; Grisi, S J

    1996-01-01

    Symptoms of psoas muscular abscess in children are nonspecific and differential diagnosis is made among diseases included in childreńs acute hip pain syndrome, imaging tests being necessary for diagnostic confirmation. During the first semester of 1995, 48,550 children were examined in Pronto Socorro do Instituto da Criança do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, four of them diagnosed as having psoas muscular abscess (2 females and 2 males, ages varying from 1 to 12 years). All of them had nonspecific clinical features and diagnosis was confirmed by abdominal ultrasound and/or computerized tomography. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated as the etiologic agent in 3 children, findings similar to the ones in literature.

  3. Muscular atrophy in diabetic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H; Gadeberg, P C; Brock, B

    1997-01-01

    Diabetic patients with polyneuropathy develop motor dysfunction. To establish whether motor dysfunction is associated with muscular atrophy the ankle dorsal and plantar flexors of the non-dominant leg were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging in 8 patients with symptomatic neuropathy, in 8 non......-neuropathic patients and in 16 individually matched control subjects. In the neuropathic patients the muscle strength of the ankle dorsal and plantar flexors was reduced by 41 % as compared to the non-neuropathic patients (p ... confirmed that the atrophy predominated distally. We conclude that muscular atrophy underlies motor weakness at the ankle in diabetic patients with polyneuropathy and that the atrophy is most pronounced in distal muscles of the lower leg indicating that a length dependent neuropathic process explains...

  4. Congenital muscular dystrophy in Jordanian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qudah, A A; Tarawneh, M

    1998-08-01

    This is a consecutive study on 28 patients who have been diagnosed as having congenital muscular dystrophy at Jordan University Hospital in the period from January 1990 to February 1997. Of 75 patients diagnosed as having muscle disease, 55 (73.3%) had muscular dystrophy. Of 55 muscular dystrophy patients, 28 (50.9%) had congenital muscular dystrophy, 11 (20%) had Duchenne muscular dystrophy, 9 (16.4%) had Becker muscular dystrophy, 4 (7.3%) had myotonic dystrophy, 2 (3.6%) had limb-girdle dystrophy, and 1 (1.8%) patient had facioscapulohumeral dystrophy. Age of onset of symptoms of congenital muscular dystrophy (hypotonia and weakness) was documented antenatally or in the first few months in the majority (92.9%) of patients. Parental consanguinity was documented in 21 (75%) of congenital muscular dystrophy cases, and family history of possible similar cases in 15 (53.6%). Congenital muscular dystrophy patients with normal cognitive milestones (n = 16; 57.1%) were slightly more common than patients with cognitive delay. In contrast to previous reports, congenital muscular dystrophy is probably more common in communities with high rates of parental consanguinity than other dystrophies. Our study adds significant support to the most recent literature on this finding.

  5. Electrically induced short-lasting tetanus of the calf muscles for prevention of deep vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, B; Korsan-Bengtsen, K; Jonsson, O; Petruson, B; Pettersson, S; Wikstrand, J

    1982-04-01

    Electrical calf muscle stimulation during surgery has been used for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) with varied results in several studies. This effect is mainly achieved by the reduction of venous stasis in the legs. Another possible beneficial effect might be an increased fibrinolytic activity of the blood secondary to the muscle contractions. Previously, single electrical impulses have been used for stimulation, giving rise to 'single twitches' in the muscles. In the present study the effect on calf volume of muscle stimulation with groups of impulses giving a short-lasting tetanus was investigated. Changes in calf volume were recorded by strain gauge plethysmography. Optimal values for duration, number and frequency of the impulses within the groups were determined. Stimulation with groups of impulses reduced calf venous volume approximately three times more efficiently than stimulation with single impulses. Calf muscle stimulation did not enhance the increase in fibrinolytic activity of venous blood observed after oesophago- or laryngoscopies under general anaesthesia.

  6. Time-resolved phosphorous magnetization transfer of the human calf muscle at 3 T and 7 T: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkovič, Ladislav, E-mail: siegfried.trattnig@meduniwien.ac.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Institute of Measurement Science, Department of Imaging Methods, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 841 04 Bratislava, Dúbravska cesta 9 (Slovakia); Chmelík, Marek, E-mail: marek.chmelik@meduniwien.ac.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Just Kukurova, Ivica, E-mail: ivica.kukurova@meduniwien.ac.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Krššák, Martin, E-mail: martin.krssak@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Gruber, Stephan, E-mail: stephan@nmr.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Frollo, Ivan, E-mail: umerollo@savba.sk [Institute of Measurement Science, Department of Imaging Methods, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 841 04 Bratislava, Dúbravska cesta 9 (Slovakia); Trattnig, Siegfried, E-mail: siegfried.trattnig@meduniwien.ac.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Bogner, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang@nmr.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria)

    2013-05-15

    Phosphorous ({sup 31}P) magnetization transfer (MT) experiments enable the non-invasive investigation of human muscle metabolism in various physiological and pathological conditions. The purpose of our study was to investigate the feasibility of time-resolved MT, and to compare the results of MT experiments at 3 T and 7 T. Six healthy volunteers were examined on a 3 T and a 7 T MR scanner using the same setup and identical measurement protocols. In the calf muscle of all volunteers, four separate MT experiments (each ∼10 min duration) were performed in one session. The forward rate constant of the ATP synthesis reaction (k{sub ATP}) and creatine kinase reaction (k{sub CK}), as well as corresponding metabolic fluxes (F{sub ATP}, F{sub CK}), were estimated. A comparison of these exchange parameters, apparent T{sub 1}s, data quality, quantification precision, and reproducibility was performed. The data quality and reproducibility of the same MT experiments at 7 T was significantly higher (i.e., k{sub ATP} 2.7 times higher and k{sub CK} 3.4 times higher) than at 3 T (p < 0.05). The values for k{sub ATP} (p = 0.35) and k{sub CK} (p = 0.09) at both field strengths were indistinguishable. Even a single MT experiment at 7 T provided better data quality than did a 4 times-longer MT experiment at 3 T. The minimal time-resolution to reliably quantify both F{sub ATP} and F{sub CK} at 7 T was ∼6 min. Our results show that MT experiments at 7 T can be at least 4 times faster than 3 T MT experiments and still provide significantly better quantification. This enables time-resolved MT experiments for the observation of slow metabolic changes in the human calf muscle at 7 T.

  7. Scintigraphic calf perfusion symmetry after exercise and prediction of cardiovascular events: One stone to kill two birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, Philippe; Lecouffe, Pascal; Zureik, Mahmoud

    2007-02-01

    BackgroundPeripheral arterial disease (PAD) is commonly associated with a high cardiovascular mortality and morbidity as a marker of plurifocal atherosclerosis. Whether exercise thallium perfusion muscular asymmetry in the legs associated with PAD has prognostic value is unknown. Such a hypothesis was evaluated in a prospective study which remains the gold standard in clinical research. Methods and resultsScintigraphic calf perfusion symmetry after exercise (SCPSE) was measured at the end of a maximal or symptom-limited treadmill exercise test in 358 patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). During the follow-up period (mean 85.3±32.8 months), 93 cardiovascular events and deaths (incident cases) occurred. Among those incident cases, the percentage of subjects with higher SCPSE values (third tertile) was 45.2%, versus 29.1% in controls (lower tertiles) ( p=0.005). In stepwise multivariate analysis performed with the Cox proportional hazards model, previous CAD and SCPSE were the only significant independent predictors of prognosis. The multivariate relative risk of cardiovascular death or event in subjects with higher values of SCPSE was 1.94 (95% CI: 1.15-3.21; pexercise was independently associated with incident cardiovascular events in high-risk subjects. This index, which is easily and quickly calculated, could be used for evaluation of cardiovascular risk.

  8. α-Tocopherol and β-carotene concentrations in feed, colostrum, cow and calf serum in Swedish dairy herds with high or low calf mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsein, Maria; Lindberg, Ann; Svensson, Catarina; Jensen, Sören Krogh; Berg, Charlotte; Waller, Karin Persson

    2018-02-01

    A study of herd-level risk factors for calf mortality in large Swedish dairy herds showed low serum concentrations of α-tocopherol and β-carotene in 1-7 day old calves to be more common in high mortality herds. Therefore, we aimed to investigate if calf mortality risk at herd level is associated with concentrations of α-tocopherol and/or β-carotene at individual level in feed, colostrum, cow and calf serum, while controlling for herd level covariates. Inclusion criteria were affiliation to the Swedish official milk recording scheme, herd size of ≥ 120 milking cows/year, calf mortality risk (day 1-90) of at least 6% (high mortality; HM) or less than 1% (low mortality; LM) and located within one of two regions in southern Sweden. This cross-sectional study was performed in 2010 in 19 (n HM  = 9; n LM  = 10) dairy herds. Questionnaires were used to collect information about feed and routines for colostrum feeding. Feed (n = 57), colostrum (n = 162), cow serum (n = 189) and calf serum samples (n = 187) were collected and analysed for α-tocopherol and β-carotene. Other analyses e.g. total serum protein, fat content, and total solids in colostrum were also performed. Linear regression models with vitamin concentrations in feed, colostrum, cow and calf serum as outcome were performed. Calves in HM herds had lower concentrations of α-tocopherol in serum than calves in LM herds, but the effect depended on total protein status in serum of the calf (P = 0.036). Calves from herds that fed transition milk for 3 days or more had higher α-tocopherol concentrations in serum than calves from herds feeding transition milk up to 2 days (P = 0.013). Fat percentage in colostrum was positively associated with α-tocopherol (P cow serum (P = 0.001). High calf mortality risks were associated with lower concentrations of α-tocopherol in calf serum for calves with failure of passive transfer. Feeding transition milk longer was associated with higher

  9. Genetic analysis of calf and heifer losses in Danish Holstein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuerst-Walti, B; Sørensen, Morten Kargo

    2010-01-01

    calving was higher than the stillbirth rate. Genetic and phenotypic variation seemed to be sufficiently high to genetically improve the trait calf and heifer mortality. Hence, a routine genetic evaluation would be valuable for monitoring and for selecting fitter animals in the Danish Holstein cattle......Mortality in dairy cattle is not only relevant with regard to economic losses but also to animal health and welfare. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to explore the genetic background of postnatal mortality in calves and replacement heifers in different age groups until first calving...... first calving or a maximum age of 1,200 d if no calving was reported, and the full period P5=d 1 until the day before first calving or a maximum age of 1,200 d if no calving was reported. Records of animals slaughtered or exported within a defined period were set to missing for this and following...

  10. Influence of environmental health in the cow-calf dyad system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayná Barcelos Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Health factors influence the cow-calf dyad system in the postpartum period until the first suckling. The use of maternity paddock is a recommended management to facilitate the monitoring of parturient cows and calves. However, side effects occur due to environmental health conditions of maternity paddock that can affect the behaviour of the cow and result in the separation of calf from the mother, undermining sucking and the formation of the cow-calf dyad. To improve the understanding of this complex and dynamic system we built a conceptual model using the technique of causal loop diagram, Figure 1. By hypothesis, the environmental variables that act in maternity paddock influence the variable "Sources of pathogens in maternity". Those sources present a positive effect (in the same direction in the infection process of the calf and cow. Thus, a recommended practice is exposing the parturient cow to pathogens in maternity for sufficient period to stimulate their immune system and build disease resistance. That process contributes to improve the quality of colostrum that will be consumed by the calf during the first hours postpartum which has the function of increasing calf immunity, minimizing the occurrence of infections. In the model, sanitary environmental factors work in two Balance feedback loops (B1 and B2. The B1 cycle refers to the production of a healthy cow with a low level of infection by means of the variables: “Vaccine”, "Stimulation of cow immune system" and "Health resistance" with delay. The variable "Cow infection" has a negative influence (in the opposite direction in the "Maternal behaviour", thus the more infected the cow, the less investment will occur in maternal behaviour. The B2 cycle refers to the calf’s health condition, which is positively influenced by “Calf infection” which, in turn, has positive influence, contributing to the increase of "Calf diseases". The increase in “Calf diseases” generates an

  11. Lesiones musculares en el deporte. Muscular injuries in sport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez Díaz, José Fernando

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenDurante la práctica de la actividad física hay una gran incidencia de lesiones musculares, si bien se han llevado a cabo pocos estudios clínicos sobre el tratamiento y la resolución de las mismas. Desde el punto de vista etiopatogénico, hay que señalar que la incidencia de lesión es mayor en aquellos músculos poliarticulares en condiciones de acumulación de fatiga y con condiciones ambientales desfavorables. La clasificación de las lesiones musculares permite distinguir entre aquellas que no afectan a la fascia produciéndose un sangrado dentro del mismo (intramuscular o bien si la fascia también se rompe, el sangrado se sitúa entre los diferentes músculos (intermuscular. El tratamiento de estas lesiones se realizará combinando reposo, compresión, aplicación de frío y elevación del área lesionada así como el desarrollo de un adecuado programa de readaptación funcional que permita al jugador incorporarse lo antes posible a la dinámica del equipo. En la actualidad se está llevando a cabo opciones terapéuticas con factores de crecimiento, terapia génica y células madre, si bien todavía no están lo suficientemente desarrolladas.AbstractDuring the practice of the physical activity there is a great effect of muscular injuries, though few clinical studies have been carried out on the treatment and the resolution of the same ones. Inside the reasons it is necessary to indicate that the effect of injury is major in those muscles you will polyarticulate in situation of fatigue and with environmental unfavorable conditions.The classification of the muscular injuries allows to distinguish between those that do not affect the fascia producing the bled intramuscular or if the fascia also breaks, the bled one places between the different muscles (intermuscular.The treatment will be realized combining rest, compression, application of cold and elevation of these injuries as well as the development of a program of functional

  12. Wild reindeer calf recruitment variations; biology or methodology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eigil Reimers

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The two field methods, ground counts and aerial photography, currently used for calculating population estimates and calf recruitment for Norwegian wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus produce different results. Using population count data by both methods from the same years in various areas, I systematically compare estimates of sex and age components and decipher reasons for the discrepancies found in previous estimates made by each method. Data for aerial photography counts were found in the literature, while original data is presented for ground counts. Calf recruitment (calves/100 females and the proportion of adult males (males 1+ years/100 animals 1+ years in herds of reindeer in Norefjell-Reinsjøfjell (1993-98, Rondane North (1995-97 and Setesdal-Ryfylke (1995, 1998 were recorded from ground counts of post calving groups in June-July. The estimates for number of calves per 100 females 1+ years were lower and more variable than number of calves per 100 females 2+ years. A variable number of yearling females in the groups and difficulties in correctly sexing yearlings are contributing factors. The estimates for number of calves/100 females 1+ years were higher than calves/100 animals 1+ years due to the inclusion of young males in the latter. Among animals 1+ years in the post-calving groups, males (mostly yearling males composed from 4.7 to 27.9 %. Nevertheless, both calculation methods for calf recruitment were consistently higher for ground count data than when using counts from air photographs, confirming that the two methods do not produce comparable results. Explanations for this discrepancy are (1 that calves may be easier to overlook on air photographs than in ground composition counts and (2 that the yearling male components in the post calving groups are unaccounted for when using air photographs. June recruitment rates (calves/100 females 1+ years in Rondane North were also estimated from composition counts recorded from ground

  13. A physiological model for interpretation of arterial spin labeling reactive hyperemia of calf muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou-Jen Chen

    Full Text Available To characterize and interpret arterial spin labeling (ASL reactive hyperemia of calf muscles for a better understanding of the microcirculation in peripheral arterial disease (PAD, we present a physiological model incorporating oxygen transport, tissue metabolism, and vascular regulation mechanisms. The model demonstrated distinct effects between arterial stenoses and microvascular dysfunction on reactive hyperemia, and indicated a higher sensitivity of 2-minute thigh cuffing to microvascular dysfunction than 5-minute cuffing. The recorded perfusion responses in PAD patients (n = 9 were better differentiated from the normal subjects (n = 7 using the model-based analysis rather than characterization using the apparent peak and time-to-peak of the responses. The analysis results suggested different amounts of microvascular disease within the patient group. Overall, this work demonstrates a novel analysis method and facilitates understanding of the physiology involved in ASL reactive hyperemia. ASL reactive hyperemia with model-based analysis may be used as a noninvasive microvascular assessment in the presence of arterial stenoses, allowing us to look beyond the macrovascular disease in PAD. A subgroup who will have a poor prognosis after revascularization in the patients with critical limb ischemia may be associated with more severe microvascular diseases, which may potentially be identified using ASL reactive hyperemia.

  14. Age-Related Differences in Muscular Strength and Muscular Endurance among Female Masters Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dummer, Gail M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated age-related differences in muscular strength and muscular endurance among 73 female masters swimmers aged 24 to 71 years. While an age-related decline in muscular strength was apparent, the results failed to reveal a similar trend for endurance, suggesting that swimming influences endurance more than strength among women.…

  15. Lipogenesis mitigates dysregulated sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium uptake in muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paran, Christopher W.; Zou, Kai; Ferrara, Patrick J.; Song, Haowei; Turk, John; Funai, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Muscular dystrophy is accompanied by a reduction in activity of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) that contributes to abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis in sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER). Recent findings suggest that skeletal muscle fatty acid synthase (FAS) modulates SERCA activity and muscle function via its effects on SR membrane phospholipids. In this study, we examined muscle’s lipid metabolism in mdx mice, a mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). De novo lipogenesis was ~50% reduced in mdx muscles compared to wildtype (WT) muscles. Gene expressions of lipogenic and other ER lipid-modifying enzymes were found to be differentially expressed between wildtype (WT) and mdx muscles. A comprehensive examination of muscles’ SR phospholipidome revealed elevated phosphatidylcholine (PC) and PC/phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) ratio in mdx compared to WT mice. Studies in primary myocytes suggested that defects in key lipogenic enzymes including FAS, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), and Lipin1 are likely contributing to reduced SERCA activity in mdx mice. Triple transgenic expression of FAS, SCD1 and Lipin1 (3TG) in mdx myocytes partly rescued SERCA activity, which coincided with an increase in SR PE that normalized PC/PE ratio. These findings implicate a defect in lipogenesis to be a contributing factor for SERCA dysfunction in muscular dystrophy. Restoration of muscle’s lipogenic pathway appears to mitigate SERCA function through its effects on SR membrane composition. PMID:26361872

  16. Lipogenesis mitigates dysregulated sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium uptake in muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paran, Christopher W; Zou, Kai; Ferrara, Patrick J; Song, Haowei; Turk, John; Funai, Katsuhiko

    2015-12-01

    Muscular dystrophy is accompanied by a reduction in activity of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) that contributes to abnormal Ca(2+) homeostasis in sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER). Recent findings suggest that skeletal muscle fatty acid synthase (FAS) modulates SERCA activity and muscle function via its effects on SR membrane phospholipids. In this study, we examined muscle's lipid metabolism in mdx mice, a mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). De novo lipogenesis was ~50% reduced in mdx muscles compared to wildtype (WT) muscles. Gene expressions of lipogenic and other ER lipid-modifying enzymes were found to be differentially expressed between wildtype (WT) and mdx muscles. A comprehensive examination of muscles' SR phospholipidome revealed elevated phosphatidylcholine (PC) and PC/phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) ratio in mdx compared to WT mice. Studies in primary myocytes suggested that defects in key lipogenic enzymes including FAS, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), and Lipin1 are likely contributing to reduced SERCA activity in mdx mice. Triple transgenic expression of FAS, SCD1, and Lipin1 (3TG) in mdx myocytes partly rescued SERCA activity, which coincided with an increase in SR PE that normalized PC/PE ratio. These findings implicate a defect in lipogenesis to be a contributing factor for SERCA dysfunction in muscular dystrophy. Restoration of muscle's lipogenic pathway appears to mitigate SERCA function through its effects on SR membrane composition. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Immune-mediated pathology in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Amy S; Puig, Montserrat; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Hoffman, Eric P; Villalta, S Armando; Rao, V Ashutosh; Wakefield, Lalage M; Woodcock, Janet

    2015-08-05

    Immunological and inflammatory processes downstream of dystrophin deficiency as well as metabolic abnormalities, defective autophagy, and loss of regenerative capacity all contribute to muscle pathology in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). These downstream cascades offer potential avenues for pharmacological intervention. Modulating the inflammatory response and inducing immunological tolerance to de novo dystrophin expression will be critical to the success of dystrophin-replacement therapies. This Review focuses on the role of the inflammatory response in DMD pathogenesis and opportunities for clinical intervention. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy is a condition that primarily affects muscles used ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: limb-girdle muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy is a term for a group of diseases ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: LAMA2-related muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions LAMA2-related muscular dystrophy LAMA2-related muscular dystrophy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description LAMA2 -related muscular dystrophy is a disorder that causes weakness and wasting ( ...

  1. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Measurements of Calf Muscle during Walking at Simulated Reduced Gravity - Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerby, Gwenn E. C.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stroud, Leah; Norcross, Jason; Gernhardt, Michael; Soller, Babs R.

    2008-01-01

    Consideration for lunar and planetary exploration space suit design can be enhanced by investigating the physiologic responses of individual muscles during locomotion in reduced gravity. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a non-invasive method to study the physiology of individual muscles in ambulatory subjects during reduced gravity simulations. PURPOSE: To investigate calf muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) and pH during reduced gravity walking at varying treadmill inclines and added mass conditions using NIRS. METHODS: Four male subjects aged 42.3 +/- 1.7 years (mean +/- SE) and weighing 77.9 +/- 2.4 kg walked at a moderate speed (3.2 +/- 0.2 km/h) on a treadmill at inclines of 0, 10, 20, and 30%. Unsuited subjects were attached to a partial gravity simulator which unloaded the subject to simulate body weight plus the additional weight of a space suit (121 kg) in lunar gravity (0.17G). Masses of 0, 11, 23, and 34 kg were added to the subject and then unloaded to maintain constant weight. Spectra were collected from the lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and SmO2 and pH were calculated using previously published methods (Yang et al. 2007 Optics Express ; Soller et al. 2008 J Appl Physiol). The effects of incline and added mass on SmO2 and pH were analyzed through repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: SmO2 and pH were both unchanged by added mass (p>0.05), so data from trials at the same incline were averaged. LG SmO2 decreased significantly with increasing incline (p=0.003) from 61.1 +/- 2.0% at 0% incline to 48.7 +/- 2.6% at 30% incline, while pH was unchanged by incline (p=0.12). CONCLUSION: Increasing the incline (and thus work performed) during walking causes the LG to extract more oxygen from the blood supply, presumably to support the increased metabolic cost of uphill walking. The lack of an effect of incline on pH may indicate that, while the intensity of exercise has increased, the LG has not reached a level of work above the anaerobic threshold. In these

  2. Nutritional Challenges in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salera, Simona; Menni, Francesca; Moggio, Maurizio; Guez, Sophie; Sciacco, Monica; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-06-10

    Neuromuscular diseases (NMDs) represent a heterogeneous group of acquired or inherited conditions. Nutritional complications are frequent in NMDs, but they are sometimes underestimated. With the prolongation of survival in patients with NMDs, there are several nutritional aspects that are important to consider, including the deleterious effects of overnutrition on glucose metabolism, mobility, and respiratory and cardiologic functions; the impact of hyponutrition on muscle and ventilatory function; constipation and other gastrointestinal complications; chewing/swallowing difficulties with an increased risk of aspiration that predisposes to infectious diseases and respiratory complications; as well as osteoporosis with an associated increased risk of fractures. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the nutritional aspects and complications that can start in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and increase with ageing. These aspects should be considered in the transition from paediatric clinics to adult services. It is shown that appropriate nutritional care can help to improve the quality of life of DMD patients, and a multidisciplinary team is needed to support nutrition challenges in DMD patients. However, studies on the prevalence of overnutrition and undernutrition, gastrointestinal complications, infectious diseases, dysphagia, and reduced bone mass in the different types of NMDs are needed, and appropriate percentiles of weight, height, body mass index, and body composition appear to be extremely important to improve the management of patients with NMD.

  3. Nutritional Challenges in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Salera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuromuscular diseases (NMDs represent a heterogeneous group of acquired or inherited conditions. Nutritional complications are frequent in NMDs, but they are sometimes underestimated. With the prolongation of survival in patients with NMDs, there are several nutritional aspects that are important to consider, including the deleterious effects of overnutrition on glucose metabolism, mobility, and respiratory and cardiologic functions; the impact of hyponutrition on muscle and ventilatory function; constipation and other gastrointestinal complications; chewing/swallowing difficulties with an increased risk of aspiration that predisposes to infectious diseases and respiratory complications; as well as osteoporosis with an associated increased risk of fractures. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the nutritional aspects and complications that can start in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD and increase with ageing. These aspects should be considered in the transition from paediatric clinics to adult services. It is shown that appropriate nutritional care can help to improve the quality of life of DMD patients, and a multidisciplinary team is needed to support nutrition challenges in DMD patients. However, studies on the prevalence of overnutrition and undernutrition, gastrointestinal complications, infectious diseases, dysphagia, and reduced bone mass in the different types of NMDs are needed, and appropriate percentiles of weight, height, body mass index, and body composition appear to be extremely important to improve the management of patients with NMD.

  4. Calf serum constituent fractions influence polyethylene wear and microbial growth in knee simulator testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jan-M; Charron, Kory; Zhao, Lin; MacDonald, Steven J; Medley, John B

    2012-06-01

    Calf serum lubricants consisting of various polypeptide constituent fractions are routinely used in knee wear simulators as part of the standardized test protocol. Three calf sera (bovine, new-born and alpha) were diluted as per the recommendation of ISO 14243-3 and used in displacement-controlled knee wear simulators to investigate their effects on polyethylene wear. Biochemical analyses included measuring total polypeptide degradation, electrophoretic profiles and low-molecular weight polypeptide concentrations to elucidate their involvement in the wear process. The effects of the various calf sera constituent fractions on microbial growth were also explored. The polyethylene wear rates and the results from the biochemical analyses for the three calf serum lubricants were all found to be statistically significantly different from each other. The lubricant derived from the alpha-calf serum was closest in constituent fractions to human synovial fluid. It also showed the lowest polyethylene wear rate (14.38 +/- 0.85 mm3/million cycles) and the lowest amount of polypeptide degradation (7.77 +/- 3.87%). Furthermore, the alpha-calf serum lubricant was associated with the least amount of change in the electrophoretic profile, the least change in low-molecular weight polypeptide concentration, and the lowest microbial growth in the presence of sodium azide (a microbial inhibitor conventionally used in implant wear testing). Replacing sodium azide with a broad spectrum antibiotic-antimycotic eradicated the microbial growth. Some speculation was entertained regarding the effect of alpha-calf serum on colloid-mediated boundary lubrication. Based on the results, it was recommended that ISO 14243-3 be modified to include guidelines on calf serum constituent fractions that would favour using alpha-calf serum in order to improve the fidelity of the simulation in knee implant wear testing.

  5. Rehabilitation of the muscular dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangilinan, Percival H; Hornyak, Joseph E

    2013-01-01

    The muscular dystrophies (MD) are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders characterized by findings on muscle biopsy. In general, they feature progressive muscle wasting and weakness. In addition to the musculoskeletal system, direct and indirect effects can be seen in a variety of organ systems. These issues create challenges in patients with MD for ambulation and mobility, self-care, pain, fatigue, and community involvement. Because of its progressive nature and wide variety of pathophysiological mechanisms, patients with MD require individualized rehabilitation care. This chapter reviews specific rehabilitation needs and treatment of patients with MD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Tissue culture media supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum contains a castrate level of testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedelaar, J P Michiel; Isaacs, John T

    2009-12-01

    Human prostate cancer cells are routinely maintained in media supplemented with 10% Fetal Calf Serum (FCS) to provide androgen. In the present study, total and free testosterone levels in 10%FCS supplemented tissue culture media were determined and compared to levels in intact and castrated human males. Dextran-coated charcoal stripped FCS (i.e., DC-FCS) is often used instead of FCS to minimize the level of androgen provided in 10% serum supplemented media. Therefore, total and free testosterone levels in 10%DC-FCS containing media were likewise determined. Total testosterone, free testosterone, and total dihydrotestosterone (DHT) were determined on RPMI-1640 media supplemented with either 10%FCS or 10%DC-FCS by ELISA assays before and after exposure to LNCaP human prostate cancer cells in culture. The growth and PSA secretion by these cells was also determined. Ten percentage FCS supplemented media contains a castrate level of testosterone. However, even with this castrate starting level of testosterone, LNCaP cells concentrate and metabolize the testosterone to produce a physiologic (i.e., 10 nM) level of intracellular DHT which optimally stimulates the growth of these cells in vitro. The present studies document that prostate cancer cells auto-regulate their androgen metabolism so that an optimal level of DHT for growth is maintained during both up and down fluctuations in the supply of testosterone. These results have significant implications for whether exogenous androgen should be added to the 10%FCS supplemented media to grow prostate cancer cells from intact versus castrated patients. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Congenital agenesis of the superficial posterior compartment calf muscles in a 13-month-old infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Young; Jang, Dae-Hyun

    2014-11-01

    Muscle agenesis may induce cosmetic and functional deficits, particularly if the muscle is an axial limb or a large muscle. Limb muscle agenesis is a rare condition. Here, the authors report the case of a 13-mo-old girl with unilateral atrophic calf and gait abnormality. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed agenesis of the posterior superficial compartment of the calf. The patient showed an out-toeing calcaneal gait and fibular length discrepancy secondarily during growth. Normal embryology and the differential diagnostic point of foot deformity as well as the clinical implications of calf agenesis are described.

  8. Feasibility of protein-sparing modified fast by tube (ProMoFasT) in obesity treatment: a phase II pilot trial on clinical safety and efficacy (appetite control, body composition, muscular strength, metabolic pattern, pulmonary function test).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukkar, S G; Signori, A; Borrini, C; Barisione, G; Ivaldi, C; Romeo, C; Gradaschi, R; Machello, N; Nanetti, E; Vaccaro, A L

    2013-01-01

    Anecdotal data in the last few years suggest that protein-sparing modified diet (PSMF) delivered by naso-gastric tube enteral (with continuous feeding) could attain an significant weight loss and control of appetite oral feeding, but no phase II studies on safety and efficacy have been done up to now. To verify the safety and efficacy of a protein-sparing modified fast administered by naso-gastric tube (ProMoFasT) for 10 days followed by 20 days of a low-calorie diet, in patients with morbid obesity (appetite control, fat free mass maintenance, pulmonary function tests and metabolic pattern, side effects), 26 patients with a BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 have been selected. The patients had to follow a protein-sparing fast by enteral nutrition (ProMoFasT) for 24 h/day, for 10 days followed by 20 days of low-calorie diet (LCD). The endpoint was represented by body weight, BMI, abdominal circumference, Haber's appetite test, body composition by body impedance assessment (BIA), handgrip strength test, metabolic pattern, pulmonary function test. Safety was assessed by evaluation of complications and side effects of PSMF and/or enteral nutrition. In this report the results on safety and efficacy are described after 10 and 30 days of treatment. After the recruiting phase, a total of 22 patients out of 26 enrolled [14 (63.6 %) females] were evaluated in this study. Globally almost all clinical parameters changed significantly during first 10 days. Total body weight significantly decreased after 10 days (∆-6.1 ± 2; p  weight loss related to decrease of FM and not to loss of FFM and appetite decreases. It is relevant that the RFT are significantly improved after only 10 days suggesting the efficacy of this regime in short period, too. These preliminary data underline the necessity to increase the number of RCT for this method, which could represent a possible alternative to other methodologies, such as the intragastric balloon, in particular when it is recommended to

  9. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreesen, JCFM; Bras, M; de Die-Smulders, C; Dumoulin, JCM; Cobben, JM; Evers, JLH; Smeets, HJM; Geraedts, JPM

    After Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most common severe neuromuscular disease in childhood. Since 1995, homozygous deletions in exon 7 of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene have been described in >90-95% of SMA patients. However, the presence of a highly

  10. Carrier testing for spinal muscular atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitlin, Jonathan M.; Fischbeck, Kenneth; Crawford, Thomas O.; Cwik, Valerie; Fleischman, Alan; Gonye, Karla; Heine, Deborah; Hobby, Kenneth; Kaufmann, Petra; Keiles, Steven; MacKenzie, Alex; Musci, Thomas; Prior, Thomas; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele; Sugarman, Elaine A.; Terry, Sharon F.; Urv, Tiina; Wang, Ching; Watson, Michael; Yaron, Yuval; Frosst, Phyllis; Howell, R. Rodney

    2014-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is the most common fatal hereditary disease among newborns and infants. There is as yet no effective treatment. Although a carrier test is available, currently there is disagreement among professional medical societies who proffer standards of care as to whether or not carrier screening for spinal muscular atrophy should be offered as part of routine reproductive care. This leaves health care providers without clear guidance. In fall 2009, a meeting was held by National Institutes of Health to examine the scientific basis for spinal muscular atrophy carrier screening and to consider the issues that accompany such screening. In this article, the meeting participants summarize the discussions and conclude that pan-ethnic carrier screening for spinal muscular atrophy is technically feasible and that the specific study of implementing a spinal muscular atrophy carrier screening program raises broader issues about determining the scope and specifics of carrier screening in general. PMID:20808230

  11. Morphology of a fossil elephant calf (Archidiskodon, Elephantidae) from the Oldowan Muhkai IIa site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashchenko, E N; Amirkhanov, Kh A; Ozherelyev, D V

    2015-11-01

    The skull and lower jaw morphology of a calf of Archidiskodon sp. from the Oldowan (Early Paleolithic) Muhkai IIa site (Akushinskii raion, Dagestan) is described. The Muhkai IIa site is dated more than 1.5 Ma. This is the first record of the skull and lower jaw of calf of this species from the northern Caucasus. A skull fragment and lower jaw with functioning teeth of the DP2/DP3 generation are preserved. The calf is at most 8-10 months of individual age. The finely plicate enamel and formation of a complete enamel loop on DP3 are evidence that the calf belongs to Archidiskodon rather than to the European Elephas lineage.

  12. Evaluation of techniques for assessing neonatal caribou calf mortality in the Porcupine Caribou Herd

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses the evaluation of techniques for assessing neonatal caribou calf mortality in the Porcupine caribou herd in Arctic National Wildlife Refuge....

  13. Continuous measurement of calf resistivity in hemodialysis patients using bioimpedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fansan; Leonard, Edward F; Carter, Mary; Levin, Nathan W

    2006-01-01

    This study demonstrates a technique to measure electrical resistivity of the calf in hemodialysis (HD) patients during HD treatment. To continuously monitor and calculate resistivity, a model of calf volume based on its geometrical size and measurement of its electrical resistance has been developed. The model makes it possible to continuously estimate reduction of the calf circumference during HD. Seventeen HD patients were studied during HD using a multi-frequency bioimpedance device (Xitron 4200). Circumference of the calf was measured by a measuring tape pre- and post- HD for each treatment. Results showed a high correlation between measurement and calculation circumference in post HD (r(2)=0.985). Further, the value of resistivity normalized by body mass index (BMI) provides information about patients' hydration state in comparison to those in healthy subjects. This technique is useful for identifying the range of optimal hydration states for HD patients.

  14. Use of foot orthoses and calf stretching for individuals with medial tibial stress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, Janice K; Dolphino, Martin R

    2010-02-01

    Use of orthotics and calf stretching may alleviate symptoms in runners with medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). The objective of this study was to determine which patients with MTSS have a positive response to off-the-shelf foot orthoses and calf stretching based on selected clinical tests to establish a clinical prediction rule. This prospective cohort/predictive validity study enrolled 23 women and men aged 22 to 44 years with symptoms of MTSS. Interventions included off-the-shelf basic foot orthotics and calf stretching. Fifteen of the 23 runners had a 50% reduction of pain in 3 weeks of intervention. Duration was a significant factor that differentiated groups. Although an initial treatment for runners with MTSS may include off-the-shelf orthotics and calf stretching, this regimen should be only one component of an individualized rehabilitation program.

  15. Calf stretching in correct alignment. An important consideration in plantar fasciopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvester, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Stretching of the calf muscles is important in the treatment of plantar fasciopathy. In order to correctly stretch the calf muscles without strain on the plantar fascia the correct alignment of the lower limb should be maintained. A clinical method of achieving this is presented along with a practical guide to assisting the patient to become familiar with correct lower limb alignment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. a note on tntensive weaner calf production fro]ii dairy cows

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tion. Naudd (1964) reported that out cf a total of 9l dairy herds investigated in the Republic of South Africa. only 3l e; of the herds suckled calves. ln 869oof the cases only one calf per cow was suckled. This differs conl- pletely from the practice in Britain where more than one calf per cow is raised in 90eo of the cases (Jobst.

  17. Calf health from birth to weaning. I. General aspects of disease prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Ingrid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calfhood diseases have a major impact on the economic viability of cattle operations. This is the first in a three part review series on calf health from birth to weaning, focusing on preventive measures. The review considers both pre- and periparturient management factors influencing calf health, colostrum management in beef and dairy calves and further nutrition and weaning in dairy calves.

  18. Acoustic Behavior of North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis) Mother-Calf Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Acoustic Behavior of North Atlantic Right Whale ...LONG-TERM GOALS The long-term goal of this project is to quantify the behavior of mother-calf pairs from the North Atlantic right whale ...The primary objectives of this project are to: 1) determine the visual detectability of right whale mother-calf pairs from surface observations

  19. EFFECTIVENESS OF PNF STRETCHING AND CYCLIC STRETCHING OF CALF TIGHTNESS ON COLLEGE GOING GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlesha Sirari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flexibility helps with injury prevention, the reduction of soreness following a workout, and a general sense of well-being. There are different stretching techniques and protocols for improvements in calf extensibility and flexibility. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of two techniques i.e. CYCLIC and PNF stretching which improves calf flexibility. This study was done to find the effectiveness of calf Cyclic and PNF stretching technique to improve calf flexibility. Methods: 30 subjects with age group 21-22 years were randomly allocated to 2 groups equally. Group 1(n=15 were given CYCLIC and group 2(n=15 were given PNF stretching technique. Plantar flexion was used to measure the calf tightness which was done before and after the treatment. Treatment was given for 7 days and on the 7th day the calf tightness was again measured. Results: The mean difference of the CYCLIC is 4.6 and mean difference of PNF is 4.7 which indicate that CYCLIC and PNF both are effective to improve calf flexibility but PNF is more effective than CYCLIC to improve calf flexibility. Conclusion: The neurophysiological basis of PNF, stating that the excitatory efficient of the neuromuscular spindle or the inhibitory afferent of the Golgi tendon organ (GTO or both are responsible for the effects. During PNF stretch and isometric contraction of stretched agonists for extended period may cause activation of its neuromuscular spindle. The increase in tension created during the isometric contraction of the pre – lengthened agonist contracts concentrically. Both the fascia & the spindle of the agonist adjust to the nearly lengthened position. These impulses travel via causing post synaptic inhibition of the motor neuron to agonist increasing the tension from the GTO. These impulses can override the impulses coming from the neuromuscular spindles arousing the muscle to reflexly resist to the change in length, thus helping in lengthening

  20. Metabolic adaptation of skeletal muscles to gravitational unloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Y.; Yasui, W.; Kariya, F.; Wakatsuki, T.; Nakamura, K.; Asakura, T.; Edgerton, V. R.

    Responses of high-energy phosphates and metabolic properties to hindlimb suspension were studied in adult rats. The relative content of phosphocreatine (PCr) in the calf muscles was significantly higher in rats suspended for 10 days than in age-matched cage controls. The Pi/PCr ratio, where Pi is inorganic phosphate, in suspended muscles was less than controls. The absolute weights of soleus and medial gastrocnemius (MG) were approximately 40% less than controls. Although the % fiber distribution in MG was unchanged, the % slow fibers decreased and the % fibers which were classified as both slow and fast was increased in soleus. The activities (per unit weight or protein) of succinate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase in soleus were unchanged but those of cytochrome oxidase, β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase, and citrate synthase were decreased following unloading. None of these enzyme activities in MG changed. However, the total levels of all enzymes in whole muscles decreased by suspension. It is suggested that shift of slow muscle toward fast type by unloading is associated with a decrease in mitochondrial biogenesis. Further, gravitational unloading affected the levels of muscle proteins differently even in the same mitochondrial enzymes. Unloading-related atrophy is prominent in red muscle or slow-twitch fiber 1, 2. Such atrophy is accompanied by a shift of contractile properties toward fast-twitch type 2-9. Further, inhibition of mitochondrial metabolism in these muscles is also reported by some studies 10-14 suggesting a lowered mitochondrial biogenesis, although results from some studies do not necessarily agree 1, 7, 15. However, the precise mechanism responsible for such alterations of muscle properties in response to gravitational unloading is unclear. On the contrary, mitochondrial biogenesis, suggested by mitochondrial enzyme activities and/or mass, is stimulated in muscles with depleted high-energy phosphates by cold exposure 16 and/or by feeding

  1. Little Smoky Woodland Caribou Calf Survival Enhancement Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirkby G. Smith

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Little Smoky woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus herd is a boreal ecotype located in west central Alberta, Canada. This herd has declined steadily over the past decade and is currently thought to number approximately 80 animals. Factors contributing to the herds' decline appear related to elevated predator-caused mortality rates resulting from industrial caused landscape change. At current rates of decline, the herd is at risk of extirpation. A calf survival enhancement project was initiated in the first half of 2006 as a means of enhancing recruitment while other longer-term approaches were implemented. A total of 10 pregnant females were captured in early March and held in captivity until all calves were at least 3 weeks old. Before release, calves were radiocollared with expandable drop-off collars. Following release, survival of mother and offspring were tracked at intervals until the fall rut. Survival of penned calves was compared to "wild-born" calves at heel of non captive radiocollared females. This approach is compared to other techniques designed to increase recruitment in caribou.

  2. Probing the binding mode of psoralen to calf thymus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoyue; Zhang, Guowen; Wang, Langhong

    2014-06-01

    The binding properties between psoralen (PSO) and calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) were predicted by molecular docking, and then determined with the use of UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, coupled with DNA melting and viscosity measurements. The data matrix obtained from UV-vis spectra was resolved by multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) approach. The pure spectra and the equilibrium concentration profiles for PSO, ctDNA and PSO-ctDNA complex extracted from the highly overlapping composite response were obtained simultaneously to evaluate the PSO-ctDNA interaction. The intercalation mode of PSO binding to ctDNA was supported by the results from the melting studies, viscosity measurements, iodide quenching and fluorescence polarization experiments, competitive binding investigations and CD analysis. The molecular docking prediction showed that the specific binding most likely occurred between PSO and adenine bases of ctDNA. FT-IR spectra studies further confirmed that PSO preferentially bound to adenine bases, and this binding decreased right-handed helicity of ctDNA and enhanced the degree of base stacking with the preservation of native B-conformation. The calculated thermodynamic parameters indicated that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces played a major role in the binding process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Maternal signature whistle use aids mother-calf reunions in a bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephanie L; Guarino, Emily; Keaton, Loriel; Erb, Linda; Jaakkola, Kelly

    2016-05-01

    Individual vocal signatures play an important role in parent-offspring recognition in many animals. One species that uses signature calls to accurately facilitate individual recognition is the bottlenose dolphin. Female dolphins and their calves will use their highly individualised signature whistles to identify and maintain contact with one another. Previous studies have shown high signature whistle rates of both mothers and calves during forced separations. In more natural settings, it appears that the calf vocalises more frequently to initiate reunions with its mother. However, little is known about the mechanisms a female dolphin may employ when there is strong motivation for her to reunite with her calf. In this study, we conducted a series of experimental trials in which we asked a female dolphin to retrieve either her wandering calf or a series of inanimate objects (control). Our results show that she used her vocal signature to actively recruit her calf, and produced no such signal when asked to retrieve the objects. This is the first study to clearly manipulate a dolphin's motivation to retrieve her calf with experimental controls. The results highlight that signature whistles are not only used in broadcasting individual identity, but that maternal signature whistle use is important in facilitating mother-calf reunions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Perosomus elumbis in a Holstein calf infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, E; Alpay, G; Yilmazbas-Mecitoglu, G; Alasonyalilar-Demirer, A; Akgül, B; Inan-Ozturkoglu, S; Ozyigit, M O; Seyrek-Intas, D; Seyrek-Intas, K; Yesilbag, K; Gumen, A; Keskin, A

    2013-01-01

    The detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a female Holstein calf presented with perosomus elumbis, a congenital anomaly, is reported here. A cow with dystocia was evaluated and an abnormal dead calf was detected during vaginal examination. The calf was retrieved via caesarean section and exhibited abnormalities characteristic of PE, such as vertebral and pelvic malformations. These abnormalities were further confirmed using radiographic and necropsy examinations. At necropsy cerebellar hypoplasia was an additional finding, which is a typical lesion associated with bovine virus diarrhea (BVD). Several tissue samples from the calf were tested for the presence of antigens of BVDV and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) by ELISA. In addition, sera samples from the dam and calf were tested for the presence of antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, and bluetongue disease virus (BTV) using a virus neutralization assay. Results indicated that the calf was congenitally infected with BVDV, whereas there was no evidence for the presence of BHV-1 and BTV. In the dam's serum no antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, and BTV were detected. Even though the etiology of perosomus elumbis is unknown, BVDV, which causes fetal anomalies at early gestation in cows, may have been a contributing factor in this case.

  5. Osteoprotegerin protects against muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, Sébastien S; Dumont, Nicolas A; Bouchard, Patrice; Lavergne, Éliane; Penninger, Josef M; Frenette, Jérôme

    2015-04-01

    Receptor-activator of NF-κB, its ligand RANKL, and the soluble decoy receptor osteoprotegerin are the key regulators of osteoclast differentiation and bone remodeling. Although there is a strong association between osteoporosis and skeletal muscle atrophy/dysfunction, the functional relevance of a particular biological pathway that synchronously regulates bone and skeletal muscle physiopathology still is elusive. Here, we show that muscle cells can produce and secrete osteoprotegerin and pharmacologic treatment of dystrophic mdx mice with recombinant osteoprotegerin muscles. (Recombinant osteoprotegerin-Fc mitigates the loss of muscle force in a dose-dependent manner and preserves muscle integrity, particularly in fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus.) Our data identify osteoprotegerin as a novel protector of muscle integrity, and it potentially represents a new therapeutic avenue for both muscular diseases and osteoporosis. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Myocardiopathy of progressive muscular dystrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, I C; Dumitriu, M; Nisipeanu, P; Cinteza, M

    1976-01-01

    The authors have effected a clinical, radiological, electrocardiographic and apexocardiographic survey in 13 patients with progressive muscular distrophy (PMD) and in 6 healthy subjects belonging to families affected by the disease, in parallel with a group of 11 patients with severe myasthenia and 23 healthy subjects. Comparing the results with those found in the literature lead to the following results: 1) The ECG modifications and above all the abnormalities of the ventricular complex develop precociously in the PMD and express the pleiotropism of the myopathic gene. 2) The myocardial dyssynergia represents a link in the physiopathological chain of the cardiac distress. 3) The precociousness of electro and apexocardiographic modifications and their presence in healthy parents recommend these investigations in the genetic enquiry. 4) Clinical, histological and haemodynamic data individualize the myocardial distress as a true myocardiopathy.

  7. Muscular body build and male sex are independently associated with malignant hyperthermia susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butala, Brian; Brandom, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) is a disorder of the regulation of calcium in skeletal muscle. Muscular individuals have been shown to have a 13.6-fold increased risk of death during malignant hyperthermia (MH) episodes and are more likely to experience a recurrence after initial treatment. Twenty-five percent of severe MH episodes have occurred in elite athletes. This study investigated the association between MHS and muscular body build. Data were obtained from existing reports in the North American Malignant Hyperthermia Registry, including the Report of Muscle Biopsy and Contracture Testing (caffeine-halothane contracture test [CHCT]) as well as Adverse Metabolic or Muscular Reaction to Anesthesia (AMRA) reports. Malignant hyperthermia susceptible individuals were compared with MH negative individuals with regard to body build and reason for testing. Males were also compared with females. Both the CHCT and the AMRA forms were reviewed for comments. Of the 1,292 individuals diagnosed with MHS by CHCT, males were more likely to be diagnosed with the disorder than females (odds ratio [OR], 2.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.99 to 2.7; P build (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.21 to 3.9; P = 0.01) were independently predictive of MHS. The interaction between muscular body build and male sex was not significant (P = 0.13). Indications for testing, MH episode vs family history of MH, did not differ between muscular and non-muscular individuals (P = 0.44). Eight of 839 AMRAs and two reports of CHCT had comments describing athletic abilities. Ryanodine receptor type 1 (RYR1) gene mutations were found in five of these athletes. Muscular body build and male sex are strongly associated with MHS.

  8. Duchenne muscular dystrophy: current cell therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, Dorota; Kulak, Wojciech; Okurowska-Zawada, Bożena; Paszko-Patej, Grażyna; Kawnik, Katarzyna

    2015-07-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a genetically determined X-linked disease and the most common, progressive pediatric muscle disorder. For decades, research has been conducted to find an effective therapy. This review presents current therapeutic methods for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, based on scientific articles in English published mainly in the period 2000 to 2014. We used the PubMed database to identify and review the most important studies. An analysis of contemporary studies of stem cell therapy and the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in muscular dystrophy was performed.

  9. Chondrocyte Morphology in Stiff and Soft Agarose Gels and the Influence of Fetal Calf Serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Asima; Hall, Andrew C

    2017-05-01

    Changes to chondrocyte volume/morphology may have deleterious effects on extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism potentially leading to cartilage deterioration and osteoarthritis (OA). The factors controlling chondrocyte properties are poorly understood, however, pericellular matrix (PCM) weakening may be involved. We have studied the density, volume, morphology, and clustering of cultured bovine articular chondrocytes within stiff (2% w/v) and soft (0.2% w/v) three-dimensional agarose gels. Gels with encapsulated chondrocytes were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM; fetal calf serum (FCS) 1-10%;380 mOsm) for up to 7 days. Chondrocytes were fluorescently labeled after 1, 3, and 7 days with 5-chloromethylfluorescein-diacetate (CMFDA) and propidium iodide (PI) or 1,5-bis{[2-(di-methylamino)ethyl]amino}-4,8-dihydroxyanthracene-9,10-dione (DRAQ5) to identify cytoplasmic space or DNA and imaged by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Chondrocyte density, volume, morphology, and clustering were quantified using Volocity™ software. In stiff gels after 7 d with 10% FCS, chondrocyte density remained unaffected and morphology was relatively normal with occasional cytoplasmic processes. However, in soft gels by day 1, chondrocyte volume increased (P = 0.0058) and by day 7, density increased (P = 0.0080), along with the percentage of chondrocytes of abnormal morphology (P gels. FCS exacerbated changes to density (P gel strength. Reduced gel stiffness and/or increased FCS concentrations promoted chondrocyte proliferation and clustering, increased cell volume, and stimulated abnormal morphology, producing similar changes to those occurring in OA. The increased penetration of factors in FCS into soft gels may be important in the development of these abnormal chondrocyte properties. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1041-1052, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy: an immunohistochemical diagnostic approach Distrofias musculares de cinturas: uma abordagem diagnóstica imuno-histoquímica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Alberto Comerlato

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The limb-girdle muscle dystrophy (LGMD represents a heterogeneous group of muscular diseases with dominant and recessive inheritance, individualized by gene mutation. A group of 56 patients, 32 males and 24 females, with suggestive LGMD diagnosis were submitted to clinical evaluation, serum muscle enzymes, electromyography, muscle biopsy, and the immunoidentification (ID of sarcoglycans (SG alpha, beta, gamma and delta, dysferlin and western blot for calpain-3. All the patients had normal ID for dystrophin (rod domain, carboxyl and amine terminal. The alpha-SG was normal in 42 patients, beta-SG in 28, beta-SG in 45, delta-SG in 32, dysferlin in 37 and calpain-3 in 9. There was a reduction in the alpha-SG in 7 patients, beta-SG in 4, gamma-SG in 2, and delta-SG in 8. There was deficiency of alpha-SG in 7 patients, beta-SG in 6, gamma-SG in 9, delta-SG in 5, dysferlin in 8, and calpain-3 in 5. The patients were grouped according the ID as sarcoglycans deficiency 18 cases, dysferlin deficiency 8 cases and calpain-3 deficiency 5 cases. Only the sarcoglycans deficiency group showed calf hypertrophy. The dysferlin deficiency group was more frequent in females and the onset was later than sarcoglycan and calpain-3 deficiency groups. The calpain-3 deficiency group occurred only in males and showed an earlier onset and weaker muscular strength.As distrofias musculares de cinturas (DMC representam grupo heterogêneo de doenças musculares com heranças autossômicas dominante ou recessivas, caracterizadas geneticamente por mutações gênicas específicas. Cinqüenta e seis pacientes, 32 masculinos e 24 femininos, com diagnóstico sugestivo de DMC, foram submetidos a avaliação clínica, dosagem séricas das enzimas musculares, eletromiografia, biópsia muscular e imunoidentificação (ID das proteínas sarcoglicanas (SG alfa, beta, gama e delta, disferlina e calpaína-3. A ID da distrofina (domínio rod e terminais carboxila e amino era normal em todos

  11. Visual laterality of calf-mother interactions in wild whales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Karenina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Behavioral laterality is known for a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Laterality in social interactions has been described for a wide range of species including humans. Although evidence and theoretical predictions indicate that in social species the degree of population level laterality is greater than in solitary ones, the origin of these unilateral biases is not fully understood. It is especially poorly studied in the wild animals. Little is known about the role, which laterality in social interactions plays in natural populations. A number of brain characteristics make cetaceans most suitable for investigation of lateralization in social contacts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Observations were made on wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas in the greatest breeding aggregation in the White Sea. Here we show that young calves (in 29 individually identified and in over a hundred of individually not recognized mother-calf pairs swim and rest significantly longer on a mother's right side. Further observations along with the data from other cetaceans indicate that found laterality is a result of the calves' preference to observe their mothers with the left eye, i.e., to analyze the information on a socially significant object in the right brain hemisphere. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Data from our and previous work on cetacean laterality suggest that basic brain lateralizations are expressed in the same way in cetaceans and other vertebrates. While the information on social partners and novel objects is analyzed in the right brain hemisphere, the control of feeding behavior is performed by the left brain hemisphere. Continuous unilateral visual contacts of calves to mothers with the left eye may influence social development of the young by activation of the contralateral (right brain hemisphere, indicating a possible mechanism on how behavioral lateralization may influence species life and welfare. This hypothesis is

  12. Young, Healthy Subjects Can Reduce the Activity of Calf Muscles When Provided with EMG Biofeedback in Upright Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Taian M.; Baudry, Stéphane; Botter, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests the minimization of muscular effort rather than of the size of bodily sway may be the primary, nervous system goal when regulating the human, standing posture. Different programs have been proposed for balance training; none however has been focused on the activation of postural muscles during standing. In this study we investigated the possibility of minimizing the activation of the calf muscles during standing through biofeedback. By providing subjects with an audio signal that varied in amplitude and frequency with the amplitude of surface electromyograms (EMG) recorded from different regions of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, we expected them to be able to minimize the level of muscle activation during standing without increasing the excursion of the center of pressure (CoP). CoP data and surface EMG from gastrocnemii, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles were obtained from 10 healthy participants while standing at ease and while standing with EMG biofeedback. Four sensitivities were used to test subjects' responsiveness to the EMG biofeedback. Compared with standing at ease, the two most sensitive feedback conditions induced a decrease in plantar flexor activity (~15%; P < 0.05) and an increase in tibialis anterior EMG (~10%; P < 0.05). Furthermore, CoP mean position significantly shifted backward (~30 mm). In contrast, the use of less sensitive EMG biofeedback resulted in a significant decrease in EMG activity of ankle plantar flexors with a marginal increase in TA activity compared with standing at ease. These changes were not accompanied by greater CoP displacements or significant changes in mean CoP position. Key results revealed subjects were able to keep standing stability while reducing the activity of gastrocnemius and soleus without loading their tibialis anterior muscle when standing with EMG biofeedback. These results may therefore posit the basis for the development of training protocols aimed at assisting subjects in

  13. Young, healthy subjects can reduce the activity of calf muscles when provided with EMG biofeedback in upright stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taian M. Vieira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests the minimisation of muscular effort rather than of the size of bodily sway may be the primary, nervous system goal when regulating the human, standing posture. Different programs have been proposed for balance training; none however has been focused on the activation of postural muscles during standing. In this study we investigated the possibility of minimising the activation of the calf muscles during standing through biofeedback. By providing subjects with an audio signal that varied in amplitude and frequency with the amplitude of surface electromyograms (EMG recorded from different regions of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, we expected them to be able to minimise the level of muscle activation during standing without increasing the excursion of the centre of pressure (CoP. CoP data and surface EMG from gastrocnemii, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles were obtained from ten healthy participants while standing at ease and while standing with EMG biofeedback. Four sensitivities were used to test subjects’ responsiveness to the EMG biofeedback. Compared with standing at ease, the two most sensitive feedback conditions induced a decrease in plantar flexor activity (~15%; P<0.05 and an increase in tibialis anterior EMG (~10%; P<0.05. Furthermore, CoP mean position significantly shifted backward (~30 mm. In contrast, the use of less sensitive EMG biofeedback resulted in a significant decrease in EMG activity of ankle plantar flexors with a marginal increase in TA activity compared with standing at ease. These changes were not accompanied by greater CoP displacements or significant changes in mean CoP position. Key results revealed subjects were able to keep standing stability while reducing the activity of gastrocnemius and soleus without loading their tibialis anterior muscle when standing with EMG biofeedback. These results may therefore posit the basis for the development of training protocols aimed at

  14. Dixon-based MRI for assessment of muscle-fat content in phantoms, healthy volunteers and patients with achillodynia: comparison to visual assessment of calf muscle quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Michael A; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Espinosa, Norman; Raptis, Dimitri A; Buck, Florian M

    2014-06-01

    To quantify the muscle fat-content (MFC) in phantoms, volunteers and patients with achillodynia using two-point Dixon-based magnetic resonance imaging (2pt-MRIDIXON) in comparison to MR spectroscopy (MRS) and visual assessment of MFC. Two-point Dixon-based MRI was used to measure the MFC of 15 phantoms containing 0-100 % fat-content and calf muscles in 30 patients (13 women; 57 ± 15 years) with achillodynia and in 20 volunteers (10 women; 30 ± 14 years) at 1.5 T. The accuracy of 2pt-MRIDIXON in quantification of MFC was assessed in vitro using phantoms and in vivo using MRS as the standard of reference. Fat-fractions derived from 2pt-MRIDIXON (FFDIXON) and MRS (FFMRS) were related to visual assessment of MFC (Goutallier grades 0-4) and Achilles-tendon quality (grade 0-4). Excellent linear correlation was demonstrated for FFDIXON with phantoms and with FFMRS in patients (p c = 0.997/0.995; p visual-grading showed no difference between both groups (p > 0.05). FFMRS and FFDIXON were significantly higher in subjects with (>grade 1) structural damage of the Achilles-tendon (p = 0.01). Two-point Dixon-based MRI allows for accurate quantification of MFC, outperforming visual assessment of calf muscle fat. Structural damage of the Achilles tendon is associated with a significantly higher MFC. Two-point Dixon-based MRI allows accurate quantification of muscular fat content (MFC). Quantitative analysis outperforms visual analysis in the detection of elevated MFC. Achillodynia results in an increased MFC of the gastrocnemius muscles. Structural damage of the Achilles tendon further increases the MFC.

  15. What Are the Treatments for Muscular Dystrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Preeclampsia and Eclampsia About NICHD Research Information Find a ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print What are the treatments for muscular dystrophy? No treatment is currently available ...

  16. Physical Therapy and Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy (FSHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical Therapy & FSHD Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy A Guide for Patients & Physical Therapists Authors: Wendy M. King, P.T., ... expertise and patient preferences. The goals of any physical therapy plan of care are to assist patients to:  ...

  17. Brain MRI Findings in Congenital Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings in 13 patients with congenital muscular dystrophy (MDCIC and Fukutin-related protein (FKRP gene mutations were retrospectively reviewed in a study at Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK, and European centers.

  18. Anoctamin 5 muscular dystrophy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, Nanna; Duno, Morten; Petri, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Since the initial description in 2010 of anoctamin 5 deficiency as a cause of muscular dystrophy, a handful of papers have described this disease in cases of mixed populations. We report the first large regional study and present data on new aspects of prevalence, muscular and cardiac phenotypic...... characteristics, and muscle protein expression. All patients in our neuromuscular unit with genetically unclassified, recessive limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2), Miyoshi-type distal myopathy (MMD) or persistent asymptomatic hyperCK-emia (PACK) were assessed for mutations in the ANO5 gene. Genetically...... confirmed patients were evaluated with muscular and cardiopulmonary examination. Among 40 unclassified patients (28 LGMD2, 5 MMD, 7 PACK), 20 were homozygous or compound heterozygous for ANO5 mutations, (13 LGMD2, 5 MMD, 2 PACK). Prevalence of ANO5 deficiency in Denmark was estimated at 1:100.000 and ANO5...

  19. Dairy calf management-A comparison of practices and producer attitudes among conventional and organic herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pempek, J A; Schuenemann, G M; Holder, E; Habing, G G

    2017-10-01

    Dairy calves are at high risk for morbidity and mortality early in life. Understanding producer attitudes is important for implementation of best management practices to improve calf health. The objectives of this study were to evaluate usage frequency and producer attitudes on key calf management practices between conventional and organic dairy operations. A cross-sectional survey was mailed to conventional and organic dairy producers in Ohio and Michigan that included questions on cow-calf separation, colostrum management, and vaccination use. The overall survey response rate was 49% (727/1,488); 449 and 172 conventional and organic producer respondents, respectively, were included in the final analysis. Binary, cumulative, and multinomial logistic regression models were used to test differences within and between herd types for management practices and producer attitudes. The majority of conventional (64%, 279/439) producers reported separating the calf from the dam 30 min to 6 h after birth. More organic (34%, 56/166) than conventional (18%, 80/439) producers reported separation 6 to 12 h after birth, and organic producers were more likely to agree time before separation is beneficial. Few conventional (10%, 44/448) and organic (3%, 5/171) producers reported measuring colostrum quality. Most conventional producers (68%, 304/448) hand-fed the first feeding of colostrum, whereas the majority of organic producers (38%, 69/171) allowed calves to nurse colostrum. Last, 44% (188/430) of conventional producers reported vaccinating their calves for respiratory disease, compared with 14% (22/162) of organic producers; organic producers were more likely to perceive vaccines as ineffective and harmful to calf health. Thus, the usage frequency and perceived risks and benefits of calf management practices vary considerably between conventional and organic dairy producers. These findings provide helpful information to understand decision making at the herd level regarding

  20. [Spinal muscular atrophies in the adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camu, W

    2004-02-01

    Spinal muscular atrophies are heterogeneous group. The diagnostic process should be careful to uncover the main differential diagnoses and to identify familial cases. Clinical phenotype is highly variable. In familial ALS cases with SOD1 mutation, the clinical scene may mimic spinal muscular atrophy. A careful questionning and a complete electroneuromyographic exam are warranted to allow the neurologist to choose among more invasive investigations for differential and positive diagnosis such as MRI, nerve or muscle biopsy, genetic analysis.

  1. Duchenne muscular dystrophy: current cell therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Sienkiewicz, Dorota; Kulak, Wojciech; Okurowska-Zawada, Bożena; Paszko-Patej, Grażyna; Kawnik, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a genetically determined X-linked disease and the most common, progressive pediatric muscle disorder. For decades, research has been conducted to find an effective therapy. This review presents current therapeutic methods for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, based on scientific articles in English published mainly in the period 2000 to 2014. We used the PubMed database to identify and review the most important studies. An analysis of contemporary studies of stem cel...

  2. Duchenne muscular dystrophy: the management of scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, James E; Gardner, Adrian C; Roper, Helen P; Chikermane, Ashish A; Tatman, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    This study summaries the current management of scoliosis in patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. A literature review of Medline was performed and the collected articles critically appraised. This literature is discussed to give an overview of the current management of scoliosis within Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Importantly, improvements in respiratory care, the use of steroids and improving surgical techniques have allowed patients to maintain quality of life and improved life expectancy in this patient group.

  3. Nutrition Considerations in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jillian; Samuels, Emily; Mullins, Lucille

    2015-08-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a serious degenerative muscular disease affecting males. Diagnosis usually occurs in childhood and is confirmed through genetic testing and/or muscle biopsy. Accompanying the disease are several nutrition-related concerns: growth, body composition, energy and protein requirements, constipation, swallowing difficulties, bone health, and complementary medicine. This review article addresses the nutrition aspects of DMD. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  4. Effect of two complex training protocols of back squats in blood indicators of muscular damage in military athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Álvaro Huerta; Ríos, Luis Chirosa; Barrilao, Rafael Guisado; Ríos, Ignacio Chirosa; Serrano, Pablo Cáceres

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the variations in the blood muscular damage indicators post application of two complex training programs for back squats. [Subjects and Methods] Seven military athletes were the subjects of this study. The study had a quasi-experimental cross-over intra-subject design. Two complex training protocols were applied, and the variables to be measured were cortisol, metabolic creatine kinase, and total creatine kinase. For the statistical analysis, Student's t-test was used. [Results] Twenty-four hours post effort, a significant decrease in cortisol level was shown for both protocols; however, the metabolic creatine kinase and total creatine kinase levels showed a significant increase. [Conclusion] Both protocols lowered the indicator of main muscular damage in the blood supply (cortisol). This proved that the work weight did not generate significant muscular damage in the 24-hour post-exercise period.

  5. Calf Muscle Performance Deficits Remain 7 Years After an Achilles Tendon Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brorsson, Annelie; Grävare Silbernagel, Karin; Olsson, Nicklas; Nilsson Helander, Katarina

    2017-10-01

    Optimizing calf muscle performance seems to play an important role in minimizing impairments and symptoms after an Achilles tendon rupture (ATR). The literature lacks long-term follow-up studies after ATR that describe calf muscle performance over time. The primary aim was to evaluate calf muscle performance and patient-reported outcomes at a mean of 7 years after ATR in patients included in a prospective, randomized controlled trial. A secondary aim was to evaluate whether improvement in calf muscle performance continued after the 2-year follow-up. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Sixty-six subjects (13 women, 53 men) with a mean age of 50 years (SD, 8.5 years) were evaluated at a mean of 7 years (SD, 1 year) years after their ATR. Thirty-four subjects had surgical treatment and 32 had nonsurgical treatment. Patient-reported outcomes were evaluated with Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) and Physical Activity Scale (PAS). Calf muscle performance was evaluated with single-leg standing heel-rise test, concentric strength power heel-rise test, and single-legged hop for distance. Limb Symmetry Index (LSI = injured side/healthy side × 100) was calculated for side-to-side differences. Seven years after ATR, the injured side showed decreased values in all calf muscle performance tests ( P performance did not continue after the 2-year follow-up. Heel-rise height increased significantly ( P = .002) between the 1-year (10.8 cm) and the 7-year (11.5 cm) follow-up assessments. The median ATRS was 96 (of a possible score of 100) and the median PAS was 4 (of a possible score of 6), indicating minor patient-reported symptoms and fairly high physical activity. No significant differences were found in calf muscle performance or patient-reported outcomes between the treatment groups except for the LSI for heel-rise repetitions. Continued deficits in calf muscle endurance and strength remained 7 years after ATR. No continued improvement in calf muscle performance

  6. [Calf circumference and its association with gait speed in elderly participants at Peruvian Naval Medical Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Villegas, Gregory Mishell; Runzer Colmenares, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association between calf circumference and gait speed in elderly patients 65 years or older at Geriatric day clinic at Peruvian Centro Médico Naval. Cross-sectional, retrospective study. We assessed 139 participants, 65 years or older at Peruvian Centro Médico Naval including calf circumference, gait speed and Short Physical Performance Battery. With bivariate analyses and logistic regression model we search for association between variables. The age mean was 79.37 years old (SD: 8.71). 59.71% were male, the 30.97% had a slow walking speed and the mean calf circumference was 33.42cm (SD: 5.61). After a bivariate analysis, we found a calf circumference mean of 30.35cm (SD: 3.74) in the slow speed group and, in normal gait group, a mean of 33.51cm (SD: 3.26) with significantly differences. We used logistic regression to analyze association with slow gait speed, founding statistically significant results adjusting model by disability and age. Low calf circumference is associated with slow speed walk in population over 65 years old. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  7. No change in calf muscle passive stiffness after botulinum toxin injection in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhusaini, Adel A A; Crosbie, Jack; Shepherd, Roberta B; Dean, Catherine M; Scheinberg, Adam

    2011-06-01

    Stiffness and shortening of the calf muscle due to neural or mechanical factors can profoundly affect motor function. The aim of this study was to investigate non-neurally mediated calf-muscle tightness in children with cerebral palsy (CP) before and after botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injection. Sixteen children with spastic CP (seven females, nine males; eight at Gross Motor Function Classification System level I, eight at level II; age range 4-10 y) and calf muscle spasticity were tested before and during the pharmaceutically active phase after injection of BoNT-A. Measures of passive muscle compliance and viscoelastic responses, hysteresis, and the gradient of the torque-angle curve were computed and compared before and after injection. Although there was a slight, but significant increase in ankle range of motion after BoNT-A injection and a small, significant decrease in the torque required to achieve plantigrade and 5° of dorsiflexion, no significant difference in myotendinous stiffness or hysteresis were detected after BoNT-A injection. Despite any effect on neurally mediated responses, the compliance of the calf muscle was not changed and the muscle continued to offer significant resistance to passive motion of the ankle. These findings suggest that additional treatment approaches are required to supplement the effects of BoNT-A injections when managing children with calf muscle spasticity. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2011 Mac Keith Press.

  8. Deletion of exon 26 of the dystrophin gene is associated with a mild Becker muscular dystrophy phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, Nanna; Duno, Morten; Vissing, John

    2011-01-01

    With the possible introduction of exon skipping therapy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, it has become increasingly important to know the role of each exon of the dystrophin gene to protein expression, and thus the phenotype. In this report, we present two related men with an unusually mild BMD...... calf hypertrophy was noted. Creatine kinase was normal or raised maximally to 500 U/l. The muscle biopsy was myopathic with increased fiber size variation and many internal nuclei, but no dystrophy. No comorbidity was found. In both cases, western blot showed a reduced dystrophin band. Genetic...... evaluation revealed a deletion of exon 26 of the dystrophin gene in both. This is the first description of patients with a exon 26 deletion of the dystrophin gene. Assuming the proband's comorbidity is unrelated, exon 26 deletion results in a very mild phenotype. This might be of interest in planning exon...

  9. Deletion of exon 26 of the dystrophin gene is associated with a mild Becker muscular dystrophy phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, Nanna; Duno, Morten; Vissing, John

    2011-01-01

    calf hypertrophy was noted. Creatine kinase was normal or raised maximally to 500 U/l. The muscle biopsy was myopathic with increased fiber size variation and many internal nuclei, but no dystrophy. No comorbidity was found. In both cases, western blot showed a reduced dystrophin band. Genetic......With the possible introduction of exon skipping therapy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, it has become increasingly important to know the role of each exon of the dystrophin gene to protein expression, and thus the phenotype. In this report, we present two related men with an unusually mild BMD...... associated with an exon 26 deletion. The proband, a 23-year-old man, had slightly delayed motor milestones, walking 1 1/2 years old. He had no complaints of muscle weakness, but had muscle pain. Clinical examination revealed no muscle wasting or loss of power, but his CK was 1500-7000 U/l. Muscle biopsy...

  10. A rare cause of calf swelling: the Morel–Lavallee lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, C. G.; Kavanagh, E. C.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Calf swelling is a common clinical presentation with a wide and varied differential diagnosis. The Morel–Lavallee is a rare cause of subcutaneous swelling, caused by post-traumatic shearing of the hypodermis from the underlying fascia. The potential space so created fills with blood, lymph and necrotic fat giving specific findings on MR evaluation. Materials and methods A case of a 53-year-old man with calf swelling is presented, with clinical and MRI correlation. Treatment options and clinical course are discussed. Conclusion The Morel–Lavallee lesion is a rare but important cause of calf swelling. MRI is the mainstay of diagnosis and treatment includes both surgical and minimally invasive modalities. PMID:19618237

  11. Reactive hyperaemia in the calf of trained and untrained subjects: a study with strain gauge plethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroese, A J

    1977-04-01

    Postischaemic reactive hyperaemia in the calf was investigated by strain gauge plethysmography in three pairs of trained and untrained groups of different ages. Maximal flow and repayment in the trained adults were greater than in corresponding untrained groups. This may be due to training effect on the arterioles and a relatively great muscle volume and vascular bed in athletes. The 58-year-old trained men revealed a postischaemic hyperaemic response of approximately the same magnitude as the 25-year-old athletes. Training in old age may result in less degeneration of vascular smooth muscle as well as striated muscle and may induced a relatively great cardiac stroke volume, factors which probably influence reactive hyperaemia in the calf. Hyperaemia in 13-year-old children of different conditions of training was approximwtely the same. It is concluded that the influence of training state on postischaemic calf flow may be considered when reactive hyperaemia is used as a test of the peripheral circulation.

  12. Genetic and Early Clinical Manifestations of Females Heterozygous for Duchenne/Becker Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Riccardo; Madia, Francesca; Bartolomeo, Domenico; Trucco, Federica; Pedemonte, Marina; Traverso, Monica; Broda, Paolo; Bruno, Claudio; Zara, Federico; Minetti, Carlo; Fiorillo, Chiara

    2016-02-01

    Female carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), although usually asymptomatic, develop muscle weakness up to 17% of the time, and a third present cardiac abnormalities or cognitive impairment. Clinical features of DMD carriers during childhood are poorly known. We describe a cohort of pediatric DMD carriers, providing clinical, genetic, and histopathologic features, with a mean follow-up of 7 years. Fifteen females with a DMD mutation (age range 5 to 18 years) were included. Seven patients (46%) presented with clinically evident symptoms and signs such as limb girdle weakness, abnormal gait, and exercise intolerance. The other eight patients (53%) were evaluated because of an incidental finding of elevated level of creatine kinase. Creatine kinase level was elevated in all, ranging from 392 to 13,000 U/L. Calf hypertrophy was observed in eight patients (53%). No patient developed respiratory or cardiac involvement. The most frequent complication was scoliosis (46%). Four patients (29%) also presented minor learning disabilities or behavioral problems. We performed electromyography in half of patients, showing myopathic pattern in four (53%). Muscle biopsy revealed a mosaic reduction of dystrophin in nine available cases. DMD gene mutations were mostly deletions (71%), resulting in loss of reading frame in five patients (36%). The three patients who experienced the most severe disease course were affected either by a nonsense or frameshift mutation. Our analysis suggests that DMD gene mutations may be suspected in a female child with persistently elevated levels of creatine kinase. Evidence of scoliosis, calf hypertrophy, or myopathic pattern at electromyography may also be helpful, and muscle biopsy is always indicative. DMD carriers should be followed for subtle orthopedic and psychiatric complications during childhood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Woodland caribou calf recruitment in relation to calving/post-calving landscape composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C. McCarthy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, Newfoundland’s woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou population has declined by an estimated 66%. Low calf recruitment has been associated to the decline, possibly triggered by increasing calf predation and/or decreasing resources. To investigate the role of landscape composition in this system, we studied the yearly (2005-2008 calving/post-calving range (CPCR of 104 satellite-collared females belonging to six herds. We mapped nine disturbance factors (e.g. roads, logging, etc, as well as vegetation cover types (e.g. coniferous, deciduous forests, etc, and determined the total area they occupied within CPCRs yearly for each herd. Using an information theoretic approach, we assessed the model that best explained variation in recruitment using these components. Based on corrected Akaike Information Criterion, the model that best explained variation in calf recruitment included total disturbance and deciduous forest area, both showing the expected negative relationship with calf recruitment. Other landscape variables among the models with ΔAICc < 2 were mixed forest, also with a suggested negative relationship, and barrens and wetlands with a significant positive trend. This study highlights the need to minimize total disturbance footprint and account for resulting changes in forest composition within CPCRs during land use planning. Expanding forestry operations and road infrastructure in critical woodland caribou habitat across Canada may additionally contribute to habitat loss via fragmentation. This in turn, may lead to range recession beyond the initial local avoidance footprint. We see the possibility of using calf recruitment models based on landscape parameters, among others, to predict the impact of new industrial developments on calf recruitment.

  14. Slow volume changes in calf and thigh during cycle ergometer exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stick, C; Heinemann, W; Witzleb, E

    1990-01-01

    To study the transcapillary fluid movements in the human lower limb in the upright body position and during muscle exercise, the slow changes in thigh and calf volumes were measured by mercury-in-rubber-strain gauge plethysmography. Measurements were carried out on 20 healthy volunteers while sitting, standing and doing cycle ergometer exercise at intensities of 50 and 100-W. A plethysmographic recording of slow extravascular volume changes during muscle exercise was possible because movement artefacts were eliminated by low-pass filtering. While standing and sitting the volumes of both thigh and calf increased due to enhanced transcapillary filtration. While standing the mean rate of increase was 0.13%.min-1 in the calf and 0.09%.min-1 in the thigh. During cycle ergometer exercise at 50 and 100 W, the calf volume decreased with a mean rate of -0.09.min-1. In contrast, the thigh volume did not change significantly during exercise at 50 W and increased at 100 W. Most of the increase occurred during the first half of the experimental period i.e. between min 2 and 12, amounting to +0.6%. Thus, simultaneous measurements revealed opposite changes in the thigh and calf. This demonstrates that the conflicting findings reported in the literature may have occurred because opposite changes can occur in different muscle groups of the working limb at the same time. Lowered venous pressure, increased lymph flow and increased tissue pressure in the contracting muscle are considered to have caused the reduction in calf volume during exercise.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Causes and correlates of calf mortality in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khyne U Mar

    Full Text Available Juvenile mortality is a key factor influencing population growth rate in density-independent, predation-free, well-managed captive populations. Currently at least a quarter of all Asian elephants live in captivity, but both the wild and captive populations are unsustainable with the present fertility and calf mortality rates. Despite the need for detailed data on calf mortality to manage effectively populations and to minimize the need for capture from the wild, very little is known of the causes and correlates of calf mortality in Asian elephants. Here we use the world's largest multigenerational demographic dataset on a semi-captive population of Asian elephants compiled from timber camps in Myanmar to investigate the survival of calves (n = 1020 to age five born to captive-born mothers (n = 391 between 1960 and 1999. Mortality risk varied significantly across different ages and was higher for males at any age. Maternal reproductive history was associated with large differences in both stillbirth and liveborn mortality risk: first-time mothers had a higher risk of calf loss as did mothers producing another calf soon (<3.7 years after a previous birth, and when giving birth at older age. Stillbirth (4% and pre-weaning mortality (25.6% were considerably lower than those reported for zoo elephants and used in published population viability analyses. A large proportion of deaths were caused by accidents and lack of maternal milk/calf weakness which both might be partly preventable by supplementary feeding of mothers and calves and work reduction of high-risk mothers. Our results on Myanmar timber elephants with an extensive keeping system provide an important comparison to compromised survivorship reported in zoo elephants. They have implications for improving captive working elephant management systems in range countries and for refining population viability analyses with realistic parameter values in order to predict future population

  16. Effect of Lumbar Progressive Resistance Exercise on Lumbar Muscular Strength and Core Muscular Endurance in Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, John M; Childs, John D; Neilson, Brett D; Chen, Henian; Koppenhaver, Shane L; Quillen, William S

    2016-11-01

    Low back pain is common, costly, and disabling for active duty military personnel and veterans. The evidence is unclear on which management approaches are most effective. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of lumbar extensor high-intensity progressive resistance exercise (HIPRE) training versus control on improving lumbar extension muscular strength and core muscular endurance in soldiers. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with active duty U.S. Army Soldiers (n = 582) in combat medic training at Fort Sam Houston, Texas. Soldiers were randomized by platoon to receive the experimental intervention (lumbar extensor HIPRE training, n = 298) or control intervention (core stabilization exercise training, n = 284) at one set, one time per week, for 11 weeks. Lumbar extension muscular strength and core muscular endurance were assessed before and after the intervention period. At 11-week follow-up, lumbar extension muscular strength was 9.7% greater (p = 0.001) for HIPRE compared with control. No improvements in core muscular endurance were observed for HIPRE or control. Lumbar extensor HIPRE training is effective to improve isometric lumbar extension muscular strength in U.S. Army Soldiers. Research is needed to explore the clinical relevance of these gains. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  17. Spinal Muscular Atrophy: A Short Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Ashrafzadeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a genetic disorder which affect nervous system and is characterized with progressive distal motor neuron weakness. The survival motor neuron (SMN protein level reduces in patients with SMA. Two different genes code survival motor neuron protein in human genome. Skeletal and intercostal muscles denervation lead to weakness, hypotony, hyporeflexia, respiratory failure, symmetric muscle atrophy and paralysis in patients with SMA. Manifestations are prominent in proximal muscle of lower extremities. There is no curative treatment for spinal muscular atrophy, and supportive treatment should be considered to improve patients’ quality of life and independency. New treatment strategies focus on gene therapy or invent method to increase survival motor neuron protein level. The aim of this study is to review Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA clinical and molecular manifestations.

  18. Mitochondrial disorders in progressive muscular dystrophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Kharlamov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature review gives data on the role of mitochondrial disorders in the pathogenesis of different progressive muscular dystrophies. It describes changes in Duchenne, limb-girdle, facial scapulohumeral (Landuzi—Degerina muscular dystrophies. The review is based on both clinical and experimental animal studies. Along with the implication of mitochondria in the pathogenesis of the diseases, it describes muscular dystrophy treatment options compensating for energy disorders and overcoming oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial studies in different muscle diseases hand physicians treatment modalities that fail to lead to recovery, but compensate for disorders caused by mutations in the genetic apparatus. 

  19. Circulating Biomarkers for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Spitali, Pietro

    2015-07-22

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most common form of muscular dystrophy. Genetic and biochemical research over the years has characterized the cause, pathophysiology and development of the disease providing several potential therapeutic targets and/or biomarkers. High throughput - omic technologies have provided a comprehensive understanding of the changes occurring in dystrophic muscles. Murine and canine animal models have been a valuable source to profile muscles and body fluids, thus providing candidate biomarkers that can be evaluated in patients. This review will illustrate known circulating biomarkers that could track disease progression and response to therapy in patients affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We present an overview of the transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomics and lipidomic biomarkers described in literature. We show how studies in muscle tissue have led to the identification of serum and urine biomarkers and we highlight the importance of evaluating biomarkers as possible surrogate endpoints to facilitate regulatory processes for new medicinal products.

  20. Local and Systemic Changes in Pain Sensitivity After 4 Weeks of Calf Muscle Stretching in a Nonpainful Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Cecilie; Zangger, Graziella; Hansen, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    a week for 4 weeks on the dominant leg. Participants in the control group were instructed not to do any stretching for 4 weeks. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) and temporal summation (TS) of pressure pain were measured on the stretched calf, the contra-lateral calf, and contra-lateral lower arm using...... a computerized cuff algometer. Analyses of variance on the per-protocol population (defined as participants that adhered to the protocol) were used to assess group differences in the changes from baseline. RESULT: Forty healthy volunteers were included, of which 34 participants adhered to the protocol (15...... intervention group/19 control group). No statistically significant group differences in the changes from baseline were found regarding PPT and TS measurements for the stretched calf, the contra-lateral calf, and the arm. CONCLUSION: Four weeks of regular stretching of the calf muscles does not affect pressure...

  1. Metabogenic and Nutriceutical Approaches to Address Energy Dysregulation and Skeletal Muscle Wasting in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybalka, Emma; Timpani, Cara A; Stathis, Christos G; Hayes, Alan; Cooke, Matthew B

    2015-11-26

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal genetic muscle wasting disease with no current cure. A prominent, yet poorly treated feature of dystrophic muscle is the dysregulation of energy homeostasis which may be associated with intrinsic defects in key energy systems and promote muscle wasting. As such, supplementative nutriceuticals that target and augment the bioenergetical expansion of the metabolic pathways involved in cellular energy production have been widely investigated for their therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of DMD. We describe the metabolic nuances of dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle and review the potential of various metabogenic and nutriceutical compounds to ameliorate the pathological and clinical progression of the disease.

  2. Metabogenic and Nutriceutical Approaches to Address Energy Dysregulation and Skeletal Muscle Wasting in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Rybalka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD is a fatal genetic muscle wasting disease with no current cure. A prominent, yet poorly treated feature of dystrophic muscle is the dysregulation of energy homeostasis which may be associated with intrinsic defects in key energy systems and promote muscle wasting. As such, supplementative nutriceuticals that target and augment the bioenergetical expansion of the metabolic pathways involved in cellular energy production have been widely investigated for their therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of DMD. We describe the metabolic nuances of dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle and review the potential of various metabogenic and nutriceutical compounds to ameliorate the pathological and clinical progression of the disease.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... myoclonic epilepsy Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... boxes. Description Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (SMA-PME) is a neurological condition that causes ...

  4. Vibration-related extrusion of capillary blood from the calf musculature depends upon directions of vibration of the leg and of the gravity vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakar, Halil Ibrahim; Doğan, Serfiraz; Kara, Sadık; Rittweger, Jörn; Rawer, Rainer; Zange, Jochen

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of vibration of the whole lower leg on the content and the oxygenation of hemoglobin in the unloaded relaxed lateral gastrocnemius muscle. Vibration was applied orthogonal to and in parallel with leg axis to examine whether the extrusion of blood depends on an alignment of main vessel direction, axis of vibration and gravity. The blood volume in the muscles was altered by horizontal and 30° upright body posture. Fifteen male subjects were exposed to 4 sets of experiments with both vibration directions and both tilt angles applied in permutated order. The absence of voluntary muscular activity and the potential occurrence of compound action potentials by stretch reflexes were monitored using electromyography. Total hemoglobin and tissue saturation index were measured with near infrared spectroscopy. Changes of lower leg circumference were measured with strain gauge system placed around the calf. Vibration caused decrease in tHb and increase in TSI indicating extrusion of predominantly venous blood from the muscle. In 30° tilted position, muscles contained more blood at baseline and vibration ejected more blood from the muscle compared with horizontal posture (p vibration was applied in parallel with the length axis of muscle. It is concluded that the vibration extrudes more blood in 30° head up posture and the vibration applied in parallel with the length axis of the muscle is more effective than orthogonal vibration.

  5. Lesiones musculares en el mundo del deporte. [Muscular injuries in the world of the sport

    OpenAIRE

    María Ángeles Cardero Durán

    2009-01-01

    Resumen En el mundo del deporte y no solo en este, sino en toda la práctica de una actividad física, son muy frecuentes las lesiones musculares. Hay muchos tipos de lesiones musculares de los que hablaremos más adelante, como pueden ser desgarros musculares, calambres, contracturas etc., que tienen mayor incidencia en la musculatura poli-articular, por condiciones de acumulación de fatiga, trabajo no realizado correctamente, o condiciones ambientales desfavorables. Es importante el dia...

  6. On-farm mortality, causes and risk factors in Estonian beef cow-calf herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõtus, Kerli; Reimus, Kaari; Orro, Toomas; Viltrop, Arvo; Emanuelson, Ulf

    2017-04-01

    High on-farm mortality is associated with lower financial return of production and poor animal health and welfare. Understanding the reasons for on-farm mortality and related risk factors allows focus on specific prevention measures. This retrospective cohort study used cattle registry data from the years 2013 and 2014, collected from cattle from all Estonian cow-calf beef herds. The dataset contained 78,605 animal records from 1321 farms in total. Including unassisted deaths and euthanasia (2199 in total) the on-farm mortality rate was 2.14 per 100 animal-years. Across all age groups of both sexes the mortality rate (MR) was highest for bull calves up to three months old (MR=7.78 per 100 animal-years, 95% CI 6.97; 8.68) followed by that for heifer calves (MR=6.21 per 100 animal-years, 95% CI 5.49; 7.02). For female cattle the mortality risk declined after three months of age but increased again among animals over 18 months. The reason for death stated by the farmers was analysed for cattle under animal performance testing. Other/unknown reasons, trauma and accidents, as well as metabolic and digestive disorders, formed the three most commonly reported reasons for death in cattle of all age groups. Weibull proportional hazard models with farm frailty effects were applied in three age categories (calves up to three months, youngstock from three to 18 months and cattle aged over 18 months) to identify factors associated with the risk of mortality. Male sex was associated with increased risk of mortality in cattle up to 18 months of age. No difference between breeds was found for cattle up to 18 months of age. Beef cattle breeds rarely represented or dairy breeds (breed category 'Other') had the highest mortality hazard (HR=1.41, 95% CI 1.11; 1.78) compared to Hereford. The hazard of mortality generally increased with herd size for calves, young stock and older bulls. In female cattle over 18 months of age there was no difference in mortality hazard over herd size

  7. Some Studies On Neonatal Calf Diarrhea In Egypt Part 1: Causative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data confirms the principal causal agent in neonatal calf diarrhoea in Egypt as Escherichia coli, Rotavirus, Corona virus, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella spp and Cryptosporidium spp as a single or mixed infection by the isolated agents. In addition, diet, management and sanitation are also significant contributory ...

  8. A rare cause of calf swelling: the Morel-Lavallee lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moriarty, J M

    2011-03-01

    Calf swelling is a common clinical presentation with a wide and varied differential diagnosis. The Morel-Lavallee is a rare cause of subcutaneous swelling, caused by post-traumatic shearing of the hypodermis from the underlying fascia. The potential space so created fills with blood, lymph and necrotic fat giving specific findings on MR evaluation.

  9. The effect of exercise intensity on calf volume and thermoregulatory responses during upper body exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botoms Lindzi M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During upper body exercise the vascular adaptations of the leg have been reported to play an important thermoregulatory role. This study examined the effect of exercise intensity on thermoregulation during upper body exercise. Nine healthy male participants undertook an incremental exercise test on an arm crank ergo meter to determine peak power (Wpeak. The participants performed four experimental trials involving 5 minutes of arm exercise at either 45, 60, 75, or 90% Wpeak (70 rev.min-1 followed by 30 minutes of passive recovery. Aural and skin temperatures, upper arm and calf heat flow were recorded. Calf volume was measured during exercise using plethysmography. During exercise at 45, 60, 75 and 90% Wpeak calf volume decreased (P<0.05 by -0.7±0.8, -1.4±0.9, -1.2±0.6 and -1.6±0.7% respectively. Differences were observed between 45 and 60% Wpeak, and 45 and 90% Wpeak (P<0.05. The results of this study suggest a redistribution of blood from the relatively inactive lower body during arm exercise of intensities up to 60%Wpeak after which point calf volume does not significantly decrease further. Therefore, the redistribution of blood from the inactive lower body does not produce a similar intensity dependent response to visceral blood flow during lower body exercise.

  10. Gastrocnemius vs. soleus strain: how to differentiate and deal with calf muscle injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan Dixon, J

    2009-06-01

    Calf strains are common injuries seen in primary care and sports medicine clinics. Differentiating strains of the gastrocnemius or soleus is important for treatment and prognosis. Simple clinical testing can assist in diagnosis and is aided by knowledge of the anatomy and common clinical presentation.

  11. Calf exercise-induced vasodilation is blunted in healthy older adults with increased walking performance fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Joaquin U; Defferari, Elizabeth; Fisher, Amy; Shephard, Jordan; Proctor, David N

    2014-09-01

    Vascular aging as measured by central arterial stiffness contributes to slow walking speed in older adults, but the impact of age-related changes in peripheral vascular function on walking performance is unclear. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that calf muscle-specific vasodilator responses are associated with walking performance fatigue in healthy older adults. Forty-five older (60-78yrs) adults performed a fast-paced 400m walk test. Twelve of these adults exhibited fatigue as defined by slowing of walking speed (≥0.02m/s) measured during the first and last 100m segments of the 400m test. Peak calf vascular conductance was measured following 10min of arterial occlusion using strain-gauge plethysmography. Superficial femoral artery (SFA) vascular conductance response to graded plantar-flexion exercise was measured using Doppler ultrasound. No difference was found for peak calf vascular conductance between adults that slowed walking speed and those that maintained walking speed (p>0.05); however, older adults that slowed walking speed had a lower SFA vascular conductance response to calf exercise (at highest workload: slowed group, 2.4±0.9 vs. maintained group, 3.6±0.9ml/kg/min/mmHg; pcalf exercise hemodynamics are associated with walking performance fatigability in older adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gastrocnemius vs. soleus strain: how to differentiate and deal with calf muscle injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan Dixon, J.

    2009-01-01

    Calf strains are common injuries seen in primary care and sports medicine clinics. Differentiating strains of the gastrocnemius or soleus is important for treatment and prognosis. Simple clinical testing can assist in diagnosis and is aided by knowledge of the anatomy and common clinical presentation.

  13. Continuous-Flow Total Artificial Heart Supports Long-Term Survival of a Calf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, O. H.; Cohn, William E.; Tuzun, Egemen; Winkler, Jo Anna; Gregoric, Igor D.

    2009-01-01

    The development and clinical use of continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) stimulated our interest in developing a total heart replacement with continuous-flow rotary blood pumps. We constructed a continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) from 2 HeartMate II axial-flow LVADs and used this CFTAH to replace the native heart of a calf. The purpose of this experiment was to study the effects of total continuous flow on physiologic parameters at rest and during exercise after the animal recovered from surgery. We monitored pulmonary and systemic pump performance, and we assessed arterial blood gases, hemodynamic and biochemical variables, and neurohormone levels during the 7 weeks of CFTAH support. At day 36 after CFTAH implantation, the calf was exercised on a treadmill at increasing speeds for 40 minutes; total oxygen consumption, pump flow, blood pressure, and respiratory rate were monitored. Baseline hematologic levels were altered postoperatively but returned to normal by 2 weeks. We saw no signs of hemolysis or thrombosis during CFTAH support. The calf had a normal physiologic response to treadmill exercise. The animal gained weight and appeared to function normally during the study. The CFTAH operated within design specifications throughout the study. Homeostasis, end-organ and vasomotor function, and the ability to exercise are not adversely affected by 7 weeks of totally pulseless circulation in a calf. PMID:20069083

  14. Tissue culture media supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum contains a castrate level of testosterone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedelaar, J.P.M.; Isaacs, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human prostate cancer cells are routinely maintained in media supplemented with 10% Fetal Calf Serum (FCS) to provide androgen. In the present study, total and free testosterone levels in 10%FCS supplemented tissue culture media were determined and compared to levels in intact and

  15. Effect of calf sex on some productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chegini, A.; Hossein-Zadeh, N.G.; Hosseini-Moghadam, H.

    2015-07-01

    Records of Holstein cows from March 1992 to April 2008 from 194 large herds and comprising from 402,716 records for productive traits to 178,344 records of somatic cell count were used to study the effect of calf sex in different parities and calving season on the subsequent productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows. T-test procedure of SAS software was used to investigate the effect of calf sex and season of calving on aforementioned traits. Cows with female calves had higher milk and fat yield, persistency of milk and fat yield and longer lactation length, while cows that gave birth to male calves had shorter calving interval and longer productive life. Also, cows with female calves had higher milk yield per day of lactation in the first two parities, but there was no difference in milk yield per day of lactation for parities ≥ 3. There was no relationship among mean somatic cell count and sex of born calf. Fall calves had the highest adjusted milk yield and milk yield per day of lactation, however, winter calves had the longest lactation lengthand productive life and the highest somatic cell count. Results from this study demonstrate that it seems necessary to consider the effect of calf sex on aforementioned traits when making decision to use sexed semen or conventional semen. (Author)

  16. Management practices to reduce lupine-induced Crooked Calf Syndrome in the Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many factors contribute to the incidence of lupine-induced “Crooked Calf Syndrome” (CCS) in the northwestern U.S. A 1-5% incidence of CCS is common on many ranches and higher incidences occur when environmental conditions are conducive to lupine population increases. Multiple management strategies s...

  17. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype SAT 3 in Long-Horned Ankole Calf, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom

    2015-01-01

    After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest...

  18. Foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 in long-horned Ankole calf, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Namatovu, Alice; Ruhweza, Simon; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Wekesa, Sabenzia Nabalayo; Normann, Preben; Belsham, Graham J

    2015-01-01

    After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest relatives isolated previously from buffalo in Uganda.

  19. Evaluation of cottonseed oil-cake meal as a protein source in calf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The growth performance of 18 Holstein and 20 Jersey heifer calves fed calf starter meals containing either cottonseed oil-cake meal (CSOCM) or soybean oil-cake meal (SBOCM) was compared. The diets were iso- nutritious in terms of crude protein and energy, and were fed from two weeks of age until two or ...

  20. Integrating scientific knowledge into large-scale restoration programs: the CALFED Bay-Delta Program experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K.A.; Short, A.

    2009-01-01

    Integrating science into resource management activities is a goal of the CALFED Bay-Delta Program, a multi-agency effort to address water supply reliability, ecological condition, drinking water quality, and levees in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of northern California. Under CALFED, many different strategies were used to integrate science, including interaction between the research and management communities, public dialogues about scientific work, and peer review. This paper explores ways science was (and was not) integrated into CALFED's management actions and decision systems through three narratives describing different patterns of scientific integration and application in CALFED. Though a collaborative process and certain organizational conditions may be necessary for developing new understandings of the system of interest, we find that those factors are not sufficient for translating that knowledge into management actions and decision systems. We suggest that the application of knowledge may be facilitated or hindered by (1) differences in the objectives, approaches, and cultures of scientists operating in the research community and those operating in the management community and (2) other factors external to the collaborative process and organization.

  1. Giardia duodenalis assemblages in weaned cattle on cow-calf operations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in weaned beef calves in cow-calf operations, fecal specimens were collected from 819 6- to18-month-old calves in 20 states. After cleaning and concentrating cysts from feces, DNA was extracted from each specimen. The presence of G. duodenalis was de...

  2. Changes in Tissue Oxygen Saturation in Response to Different Calf Compression Sleeves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermont, T.; Morizot, L.; Bouhaddi, M.; Ménétrier, A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The purpose was to examine the changes in tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) in response to the application of different commercially available calf compression sleeves. Methods. Eight subjects came to the laboratory to complete a session in seated position including 10 min of quiet rest followed by 3 min measuring calf StO2 without compression sleeves and then alternating of 3 min of passive rest and 3 min measuring StO2 with calf compression sleeves. A total of 15 different commercially available compression sleeves were studied in a randomized order. Calf StO2 was recorded using near-infrared spectroscopy. Results. StO2 was significantly increased with all compression sleeves (p < 0.05) compared with no compression (from +6.9% for the least effective to +22.6% for the most effective). Large differences were observed between compression sleeves (p < 0.05). StO2 was positively correlated with compression pressure (p < 0.05; r = 0.84). Conclusion. This study shows that wearing compression sleeves from various brands differently affects tissue oxygen saturation. Differences were linked to the compression pressure: higher compression pressures were associated with higher StO2. PMID:26464899

  3. Evaluation of cottonseed oil-cake meal as a protein source in calf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    South African Society of Animal Science. The South African Journal of Animal Science is available online at http://www.sasas.co.za/Sajas.html. 67. Short communication. Evaluation of cottonseed oil-cake meal as a protein source in calf starter meals. N.M. Bangani, C.J.C. Muller. # and J.A. Botha. Department of Economic ...

  4. Sex of calf and age of dam adjustment factors for birth and weaning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Records on 2 257 Composite and 5 923 Tswana calves born between the period of 1988 and 2006 in Botswana were used to calculate additive correction factors for the effects of sex of calf and age of dam on birth weight and weaning weight. The mature age group in both breeds for the two growth characteristics was 5 ...

  5. Anatomy, death, and preservation of a woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) calf, Yamal Peninsula, northwest Siberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, Daniel C.; Tikhonov, Alexei N.; Kosintsev, Pavel A.; Rountrey, Adam N.; Buigues, Bernard; van der Plicht, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    A well-preserved woolly mammoth calf found in northwest Siberia offers unique opportunities to investigate mammoth anatomy, behavior, life history and taphonomy. Analysis of the fluvial setting where the specimen was found suggests it was derived from eroding bluffs during ice-out flooding in June

  6. Muscular and non-muscular contributions to maximum power cycling in children and adults: implications for developmental motor control

    OpenAIRE

    Korff, T.; Hunter, EL; Martin, JC

    2009-01-01

    This article is available open access through the publisher’s website at the link below. During submaximal cycling, children demonstrate a different distribution between muscular and non-muscular (gravitational and motion-dependent) forces when compared with adults. This is partly due to anthropometric differences. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that during maximum power cycling, children would construct the task (in terms of the distribution between muscular and non-muscular peda...

  7. Biotin and biocytin uptake into cultured primary calf brain microvessel endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, B; Baumgartner, E R

    2000-03-10

    The uptake of biotin and the closely related biocytin was characterized in primary cultures of calf brain microvessel endothelial (CBME) cells. Biotin uptake was found to be Na(+)-gradient dependent and independent of changes in the membrane potential. Concentration dependence revealed a single saturation mechanism with a K(m) of 47 microM and a V(max) of 101 pmol/min/mg. Inhibition studies demonstrated dependence on metabolic energy and the necessity for a free carboxyl group for transport activity. The anticonvulsants primidone and carbamazepine had no inhibitory effect. Biotin uptake into CBME cells is a secondary active, electroneutral, saturable and specific process. Biocytin which accumulates in biotinidase deficiency, a human congenital disorder, did not inhibit biotin uptake and was not transported into these cells. The presence of human serum with normal biotinidase activity significantly reduced biotin uptake by about 50%. Further, added biocytin was hydrolyzed to biotin, which accumulated intracellularly but to a lesser extent than added free biotin. Biotin uptake after addition of plasma of biotinidase-deficient patients was not different from that in the presence of normal serum. These results indicate that the absence of biotinidase activity in serum does not reduce blood-brain barrier transport of biotin.

  8. On the edema-preventing effect of the calf muscle pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stick, C; Grau, H; Witzleb, E

    1989-01-01

    During motionless standing an increased hydrostatic pressure leads to increased transcapillary fluid filtration into the interstitial space of the tissues of the lower extremities. The resulting changes in calf volume were measured using a mercury-in-silastic strain gauge. Following a change in body posture from lying to standing or sitting a two-stage change in calf volume was observed. A fast initial filling of the capacitance vessels was followed by a slow but continuous increase in calf volume during motionless standing and sitting with the legs dependent passively. The mean rates of this slow increase were about 0.17%.min-1 during standing and 0.12%.min-1 during sitting, respectively. During cycle ergometer exercise the plethysmographic recordings were highly influenced by movement artifacts. These artifacts, however, were removed from the recordings by low-pass filtering. As a result the slow volume changes, i.e. changes of the extravascular fluid were selected from the recorded signal. Contrary to the increases during standing and sitting the calf volumes of all 30 subjects decreased during cycle ergometer exercise. The mean decrease during 18 min of cycling (2-20 min) was -1.6% at 50 W work load and -1.9% at 100 W, respectively. This difference was statistically significant (p less than or equal to 0.01). The factors which may counteract the development of an interstitial edema, even during quiet standing and sitting, are discussed in detail. During cycling, however, three factors are most likely to contribute to the observed reduction in calf volume: (1) The decrease in venous pressure, which in turn reduces the effective filtration pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. MRI assessment of calf injuries in Australian Football League players: findings that influence return to play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, George; Wein, Sara; Gorelik, Alexandra; Rotstein, Andrew H

    2017-03-01

    Calf muscle strains have become increasingly prevalent in recent seasons of the Australian Football League (AFL) and represent a significant cause of time lost from competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between MRI features of calf muscle strains and games missed and to thereby identify parameters that are of prognostic value. A retrospective analysis of MRI scans of AFL players with calf strains referred to a musculoskeletal radiology clinic over a 5-year period (2008-2012) was performed. The muscle(s) and muscle component affected, the site and size of strain, and the presence of an intramuscular tendon tear or intermuscular fluid were recorded. These data were cross-referenced with whether a player missed at least one game. Imaging features of prognostic value were thus identified. Sixty-three athletes had MRI scans for calf muscle strains. Soleus strains were more common than strains of other muscles. Players with soleus strains were more likely to miss at least one game if they had multiple muscle involvement (p = 0.017), musculotendinous junction strains (p = 0.046), and deep strains (p = 0.036). In a combined analysis of gastrocnemius and soleus strains, intramuscular tendon tears were observed in a significantly greater proportion of players who missed games (p = 0.010). Amongst AFL players with calf injuries, there is an association between missing at least one game and multiple muscle involvement, musculotendinous junction strains, deep strain location, and intramuscular tendon tears. In this setting, MRI may therefore provide prognostic information to help guide return-to-play decisions.

  10. MRI assessment of calf injuries in Australian Football League players: findings that influence return to play

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterworth, George; Wein, Sara; Rotstein, Andrew H. [Victoria House Medical Imaging, Prahran, Victoria (Australia); Gorelik, Alexandra [Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne Epicentre, Parkville (Australia)

    2017-03-15

    Calf muscle strains have become increasingly prevalent in recent seasons of the Australian Football League (AFL) and represent a significant cause of time lost from competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between MRI features of calf muscle strains and games missed and to thereby identify parameters that are of prognostic value. A retrospective analysis of MRI scans of AFL players with calf strains referred to a musculoskeletal radiology clinic over a 5-year period (2008-2012) was performed. The muscle(s) and muscle component affected, the site and size of strain, and the presence of an intramuscular tendon tear or intermuscular fluid were recorded. These data were cross-referenced with whether a player missed at least one game. Imaging features of prognostic value were thus identified. Sixty-three athletes had MRI scans for calf muscle strains. Soleus strains were more common than strains of other muscles. Players with soleus strains were more likely to miss at least one game if they had multiple muscle involvement (p = 0.017), musculotendinous junction strains (p = 0.046), and deep strains (p = 0.036). In a combined analysis of gastrocnemius and soleus strains, intramuscular tendon tears were observed in a significantly greater proportion of players who missed games (p = 0.010). Amongst AFL players with calf injuries, there is an association between missing at least one game and multiple muscle involvement, musculotendinous junction strains, deep strain location, and intramuscular tendon tears. In this setting, MRI may therefore provide prognostic information to help guide return-to-play decisions. (orig.)

  11. Effect of kinesio tape application on calf pain and ankle range of motion in duathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Marban, Rafael; Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the kinesio tape immediately after its application and after a duathlon competition on calf pain and the ankle range of motion in duathletes. A sample of 28 duathletes (age 29.11 ± 10.35 years; body height 172.57 ± 6.17 cm; body mass 66.63 ± 9.01 kg; body mass index 22.29 ± 2.00 kg/m(2)) were recruited from the competitors in a duathlon sprint. The Numerical Pain Rating Scale and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion measures were obtained at baseline, immediately after taping and 10 to 15 minutes after ending the duathlon competition. The kinesio tape was applied on the calf of duathletes 20 to 90 minutes before the competition, only on one of their legs (experimental leg) with the other leg acting as a control (control leg) in a randomized order. According to the between-group comparison, no differences were found immediately after the application of the kinesio tape and after the competition in the ankle range of motion and calf pain. However, a significant difference from baseline to immediately after taping was found in the ankle range of motion in the experimental leg. Applying the kinesio tape on the calf seems to immediately increase ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, but not after a duathlon competition. Applying the kinesio tape on the calf does not reduce muscle pain immediately or after a duathlon competition, but it appears to control an increase in pain.

  12. Relationship between passive properties of the calf muscles and plantarflexion concentric isokinetic torque characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdosik, Richard L

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a model of aging to examine the relationships between passive properties of the calf muscles and plantarflexion concentric isokinetic torque characteristics. Eighty-one active women 20-84 years of age were tested using a Kin-Com isokinetic dynamometer interfaced with electromyography (EMG). The passive properties were tested by stretching the muscles from relaxed plantarflexion to a maximal dorsiflexion (DF) angle at a rate of 5 degrees.s(-1) (0.087 rad.s(-1)) with minimal raw EMG activity (plantarflexion at four randomly ordered velocities of 30, 60, 120, and 180 degrees.s(-1). Pearson correlation coefficients (Bonferroni adjusted) indicated a hierarchical order of high to moderate positive correlations between four passive properties and the peak and mean concentric torque for all test velocities. Correlation coefficients for the four passive properties ranged from 0.50 to 0.78 ( P<0.001), and the coefficients of determination ( r(2)) from higher to lower were: (1) maximal DF passive resistive torque ( r(2): 0.50-0.62), (2) length extensibility ( r(2): 0.40-0.49), (3) maximal muscle length ( r(2): 0.28-0.41), and (4) passive elastic stiffness in the last half of the full-stretch range of motion ( r(2): 0.25-0.31). The maximal DF passive resistive torque and the length extensibility accounted for 50-62% and 40-49% of the variability in the concentric torque, respectively. The results indicate that the concentrically stronger calf muscles of active women were positively correlated with passively stronger, longer, and stiffer calf muscles, which are characteristics of the calf muscles of younger women. Further studies are needed to examine whether therapeutic interventions, such as stretching and strengthening, can promote adaptations in the calf muscles of older women to attain these more youthful characteristics.

  13. The heart in limb girdle muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooi, A. J.; de Voogt, W. G.; Barth, P. G.; Busch, H. F.; Jennekens, F. G.; Jongen, P. J.; de Visser, M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency, nature, and severity of cardiac abnormalities in limb girdle muscular dystrophy, and its relation to age and weakness in various genotypes. DESIGN: In 26 autosomal dominant, 38 autosomal recessive, and 33 sporadic strictly defined patients with limb girdle

  14. Clinical features of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy 2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greef, J.C. de; Lemmers, R.J.; Camano, P.; Day, J.W.; Sacconi, S.; Dunand, M.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Kiuru-Enari, S.; Padberg, G.W.A.M.; Rosa, A.L.; Desnuelle, C.; Spuler, S.; Tarnopolsky, M.; Venance, S.L.; Frants, R.R.; Maarel, S.M. van der; Tawil, R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In some 5% of patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), no D4Z4 repeat contraction on chromosome 4q35 is observed. Such patients, termed patients with FSHD2, show loss of DNA methylation and heterochromatin markers at the D4Z4 repeat that are similar to patients with

  15. Hereditary muscular dystrophies and the heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, M. C. E.; Pinto, Y. M.; Merkies, I. S. J.; de Die-Smulders, C. E. M.; Crijns, H. J. G. M.; Faber, C. G.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac disease is a common clinical manifestation of neuromuscular disorders, particularly of muscular dystrophies. Heart muscle cells as well as specialized conducting myocardial fibres may be affected by the dystrophic process. The incidence and nature of cardiac involvement vary with different

  16. Brain MRI in Congenital Muscular Dystrophies

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in 21 patients with congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) complicated by cerebral anomalies were analysed from data collected at several Departments of Child Neurology, The Netherlands: Free University Hospital, and Emma Children’s Hospital, Amsterdam; Sophia Children’s Hospital, Rotterdam; Leiden University Hospital; Groningen University Hospital; and St Radboud University Hospital, Nijmegen.

  17. Prevalence of congenital muscular dystrophy in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Alessandra; Bianco, Flaviana; D'Amico, Adele; Moroni, Isabella; Messina, Sonia; Bruno, Claudio; Pegoraro, Elena; Mora, Marina; Astrea, Guja; Magri, Francesca; Comi, Giacomo P.; Berardinelli, Angela; Moggio, Maurizio; Morandi, Lucia; Pini, Antonella; Petillo, Roberta; Tasca, Giorgio; Monforte, Mauro; Minetti, Carlo; Mongini, Tiziana; Ricci, Enzo; Gorni, Ksenija; Battini, Roberta; Villanova, Marcello; Politano, Luisa; Gualandi, Francesca; Ferlini, Alessandra; Muntoni, Francesco; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Bertini, Enrico; Pane, Marika

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We provide a nationwide population study of patients with congenital muscular dystrophy in Italy. Methods: Cases were ascertained from the databases in all the tertiary referral centers for pediatric neuromuscular disorders and from all the genetic diagnostic centers in which diagnostic tests for these forms are performed. Results: The study includes 336 patients with a point prevalence of 0.563 per 100,000. Mutations were identified in 220 of the 336 (65.5%). The cohort was subdivided into diagnostic categories based on the most recent classifications on congenital muscular dystrophies. The most common forms were those with α-dystroglycan glycosylation deficiency (40.18%) followed by those with laminin α2 deficiency (24.11%) and collagen VI deficiency (20.24%). The forms of congenital muscular dystrophy related to mutations in SEPN1 and LMNA were less frequent (6.25% and 5.95%, respectively). Conclusions: Our study provides for the first time comprehensive epidemiologic information and point prevalence figures for each of the major diagnostic categories on a large cohort of congenital muscular dystrophies. The study also reflects the diagnostic progress in this field with an accurate classification of the cases according to the most recent gene discoveries. PMID:25653289

  18. A Drosophila model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plas, Mariska Cathelijne van der

    2008-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a severe X-linked disease characterized by progressive muscle wasting and sometimes mild mental retardation. The disease is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. DMD is correlated with the absence of Dp427, which is located along the sarcolemma in skeletal

  19. Visuospatial Attention Disturbance in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moura, Maria Clara Drummond Soares; do Valle, Luiz Eduardo Ribeiro; Resende, Maria Bernadete Dutra; Pinto, Katia Osternack

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The cognitive deficits present in the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are not yet well characterized. Attention, considered to be the brain mechanism responsible for the selection of sensory stimuli, could be disturbed in DMD, contributing, at least partially, to the observed global cognitive deficit. The aim of this study was to…

  20. Duchenne muscular dystrophy - a molecular service

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1987 a carrier detection and prenatal diagnostic service for. Duchenne muscular dystrophy using molecular technology was instituted at the Department of Human Genetics, Uni- versity of Cape Town, to serve affe.cted families in southern. Africa. DNA samples from 100 affected male subjects and. 350 of their relatives ...

  1. Brain Function in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of dystrophin disorders in the CNS function of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD and the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse, an animal model of DMD, is reviewed at the University of New South Wales, University of Sydney, Australia.

  2. Lesiones musculares en el mundo del deporte. [Muscular injuries in the world of the sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ángeles Cardero Durán

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En el mundo del deporte y no solo en este, sino en toda la práctica de una actividad física, son muy frecuentes las lesiones musculares. Hay muchos tipos de lesiones musculares de los que hablaremos más adelante, como pueden ser desgarros musculares, calambres, contracturas etc., que tienen mayor incidencia en la musculatura poli-articular, por condiciones de acumulación de fatiga, trabajo no realizado correctamente, o condiciones ambientales desfavorables. Es importante el diagnóstico y el tratamiento precoz, para poder intervenir y conseguir que el deportista vuelva lo antes posible a su actividad y al proceso de competición. En este artículo hablaremos de los distintos tipos de lesiones musculares, de las causas y mecanismos de producción, así como del tratamiento fisioterápico que se emplea en un deportista en estos casos. Palabras claves: Lesión, músculo, deporte. Abstract In the world of the sport and not only in this one, but in the whole practice of a physical activity, the muscular injuries are very frequent. There are many types of muscular injuries about which we are going to speak later, like can be muscular tears, cramps, contractions etc. That have major incident in the musculature poly-articulate, because of conditions of accumulation of fatigue, the work not done correctly, or  unfavorable environmental conditions.  The diagnosis and the precocious treatment is important, to be able to intervene and achieve that the sportsman come back as soon as possible to the activity and to the process of competition.  In this article we are going to speak about the different types of muscular injuries, about the reasons and mechanisms of production, as well as about the physical therapy diagnosed in these cases.  Key words: Injury, muscle, sport

  3. Therapeutic strategies to address neuronal nitric oxide synthase deficiency and the loss of nitric oxide bioavailability in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpani, Cara A; Hayes, Alan; Rybalka, Emma

    2017-05-25

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is a rare and fatal neuromuscular disease in which the absence of dystrophin from the muscle membrane induces a secondary loss of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and the muscles capacity for endogenous nitric oxide synthesis. Since nitric oxide is a potent regulator of skeletal muscle metabolism, mass, function and regeneration, the loss of nitric oxide bioavailability is likely a key contributor to the chronic pathological wasting evident in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. As such, various therapeutic interventions to re-establish either the neuronal nitric oxide synthase protein deficit or the consequential loss of nitric oxide synthesis and bioavailability have been investigated in both animal models of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and in human clinical trials. Notably, the efficacy of these interventions are varied and not always translatable from animal model to human patients, highlighting a complex interplay of factors which determine the downstream modulatory effects of nitric oxide. We review these studies herein.

  4. [Diabetic foot syndrome: importance of calf muscles MR spectroscopy in the assessment of limb ischemia and effect of revascularization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Němcová, Andrea; Dubský, Michal; Jirkovská, Alexandra; Šedivý, Petr; Drobný, Miloslav; Hájek, Milan; Dezortová, Monika; Bém, Robert; Fejfarová, Vladimíra; Pyšná, Anna

    The standard method for assessment of effect of revascularization in patients with diabetic foot (DF) and critical limb ischemia (CLI) is transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO2). Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS) enables to evaluate oxidative muscle metabolism that could be impaired in patients with diabetes and its complications. The aim of our study was to compare MRS of calf muscle between patients with DF and CLI and healthy controls and to evaluate the contribution of MRS in the assessment of the effect of revascularization. Thirty-four diabetic patients with DF and CLI treated either by autologous cell therapy (ACT; 15 patients) or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA; 12 patients) in our foot clinic during 2013-2016 and 19 healthy controls were included into the study. TcPO2 measurement was used as a standard method of non-invasive evaluation of limb ischemia. MRS examinations were performed using the whole-body 3T MR system 1 day before and 3 months after the procedure. Subjects were examined in a supine position with the coil fixed under the m. gastrocnemius. MRS parameters were obtained at rest and during the exercise period. Rest MRS parameters of oxidative muscle metabolism such as phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphodiesters (PDE), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), dynamic MRS parameters such as recovery constant PCr (τPCr) and mitochondrial capacity (Qmax), and pH were compared between patients and healthy controls, and also before and 3 months after revascularization. Patients with CLI had significantly lower PCr/Pi (p lower Qmax and prolonged τPCr (both p muscles in patients with CLI in comparison with healthy controls. We observed an improvement in dynamic MRS parameters in individual cases; this finding should be verified in a large number of patients during longer follow-up.Key words: autologous cell therapy - critical limb ischemia - diabetic foot - MR spectroscopy.

  5. MRI as outcome measure in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy: 1-year follow-up of 45 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Grete; Dahlqvist, Julia R; Vissing, Christoffer R; Heje, Karen; Thomsen, Carsten; Vissing, John

    2017-03-01

    There is no effective treatment available for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1 (FSHD1), but emerging therapies are under way that call for a better understanding of natural history in this condition. In this prospective, longitudinal study, we used quantitative MRI to assess yearly disease progression in patients with FSHD1. Ambulatory patients with confirmed diagnosis of FSHD1 (25/20 men/women, age 20-75 years, FSHD score: 0-12) were tested with 359-560-day interval between tests. Using the MRI Dixon technique, muscle fat replacement was evaluated in paraspinal, thigh, and calf muscles. Changes were compared with those in FSHD score, muscle strength (hand-held dynamometry), 6-minute-walk-distance, 14-step-stair-test, and 5-time-sit-to-stand-test. Composite absolute fat fraction of all assessed muscles increased by 0.036 (CI 0.026-0.046, P muscle groups. The clinical severity FSHD score worsened (10%, P muscle strength decreased over the hip (8%), neck (8%), and back (17%) (P muscle strength, FSHD score, and fat fraction did not correlate. This first study to systemically monitor quantitative fat replacement longitudinally in FSHD1 shows that MRI provides an objective measure of disease progression, often before changes can be appreciated in strength and functional tests. The study indicates that quantitative MRI can be a helpful end-point in follow-up and therapeutic trials of patients with FSHD1.

  6. A case of Becker muscular dystrophy with early manifestation of cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Hyun Doo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year-old boy was admitted with chest discomfort, nausea, and dyspnea at rest. At the age of 3 years, he underwent muscle biopsy and dystrophin gene analysis owing to an enlarged calf muscle and elevated serum kinase level (6,378 U/L without overt weakness; based on the results, Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD was diagnosed. The dystrophin gene showed deletion of exons 45 to 49. He remained ambulant and could step upstairs without significant difficulties. A chest roentgenogram showed cardiomegaly (cardiothoracic ratio, 54%, and his electrocardiogram (ECG showed abnormal ST-T wave, biatrial enlargement, and left ventricular hypertrophy. The 2-dimensional and M-mode ECGs showed a severely dilated left ventricular cavity with diffuse hypokinesis. The systolic indices were reduced, including fractional shortening (9% and ejection fraction (19%. Despite receiving intensive medical treatment, he died from congestive heart failure 5 months after the initial cardiac symptoms. We report a case of BMD with early-onset dilated cardiomyopathy associated with deletion of exons 45 to 49. Early cardiomyopathy can occur in BMD patients with certain genotypes; therefore, careful follow-up is required even in patients with mild phenotypes of BMD.

  7. Spontaneous closure of muscular ventricular septal defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejčić Ljiljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Ventricular septal defect (VSD is the most frequently diagnosed congenital heart anomaly. The prognosis is usually good as it has spontaneous closure evolution, especially small muscular VSDs. The aim of this study was to determine the natural history of isolated muscular VSDs including the frequency of spontaneous closure in relation to location in the muscular septum and the age at the time of closure. Methods. The study included 96 children (52 girls and 44 boys with isolated muscular VSD diagnosed during the first month of life. We analyzed the tendency of spontaneous closure of these defects for the duration of childhood during a follow-up period of 16 years. Two-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography was performed to detect muscular VSD as a primary cardiac lesion. There was significant prevalence of small apical versus trabecular defects and their outcomes were evaluated. Results. Our study evaluated 91 children, 49 (53.8% girls and 42 (46.2% boys who did not undergo surgery. Apically located VSD was diagnosed in 68 (74.7%, while trabecular defects were found in 23 (25.3% children. Spontaneous closure occurred in 56 out of 91 cases (61.5%. The time of spontaneous closure was most commonly recorded during the first six months after birth (46.4%. The overall rate of spontaneous closure was 81.3% by the end of the first year. Apically located ventricular defects underwent spontaneous closure in the majority of patients, in comparison to trabecular ventricular defects (χ2 = 12.581; p < 0.001. Kaplan–Meier analysis demonstrated a significant difference in the average time required for spontaneous closure between the analyzed patient groups (log-rank = 9.64, p = 0.002. Conclusion. The frequency of spontaneous closure of muscular VSDs, especially apically located, is very high in the first six months, especially within the first year of life. It is advisable to detect them early on using color flow imaging and to

  8. Aerobic exercise supplemented with muscular endurance training improves onset of blood lactate accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, John W; Lantis, David J; Ade, Carl J; Cantrell, Greg S; Larson, Rebecca D

    2017-05-05

    Studies have shown that when aerobic exercise is supplemented with muscular endurance training metabolic adaptions occur that result in the delay of the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA). However, previous studies have not explored any submaximal cardiorespiratory adaptations that may result from this training protocol. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the effect of supplementing an aerobic exercise training program with a muscular endurance training program on various cardiorespiratory and metabolic measurements. Fourteen aerobically active men performed an incremental exercise test to determine the OBLA, gas exchange threshold (GET), and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Maximal strength was measured using 1-repetition max (1-RM) for leg press (LP), leg curl (LC), and leg extension (LE). Eight subjects supplemented their aerobic activity (EX group) with 8 weeks of muscular endurance training, while six continued their regular aerobic activity (CON group). No significant group differences were observed for all pretraining variables. Following eight weeks of training no significant differences in body mass, GET, and VO2max were observed for either group. However, the EX group showed a significant improvement for both absolute and relative VO2 at OBLA compared to the CON group. LC and LE 1-RM assessments for the EX group showed a significant improvement compared to CON group. Muscular endurance training did not improve GET and VO2max, but significantly increased VO2 at OBLA, LP, and LC. These findings suggest that this training protocol maybe useful in the development of submaximal aerobic performance and leg strength for endurance athletes.

  9. Pain characterization in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Dias da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is an X-linked recessive disorder, characterized by progressive muscle weakness. Historically, pain has not been considered to be a major symptom in DMD. Objective To investigate the relationship between DMD and pain. Methods We conducted a systematic review in Medline/PubMed and BVS (virtual library in health databases. We searched for articles that showed the terms “Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne” and “Pain” in all fields. All studies included boys diagnosed with DMD and the occurrence/amount of pain on this population. Results Initially, there were 175 studies. 167 articles were excluded for not meeting the inclusion criteria. The remaining eight eligible studies, involving pain assessment in DMD, were analyzed. Conclusion Pain is a frequent problem in this population and this symptom is potentially tractable. Studies conclude that pain can directly influence the quality of life of this population.

  10. Sleep Disordered Breathing in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoMauro, Antonella; D'Angelo, Maria Grazia; Aliverti, Andrea

    2017-05-01

    This review aims to explain the inevitable imbalance between respiratory load, drive, and muscular force that occurs in the natural aging of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and that predisposes these patients to sleep disordered breathing (SDB). In DMD, SDB is characterized by oxygen desaturation, apneas, hypercapnia, and hypoventilation during sleep and ultimately develops into respiratory failure during wakefulness. It can be present in all age groups. Young patients risk obstructive apneas because of weight gain, secondary to progressive physical inactivity and prolonged corticosteroid therapy; older patients hypoventilate and desaturate because of respiratory muscle weakness, in particular the diaphragm. These conditions are further exacerbated during REM sleep, the phase of maximal muscle hypotonia during which the diaphragm has to provide most of the ventilation. Evidence is given to the daytime predictors of early symptoms of SDB, important indicators for the proper time to initiate mechanical ventilation.

  11. Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy (LGMD): Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitkar, Shubhangi A; Kalyan, Meenakshi; Gaikwad, Anu N; Makadia, Ankit; Shah, Harshad

    2015-01-01

    We report a young male of autosomal recessive limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) with positive family history presented with gradual onset proximal muscle weakness in all four limbs since eight years and thinning of shoulders, arms and thighs. Neurological examination revealed atrophy of both shoulders with wasting of both deltoids thinning of thighs and pseudo hypertrophy of both calves, hypotonia in all four limbs. Gower's sign was positive. Winging of scapula was present. Power was 3/5 at both shoulders, 4/5 at both elbows, 5/5 at both wrists, 3/5 at both hip joints, 3/5 at both knees, 5/5 at both ankles. All deep tendon reflexes and superficial reflexes were present with plantars bilateral flexors. Electromyography (EMG) showed myopathic pattern. He had elevated creatinine phosphokinase levels and muscle biopsy findings consistent with muscular dystrophy.

  12. Extent, causes and timing of moose calf mortality on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge: 1988 progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the extent, causes and timing of moose calf mortality on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge. 46 neonatal moose calves from the 1988 cohort were...

  13. Evaluation of sensory quality of calf chops: a new methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etaio, I; Gil, P F; Ojeda, M; Albisu, M; Salmerón, J; Pérez Elortondo, F J

    2013-05-01

    A new method to evaluate the sensory quality of calf chops was developed by discussion with experts. Resulting method comprised four parameters: quality related to odor, texture, flavor and persistence. For each parameter, the sensory characteristics perceived are marked and, by using decision trees, corresponding quality is directly scored, so making the assessment more objective. Global sensory quality is calculated by weighting these four partial qualities. Due to sensory characteristic collection, the method also provides an exhaustive description of each sample. To check the appropriateness of the method, 127 calf chop samples were evaluated by a panel specifically trained to apply it. Results confirmed the suitability of the method to describe the samples and differentiate among them according to their quality level. This innovative approach can be very useful for quality control and also to study the effects of different factors on meat sensory quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Binding of a new bisphenol analogue, bisphenol S to bovine serum albumin and calf thymus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Cao, Jian; Tang, Bo-Ping

    2014-09-05

    Interactions of bisphenol S, a new bisphenol analogue with bovine serum albumin and calf thymus DNA were investigated using different spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling calculation. According to the analysis of experimental and theoretical data, we concluded that hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding primarily mediated the binding processes of bisphenol S with bovine serum albumin and DNA. In addition, the electrostatic force should not be excluded. Molecular modeling studies indicated that the binding site of bisphenol S to bovine serum albumin located in the subdomain IB, while bisphenol S was a groove binder of DNA. In addition, BPS did not obviously induce second structural changes of bovine serum albumin, but it induced a conformational change of calf thymus DNA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of level of social contact on dairy calf behavior and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2014-01-01

    Housing preweaned dairy calves in pairs rather than individually has been found to positively affect behavioral responses in novel social and environmental situations, but concerns have been raised that close contact among very young animals may impair their health. In previous studies, the level......), individual housing with auditory, visual, and tactile contact (T), pair housing (P), or individual housing with auditory and visual contact the first 2 wk followed by pair housing (VP). At 6 wk of age, calves were subjected to a social test and a novel environment test. In the social test, all pair......-housed calves (P and VP) had a shorter latency to sniff an unfamiliar calf than did individually housed calves (I, V; and T), whereas calves with physical contact (T, P, and VP) sniffed the unfamiliar calf for longer than calves on the remaining treatments (I and V). In the novel environment test, calves...

  16. Clinical and morphological study of calf enlargement following S-1 radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo J. M. Nascimento

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Calf enlargement following sciatica is a rare condition. It is reported the case of a 28-year-old woman who complained of repeated episodes of lower back pain radiating into the left buttock and foot. One year after the beginning of her symptoms, she noticed enlargement of her left calf. X-ray studies disclosed L5-S1 disk degeneration. EMG showed muscle denervation with normal motor conduction velocity. Open biopsies of the gastrocnemius muscles were performed. The left gastrocnemius muscle showed hypertrophic type 2 fibers in comparison with the right gastrocnemius. Electron microscopy showed mildly increased number of mitochondria in these fibers. A satisfactory explanation for denervation hypertrophy has yet to be provided.

  17. Mitochondrial dysfunction in calf muscles of patients with combined peripheral arterial disease and diabetes type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard Pedersen, Brian; Bækgaard, Niels; Quistorff, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study elucidate the effects on muscle mitochondrial function in patients suffering from combined peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the relation to patient symptoms and treatment. METHODS: Near Infra Red Spectroscopy (NIRS) calf muscle exercise tests...... tested applying high resolution oxygraphy on isolated muscle fibers. RESULTS: The NIRS exercise tests showed evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in the PAD+T2D group by a longer recovery of the deoxygenation resulting from exercise in spite of a higher exercise oxygenation level compared to the PAD...... were conducted on Forty subjects, 15 (PAD), 15 (PAD+T2D) and 10 healthy age matched controls (CTRL) recruited from the vascular outpatient clinic at Gentofte County Hospital, Denmark. Calf muscle biopsies (~ 80 mg) (Gastrocnemius and Anterior tibial muscles) were sampled and mitochondrial function...

  18. Non-intercalative, deoxyribose binding of boric acid to calf thymus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ayse; Gursaclı, Refiye Tekiner; Tekinay, Turgay

    2014-05-01

    The present study characterizes the effects of the boric acid binding on calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) by spectroscopic and calorimetric methods. UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were employed to characterize binding properties. Changes in the secondary structure of ct-DNA were determined by CD spectroscopy. Sizes and morphologies of boric acid-DNA complexes were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The kinetics of boric acid binding to calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) was investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). ITC results revealed that boric acid exhibits a moderate affinity to ct-DNA with a binding constant (K a) of 9.54 × 10(4) M(-1). FT-IR results revealed that boric acid binds to the deoxyribose sugar of DNA without disrupting the B-conformation at tested concentrations.

  19. The immediate effect of kinesiology taping on muscular imbalance for infants with congenital muscular torticollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhman, Anna M

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the immediate effect of kinesiology taping (KT) on muscular imbalance in the lateral flexors of the neck. A retrospective study. Twenty-eight infants with congenital muscular torticollis and muscular imbalance in the lateral flexors of the neck were chosen consecutively. Data regarding the Muscle Function Scale (MFS) score before and after the first taping session were obtained from the records. A significant decrease in the difference between the MFS scores was found after KT was applied (P < .001). Significantly greater scores were noted on the unaffected side after KT (P = .02) and significantly lower scores were noted on the affected side after KT (P = .003). Multiple regression demonstrated that the MFS score on the unaffected side (P < .001) and use of the muscle-relaxing technique (P = .009) were significantly associated with a decrease in the difference between the MFS scores of the 2 sides. KT has an immediate effect on muscular imbalance in infants with congenital muscular torticollis. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A lesão muscular na miastenia grave: estudo de 17 casos com histoquimica muscular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lineu Cesar Werneck

    1982-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudo de 17 biópsias musculares de pacientes com miastenia grave, utilizando técnicas de coloração a fresco e histoquímica muscular. Foram encontradas 15 biópsias musculares anormais, sendo que as principais alterações foram fibras musculares angulares escuras atróficas, excesso de gotículas de gordura na membrana externa das fibras, variação no diâmetro das fibras e atrofia de fibras do tipo II. Os achados foram interpretados como denervação em 11 biópsias, atrofia de fibras do tipo II em 7, infiltrado linfocitário em 4, necrose de fibras musculares com fagocitose em 1 e em 2 biópsias não foi encontrada qualquer anormalidade. Quanto maior o tempo de doença, mais severa foi a anormalidade encontrada. Dois pacientes apresentavam timoma, um miastenia grave congênita, um artrite reumatoide, um neurite hipertrófica intersticial, um tireoidite de Hashimoto e um com síndrome miastênica concomitante. São discutidos os achados anatomopatológicos e sua possível explicação.

  1. Muscular cysticercosis: Case report and imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmo, Neide Regina Simoes; Fiorio, Ulysses Ferreira; Clemente, Marcel Andreazza, E-mail: neideolmo@yahoo.com.br [Clinica Mult Imagem, Santos, SP (Brazil); Bastos, Eder Amaral [Universidade Metropolitana de Santos (UNIMES), Santos, SP (Brazil); Mendes, Gustavo Gomes [AC Camargo Cancer Center, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by a worm of the Cestoda class. The most prevalent form affects the nervous system. This case report is from a 78-year old female patient evaluated at Clinica Mult Imagem, in the city of Santos, Brazil, who presented a form of the disease that differed from the classic neurocysticercosis, in this case muscular cysticercosis. This and other forms of manifestation justify further studies to ensure adequate recognition, diagnosis and treatment of this parasitic disease. (author)

  2. Rehabilitation therapy of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG Cheng; YANG Juan

    2012-01-01

    It is very important that the rehabilitation therapy of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) can improve the quality of life and delay the disease progression. There are the guidelines for DMD rehabilitation therapy in some countries, but it is not emphasized by clinical doctors in our country. According to our experiences to DMD rehabilitation therapy, we reviewed the progress of DMD rehabilitation therapy. It includes the clinical stages and characteristics of DMD, the general principle and th...

  3. The burden of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Landfeldt, Erik; Lindgren, Peter; Bell, Christopher F.; Schmitt, Claude; Guglieri, Michela; Straub, Volker; Lochmüller, Hanns; Bushby, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate the total cost of illness and economic burden of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Methods: Patients with DMD from Germany, Italy, United Kingdom, and United States were identified through Translational Research in Europe–Assessment & Treatment of Neuromuscular Diseases registries and invited to complete a questionnaire online together with a caregiver. Data on health care use, quality of life, work status, informal care, and household e...

  4. Urological manifestations of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askeland, Eric J; Arlen, Angela M; Erickson, Bradley A; Mathews, Katherine D; Cooper, Christopher S

    2013-10-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a dystrophinopathy affecting males that is associated with multiple organ system complications. To our knowledge urological complications of Duchenne muscular dystrophy have been described only anecdotally to date. We reviewed the medical charts of 135 patients with Duchenne or Duchenne-Becker muscular dystrophy for demographics and disease progression, urological diagnoses, intervention and followup. Of 135 patients 67 (50%) had at least 1 documented urological diagnosis and 38 (28%) had multiple manifestations. Lower urinary tract symptoms were the most common urological diagnosis (32% of patients). Survival analysis revealed a median age at onset of lower urinary tract symptoms of 23 years (95% CI 17.7-23.9). Intervention was required in 12 patients (9%), most commonly due to nephrolithiasis. Urological morbidity increased with Duchenne muscular dystrophy progression when stratified by clinical progression. Lower urinary tract symptoms were more common in nonambulatory patients (40.7% vs 19%, p = 0.007), those with a diagnosis of scoliosis (44% vs 19.7%, p = 0.003) and/or scoliosis spine surgery (60% vs 22%, p <0.001), and those on invasive respiratory support (53% vs 29%, p = 0.046). Likewise, nephrolithiasis was more common in nonambulatory patients (10% vs 0%, p = 0.017), those with scoliosis (12% vs 0%, p = 0.004) and/or scoliosis spine surgery (20% vs 1%, p <0.001), and those on invasive respiratory support (29% vs 3%, p <0.001). Only 28% of patients with a urological manifestation were referred to urology. As these patients transition into adolescence and adulthood, the increased prevalence of urological manifestations warrants increased awareness and referral to urologists. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intra-muscular hemangioma: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Nayak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra-muscular hemangiomas (IMH are relatively uncommon benign vascular tumors, which account for less than 1% of all hemangiomas. IMH may be presented as a perceived sporting injury. Diagnosis of this lesion is important not only because of its rarity, but also due to dangers posed by misdiagnosis and mismanagement. They must be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained pain and swelling in muscles. IMH occurring in the oral cavity is reviewed below.

  6. Trace elements deficiencies in the pathogenesis of respiratory distress syndrome in the mature newborn calf

    OpenAIRE

    Guyot, Hugues; Aliaoui, Hamani; Rollin, Frédéric

    2004-01-01

    In Belgium, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is one of the leading causes of neonatal death in the mature hypermuscled Belgian Blue calf (BB) but also occurs in other cattle breeds. Major clinical signs (tachypnea, tachycardia and sometimes depression) develop in the first hours after birth and are due to insufficiency of functional surfactant. Knowing that trace elements deficiencies can slow pulmonary maturation, the aim of this study was to investigate trace elements stat...

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of injuries to the calf muscle complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouris, George; Ting, Amy Y I; Jhamb, Ashu; Connell, David; Kavanagh, Eoin C

    2007-10-01

    The objective was to describe the imaging findings following acute injury to the calf musculature. We retrospectively reviewed 59 MR examinations in patients who sustained injuries to the calf muscle from April 2001 to September 2004 (48 men, 11 women), with an average age of 31 and 47 years respectively (range in men 20-53; range in women 33-63). Attention was directed to the frequency of muscle involvement, the location of the injury within the musculotendinous unit and the extent of the injury. A total of 79 separate sites of strain injury were identified (39 solitary, 20 dual). Of the 39 isolated strains, injury to the gastrocnemius was most common (19 out of 39; 48.7%), preferentially involving the medial head in 18 cases and the lateral head in 1 case. The soleus was also commonly involved (18 out of 39; 46.2%), with 2 cases (5.1%) of distal avulsions of the plantaris. Of the 20 dual injuries, a combination of gastrocnemius injury with soleus injury was the most frequent finding (12 out of 20; 60%). Dual injuries of both heads of the gastrocnemius muscles were demonstrated in 4 cases (20%), with the soleus and tibialis posterior injured in 3 cases (15%). A combination of soleus and flexor hallucis longus injury was seen in 1 case (5%). This retrospective study utilizing MRI demonstrates that the medial head of the gastrocnemius is the most commonly injured muscle of the calf, closely followed by the soleus, the latter finding rarely reported in the sonographic literature. Dual injuries of the calf muscle complex occur much more commonly than previously reported and may be of prognostic significance.

  8. Pseudohypertrophy of the calf muscles in a patient with diabetic neuropathy: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Jin; Lee, Young Hwan; Jung, Kyung Jae; Park, Young Chan; Kim, Ho Kyun; Kim, Ok Dong [School of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    Partial or complete loss of innervation of skeletal muscle leads to muscle weakness and atrophic changes, resulting in decreased muscle volume with fatty replacement. Rarely, enlargement of the affected muscle may occur, related to two processes: true hypertrophy and pseudohypertrophy. We report CT and MR findings of the pseudohypertrophy of calf muscles, especially the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, in a patient with diabetic neuropathy that showed increased muscle volume with diffuse fatty replacement and the presence of scanty muscle fibers.

  9. Rheology of semi-dilute solutions of calf-thymus DNA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the rheology of semi-dilute solutions of the sodium salt of calf-thymus DNA in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The frequency response data can be fitted very well to the hybrid model with two dominant relaxation times 0 and 1. The ratio (0/1)∼ 5 is seen to be fairly constant on changing the temperature ...

  10. Proximal spinal muscular atrophy: current orthopedic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haaker G

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gerrit Haaker, Albert Fujak Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany Abstract: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a hereditary neuromuscular disease of lower motor neurons that is caused by a defective "survival motor neuron" (SMN protein that is mainly associated with proximal progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Although SMA involves a wide range of disease severity and a high mortality and morbidity rate, recent advances in multidisciplinary supportive care have enhanced quality of life and life expectancy. Active research for possible treatment options has become possible since the disease-causing gene defect was identified in 1995. Nevertheless, a causal therapy is not available at present, and therapeutic management of SMA remains challenging; the prolonged survival is increasing, especially orthopedic, respiratory and nutritive problems. This review focuses on orthopedic management of the disease, with discussion of key aspects that include scoliosis, muscular contractures, hip joint disorders, fractures, technical devices, and a comparative approach of conservative and surgical treatment. Also emphasized are associated complications including respiratory involvement, perioperative care and anesthesia, nutrition problems, and rehabilitation. The SMA disease course can be greatly improved with adequate therapy with established orthopedic procedures in a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. Keywords: spinal muscular atrophy, scoliosis, contractures, fractures, lung function, treatment, rehabilitation, surgery, ventilation, nutrition, perioperative management

  11. Gene therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaart, Ingrid E C; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke

    2012-10-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a severe neuromuscular disorder for which there is currently no cure. Years of research have come to fruition during the past 18 months with publications on clinical trials for several gene therapy approaches for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This review covers the present status of these approaches. The exon skipping approach is most advanced in the process of clinical application. Encouraging results have been obtained in two systemic clinical trials and further optimization has increased delivery to the heart in animal models. Limitations of the approach are the mutation-specificity and the anticipated requirement for lifelong treatment. Gene therapy by means of gene transfer holds the promise of more long-lasting effects. Results of a first, early-stage gene therapy trial, using viral vectors to deliver a minidystrophin gene, were reported. Animal studies suggest that it may be possible to overcome the main challenges currently facing gene therapy (immunogenicity of the vector and systemic body-wide delivery). Significant steps have been made in the development of gene therapy approaches for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. These approaches aim to slow down disease progression, requiring robust outcome measures to assess efficacy.

  12. Muscle MRI findings in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerevini, Simonetta; Scarlato, Marina; Maggi, Lorenzo; Cava, Mariangela; Caliendo, Giandomenico; Pasanisi, Barbara; Falini, Andrea; Previtali, Stefano Carlo; Morandi, Lucia

    2016-03-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is characterized by extremely variable degrees of facial, scapular and lower limb muscle involvement. Clinical and genetic determination can be difficult, as molecular analysis is not always definitive, and other similar muscle disorders may have overlapping clinical manifestations. Whole-body muscle MRI examination for fat infiltration, atrophy and oedema was performed to identify specific patterns of muscle involvement in FSHD patients (30 subjects), and compared to a group of control patients (23) affected by other myopathies (NFSHD). In FSHD patients, we detected a specific pattern of muscle fatty replacement and atrophy, particularly in upper girdle muscles. The most frequently affected muscles, including paucisymptomatic and severely affected FSHD patients, were trapezius, teres major and serratus anterior. Moreover, asymmetric muscle involvement was significantly higher in FSHD as compared to NFSHD patients. In conclusion, muscle MRI is very sensitive for identifying a specific pattern of involvement in FSHD patients and in detecting selective muscle involvement of non-clinically testable muscles. Muscle MRI constitutes a reliable tool for differentiating FSHD from other muscular dystrophies to direct diagnostic molecular analysis, as well as to investigate FSHD natural history and follow-up of the disease. Muscle MRI identifies a specific pattern of muscle involvement in FSHD patients. Muscle MRI may predict FSHD in asymptomatic and severely affected patients. Muscle MRI of upper girdle better predicts FSHD. Muscle MRI may differentiate FSHD from other forms of muscular dystrophy. Muscle MRI may show the involvement of non-clinical testable muscles.

  13. High-voltage pulsed galvanic stimulation: effects of frequency of current on blood flow in the human calf muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, M E; Gibbs, S B

    1992-06-01

    1. Twelve healthy subjects received high-voltage pulsed galvanic stimulation (115-475 V d.c.) delivered in separate treatments of 2, 32 and 128 pulses/s for 10 min at the subject's maximum tolerable voltage while calf muscle blood flow was measured by non-invasive Whitney strain-gauge venous occlusion plethysmography. 2. The high-voltage pulsed galvanic stimulation was administered with negative polarity by an intermittent mode of 30 s on, 30 s off. Measurements of calf muscle blood flow were made during each 30 s period when the stimulus was off. The effect of one 30 s maximum isometric contraction of the calf muscles on blood flow was used as a standard for evaluating the effectiveness of high-voltage pulsed galvanic stimulation on calf muscle blood flow. 3. Significant (paired t-tests; P less than 0.05) increases in calf muscle blood flow over the preceding baseline levels occurred for the isometric contraction (322%) and for frequencies of 2 pulses/s (33.5%) and 128 pulses/s (13.36%), but not for a frequency of 32 pulses at which calf muscle blood flow increased in only six of 12 subjects. The mean increases in calf muscle blood flow at 2 and 128 pulses/s represented 11.63% and 4.0%, respectively, of that resulting from the isometric contraction. 4. A clear positive correlation between voltage level and the magnitude of increase in calf muscle blood flow was demonstrated but differed for each frequency used.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Isolated tear of the tendon to the medial head of gastrocnemius presenting as a painless lump in the calf

    OpenAIRE

    Watura, Christopher; Harries, William

    2009-01-01

    We report on a case of isolated tear of the medial head of gastrocnemius tendon. The patient presented with a painless lump in the right calf and denied any prior history of trauma or strain to the leg. A longitudinal split of the tendon was demonstrated at ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There were no other abnormalities and the gastrocnemius muscle was normal. There are no reports in the literature of isolated gastrocnemius tendon tear. To date the calf muscle complex injur...

  15. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy in Brazilian children: clinical, histological and molecular characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Veloso Albuquerque

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD are a heterogeneous group of genetic muscular dystrophies, involving 16 autosomal recessive subtypes and eight autosomal dominant subtypes. Autosomal recessive dystrophy is far more common than autosomal dominant dystrophy, particularly in children. The clinical course in this group is characterized by progressive proximal weakness, initially in pelvic and after in shoulder-girdle musculature, varying from very mild to severe degree. Significant overlap of clinical phenotypes, with genetic and clinical heterogeneity, constitutes the rule for this group of diseases. Muscle biopsies are useful for histopathologic and immunolabeling studies, and DNA analysis is the gold standard to establish the specific form of muscular dystrophy. Objectives: The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical, histological and molecular aspects in children with LGMD who attend a big public neuromuscular centre in our country to determine the frequency of different forms. Method: Thirty seven patients were classified as LGMD and included in this analysis. The study period extended from 2009-2012. The female to male ratio was 3:1. The age of onset ranged from two to 13 years, mean 7,5 years. Onset in the first decade was seen in 90%. Results: The initial clinical signs included: frequent falls (22 cases, difficulty in climbing stairs (13 cases, walk on tip toes (2 cases, difficulty in rising from the floor (2 cases and difficulty on walking (1 case. The serum CK levels were high in all cases. Among the 37 patients, 15 (40,5% were classified as sarcoglycanopathies (LGMD2C-F, five (13,5% as dysferlinopathy (LGMD2B, five (13,5% as calpainopathy (LGMD2A. Mutations in LMNA gene (LGMD1B, FKRP gene (LGMDI and caveolin gene (LGMD 1C were identified in two (5,5%, two (5,5% and one patient (2,5%, respectively. In seven of 37 cases (19% it was impossible to determine specific diagnosis. Calf hypertrophy, scapular winging and scoliosis

  16. Calf injuries in professional football: Treat the patient or the scan? - A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Paulo; Kassarjian, Ara; Araújo, João Pedro; Ferreira, Ruben; Espregueira Mendes, João

    2016-09-01

    To describe a case of a professional football player with significant imaging findings despite a rather innocuous clinical presentation with gradual onset of calf pain and who was able to continue training and playing with minor medical intervention. To discuss some of the limitations of existing muscle injury grading systems and their potential to cover the full range of injury presentations for calf injuries. Case report. A professional football player was assessed by physical examination, clinical testing and imaging (MRI) after a gradual onset of a calf injury. After returning to training and competition, a follow-up of his symptoms was performed with regular ultrasound imaging assessments. A professional football player (35 years, 1.90 m, 88 kg) male, African, striker, playing in the Professional Arabian Gulf League. The discordance between the clinical presentation and the imaging findings resulted in a challenging situation regarding the decision of whether to allow the player to train and compete. In addition, existing muscle injury grading systems do not seem to cover the full range of injuries seen in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Governance for Resilience: CALFED as a Complex Adaptive Network for Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Booher

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of California's water planning and management process, known as CALFED, offers insights into governance strategies that can deal with adaptive management of environmental resources in ways that conventional bureaucratic procedures cannot. CALFED created an informal policy-making system, engaging multiple agencies and stakeholders. The research is built on data from 5 years of field work that included interviews with participants, review of documents, and observation of meetings. We argue that CALFED can be seen as a self-organizing complex adaptive network (CAN in which interactions were generally guided by collaborative heuristics. The case demonstrates several innovative governance practices, including new practices and norms for interactions among the agents, a distributed structure of information and decision making, a nonlinear planning method, self-organizing system behavior, and adaptation. An example of a resulting policy innovation, a method to provide real-time environmental use of water while protecting a reliable supply of water for agricultural and urban interests, is described. We outline how ideas about complex adaptive network governance differ from ideas about traditional governance. These differences result in ongoing tension and turbulence as they do for other self-organizing governance processes that operate in a context of traditional governance.

  18. The effect of some molecules and ions on gastric function in the milk-fed calf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, F. R.; Razig, S. A. D.

    1973-01-01

    1. The abomasum of the milk-fed calf has been examined using an adaptation of the Serial Test Meal method devised by Hunt & Spurrell (1951). The emptying process, acid secretion and pepsin secretion were studied. 2. Using serial test meals of simple solutions instilled into the abomasum via a cannula, our investigation leaves no doubt that the osmolarity of the abomasal contents significantly modifies the rate of abomasal emptying. 3. Hypotonic and isotonic solutions of sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate increase abomasal emptying but bicarbonate is most effective. 4. Increasing the concentration of solutes in the abomasal contents slows abomasal emptying. Sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, ammonium chloride and urea do not delay abomasal emptying until hypertonic concentrations are attained. Hypotonic solutions of potassium chloride, calcium chloride, glucose, lactose, hydrochloric acid and acetic acid delay abomasal emptying. 5. The results obtained in the calf show that the abomasum is under restraint probably from duodenal receptors as is the simple stomach (Hunt & Knox, 1968) and that an osmoreceptor as postulated by Hunt (1956) is an important factor in this mechanism. 6. Acid secretion is inhibited when hypertonic solutions are instilled into the abomasum. 7. Pepsin secretion is not affected by simple solutions in the abomasum. 8. Gastric function in the milk-fed calf appears to be controlled by mechanisms essentially similar to those already demonstrated in the simple stomach. PMID:4568911

  19. Duodenal ileus caused by a calf feeding nipple in a cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerspach Christian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this report was to describe duodenal obstruction caused by a rubber foreign body in a cow. Case Presentation The clinical, biochemical and ultrasonographic findings in a five-year-old Swiss Braunvieh cow with duodenal ileus caused by a calf feeding nipple are described. The main clinical signs were anorexia, ruminal tympany, decreased faecal output and abomasal reflux syndrome. Ultrasonographic examination revealed reticular hyperactivity and a dilated duodenum. A diagnosis of duodenal ileus was made and the cow underwent right-flank laparotomy, which revealed a dilation of the cranial part of the duodenum because of obstruction by a pliable foreign body. This was identified via enterotomy as a calf feeding nipple. The cow was healthy at the time of discharge four days after surgery and went on to complete a successful lactation. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first description of duodenal obstruction by a calf feeding nipple. This is an interesting case, which broadens the spectrum of the causes of duodenal ileus, which is usually caused by obstruction of the duodenum by a phytobezoar.

  20. Short-term resistance training with blood flow restriction enhances microvascular filtration capacity of human calf muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Colin; Vance, Steven; Brown, Maggie

    2010-07-01

    Resistance training increases muscle strength and endurance but may require high intensity and long duration to enhance capillarity. Vascular occlusion during low-load resistance training augments the strength and endurance gains compared with low-load resistance training alone, but in this study we investigated whether it also promotes microvascular filtration capacity, an index of capillarity. Nine healthy males performed short-term low-intensity resistance training of the calf muscles (four sets of 50 heel raises, three times a week for 4 weeks) under restricted (thigh cuff inflated to 150 mmHg on the non-dominant leg) or unrestricted (dominant leg without thigh cuff) blood flow conditions. Before and after resistance training, calf filtration capacity and resting blood flow were assessed by strain gauge plethysmography, and calf muscle strength and fatigue were assessed respectively by maximal voluntary contraction and force decline during electrically evoked ischaemic contractions in both legs. Calf filtration capacity increased by 26% in the restricted leg but did not increase significantly in the unrestricted leg. Calf muscle strength was 18% greater in the restricted leg but unchanged in the unrestricted leg. Calf muscle fatigue and resting blood flow did not change in either leg. Resistance training promoted microvascular filtration capacity, an effect that was somewhat enhanced by blood flow restriction, and could be due to increased capillarization.

  1. Threatened masculinity and muscularity: an experimental examination of multiple aspects of muscularity in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Christopher John; Gonsalkorale, Karen; Murray, Stuart B

    2013-06-01

    Two studies examined the threatened masculinity theory of male body dissatisfaction, which posits that threats to masculinity result in increased muscle dissatisfaction. In Study 1, a masculinity threat was followed by tasks examining confidence in physical ability and perceptions of current and ideal body shapes. Results showed that men who experienced a masculinity threat reported lower confidence in their physical ability and perceived themselves as less muscular than men who experienced an affirmation of their masculinity. In Study 2, men were asked to report their intention to increase muscularity and their appearance anxiety following a threat to masculinity. Results showed that men reported lower appearance anxiety and drive for muscularity when their masculinity was threatened than when their masculinity was affirmed. This apparent contradiction can be explained by noting that men may be motivated to deny appearance concerns following a threat to masculinity, as such concerns are equated with femininity. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Metabolic Myopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Am A Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Metabolic Myopathies Metabolic Myopathies Fast Facts Metabolic myopathies are rare genetic ... no family history of the condition. What are metabolic myopathies? Metabolic myopathies are genetic defects that interfere ...

  3. Surgery for scoliosis in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuk, Daniel K L; Wong, Virginia; Wraige, Elizabeth; Baxter, Peter; Cole, Ashley

    2013-02-28

    Scoliosis in people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy is usually progressive and treated with surgery. However, it is unclear whether the existing evidence is sufficiently scientifically rigorous to support a recommendation for spinal surgery for most people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and scoliosis. This is an updated review and an updated search was undertaken in which no new studies were found. To determine the effectiveness and safety of spinal surgery in people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy with scoliosis. We intended to test whether spinal surgery is effective in increasing survival, improving respiratory function, improving quality of life and overall functioning; and whether spinal surgery is associated with severe adverse effects. We searched the specialized registers of the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group (31 July 2012), MEDLINE (January 1966 to July 2012), EMBASE (January 1947 to July 2012), CENTRAL (2012, Issue 7 in the Cochrane Library), CINAHL Plus(January 1937 to July 2012), Proquest Dissertation and Thesis Database (January 1980 to July 2012), and the National Institute of Health Clinical Trials Database (July 2012). No language restrictions were imposed. We planned to include controlled clinical trials using random or quasi-random allocation of treatment evaluating all forms of spinal surgery for scoliosis in people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy in the review. The control interventions would have been no treatment, non-operative treatment, or a different form of spinal surgery. Two authors independently examined the search results and evaluated the study characteristics against inclusion criteria to decide which ones would be included in the review. On searching, 47 studies were relevant but none met the inclusion criteria for the review, because they were not clinical trials but prospective or retrospective reviews of case series. Since there were no randomized controlled clinical trials available to evaluate the effectiveness of

  4. Merosin-positive congenital muscular dystrophy: neuroimaging findings Distrofia muscular congênita merosina-positiva: achados de neuroimagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Palma da Cunha Matta

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital muscle dystrophy (CMD is a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive myopathies. It is known that CMD may affect the central nervous system (CNS. Some authors have shown that merosin-negative CMD patients may have encephalic metabolic disturbances. In order to study metabolic changes within the brain, the authors performed a magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS study in a 1-year-old girl with merosin-positive CMD (MP-CMD. MRS of brain demonstrated that NAA/Cr ratio was decreased (1.52, while Cho/Cr ratio was increased (1.78. These findings suggest that metabolic changes in CNS can also be found in patients with MP-CMD.A distrofia muscular congênita (DMC é um grupo heterogêneo de miopatias autossômicas recessivas que também podem afetar o sistema nervoso central (SNC. Alguns autores mostraram previamente que pacientes com DMC por deficiência da merosina podem apresentar alterações metabólicas no encéfalo. Com o objetivo de estudar as possíveis alterações metabólicas no SNC, os autores realizaram um estudo por ressonância magnética com espectroscopia em uma paciente de 1 ano com DMC sem deficiência da merosina. A razão NAA/Cr estava reduzida (1,52, enquanto que a razão Cho/Cr estava aumentada (1,78. Estes achados sugerem que alterações metabólicas no SNC também podem ser encontradas em pacientes com DMC merosina-positiva.

  5. Recent developments in the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and spinal muscular atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Wendy K. M.

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric neuromuscular disorders comprise a large variety of disorders that can be classified based on their neuroanatomical localization, patterns of weakness, and laboratory test results. Over the last decade, the field of translational research has been active with many ongoing clinical trials. This is particularly so in two common pediatric neuromuscular disorders: Duchenne muscular dystrophy and spinal muscular atrophy. Although no definitive therapy has yet been found, numerous active areas of research raise the potential for novel therapies in these two disorders, offering hope for improved quality of life and life expectancy for affected individuals. PMID:23634188

  6. Management of scoliosis in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and spinal muscular atrophy: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sumeet

    2016-01-01

    Scoliosis occurs in nearly all non-ambulatory children with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Non-operative treatments have not been shown to be effective at preventing progression of scoliosis. Progressive scoliosis can impact the ability of patients to sit comfortably, be cosmetically unappealing, and in severe cases exacerbate pulmonary disease. The main goal of operative treatment is to improve sitting balance and prevent progression of scoliosis. Complication rates are high and there is little data on effect of operative treatment on quality of life in children with SMA and DMD. Comprehensive multi-disciplinary pre-operative evaluations are vital to reduce the risks of operative treatment.

  7. Udder health in beef cows and its association with calf growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies outside the Nordic countries have indicated that subclinical mastitis (measured by milk somatic cell count or the California Mastitis Test), intramammary infections (IMI), or blind quarters in beef cows may have negative effects on beef calf growth. Knowledge on prevalence of such udder health problems in Swedish beef cows is scarce. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate subclinical mastitis, IMI and udder conformation in a number of beef cow herds. Production of β-lactamase in staphylococci was also investigated. Associations between certain cow factors and subclinical mastitis and IMI, and associations between cow and calf factors and 200 day calf weaning weight were also studied. The herds were visited once within a month after calving and once at weaning. Udder examination and quarter milk sampling, for somatic cell count and bacteriology, were performed in 8 to 12 cows per herd and occasion. Results Approximately 50%, 40% and 10% of the cows had subclinical mastitis, IMI, and at least one blind quarter, respectively, but the prevalence varied markedly between herds. Intramammary infections (mainly due to staphylococci) were identified in 13-16% of the milk samples. Less than 5% of the staphylococcal isolates produced β-lactamase. Approximately 11% of the cows sampled twice had the same IMI (mostly Staphylococcus aureus) at both samplings. Cow factors of importance for subclinical mastitis and/or IMI were teat and udder shape, breed, parity, presence of blind quarters, and cow hygiene. No significant associations were found between udder health parameters studied and calf weaning weights. Conclusions Subclinical mastitis and IMI, but not blind quarters, were common in beef cows, but the prevalence varied markedly between herds. Most IMI were caused by staphylococci and more than 95% of those were sensitive to penicillin. Cows with large funnel-shaped teats or pendulous udder after calving, and cows with blind quarters

  8. Views on contentious practices in dairy farming: the case of early cow-calf separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, B A; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Schuppli, C A; Weary, D M

    2013-09-01

    The public has become increasingly interested in the welfare of food animals, but the food animal industries possess few mechanisms for public engagement. Here we present results from a web-based forum designed to allow stakeholders to share views on controversial issues in dairying. In response to the question "Should dairy calves be separated from the cow within the first few hours after birth?" participants were able to indicate "yes," "no," or "neutral" and either write a reason in support of their view or select reasons provided by other participants. Four independent groups of participants were recruited (a total of 163 people); 31% said they had no involvement in the dairy industry; the remaining 69% (with some involvement in the industry) were students or teachers (33%), animal advocates (13%), producers (11%), veterinarians (9%) and other dairy industry professionals (3%). Overall, little consensus existed among participants across groups; 44% chose "yes," 48% "no," and 9% "neutral." Responses varied with demographics, with opposition to early separation higher among females, animal advocates, and those with no involvement with the dairy industry. A fifth group was recruited at a dairy industry conference (an additional 28 participants); 46% chose "yes," 32% "no," and 21% "neutral." Across all 5 groups, opponents and supporters often referenced similar issues in the reasons they provided. Opponents of early separation contended that it is emotionally stressful for the calf and cow, it compromises calf and cow health, it is unnatural, and the industry can and should accommodate cow-calf pairs. In contrast, supporters of early separation reasoned that emotional distress is minimized by separating before bonds develop, that it promotes calf and cow health, and that the industry is limited in its ability to accommodate cow-calf pairs. These results illustrate the potential of web-based forums to identify areas of agreement and conflict among stakeholders

  9. Migratory herds of wildebeests and zebras indirectly affect calf survival of giraffes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Derek E; Kissui, Bernard M; Kiwango, Yustina A; Bond, Monica L

    2016-12-01

    In long-distance migratory systems, local fluctuations in the predator-prey ratio can exhibit extreme variability within a single year depending upon the seasonal location of migratory species. Such systems offer an opportunity to empirically investigate cyclic population density effects on short-term food web interactions by taking advantage of the large seasonal shifts in migratory prey biomass.We utilized a large-mammal predator-prey savanna food web to evaluate support for hypotheses relating to the indirect effects of "apparent competition" and "apparent mutualism" from migratory ungulate herds on survival of resident megaherbivore calves, mediated by their shared predator. African lions (Panthera leo) are generalist predators whose primary, preferred prey are wildebeests (Connochaetes taurinus) and zebras (Equus quagga), while lion predation on secondary prey such as giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) may change according to the relative abundance of the primary prey species.We used demographic data from five subpopulations of giraffes in the Tarangire Ecosystem of Tanzania, East Africa, to test hypotheses relating to direct predation and indirect effects of large migratory herds on calf survival of a resident megaherbivore. We examined neonatal survival via apparent reproduction of 860 adult females, and calf survival of 449 giraffe calves, during three precipitation seasons over 3 years, seeking evidence of some effect on neonate and calf survival as a consequence of the movements of large herds of migratory ungulates.We found that local lion predation pressure (lion density divided by primary prey density) was significantly negatively correlated with giraffe neonatal and calf survival probabilities. This supports the apparent mutualism hypothesis that the presence of migratory ungulates reduces lion predation on giraffe calves.Natural predation had a significant effect on giraffe calf and neonate survival, and could significantly affect giraffe population

  10. Effect of calf-raise training on rapid force production and balance ability in elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, Ryoichi; Ohki, Shunsuke; Takayama, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Yuji; Akagi, Ryota

    2017-08-01

    This study examined whether home-based, high-speed calf-raise training changes the rate of torque development (RTD) during plantar flexion contractions and balance performance in elderly men. Thirty-four healthy elderly men (73 ± 5 yr) were randomly assigned to a training or control group (n = 17 in each group). The subjects in the training group completed 8 wk (3 times/wk) of home-based bilateral calf-raise training using body mass. Before and after the intervention, RTD during plantar flexion contractions and center-of-pressure (COP) displacement during single-leg standing were measured. Surface electromyographic amplitude of the triceps surae and tibialis anterior during the strength and single-leg standing was measured. Clinical magnitude-based inferences were used to interpret the training effect, with the smallest worthwhile effect assumed to be 0.2 of the baseline SD. The peak RTD increased 21% (90% confidence limits, ±19%) relative to the control group, which was accompanied by corresponding changes of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) and soleus (SOL) activations. The effect on COP displacement was possibly trivial (0%, ±13%), whereas substantial reduction in the MG (-19%, ±15%) and SOL (-25%, ±13%) activations during standing was observed. Our findings indicate that calf-raise training at home, performed without special equipment or venue, induces a substantial increase in the plantar flexors' rapid force-generating capability and triceps surae activations. Although the training effect on standing balance performance was not substantial, observed changes in the triceps surae activations during standing are expected to contribute to future balance performance improvement.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Calf-raise training with the intent to move rapidly, without special equipment or venue, induces an improvement of explosive plantar flexion force, which is attributable to neuromuscular rather than musculotendinous adaptations. Although the training effect on balance

  11. An Unusual Mechanism of Closure of Muscular Ventricular Septal Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soham Dasgupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ventricular septal defects (VSDs are the most common congenital heart defects. Most of the small or moderate size (<6 mm muscular VSDs close spontaneously within the first two years of life. The usual mechanism of spontaneous closure involves muscular tissue encroachment with superimposed fibrosis or primary fibrous tissue formation around the margins of the defect. We describe an unusual mechanism of spontaneous closure of a muscular VSD.

  12. Identification of three distinguishable phenotypes in golden retriever muscular dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    AMBROSIO, C. E.; FADEL, L.; GAIAD, T. P.; MARTINS, D. S.; ARAUJO, K. P. C.; ZUCCONI, E.; BROLIO, M. P.; GIGLIO, R. F.; MORINI, A. C.; JAZEDJE, T.; FROES, T. R.; FEITOSA, M. L. T.; VALADARES, M. C.; BELTRAO-BRAGA, P. C. B.; MEIRELLES, F. V.

    2009-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a human disease characterized by progressive and irreversible skeletal muscle degeneration caused by mutations in genes coding for important muscle proteins. Unfortunately, there is no efficient treatment for this disease; it causes progressive loss of motor and muscular ability until death. The canine model (golden retriever muscular dystrophy) is similar to DMD, showing similar clinical signs. Fifteen dogs were followed from birth and closely observed fo...

  13. Cognitive and Neurobehavioral Profile in Boys With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihani, Rudaina; Smile, Sharon; Yoon, Grace; Dupuis, Annie; Mosleh, Maureen; Snider, Andrea; McAdam, Laura

    2015-10-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a progressive neuromuscular condition that has a high rate of cognitive and learning disabilities as well as neurobehavioral disorders, some of which have been associated with disruption of dystrophin isoforms. Retrospective cohort of 59 boys investigated the cognitive and neurobehavioral profile of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Full-scale IQ of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Fnip1 regulates skeletal muscle fiber type specification, fatigue resistance, and susceptibility to muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Nicholas L; Banks, Glen B; Tsang, Mark; Margineantu, Daciana; Gu, Haiwei; Djukovic, Danijel; Chan, Jacky; Torres, Michelle; Liggitt, H Denny; Hirenallur-S, Dinesh K; Hockenbery, David M; Raftery, Daniel; Iritani, Brian M

    2015-01-13

    Mammalian skeletal muscle is broadly characterized by the presence of two distinct categories of muscle fibers called type I "red" slow twitch and type II "white" fast twitch, which display marked differences in contraction strength, metabolic strategies, and susceptibility to fatigue. The relative representation of each fiber type can have major influences on susceptibility to obesity, diabetes, and muscular dystrophies. However, the molecular factors controlling fiber type specification remain incompletely defined. In this study, we describe the control of fiber type specification and susceptibility to metabolic disease by folliculin interacting protein-1 (Fnip1). Using Fnip1 null mice, we found that loss of Fnip1 increased the representation of type I fibers characterized by increased myoglobin, slow twitch markers [myosin heavy chain 7 (MyH7), succinate dehydrogenase, troponin I 1, troponin C1, troponin T1], capillary density, and mitochondria number. Cultured Fnip1-null muscle fibers had higher oxidative capacity, and isolated Fnip1-null skeletal muscles were more resistant to postcontraction fatigue relative to WT skeletal muscles. Biochemical analyses revealed increased activation of the metabolic sensor AMP kinase (AMPK), and increased expression of the AMPK-target and transcriptional coactivator PGC1α in Fnip1 null skeletal muscle. Genetic disruption of PGC1α rescued normal levels of type I fiber markers MyH7 and myoglobin in Fnip1-null mice. Remarkably, loss of Fnip1 profoundly mitigated muscle damage in a murine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. These results indicate that Fnip1 controls skeletal muscle fiber type specification and warrant further study to determine whether inhibition of Fnip1 has therapeutic potential in muscular dystrophy diseases.

  15. PABPN1 gene therapy for oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A Malerba; P Klein; H Bachtarzi; S A Jarmin; G Cordova; A Ferry; V Strings; M Polay Espinoza; K Mamchaoui; S C Blumen; J Lacau St Guily; V Mouly; M Graham; G Butler-browne; D A Suhy; C Trollet; G Dickson

    2017-01-01

      Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is an autosomal dominant, late-onset muscle disorder characterized by ptosis, swallowing difficulties, proximal limb weakness and nuclear aggregates in skeletal muscles...

  16. Congenital neurogenic muscular atrophy in megaconial myopathy due to a mutation in CHKB gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Gago, Manuel; Dacruz-Alvarez, David; Pintos-Martínez, Elena; Beiras-Iglesias, Andrés; Arenas, Joaquín; Martín, Miguel Ángel; Martínez-Azorín, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Choline kinase beta gene (CHKB) mutations have been identified in Megaconial Congenital Muscular Dystrophy (MDCMC) patients, a very rare inborn error of metabolism with 21 cases reported worldwide. We report the case of a Spanish boy of Caucasian origin who presented a generalized congenital muscular hypotonia, more intense at lower limb muscles, mildly elevated creatine kinase (CK), serum aspartate transaminase (AST) and lactate. Electromyography (EMG) showed neurogenic potentials in the proximal muscles. Histological studies of a muscle biopsy showed neurogenic atrophy with enlarged mitochondria in the periphery of the fibers, and complex I deficiency. Finally, genetic analysis showed the presence of a homozygous mutation in the gene for choline kinase beta (CHKB: NM_005198.4:c.810T>A, p.Tyr270(∗)). We describe here the second Spanish patient whit mutation in CHKB gene, who despite having the same mutation, presented an atypical aspect: congenital neurogenic muscular atrophy progressing to a combined neuropathic and myopathic phenotype (mixed pattern). Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS IN EXERCISE PERFORMANCE: IMPLICATIONS FOR HORMONAL AND MUSCULAR ADAPTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weipeng Teo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Almost all physiological and biochemical processes within the human body follow a circadian rhythm (CR. In humans, the suprachiasmatic nucleus regulates sleep- wake cycle and other daily biorhythms in line with solar time. Due to such daily physiological fluctuations, several investigations on neuromuscular performance have reported a distinct CR during exercise. Generally, peak performances have been found to occur in the early evening, at approximately the peak of core body temperature. The increase in core body temperature has been found to increase energy metabolism, improve muscle compliance and facilitate actin-myosin crossbridging. In addition, steroidal hormones such as testosterone (T and cortisol (C also display a clear CR. The role of T within the body is to maintain anabolism through the process of protein synthesis. By contrast, C plays a catabolic function and is involved in the response of stress. Due to the anabolic and catabolic nature of both T and C, it has been postulated that a causal relationship may exist between the CR of T and C and muscular performance. This review will therefore discuss the effects of CR on physical performance and its implications for training. Furthermore, this review will examine the impact of muscular performance on CR in hormonal responses and whether could variations in T and C be potentially beneficial for muscular adaptation

  18. Gene Expression Profiling in Slow-Type Calf Soleus Muscle of 30 Days Space-Flown Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambara, Guido; Salanova, Michele; Ciciliot, Stefano; Furlan, Sandra; Gutsmann, Martina; Schiffl, Gudrun; Ungethuem, Ute; Volpe, Pompeo; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Blottner, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Microgravity exposure as well as chronic disuse are two main causes of skeletal muscle atrophy in animals and humans. The antigravity calf soleus is a reference postural muscle to investigate the mechanism of disuse-induced maladaptation and plasticity of human and rodent (rats or mice) skeletal musculature. Here, we report microgravity-induced global gene expression changes in space-flown mouse skeletal muscle and the identification of yet unknown disuse susceptible transcripts found in soleus (a mainly slow phenotype) but not in extensor digitorum longus (a mainly fast phenotype dorsiflexor as functional counterpart to soleus). Adult C57Bl/N6 male mice (n = 5) flew aboard a biosatellite for 30 days on orbit (BION-M1 mission, 2013), a sex and age-matched cohort were housed in standard vivarium cages (n = 5), or in a replicate flight habitat as ground control (n = 5). Next to disuse atrophy signs (reduced size and myofiber phenotype I to II type shift) as much as 680 differentially expressed genes were found in the space-flown soleus, and only 72 in extensor digitorum longus (only 24 genes in common) compared to ground controls. Altered expression of gene transcripts matched key biological processes (contractile machinery, calcium homeostasis, muscle development, cell metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress response). Some transcripts (Fzd9, Casq2, Kcnma1, Ppara, Myf6) were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Besides previous reports on other leg muscle types we put forth for the first time a complete set of microgravity susceptible gene transcripts in soleus of mice as promising new biomarkers or targets for optimization of physical countermeasures and rehabilitation protocols to overcome disuse atrophy conditions in different clinical settings, rehabilitation and spaceflight. PMID:28076365

  19. Gene Expression Profiling in Slow-Type Calf Soleus Muscle of 30 Days Space-Flown Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambara, Guido; Salanova, Michele; Ciciliot, Stefano; Furlan, Sandra; Gutsmann, Martina; Schiffl, Gudrun; Ungethuem, Ute; Volpe, Pompeo; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Blottner, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Microgravity exposure as well as chronic disuse are two main causes of skeletal muscle atrophy in animals and humans. The antigravity calf soleus is a reference postural muscle to investigate the mechanism of disuse-induced maladaptation and plasticity of human and rodent (rats or mice) skeletal musculature. Here, we report microgravity-induced global gene expression changes in space-flown mouse skeletal muscle and the identification of yet unknown disuse susceptible transcripts found in soleus (a mainly slow phenotype) but not in extensor digitorum longus (a mainly fast phenotype dorsiflexor as functional counterpart to soleus). Adult C57Bl/N6 male mice (n = 5) flew aboard a biosatellite for 30 days on orbit (BION-M1 mission, 2013), a sex and age-matched cohort were housed in standard vivarium cages (n = 5), or in a replicate flight habitat as ground control (n = 5). Next to disuse atrophy signs (reduced size and myofiber phenotype I to II type shift) as much as 680 differentially expressed genes were found in the space-flown soleus, and only 72 in extensor digitorum longus (only 24 genes in common) compared to ground controls. Altered expression of gene transcripts matched key biological processes (contractile machinery, calcium homeostasis, muscle development, cell metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress response). Some transcripts (Fzd9, Casq2, Kcnma1, Ppara, Myf6) were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Besides previous reports on other leg muscle types we put forth for the first time a complete set of microgravity susceptible gene transcripts in soleus of mice as promising new biomarkers or targets for optimization of physical countermeasures and rehabilitation protocols to overcome disuse atrophy conditions in different clinical settings, rehabilitation and spaceflight.

  20. Gene Expression Profiling in Slow-Type Calf Soleus Muscle of 30 Days Space-Flown Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Gambara

    Full Text Available Microgravity exposure as well as chronic disuse are two main causes of skeletal muscle atrophy in animals and humans. The antigravity calf soleus is a reference postural muscle to investigate the mechanism of disuse-induced maladaptation and plasticity of human and rodent (rats or mice skeletal musculature. Here, we report microgravity-induced global gene expression changes in space-flown mouse skeletal muscle and the identification of yet unknown disuse susceptible transcripts found in soleus (a mainly slow phenotype but not in extensor digitorum longus (a mainly fast phenotype dorsiflexor as functional counterpart to soleus. Adult C57Bl/N6 male mice (n = 5 flew aboard a biosatellite for 30 days on orbit (BION-M1 mission, 2013, a sex and age-matched cohort were housed in standard vivarium cages (n = 5, or in a replicate flight habitat as ground control (n = 5. Next to disuse atrophy signs (reduced size and myofiber phenotype I to II type shift as much as 680 differentially expressed genes were found in the space-flown soleus, and only 72 in extensor digitorum longus (only 24 genes in common compared to ground controls. Altered expression of gene transcripts matched key biological processes (contractile machinery, calcium homeostasis, muscle development, cell metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress response. Some transcripts (Fzd9, Casq2, Kcnma1, Ppara, Myf6 were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Besides previous reports on other leg muscle types we put forth for the first time a complete set of microgravity susceptible gene transcripts in soleus of mice as promising new biomarkers or targets for optimization of physical countermeasures and rehabilitation protocols to overcome disuse atrophy conditions in different clinical settings, rehabilitation and spaceflight.

  1. Effects of two-stage weaning with nose flap devices applied to calves on cow body condition, calf performance, and calf humoral immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippolis, K D; Ahola, J K; Mayo, C E; Fischer, M C; Callan, R J

    2016-02-01

    The effects of nose flap devices in calves before dam separation on cow BCS, pre- and postseparation calf performance, and humoral immune response were compared with traditional weaning. Primiparous and multiparous Angus and Hereford cows ( = 113) and their Angus, Hereford, and Angus × Hereford calves (179.4 ± 3.92 kg and 161 ± 22.7 d of age) were used. Cow-calf pairs were allocated to 1 of 2 treatments in a completely randomized design: 1) nose flap for 21 d before separation from the dam (NF) or 2) no nose flap for 21 d before separation from the dam (CON). Calves were separated from dams on d 0, and calves were placed in group feed-yard pens for 28 d. A subset ( = 75) of weaned calves were placed into 1 of 8 pens to evaluate DMI. Cow BCS was measured on d -21 and 56, and calves were given modified live vaccinations (d -21 and 1), challenged with ovalbumin (OVA; d 1), and weighed (d -21, 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28). In addition, blood samples were collected (d -21, 1, 14, and 28) to measure primary humoral immune response. Control calves tended to have greater BW on d 14 ( = 0.09) and 21 ( = 0.07) than NF calves, and CON calves had greater ( Serum neutralization tests for bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (BVDV-1) and bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) were used to measure humoral response to a viral vaccination. Serum antibody titers to BVDV-1 for CON calves tended ( = 0.08) to be greater on d 1 and were greater ( Serum antibody titers for BHV-1 were greater ( serum BVDV-1 and BHV-1 titers, and humoral immune response to OVA were decreased in calves that received the nose flap treatment.

  2. Cardiac involvement in patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2 and Becker muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveen, Marie-Louise; Thune, Jens Jakob; Køber, Lars

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the extent of cardiac involvement in patients with 1 of the 12 groups of recessively inherited limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2 (LGMD2A-L) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). DESIGN: Prospective screening. SETTING: Neuromuscular Clinic and Department of Cardiology ...... of dystrophic changes on muscle biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a high prevalence of cardiac involvement in patients with LGMD2I, LGMD2E, and BMD. Patients with LGMD2A, LGMD2D, and unclassified LGMD2 have a much lower and milder prevalence of cardiac involvement.......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the extent of cardiac involvement in patients with 1 of the 12 groups of recessively inherited limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2 (LGMD2A-L) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). DESIGN: Prospective screening. SETTING: Neuromuscular Clinic and Department of Cardiology......-I and in 14 of 30 patients (47%) with BMD. Only a few patients with LGMD2A and unclassified LGMD2 had mild cardiac involvement, whereas 29% and 67% of patients with LGMD2I and LGMD2E, respectively, had cardiac involvement. Cardiac involvement was not correlated with age, muscle strength, or the level...

  3. Muscular response to the first three months of deflazacort treatment in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L; Petersson, S J; Illum, N O

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients are often treated with glucocorticoids; yet their precise molecular action remains unknown. METHODS: We investigated muscle biopsies from nine boys with DMD (aged: 7,6±2,8 yrs.) collected before and after three months of deflazacort treatment...

  4. Influences of supplemental feeding on winter elk calf:cow ratios in the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Foley, Aaron; Cross, Paul C.; Christianson, David A; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Creely, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Several elk herds in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem are fed during winter to alleviate interactions with livestock, reduce damage to stored crops, and to manage for high elk numbers. The effects of supplemental feeding on ungulate population dynamics has rarely been examined, despite the fact that supplemental feeding is partially justified as necessary for maintaining or enhancing population growth rates. We used linear regression to assess how the presence of feedgrounds, snowpack, summer rainfall, indices of grizzly bear density and wolves per elk, elk population trend counts, brucellosis seroprevalence, and survey date were correlated with midwinter calf:cow ratios, a metric correlated with population growth, from 1983–2010 from 12 ecologically similar elk herd units (7 fed and 5 unfed) in Wyoming, USA. Our statistical approach allowed for rigorous tests of the hypotheses that supplemental feeding had positive effects on calf:cow ratios and reduced sensitivity of calf:cow ratios to bottom-up limitation relative to top-down limitation from native predators. Calf:cow ratios generally declined across all herd units over the study period and varied widely among units with feedgrounds. We found no evidence that the presence of feedgrounds had positive effects on midwinter calf:cow ratios in Wyoming. Further, fed elk showed stronger correlations with environmental factors, whereas calf:cow ratios for unfed elk showed stronger correlations with predator indices. Although we found no consistent association between winter feeding and higher calf:cow ratios, we did not assess late winter mortality and differences in human offtake between fed and unfed regions, which remain a priority for future research. 

  5. Short communication: Effect of calf starter on rumen pH of Holstein dairy calves at weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laarman, A H; Oba, M

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding calf starter on rumen pH of dairy calves during weaning transition. Twenty Holstein bull calves were paired into 10 blocks by starting date of the study and body weight, and fed either milk replacer and hay (MR) or MR, hay, and a commercial texturized calf starter (MR+S) in a randomized complete block design. All calves were fed 750 g/d of milk replacer as the basal diet. Calves on MR+S treatment were also fed a calf starter ad libitum to maintain similar energy intake between calves within blocks, and MR calves were fed additional milk replacer that was equivalent to energy from calf starter intake. When MR+S calves consumed a calf starter at 680 g/d for 3 consecutive d, rumen pH of a MR+S calf and his MR counterpart was measured continuously for 3 d using a small ruminant rumen pH measurement system. Treatment did not affect minimum pH, mean pH, maximum pH, standard deviation of mean pH, and duration or area under pH 5.8, indicating that calf starter consumption did not appear to affect rumen pH. However, hay intake was negatively correlated to area under pH 5.8, with a breakpoint at 0.080 kg/d intake, suggesting hay intake might play an important role in mitigating ruminal acidosis in dairy calves during weaning transition. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Muscular anatomy of the Podocoryna carnea hydrorhiza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo W Buss

    Full Text Available The muscular anatomy of the athecate hydroid Podocoryna carnea hydrorhiza is elucidated. The polyp-stolon junction is characterized by an opening, here called the chloe, in the otherwise continuous hydrorhizal perisarc. The chloe is elliptical when the polyp first arises, but takes on a more complex outline as multiple stolons anastomose to communicate with that polyp. Surrounding the polyp base are spots, here called anchors, which autofluoresce at the same wavelengths as perisarc and which, like perisarc, contain chitin as assessed by Calcofluor White, Congo Red and wheat germ agglutinin staining. Anchors remain after living tissues are digested using KOH. Collagen IV staining indicates that the mesoglea is pegged to the anchors and rhodamine phallodin staining detects cytoskeletal F-actin fibers of the basal epidermis surrounding the anchors. Longitudinal muscle fibers of the polyp broaden at the polyp base and are inserted into the mesoglea of the underlying stolon, but were neither observed to extend along the stolonal axis nor to attach to the anchors. Circular muscular fibers of the polyp extend into stolons as a dense collection of strands running along the proximal-distal axis of the stolon. These gastrodermal axial muscular fibers extend to the stolon tip. Epidermal cells at the stolon tip and the polyp bud display a regular apical latticework of F-actin staining. A similar meshwork of F-actin staining was found in the extreme basal epidermis of all stolons. Immunohistochemical staining for tubulin revealed nerves at stolon tips, but at no other hydrorhizal locations. These studies bear on the mechanisms by which the stolon tip and polyp bud pulsate, the manner in which the stolon lumen closes, and on the developmental origin of the basal epidermis of the hydrorhiza.

  7. Muscular fatigue in response to different modalities of CrossFit sessions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Maté-Muñoz

    Full Text Available CrossFit is a new strength and conditioning regimen involving short intense daily workouts called workouts of the day (WOD. This study assesses muscular fatigue levels induced by the three modalities of CrossFit WOD; gymnastics (G, metabolic conditioning (M and weightlifting (W.34 healthy subjects undertook three WOD (one per week: a G WOD consisting of completing the highest number of sets of 5 pull-ups, 10 push-ups and 15 air squats in 20 min; an M WOD, in which the maximum number of double skipping rope jumps was executed in 8 sets (20 s, resting (10 s between sets; and finally, a W WOD in which the maximum number of power cleans was executed in 5 min, lifting a load equivalent to 40% of the individual's 1RM. Before and after each WOD, blood lactate concentrations were measured. Also, before, during, and after each WOD, muscular fatigue was assessed in a countermovement jump test (CMJ.Significant reductions were produced in the mechanical variables jump height, average power and maximum velocity in response to G; and in jump height, mean and peak power, maximum velocity and maximum force in response to W (P<0.01. However, in M, significant reductions in mechanical variables were observed between pre- and mid session (after sets 2, 4, 6 and 8, but not between pre- and post session.Muscular fatigue, reflected by reduced CMJ variables, was produced following the G and W sessions, while recovery of this fatigue was observed at the end of M, likely attributable to rest intervals allowing for the recovery of phosphocreatine stores. Our findings also suggest that the high intensity and volume of exercise in G and W WODs could lead to reduced muscular-tendon stiffness causing a loss of jump ability, related here to a longer isometric phase during the CMJ.

  8. Muscular fatigue in response to different modalities of CrossFit sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maté-Muñoz, José Luis; Lougedo, Juan H; Barba, Manuel; García-Fernández, Pablo; Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel V; Domínguez, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    CrossFit is a new strength and conditioning regimen involving short intense daily workouts called workouts of the day (WOD). This study assesses muscular fatigue levels induced by the three modalities of CrossFit WOD; gymnastics (G), metabolic conditioning (M) and weightlifting (W). 34 healthy subjects undertook three WOD (one per week): a G WOD consisting of completing the highest number of sets of 5 pull-ups, 10 push-ups and 15 air squats in 20 min; an M WOD, in which the maximum number of double skipping rope jumps was executed in 8 sets (20 s), resting (10 s) between sets; and finally, a W WOD in which the maximum number of power cleans was executed in 5 min, lifting a load equivalent to 40% of the individual's 1RM. Before and after each WOD, blood lactate concentrations were measured. Also, before, during, and after each WOD, muscular fatigue was assessed in a countermovement jump test (CMJ). Significant reductions were produced in the mechanical variables jump height, average power and maximum velocity in response to G; and in jump height, mean and peak power, maximum velocity and maximum force in response to W (P<0.01). However, in M, significant reductions in mechanical variables were observed between pre- and mid session (after sets 2, 4, 6 and 8), but not between pre- and post session. Muscular fatigue, reflected by reduced CMJ variables, was produced following the G and W sessions, while recovery of this fatigue was observed at the end of M, likely attributable to rest intervals allowing for the recovery of phosphocreatine stores. Our findings also suggest that the high intensity and volume of exercise in G and W WODs could lead to reduced muscular-tendon stiffness causing a loss of jump ability, related here to a longer isometric phase during the CMJ.

  9. Muscular cysticercosis: Case report and imaging findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide Regina Simões Olmo

    Full Text Available Summary Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by a worm of the Cestoda class. The most prevalent form affects the nervous system. This case report is from a 78-year-old female patient evaluated at Clínica Mult Imagem, in the city of Santos, Brazil, who presented a form of the disease that differed from the classic neurocysticercosis, in this case muscular cysticercosis. This and other forms of manifestation justify further studies to ensure adequate recognition, diagnosis and treatment of this parasitic disease.

  10. Rehabilitation therapy of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Cheng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available It is very important that the rehabilitation therapy of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD can improve the quality of life and delay the disease progression. There are the guidelines for DMD rehabilitation therapy in some countries, but it is not emphasized by clinical doctors in our country. According to our experiences to DMD rehabilitation therapy, we reviewed the progress of DMD rehabilitation therapy. It includes the clinical stages and characteristics of DMD, the general principle and the common therapy methods of DMD rehabilitation. We hope this review may increase recognizing to DMD rehabilitation therapy for the clinical doctors and DMD family members.

  11. Diagnóstico diferencial das distrofias musculares com referência especial às alterações enzimáticas Differential diagnosis of muscular dystrophies with special reference to enzymatic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Heick

    1967-06-01

    ços musculares, tais fibras freqüentemente apresentam alterações idênticas às encontráveis nas distrofias musculares miopáticas hereditárias.The enzymes ALD, CPK, GOT, CPT, LDH and MDH were studied in the serum of 221 patients suffering from progressive muscular dystrophy and in 43 cases of infantile and pseudomyopathic muscular dystrophy. Besides, the activity of 25 enzymes was measured in the muscular tissue. All findings were statistically revised. Serum enzymes are increased in all of the 3 types of muscular dystrophy; in most cases of the Duchenne type, however, many times over the other types. The difference is not specific, but can be explained by the considerably more marked progression of muscle degeneration in the Duchenne type. The enzyme increases are already existent at birth and reach a maximum before clinical manifestation of the disease. The activities of all serum enzymes decrease with longer duration of the disease. This phenomenon also occurs in the majority of all serum enzymes. Up to now, modifications indicating a specific abnormality of metabolism could not be stated. Likewise in spinal muscular atrophies of the Kugelberg-Welander type, there appear the same enzyme losses in the muscle and significant increases of the enzyme activities in serum can be demonstrated. This does not apply to the infantile forms of Werdnig-Hoffmann type and this fact might be explained by the almost complete motorial inactivation. The hypothesis that the efflux of enzymes from the muscular cell might point to a disordered membrane permeability as initial process of muscular dystrophies, is likewise refuted by finding necrotic muscular fibers, already in the earliest preclinical stage of the disease. The serum enzyme findings are of limited value for establishing a clinical differential diagnosis. Only extremely marked increases of activity do reliably point to the Duchenne type.

  12. Application of alternative anthropometric measurements to predict metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Sagun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The association between rarely used anthropometric measurements (e.g., mid-upper arm, forearm, and calf circumference and metabolic syndrome has not been proven. The aim of this study was to assess whether mid-upper arm, forearm, calf, and waist circumferences, as well as waist/height ratio and waist-to-hip ratio, were associated with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: We enrolled 387 subjects (340 women, 47 men who were admitted to the obesity outpatient department of Istanbul Medeniyet University Goztepe Training and Research Hospital between September 2010 and December 2010. The following measurements were recorded: waist circumference, hip circumference, waist/height ratio, waist-to-hip ratio, mid-upper arm circumference, forearm circumference, calf circumference, and body composition. Fasting blood samples were collected to measure plasma glucose, lipids, uric acid, insulin, and HbA1c. RESULTS: The odds ratios for visceral fat (measured via bioelectric impedance, hip circumference, forearm circumference, and waist circumference/hip circumference were 2.19 (95% CI, 1.30-3.71, 1.89 (95% CI, 1.07-3.35, 2.47 (95% CI, 1.24-4.95, and 2.11(95% CI, 1.26-3.53, respectively. The bioelectric impedance-measured body fat percentage correlated with waist circumference only in subjects without metabolic syndrome; the body fat percentage was negatively correlated with waist circumference/hip circumference in the metabolic syndrome group. All measurements except for forearm circumference were equally well correlated with the bioelectric impedance-measured body fat percentages in both groups. Hip circumference was moderately correlated with bioelectric impedance-measured visceral fat in subjects without metabolic syndrome. Muscle mass (measured via bioelectric impedance was weakly correlated with waist and forearm circumference in subjects with metabolic syndrome and with calf circumference in subjects without metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION: Waist

  13. Botulinum toxin a does not decrease calf pain or improve ROM during limb lengthening: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Ryu, Keun Jung; Shin, Dong Eun; Kim, Hyun Woo

    2014-12-01

    During lower limb lengthening, distraction-induced muscle pain and surrounding joint contractures are frustrating complications for which few effective treatments are available. We evaluated Botulinum Toxin Type A (BtX-A) injection in the calf muscles during human tibial distraction osteogenesis. We hypothesized that it may decrease calf pain and increase ROM of the surrounding joints by reducing muscle stiffness. Between April 2010 and January 2011, we evaluated 36 patients undergoing bilateral tibia lengthening who met prespecified inclusion criteria. All patients underwent stature lengthening with lengthening over a nail or lengthening and then nailing. BtX-A (200 IU) was injected at the calf muscle only in one leg for each patient and the same amount of sterile normal saline was injected into the other leg as a control. Selection of the leg receiving the toxin was randomized. Clinical evaluation included a VAS score for calf pain and measurement of ROM of the knees and ankles and calf circumference, with evaluations performed in a double-blinded manner. Side-to-side differences were analyzed until the end of consolidation phase. Minimum followup was 24 months (mean, 30 months; range, 24-39 months). The distraction rate and the final length gain were similar in the treated and control limbs. A priori power analysis suggested that 34 legs were required to achieve statistical significance of 0.05 with 80% of power to detect a 50% difference in treatment effect between treatment and control groups. There were no differences in calf pain, knee and ankle ROM, and maximal calf circumferences between the two legs at each time point. Local injection of 200 IU BtX-A at the human calf muscle does not appear to reduce calf pain or help enhance ROM of the knee and ankle during tibial lengthening. However, the small sample size provided sufficient power to detect only relatively large clinical effects; future, larger trials will be needed to determine whether smaller

  14. [Neuro-muscular apparatus state in lumbosacral radiculopathy in miners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battakova, Sh B; Amanbekov, U A; Otarbaeva, M B; Fazylova, M D; Sraĭmanov, K S; Miianova, G A; Kozhakhmetova, K M

    2008-01-01

    Based on clinical and electrophysiologic studies, the authors analysed neuro-muscular apparatus of "spinal center--periphery" axis for miners with radicular pain caused by occupational lumbosacral radiculopathy. Findings are that constantly irritated receptors in lumbar motor segment during occupational activities alter habitual motor stereotype and cause specific compensatory muscular reactions, rearrangement of motor activity in segmental apparatus.

  15. Dysphagia in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Assessed by Validated Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Sally K.; Garrod, Rachel; Hart, Nicholas; Miller, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Background: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) leads to progressive muscular weakness and death, most typically from respiratory complications. Dysphagia is common in DMD; however, the most appropriate swallowing assessments have not been universally agreed and the symptoms of dysphagia remain under-reported. Aims: To investigate symptoms of…

  16. Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy prevalence in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-07-28

    Jul 28, 1993 ... A genetic service for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) was initiated in. Cape Town in 1987. Of the 143 DMD patients diagnosed during the period 1987-1992, 66 had a familial pattern of inheritance and 77 were apparently sporadic. Twenw BMD patients were ...

  17. Morphologic imaging in muscular dystrophies and inflammatory myopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degardin, Adrian; Lacour, Arnaud; Vermersch, Patrick [CHU de Lille, Clinique neurologique, Lille (France); Morillon, David; Cotten, Anne [CHRU de Lille, Service de Radiologie Osteoarticulaire, Hopital Roger Salengro, Lille (France); Stojkovic, Tanya [G-H Pitie-Salpetriere, Institut de Myologie, Paris (France)

    2010-12-15

    To determine if magnetic resonance imaging (MR imaging) is useful in the diagnostic workup of muscular dystrophies and idiopathic inflammatory myopathies for describing the topography of muscle involvement. MR imaging was performed in 31 patients: 8 with dystrophic myotony types 1 (n = 4) or 2 (n = 4); 11 with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, including dysferlinopathy, calpainopathy, sarcoglycanopathy, and dystrophy associated with fukutin-related protein mutation; 3 with Becker muscular dystrophy; and 9 with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, including polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and sporadic inclusion body myositis. Analysis of T1 images enabled us to describe the most affected muscles and the muscles usually spared for each muscular disease. In particular, examination of pelvis, thigh, and leg muscles demonstrated significant differences between the muscular diseases. On STIR images, hyperintensities were present in 62% of our patients with muscular dystrophies. A specific pattern of muscular involvement was established for each muscular disease. Hyperintensities observed on STIR images precede fatty degeneration and are not specific for inflammatory myopathies. (orig.)

  18. Limb girdle muscular dystrophy: reappraisal of a rejected entity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooi, A. J.; de Visser, M.; Barth, P. G.

    1994-01-01

    The term limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) has been introduced to delineate a distinct form of muscular dystrophy with predominantly proximal upper and lower extremity weakness. Families with evidence of both autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant modes of inheritance have been described.

  19. Clinico-epidemiologic characteristics of spinal muscular atrophy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    Abstract Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by progressive hypotonia and muscular weakness because of progressive degeneration of alpha motor neuron from anterior horn cells in the spinal cord. It is inherited by an autosomal recessive pattern. The precise frequency of SMA in Egypt has not been ...

  20. Clinico-epidemiologic characteristics of spinal muscular atrophy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by progressive hypotonia and muscular weakness because of progressive degeneration of alpha motor neuron from anterior horn cells in the spinal cord. It is inherited by an autosomal recessive pattern. The precise frequency of SMA in Egypt has not been determined.

  1. A unifying genetic model for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmers, R.J.; Vliet, P.J.C. Van; Klooster, R.; Sacconi, S.; Camano, P.; Dauwerse, J.G.; Snider, L.; Straasheijm, K.R.; Ommen, G.J.B. van; Padberg, G.W.A.M.; Miller, D.G.; Tapscott, S.J.; Tawil, R.; Frants, R.R.; Maarel, S.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a common form of muscular dystrophy in adults that is foremost characterized by progressive wasting of muscles in the upper body. FSHD is associated with contraction of D4Z4 macrosatellite repeats on chromosome 4q35, but this contraction is pathogenic

  2. Hip, thigh and calf muscle atrophy and bone loss after 5-week bedrest inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Hans E; Eiken, Ola; Miklavcic, Lucijan; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2007-02-01

    Unloaded inactivity induces atrophy and functional deconditioning of skeletal muscle, especially in the lower extremities. Information is scarce, however, regarding the effect of unloaded inactivity on muscle size and function about the hip. Regional bone loss has been demonstrated in hips and knees of elderly orthopaedic patients, as quantified by computerized tomography (CT). This method remains to be validated in healthy individuals rendered inactive, including real or simulated weightlessness. In this study, ten healthy males were subjected to 5 weeks of experimental bedrest and five matched individuals served as ambulatory controls. Maximum voluntary isometric hip and knee extension force were measured using the strain gauge technique. Cross-sectional area (CSA) of hip, thigh and calf muscles, and radiological density (RD) of the proximal tibial bone were measured using CT. Bedrest decreased (P muscle strength by 20 (8)% in knee extension, and by 22 (12)% in hip extension. Bedrest induced atrophy (P muscles in the gluteal region, thigh and calf, ranging from 2 to 12%. Atrophy was more pronounced in the knee extensors [9 (4)%] and ankle plantar flexors [12 (3)%] than in the gluteal extensor muscles [2 (2)%]. Bone density of the proximal tibia decreased (P muscle or bone indices (P > 0.05), when examined at similar time intervals. The present findings of a substantial loss in hip extensor strength and a smaller, yet significant atrophy of these muscles, demonstrate that hip muscle deconditioning accompanies losses in thigh and calf muscle mass after bedrest. This suggests that comprehensive quantitative studies on impaired locomotor function after inactivity should include all joints of the lower extremity. Our results also demonstrate that a decreased RD, indicating bone mineral loss, can be shown already after 5 weeks of unloaded bedrest, using a standard CT technique.

  3. The influence of protein free calf blood extract eye gel on dry eye after pterygium surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Ni Ji

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the influence of protein free calf blood extract eye gel on dry eye after pterygium surgery. METHODS: Thirty six patients(40 eyeswith primary nasal pterygium were enrolled in this study, which were divided into study group and control group randomly, with 20 eyes in each group. All patients received pterygium excision and limbal stem cell autograft surgery and tobramicin dexamethasone eye drops after surgery. Patients of the study group received protein free calf blood extract eye gel while those of the control group received 0.1% sodium hyaluronate eye drops furthermore. Ocular surface disease index(OSDIquestionnaire, tear film break-up time(BUTand Schirmer's Ⅰ test Ⅰ(SⅠtwere carried before and 3 months after surgery to evaluate the dry eye degree of the patients. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference between the age, gender and size of the pterygium of the study and control groups preoperatively. There was no statistical difference between the OSDI(2.33±1.02 vs 2.32±0.93, BUT(8.80±2.48 vs 8.35±2.28seconds and SⅠt(4.30±2.30 vs 4.40±2.44of the two groups preoperatively. There was statistical difference between the OSDI(1.45±0.47 vs 1.81±0.60, BUT(11.20±2.07 vs 9.50±2.40seconds and SⅠt(8.35±3.13 vs 6.35±2.18of the two groups 3 months postoperatively, which was also different from that of the preoperative data correspondingly. CONCLUSION: Protein free calf blood extract eye gel could reduce the dry eye after pterygium surgery.

  4. Clinical efficacy of florfenicol in the treatment of calf respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, V; Maden, M; Erganis, O; Birdane, F M; Corlu, M

    2002-02-01

    This paper reports on a study of the aetiology of calf pneumonia and the clinical efficacy of florfenicol, a new antibiotic in Turkey. Twenty-seven weaned and unweaned calves (13 males and 14 females) between 1 and 16 months of age brought to the clinics of Selçuk University, Faculty of Veterinary Science. Broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples were taken from the animals diagnosed to have upper respiratory tract infection associated with bronchitis (N=2), bronchitis (N=5), bronchopneumonia (N=4), pneumonia (N=3), pleuropneumonia (N=11), bronchopneumonia plus pulmonary oedema (N=2) based on the results of the clinical and laboratory examinations. Then microbiological isolation and antibiotic culturing were performed. The animals were treated with 1 ml/15 kg (20 mg/kg) florfenicol (Nuflor, DIF) twice within 48 hours via intramuscular injection. At the end of the treatment, 23 of the weaned and unweaned calves were completely healed, 1 calf had died and 3 calves showed no healing. The results of BAL samples and microbiological examinations of the 3 calves that did not respond to the treatment indicated that these cases were affected by mixed infections of yeasts, fungi, and bacteria. Widespread pleuropneumonia was observed. According to the results of the microbiological examination of the BAL samples, Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica had the highest isolation rate (25%) compared with the other isolated bacteria, namely, Klebsiella pneumonia (20%), Actinomyces pyogenes (15%), beta-hemolytic streptococci. (10%), Staphylococcus spp. (5%), and E. coli (5%). The study also revealed fungi [Penicillum spp. (5%) and Aspergillus spp. (5%)] and two calves (10%) had a yeast infection.. We conclude that florfenicol has a high bacteriological and clinical efficacy (100% and 96% respectively) in the treatment of calf respiratory tract diseases.

  5. Calf Augmentation and Restoration: Long-Term Results and the Review of the Reported Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niechajev, Igor; Krag, Christen

    2017-10-01

    Augmentation or reconstruction of the calves is indicated in patients with thin legs, for bodybuilders, or when there is a defect after an injury or illness. The principle of placing implants under the investing crural fascia was worked out in the 1980s. The senior author (I.N.) introduced many technical modifications and improvements for this operation, among them the new instrument, an inserter for the calf implants. Presented patient material is unique in that the more challenging reconstructive cases almost equal the numbers of the aesthetic cases. During the years 1991 through 2016, 50 patients underwent 60 calf contour corrections. Indications were aesthetic in 23 patients, six were bodybuilders, and 21 underwent lower leg reconstruction because of deformity caused by illness. According to evaluation by the surgeon, excellent-to-good results were obtained in 30 out of 37 followed patients. Patients rated their results as very good (18), good (10), acceptable (7) and bad (2). One 28-year-old professional bodybuilder sustained acute anterior compartment syndrome in one leg. Implants were removed 16 h after surgery, but he developed ischaemia in the anterior compartment leading to the necrosis of muscles. After several surgical operations, including microsurgical transfer of the innervated central caput of the quadriceps femoris muscle, he could resume his bodybuilding activities. Other complications were minor and manageable. Calf augmentation, performed properly, has evolved to be a safe, efficient and aesthetically pleasing operation. The possibility of acute compartment syndrome should be kept in mind. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  6. Trailer microclimate and calf welfare during fall-run transportation of beef calves in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhawk, C; Janzen, E; González, L A; Crowe, T; Kastelic, J; Pajor, E; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S

    2014-11-01

    Twenty-four commercial loads of beef calves (BW 300 ± 52 kg, mean ± SD) were evaluated for associations among transportation factors, in-transit microclimate, and calf welfare. Transport factors evaluated included vehicle speed, space allowance, compartment within trailer, and transit duration. Calves were transported for 7 h 44 min ± 4 h 15 min, with space allowances ranging from 0.56 to 1.17 m(2)/animal. Compartment within trailer, space allowance, and vehicle speed did not affect the difference between compartment ceiling-level and ambient temperatures during a 30-min period of steady-state microclimate. During the steady-state period, a 1°C increase in ambient temperature above the mean of 5.6°C was associated with a 0.62°C decrease in the difference between ceiling-level and ambient temperature (P calves arrived in good condition and biochemical indicators of calf welfare were within reference ranges for healthy cattle. Within the study population, high pre-transport cortisol and hematocrit were associated with elevated post-transport values (P weaning to loading interval (24 or 48 h) decreased transportation shrink by 0.26 ± 0.04% when average animal-level temperature was greater than 5°C and decreased transportation shrink by 0.11 ± 0.04% when average animal-level temperature was less than 5°C (P post-transport treatment for disease. The study also provided correction factors for estimating in-transit microclimate that could assist in evaluation of transportation management and decisions affecting profitability and calf welfare.

  7. Serum biochemical activities and muscular soreness in transported goats administered with ascorbic acid during the hot-dry season

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    Ndazo S Minka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of handling, loading and 12 h of road transportation during the hot-dry season on muscular metabolism of 20 experimental goats administered orally with 100 mg/kg body weight of ascorbic acid (AA dissolved in 10 ml of sterile water, and other 20 control goats given equivalent of sterile water 40 min prior to transportation were investigated. The result obtained post-transportation showed that handling, loading and transportation were stressful to the goats, especially the control goats and resulted into muscular damage and the development of delayed-onset-muscular-soreness (DOMS, which may lead to dark-firm-dry (DFD syndrome meat with undesirable effects on its quality. In the experimental goats administered AA such transportation effects were minimal or completely abolished. The result demonstrated that AA reduced the incidence of DOMS and muscular damage in transported goats, therefore it may be used to improve the welfare and quality of meat obtained from goats subjected to long period of road transportation under adverse climatic conditions.

  8. Depressive symptoms and muscular fitness contribute independently to the ability to perform daily life activities in people with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Sienaert, Pascal; Wyckaert, Sabine; De Hert, Marc; Richards, Justin; Kinyanda, Eugene; Probst, Michel

    2016-08-01

    Compared with healthy controls, people with bipolar disorder experience muscle weakness. The extent to which muscle weakness influences the performance of daily life activities such as walking in people with bipolar disorder requiring hospitalization is unclear. The primary aim of the current study was to explore whether depressive symptoms and muscular fitness independently contribute to the walking capacity in people with bipolar disorder. A secondary aim was to identify variables that could explain the variability in muscular fitness. Forty-two inpatients with bipolar disorder performed a standing broad jump test (SBJ), a measure of muscular performance, and the six minute walk test (6MWT) in addition to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), the Depressive Symptomatology Self Report (QIDS) and a full-fasting metabolic screening. The correlation between the 6MWT (595.0 ± 127.3m) and SBJ (126.2 ± 48.6m) was high (r = 0.72, p bipolar disorder. Thus, muscular rehabilitation strategies might offer a strategy for improving performance of daily life activities in this group.

  9. Diagnosis and etiology of congenital muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, R A; Smith, J M; Compton, A G; Baker, N L; Pace, R A; Burkin, D J; Kaufman, S J; Lamandé, S R; North, K N

    2008-07-29

    We aimed to determine the frequency of all known forms of congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) in a large Australasian cohort. We screened 101 patients with CMD with a combination of immunofluorescence, Western blotting, and DNA sequencing to identify disease-associated abnormalities in glycosylated alpha-dystroglycan, collagen VI, laminin alpha2, alpha7-integrin, and selenoprotein. A total of 45% of the CMD cohort were assigned to an immunofluorescent subgroup based on their abnormal staining pattern. Abnormal staining for glycosylated alpha-dystroglycan was present in 25% of patients, and approximately half of these had reduced glycosylated alpha-dystroglycan by Western blot. Sequencing of the FKRP, fukutin, POMGnT1, and POMT1 genes in all patients with abnormal alpha-dystroglycan immunofluorescence identified mutations in one patient for each of these genes and two patients had mutations in POMT2. Twelve percent of patients had abnormalities in collagen VI immunofluorescence, and we identified disease-causing COL6 mutations in eight of nine patients in whom the genes were sequenced. Laminin alpha2 deficiency accounted for only 8% of CMD. alpha7-Integrin staining was absent in 12 of 45 patients studied, and ITGA7 gene mutations were excluded in all of these patients. We define the distribution of different forms of congenital muscular dystrophy in a large cohort of mixed ethnicity and demonstrate the utility and limitations of current diagnostic techniques.

  10. Muscle MRI findings in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerevini, Simonetta; Caliendo, Giandomenico; Falini, Andrea [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Neuroradiology Unit, Head and Neck Department, Milan (Italy); Scarlato, Marina; Previtali, Stefano Carlo [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Neurology, INSPE and Division of Neuroscience, Milan (Italy); Maggi, Lorenzo; Pasanisi, Barbara; Morandi, Lucia [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico ' ' Carlo Besta' ' , Neuromuscular Diseases and Neuroimmunology Unit, Milan (Italy); Cava, Mariangela [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Radiology and Center for Experimental Imaging, Milan (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is characterized by extremely variable degrees of facial, scapular and lower limb muscle involvement. Clinical and genetic determination can be difficult, as molecular analysis is not always definitive, and other similar muscle disorders may have overlapping clinical manifestations. Whole-body muscle MRI examination for fat infiltration, atrophy and oedema was performed to identify specific patterns of muscle involvement in FSHD patients (30 subjects), and compared to a group of control patients (23) affected by other myopathies (NFSHD). In FSHD patients, we detected a specific pattern of muscle fatty replacement and atrophy, particularly in upper girdle muscles. The most frequently affected muscles, including paucisymptomatic and severely affected FSHD patients, were trapezius, teres major and serratus anterior. Moreover, asymmetric muscle involvement was significantly higher in FSHD as compared to NFSHD patients. In conclusion, muscle MRI is very sensitive for identifying a specific pattern of involvement in FSHD patients and in detecting selective muscle involvement of non-clinically testable muscles. Muscle MRI constitutes a reliable tool for differentiating FSHD from other muscular dystrophies to direct diagnostic molecular analysis, as well as to investigate FSHD natural history and follow-up of the disease. (orig.)

  11. Congenital muscular dystrophy with inflammation: Diagnostic considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaumudi Konkay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Muscle biopsy features of congenital muscular dystrophies (CMD vary from usual dystrophic picture to normal or nonspecific myopathic picture or prominent fibrosis or striking inflammatory infiltrate, which may lead to diagnostic errors. A series of patients of CMD with significant inflammatory infiltrates on muscle biopsy were correlated with laminin α 2 deficiency on immunohistochemistry (IHC. Material and Methods: Cryostat sections of muscle biopsies from the patients diagnosed as CMD on clinical and muscle biopsy features from 1996 to 2014 were reviewed with hematoxylin and eosin(H&E, enzyme and immunohistochemistry (IHC with laminin α 2. Muscle biopsies with inflammatory infiltrate were correlated with laminin α 2 deficiency. Results: There were 65 patients of CMD, with inflammation on muscle biopsy in 16. IHC with laminin α 2 was available in nine patients, of which six showed complete absence along sarcolemma (five presented with floppy infant syndrome and one with delayed motor milestones and three showed discontinuous, and less intense staining. Conclusions: CMD show variable degrees of inflammation on muscle biopsy. A diagnosis of laminin α 2 deficient CMD should be considered in patients of muscular dystrophy with inflammation, in children with hypotonia/delayed motor milestones.

  12. Upper Girdle Imaging in Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio; Monforte, Mauro; Iannaccone, Elisabetta; Laschena, Francesco; Ottaviani, Pierfrancesco; Leoncini, Emanuele; Boccia, Stefania; Galluzzi, Giuliana; Pelliccioni, Marco; Masciullo, Marcella; Frusciante, Roberto; Mercuri, Eugenio; Ricci, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    Background In Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), the upper girdle is early involved and often difficult to assess only relying on physical examination. Our aim was to evaluate the pattern and degree of involvement of upper girdle muscles in FSHD compared with other muscle diseases with scapular girdle impairment. Methods We propose an MRI protocol evaluating neck and upper girdle muscles. One hundred-eight consecutive symptomatic FSHD patients and 45 patients affected by muscular dystrophies and myopathies with prominent upper girdle involvement underwent this protocol. Acquired scans were retrospectively analyzed. Results The trapezius (100% of the patients) and serratus anterior (85% of the patients) were the most and earliest affected muscles in FSHD, followed by the latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major, whilst spinati and subscapularis (involved in less than 4% of the patients) were consistently spared even in late disease stages. Asymmetry and hyperintensities on short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences were common features, and STIR hyperintensities could also be found in muscles not showing signs of fatty replacement. The overall involvement appears to be disease-specific in FSHD as it significantly differed from that encountered in the other myopathies. Conclusions The detailed knowledge of single muscle involvement provides useful information for correctly evaluating patients' motor function and to set a baseline for natural history studies. Upper girdle imaging can also be used as an additional tool helpful in supporting the diagnosis of FSHD in unclear situations, and may contribute with hints on the currently largely unknown molecular pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:24932477

  13. Emerging drugs for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Vinod; Rodino-Klapac, Louise R; Mendell, Jerry R

    2012-06-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common, severe childhood form of muscular dystrophy. Treatment is limited to glucocorticoids that have the benefit of prolonging ambulation by approximately 2 years and preventing scoliosis. Finding a more satisfactory treatment should focus on maintaining long-term efficacy with a minimal side effect profile. Authors discuss different therapeutic strategies that have been used in pre-clinical and clinical settings. Multiple treatment approaches have emerged. Most attractive are molecular-based therapies that can express the missing dystrophin protein (exon skipping or mutation suppression) or a surrogate gene product (utrophin). Other approaches include increasing the strength of muscles (myostatin inhibitors), reducing muscle fibrosis and decreasing oxidative stress. Additional targets include inhibiting NF-κB to reduce inflammation or promoting skeletal muscle blood flow and muscle contractility using phosphodiesterase inhibitors or nitric oxide (NO) donors. The potential for each of these treatment strategies to enter clinical trials is a central theme of discussion. The review emphasizes that the goal of treatment should be to find a product at least as good as glucocorticoids with a lower side effect profile or with a significant glucocorticoid sparing effect.

  14. The superhealing MRL background improves muscular dystrophy

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    Heydemann Ahlke

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mice from the MRL or “superhealing” strain have enhanced repair after acute injury to the skin, cornea, and heart. We now tested an admixture of the MRL genome and found that it altered the course of muscle pathology and cardiac function in a chronic disease model of skeletal and cardiac muscle. Mice lacking γ-sarcoglycan (Sgcg, a dystrophin-associated protein, develop muscular dystrophy and cardiomyopathy similar to their human counterparts with limb girdle muscular dystrophy. With disruption of the dystrophin complex, the muscle plasma membrane becomes leaky and muscles develop increased fibrosis. Methods MRL/MpJ mice were bred with Sgcg mice, and cardiac function was measured. Muscles were assessed for fibrosis and membrane leak using measurements of hydroxyproline and Evans blue dye. Quantitative trait locus mapping was conducted using single nucleotide polymorphisms distinct between the two parental strains. Results Introduction of the MRL genome reduced fibrosis but did not alter membrane leak in skeletal muscle of the Sgcg model. The MRL genome was also associated with improved cardiac function with reversal of depressed fractional shortening and the left ventricular ejection fraction. We conducted a genome-wide analysis of genetic modifiers and found that a region on chromosome 2 was associated with cardiac, diaphragm muscle and abdominal muscle fibrosis. Conclusions These data are consistent with a model where the MRL genome acts in a dominant manner to suppress fibrosis in this chronic disease setting of heart and muscle disease.

  15. EFFECT OF MUSCLE ENERGY TECHNIQUE ON FLEXIBILITY OF HAMSTRING AND CALF MUSCLES AND SPRINTING PERFORMANCE IN SPRINTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prasad Naik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Muscle energy technique is used for restoring normal tone in hypertonic muscles, strengthening weak muscles, preparing muscle for subsequent stretching, one of the main uses of this method is to normalize joint range which may help in increase flexibility and performance in sprinters. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of muscle energy technique on flexibility of hamstrings and calf muscles and sprinting performance in sprinters. The objective of the study is to determine the muscle energy technique on hamstrings and calf muscle flexibility and sprinting performance in sprinters by using goniometer and timing of sprinting performance. Method: The study design is an experimental study in which 30 male sprinters were recruited in this study. The study sample included all male healthy sprinters, aged between 15 -30 years. All subjects received warm up, muscle energy technique and cool down exercises daily for a period of 6weeks.The outcome measures are 90°-90°popliteal angle for assessing hamstring flexibility and ROM of ankle joint for calf muscles by universal goniometer and sprinting performance time by using stopwatch. Results: Independent t-test and paired t- test are used to analyse the data. A significant difference was found between pre and post values of hamstring and calf muscle flexibility and sprinting performance after the analysis in this study. Conclusion: This study shows that there was a significant effect of MET on hamstring and calf muscle flexibility and sprinting performance.

  16. Effect of a static calf-stretching exercise on the resistive torque during passive ankle dorsiflexion in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, I W; Chesworth, B M; Vandervoort, A A

    1999-02-01

    A within-subject experimental design was used with to measure the effect of calf-stretching exercises on the resistive torque during passive ankle dorsiflexion in a group of 20 healthy men (aged 21 to 40). The purpose of this study was to determine if the performance of calf-stretching exercises would produce a decrease in resistive torque during passive ankle dorsiflexion. Calf-stretching exercises are widely used in sporting, fitness, and rehabilitation settings yet the effects of stretching on the passive mechanics of the ankle joint are not well understood. A KIN-COM isokinetic dynamometer was used to measure the passive resistive torque of the ankle while the joint complex was moved through return cycles from 10 degrees plantarflexion to 10 degrees dorsiflexion at a constant velocity of 6 degrees/s. Each subject's right or left ankle was randomly assigned to either a control or an experimental condition. The latter underwent a total of 4 static stretches, each lasting 30 seconds. The main findings of the study were that the calf-stretching exercises did not produce a significant reduction in the resistive torque during ankle dorsiflexion, as measured by the peak to peak torque at 10 degrees of ankle dorsiflexion or in the center range of the hysteresis loop at 0 degree dorsiflexion. Static calf-stretching exercises of short duration did not reduce the passive resistance of the connective tissue within the surrounding muscle and joint structures in the ankles of healthy young men.

  17. Venous capacity, venous refill time and the effectiveness of the calf muscle pump in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendsen, G J; van den Berg, J W

    1984-03-01

    With strain gauge plethysmography various procedures to assess the competence of the venous system in the lower leg were compared in 10 normal subjects. The reproducibility and ease of use were established, and normal values were obtained. It is concluded, that measurements in the sitting position are preferable to those in the standing position. To measure the venous capacity, the dependency test is the method of choice. Rhythmic exercise to assess the effectiveness of the calf muscle pump can be restricted to five successive contractions. The refill time after exercise is not a suitable parameter to assess the competence of the venous valves.

  18. Fetal calf serum-free culture of Chinese hamster ovary cells employing fish serum

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiwara, M.; Tsukada, R.; Tsujinaga, Y.; Takagi, M

    2007-01-01

    The effects of fish serum on cell growth and human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) production in an adhesion culture of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells DR1000L4N were investigated and compared with those of fetal calf serum (FCS). Although fish serum did not stimulate the initial adhesion of CHO cells to culture dishes, it prompted cell growth after cell adhesion with FCS for 24 h. The cell density in the fish serum medium reached 75% that in the FCS medium. Fish ...

  19. Relative rates of biosynthesis of collagen type I, type V and type VI in calf cornea.

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, P.; Menasche, M.; Robert, L

    1991-01-01

    The biosynthesis of type I, type V and type VI collagens was studied by incubation of calf corneas in vitro with [3H]proline as a marker. Pepsin-solubilized collagen types were isolated by salt fractionation and quantified by SDS/PAGE. Expressed as proportions of the total hydroxyproline solubilized, corneal stroma comprised 75% type I, 8% type V and 17% type VI collagen. The rates of [3H]proline incorporation, linear up to 24 h for each collagen type, were highest for type VI collagen and lo...

  20. Spectroscopic and molecular docking studies on the interaction of antiviral drug nevirapine with calf thymus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Neda Hosseinpour; Salehzadeh, Sadegh; Shahabadi, Nahid

    2017-09-02

    The interaction of calf thymus DNA with nevirapine at physiological pH was studied by using absorption, circular dichroism, viscosity, differential pulse voltammetry, fluorescence techniques, salt effect studies and computational methods. The drug binds to ct-DNA in a groove binding mode, as shown by slight variation in the viscosity of ct-DNA. Furthermore, competitive fluorimetric studies with Hoechst 33258 indicate that nevirapine binds to DNA via groove binding. Moreover, the structure of nevirapine was optimized by DFT calculations and was used for the molecular docking calculations. The molecular docking results suggested that nevirapine prefers to bind on the minor groove of ct-DNA.

  1. Delayed resumption of development of inhibited Cooperia oncophora in a yearling calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H J

    1989-01-01

    During a study of larval inhibition, resumption of development of Cooperia oncophora was observed in one calf to occur over a prolonged period of time. This animal had grazed for 14 weeks, was treated with thiabendazole and stabled for eight weeks prior to grazing the same pasture for ten days in late fall. A marked increase in Cooperia egg output started about six months after restabling. Worm egg outputs persisted for about 14 months with counts of up to 1000 eggs per gram during the first eight months of this period followed by a period with low counts of 50 to 150 eggs per gram. PMID:2914219

  2. Delayed resumption of development of inhibited Cooperia oncophora in a yearling calf.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, H J

    1989-01-01

    During a study of larval inhibition, resumption of development of Cooperia oncophora was observed in one calf to occur over a prolonged period of time. This animal had grazed for 14 weeks, was treated with thiabendazole and stabled for eight weeks prior to grazing the same pasture for ten days in late fall. A marked increase in Cooperia egg output started about six months after restabling. Worm egg outputs persisted for about 14 months with counts of up to 1000 eggs per gram during the first ...

  3. Calf thymus extract attenuates severity of experimental encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimecki, Michał; Artym, Jolanta; Kocięba, Maciej; Kuryszko, Jan; Kaleta-Kuratewicz, Katarzyna; Marycz, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of treatment of Lewis rats with calf thymus extract (TFX®) and its six-peptide fraction on the course of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). Interferon- ß served as a reference drug. We found that intramuscular administration of the thymus extract fraction significantly reduced clinical, immunological, histological, and ultrastructural alterations inherent in the disease. We suggest that TFX® or TFX®-derived fractions have potential as therapeutics in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

  4. Effects of resin or charcoal treatment on fetal bovine serum and bovine calf serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhimin; West, Clint; Norton-Wenzel, Carol S; Rej, Robert; Davis, Faith B; Davis, Paul J; Rej, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Charcoal- or resin-stripping of fetal bovine serum (FBS) or bovine calf serum (BCS) intended for supplementation of cell culture media is widely practiced to remove a variety of endogenous compounds, including steroid, peptide, and thyroid hormones. The possibility that stripping removes other biologically relevant factors from serum may not be appreciated. In this report, standardized clinical laboratory testing methods were used to assess the effects of resin- and charcoal-stripping on content in FBS and BCS of more than 25 analytes in the sera. In addition to hormones, the serum constituents affected by stripping are certain vitamins, electrolytes, enzyme activities, and metabolites.

  5. Methods and reproducibility of measurement of resistivity in the calf using regional bioimpedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fansan; Sarkar, Shubho; Kaitwatcharachai, Charoen; Greenwood, Roger; Ronco, Claudio; Levin, Nathan W

    2003-01-01

    The usefulness of regional bioimpedance analysis (RBIA) in determining the dry weight in dialysis patients is currently being investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of measurement of resistivity in the calf. Twenty-five normal subjects and 10 patients undergoing regular hemodialysis were studied. Four electrodes inserted into a blood pressure cuff were placed on the calf. Bioimpedance was continuously measured over 3- to 5-min periods (Xitron Hydra). After a resting period of 1 min, cuff pressure was increased to above the systolic blood pressure (SBP) for a few seconds to expel excess ECF fluid and then deflated. The effect on recordings of moving the electrodes 2 cm higher and then 2 cm lower than the normal position was studied in 8 normal subjects. In a second study of reproducibility, post-dialysis measurements were made twice in 10 patients who maintained the same post-dialysis target weight throughout the study period. The mean resting resistivity rho(0) in normal subjects was 532.6 +/- 95 omega.cm rising to 583.9 +/- 99.7 omega.cm when cuff pressure was applied rho(p). The average values of rho(0) and rho(p) in patients post-dialysis were 489 +/- 74 and 537 +/- 77 respectively showing that there were no significant differences in rho(0) and rho(p) between normal subjects and patients post-dialysis. The mean values of change in resistivity when the electrodes were shifted between the lowest and highest positions on the calf were -3.66 +/- 4.45 and -1.44 +/- 3.82%, respectively. Repeat measurement of resistivity in patients post-dialysis varied by 2.04 +/- 2.29% while post-dialysis body weight varied by 0.17 +/- 0.47%. In this study, resistivity measurement by RBIA at the calf showed similar levels of fluid loading in patients post-dialysis as in normal subjects. This study also showed that change in electrode position resulted in a mean change in resistivity of <5% and repeated measurements showed a change in resistivity <3

  6. Genetic modifiers of Duchenne and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Rylie M; Alexander, Matthew S

    2018-01-01

    Muscular dystrophy is defined as the progressive wasting of skeletal muscles that is caused by inherited or spontaneous genetic mutations. Next-generation sequencing has greatly improved the accuracy and speed of diagnosis for different types of muscular dystrophy. Advancements in depth of coverage, convenience, and overall reduced cost have led to the identification of genetic modifiers that are responsible for phenotypic variability in affected patients. These genetic modifiers have been postulated to explain key differences in disease phenotypes, including age of loss of ambulation, steroid responsiveness, and the presence or absence of cardiac defects in patients with the same form of muscular dystrophy. This review highlights recent findings on genetic modifiers of Duchenne and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophies based on animal and clinical studies. These genetic modifiers hold great promise to be developed into novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of muscular dystrophies. Muscle Nerve 57: 6-15, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Why is muscularity sexy? Tests of the fitness indicator hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David A; Haselton, Martie G

    2007-08-01

    Evolutionary scientists propose that exaggerated secondary sexual characteristics are cues of genes that increase offspring viability or reproductive success. In six studies the hypothesis that muscularity is one such cue is tested. As predicted, women rate muscular men as sexier, more physically dominant and volatile, and less committed to their mates than nonmuscular men. Consistent with the inverted-U hypothesis of masculine traits, men with moderate muscularity are rated most attractive. Consistent with past research on fitness cues, across two measures, women indicate that their most recent short-term sex partners were more muscular than their other sex partners (ds = .36, .47). Across three studies, when controlling for other characteristics (e.g., body fat), muscular men rate their bodies as sexier to women (partial rs = .49-.62) and report more lifetime sex partners (partial rs = .20-.27), short-term partners (partial rs = .25-.28), and more affairs with mated women (partial r = .28).

  8. Signs and symptoms of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Becker muscular dystrophy among carriers in the Netherlands : a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwaard, EM; Bakker, E; Ippel, PF; Oosterwijk, JC; Majoor-Krakauer, DF; Leschot, NJ; Van Essen, AJ; Brunner, HG; van der Wouw, PA; Wilde, AAM; de Visser, Marianne

    1999-01-01

    Background Carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) may show muscle weakness or dilated cardiomyopathy. Studies focusing on skeletal-muscle involvement were done before DNA analysis was possible. We undertook a cross-sectional study in a population of

  9. Computed tomography of the skeletal musculature in Becker-type muscular dystrophy and benign infantile spinal muscular atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, M.; Verbeeten, B.

    1985-01-01

    Results of computed tomographic (CT) examination of the skeletal musculature in 26 patients with Becker-type muscular dystrophy (BMD) and 12 patients with benign infantile spinal muscular atrophy (BISMA) are presented. Both disorders revealed strikingly different changes that may have important

  10. Signs and symptoms of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Becker muscular dystrophy among carriers in The Netherlands: a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwaard, E. M.; Bakker, E.; Ippel, P. F.; Oosterwijk, J. C.; Majoor-Krakauer, D. F.; Leschot, N. J.; van Essen, A. J.; Brunner, H. G.; van der Wouw, P. A.; Wilde, A. A.; de Visser, M.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) may show muscle weakness or dilated cardiomyopathy. Studies focusing on skeletal-muscle involvement were done before DNA analysis was possible. We undertook a cross-sectional study in a population of

  11. Exercise in the Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Golbidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension that is occurring in increasing frequency across the global population. Although there is some controversy about its diagnostic criteria, oxidative stress, which is defined as imbalance between the production and inactivation of reactive oxygen species, has a major pathophysiological role in all the components of this disease. Oxidative stress and consequent inflammation induce insulin resistance, which likely links the various components of this disease. We briefly review the role of oxidative stress as a major component of the metabolic syndrome and then discuss the impact of exercise on these pathophysiological pathways. Included in this paper is the effect of exercise in reducing fat-induced inflammation, blood pressure, and improving muscular metabolism.

  12. Isolated tear of the tendon to the medial head of gastrocnemius presenting as a painless lump in the calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watura, Christopher; Harries, William

    2009-01-01

    We report on a case of isolated tear of the medial head of gastrocnemius tendon. The patient presented with a painless lump in the right calf and denied any prior history of trauma or strain to the leg. A longitudinal split of the tendon was demonstrated at ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There were no other abnormalities and the gastrocnemius muscle was normal. There are no reports in the literature of isolated gastrocnemius tendon tear. To date the calf muscle complex injury described in this area is tearing of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle, sometimes referred to as "tennis leg". We conclude that an isolated tear of the tendon to the medial head of gastrocnemius should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a lump or swelling in the upper medial area of the calf and we recommend ultrasound or MRI as the investigations of choice.

  13. Relevant aspects of golden retriever muscular dystrophy for the study of Duchenne muscular dystrophy in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Rodini Engrácia de Moraes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD is the most representative model for studying Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD in humans, owing its phenotypic expression. DMD is a recessive disorder linked to the X chromosome in which the loss of dystrophin induces progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal and cardiac muscles, which lead to replacement by connective and adipose tissues. Onset of clinical signs occurs between 2 and 5 years of age, and many patients die from heart or respiratory failure. The main studies concerning dystrophic Golden Retrievers (DGR sought to elucidate the pathophysiology of the disease and its clinical implications to develop therapies and alternative treatments to improve the quality of life and increase longevity of DMD patients. This review presents an overview of relevant contributions of the DGR model for elucidating DMD in humans.

  14. A novel approach to sonographic examination in a patient with a calf muscle tear: a case report

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    Chen Carl PC

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Rupture of the distal musculotendinous junction of the medial head of the gastrocnemius, also known as "tennis leg", can be readily examined using a soft tissue ultrasound. Loss of muscle fiber continuity and the occurrence of bloody fluid accumulation can be observed using ultrasound with the patient in the prone position; however, some cases may have normal ultrasound findings in this conventional position. We report a case of a middle-aged man with tennis leg. Ultrasound examination had normal findings during the first two attempts. During the third attempt, with the patient's calf muscles examined in an unconventional knee flexed position, sonographic findings resembling tennis leg were detected. Case presentation A 60-year-old man in good health visited our rehabilitation clinic complaining of left calf muscle pain. On suspicion of a ruptured left medial head gastrocnemius muscle, a soft tissue ultrasound examination was performed. An ultrasound examination revealed symmetrical findings of bilateral calf muscles without evidence of muscle rupture. A roentgenogram of the left lower limb did not reveal any bony lesions. An ultrasound examination one week later also revealed negative sonographic findings. However, he still complained of persistent pain in his left calf area. A different ultrasound examination approach was then performed with the patient lying in the supine position with his knee flexed at 90 degrees. The transducer was then placed pointing upwards to examine the muscles and well-defined anechoic fluid collections with areas of hypoechoic surroundings were observed. Conclusion For patients suffering from calf muscle area pain and suspicion of tennis leg, a soft tissue ultrasound is a simple tool to confirm the diagnosis. However, in the case of negative sonographic findings, we recommend trying a different positional approach to examine the calf muscles by ultrasound before the diagnosis of tennis leg can

  15. Development of sociality and emergence of independence in a killer whale (Orcinus orca) calf from birth to 36 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Sara; Hill, Heather M; Sigman, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Dolphin calves spend most of their time swimming with their mother immediately after birth. As they mature, the calves become increasingly independent, and begin to interact more often with other calves, juveniles, and sub-adults. For bottlenose dolphin calves, sociality is related to maternal behaviors. Unfortunately, much less is known about the development of sociality and emergence of independence for killer whale calves. The purpose of this study was to examine the developmental changes in social behaviors and solitary activities of a killer whale calf across a 36-month period. Focal follow video recordings of a mother-calf pair housed at SeaWorld San Antonio were collected 2-6 times a day for 5-15 min at 6-month intervals. Using a sample of randomly selected video recordings at each month, developmental changes in swims and social interactions with her mother, swims and social interactions with non-maternal partners, and solitary activities (e.g., solitary swims, solitary play) were observed across the months. The calf spent most of her time swimming with the mother across the 36-month period. The time the calf socialized with her mother was greater than the time she socialized with others at each month. Besides her mother, the calf socialized more often with the other adult female compared to adult males. As the calf matured, the increase in the time she spent socializing with adult killer whales other than the mother corresponded with an increase in the rate and time spent in solitary play. The developmental trends of sociality and emerging independence replicate research conducted with calves of other dolphin species. Zoo Biol. 36:11-20, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Mitochondrial Respiration after One Session of Calf Raise Exercise in Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease and Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaardenburgh, Michel; Wohlwend, Martin; Rognmo, Øivind; Mattsson, Erney J R

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential for energy production in the muscle cell and for this they are dependent upon a sufficient supply of oxygen by the circulation. Exercise training has shown to be a potent stimulus for physiological adaptations and mitochondria play a central role. Whether changes in mitochondrial respiration are seen after exercise in patients with a reduced circulation is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the time course and whether one session of calf raise exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration in the calf muscle of patients with peripheral vascular disease. One group of patients with peripheral vascular disease (n = 11) and one group of healthy older adults (n = 11) were included. Patients performed one session of continuous calf raises followed by 5 extra repetitions after initiation of pain. Healthy older adults performed 100 continuous calf raises. Gastrocnemius muscle biopsies were collected at baseline and 15 minutes, one hour, three hours and 24 hours after one session of calf raise exercise. A multi substrate (octanoylcarnitine, malate, adp, glutamate, succinate, FCCP, rotenone) approach was used to analyze mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers. Mixed-linear model for repeated measures was used for statistical analyses. Patients with peripheral vascular disease have a lower baseline respiration supported by complex I and they increase respiration supported by complex II at one hour post-exercise. Healthy older adults increase respiration supported by electron transfer flavoprotein and complex I at one hour and 24 hours post-exercise. Our results indicate a shift towards mitochondrial respiration supported by complex II as being a pathophysiological component of peripheral vascular disease. Furthermore exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration already after one session of calf raise exercise in patients with peripheral vascular disease and healthy older adults. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01842412.

  17. Levels of inflammation and oxidative stress, and a role for taurine in dystropathology of the Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy dog model for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R. Terrill

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD is a fatal skeletal muscle wasting disease presenting with excessive myofibre necrosis and increased inflammation and oxidative stress. In the mdx mouse model of DMD, homeostasis of the amino acid taurine is altered, and taurine administration drastically decreases muscle necrosis, dystropathology, inflammation and protein thiol oxidation. Since the severe pathology of the Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD dog model more closely resembles the human DMD condition, we aimed to assess the generation of oxidants by inflammatory cells and taurine metabolism in this species. In muscles of 8 month GRMD dogs there was an increase in the content of neutrophils and macrophages, and an associated increase in elevated myeloperoxidase, a protein secreted by neutrophils that catalyses production of the highly reactive hypochlorous acid (HOCl. There was also increased chlorination of tyrosines, a marker of HOCl generation, increased thiol oxidation of many proteins and irreversible oxidative protein damage. Taurine, which functions as an antioxidant by trapping HOCl, was reduced in GRMD plasma; however taurine was increased in GRMD muscle tissue, potentially due to increased muscle taurine transport and synthesis. These data indicate a role for HOCl generated by neutrophils in the severe dystropathology of GRMD dogs, which may be exacerbated by decreased availability of taurine in the blood. These novel data support continued research into the precise roles of oxidative stress and taurine in DMD and emphasise the value of the GRMD dogs as a suitable pre-clinical model for testing taurine as a therapeutic intervention for DMD boys.

  18. Influence of vision and static stretch of the calf muscles on postural sway during quiet standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Akinori; Yoshioka, Shinsuke; Hay, Dean C; Himeno, Ryutaro; Fukashiro, Senshi

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the effects of vision and stretching of the calf muscles on postural sway during quiet standing. Under pre-stretch conditions, participants stood on a force plate for 30s and the sway of the ground reaction force center of pressure was recorded. The following postural sway variables were calculated off-line: sweep speed, sway speed, standard deviation, maximal mediolateral range, maximal anteroposterior range, mean mediolateral position and mean anteroposterior position. For post-stretch conditions, participants stood quietly on a device that was utilized to impose a static 3 min ankle joint dorsiflexion stretch. Immediately thereafter, participants moved onto the force platform where postural sway parameters were again recorded. Randomized eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions were tested in both cases. Results showed that postural sway significantly increased due to stretch (sweep speed, sway speed, standard deviation, maximal anteroposterior range, mean anteroposterior position), as well as eye closure (sweep speed, sway speed, standard deviation, maximal mediolateral range, maximal anteroposterior range). The interaction between stretch and eye closure was also significant (sweep speed, sway speed, standard deviation, maximal mediolateral range), suggesting that there were only minor increases in postural sway after stretch under the eyes-open condition. It was suggested that stretching of the calf muscles has the effect of increasing postural sway, although this effect can be greatly compensated for when vision is included.

  19. Ankle-foot orthoses that restrict dorsiflexion improve walking in polio survivors with calf muscle weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploeger, Hilde E; Bus, Sicco A; Brehm, Merel-Anne; Nollet, Frans

    2014-07-01

    In polio survivors with calf muscle weakness, dorsiflexion-restricting ankle-foot orthoses (DR-AFOs) aim to improve gait in order to reduce walking-related problems such as instability or increased energy cost. However, evidence on the efficacy of DR-AFOs in polio survivors is lacking. We investigated the effect of DR-AFOs on gait biomechanics, walking energy cost, speed, and perceived waking ability in this patient group. Sixteen polio survivors with calf muscle weakness underwent 3D-gait analyses to assess gait biomechanics when walking with a DR-AFOs and with shoes only. Ambulant registration of gas-exchange during a 6 min walk test determined walking energy cost, and comfortable gait speed was calculated from the walked distance during this test. Perceived walking ability was assessed using purposely-designed questionnaires. Compared with shoes-only, walking with the DR-AFOs significantly increased forward progression of the center of pressure (CoP) in mid-stance and it reduced ankle dorsiflexion and knee flexion in mid- and terminal stance (p muscle weakness, DR-AFOs improved gait biomechanics, speed, and perceived walking ability, compared to shoes-only. Effects may depend on the shoes-only gait pattern, therefore further study is needed to determine which patients benefit most from the DR-AFO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Venous reflux has a limited effect on calf muscle pump dysfunction in post-thrombotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenen, J H; Janssen, M C; Brakkee, A J; Van Langen, H; Wollersheim, H; De Boo, T M; Skotnicki, S H; Thien, T

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between calf muscle pump dysfunction (CMD) and the presence and location of valvular incompetence. Deep vein obstruction might influence CMD, and so venous outflow resistance (VOR) was measured. VOR and calf muscle pump function were measured in 81 patients, 7-13 years after venographically confirmed lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis. The supine venous pump function test (SVPT) measures CMD, and the VOR measures the presence of venous outflow obstructions, both with the use of strain-gauge plethysmography. Valvular incompetence was measured using duplex scanning in 16 vein segments of one leg. Venous reflux was measured in proximal veins using the Valsalva manoeuvre, and in the distal veins by distal manual compression with sudden release. Abnormal proximal venous reflux was defined as a reflux time of more than 1 s, and abnormal distal venous reflux as a reflux time of more than 0.5 s. No statistically significant relationship was found between the SVPT and either the location or the number of vein segments with reflux. Of the 81 patients, only nine still had an abnormally high VOR, and this VOR showed no relationship with the SVPT. In conclusion, venous reflux has a limited effect on CMD, as measured by the SVPT. The presence of a venous outflow obstruction did not significantly influence the SVPT. Duplex scanning and the SVPT are independent complementary tests for evaluating chronic venous insufficiency.

  1. American and German attitudes towards cow-calf separation on dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Gesa; Weary, Daniel M.; Spiller, Achim; von Keyserlingk, Marina A. G.

    2017-01-01

    Public concerns regarding the quality of life of farm animals are often focused on specific practices such as separating the cow and calf immediately after birth. The available scientific literature provides some evidence in support of this practice (including reduced acute responses to separation when it does occur), as well as evidence of disadvantages (such as increased risk of uterine disease in cows). The aim of this study is to systematically examine public views around this practice. Specifically, this study analyzes the views of American and German citizens to separation of cow and calf at birth using a quantitative segmentation approach. Although the majority of participants opposed early separation, a small proportion of our sample supported the practice. According to participants’ preference for early and later separation and their evaluation of different arguments for both practices, three clusters were identified. US participants were more likely to support early separation compared to German participants. The arguments presented for and against both practices caused different reactions in the three clusters, but did not appear to sway the opinions of most participants. The results show considerable opposition to the practice of early separation in large parts of the sample and suggest that the dairy industry should consider approaches to address this concern. PMID:28301604

  2. Characterization of adducts formed in reactions of acrolein with thymidine and calf thymus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowicz, Agnieszka J; Kronberg, Leif

    2008-01-01

    Acrolein, an important industrial chemical and environmental contaminant, has been shown to interact with nucleic acids in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined the reactivity of acrolein towards thymidine and calf-thymus double- and single-stranded DNA in aqueous buffered solutions. LC-MS Analyses of the reaction mixture of acrolein with thymidine showed the formation of five structurally different adducts. The structures of the products were determined on the basis of mass spectrometry, UV absorbance, and (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. The adducts were identified as 3-(3-oxopropyl)thymidine (dT1), 3-[(tetrahydro-2,4-dihydroxypyran-3-yl)methyl]thymidine (dT2), 2-(hydroxymethyl)-5-(thymidin-3-yl)pent-2-enal (dT3), 3-hydroxy-2-methylidene-5-(thymidin-3-yl)pentanal (dT4), and 2-[(thymidin-3-yl)methyl]penta-2,4-dienal (dT5). The adducts dT2-dT5 were formed in reaction of dT1 with acrolein. In the reaction of acrolein with calf-thymus DNA, dT1 was the only adduct detected in the DNA hydrolysate.

  3. Daytime mother-calf relationships in reticulated giraffes (Giraffa cameloparadalis reticulate) at the Kyoto City Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamichi, Masayuki; Murata, Chisa; Eto, Ryo; Takagi, Naoko; Yamada, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    The present study quantitatively assesses the relationships between a reticulated giraffe mother and her first- and second-born calves during the first 22 months of the older calf's and the first 12 months of the younger calf's life at the Kyoto City Zoo, Japan. The mother permitted her calves to suckle at over 70% of their suckling attempts in the first month after their births, and the calves ceased suckling spontaneously in 65 to 70% of the suckling bouts. From the second month on, she showed a clear tendency to reject the calves' suckling attempts and terminated almost all of their suckling bouts, which resulted in approximately 60 sec or less of suckling duration per bout. The frequency of proximity between the mother and her calves remained at 20 to 30% throughout the first year, with no apparent developmental changes being evident. The mother was mainly responsible for terminating proximity by walking away from her calves throughout their first year after birth, while both calves were mainly responsible for attempting proximity by approaching their mother after reaching 2 months of age. Our study also showed that the giraffe mother became pregnant again while nursing her calves and ceased lactation (i.e., weaned the calves) before the fetus's growth started accelerating. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Relative strengths of the calf muscles based on MRI volume measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Clifford L; Thawait, Gaurav K; Kwon, John Y; Machado, Antonio; Boyle, James W; Campbell, John; Carrino, John A

    2012-05-01

    In 1985, Silver et al. published a cadaver study which determined the relative order of strength of the muscles in the calf. Muscle strength, which is proportional to volume, was obtained by dissecting out the individual muscles, weighing them, and then multiplying by the specific gravity. No similar studies have been performed using {\\it in vivo} measurements of muscle volume. Ten normal subjects underwent 3-Tesla MRI's of both lower extremities using non-fat-saturated T2 SPACE sequences. The volume for each muscle was determined by tracing the muscle contour on sequential axial images and then interpolating the volume using imaging software. The results from this study differ from Silver's original article. The lateral head of the gastrocnemius was found to be stronger than the tibialis anterior muscle. The FHL and EDL muscles were both stronger than the peroneus longus. There was no significant difference in strength between the peroneus longus and brevis muscles. This revised order of muscle strengths in the calf based on in vivo MRI findings may assist surgeons in determining the optimal tendons to transfer in order to address muscle weakness and deformity.

  5. Calf health from birth to weaning. II. Management of diarrhoea in pre-weaned calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Ingrid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calfhood diseases have a major impact on the economic viability of cattle operations. The second of this three part review series considers the management of diarrhoeic diseases in pre-weaned calves. In neonatal calf diarrhoea, oral rehydration therapy is the single most important therapeutic measure to be carried out by the farmer and is usually successful if instigated immediately after diarrhoea has developed. Continued feeding of milk or milk replacer to diarrhoeic calves is important, to prevent malnourishment and weight loss in affected calves. Indiscriminative antibiotic treatment of uncomplicated diarrhoea is discouraged, whereas systemically ill calves can benefit from systemic antibiotic treatment for the prevention of septicaemia or concurrent diseases. Ancillary treatments and specific preventive measures are discussed. Eimeriosis has a high economic impact on the farming industries due to direct cost of treatment and calf losses, but especially due to decreased performance of clinically as well as sub-clinically affected animals. Emphasis lies on prophylactic or metaphylactic treatment, since the degree of damage to the intestinal mucosa once diarrhoea has developed, makes therapeutic intervention unrewarding.

  6. Production of a cloned calf from a fetal fibroblast cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello M.R.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the in vitro and in vivo development of bovine nuclear-transferred embryos. A bovine fetal fibroblast culture was established and used as nucleus donor. Slaughterhouse oocytes were matured in vitro for 18 h before enucleation. Enucleated oocytes were fused with fetal fibroblasts with an electric stimulus and treated with cytochalasin D and cycloheximide for 1 h followed by cycloheximide alone for 4 h. Reconstructed embryos were cultured for 7-9 days and those which developed to blastocysts were transferred to recipient cows. Of 191 enucleated oocytes, 83 (43.5% were successfully fused and 24 (28.9% developed to blastocysts. Eighteen freshly cloned blastocysts were transferred to 14 recipients, 5 (27.8% of which were pregnant on day 35 and 3 (16.7% on day 90. Of the three cows that reached the third trimester, one recipient died of hydrallantois 2 months before term, one aborted fetus was recovered at 8 months of gestation, and one delivered by cesarian section a healthy cloned calf. Today, the cloned calf is 15 months old and presents normal body development (378 kg and sexual behavior (libido and semen characteristics.

  7. Interaction of a copper (II) complex containing an artificial sweetener (aspartame) with calf thymus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Khodaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Kashanian, Soheila; Kheirdoosh, Fahimeh

    2014-01-01

    A copper (II) complex containing aspartame (APM) as ligand, Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O, was synthesized and characterized. In vitro binding interaction of this complex with native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was studied at physiological pH. The interaction was studied using different methods: spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric, competition experiment, circular dichroism (CD) and viscosimetric techniques. Hyperchromicity was observed in UV absorption band of Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O. A strong fluorescence quenching reaction of DNA to Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O was observed and the binding constants (Kf) and corresponding numbers of binding sites (n) were calculated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (ΔH) and entropy change (ΔS) were calculated to be+89.3 kJ mol(-1) and+379.3 J mol(-1) K(-1) according to Van't Hoff equation which indicated that reaction is predominantly entropically driven. Experimental results from spectroscopic methods were comparable and further supported by viscosity measurements. We suggest that Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O interacts with calf thymus DNA via a groove interaction mode with an intrinsic binding constant of 8×10+4 M(-1). Binding of this copper complex to DNA was found to be stronger compared to aspartame which was studied recently. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Maternal-calf relationships and their influence on calves up to 120 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoela Souza-Conde AL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To research parental behavior and measure the weight of Nelore and Guzerat calves up to 120 days of age, collecting data from birth up to the first lactation. Materials and methods. Seven different corporal positions were considered to obtain specific data for each of the following categories: time to stand (TP, time to intend to feed after standing (TPTM, weight at birth (PN, weight at 120 days (P120, and time in contact with the calf (TCC. Additionally, independent variables were also evaluated, organized by class: weight at birth (CPN, number of calvings (CNP, order of calving in relation with the herd (CLPR, time of calving (CHP, and finally, hindering to feed (CTAT. Results. There was a significant result in favor of the Nelore race over the Guzerat race. The statistical averages for Nelore and Guzerat were: Time to stand averaged 71 and 153 minutes; time to intend to feed after standing, 39 minutes for Nelore and of 114 minutes for Guzerat. For variable weight at 120 days, Nelore reached an average of 122 kg, and Guzerat 109 kg. For the time in contact with the calf variable there was no significant variance between races. Conclusions. Results showed the superiority of the Nelore race, considering it better adapted to local environmental conditions.

  9. Serum interleukin-6 as a prognostic marker in neonatal calf diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Stephani; Bauerfeind, Rolf; Czerny, Claus-Peter; Neumann, Stephan

    2016-08-01

    Neonatal calf diarrhea is still one of the most important diseases in calf rearing, and severe diarrhea has a marked effect on animal welfare. Furthermore, significant economic losses can result from this disease due to high mortality rates, high medical costs, and low weight gain. To avoid a fatal outcome of the disease, it is crucial that vulnerable calves are identified as early as possible. Interleukin-6 is described as an early and reliable prognostic marker in several diseases. In this study, 20 scouring calves were tested by ELISA for their IL-6 serum concentrations. Samples were collected twice, at the beginning of diarrhea and 7 to 10d later. Regarding the clinical outcome after 7 to 10d, calves were classified as recovered or nonrecovered. A receiver operating characteristic analysis was conducted to determine the prognostic value of IL-6 for the progress of clinical symptoms. At the beginning of diarrhea, the IL-6 concentration was significantly higher in nonrecovering calves compared with those that recover 7 to 10d after the onset of diarrhea. Interleukin-6 proved to be a useful additional parameter in the clinical examination. High initial IL-6 values can support the decision for closer monitoring and an adapted therapeutic strategy for the respective calves. This may help to prevent unnecessary animal suffering and reduce economic losses. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Absolute quantification of carnosine in human calf muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezdemir, Mahir S [Department of Electronics and Information Systems, MEDISIP, Ghent University-IBBT-IBiTech, De Pintelaan 185 block B, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Reyngoudt, Harmen [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, Ghent (Belgium); Deene, Yves de [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, Ghent (Belgium); Sazak, Hakan S [Department of Statistics, Ege University, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Fieremans, Els [Department of Electronics and Information Systems, MEDISIP, Ghent University-IBBT-IBiTech, De Pintelaan 185 block B, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Delputte, Steven [Department of Electronics and Information Systems, MEDISIP, Ghent University-IBBT-IBiTech, De Pintelaan 185 block B, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); D' Asseler, Yves [Department of Electronics and Information Systems, MEDISIP, Ghent University-IBBT-IBiTech, De Pintelaan 185 block B, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Derave, Wim [Department of Movement and Sports Science, Ghent University, Watersportlaan 2, Ghent (Belgium); Lemahieu, Ignace [Department of Electronics and Information Systems, MEDISIP, Ghent University-IBBT-IBiTech, De Pintelaan 185 block B, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Achten, Eric [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, Ghent (Belgium)

    2007-12-07

    Carnosine has been shown to be present in the skeletal muscle and in the brain of a variety of animals and humans. Despite the various physiological functions assigned to this metabolite, its exact role remains unclear. It has been suggested that carnosine plays a role in buffering in the intracellular physiological pH{sub i} range in skeletal muscle as a result of accepting hydrogen ions released in the development of fatigue during intensive exercise. It is thus postulated that the concentration of carnosine is an indicator for the extent of the buffering capacity. However, the determination of the concentration of this metabolite has only been performed by means of muscle biopsy, which is an invasive procedure. In this paper, we utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) in order to perform absolute quantification of carnosine in vivo non-invasively. The method was verified by phantom experiments and in vivo measurements in the calf muscles of athletes and untrained volunteers. The measured mean concentrations in the soleus and the gastrocnemius muscles were found to be 2.81 {+-} 0.57/4.8 {+-} 1.59 mM (mean {+-} SD) for athletes and 2.58 {+-} 0.65/3.3 {+-} 0.32 mM for untrained volunteers, respectively. These values are in agreement with previously reported biopsy-based results. Our results suggest that {sup 1}H MRS can provide an alternative method for non-invasively determining carnosine concentration in human calf muscle in vivo.

  11. A 1D pulse wave propagation model of the hemodynamics of calf muscle pump function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, J M T; Leguy, C A D; Huberts, W; Narracott, A J; Rittweger, J; van de Vosse, F N

    2015-07-01

    The calf muscle pump is a mechanism which increases venous return and thereby compensates for the fluid shift towards the lower body during standing. During a muscle contraction, the embedded deep veins collapse and venous return increases. In the subsequent relaxation phase, muscle perfusion increases due to increased perfusion pressure, as the proximal venous valves temporarily reduce the distal venous pressure (shielding). The superficial and deep veins are connected via perforators, which contain valves allowing flow in the superficial-to-deep direction. The aim of this study is to investigate and quantify the physiological mechanisms of the calf muscle pump, including the effect of venous valves, hydrostatic pressure, and the superficial venous system. Using a one-dimensional pulse wave propagation model, a muscle contraction is simulated by increasing the extravascular pressure in the deep venous segments. The hemodynamics are studied in three different configurations: a single artery-vein configuration with and without valves and a more detailed configuration including a superficial vein. Proximal venous valves increase effective venous return by 53% by preventing reflux. Furthermore, the proximal valves shielding function increases perfusion following contraction. Finally, the superficial system aids in maintaining the perfusion during the contraction phase and reduces the refilling time by 37%. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Calf Compression Sleeves Change Biomechanics but Not Performance and Physiological Responses in Trail Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerhervé, Hugo A; Samozino, Pierre; Descombe, Fabrice; Pinay, Matthieu; Millet, Guillaume Y; Pasqualini, Marion; Rupp, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine whether calf compression sleeves (CS) affects physiological and biomechanical parameters, exercise performance, and perceived sensations of muscle fatigue, pain and soreness during prolonged (~2 h 30 min) outdoor trail running. Methods: Fourteen healthy trained males took part in a randomized, cross-over study consisting in two identical 24-km trail running sessions (each including one bout of running at constant rate on moderately flat terrain, and one period of all-out running on hilly terrain) wearing either degressive CS (23 ± 2 mmHg) or control sleeves (CON, biomechanics (kinematics, vertical and leg stiffness) were determined at 12 km·h(-1) at the beginning, during, and at the end of both sessions. Exercise-induced Achilles tendon pain and delayed onset calf muscles soreness (DOMS) were assessed using visual analog scales. Results: Muscle oxygenation increased significantly in CS compared to CON at baseline and immediately after exercise (p 6 on a 10-cm scale) with no difference between conditions. However, Achilles tendon pain was significantly lower after the trial in CS than CON (p biomechanics and lower limb muscle functional capabilities toward a more dynamic behavior compared to control session. However, wearing compression sleeves did not affect performance and exercise-induced DOMS, while it minimized Achilles tendon pain immediately after running.

  13. Prevalence and Comparative Studies of Some Major Serotype of E.Coli from Cattle and Buffalo Calf Scour

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    Vagh A.A. and Jani R.G.

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to find the different serotype of E.coli isolates from the young cattle and buffalo calves affected with calf scours. Different strains of E. coli were isolated from 30 cases of calf scour from both cattle and buffalo calves each. All the isolates of E. coli were typed for ‘O’ antigen. The relationship of serotypes of E. coli to each case showed that two of the twenty six serotypes were common and appeared most virulent in both the species. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(10.000: 458-459

  14. New therapeutic approaches to spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewelt, Aga; Newcomb, Tara M; Swoboda, Kathryn J

    2012-02-01

    Bench to bedside progress has been widely anticipated for a growing number of neurodegenerative disorders. Of these, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is perhaps the best poised to capitalize on advances in targeted therapeutics development over the next few years. Several laboratories have achieved compelling success in SMA animal models using sophisticated methods for targeted delivery, repair, or increased expression of the survival motor neuron protein, SMN. The clinical community is actively collaborating to identify, develop, and validate outcome measures and biomarkers in parallel with laboratory efforts. Innovative trial design and synergistic approaches to maximize proactive care in conjunction with treatment with one or more of the promising pharmacologic and biologic therapies currently in the pipeline will maximize our chances to achieve meaningful outcomes for patients. This review highlights recent promising scientific and clinical advances bringing us ever closer to effective treatment(s) for our patients with SMA.

  15. Current treatment of adult Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Kathryn R; Lechtzin, Noah; Judge, Daniel P

    2007-02-01

    Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are living longer into adulthood due to a variety of improvements in health care practices. This growing patient population presents new therapeutic challenges. In this article, we review the literature on current treatment of adult DMD as well as our own experience as a multidisciplinary team actively caring for 23 men ages 19-38 years of age. Approximately one quarter of our adult DMD patients have remained on moderate dose corticosteroids. Daily stretching exercises are recommended, particularly of the distal upper extremities. Cardiomyopathy is anticipated, detected, and treated early with afterload reduction. Oxygen saturation monitoring, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation and cough assist devices are routinely used. Other medical issues such as osteoporosis, gastrointestinal and urinary symptoms are addressed. Current and future therapies directed at prolonging the lifespan of those with DMD will result in further increases in this adult population with special needs and concerns. These needs are best addressed in a multidisciplinary clinic.

  16. Electrodiagnostic evaluation in feline hypertrophic muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, J; Jaggy, A; Busato, A; Gaschen, F

    2004-07-01

    Standard needle electromyography (EMG) of 56 muscles and nerve conduction velocities (NCV) of the ulnar and common peroneal nerves were investigated in each of six cats affected with hypertrophic feline muscular dystrophy, 10 related heterozygote carriers and 10 normal cats. The EMG findings were considered normal in carrier and control cats, and consisted of 33% normal readings, 22% myotonic discharges, 18% fibrillation potentials, 11% prolonged insertional potentials, 10% complex repetitive discharges and 6% positive sharp waves in affected cats. Muscles of the proximal limbs were most frequently affected. No differences in NCV were found between the three cat groups. It was concluded that dystrophin-deficient dystrophic cats have widespread and frequent EMG changes, predominantly myotonic discharges and fibrillation potentials, which are most pronounced in the proximal appendicular muscles.

  17. Natural history of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing KE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is X-linked recessive hereditary disease. DMD gene mutations result in dystrophin deficiency, which causes not only muscle movement disorders but also scoliosis, cognitive dysfunction, urinary tract diseases, respiratory diseases and heart diseases. Most patients die in early adult for respiratory and circulatory failure. Early multidisciplinary therapies will significantly delay disease progression and improve patients' quality of life. However, DMD diagnosis and treatment exist significantly time delay now. In this study, we review the natural history of DMD, including motor, cognitive, respiratory and heart function, for improving DMD early recognition, diagnosis and treatment, so as to benefit DMD patients. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.05.004

  18. Valproate and spinal muscular atrophy (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natasha, Gemma; Brandom, Kevin G; Young, Elizabeth C; Young, Philip J

    2008-01-01

    Childhood spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene. The severity of the disease is dictated by the copy number of a second copy of the gene, known as SMN2, with higher copy numbers associated with milder forms of SMA. This is because the level of SMN protein produced by patients dictates the severity of the disease. As all patients retain at least one copy of the SMN2 gene, therapeutic strategies are geared towards increasing full-length SMN protein expression from SMN2. One of the identified therapeutic compounds is valproic acid, or valproate (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI) that has been used since the 1970s as an anti-convulsant. Here, we discuss VPA's modes of action and potential side effects in the treatment of SMA.

  19. Possible stimuli for strength and power adaptation : acute metabolic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewther, Blair; Cronin, John; Keogh, Justin

    2006-01-01

    The metabolic response to resistance exercise, in particular lactic acid or lactate, has a marked influence upon the muscular environment, which may enhance the training stimulus (e.g. motor unit activation, hormones or muscle damage) and thereby contribute to strength and power adaptation. Hypertrophy schemes have resulted in greater lactate responses (%) than neuronal and dynamic power schemes, suggesting possible metabolic-mediated changes in muscle growth. Factors such as age, sex, training experience and nutrition may also influence the lactate responses to resistance exercise and thereafter, muscular adaptation. Although the importance of the mechanical and hormonal stimulus to strength and power adaptation is well recognised, the contribution of the metabolic stimulus is largely unknown. Relatively few studies for example, have examined metabolic change across neuronal and dynamic power schemes, and not withstanding the fact that those mechanisms underpinning muscular adaptation, in relation to the metabolic stimulus, remain highly speculative. Inconsistent findings and methodological limitations within research (e.g. programme design, sampling period, number of samples) make interpretation further difficult. We contend that strength and power research needs to investigate those metabolic mechanisms likely to contribute to weight-training adaptation. Further research is also needed to examine the metabolic responses to different loading schemes, as well as interactions across age, sex and training status, so our understanding of how to optimise strength and power development is improved.

  20. 'Psyching-up' and muscular force production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tod, David; Iredale, Fiona; Gill, Nicholas

    2003-01-01

    Psyching-up refers to self-directed cognitive strategies used immediately prior to or during skill execution that are designed to enhance performance. This review focuses on research that has investigated the effect of psyching-up on force production; specifically, strength, muscular endurance and power. Although firm conclusions are not possible, the research tentatively suggests that psyching-up may enhance performance during dynamic tasks requiring strength and/or muscular endurance. However, more research is required. Power has received scant empirical attention and there are not enough data to support any conclusions. Preparatory arousal appears to be the most effective strategy although other strategies like imagery, self-talk and attentional focus also have empirical support. The range of tasks that have been used to measure force production have been limited to movements such as handgrip, leg extension, bench press, sit-ups, press-ups, pull-ups, and the standing broad jump. Additionally, most studies have used undergraduate and/or untrained samples. Only a very small number of studies have examined well-trained individuals. Currently, no explanation for why psyching-up may influence force production has any substantive support. Although a small number of studies have examined moderating and mediating variables, few consistent patterns have emerged and knowledge in this area is somewhat restricted. Given the importance that many athletes place on their mental preparation just prior to performance this is an area that warrants further examination. Research needs to examine a range of complex sport-specific tasks and use well-trained samples. Additionally, research needs to further examine why psyching-up may enhance force production.

  1. Improved Muscle Function in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy through L-Arginine and Metformin: An Investigator-Initiated, Open-Label, Single-Center, Proof-Of-Concept-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Patricia; Bonati, Ulrike; Erne, Beat; Schmid, Maurice; Rubino, Daniela; Pohlman, Urs; Peters, Thomas; Rutz, Erich; Frank, Stephan; Neuhaus, Cornelia; Deuster, Stefanie; Gloor, Monika; Bieri, Oliver; Fischmann, Arne; Sinnreich, Michael; Gueven, Nuri; Fischer, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Altered neuronal nitric oxide synthase function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy leads to impaired mitochondrial function which is thought to be one cause of muscle damage in this disease. The study tested if increased intramuscular nitric oxide concentration can improve mitochondrial energy metabolism in Duchenne muscular dystrophy using a novel therapeutic approach through the combination of L-arginine with metformin. Five ambulatory, genetically confirmed Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients aged between 7–10 years were treated with L-arginine (3 x 2.5 g/d) and metformin (2 x 250 mg/d) for 16 weeks. Treatment effects were assessed using mitochondrial protein expression analysis in muscular biopsies, indirect calorimetry, Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, quantitative thigh muscle MRI, and clinical scores of muscle performance. There were no serious side effects and no patient dropped out. Muscle biopsy results showed pre-treatment a significantly reduced mitochondrial protein expression and increased oxidative stress in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients compared to controls. Post-treatment a significant elevation of proteins of the mitochondrial electron transport chain was observed as well as a reduction in oxidative stress. Treatment also decreased resting energy expenditure rates and energy substrate use shifted from carbohydrates to fatty acids. These changes were associated with improved clinical scores. In conclusion pharmacological stimulation of the nitric oxide pathway leads to improved mitochondria function and clinically a slowing of disease progression in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This study shall lead to further development of this novel therapeutic approach into a real alternative for Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02516085.

  2. Adaptive immunity in the colostrum-deprived calf: Response to early vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis, strain Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) and ovalbumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Responses of the newborn calf to vaccination are variable and frequently characterized by marginal antibody (Ab) responses. The present study evaluated effects of colostrum ingestion on the adaptive immune response of the preruminant calf to early vaccination. Colostrum-fed (CF) and colostrum-depriv...

  3. Lupine-Induced 'Crooked Calf Disease' in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles of Lupinus sericeus, Lupinus sulphureus, and Lupinus leucophyllus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupines are common plants found on the rangelands in the western United States. Lupines are known to contain alkaloids that can be toxic and teratogenic causing congenital birth defects (crooked calf disease). Lupine-induced crooked calf disease cases are documented in North-eastern Oregon and the...

  4. Economics of transitioning from a cow-calf-yearling operation to a stocker operation as a potential strategy to address brucellosis risk in northwestern Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    An alternative enterprise for cattle ranchers that produce cows and calves is the production of stocker cattle. While stocker only operations have generally found to be less profitable than cow-calf or cow-calf-yearling operations, potential reasons for switching to stockers from having cows could i...

  5. Results of an online questionnaire to survey calf management practices on dairy cattle breeding farms in Austria and to estimate differences in disease incidences depending on farm structure and management practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein-Jöbstl, Daniela; Arnholdt, Tim; Sturmlechner, Franz; Iwersen, Michael; Drillich, Marc

    2015-01-01

    .... The objective of this internet based survey was to describe calf management practices on registered dairy breeding farms in Austria and to estimate differences in calf disease incidences depending...

  6. Resistance training in patients with limb-girdle and becker muscular dystrophies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveen, Marie-Louise; Andersen, Søren P; Ingelsrud, Lina H

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of strength training in patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD).......In this study we investigated the effect of strength training in patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD)....

  7. Protective mechanisms of muscular dystrophy : proteomic study and pharmacological therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Cintia Yuri Matsumura

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Na Distrofia Muscular de Duchene (DMD) e em seu modelo experimental, camundongos mdx, a ausência ou disfunção da proteína distrofina leva a degeneração muscular. Acredita-se que a patogênese da DMD esteja relacionada à fragilidade do sarcolema, ao estresse mecânico e ao maior influxo de íons cálcio na fibra muscular resultante do funcionamento anormal de canais iônicos, como os canais de cálcio ativados por estiramento. O conhecimento das proteínas envolvidas na degeneração/regeneraçã...

  8. MR imaging of fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy; a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Koo, Hae Soo; Park, Ki Deuk [Ewha Womans Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-11-01

    Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy is a genetic disease and common in Japan. The typical clinical features are hypotonia with an early infantile onset and severe developmental delay. The diagnosis is based on pathologic evidence of muscular dystrophy revealed by biopsy or an increased serum creatine kinase levels. Involvement of the brain is characterized by abnormal cerebral cortical dysplasia, cerebellar dysplasia, and white matter changes. We encountered a case of Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy in which brain MRI findings were typical, and present this case together with a review of the literature.

  9. Genetics and emerging treatments for Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, Nicolas; Alfano, Lindsay; Flanigan, Kevin M

    2015-06-01

    Mutations in the DMD gene result in Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy due to absent or altered expression of the dystrophin protein. The more severe Duchenne muscular dystrophy typically presents around ages 2 to 5 with gait disturbance, and historically has led to the loss of ambulation by age 12. It is important for the practicing pediatrician, however, to be aware of other presenting signs, such as delayed motor or cognitive milestones, or elevated serum transaminases. Becker muscular dystrophy is milder, often presenting after age 5, with ambulation frequently preserved past 20 years and sometimes into late decades. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Human platelet lysate is a feasible candidate to replace fetal calf serum as medium supplement for blood vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofbauer, Pablo; Riedl, Sabrina; Witzeneder, Karin; Hildner, Florian; Wolbank, Susanne; Groeger, Marion; Gabriel, Christian; Redl, Heinz; Holnthoner, Wolfgang

    2014-09-01

    As angiogenic and lymphangiogenic key players, endothelial cells (ECs) are promising candidates for vascular regenerative therapies. To culture ECs in vitro, fetal calf serum (FCS) is most often used. However, some critical aspects of FCS usage, such as possible internalization of xenogeneic proteins and prions, must be considered. Therefore, the aim of this project was to determine if human platelet lysate (hPL) is a suitable alternative to FCS as medium supplement for the culture of blood vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells. The usability of hPL was tested by analysis of endothelial surface marker expression, metabolic activity and vasculogenic potential of outgrowth ECs (OECs), human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs), and lymphatic ECs (LECs). Expression of EC markers CD31, VEGFR2, VE-cadherin and CD146 did not differ significantly between the EC types cultured in FCS or hPL. In addition, OECs, HUVECs and LECs formed tube-like structures on Matrigel when cultured in hPL and FCS. With the use of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromid assays, we found that the metabolic activity of OECs and LECs was slightly decreased when hPL was used. However, HUVECs and LECs did not show a significant decrease in metabolic activity, and HUVECs showed a slightly higher activity at low seeding densities. The use of hPL on different EC types did not reveal any substantial negative effects on EC behavior. Thus, hPL appears to be a favorable candidate to replace FCS as a medium supplement in the culture of ECs. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes accross warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F1 cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production in the southeastern U.S. offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Other breeds, such as the Criollo breed Romosinuano, may provide similar adaptative characteristics. The objectives were to evaluate Romosinuano...

  12. Calf Compression Sleeves Change Biomechanics but Not Performance and Physiological Responses in Trail Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. Kerhervé

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine whether calf compression sleeves (CS affects physiological and biomechanical parameters, exercise performance, and perceived sensations of muscle fatigue, pain and soreness during prolonged (~2 h 30 min outdoor trail running.Methods: Fourteen healthy trained males took part in a randomized, cross-over study consisting in two identical 24-km trail running sessions (each including one bout of running at constant rate on moderately flat terrain, and one period of all-out running on hilly terrain wearing either degressive CS (23 ± 2 mmHg or control sleeves (CON, <4 mmHg. Running time, heart rate and muscle oxygenation of the medial gastrocnemius muscle (measured using portable near-infrared spectroscopy were monitored continuously. Muscle functional capabilities (power, stiffness were determined using 20 s of maximal hopping before and after both sessions. Running biomechanics (kinematics, vertical and leg stiffness were determined at 12 km·h−1 at the beginning, during, and at the end of both sessions. Exercise-induced Achilles tendon pain and delayed onset calf muscles soreness (DOMS were assessed using visual analog scales.Results: Muscle oxygenation increased significantly in CS compared to CON at baseline and immediately after exercise (p < 0.05, without any difference in deoxygenation kinetics during the run, and without any significant change in run times. Wearing CS was associated with (i higher aerial time and leg stiffness in running at constant rate, (ii with lower ground contact time, higher leg stiffness, and higher vertical stiffness in all-out running, and (iii with lower ground contact time in hopping. Significant DOMS were induced in both CS and CON (>6 on a 10-cm scale with no difference between conditions. However, Achilles tendon pain was significantly lower after the trial in CS than CON (p < 0.05.Discussion: Calf compression did not modify muscle oxygenation during ~2 h 30

  13. Modifying a Cow-Calf Biophysical Simulation Model for Analyses of Alternative Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutes, Jennifer L.

    Cow-calf producers in the United States, tasked with providing beef calves for the beef industry, have had a multitude of difficulties to overcome in recent years. Producers in northwest Arkansas were negatively impacted by high hay prices coupled with low beef cattle market prices due to severe drought experienced in portions of 2010, 2011, and 2012. During this time they also faced high grain prices, due to a record low harvest, combined with portions of the corn harvest diverted from human and animal feed to ethanol production. Tight lending policies of this time, reminiscent of the housing market crash in 2008, along with the negative public attention associated with high levels of greenhouse gas emissions associated with beef production, lead to a tough situation for cattle producers faced with increasing input costs, decreased revenue, and lack of access to loans. With these issues in mind, this research aimed to determine if incorporating switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) production on a cow-calf farm could serve to increase net returns, decrease income volatility, lower net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions without decreasing beef output, and provide a viable source of feedstock for a potential bio-refinery. The study determined that switchgrass is a potential solution to these problems and thus aimed to discover differences in switchgrass supply under different government policies in four northwestern counties in Arkansas to an as-yet, non-existent bio-refinery. It was determined that growing switchgrass on pastureland, once devoted to cow-calf production, is a viable enterprise diversification tool that under the right conditions could be used to improve producer financial and environmental outcomes. However, bioenergy production is slow to gain traction in the US due to adverse market conditions from low fossil fuel prices. Thus, in the US, there are only a few bio-refineries currently online and accepting lignocellulosic biomass, however none of them are

  14. Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD) como modelo morfofuncional da reparação tecidual na Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne

    OpenAIRE

    Thaís Peixoto Gaiad Machado

    2009-01-01

    A fisioterapia motora vem sendo empregada como terapia de suporte para as distrofias musculares, porém, seu efeito no músculo distrófico e na função motora global precisa ser melhor compreendida para direcionar os tratamentos. Esta pesquisa objetiva elucidar o papel da fisioterapia motora na deposição de colágeno muscular, bem como em alguns parâmetros cinemáticos e dinâmicos da marcha do modelo Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD). Fragmentos do músculo bíceps femoralis foram coletados...

  15. Metabolic Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    A metabolic panel is a group of tests that measures different chemicals in the blood. These tests are usually ... kidneys and liver. There are two types: basic metabolic panel (BMP) and comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP). The ...

  16. Metabolic acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acidosis - metabolic ... Metabolic acidosis occurs when the body produces too much acid. It can also occur when the kidneys ... from the body. There are several types of metabolic acidosis. Diabetic acidosis develops when acidic substances, known ...

  17. Metabolic neuropathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuropathy - metabolic ... damage can be caused by many different things. Metabolic neuropathy may be caused by: A problem with ... is one of the most common causes of metabolic neuropathies. People who are at the highest risk ...

  18. Metabolic flexibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Storlien, Len; Oakes, Nick D; Kelley, David E

    2004-01-01

    ...). Such capacities characterize the healthy state and can be termed 'metabolic flexibility'. However, increasing evidence points to metabolic inflexibility as a key dysfunction of the cluster of disease states encompassed by the term 'metabolic syndrome...

  19. Mimic syndromes in sporadic cases of progressive spinal muscular atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.; van den Berg-Vos, R. M.; Franssen, H.; van den Berg, L. H.; Vogels, O. J.; Wokke, J. H. J.; de Jong, J. M. B. V.; de Visser, M.

    2002-01-01

    Described are patients initially diagnosed with progressive spinal muscular atrophy (PSMA), in whom further evaluation established another diagnosis. The authors prospectively investigated incident and prevalent cases of PSMA. Seventeen of 89 patients, after initial registration, were later excluded

  20. Mothers' psychological adaptation to Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peay, Holly L; Meiser, Bettina; Kinnett, Kathleen; Furlong, Pat; Porter, Kathryn; Tibben, Aad

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DBMD) cause significant emotional and care-related burden on caregivers, but no studies have evaluated predictors of positive caregiver outcomes, including disorder-specific psychological adaptation...

  1. Nonmuscular involvement in merosin-negative congenital muscular dystrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilhuis, H.J.; Donkelaar, H.J. ten; Tanke, R.B.; Vingerhoets, D.M.; Zwarts, M.J.; Verrips, A.; Gabreëls, F.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The spectrum of nonmuscular involvement in six children with merosin-negative congenital muscular dystrophy is described. In all children, biochemical, neuroradiologic, cardiac, and neurophysiologic studies were performed. Cerebral structures that were myelinated at gestation, including internal

  2. Perspectives on Clinical Trials in Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Kathryn J.; Kissel, John T.; Crawford, Thomas O.; Bromberg, Mark B.; Acsadi, Gyula; D'Anjou, Guy; Krosschell, Kristin J.; Reyna, Sandra P.; Schroth, Mary K.; Scott, Charles B.; Simard, Louise R.

    2011-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is one of the most heterogeneous of the single-gene neuromuscular disorders. The broad spectrum of severity, with onset from the prenatal period to adulthood, presents unique challenges in the design and implementation of clinical trials. The clinical classification of subjects into severe (type 1), intermediate (type 2), and mild (type 3) subtypes has proved useful both in enhancing communication among clinicians internationally and in forging the collaborative development of outcome measures for clinical trials. Ideally, clinical trial design in spinal muscular atrophy must take into account the spinal muscular atrophy type, patient age, severity-of-affection status, nature of the therapeutic approach, timing of the proposed intervention relative to disease progression, and relative homogeneity of the cohort to be studied. Following is an overview of the challenges and opportunities, current and future therapeutic strategies, and progress to date in clinical trials in spinal muscular atrophy. PMID:17761650

  3. Ocular, bulbar, limb, and cardiopulmonary involvement in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, N; Mensah, A; Køber, L

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess skeletal muscle weakness and progression as well as the cardiopulmonary involvement in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study including symptomatic patients with genetically confirmed OPMD. Patients were assessed by medical...

  4. Strength training and albuterol in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooi, EL; Vogels, OJM; van Asseldonk, RJGP; Lindeman, E; Hendriks, JCM; Wohlgemuth, M; van der Maarel, SM; Padberg, GW

    2004-01-01

    Background: In animals and healthy volunteers beta2-adrenergic agonists increase muscle strength and mass, in particular when combined with strength training. In patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) albuterol may exert anabolic effects. The authors evaluated the effect of

  5. Strength training and albuterol in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, E.L. van der; Vogels, O.J.M.; Asseldonk, R.J. van; Lindeman, E.J.M.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Wohlgemuth, M.; Maarel, S.M. van der; Padberg, G.W.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In animals and healthy volunteers beta2-adrenergic agonists increase muscle strength and mass, in particular when combined with strength training. In patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) albuterol may exert anabolic effects. The authors evaluated the effect of

  6. Central nervous system involvement in progressive muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, M; Okuno, T; Honda, Y; Nakano, Y

    1980-01-01

    Several abnormalities in the central nervous system were shown in patients with progressive muscular dystrophy using computerised tomography (CT) scans, electroencephalograms, psychometry, and ophthalmological methods. In congenital muscular dystrophy, the most characteristic finding in the CT scan was a low density area in the white matter, seen in 14 (56%) out of 25 cases. In Duchenne dystrophy, slight cerebral atrophy was observed in 20 (67%) out of 30 cases. It was interesting that in the case of Duchenne dystrophy the older the patient, the more severe were the CT findings. In congenital muscular dystrophy half the patients with a low density area showed a spike or a spike-and-wave complex in the electroencephalogram, and optic atrophy was evident in several cases. It is concluded that progressive muscular dystrophy is not only a myogenic disorder but also one which affects the central nervous system. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7436514

  7. Predictive factors for masticatory performance in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, H.W. van; Engel-Hoek, L. van den; Steenks, M.H.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.; Groot, I.J.M. de; Kalaykova, S.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) report masticatory and swallowing problems. Such problems may cause complications such as choking, and feeling of food sticking in the throat. We investigated whether masticatory performance in DMD is objectively impaired, and explored predictive

  8. Dystrophin analysis in carriers of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwaard, Edo M.; Ginjaar, Ieke B.; Bakker, Egbert; de Visser, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    Associations between clinical phenotype (muscle weakness, dilated cardiomyopathy) and dystrophin abnormalities in muscle tissue among definite carriers of Duchenne (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) were investigated. No associations between dystrophin abnormalities and clinical variables in

  9. How Physicians Support Mothers of Children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Haruo; Saito, Toshio; Matsumura, Tsuyoshi; Shibata, Saki; Iwata, Yuko; Fujimura, Harutoshi; Shinno, Susumu; Imura, Osamu

    2015-09-01

    Communicating about Duchenne muscular dystrophy and its prognosis can be difficult for affected children and their family. We focused on how physicians provide support to the mothers of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy who have difficulty communicating about the condition with their child. The eligible participants were certified child neurologists of the Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Participants responded to questionnaires consisting of free descriptions of a vignette of a child with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and a mother. We analyzed 263 responses of the participants. We found 4 themes on advising mothers, involving encouraging communication, family autonomy, supporting family, and considering the child's concerns. These results provide a better understanding of the communication between physicians and family members who need help sharing information with a child with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. These findings will assist clinical practitioners in supporting families and the affected children throughout the course of their illness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Perspectives of stem cell therapy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meregalli, Mirella; Farini, Andrea; Belicchi, Marzia; Parolini, Daniele; Cassinelli, Letizia; Razini, Paola; Sitzia, Clementina; Torrente, Yvan

    2013-09-01

    Muscular dystrophies are heritable and heterogeneous neuromuscular disorders characterized by the primary wasting of skeletal muscle, usually caused by mutations in the proteins forming the link between the cytoskeleton and the basal lamina. As a result of mutations in the dystrophin gene, Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients suffer from progressive muscle atrophy and an exhaustion of muscular regenerative capacity. No efficient therapies are available. The evidence that adult stem cells were capable of participating in the regeneration of more than their resident organ led to the development of potential stem cell treatments for degenerative disorder. In the present review, we describe the different types of myogenic stem cells and their possible use for the progression of cell therapy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

  11. Engagement in muscular strengthening activities is associated with better sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Loprinzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined whether engagement in muscular strengthening activities is associated with sleep duration, which was the purpose of this study. Data from the population-based 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used, which included an analytic sample of 4386 adults (20–85 yrs. Sleep duration and engagement in muscle strengthening activities was self-reported. After adjustments (including aerobic-based physical activity, those engaging in muscular strength activities, compared to those not engaging in muscular strengthening activities, had an 19% increased odds of meeting sleep guidelines (7–8 h/night (Odds Ratio = 1.19, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.01–1.38, P = 0.04. Promotion of muscular strengthening activities by clinicians should occur not only for improvements in other aspects of health (e.g., cardiovascular benefits, but also to help facilitate optimal sleep duration.

  12. [Erythrocyte membrane in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. III. Modifications of acetylcholinesterase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnoli, P; Leporoni, B; Bravi, S; Lenaz, G

    1980-12-15

    Membrane-bound acetylcholinesterase was assayed in erythrocyte ghosts from patients with Duchenne Muscular Distrophy and from the members of their family. Modifications was observed both in Km and Vmax, indicating changes in conformations of the enzyme.

  13. Exploration of binding of bisphenol A and its analogues with calf thymus DNA by optical spectroscopic and molecular docking methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Mei

    2015-08-01

    Bisphenol A and its analogues have carcinogenic potentials and toxicities. However, there are lacks of studies elucidating gene toxic interactions of bisphenols with DNA. In this work, the binding modes of five bisphenol compounds with calf thymus DNA were characterized. The multi-spectroscopic experimental results indicated that the fluorescence quenching of bisphenols by calf thymus DNA point to groove binding. The ultraviolet visible and circular dichroism spectral data displayed that bisphenols partly induced conformational changes of calf thymus DNA. In addition, the binding constants of bisphenol A, diphenolic acid, bisphenol AF, bisphenol AP, bisphenol fluorine with calf thymus DNA obtained from fluorescence emission spectra were 1.09×10(4), 3.65×10(4), 4.46×10(4), 1.69×10(4), 4.49×10(4)Lmol(-1) at 298.15K, which indicated that the multi-noncovalent binding forces were involved in the binding processes. In silico investigations indicated that DNA has the preferable binding sites binding with bisphenols by minor groove binding and electrons transfer from DNA bases to bisphenols occurred. In addition, the structural differences of these five bisphenols partly affected the binding ability of them with DNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. PCR-based identification of Neospora caninum in the umbilical cord of a newborn calf in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Azevedo da Cunha Filho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study was conducted at a beef cattle breeding farm in the far southern region of Brazil. The birth of a calf with unilateral corneal opacity was immediately reported to the Laboratory of Parasitology, in the Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; blood was collected from the cow and calf before colostrum intake. The umbilical cords from this calf and from six other healthy animals were collected. Serological examination, utilizing an indirect fluorescent antibody test, was done using a cut-off point of 1:100. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was also performed using the umbilical cord samples. Serological tests showed that the calf was positive for Neospora caninum at birth, with a titer of 1:1600; a titer of 1:3200 was reported in the dam. PCR, using umbilical cord tissue from the affected animal, was positive for the presence of this parasite, and the molecular identity of the amplified product was confirmed by sequencing. Therefore, the detection of N. caninum DNA in the umbilical cord represents a novel alternative test for the diagnosis of this parasitic infection in newborn calves that are clinically suspected to have neosporosis.

  15. Multi-residue analysis of anabolics in calf urine using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, A; Franke, J.P.; de Zeeuw, R.A

    1999-01-01

    We describe the development of an HPLC method with diode-array detection (DAD) for the analysis and identification of 20 substances with anabolic properties, that are considered as potential growth promoters, to be used for the analysis of extracts of calf urine samples. The substances are separated

  16. Bovine cysticercosis: Preliminary observations on the immunohistochemical detection of Taenia saginata antigens in lymph nodes of an experimentally infected calf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A newly developed immunohistochemical test was used for the first time to demonstrate the presence of Taenia saginata (Cysticercus bovis) antigens in the lymph nodes of a heifer calf experimentally inoculated with Taenia saginata eggs. The new test should aid in the differential diagnosis of eosinophilic lymphadenitis in cattle. PMID:15532887

  17. A quantitative assessment of the risk of transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy by tallow-based calf milk-replacer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paisley, Larry; Hostrup-Pedersen, J.

    2004-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation model was constructed to assess the risk of BSE transmission to calves by calf milk-replacer (CMR). We assumed that any BSE infectivity in the CMR would be associated with the allowable levels of impurities in tallow used to manufacture the milk-replacer. Simulations used...

  18. Prepartum nutrition and solar radiation in beef cattle: II. Residual effects on postpartum milk yield, immunoglobulin, and calf growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, T M; Early, R J; Carpenter, J R; Buckley, B A

    1995-05-01

    Residual effects of nutrition and solar radiation during the last two-thirds of gestation on postpartum milk yield, immunoglobulin (Ig) G and M in both colostrum and calf serum, and calf growth were determined in beef cattle. Nineteen mature, multiparous crossbred cows (Bos taurus) at d 90 of pregnancy were assigned to either low (LO, 70% NRC total energy intake) or high (HI, 110% NRC total energy intake) nutritional level (sudangrass hay) and to either shade (S) or no shade (NS) treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment. After parturition, all cows were moved into a large paddock and managed uniformly. Calf weights and calf serum were collected within 1 d postpartum, thereafter at 2-wk intervals for the next 12 wk, and then at 4-wk intervals until weaning. Colostrum samples were taken from the cow and milk yields were determined by the "weigh-suckle-weigh" technique. Neither prepartum nutrition nor environment influenced lactational performance of the dam. Concentrations of IgG were elevated in the colostrum of LO cows (15.3 vs 7.8 g/100 mL, LO vs HI, respectively; P calves from S cows than in those from NS cows. This difference in IgM profile did not seem to be due to any residual effect from prepartum treatments. Postnatal growth of calves from birth until weaning were similar across all prepartum treatments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Mechanism of Exciplex Formation Between Cu-Porphyrin and Calf-thymus DNA as Revealed by Saturation Resonance Raman Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shvedko, A.G.; Kruglik, S.; Kruglik, S.G.; Ermolenkov, V.V.; Turpin, P.Y.; Greve, Jan; Otto, Cornelis

    1999-01-01

    The excited-state complex (exciplex) formation that results from the photoinduced interaction of water-soluble cationic copper(II) 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(N-methylpyridyl)]porphyrin [Cu(TMpy-P4)] with calf-thymus DNA has been studied in detail by resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy using both ~10 ns

  20. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis assemblages in weaned cattle on cow-calf operations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in weaned beef calves in cow-calf operations in the United States, fecal specimens were collected from 819 calves (6 to18 months of age) in 20 states from 49 locations. After cleaning and concentration procedures to maximize the potential recovery of...

  1. Effects of repeated ankle stretching on calf muscle-tendon and ankle biomechanical properties in stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fan; Ren, Yupeng; Roth, Elliot J; Harvey, Richard; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate changes in active and passive biomechanical properties of the calf muscle-tendon unit induced by controlled ankle stretching in stroke survivors. Ten stroke survivors with ankle spasticity/contracture and ten healthy control subjects received intervention of 60-min ankle stretching. Joint biomechanical properties including resistance torque, stiffness and index of hysteresis were evaluated pre- and post-intervention. Achilles tendon length was measured using ultrasonography. The force output of the triceps surae muscles was characterized via the torque-angle relationship, by stimulating the calf muscles at a controlled intensity across different ankle positions. Compared to healthy controls, the ankle position corresponding to the peak torque of the stroke survivors was shifted towards plantar flexion (Pstretching intervention, especially in dorsiflexion (P=0.013). Stretching significantly improved the force output of the impaired calf muscles in stroke survivors under matched stimulations (Pstretching (Pstretching loosened the ankle joint with increased passive joint range of motion and decreased joint stiffness. At the muscle-tendon level, repeated stretching improved calf muscle force output, which might be associated with decreased muscle fascicle stiffness, increased fascicle length and shortening of the Achilles tendon. The study provided evidence of improvement in muscle tendon properties through stretching intervention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Xp21 muscular dystrophy due to X chromosome inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, P S; Maltby, E L; Quarrell, O

    1997-07-01

    Two brothers with Duchenne muscular dystrophy have an inversion of the X chromosome, 46, Y, inv(X) (p11.2p21.2). Because their mother is an unaffected carrier of the inversion, this confirms that maternal passage of a structurally abnormal X chromosome can cause dystrophinopathy in males. Our experience suggests that as well as molecular genetic analysis, karyotyping can be useful in Xp21 muscular dystrophy.

  3. The new frontier in muscular dystrophy research: booster genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvall, Eva; Wewer, Ulla M

    2003-01-01

    More than 30 different forms of muscular dystrophy (MD) have been molecularly characterized and can be diagnosed, but progress toward treatment has been slow. Gene replacement therapy has met with great difficulty because of the large size of the defective genes and because of difficulties...... of the boosters are better understood, drugs may be developed to provide the boost to muscle. Some of the experiences in models of muscular dystrophy may inspire new approaches in other genetic degenerative diseases as well....

  4. Distrofia muscular progressiva: alguns aspectos do diagnõstico diferencial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvio Saraiva

    1960-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors call attention to some clinical entities which are less known and more difficult to recognize and with which differential diagnosis of progressive muscular dystrophy should be made (infantile spinal muscular atrophy, amyotonia congenita, congenital acute anterior poliomyelitis, anthro-griposis multiplex, von Gierke's disease, central core disease, chronical polymyositis and dermatomyositis, thyrotoxic myopathy and menopausal dys- trophy. The importance of muscle biopsy in the differential diagnosis is emphasized.

  5. BIOCHEMICAL MECHANISM OF AUTOLYTIC PROCESSES OF MUSCULAR TISSUE OF FISHES

    OpenAIRE

    L. V. Antipova; O. P. Dvoryaninova; A. Z. Cherkesov

    2015-01-01

    The conducted researches allowed to establish that intensive disintegration of a muscular glycogen leads to sharp decrease in size рН muscular tissue in the sour party that in turn affects a chemical composition and physic-colloidal structure of proteins therefore: resistance of meat of fish to action of putrefactive microorganisms increases; solubility of muscle proteins, level of their hydration which is water connecting abilities decreases; there is a swelling of collagen of connecting fab...

  6. Pulmonary Endpoints in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. A Workshop Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finder, Jonathan; Mayer, Oscar Henry; Sheehan, Daniel; Sawnani, Hemant; Abresch, R Ted; Benditt, Joshua; Birnkrant, David J; Duong, Tina; Henricson, Erik; Kinnett, Kathi; McDonald, Craig M; Connolly, Anne M

    2017-08-15

    Development of novel therapeutics for treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) has led to clinical trials that include pulmonary endpoints that allow assessment of respiratory muscle status, especially in nonambulatory subjects. Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy (PPMD) convened a workshop in Bethesda, Maryland, on April 14 and 15, 2016, to summarize published respiratory data in DMD and give guidance to clinical researchers assessing the effect of interventions on pulmonary outcomes in DMD.

  7. Proteomic assessment of a cell model of spinal muscular atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kelvin H

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deletion or mutation(s of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1 gene causes spinal muscular atrophy (SMA, a neuromuscular disease characterized by spinal motor neuron death and muscle paralysis. Complete loss of the SMN protein is embryonically lethal, yet reduced levels of this protein result in selective death of motor neurons. Why motor neurons are specifically targeted by SMN deficiency remains to be determined. In this study, embryonic stem (ES cells derived from a severe SMA mouse model were differentiated into motor neurons in vitro by addition of retinoic acid and sonic hedgehog agonist. Proteomic and western blot analyses were used to probe protein expression alterations in this cell-culture model of SMA that could be relevant to the disease. Results When ES cells were primed with Noggin/fibroblast growth factors (bFGF and FGF-8 in a more robust neural differentiation medium for 2 days before differentiation induction, the efficiency of in vitro motor neuron differentiation was improved from ~25% to ~50%. The differentiated ES cells expressed a pan-neuronal marker (neurofilament and motor neuron markers (Hb9, Islet-1, and ChAT. Even though SMN-deficient ES cells had marked reduced levels of SMN (~20% of that in control ES cells, the morphology and differentiation efficiency for these cells are comparable to those for control samples. However, proteomics in conjunction with western blot analyses revealed 6 down-regulated and 14 up-regulated proteins with most of them involved in energy metabolism, cell stress-response, protein degradation, and cytoskeleton stability. Some of these activated cellular pathways showed specificity for either undifferentiated or differentiated cells. Increased p21 protein expression indicated that SMA ES cells were responding to cellular stress. Up-regulation of p21 was confirmed in spinal cord tissues from the same SMA mouse model from which the ES cells were derived. Conclusion SMN

  8. Induction of C-type virus in cell lines derived from calf form bovine lymphosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, M; Okada, K; Yamazaki, Y; Fujinaga, K; Fujimoto, Y; Mikami, T

    1978-01-01

    For attempt to detect an etiological agent, cultures from bovine lymphosarcoma cases (adult form (ALS), calf form (CLS), and thymic form (TLS) were maintained in vitro for over a 18 month period. In two cultures from ALS, bovine leukemia virus (BLV) antigen was constantly detected. On the other hand, BLV antigen remained negative in cultures from two CLS and one TLS cases up to 40 passages. The RNA dependent DNA polymerase activities in these cultures were also negative. Treatment of a culture from CLS (3178) originated from liver tumor with 5'-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IdU) and dexamethasone (DXM) resulted in production of an agent serologically and morphologically similar to BLV and in alteration of cell morphology. No virus was detected in culture from TLS after treatment with IdU and DXM.

  9. Studies on cell lines derived from calf, thymic and skin forms of bovine lymphosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, M

    1978-01-01

    The etiology of sporadic bovine leukosis (SBL) is not known. Long-term monolayer cultures were made from calf (CLS), thymic (TLS) and skin (SLS) forms, and serological tests, electron microscopic observations and reverse transcriptase assays were employed for the detection of an etiological agent. Bovine leukosis virus (BLV) antigen and reverse transcriptase activities remained negative in cultures from SBL cases. Treatment of a culture from CLS 3178 with 5'-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine and dexamethasone resulted in production of BLV which may have been acquired from the BLV-infected dam of CLS 3178, and in an alteration of cell morphology. Focus formation in monolayer cultures and colony formation in soft agar cultures were observed in this treated cell line. Human fetal lung fibroblast cells cocultivated with the cultures from SBL resulted in rapid proliferation of cells with an increased focus formation.

  10. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil; Munksgaard, Lene; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding...... previously housed in straw pens also stood up and suckled their dams sooner compared with Jersey calves of cows previously housed in freestalls. Holstein cows previously housed in straw pens tended to stand up sooner compared with Holstein cows previously housed in freestalls. These results suggest...... or into freestall housing 4 wk before the expected calving date. Individual straw-bedded maternity pens were placed adjacent to the straw-bedded group pens, and cows were moved to the maternity pens before calving. Cows that spent more than 12 h in the maternity pen before calving and calved unassisted were...

  11. [Efficacy of protein-free calf blood extract for mechanical corneal epithelial defects in human eyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiao-di; Gong, Lan; Sun, Xing-huai; Zhao, Nai-qing; Zhu, Zhao-rong; Li, Yu-min; Yao, Ke; Zhao, Wu-ling

    2008-08-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy between protein-free calf blood extract eye drops and recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) eye drops for mechanical corneal epithelial defects in human eyes. A multi-center, randomized and double-blind study with a parallel, positive-control designation was carried out from April to November in 2005 at Department of Ophthalmology, Eye Ear Nose and Throat Hospital of Fudan University, Xinhua Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, the First Hospital of Zhejiang University, the Second Hospital of Zhejiang University and Qingdao Municipal Hospital. 240 patients (240 eyes) with confirmed diagnosis of corneal epithelial defects at that six hospitals were enrolled in this study and were randomly arranged into two groups in average. One group (120 eyes) were treated by 20% protein-free calf blood extract eye drops which was defined as the experimental group while the other (120 eyes) by 5000 IU/ml recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) eye drops as the positive control group. The drug was delivered in both groups 4 times per day, one drop each time in the 14 days duration. The symptoms and signs were scored and the safety was evaluated on the pre-delivery day, the third post-delivery day (day 3), day 7 and day 14. The variants in the study were tested for the different efficacy and safety between the two drugs using non-inferiority test, paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, chi-square test, continuity correction chi-square test, Fisher's exact probabilities, analysis of variance, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test and so on. The criterion for statistical significance was P recombinant human epidermal growth factor group (day 3: X2 = 1.5677, P = 0.4566, day 7: X2 = 1.7152, P = 0.4242, day 14: X2 = 3.0814, P = 0.2142). The total scores of symptoms and signs in experimental group had a obvious descending (6.009 +/- 3.030) compared with the positive control group with a descending of (5.177 +/- 2

  12. Interaction of vasicine with calf thymus DNA: Molecular docking, spectroscopic and differential scanning calorimetric insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S., Sai Murali; R. S., Sai Siddhardha; Rajesh Babu, D.; Venketesh, S.; Basavaraju, R.; Nageswara Rao, G.

    2017-06-01

    The present study brings out the interaction between vasicine, an alkaloid and Adhatoda vasica Nees with double stranded DNA. The physico-chemical interaction between small molecules and nucleic acids is a major area of focus in screening drugs against various cancers. Molecular probing in our study using Molecular Operating Environment (MOE) has revealed interaction of vasicine with DNA double helix. Here we report the interaction of vasicine with Calf thymus DNA. We present for the first time the results obtained from UV-visible, fluorescence spectroscopic and differential scanning calorimetric techniques that suggest a moderate to strong electrostatic, hydrophobic and van der Waals interactions mediating the DNA binding properties of vasicine, leading to disruption of DNA secondary structure.

  13. Application of Sexing Technology in The Artificial Insemination Program and Cow Calf Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Diwyanto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance cattle productivity and production, especially to support the cow calf operation, it is a need to have an application on innovative technology, such as spermatozoa sexing . Technology is more relevant nowadays due to the one of priority program in artificial insemination to increase genetic quality of cattle in Indonesia. Artificial Insemination Institute in Singosari had produced and commercialized thousands of straw with good results . The quality of frozen semen from those sexing sperm was very good, indicated with more than 40% rate of motility . By August 2006, 33 male calves out of 47 animals from the Y frozen semen (70 .2 1% and 29 female calves out of 30 animals from the X frozen semen (96.66% . The results shown that S/C reached 1 .71 and CR for 56.45% for its sexing frozen semen, which means these results are equal to the success of artificial program with unsexing frozen semen .

  14. Reduction in the bactericidal activity of selected cathelicidin peptides by bovine calf serum or exogenous endotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Karen H; McCray, Paul B; Thorne, Peter S

    2004-06-01

    Synthetic cathelicidin peptides exhibit enhanced antimicrobial action and avid binding to LPS, thereby detoxifying the action of endotoxin released from degrading bacteria. A series of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAP) and sheep myeloid antimicrobial peptide (SMAP) congeners were examined to determine whether LPS-binding could predict other beneficial characteristics of the peptides. The peptides were challenged in complex media with bovine calf serum or LPS, and their ability to kill the Gram negative pathogens Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 43816) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA103) was then assessed. LPS-binding efficiency was not correlated with antimicrobial activity in complex media. Additionally, LPS- and serum-binding may interfere with the antimicrobial activity of peptides in complex media. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Fetal calf serum enhances in vitro production of Bos taurus indicus embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leivas, F G; Brum, D S; Fialho, S S; Saliba, W P; Alvim, M T T; Bernardi, M L; Rubin, M I B; Silva, C A M

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of fetal calf serum (FCS) on the quality of in vitro produced bovine embryos. Cumulus oocyte-complexes (COCs, n = 2 449) recovered by ovum pick-up from Bos taurus indicus donors were randomly assigned to experimental groups. Sperm selected by Percoll gradient was used for in vitro fertilization (insemination = Day 0). In Experiment 1 (n = 1 745 COCs), zygotes were cultured in vitro in Synthetic Oviduct Fluid + 4 mg/mL of bovine serum albumin (BSA), or BSA + 2% FCS (BSA+FCS). In Experiment 2 (n = 704 COCs), the COCs were cultured in SOF + BSA, BSA + 2% FCS, or BSA + 2% FCS on D4 (BSA + FCSD4). In Experiment 1, blastocyst yield (51%) and Quality I blastocysts (41%) at Day 7 were higher (P bovine embryos. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Consequences of transfer of an in vitro-produced embryo for the dam and resultant calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, L; Block, J; Denicol, A C; Hansen, P J

    2014-01-01

    No reports exist on consequences of in vitro production (IVP) of embryos for the postnatal development of the calf or on postparturient function of the dam of the calf. Three hypotheses were evaluated: calves born as a result of transfer of an IVP embryo have reduced neonatal survival and altered postnatal growth, fertility, and milk yield compared with artificial insemination (AI) calves; cows giving birth to IVP calves have lower milk yield and fertility and higher incidence of postparturient disease than cows giving birth to AI calves; and the medium used for IVP affects the incidence of developmental abnormalities. In the first experiment, calves were produced by AI using conventional semen or by embryo transfer (ET) using a fresh or vitrified embryo produced in vitro with X-sorted semen. Gestation length was longer for cows receiving a vitrified embryo than for cows receiving a fresh embryo or AI. The percentage of dams experiencing calving difficulty was higher for ET than AI. We observed a tendency for incidence of retained placenta to be higher for ET than AI but found no significant effect of treatment on incidence of prolapse or metritis, pregnancy rate at first service, services per conception, or any measured characteristic of milk production in the subsequent lactation. Among Holstein heifers produced by AI or ET, treatment had no effect on birth weight but the variance tended to be greater in the ET groups. More Holstein heifer calves tended to be born dead, died, or were euthanized within the first 20d of life for the ET groups than for AI. Similarly, the proportion of Holstein heifer calves that either died or were culled for poor health after 20d of age was greater for the ET groups than for AI. We observed no effect of ET compared with AI on age at first service or on the percentage of heifers pregnant at first service, calf growth, or milk yield or composition in the first 120d in milk of the first lactation. In a second experiment, embryos were

  17. Carcass traits of young bulls in dual-purpose cattle: genetic parameters and genetic correlations with veal calf, type and production traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croué, I; Fouilloux, M N; Saintilan, R; Ducrocq, V

    2017-06-01

    The profitability of dual-purpose breeding farms can be increased through genetic improvement of carcass traits. To develop a genetic evaluation of carcass traits of young bulls, breed-specific genetic parameters were estimated in three French dual-purpose breeds. Genetic correlations between these traits and veal calf, type and milk production traits were also estimated. Slaughter performances of 156 226 Montbeliarde, 160 361 Normande and 8691 Simmental young bulls were analyzed with a multitrait animal model. In the three breeds, heritabilities were moderate for carcass weight (0.12 to 0.19±0.01 to 0.04) and carcass conformation (0.21 to 0.26±0.01 to 0.04) and slightly lower for age at slaughter (0.08 to 0.17±0.01 to 0.03). For all three breeds, genetic correlations between carcass weight and carcass conformation were moderate and favorable (0.30 to 0.52±0.03 to 0.13). They were strong and favorable (-0.49 to -0.71±0.05 to 0.15) between carcass weight and age at slaughter. Between age at slaughter and carcass conformation, they were low and unfavorable to moderate and favorable (-0.25 to 0.10±0.06 to 0.18). Heavier young bulls tend to be better conformed and slaughtered earlier. Genetic correlations between corresponding young bulls and veal production traits were moderate and favorable (0.32 to 0.70±0.03 to 0.09), implying that selecting sires for veal calf production leads to select sires producing better young bulls. Genetic correlations between young bull carcass weight and cow size were moderately favorable (0.22 to 0.45±0.04 to 0.10). Young bull carcass conformation had moderate and favorable genetic correlations (0.11 to 0.24±0.04 to 0.10) with cow width but moderate and unfavorable genetic correlations (-0.21 to -0.36±0.03 to 0.08) with cow height. Taller cows tended to produce heavier young bulls and thinner cows to produce less conformed ones. Genetic correlations between carcass traits of young bulls and cow muscularity traits were low to

  18. Media's influence on the drive for muscularity in undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramblitt, Brooke; Pritchard, Mary

    2013-12-01

    Although research has found that body ideals presented by the media influence women's body dissatisfaction, less is known about media's influence on men's body satisfaction. An online survey examining media use, the drive for muscularity, and internalization of appearance and body shape ideals was given to a sample of 311 participants comprised of both men and women. Results indicated (a) the more time men and women reported watching television, the higher their reported drive for muscularity (b) total hours of viewing sports-related, image-focused, and entertainment television related to increased drive for muscularity in women (c) drive for muscularity in men related to watching image-focused television and reading men's health magazines, and (d) internalization of athletic attitudes towards appearance mediated the relationship between total television watched and drive for muscularity in both genders. Clinicians may wish to utilize these findings when treating men and women suffering from drive for muscularity and body dysmorphia. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Muscle Dysmorphia and the Perception of Men's Peer Muscularity Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Linda; DeCusati, Frank

    2016-11-01

    Research suggests that peer muscularity norms preferences are related to men's body image, but little information is known about how perceptions of specific peer group norms preferences are related to men's body image disturbances and specific health behaviors. This study investigated how men perceived the muscularity preferences of male, female, close, and distant peers and whether the perceptions of specific peer preferences were related to muscle dysmorphia and steroid use. Data on muscle dysmorphia and the perceptions of peer muscularity norms were collected from 117 male college students. Results indicated that men perceived distant and male peers as having the most exaggerated preferences for muscularity and that those perceptions were not an accurate reflection of their distant male peers' reported preferences. Results also indicated that perceptions of close female peer muscularity preferences were predictive of symptoms of muscle dysmorphia, but this relationship did not exist for other peer groups, suggesting that the perceptions of close female peer preferences may play a role in the development of muscle dysmorphia. No relationship was found between perceptions of peer muscularity preferences and steroid use. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Outside in: The matrix as a modifier of muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrocelli, Mattia; Spencer, Melissa J; McNally, Elizabeth M

    2017-03-01

    Muscular dystrophies are genetic conditions leading to muscle degeneration and often, impaired regeneration. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is a prototypical form of muscular dystrophy, and like other forms of genetically inherited muscle diseases, pathological progression is variable. Variability in muscular dystrophy can arise from differences in the manner in which the primary mutation impacts the affected protein's function; however, clinical heterogeneity also derives from secondary mutations in other genes that can enhance or reduce pathogenic features of disease. These genes, called genetic modifiers, regulate the pathophysiological context of dystrophic degeneration and regeneration. Understanding the mechanistic links between genetic modifiers and dystrophic progression sheds light on pathologic remodeling, and provides novel avenues to therapeutically intervene to reduce muscle degeneration. Based on targeted genetic approaches and unbiased genomewide screens, several modifiers have been identified for muscular dystrophy, including extracellular agonists of signaling cascades. This review will focus on identification and possible mechanisms of recently identified modifiers for muscular dystrophy, including osteopontin, latent TGFβ binding protein 4 (LTBP4) and Jagged1. Moreover, we will review the investigational approaches that aim to target modifier pathways and thereby counteract dystrophic muscle wasting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.