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Sample records for calculus of variations

  1. Calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    Elsgolc, L E; Stark, M

    1961-01-01

    Calculus of Variations aims to provide an understanding of the basic notions and standard methods of the calculus of variations, including the direct methods of solution of the variational problems. The wide variety of applications of variational methods to different fields of mechanics and technology has made it essential for engineers to learn the fundamentals of the calculus of variations. The book begins with a discussion of the method of variation in problems with fixed boundaries. Subsequent chapters cover variational problems with movable boundaries and some other problems; sufficiency

  2. Calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfand, I M

    2000-01-01

    Based on a series of lectures given by I. M. Gelfand at Moscow State University, this book actually goes considerably beyond the material presented in the lectures. The aim is to give a treatment of the elements of the calculus of variations in a form both easily understandable and sufficiently modern. Considerable attention is devoted to physical applications of variational methods, e.g., canonical equations, variational principles of mechanics, and conservation laws.The reader who merely wishes to become familiar with the most basic concepts and methods of the calculus of variations need on

  3. Variational time discretization of geodesic calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Rumpf, Martin; Wirth, Benedikt

    2012-01-01

    We analyze a variational time discretization of geodesic calculus on finite- and certain classes of infinite-dimensional Riemannian manifolds. We investigate the fundamental properties of discrete geodesics, the associated discrete logarithm, discrete exponential maps, and discrete parallel transport, and we prove convergence to their continuous counterparts. The presented analysis is based on the direct methods in the calculus of variation, on $\\Gamma$-convergence, and on weighted finite ele...

  4. Partial differential equations and calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    Leis, Rolf

    1988-01-01

    This volume contains 18 invited papers by members and guests of the former Sonderforschungsbereich in Bonn (SFB 72) who, over the years, collaborated on the research group "Solution of PDE's and Calculus of Variations". The emphasis is on existence and regularity results, on special equations of mathematical physics and on scattering theory.

  5. Introduction to the calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    Sagan, Hans

    1992-01-01

    Excellent text provides basis for thorough understanding of the problems, methods and techniques of the calculus of variations and prepares readers for the study of modern optimal control theory. Treatment limited to extensive coverage of single integral problems in one and more unknown functions. Carefully chosen variational problems and over 400 exercises. ""Should find wide acceptance as a text and reference.""-American Mathematical Monthly. 1969 edition. Bibliography.

  6. An introduction to the calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    Pars, LA

    2009-01-01

    This clear, rigorous introduction to the calculus of variations covers applications to geometry, dynamics, and physics. Focusing upon problems with one independent variable, the text connects the abstract theory to its use in concrete problems. It offers a working knowledge of relevant techniques, plus an impetus for further study.Starting with an overview of fundamental problems and theories, the text advances to illustrative examples and examinations of variable end-points and the fundamental sufficiency theorem. Subsequent chapters explore the isoperimetrical problem, curves in space, the p

  7. Calculus of Variations with Fractional and Classical Derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Odzijewicz, Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    We give a proper fractional extension of the classical calculus of variations. Necessary optimality conditions of Euler-Lagrange type for variational problems containing both fractional and classical derivatives are proved. The fundamental problem of the calculus of variations with mixed integer and fractional order derivatives as well as isoperimetric problems are considered.

  8. Calculus of variations and optimal control theory a concise introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Liberzon, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This textbook offers a concise yet rigorous introduction to calculus of variations and optimal control theory, and is a self-contained resource for graduate students in engineering, applied mathematics, and related subjects. Designed specifically for a one-semester course, the book begins with calculus of variations, preparing the ground for optimal control. It then gives a complete proof of the maximum principle and covers key topics such as the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman theory of dynamic programming and linear-quadratic optimal control. Calculus of Variations and Optimal Control Theory

  9. Quantum variational calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Malinowska, Agnieszka B

    2014-01-01

    This Brief puts together two subjects, quantum and variational calculi by considering variational problems involving Hahn quantum operators. The main advantage of its results is that they are able to deal with nondifferentiable (even discontinuous) functions, which are important in applications. Possible applications in economics are discussed. Economists model time as continuous or discrete. Although individual economic decisions are generally made at discrete time intervals, they may well be less than perfectly synchronized in ways discrete models postulate. On the other hand, the usual assumption that economic activity takes place continuously, is nothing else than a convenient abstraction that in many applications is far from reality. The Hahn quantum calculus helps to bridge the gap between the two families of models: continuous and discrete. Quantum Variational Calculus is self-contained and unified in presentation. It provides an opportunity for an introduction to the quantum calculus of variations fo...

  10. Calculus of variations with fractional derivatives and fractional integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Ricardo; Delfim F. M. Torres

    2009-01-01

    We prove Euler-Lagrange fractional equations and sufficient optimality conditions for problems of the calculus of variations with functionals containing both fractional derivatives and fractional integrals in the sense of Riemann-Liouville.

  11. Isoperimetric problems of the calculus of variations with fractional derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Ricardo; Ferreira, Rui A. C.; Delfim F. M. Torres

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we study isoperimetric problems of the calculus of variations with left and right Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives. Both situations when the lower bound of the variational integrals coincide and do not coincide with the lower bound of the fractional derivatives are considered.

  12. ISOPERIMETRIC PROBLEMS OF THE CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS WITH FRACTIONAL DERIVATIVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ricardo Almeida; Rui A. C. Ferreira; Delfim F. M. Torres

    2012-01-01

    In this article,we study isoperimetric problems of the calculus of variations with left and right Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives. Both situations when the lower bound of the variational integrals coincide and do not coincide with the lower bound of the fractional derivatives are considered.

  13. The early period of the calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    Freguglia, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    This monograph explores the early development of the calculus of variations in continental Europe during the Eighteenth Century by illustrating the mathematics of its founders. Closely following the original papers and correspondences of Euler, Lagrange, the Bernoullis, and others, the reader is immersed in the challenge of theory building. We see what the founders were doing, the difficulties they faced, the mistakes they made, and their triumphs. The authors guide the reader through these works with instructive commentaries and complements to the original proofs, as well as offering a modern perspective where useful. The authors begin in 1697 with Johann Bernoulli’s work on the brachystochrone problem and the events leading up to it, marking the dawn of the calculus of variations. From there, they cover key advances in the theory up to the development of Lagrange’s δ-calculus, including: • The isoperimetrical problems • Shortest lines and geodesics • Euler’s Methodus Inveniendi and the two Addi...

  14. A formalism for the calculus of variations with spinors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bäckdahl, Thomas, E-mail: thobac@chalmers.se [The School of Mathematics, University of Edinburgh, JCMB 6228, Peter Guthrie Tait Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FD, United Kingdom and Mathematical Sciences - Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg - SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Valiente Kroon, Juan A., E-mail: j.a.valiente-kroon@qmul.ac.uk [School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    We develop a frame and dyad gauge-independent formalism for the calculus of variations of functionals involving spinorial objects. As a part of this formalism, we define a modified variation operator which absorbs frame and spin dyad gauge terms. This formalism is applicable to both the standard spacetime (i.e., SL(2, ℂ)) 2-spinors as well as to space (i.e., SU(2, ℂ)) 2-spinors. We compute expressions for the variations of the connection and the curvature spinors.

  15. A formalism for the calculus of variations with spinors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We develop a frame and dyad gauge-independent formalism for the calculus of variations of functionals involving spinorial objects. As a part of this formalism, we define a modified variation operator which absorbs frame and spin dyad gauge terms. This formalism is applicable to both the standard spacetime (i.e., SL(2, ℂ)) 2-spinors as well as to space (i.e., SU(2, ℂ)) 2-spinors. We compute expressions for the variations of the connection and the curvature spinors

  16. A formalism for the calculus of variations with spinors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckdahl, Thomas; Valiente Kroon, Juan A.

    2016-02-01

    We develop a frame and dyad gauge-independent formalism for the calculus of variations of functionals involving spinorial objects. As a part of this formalism, we define a modified variation operator which absorbs frame and spin dyad gauge terms. This formalism is applicable to both the standard spacetime (i.e., SL(2, ℂ)) 2-spinors as well as to space (i.e., SU(2, ℂ)) 2-spinors. We compute expressions for the variations of the connection and the curvature spinors.

  17. Multiple integrals in the calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    Morrey, Charles B

    1966-01-01

    From the reviews: "…the book contains a wealth of material essential to the researcher concerned with multiple integral variational problems and with elliptic partial differential equations. The book not only reports the researches of the author but also the contributions of his contemporaries in the same and related fields. The book undoubtedly will become a standard reference for researchers in these areas. …The book is addressed mainly to mature mathematical analysts. However, any student of analysis will be greatly rewarded by a careful study of this book." M. R. Hestenes in Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications "The work intertwines in masterly fashion results of classical analysis, topology, and the theory of manifolds and thus presents a comprehensive treatise of the theory of multiple integral variational problems." L. Schmetterer in Monatshefte für Mathematik "The book is very clearly exposed and contains the last modern theory in this domain. A comprehensive bibliography ends the book...

  18. A Discrete Algorithm to the Calculus of Variations

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Celia T L M; Torres, Delfim F M

    2011-01-01

    A numerical study of an algorithm proposed by Gusein Guseinov, which determines approximations to the optimal solution of problems of calculus of variations using two discretizations and correspondent Euler-Lagrange equations, is investigated. The results we obtain to discretizations of the brachistochrone problem and Mania example with Lavrentiev's phenomenon are compared with the solutions found by other methods and solvers. We conclude that Guseinov's method presents better solutions in most of the cases studied.

  19. Necessary optimality conditions for the calculus of variations on time scales

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Rui A. C.; Torres, Delfim F. M.

    2007-01-01

    We study more general variational problems on time scales. Previous results are generalized by proving necessary optimality conditions for (i) variational problems involving delta derivatives of more than the first order, and (ii) problems of the calculus of variations with delta-differential side conditions (Lagrange problem of the calculus of variations on time scales).

  20. Differential geometry and the calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, Robert

    1968-01-01

    In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;methods for low-rank mat

  1. The principle of stationary action in the calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    López, E; Vallejo, J A

    2012-01-01

    We review some techniques from non-linear analysis in order to investigate critical paths for the action functional in the calculus of variations applied to physics. Previous attempts to analyse when these are minima ex- ist, but mainly based on physical reasoning and only for a restricted class of models. Our main intention in this regard is to develop precise mathematical conditions for critical paths to be minimum solutions in a variety of situations. Our claim is that, with a few techniques, a systematic analysis (including the domain for which critical points are genuine minima) of non-trivial models is possible. We present specific models arising in modern physical theories in order to make clear the ideas here exposed.

  2. Advanced methods in the fractional calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    Malinowska, Agnieszka B; Torres, Delfim F M

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents a general unifying perspective on the fractional calculus. It brings together results of several recent approaches in generalizing the least action principle and the Euler–Lagrange equations to include fractional derivatives. The dependence of Lagrangians on generalized fractional operators as well as on classical derivatives is considered along with still more general problems in which integer-order integrals are replaced by fractional integrals. General theorems are obtained for several types of variational problems for which recent results developed in the literature can be obtained as special cases. In particular, the authors offer necessary optimality conditions of Euler–Lagrange type for the fundamental and isoperimetric problems, transversality conditions, and Noether symmetry theorems. The existence of solutions is demonstrated under Tonelli type conditions. The results are used to prove the existence of eigenvalues and corresponding orthogonal eigenfunctions of fractional Stur...

  3. Function-valued adaptive dynamics and the calculus of variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvinen, Kalle; Dieckmann, Ulf; Heino, Mikko

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive dynamics has been widely used to study the evolution of scalar-valued, and occasionally vector-valued, strategies in ecologically realistic models. In many ecological situations, however, evolving strategies are best described as function-valued, and thus infinite-dimensional, traits. So far, such evolution has only been studied sporadically, mostly based on quantitative genetics models with limited ecological realism. In this article we show how to apply the calculus of variations to find evolutionarily singular strategies of function-valued adaptive dynamics: such a strategy has to satisfy Euler's equation with environmental feedback. We also demonstrate how second-order derivatives can be used to investigate whether or not a function-valued singular strategy is evolutionarily stable. We illustrate our approach by presenting several worked examples. PMID:16012801

  4. On the minimizers of calculus of variations problems in Hilbert spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2014-01-19

    The objective of this paper is to discuss existence, uniqueness and regularity issues of minimizers of one dimensional calculus of variations problem in Hilbert spaces. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  5. Geometric constrained variational calculus. II: The second variation (Part I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Enrico; Bruno, Danilo; Luria, Gianvittorio; Pagani, Enrico

    2016-10-01

    Within the geometrical framework developed in [Geometric constrained variational calculus. I: Piecewise smooth extremals, Int. J. Geom. Methods Mod. Phys. 12 (2015) 1550061], the problem of minimality for constrained calculus of variations is analyzed among the class of differentiable curves. A fully covariant representation of the second variation of the action functional, based on a suitable gauge transformation of the Lagrangian, is explicitly worked out. Both necessary and sufficient conditions for minimality are proved, and reinterpreted in terms of Jacobi fields.

  6. Variational calculus with constraints on general algebroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variational calculus on a vector bundle E equipped with a structure of a general algebroid is developed, together with the corresponding analogs of Euler-Lagrange equations. Constrained systems are introduced in the variational and geometrical settings. The constrained Euler-Lagrange equations are derived for analogs of holonomic, vakonomic and nonholonomic constraints. This general model covers the majority of first-order Lagrangian systems which are present in the literature and reduces to the standard variational calculus and the Euler-Lagrange equations in classical mechanics for E = TM

  7. Regularity of solutions to higher-order integrals of the calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    Ammi, Moulay Rchid Sidi

    2007-01-01

    We obtain new regularity conditions for problems of calculus of variations with higher-order derivatives. As a corollary, we get non-occurrence of the Lavrentiev phenomenon. Our main regularity result asserts that autonomous integral functionals with a Lagrangian having coercive partial derivatives with respect to the higher-order derivatives admit only minimizers with essentially bounded derivatives.

  8. On the inverse problem of the calculus of variations in field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inverse problem of the calculus of variations is investigated in the case of field theory. Uniqueness of the action principle is demonstrated for the vector Laplace equation in a non-decomposable Riemannian space, as well as for the harmonic map equation. (author)

  9. The Delta-nabla Calculus of Variations for Composition Functionals on Time Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Dryl, Monika; Torres, Delfim F. M.

    2012-01-01

    We develop the calculus of variations on time scales for a functional that is the composition of a certain scalar function with the delta and nabla integrals of a vector valued field. Euler-Lagrange equations, transversality conditions, and necessary optimality conditions for isoperimetric problems, on an arbitrary time scale, are proved. Interesting corollaries and examples are presented.

  10. On the gauge structure of the calculus of variations with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Danilo; Pagani, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    A gauge-invariant formulation of constrained variational calculus, based on the introduction of the bundle of affine scalars over the configuration manifold, is presented. In the resulting setup, the Lagrangian is replaced by a section of a suitable principal fibre bundle over the velocity space. A geometric rephrasement of Pontryagin's maximum principle, showing the equivalence between a constrained variational problem in the state space and a canonically associated free one in a higher affine bundle, is proved.

  11. Symbolic Computation in the Calculus of Variations: Determination of Symmetries and Conservation Laws (in Portuguese)

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, Paulo D. F.; Delfim F. M. Torres

    2004-01-01

    English version of abstract: The dynamic optimization problems treated by the calculus of variations are usually solved with the help of the 2nd order Euler-Lagrange differential equations. These equations are, generally speaking, nonlinear, and very hard to solve. One way to address the problem is to obtain conservation laws of lower order than those of the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations. While in Physics and Economics the question of existence of conservation laws is treated in a ra...

  12. Variational calculus with constraints on general algebroids

    OpenAIRE

    Grabowska, Katarzyna; Grabowski, Janusz

    2007-01-01

    Variational calculus on a vector bundle E equipped with a structure of a general algebroid is developed, together with the corresponding analogs of Euler-Lagrange equations. Constrained systems are introduced in the variational and in the geometrical setting. The constrained Euler-Lagrange equations are derived for analogs of holonomic, vakonomic and nonholonomic constraints. This general model covers majority of first-order Lagrangian systems which are present in the literature and reduces t...

  13. Fractional variational calculus in terms of a combined Caputo derivative

    CERN Document Server

    Malinowska, Agnieszka B

    2010-01-01

    We generalize the fractional Caputo derivative to the fractional derivative ${^CD^{\\alpha,\\beta}_{\\gamma}}$, which is a convex combination of the left Caputo fractional derivative of order $\\alpha$ and the right Caputo fractional derivative of order $\\beta$. The fractional variational problems under our consideration are formulated in terms of ${^CD^{\\alpha,\\beta}_{\\gamma}}$. The Euler-Lagrange equations for the basic and isoperimetric problems, as well as transversality conditions, are proved.

  14. A fractional calculus of variations for multiple integrals with application to vibrating string

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, R; Malinowska, A. B.; Torres, D. F. M.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a fractional theory of the calculus of variations for multiple integrals. Our approach uses the recent notions of Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives and integrals in the sense of Jumarie. The main results provide fractional versions of the theorems of Green and Gauss, fractional Euler-Lagrange equations, and fractional natural boundary conditions. As an application we discuss the fractional equation of motion of a vibrating string. © 2010 American Institute of Physics. C...

  15. A General Delta-Nabla Calculus of Variations on Time Scales with Application to Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Dryl, Monika; Torres, Delfim F. M.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a general problem of the calculus of variations on time scales with a cost functional that is the composition of a certain scalar function with delta and nabla integrals of a vector valued field. Euler-Lagrange delta-nabla differential equations are proved, which lead to important insights in the process of discretization. Application of the obtained results to a firm that wants to program its production and investment policies to reach a given production rate and to maximize its ...

  16. Classical mechanics with calculus of variations and optimal control an intuitive introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Levi, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This is an intuitively motivated presentation of many topics in classical mechanics and related areas of control theory and calculus of variations. All topics throughout the book are treated with zero tolerance for unrevealing definitions and for proofs which leave the reader in the dark. Some areas of particular interest are: an extremely short derivation of the ellipticity of planetary orbits; a statement and an explanation of the "tennis racket paradox"; a heuristic explanation (and a rigorous treatment) of the gyroscopic effect; a revealing equivalence between the dynamics of a particle and statics of a spring; a short geometrical explanation of Pontryagin's Maximum Principle, and more. In the last chapter, aimed at more advanced readers, the Hamiltonian and the momentum are compared to forces in a certain static problem. This gives a palpable physical meaning to some seemingly abstract concepts and theorems. With minimal prerequisites consisting of basic calculus and basic undergraduate physics, this boo...

  17. Presymplectic current and the inverse problem of the calculus of variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inverse problem of the calculus of variations asks whether a given system of partial differential equations (PDEs) admits a variational formulation. We show that the existence of a presymplectic form in the variational bicomplex, when horizontally closed on solutions, allows us to construct a variational formulation for a subsystem of the given PDE. No constraints on the differential order or number of dependent or independent variables are assumed. The proof follows a recent observation of Bridges, Hydon, and Lawson [Math. Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 148(01), 159–178 (2010)] and generalizes an older result of Henneaux [Ann. Phys. 140(1), 45–64 (1982)] from ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to PDEs. Uniqueness of the variational formulation is also discussed

  18. Constrained variational calculus: the second variation (part I)

    CERN Document Server

    Massa, Enrico; Pagani, Enrico; Luria, Gianvittorio

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a direct continuation of arXiv:0705.2362 . The Hamiltonian aspects of the theory are further developed. Within the framework provided by the first paper, the problem of minimality for constrained calculus of variations is analyzed among the class of differentiable curves. A necessary and sufficient condition for minimality is proved.

  19. Formal Integrability for the Nonautonomous Case of the Inverse Problem of the Calculus of Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Constantinescu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We address the integrability conditions of the inverse problem of the calculus of variations for time-dependent SODE using the Spencer version of the Cartan-Kähler theorem. We consider a linear partial differential operator P given by the two Helmholtz conditions expressed in terms of semi-basic 1-forms and study its formal integrability. We prove that P is involutive and there is only one obstruction for the formal integrability of this operator. The obstruction is expressed in terms of the curvature tensor R of the induced nonlinear connection. We recover some of the classes of Lagrangian semisprays: flat semisprays, isotropic semisprays and arbitrary semisprays on 2-dimensional manifolds.

  20. Geometrical treatment of non-potential interactions: the exterior variational calculus, dynamical systems, physical 1-forms and variational selfadjointness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical objective of this paper is to provide geometrical formulation of the integrability conditions for the existence of an action functional, that is, to provide a geometrical counterpart (similar to that by Abraham, Marsden, and Hughes) of the variational and functional approach to self-adjointness. This objective is achieved via the exterior variational calculus, an exterior differential calculus on the vector space of functions depending on time or space time, using from the outset extensively the concept of functional differentiation as its foundation. Variational self-adjointness equals the variational closure of the physical 1-form, the vanishing of a generalized curl-operation applied to the equations of motion. The convenience of this more formal approach is demonstrated, not only when deriving the conditions of variational self-adjointness for materials of differential type of arbitrary order (particles or fields), using roughly no more than Dirac's delta-distributions, but also when treating materials of a broader class (including causal and acausal constitutive functionals, materials of rate type, integral type, etc.). A physical objective of this paper is achieved by pointing out that, as physics is primarily concerned with the solutions of the evolution equations, i.e., with the set of the zero points of the physical 1-form, an equivalence relation among the physical 1-forms on the infinite dimensional vector space of functions is constructed by leaving the set of their zero points unchanged. Using this result, a direct Lagrangian universality is indicated and an almost one presented. Moreover, all physical 1-forms connected by invertible supermatrices (thus mixing the evolution law of different times or space-time) are equivalent. Choosing these supermatrices to be diagonal in time or space-time yields the indirect analytical representation factors

  1. Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Practice makes perfect-and helps deepen your understanding of calculus 1001 Calculus Practice Problems For Dummies takes you beyond the instruction and guidance offered in Calculus For Dummies, giving you 1001 opportunities to practice solving problems from the major topics in your calculus course. Plus, an online component provides you with a collection of calculus problems presented in multiple-choice format to further help you test your skills as you go. Gives you a chance to practice and reinforce the skills you learn in your calculus courseHelps you refine your understanding of calculusP

  2. Calculus of one variable

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Stanley I

    1986-01-01

    Calculus of One Variable, Second Edition presents the essential topics in the study of the techniques and theorems of calculus.The book provides a comprehensive introduction to calculus. It contains examples, exercises, the history and development of calculus, and various applications. Some of the topics discussed in the text include the concept of limits, one-variable theory, the derivatives of all six trigonometric functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, and infinite series.This textbook is intended for use by college students.

  3. CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS WITH DIRICHLET BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM FOR PERTURBED SECOND-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS ON A HALF-LINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Dirichlet boundary value problems for perturbed second-order differential equations on a half line are investigated in this paper. The methods mainly depend on the calculus of variations to the classical functionals. Sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of the solutions.

  4. Fundamentals of calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Carla C

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Calculus encourages students to use power, quotient, and product rules for solutions as well as stresses the importance of modeling skills.  In addition to core integral and differential calculus coverage, the book features finite calculus, which lends itself to modeling and spreadsheets.  Specifically, finite calculus is applied to marginal economic analysis, finance, growth, and decay.  Includes: Linear Equations and FunctionsThe DerivativeUsing the Derivative Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Techniques of DifferentiationIntegral CalculusIntegration TechniquesFunctions

  5. Geometric constrained variational calculus. III: The second variation (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Enrico; Luria, Gianvittorio; Pagani, Enrico

    2016-03-01

    The problem of minimality for constrained variational calculus is analyzed within the class of piecewise differentiable extremaloids. A fully covariant representation of the second variation of the action functional based on a family of local gauge transformations of the original Lagrangian is proposed. The necessity of pursuing a local adaptation process, rather than the global one described in [1] is seen to depend on the value of certain scalar attributes of the extremaloid, here called the corners’ strengths. On this basis, both the necessary and the sufficient conditions for minimality are worked out. In the discussion, a crucial role is played by an analysis of the prolongability of the Jacobi fields across the corners. Eventually, in the appendix, an alternative approach to the concept of strength of a corner, more closely related to Pontryagin’s maximum principle, is presented.

  6. Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Stanley I

    1981-01-01

    Calculus, Second Edition discusses the techniques and theorems of calculus. This edition introduces the sine and cosine functions, distributes ?-? material over several chapters, and includes a detailed account of analytic geometry and vector analysis.This book also discusses the equation of a straight line, trigonometric limit, derivative of a power function, mean value theorem, and fundamental theorems of calculus. The exponential and logarithmic functions, inverse trigonometric functions, linear and quadratic denominators, and centroid of a plane region are likewise elaborated. Other topics

  7. Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Larson, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The Larson CALCULUS program has a long history of innovation in the calculus market. It has been widely praised by a generation of students and professors for its solid and effective pedagogy that addresses the needs of a broad range of teaching and learning styles and environments. Each title is just one component in a comprehensive calculus course program that carefully integrates and coordinates print, media, and technology products for successful teaching and learning.

  8. The DuBois-Reymond Fundamental Lemma of the Fractional Calculus of Variations and an Euler-Lagrange Equation Involving only Derivatives of Caputo

    OpenAIRE

    Lazo, Matheus J.; Delfim F. M. Torres

    2012-01-01

    Derivatives and integrals of non-integer order were introduced more than three centuries ago, but only recently gained more attention due to their application on nonlocal phenomena. In this context, the Caputo derivatives are the most popular approach to fractional calculus among physicists, since differential equations involving Caputo derivatives require regular boundary conditions. Motivated by several applications in physics and other sciences, the fractional calculus of variations is cur...

  9. The absolute differential calculus (calculus of tensors)

    CERN Document Server

    Levi-Civita, Tullio

    2013-01-01

    Written by a towering figure of twentieth-century mathematics, this classic examines the mathematical background necessary for a grasp of relativity theory. Tullio Levi-Civita provides a thorough treatment of the introductory theories that form the basis for discussions of fundamental quadratic forms and absolute differential calculus, and he further explores physical applications.Part one opens with considerations of functional determinants and matrices, advancing to systems of total differential equations, linear partial differential equations, algebraic foundations, and a geometrical intro

  10. Example Solar Electric Propulsion System asteroid tours using variational calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Exploration of the asteroid belt with a vehicle utilizing a Solar Electric Propulsion System has been proposed in past studies. Some of those studies illustrated multiple asteroid rendezvous with trajectories obtained using approximate methods. Most of the inadequacies of those approximations are overcome in this paper, which uses the calculus of variations to calculate the trajectories and associated payloads of four asteroid tours. The modeling, equations, and solution techniques are discussed, followed by a presentation of the results.

  11. Fractional calculus with applications in mechanics wave propagation, impact and variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Atanackovic, Teodor M; Stankovic, Bogoljub; Zorica, Du?an

    2014-01-01

    The books Fractional Calculus with Applications in Mechanics: Vibrations and Diffusion Processes and Fractional Calculus with Applications in Mechanics: Wave Propagation, Impact and Variational Principles contain various applications of fractional calculus to the fields of classical mechanics. Namely, the books study problems in fields such as viscoelasticity of fractional order, lateral vibrations of a rod of fractional order type, lateral vibrations of a rod positioned on fractional order viscoelastic foundations, diffusion-wave phenomena, heat conduction, wave propagation, forced oscillati

  12. Schaum's outline of calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Ayres, Frank

    1999-01-01

    Students can gain a thorough understanding of differential and integral calculus with this powerful study tool. They'll also find the related analytic geometry much easier. The clear review of algebra and geometry in this edition will make calculus easier for students who wish to strengthen their knowledge in these areas. Updated to meet the emphasis in current courses, this new edition of a popular guide­­--more than 104,000 copies were bought of the prior edition--­­includes problems and examples using graphing calculators.

  13. Necessary Optimality Conditions for Fractional Action-Like Integrals of Variational Calculus with Riemann-Liouville Derivatives of Order $(\\alpha,\\beta)$

    OpenAIRE

    El-Nabulsi, Rami Ahmad; Delfim F. M. Torres

    2007-01-01

    We derive Euler-Lagrange type equations for fractional action-like integrals of the calculus of variations which depend on the Riemann-Liouville derivatives of order $(\\alpha,\\beta)$, $\\alpha > 0$, $\\beta > 0$, recently introduced by J. Cresson and S. Darses. Some interesting consequences are obtained and discussed.

  14. Fractional Calculus of Variations in Terms of a Generalized Fractional Integral with Applications to Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Odzijewicz, Tatiana; Torres, Delfim F M

    2012-01-01

    We study fractional variational problems in terms of a generalized fractional integral with Lagrangians depending on classical derivatives, generalized fractional integrals and derivatives. We obtain necessary optimality conditions for the basic and isoperimetric problems, as well as natural boundary conditions for free boundary value problems. The fractional action-like variational approach (FALVA) is extended and some applications to Physics discussed.

  15. An Inverse Problem of the Calculus of Variations on Arbitrary Time Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Dryl, Monika; Malinowska, Agnieszka B.; Torres, Delfim F. M.

    2014-01-01

    We consider an inverse extremal problem for variational functionals on arbitrary time scales. Using the Euler-Lagrange equation and the strengthened Legendre condition, we derive a general form for a variational functional that attains a local minimum at a given point of the vector space.

  16. Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Spivak, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Spivak's celebrated textbook is widely held as one of the finest introductions to mathematical analysis. His aim is to present calculus as the first real encounter with mathematics: it is the place to learn how logical reasoning combined with fundamental concepts can be developed into a rigorous mathematical theory rather than a bunch of tools and techniques learned by rote. Since analysis is a subject students traditionally find difficult to grasp, Spivak provides leisurely explanations, a profusion of examples, a wide range of exercises and plenty of illustrations in an easy-going approach that enlightens difficult concepts and rewards effort. Calculus will continue to be regarded as a modern classic, ideal for honours students and mathematics majors, who seek an alternative to doorstop textbooks on calculus, and the more formidable introductions to real analysis.

  17. Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Stanley I

    1984-01-01

    Calculus, Third Edition emphasizes the techniques and theorems of calculus, including many applied examples and exercises in both drill and applied-type problems.This book discusses shifting the graphs of functions, derivative as a rate of change, derivative of a power function, and theory of maxima and minima. The area between two curves, differential equations of exponential growth and decay, inverse hyperbolic functions, and integration of rational functions are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the fluid pressure, ellipse and translation of axes, graphing in polar coordinates, pro

  18. Algebraic Properties of Propositional Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Schuh, Bernd R.

    2009-01-01

    In this short note we relate some known properties of propositional calculus to purely algebraic considerations of a Boolean algebra. Classes of formulas of propositional calculus are considered as elements of a Boolean algebra. As such they can be represented by uniquely defined elements of this algebra which we call "logical primes". The algebraic notations appear useful because they make it possible to derive well known properties of propositional calculus by simple calculations or to subs...

  19. A modern theory of random variation with applications in stochastic calculus, financial mathematics, and Feynman integration

    CERN Document Server

    Muldowney, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    A Modern Theory of Random Variation is a new and radical re-formulation of the mathematical underpinnings of subjects as diverse as investment, communication engineering, and quantum mechanics. Setting aside the classical theory of probability measure spaces, the book utilizes a mathematically rigorous version of the theory of random variation that bases itself exclusively on finitely additive probability distribution functions. In place of twentieth century Lebesgue integration and measure theory, the author uses the simpler concept of Riemann sums, and the non-absolute Riemann-type integration of Henstock. Readers are supplied with an accessible approach to standard elements of probability theory such as the central limmit theorem and Brownian motion as well as remarkable, new results on Feynman diagrams and stochastic integrals. Throughout the book, detailed numerical demonstrations accompany the discussions of abstract mathematical theory, from the simplest elements of the subject to the most complex. I...

  20. Provability Calculus of Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyblad, Kasten

    This thesis presents a type system, Provability Calculus of Constructions (PCoC) that can be used for the formalization of logic. In a theorem prover based on the system, the user can extend the prover with new inference rules in a logically consistent manner. This is done by representing PCo......C as values and data types within PCoC. The new feature of PCoC is that results of the representation of PCoC can be lifted to PCoC itself. The lifting is fully formalized in PCoC, and the logic therefore supports reflection....

  1. Fluorescence spectroscopy of dental calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the fluorescence properties of dental calculus in comparison with the properties of adjacent unaffected tooth structure using both lasers and LEDs in the UV-visible range for fluorescence excitation. The influence of calculus color on the informative signal is demonstrated. The optimal spectral bands of excitation and registration of the fluorescence are determined

  2. The Calculus of a Vase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherger, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Of the most universal applications in integral calculus are those involved with finding volumes of solids of revolution. These profound problems are typically taught with traditional approaches of the disk and shell methods, after which most calculus curriculums will additionally cover arc length and surfaces of revolution. Even in these visibly…

  3. The Basic Principle of Calculus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A simple partial version of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus can be presented on the first day of the first-year calculus course, and then relied upon repeatedly in assigned problems throughout the course. With that experience behind them, students can use the partial version to understand the full-fledged Fundamental Theorem, with further…

  4. Polynomial calculus: rethinking the role of calculus in high schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Melva R.; Crombie, William; Enderson, Mary; Cobb, Nell

    2016-08-01

    Access to advanced study in mathematics, in general, and to calculus, in particular, depends in part on the conceptual architecture of these knowledge domains. In this paper, we outline an alternative conceptual architecture for elementary calculus. Our general strategy is to separate basic concepts from the particular advanced techniques used in their definition and exposition. We develop the beginning concepts of differential and integral calculus using only concepts and skills found in secondary algebra and geometry. It is our underlining objective to strengthen students' knowledge of these topics in an effort to prepare them for advanced mathematics study. The purpose of this reconstruction is not to alter the teaching of limit-based calculus but rather to affect students' learning and understanding of mathematics in general by introducing key concepts during secondary mathematics courses. This approach holds the promise of strengthening more students' understanding of limit-based calculus and enhancing their potential for success in post-secondary mathematics.

  5. Stochastic optimal control as non-equilibrium statistical mechanics: calculus of variations over density and current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In stochastic optimal control (SOC) one minimizes the average cost-to-go, that consists of the cost-of-control (amount of efforts), cost-of-space (where one wants the system to be) and the target cost (where one wants the system to arrive), for a system participating in forced and controlled Langevin dynamics. We extend the SOC problem by introducing an additional cost-of-dynamics, characterized by a vector potential. We propose derivation of the generalized gauge-invariant Hamilton-Jacobi–Bellman equation as a variation over density and current, suggest hydrodynamic interpretation and discuss examples, e.g., ergodic control of a particle-within-a-circle, illustrating non-equilibrium space-time complexity. (fast track communications)

  6. Stochastic optimal control as non-equilibrium statistical mechanics: calculus of variations over density and current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyak, Vladimir Y.; Chertkov, Michael; Bierkens, Joris; Kappen, Hilbert J.

    2014-01-01

    In stochastic optimal control (SOC) one minimizes the average cost-to-go, that consists of the cost-of-control (amount of efforts), cost-of-space (where one wants the system to be) and the target cost (where one wants the system to arrive), for a system participating in forced and controlled Langevin dynamics. We extend the SOC problem by introducing an additional cost-of-dynamics, characterized by a vector potential. We propose derivation of the generalized gauge-invariant Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation as a variation over density and current, suggest hydrodynamic interpretation and discuss examples, e.g., ergodic control of a particle-within-a-circle, illustrating non-equilibrium space-time complexity.

  7. Optimal transport for applied mathematicians calculus of variations, PDEs, and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Santambrogio, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    This monograph presents a rigorous mathematical introduction to optimal transport as a variational problem, its use in modeling various phenomena, and its connections with partial differential equations. Its main goal is to provide the reader with the techniques necessary to understand the current research in optimal transport and the tools which are most useful for its applications. Full proofs are used to illustrate mathematical concepts and each chapter includes a section that discusses applications of optimal transport to various areas, such as economics, finance, potential games, image processing and fluid dynamics. Several topics are covered that have never been previously in books on this subject, such as the Knothe transport, the properties of functionals on measures, the Dacorogna-Moser flow, the formulation through minimal flows with prescribed divergence formulation, the case of the supremal cost, and the most classical numerical methods. Graduate students and researchers in both pure and appl...

  8. Stochastic Calculus of Wrapped Compartments

    CERN Document Server

    Coppo, Mario; Drocco, Maurizio; Grassi, Elena; Troina, Angelo; 10.4204/EPTCS.28.6

    2010-01-01

    The Calculus of Wrapped Compartments (CWC) is a variant of the Calculus of Looping Sequences (CLS). While keeping the same expressiveness, CWC strongly simplifies the development of automatic tools for the analysis of biological systems. The main simplification consists in the removal of the sequencing operator, thus lightening the formal treatment of the patterns to be matched in a term (whose complexity in CLS is strongly affected by the variables matching in the sequences). We define a stochastic semantics for this new calculus. As an application we model the interaction between macrophages and apoptotic neutrophils and a mechanism of gene regulation in E.Coli.

  9. Hamiltonization of Nonholonomic Systems and the Inverse Problem of the Calculus of Variations

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, A M; Mestdag, T

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a method which allows one to recover the equations of motion of a class of nonholonomic systems by finding instead an unconstrained Hamiltonian system on the full phase space, and to restrict the resulting canonical equations to an appropriate submanifold of phase space. We focus first on the Lagrangian picture of the method and deduce the corresponding Hamiltonian from the Legendre transformation. We illustrate the method with several examples and we discuss its relationship to the Pontryagin maximum principle.

  10. Dynamic Visualizations of Calculus Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embse, Charles Vonder

    2001-01-01

    Presents three fundamental ideas of calculus and explains using the coordinate plane geometrically. Uses Cabri Geometry II to show how computer geometry systems can facilitate student understanding of general conic objects and its dynamic algebraic equations. (KHR)

  11. Decidability of Mean Value Calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaoshan

    1999-01-01

    Mean Value Calculus (MVC)[1] is a real-time logicwhich can be used to specify and verify real-time systems[2]. As aconservative extension of Duration Calculus (DC)[3], MVC increasesthe expressive power but keeps the properties of DC. In this paper wepresent decidability results of MVC. An interesting result is that propositional MVC with chop star operator is still decidable, which develops the results of[4]and[5].

  12. The Shape of a Sausage: A Challenging Problem in the Calculus of Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Michael A. B.

    2010-01-01

    Many familiar household objects (such as sausages) involve the maximization of a volume under geometric constraints. A flexible but inextensible membrane bounds a volume which is to be filled to capacity. In the case of the sausage, a full analytic solution is here provided. Other related but more difficult problems seem to demand approximate…

  13. Geometric constrained variational calculus I: Piecewise smooth extremals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Enrico; Bruno, Danilo; Luria, Gianvittorio; Pagani, Enrico

    2015-05-01

    A geometric setup for constrained variational calculus is presented. The analysis deals with the study of the extremals of an action functional defined on piecewise differentiable curves, subject to differentiable, non-holonomic constraints. Special attention is paid to the tensorial aspects of the theory. As far as the kinematical foundations are concerned, a fully covariant scheme is developed through the introduction of the concept of infinitesimal control. The standard classification of the extremals into normal and abnormal ones is discussed, pointing out the existence of an algebraic algorithm assigning to each admissible curve a corresponding abnormality index, related to the co-rank of a suitable linear map. Attention is then shifted to the study of the first variation of the action functional. The analysis includes a revisitation of Pontryagin's equations and of the Lagrange multipliers method, as well as a reformulation of Pontryagin's algorithm in Hamiltonian terms. The analysis is completed by a general result, concerning the existence of finite deformations with fixed endpoints.

  14. Fluorescence detection of dental calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is devoted to the optimization of fluorescence dental calculus diagnostics in optical spectrum. The optimal wavelengths for fluorescence excitation and registration are determined. Two spectral ranges 620 – 645 nm and 340 – 370 nm are the most convenient for supra- and subgingival calculus determination. The simple implementation of differential method free from the necessity of spectrometer using was investigated. Calculus detection reliability in the case of simple implementation is higher than in the case of spectra analysis at optimal wavelengths. The use of modulated excitation light and narrowband detection of informative signal allows us to decrease essentially its diagnostic intensity even in comparison with intensity of the low level laser dental therapy

  15. The Power of Investigative Calculus Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, John Robert; Quinn, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes investigative calculus projects in which students explore a question or problem of their own construction. Three exemplary pieces of student work are showcased. Investigative calculus projects are an excellent way to foster student understanding and interest in calculus. (Contains 4 figures.)

  16. Mathematical Features of the Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerheber, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental theorems of the calculus describe the relationships between derivatives and integrals of functions. The value of any function at a particular location is the definite derivative of its integral and the definite integral of its derivative. Thus, any value is the magnitude of the slope of the tangent of its integral at that position,…

  17. Advanced calculus of several variables

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, C H

    1995-01-01

    Modern conceptual treatment of multivariable calculus, emphasizing the interplay of geometry and analysis via linear algebra and the approximation of nonlinear mappings by linear ones. At the same time, ample attention is paid to the classical applications and computational methods. Hundreds of examples, problems and figures. 1973 edition.

  18. The Algebra of Schubert Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Gatto, Letterio

    2004-01-01

    A flexible unified framework for both classical and quantum Schubert calculus is proposed. It is based on a natural combinatorial approach relying on the Hasse-Schmidt extension of a certain family of pairwise commuting endomorphisms of an infinite free Z-module M to its exterior algebra.

  19. Calculus Students' Understanding of Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorko, Allison; Speer, Natasha M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have documented difficulties that elementary school students have in understanding volume. Despite its importance in higher mathematics, we know little about college students' understanding of volume. This study investigated calculus students' understanding of volume. Clinical interview transcripts and written responses to volume…

  20. A Calculus of Higher-Order Distributed Components

    OpenAIRE

    Stefani, Jean-Bernard

    2003-01-01

    This report presents a calculus for higher-order distributed components, the Kell calculus. The calculus can be understood as a direct extension of the higher-order -calculus with programmable locations. The report illustrates the expressive power of the Kell calculus by encoding several process calculi with explicit locations, including Mobile Ambients, the Distributed Join calculus and the . The latter encoding demonstrates that the Kell calculus retains the expressive power of the but in a...

  1. Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Zandy, Bernard V

    2003-01-01

    We take great notes-and make learning a snap When it comes to pinpointing the stuff you really need to know, nobody does it better than CliffsNotes. This fast, effective tutorial helps you master core Calculus concepts-from functions, limits, and derivatives to differentials, integration, and definite integrals- and get the best possible grade. At CliffsNotes, we're dedicated to helping you do your best, no matter how challenging the subject. Our authors are veteran teachers and talented writers who know how to cut to the chase- and zero in on the essential information you need to succeed.

  2. A Calculus of Evolving Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dezani-Ciancaglini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The demands of developing modern, highly dynamic applications have led to an increasing interest in dynamic programming languages and mechanisms. Not only must applications evolve over time, but the object models themselves may need to be adapted to the requirements of different run-time contexts. Class-based models and prototype-based models, for example, may need to co-exist to meet the demands of dynamically evolving applications. Multi-dimensional dispatch, fine-grained and dynamic software composition, and run-time evolution of behaviour are further examples of diverse mechanisms which may need to co-exist in a dynamically evolving run-time environment. How can we model the semantics of these highly dynamic features, yet still offer some reasonable safety guarantees?To this end we present an original calculus in which objects can adapt their behaviour at run-time. Both objects and environments are represented by first-class mappings between variables and values. Message sends are dynamically resolved to method calls. Variables may be dynamically bound, making it possible to model a variety of dynamic mechanisms within the same calculus. Despite the highly dynamic nature of the calculus, safety properties are assured by a type assignment system.

  3. Petri nets semantics ofπ-calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenhua YU; Yuanli CAI; Haiping XU

    2008-01-01

    As π-calculus based on the interleaving semantics cannot depict the true concurrency and has few supporting tools,it is translated into Petri nets.π-calculus is divided into basic elements,sequence,concurrency,choice and recursive modules.These modules are translated into Petri nets to construct a complicated system.Petri nets semantics for π-calculus visualize system structure as well as system behaviors.The structural analysis techniques allow direct qualitative analysis of the system properties on the structure of the nets.Finally,Petri nets semantics for π-calculus are illustrated by applying them to mobile telephone systems.

  4. Solutions manual to accompany Fundamentals of calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Carla C

    2015-01-01

    Solutions Manual to Accompany Fundamentals of Calculus the text that encourages students to use power, quotient, and product rules for solutions as well as stresses the importance of modeling skills.  In addition to core integral and differential calculus coverage, the core book features finite calculus, which lends itself to modeling and spreadsheets.  Specifically, finite calculus is applied to marginal economic analysis, finance, growth, and decay.  Includes: Linear Equations and Functions The Derivative Using the Derivative Exponential and Logarithmic

  5. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  6. Advanced calculus of several variables

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Devendra

    2014-01-01

    ADVANCED CALCULUS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES covers important topics of Transformations and topology on Euclidean in n-space Rn Functions of several variables, Differentiation in Rn, Multiple integrals and Integration in Rn. The topics have been presented in a simple clear and coherent style with a number of examples and exercises. Proofs have been made direct and simple. Unsolved problems just after relevant articles in the form of exercises and typical problems followed by suggestions have been given. This book will help the reader work on the problems of Numerical Analysis, Operations Research, Differential Equations and Engineering applications.

  7. The hidden structural rules of the discontinuous Lambek calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Valentín Fernández Gallart, José Oriol

    2014-01-01

    The sequent calculus sL for the Lambek calculus L (lambek 58) has no structural rules. Interestingly, sL is equivalent to a multimodal calculus mL, which consists of the nonassociative Lambek calculus with the structural rule of associativity. This paper proves that the sequent calculus or hypersequent calculus hD of the discontinuous Lambek calculus (Morrill and Valent\\'in), which like sL has no structural rules, is also equivalent to an omega-sorted multimodal calculus mD. More concretely, ...

  8. RAMAN-SPECTRA OF HUMAN DENTAL CALCULUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TSUDA, H; ARENDS, J

    1993-01-01

    Raman spectra of human dental calculus have been observed for the first time by use of micro-Raman spectroscopy. The spectral features of calculus were influenced easily by heating caused by laser irradiation. Therefore, the measurements were carried out at relatively low power (5 mW, 1-mu m spot si

  9. Aspects of Calculus for Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fothergill, Lee

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the perspectives of faculty members who had experience teaching undergraduate calculus and preservice teachers who had recently completed student teaching in regards to a first semester undergraduate calculus course. An online survey was created and sent to recent student teachers and college mathematics…

  10. A Cross-National Study of Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jun; Friedler, Louis M.; Wolff, Edward F.; Li, Jun; Rhea, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The results from a cross-national study comparing calculus performance of students at East China Normal University (ECNU) in Shanghai and students at the University of Michigan before and after their first university calculus course are presented. Overall, ECNU significantly outperformed Michigan on both the pre- and post-tests, but the Michigan…

  11. A functional presentation of Pi calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    From the very beginning process algebra introduced the dichotomy between channels and processes. This dichotomy prevails in all present process calculi.The situation is in contrast to that with lambda calculus which has only one class of entities——the lambda terms. We introduce in this paper a process calculus called Lamp in which channels are process names. The language is more uniform than existing process calculi in two aspects: First it has a unified treatment of channels and processes. There is only one class of syntactical entities——processes. Second it has a unified presentation of both first order and higher order process calculi. The language is functional in the sense that lambda calculus is functional.Two bisimulation equivalences, barbed and closed bisimilarities, are proved to coincide.A natural translation from Pi calculus to Lamp is shown to preserve both operational and algebraic semantics. The relationship between lazy lambda calculus and Lamp is discussed.

  12. Symmetric π—Calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅育熙

    1998-01-01

    An alternative presentation of the π-calculus is given.This version of the π-calculus is symmetric in the sense that communications are symmetric and there is no difference between input and output prefixes.The point of the symmetric π-calculus is that it has no abstract names.The set of closed names is therefore homogeneous.The π-calculus can be fully embedded into the symmetric π-calculus.The symmetry changes the emphasis of the communication mechanism of the π-calculus and opens up possibility for further variations.

  13. Astrophysical Applications of Fractional Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislavsky, Aleksander A.

    The paradigm of fractional calculus occupies an important place for the macroscopic description of subdiffusion. Its advance in theoretical astrophysics is expected to be very attractive too. In this report we discuss a recent development of the idea to some astrophysical problems. One of them is connected with a random migration of bright points associated with magnetic fields at the solar photosphere. The transport of the bright points has subdiffusive features that require the fractional generalization of the Leighton's model. Another problem is related to the angular distribution of radio beams, being propagated through a medium with random inhomogeneities. The peculiarity of this medium is that radio beams are trapped because of random wave localization. This idea can be useful for the diagnostics of interplanetary and interstellar turbulent media.

  14. Applications of fractional calculus in physics

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Fractional calculus is a collection of relatively little-known mathematical results concerning generalizations of differentiation and integration to noninteger orders. While these results have been accumulated over centuries in various branches of mathematics, they have until recently found little appreciation or application in physics and other mathematically oriented sciences. This situation is beginning to change, and there are now a growing number of research areas in physics which employ fractional calculus.This volume provides an introduction to fractional calculus for physicists, and co

  15. Applying Change of Variable to Calculus Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachapova, Farida; Kachapov, Ilias

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the technique of introducing a new variable in some calculus problems to help students master the skills of integration and evaluation of limits. This technique is algorithmic and easy to apply.

  16. Motivation and Study Habits of College Calculus Students: Does Studying Calculus in High School Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Due in part to the growing popularity of the Advanced Placement program, an increasingly large percentage of entering college students are enrolling in calculus courses having already taken calculus in high school. Many students do not score high enough on the AP calculus examination to place out of Calculus I, and many do not take the…

  17. Introductory analysis a deeper view of calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Bagby, Richard J

    2000-01-01

    Introductory Analysis addresses the needs of students taking a course in analysis after completing a semester or two of calculus, and offers an alternative to texts that assume that math majors are their only audience. By using a conversational style that does not compromise mathematical precision, the author explains the material in terms that help the reader gain a firmer grasp of calculus concepts.* Written in an engaging, conversational tone and readable style while softening the rigor and theory* Takes a realistic approach to the necessary and accessible level of abstraction for the secondary education students* A thorough concentration of basic topics of calculus* Features a student-friendly introduction to delta-epsilon arguments * Includes a limited use of abstract generalizations for easy use* Covers natural logarithms and exponential functions* Provides the computational techniques often encountered in basic calculus

  18. Tuplix Calculus Specifications of Financial Transfer Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bergstra, J A; van der Zwaag, M B

    2008-01-01

    We study the application of Tuplix Calculus in modular financial budget design. We formalize organizational structure using financial transfer networks. We consider the notion of flux of money over a network, and a way to enforce the matching of influx and outflux for parts of a network. We exploit so-called signed attribute notation to make internal streams visible through encapsulations. Finally, we propose a Tuplix Calculus construct for the definition of data functions.

  19. A phenomenological calculus of Wiener description space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, I W; Louie, A H

    2007-10-01

    The phenomenological calculus is a categorical example of Robert Rosen's modeling relation. This paper is an alligation of the phenomenological calculus and generalized harmonic analysis, another categorical example. Our epistemological exploration continues into the realm of Wiener description space, in which constitutive parameters are extended from vectors to vector-valued functions of a real variable. Inherent in the phenomenology are fundamental representations of time and nearness to equilibrium. PMID:17955459

  20. Ordered Models of the Lambda Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Salibra, Antonino; Carraro, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Answering a question by Honsell and Plotkin, we show that there are two equations between lambda terms, the so-called subtractive equations, consistent with lambda calculus but not simultaneously satisfied in any partially ordered model with bottom element. We also relate the subtractive equations to the open problem of the order-incompleteness of lambda calculus, by studying the connection between the notion of absolute unorderability in a specific point and a weaker notion of subtractivity ...

  1. Barbed congruence of the asymmetric chi calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Xiao-ju; FU Yu-xi

    2006-01-01

    The chi calculus is a model of mobile processes. It has evolved from the pi-calculus with motivations from simplification and communication-as-cut-elimination. This paper studies the chi calculus in the framework incorporating asymmetric communication. The major feature of the calculus is the identification of two actions:x/x and τ. The investigation on the barbed bisimilarity shows how the property affects the observational theory.Based on the definition of the barbed bisimilarity, the simulation properties of the barbed bisimilarity are studied. It shows that the algebraic properties of the barbed bisimilarity have changed greatly compared with the chi calculus. Although the definition of the barbed bisimilarity is very simple, the property of closeness under contexts makes it difficult to understand the barbed bisimilarity directly. Therefore an open style definition of the barbed bisimilarity is given, which is a context free description of barbed bisimilarity. Its definition is complex,but it is a well-behaved relation for it coincides with the barbed bisimilarity. It also helps to build an axiomatization system for the barbed congruence. Besides the axioms for the strong barbed bisimilarity, the paper proposes a new tau law and four new update laws for the barbed congruence. Both the operational and algebraic properties of the enriched calculus improve the understanding of the bisimulation behaviors of the model.

  2. The Sustainability of Dental Calculus for Archaeological Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackie, Meaghan Emma; Radini, Anita; Speller, Camilla

    Dental calculus is a mineralized plaque biofilm formed by microbiota of the oral microbiome. Until recently, the information potential of dental calculus for archaeological study was not fully realised and it was often discarded. However, it is now recognized that dental calculus entombs and pres......Dental calculus is a mineralized plaque biofilm formed by microbiota of the oral microbiome. Until recently, the information potential of dental calculus for archaeological study was not fully realised and it was often discarded. However, it is now recognized that dental calculus entombs...... and preserve biomolecules related to diet, health and disease....

  3. Ancient DNA analysis of dental calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyrich, Laura S; Dobney, Keith; Cooper, Alan

    2015-02-01

    Dental calculus (calcified tartar or plaque) is today widespread on modern human teeth around the world. A combination of soft starchy foods, changing acidity of the oral environment, genetic pre-disposition, and the absence of dental hygiene all lead to the build-up of microorganisms and food debris on the tooth crown, which eventually calcifies through a complex process of mineralisation. Millions of oral microbes are trapped and preserved within this mineralised matrix, including pathogens associated with the oral cavity and airways, masticated food debris, and other types of extraneous particles that enter the mouth. As a result, archaeologists and anthropologists are increasingly using ancient human dental calculus to explore broad aspects of past human diet and health. Most recently, high-throughput DNA sequencing of ancient dental calculus has provided valuable insights into the evolution of the oral microbiome and shed new light on the impacts of some of the major biocultural transitions on human health throughout history and prehistory. Here, we provide a brief historical overview of archaeological dental calculus research, and discuss the current approaches to ancient DNA sampling and sequencing. Novel applications of ancient DNA from dental calculus are discussed, highlighting the considerable scope of this new research field for evolutionary biology and modern medicine.

  4. A double large prime variation for small genus hyperelliptic index calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudry, P.; Thome, E.; Theriault, N.; Diem, C.

    2007-03-01

    In this article, we examine how the index calculus approach for computing discrete logarithms in small genus hyperelliptic curves can be improved by introducing a double large prime variation. Two algorithms are presented. The first algorithm is a rather natural adaptation of the double large prime variation to the intended context. On heuristic and experimental grounds, it seems to perform quite well but lacks a complete and precise analysis. Our second algorithm is a considerably simplified variant, which can be analyzed easily. The resulting complexity improves on the fastest known algorithms. Computer experiments show that for hyperelliptic curves of genus three, our first algorithm surpasses Pollard's Rho method even for rather small field sizes.

  5. More calculus of a single variable

    CERN Document Server

    Mercer, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    This book goes beyond the basics of a first course in calculus to reveal the power and richness of the subject. Standard topics from calculus — such as the real numbers, differentiation and integration, mean value theorems, the exponential function — are reviewed and elucidated before digging into a deeper exploration of theory and applications, such as the AGM inequality, convexity, the art of integration, and explicit formulas for π. Further topics and examples are introduced through a plethora of exercises that both challenge and delight the reader. While the reader is thereby exposed to the many threads of calculus, the coherence of the subject is preserved throughout by an emphasis on patterns of development, of proof and argumentation, and of generalization. More Calculus of a Single Variable is suitable as a text for a course in advanced calculus, as a supplementary text for courses in analysis, and for self-study by students, instructors, and, indeed, all connoisseurs of ingenious calculations.

  6. Functional calculus for generators of analytic semigroups of operators

    OpenAIRE

    Lopushansky O.V.; Sharyn S.V.

    2012-01-01

    We construct a functional calculus for generators of one-parameter boundedanalytic semigroups of operators on a Banach space. The calculus symbol classconsist of the Laplace image of the convolution algebra $cal S'_+$ of tempereddistributions with supports in $[0, infty)$. Domain of constructed calculus isdense in the Banach space.

  7. Functional calculus for generators of analytic semigroups of operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopushansky O.V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We construct a functional calculus for generators of one-parameter boundedanalytic semigroups of operators on a Banach space. The calculus symbol classconsist of the Laplace image of the convolution algebra $cal S'_+$ of tempereddistributions with supports in $[0, infty$. Domain of constructed calculus isdense in the Banach space.

  8. Standardization of a Call-By-Value Lambda-Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrieri, Giulio; Paolini, Luca; Ronchi Della Rocca, Simona

    2015-01-01

    We study an extension of Plotkin's call-by-value lambda-calculus by means of two commutation rules (sigma-reductions). Recently, it has been proved that this extended calculus provides elegant characterizations of many semantic properties, as for example solvability. We prove a standardization theorem for this calculus by generalizing Takahashi's approach of parallel reductions. The standardization property allows us to prove that our calculus is conservative with respect to the Plotkin's one...

  9. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate three control flow analyses for Mobile Ambients, a process calculus designed for modelling mobility. We show that hybrid logic is very well-suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can...... be exploited to reduce the "administrative overhead" of the analysis specification and thus simplify it. Finally, we use HyLoTab, a fully automated theorem prover for hybrid logic, both as a convenient platform for a prototype implementation as well as to formally prove the correctness of the analysis. (C...

  10. Probabilistic Analysis of the Quality Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    We consider a fragment of the Quality Calculus, previously introduced for defensive programming of software components such that it becomes natural to plan for default behaviour in case the ideal behaviour fails due to unreliable communication. This paper develops a probabilistically based trust...... analysis supporting the Quality Calculus. It uses information about the probabilities that expected input will be absent in order to determine the trustworthiness of the data used for controlling the distributed system; the main challenge is to take accord of the stochastic dependency between some...

  11. Fractional-Order Variational Calculus with Generalized Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baleanu Dumitru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the necessary and sufficient optimality conditions for fractional variational problems involving the right and the left fractional integrals and fractional derivatives defined in the sense of Riemman-Liouville with a Lagrangian depending on the free end-points. To illustrate our approach, two examples are discussed in detail.

  12. Projects for calculus the language of change

    CERN Document Server

    Stroyan, Keith D

    1999-01-01

    Projects for Calculus is designed to add depth and meaning to any calculus course. The fifty-two projects presented in this text offer the opportunity to expand the use and understanding of mathematics. The wide range of topics will appeal to both instructors and students. Shorter, less demanding projects can be managed by the independent learner, while more involved, in-depth projects may be used for group learning. Each task draws on special mathematical topics and applications from subjects including medicine, engineering, economics, ecology, physics, and biology.Subjects including:* Medicine* Engineering* Economics* Ecology* Physics* Biology

  13. TWO-PHASE EJECTOR of CARBON DIOXIDE HEAT PUMP CALCULUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit B.M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is presented the calculus of the two-phase ejector for carbon dioxide heat pump. The method of calculus is based on the method elaborated by S.M. Kandil, W.E. Lear, S.A. Sherif, and is modified taking into account entrainment ratio as the input for the calculus.

  14. Improving Calculus II and III through the Redistribution of Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, C. Yousuf; Koetz, Matt; Lewis, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Three years ago our mathematics department rearranged the topics in second and third semester calculus, moving multivariable calculus to the second semester and series to the third semester. This paper describes the new arrangement of topics, and how it could be adapted to calculus curricula at different schools. It also explains the benefits we…

  15. Calculus for Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdahl, Kenn; Loats, Jim

    This book, written for students of calculus, is designed to augment the explanations of concepts covered in a calculus class. It consists of an overview of calculus divided into basic ideas and vocabulary, the process of differential calculus, and integral calculus. The book is intended as a resource to explain the concepts of calculus in everyday…

  16. The Inductive Applications of Probability Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Gini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Author goes back to Founders of Probability calculus to investigate their original interpretation of the probability measure in the applications of the probability theory to real problems. The Author puts in evidence some misunderstandings related to the inversion of deductions derived by the use of probability distributions for investigating the causes of events.

  17. Research of Semantic Comparison between χ-calculus and π-calculus%χ-演算与π-演算的语义比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐林; 傅育熙

    2000-01-01

    Through the comparison of syntactic structure,operational semantics and algebraic semantics between χ-calculus and π-calculus, this paper concludes that χ-calculus has more succinct syntactic structure,more explicit operational semantics,more intuitionistic algebraic semantics and more favorable algebraic property. And a translation from π-calculus to χ-calculus is presented.

  18. Advanced calculus of a single variable

    CERN Document Server

    Geveci, Tunc

    2016-01-01

    This advanced undergraduate textbook is based on a one-semester course on single variable calculus that the author has been teaching at San Diego State University for many years. The aim of this classroom-tested book is to deliver a rigorous discussion of the concepts and theorems that are dealt with informally in the first two semesters of a beginning calculus course. As such, students are expected to gain a deeper understanding of the fundamental concepts of calculus, such as limits (with an emphasis on ε-δ definitions), continuity (including an appreciation of the difference between mere pointwise and uniform continuity), the derivative (with rigorous proofs of various versions of L’Hôpital’s rule) and the Riemann integral (discussing improper integrals in-depth, including the comparison and Dirichlet tests). Success in this course is expected to prepare students for more advanced courses in real and complex analysis and this book will help to accomplish this. The first semester of advanced calculus...

  19. Detection, removal and prevention of calculus: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa G. Kamath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental plaque is considered to be a major etiological factor in the development of periodontal disease. Accordingly, the elimination of supra- and sub-gingival plaque and calculus is the cornerstone of periodontal therapy. Dental calculus is mineralized plaque; because it is porous, it can absorb various toxic products that can damage the periodontal tissues. Hence, calculus should be accurately detected and thoroughly removed for adequate periodontal therapy. Many techniques have been used to identify and remove calculus deposits present on the root surface. The purpose of this review was to compile the various methods and their advantages for the detection and removal of calculus.

  20. The Development of Newtonian Calculus in Britain, 1700-1800

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guicciardini, Niccoló

    2003-11-01

    Introduction; Overture: Newton's published work on the calculus of fluxions; Part I. The Early Period: 1. The diffusion of the calculus (1700-1730); 2. Developments in the calculus of fluxions (1714-1733); 3. The controversy on the foundations of the calculus (1734-1742); Part II. The Middle Period: 4. The textbooks on fluxions (1736-1758); 5. Some applications of the calculus (1740-1743); 6. The analytic art (1755-1785); Part III. The Reform: 7. Scotland (1785-1809); 8. The Military Schools (1773-1819); 9. Cambridge and Dublin (1790-1820); 10. Tables; Endnotes; Bibliography; Index.

  1. A robust interpretation of duration calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzle, M.; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2005-01-01

    Calculus (DC), our findings are that the robust interpretation of DC is equivalent to a multi-valued interpretation that uses the real numbers as semantic domain and assigns Lipschitz-continuous interpretations to all operators of DC. Furthermore, this continuity permits approximation between discrete...

  2. About compositional analysis of pi-calculus processes

    OpenAIRE

    Martinelli, Fabio

    2003-01-01

    We set up a logical framework for the compositional analysis of finite pi-calculus processes. In particular, we extend the partial model checking techniques developed for value passing process algebras to a nominal calculus, i.e. the pi-calculus. The logic considered is an adaptation of the ambient logic to the pi-calculus. As one of the possible applications, we show that our techniques may be used to study interesting security properties as confidentiality for (finite) pi-calculus processes.

  3. About compositional analysis of pi-calculus processes

    OpenAIRE

    Martinelli, Fabio

    2001-01-01

    We set up a logical framework for the compositional analysis of finite pi-calculus processes. In particular, we extend the partial model checking techniques developed for value passing process algebras to a nominal calculus, i.e. the pi-calculus. The logic considered is an adaptation of the ambient logic to the pi-calculus. As one of the possible applications, we show that our techniques may be used to study interesting security properties as confidentiality for (finite) pi-calculus processes.

  4. Calculus on manifolds a modern approach to classical theorems of advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Spivak, Michael D

    1965-01-01

    This little book is especially concerned with those portions of "advanced calculus" in which the subtlety of the concepts and methods makes rigor difficult to attain at an elementary level. The approa

  5. Soergel calculus and Schubert calculus

    OpenAIRE

    He, Xuhua; Williamson, Geordie

    2015-01-01

    We reduce some key calculations of compositions of morphisms between Soergel bimodules ("Soergel calculus") to calculations in the nil Hecke ring ("Schubert calculus"). This formula has several applications in modular representation theory.

  6. Expressing First-Order π-Calculus in Higher-Order Calculus of Communicating Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian Xu

    2009-01-01

    In the study of process calculi, encoding between different calculi is an effective way to compare the expressive power of calculi and can shed light on the essence of where the difference lies. Thomsen and Sangiorgi have worked on the higher-order calculi (higher-order Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS) and higher-order It-calculus, respectively) and the encoding from and to first-order π-calculus. However a fully abstract encoding of first-order π-calculus with higher-order CCS is not available up-today. This is what we intend to settle in this paper. We follow the encoding strategy, first proposed by Thomsen, of translating first-order π-calculus into Plain CHOCS. We show that the encoding strategy is fully abstract with respect to early bisimilarity (first-order π-calculus) and wired bisimilarity (Plain CHOCS) (which is a bisimulation defined on wired processes only sending and receiving wires), that is the core of the encoding strategy. Moreover from the fact that the wired bisimilarity is contained by the well-established context bisimilarity, we secure the soundness of the encoding, with respect to early bisimilarity and context bisimilarity. We use index technique to get around all the technical details to reach these main results of this paper. Finally, we make some discussion on our work and suggest some future work.

  7. ESeal Calculus: A Secure Mobile Calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Rong; Chen Xin-meng; Liu Ping

    2003-01-01

    The ESeal Calculus is a secure mobile calculus based on Seal Calculus. By using open-channels, ESeal Calculus makes it possible to communicate between any two arbitrary seals with some secure restrictions. It improves the expression ability and efficiency of Seal calculus without losing security.

  8. Affine connection form of Regge calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Khatsymovsky, V M

    2015-01-01

    Regge action is represented analogously to how the Palatini action for general relativity (GR) as some functional of the metric and a general connection as independent variables represents the Einstein-Hilbert action. The piecewise flat (or simplicial) spacetime of Regge calculus is equipped with some world coordinates and some piecewise affine metric which is completely defined by the set of edge lengths and the world coordinates of the vertices. The conjugate variables are the general nondegenerate matrices on the 3-simplices which play a role of a general discrete connection. Our previous result on some representation of the Regge calculus action in terms of the local Euclidean (Minkowsky) frame vectors and orthogonal connection matrices as independent variables is somewhat modified for the considered case of the general linear group GL(4,R) of the connection matrices. As a result, we have some action invariant w. r. t. arbitrary change of coordinates of the vertices (and related GL(4,R) transformations in...

  9. Investigations on a Pedagogical Calculus of Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Colson, Loïc

    2012-01-01

    In the last few years appeared pedagogical propositional natural deduction systems. In these systems, one must satisfy the pedagogical constraint: the user must give an example of any introduced notion. First we expose the reasons of such a constraint and properties of these "pedagogical" calculi: the absence of negation at logical side, and the "usefulness" feature of terms at computational side (through the Curry-Howard correspondence). Then we construct a simple pedagogical restriction of the calculus of constructions (CC) called CCr. We establish logical limitations of this system, and compare its computational expressiveness to Godel system T. Finally, guided by the logical limitations of CCr, we propose a formal and general definition of what a pedagogical calculus of constructions should be.

  10. On the interpretation of Stratonovich calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Itô–Stratonovich dilemma is revisited from the perspective of the interpretation of Stratonovich calculus using shot noise. Over the long time scales of the displacement of an observable, the principal issue is how to deal with finite/zero autocorrelation of the stochastic noise. The former (non-zero) noise autocorrelation structure preserves the normal chain rule using a mid-point selection scheme, which is the basis Stratonovich calculus, whereas the instantaneous autocorrelation structure of Itô's approach does not. By considering the finite decay of the noise correlations on time scales very short relative to the overall displacement times of the observable, we suggest a generalization of the integral Taylor expansion criterion of Wong and Zakai (1965 Ann. Math. Stat. 36 1560–4) for the validity of the Stratonovich approach. (paper)

  11. Some Applications of Fractional Calculus in Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tenreiro Machado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractional Calculus (FC goes back to the beginning of the theory of differential calculus. Nevertheless, the application of FC just emerged in the last two decades, due to the progress in the area of chaos that revealed subtle relationships with the FC concepts. In the field of dynamical systems theory some work has been carried out but the proposed models and algorithms are still in a preliminary stage of establishment. Having these ideas in mind, the paper discusses FC in the study of system dynamics and control. In this perspective, this paper investigates the use of FC in the fields of controller tuning, legged robots, redundant robots, heat diffusion, and digital circuit synthesis.

  12. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate a rational reconstruction of a previously published control flow analysis for the mobile ambients calculus and we further show how a more precise flow-sensitive analysis, that takes the ordering of action sequences into account, can be formulated...... in a natural way. We show that hybrid logic is very well suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can be exploited to reduce the "administrative overhead" of the analysis specification and thus simplify it. Finally, we use HyLoTab, a fully automated...... theorem prover for hybrid logic, both as a convenient platform for a prototype implementation as well as to formally prove the correctness of the analysis....

  13. GAUSSIAN WHITE NOISE CALCULUS OF GENERALIZED EXPANSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泽乾

    2002-01-01

    A new framework of Gaussian white noise calculus is established, in line with generalized expansion in [3, 4, 7]. A suitable frame of Fock expansion is presented on Gaussian generalized expansion functionals being introduced here, which provides the integral kernel operator decomposition of the second quantization of Koopman operators for chaotic dynamical systems, in terms of annihilation operators (e)t and its dual, creation operators (e)*t.

  14. Two cosmological solutions of Regge calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cosmological solutions of Regge calculus are presented which correspond to the flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker and the Kasner solutions of general relativity. By taking advantage of the symmetries that are present, I am able to show explicitly that a limit of Regge calculus does yield Einstein's equations for these cases. The method of averaging these equations when taking limits is important, especially for the Kasner model. I display the leading error term that arises from keeping the Regge equations in discrete form rather than using their continuum limit. In particular, this work shows that for the ''Reggeized'' Friedmann model the minimum volume is a velocity-dominated singularity as in the continuum Friedmann model. However, unlike the latter, the Regge version has a nonzero minimum volume

  15. Calculus light

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Menahem

    2011-01-01

    Another Calculus book? As long as students find calculus scary, the failure rate in mathematics is higher than in all other subjects, and as long as most people mistakenly believe that only geniuses can learn and understand mathematics, there will always be room for a new book of Calculus. We call it Calculus Light. This book is designed for a one semester course in ""light"" calculus -- mostly single variable, meant to be used by undergraduate students without a wide mathematical background and who do not major in mathematics but study subjects such as engineering, biology or management infor

  16. CLINICO-BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF VESICAL CALCULUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Vesical calculi are the most common manifestation of lower urinary tract lithiasis. Urinary infections play an important role in aetiopathogenesis of vesical calculi. OBJECTIVE Aim of this study was proposed to establish the bacteriology of stone and urine in an attempt to evaluate the role of infection in the formation of stone. Associated factors like age, sex, site of infection, obstruction, diet were also evaluated. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. METHODS The patients were admitted in surgical ward as provisional diagnosed cases of vesical calculus, were subjected to investigations including CBC, RBS, urine analysis, renal function test, x-ray KUB region and ultrasonography. Patients who were fit for surgery, various surgical procedures were done. Gross examination and core culture of stone was done to establish their aetiology. RESULTS Ninety-four patients with vesical calculus were evaluated. Incidence of vesical calculus was 1.13%. Majority of cases were from rural areas (92.55%. Urinary tract infection was present in 37.2% of cases, majority of cases urine culture was positive (30.95%. Core culture of stone was positive in 18 cases (25.17%. E. coli was the predominant organism both in urine culture (19.04% and core culture of stone (25.71%. CONCLUSIONS There is significant association regarding the presence of vesical calculi and the development of urinary infections. E. coli was the predominant organism found both in urine and core culture of stone.

  17. Ecological Modelling with the Calculus of Wrapped Compartments

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo, de, P.J.; Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The Calculus of Wrapped Compartments is a framework based on stochastic multiset rewriting in a compartmentalised setting originally developed for the modelling and analysis of biological interactions. In this paper, we propose to use this calculus for the description of ecological systems and we provide the modelling guidelines to encode within the calculus some of the main interactions leading ecosystems evolution. As a case study, we model the distribution of height of Croton wagneri, a sh...

  18. Detection, removal and prevention of calculus: Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kamath, Deepa G.; Sangeeta Umesh Nayak

    2013-01-01

    Dental plaque is considered to be a major etiological factor in the development of periodontal disease. Accordingly, the elimination of supra- and sub-gingival plaque and calculus is the cornerstone of periodontal therapy. Dental calculus is mineralized plaque; because it is porous, it can absorb various toxic products that can damage the periodontal tissues. Hence, calculus should be accurately detected and thoroughly removed for adequate periodontal therapy. Many techniques have been used t...

  19. Time scales: from Nabla calculus to Delta calculus and vice versa via duality

    OpenAIRE

    Caputo, M. Cristina

    2009-01-01

    In this note we show how one can obtain results from the nabla calculus from results on the delta calculus and vice versa via a duality argument. We provide applications of the main results to the calculus of variations on time scales.

  20. A Calculus of Communicating Systems with Label Passing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Nielsen, Mogens

    Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS) is extended with a mechanism for label passing - as an attempt to remedy some of the shortcomings of CCS w.r.t. dynamic change of agent interconnections. In the extended calculus, restriction is viewed formally as a binder, and the calculus allows...... dynamic change of scope (of label) in connection with communication. It is proved that algebraic properties of strong (and observational) equivalence for CCS are preserved by the extension. Examples illustrating the expressive power of the calculus and its methods for reasoning are given....

  1. Extended finite operator calculus as an example of algebraization of analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kwasniewski, A. K.

    2008-01-01

    A calculus of sequences started by professor morgan ward constitutes the general scheme for extensions of classical operator calculus of the distinguished gian carlo rota considered by many afterwards and after ward morgan. Because of the historically now established notation we call the wardian calculus of sequences in its afterwards elaborated form a psi calculus. The psi calculus in parts appears to be almost automatic, natural extension of classical operator calculus or equivalently of um...

  2. Modelling and Analysis of Dynamic Reconfiguration in BP-Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abouzaid, Faisal; Mullins, John; Mazzara, Manuel;

    2012-01-01

    The BP-calculus is a formalism based on the π-calculus and encoded in WS-BPEL. The BP-calculus is intended to specificaly model and verify Service Oriented Applications. One important feature of SOA is the ability to compose services that may dynamically evolve along runtime. Dynamic...... reconfiguration of services increases their availability, but puts accordingly, heavy demands for validation, verification, and evaluation. In this paper we formally model and analyze dynamic reconfigurations and their requirements in BP-calculus and show how reconfigurable components can be modeled using...

  3. The history of the calculus and its conceptual development (the concepts of the calculus)

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Carl B

    1959-01-01

    Fluent description of the development of both the integral and differential calculus. Early beginnings in antiquity, medieval contributions, and a century of anticipation lead up to a consideration of Newton and Leibniz, the period of indecison that followed them, and the final rigorous formulation that we know today.

  4. On the origins of generalized fractional calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryakova, Virginia

    2015-11-01

    In Fractional Calculus (FC), as in the (classical) Calculus, the notions of derivatives and integrals (of first, second, etc. or arbitrary, incl. non-integer order) are basic and co-related. One of the most frequent approach in FC is to define first the Riemann-Liouville (R-L) integral of fractional order, and then by means of suitable integer-order differentiation operation applied over it (or under its sign) a fractional derivative is defined - in the R-L sense (or in Caputo sense). The first mentioned (R-L type) is closer to the theoretical studies in analysis, but has some shortages - from the point of view of interpretation of the initial conditions for Cauchy problems for fractional differential equations (stated also by means of fractional order derivatives/ integrals), and also for the analysts' confusion that such a derivative of a constant is not zero in general. The Caputo (C-) derivative, arising first in geophysical studies, helps to overcome these problems and to describe models of applied problems with physically consistent initial conditions. The operators of the Generalized Fractional Calculus - GFC (integrals and derivatives) are based on commuting m-tuple (m = 1, 2, 3, …) compositions of operators of the classical FC with power weights (the so-called Erdélyi-Kober operators), but represented in compact and explicit form by means of integral, integro-differential (R-L type) or differential-integral (C-type) operators, where the kernels are special functions of most general hypergeometric kind. The foundations of this theory are given in Kiryakova 18. In this survey we present the genesis of the definitions of the GFC - the generalized fractional integrals and derivatives (of fractional multi-order) of R-L type and Caputo type, analyze their properties and applications. Their special cases are all the known operators of classical FC, their generalizations introduced by other authors, the hyper-Bessel differential operators of higher integer

  5. Descartes' Calculus of Subnormals: What Might Have Been

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Gregory Mark; Walls, Jess E.

    2013-01-01

    Rene Descartes' method for finding tangents (equivalently, subnormals) depends on geometric and algebraic properties of a family of circles intersecting a given curve. It can be generalized to establish a calculus of subnormals, an alternative to the calculus of Newton and Leibniz. Here we prove subnormal counterparts of the well-known…

  6. Effects of Clicker Use on Calculus Students' Mathematics Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey study of clicker use and mathematics anxiety among students enrolled in an undergraduate calculus course during the Fall 2013 semester. Students in two large lecture sections of calculus completed surveys at the beginning and end of the course. One class used clickers, whereas the other class was taught…

  7. Evaluating the Use of Learning Objects for Improving Calculus Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Robin; Kletskin, Ilona

    2010-01-01

    Pre-calculus concepts such as working with functions and solving equations are essential for students to explore limits, rates of change, and integrals. Yet many students have a weak understanding of these key concepts which impedes performance in their first year university Calculus course. A series of online learning objects was developed to…

  8. Using the Finite Difference Calculus to Sum Powers of Integers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Lee

    1991-01-01

    Summing powers of integers is presented as an example of finite differences and antidifferences in discrete mathematics. The interrelation between these concepts and their analogues in differential calculus, the derivative and integral, is illustrated and can form the groundwork for students' understanding of differential and integral calculus.…

  9. Equality and fixpoints in the calculus of structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhuri, Kaustuv; Guenot, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The standard proof theory for logics with equality and fixpoints suffers from limitations of the sequent calculus, where reasoning is separated from computational tasks such as unification or rewriting. We propose in this paper an extension of the calculus of structures, a deep inference formalism...

  10. A Calculus of Circular Proofs and its Categorical Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santocanale, Luigi

    2002-01-01

    We present a calculus of "circular proofs": the graph underlying a proof is not a finite tree but instead it is allowed to contain a certain amount of cycles.The main challenge in developing a theory for the calculus is to define the semantics of proofs, since the usual method by induction...

  11. A Calculus of Circular Proofs and its Categorical Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santocanale, Luigi

    2002-01-01

    We present a calculus of “circular proofs”: the graph underlying a proof is not a finite tree but instead it is allowed to contain a certain amount of cycles.The main challenge in developing a theory for the calculus is to define the semantics of proofs, since the usual method by induction...

  12. Modelling the Landing of a Plane in a Calculus Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morante, Antonio; Vallejo, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    We exhibit a simple model of a plane landing that involves only basic concepts of differential calculus, so it is suitable for a first-year calculus lab. We use the computer algebra system Maxima and the interactive geometry software GeoGebra to do the computations and graphics. (Contains 5 figures and 1 note.)

  13. Calculus Students' Early Concept Images of Tangent Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Brittany; LaRue, Renee; Sealey, Vicki; Engelke, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    This study explored first-semester calculus students' understanding of tangent lines as well as how students used tangent lines within the context of Newton's method. Task-based interviews were conducted with twelve first-semester calculus students who were asked to verbally describe a tangent line, sketch tangent lines for multiple curves, and…

  14. Decidable Fragments of a Higher Order Calculus with Locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Godskesen, Jens Christian; Haagensen, Bjørn;

    2009-01-01

    Homer is a higher order process calculus with locations. In this paper we study Homer in the setting of the semantic finite control property, which is a finite reachability criterion that implies decidability of barbed bisimilarity. We show that strong and weak barbed bisimilarity are undecidable...... control π-calculus in Homer....

  15. Understanding Calculus beyond Computations: A Descriptive Study of the Parallel Meanings and Expectations of Teachers and Users of Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Leann J.

    2012-01-01

    Calculus is an important tool for building mathematical models of the world around us and is thus used in a variety of disciplines, such as physics and engineering. These disciplines rely on calculus courses to provide the mathematical foundation needed for success in their courses. Unfortunately, due to the basal conceptions of what it means to…

  16. Operational calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Boehme, Thomas K

    1987-01-01

    Operational Calculus, Volume II is a methodical presentation of operational calculus. An outline of the general theory of linear differential equations with constant coefficients is presented. Integral operational calculus and advanced topics in operational calculus, including locally integrable functions and convergence in the space of operators, are also discussed. Formulas and tables are included.Comprised of four sections, this volume begins with a discussion on the general theory of linear differential equations with constant coefficients, focusing on such topics as homogeneous and non-ho

  17. A calculus of quality for robustness against unreliable communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Vigo, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    A main challenge in the development of distributed systems is to ensure that the components continue to behave in a reasonable manner even when communication becomes unreliable. We propose a process calculus, the Quality Calculus, for programming software components where it becomes natural to pl...

  18. Calculus refresher

    CERN Document Server

    Klaf, A A

    1956-01-01

    This book is unique in English as a refresher for engineers, technicians, and students who either wish to brush up their calculus or find parts of calculus unclear. It is not an ordinary textbook. It is, instead, an examination of the most important aspects of integral and differential calculus in terms of the 756 questions most likely to occur to the technical reader. It provides a very easily followed presentation and may also be used as either an introductory or supplementary textbook. The first part of this book covers simple differential calculus, with constants, variables, functions, inc

  19. Introduction to Tensor Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Sochi, Taha

    2016-01-01

    These are general notes on tensor calculus which can be used as a reference for an introductory course on tensor algebra and calculus. A basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra with some commonly used mathematical terminology is presumed.

  20. The Initial Conditions of Fractional Calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past fifty years , Fractional Calculus has become an original and renowned mathematical tool for the modelling of diffusion Partial Differential Equations and the design of robust control algorithms. However, in spite of these celebrated results, some theoretical problems have not yet received a satisfying solution. The mastery of initial conditions, either for Fractional Differential Equations (FDEs) or for the Caputo and Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives, remains an open research domain. The solution of this fundamental problem, also related to the long range memory property, is certainly the necessary prerequisite for a satisfying approach to modelling and control applications. The fractional integrator and its continuously frequency distributed differential model is a valuable tool for the simulation of fractional systems and the solution of initial condition problems. Indeed, the infinite dimensional state vector of fractional integrators allows the direct generalization to fractional calculus of the theoretical results of integer order systems. After a reminder of definitions and properties related to fractional derivatives and systems, this presentation is intended to show, based on the results of two recent publications [1,2], how the fractional integrator provides the solution of the initial condition problem of FDEs and of Caputo and Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives. Numerical simulation examples illustrate and validate these new theoretical concepts.

  1. On Simple Characterisations of Sheffer psi- polynomials and Related Propositions of the Calculus of Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Kwasniewski, A. K.

    2003-01-01

    A calculus of sequences started in 1936 opened the way for future extensions of umbral calculus in its finite operator form. Because of historically established notation we call it the psi-calculus.It appears in parts to be almost automatic extension of the standard classical finite operator calculus.

  2. The calculus of committee composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Libby

    Full Text Available Modern institutions face the recurring dilemma of designing accurate evaluation procedures in settings as diverse as academic selection committees, social policies, elections, and figure skating competitions. In particular, it is essential to determine both the number of evaluators and the method for combining their judgments. Previous work has focused on the latter issue, uncovering paradoxes that underscore the inherent difficulties. Yet the number of judges is an important consideration that is intimately connected with the methodology and the success of the evaluation. We address the question of the number of judges through a cost analysis that incorporates the accuracy of the evaluation method, the cost per judge, and the cost of an error in decision. We associate the optimal number of judges with the lowest cost and determine the optimal number of judges in several different scenarios. Through analytical and numerical studies, we show how the optimal number depends on the evaluation rule, the accuracy of the judges, the (cost per judge/(cost per error ratio. Paradoxically, we find that for a panel of judges of equal accuracy, the optimal panel size may be greater for judges with higher accuracy than for judges with lower accuracy. The development of any evaluation procedure requires knowledge about the accuracy of evaluation methods, the costs of judges, and the costs of errors. By determining the optimal number of judges, we highlight important connections between these quantities and uncover a paradox that we show to be a general feature of evaluation procedures. Ultimately, our work provides policy-makers with a simple and novel method to optimize evaluation procedures.

  3. Hybrid Calculus of Wrapped Compartments

    CERN Document Server

    Coppo, Mario; Drocco, Maurizio; Grassi, Elena; Sciacca, Eva; Spinella, Salvatore; Troina, Angelo; 10.4204/EPTCS.40.8

    2010-01-01

    The modelling and analysis of biological systems has deep roots in Mathematics, specifically in the field of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Alternative approaches based on formal calculi, often derived from process algebras or term rewriting systems, provide a quite complementary way to analyze the behaviour of biological systems. These calculi allow to cope in a natural way with notions like compartments and membranes, which are not easy (sometimes impossible) to handle with purely numerical approaches, and are often based on stochastic simulation methods. Recently, it has also become evident that stochastic effects in regulatory networks play a crucial role in the analysis of such systems. Actually, in many situations it is necessary to use stochastic models. For example when the system to be described is based on the interaction of few molecules, when we are at the presence of a chemical instability, or when we want to simulate the functioning of a pool of entities whose compartmentalised structur...

  4. Modal Calculus of Illocutionary Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Schumann, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The aim of illocutionary logic is to explain how context can affect the meaning of certain special kinds of performative utterances. Recall that performative utterances are understood as follows: a speaker performs the illocutionary act (e.g. act of assertion, of conjecture, of promise) with the illocutionary force (resp. assertion, conjecture, promise) named by an appropriate performative verb in the way of representing himself as performing that act. In the paper I proposed many-valued interpretation of illocutionary forces understood as modal operators. As a result, I built up a non-Archimedean valued logic for formalizing illocutionary acts. A formal many-valued approach to illocutionary logic was offered for the first time.

  5. The Calculus of Committee Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Libby; Leon Glass

    2010-01-01

    Modern institutions face the recurring dilemma of designing accurate evaluation procedures in settings as diverse as academic selection committees, social policies, elections, and figure skating competitions. In particular, it is essential to determine both the number of evaluators and the method for combining their judgments. Previous work has focused on the latter issue, uncovering paradoxes that underscore the inherent difficulties. Yet the number of judges is an important consideration th...

  6. Completeness of the Accumulation Calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞慧群; 孙永强; 等

    1998-01-01

    The accumulation calculs(AC for short)is an interval based temporal logic to specify and reason about hybrid real-time systems.This paper presents a formal proof system for AC,and proves that the system is complete relative to that of Interval Temporal Logic(ITL for short)on real domain.

  7. How Students Use Their Knowledge of Calculus in an Engineering Mechanics Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddick, Cheryl Stitt

    This study investigated students' conceptual and procedural understanding of calculus within the context of an engineering mechanics course. Four traditional calculus students were compared with three students from one of the calculus reform projects, Calculus & Mathematica. Task-based interviews were conducted with each participant throughout the…

  8. Generalized vector calculus on convex domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Om P.; Xu, Yufeng

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we apply recently proposed generalized integral and differential operators to develop generalized vector calculus and generalized variational calculus for problems defined over a convex domain. In particular, we present some generalization of Green's and Gauss divergence theorems involving some new operators, and apply these theorems to generalized variational calculus. For fractional power kernels, the formulation leads to fractional vector calculus and fractional variational calculus for problems defined over a convex domain. In special cases, when certain parameters take integer values, we obtain formulations for integer order problems. Two examples are presented to demonstrate applications of the generalized variational calculus which utilize the generalized vector calculus developed in the paper. The first example leads to a generalized partial differential equation and the second example leads to a generalized eigenvalue problem, both in two dimensional convex domains. We solve the generalized partial differential equation by using polynomial approximation. A special case of the second example is a generalized isoperimetric problem. We find an approximate solution to this problem. Many physical problems containing integer order integrals and derivatives are defined over arbitrary domains. We speculate that future problems containing fractional and generalized integrals and derivatives in fractional mechanics will be defined over arbitrary domains, and therefore, a general variational calculus incorporating a general vector calculus will be needed for these problems. This research is our first attempt in that direction.

  9. Quantum stochastic calculus and representations of Lie superalgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Eyre, Timothy M W

    1998-01-01

    This book describes the representations of Lie superalgebras that are yielded by a graded version of Hudson-Parthasarathy quantum stochastic calculus. Quantum stochastic calculus and grading theory are given concise introductions, extending readership to mathematicians and physicists with a basic knowledge of algebra and infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. The develpment of an explicit formula for the chaotic expansion of a polynomial of quantum stochastic integrals is particularly interesting. The book aims to provide a self-contained exposition of what is known about Z_2-graded quantum stochastic calculus and to provide a framework for future research into this new and fertile area.

  10. Extension of Chronological Calculus for Dynamical Systems on Manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Kipka, Robert J.; Ledyaev, Yuri S.

    2014-01-01

    We propose an extension of the Chronological Calculus, developed by Agrachev and Gamkrelidze for the case of $C^\\infty$-smooth dynamical systems on finite-dimensional $C^\\infty$-smooth manifolds, to the case of $C^m$-smooth dynamical systems and infinite-dimensional $C^m$-manifolds. Due to a relaxation in the underlying structure of the calculus, this extension provides a powerful computational tool without recourse to the theory of calculus in Fr\\'echet spaces required by the classical Chron...

  11. Forest Carbon Uptake and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobitz, John

    2013-01-01

    Using the fundamental theorem of calculus and numerical integration, we investigate carbon absorption of ecosystems with measurements from a global database. The results illustrate the dynamic nature of ecosystems and their ability to absorb atmospheric carbon.

  12. Viability of bacteria in dental calculus - A microbiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moolya Nikesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was (1 To investigate the viability of bacteria within supragingival and subgingival calculus, (2 To examine motility of bacteria, and (3 To identify bacterial morphotypes in calculus. Materials and Methods: Supra and subgingival calculus were harvested from 30 subjects having clinical evidence of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease and were divided into two groups . Samples from both groups were immediately transported to the Department of Microbiology for gram staining, acridine orange staining, bacterial culture and to the Department of Oral Pathology for dark field microscopy. Results: Gram staining revealed presence of bacteria within the samples. Dark field microscopic examination revealed presence of filamentous organisms, spirochetes, and motile short bacilli. Acridine orange fluorescent stain showed that the viable bacteria appeared apple green. Bacterial culture revealed presence of a variety of aerobic organisms. Conclusion: From the results, it appeared that viable bacteria were present within calculus especially within internal channels and lacunae.

  13. Improving Student Success in Calculus: A Comparison of Four College Calculus Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Spencer Franklin

    The quality of education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields is an issue of particular educational and economic importance, and Calculus I is a linchpin course in STEM major tracks. A national study is currently being conducted examining the characteristics of successful programs in college calculus (CSPCC, 2012). In work related to the CSPCC program, this study examines the effects on student outcomes of four different teaching strategies used at a single institution. The four classes were a traditional lecture, a lecture with discussion, a lecture incorporating both discussion and technology, and an inverted model. This dissertation was guided by three questions: (1) What impact do these four instructional approaches have on students' persistence, beliefs about mathematics, and conceptual and procedural achievement in calculus? (2) How do students at the local institution compare to students in the national database? And (3) How do the similarities and differences in opportunities for learning presented in the four classes contribute to the similarities and differences in student outcomes? Quantitative analysis of surveys and exams revealed few statistically significant differences in outcomes, and students in the inverted classroom often had poorer outcomes than those in other classes. Students in the technology-enhanced class scored higher on conceptual items on the final exam than those in other classes. Comparing to the national database, local students had similar switching rates but less expert-like attitudes and beliefs about mathematics than the national average. Qualitative analysis of focus group interviews, classroom observations, and student course evaluations showed that several implementation issues, some the result of pragmatic constraints, others the result of design choice, weakened affordances provided by innovative features and shrunk the differences between classes. There were substantial differences between the

  14. The statistics of spikes trains: a stochastic calculus approach

    OpenAIRE

    Touboul, Jonathan; Faugeras, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the statistics of spikes trains for different types of integrate-and-fire neurons and different types of synaptic noise models. In cotnrast with the usual approaches in neuroscience, mainly based on statistical physics methods such as the Fokker-Planck equation or the mean-field theory, we chose the point of the view of the stochastic calculus theory to characterize neurons in noisy environments. We present four stochastic calculus techniques that can be used to find the probabilit...

  15. Student understanding of calculus within physics and mathematics classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Warren; Thompson, John

    2010-03-01

    The earliest results in Physics Education Research demonstrated the challenges facing students in understanding the graphical interpretations of slope, derivative, and area under curves in the context of kinematics. As part of ongoing research on mathematical challenges that may underlie documented physics difficulties, we developed and administered a brief survey on single- and multivariable calculus concepts to students within physics and mathematics classrooms at both the introductory and advanced levels. Initial findings among students in multivariable calculus show that as many as one in five students encounter some type of difficulty when asked to rank the slopes at five different points along a single path. We will present further data on the extent to which students in a first semester calculus course and an introductory calculus-based physics course encounter similar challenges.

  16. Dental Calculus and the Evolution of the Human Oral Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warinner, Christina

    2016-07-01

    Characterizing the evolution of the oral microbiome is a challenging, but increasingly feasible, task. Recently, dental calculus has been shown to preserve ancient biomolecules from the oral microbiota, host tissues and diet for tens of thousands of years. As such, it provides a unique window into the ancestral oral microbiome. This article reviews recent advancements in ancient dental calculus research and emerging insights into the evolution and ecology of the human oral microbiome. PMID:27514153

  17. Simplicial Differential Calculus, Divided Differences, and Construction of Weil Functors

    OpenAIRE

    Bertram, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    We define a simplicial differential calculus by generalizing divided differences from the case of curves to the case of general maps, defined on general topological vector spaces, or even on modules over a topological ring K. This calculus has the advantage that the number of evaluation points growths linearly with the degree, and not exponentially as in the classical, ``cubic'' approach. In particular, it is better adapted to the case of positive characteristic, where it permits to define We...

  18. Propositional Calculus in Coq

    OpenAIRE

    van Doorn, Floris

    2015-01-01

    I formalize important theorems about classical propositional logic in the proof assistant Coq. The main theorems I prove are (1) the soundness and completeness of natural deduction calculus, (2) the equivalence between natural deduction calculus, Hilbert systems and sequent calculus and (3) cut elimination for sequent calculus.

  19. College Readiness: The Evaluation of Students Participating in the Historically Black College and University Program in Pre-Calculus and the Calculus Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Angela Renee

    2011-01-01

    This investigative research focuses on the level of readiness of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) students entering Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) in the college Calculus sequence. Calculus is a fundamental course for STEM courses. The level of readiness of the students for Calculus can very well play a…

  20. Tuplix Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Bergstra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a calculus for tuplices, which are expressions that generalize matrices and vectors. Tuplices have an underlying data type for quantities that are taken from a zero-totalized field. We start with the core tuplix calculus CTC for entries and tests, which are combined using conjunctive composition. We define a standard model and prove that CTC is relatively complete with respect to it. The core calculus is extended with operators for choice, information hiding, scalar multiplication, clearing and encapsulation. We provide two examples of applications; one on incremental financial budgeting, and one on modular financial budget design.

  1. Reformulating the Situation Calculus and the Event Calculus in the General Theory of Stable Models and in Answer Set Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Joohyung; Palla, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Circumscription and logic programs under the stable model semantics are two well-known nonmonotonic formalisms. The former has served as a basis of classical logic based action formalisms, such as the situation calculus, the event calculus and temporal action logics; the latter has served as a basis of a family of action languages, such as language A and several of its descendants. Based on the discovery that circumscription and the stable model semantics coincide on a class of canonical form...

  2. Potential of shock waves to remove calculus and biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Philipp; Guggenheim, Bernhard; Attin, Thomas; Marlinghaus, Ernst; Schmidlin, Patrick R

    2011-12-01

    Effective calculus and biofilm removal is essential to treat periodontitis. Sonic and ultrasonic technologies are used in several scaler applications. This was the first feasibility study to assess the potential of a shock wave device to remove calculus and biofilms and to kill bacteria. Ten extracted teeth with visible subgingival calculus were treated with either shock waves for 1 min at an energy output of 0.4 mJ/mm(2) at 3 Hz or a magnetostrictive ultrasonic scaler at medium power setting for 1 min, which served as a control. Calculus was determined before and after treatment planimetrically using a custom-made software using a grey scale threshold. In a second experiment, multispecies biofilms were formed on saliva-preconditioned bovine enamel discs during 64.5 h. They were subsequently treated with shock waves or the ultrasonic scaler (N = 6/group) using identical settings. Biofilm detachment and bactericidal effects were then assessed. Limited efficiency of the shock wave therapy in terms of calculus removal was observed: only 5% of the calculus was removed as compared to 100% when ultrasound was used (P ≤ 0.0001). However, shock waves were able to significantly reduce adherent bacteria by three orders of magnitude (P ≤ 0.0001). The extent of biofilm removal by the ultrasonic device was statistically similar. Only limited bactericidal effects were observed using both methods. Within the limitations of this preliminary study, the shock wave device was not able to reliably remove calculus but had the potential to remove biofilms by three log steps. To increase the efficacy, technical improvements are still required. This novel noninvasive intervention, however, merits further investigation.

  3. Continuation calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Geron

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Programs with control are usually modeled using lambda calculus extended with control operators. Instead of modifying lambda calculus, we consider a different model of computation. We introduce continuation calculus, or CC, a deterministic model of computation that is evaluated using only head reduction, and argue that it is suitable for modeling programs with control. It is demonstrated how to define programs, specify them, and prove them correct. This is shown in detail by presenting in CC a list multiplication program that prematurely returns when it encounters a zero. The correctness proof includes termination of the program. In continuation calculus we can model both call-by-name and call-by-value. In addition, call-by-name functions can be applied to call-by-value results, and conversely.

  4. Steady-state groundwater recharge in trapezoidal-shaped aquifers: A semi-analytical approach based on variational calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Ali; Seyyedian, Hamid

    2014-05-01

    This study presents a semi-analytical solution for steady groundwater flow in trapezoidal-shaped aquifers in response to an areal diffusive recharge. The aquifer is homogeneous, anisotropic and interacts with four surrounding streams of constant-head. Flow field in this laterally bounded aquifer-system is efficiently constructed by means of variational calculus. This is accomplished by minimizing a properly defined penalty function for the associated boundary value problem. Simple yet demonstrative scenarios are defined to investigate anisotropy effects on the water table variation. Qualitative examination of the resulting equipotential contour maps and velocity vector field illustrates the validity of the method, especially in the vicinity of boundary lines. Extension to the case of triangular-shaped aquifer with or without an impervious boundary line is also demonstrated through a hypothetical example problem. The present solution benefits from an extremely simple mathematical expression and exhibits strictly close agreement with the numerical results obtained from Modflow. Overall, the solution may be used to conduct sensitivity analysis on various hydrogeological parameters that affect water table variation in aquifers defined in trapezoidal or triangular-shaped domains.

  5. Determination of cholesterol in human biliary calculus by TLC scanning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Kang Yang; Kai Xiong Qiu; Yu Zhu Zhan; Er Yi Zhan; Hai Ming Yang; Ping Zheng

    2000-01-01

    AIM To study the physico-chemical properties of biliary calculus and the relationship between the calculusformation and the phase change of liquid crystal, providing the best evidence for the biliary calculusprevention and treatment.METHODS The cholesterol contents in thirty one cases of biliary calculus in Kunming were determined bydouble-wave-length TLC scanning with high efficiency silica gel films.RESULTS Under magnifiers, the granular biliary calculus from 31 patients were classified according totheir section structures and colours, as cholesterol cholelith, 25 cases; bilirubin cholelith, 4 cases andcompound cholelith, 2 cases. By TLC scanning, it was found that the content of cholesterol in human biliarycalculus was 71%- 100%, about 80% cholesterol bilestones whose cholesterol content was more than 90%being pure cholesterol bilestones.CONCLUSION Cholesterol bilestone is the main human biliary calculus in Kunming, which was inaccordance with X-ray analysis. Compared with the related reports, it is proved that the proportion ofcholesterol bilestones to biliary calculus is increasing because of the improved life standard and the decreaseof bilirubin bilestones resulted from bile duct ascariasis or bacteria infection in China since 90s, and that theincrease of cholesterol in-take leads to the increase of cholesterol metabolism disorder

  6. Particular case of operator calculus for generalized functions with supports in cone

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Solomko

    2009-01-01

    In this work the construction of functional calculus for strongly continuous semigroups of operators in Schwartz distribution algebra on some cone is generalized. The partial case of vector valued calculus on the base of modification operator Fourier transformation is researched.

  7. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL-NETWORK PREDICTIONS OF URINARY CALCULUS COMPOSITIONS ANALYZED WITH INFRARED-SPECTROSCOPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VOLMER, M; WOLTHERS, BG; METTING, HJ; DEHAAN, THY; COENEGRACHT, PMJ; VANDERSLIK, W

    1994-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is used to analyze urinary calculus (renal stone) constituents. However, interpretation of IR spectra for quantifying urinary calculus constituents in mixtures is difficult, requiring expert knowledge by trained technicians. In our laboratory IR spectra of unknown calculi

  8. Ideas of Physical Forces and Differential Calculus in Ancient India

    CERN Document Server

    Girish, T E

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the context and development of the ideas of physical forces and differential calculus in ancient India by studying relevant literature related to both astrology and astronomy since pre-Greek periods. The concept of Naisargika Bala (natural force) discussed in Hora texts from India is defined to be proportional to planetary size and inversely related to planetary distance. This idea developed several centuries prior to Isaac Newton resembles fundamental physical forces in nature especially gravity. We show that the studies on retrograde motion and Chesta Bala of planets like Mars in the context of astrology lead to development of differential calculus and planetary dynamics in ancient India. The idea of instantaneous velocity was first developed during the 1st millennium BC and Indians could solve first order differential equations as early as 6th cent AD. Indian contributions to astrophysics and calculus during European dark ages can be considered as a land mark in the pre-renaissance history ...

  9. AN UNUSUAL CASE OF VESICAL CALCULUS WITH IUCD AS NIDUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghuveer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Foreign bodies in the bladder and ensuing calculus formation around it is an unusual cause for intravesical stone formation. Iatrogenic cause due to intrauterine device (popular and safe method of contraception due to its high efficacy, low risk and low-cost migration to adjacent organs is a rare one with only a few reports in the medical literature. Treatment of foreign bodies is determined by their size, location, shape, and mobility. In most cases, minimally invasive procedures such as endoscopic removal are recommended. We report a case of a 39 year old female who presented with chronic urinary symptoms USG, X-ray and CT scan showed the presence of IUCD with calculus. Cystoscopic examination confirmed the diagnosis and allowed removal of the intrauterine contraceptive device and calculus.

  10. The history of the calculus and its conceptual development

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Carl B

    1959-01-01

    This book, for the first time, provides laymen and mathematicians alike with a detailed picture of the historical development of one of the most momentous achievements of the human intellect ― the calculus. It describes with accuracy and perspective the long development of both the integral and the differential calculus from their early beginnings in antiquity to their final emancipation in the 19th century from both physical and metaphysical ideas alike and their final elaboration as mathematical abstractions, as we know them today, defined in terms of formal logic by means of the idea of a

  11. Formalization of the Resolution Calculus for First-Order Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichtkrull, Anders

    2016-01-01

    A formalization in Isabelle/HOL of the resolution calculus for first-order logic is presented. Its soundness and completeness are formally proven using the substitution lemma, semantic trees, Herbrand’s theorem, and the lifting lemma. In contrast to previous formalizations of resolution, it consi......, it considers first-order logic with full first-order terms, instead of the propositional case.......A formalization in Isabelle/HOL of the resolution calculus for first-order logic is presented. Its soundness and completeness are formally proven using the substitution lemma, semantic trees, Herbrand’s theorem, and the lifting lemma. In contrast to previous formalizations of resolution...

  12. The calculus of differences: Effects of a psychosocial, cultural, and pedagogical intervention in an all women's university calculus class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Diana F.; Levin, Amy K.; Blecksmith, Richard; Shahverdian, Jill

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ways in which a multi-layered women's calculus course influenced the participants' learning of mathematics. This study, conducted in a state university in the Midwestern region of the United States, revealed not only that women in this particular section of calculus were likely to select careers that involved mathematics, but that the focus on peer support, psychosocial issues such as self-confidence, and pedagogy helped the young women overcome gender barriers, as well as barriers of class, poverty, and race. In this article we provide some of the relevant quantitative statistics and relate the stories of two particular women through excerpts from interviews, student artefacts, and participant observation data. We selected these young women because they faced multiple barriers to success in Calculus I and might not have completed the course or taken additional mathematics courses without the support structures that were fundamental to the course.

  13. An Analysis of College Mathematics Departments' Credit Granting Policies for Students with High School Calculus Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Theresa A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate higher education mathematics departments' credit granting policies for students with high school calculus experience. The number of students taking calculus in high school has more than doubled since 1982 (NCES, 2007) and it is estimated that approximately 530,000 students took a calculus course in high…

  14. Contrasting Cases of Calculus Students' Understanding of Derivative Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk; Aspinwall, Leslie; Presmeg, Norma C.

    2010-01-01

    This study adds momentum to the ongoing discussion clarifying the merits of visualization and analysis in mathematical thinking. Our goal was to gain understanding of three calculus students' mental processes and images used to create meaning for derivative graphs. We contrast the thinking processes of these three students as they attempted to…

  15. The Development and Nature of Problem-Solving among First-Semester Calculus Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Paul Christian; Epperson, James A. Mendoza

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates interactions between calculus learning and problem-solving in the context of two first-semester undergraduate calculus courses in the USA. We assessed students' problem-solving abilities in a common US calculus course design that included traditional lecture and assessment with problem-solving-oriented labs. We…

  16. Omega Model of Standard Calculus(续2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Cheng-gui

    2004-01-01

    Chapter Two. Construction of Omega Continuum and Special Rules of the Integral of Infinitesimals Purpose of the chapter Chapter one states the foundation of differential calculus. The task of the chapter is to construct Omega continuum,at the same time to interlude two axioms of the integral of infinitesimals.

  17. Proof nets for the Displacement calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Moot, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We present a proof net calculus for the Displacement calculus and show its correctness. This is the first proof net calculus which models the Displacement calculus directly and not by some sort of translation into another formalism. The proof net calculus opens up new possibilities for parsing and proof search with the Displacement calculus.

  18. Calculus of Elementary Functions, Part I, Student Text. Preliminary Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herriot, Sarah T.; And Others

    This is part one of a three-part SMSG calculus text for high school students. The aim of the text is to develop some of the concepts and techniques which will enable the student to obtain important information about graphs of elementary functions. Chapter topics include: (1) polynomial functions; (2) the derivative of a polynomial function; and…

  19. Fractional Vector Calculus and Fractional Special Function

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ming-Fan; Ren, Ji-Rong; Zhu, Tao

    2010-01-01

    Fractional vector calculus is discussed in the spherical coordinate framework. A variation of the Legendre equation and fractional Bessel equation are solved by series expansion and numerically. Finally, we generalize the hypergeometric functions.

  20. Operator calculus on the class of Sato's hyperfunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patra M.I.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We construct a functional calculus for generators of analytic semigroupsof operators on a Banach space. The symbol class of the calculusconsists of hyperfunctions with a compact support in $[0, infty$. Domain of constructedcalculus isdense in the Banach space.

  1. Stage of GAN (Grupo de Analise do Nucleo) calculus methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Technical Note presents the stage of GAN Calculus Methodology in areas of Neutronics, Fuel Rod Performance and Fission Products Inventory. Proposals of GAN's members are presented and analyzed for each of these areas and a work schedule is established. (author)

  2. Calculus of One and More Variables with Maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkova, Libuse

    2012-01-01

    This is a guide to using Maple in teaching fundamental calculus of one, two and three variables (limits, derivatives, integrals, etc.), also suitable for Maple beginners. It outlines one of the ways to effective use of computers in the teaching process. It scans advantages and disadvantages of using Maple in relation to students and teacher. The…

  3. An Application of Calculus: Optimum Parabolic Path Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasever, Merve; Pakdemirli, Mehmet; Yurtsever, Hasan Ali

    2009-01-01

    A practical and technological application of calculus problem is posed to motivate freshman students or junior high school students. A variable coefficient of friction is used in modelling air friction. The case in which the coefficient of friction is a decreasing function of altitude is considered. The optimum parabolic path for a flying object…

  4. Calculus Students' Understanding of Area and Volume Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorko, Allison; Speer, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Units of measure are critical in many scientific fields. While instructors often note that students struggle with units, little research has been conducted about the nature and extent of these difficulties or why they exist. We investigated calculus students' unit use in area and volume computations. Seventy-three percent of students gave…

  5. SOME CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE STRENGTH CALCULUS OF A LATHE TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catălin ROŞU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a strength calculus of a lathe tool is made. The main purpose of this study is to determineequivalent stress relations that can be useful for an engineer in the design situation. The simplifying assumptionsand the equivalent stress relations are presented from an original point of view.

  6. Insights from the MAA National Study of College Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressoud, David

    2015-01-01

    Over the past five years, the Mathematical Association of America, with support from the National Science Foundation, has explored the teaching of mainstream Calculus 1 at the postsecondary level, where by "mainstream" we mean those courses that can be used as part of the prerequisite stream to more advanced postsecondary mathematics. We…

  7. a Type of Fractal Interpolation Functions and Their Fractional Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yong-Shun; Zhang, Qi

    2016-05-01

    Combine Chebyshev systems with fractal interpolation, certain continuous functions have been approximated by fractal interpolation functions unanimously. Local structure of these fractal interpolation functions (FIF) has been discussed. The relationship between order of Riemann-Liouville fractional calculus and Box dimension of FIF has been investigated.

  8. Formalization of the Integral Calculus in the PVS Theorem Prover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricky Wayne Butler

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The PVS Theorem prover is a widely used formal verification tool used for the analysis of safetycritical systems. The PVS prover, though fully equipped to support deduction in a very general logic framework, namely higher-order logic, it must nevertheless, be augmented with the definitions and associated theorems for every branch of mathematics and Computer Science that is used in a verification. This is a formidable task, ultimately requiring the contributions of researchers and developers all over the world. This paper reports on the formalization of the integral calculus in the PVS theorem prover. All of the basic definitions and theorems covered in a first course on integral calculus have been completed.The theory and proofs were based on Rosenlicht’s classic text on real analysis and follow the traditional epsilon-delta method. The goal of this work was to provide a practical set of PVS theories that could be used for verification of hybrid systems that arise in air traffic management systems and other aerospace applications. All of the basic linearity, integrability, boundedness, and continuity properties of the integral calculus were proved. The work culminated in the proof of the Fundamental Theorem Of Calculus. There is a brief discussion about why mechanically checked proofs are so much longer than standard mathematics textbook proofs.

  9. Formalization of the Integral Calculus in the PVS Theorem Prover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.

    2004-01-01

    The PVS Theorem prover is a widely used formal verification tool used for the analysis of safety-critical systems. The PVS prover, though fully equipped to support deduction in a very general logic framework, namely higher-order logic, it must nevertheless, be augmented with the definitions and associated theorems for every branch of mathematics and Computer Science that is used in a verification. This is a formidable task, ultimately requiring the contributions of researchers and developers all over the world. This paper reports on the formalization of the integral calculus in the PVS theorem prover. All of the basic definitions and theorems covered in a first course on integral calculus have been completed.The theory and proofs were based on Rosenlicht's classic text on real analysis and follow the traditional epsilon-delta method. The goal of this work was to provide a practical set of PVS theories that could be used for verification of hybrid systems that arise in air traffic management systems and other aerospace applications. All of the basic linearity, integrability, boundedness, and continuity properties of the integral calculus were proved. The work culminated in the proof of the Fundamental Theorem Of Calculus. There is a brief discussion about why mechanically checked proofs are so much longer than standard mathematics textbook proofs.

  10. The Everything Guide to Calculus I A step-by-step guide to the basics of calculus - in plain English!

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Calculus is the basis of all advanced science and math. But it can be very intimidating, especially if you're learning it for the first time! If finding derivatives or understanding integrals has you stumped, this book can guide you through it. This indispensable resource offers hundreds of practice exercises and covers all the key concepts of calculus, including:- Limits of a function- Derivatives of a function- Monomials and polynomials- Calculating maxima and minima- Logarithmic differentials- Integrals- Finding the volume of irregularly shaped objectsBy breaking down challenging concepts a

  11. The perturbative Regge-calculus regime of loop quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Eugenio [Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN Pisa, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: e.bianchi@sns.it; Modesto, Leonardo [Department of Physics, Bologna University and INFN Bologna, V. Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Centre de Physique Theorique de Luminy, Universite de la Mediterranee, F-13288 Marseille (France)], E-mail: modesto@bo.infn.it

    2008-06-21

    The relation between loop quantum gravity and Regge calculus has been pointed out many times in the literature. In particular the large spin asymptotics of the Barrett-Crane vertex amplitude is known to be related to the Regge action. In this paper we study a semiclassical regime of loop quantum gravity and show that it admits an effective description in terms of perturbative area-Regge-calculus. The regime of interest is identified by a class of states given by superpositions of four-valent spin networks, peaked on large spins. As a probe of the dynamics in this regime, we compute explicitly two- and three-area correlation functions at the vertex amplitude level. We find that they match with the ones computed perturbatively in area-Regge-calculus with a single 4-simplex, once a specific perturbative action and measure have been chosen in the Regge-calculus path integral. Correlations of other geometric operators and the existence of this regime for other models for the dynamics are briefly discussed.

  12. Generalization of some inequalities via Riemann-Liouville fractional calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai V. Marcela

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Some Hermite-Hadamard type inequalities are provided. We deal with functions whose derivatives in absolute value are convex or concave. By defining two cumulative gaps which enable us to generalize known rezults in the framework of Riemann-Liouville fractional calculus, we open a new perspective on the classic statement of the inequality.

  13. Bisimulation Lattice of Asymmetric Chi Calculus with Mismatch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Xiaoju(董笑菊); Zhong Farong; Fu Yuxi

    2003-01-01

    This paper carries out a systematic investigation into the bisimulation lattice of asymmetric chi calculus with a mismatch combinator. It is shown that all the sixty three L-bisimilarities collapse to twelve distinct relations and they form a bisimulation lattice with respect to set inclusion. The top of the lattice coincides with the barbed bisimilarity.

  14. Correlation between chemical composition of dental calculus and bone samples in ancient human burials: perspectives in paleonutritional studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The authors describe the results of an assay based on the comparison between chemical composition of dental calculus and bone respectively obtained from teeth and bones of ancient skeletons. The chemical analysis has been performed by synchrotron light. The concentrations of the following oligoelements having paleonutritional correlations were analysed: Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Sr and Ca. The authors demonstrate that- in a given individual the concentration of such elements in the bone sample were in the range of those obtained for the same elements in the sample of dental calculus. Such correspondence suggests that the chemical analysis of dental calculus may give paleonutritional indications analogous to those deriving from the analysis of bone samples. The authors underline also that the use of dental calculus has a distinct advantage over the use of bone samples, since it may allow a diachronic investigation. In fact, dental calculus typically presents a concentric pattern of growth, and the chemical composition of each layer may vary in accordance with temporal dietary variations. This is not the case for bone. This fact is the theoretical basis for the possible future development of techniques directed to the reconstruction of variations in the dietary habits of ancient individuals, possibly in relation to environmental seasonal changes

  15. A Metric Model of Lambda Calculus with Guarded Recursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Schwinghammer, Jan; Støvring, Kristian

    We give a model for Nakano’s typed lambda calculus with guarded recursive definitions in a category of metric spaces. By proving a computational adequacy result that relates the interpretation with the operational semantics, we show that the model can be used to reason about contextual equivalence....

  16. A Calculus for Control Flow Analysis of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Mikael; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2004-01-01

    analysis methodology. We pursue an analysis methodology based on control flow analysis in flow logic style and we have previously shown its ability to analyse a variety of security protocols. This paper develops a calculus, LysaNS that allows for much greater control and clarity in the description...

  17. On the refinement calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Vickers, Trevor

    1992-01-01

    On the Refinement Calculus gives one view of the development of the refinement calculus and its attempt to bring together - among other things - Z specifications and Dijkstra's programming language. It is an excellent source of reference material for all those seeking the background and mathematical underpinnings of the refinement calculus.

  18. The Malliavin calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Denis R

    2006-01-01

    This introduction to Malliavin's stochastic calculus of variations is suitable for graduate students and professional mathematicians. Author Denis R. Bell particularly emphasizes the problem that motivated the subject's development, with detailed accounts of the different forms of the theory developed by Stroock and Bismut, discussions of the relationship between these two approaches, and descriptions of a variety of applications.The first chapter covers enough technical background to make the subsequent material accessible to readers without specialized knowledge of stochastic analysis. Succe

  19. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Nickerson, HK; Steenrod, NE

    2011-01-01

    ""This book is a radical departure from all previous concepts of advanced calculus,"" declared the Bulletin of the American Mathematics Society, ""and the nature of this departure merits serious study of the book by everyone interested in undergraduate education in mathematics."" Classroom-tested in a Princeton University honors course, it offers students a unified introduction to advanced calculus. Starting with an abstract treatment of vector spaces and linear transforms, the authors introduce a single basic derivative in an invariant form. All other derivatives - gradient, divergent, curl,

  20. Giant urethral calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Kotkar, Kunal; Thakkar, Ravi; Songra, MC

    2011-01-01

    Primary urethral calculus is rarely seen and is usually encountered in men with urethral stricture or diverticulum. We present a case of giant urethral calculus secondary to a urethral stricture in a man. The patient was treated with calculus extraction with end to end urethroplasty.

  1. CLEP calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Earn College Credit with REA's Test Prep for CLEP* Calculus Everything you need to pass the exam and get the college credit you deserve.Our test prep for CLEP* Calculus and the free online tools that come with it, will allow you to create a personalized CLEP* study plan that can be customized to fit you: your schedule, your learning style, and your current level of knowledge.Here's how it works:Diagnostic exam at the REA Study Center focuses your studyOur online diagnostic exam pinpoints your strengths and shows you exactly where you need to focus your study. Armed with this information, you

  2. Baxter Algebras and Umbral Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Li

    2004-01-01

    We apply recent constructions of free Baxter algebras to the study of the umbral calculus. We give a characterization of the umbral calculus in terms of Baxter algebra. This characterization leads to a natural generalization of the umbral calculus that include the classical umbral calculus in a family of $\\lambda$-umbral calculi parameterized by $\\lambda$ in the base ring.

  3. Flipping Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGivney-Burelle, Jean; Xue, Fei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we discuss flipping pedagogy and how it can transform the teaching and learning of calculus by applying pedagogical practices that are steeped in our understanding of how students learn most effectively. In particular, we describe the results of an exploratory study we conducted to examine the benefits and challenges of flipping a…

  4. The Impact of Taking a College Pre-Calculus Course on Students' College Calculus Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    Poor performance on placement exams keeps many US students who pursue a STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) career from enrolling directly in college calculus. Instead, they must take a pre-calculus course that aims to better prepare them for later calculus coursework. In the USA, enrollment in pre-calculus courses in two- and…

  5. Geometric calculus according to the Ausdehnungslehre of H. Grassmann

    CERN Document Server

    Peano, Giuseppe

    2000-01-01

    Calcolo Geometrico, G. Peano's first publication in mathematical logic, is a model of expository writing, with a significant impact on 20th century mathematics. Kannenberg's lucid and crisp translation, Geometric Calculus, will appeal to historians of mathematics, researchers, graduate students, and general readers interested in the foundations of mathematics and the development of a formal logical language. In Chapter IX, with the innocent-sounding title "Transformations of a linear system," one finds the crown jewel of the book: Peano's axiom system for a vector space, the first-ever presentation of a set of such axioms. The very wording of the axioms (which Peano calls "definitions") has a remarkably modern ring, almost like a modern introduction to linear algebra. Peano also presents the basic calculus of set operation, introducing the notation for 'intersection,' 'union,' and 'element of,' many years before it was accepted. Despite its uniqueness, Calcolo Geometrico has been strangely neglected by histor...

  6. Implementation of inherence calculus in the PowerLoom environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachulski, Marcin F.; Mulawka, Jan J.; Nieznański, Edward

    The article describes an attempt to implement abstract and concrete inherence calculi in the PowerLoom technology. Issues in the field of artificial intelligence, ontology and philosophy have been addressed. The inherence calculus is a type of a formal logic system. The PowerLoom technology consists of a knowledge representation language and an inference engine. Six inherence calculi have been implemented and an appropriate testing environment has been developed. The inherence calculus has been also extended by categorical properties and a theoretical discussion of ontological Boolean algebra has been conducted. Carried out experiments showed properties of the inherence calculi and also verified capabilities of PowerLoom to construct such logic systems. It occurred that expert system operational mode of PowerLoom outperforms its abilities to work as a mathematical theorem prover.

  7. Towards a Denotational Semantics of Timed RSL Using Duration Calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李黎

    2001-01-01

    The Timed RAISE Specification Language (Timed RSL) is an extension of RAISE Specification Language by adding time constructors for specifying real-time applications. Duration Calculus (DC) is a real-time interval logic, which can be used to specify and reason about timing and logical constraints on duration properties of Boolean states in a dynamic system. This paper gives a denotational semantics to a subset of Timed RSL expressions, using Duration Calculus extended with super-dense chop modality and notations to capture time point properties of piecewise continuous states of arbitrary types. Using this semantics, the paper presents a proof rule for verifying Timed RSL iterative expressions and implements the rule to prove the satisfaction by a sample Timed RSL specification of its real-time requirements.

  8. Semiclassical regime of Regge calculus and spin foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent attempts to recover the graviton propagator from spin foam models involve the use of a boundary quantum state peaked on a classical geometry. The question arises whether beyond the case of a single simplex this suffices for peaking the interior geometry in a semiclassical configuration. In this paper we explore this issue in the context of quantum Regge calculus with a general triangulation. Via a stationary phase approximation, we show that the boundary state succeeds in peaking the interior in the appropriate configuration, and that boundary correlations can be computed order by order in an asymptotic expansion. Further, we show that if we replace at each simplex the exponential of the Regge action by its cosine-as expected from the semiclassical limit of spin foam models-then the contribution from the sign-reversed terms is suppressed in the semiclassical regime and the results match those of conventional Regge calculus

  9. A compact kernel for the calculus of inductive constructions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Asperti; W Ricciotti; C Sacerdoti Coen; E Tassi

    2009-02-01

    The paper describes the new kernel for the Calculus of Inductive Constructions (CIC) implemented inside the Matita Interactive Theorem Prover. The design of the new kernel has been completely revisited since the first release, resulting in a remarkably compact implementation of about 2300 lines of OCaml code. The work is meant for people interested in implementation aspects of Interactive Provers, and is not self contained. In particular, it requires good acquaintance with Type Theory and functional programming languages.

  10. Dimensionally Democratic Calculus and Principles of Polydimensional Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pezzaglia, W M

    1999-01-01

    A solution to the 50 year old problem of a spinning particle in curved space has been recently derived using an extension of Clifford calculus in which each geometric element has its own coordinate. This leads us to propose that all the laws of physics should obey new polydimensional metaprinciples, for which Clifford algebra is the natural language of expression, just as tensors were for general relativity. Specifically, phenomena and physical laws should be invariant under local automorphism transformations which reshuffle the physical geometry. This leads to a new generalized unified basis for classical mechanics, which includes string theory, membrane theory and the hypergravity formulation of Crawford[J. Math. Phys., {\\bf 35}, 2701-2718 (1994)]. Most important is that the broad themes presented can be exploited by nearly everyone in the field as a framework to generalize both the Clifford calculus and multivector physics.

  11. Experimentation at the Frontiers of Reality in Schubert Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Hillar, Christopher; del Campo, Abraham Martin; Ruffo, James; Teitler, Zach; Johnson, Stephen L; Sottile, Frank

    2009-01-01

    We describe the setup, design, and execution of a computational experiment utilizing a supercomputer that is helping to formulate and test conjectures in the real Schubert calculus. Largely using machines in instructional computer labs during off-hours and University breaks, it consumed in excess of 350 GigaHertz-years of computing in its first six months of operation, solving over 1.1 billion polynomial systems. This experiment can serve as a model for other large scale mathematical investigations.

  12. Bunny hops: using multiplicities of zeroes in calculus for graphing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David; Deshler, Jessica M.; Hansen, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    Students learn a lot of material in each mathematics course they take. However, they are not always able to make meaningful connections between content in successive mathematics courses. This paper reports on a technique to address a common topic in calculus I courses (intervals of increase/decrease and concave up/down) while also making use of students' pre-existing knowledge about the behaviour of functions around zeroes based on multiplicities.

  13. CASE REPORT OF AN UNUSUALLY LARGE RENAL CALCULUS

    OpenAIRE

    Samir; Yogesh; Tushar Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    Renal calculus is a solid or crystal aggregation formed in the kidneys from minerals in the u rine . Many calculi are formed and passed without causing symptoms. A kidney stone is a hard, crystalline mineral material formed within the kidney or urinary tract. Renal calculi affect all geographical, racial and groups with a worldwide prevalence of bet ween 2 and 20%. Majority of the patients are usually between the 20 - 55 years of age. T...

  14. Ideas of Physical Forces and Differential Calculus in Ancient India

    OpenAIRE

    Girish, T. E.; Nair, C. Radhakrishnan

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the context and development of the ideas of physical forces and differential calculus in ancient India by studying relevant literature related to both astrology and astronomy since pre-Greek periods. The concept of Naisargika Bala (natural force) discussed in Hora texts from India is defined to be proportional to planetary size and inversely related to planetary distance. This idea developed several centuries prior to Isaac Newton resembles fundamental physical forces in natur...

  15. Enhancing the blended learning experience of Calculus I students

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Ghassani, A; H. Al Shamsi; Islam, M.; N. Al-Salti; I. Al-Hasni

    2015-01-01

    Blended Learning showed in the last two decades to be one of the effective ways in education and training. We illustrate our initiative experience with blended learning in the course Calculus I. The main goals we want to achieve are improving students understanding of the course concepts, increasing the level of uniformity in this multi-sections course and enhancing students blended learning experience online and offline. Consequently, this affects positively students' academic performance. W...

  16. Differential Calculus, Tensor Products and the Importance of Notation

    OpenAIRE

    Manton, Jonathan H.

    2012-01-01

    An efficient coordinate-free notation is elucidated for differentiating matrix expressions and other functions between higher-dimensional vector spaces. This method of differentiation is known, but not explained well, in the literature. Teaching it early in the curriculum would avoid the tedium of element-wise differentiation and provide a better footing for understanding more advanced applications of calculus. Additionally, it is shown to lead naturally to tensor products, a topic previously...

  17. Malliavin calculus and optimal control of stochastic Volterra equations

    OpenAIRE

    Agram, Nacira; Øksendal, Bernt

    2014-01-01

    Solutions of stochastic Volterra (integral) equations are not Markov processes, and therefore classical methods, like dynamic programming, cannot be used to study optimal control problems for such equations. However, we show that by using {\\em Malliavin calculus} it is possible to formulate a modified functional type of {\\em maximum principle} suitable for such systems. This principle also applies to situations where the controller has only partial information available to base her decisions ...

  18. The Modeling of the ERP Systems within Parallel Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Loredana MOCEAN

    2011-01-01

    As we know from a few years, the basic characteristics of ERP systems are: modular-design, central common database, integration of the modules, data transfer between modules done automatically, complex systems and flexible configuration. Because this, is obviously a parallel approach to design and implement them within parallel algorithms, parallel calculus and distributed databases. This paper aims to support these assertions and provide a model, in summary, what could be an ERP system based...

  19. The Modeling of the ERP Systems within Parallel Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana MOCEAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As we know from a few years, the basic characteristics of ERP systems are: modular-design, central common database, integration of the modules, data transfer between modules done automatically, complex systems and flexible configuration. Because this, is obviously a parallel approach to design and implement them within parallel algorithms, parallel calculus and distributed databases. This paper aims to support these assertions and provide a model, in summary, what could be an ERP system based on parallel computing and algorithms.

  20. Numerical Simulation of Electromagnetic Waves Scattering by Discrete Exterior Calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show how to construct discrete Maxwell equations by discrete exterior calculus. The new scheme has many virtues compared to the traditional Yee's scheme: it is a multisymplectic scheme and keeps geometric properties. Moreover, it can be applied on triangular mesh and thus is more adaptive to handle domains with irregular shapes. We have implemented this scheme on a Java platform successfully and our experimental results show that this scheme works well. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  1. Some basic results on the sets of sequences with geometric calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkmen, Cengiz; Başar, Feyzi

    2012-08-01

    As an alternative to the classical calculus, Grossman and Katz [Non-Newtonian Calculus, Lee Press, Pigeon Cove, Massachusetts, 1972] introduced the non-Newtonian calculus consisting of the branches of geometric, anageometric and bigeometric calculus. Following Grossman and Katz, we construct the field C(G) of geometric complex numbers and the concept of geometric metric. Also we give the triangle and Minkowski's inequalities in the sense of geometric calculus. Later we respectively define the sets w(G), ℓ∞(G), c(G), c0(G) and ℓp(G) of all, bounded, convergent, null and p-absolutely summable sequences, in the sense of geometric calculus and show that each of the set forms a complete vector space on the field C(G).

  2. Functional Ito Calculus, Path-dependence and the Computation of Greeks

    OpenAIRE

    Samy Jazaerli; Saporito, Yuri F.

    2013-01-01

    Dupire's functional Ito calculus provides an alternative approach to the classical Malliavin calculus for the computation of sensitivities, also called Greeks, of path-dependent derivatives prices. In this paper, we introduce a measure of path-dependence of functionals within the functional Ito calculus framework. Namely, we consider the Lie bracket of the space and time functional derivatives, which we use to classify functionals according to their degree of path-dependence. We then revisit ...

  3. Elements of programming linguistics. Part I, The lambda calculus and its implementation

    OpenAIRE

    MacLennan, Bruce J.

    1982-01-01

    The lambda calculus is used as an introduction to programming language concepts, particularly the concepts of functional programming. Both interpreted and compiled implementations of an extended lambda calculus are discussed. They can be adopted to implementations of Pascal and Lisp. It is shown that traditional stack-based run-time structures can be directly derived from the reduction rules of the lambda calculus. (Author)

  4. Non-commutative residue of projections in Boutet de Monvel's calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaarde, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Using results by Melo, Nest, Schick, and Schrohe on the K-theory of Boutet de Monvel's calculus of boundary value problems, we show that the non-commutative residue introduced by Fedosov, Golse, Leichtnam, and Schrohe vanishes on projections in the calculus. This partially answers a question raised...... in a recent collaboration with Grubb, namely whether the residue is zero on sectorial projections for boundary value problems: This is confirmed to be true when the sectorial projections is in the calculus....

  5. Focalization and phase models for classical extensions of non-associative Lambek calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Bastenhof, Arno

    2011-01-01

    Lambek's non-associative syntactic calculus (NL) excels in its resource consciousness: the usual structural rules for weakening, contraction, exchange and even associativity are all dropped. Recently, there have been proposals for conservative extensions dispensing with NL's intuitionistic bias towards sequents with single conclusions: De Groote and Lamarche's classical non-associative Lambek calculus (CNL) and the Lambek-Grishin calculus (LG) of Moortgat and associates. We demonstrate Andreo...

  6. Calculus ABCs: A Gateway for Freshman Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Scott R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a gateway testing program designed to ensure that students acquire basic skills in freshman calculus. Students must demonstrate they have mastered standards for "Absolutely Basic Competency"--the Calculus ABCs--in order to pass the course with a grade of C or better. We describe the background, standards, and testing program.…

  7. ESeal Calculus: A Secure Mobile Calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PengRong; UuPing

    2003-01-01

    The ESeal Calculus is a secure mobile calculus based on Seal Calculus. By using open-channels,ESeal Calculus makes it possible to communicate between any two arbitrary seals with some secure restrictions. It improves the expression ability and efficiency of Seal calculus without losing security.

  8. Analysis of Errors and Misconceptions in the Learning of Calculus by Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzangwa, Jonatan; Chifamba, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper is going to analyse errors and misconceptions in an undergraduate course in Calculus. The study will be based on a group of 10 BEd. Mathematics students at Great Zimbabwe University. Data is gathered through use of two exercises on Calculus 1&2.The analysis of the results from the tests showed that a majority of the errors were due…

  9. The Safe Lambda Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, William

    2009-01-01

    Safety is a syntactic condition of higher-order grammars that constrains occurrences of variables in the production rules according to their type-theoretic order. In this paper, we introduce the safe lambda calculus, which is obtained by transposing (and generalizing) the safety condition to the setting of the simply-typed lambda calculus. In contrast to the original definition of safety, our calculus does not constrain types (to be homogeneous). We show that in the safe lambda calculus, there is no need to rename bound variables when performing substitution, as variable capture is guaranteed not to happen. We also propose an adequate notion of beta-reduction that preserves safety. In the same vein as Schwichtenberg's 1976 characterization of the simply-typed lambda calculus, we show that the numeric functions representable in the safe lambda calculus are exactly the multivariate polynomials; thus conditional is not definable. We also give a characterization of representable word functions. We then study the ...

  10. Multivector Differential Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Hitzer, Eckhard

    2013-01-01

    Universal geometric calculus simplifies and unifies the structure and notation of mathematics for all of science and engineering, and for technological applications. This paper treats the fundamentals of the multivector differential calculus part of geometric calculus. The multivector differential is introduced, followed by the multivector derivative and the adjoint of multivector functions. The basic rules of multivector differentiation are derived explicitly, as well as a variety of basic m...

  11. Using Dynamic Tools to Develop an Understanding of the Fundamental Ideas of Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzosa, Debbie; Guzon, Angela Fatima; De Las Peñas, Ma. Louise Antonette N.

    2014-01-01

    Although dynamic geometry software has been extensively used for teaching calculus concepts, few studies have documented how these dynamic tools may be used for teaching the rigorous foundations of the calculus. In this paper, we describe lesson sequences utilizing dynamic tools for teaching the epsilon-delta definition of the limit and the…

  12. The Role of Cognitive Ability and Preferred Mode of Processing in Students' Calculus Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk

    2015-01-01

    The present study sought to design calculus tasks to determine students' preference for visual or analytic processing as well as examine the role of preferred mode of processing in calculus performance and its relationship to spatial ability and verbal-logical reasoning ability. Data were collected from 150 high school students who were enrolled…

  13. What is an efficient implementation of the λ-calculus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Sturtivant, Carl

    1991-01-01

    We propose to measure the efficiency of any implementation of the lambda-calculus as a function of a new parameter v, that is itself a function of any lambda-expression. Complexity is expressed here as a function of v just as runtime is expressed as a function of the input size n in ordinary......OHgr(v), i.e. an exponential lower bound. It is open whether any implementation of polynomial complexity, v O(1), exists, although some implementations have been implicitly claimed to have this complexity....

  14. Specification and Verification of Multimedia Synchronization in Duration Calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA HuaDong(马华东)

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method of specifying multimedia synchronization basedon Duration Calculus (DC), a real time interval logic, presents the completeness of the new model,and uses it to specify the temporal relations between multimedia objects. Moreover, the paperprovides a method of constructing a meta-script based on basic synchronization requirements. Someproperties of the formal specifications, including safety and liveness, are stated in DC. Furthermore,the verification of the above properties is discussed in DC semantic. Compared with other methodsfor specifying multimedia synchronization, this method is more powerful and flexible, and it is goodat specifying the quantitative properties of multimedia synchronization.

  15. The primordial end calculus of prime numbers and mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Vinoo Cameron

    2013-01-01

    This Manuscript on the end primordial calculus of mathematics is a new discovery of the spiral nature of the entire mathematical grid at 1:3 by the precise and absolute concordance of regular number spirals and the Prime number spirals based on numbers and their spaces by grid. It is exclusive to IJAMR which has published 8 papers of the author on this new mathematics.  The manuscript has NOT been offered to any other journal in the world .The editorial board of Princeton University, USA, Ann...

  16. Infinitesimal calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Henle, James M

    2014-01-01

    Introducing calculus at the basic level, this text covers hyperreal numbers and hyperreal line, continuous functions, integral and differential calculus, fundamental theorem, infinite sequences and series, infinite polynomials, more. 1979 edition.

  17. Direct evidence of milk consumption from ancient human dental calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warinner, C.; Hendy, J.; Speller, C.;

    2015-01-01

    of evidence, such as lipid isotopic ratios of pottery residues, faunal mortality profiles, and lactase persistence allele frequencies, provide a partial picture of this process; however, in order to understand how, where, and when humans consumed milk products, it is necessary to link evidence of consumption...... directly to individuals and their dairy livestock. Here we report the first direct evidence of milk consumption, the whey protein b-lactoglobulin (BLG), preserved in human dental calculus from the Bronze Age (ca. 3000 BCE) to the present day. Using protein tandem mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that BLG...

  18. Direct evidence of milk consumption from ancient human dental calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warinner, C.; Hendy, J.; Speller, C.;

    2014-01-01

    of evidence, such as lipid isotopic ratios of pottery residues, faunal mortality profiles, and lactase persistence allele frequencies, provide a partial picture of this process; however, in order to understand how, where, and when humans consumed milk products, it is necessary to link evidence of consumption...... directly to individuals and their dairy livestock. Here we report the first direct evidence of milk consumption, the whey protein β-lactoglobulin (BLG), preserved in human dental calculus from the Bronze Age (ca. 3000 BCE) to the present day. Using protein tandem mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that BLG...

  19. Semantics of a Typed Algebraic Lambda-Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Valiron

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Algebraic lambda-calculi have been studied in various ways, but their semantics remain mostly untouched. In this paper we propose a semantic analysis of a general simply-typed lambda-calculus endowed with a structure of vector space. We sketch the relation with two established vectorial lambda-calculi. Then we study the problems arising from the addition of a fixed point combinator and how to modify the equational theory to solve them. We sketch an algebraic vectorial PCF and its possible denotational interpretations.

  20. Semantics of a Typed Algebraic Lambda-Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Benoît Valiron

    2010-01-01

    Algebraic lambda-calculi have been studied in various ways, but their semantics remain mostly untouched. In this paper we propose a semantic analysis of a general simply-typed lambda-calculus endowed with a structure of vector space. We sketch the relation with two established vectorial lambda-calculi. Then we study the problems arising from the addition of a fixed point combinator and how to modify the equational theory to solve them. We sketch an algebraic vectorial PCF and its possible den...

  1. The 3 stooges of vector calculus and their impersonators: A viewer's guide to the classic episodes

    OpenAIRE

    Buskin, Jennie; Prosapio, Philip; Taylor, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    The basic theorems of vector calculus are illuminated when we replace the original 3 stooges of vector calculus: Grad, Div, and Curl, with combinatorial substitutes. In addition to providing simple proofs of Green's theorem and the equivalence of the integral and derivative definitions of curl, we also provide a brief introduction to cohomology theory.

  2. Advanced Jones calculus for the classification of periodic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Christoph; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Lederer, Falk

    2010-11-01

    By relying on an advanced Jones calculus, we analyze the polarization properties of light upon propagation through metamaterial slabs in a comprehensive manner. Based on symmetry considerations, we show that all periodic metamaterials may be divided into five different classes only. It is shown that each class differently affects the polarization of the transmitted light and sustains different eigenmodes. We show how to deduce these five classes from symmetry considerations and provide a simple algorithm that can be applied to decide to which class a given metamaterial belongs by measuring only the transmitted intensities.

  3. A natural differential calculus on Lie bialgebras with dual of triangular type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijligenberg, N.W. van den; Martini, R.

    1995-01-01

    We prove that for a specific class of Lie bialgebras, there exists a natural differential calculus. This class consists of the Lie bialgebras for which the dual Lie bialgebra is of triangular type. The differential calculus is explicitly constructed with the help of the $R$-matrix from the dual. The

  4. Particular case of operator calculus for generalized functions with supports in cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Solomko

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work the construction of functional calculus for strongly continuous semigroups of operators in Schwartz distribution algebra on some cone is generalized. The partial case of vector valued calculus on the base of modification operator Fourier transformation is researched.

  5. Using an Advanced Graphing Calculator in the Teaching and Learning of Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Ng Wee

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the use of TI-Nspire[TM] could enhance the teaching and learning of calculus. A conceptual framework for the use of TI-Nspire[TM] for learning calculus in a mathematics classroom is proposed that describes the interactions among the students, TI-Nspire[TM], and the learning tasks, and how they lead…

  6. Assessment of Peer-Led Team Learning in Calculus I: A Five-Year Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, John Conrad; Brania, Abdelkrim

    2015-01-01

    This five-year study of the peer-led team learning (PLTL) paradigm examined its implementation in a Calculus I course at an all-male HBCU institution. For this study we set up a strong control group and measured the effect of PLTL in the teaching and learning of Calculus I through two points of measure: retention and success rates and learning…

  7. Towards the Development of an Automated Learning Assistant for Vector Calculus: Integration over Planar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaacob, Yuzita; Wester, Michael; Steinberg, Stanly

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a prototype of a computer learning assistant ILMEV (Interactive Learning-Mathematica Enhanced Vector calculus) package with the purpose of helping students to understand the theory and applications of integration in vector calculus. The main problem for students using Mathematica is to convert a textbook description of a…

  8. Retention of Concepts and Skills in Traditional and Reformed Applied Calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Bradley E.; Garner, Lynn E.

    2001-01-01

    Compares outcomes of traditional and reform calculus courses in terms of students' retention of basic concepts and skills after the passage of time. Concludes that reform students retain better conceptual knowledge and traditional students retain better procedural knowledge. Demonstrates that reform calculus students understand concepts before…

  9. Lambda-mu-calculus and Bohm's theorem

    OpenAIRE

    David, René; Py, Walter

    2001-01-01

    The lambda mu-calculus is an extension of the lambda-calculus that has been introduced by M. Parigot to give an algorithmic content to classical proofs. We show that Bohm's theorem fails in this calculus.

  10. A logical approach to security in the context of Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Priami, Corrado

    2004-01-01

    A logical approach to security in the context of Ambient Calculus. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, N 99:3-29, 2004......A logical approach to security in the context of Ambient Calculus. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, N 99:3-29, 2004...

  11. A "Brutus" model checking of a spi-calculus dialect (Extended Abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnesi, S.; Latella, D.; Lenzini, G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper proposes a preliminary framework in which protocols, expressed in a dialect of the spi-calculus, can be verified using model checking algorithms. In particular we define a formal semantics for a dialect of the spi-calculus based on labeled transition systems in such a way that the model c

  12. Factors Associated with Success in a Calculus Course: An Examination of Personal Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubuz, Behiye

    2011-01-01

    This study examined relationships between students' personal variables (gender, prior achievements, age and academic major) and their success in the first year undergraduate calculus course. The study sample consisted of 59 first year undergraduate students taking Math 154 Calculus II course. A written test about integral, sequence and series…

  13. Improving Student Learning of Calculus Topics via Modified Just-in-Time Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Rekha; Bennett, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Although the use of traditional just-in-time teaching techniques has long been viewed positively by students and instructors in undergraduate calculus courses, past studies in this area have not addressed gains in student achievement with respect to specific calculus topics. This paper investigates the latter by administering modified just-in-time…

  14. What Does It Mean for a Student to Understand the First-Year Calculus? Perspectives of 24 Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofronas, Kimberly S.; DeFranco, Thomas C.; Vinsonhaler, Charles; Gorgievski, Nicholas; Schroeder, Larissa; Hamelin, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the views of 24 nationally recognized authorities in the field of mathematics, and in particular the calculus, on student understanding of the first-year calculus. A framework emerged that includes four overarching end goals for understanding of the first-year calculus: (a) mastery of the fundamental concepts and-or skills of…

  15. Eye Irritation Test of Bovis Calculus Pharmacopuncture Solutions for Eye Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-sik Seo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was done to investigate the safety of Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution manufactured with freezing dryness method to use eye drop. Methods : The eye irritation test of this material was performed according to the Regulation of Korea Food & Drug Administration (2005. 10. 21, KFDA 2005-60. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, the auther observed eye irritation of the cornea, iris, conjunctiva at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 7day. Results : 1. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, there wasn’t physical problem at 9 rabbits. 2. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solutionwas medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, there wasn’t eye irritation of the cornea, iris, conjunctiva at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 7day. Conclusions : I suggested that Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution didn’t induced eye irritation in rabbits.

  16. Existence of Minimizers for Fractional Variational Problems Containing Caputo Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Bourdin, Loïc; Odzijewicz, Tatiana; Delfim F. M. Torres

    2012-01-01

    International audience We study dynamic minimization problems of the calculus of variations with Lagrangian functionals containing Riemann–Liouville fractional integrals, classical and Caputo fractional derivatives. Under assumptions of regularity, coercivity and convexity, we prove existence of solutions.

  17. Comment on “Variational Iteration Method for Fractional Calculus Using He’s Polynomials”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Huan He

    2012-01-01

    boundary value problems. This note concludes that the method is a modified variational iteration method using He’s polynomials. A standard variational iteration algorithm for fractional differential equations is suggested.

  18. Fractional calculus model of electrical impedance applied to human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosika, Zoran B; Lazovic, Goran M; Misevic, Gradimir N; Simic-Krstic, Jovana B

    2013-01-01

    Fractional calculus is a mathematical approach dealing with derivatives and integrals of arbitrary and complex orders. Therefore, it adds a new dimension to understand and describe basic nature and behavior of complex systems in an improved way. Here we use the fractional calculus for modeling electrical properties of biological systems. We derived a new class of generalized models for electrical impedance and applied them to human skin by experimental data fitting. The primary model introduces new generalizations of: 1) Weyl fractional derivative operator, 2) Cole equation, and 3) Constant Phase Element (CPE). These generalizations were described by the novel equation which presented parameter [Formula: see text] related to remnant memory and corrected four essential parameters [Formula: see text] We further generalized single generalized element by introducing specific partial sum of Maclaurin series determined by parameters [Formula: see text] We defined individual primary model elements and their serial combination models by the appropriate equations and electrical schemes. Cole equation is a special case of our generalized class of models for[Formula: see text] Previous bioimpedance data analyses of living systems using basic Cole and serial Cole models show significant imprecisions. Our new class of models considerably improves the quality of fitting, evaluated by mean square errors, for bioimpedance data obtained from human skin. Our models with new parameters presented in specific partial sum of Maclaurin series also extend representation, understanding and description of complex systems electrical properties in terms of remnant memory effects. PMID:23577065

  19. Fractional calculus model of electrical impedance applied to human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran B Vosika

    Full Text Available Fractional calculus is a mathematical approach dealing with derivatives and integrals of arbitrary and complex orders. Therefore, it adds a new dimension to understand and describe basic nature and behavior of complex systems in an improved way. Here we use the fractional calculus for modeling electrical properties of biological systems. We derived a new class of generalized models for electrical impedance and applied them to human skin by experimental data fitting. The primary model introduces new generalizations of: 1 Weyl fractional derivative operator, 2 Cole equation, and 3 Constant Phase Element (CPE. These generalizations were described by the novel equation which presented parameter [Formula: see text] related to remnant memory and corrected four essential parameters [Formula: see text] We further generalized single generalized element by introducing specific partial sum of Maclaurin series determined by parameters [Formula: see text] We defined individual primary model elements and their serial combination models by the appropriate equations and electrical schemes. Cole equation is a special case of our generalized class of models for[Formula: see text] Previous bioimpedance data analyses of living systems using basic Cole and serial Cole models show significant imprecisions. Our new class of models considerably improves the quality of fitting, evaluated by mean square errors, for bioimpedance data obtained from human skin. Our models with new parameters presented in specific partial sum of Maclaurin series also extend representation, understanding and description of complex systems electrical properties in terms of remnant memory effects.

  20. Direct evidence of milk consumption from ancient human dental calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warinner, C; Hendy, J; Speller, C; Cappellini, E; Fischer, R; Trachsel, C; Arneborg, J; Lynnerup, N; Craig, O E; Swallow, D M; Fotakis, A; Christensen, R J; Olsen, J V; Liebert, A; Montalva, N; Fiddyment, S; Charlton, S; Mackie, M; Canci, A; Bouwman, A; Rühli, F; Gilbert, M T P; Collins, M J

    2014-01-01

    Milk is a major food of global economic importance, and its consumption is regarded as a classic example of gene-culture evolution. Humans have exploited animal milk as a food resource for at least 8500 years, but the origins, spread, and scale of dairying remain poorly understood. Indirect lines of evidence, such as lipid isotopic ratios of pottery residues, faunal mortality profiles, and lactase persistence allele frequencies, provide a partial picture of this process; however, in order to understand how, where, and when humans consumed milk products, it is necessary to link evidence of consumption directly to individuals and their dairy livestock. Here we report the first direct evidence of milk consumption, the whey protein β-lactoglobulin (BLG), preserved in human dental calculus from the Bronze Age (ca. 3000 BCE) to the present day. Using protein tandem mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that BLG is a species-specific biomarker of dairy consumption, and we identify individuals consuming cattle, sheep, and goat milk products in the archaeological record. We then apply this method to human dental calculus from Greenland's medieval Norse colonies, and report a decline of this biomarker leading up to the abandonment of the Norse Greenland colonies in the 15(th) century CE. PMID:25429530

  1. A SAT-Based Analysis of a Calculus for Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xi; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Zhu, Huibiao

    2015-01-01

    In viewing the common unreliability problem in wireless communications, the CWQ calculus (a Calculus for Wireless sensor networks from Quality perspective) was recently proposed for modeling and reasoning about WSNs(Wireless Sensor Networks) and their applications from a quality perspective...... of the whole network. Finally, we give a real-world case study with the scenario of refueling a car to demonstrate the applicability of the extended calculus and the SAT-based analysis........ The CWQ calculus ensures that sensor nodes, even though in an unreliable communication network, can behave in a reasonable manner. Nevertheless, in CWQ calculus, the topological structure is considered at the network level and it is tightly coupled with the processes and other configurations, this may...

  2. On the construction of unitary quantum group differential calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatov, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    We develop a construction of the unitary type anti-involution for the quantized differential calculus over {{GL}}q(n) in the case | q| =1. To this end, we consider a joint associative algebra of quantized functions, differential forms and Lie derivatives over {{GL}}q(n)/{{SL}}q(n), which is bicovariant with respect to {{GL}}q(n)/{{SL}}q(n) coactions. We define a specific non-central spectral extension of this algebra by the spectral variables of three matrices of the algebra generators. In the spectrally expended algebra, we construct a three-parametric family of its inner automorphisms. These automorphisms are used for the construction of the unitary anti-involution for the (spectrally extended) calculus over {{GL}}q(n). This work has been funded by the Russian Academic Excellence Project ‘5-100’. The results of section 5 (propositions 5.2, 5.3 and theorem 5.5) have been obtained under support of the RSF grant No.16-11-10160.

  3. Variations of images to increase their visibility

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The calculus of variations applied to the image processing requires some numerical models able to perform the variations of images and the extremization of appropriate actions. To produce the variations of images, there are several possibilities based on the brightness maps. Before a numerical model, I propose an experimental approach, based on a tool of Gimp, GNU Image Manipulation Program, in order to visualize how the image variations can be. After the discussion of this tool, which is abl...

  4. Putting Differentials Back into Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corrine A.

    2010-01-01

    We argue that the use of differentials in introductory calculus courses is useful and provides a unifying theme, leading to a coherent view of the calculus. Along the way, we meet several interpretations of differentials, some better than others.

  5. Stochastic Model Checking of the Stochastic Quality Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Zeng, Kebin

    2015-01-01

    The Quality Calculus uses quality binders for input to express strategies for continuing the computation even when the desired input has not been received. The Stochastic Quality Calculus adds generally distributed delays for output actions and real-time constraints on the quality binders for input...

  6. Combinatorics of renormalization as matrix calculus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi-Fard, Kurusch [Physics Institute, Bonn University, Nussallee 12, Bonn 53115 (Germany)]. E-mail: fard@th.physik.uni-bonn.de; Gracia-Bondia, Jose M. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica I, Universidad Complutense, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Guo, Li [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Varilly, Joseph C. [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose 2060 (Costa Rica)

    2006-01-19

    We give a simple presentation of the combinatorics of renormalization in perturbative quantum field theory in terms of triangular matrices. The prescription, that may be of calculational value, is derived from first principles, to wit, the 'Birkhoff decomposition' in the Hopf-algebraic description of renormalization by Connes and Kreimer.

  7. Optimization of Cubic Polynomial Functions without Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald D., Jr.; Hansen, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    In algebra and precalculus courses, students are often asked to find extreme values of polynomial functions in the context of solving an applied problem; but without the notion of derivative, something is lost. Either the functions are reduced to quadratics, since students know the formula for the vertex of a parabola, or solutions are…

  8. Theory and calculus of cubical complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, M.

    1973-01-01

    Combination switching networks with multiple outputs may be represented by Boolean functions. Report has been prepared which describes derivation and use of extraction algorithm that may be adapted to simplification of such simultaneous Boolean functions.

  9. Sequent Calculus in the Topos of Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clouston, Ranald; Goré, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    Nakano’s “later” modality, inspired by Gödel-Löb provability logic, has been applied in type systems and program logics to capture guarded recursion. Birkedal et al modelled this modality via the internal logic of the topos of trees. We show that the semantics of the propositional fragment...

  10. An Application of Calculus to Cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sworder, Steven C.

    This paper presents a laboratory exercise in which an integration problem is applied to cinematography, without the need for apparatus. The problem situation is about the oscillation control of a camera platform to attain the contrast angular rate of objects. Wave equations for describing the oscillations are presented and an expression for…

  11. Teaching the Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerheber, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Methods of teaching the Calculus are presented in honour of Sir Isaac Newton, by discussing an extension of his original proofs and discoveries. The methods, requested by Newton to be used that reflect the historical sequence of the discovered Fundamental Theorems, allow first-time students to grasp quickly the basics of the Calculus from its…

  12. Lattice calculus of the morphological slope transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, H.J.A.M.; Maragos, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the morphological slope transform in the complete lattice framework. It discusses in detail the interrelationships between the slope transform at one hand and the (Young-Fenchel) conjugate and Legendre transform, two well-known concepts from convex analysis, at the oth

  13. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2007-01-01

    This rigorous two-part treatment advances from functions of one variable to those of several variables. Intended for students who have already completed a one-year course in elementary calculus, it defers the introduction of functions of several variables for as long as possible, and adds clarity and simplicity by avoiding a mixture of heuristic and rigorous arguments.The first part explores functions of one variable, including numbers and sequences, continuous functions, differentiable functions, integration, and sequences and series of functions. The second part examines functions of several

  14. Investigations on the dual calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Tzevelekos, Nikos

    2006-01-01

    The Dual Calculus, proposed recently by Wadler, is the outcome of two distinct lines of research in theoretical computer science: (A) Efforts to extend the Curry–Howard isomorphism, established between the simply-typed lambda calculus and intuitionistic logic, to classical logic. (B) Efforts to establish the tacit conjecture that call-by-value (CBV) reduction in lambda calculus is dual to call-by-name (CBN) reduction. This paper initially investigates relations of the Dual Calculus t...

  15. A development calculus for specifications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李未

    2003-01-01

    A first order inference system, named R-calculus, is defined to develop the specifications.This system intends to eliminate the laws which are not consistent with users' requirements. TheR-calculus consists of the structural rules, an axiom, a cut rule, and the rules for logical connectives.Some examples are given to demonstrate the usage of the R-calculus. Furthermore, the propertiesregarding reachability and completeness of the R-calculus are formally defined and proved.

  16. Essential calculus with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Richard A

    1989-01-01

    Rigorous but accessible text introduces undergraduate-level students to necessary background math, then clear coverage of differential calculus, differentiation as a tool, integral calculus, integration as a tool, and functions of several variables. Numerous problems and a supplementary section of ""Hints and Answers."" 1977 edition.

  17. Matrix calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Bodewig, E

    1959-01-01

    Matrix Calculus, Second Revised and Enlarged Edition focuses on systematic calculation with the building blocks of a matrix and rows and columns, shunning the use of individual elements. The publication first offers information on vectors, matrices, further applications, measures of the magnitude of a matrix, and forms. The text then examines eigenvalues and exact solutions, including the characteristic equation, eigenrows, extremum properties of the eigenvalues, bounds for the eigenvalues, elementary divisors, and bounds for the determinant. The text ponders on approximate solutions, as well

  18. Developing the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Applications of Calculus to Work, Area, and Distance Problems. [and] Atmospheric Pressure in Relation to Height and Temperature. Applications of Calculus to Atmospheric Pressure. [and] The Gradient and Some of Its Applications. Applications of Multivariate Calculus to Physics. [and] Kepler's Laws and the Inverse Square Law. Applications of Calculus to Physics. UMAP Units 323, 426, 431, 473.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Peter A.; And Others

    This document consists of four units. The first of these views calculus applications to work, area, and distance problems. It is designed to help students gain experience in: 1) computing limits of Riemann sums; 2) computing definite integrals; and 3) solving elementary area, distance, and work problems by integration. The second module views…

  19. Initialized Fractional Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.

  20. Calculus diaries

    CERN Document Server

    Ouellette,, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Jennifer Ouellette never took maths in the sixth form, mostly because she – like most of us – assumed she wouldn't need it much in real life. But then the English graduate, now an award-winning science-writer, had a change of heart and decided to revisit the equations and formulas that had haunted her youth. The Calculus Diaries is the fun and fascinating account of a year spent confronting her numbers-phobia head on. With wit and verve, Ouellette explains how she discovered that maths could apply to everything from petrol mileages to dieting, rollercoaster rides to winning in Las Vegas.

  1. Discrete fractional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Goodrich, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This text provides the first comprehensive treatment of the discrete fractional calculus. Experienced researchers will find the text useful as a reference for discrete fractional calculus and topics of current interest. Students who are interested in learning about discrete fractional calculus will find this text to provide a useful starting point. Several exercises are offered at the end of each chapter and select answers have been provided at the end of the book. The presentation of the content is designed to give ample flexibility for potential use in a myriad of courses and for independent study. The novel approach taken by the authors includes a simultaneous treatment of the fractional- and integer-order difference calculus (on a variety of time scales, including both the usual forward and backwards difference operators). The reader will acquire a solid foundation in the classical topics of the discrete calculus while being introduced to exciting recent developments, bringing them to the frontiers of the...

  2. Calculus Demonstrations Using MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Peter K.; Harman, Chris

    2002-01-01

    The note discusses ways in which technology can be used in the calculus learning process. In particular, five MATLAB programs are detailed for use by instructors or students that demonstrate important concepts in introductory calculus: Newton's method, differentiation and integration. Two of the programs are animated. The programs and the…

  3. CONNECTION BETWEEN THE ORDER OF FRACTIONAL CALCULUS AND FRACTIONAL DIMENSIONS OF A TYPE OF FRACTAL FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The linear relationship between fractal dimensions of a type of generalized Weierstrass functions and the order of their fractional calculus has been proved. The graphs and numerical results given here further indicate the corresponding relationship.

  4. Real-time detection of dental calculus by blue-LED-induced fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Y L; Luan, X L; Bi, L J; Lü, Z; Sheng, Y Q; Somesfalean, G; Zhou, C N; Zhang, Z G

    2007-05-25

    Successful periodontal therapy requires sensitive techniques to discriminate dental calculus from healthy teeth. The aim of the present study was to develop a fluorescence-based procedure to enable real-time detection and quantification of dental calculus. Thirty human teeth--15 teeth with sub- and supragingival calculus and 15 healthy teeth--covered with a layer of physiological saline solution or blood were illuminated by a focused blue LED light source of 405 nm. Autofluorescence spectra recorded along a randomly selected line stretching over the crown-neck-root area of each tooth were utilized to evaluate a so called calculus parameter R, which was selected to define a relationship between the integrated intensities specific for healthy teeth and for calculus in the 477-497 nm (S(A)) and 628-685 nm (S(B)) wavelength regions, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed and a cut-off threshold of R=0.2 was found to distinguish dental calculus from healthy teeth with 100% sensitivity and specificity under various experimental conditions. The results of the spectral evaluation were confirmed by clinical and histological findings. Automated real-time detection and diagnostics for clinical use were implemented by a corresponding software program written in Visual Basic language. The method enables cost-effective and reliable calculus detection, and can be further developed for imaging applications.

  5. Some problems of the pQCD jet calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some problems of the perturbative quantum chromodynamics quark-gluon jet calculus are discussed. The first one is related to the terminology of the order of calculation. Due to cancellation of LO and NLO terms in the ratio of mean multiplicities in gluon and quark jets r, the recent results concerning this ratio should be called 4NLO approximation. The second problem reveals itself in calculations where corrections to some values (in particular, to r') are larger at present energies than lower order terms. Some characteristics that do not suffer from this deficiency are proposed. Next problem lies in interpretation of the negative values of cumulative moments, which are considered as an indication of the replacement of attraction by repulsion in sets with definite particle contents. Finally, the problem of the generalization of QCD equations for generating functions is briefly discussed

  6. Elements of queueing theory palm martingale calculus and stochastic recurrences

    CERN Document Server

    Baccelli, François

    2003-01-01

    The Palm theory and the Loynes theory of stationary systems are the two pillars of the modern approach to queuing. This book, presenting the mathematical foundations of the theory of stationary queuing systems, contains a thorough treatment of both of these. This approach helps to clarify the picture, in that it separates the task of obtaining the key system formulas from that of proving convergence to a stationary state and computing its law. The theory is constantly illustrated by classical results and models: Pollaczek-Khintchin and Tacacs formulas, Jackson and Gordon-Newell networks, multiserver queues, blocking queues, loss systems etc., but it also contains recent and significant examples, where the tools developed turn out to be indispensable. Several other mathematical tools which are useful within this approach are also presented, such as the martingale calculus for point processes, or stochastic ordering for stationary recurrences. This thoroughly revised second edition contains substantial addition...

  7. Tuplix calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J. A.; Ponse, A.; van der Zwaag, M. B.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a calculus for tuplices, which are expressions that generalize matrices and vectors. Tuplices have an underlying data type for quantities that are taken from a zero-totalized field. We start with the core tuplix calculus CTC for entries and tests, which are combined using conjunctive composition. We define a standard model and prove that CTC is relatively complete with respect to it. The core calculus is extended with operators for choice, information hiding, scalar multiplicatio...

  8. CASE REPORT OF AN UNUSUALLY LARGE RENAL CALCULUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal calculus is a solid or crystal aggregation formed in the kidneys from minerals in the u rine . Many calculi are formed and passed without causing symptoms. A kidney stone is a hard, crystalline mineral material formed within the kidney or urinary tract. Renal calculi affect all geographical, racial and groups with a worldwide prevalence of bet ween 2 and 20%. Majority of the patients are usually between the 20 - 55 years of age. The highest incidence of kidney stone is in 30 - 45 years of age group and the incidence declines after the age of 50 years of age. Stones that obstruct the ureter or renal pelvis cause excruciating, intermittent pain.

  9. Automating sensitivity analysis of computer models using computer calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated procedure for performing sensitivity analysis has been developed. The procedure uses a new FORTRAN compiler with computer calculus capabilities to generate the derivatives needed to set up sensitivity equations. The new compiler is called GRESS - Gradient Enhanced Software System. Application of the automated procedure with direct and adjoint sensitivity theory for the analysis of non-linear, iterative systems of equations is discussed. Calculational efficiency consideration and techniques for adjoint sensitivity analysis are emphasized. The new approach is found to preserve the traditional advantages of adjoint theory while removing the tedious human effort previously needed to apply this theoretical methodology. Conclusions are drawn about the applicability of the automated procedure in numerical analysis and large-scale modelling sensitivity studies

  10. Automating sensitivity analysis of computer models using computer calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated procedure for performing sensitivity analyses has been developed. The procedure uses a new FORTRAN compiler with computer calculus capabilities to generate the derivatives needed to set up sensitivity equations. The new compiler is called GRESS - Gradient Enhanced Software System. Application of the automated procedure with ''direct'' and ''adjoint'' sensitivity theory for the analysis of non-linear, iterative systems of equations is discussed. Calculational efficiency consideration and techniques for adjoint sensitivity analysis are emphasized. The new approach is found to preserve the traditional advantages of adjoint theory while removing the tedious human effort previously needed to apply this theoretical methodology. Conclusions are drawn about the applicability of the automated procedure in numerical analysis and large-scale modelling sensitivity studies. 24 refs., 2 figs

  11. Metabolic investigation of patients with staghorn calculus: is it necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen R. P. Amaro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of metabolic disorders in patients with staghorn calculi treated at the Regional Center of Lithiasis Metabolic Studies in central region of São Paulo State, Brazil. Materials and methods: Between February 2000 and February 2008, 630 patients with urinary calculi were evaluated in the lithiasis outpatient clinic. Thirty-seven of them had staghorn calculi (35 women and 2 men. The inclusion criteria for the metabolic investigation included the absence of urological manipulation 30 days before the examination, negative urine culture and creatinine clearance > 60 mL/min. The protocol for metabolic investigation consisted of qualitative search for cystinuria. Two non-consecutive 24-hour urine samples collected to measure calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, sodium, potassium, magnesium, oxalate and citrate, and serum calcium levels , phosphorus, uric acid, sodium, potassium, magnesium, chloride, parathormone and urine pH. Results: Among patients with lithiasis, 5.9% (37/ 630 had staghorn calculus and in 48.6% (18/37 were diagnosed with urinary infection. The females were predominant for 94.5% of cases. The calculi were unilateral in 31 of cases and bilateral in six. Metabolic abnormalities were found in 68.2% of patients with hypercalciuria (64.2% and hypocitraturia (53.3% being the most common disorders. Conclusions: The presence of metabolic disorders in nearly 70% of patients with staghorn calculus reinforces the necessity for evaluation of these patients. The diagnosis and treatment of identified metabolic abnormalities can contribute to the prevention of recurrent staghorn calculi.

  12. Formal Modeling of Trust Web Service Composition Using Pi-calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensheng YUN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the credibility of Web service composition, Pi-calculus based formal modeling of trust Web service composition is proposed. Trust Web service composition is firstly defined abstractly; then Pi-calculus is used to depict structure and internal interaction of Trust Web service composition, the mapping relation between trust entity and Pi-calculus is provided. Automatic reasoner MWB is adopted to analyze and reason the Trust Web service composition system, which is aimed at finding and correcting the faults before the implementation of trust authentication of Web service composition. It thus meets the users’ demands on trust quality effectively.

  13. Enhancing the blended learning experience of Calculus I students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al-Ghassani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blended Learning showed in the last two decades to be one of the effective ways in education and training. We illustrate our initiative experience with blended learning in the course Calculus I. The main goals we want to achieve are improving students understanding of the course concepts, increasing the level of uniformity in this multi-sections course and enhancing students blended learning experience online and offline. Consequently, this affects positively students' academic performance. We describe and discuss the results that we achieved and the challenges we encountered in view of the initiative aims and goals. The blended learning delivery methods were through Learning Management System (LMS as the online medium and through new offline activities inside and outside the classroom. The LMS we used is Moodle. We designed the resources and activities to cater for the learners different needs. The offline activities were chosen and designed to strengthen the weakness in students study skills based in our experience.

  14. Stokes integral of economic growth. Calculus and the Solow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimkes, Jürgen

    2010-04-01

    Economic growth depends on capital and labor and two-dimensional calculus has been applied to economic theory. This leads to Riemann and Stokes integrals and to the first and second laws of production and growth. The mathematical structure is the same as in thermodynamics, economic properties may be related to physical terms: capital to energy, production to physical work, GDP per capita to temperature, production function to entropy. This is called econophysics. Production, trade and banking may be compared to motors, heat pumps or refrigerators. The Carnot process of the first law creates two levels in each system: cold and hot in physics; buyer and seller, investor and saver, rich and poor in economics. The efficiency rises with the income difference of rich and poor. The results of econophysics are compared to neoclassical theory.

  15. Renal calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Pyrah, Leslie N

    1979-01-01

    Stone in the urinary tract has fascinated the medical profession from the earliest times and has played an important part in the development of surgery. The earliest major planned operations were for the removal of vesical calculus; renal and ureteric calculi provided the first stimulus for the radiological investigation of the viscera, and the biochemical investigation of the causes of calculus formation has been the training ground for surgeons interested in metabolic disorders. It is therefore no surprise that stone has been the subject of a number of monographs by eminent urologists, but the rapid development of knowledge has made it possible for each one of these authors to produce something new. There is still a technical challenge to the surgeon in the removal of renal calculi, and on this topic we are always glad to have the advice of a master craftsman; but inevitably much of the interest centres on the elucidation of the causes of stone formation and its prevention. Professor Pyrah has had a long an...

  16. The M-calculus: a Higher-Order Distributed Process Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Alan; Stefani, Jean-Bernard

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a new distributed process calculus, called the -calculus. Key insights for the calculus are similar to those laid out by L. Cardelli for its calculus of ambients. Mobile Ambients and other recent distributed process calculi such as the Join calculus or the D-calculus introduce notions of distributed locations or localities, corresponding to a spatial partitioning of computations and embodying different features of distributed computations (e.g. failures, access control, p...

  17. Calculator calculus

    CERN Document Server

    McCarty, George

    1982-01-01

    How THIS BOOK DIFFERS This book is about the calculus. What distinguishes it, however, from other books is that it uses the pocket calculator to illustrate the theory. A computation that requires hours of labor when done by hand with tables is quite inappropriate as an example or exercise in a beginning calculus course. But that same computation can become a delicate illustration of the theory when the student does it in seconds on his calculator. t Furthermore, the student's own personal involvement and easy accomplishment give hi~ reassurance and en­ couragement. The machine is like a microscope, and its magnification is a hundred millionfold. We shall be interested in limits, and no stage of numerical approximation proves anything about the limit. However, the derivative of fex) = 67.SgX, for instance, acquires real meaning when a student first appreciates its values as numbers, as limits of 10 100 1000 t A quick example is 1.1 , 1.01 , 1.001 , •••• Another example is t = 0.1, 0.01, in the functio...

  18. An expression of closure to efficient causation in terms of lambda-calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Mossio, Matteo; Longo, Giuseppe; Stewart, John

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we propose a mathematical expression of closure to efficient causation in terms of ?-calculus; we argue that this opens up the perspective of developing principled computer simulations of systems closed to efficient causation in an appropriate programming language. An important implication of our formulation is that, by exhibiting an expression in ?-calculus, which is a paradigmatic formalism for computability and programming, we show that there are no conce...

  19. The simply typed rewriting calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Cirstea, Horatiu; Kirchner, Claude

    2000-01-01

    The rewriting calculus is a rule construction and application framework. As such it embeds in a uniform way term rewriting and lambda-calculus. Since rule application is an explicit object of the calculus, it allows us also to handle the set of results explicitly. We present a simply typed version of the rewriting calculus. With a good choice of the type system, we show that the calculus is type preserving and terminating, i.e. verifies the subject reduction and strong normalization properties.

  20. Calculus Technique of Integration by Parts, Correlated with a Geometric Picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhold, Albert T., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    The method of integration by parts is one of the most useful in integral calculus. Among the most important applications is the integration of differentials involving products, differentials in involving logarithms, and differentials involving inverse circular functions.

  1. Vector–valued functional calculus for a convolution algebra of distributions on cone

    OpenAIRE

    O. V. Lopushansky; S. V. Sharyn; A. V. Solomko

    2011-01-01

    For {the} Fourier image $widehat{D}'_Gamma$ of {the} algebra $D'_Gamma$ of the distributions with supports on {a}cone $Gamma$ the functional calculus for generators of$n$--parametric $(C_o)$--semigroups of operators is determined. {For this purpose, we consider construction of the dual pair} $langlewidehat{D}'_Gamma,,widehat{D}_Gammaangle$, {and provide some examples with respect to the formula of operator calculus.}

  2. Vector–valued functional calculus for a convolution algebra of distributions on cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Lopushansky

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available For {the} Fourier image $widehat{D}'_Gamma$ of {the} algebra $D'_Gamma$ of the distributions with supports on {a}cone $Gamma$ the functional calculus for generators of$n$--parametric $(C_o$--semigroups of operators is determined. {For this purpose, we consider construction of the dual pair} $langlewidehat{D}'_Gamma,,widehat{D}_Gammaangle$, {and provide some examples with respect to the formula of operator calculus.}

  3. A Simple Acronym for Doing Calculus: CAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    An acronym is presented that provides students a potentially useful, unifying view of the major topics covered in an elementary calculus sequence. The acronym (CAL) is based on viewing the calculus procedure for solving a calculus problem P* in three steps: (1) recognizing that the problem cannot be solved using simple (non-calculus) techniques;…

  4. Open Calculus: A Free Online Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korey, Jane; Rheinlander, Kim; Wallace, Dorothy

    2007-01-01

    Dartmouth College mathematicians have developed a free online calculus course called "Open Calculus." Open Calculus is an exportable distance-learning/self-study environment for learning calculus including written text, nearly 4000 online homework problems and instructional videos. The paper recounts the evaluation of course elements since 2000 in…

  5. Hermeneutic operative calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Sivakumar; Isawasan, Pradeep; Mohanan, Vasuky

    2014-07-01

    The predicate calculus used currently by mathematical logic in computer science, philosophy and linguistic was found to be too restrictive and inadequate for describing the grammar of natural and artificial language. Therefore many higher order logics have been developed to overcome the limitation of predicate calculus. In this paper a new representation of logic using mathematical principles has been developed for the natural language called Hermeneutic Operative Calculus. This Hermeneutic Operative Calculus is a new language interpretive calculus developed to account for the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic features of natural language and allows removing the restrictions of any particular natural language in the semantic field its map out. The logic of Hermeneutic Operative Calculus capable of represent the syntactic and semantic of factual information of a natural language precisely in any language. The logic of this Hermeneutic Operative Calculus has two different forms of operations called object and meta-operations. The object operation allow for listing the various objects, picturing the various propositions and so forth. The meta-operation would specify what cannot be specified by the object operation like semantical stances of a proposition. The basic operative processes of linguistics and cognitive logic will be mathematically conceptualized and elaborated in this paper.

  6. RESEARCH REGARDING THE STRENGTH CALCULUS OF PRODUCTS MANUFACTURED BY CYLINDRICAL BROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan ILINCIOIU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we make a strength calculus of products manufactured by cylindrical broaches. In thispaper it is presented the strength calculus of a product when it is made the finishing process of a hole made witha cylindrical broach The main purpose of this study is to determine equivalent stress relations that can be usefulfor an engineer in the design situation. The simplifying assumptions and the equivalent stress relations arepresented from an original point of view.

  7. Fractional Calculus of Analytic Functions Concerned with Möbius Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Breaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Let A be the class of functions f(z in the open unit disk U with f(0=0 and f′(0=1. Also, let w(ζ be a Möbius transformation in U for some z∈U. Applying the Möbius transformations, we consider some properties of fractional calculus (fractional derivatives and fractional integrals of f(z∈A. Also, some interesting examples for fractional calculus are given.

  8. Formal Modeling of Multi-Agent Systems using the Pi-Calculus and Epistemic Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorie, Toinette; Esterline, Albert

    1998-01-01

    Multi-agent systems have become important recently in computer science, especially in artificial intelligence (AI). We allow a broad sense of agent, but require at least that an agent has some measure of autonomy and interacts with other agents via some kind of agent communication language. We are concerned in this paper with formal modeling of multi-agent systems, with emphasis on communication. We propose for this purpose to use the pi-calculus, an extension of the process algebra CCS. Although the literature on the pi-calculus refers to agents, the term is used there in the sense of a process in general. It is our contention, however, that viewing agents in the AI sense as agents in the pi-calculus sense affords significant formal insight. One formalism that has been applied to agents in the AI sense is epistemic logic, the logic of knowledge. The success of epistemic logic in computer science in general has come in large part from its ability to handle concepts of knowledge that apply to groups. We maintain that the pi-calculus affords a natural yet rigorous means by which groups that are significant to epistemic logic may be identified, encapsulated, structured into hierarchies, and restructured in a principled way. This paper is organized as follows: Section 2 introduces the pi-calculus; Section 3 takes a scenario from the classical paper on agent-oriented programming [Sh93] and translates it into a very simple subset of the n-calculus; Section 4 then shows how more sophisticated features of the pi-calculus may bc brought into play; Section 5 discusses how the pi-calculus may be used to define groups for epistemic logic; and Section 6 is the conclusion.

  9. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of urinary calculus caused by melamine in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Li-qun; SHEN Ying; WANG Xiao-man; HE Le-jian; XIN Yue; HU Yan-xiu

    2009-01-01

    Background Intake of melamine can cause renal and ureteral lithiasis in infants and children. The present study aimed to understand the value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of renal and ureteral lithiasis in infants and young children caused by melamine, and the characteristics of ultrasonograms of melamine-associated calculi.Methods Ultrasonographic examination on the urinary system was performed for 28 332 children who ingested milk powder that was possibly tainted with melamine; 395 of the children were diagnosed by ultrasonography as having urinary calculus, and 231 cases had lump-like calculi and 164 cases had sand gravel-like calculi. The features of the calculi, the sites of obstruction and the status of hydronephrosis and hydroureterosis were analyzed. Ultrasonographic reexamination was performed for 116 patients and the findings were compared with those of the first ultrasonography, and the short-term expulsion of the calculi was evaluated.Results Most of the 395 patients with urinary lithiasis, except for those who developed renal failure, had no symptoms. The whole profile of the calculi could be seen in most of the cases, because the echogenicity of the calculi with no sharp or absent acoustical shadowing, was weaker as compared with those from calcium-containing calculi. Comet tail sign could be seen behind the echogenicity of single gravel calculus. The rate of diagnostic consistency of ureteral lithiasis between the ultrasound and the results of clinical observation (including stones expelled spontaneously or after cystoscopic intervention) in 51 cases for 76 ureters was 100%. Percutaneous renal biopsy was performed for one case, and histopathological examination showed flocculent, fine strip-like, ellipse and circular deeply stained sand gravel-like material in the renal tubules, and the circular calculi were found to be attached to the walls of the tubules. Chemical analysis of the calculi expelled from 12 cases showed that the main contents

  10. Drinking water composition and incidence of urinary calculus: introducing a new index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiri, Abbas; Shakhssalim, Nasser; Khoshdel, Ali Reza; Pakmanesh, Hamid; Radfar, Mohammad Hadi

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. We searched for a pathophysiologically based feature of major water electrolytes, which may define water quality better than the water hardness, respecting urinary calculus formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Utilizing a multistage stratified sampling, 2310 patients were diagnosed in the imaging centers of the provincial capitals in Iran between 2007 and 2008. These were composed of 1755 patients who were settled residents of 24 provincial capitals. Data on the regional drinking water composition, obtained from an accredited registry, and their relationships with the region's incidence of urinary calculi were evaluated by metaregression models. The stone risk index (defined as the ratio of calcium to magnesium-bicarbonate product in drinking water) was used to assess the risk of calculus formation. RESULTS. No correlation was found between the urinary calculus incidence and the amount of calcium, bicarbonate, or the total hardness of the drinking water. In contrast, water magnesium had a marginally significant nonlinear inverse relationship with the incidence of the disease in the capitals (R(2) = 26%, P = .05 for a power model). The stone risk index was associated nonlinearly with the calculus incidence (R(2) = 28.4%, P = .04). CONCLUSIONS. Urinary calculus incidence was inversely related with drinking water magnesium content. We introduced a new index constructed on the foundation of a pathophysiologically based formula; the stone risk index had a strong positive association with calculus incidence. This index can have therapeutic and preventive applications, yet to be confirmed by clinical trials.

  11. Geometrical explanation of the fractional complex transform and derivative chain rule for fractional calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fractional complex transform is suggested to convert a fractional differential equation with Jumarie's modification of Riemann–Liouville derivative into its classical differential partner. Understanding the fractional complex transform and the chain rule for fractional calculus are elucidated geometrically. -- Highlights: ► The chain rule for fractional calculus is invalid, a counter example is given. ► The fractional complex transform is explained geometrically. ► Fractional equations can be converted into differential equations.

  12. Geometrical explanation of the fractional complex transform and derivative chain rule for fractional calculus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Ji-Huan, E-mail: hejihuan@suda.edu.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College of Textile and Engineering, Soochow University, 199 Ren-ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Elagan, S.K., E-mail: sayed_khalil2000@yahoo.com [Mathematics and Statistics Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, P.O. 888 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Menofiya University, Shebin Elkom (Egypt); Li, Z.B., E-mail: zhengbiaoli@l26.com [College of Mathematics and Information Science, Qujing Normal University, Qujing, Yunnan 655011 (China)

    2012-01-09

    The fractional complex transform is suggested to convert a fractional differential equation with Jumarie's modification of Riemann–Liouville derivative into its classical differential partner. Understanding the fractional complex transform and the chain rule for fractional calculus are elucidated geometrically. -- Highlights: ► The chain rule for fractional calculus is invalid, a counter example is given. ► The fractional complex transform is explained geometrically. ► Fractional equations can be converted into differential equations.

  13. Calculus for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Slay the calculus monster with this user-friendly guide Calculus For Dummies, 2nd Edition makes calculus manageable-even if you're one of the many students who sweat at the thought of it. By breaking down differentiation and integration into digestible concepts, this guide helps you build a stronger foundation with a solid understanding of the big ideas at work. This user-friendly math book leads you step-by-step through each concept, operation, and solution, explaining the ""how"" and ""why"" in plain English instead of math-speak. Through relevant instruction and practical examples, you'll s

  14. Dogs Don't Need Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Many optimization problems can be solved without resorting to calculus. This article develops a new variational method for optimization that relies on inequalities. The method is illustrated by four examples, the last of which provides a completely algebraic solution to the problem of minimizing the time it takes a dog to retrieve a thrown ball,…

  15. Advanced calculus a transition to analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Dence, Thomas P

    2010-01-01

    Designed for a one-semester advanced calculus course, Advanced Calculus explores the theory of calculus and highlights the connections between calculus and real analysis -- providing a mathematically sophisticated introduction to functional analytical concepts. The text is interesting to read and includes many illustrative worked-out examples and instructive exercises, and precise historical notes to aid in further exploration of calculus. Ancillary list: * Companion website, Ebook- http://www.elsevierdirect.com/product.jsp?isbn=9780123749550 * Student Solutions Manual- To come * Instructor

  16. The stochastic quality calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Kebin; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the Stochastic Quality Calculus in order to model and reason about distributed processes that rely on each other in order to achieve their overall behaviour. The calculus supports broadcast communication in a truly concurrent setting. Generally distributed delays are associated...... with the outputs and at the same time the inputs impose constraints on the waiting times. Consequently, the expected inputs may not be available when needed and therefore the calculus allows to express the absence of data.The communication delays are expressed by general distributions and the resulting semantics...

  17. Mathematics in the Classroom: Conceptual Cartography of Differential Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes RODRÍGUEZ PERALTA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a documentary investigation with the intention of substantiate how and why, and the level and depth of the topics used by the teacher in the classroom for the development of the mathematical knowledge on the part of higher level engineering students. The analysis of the mathematical object was made through the construction of conceptual cartography, being the core of the derivative concept. To construct the axes, the socio-formative theory of Sergio Tobón was used, together with the semiotic representation register of Raychmond Duval and Tall's mathematical advanced thought in the engineering context. The topic is a part of the Unit of learning: Differential and Integral Calculus. This corresponds to the first semester. The course lasts for a semester and is intended for students aged between 18 and 20 years. The research shows that by constructing a conceptual cartography involving at least 8 axes of analysis that the socio-formation orientates, and taking mathematics in the context of careers offered by the educational institution, the teacher is allowed to place the thematic content in the appropriate level and depth, guiding in a possible treatment of knowledge to be brought into the classroom.

  18. Predicate calculus for an architecture of multiple neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, Robert H.

    1990-08-01

    Future projects with neural networks will require multiple individual network components. Current efforts along these lines are ad hoc. This paper relates the neural network to a classical device and derives a multi-part architecture from that model. Further it provides a Predicate Calculus variant for describing the location and nature of the trainings and suggests Resolution Refutation as a method for determining the performance of the system as well as the location of needed trainings for specific proofs. 2. THE NEURAL NETWORK AND A CLASSICAL DEVICE Recently investigators have been making reports about architectures of multiple neural networksL234. These efforts are appearing at an early stage in neural network investigations they are characterized by architectures suggested directly by the problem space. Touretzky and Hinton suggest an architecture for processing logical statements1 the design of this architecture arises from the syntax of a restricted class of logical expressions and exhibits syntactic limitations. In similar fashion a multiple neural netword arises out of a control problem2 from the sequence learning problem3 and from the domain of machine learning. 4 But a general theory of multiple neural devices is missing. More general attempts to relate single or multiple neural networks to classical computing devices are not common although an attempt is made to relate single neural devices to a Turing machines and Sun et a!. develop a multiple neural architecture that performs pattern classification.

  19. Non-exponential extinction of radiation by fractional calculus modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possible deviations from exponential attenuation of radiation in a random medium have been recently studied in several works. These deviations from the classical Beer-Lambert law were justified from a stochastic point of view by Kostinski (2001) . In his model he introduced the spatial correlation among the random variables, i.e. a space memory. In this note we introduce a different approach, including a memory formalism in the classical Beer-Lambert law through fractional calculus modelling. We find a generalized Beer-Lambert law in which the exponential memoryless extinction is only a special case of non-exponential extinction solutions described by Mittag-Leffler functions. We also justify this result from a stochastic point of view, using the space fractional Poisson process. Moreover, we discuss some concrete advantages of this approach from an experimental point of view, giving an estimate of the deviation from exponential extinction law, varying the optical depth. This is also an interesting model to understand the meaning of fractional derivative as an instrument to transmit randomness of microscopic dynamics to the macroscopic scale.

  20. The primordial end calculus of prime numbers and mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinoo Cameron

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This Manuscript on the end primordial calculus of mathematics is a new discovery of the spiral nature of the entire mathematical grid at 1:3 by the precise and absolute concordance of regular number spirals and the Prime number spirals based on numbers and their spaces by grid. It is exclusive to IJAMR which has published 8 papers of the author on this new mathematics.  The manuscript has NOT been offered to any other journal in the world .The editorial board of Princeton University, USA, Annals of mathematics had been duly informed by letter of the new discovery of the concordance of prime numbers spirals with regular number spirals, but for the sake of fidelity. Mathematics is not complexity, but simplicity, the configuration of 1 is spiral .The relationship between pure mathematical numbers and empty space is a primordial relationship, and well defined by  gaps, plus it has been validated by the author by the Publishing of the pure  continuous  Den-Otter  Prime number sieve at 1/6 and 5/6 ( and 1/3 and 2/3,and these prime  sieves are reversible .Thus the relationship of the configuration of 1 is in two planes that expand in the frame of (5/6 and 1/6 and (1/3 and 2/3are represented by spiral configuration , expressed  by these  numbers, as in :All prime  numbers spirals are assigned infinitely by the simple -1 offset of the  two spiral numbers cords 1/3+2/3=1 5/6+1/6=1 1/3-1/6=1/6 5/6-2/3=1/6 1/3+1/6=0.5 5/6+2/3=1.5 1.5/0.5=3 Note: the above is also confirmed by Arabian numerical shown below. Primordial mathematics as created by the creator is absolute and precise whilst the mathematics invented by man is approximate .Current Mathematics of a thousand years has accomplished much by approximate theory, and it is very possible to land a man on the moon by approximate mathematics, but to precisely understand mass and energy, the nucleus of mass and the vastness of space, one must understand the precise nature and curvature of space

  1. A Logical Process Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the Logical Process Calculus (LPC), a formalism that supports heterogeneous system specifications containing both operational and declarative subspecifications. Syntactically, LPC extends Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems with operators from the alternation-free linear-time mu-calculus (LT(mu)). Semantically, LPC is equipped with a behavioral preorder that generalizes Hennessy's and DeNicola's must-testing preorder as well as LT(mu's) satisfaction relation, while being compositional for all LPC operators. From a technical point of view, the new calculus is distinguished by the inclusion of: (1) both minimal and maximal fixed-point operators and (2) an unimple-mentability predicate on process terms, which tags inconsistent specifications. The utility of LPC is demonstrated by means of an example highlighting the benefits of heterogeneous system specification.

  2. Complex Multiplicative Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Bashirov, Agamirza; Riza, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper we extend the concepts of multiplicative de- rivative and integral to complex-valued functions of complex variable. Some drawbacks, arising with these concepts in the real case, are explained satis- factorily. Properties of complex multiplicative derivatives and integrals are studied. In particular, the fundamental theorem of complex multiplicative calculus, relating these concepts, is proved. It is shown that complex multi- plicative calculus is not just another realizat...

  3. Discrete Exterior Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Desbrun, Mathieu; Hirani, Anil N.; Leok, Melvin; Marsden, Jerrold E.

    2005-01-01

    We present a theory and applications of discrete exterior calculus on simplicial complexes of arbitrary finite dimension. This can be thought of as calculus on a discrete space. Our theory includes not only discrete differential forms but also discrete vector fields and the operators acting on these objects. This allows us to address the various interactions between forms and vector fields (such as Lie derivatives) which are important in applications. Previous attempts at discrete exterior ca...

  4. Decidable Type Inference for the Polymorphic Rewriting Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Cirstea, Horatiu; Kirchner, Claude; Liquori, Luigi; Wack, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    The rewriting calculus is a minimal framework embedding lambda calculus and term rewriting systems that allows abstraction on variables and patterns. The rewriting calculus features higher-order functions (from the lambda calculus) and pattern matching (from term rewriting systems). In this paper, we study extensively the decidability of type inference in the second-order rewriting calculus à la Curry.

  5. Computing for calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Mark J

    1981-01-01

    Computing for Calculus focuses on BASIC as the computer language used for solving calculus problems.This book discusses the input statement for numeric variables, advanced intrinsic functions, numerical estimation of limits, and linear approximations and tangents. The elementary estimation of areas, numerical and string arrays, line drawing algorithms, and bisection and secant method are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the implicit functions and differentiation, upper and lower rectangular estimates, Simpson's rule and parabolic approximation, and interpolating polynomials. Other to

  6. Critical Analysis of the Mathematical Formalism of Theoretical Physics. II. Foundations of Vector Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalanov, Temur Z.

    2014-03-01

    A critical analysis of the foundations of standard vector calculus is proposed. The methodological basis of the analysis is the unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics. It is proved that the vector calculus is incorrect theory because: (a) it is not based on a correct methodological basis - the unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics; (b) it does not contain the correct definitions of ``movement,'' ``direction'' and ``vector'' (c) it does not take into consideration the dimensions of physical quantities (i.e., number names, denominate numbers, concrete numbers), characterizing the concept of ''physical vector,'' and, therefore, it has no natural-scientific meaning; (d) operations on ``physical vectors'' and the vector calculus propositions relating to the ''physical vectors'' are contrary to formal logic.

  7. Dental calculus evidence of Taï Forest Chimpanzee plant consumption and life history transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Robert C.; Salazar-García, Domingo C.; Wittig, Roman M.; Freiberg, Martin; Henry, Amanda G.

    2015-01-01

    Dental calculus (calcified dental plaque) is a source of multiple types of data on life history. Recent research has targeted the plant microremains preserved in this mineralised deposit as a source of dietary and health information for recent and past populations. However, it is unclear to what extent we can interpret behaviour from microremains. Few studies to date have directly compared the microremain record from dental calculus to dietary records, and none with long-term observation dietary records, thus limiting how we can interpret diet, food acquisition and behaviour. Here we present a high-resolution analysis of calculus microremains from wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. We test microremain assemblages against more than two decades of field behavioural observations to establish the ability of calculus to capture the composition of diet. Our results show that some microremain classes accumulate as long-lived dietary markers. Phytolith abundance in calculus can reflect the proportions of plants in the diet, yet this pattern is not true for starches. We also report microremains can record information about other dietary behaviours, such as the age of weaning and learned food processing techniques like nut-cracking. PMID:26481858

  8. Dental calculus evidence of Taï Forest Chimpanzee plant consumption and life history transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Robert C.; Salazar-García, Domingo C.; Wittig, Roman M.; Freiberg, Martin; Henry, Amanda G.

    2015-10-01

    Dental calculus (calcified dental plaque) is a source of multiple types of data on life history. Recent research has targeted the plant microremains preserved in this mineralised deposit as a source of dietary and health information for recent and past populations. However, it is unclear to what extent we can interpret behaviour from microremains. Few studies to date have directly compared the microremain record from dental calculus to dietary records, and none with long-term observation dietary records, thus limiting how we can interpret diet, food acquisition and behaviour. Here we present a high-resolution analysis of calculus microremains from wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. We test microremain assemblages against more than two decades of field behavioural observations to establish the ability of calculus to capture the composition of diet. Our results show that some microremain classes accumulate as long-lived dietary markers. Phytolith abundance in calculus can reflect the proportions of plants in the diet, yet this pattern is not true for starches. We also report microremains can record information about other dietary behaviours, such as the age of weaning and learned food processing techniques like nut-cracking.

  9. Surface area and volume determination of subgingival calculus using laser fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaie, Fardad; Walsh, Laurence J

    2014-03-01

    Visible red (655 nm) laser fluorescence (LF) devices are currently used for identifying deposits of subgingival calculus on the root surfaces of teeth during dental examination and treatment; however, it is not known how the fluorescence readings produced by commercially available LF systems correlate to the nature of the deposits. This laboratory study explored the correlation between LF digital readings and the surface area and volume of subgingival calculus deposits on teeth. A collection of 30 extracted human posterior teeth with various levels of subgingival deposits of calculus across 240 sites were used in a clinical simulation, with silicone impression material used to replicate periodontal soft tissues. The teeth were scored by two examiners by using three commercial LF systems (DIAGNOdent, DIAGNOdent Pen and KEY3). The silicone was removed, and the teeth were removed for photography at × 20 magnification under white or ultraviolet light. The surface area, thickness, and volume were calculated, and both linear least squares regression and nonlinear (Spearman's rank method) correlation coefficients were determined. Visible red LF digital readings showed better correlation to calculus volume than to surface area. Overall, the best performance was found for the KEY3 system (Spearman coefficient 0.59), compared to the Classic DIAGNOdent (0.56) and the DIAGNOdent Pen (0.49). These results indicate that while visible red LF systems vary somewhat in performance, their LF readings provide a useful estimation of the volume of subgingival calculus deposits present on teeth.

  10. On a modification of the spinor calculus of Infeeld and van der Waerden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modification of the spinor calculus of Infeeld and van der Waerden is presented in which σkμν is no longer covariant constant. The structure of spin space is enriched by a spinor fμνρσ defined on it. Flatness of the Riemannian world space no longer necessarily entails the vanishing of the curvature of the spin space. After a brief look at Dirac's equation, the revised calculus is re-interpreted in terms of a Riemann-Cartan space, with σkμν again covariant constant. (author)

  11. Renal calculus complicated with squamous cell carcinoma of renal pelvis: Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jiantao; Lei, Jun; He, Leye; Yin, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    Longstanding renal calculus is a risk factor of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the renal pelvis. It is highly aggressive and usually diagnosed at advanced stages with a poor prognosis. We present two cases of kidney stone complications with renal pelvic SCC. These two patients had a radical nephrectomy and the dissected tissues were renal pelvic SCC. Our cases further emphasize that renal pelvic SCC should be considered in patients with longstanding renal calculus. These cases contribute greatly to an early diagnosis and early treatment, both of which will significantly minimize the damage of, and markedly improve the prognosis of, renal pelvic SCC.

  12. Introduction to the operational calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to the Operational Calculus is a translation of ""Einfuhrung in die Operatorenrechnung, Second Edition."" This book deals with Heaviside's interpretation, on the Laplace integral, and on Jan Mikusinki's fundamental work ""Operational Calculus."" Throughout the book, basic algebraic concepts appear as aids to understanding some relevant points of the subject. An important field for research in analysis is asymptotic properties. This text also discusses examples to show the potentialities in applying operational calculus that run beyond ordinary differential equations with constant

  13. Survey on Acupuncture Treatment of Urinary Calculus and Renal Colic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qin-feng; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    Analyzed 74 articles relevant to urinary calculus and renal colic. The statistics found that the commonly used therapies were needling, acupuncture and moxibustion, electro-acupuncture, acupoint-injection,ear-point application, ear acupuncture, wrist-ankle acupuncture, scalp acupuncture, acupressure and combined acupuncture methods. The common acupoints that were used over 1,400 times in more than 12 articles were Shenshu ( BL 23 ), Sanyinjiao ( SP 6), Zusanli ( ST 36),Zhongji (CV 3), and Jingmen (GB 25).

  14. The call-by-need lambda calculus (unabridged).

    OpenAIRE

    Maraist, John; Odersky, Martin; Wadler, Phil

    2007-01-01

    We present a calculus that captures the operational semantics of call-by-need.We demonstrate that the calculus is confluent and standardizable and entails the same observational equivalences as call-by-name lambda calculus.

  15. Focalization and phase models for classical extensions of non-associative Lambek calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Bastenhof, Arno

    2011-01-01

    Lambek's non-associative syntactic calculus (NL) excels in its resource consciousness: the usual structural rules for weakening, contraction, exchange and even associativity are all dropped. Recently, there have been proposals for conservative extensions dispensing with NL's intuitionistic bias towards sequents with single conclusions: De Groote and Lamarche's classical non-associative Lambek calculus (CNL) and the Lambek-Grishin calculus (LG) of Moortgat and associates. We demonstrate Andreoli's focalization property for said proposals: a normalization result for Cut-free sequent derivations identifying to a large extent those differing only by trivial rule permutations. In doing so, we proceed from a `uniform' sequent presentation, deriving CNL from LG through the addition of structural rules. The normalization proof proceeds by the construction of syntactic phase models wherein every `truth' has a focused proof, similar to work of Okada and of Herbelin and Lee.

  16. Discrete exterior calculus discretization of incompressible Navier–Stokes equations over surface simplicial meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.

    2016-02-11

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier–Stokes equations is developed based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). A distinguishing feature of our method is the use of an algebraic discretization of the interior product operator and a combinatorial discretization of the wedge product. The governing equations are first rewritten using the exterior calculus notation, replacing vector calculus differential operators by the exterior derivative, Hodge star and wedge product operators. The discretization is then carried out by substituting with the corresponding discrete operators based on the DEC framework. Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy for the developed scheme when using structured-triangular meshes, and first order accuracy for otherwise unstructured meshes. By construction, the method is conservative in that both mass and vorticity are conserved up to machine precision. The relative error in kinetic energy for inviscid flow test cases converges in a second order fashion with both the mesh size and the time step.

  17. Discrete exterior calculus discretization of Incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on simplicial meshes

    CERN Document Server

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S; Samtaney, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on simplicial meshes is developed based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). A distinguishing feature of our method is the use of an algebraic discretization of the contraction operator and a combinatorial discretization of the wedge product. The governing equations are first rewritten using the exterior calculus notation, replacing vector calculus differential operators by the exterior derivative, Hodge star and wedge product operators. The discretization is then carried out by substituting with the corresponding discrete operators based on the DEC framework. Numerical experiments reveal a second order accuracy for the developed scheme when using structured-triangular meshes, and first order accuracy for otherwise unstructured meshes. By construction, the method is conservative in that both mass and vorticity are conserved up to machine precision. The relative error in kinetic energy for inviscid flow test cases converges in a second ord...

  18. Discrete exterior calculus discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations over surface simplicial meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.; Hirani, Anil N.; Samtaney, Ravi

    2016-05-01

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is developed based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). A distinguishing feature of our method is the use of an algebraic discretization of the interior product operator and a combinatorial discretization of the wedge product. The governing equations are first rewritten using the exterior calculus notation, replacing vector calculus differential operators by the exterior derivative, Hodge star and wedge product operators. The discretization is then carried out by substituting with the corresponding discrete operators based on the DEC framework. Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy for the developed scheme when using structured-triangular meshes, and first order accuracy for otherwise unstructured meshes. By construction, the method is conservative in that both mass and vorticity are conserved up to machine precision. The relative error in kinetic energy for inviscid flow test cases converges in a second order fashion with both the mesh size and the time step.

  19. Students' Perceptions of Institutional Practices: The Case of Limits of Functions in College Level Calculus Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a study of instructors' and students' perceptions of the knowledge to be learned about limits of functions in a college level Calculus course, taught in a North American college institution. I modeled these perceptions using a theoretical framework that combines elements of the Anthropological Theory of the Didactic, developed…

  20. On the use of functional calculus for phase-type and related distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Navarro, Azucena Campillo; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2016-01-01

    matrices. Functional calculus, which is a branch of operator theory frequently associated with complex analysis, can be applied to phase-type and matrix-exponential distributions in a rather straightforward way. In this article we provide a number of examples of how to execute the formal arguments.......The area of phase-type distributions is renowned for its ability to obtain closed form formulas or algorithmically exact solutions to many complex stochastic models. The method of functional calculus will provide an additional tool along these lines for establishing results in terms of functions of...

  1. On the use of functional calculus for phase-type and related distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Campillo Navarro, Azucena; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    matrices. Functional calculus, which is a branch of operator theory frequently associated with complex analysis, can be applied to phase-type and matrix-exponential distributions in a rather straightforward way. In this paper we provide a number of examples on how to execute the formal arguments.......The area of phase-type distributions is renowned for its ability to obtain closed form formulas or algorithmically exact solutions to many complex stochastic models. The method of functional calculus will provide an additional tool along these lines for establishing results in terms of functions of...

  2. Fractional calculus with applications for nuclear reactor dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Santanu Saha

    2015-01-01

    Introduces Novel Applications for Solving Neutron Transport EquationsWhile deemed nonessential in the past, fractional calculus is now gaining momentum in the science and engineering community. Various disciplines have discovered that realistic models of physical phenomenon can be achieved with fractional calculus and are using them in numerous ways. Since fractional calculus represents a reactor more closely than classical integer order calculus, Fractional Calculus with Applications for Nuclear Reactor Dynamics focuses on the application of fractional calculus to describe the physical behavi

  3. On the formalism of local variational differential operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Igonin, S.; Verbovetsky, A.V.; Vitolo, R.

    2002-01-01

    The calculus of local variational differential operators introduced by B. L. Voronov, I. V. Tyutin, and Sh. S. Shakhverdiev is studied in the context of jet super space geometry. In a coordinate-free way, we relate these operators to variational multivectors, for which we introduce and com

  4. Go Figure: Calculus Students' Use of Figures and Graphs in Technical Report Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Pfaff

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how to read and use graphs to communicate scientific and mathematical information is critical for STEM majors, as well as an important part of quantitative literacy. Our study suggests that first-semester calculus students do not know how to use graphs in a technical report without explicit instruction. Although not a surprising result, it leaves us wondering about when such skills are developed, and if calculus I is a place to start. Our work is now exploring the potential benefit on students' use of graphs by having them formally evaluate other students' reports.

  5. Building an Understanding of Functions: A Series of Activities for Pre-Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carducci, Olivia M.

    2008-01-01

    Building block toys can be used to illustrate various concepts connected with functions including graphs and rates of change of linear and exponential functions, piecewise functions, and composition of functions. Five brief activities suitable for a pre-calculus course are described.

  6. A Formal Verification of the Alternating Bit Protocol in the Calculus of Constructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezem, M.A.; Groote, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    We report on a formal verification of the Alternating Bit Protocol (ABP) in the Calculus of Constructions. We outline a semi-formal correctness proof of the ABP with sufficient detail to be formalised. Thereafter we show by examples how the formalised proof has been verified by the automated proof c

  7. Retention of Differential and Integral Calculus: A Case Study of a University Student in Physical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukic Matic, Ljerka; Dahl, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a study on retention of differential and integral calculus concepts of a second-year student of physical chemistry at a Danish university. The focus was on what knowledge the student retained 14 months after the course and on what effect beliefs about mathematics had on the retention. We argue that if a student can quickly…

  8. The Effects of Maple Integrated Strategy on Engineering Technology Students' Understanding of Integral Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Tuan Salwani; Zakaria, Effandi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the effectiveness of a learning strategy using Maple in integral calculus. This research was conducted using a quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group design. One hundred engineering technology students at a technical university were chosen at random. The effectiveness of the learning…

  9. Early Vector Calculus: A Path through Multivariable Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    The divergence theorem, Stokes' theorem, and Green's theorem appear near the end of calculus texts. These are important results, but many instructors struggle to reach them. We describe a pathway through a standard calculus text that allows instructors to emphasize these theorems. (Contains 2 figures.)

  10. Discovering the Art of Mathematics: Using String Art to Investigate Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Renesse, Christine; Ecke, Volker

    2016-01-01

    One goal of our Discovering the Art of Mathematics project is to empower students in the liberal arts to become confident creators of art and imaginative creators of mathematics. In this paper, we describe our experience with using string art to guide liberal arts students in exploring ideas of calculus. We provide excerpts from our inquiry-based…

  11. Rate of Change: AP Calculus Students' Understandings and Misconceptions after Completing Different Curricular Paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuscher, Dawn; Reys, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Advanced Placement Calculus students' mathematical understanding of rate of change, after studying four years of college preparatory (integrated or single-subject) mathematics. Students completed the Precalculus Concept Assessment (PCA) and two open-ended tasks with questions about rates of change. After adjusting for prior…

  12. Fluorescence properties of human teeth and dental calculus for clinical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Keun

    2015-04-01

    Fluorescent emission of human teeth and dental calculus is important for the esthetic rehabilitation of teeth, diagnosis of dental caries, and detection of dental calculus. The purposes of this review were to summarize the fluorescence and phosphorescence of human teeth by ambient ultraviolet (UV) light, to investigate the clinically relevant fluorescence measurement methods in dentistry, and to review the fluorescence of teeth and dental calculus by specific wavelength light. Dentine was three times more phosphorescent than enamel. When exposed to light sources containing UV components, the fluorescence of human teeth gives them the quality of vitality, and fluorescent emission with a peak of 440 nm is observed. Esthetic restorative materials should have fluorescence properties similar to those of natural teeth. Based on the fluorescence of teeth and restorative materials as determined with a spectrophotometer, a fluorescence parameter was defined. As to the fluorescence spectra by a specific wavelength, varied wavelengths were investigated for clinical applications, and several methods for the diagnosis of dental caries and the detection of dental calculus were developed. Since fluorescent properties of dental hard tissues have been used and would be expanded in diverse fields of clinical practice, these properties should be investigated further, embracing newly developed optical techniques.

  13. Fluorescence properties of human teeth and dental calculus for clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Keun

    2015-04-01

    Fluorescent emission of human teeth and dental calculus is important for the esthetic rehabilitation of teeth, diagnosis of dental caries, and detection of dental calculus. The purposes of this review were to summarize the fluorescence and phosphorescence of human teeth by ambient ultraviolet (UV) light, to investigate the clinically relevant fluorescence measurement methods in dentistry, and to review the fluorescence of teeth and dental calculus by specific wavelength light. Dentine was three times more phosphorescent than enamel. When exposed to light sources containing UV components, the fluorescence of human teeth gives them the quality of vitality, and fluorescent emission with a peak of 440 nm is observed. Esthetic restorative materials should have fluorescence properties similar to those of natural teeth. Based on the fluorescence of teeth and restorative materials as determined with a spectrophotometer, a fluorescence parameter was defined. As to the fluorescence spectra by a specific wavelength, varied wavelengths were investigated for clinical applications, and several methods for the diagnosis of dental caries and the detection of dental calculus were developed. Since fluorescent properties of dental hard tissues have been used and would be expanded in diverse fields of clinical practice, these properties should be investigated further, embracing newly developed optical techniques.

  14. The Rhetoric in Mathematics: Newton, Leibniz, the Calculus, and the Rhetorical Force of the Infinitesimal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, G. Mitchell

    2004-01-01

    This essay investigates the rhetoric surrounding the appearance of the concept of the infinitesimal in the seventeenth-century Calculus of Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Although historians often have positioned rhetoric as a supplemental discipline, this essay shows that rhetoric is the "material" out of which a new and powerful…

  15. Computation of Greeks for Barrier and Lookback Options Using Malliavin Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Gobet, Emmanuel; Kohatsu-Higa, Arturo

    2003-01-01

    In this article, we consider the numerical computations associated to the Greeks of barrier and lookback options, using Malliavin calculus. For this, we derive some integration by parts formulae involving the maximum and minimum of a one dimensional diffusion. Numerical tests illustrate the gain of accuracy compared to classical methods.

  16. A pilot study of problem solving in vector calculus using eye-tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Nyström, Marcus; Ögren, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Eye movements provide an online measure of the strategies students use to solve a problem. Such strategies are difficult to investigate with traditional methods of assessment. In this paper, we present some background and highlights of work in progress, aiming at a larger study where we will investigate how engineering students solve problems in vector calculus.

  17. Applications of Umbral Calculus Associated with p-Adic Invariant Integrals on Zp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae San Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Dere and Simsek (2012 have studied the applications of umbral algebra to some special functions. In this paper, we investigate some properties of umbral calculus associated with p-adic invariant integrals on Zp. From our properties, we can also derive some interesting identities of Bernoulli polynomials.

  18. A Comparison of Mathematics Teachers' and Professors' Views on Secondary Preparation for Tertiary Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Carol; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Hazari, Zahra; Watson, Charity

    2016-01-01

    This article compares the views of teachers and professors about the transition from secondary mathematics to tertiary calculus. Quantitative analysis revealed five categories where teachers and professors differed significantly in the relative frequency of addressing them. Using the rite of passage theory, the separation and incorporation phases…

  19. Development and Validation of an Inventory for Measuring Student Attitudes toward Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yun-Chen; Lin, Shu-Hui

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate the Attitude Toward Calculus Inventory (ATCI). Results from three studies are reported that establish the reliability and validity of this instrument. An examination of the factor structure confirms that student attitudes can be explained in terms of four factors: self-confidence, value, enjoyment, and…

  20. Calculus Limits Involving Infinity: The Role of Students' Informal Dynamic Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies on calculus limits have centred their focus on student understanding of limits at infinity or infinite limits that involve continuous functions (as opposed to discrete sequences). This study examines student understanding of these types of limits using both pure mathematics and applied-science functions and formulas. Seven calculus…

  1. The untyped stack calculus and Bohm's theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Carraro

    2013-01-01

    The stack calculus is a functional language in which is in a Curry-Howard correspondence with classical logic. It enjoys confluence but, as well as Parigot's lambda-mu, does not admit the Bohm Theorem, typical of the lambda-calculus. We present a simple extension of stack calculus which is for the stack calculus what Saurin's Lambda-mu is for lambda-mu.

  2. Calculus in the Middle School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Rita H.; McCoy, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an example of how middle school teachers can lay a foundation for calculus. Although many middle school activities connect directly to calculus concepts, the authors have decided to look in depth at only one: the concept of change. They will show how teachers can lead their students to see and appreciate the calculus…

  3. Applying π-Calculus to Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abendroth, Jorg

    2003-01-01

    The π-Calculus has been developed to reason about behavioural equivalence. Different notations of equivalence are defined in terms of process interactions, as well as the context of processes. There are various extensions of the π-Calculus, such as the SPI calculus, which has primitives to facili...

  4. Calculus in Elementary School: An Example of ICT-Based Curriculum Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluck, Andrew; Ranmuthugala, Dev; Chin, Chris; Penesis, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Integral calculus is generally regarded as a fundamental but advanced aspect of mathematics, and it is not generally studied until students are aged about fifteen or older. Understanding the transformative potential of information and communication technology, this project undertook an investigation in four Australian schools to train students…

  5. The Compleat Modeler - Applications of Calculus in Medicine and Biology - An MATC Course at Dartmouth College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Dorothy

    2002-01-01

    Describes a successful course in mathematical biology at Dartmouth College. The course targets premedical students and biology majors rather than mathematics majors, and requires only one semester of calculus as prerequisite. Real world problems form the basis of student work. (Author/KHR)

  6. A Case Study of Student and Instructor Reactions to a Calculus E-Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Martina; Khorami, Mehdi; Visscher, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article details the results of testing an e-book in two differential calculus classes. Although we, as math instructors, were drawn to the components of the e-book that promote conceptual understanding--such as the interactive figures--the students reported liking the assessment support most. We found that students were initially excited…

  7. On the Definition of the Partition Function in Quantum Regge Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura, Jun(Department, of, Particle, and, Nuclear, Physics,, Graduate, University, for, Advanced, Studies, (SOKENDAI),, Tsukuba,, Ibaraki, 305-0801,, Japan)

    1995-01-01

    We argue that the definition of the partition function used recently to demonstrate the failure of Regge calculus is wrong. In fact, in the one-dimensional case, we show that there is a more natural definition, with which one can reproduce the correct results.

  8. Peer-Led Guided in Calculus at University of South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénéteau, Catherine; Fox, Gordon; Xu, Xiaoying; Lewis, Jennifer E.; Ramachandran, Kandethody; Campbell, Scott; Holcomb, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Peer-Led Guided Inquiry (PLGI) program for teaching calculus at the University of South Florida. This approach uses the POGIL (Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning) teaching strategy and the small group learning model PLTL (Peer-Led Team Learning). The developed materials used a learning cycle based on…

  9. A new solving procedure by m-M calculus for problems of constrained optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prešić Slaviša

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we state two procedures for constrained optimization based on the concepts of m-M Calculus. The first procedure is called basic and the second is called quick solving procedure. The quick solving procedure is very effective. It can also be applied to problems of unconstrained optimization. .

  10. The Experimental Study of Safety and Efficacy in Using Bovis Calculus Pharmacopuncture Solution as Eye Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongsik Seo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This experimental study was performed to investigate the safety and efficacy of Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution manufactured with freezing dryness method to use eye drop. To identify the use of it as eye drop, the eye irritation test of rabbits and the antibacterial test of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, and Candida albicans were performed. Methods : 1. The eye irritation test of this material was performed according to the Regulation of Korea Food & Drug Administration(2005. 10. 21, KFDA 2005-60. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was administered in the left eye of the rabbits, eye irritation of the cornea, iris and conjunctiva was observed at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 7day. 2. After administering Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution on bacterial species(Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Candida albicans which cause Keratitis, MIC(Minimum Inhibition Concentration and the size of inhibition zone were measured. Anti-bacterial potency was also measured using the size of inhibition zone. Results : 1. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was administered in the left eye of the rabbits, it was found that none of nine rabbits have abnormal signs and weight changes. 2. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, no eye irritation of the cornea, iris and conjunctiva was observed at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 7day. 3. There was no response to MIC on bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Candida albicans after Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was medicated. Conclusions : The present study suggests that Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution is a nontoxic and non-irritant medicine, which does not cause eye irritation in

  11. The Impact of Instructor Pedagogy on College Calculus Students' Attitude toward Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Sadler, Samuel M.; Bressoud, David M.

    2015-01-01

    College calculus teaches students important mathematical concepts and skills. The course also has a substantial impact on students' attitude toward mathematics, affecting their career aspirations and desires to take more mathematics. This national US study of 3103 students at 123 colleges and universities tracks changes in students'…

  12. Helmholtz Theorem for Nondifferentiable Hamiltonian Systems in the Framework of Cresson’s Quantum Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Pierret

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We derive the Helmholtz theorem for nondifferentiable Hamiltonian systems in the framework of Cresson’s quantum calculus. Precisely, we give a theorem characterizing nondifferentiable equations, admitting a Hamiltonian formulation. Moreover, in the affirmative case, we give the associated Hamiltonian.

  13. The Effect of Supplemental Instruction on Transfer Student Success in First Semester Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsangue, Martin; Cadwalladerolsker, Todd; Fernandez-Weston, Cathy; Filowitz, Mark; Hershey, James; Moon, Hye Sun; Renne, Chris; Sullivan, Ed; Walker, Sean; Woods, Rochelle; Engelke, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the impact of Supplemental Instruction (SI) on student achievement in first semester Calculus for transfer students over a three-year period. Transfer students participating in SI achieved dramatically higher passing rates and course grades than did non-SI transfer students, despite no significant differences in academic…

  14. The Impact of Implementing Web Homework in Second-Semester Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRose, P. Gavin

    2010-01-01

    In this study we examine the introduction of on-line homework to a Calculus II course as a replacement for ungraded pencil-and-paper homework assignments. We consider how this had an impact on students' performance in the course, on student behavior in completing the assigned work, and on student attitudes toward it. We find that students working…

  15. The Malliavin calculus and hypoelliptic differential operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Denis

    2015-03-01

    This article is intended as an introduction to Malliavin's stochastic calculus of variations and his probabilistic approach to hypoellipticity. Topics covered include an elementary derivation of the basic integration by parts formulae, a proof of the probabilistic version of Hörmander's theorem as envisioned by Malliavin and completed by Kusuoka and Stroock, and an extension of Hörmander's theorem valid for operators with degeneracy of exponential type due to the author and S. Mohammed.

  16. Two-dimensional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Osserman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o

  17. The differential lambda-mu-calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Vaux, Lionel

    2007-01-01

    We define a differential lambda-mu-calculus which is an extension of both Parigot's lambda-mu-calculus and Ehrhard- Regnier's differential lambda-calculus. We prove some basic properties of the system: reduction enjoys Church-Rosser and simply typed terms are strongly normalizing.

  18. From calculus to analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pedersen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    This textbook features applications including a proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, space filling curves, and the theory of irrational numbers.  In addition to the standard results of advanced calculus, the book  contains several interesting applications of these results. The text is intended to form a bridge between calculus and analysis. It is based on the authors lecture notes used and revised nearly every year over the last decade. The book contains numerous illustrations and cross references throughout, as well as exercises with solutions at the end of each section

  19. Application of unified array calculus to connect 4-D spacetime sensing with string theory and relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauhala, U. A.

    2013-12-01

    Array algebra of photogrammetry and geodesy unified multi-linear matrix and tensor operators in an expansion of Gaussian adjustment calculus to general matrix inverses and solutions of inverse problems to find all, or some optimal, parametric solutions that satisfy the available observables. By-products in expanding array and tensor calculus to handle redundant observables resulted in general theories of estimation in mathematical statistics and fast transform technology of signal processing. Their applications in gravity modeling and system automation of multi-ray digital image and terrain matching evolved into fast multi-nonlinear differential and integral array calculus. Work since 1980's also uncovered closed-form inverse Taylor and least squares Newton-Raphson-Gauss perturbation solutions of nonlinear systems of equations. Fast nonlinear integral matching of array wavelets enabled an expansion of the bundle adjustment to 4-D stereo imaging and range sensing where real-time stereo sequence and waveform phase matching enabled data-to-info conversion and compression on-board advanced sensors. The resulting unified array calculus of spacetime sensing is applicable in virtually any math and engineering science, including recent work in spacetime physics. The paper focuses on geometric spacetime reconstruction from its image projections inspired by unified relativity and string theories. The collinear imaging equations of active object space shutter of special relativity are expanded to 4-D Lorentz transform. However, regular passive imaging and shutter inside the sensor expands the law of special relativity by a quantum geometric explanation of 4-D photogrammetry. The collinear imaging equations provide common sense explanations to the 10 (and 26) dimensional hyperspace concepts of a purely geometric string theory. The 11-D geometric M-theory is interpreted as a bundle adjustment of spacetime images using 2-D or 5-D membrane observables of image, string and

  20. λμ-calculus and Λμ-calculus: a Capital Difference

    OpenAIRE

    Herbelin, Hugo; Saurin, Alexis

    2009-01-01

    Since Parigot designed the λμ-calculus to algorithmically interpret classical natural deduction, several variants of λμ-calculus have been proposed. Some of these variants derived from an alteration of the original syntax due to de Groote, leading in particular to the Λμ-calculus of the second author, a calculus truly different from λμ-calculus since, in the untyped case, it provides a Böhm separation theorem that the original calculus does not satisfy. In addition to a survey of some aspects...

  1. Discrete Calculus by Analogy

    CERN Document Server

    Izadi, F A; Bagirov, G

    2009-01-01

    With its origins stretching back several centuries, discrete calculus is now an increasingly central methodology for many problems related to discrete systems and algorithms. The topics covered here usually arise in many branches of science and technology, especially in discrete mathematics, numerical analysis, statistics and probability theory as well as in electrical engineering, but our viewpoint here is that these topics belong to a much more general realm of mathematics; namely calculus and differential equations because of the remarkable analogy of the subject to this branch of mathemati

  2. Using an advanced graphing calculator in the teaching and learning of calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Ng Wee

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the use of TI-Nspire™ could enhance the teaching and learning of calculus. A conceptual framework for the use of TI-Nspire™ for learning calculus in a mathematics classroom is proposed that describes the interactions among the students, TI-Nspire™, and the learning tasks, and how they lead to the learning of calculus. A design experiment was conducted in a class of 35 students from a secondary school in Singapore. Use of TI-Nspire™ was integrated into the teaching and learning of calculus concepts in the classroom with the aid of TI-Nspire™ Navigator, a wireless classroom network system that enables instant and active interaction between students and teachers. It was found that the appropriate use of graphical, numerical and algebraic representations of calculus concepts using TI-Nspire™ enabled students to better visualize the concepts and make generalizations about relevant mathematical properties. In addition, the students were able to link multiple representations, especially algebraic and graphical representations, to improve their conceptual understanding and problem-solving skills. Six roles of TI-Nspire™ in classroom mathematical practice were identified from the findings of the experiment; TI-Nspire™ was used as an exploratory tool, graphing tool, confirmatory tool, problem-solving tool, visualization tool and calculation tool. This suggests that TI-Nspire™ is a multi-dimensional tool that supports mathematics learning. Overall, the findings of the study indicate that TI-Nspire™ is an effective tool to develop mathematical concepts and promote learning and problem solving.

  3. The calculus primer

    CERN Document Server

    Schaaf, William L

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive but concise, this introduction to differential and integral calculus covers all the topics usually included in a first course. The straightforward development places less emphasis on mathematical rigor, and the informal manner of presentation sets students at ease. Many carefully worked-out examples illuminate the text, in addition to numerous diagrams, problems, and answers.Bearing the needs of beginners constantly in mind, the treatment covers all the basic concepts of calculus: functions, derivatives, differentiation of algebraic and transcendental functions, partial different

  4. Some Fundamental Results of Calculus on Fractal Sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuiKunJIANG; WeiyiSU

    1998-01-01

    This paper is devoted to study the derivatives and integrals on a fractal set contained in R.The classical concepts and definitions of derivatives and integrals are naturally extended to this fractal case,The H-a.e.derivability of variational functions,Newton-Leibniz type formula are obtained under some propriate and natural conditions.

  5. A calculus for quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Vigo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    A main challenge of programming component-based software is to ensure that the components continue to behave in a reasonable manner even when communication becomes unreliable. We propose a process calculus, the Quality Calculus, for programming software components where it becomes natural to plan...... for default behaviour in case the ideal behaviour fails due to unreliable communication and thereby to increase the quality of service offered by the systems. The development is facilitated by a SAT-based robustness analysis to determine whether or not the code is vulnerable to unreliable communication...

  6. Valuation Semantics for Intuitionic Propositional Calculus and some of its Subcalculi

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa Loparić

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present valuation semantics for the Propositional Intuitionistic Calculus (also called Heyting Calculus) and three important subcalculi: the Implicative, the Positive and the Minimal Calculus (also known as Kolmogoroff or Johansson Calculus). Algorithms based in our definitions yields decision methods for these calculi.

  7. The Rewriting Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Cirstea, Horatiu; Kirchner, Claude

    2000-01-01

    The Rho-calculus is a new calculus that integrates in a uniform and simple setting first-order rewriting, lambda-calculus and non-deterministic computations. This paper describes the calculus from its syntax to its basic properties in the untyped case. We show how it embeds first-order conditional rewriting and lambda-calculus. Finally we use the Rho-calculus to give an operational semantics to the rewrite based language Elan.

  8. A Tutorial Review on Fractal Spacetime and Fractional Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ji-Huan

    2014-11-01

    This tutorial review of fractal-Cantorian spacetime and fractional calculus begins with Leibniz's notation for derivative without limits which can be generalized to discontinuous media like fractal derivative and q-derivative of quantum calculus. Fractal spacetime is used to elucidate some basic properties of fractal which is the foundation of fractional calculus, and El Naschie's mass-energy equation for the dark energy. The variational iteration method is used to introduce the definition of fractional derivatives. Fractal derivative is explained geometrically and q-derivative is motivated by quantum mechanics. Some effective analytical approaches to fractional differential equations, e.g., the variational iteration method, the homotopy perturbation method, the exp-function method, the fractional complex transform, and Yang-Laplace transform, are outlined and the main solution processes are given.

  9. Pseudodifferential calculus on manifolds with corners and groupoids

    OpenAIRE

    Monthubert, Bertrand

    1997-01-01

    We build a longitudinally smooth differentiable groupoid associated to any manifold with corners. The pseudodifferential calculus on this groupoid coincides with the pseudodifferential calculus of Melrose (also called b-calculus). We also define an algebra of rapidly decreasing functions on this groupoid; it contains the kernels of the smoothing operators of the (small) b-calculus.

  10. Calculus and Sailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmaccio, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    A method of using vector analysis is presented that is an application of calculus that helps to find the best angle for tacking a boat into the wind. While the discussion is theoretical, it is seen as a good illustration of mathematical investigation of a given situation. (MP)

  11. Computer-Oriented Calculus Courses Using Finite Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    The so-called discrete approach in calculus instruction involves introducing topics from the calculus of finite differences and finite sums, both for motivation and as useful tools for applications of the calculus. In particular, it provides an ideal setting in which to incorporate computers into calculus courses. This approach has been…

  12. From Calculating to Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckroth, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    For nearly three decades, during which the author taught everything from basic algebra to advanced placement calculus, the author thought of himself as a secondary school mathematics teacher. The notion of teaching elementary school math never appealed to him because of its simplicity. The author stresses that anyone could teach children to count,…

  13. Effect of Frequency of Brushing Teeth on Plaque and Calculus Accumulation, and Gingivitis in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Colin; Serfilippi, Laurie; Barnvos, Donald

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of brushing the teeth of beagle dogs in a randomized, controlled, blinded study design using a clearly-defined brushing technique was evaluated for 4 brushing frequencies: brushing daily, brushing every other day, brushing weekly and brushing every other week, compared with no brushing in a control group of dogs. All dogs were fed a standard dry kibble diet during the study. Standard plaque, calculus, and gingivitis indices were used to score the teeth. A 'clean tooth' model was used. No gingival or non-gingival lacerations or other signs of injury to oral tissues were found at the end of the 28 day trial period. Brushing more frequently had greater effectiveness in retarding accumulation of plaque and calculus, and reducing the severity of pre-existing gingivitis. Brushing daily or every other day produced statistically significant improved results compared with brushing weekly or every other week. Based on the results of this study, daily brushing is recommended.

  14. Lacroix and the calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Domingues, João Caramalho

    2008-01-01

    Silvestre François Lacroix (Paris, 1765 - ibid., 1843) was a most influential mathematical book author. His most famous work is the three-volume Traité du calcul différentiel et du calcul intégral (1797-1800; 2nd ed. 1810-1819) – an encyclopedic appraisal of 18th-century calculus which remained the standard reference on the subject through much of the 19th century, in spite of Cauchy's reform of the subject in the 1820's. Lacroix and the Calculus is the first major study of Lacroix’s large Traité. It uses the unique and massive bibliography given by Lacroix to explore late 18th-century calculus, and the way it is reflected in Lacroix’s account. Several particular aspects are addressed in detail, including: the foundations of differential calculus, analytic and differential geometry, conceptions of the integral, and types of solutions of differential equations (singular/complete/general integrals, geometrical interpretations, and generality of arbitrary functions). Lacroix’s large Traité... was a...

  15. On Multiplicative Fractional Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Abdeljawad, Thabet

    2015-01-01

    We set the main concepts for multiplicative fractional calculus. We define Caputo, Riemann and Letnikov multiplicative fractional derivatives and multiplicative fractional integrals and study some of their properties. Finally, the multiplicative analogue of the local conformable fractional derivative and integral is studied.

  16. Malliavin calculus in finance

    OpenAIRE

    Kohatsu, Arturo; Miquel, Montero

    2003-01-01

    This article is an introduction to Malliavin Calculus for practitioners. We treat one specific application to the calculation of greeks in Finance. We consider also the kernel density method to compute greeks and an extension of the Vega index called the local vega index.

  17. Applications of fractional calculus to $ k $-uniformly starlike and $ k $-uniformly convex functions of order $ \\alpha $

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajab Akbarally

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A new subclass of analytic functions $ k-SP_\\lambda(\\alpha $ is introduced by applying certain operators of fractional calculus to $k$-uniformly starlike and $ k $-uniformly convex functions of order $ \\alpha $. Some theorems on coefficient bounds and growth and distortion theorems for this subclass are found. The radii of close to convexity, starlikeness and convexity for this subclass is also derived.

  18. Calculation of half-value thickness for aluminum absorbers by means of fractional calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Inconsistency of half-value thickness for Al absorber is corrected by fractional calculus. • Experiments and calculations are performed for Cs-137, Tl-204 and Sr-90/Y-90 beta sources. • Theoretical values are calculated as equivalent with experimental data at same fractional order. • This fractional order is standard for Al absorber. - Abstract: Half-value thickness of aluminum absorbers has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. Cs-137, Tl-204 and Sr-90/Y-90 radio-isotopes were used as beta sources. Inconsistency between experimental measurements and standard theoretical calculations has been removed with the help of fractional calculus. The experimental and theoretical half-thickness values have been found equivalent for fractional derivative order ≈0.3

  19. A generalized nonlocal vector calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Bacim; Liu, Kuo; Gunzburger, Max

    2015-10-01

    A nonlocal vector calculus was introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) that has proved useful for the analysis of the peridynamics model of nonlocal mechanics and nonlocal diffusion models. A formulation is developed that provides a more general setting for the nonlocal vector calculus that is independent of particular nonlocal models. It is shown that general nonlocal calculus operators are integral operators with specific integral kernels. General nonlocal calculus properties are developed, including nonlocal integration by parts formula and Green's identities. The nonlocal vector calculus introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) is shown to be recoverable from the general formulation as a special example. This special nonlocal vector calculus is used to reformulate the peridynamics equation of motion in terms of the nonlocal gradient operator and its adjoint. A new example of nonlocal vector calculus operators is introduced, which shows the potential use of the general formulation for general nonlocal models.

  20. Tensor calculus and analytical dynamics a classical introduction to holonomic and nonholonomic tensor calculus ; and its principal applications to the Lagrangean dynamics of constrained mechanical systems : for engineers, physicists, and mathematicians

    CERN Document Server

    Papastavridis, John G

    1999-01-01

    Tensor Calculus and Analytical Dynamics provides a concise, comprehensive, and readable introduction to classical tensor calculus - in both holonomic and nonholonomic coordinates - as well as to its principal applications to the Lagrangean dynamics of discrete systems under positional or velocity constraints. The thrust of the book focuses on formal structure and basic geometrical/physical ideas underlying most general equations of motion of mechanical systems under linear velocity constraints.

  1. Application of Skin Electrical Conductance of Acupuncture Meridians for Ureteral Calculus: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Wu-Chou Lin; Yung-Hsiang Chen; Jian-Ming Xu; Der-Cherng Chen; Wen-Chi Chen; Chao-Te Lee

    2011-01-01

    Renal colic is a common condition seen in the emergency department (ED). Our recent study showed that measures of electrical conductance may be used as supplementary diagnostic methods for patients with acute renal colic. Here, we describe the case of a 30-year-old male subject with a left ureteral calculus who presented with frequency and normal-looking urine. He had already visited the outpatient department, but in vain. Normal urinalysis and nonobstructive urogram were reported at that tim...

  2. A programming calculus based on partial inductive definitions (with an introduction to the theory of partial inductive definitions)

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Lars-Henrik; Hallnäs, Lars

    1988-01-01

    We present a general framework (a programming calculus) for the specification, verification and synthesis of programs. The underlying programming paradigm is similar in spirit to logic programming but based on the theory of partial inductive definitions instead of predicate logic. Within this framework we give criteria for the correctness of programs and outline a methodology for using these criteria to perform verifications and syntheses. The programming calculus permits us to use an arbitra...

  3. The prostatic utricle cyst with huge calculus and hypospadias: A case report and a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Weigang; WANG, YUANTAO; Zhu, Dechun; Yan, Pengfei; Dong, Biao; Zhou, Honglan

    2015-01-01

    Prostatic utricle cysts with calculus and hypospadias are rare. There are a few reported cases. We present a case of a prostatic utricle cyst with huge calculus in a 25-year-old male. He had a history of left cryptorchidism and surgery for penoscrotal hypospadias in his infancy. He was referred for frequent micturition, urgency of urination, urine pain, terminal hematuria, and dysuria. A computed tomography (CT) revealed a retrovesical cystic lesion of low density, showing a 5 × 5-cm calcific...

  4. The Guarded Lambda-Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clouston, Ranald; Bizjak, Aleš; Grathwohl, Hans Bugge;

    2016-01-01

    -former inspired by modal logic and Atkey-McBride clock quantification, allowing the typing of acausal functions. We give a call-by-name operational semantics for the calculus, and define adequate denotational semantics in the topos of trees. The adequacy proof entails that the evaluation of a program always......We present the guarded lambda-calculus, an extension of the simply typed lambda-calculus with guarded recursive and coinductive types. The use of guarded recursive types ensures the productivity of well-typed programs. Guarded recursive types may be transformed into coinductive types by a type...

  5. Investigating Student Understanding of Physics Concepts and the Underlying Calculus Concepts in Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John; Christensen, Warren; Mountcastle, Donald

    2010-03-01

    In work on student understanding of concepts in advanced thermal physics, we are exploring student understanding of the mathematics required for productive reasoning about the physics. By analysis of student use of mathematics in responses to conceptual physics questions, as well as analogous math questions stripped of physical meaning, we find evidence that students often enter upper-level physics courses lacking the assumed prerequisite mathematics knowledge and/or the ability to apply it productively in a physics context. Our focus is in two main areas: interpretation of P-V diagrams, requiring an understanding of integration, and material properties and the Maxwell relations, involving partial differentiation. We have also assessed these mathematical concepts among students in multivariable calculus. Calculus results support the findings among physics students: some observed difficulties are not just with transfer of math knowledge to physics contexts, but seem to have origins in the understanding of the math concepts themselves.

  6. Predicting Performance of First Year Engineering Students in Calculus by Using Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necdet Güner

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics is one of the most important subjects for engineering education. In School of Engineering, students who enter university without basic mathematical knowledge and skills are categorized as mathematically 'at-risk'. The purpose of this study was to predict 'at risk' students by using Support Vector Machine method. Data of Pamukkale University School of Engineering's 434 incoming students of year 2007 were considered in this study. The result shows that students' university entrance examination mathematics, science and Turkish tests scores and students' high school graduation grade point average are important items to predict students' achievement at university calculus I course. SVM is trained with features of 289 students and tested with features of remaining 145 students. 86% of successful students for calculus I course was predicted as true by SVM.

  7. A symplectic covariant formulation of special Kahler geometry in superconformal calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Claus, Piet; Van hoof, Kor; Van Proeyen, Antoine

    1999-01-01

    We present a formulation of the coupling of vector multiplets to N=2 supergravity which is symplectic covariant (and thus is not based on a prepotential) and uses superconformal tensor calculus. We do not start from an action, but from the combination of the generalised Bianchi identities of the vector multiplets in superspace, a symplectic definition of special Kahler geometry, and the supersymmetric partners of the corresponding constraints. These involve the breaking to super-Poincare symm...

  8. Investigation of the cumulative diminution process using the Fibonacci method and fractional calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukkilic, F.; Ok Bayrakdar, Z.; Demirhan, D.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we investigate the cumulative diminution phenomenon for a physical quantity and a diminution process with a constant acquisition quantity in each step in a viscous medium. We analyze the existence of a dynamical mechanism that underlies the success of fractional calculus ​compared with standard mathematics for describing stochastic processes by ​proposing a Fibonacci approach, where we assume that the complex processes evolves cumulatively in fractal space and discrete time. ​Thus, when the differential-integral order α is attained, this indicates the ​involvement of the viscosity of the medium ​in the evolving process. The future value of the diminishing physical quantity is obtained in terms of the Mittag-Leffler function (MLF) and two rheological laws ​are inferred from the asymptotic limits. Thus, we conclude that the differential-integral calculus of fractional mathematics implicitly embodies the cumulative diminution mechanism ​that occurs in a viscous medium.

  9. A SITUATION CALCULUS BASED APPROACH TO DYNAMIC MANAGEMENT OF E-BUSINESS SERVICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the era of e-businesses, the traditional business services are greatly challenged by the ever-increasing demands from customers with various backgrounds and personalities. Large numbers of new e-businesses are driven by the needs of customers. The existing dynamics inherent in the customer needs require the corresponding dynamic management of services. Attempting to respond to customers in a rapid and intelligent way, this paper proposes a situation calculus based approach for dynamically managing e-Business services in the ubiquitous environment. By employing the formalism of the situation calculus to enable intelligence and automation, the approach can implement the functions of service automatic composition and model verification. These functions will improve the degree of customer-orientation and enable fast responsiveness in the emerging e-service systems.

  10. [Calculus removal efficiency and injury potential of vertically oscillating metallic and carbon ultrasonic tips].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naef, Felix H F; Sener, Beatrice; Bürgi-Tiedemann, Christine; Schmidlin, Patrick R

    2004-01-01

    This laboratory study investigated the efficiency and aggressiveness of metallic and carbonic inserts of a vertically oscillating ultrasonic device (Vector-system) at different power settings. The following parameters concerning periodontal treatment were assessed under standardized conditions: calculus and tooth substance removal, mean surface roughness and micro morphological appearance of the treated roots. Concerning the calculus removal potential, no significant differences were found between the types of insert used. The carbon fibre inserts, however, showed significantly more tooth substance loss than the metallic inserts. These findings were confirmed by micromorphological SEM analysis. In view of these results, the repeated use of these carbon fiber inserts during periodonatal sustaining therapy cannot be recommended. PMID:15587598

  11. Late complication of a renal calculus: fistulisation to the psoas muscle, skin and bronchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziga Snoj

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTKidney disease presenting with cutaneous fistula is a rare condition. We present a case of a 90-year-old woman with dementia who had no prior urological problems and had a cutaneous fistula in the left lumbar region. A fistulogram and computer tomography examination revealed a large staghorn calculus with signs of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in the left kidney and renal fistulisation to the psoas muscle, skin and bronchi. To our knowledge this is the first report in the literature of coexisting renal fistulisation to the psoas major muscle, skin and bronchi. This report illustrates how computed tomography in combination with fistulography can resolve the diagnostic dilemma that pertains to the complex spread of the disease in cases involving nephrocutaneous fistula. Furthermore, the report shows how a renal calculus, even asymptomatic, can cause a serious medical condition, and highlights the importance of early medical intervention.

  12. Late complication of a renal calculus: fistulisation to the psoas muscle, skin and bronchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoj, Ziga; Savic, Nenad; Regvat, Jaka

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Kidney disease presenting with cutaneous fistula is a rare condition. We present a case of a 90-year-old woman with dementia who had no prior urological problems and had a cutaneous fistula in the left lumbar region. A fistulogram and computer tomography examination revealed a large staghorn calculus with signs of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in the left kidney and renal fistulisation to the psoas muscle, skin and bronchi. To our knowledge this is the first report in the literature of coexisting renal fistulisation to the psoas major muscle, skin and bronchi. This report illustrates how computed tomography in combination with fistulography can resolve the diagnostic dilemma that pertains to the complex spread of the disease in cases involving nephrocutaneous fistula. Furthermore, the report shows how a renal calculus, even asymptomatic, can cause a serious medical condition, and highlights the importance of early medical intervention. PMID:26401876

  13. Mathematics for physics with calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Biman

    2005-01-01

    Designed for students who plan to take or who are presently taking calculus-based physics courses. This book will develop necessary mathematical skills and help students gain the competence to use precalculus, calculus, vector algebra, vector calculus, and the statistical analysis of experimental data. Students taking intermediate physics, engineering, and other science courses will also find the book useful-and will be able to use the book as a mathematical resource for these intermediate level courses. The book emphasizes primarily the use of mathematical techniques and mathematical concepts in Physics and does not go into their rigorous developments.

  14. Formal Analysis of an Airplane Accident in N{Σ}-Labeled Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Tetsuya; Igarashi, Shigeru; Ikeda, Yasuwo; Shio, Masayuki

    N{Σ}-labeled calculus is a formal system for representation, verification and analysis of time-concerned recognition, knowledge, belief and decision of humans or computer programs together with related external physical or logical phenomena.In this paper, a formal verification and analysis of the JAL near miss accident is presented as an example of cooperating systems controlling continuously changing objects including human factor with misunderstanding or incorrect recognition.

  15. Index calculus for abelian varieties of small dimension and the elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudry, Pierrick

    2009-01-01

    International audience We propose an index calculus algorithm for the discrete logarithm problem on general abelian varieties of small dimension. The main difference with the previous approaches is that we do not make use of any embedding into the Jacobian of a well-suited curve. We apply this algorithm to the Weil restriction of elliptic curves and hyperelliptic curves over small degree extension fields. In particular, our attack can solve an elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem defi...

  16. On Improving Teaching Effectiveness of Calculus%浅谈微积分教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范利萍

    2012-01-01

    Calculus is an important and basic course in university mathematics,whose teaching effectiveness is essential.Re-commendations are given in this paper from aspects of teaching content,the way of teaching and improving students' interest in learning,which are expected to enhance teaching effectiveness of calculus.%微积分是大学数学的一门重要基础课,其教学效果至关重要。本文从教学内容、教学方式的选取和提高学生学习兴趣的几个方面提出了建议,它们有望对微积分教学效果的提升起到促进作用。

  17. A Case of Migrating "Saf-T-Coil" Presenting With a Vesicovaginal Fistula and Vesicovaginal Calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Aideen; Aslam, Asadullah; Nusrat, Nadeem B

    2016-07-01

    Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are reliable method for contraception. Although, they are generally regarded as safe, serious consequences may occur in case of uterine perforation or intravesical migration. We present a rare case of a 74 year old lady with a forgotten IUD for 42 years resulting in intravesical migration, formation of vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) without uterine perforation, complete urinary incontinence, recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and a large vesicovaginal calculus. PMID:27335782

  18. The two-parameter deformation of GL(2), its differential calculus, and Lie algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Yang-Baxter equation is solved in two dimensions giving rise to a two-parameter deformation of GL(2). The transformation properties of quantum planes are briefly discussed. Non-central determinant and inverse are constructed. A right-invariant differential calculus is presented and the role of the different deformation parameters investigated. While the corresponding Lie algebra relations are simply deformed, the comultiplication exhibits both quantization parameters. (orig.)

  19. Pre-Calculus For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Kuang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    The fun and easy way to learn pre-calculus Getting ready for calculus but still feel a bit confused? Have no fear. Pre-Calculus For Dummies is an un-intimidating, hands-on guide that walks you through all the essential topics, from absolute value and quadratic equations to logarithms and exponential functions to trig identities and matrix operations. With this guide's help you'll quickly and painlessly get a handle on all of the concepts - not just the number crunching - and understand how to perform all pre-calc tasks, from graphing to tackling proofs. You'll also get a new appreciation for

  20. Condition-based diagnosis of mechatronic systems using a fractional calculus approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Carvajal, Ricardo Enrique; Flávio de Melo, Leonimer; Maurício Rosário, João; Tenreiro Machado, J. A.

    2016-07-01

    While fractional calculus (FC) is as old as integer calculus, its application has been mainly restricted to mathematics. However, many real systems are better described using FC equations than with integer models. FC is a suitable tool for describing systems characterised by their fractal nature, long-term memory and chaotic behaviour. It is a promising methodology for failure analysis and modelling, since the behaviour of a failing system depends on factors that increase the model's complexity. This paper explores the proficiency of FC in modelling complex behaviour by tuning only a few parameters. This work proposes a novel two-step strategy for diagnosis, first modelling common failure conditions and, second, by comparing these models with real machine signals and using the difference to feed a computational classifier. Our proposal is validated using an electrical motor coupled with a mechanical gear reducer.

  1. Effects of in vitro cultivated Calculus Bovis compound on pulmonary lesions in rabbits with schistosomiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To explore the interventional effects and mechanism of in vitro cultivated Calculus Bovis compound preparation(ICCBco) on pulmonary lesions in portal hypertensive rabbits with schistosomiasis. METHODS:The experimental group included 20 portal hypertensive rabbits with schistosomiasis treated by ICCBco.The control group included 20 portal hypertensive rabbits with schistosomiasis treated by praziquantel. The morphological changes of the pulmonary tissues were observed under light and electron microscopy....

  2. Subclasses of Starlike Functions Associated with Fractional q-Calculus Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Murugusundaramoorthy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Making use of fractional q-calculus operators, we introduce a new subclass ℳq(λ,γ,k of starlike functions and determine the coefficient estimate, extreme points, closure theorem, and distortion bounds for functions in ℳq(λ,γ,k. Furthermore we discuss neighborhood results, subordination theorem, partial sums, and integral means inequalities for functions in ℳq(λ,γ,k.

  3. Learning trajectory for conceptualizing the fundamental theorem of calculus using dynamic and multiple linked representations tools

    OpenAIRE

    Swidan, Osama

    2015-01-01

    International audience This study was designed to evaluate and elaborate a hypothetical trajectory for learning the fundamental theorem of calculus (FTC) by high school students using dynamic and multiple linked representations tools. The study focuses on 13 pairs of 17-year-old students. Data analysis identified the learning foci involved in conceptualizing the FTC, based on which I suggest a trajectory for learning the FTC.

  4. PRIMARY SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF RENAL PELVIS ASSOCIATED WITH RENAL CALCULUS AND RECURRENT PYONEPHROSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Hoti Lal; Shameer; Manish; Sadasukhi

    2015-01-01

    Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the kidney is a rare malignant neoplasm associated with nephrolithiasis, typically monobacterial pyonephrosis and rarely Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. It is an aggressive disease with a poor prognosis mostly due to lack of presenting clinical features like a palpable mass, gross haematuria and pain. We report a case presenting with renal calculus and pyonephrosis managed initially with percutaneous nephrostomy followed by nephrectomy du...

  5. On limit thought of calculus%微积分极限思想刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文山

    2012-01-01

      The limit thought as one of the most important mathematical thought in the higher mathematics, mainly reflecting a variable with a known quantity infinitely close, thereby using the known volume to reflect the ultimate value the variable has. The formation of calculus in higher mathematics, it is the product of people to understand the limit thought. This paper discusses the values of calculus limit thought in higher mathematics, and probes into the concrete application of calculus limit thought.%  极限思想作为高等数学微积分当中最为重要的一种数学思想,主要反映出一个变量和另一个已知量之间无限接近,从而运用该已知量以反映出变量所具有的终极值。高等数学中的微积分形成,正是人们对于极限思想认识在层层深入地认识之后的产物。本文论述了高等数学中微积分极限思想的价值,并探讨了微积分极限思想的具体应用

  6. Differential reflectometry versus tactile sense detection of subgingival calculus in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaie, Fardad; Walsh, Laurence J.

    2012-10-01

    Detecting dental calculus is clinically challenging in dentistry. This study used typodonts with extracted premolar and molar teeth and simulated gingival tissue to compare the performance of differential reflectometry and periodontal probing. A total of 30 extracted teeth were set in an anatomical configuration in stone to create three typodonts. Clear polyvinyl siloxane impression material was placed to replicate the periodontal soft tissues. Pocket depths ranged from 10 to 15 mm. The three models were placed in a phantom head, and an experienced dentist assessed the presence of subgingival calculus first using the DetecTar (differential reflectometry) and then a periodontal probe. Scores from these two different methods were compared to the gold standard (direct examination of the root surface using 20× magnification) to determine the accuracy and reproducibility. Differential reflectometry was more accurate than tactile assessment (79% versus 60%), and its reproducibility was also higher (Cohen kappa 0.54 versus 0.39). Both methods performed better on single rooted premolar teeth than on multirooted teeth. These laboratory results indicate that differential reflectometry allows more accurate and reproducible detection of subgingival calculus than conventional probing, and supports its use for supplementing traditional periodontal examination methods in dental practice.

  7. Simulations of incompressible Navier Stokes equations on curved surfaces using discrete exterior calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samtaney, Ravi; Mohamed, Mamdouh; Hirani, Anil

    2015-11-01

    We present examples of numerical solutions of incompressible flow on 2D curved domains. The Navier-Stokes equations are first rewritten using the exterior calculus notation, replacing vector calculus differential operators by the exterior derivative, Hodge star and wedge product operators. A conservative discretization of Navier-Stokes equations on simplicial meshes is developed based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). The discretization is then carried out by substituting the corresponding discrete operators based on the DEC framework. By construction, the method is conservative in that both the discrete divergence and circulation are conserved up to machine precision. The relative error in kinetic energy for inviscid flow test cases converges in a second order fashion with both the mesh size and the time step. Numerical examples include Taylor vortices on a sphere, Stuart vortices on a sphere, and flow past a cylinder on domains with varying curvature. Supported by the KAUST Office of Competitive Research Funds under Award No. URF/1/1401-01.

  8. Virtualized Wireless SDNs:Modelling Delay Through the Use of Stochastic Network Calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianming Zhang; Jia Liu; Kun Yang

    2014-01-01

    Software-defined networks (SDN) have attracted much attention recently because of their flexibility in terms of network manage-ment. Increasingly, SDN is being introduced into wireless networks to form wireless SDN. One enabling technology for wireless SDN is network virtualization, which logically divides one wireless network element, such as a base station, into multiple slices, and each slice serving as a standalone virtual BS. In this way, one physical mobile wireless network can be partitioned into multi-ple virtual networks in a software-defined manner. Wireless virtual networks comprising virtual base stations also need to provide QoS to mobile end-user services in the same context as their physical hosting networks. One key QoS parameter is delay. This pa-per presents a delay model for software-defined wireless virtual networks. Network calculus is used in the modelling. In particu-lar, stochastic network calculus, which describes more realistic models than deterministic network calculus, is used. The model en-ables theoretical investigation of wireless SDN, which is largely dominated by either algorithms or prototype implementations.

  9. A Formal Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José

    This dissertation studies the logic underlying category theory. In particular we present a formal calculus for reasoning about universal properties. The aim is to systematise judgements about functoriality and naturality central to categorical reasoning. The calculus is based on a language which...... extends the typed lambda calculus with new binders to represent universal constructions. The types of the languages are interpreted as locally small categories and the expressions represent functors. The logic supports a syntactic treatment of universality and duality. Contravariance requires a definition...... of universality generous enough to deal with functors of mixed variance. Ends generalise limits to cover these kinds of functors and moreover provide the basis for a very convenient algebraic manipulation of expressions. The equational theory of the lambda calculus is extended with new rules for the definitions...

  10. Variations of images to increase their visibility

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The calculus of variations applied to the image processing requires some numerical models able to perform the variations of images and the extremization of appropriate actions. To produce the variations of images, there are several possibilities based on the brightness maps. Before a numerical model, I propose an experimental approach, based on a tool of Gimp, GNU Image Manipulation Program, in order to visualize how the image variations can be. After the discussion of this tool, which is able to strongly increase the visibility of images, the variations and a possible functional for the visibility are proposed in the framework of a numerical model. The visibility functional is analogous to the fringe visibility of the optical interference.

  11. Calculus on manifolds of conformal maps and CFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, Benjamin

    2012-08-01

    In conformal field theory (CFT) on simply connected domains of the Riemann sphere, the natural conformal symmetries under self-maps are extended, in a certain way, to local symmetries under general conformal maps, and this is at the basis of the powerful techniques of CFT. Conformal maps of simply connected domains naturally have the structure of an infinite-dimensional groupoid, which generalizes the finite-dimensional group of self-maps. We put a topological structure on the space of conformal maps on simply connected domains, which makes it into a topological groupoid. Further, we (almost) extend this to a local manifold structure based on the infinite-dimensional Fréchet topological vector space of holomorphic functions on a given domain A. From this, we develop the notion of conformal A-differentiability at the identity. Our main conclusion is that quadratic differentials characterizing cotangent elements on the local manifold enjoy properties similar to those of the holomorphic stress-energy tensor of CFT; these properties underpin the local symmetries of CFT. Applying the general formalism to CFT correlation functions, we show that the stress-energy tensor is exactly such a quadratic differential. This is at the basis of constructing the stress-energy tensor in conformal loop ensembles. It also clarifies the relation between Cardy's boundary conditions for CFT on simply connected domains, and the expression of the stress-energy tensor in terms of metric variations.

  12. Calculus on manifolds of conformal maps and CFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In conformal field theory (CFT) on simply connected domains of the Riemann sphere, the natural conformal symmetries under self-maps are extended, in a certain way, to local symmetries under general conformal maps, and this is at the basis of the powerful techniques of CFT. Conformal maps of simply connected domains naturally have the structure of an infinite-dimensional groupoid, which generalizes the finite-dimensional group of self-maps. We put a topological structure on the space of conformal maps on simply connected domains, which makes it into a topological groupoid. Further, we (almost) extend this to a local manifold structure based on the infinite-dimensional Fréchet topological vector space of holomorphic functions on a given domain A. From this, we develop the notion of conformal A-differentiability at the identity. Our main conclusion is that quadratic differentials characterizing cotangent elements on the local manifold enjoy properties similar to those of the holomorphic stress–energy tensor of CFT; these properties underpin the local symmetries of CFT. Applying the general formalism to CFT correlation functions, we show that the stress–energy tensor is exactly such a quadratic differential. This is at the basis of constructing the stress–energy tensor in conformal loop ensembles. It also clarifies the relation between Cardy's boundary conditions for CFT on simply connected domains, and the expression of the stress–energy tensor in terms of metric variations. (paper)

  13. Synthesizing controllers from duration calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin

    1996-01-01

    Duration Calculus is a logic for reasoning about requirements for real-time systems at a high level of abstraction from operational detail, which qualifies it as an interesting starting point for embedded controller design. Such a design activity is generally thought to aim at a control device...... the physical behaviours of which satisfy the requirements formula, i.e. the refinement relation between requirements and implementations is taken to be trajectory inclusion. Due to the abstractness of the vocabulary of Duration Calculus, trajectory inclusion between control requirements and controller designs...... for embedded controller design and exploit this fact for developing an automatic procedure for controller synthesis from specifications formalized in Duration Calculus. As far as we know, this is the first positive result concerning feasibility of automatic synthesis from dense-time Duration Calculus....

  14. Foliated stochastic calculus: Harmonic measures

    CERN Document Server

    Catuogno, Pedro J; Ruffino, Paulo R

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present an intrinsec construction of foliated Brownian motion via stochastic calculus adapted to foliation. The stochastic approach together with a proposed foliated vector calculus provide a natural method to work on harmonic measures. Other results include a decomposition of the Laplacian in terms of the foliated and basic Laplacians, a characterization of totally invariant measures and a differential equation for the density of harmonic measures.

  15. Cartooning in Algebra and Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, L. Jeneva

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses how teachers can create cartoons for undergraduate math classes, such as college algebra and basic calculus. The practice of cartooning for teaching can be helpful for communication with students and for students' conceptual understanding.

  16. Neutrosophic Precalculus and Neutrosophic Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Florentin Smarandache

    2015-01-01

    Neutrosophic Analysis is a generalization of Set Analysis, which in its turn is a generalization of Interval Analysis. Neutrosophic Precalculus is referred to indeterminate staticity, while Neutrosophic Calculus is the mathematics of indeterminate change. The Neutrosophic Precalculus and Neutrosophic Calculus can be developed in many ways, depending on the types of indeterminacy one has and on the methods used to deal with such indeterminacy. In this book, the author presents a few examples o...

  17. Component analysis and growth process of nasopharyngeal calculus as revealed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, T; Shibata, A; Maeda, Y; Uno, Y; Okano, M; Nishizaki, K; Ohsaki, K

    2003-06-01

    A quite rare case of nasopharyngeal calculus in a woman in her twenties associated with the nasal discharge of pseudomonas infection was reported. As the substance was irregularly large in size, we extracted it partially by piecemeal resection using forceps and also by cracking technique using the holmium yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) laser, under saline irrigation and stereotactic microscopic navigator (SMN) system under endoscopic observation. The substance was firmly fixed to the pharyngeal tonsil bed. The final extract was a small piece of singly folded bandage, which is probably the focal background for calculus formation. In a cross section of calculus specimen removed during surgery, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis revealed that a) signal ratio of methylene group (organic substance) to amide I (protein) was 21.6% at the nasal cavity side, gradually decreased toward nasal mucous membrane showing approximate 50%, b) signal ratio of amide I to P04(3-) (inorganic substance) ranged between 17.7% and 26.7% at the different sites and inside the calculus, the protein content was approximate 1/5 of the inorganic substance, and c) signal ratio of the methylene group to amide I at the nasal cavity site showed that their contents were almost equal. The quantity of the organic substance was estimated at approximate 1/2 quantity of the protein at both the central part and the part contacted with the mucous membrane. From these results, it seems that throughout the course of calculus growth, both inorganic substance and protein remain almost constant inside the calculus, while organic substance is released from the internal part of the calculus being probably formed at an early stage. PMID:12899453

  18. Boolean integral calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jerry H.; Tapia, Moiez A.; Bennett, A. Wayne

    1988-01-01

    The concept of Boolean integration is developed, and different Boolean integral operators are introduced. Given the changes in a desired function in terms of the changes in its arguments, the ways of 'integrating' (i.e. realizing) such a function, if it exists, are presented. The necessary and sufficient conditions for integrating, in different senses, the expression specifying the changes are obtained. Boolean calculus has applications in the design of logic circuits and in fault analysis.

  19. Duration Calculus: Logical Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Chaochen, Zhou

    1997-01-01

    The Duration Calculus (abbreviated DC) represents a logical approach to formal design of real-time systems, where real numbers are used to model time and Boolean valued functions over time are used to model states and events of real-time systems. Since it introduction, DC has been applied to many...... case studies and it has been extended in several directions. The aim of this paper is to provide a thorough presentation of the logic....

  20. On paragrassmann differential calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper significantly extends and generalizes our previous paper. Here we discuss explicit general constructions for paragrassmann calculus with one and many variables. For one variable nondegenerate differentiation algebras are identified and shown to be equivalent to the algebra of (p+1)x(p+1) complex matrices. For many variables we give a general construction of the differentiation algebras. Some particular examples are related to the multiparametric quantum deformations of the harmonic oscillators. 18 refs

  1. Calculus III essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Calculus III includes vector analysis, real valued functions, partial differentiation, multiple integrations, vector fields, and infinite series.

  2. Pre-calculus essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Woodward, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Pre-Calculus reviews sets, numbers, operations and properties, coordinate geometry, fundamental algebraic topics, solving equations and inequalities, functions, trigonometry, exponents

  3. Calculus I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Calculus I covers functions, limits, basic derivatives, and integrals.

  4. Half-lives of spherical proton emitters within the framework of fractional calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the half-life values of spherical proton emitters such as Sb, Tm, Lu, Ta, Re, Ir, Au, Tl and Bi have been calculated within the framework of fractional calculus. Nuclear decay equation, related to this phenomenon, has been resolved by using Caputo fractional derivative. The order of fractional derivative μ being considered is 0 < μ ≤ 1, and characterizes the fractality of time. Half-life values have been calculated equivalent with empirical ones. The dependence of fractional derivative order μ on the nuclear structure has also been investigated. (author)

  5. Microfossil and Fourier transform infrared analyses of Lapita and post-Lapita human dental calculus from Vanuatu, southwest Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we report on microfossil analysis of human dental calculus from Lapita (3000-2600 yr BP) and post-Lapita (2300-2000 yr BP) burials from Vao and Uripiv, Vanuatu. Phytoliths of introduced Musa and indigenous Heliconia in the calculus suggest the use of these taxa as food wrappings. Phytoliths and most other material in the calculus, namely sponge spicules, calcium oxalate crystals, xylem and charcoal, are unequivocal identifications. Another type of material, comprising degraded objects with a general morphology suggesting starch grains, is uncertain, however, as the unequivocal starch indicator, the Maltese cross, was not observed. We used a new method for calculus analysis, Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy (FTIR), comparing the suspected starch with modern reference starch of prehistoric Pacific crops. Although the ancient FTIR analysis was limited to a small number of suspected starch grains, the results provide another line of evidence for starch. The calculus data are consistent with previous microfossil studies of Lapita deposits at the sites, and demonstrate the efficacy of this technique in contributing to the definition of the history of plant use and diet of early Pacific Island populations. (author)

  6. Calculus with vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Treiman, Jay S

    2014-01-01

    Calculus with Vectors grew out of a strong need for a beginning calculus textbook for undergraduates who intend to pursue careers in STEM. fields. The approach introduces vector-valued functions from the start, emphasizing the connections between one-variable and multi-variable calculus. The text includes early vectors and early transcendentals and includes a rigorous but informal approach to vectors. Examples and focused applications are well presented along with an abundance of motivating exercises. All three-dimensional graphs have rotatable versions included as extra source materials and may be freely downloaded and manipulated with Maple Player; a free Maple Player App is available for the iPad on iTunes. The approaches taken to topics such as the derivation of the derivatives of sine and cosine, the approach to limits, and the use of "tables" of integration have been modified from the standards seen in other textbooks in order to maximize the ease with which students may comprehend the material. Additio...

  7. Monogenic Calculus as an Intertwining Operator

    OpenAIRE

    Kisil, Vladimir V.

    2003-01-01

    We revise a monogenic calculus for several non-commuting operators, which is defined through group representations. Instead of an algebraic homomorphism we use group covariance. The related notion of joint spectrum and spectral mapping theorem are discussed. The construction is illustrated by a simple example of calculus and joint spectrum of two non-commuting selfadjoint (n\\times n) matrices. Keywords: Functional calculus, spectrum, intertwining operator, spectral mapping theorem, jet spaces...

  8. Efficacy of a barrier gel for reducing the development of plaque, calculus, and gingivitis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Jan; Carithers, Douglas S; Gross, Sheila J

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the field efficacy of a professional and home-care barrier gel against the development of plaque, calculus, gingival bleeding, and gingivitis in client-owned cats over a 56-day period compared with negative controls. In a randomized, negative-controlled, outcome evaluator-blinded, client-owned animal clinical field study, 31 cats were evaluated to assess if the barrier gel dental product was effective in cats. Following an enrollment-qualification assessment and enrollment of each cat, all cats received a professional dental cleaning, including polishing and irrigation. Following cleaning, a post-cleaning assessment was performed by the evaluator. Then, using a pre-developed randomization schedule, cats were assigned to the treated or control group. The professional version of the barrier gel was applied to the treated group on day 0. The negative-control group patients did not receive any applications of the barrier gel following dental cleaning. Treated-group cats were brought back to the clinic for subsequent applications of the home-care version of the barrier gel, applied by a non-blinded trained assistant. The home-care version product applications began on day 14 and then were applied weekly (days, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56) through day 56. All cats enrolled in the study underwent full oral examinations and assessments by the blinded evaluator on or about their respective days 28 and 56. At these evaluations, the evaluator performed standardized assessments for plaque, calculus, gingivitis, and gingival bleeding. Numeric scores were assigned for each assessment using predetermined target teeth to ensure consistency. Using these assessment scores, statistical analyses were performed to determine the efficacies against plaque and calculus deposition; additionally, measurements of gingivitis and gingival bleeding were assessed. Change in plaque score from baseline, for all teeth assessed (all 4 canine teeth, and all 4

  9. Functional calculus and *-regularity of a class of Banach algebras II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chi-Wai; Ng, Chi-Keung

    2006-10-01

    In this article, we define a natural Banach *-algebra for a C*-dynamical system (A,G,[alpha]) which is slightly bigger than L1(G;A) (they are the same if A is finite-dimensional). We will show that this algebra is *-regular if G has polynomial growth. The main result in this article extends the two main results in [C.W. Leung, C.K. Ng, Functional calculus and *-regularity of a class of Banach algebras, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc., in press].

  10. A Process Calculus for Molecular Interaction Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Barbuti; Andrea Maggiolo-Schettini; Paolo Milazzo; Giovanni Pardini; Aureliano Rama

    2009-01-01

    We present the MIM calculus, a modeling formalism with a strong biological basis, which provides biologically-meaningful operators for representing the interaction capabilities of molecular species. The operators of the calculus are inspired by the reaction symbols used in Molecular Interaction Maps (MIMs), a diagrammatic notation used by biologists. Models of the calculus can be easily derived from MIM diagrams, for which an unambiguous and executable interpretation is thus obtained. We give...

  11. Control Flow Analysis for SF Combinator Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Lester, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Programs that transform other programs often require access to the internal structure of the program to be transformed. This is at odds with the usual extensional view of functional programming, as embodied by the lambda calculus and SK combinator calculus. The recently-developed SF combinator calculus offers an alternative, intensional model of computation that may serve as a foundation for developing principled languages in which to express intensional computation, including program transfo...

  12. A primer on exterior differential calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Burton D.A.

    2003-01-01

    A pedagogical application-oriented introduction to the cal­culus of exterior differential forms on differential manifolds is presented. Stokes' theorem, the Lie derivative, linear con­nections and their curvature, torsion and non-metricity are discussed. Numerous examples using differential calculus are given and some detailed comparisons are made with their tradi­tional vector counterparts. In particular, vector calculus on R3 is cast in terms of exterior calculus and the traditional Stokes'...

  13. Five-Dimensional Tangent Vectors in Space-Time: IV. Generalization of Exterior Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Krasulin, Alexander

    1998-01-01

    This part of the series is devoted to the generalization of exterior differential calculus. I give definition to the integral of a five-vector form over a limited space-time volume of appropriate dimension; extend the notion of the exterior derivative to the case of five-vector forms; and formulate the corresponding analogs of the generalized Stokes theorem and of the Poincare theorem about closed forms. I then consider the five-vector generalization of the exterior derivative itself; prove a...

  14. EARLINET Single Calculus Chain - technical - Part 2: Calculation of optical products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattis, Ina; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Baars, Holger; Amodeo, Aldo; Madonna, Fabio; Iarlori, Marco

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we present the automated software tool ELDA (EARLINET Lidar Data Analyzer) for the retrieval of profiles of optical particle properties from lidar signals. This tool is one of the calculus modules of the EARLINET Single Calculus Chain (SCC) which allows for the analysis of the data of many different lidar systems of EARLINET in an automated, unsupervised way. ELDA delivers profiles of particle extinction coefficients from Raman signals as well as profiles of particle backscatter coefficients from combinations of Raman and elastic signals or from elastic signals only. Those analyses start from pre-processed signals which have already been corrected for background, range dependency and hardware specific effects. An expert group reviewed all algorithms and solutions for critical calculus subsystems which are used within EARLINET with respect to their applicability for automated retrievals. Those methods have been implemented in ELDA. Since the software was designed in a modular way, it is possible to add new or alternative methods in future. Most of the implemented algorithms are well known and well documented, but some methods have especially been developed for ELDA, e.g., automated vertical smoothing and temporal averaging or the handling of effective vertical resolution in the case of lidar ratio retrievals, or the merging of near-range and far-range products. The accuracy of the retrieved profiles was tested following the procedure of the EARLINET-ASOS algorithm inter-comparison exercise which is based on the analysis of synthetic signals. Mean deviations, mean relative deviations, and normalized root-mean-square deviations were calculated for all possible products and three height layers. In all cases, the deviations were clearly below the maximum allowed values according to the EARLINET quality requirements.

  15. Advanced Calculus An Introduction to Linear Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Leonard F

    2008-01-01

    Features an introduction to advanced calculus and highlights its inherent concepts from linear algebra. Advanced Calculus reflects the unifying role of linear algebra in an effort to smooth readers' transition to advanced mathematics. The book fosters the development of complete theorem-proving skills through abundant exercises while also promoting a sound approach to the study. The traditional theorems of elementary differential and integral calculus are rigorously established, presenting the foundations of calculus in a way that reorients thinking toward modern analysis. Following an introdu

  16. A Higher-Order Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    in their free variables. There are special binders for limits and more general ends. The rules for limits and ends support an algebraic manipulation of universal constructions as opposed to a more traditional diagrammatic approach. Duality within the calculus and applications in proving continuity are discussed......A calculus for a fragment of category theory is presented. The types in the language denote categories and the expressions functors. The judgements of the calculus systematise categorical arguments such as: an expression is functorial in its free variables; two expressions are naturally isomorphic...... with examples. The calculus gives a basis for mechanising a theory of categories in a generic theorem prover like Isabelle....

  17. Mikusi\\'nski's Operational Calculus with Algebraic Foundations and Applications to Bessel Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Bengochea, Gabriel; G, Gabriel López

    2013-01-01

    We construct an operational calculus supported on the algebraic operational calculus introduced by Bengochea and Verde. With this operational calculus we study the solution of certain Bessel type equations.

  18. Influence of the surface area approximation on plantar arch index calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth-Taşcǎu, Mirela; Stoia, Dan Ioan; Vigaru, Cosmina; Pasca, Oana

    2012-09-01

    The general purpose of this study was to establish some correction coefficients used in plantar index calculus. In order to compute the correction coefficients, the total area of scanned footprints was estimated using two methods. The footprints were acquired on white plan paper by means of graphite powder, and scanned at five different resolutions. One of the methods of area computing refers to counting squares of an applied grid on the image, while the other method uses a computer software to determine footprint limits and area.

  19. Long Standing Staghorn Calculus Leading to Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Kidney – A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemlata T. Kamra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma, a rare malignancy of upper urinary tract accounts for 1.4% of all renal malignancies [1]. These tumours are mostly seen in the adults and less commonly in the pediatric age groups. Most of the cases present incidentally because they are masqueraded by pyonephrosis or hydonephrosis which occurs at an advanced stage of the disease and hence poor prognosis. A screening CT for long stand renal stone or newer imaging modalities are required for early detection and improving prognosis of the patients. Here we present a case of renal squamous cell carcinoma in 55 yrs old male with a staghorn calculus.

  20. Maximum range of a projectile launched from a height h: a non-calculus treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classical example of problem solving, maximizing the range of a projectile launched from height h with velocity v over the ground level, has received various solutions. In some of these, one can find the maximization of the range R by differentiating R as a function of an independent variable or through the implicit differentiation in Cartesian or polar coordinates. In other papers, various elegant non-calculus solutions can be found. In this paper, this problem is revisited on the basis of the elementary analytical geometry and the trigonometry only. (papers)

  1. A Rare Case of Vesicourachal Diverticulum with Calculus in a 24-Year-Old Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalar, Mehmet Haydar; Salk, Ismail; Cetin, Ali; Bozbiyik, Nisa

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background During embryonal period, complete obliteration of the urachus at the umbilicus and incomplete closure at the bladder level are the cause of vesicourachal diverticulum. This abnormality is a rare finding that is usually discovered incidentally during radiological evaluation. Occasionally, stones have been detected within the diverticulum. Case Report We present a case of a vesicourachal diverticulum with calculus diagnosed by multidetector computed tomography and confirmed surgically and histopathologically in a 24-year-old man. Conclusions During the radiological differential diagnosis of abnormalities of abdominal wall and urinary system, consideration of urachal abnormalities is important especially in symptomatic patients. PMID:27429672

  2. The impact of instructor pedagogy on college calculus students' attitude toward mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Sadler, Samuel M.; Bressoud, David M.

    2015-04-01

    College calculus teaches students important mathematical concepts and skills. The course also has a substantial impact on students' attitude toward mathematics, affecting their career aspirations and desires to take more mathematics. This national US study of 3103 students at 123 colleges and universities tracks changes in students' attitudes toward mathematics during a 'mainstream' calculus course while controlling for student backgrounds. The attitude measure combines students' self-ratings of their mathematics confidence, interest in, and enjoyment of mathematics. Three major kinds of instructor pedagogy, identified through the factor analysis of 61 student-reported variables, are investigated for impact on student attitude as follows: (1) instructors who employ generally accepted 'good teaching' practices (e.g. clarity in presentation and answering questions, useful homework, fair exams, help outside of class) are found to have the most positive impact, particularly with students who began with a weaker initial attitude. (2) Use of educational 'technology' (e.g. graphing calculators, for demonstrations, in homework), on average, is found to have no impact on attitudes, except when used by graduate student instructors, which negatively affects students' attitudes towards mathematics. (3) 'Ambitious teaching' (e.g. group work, word problems, 'flipped' reading, student explanations of thinking) has a small negative impact on student attitudes, while being a relatively more constructive influence only on students who already enjoyed a positive attitude toward mathematics and in classrooms with a large number of students. This study provides support for efforts to improve calculus teaching through the training of faculty and graduate students to use traditional 'good teaching' practices through professional development workshops and courses. As currently implemented, technology and ambitious pedagogical practices, while no doubt effective in certain classrooms, do

  3. CALCULUS AND THE RACE TRACK PRINCIPLE

    OpenAIRE

    Akritas, Alkiviadis

    1999-01-01

    Calculus and Mathematica (C&M) by Davis, Porta and Uhl ia a well thought-out method that, when used properly, gives students an intuitive understanding of, and a feeling for, all the major calculus concepts. It is comprised of the following four books: C&M / Derivatives, C&M / Integrals, C&M / Vector Calculus, and C&M / Approximation, known also as Books 1-4. In these books the authors advocate an explore-and-discover method for teaching the basic concepts of Calculus to u...

  4. A Calculus for Context-Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmer, Pascal

    2005-01-01

    In order to answer the challenge of pervasive computing, we propose a new process calculus, whose aim is to describe dynamic systems composed of agents able to move and react differently depending on their location. This Context-Aware Calculus features a hierarchical structure similar to mobile...... ambients, and a generic multi-agent synchronization mechanism, inspired from the join-calculus. After general ideas and introduction, we review the full calculus' syntax and semantics, as well as some motivating examples, study its expressiveness, and show how the notion of computation itself can be made...

  5. Pre-calculus workbook for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Kuang, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Get the confidence and math skills you need to get started with calculus Are you preparing for calculus? This hands-on workbook helps you master basic pre-calculus concepts and practice the types of problems you'll encounter in the course. You'll get hundreds of valuable exercises, problem-solving shortcuts, plenty of workspace, and step-by-step solutions to every problem. You'll also memorize the most frequently used equations, see how to avoid common mistakes, understand tricky trig proofs, and much more. Pre-Calculus Workbook For Dummies is the perfect tool for anyone who wa

  6. ``Riemann equations'' in bidifferential calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chvartatskyi, O.; Müller-Hoissen, F.; Stoilov, N.

    2015-10-01

    We consider equations that formally resemble a matrix Riemann (or Hopf) equation in the framework of bidifferential calculus. With different choices of a first-order bidifferential calculus, we obtain a variety of equations, including a semi-discrete and a fully discrete version of the matrix Riemann equation. A corresponding universal solution-generating method then either yields a (continuous or discrete) Cole-Hopf transformation, or leaves us with the problem of solving Riemann equations (hence an application of the hodograph method). If the bidifferential calculus extends to second order, solutions of a system of "Riemann equations" are also solutions of an equation that arises, on the universal level of bidifferential calculus, as an integrability condition. Depending on the choice of bidifferential calculus, the latter can represent a number of prominent integrable equations, like self-dual Yang-Mills, as well as matrix versions of the two-dimensional Toda lattice, Hirota's bilinear difference equation, (2+1)-dimensional Nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS), Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation, and Davey-Stewartson equations. For all of them, a recent (non-isospectral) binary Darboux transformation result in bidifferential calculus applies, which can be specialized to generate solutions of the associated "Riemann equations." For the latter, we clarify the relation between these specialized binary Darboux transformations and the aforementioned solution-generating method. From (arbitrary size) matrix versions of the "Riemann equations" associated with an integrable equation, possessing a bidifferential calculus formulation, multi-soliton-type solutions of the latter can be generated. This includes "breaking" multi-soliton-type solutions of the self-dual Yang-Mills and the (2+1)-dimensional NLS equation, which are parametrized by solutions of Riemann equations.

  7. The use of concept maps as an indicator of significant learning in Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naíma Soltau Ferrão

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains reflections and results of a research that aimed to apply and analyze the use of concept maps in Higher Education as an indicator of significant learning concerning derivative as mathematical object with students that finished Differential and Integral Calculus. This is a qualitative approach, situated in the area of mathematics education, based on Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Learning and on technique of Novak's Concept Mapping. As data acquisition instruments, use of classroom observations, questionnaire, brainstorming and digital conceptual mapping, made by an undergraduate physics course. To analyze we defined four aspects to be observed in the maps constructed by students: (i validity of propositions formed with concepts, (ii hierarchization, (iii cross-links between the propositions, and (vi the presence of applications. The identification of these elements, taken as reference to analyze the maps, allowed the collection of information about how each student has structured and correlated the set of concepts learned on the derivative of a function along their course. Based on the results, we have identified in the digital conceptual maps effective tools to evaluate the students in terms of meaningful learning about specific contents of Differential and Integral Calculus by the hierarchy of concepts, progressive differentiation and integrative reconciliation as defined in the Theory of Meaningful Learning.

  8. Variational regularization of 3D data experiments with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Montegranario, Hebert

    2014-01-01

    Variational Regularization of 3D Data provides an introduction to variational methods for data modelling and its application in computer vision. In this book, the authors identify interpolation as an inverse problem that can be solved by Tikhonov regularization. The proposed solutions are generalizations of one-dimensional splines, applicable to n-dimensional data and the central idea is that these splines can be obtained by regularization theory using a trade-off between the fidelity of the data and smoothness properties.As a foundation, the authors present a comprehensive guide to the necessary fundamentals of functional analysis and variational calculus, as well as splines. The implementation and numerical experiments are illustrated using MATLAB®. The book also includes the necessary theoretical background for approximation methods and some details of the computer implementation of the algorithms. A working knowledge of multivariable calculus and basic vector and matrix methods should serve as an adequat...

  9. General relativity without calculus a concise introduction to the geometry of relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Natario, José

    2011-01-01

    "General Relativity Without Calculus" offers a compact but mathematically correct introduction to the general theory of relativity, assuming only a basic knowledge of high school mathematics and physics. Targeted at first year undergraduates (and advanced high school students) who wish to learn Einstein's theory beyond popular science accounts, it covers the basics of special relativity, Minkowski space-time, non-Euclidean geometry, Newtonian gravity, the Schwarzschild solution, black holes and cosmology. The quick-paced style is balanced by over 75 exercises (including full solution

  10. Treatment of ureteral calculus obstruction with laser lithotripsy in an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Todd L; Sur, Roger L

    2012-03-01

    An adult female bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) presented with acute anorexia secondary to progressive azotemia (blood urea nitrogen = 213 mg/dl, creatinine [Cr] = 9.5 mg/dl) and electrolyte abnormalities (K = 7.4 mEq/L). It was later diagnosed with postrenal obstruction secondary to bilaterally obstructing ureteral calculi seen on ultrasound. Treatment of the obstruction required two endoscopic procedures, cystoscopy for ureteral stent placement and ureteroscopy to perform intracorporeal lithotripsy on the obstructing calculi. Before the first procedure, the dolphin's azotemia was stabilized with aggressive fluid therapy, peritoneal dialysis, and treatment for acidosis. Diuresis subsequent to the fluid therapy enabled passage of the right obstructing urolith. For both endoscopic procedures, the dolphin was placed in left lateral recumbency due to the peritoneal dialysis catheter in the right retroperitoneal region. For the first procedure, a 12-French (Fr) flexible cystoscope was inserted retrograde into the bladder via the urethra, whereupon a calculus was seen obstructing the left ureteral orifice. A 4.8-Fr, 26-cm double-pigtail ureteral stent was placed up the left ureter to relieve the postrenal obstruction. Inadvertent proximal migration of the left ureteral stent occurred during the procedure. However, renal parameters (serum Cr = 5.8, K = 5.4) improved significantly by the next day. For the second procedure, 28 hr later, ureteroscopy was performed to treat the calculus and replace the existing stent with a longer stent. The left ureteral calculus was pulverized into tiny fragments by using a holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser inserted through a 6.9-Fr semirigid ureteroscope. The migrated stent was visualized in the distal left ureter and replaced with a 90-cm single-pigtail ureteral stent that was sutured exterior to the urogenital slit and removed 3 days later. Renal function normalized over the next several days, and the dolphin recovered over

  11. Treatment of ureteral calculus obstruction with laser lithotripsy in an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Todd L; Sur, Roger L

    2012-03-01

    An adult female bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) presented with acute anorexia secondary to progressive azotemia (blood urea nitrogen = 213 mg/dl, creatinine [Cr] = 9.5 mg/dl) and electrolyte abnormalities (K = 7.4 mEq/L). It was later diagnosed with postrenal obstruction secondary to bilaterally obstructing ureteral calculi seen on ultrasound. Treatment of the obstruction required two endoscopic procedures, cystoscopy for ureteral stent placement and ureteroscopy to perform intracorporeal lithotripsy on the obstructing calculi. Before the first procedure, the dolphin's azotemia was stabilized with aggressive fluid therapy, peritoneal dialysis, and treatment for acidosis. Diuresis subsequent to the fluid therapy enabled passage of the right obstructing urolith. For both endoscopic procedures, the dolphin was placed in left lateral recumbency due to the peritoneal dialysis catheter in the right retroperitoneal region. For the first procedure, a 12-French (Fr) flexible cystoscope was inserted retrograde into the bladder via the urethra, whereupon a calculus was seen obstructing the left ureteral orifice. A 4.8-Fr, 26-cm double-pigtail ureteral stent was placed up the left ureter to relieve the postrenal obstruction. Inadvertent proximal migration of the left ureteral stent occurred during the procedure. However, renal parameters (serum Cr = 5.8, K = 5.4) improved significantly by the next day. For the second procedure, 28 hr later, ureteroscopy was performed to treat the calculus and replace the existing stent with a longer stent. The left ureteral calculus was pulverized into tiny fragments by using a holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser inserted through a 6.9-Fr semirigid ureteroscope. The migrated stent was visualized in the distal left ureter and replaced with a 90-cm single-pigtail ureteral stent that was sutured exterior to the urogenital slit and removed 3 days later. Renal function normalized over the next several days, and the dolphin recovered over

  12. PRIMARY SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF RENAL PELVIS ASSOCIATED WITH RENAL CALCULUS AND RECURRENT PYONEPHROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoti Lal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the kidney is a rare malignant neoplasm associated with nephrolithiasis, typically monobacterial pyonephrosis and rarely Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. It is an aggressive disease with a poor prognosis mostly due to lack of presenting clinical features like a palpable mass, gross haematuria and pain. We report a case presenting with renal calculus and pyonephrosis managed initially with percutaneous nephrostomy followed by nephrectomy due to complete loss of renal function. Histopathological evaluation revealed poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma which is managed by chemotherapy, although initially beneficial, patients later develop disseminated metastatic disease which holds a poor prognosis.

  13. Initiation to mould calculus through the example of saddle-node singularities

    OpenAIRE

    Sauzin, David

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes an initiation to \\'Ecalle's mould calculus, a powerful combinatorial tool which yields surprisingly explicit formulas for the normalising series attached to an analytic germ of singular vector field. This is illustrated on the case of saddle-node singularities, generated by two-dimensional vector fields which are formally conjugate to Euler's vector field $x^2\\frac{\\pa}{\\pa x}+(x+y)\\frac{\\pa}{\\pa y}$, and for which the formal normalisation proves to be resurgent in $1/x$.

  14. Calculation of spontaneous emission from a V-type three-level atom in photonic crystals using fractional calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fractional time derivative, an abstract mathematical operator of fractional calculus, is used to describe the real optical system of a V-type three-level atom embedded in a photonic crystal. A fractional kinetic equation governing the dynamics of the spontaneous emission from this optical system is obtained as a fractional Langevin equation. Solving this fractional kinetic equation by fractional calculus leads to the analytical solutions expressed in terms of fractional exponential functions. The accuracy of the obtained solutions is verified through reducing the system into the special cases whose results are consistent with the experimental observation. With accurate physical results and avoiding the complex integration for solving this optical system, we propose fractional calculus with fractional time derivative as a better mathematical method to study spontaneous emission dynamics from the optical system with non-Markovian dynamics.

  15. Pseudo-differential operators, heat calculus and index theory of groupoids satisfying the Lauter-Nistor condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Bing Kwan

    2010-06-01

    In this thesis, we study singular pseudo-differential operators defined by groupoids satisfying the Lauter-Nistor condition, by a method parallel to that of manifolds with boundary and edge differential operators. The example of the Bruhat sphere is studied in detail. In particular, we construct an extension to the calculus of uniformly supported pseudo-differential operators that is analogous to the calculus with bounds defined on manifolds with boundary. We derive a Fredholmness criterion for operators on the Bruhat sphere, and prove that their parametrices up to compact operators lie inside the extended calculus; we construct the heat kernel of perturbed Laplacian operators; and prove an Atiyah-Singer type renormalized index formula for perturbed Dirac operators on the Bruhat sphere using the heat kernel method.

  16. Complete rank theorem of advanced calculus and singularities of bounded linear operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Let E and F be Banach spaces, f: U E→ F be a map of Cr (r≥ 1), x∈ U, and f'(x0) denote the Fréchet differential of f at x0. Suppose that f'(xo) is double split, Rank(f'(x0)) = ∞, dimN(f'(x0)) > 0 and codimR(f'(x0)) > 0. The rank theorem in advanced calculus asks to answer what properties of f ensure that f(x) is conjugate to f'(x0) near x0. We have proved that the conclusion of the theorem is equivalent to one kind of singularities for bounded linear operators, I.e., x0 is a locally fine point for f'(x) or generalized regular point of f(x); so, a complete rank theorem in advanced calculus is established, I.e., a sufficient and necessary condition such that the conclusion of the theorem to be held is given.

  17. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 31-34: Inductance; Wave Properties of Light; Interference; and Introduction to Quantum Physics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is Part of a series of 41 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 Pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized courses in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  18. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 18-20: Sound; Temperature, Heat, and Thermodynamics: First Law; and Kinetic Theory of Gases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  19. Application of Skin Electrical Conductance of Acupuncture Meridians for Ureteral Calculus: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Chou Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal colic is a common condition seen in the emergency department (ED. Our recent study showed that measures of electrical conductance may be used as supplementary diagnostic methods for patients with acute renal colic. Here, we describe the case of a 30-year-old male subject with a left ureteral calculus who presented with frequency and normal-looking urine. He had already visited the outpatient department, but in vain. Normal urinalysis and nonobstructive urogram were reported at that time. Two days later, he was admitted to the ED because of abdominal pain in the left lower quadrant. The urinalysis did not detect red blood cells. Ultrasonography did not indicate hydronephrosis. The meridian electrical conductance and index of sympathovagal balance were found to be abnormal. High level of electrical conductance on the left bladder meridian was found. An unenhanced helical computed tomography was scheduled to reveal a left ureterovesical stone. Ureteroscopic intervention was later uneventfully performed, and the patient's pain was relieved. The follow-up measurements showed that the meridian parameters had returned to normal one month after treatment. This case suggests that bladder meridian electrical conductance might be used as a supplemental method for ureteral calculus diagnosis.

  20. Reducing risk of closed loop control of blood glucose in artificial pancreas using fractional calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Mahboobeh; Bogdan, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare costs in the US are among the highest in the world. Chronic diseases such as diabetes significantly contribute to these extensive costs. Despite technological advances to improve sensing and actuation devices, we still lack a coherent theory that facilitates the design and optimization of efficient and robust medical cyber-physical systems for managing chronic diseases. In this paper, we propose a mathematical model for capturing the complex dynamics of blood glucose time series (e.g., time dependent and fractal behavior) observed in real world measurements via fractional calculus concepts. Building upon our time dependent fractal model, we propose a novel model predictive controller for an artificial pancreas that regulates insulin injection. We verify the accuracy of our controller by comparing it to conventional non-fractal models using real world measurements and show how the nonlinear optimal controller based on fractal calculus concepts is superior to non-fractal controllers in terms of average risk index and prediction accuracy. PMID:25571075