Liu, Ping; He, Xinrong; Guo, Mei
2010-04-01
To investigate the correlation effects between single or combined administration of Calculus Bovis or zolpidem and changes of inhibitive neurotransmitter in rat striatum corpora. Sampling from rat striatum corpora was carried out through microdialysis. The content of two inhibitive neurotransmitters in rat corpus striatum- glycine (Gly) and gama aminobutyric acid (GABA), was determined by HPLC, which involved pre-column derivation with orthophthaladehyde, reversed-phase gradient elution and fluorescence detection. GABA content of rat striatum corpora in Calculus Bovis group was significantly increased compared with saline group (P Calculus Boris plus zolpidem group were increased largely compared with saline group as well (P Calculus Bovis group was higher than combination group (P Calculus Bovis or zolpidem group was markedly increased compared with saline group or combination group (P Calculus Bovis group, zolpidem group and combination group. The magnitude of increase was lower in combination group than in Calculus Bovis group and Zolpidem group, suggesting that Calculus Bovis promoted encephalon inhibition is more powerful than zolpidem. The increase in two inhibitive neurotransmitters did not show reinforcing effect in combination group, suggesting that Calculus Bovis and zolpidem may compete the same receptors. Therefore, combination of Calculus Bovis containing drugs and zolpidem has no clinical significance. Calculus Bovis shouldn't as an aperture-opening drugs be used for resuscitation therapy.
Chi, Shuyao; Wu, Dike; Sun, Jinhong; Ye, Ruhan; Wang, Xiaoyan
2014-05-01
A headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of seven residual solvents (petroleum ether (60-90 degrees C), acetone, ethyl acetate, methanol, methylene chloride, ethanol and butyl acetate) in bovis calculus artifactus. The DB-WAX capillary column and flame ionization detector (FID) were used for the separation and detection of the residual solvents, and the internal standard method was used for the quantification. The chromatographic conditions, such as equilibrium temperature and equilibrium time, were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, all of the seven residual solvents showed good linear relationships with good correlation coefficients (not less than 0.999 3) in the prescribed concentration range. At three spiked levels, the recoveries for the seven residual solvents were 94.7%-105.2% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 3.5%. The limits of detection (LODs) of the method were 0.43-5.23 mg/L, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 1.25-16.67 mg/L. The method is simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate, and is suitable for the simultaneous determination of the seven residual solvents in bovis calculus artifactus.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiping Li
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Calculus Bovis Sativus (CBS is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, which has been reported to exhibit antispasmodic, fever-reducing, anti-inflammatory, and gallbladder-repairing effects. The present study aims to investigate the protective effect of CBS on dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS- induced ulcerative colitis (UC in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to 5% DSS in drinking water. CBS was given orally at 50 and 150 mg/kg once per day for 7 days. Body weight, disease activity index (DAI, colon length, colonic myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA and nitric oxide (NO levels were measured. Administration of CBS significantly reserved these changes, decreased the MPO activity and MDA and NO level, and increased the SOD activity in the colon tissue. Histological observation suggested that CBS alleviated edema, mucosal damage, and inflammatory cells infiltration induced by DSS in the colon. Moreover, CBS significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin- (IL- 1β and IL-6 in the colon tissue. Our data suggested that CBS exerted protective effect on DSS-induced UC partially through the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
Shi, Yan; Xiong, Jing; Sun, Dongmei; Liu, Wei; Wei, Feng; Ma, Shuangcheng; Lin, Ruichao
2015-08-01
An accurate and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with ultralviolet detection and precolumn derivatization was developed for the simultaneous quantification of the major bile acids in Artificial Calculus bovis, including cholic acid, hyodeoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, and deoxycholic acid. The extraction, derivatization, chromatographic separation, and detection parameters were fully optimized. The samples were extracted with methanol by ultrasonic extraction. Then, 2-bromine-4'-nitroacetophenone and 18-crown ether-6 were used for derivatization. The chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent SB-C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm id, 5 μm) at a column temperature of 30°C and liquid flow rate of 1.0 mL/min using water and methanol as the mobile phase with a gradient elution. The detection wavelength was 263 nm. The method was extensively validated by evaluating the linearity (r(2) ≥ 0.9980), recovery (94.24-98.91%), limits of detection (0.25-0.31 ng) and limits of quantification (0.83-1.02 ng). Seventeen samples were analyzed using the developed and validated method. Then, the amounts of bile acids were analyzed by hierarchical agglomerative clustering analysis and principal component analysis. The results of the chemometric analysis showed that the contents of these compounds reflect the intrinsic quality of artificial Calculus bovis, and two compounds (hyodeoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid) were the most important markers for quality evaluating. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Zhong, Xiao-Ming; Ren, Xue-Cong; Lou, Ye-Liang; Chen, Meng-Jing; Li, Guan-Ze; Gong, Xue-Yuan; Huang, Zhen
2016-11-04
In-vitro cultured calculus bovis (ICCB) is a quality substitute for natural bezoar which is used for the therapeutic purpose of treating encephalopathy. ICCB has been authorized to use on clinic. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effects and the potential mechanisms of in-vitro cultured calculus bovis (ICCB) on learning and memory impairments of hyperlipemia vascular dementia (HVD) rats. The HVD model was established by permanent occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries based on hyperlipemia rats. Learning and memory abilities were evaluated by morris water maze test and shuttle box test. Ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis) was employed to determine the SOD, MDA and NO in cerebral tissue, as well as the TG in serum. HE staining and toluidine blue staining were employed to evaluate cone cells damage in hippocampus CA1. An immunohistochemistry was used to measure the Bax and Bcl-2 expressions in cerebral tissue. Compared with control group, the abilities of spatial learning and memory and conditional memory were decreased significantly in HVD group (Plearning and memory, elevated the SOD activity (Plearning and memory in HVD rats. It might be related to anti-oxidative, regulation of Bax and Bcl-2 expressions, and the alleviation of cone cells damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jones, Patrick
2014-01-01
Practice makes perfect-and helps deepen your understanding of calculus 1001 Calculus Practice Problems For Dummies takes you beyond the instruction and guidance offered in Calculus For Dummies, giving you 1001 opportunities to practice solving problems from the major topics in your calculus course. Plus, an online component provides you with a collection of calculus problems presented in multiple-choice format to further help you test your skills as you go. Gives you a chance to practice and reinforce the skills you learn in your calculus courseHelps you refine your understanding of calculusP
Larson, Ron
2014-01-01
The Larson CALCULUS program has a long history of innovation in the calculus market. It has been widely praised by a generation of students and professors for its solid and effective pedagogy that addresses the needs of a broad range of teaching and learning styles and environments. Each title is just one component in a comprehensive calculus course program that carefully integrates and coordinates print, media, and technology products for successful teaching and learning.
Grossman, Stanley I
1981-01-01
Calculus, Second Edition discusses the techniques and theorems of calculus. This edition introduces the sine and cosine functions, distributes ?-? material over several chapters, and includes a detailed account of analytic geometry and vector analysis.This book also discusses the equation of a straight line, trigonometric limit, derivative of a power function, mean value theorem, and fundamental theorems of calculus. The exponential and logarithmic functions, inverse trigonometric functions, linear and quadratic denominators, and centroid of a plane region are likewise elaborated. Other topics
Spivak, Michael
2006-01-01
Spivak's celebrated textbook is widely held as one of the finest introductions to mathematical analysis. His aim is to present calculus as the first real encounter with mathematics: it is the place to learn how logical reasoning combined with fundamental concepts can be developed into a rigorous mathematical theory rather than a bunch of tools and techniques learned by rote. Since analysis is a subject students traditionally find difficult to grasp, Spivak provides leisurely explanations, a profusion of examples, a wide range of exercises and plenty of illustrations in an easy-going approach that enlightens difficult concepts and rewards effort. Calculus will continue to be regarded as a modern classic, ideal for honours students and mathematics majors, who seek an alternative to doorstop textbooks on calculus, and the more formidable introductions to real analysis.
Grossman, Stanley I
1984-01-01
Calculus, Third Edition emphasizes the techniques and theorems of calculus, including many applied examples and exercises in both drill and applied-type problems.This book discusses shifting the graphs of functions, derivative as a rate of change, derivative of a power function, and theory of maxima and minima. The area between two curves, differential equations of exponential growth and decay, inverse hyperbolic functions, and integration of rational functions are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the fluid pressure, ellipse and translation of axes, graphing in polar coordinates, pro
Zandy, Bernard V
2003-01-01
We take great notes-and make learning a snap When it comes to pinpointing the stuff you really need to know, nobody does it better than CliffsNotes. This fast, effective tutorial helps you master core Calculus concepts-from functions, limits, and derivatives to differentials, integration, and definite integrals- and get the best possible grade. At CliffsNotes, we're dedicated to helping you do your best, no matter how challenging the subject. Our authors are veteran teachers and talented writers who know how to cut to the chase- and zero in on the essential information you need to succeed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dong Xiang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Intrahepatic cholestasis is a main cause of hepatic accumulation of bile acids leading to liver injury, fibrosis, and liver failure. Our previous studies proved that Calculus Bovis Sativus (CBS can restore biliary transport function through upregulating the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP in 17α-ethynylestradiol- (EE- induced intrahepatic cholestasis rats. The regulation mechanism of CBS on these transporters, however, remains unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the possible relationship between the effect of CBS on transport activities and the regulation of CBS on the expression of PDZK1, a mainly scaffold protein which can regulate MRP2 and BCRP. Intrahepatic cholestasis model was induced in rats with injection of EE for five consecutive days and then the biliary excretion rates and cumulative biliary excretions were measured. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PDZK1 were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunohistochemical analysis. When treated with CBS, cumulative biliary excretions and mRNA and protein expressions of PDZK1 were significantly increased in intrahepatic cholestasis rats. This study demonstrated that CBS exerted a beneficial effect on EE-induced intrahepatic cholestasis rats by restoring biliary transport function, which may result from the upregulation of PDZK1 expression.
Wick calculus on spaces of generalized functions of compound poisson white noise
Lytvynov, Eugene W.; Rebenko, Alexei L.; Shchepan'ur, Gennadi V.
1997-04-01
We derive white noise calculus for a compound Poisson process. Namely, we consider, on the Schwartz space of tempered distributions, S', a measure of compound Poisson white noise, μcp, and construct a whole scale of standard nuclear triples ( Scp) - x ⊃ L2cp) ≡ L2( S', dμcp) ⊃( Scpx, x≥ 0, which are obtained as images under some isomorphism of the corresponding triples centred at a Fock space. It turns out that the most interesting case is x = 1, when our triple coincides with the triple that is constructed by using a system of Appell polynomials in the framework of non-Gaussian biorthogonal analysis. Our special attention is paid to the Wick calculus of the Poisson field, or the quantum compound Poisson white noise process in other terms, which is the family of operators acting from ( Scp) 1 into ( Scp) 1 as multiplication by the compound Poisson white noise ω( t).
White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) serve as a reservoir for bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, and can be a source of infection in cattle. Vaccination with M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is being considered for management of bovine tuberculosis in deer. Presently, no...
Henle, James M
2003-01-01
Introducing calculus at the basic level, this text covers hyperreal numbers and hyperreal line, continuous functions, integral and differential calculus, fundamental theorem, infinite sequences and series, infinite polynomials, more. 1979 edition.
Friedman, Menahem
2011-01-01
Another Calculus book? As long as students find calculus scary, the failure rate in mathematics is higher than in all other subjects, and as long as most people mistakenly believe that only geniuses can learn and understand mathematics, there will always be room for a new book of Calculus. We call it Calculus Light. This book is designed for a one semester course in ""light"" calculus -- mostly single variable, meant to be used by undergraduate students without a wide mathematical background and who do not major in mathematics but study subjects such as engineering, biology or management infor
Klaf, A A
1956-01-01
This book is unique in English as a refresher for engineers, technicians, and students who either wish to brush up their calculus or find parts of calculus unclear. It is not an ordinary textbook. It is, instead, an examination of the most important aspects of integral and differential calculus in terms of the 756 questions most likely to occur to the technical reader. It provides a very easily followed presentation and may also be used as either an introductory or supplementary textbook. The first part of this book covers simple differential calculus, with constants, variables, functions, inc
Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.; van der Zwaag, M.B.
2008-01-01
We introduce a calculus for tuplices, which are expressions that generalize matrices and vectors. Tuplices have an underlying data type for quantities that are taken from a zero-totalized field. We start with the core tuplix calculus CTC for entries and tests, which are combined using conjunctive
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bram Geron
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Programs with control are usually modeled using lambda calculus extended with control operators. Instead of modifying lambda calculus, we consider a different model of computation. We introduce continuation calculus, or CC, a deterministic model of computation that is evaluated using only head reduction, and argue that it is suitable for modeling programs with control. It is demonstrated how to define programs, specify them, and prove them correct. This is shown in detail by presenting in CC a list multiplication program that prematurely returns when it encounters a zero. The correctness proof includes termination of the program. In continuation calculus we can model both call-by-name and call-by-value. In addition, call-by-name functions can be applied to call-by-value results, and conversely.
Amdahl, Kenn; Loats, Jim
This book, written for students of calculus, is designed to augment the explanations of concepts covered in a calculus class. It consists of an overview of calculus divided into basic ideas and vocabulary, the process of differential calculus, and integral calculus. The book is intended as a resource to explain the concepts of calculus in everyday…
Hill, Gregory
2013-01-01
Earn College Credit with REA's Test Prep for CLEP* Calculus Everything you need to pass the exam and get the college credit you deserve.Our test prep for CLEP* Calculus and the free online tools that come with it, will allow you to create a personalized CLEP* study plan that can be customized to fit you: your schedule, your learning style, and your current level of knowledge.Here's how it works:Diagnostic exam at the REA Study Center focuses your studyOur online diagnostic exam pinpoints your strengths and shows you exactly where you need to focus your study. Armed with this information, you
Nickerson, HK; Steenrod, NE
2011-01-01
""This book is a radical departure from all previous concepts of advanced calculus,"" declared the Bulletin of the American Mathematics Society, ""and the nature of this departure merits serious study of the book by everyone interested in undergraduate education in mathematics."" Classroom-tested in a Princeton University honors course, it offers students a unified introduction to advanced calculus. Starting with an abstract treatment of vector spaces and linear transforms, the authors introduce a single basic derivative in an invariant form. All other derivatives - gradient, divergent, curl,
Anti-calculus and whitening toothpastes
van Loveren, C.; Duckworth, R.M.
2013-01-01
In terms of novel formulations, there seems to have been a shift in emphasis from anti-caries/anti-gingivitis to anti-calculus/whitening toothpastes in recent years. The anti-calculus and whitening effects of toothpastes are to some extent based on the same active ingredients: compounds of high
Fitzpatrick, Patrick M
2009-01-01
Advanced Calculus is intended as a text for courses that furnish the backbone of the student's undergraduate education in mathematical analysis. The goal is to rigorously present the fundamental concepts within the context of illuminating examples and stimulating exercises. This book is self-contained and starts with the creation of basic tools using the completeness axiom. The continuity, differentiability, integrability, and power series representation properties of functions of a single variable are established. The next few chapters describe the topological and metric properties of Euclide
Bodewig, E
1959-01-01
Matrix Calculus, Second Revised and Enlarged Edition focuses on systematic calculation with the building blocks of a matrix and rows and columns, shunning the use of individual elements. The publication first offers information on vectors, matrices, further applications, measures of the magnitude of a matrix, and forms. The text then examines eigenvalues and exact solutions, including the characteristic equation, eigenrows, extremum properties of the eigenvalues, bounds for the eigenvalues, elementary divisors, and bounds for the determinant. The text ponders on approximate solutions, as well
Friedman, Avner
2007-01-01
This rigorous two-part treatment advances from functions of one variable to those of several variables. Intended for students who have already completed a one-year course in elementary calculus, it defers the introduction of functions of several variables for as long as possible, and adds clarity and simplicity by avoiding a mixture of heuristic and rigorous arguments.The first part explores functions of one variable, including numbers and sequences, continuous functions, differentiable functions, integration, and sequences and series of functions. The second part examines functions of several
Ouellette,, Jennifer
2011-01-01
Jennifer Ouellette never took maths in the sixth form, mostly because she like most of us assumed she wouldn't need it much in real life. But then the English graduate, now an award-winning science-writer, had a change of heart and decided to revisit the equations and formulas that had haunted her youth. The Calculus Diaries is the fun and fascinating account of a year spent confronting her numbers-phobia head on. With wit and verve, Ouellette explains how she discovered that maths could apply to everything from petrol mileages to dieting, rollercoaster rides to winning in Las Vegas.
McCarty, George
1982-01-01
How THIS BOOK DIFFERS This book is about the calculus. What distinguishes it, however, from other books is that it uses the pocket calculator to illustrate the theory. A computation that requires hours of labor when done by hand with tables is quite inappropriate as an example or exercise in a beginning calculus course. But that same computation can become a delicate illustration of the theory when the student does it in seconds on his calculator. t Furthermore, the student's own personal involvement and easy accomplishment give hi~ reassurance and en couragement. The machine is like a microscope, and its magnification is a hundred millionfold. We shall be interested in limits, and no stage of numerical approximation proves anything about the limit. However, the derivative of fex) = 67.SgX, for instance, acquires real meaning when a student first appreciates its values as numbers, as limits of 10 100 1000 t A quick example is 1.1 , 1.01 , 1.001 , •••• Another example is t = 0.1, 0.01, in the functio...
Pyrah, Leslie N
1979-01-01
Stone in the urinary tract has fascinated the medical profession from the earliest times and has played an important part in the development of surgery. The earliest major planned operations were for the removal of vesical calculus; renal and ureteric calculi provided the first stimulus for the radiological investigation of the viscera, and the biochemical investigation of the causes of calculus formation has been the training ground for surgeons interested in metabolic disorders. It is therefore no surprise that stone has been the subject of a number of monographs by eminent urologists, but the rapid development of knowledge has made it possible for each one of these authors to produce something new. There is still a technical challenge to the surgeon in the removal of renal calculi, and on this topic we are always glad to have the advice of a master craftsman; but inevitably much of the interest centres on the elucidation of the causes of stone formation and its prevention. Professor Pyrah has had a long an...
van Doorn, Floris
2015-01-01
I formalize important theorems about classical propositional logic in the proof assistant Coq. The main theorems I prove are (1) the soundness and completeness of natural deduction calculus, (2) the equivalence between natural deduction calculus, Hilbert systems and sequent calculus and (3) cut elimination for sequent calculus.
Baronti, Marco; van der Putten, Robertus; Venturi, Irene
2016-01-01
This book, intended as a practical working guide for students in Engineering, Mathematics, Physics, or any other field where rigorous calculus is needed, includes 450 exercises. Each chapter starts with a summary of the main definitions and results, which is followed by a selection of solved exercises accompanied by brief, illustrative comments. A selection of problems with indicated solutions rounds out each chapter. A final chapter explores problems that are not designed with a single issue in mind but instead call for the combination of a variety of techniques, rounding out the book’s coverage. Though the book’s primary focus is on functions of one real variable, basic ordinary differential equations (separation of variables, linear first order and constant coefficients ODEs) are also discussed. The material is taken from actual written tests that have been delivered at the Engineering School of the University of Genoa. Literally thousands of students have worked on these problems, ensuring their real-...
Mycobacterium bovis in Panama, 2013.
Acosta, Fermín; Chernyaeva, Ekatherina; Mendoza, Libardo; Sambrano, Dilcia; Correa, Ricardo; Rotkevich, Mikhail; Tarté, Miroslava; Hernández, Humberto; Velazco, Bredio; de Escobar, Cecilia; de Waard, Jacobus H; Goodridge, Amador
2015-06-01
Panama remains free of zoonotic tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis. However, DNA fingerprinting of 7 M. bovis isolates from a 2013 bovine tuberculosis outbreak indicated minimal homology with strains previously circulating in Panama. M. bovis dispersion into Panama highlights the need for enhanced genotype testing to track zoonotic infections.
Grossman, Stanley I
1986-01-01
Calculus of One Variable, Second Edition presents the essential topics in the study of the techniques and theorems of calculus.The book provides a comprehensive introduction to calculus. It contains examples, exercises, the history and development of calculus, and various applications. Some of the topics discussed in the text include the concept of limits, one-variable theory, the derivatives of all six trigonometric functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, and infinite series.This textbook is intended for use by college students.
Vickers, Trevor
1992-01-01
On the Refinement Calculus gives one view of the development of the refinement calculus and its attempt to bring together - among other things - Z specifications and Dijkstra's programming language. It is an excellent source of reference material for all those seeking the background and mathematical underpinnings of the refinement calculus.
Morris, Carla C
2015-01-01
Fundamentals of Calculus encourages students to use power, quotient, and product rules for solutions as well as stresses the importance of modeling skills. In addition to core integral and differential calculus coverage, the book features finite calculus, which lends itself to modeling and spreadsheets. Specifically, finite calculus is applied to marginal economic analysis, finance, growth, and decay. Includes: Linear Equations and FunctionsThe DerivativeUsing the Derivative Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Techniques of DifferentiationIntegral CalculusIntegration TechniquesFunctions
Zegarelli, Mark
2012-01-01
An easy-to-understand primer on advanced calculus topics Calculus II is a prerequisite for many popular college majors, including pre-med, engineering, and physics. Calculus II For Dummies offers expert instruction, advice, and tips to help second semester calculus students get a handle on the subject and ace their exams. It covers intermediate calculus topics in plain English, featuring in-depth coverage of integration, including substitution, integration techniques and when to use them, approximate integration, and improper integrals. This hands-on guide also covers sequences and series, wit
Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans
Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans What is Mycobacterium bovis ? In the United States, the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in people are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( ...
Ogawa, Shigeyoshi
2017-01-01
This book presents an elementary introduction to the theory of noncausal stochastic calculus that arises as a natural alternative to the standard theory of stochastic calculus founded in 1944 by Professor Kiyoshi Itô. As is generally known, Itô Calculus is essentially based on the "hypothesis of causality", asking random functions to be adapted to a natural filtration generated by Brownian motion or more generally by square integrable martingale. The intention in this book is to establish a stochastic calculus that is free from this "hypothesis of causality". To be more precise, a noncausal theory of stochastic calculus is developed in this book, based on the noncausal integral introduced by the author in 1979. After studying basic properties of the noncausal stochastic integral, various concrete problems of noncausal nature are considered, mostly concerning stochastic functional equations such as SDE, SIE, SPDE, and others, to show not only the necessity of such theory of noncausal stochastic calculus but ...
Lenczewski, Romuald
2001-01-01
By introducing a color filtration to the multiplicity space, we extend the quantum Ito calculus on multiple symmetric Fock space to the framework of filtered adapted biprocesses. In this new notion of adaptedness,``classical'' time filtration makes the integrands similar to adapted processes, whereas ``quantum'' color filtration produces their deviations from adaptedness. An important feature of this calculus, which we call filtered stochastic calculus, is that it provides an explicit interpo...
Initialized Fractional Calculus
Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.
2000-01-01
This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.
Sauerheber, Richard D.
2012-01-01
Methods of teaching the Calculus are presented in honour of Sir Isaac Newton, by discussing an extension of his original proofs and discoveries. The methods, requested by Newton to be used that reflect the historical sequence of the discovered Fundamental Theorems, allow first-time students to grasp quickly the basics of the Calculus from its…
Essential calculus with applications
Silverman, Richard A
1989-01-01
Rigorous but accessible text introduces undergraduate-level students to necessary background math, then clear coverage of differential calculus, differentiation as a tool, integral calculus, integration as a tool, and functions of several variables. Numerous problems and a supplementary section of ""Hints and Answers."" 1977 edition.
Goodrich, Christopher
2015-01-01
This text provides the first comprehensive treatment of the discrete fractional calculus. Experienced researchers will find the text useful as a reference for discrete fractional calculus and topics of current interest. Students who are interested in learning about discrete fractional calculus will find this text to provide a useful starting point. Several exercises are offered at the end of each chapter and select answers have been provided at the end of the book. The presentation of the content is designed to give ample flexibility for potential use in a myriad of courses and for independent study. The novel approach taken by the authors includes a simultaneous treatment of the fractional- and integer-order difference calculus (on a variety of time scales, including both the usual forward and backwards difference operators). The reader will acquire a solid foundation in the classical topics of the discrete calculus while being introduced to exciting recent developments, bringing them to the frontiers of the...
Ryan, Mark
2014-01-01
Slay the calculus monster with this user-friendly guide Calculus For Dummies, 2nd Edition makes calculus manageable-even if you're one of the many students who sweat at the thought of it. By breaking down differentiation and integration into digestible concepts, this guide helps you build a stronger foundation with a solid understanding of the big ideas at work. This user-friendly math book leads you step-by-step through each concept, operation, and solution, explaining the ""how"" and ""why"" in plain English instead of math-speak. Through relevant instruction and practical examples, you'll s
The stochastic quality calculus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zeng, Kebin; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis
2014-01-01
We introduce the Stochastic Quality Calculus in order to model and reason about distributed processes that rely on each other in order to achieve their overall behaviour. The calculus supports broadcast communication in a truly concurrent setting. Generally distributed delays are associated...... with the outputs and at the same time the inputs impose constraints on the waiting times. Consequently, the expected inputs may not be available when needed and therefore the calculus allows to express the absence of data.The communication delays are expressed by general distributions and the resulting semantics...
Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This paper presents the Logical Process Calculus (LPC), a formalism that supports heterogeneous system specifications containing both operational and declarative subspecifications. Syntactically, LPC extends Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems with operators from the alternation-free linear-time mu-calculus (LT(mu)). Semantically, LPC is equipped with a behavioral preorder that generalizes Hennessy's and DeNicola's must-testing preorder as well as LT(mu's) satisfaction relation, while being compositional for all LPC operators. From a technical point of view, the new calculus is distinguished by the inclusion of: (1) both minimal and maximal fixed-point operators and (2) an unimple-mentability predicate on process terms, which tags inconsistent specifications. The utility of LPC is demonstrated by means of an example highlighting the benefits of heterogeneous system specification.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ody, Heinrich; Fränzle, Martin; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt
2016-01-01
To formally reason about the temporal quality of systems discounting was introduced to CTL and LTL. However, these logic are discrete and they cannot express duration properties. In this work we introduce discounting for a variant of Duration Calculus. We prove decidability of model checking...... for a useful fragment of discounted Duration Calculus formulas on timed automata under mild assumptions. Further, we provide an extensive example to show the usefulness of the fragment....
Encoding the Factorisation Calculus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reuben N. S. Rowe
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Jay and Given-Wilson have recently introduced the Factorisation (or SF- calculus as a minimal fundamental model of intensional computation. It is a combinatory calculus containing a special combinator, F, which is able to examine the internal structure of its first argument. The calculus is significant in that as well as being combinatorially complete it also exhibits the property of structural completeness, i.e. it is able to represent any function on terms definable using pattern matching on arbitrary normal forms. In particular, it admits a term that can decide the structural equality of any two arbitrary normal forms. Since SF-calculus is combinatorially complete, it is clearly at least as powerful as the more familiar and paradigmatic Turing-powerful computational models of Lambda Calculus and Combinatory Logic. Its relationship to these models in the converse direction is less obvious, however. Jay and Given-Wilson have suggested that SF-calculus is strictly more powerful than the aforementioned models, but a detailed study of the connections between these models is yet to be undertaken. This paper begins to bridge that gap by presenting a faithful encoding of the Factorisation Calculus into the Lambda Calculus preserving both reduction and strong normalisation. The existence of such an encoding is a new result. It also suggests that there is, in some sense, an equivalence between the former model and the latter. We discuss to what extent our result constitutes an equivalence by considering it in the context of some previously defined frameworks for comparing computational power and expressiveness.
Christensen, Mark J
1981-01-01
Computing for Calculus focuses on BASIC as the computer language used for solving calculus problems.This book discusses the input statement for numeric variables, advanced intrinsic functions, numerical estimation of limits, and linear approximations and tangents. The elementary estimation of areas, numerical and string arrays, line drawing algorithms, and bisection and secant method are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the implicit functions and differentiation, upper and lower rectangular estimates, Simpson's rule and parabolic approximation, and interpolating polynomials. Other to
Anti-calculus and whitening toothpastes.
van Loveren, Cor; Duckworth, Ralph M
2013-01-01
In terms of novel formulations, there seems to have been a shift in emphasis from anti-caries/anti-gingivitis to anti-calculus/whitening toothpastes in recent years. The anti-calculus and whitening effects of toothpastes are to some extent based on the same active ingredients: compounds of high affinity for tooth mineral. Due to this affinity, crystal growth may be hindered (anti-calculus) and chromophores be displaced (whitening). Besides these common ingredients, both types of toothpaste may contain agents specifically aimed at each condition. Clinical studies have shown that these active ingredients can be successfully formulated in fluoride toothpastes to give significant reductions in supragingival calculus and stain formation and facilitate their removal. Some of the ingredients are formulated in toothpastes that additionally contain anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis ingredients, making these toothpastes (together with the fluoride) truly multi-functional. The development of these products is not straightforward because of interaction between formulation components and because the active ingredients must maintain their beneficial characteristics during the shelf life of the paste. Neither a therapeutic benefit (in terms of less gingivitis or less caries) nor a societal benefit (in terms of less treatment demand) has been demonstrated as a result of the anti-calculus and whitening effects of toothpastes. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Putting Differentials Back into Calculus
Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corrine A.
2010-01-01
We argue that the use of differentials in introductory calculus courses is useful and provides a unifying theme, leading to a coherent view of the calculus. Along the way, we meet several interpretations of differentials, some better than others.
Noncommutative operational calculus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Henry E. Heatherly
1999-12-01
Full Text Available Oliver Heaviside's operational calculus was placed on a rigorous mathematical basis by Jan Mikusinski, who constructed an algebraic setting for the operational methods. In this paper, we generalize Mikusi'{n}ski's methods to solve linear ordinary differential equations in which the unknown is a matrix- or linear operator-valued function. Because these functions can be zero-divisors and do not necessarily commute, Mikusi'{n}ski's one-dimensional calculus cannot be used. The noncommuative operational calculus developed here,however, is used to solve a wide class of such equations. In addition, we provide new proofs of existence and uniqueness theorems for certain matrix- and operator valued Volterra integral and integro-differential equations. Several examples are given which demonstrate these new methods.
Topology, calculus and approximation
Komornik, Vilmos
2017-01-01
Presenting basic results of topology, calculus of several variables, and approximation theory which are rarely treated in a single volume, this textbook includes several beautiful, but almost forgotten, classical theorems of Descartes, Erdős, Fejér, Stieltjes, and Turán. The exposition style of Topology, Calculus and Approximation follows the Hungarian mathematical tradition of Paul Erdős and others. In the first part, the classical results of Alexandroff, Cantor, Hausdorff, Helly, Peano, Radon, Tietze and Urysohn illustrate the theories of metric, topological and normed spaces. Following this, the general framework of normed spaces and Carathéodory's definition of the derivative are shown to simplify the statement and proof of various theorems in calculus and ordinary differential equations. The third and final part is devoted to interpolation, orthogonal polynomials, numerical integration, asymptotic expansions and the numerical solution of algebraic and differential equations. Students of both pure an...
Ayres, Frank
1999-01-01
Students can gain a thorough understanding of differential and integral calculus with this powerful study tool. They'll also find the related analytic geometry much easier. The clear review of algebra and geometry in this edition will make calculus easier for students who wish to strengthen their knowledge in these areas. Updated to meet the emphasis in current courses, this new edition of a popular guide--more than 104,000 copies were bought of the prior edition--includes problems and examples using graphing calculators.
Schaaf, William L
2011-01-01
Comprehensive but concise, this introduction to differential and integral calculus covers all the topics usually included in a first course. The straightforward development places less emphasis on mathematical rigor, and the informal manner of presentation sets students at ease. Many carefully worked-out examples illuminate the text, in addition to numerous diagrams, problems, and answers.Bearing the needs of beginners constantly in mind, the treatment covers all the basic concepts of calculus: functions, derivatives, differentiation of algebraic and transcendental functions, partial different
Sigdel, G; Agarwal, A; Keshaw, B W
2014-01-01
Urethral calculi are rare forms of urolithiasis. Majority of the calculi are migratory from urinary bladder or upper urinary tract. Primary urethral calculi usually occur in presence of urethral stricture or diverticulum. In this article we report a case of a giant posterior urethral calculus measuring 7x3x2 cm in a 47 years old male. Patient presented with acute retention of urine which was preceded by burning micturition and dribbling of urine for one week. The calculus was pushed in to the bladder through the cystoscope and was removed by suprapubic cystolithotomy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Philip Atzemoglou
2014-12-01
Full Text Available We present a novel lambda calculus that casts the categorical approach to the study of quantum protocols into the rich and well established tradition of type theory. Our construction extends the linear typed lambda calculus with a linear negation of "trivialised" De Morgan duality. Reduction is realised through explicit substitution, based on a symmetric notion of binding of global scope, with rules acting on the entire typing judgement instead of on a specific subterm. Proofs of subject reduction, confluence, strong normalisation and consistency are provided, and the language is shown to be an internal language for dagger compact categories.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Vigo, Roberto
2013-01-01
A main challenge of programming component-based software is to ensure that the components continue to behave in a reasonable manner even when communication becomes unreliable. We propose a process calculus, the Quality Calculus, for programming software components where it becomes natural to plan...... for default behaviour in case the ideal behaviour fails due to unreliable communication and thereby to increase the quality of service offered by the systems. The development is facilitated by a SAT-based robustness analysis to determine whether or not the code is vulnerable to unreliable communication...
Mycoplasma bovis escapes bovine neutrophil extracellular traps.
Gondaira, Satoshi; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Nishi, Koji; Iwano, Hidetomo; Nagahata, Hajime
2017-02-01
Mycoplasma bovis is a significant pathogen in bovine infections including mastitis, pneumonia, arthritis and otitis media, and is the cause of large economic losses in beef and dairy farms. During infection with M. bovis, recruited neutrophils are not sufficient to eradicate M. bovis from the infection site. The release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is one of the innate immune responses of neutrophils but the effect of M. bovis on NET formation by bovine neutrophils has not yet been clarified. The objective of our research was to examine the effect of M. bovis on NET formation and the killing activity of bovine neutrophils. We showed that NETs were not detected following stimulation of neutrophils by M. bovis alone or with Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetat (PMA). Reactive oxygen species production is essential for NET formation but the levels in neutrophils stimulated with M. bovis at multiplicity of infections of 10, 100, and 1000 were similar to those of unstimulated cells. NET formation induced by PMA stimulated neutrophils disappeared following the addition of M. bovis but this phenomenon was not observed when ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was added. M. bovis colony forming units were significantly decreased by the addition of EDTA in the presence of NETs. Our results suggested that M. bovis infection alone did not induce NETs and that M. bovis nucleases, as hypothesis-based, contributed to resistance against the killing activity of NETs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mardare, Radu Iulian; Xue, Bingtian
2016-01-01
We introduce a version of the probabilistic µ-calculus (PMC) built on top of a probabilistic modal logic that allows encoding n-ary inequational conditions on transition probabilities. PMC extends previously studied calculi and we prove that, despite its expressiveness, it enjoys a series of good...... is innovative in many aspects combining various techniques from topology and model theory....
Domingues, João Caramalho
2008-01-01
Silvestre François Lacroix (Paris, 1765 - ibid., 1843) was a most influential mathematical book author. His most famous work is the three-volume Traité du calcul différentiel et du calcul intégral (1797-1800; 2nd ed. 1810-1819) – an encyclopedic appraisal of 18th-century calculus which remained the standard reference on the subject through much of the 19th century, in spite of Cauchy's reform of the subject in the 1820's. Lacroix and the Calculus is the first major study of Lacroix’s large Traité. It uses the unique and massive bibliography given by Lacroix to explore late 18th-century calculus, and the way it is reflected in Lacroix’s account. Several particular aspects are addressed in detail, including: the foundations of differential calculus, analytic and differential geometry, conceptions of the integral, and types of solutions of differential equations (singular/complete/general integrals, geometrical interpretations, and generality of arbitrary functions). Lacroix’s large Traité... was a...
Calculus Courses' Assessment Data
Pauna, Matti
2017-01-01
In this paper we describe computer-aided assessment methods used in online Calculus courses and the data they produce. The online learning environment collects a lot of time-stamped data about every action a student makes. Assessment data can be harnessed into use as a feedback, predictor, and recommendation facility for students and instructors.…
Kohatsu, Arturo; Miquel, Montero
2003-01-01
This article is an introduction to Malliavin Calculus for practitioners. We treat one specific application to the calculation of greeks in Finance. We consider also the kernel density method to compute greeks and an extension of the Vega index called the local vega index.
Fractional calculus in bioengineering.
Magin, Richard L
2004-01-01
Fractional calculus (integral and differential operations of noninteger order) is not often used to model biological systems. Although the basic mathematical ideas were developed long ago by the mathematicians Leibniz (1695), Liouville (1834), Riemann (1892), and others and brought to the attention of the engineering world by Oliver Heaviside in the 1890s, it was not until 1974 that the first book on the topic was published by Oldham and Spanier. Recent monographs and symposia proceedings have highlighted the application of fractional calculus in physics, continuum mechanics, signal processing, and electromagnetics, but with few examples of applications in bioengineering. This is surprising because the methods of fractional calculus, when defined as a Laplace or Fourier convolution product, are suitable for solving many problems in biomedical research. For example, early studies by Cole (1933) and Hodgkin (1946) of the electrical properties of nerve cell membranes and the propagation of electrical signals are well characterized by differential equations of fractional order. The solution involves a generalization of the exponential function to the Mittag-Leffler function, which provides a better fit to the observed cell membrane data. A parallel application of fractional derivatives to viscoelastic materials establishes, in a natural way, hereditary integrals and the power law (Nutting/Scott Blair) stress-strain relationship for modeling biomaterials. In this review, I will introduce the idea of fractional operations by following the original approach of Heaviside, demonstrate the basic operations of fractional calculus on well-behaved functions (step, ramp, pulse, sinusoid) of engineering interest, and give specific examples from electrochemistry, physics, bioengineering, and biophysics. The fractional derivative accurately describes natural phenomena that occur in such common engineering problems as heat transfer, electrode/electrolyte behavior, and sub
• Keywords: bovine tuberculosis; Mycobacterium bovis; breath analysis; volatile organic compound; gas chromatography; mass spectrometry; NaNose • Introduction: This presentation describes two studies exploring the use of breath VOCs to identify Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle. • Methods: ...
Duration Calculus: Logical Foundations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Chaochen, Zhou
1997-01-01
The Duration Calculus (abbreviated DC) represents a logical approach to formal design of real-time systems, where real numbers are used to model time and Boolean valued functions over time are used to model states and events of real-time systems. Since it introduction, DC has been applied to many...... case studies and it has been extended in several directions. The aim of this paper is to provide a thorough presentation of the logic.......The Duration Calculus (abbreviated DC) represents a logical approach to formal design of real-time systems, where real numbers are used to model time and Boolean valued functions over time are used to model states and events of real-time systems. Since it introduction, DC has been applied to many...
2012-01-01
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Calculus I covers functions, limits, basic derivatives, and integrals.
Bell, Denis R
2006-01-01
This introduction to Malliavin's stochastic calculus of variations is suitable for graduate students and professional mathematicians. Author Denis R. Bell particularly emphasizes the problem that motivated the subject's development, with detailed accounts of the different forms of the theory developed by Stroock and Bismut, discussions of the relationship between these two approaches, and descriptions of a variety of applications.The first chapter covers enough technical background to make the subsequent material accessible to readers without specialized knowledge of stochastic analysis. Succe
Woodward, Ernest
2012-01-01
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Pre-Calculus reviews sets, numbers, operations and properties, coordinate geometry, fundamental algebraic topics, solving equations and inequalities, functions, trigonometry, exponents
Tucker, Jerry H.; Tapia, Moiez A.; Bennett, A. Wayne
1988-01-01
The concept of Boolean integration is developed, and different Boolean integral operators are introduced. Given the changes in a desired function in terms of the changes in its arguments, the ways of 'integrating' (i.e. realizing) such a function, if it exists, are presented. The necessary and sufficient conditions for integrating, in different senses, the expression specifying the changes are obtained. Boolean calculus has applications in the design of logic circuits and in fault analysis.
REA, Editors of
2012-01-01
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Calculus III includes vector analysis, real valued functions, partial differentiation, multiple integrations, vector fields, and infinite series.
Treiman, Jay S
2014-01-01
Calculus with Vectors grew out of a strong need for a beginning calculus textbook for undergraduates who intend to pursue careers in STEM. fields. The approach introduces vector-valued functions from the start, emphasizing the connections between one-variable and multi-variable calculus. The text includes early vectors and early transcendentals and includes a rigorous but informal approach to vectors. Examples and focused applications are well presented along with an abundance of motivating exercises. All three-dimensional graphs have rotatable versions included as extra source materials and may be freely downloaded and manipulated with Maple Player; a free Maple Player App is available for the iPad on iTunes. The approaches taken to topics such as the derivation of the derivatives of sine and cosine, the approach to limits, and the use of "tables" of integration have been modified from the standards seen in other textbooks in order to maximize the ease with which students may comprehend the material. Additio...
Introduction to the operational calculus
Berg, Lothar
2013-01-01
Introduction to the Operational Calculus is a translation of ""Einfuhrung in die Operatorenrechnung, Second Edition."" This book deals with Heaviside's interpretation, on the Laplace integral, and on Jan Mikusinki's fundamental work ""Operational Calculus."" Throughout the book, basic algebraic concepts appear as aids to understanding some relevant points of the subject. An important field for research in analysis is asymptotic properties. This text also discusses examples to show the potentialities in applying operational calculus that run beyond ordinary differential equations with constant
Polynomial Calculus: Rethinking the Role of Calculus in High Schools
Grant, Melva R.; Crombie, William; Enderson, Mary; Cobb, Nell
2016-01-01
Access to advanced study in mathematics, in general, and to calculus, in particular, depends in part on the conceptual architecture of these knowledge domains. In this paper, we outline an alternative conceptual architecture for elementary calculus. Our general strategy is to separate basic concepts from the particular advanced techniques used in…
Early Vector Calculus: A Path through Multivariable Calculus
Robertson, Robert L.
2013-01-01
The divergence theorem, Stokes' theorem, and Green's theorem appear near the end of calculus texts. These are important results, but many instructors struggle to reach them. We describe a pathway through a standard calculus text that allows instructors to emphasize these theorems. (Contains 2 figures.)
Applications of infinitary lambda calculus
Barendregt, H.; Klop, J.W.
2009-01-01
We present an introduction to infinitary lambda calculus, highlighting its main properties. Subsequently we give three applications of infinitary lambda calculus. The first addresses the non-definability of Surjective Pairing, which was shown by the first author not to be definable in lambda
Scherger, Nicole
2012-01-01
Of the most universal applications in integral calculus are those involved with finding volumes of solids of revolution. These profound problems are typically taught with traditional approaches of the disk and shell methods, after which most calculus curriculums will additionally cover arc length and surfaces of revolution. Even in these visibly…
Calculus in the Middle School?
Barger, Rita H.; McCoy, Ann C.
2010-01-01
This article presents an example of how middle school teachers can lay a foundation for calculus. Although many middle school activities connect directly to calculus concepts, the authors have decided to look in depth at only one: the concept of change. They will show how teachers can lead their students to see and appreciate the calculus…
Provability Calculus of Constructions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nyblad, Kasten
This thesis presents a type system, Provability Calculus of Constructions (PCoC) that can be used for the formalization of logic. In a theorem prover based on the system, the user can extend the prover with new inference rules in a logically consistent manner. This is done by representing PCo......C as values and data types within PCoC. The new feature of PCoC is that results of the representation of PCoC can be lifted to PCoC itself. The lifting is fully formalized in PCoC, and the logic therefore supports reflection....
Advanced calculus problem solver
REA, Editors of
2012-01-01
Each Problem Solver is an insightful and essential study and solution guide chock-full of clear, concise problem-solving gems. All your questions can be found in one convenient source from one of the most trusted names in reference solution guides. More useful, more practical, and more informative, these study aids are the best review books and textbook companions available. Nothing remotely as comprehensive or as helpful exists in their subject anywhere. Perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.Here in this highly useful reference is the finest overview of advanced calculus currently av
2012-01-01
Get all you need to know with Super Reviews! Each Super Review is packed with in-depth, student-friendly topic reviews that fully explain everything about the subject. The Calculus I Super Review includes a review of functions, limits, basic derivatives, the definite integral, combinations, and permutations. Take the Super Review quizzes to see how much you've learned - and where you need more study. Makes an excellent study aid and textbook companion. Great for self-study!DETAILS- From cover to cover, each in-depth topic review is easy-to-follow and easy-to-grasp - Perfect when preparing for
Calculus problems and solutions
Ginzburg, Abraham
2011-01-01
Ideal for self-instruction as well as for classroom use, this text helps students improve their understanding and problem-solving skills in analysis, analytic geometry, and higher algebra. More than 1,200 problems appear in the text, with concise explanations of the basic notions and theorems to be used in their solution. Many are followed by complete answers; solutions for the others appear at the end of the book. Topics include sequences, functions of a single variable, limit of a function, differential calculus for functions of a single variable, fundamental theorems and applications of dif
Leveraging Prior Calculus Study with Embedded Review
Nikolov, Margaret C.; Withers, Wm. Douglas
2016-01-01
We propose a new course structure to address the needs of college students with previous calculus study but no course validations as an alternative to repeating the first year of calculus. Students are introduced directly to topics from Calculus III unpreceded by a formal review of topics from Calculus I or II, but with additional syllabus time…
Cryopreservation of Mycobacterium bovis isolates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cássia Yumi Ikuta
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Research, development of new biotechnological methods, diagnostic tests, confirmation of results, and reinvestigations are possible because of the availability of well-preserved living organisms maintained without any changes. Cryopreservation is a simpler, more reliable and long-term stable method for culture maintenance. Storage temperature and composition of the suspending vehicle are factors that affect the viability of mycobacterial strains. Three vehicles and three storage temperatures were evaluated to define a suitable cryoprotective medium for the preservation of Mycobacterium bovis strains. Colonies of sixteen M. bovis isolates were used to prepare the suspensions, which were then added to three vehicles: sterile 0.85% saline solution (SS, Middlebrook 7H9 broth (7H9, and Middlebrook 7H9 broth with sodium pyruvate (7H9p replacing glycerol. Aliquots of these suspensions were frozen by three different methods, directly in the -20°C freezer, directly in the -80°C freezer, and at -196°C by immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN. The frozen aliquots were thawed at room temperature after 45, 90 and 120 days. Mycobacterial viability was assessed by counting the living cells on plates of Stonebrink medium before and after the freezing procedure. Storage at -20°C exhibited a lower recovery of M. bovis compared to storage at -80°C (Dunn’s test, p=0.0018 and LN (Dunn’s test, p=0.0352. There was no statistically significant difference between storage at -80°C and in LN (Dunn’s test, p=0.1403, yet -80°C showed better results than LN. All three suspending vehicles showed no statistically significant difference in terms of viability (Friedman’s test, p=0.7765. Given the low loss proportion of 5% during storage at -20°C and the high cost equipment required for storage at -80°C and LN, we recommend storage at -20°C or -80°C, when this is available, for preservation of M. bovis field strains.
A generalized nonlocal vector calculus
Alali, Bacim; Liu, Kuo; Gunzburger, Max
2015-10-01
A nonlocal vector calculus was introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) that has proved useful for the analysis of the peridynamics model of nonlocal mechanics and nonlocal diffusion models. A formulation is developed that provides a more general setting for the nonlocal vector calculus that is independent of particular nonlocal models. It is shown that general nonlocal calculus operators are integral operators with specific integral kernels. General nonlocal calculus properties are developed, including nonlocal integration by parts formula and Green's identities. The nonlocal vector calculus introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) is shown to be recoverable from the general formulation as a special example. This special nonlocal vector calculus is used to reformulate the peridynamics equation of motion in terms of the nonlocal gradient operator and its adjoint. A new example of nonlocal vector calculus operators is introduced, which shows the potential use of the general formulation for general nonlocal models.
Kuang, Yang
2012-01-01
The fun and easy way to learn pre-calculus Getting ready for calculus but still feel a bit confused? Have no fear. Pre-Calculus For Dummies is an un-intimidating, hands-on guide that walks you through all the essential topics, from absolute value and quadratic equations to logarithms and exponential functions to trig identities and matrix operations. With this guide's help you'll quickly and painlessly get a handle on all of the concepts - not just the number crunching - and understand how to perform all pre-calc tasks, from graphing to tackling proofs. You'll also get a new appreciation for
The calculus a genetic approach
Toeplitz, Otto
2007-01-01
When first published posthumously in 1963, this book presented a radically different approach to the teaching of calculus. In sharp contrast to the methods of his time, Otto Toeplitz did not teach calculus as a static system of techniques and facts to be memorized. Instead, he drew on his knowledge of the history of mathematics and presented calculus as an organic evolution of ideas beginning with the discoveries of Greek scholars, such as Archimedes, Pythagoras, and Euclid, and developing through the centuries in the work of Kepler, Galileo, Fermat, Newton, and Leibniz. Through this unique a
Mathematics for physics with calculus
Das, Biman
2005-01-01
Designed for students who plan to take or who are presently taking calculus-based physics courses. This book will develop necessary mathematical skills and help students gain the competence to use precalculus, calculus, vector algebra, vector calculus, and the statistical analysis of experimental data. Students taking intermediate physics, engineering, and other science courses will also find the book useful-and will be able to use the book as a mathematical resource for these intermediate level courses. The book emphasizes primarily the use of mathematical techniques and mathematical concepts in Physics and does not go into their rigorous developments.
Advanced calculus a transition to analysis
Dence, Thomas P
2010-01-01
Designed for a one-semester advanced calculus course, Advanced Calculus explores the theory of calculus and highlights the connections between calculus and real analysis -- providing a mathematically sophisticated introduction to functional analytical concepts. The text is interesting to read and includes many illustrative worked-out examples and instructive exercises, and precise historical notes to aid in further exploration of calculus. Ancillary list: * Companion website, Ebook- http://www.elsevierdirect.com/product.jsp?isbn=9780123749550 * Student Solutions Manual- To come * Instructor
Classroom Integral Calculus: Some Useful Digressions When Teaching Integral Calculus.
Acosta, Daniel J.; Wills, Randall
2002-01-01
Outlines ideas and exercises for two topics that accompany the standard treatment of integral calculus. Emphasizes intuition to help facilitate student comprehension of the definite integral as a limit of Riemann Sums. (Author/MM)
Lei, Qian
2017-01-01
This book offers a comprehensive and systematic review of the latest research findings in the area of intuitionistic fuzzy calculus. After introducing the intuitionistic fuzzy numbers’ operational laws and their geometrical and algebraic properties, the book defines the concept of intuitionistic fuzzy functions and presents the research on the derivative, differential, indefinite integral and definite integral of intuitionistic fuzzy functions. It also discusses some of the methods that have been successfully used to deal with continuous intuitionistic fuzzy information or data, which are different from the previous aggregation operators focusing on discrete information or data. Mainly intended for engineers and researchers in the fields of fuzzy mathematics, operations research, information science and management science, this book is also a valuable textbook for postgraduate and advanced undergraduate students alike.
Stochastic calculus and applications
Cohen, Samuel N
2015-01-01
Completely revised and greatly expanded, the new edition of this text takes readers who have been exposed to only basic courses in analysis through the modern general theory of random processes and stochastic integrals as used by systems theorists, electronic engineers and, more recently, those working in quantitative and mathematical finance. Building upon the original release of this title, this text will be of great interest to research mathematicians and graduate students working in those fields, as well as quants in the finance industry. New features of this edition include: End of chapter exercises; New chapters on basic measure theory and Backward SDEs; Reworked proofs, examples and explanatory material; Increased focus on motivating the mathematics; Extensive topical index. "Such a self-contained and complete exposition of stochastic calculus and applications fills an existing gap in the literature. The book can be recommended for first-year graduate studies. It will be useful for all who intend to wo...
Stochastic calculus with infinitesimals
Herzberg, Frederik
2013-01-01
Stochastic analysis is not only a thriving area of pure mathematics with intriguing connections to partial differential equations and differential geometry. It also has numerous applications in the natural and social sciences (for instance in financial mathematics or theoretical quantum mechanics) and therefore appears in physics and economics curricula as well. However, existing approaches to stochastic analysis either presuppose various concepts from measure theory and functional analysis or lack full mathematical rigour. This short book proposes to solve the dilemma: By adopting E. Nelson's "radically elementary" theory of continuous-time stochastic processes, it is based on a demonstrably consistent use of infinitesimals and thus permits a radically simplified, yet perfectly rigorous approach to stochastic calculus and its fascinating applications, some of which (notably the Black-Scholes theory of option pricing and the Feynman path integral) are also discussed in the book.
Schistosoma bovis in western Uganda.
Stothard, J R; Lockyer, A E; Kabatereine, N B; Tukahebwa, E M; Kazibwe, F; Rollinson, D; Fenwick, A
2004-09-01
During routine parasitological surveillance and monitoring activities within a National Control Programme for control of human schistosomiasis in Uganda, it was noted that cattle grazing in a water meadow immediately adjacent to Tonya primary school, where the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis in children was in excess of 90%, were unusually emaciated. To test the hypothesis that there may have been an anthropozoonotic focus of Schistosoma mansoni within the local herd, a young female heifer, clearly emaciated and c. 8 months old, was slaughtered from which schistosome worms were later recovered by dissection. As female worms inspected by microscopy were not gravid, morphological identification proved inconclusive but analysis of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA sequences from these worms identified them as Schistosoma bovis Sonsino, 1876. This is the first substantiated report of S. bovis from Lake Albert, western Uganda. Further epidemiological surveys are needed to clarify the extent of bovine schistosomiasis within this region, particularly so since this lakeside plain has been earmarked as a future game reserve.
Differential calculus and its applications
Field, Michael J
2013-01-01
Based on undergraduate courses in advanced calculus, the treatment covers a wide range of topics, from soft functional analysis and finite-dimensional linear algebra to differential equations on submanifolds of Euclidean space. 1976 edition.
Cartooning in Algebra and Calculus
Moseley, L. Jeneva
2014-01-01
This article discusses how teachers can create cartoons for undergraduate math classes, such as college algebra and basic calculus. The practice of cartooning for teaching can be helpful for communication with students and for students' conceptual understanding.
A Formal Calculus for Categories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cáccamo, Mario José
This dissertation studies the logic underlying category theory. In particular we present a formal calculus for reasoning about universal properties. The aim is to systematise judgements about functoriality and naturality central to categorical reasoning. The calculus is based on a language which...... extends the typed lambda calculus with new binders to represent universal constructions. The types of the languages are interpreted as locally small categories and the expressions represent functors. The logic supports a syntactic treatment of universality and duality. Contravariance requires a definition...... of universality generous enough to deal with functors of mixed variance. Ends generalise limits to cover these kinds of functors and moreover provide the basis for a very convenient algebraic manipulation of expressions. The equational theory of the lambda calculus is extended with new rules for the definitions...
Synthesizing controllers from duration calculus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fränzle, Martin
1996-01-01
Duration Calculus is a logic for reasoning about requirements for real-time systems at a high level of abstraction from operational detail, which qualifies it as an interesting starting point for embedded controller design. Such a design activity is generally thought to aim at a control device...... the physical behaviours of which satisfy the requirements formula, i.e. the refinement relation between requirements and implementations is taken to be trajectory inclusion. Due to the abstractness of the vocabulary of Duration Calculus, trajectory inclusion between control requirements and controller designs...... for embedded controller design and exploit this fact for developing an automatic procedure for controller synthesis from specifications formalized in Duration Calculus. As far as we know, this is the first positive result concerning feasibility of automatic synthesis from dense-time Duration Calculus....
Testicular calculus: A rare case.
Sen, Volkan; Bozkurt, Ozan; Demır, Omer; Tuna, Burcin; Yorukoglu, Kutsal; Esen, Adil
2015-01-01
Testicular calculus is an extremely rare case with unknown etiology and pathogenesis. To our knowledge, here we report the third case of testicular calculus. A 31-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with painful solid mass in left testis. After diagnostic work-up for a possible testicular tumour, he underwent inguinal orchiectomy and histopathologic examination showed a testicular calculus. Case hypothesis: Solid testicular lesions in young adults generally correspond to testicular cancer. Differential diagnosis should be done carefully. Future implications: In young adults with painful and solid testicular mass with hyperechogenic appearance on scrotal ultrasonography, testicular calculus must be kept in mind in differential diagnosis. Further reports on this topic may let us do more clear recommendations about the etiology and treatment of this rare disease.
Catwalk: First-Semester Calculus.
Speiser, Bob; Walter, Chuck
1994-01-01
Describes the use of time-lapse photographs of a running cat as a model to investigate the concepts of function and derivative in a college calculus course. Discusses student difficulties and implications for teachers. (MKR)
Neutrosophic Precalculus and Neutrosophic Calculus
Florentin Smarandache
2015-01-01
Neutrosophic Analysis is a generalization of Set Analysis, which in its turn is a generalization of Interval Analysis. Neutrosophic Precalculus is referred to indeterminate staticity, while Neutrosophic Calculus is the mathematics of indeterminate change. The Neutrosophic Precalculus and Neutrosophic Calculus can be developed in many ways, depending on the types of indeterminacy one has and on the methods used to deal with such indeterminacy. In this book, the author presents a few examples o...
Abortion associated with Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) in a bison (Bison bison) herd
Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) has recently emerged as a significant health threat in bison and is an increasing concern and source of economic loss for producers. Clinical manifestations of infection documented in bison include pneumonia, respiratory distress and polyarthritis. The current study des...
Studies on Schistosoma bovis in Ethiopia.
Lo, C T; Lemma, A
1975-09-01
Schistosoma bovis occurs in at least seven of the 14 rovinces of Ethiopia. Results of faecal and snail surveys in three foci are reported. Adwa. One collection showed that nine out of 26 bulinids were infected with S. bovis. The snail host was a tetraploid form of Bulinus (n = 36). The examination of 200 specimens of cattle faces revealed no S. bovis eggs, which was attributed to poor technique or light infection. Gewani. The snail host was Bulinus abyssinicus, which was also infected with S. haematobium, the combined infection rate being 60%. S. bovis eggs were seen in 1-5% (3/197) of specimens of cattle faeces. Lake Awassa. Among 715 bulinids(a mixture of diploid (n = 18) and tetraploid (n = 36) forms), 22 were infected with S. bovis. Infected snails all belonged to the tetraploid form. Infection in cattle faeces was 5-5%(11/200). The Fasciola infection rates in these three areas were 29%, 78% and 60% respectively. Susceptibility of laboratory and wild animals to the Gewani and Lake Awassa strains of S. bovis was investigated. Combined results show that there are at least five species of wild rodents in Ethiopia which are susceptible to S. bovis: Arvicanthis niloticus, Praomys albipes, Rattus rattus, Mastomys coucha and Lophuromys flavopunctatus, in addition to hamsters, white mice, rabbits and guinea pigs. Immature female worms resembling S. bovis were recovered from a goat and a sheep exposed to a mixture of S. bovis and S. haematobium cercariae shed by naturally infected snails. Using the same mixture of cercariae, a Gelada baboon (Theropithecus gelada) could be infected by both schistosomes, but a dog was completely refractory. ABSCESS. Some of these inconclusive results are thought to be due to a unisexual infection. The Gewani strain of SEWANI STRAIN OF S. bovis had a wider range of snail hosts than the Adwa and Awassa strains, covering the tropicus, truncatus and africanus groups of Bulinus. The Adwa and Awassa strains could infect only members of the
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
UV-vis spectra showing solvent effects on compounds (6). Figure S4. UV-vis spectra showing solvent effects on compounds (9). Figure S5. UV-vis spectra showing solvent ___, acidic--- and basic -□- effects on compound (8) in CH2Cl2 solution. Table S1. 1H and 13C NMR spectral data of salicylaldimine Schiff bases (5-8).
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
De Fraine, Bruno; Ernst, Erik; Südholt, Mario
2012-01-01
Aspect-oriented programming (AOP) has produced interesting language designs, but also ad hoc semantics that needs clarification. We contribute to this clarification with a calculus that models essential AOP, both simpler and more general than existing formalizations. In AOP, advice may intercept......-oriented code. Two well-known pointcut categories, call and execution, are commonly considered similar.We formally expose their differences, and resolve the associated soundness problem. Our calculus includes type ranges, an intuitive and concise alternative to explicit type variables that allows advice...... to be polymorphic over intercepted methods. We use calculus parameters to cover type safety for a wide design space of other features. Type soundness is verified in Coq....
Macuamule, C L S; Wiid, I J; van Helden, P D; Tanner, M; Witthuhn, R C
2016-01-18
Mycobacterium bovis that causes Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) can be transmitted to humans thought consumption of raw and raw fermented milk products from diseased animals. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) used in popular traditional milk products in Africa produce anti-microbial compounds that inhibit some pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. M. bovis BCG is an attenuated non-pathogenic vaccine strain of M. bovis and the aim of the study was to determine the effect of the fermentation process on the survival of M. bovis BCG in milk. M. bovis BCG at concentrations of 6 log CFU/ml was added to products of kefir fermentation. The survival of M. bovis BCG was monitored at 12-h intervals for 72 h by enumerating viable cells on Middlebrook 7H10 agar plates enriched with 2% BD BACTEC PANTA™. M. bovis BCG was increasingly reduced in sterile kefir that was fermented for a period of 24h and longer. In the milk fermented with kefir grains, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei or Lactobacillus casei, the viability of M. bovis BCG was reduced by 0.4 logs after 24h and by 2 logs after 48 h of fermentation. No viable M. bovis BCG was detected after 60 h of fermentation. Results from this study show that long term fermentation under certain conditions may have the potential to inactivate M. bovis BCG present in the milk. However, to ensure safety of fermented milk in Africa, fermentation should be combined with other hurdle technologies such as boiling and milk pasteurisation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
9 CFR 113.409 - Tuberculin-PPD Bovis, Intradermic.
2010-01-01
... REQUIREMENTS Diagnostics and Reagents § 113.409 Tuberculin—PPD Bovis, Intradermic. Tuberculin—PPD Bovis... index Classification 440 mm 2 or greater Satisfactory. Between 360 mm 2 and 440 mm 2 Inconclusive. Less...
Investigating the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
Johnson, Heather L.
2010-01-01
The fundamental theorem of calculus, in its simplified complexity, connects differential and integral calculus. The power of the theorem comes not merely from recognizing it as a mathematical fact but from using it as a systematic tool. As a high school calculus teacher, the author developed and taught lessons on this fundamental theorem that were…
An AP Calculus Classroom Amusement Park
Ferguson, Sarah
2016-01-01
Throughout the school year, AP Calculus teachers strive to teach course content comprehensively and swiftly in an effort to finish all required material before the AP Calculus exam. As early May approaches and the AP Calculus test looms, students and teachers nervously complete lessons, assignments, and assessments to ensure student preparation.…
Elementary calculus an infinitesimal approach
Keisler, H Jerome
2012-01-01
This first-year calculus book is centered around the use of infinitesimals, an approach largely neglected until recently for reasons of mathematical rigor. It exposes students to the intuition that originally led to the calculus, simplifying their grasp of the central concepts of derivatives and integrals. The author also teaches the traditional approach, giving students the benefits of both methods.Chapters 1 through 4 employ infinitesimals to quickly develop the basic concepts of derivatives, continuity, and integrals. Chapter 5 introduces the traditional limit concept, using approximation p
A Calculus for Trust Management
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carbone, Marco; Nielsen, Mogens; Sassone, Vladimiro
2004-01-01
We introduce ctm, a process calculus which embodies a notion of trust for global computing systems. In ctm each principal (location) is equipped with a policy, which determines its legal behaviour, and with a protocol, which allows interactions between principals and the flow of information from...... principals to policies. We elect to formalise policies using a Datalog-like logic, and to express protocols in the process algebra style. This yields an expressive calculus very suitable for the global computing scenarios, and provides a formalisation of notions such as trust evolution. For ctm we define...
Sequent Calculus and Equational Programming
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicolas Guenot
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Proof assistants and programming languages based on type theories usually come in two flavours: one is based on the standard natural deduction presentation of type theory and involves eliminators, while the other provides a syntax in equational style. We show here that the equational approach corresponds to the use of a focused presentation of a type theory expressed as a sequent calculus. A typed functional language is presented, based on a sequent calculus, that we relate to the syntax and internal language of Agda. In particular, we discuss the use of patterns and case splittings, as well as rules implementing inductive reasoning and dependent products and sums.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Filion Lionel G
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, afflicts approximately 50 million cattle worldwide and is detected by the tuberculin skin test (TST. While it has long been recognized that purified protein derivative (PPD tuberculin is composed of a mixture of M. bovis derived protein components, little is known about the quality, relative quantity and identity of the proteins that make up PPD tuberculin. We manufactured a sterile filtered PPD tuberculin (SF-PPD from a nine-week-old M. bovis culture supernatant in order to characterise the culture filtrate proteins (CFP which make up M. bovis PPD tuberculin and to compare the antibody response of M. bovis infected versus M. bovis sensitized cattle. Results SF-PPD resolved into approximately 200 discrete spots using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE while fewer than 65 spots could be discerned from 2-DE gels of tuberculin derived from autoclaved culture supernatant. Two dimensional Western blot analyses indicated that sera from M. bovis sensitized cattle recognized additional SF-PPD antigens as compared to M. bovis infected cattle at seven weeks post infection/sensitization. However, application of a comparative tuberculin skin test resulted in an antibody boosting response to the same set of M. bovis CFPs in both the M. bovis infected and M. bovis sensitized cattle. Conclusions We concluded that it is the heat sterilization of the M. bovis CFPs that causes severe structural changes to the M. bovis proteins. This work suggests that M. bovis infected cattle and cattle artificially sensitized to M. bovis with an injection of heat killed cells exhibit similar antibody responses to M. bovis antigens.
Unusual Giant Prostatic Urethral Calculus
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2010-06-29
Jun 29, 2010 ... They are typically asymptomatic and may be associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and prostatic cancer.[1] Primary prostatic urethral calculi are usually associated with urethral strictures, posterior urethral valve or diverticula. Acute urinary retention might result secondary to a large urethral calculus.
Calculus Student Understanding of Continuity
Wangle, Jayleen Lillian
2013-01-01
Continuity is a central concept in calculus. Yet very few students seem to understand the nature of continuity. The research described was conducted in two stages. Students were asked questions in multiple choice and true/false format regarding function, limit and continuity. These results were used to identify participants as strong, weak or…
Unusual Giant Prostatic Urethral Calculus
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2010-06-29
Jun 29, 2010 ... associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and prostatic cancer.[1] Primary prostatic urethral calculi are ... Giant vesico-prostatic urethral calculus is uncommon. Urethral stones rarely form primarily in the urethra, ... Prostatic calculi associated with hypertrophy of the gland. Group III. Prostatic calculi that ...
Advanced calculus of several variables
Edwards, C H
1995-01-01
Modern conceptual treatment of multivariable calculus, emphasizing the interplay of geometry and analysis via linear algebra and the approximation of nonlinear mappings by linear ones. At the same time, ample attention is paid to the classical applications and computational methods. Hundreds of examples, problems and figures. 1973 edition.
Mathematical Features of the Calculus
Sauerheber, Richard D.
2010-01-01
The fundamental theorems of the calculus describe the relationships between derivatives and integrals of functions. The value of any function at a particular location is the definite derivative of its integral and the definite integral of its derivative. Thus, any value is the magnitude of the slope of the tangent of its integral at that position,…
Reading the World with Calculus
Verzosa, Debbie
2015-01-01
It is now increasingly recognized that mathematics is not a neutral value-free subject. Rather, mathematics can challenge students' taken-for-granted realities and promote action. This article describes two issues, namely deforestation and income inequality. These were specifically chosen because they can be related to a range of calculus concepts…
Portfolio Analysis for Vector Calculus
Kaplan, Samuel R.
2015-01-01
Classic stock portfolio analysis provides an applied context for Lagrange multipliers that undergraduate students appreciate. Although modern methods of portfolio analysis are beyond the scope of vector calculus, classic methods reinforce the utility of this material. This paper discusses how to introduce classic stock portfolio analysis in a…
Constructivized Calculus in College Mathematics
Lawrence, Barbara Ann
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study is to present some of the classical concepts, definitions, and theorems of calculus from the constructivists' point of view in the spirit of the philosophies of L.E.J. Brouwer and Errett Bishop. This presentation will compare the classical statements to the constructivized statements. The method focuses on giving…
Multivariable calculus and differential geometry
Walschap, Gerard
2015-01-01
This text is a modern in-depth study of the subject that includes all the material needed from linear algebra. It then goes on to investigate topics in differential geometry, such as manifolds in Euclidean space, curvature, and the generalization of the fundamental theorem of calculus known as Stokes' theorem.
Stochastic Pi-calculus Revisited
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cardelli, Luca; Mardare, Radu Iulian
2013-01-01
We develop a version of stochastic Pi-calculus with a semantics based on measure theory. We dene the behaviour of a process in a rate environment using measures over the measurable space of processes induced by structural congruence. We extend the stochastic bisimulation to include the concept...
POGIL in the Calculus Classroom
Bénéteau, Catherine; Guadarrama, Zdenka; Guerra, Jill E.; Lenz, Laurie; Lewis, Jennifer E.; Straumanis, Andrei
2017-01-01
In this paper, we will describe the experience of the authors in using process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) in calculus at four institutions across the USA. We will briefly examine how POGIL compares to and fits in with other kinds of inquiry-based learning approaches. In particular, we will first discuss the unique structure of a…
Qutrit Dichromatic Calculus and Its Universality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Quanlong Wang
2014-12-01
Full Text Available We introduce a dichromatic calculus (RG for qutrit systems. We show that the decomposition of the qutrit Hadamard gate is non-unique and not derivable from the dichromatic calculus. As an application of the dichromatic calculus, we depict a quantum algorithm with a single qutrit. Since it is not easy to decompose an arbitrary d by d unitary matrix into Z and X phase gates when d > 2, the proof of the universality of qudit ZX calculus for quantum mechanics is far from trivial. We construct a counterexample to Ranchin's universality proof, and give another proof by Lie theory that the qudit ZX calculus contains all single qudit unitary transformations, which implies that qudit ZX calculus, with qutrit dichromatic calculus as a special case, is universal for quantum mechanics.
Zimpel, Cristina Kraemer; Brandão, Paulo E.; de Souza Filho, Antônio F.; de Souza, Robson F.; Ikuta, Cássia Y.; Ferreira Neto, José Soares; Camargo, Naila C. Soler; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Guimarães, Ana M. S.
2017-01-01
Mycobacterium bovis causes bovine tuberculosis and is the main organism responsible for zoonotic tuberculosis in humans. We performed the sequencing, assembly and annotation of a Brazilian strain of M. bovis named SP38, and performed comparative genomics of M. bovis genomes deposited in GenBank. M. bovis SP38 has a traditional tuberculous mycobacterium genome of 4,347,648 bp, with 65.5% GC, and 4,216 genes. The majority of CDSs (2,805, 69.3%) have predictive function, while 1,206 (30.07%) are hypothetical. For comparative analysis, 31 M. bovis, 32 M. bovis BCG, and 23 Mycobacterium tuberculosis genomes available in GenBank were selected. M. bovis RDs (regions of difference) and Clonal Complexes (CC) were identified in silico. Genome dynamics of bacterial groups were analyzed by gene orthology and polymorphic sites identification. M. bovis polymorphic sites were used to construct a phylogenetic tree. Our RD analyses resulted in the exclusion of three genomes, mistakenly annotated as virulent M. bovis. M. bovis SP38 along with strain 35 represent the first report of CC European 2 in Brazil, whereas two other M. bovis strains failed to be classified within current CC. Results of M. bovis orthologous genes analysis suggest a process of genome remodeling through genomic decay and gene duplication. Quantification, pairwise comparisons and distribution analyses of polymorphic sites demonstrate greater genetic variability of M. tuberculosis when compared to M. bovis and M. bovis BCG (p ≤ 0.05), indicating that currently defined M. tuberculosis lineages are more genetically diverse than M. bovis CC and animal-adapted MTC (M. tuberculosis Complex) species. As expected, polymorphic sites annotation shows that M. bovis BCG are subjected to different evolutionary pressures when compared to virulent mycobacteria. Lastly, M. bovis phylogeny indicates that polymorphic sites may be used as markers of M. bovis lineages in association with CC. Our findings highlight the need to
Factors Associated with Success in College Calculus II
Rosasco, Margaret E.
2013-01-01
Students are entering college having earned credit for college Calculus 1 based on their scores on the College Board's Advanced Placement (AP) Calculus AB exam. Despite being granted credit for college Calculus 1, it is unclear whether these students are adequately prepared for college Calculus 2. College calculus classes are often taught from a…
Invasion of erythrocytes by Babesia bovis
Gaffar, Fasila Razzia
2004-01-01
In this thesis we investigated the invasion of erythrocytes taking place during the asexual erythrocytic blood stage of the apicomplexan parasites Babesia bovis parasite. Host cell invasion by apicomplexan parasites is a complex process requiring multiple receptor-ligand interactions, involving
Mycobacterial adenitis: role of Mycobacterium bovis , non ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... raw animal products and poor knowledge on transmission of tuberculosis. Conclusions: M. bovis caused one out of ten cases of culture positive mycobacterial adenitis. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria were more common than M. tuberculosis (50% and 40% of the cases, respectively). HIV infection and raw animal products ...
Isolation and molecular characterisation of Mycobacterium bovis ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Background: Consumption of raw milk and unpasteurized dairy products is common in Tunisia where bovine tuberculosis remains enzootic. We herein investigated the frequency of M. bovis isolation from raw milk. Methods: Three hundred and six milk samples collected from 102 infected cows in different Tunisian regions ...
Measurable Stochastics for Brane Calculus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giorgio Bacci
2010-10-01
Full Text Available We give a stochastic extension of the Brane Calculus, along the lines of recent work by Cardelli and Mardare. In this presentation, the semantics of a Brane process is a measure of the stochastic distribution of possible derivations. To this end, we first introduce a labelled transition system for Brane Calculus, proving its adequacy w.r.t. the usual reduction semantics. Then, brane systems are presented as Markov processes over the measurable space generated by terms up-to syntactic congruence, and where the measures are indexed by the actions of this new LTS. Finally, we provide a SOS presentation of this stochastic semantics, which is compositional and syntax-driven.
Discrete calculus methods for counting
Mariconda, Carlo
2016-01-01
This book provides an introduction to combinatorics, finite calculus, formal series, recurrences, and approximations of sums. Readers will find not only coverage of the basic elements of the subjects but also deep insights into a range of less common topics rarely considered within a single book, such as counting with occupancy constraints, a clear distinction between algebraic and analytical properties of formal power series, an introduction to discrete dynamical systems with a thorough description of Sarkovskii’s theorem, symbolic calculus, and a complete description of the Euler-Maclaurin formulas and their applications. Although several books touch on one or more of these aspects, precious few cover all of them. The authors, both pure mathematicians, have attempted to develop methods that will allow the student to formulate a given problem in a precise mathematical framework. The aim is to equip readers with a sound strategy for classifying and solving problems by pursuing a mathematically rigorous yet ...
Reductionism and the Universal Calculus
Sarma, Gopal P
2016-01-01
In the seminal essay, "On the unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics in the physical sciences," physicist Eugene Wigner poses a fundamental philosophical question concerning the relationship between a physical system and our capacity to model its behavior with the symbolic language of mathematics. In this essay, I examine an ambitious 16th and 17th-century intellectual agenda from the perspective of Wigner's question, namely, what historian Paolo Rossi calls "the quest to create a universal language." While many elite thinkers pursued related ideas, the most inspiring and forceful was Gottfried Leibniz's effort to create a "universal calculus," a pictorial language which would transparently represent the entirety of human knowledge, as well as an associated symbolic calculus with which to model the behavior of physical systems and derive new truths. I suggest that a deeper understanding of why the efforts of Leibniz and others failed could shed light on Wigner's original question. I argue that the notion o...
Brownian motion and stochastic calculus
Karatzas, Ioannis
1998-01-01
This book is designed as a text for graduate courses in stochastic processes. It is written for readers familiar with measure-theoretic probability and discrete-time processes who wish to explore stochastic processes in continuous time. The vehicle chosen for this exposition is Brownian motion, which is presented as the canonical example of both a martingale and a Markov process with continuous paths. In this context, the theory of stochastic integration and stochastic calculus is developed. The power of this calculus is illustrated by results concerning representations of martingales and change of measure on Wiener space, and these in turn permit a presentation of recent advances in financial economics (option pricing and consumption/investment optimization). This book contains a detailed discussion of weak and strong solutions of stochastic differential equations and a study of local time for semimartingales, with special emphasis on the theory of Brownian local time. The text is complemented by a large num...
Toward lattice fractional vector calculus
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2014-09-01
An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity.
Space complexity in polynomial calculus
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Filmus, Y.; Lauria, M.; Nordström, J.; Ron-Zewi, N.; Thapen, Neil
2015-01-01
Roč. 44, č. 4 (2015), s. 1119-1153 ISSN 0097-5397 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : proof complexity * polynomial calculus * lower bounds Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.841, year: 2015 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/120895950
Fundamental theorem of Wiener calculus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chull Park
1990-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we define and develop a theory of differentiation in Wiener space C[0,T]. We then proceed to establish a fundamental theorem of the integral calculus for C[0,T]. First of all, we show that the derivative of the indefinite Wiener integral exists and equals the integrand functional. Secondly, we show that certain functionals defined on C[0,T] are equal to the indefinite integral of their Wiener derivative.
Malliavin Calculus applied to finance
Montero Torralbo, Miquel; Kohatsu-Higa, Arturo
2003-01-01
In this article, we give a brief informal introduction to Malliavin Calculus for newcomers. We apply these ideas to the simulation of Greeks in Finance. First to European-type options where formulas can be computed explicitly and therefore can serve as testing ground. Later, we study the case of Asian options where close formulas are not available, and we also open the view for including more exotic derivatives. The Greeks are computed through Monte Carlo simulation.
Calculus anuria and its remedy.
Amanullah; Khan, Ghayyur; Lal, Shanti; Soomro, Muhammad Iqbal; Jalbani, Malik Hussain
2010-01-01
Urinary lithiases have been a major urological problem. The objective was to determine the out come of treatment for patients with calculus anuria. A descriptive study was conducted at Department of Urology Chandka Medical College Hospital, Larkana from March 2007 to April 2009. All patients with a diagnosis of calculus anuria of all ages and either sex were included in the study. Detailed history, physical examination and examination of genitourinary tract was performed. Investigations included complete blood examination, blood urea, serum creatinine, ultrasonography of KUB area, and X-Ray KUB. Among the 66 patients the cause of anuria was bilateral obstruction by the calculi in 46 cases, unilateral obstruction with small/absent/nephrectomised contralateral kidney in 20 cases. In most of the cases, ureteric catheterisation was done to relieve the obstruction. Five deaths were observed, despite emergency urinary diversion and appropriate treatment. Calculus anuria is a urological emergency. Prompt and early intervention can save the life of patient and prevent to develop chronic renal failure.
A primer on exterior differential calculus
Burton D.A.
2003-01-01
A pedagogical application-oriented introduction to the calculus of exterior differential forms on differential manifolds is presented. Stokes' theorem, the Lie derivative, linear connections and their curvature, torsion and non-metricity are discussed. Numerous examples using differential calculus are given and some detailed comparisons are made with their traditional vector counterparts. In particular, vector calculus on R3 is cast in terms of exterior calculus and the traditional Stokes'...
Time scales: from Nabla calculus to Delta calculus and vice versa via duality
Caputo, M. Cristina
2009-01-01
In this note we show how one can obtain results from the nabla calculus from results on the delta calculus and vice versa via a duality argument. We provide applications of the main results to the calculus of variations on time scales.
Solutions manual to accompany Fundamentals of calculus
Morris, Carla C
2015-01-01
Solutions Manual to Accompany Fundamentals of Calculus the text that encourages students to use power, quotient, and product rules for solutions as well as stresses the importance of modeling skills. In addition to core integral and differential calculus coverage, the core book features finite calculus, which lends itself to modeling and spreadsheets. Specifically, finite calculus is applied to marginal economic analysis, finance, growth, and decay. Includes: Linear Equations and Functions The Derivative Using the Derivative Exponential and Logarithmic
Pre-calculus workbook for dummies
Kuang, Yang
2011-01-01
Get the confidence and math skills you need to get started with calculus Are you preparing for calculus? This hands-on workbook helps you master basic pre-calculus concepts and practice the types of problems you'll encounter in the course. You'll get hundreds of valuable exercises, problem-solving shortcuts, plenty of workspace, and step-by-step solutions to every problem. You'll also memorize the most frequently used equations, see how to avoid common mistakes, understand tricky trig proofs, and much more. Pre-Calculus Workbook For Dummies is the perfect tool for anyone who wa
A Calculus for Context-Awareness
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zimmer, Pascal
2005-01-01
In order to answer the challenge of pervasive computing, we propose a new process calculus, whose aim is to describe dynamic systems composed of agents able to move and react differently depending on their location. This Context-Aware Calculus features a hierarchical structure similar to mobile...... ambients, and a generic multi-agent synchronization mechanism, inspired from the join-calculus. After general ideas and introduction, we review the full calculus' syntax and semantics, as well as some motivating examples, study its expressiveness, and show how the notion of computation itself can be made...
A Higher-Order Calculus for Categories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cáccamo, Mario José; Winskel, Glynn
2001-01-01
A calculus for a fragment of category theory is presented. The types in the language denote categories and the expressions functors. The judgements of the calculus systematise categorical arguments such as: an expression is functorial in its free variables; two expressions are naturally isomorphic...... in their free variables. There are special binders for limits and more general ends. The rules for limits and ends support an algebraic manipulation of universal constructions as opposed to a more traditional diagrammatic approach. Duality within the calculus and applications in proving continuity are discussed...... with examples. The calculus gives a basis for mechanising a theory of categories in a generic theorem prover like Isabelle....
Generalized vector calculus on convex domain
Agrawal, Om P.; Xu, Yufeng
2015-06-01
In this paper, we apply recently proposed generalized integral and differential operators to develop generalized vector calculus and generalized variational calculus for problems defined over a convex domain. In particular, we present some generalization of Green's and Gauss divergence theorems involving some new operators, and apply these theorems to generalized variational calculus. For fractional power kernels, the formulation leads to fractional vector calculus and fractional variational calculus for problems defined over a convex domain. In special cases, when certain parameters take integer values, we obtain formulations for integer order problems. Two examples are presented to demonstrate applications of the generalized variational calculus which utilize the generalized vector calculus developed in the paper. The first example leads to a generalized partial differential equation and the second example leads to a generalized eigenvalue problem, both in two dimensional convex domains. We solve the generalized partial differential equation by using polynomial approximation. A special case of the second example is a generalized isoperimetric problem. We find an approximate solution to this problem. Many physical problems containing integer order integrals and derivatives are defined over arbitrary domains. We speculate that future problems containing fractional and generalized integrals and derivatives in fractional mechanics will be defined over arbitrary domains, and therefore, a general variational calculus incorporating a general vector calculus will be needed for these problems. This research is our first attempt in that direction.
Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries.
Keyes, Paul H; Rams, Thomas E
An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mazdani Ulfah Daulay
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Mycobacterial culture provides definitive diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB, but commercially readyto-use culture media for Mycobacterium bovis are rarely available. The aims of this study were todevelop and to evaluate the ability of M. Bovis to grow in Modified Ogawa Agar (MOA in comparisonwith the available culture media, such as Löwenstein Jensen (LJ and Modified Ogawa (MO. Eachmedia were inculation with 0.1 ml suspension of 105 CFU/mL M. bovis and M. phlei in PhosphateBuffer Saline (PBS and each media was replicated in five tubes. Mycobacterium phlei grew in everymedium since day 4. M. bovis grew in media LJ and MO since day 17, but failed to grow in mediumMOA. The recovery rate of M. phlei in LJ and MOA were significantly different. The ability of MOA tocultivate M. phlei was different from LJ. Colonies of M. phlei in MOA were easier to be harvested, muchsimpler to prepare, and more feasible than medium LJ. The recovery rate of M. bovis in media LJ andMO were not significantly different, but medium MO were much simpler to prepare and more feasiblethan medium LJ. Media MOA were able to cultivate M. phlei, but proven unable to cultivate M. bovisin this research.
Tuberculous adenitis from Mycobacterium bovis: a case report
Miguel A. Serra Valdés; Ramón Portales Pérez; Yordanka Y. Aleaga Hernández; Maritza Cardosa Samón
2012-01-01
Introduction. Tuberculous lymphadenitis, which currently is most often caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, was once mainly caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Objective. To describe an unusual case of tuberculous adenitis from Mycobacterium bovis. Case report. A woman with a history of consuming raw milk and unsupervised dairy home-made products presents with cervical adenitis of 5 month course unassociated to other symptoms. A diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis tuberculous adenitis was made by bi...
Programming Language Concepts - The Lambda Calculus Approach
Fokkinga, M.M.; Asveld, P.R.J.; Nijholt, Antinus
1987-01-01
The Lambda Calculus is a formal system, originally intended as a tool in the foundation of mathematics, but mainly used to study the concepts of algorithm and effective computability. Recently, the Lambda Calculus and related systems acquire attention from Computer Science for another reason too:
Algorithms, The λ Calculus and Programming
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
I develop the intuition behind the ¸ calculus and connect it to computer programming through some basic examples. This fills an often felt gap that teachers and students find between the for- mal structure of the ¸ calculus, and the principles and practice of functional programming. Fortran, Pascal, C and C++ are some of the ...
Imagine Yourself in This Calculus Classroom
Bryan, Luajean
2007-01-01
The efforts to attract students to precalculus, trigonometry, and calculus classes became more successful at the author's school when projects-based classes were offered. Data collection from an untethered hot air balloon flight for calculus students was planned to maximize enrollment. The data were analyzed numerically, graphically, and…
Improving student learning in calculus through applications
Young, C. Y.; Georgiopoulos, M.; Hagen, S. C.; Geiger, C. L.; Dagley-Falls, M. A.; Islas, A. L.; Ramsey, P. J.; Lancey, P. M.; Straney, R. A.; Forde, D. S.; Bradbury, E. E.
2011-07-01
Nationally only 40% of the incoming freshmen Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) majors are successful in earning a STEM degree. The University of Central Florida (UCF) EXCEL programme is a National Science Foundation funded STEM Talent Expansion Programme whose goal is to increase the number of UCF STEM graduates. One of the key requirements for STEM majors is a strong foundation in Calculus. To improve student learning in calculus, the EXCEL programme developed two special courses at the freshman level called Applications of Calculus I (Apps I) and Applications of Calculus II (Apps II). Apps I and II are one-credit classes that are co-requisites for Calculus I and II. These classes are teams taught by science and engineering professors whose goal is to demonstrate to students where the calculus topics they are learning appear in upper level science and engineering classes as well as how faculty use calculus in their STEM research programmes. This article outlines the process used in producing the educational materials for the Apps I and II courses, and it also discusses the assessment results pertaining to this specific EXCEL activity. Pre- and post-tests conducted with experimental and control groups indicate significant improvement in student learning in Calculus II as a direct result of the application courses.
Iterated Differential Forms III: Integral Calculus
Vinogradov, A.M.; Vitagliano, L.
2006-01-01
Basic elements of integral calculus over algebras of iterated differential forms, are presented. In particular, defining complexes for modules of integral forms are described and the corresponding berezinians and complexes of integral forms are computed. Various applications and the integral calculus over the algebra $\\Lambda_{\\infty}$ will be discussed in subsequent notes.
RAMAN-SPECTRA OF HUMAN DENTAL CALCULUS
TSUDA, H; ARENDS, J
1993-01-01
Raman spectra of human dental calculus have been observed for the first time by use of micro-Raman spectroscopy. The spectral features of calculus were influenced easily by heating caused by laser irradiation. Therefore, the measurements were carried out at relatively low power (5 mW, 1-mu m spot
Educating about Sustainability while Enhancing Calculus
Pfaff, Thomas J.
2011-01-01
We give an overview of why it is important to include sustainability in mathematics classes and provide specific examples of how to do this for a calculus class. We illustrate that when students use "Excel" to fit curves to real data, fundamentally important questions about sustainability become calculus questions about those curves. (Contains 5…
An Introductory Calculus-Based Mechanics Investigation
Allen, Bradley
2017-01-01
One challenge for the introductory physics teacher is incorporating calculus techniques into the laboratory setting. It can be difficult to strike a balance between presenting an experimental task for which calculus is essential and making the mathematics accessible to learners who may be apprehensive about applying it. One-dimensional kinematics…
Calculus and Success in a Business School
Kim, Dong-gook; Garcia, Fernando; Dey, Ishita
2012-01-01
Many business schools or colleges require calculus as a prerequisite for certain classes or for continuing to upper division courses. While there are many studies investigating the relationship between performance in calculus and performance in a single course, such as economics, statistics, and finance, there are very few studies investigating…
A Cross-National Study of Calculus
Chai, Jun; Friedler, Louis M.; Wolff, Edward F.; Li, Jun; Rhea, Karen
2015-01-01
The results from a cross-national study comparing calculus performance of students at East China Normal University (ECNU) in Shanghai and students at the University of Michigan before and after their first university calculus course are presented. Overall, ECNU significantly outperformed Michigan on both the pre- and post-tests, but the Michigan…
Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in Chronic Calculus Cholecystitis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prakash Sapkota
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has clearly become the choice over open cholecystectomy in the treatment of hepatobiliary disease since its introduction by Mouret in 1987. This study evaluates a series of patients with chronic calculus cholecystitis who were treated with laparoscopic and open cholecystectomy and assesses the outcomes of both techniques. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of laparoscopic vs open cholecystectomy in chronic calculus cholecystitis and establish the out-comes of this treatment modality at Lumbini Medical College and Teaching Hospital. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis over a one-year period (January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012, per-formed by single surgeon at Lumbini Medical College and Teaching Hospital located midwest of Nepal. 166 patients underwent surgical treatment for chronic calculus cholecystitis. Patients included were only chronic calculus cholecystitis proven histopathologocally and the rest were excluded. Data was collected which included patients demographics, medical history, presentation, complications, conversion rates from laparoscopic. cholecystectomy to open cholecystectomy, operative and postoperative time. Results: Patients treated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy for chronic calculus cholecystitis had shorter operating times and length of stay compared to patients treated with open cholecystectomy for chronic calculus cholecystitis. Conversion rates were 3.54% in chronic calculus cholecystitis during the study period. Complications were also lower in patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus open cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis. Conclusions: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy appears to be a reliable, safe, and cost-effective treatment modality for chronic calculus cholecystitis.
Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof
2010-01-01
In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate three control flow analyses for Mobile Ambients, a process calculus designed for modelling mobility. We show that hybrid logic is very well-suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can...
Thematization of the Calculus Graphing Schema
Cooley, Laurel; Baker, Bernadette; Trigueros, Maria
2003-01-01
This article is the result of an investigation of students' conceptualizations of calculus graphing techniques after they had completed at least two semesters of calculus. The work and responses of 27 students to a series of questions that solicit information about the graphical implications of the first derivative, second derivative, continuity,…
Sandboxing in a Distributed Pi-Calculus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hüttel, Hans; Kühnrich, Morten
2006-01-01
This paper presents an extension of the Dpi-calculus due to Hennessy and Riely with constructs for signing and authenticating code and for sandboxing. A sort system, built on Milner's sort systems for the polyadic pi-calculus, is presented and proven sound with respect to an error predicate which...
Technical calculus with analytic geometry
Gersting, Judith L
2010-01-01
This well-thought-out text, filled with many special features, is designed for a two-semester course in calculus for technology students with a background in college algebra and trigonometry. The author has taken special care to make the book appealing to students by providing motivating examples, facilitating an intuitive understanding of the underlying concepts involved, and by providing much opportunity to gain proficiency in techniques and skills.Initial chapters cover functions and graphs, straight lines and conic sections, new coordinate systems, the derivative, using the derivative, in
Borden, Robert S
1997-01-01
This remarkable undergraduate-level text offers a study in calculus that simultaneously unifies the concepts of integration in Euclidean space while at the same time giving students an overview of other areas intimately related to mathematical analysis. The author achieves this ambitious undertaking by shifting easily from one related subject to another. Thus, discussions of topology, linear algebra, and inequalities yield to examinations of innerproduct spaces, Fourier series, and the secret of Pythagoras. Beginning with a look at sets and structures, the text advances to such topics as lim
Matlab differential and integral calculus
Lopez, Cesar
2014-01-01
MATLAB is a high-level language and environment for numerical computation, visualization, and programming. Using MATLAB, you can analyze data, develop algorithms, and create models and applications. The language, tools, and built-in math functions enable you to explore multiple approaches and reach a solution faster than with spreadsheets or traditional programming languages, such as C/C++ or Java. MATLAB Differential and Integral Calculus introduces you to the MATLAB language with practical hands-on instructions and results, allowing you to quickly achieve your goals. In addition to givi
Modern calculus and analytic geometry
Silverman, Richard A
2012-01-01
A self-contained text for an introductory course, this volume places strong emphasis on physical applications. Key elements of differential equations and linear algebra are introduced early and are consistently referenced, all theorems are proved using elementary methods, and numerous worked-out examples appear throughout. The highly readable text approaches calculus from the student's viewpoint and points out potential stumbling blocks before they develop. A collection of more than 1,600 problems ranges from exercise material to exploration of new points of theory - many of the answers are fo
Schwartz, Stu
2013-01-01
All Access for the AP® Calculus AB & BC Exams Book + Web + Mobile Everything you need to prepare for the Advanced Placement® exam, in a study system built around you! There are many different ways to prepare for an Advanced Placement® exam. What's best for you depends on how much time you have to study and how comfortable you are with the subject matter. To score your highest, you need a system that can be customized to fit you: your schedule, your learning style, and your current level of knowledge. This book, and the free online tools that come with it, will help you personalize your AP® Cal
Bridging the Vector Calculus Gap
Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne
2003-05-01
As with Britain and America, mathematicians and physicists are separated from each other by a common language. In a nutshell, mathematics is about functions, but physics is about things. For the last several years, we have led an NSF-supported effort to "bridge the vector calculus gap" between mathematics and physics. The unifying theme we have discovered is to emphasize geometric reasoning, not (just) algebraic computation. In this talk, we will illustrate the language differences between mathematicians and physicists, and how we are trying reconcile them in the classroom. For further information about the project go to: http://www.physics.orst.edu/bridge
Reasoning about objects using process calculus techniques
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kleist, Josva
This thesis investigates the applicability of techniques known from the world of process calculi to reason about properties of object-oriented programs. The investigation is performed upon a small object-oriented language - The Sigma-calculus of Abadi and Cardelli. The investigation is twofold: We...... investigate translations of Sigma-calculi into process calculi, with the idea that one should be able to show properties of Sigma-calculus program by showing properties about their translation. We present translations of two Sigma-calculi into Pi-calculi. A translation of the untyped functional Sigma-calculus...... turns out to be insufficient. Based on our experiences, we present a translation of a typed imperative Sigma-calculus, which looks promising. We are able to provide simple proofs of the equivalence of different Sigma-calculus objects using this translation. We use a labelled transition system adapted...
Enriching an effect calculus with linear types
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Egger, Jeff; Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers; Simpson, Alex
2009-01-01
We define an ``enriched effect calculus'' by conservatively extending a type theory for computational effects with primitives from linear logic. By doing so, we obtain a generalisation of linear type theory, intended as a formalism for expressing linear aspects of effects. As a worked example, we...... formulate linearly-used continuations in the enriched effect calculus. These are captured by a fundamental translation of the enriched effect calculus into itself, which extends existing call-by-value and call-by-name linearly-used CPS translations. We show that our translation is involutive. Full...... completeness results for the various linearly-used CPS translations follow. Our main results, the conservativity of enriching the effect calculus with linear primitives, and the involution property of the fundamental translation, are proved using a category-theoretic semantics for the enriched effect calculus...
Calculus and analysis in Euclidean space
Shurman, Jerry
2016-01-01
The graceful role of analysis in underpinning calculus is often lost to their separation in the curriculum. This book entwines the two subjects, providing a conceptual approach to multivariable calculus closely supported by the structure and reasoning of analysis. The setting is Euclidean space, with the material on differentiation culminating in the inverse and implicit function theorems, and the material on integration culminating in the general fundamental theorem of integral calculus. More in-depth than most calculus books but less technical than a typical analysis introduction, Calculus and Analysis in Euclidean Space offers a rich blend of content to students outside the traditional mathematics major, while also providing transitional preparation for those who will continue on in the subject. The writing in this book aims to convey the intent of ideas early in discussion. The narrative proceeds through figures, formulas, and text, guiding the reader to do mathematics resourcefully by marshaling the skil...
A Calculus of Located Entities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adriana Compagnoni
2014-03-01
Full Text Available We define BioScapeL, a stochastic pi-calculus in 3D-space. A novel aspect of BioScapeL is that entities have programmable locations. The programmer can specify a particular location where to place an entity, or a location relative to the current location of the entity. The motivation for the extension comes from the need to describe the evolution of populations of biochemical species in space, while keeping a sufficiently high level description, so that phenomena like diffusion, collision, and confinement can remain part of the semantics of the calculus. Combined with the random diffusion movement inherited from BioScape, programmable locations allow us to capture the assemblies of configurations of polymers, oligomers, and complexes such as microtubules or actin filaments. Further new aspects of BioScapeL include random translation and scaling. Random translation is instrumental in describing the location of new entities relative to the old ones. For example, when a cell secretes a hydronium ion, the ion should be placed at a given distance from the originating cell, but in a random direction. Additionally, scaling allows us to capture at a high level events such as division and growth; for example, daughter cells after mitosis have half the size of the mother cell.
Schistosoma bovis-host interplay: Proteomics for knowing and acting.
de la Torre-Escudero, Eduardo; Pérez-Sánchez, Ricardo; Manzano-Román, Raúl; Oleaga, Ana
2017-07-01
Schistosoma bovis is a parasite of ruminants that causes significant economic losses to farmers throughout Africa, Southwestern Asia and the Mediterranean. Additionally, recent studies have reported its zoonotic potential through the formation of S. bovis×Schistosoma haematobium hybrids. As observed in the Schistosoma species infecting humans, it is assumed that S. bovis has also evolved host regulatory molecules that ensure its long-term survival in the bloodstream of its host. Since these molecules could be potential targets for the development of new drugs and anti-schistosome vaccines, their identification and functional characterization were undertaken. With this aim in mind, the molecular interface between S. bovis and its vertebrate host was subjected to a series of proteomic studies, which started with the analysis of the proteomes of the S. bovis moieties exposed to the host, namely, the excretory/secretory products and the tegument surface. Thus, a wealth of novel molecular information of S. bovis was obtained, which in turn allowed the identification of several parasite proteins with fibrinolytic and anticoagulant activities that could be used by S. bovis to regulate the host defensive systems. Following on, the host interface was investigated by studying the proteome of the host vascular endothelium surface at two points along the infection: in the lung vessels during the schistosomula migration and in the portal vein after the parasites have reached adulthood and sexual maturity. These studies have provided original data regarding the proteomes of the endothelial cell surface of pulmonary vasculature and portal vein in S. bovis-infected animals, and have shown significant changes in these proteomes associated with infection. This review compiles current information and the analyses of all the proteomic data from S. bovis and the S. bovis-host interface, including the molecular and functional characterization of S. bovis proteins that were found to
Using Dynamic Software to Address Common College Calculus Stumbling Blocks
Seneres, Alice W.; Kerrigan, John A.
2014-01-01
There are specific topics in college calculus that can be major stumbling blocks for students. Having taught college calculus for four years to over a thousand students, we observed that even the students who have already taken pre-calculus or calculus during their high school careers had common misunderstandings. Students may remember a technique…
Prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis in Cattle Slaughtered at Sokoto ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study was undertaken to screen cattle slaughtered at the Sokoto Central Abattoir for antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis. By the lateral flow technique (immunochromatography), using monoclonal antibodies for M. bovis (BioNote, Inc. Gyeonggi-do, Korea) and by post mortem examination. A total of 194 slaughtered ...
Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in dairy cows in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The seroprevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in dairy cows in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (GZAR) in subtropical southern China was surveyed between June 2009 and March 2010. A total of 455 serum samples of dairy cows were collected from 6 districts in 4 different cities, and examined for M. bovis ...
European 1: a globally important clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis.
Smith, N.H.; Berg, S.; Dale, J.; Allen, A.; Rodriguez, S.; Romero, B.; Matos, F.; Ghebremichael, S.; Karoui, C.; Donati, C.; Machado Ada, C.; Mucavele, C.; Kazwala, R.R.; Hilty, M.; Cadmus, S.; Ngandolo, B.N.; Habtamu, M.; Oloya, J.; Muller, Annélle; Milian-Suazo, F.; Andrievskaia, O.; Projahn, M.; Barandiaran, S.; Macias, A.; Muller, B.; Zanini, M.S.; Ikuta, C.Y.; Rodriguez, C.A.; Pinheiro, S.R.; Figueroa, A.; Cho, S.N.; Mosavari, N.; Chuang, P.C.; Jou, R.; Zinsstag, J.; Soolingen, D. van; Costello, E.; Aseffa, A.; Proano-Perez, F.; Portaels, F.; Rigouts, L.; Cataldi, A.A.; Collins, D.M.; Boschiroli, M.L.; Hewinson, R.G.; Ferreira Neto, J.S.; Surujballi, O.; Tadyon, K.; Botelho, A.; Zarraga, A.M.; Buller, N.; Skuce, R.; Michel, A.; Aranaz, A.; Gordon, S.V.; Jeon, B.Y.; Kallenius, G.; Niemann, S.; Boniotti, M.B.; Helden, P.D. van; Harris, B.; Zumarraga, M.J.; Kremer, K.
2011-01-01
We have identified a globally important clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis by deletion analysis of over one thousand strains from over 30 countries. We initially show that over 99% of the strains of M. bovis, the cause of bovine tuberculosis, isolated from cattle in the Republic of Ireland and
Transmissie van Mycobacterium bovis tussen mens en dier
Vries, de G.; Beer, de J.; Bakker, D.; Soolingen, D.
2015-01-01
Nederland is officieel vrij van rundertuberculose. Toch komt af en toe nog Mycobacterium bovis-tuberculose voor bij relatief jonge autochtone Nederlanders. Ook zijn er recent nog wel boviene-uitbraken geweest. Dat roept de vraag op of er ook nu nog transmissie is van M.bovis tussen mens en dier.
Gibson, Megan
2013-01-01
Due in part to the growing popularity of the Advanced Placement program, an increasingly large percentage of entering college students are enrolling in calculus courses having already taken calculus in high school. Many students do not score high enough on the AP calculus examination to place out of Calculus I, and many do not take the…
The Impact of Taking a College Pre-Calculus Course on Students' College Calculus Performance
Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.
2014-01-01
Poor performance on placement exams keeps many US students who pursue a STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) career from enrolling directly in college calculus. Instead, they must take a pre-calculus course that aims to better prepare them for later calculus coursework. In the USA, enrollment in pre-calculus courses in two- and…
Pre-calculus workbook for dummies
Gilman, Michelle Rose; Neal, Karina
2009-01-01
Get the confidence and the math skills you need to get started with calculus! Are you preparing for calculus? This easy-to-follow, hands-on workbook helps you master basic pre-calculus concepts and practice the types of problems you'll encounter in your cour sework. You get valuable exercises, problem-solving shortcuts, plenty of workspace, and step-by-step solutions to every problem. You'll also memorize the most frequently used equations, see how to avoid common mistakes, understand tricky trig proofs, and much more. 100s of Problems! Detailed, fully worked-out solutions to problem
AP calculus AB & BC crash course
Rosebush, J
2012-01-01
AP Calculus AB & BC Crash Course - Gets You a Higher Advanced Placement Score in Less Time Crash Course is perfect for the time-crunched student, the last-minute studier, or anyone who wants a refresher on the subject. AP Calculus AB & BC Crash Course gives you: Targeted, Focused Review - Study Only What You Need to Know Crash Course is based on an in-depth analysis of the AP Calculus AB & BC course description outline and actual AP test questions. It covers only the information tested on the exams, so you can make the most of your valuable study time. Written by experienced math teachers, our
Calculus a complete introduction : teach yourself
Neill, Hugh
2013-01-01
Calculus: A Complete Introduction is the most comprehensive yet easy-to-use introduction to using calculus. Written by a leading expert, this book will help you if you are studying for an important exam or essay, or if you simply want to improve your knowledge. The book covers all areas of calculus, including functions, gradients, rates of change, differentiation, exponential and logarithmic functions and integration. Everything you will need to know is here in one book. Each chapter includes not only an explanation of the knowledge and skills you need, but also worked examples and test questions.
Applications of fractional calculus in physics
2000-01-01
Fractional calculus is a collection of relatively little-known mathematical results concerning generalizations of differentiation and integration to noninteger orders. While these results have been accumulated over centuries in various branches of mathematics, they have until recently found little appreciation or application in physics and other mathematically oriented sciences. This situation is beginning to change, and there are now a growing number of research areas in physics which employ fractional calculus.This volume provides an introduction to fractional calculus for physicists, and co
On Some Syntactic Properties of the Modalized Heyting Calculus
Muravitsky, Alexei
2016-01-01
We show that the modalized Heyting calculus introduced by Leo Esakia admits a normal axiomatization. Then, we prove that the inference rules $\\square\\alpha/\\alpha$ and $\\square\\alpha\\rightarrow\\alpha/\\alpha$ are admissible in this calculus. Finally, we show that this calculus and intuitionistic propositional calculus are assertorically equipollent, which leads to a variant of limited separation property for the modalized Heyting calculus.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lucienne G. Pretto
2001-12-01
Full Text Available Foram examinadas 713 vacas de três rebanhos leiteiros localizados na região norte do Estado do Paraná e sudoeste do Estado de São Paulo, das quais 137 apresentaram mastite. Nas três propriedades foram detectados oito animais (1,12% com mastite clínica por Mycoplasma bovis. Destes animais, quatro tratados com oxitetraciclina e tilosina e três com enrofloxacina, não responderam ao tratamento e foram descartados no decorrer da lactação. Uma vaca medicada com enrofloxacina recuperou quase que totalmente a secreção láctea mas a eliminação de M. bovis persistiu por toda lactação. Esta vaca apresentou cura bacteriológica na lactação seguinte. O descarte dos animais positivos, monitora-mento bacteriológico e a aplicação correta das medidas de prevenção para as mastites contagiosas controlaram a disseminação de M. bovis nos rebanhos.In this study 713 cows were examined. The animals were from three dairy farms in northern Paraná and the southwest of the State of São Paulo. From these cows, 137 had mastitis. On the three farms, 8 cows (1.12% with Mycoplasma bovis mastitis were detected. Four were treated with tylosin and oxytetracyclin and three with enrofloxacin. There was no response to the treatments, and these animals were culled during the lactation period. One cow treated with enrofloxacin almost totally recovered milk production, but elimination of M. bovis continued during the lactation, and there was no bacteriological cure. This cow had a normal milk production in the next lactation period, without elimination of M. bovis. Culling of positive animals, the bacteriological study and correct application of preventive practices for contagious mastitis controlled the dissemination of M. bovis to other animals.
Fractional-calculus diffusion equation.
Ajlouni, Abdul-Wali Ms; Al-Rabai'ah, Hussam A
2010-05-21
Sequel to the work on the quantization of nonconservative systems using fractional calculus and quantization of a system with Brownian motion, which aims to consider the dissipation effects in quantum-mechanical description of microscale systems. The canonical quantization of a system represented classically by one-dimensional Fick's law, and the diffusion equation is carried out according to the Dirac method. A suitable Lagrangian, and Hamiltonian, describing the diffusive system, are constructed and the Hamiltonian is transformed to Schrodinger's equation which is solved. An application regarding implementation of the developed mathematical method to the analysis of diffusion, osmosis, which is a biological application of the diffusion process, is carried out. Schrödinger's equation is solved. The plot of the probability function represents clearly the dissipative and drift forces and hence the osmosis, which agrees totally with the macro-scale view, or the classical-version osmosis.
Fractional-calculus diffusion equation
2010-01-01
Background Sequel to the work on the quantization of nonconservative systems using fractional calculus and quantization of a system with Brownian motion, which aims to consider the dissipation effects in quantum-mechanical description of microscale systems. Results The canonical quantization of a system represented classically by one-dimensional Fick's law, and the diffusion equation is carried out according to the Dirac method. A suitable Lagrangian, and Hamiltonian, describing the diffusive system, are constructed and the Hamiltonian is transformed to Schrodinger's equation which is solved. An application regarding implementation of the developed mathematical method to the analysis of diffusion, osmosis, which is a biological application of the diffusion process, is carried out. Schrödinger's equation is solved. Conclusions The plot of the probability function represents clearly the dissipative and drift forces and hence the osmosis, which agrees totally with the macro-scale view, or the classical-version osmosis. PMID:20492677
The calculus lifesaver all the tools you need to excel at calculus
Banner, Adrian
2009-01-01
For many students, calculus can be the most mystifying and frustrating course they will ever take. The Calculus Lifesaver provides students with the essential tools they need not only to learn calculus, but to excel at it. All of the material in this user-friendly study guide has been proven to get results. The book arose from Adrian Banner's popular calculus review course at Princeton University, which he developed especially for students who are motivated to earn A's but get only average grades on exams. The complete course will be available for free on the Web in a series of
[Tuberculous epididymitis caused by Mycobacterium bovis].
Mateos Colino, Alfonso; Sousa Escandón, Manuel Alejandro; Golpe Gómez, Rafael; García Figueras, Roberto; Pérez Valcarcel, Javier; Fernández, María Armesto
2003-03-01
To focus on the need of including tuberculosis among differential diagnoses of any epidymo-testicular mass, especially if its evolution is torpid. A 73-year-old man who presented with scrotum abscess underwent surgical drainage and antibiotic treatment, but suppuration relapsed through cutaneous fistulae. A epipidymectomy was then performed, which demonstrated tuberculous granulomas. Torax Rx showed a cystic apical pulmonary wound which was treated with 3 antituberculostatics for 12 months. Sputum culture was positive for Micobacterium Bovis. Aspirative punction under sonographic control is a valuable technique to avoid mutilating surgeries and to permit an almost always effective treatment, before the appearance of permanent lesions which lead to sterility.
The origins of Cauchy's rigorous calculus
Grabiner, Judith V
2005-01-01
This text examines the reinterpretation of calculus by Augustin-Louis Cauchy and his peers in the 19th century. These intellectuals created a collection of well-defined theorems about limits, continuity, series, derivatives, and integrals. 1981 edition.
Generalized Laplace Transforms and Extended Heaviside Calculus
Deakin, Michael A. B.
2008-01-01
An extended Heaviside calculus proposed by Peraire in a recent paper is similar to a generalization of the Laplace transform proposed by the present author. This similarity will be illustrated by analysis of an example supplied by Peraire.
Brownian motion, martingales, and stochastic calculus
Le Gall, Jean-François
2016-01-01
This book offers a rigorous and self-contained presentation of stochastic integration and stochastic calculus within the general framework of continuous semimartingales. The main tools of stochastic calculus, including Itô’s formula, the optional stopping theorem and Girsanov’s theorem, are treated in detail alongside many illustrative examples. The book also contains an introduction to Markov processes, with applications to solutions of stochastic differential equations and to connections between Brownian motion and partial differential equations. The theory of local times of semimartingales is discussed in the last chapter. Since its invention by Itô, stochastic calculus has proven to be one of the most important techniques of modern probability theory, and has been used in the most recent theoretical advances as well as in applications to other fields such as mathematical finance. Brownian Motion, Martingales, and Stochastic Calculus provides a strong theoretical background to the reader interested i...
A primer on exterior differential calculus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Burton D.A.
2003-01-01
Full Text Available A pedagogical application-oriented introduction to the calculus of exterior differential forms on differential manifolds is presented. Stokes' theorem, the Lie derivative, linear connections and their curvature, torsion and non-metricity are discussed. Numerous examples using differential calculus are given and some detailed comparisons are made with their traditional vector counterparts. In particular, vector calculus on R3 is cast in terms of exterior calculus and the traditional Stokes' and divergence theorems replaced by the more powerful exterior expression of Stokes' theorem. Examples from classical continuum mechanics and spacetime physics are discussed and worked through using the language of exterior forms. The numerous advantages of this calculus, over more traditional machinery, are stressed throughout the article. .
Introductory analysis a deeper view of calculus
Bagby, Richard J
2000-01-01
Introductory Analysis addresses the needs of students taking a course in analysis after completing a semester or two of calculus, and offers an alternative to texts that assume that math majors are their only audience. By using a conversational style that does not compromise mathematical precision, the author explains the material in terms that help the reader gain a firmer grasp of calculus concepts.* Written in an engaging, conversational tone and readable style while softening the rigor and theory* Takes a realistic approach to the necessary and accessible level of abstraction for the secondary education students* A thorough concentration of basic topics of calculus* Features a student-friendly introduction to delta-epsilon arguments * Includes a limited use of abstract generalizations for easy use* Covers natural logarithms and exponential functions* Provides the computational techniques often encountered in basic calculus
Extending Stochastic Network Calculus to Loss Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chao Luo
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Loss is an important parameter of Quality of Service (QoS. Though stochastic network calculus is a very useful tool for performance evaluation of computer networks, existing studies on stochastic service guarantees mainly focused on the delay and backlog. Some efforts have been made to analyse loss by deterministic network calculus, but there are few results to extend stochastic network calculus for loss analysis. In this paper, we introduce a new parameter named loss factor into stochastic network calculus and then derive the loss bound through the existing arrival curve and service curve via this parameter. We then prove that our result is suitable for the networks with multiple input flows. Simulations show the impact of buffer size, arrival traffic, and service on the loss factor.
Model-Checking Discrete Duration Calculus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Michael Reichhardt
1994-01-01
Duration calculus was introduced by Chaochen Zhou et al. (1991) as a logic to specify and reason about requirements for real-time systems. It is an extension of interval temporal logic where one can reason about integrated constraints over time-dependent and Boolean valued states without explicit...... mention of absolute time. Several major case studies have shown that duration calculus provides a high level of abstraction for both expressing and reasoning about specifications. Using timed automata one can express how real-time systems can be constructed at a level of detail which is close to an actual...... implementation. We consider in the paper the correctness of timed automata with respect to duration calculus formulae. For a subset of duration calculus, we show that one can automatically verify whether a timed automaton ℳ is correct with respect to a formula 𝒟, abbreviated ℳ|=𝒟, i.e. one...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matteo Mio
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The paper explores properties of Łukasiewicz mu-calculus, a version of the quantitative/probabilistic modal mu-calculus containing both weak and strong conjunctions and disjunctions from Łukasiewicz (fuzzy logic. We show that this logic encodes the well-known probabilistic temporal logic PCTL. And we give a model-checking algorithm for computing the rational denotational value of a formula at any state in a finite rational probabilistic nondeterministic transition system.
The Britannica Guide to Analysis and Calculus
2011-01-01
The dynamism of the natural world means that it is constantly changing, sometimes rapidly, sometimes gradually. By mathematically interpreting the continuous change that characterizes so many natural processes, analysis and calculus have become indispensable to bridging the divide between mathematics and the sciences. This comprehensive volume examines the key concepts of calculus, providing students with a robust understanding of integration and differentiation. Biographies of important figures will leave readers with an increased appreciation for the sometimes competing theories that informe
Borel functional calculus for quaternionic normal operators
Ramesh, G.; Santhosh Kumar, P.
2017-05-01
In this article, we give an approach to Borel functional calculus for quaternionic normal operators, which are not necessarily bounded. First, we establish the definition of functional calculus for a subclass of quaternion valued Borel functions, and then we extend the same to the class of quaternion valued Borel functions as well as L∞-functions. We also prove spectral mapping theorem as a consequence.
Application of exterior calculus to waveguides
Ferraro, Rafael
2009-01-01
Exterior calculus is a powerful tool to search for solutions to the electromagnetic field equations, whose strength can be better appreciated when applied to work out non-trivial configurations. Here we show how to exploit this machinery to obtain the electromagnetic TM and TE modes in hollow cylindrical waveguides. The proper use of exterior calculus and Lorentz boosts will straightforwardly lead to such solutions and the respective power transmitted along the waveguide.
A Graph Calculus for Predicate Logic
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Paulo A. S. Veloso
2013-03-01
Full Text Available We introduce a refutation graph calculus for classical first-order predicate logic, which is an extension of previous ones for binary relations. One reduces logical consequence to establishing that a constructed graph has empty extension, i. e. it represents bottom. Our calculus establishes that a graph has empty extension by converting it to a normal form, which is expanded to other graphs until we can recognize conflicting situations (equivalent to a formula and its negation.
Endoscopic vs. tactile evaluation of subgingival calculus.
Osborn, Joy B; Lenton, Patricia A; Lunos, Scott A; Blue, Christine M
2014-08-01
Endoscopic technology has been developed to facilitate imagery for use during diagnostic and therapeutic phases of periodontal care. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of subgingival calculus detection using a periodontal endoscope with that of conventional tactile explorer in periodontitis subjects. A convenience sample of 26 subjects with moderate periodontitis in at least 2 quadrants was recruited from the University of Minnesota School of Dentistry to undergo quadrant scaling and root planing. One quadrant from each subject was randomized for tactile calculus detection alone and the other quadrant for tactile detection plus the Perioscope ™ (Perioscopy Inc., Oakland, Cali). A calculus index on a 0 to 3 score was performed at baseline and at 2 post-scaling and root planing visits. Sites where calculus was detected at visit 1 were retreated. T-tests were used to determine within-subject differences between Perioscope™ and tactile measures, and changes in measures between visits. Significantly more calculus was detected using the Perioscope™ vs. tactile explorer for all 3 subject visits (pcalculus detection from baseline to visit 1 were statistically significant for both the Perioscope™ and tactile quadrants (pcalculus detection from visit 1 to visit 2 was only significant for the Perioscope™ quadrant (pcalculus at this visit. It was concluded that the addition of a visual component to calculus detection via the Perioscope™ was most helpful in the re-evaluation phase of periodontal therapy. Copyright © 2014 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Schoenly, Joshua E.; Seka, Wolf; Romanos, Georgios; Rechmann, Peter
A desired outcome of scaling and root planing is the complete removal of calculus and infected root tissue and preservation of healthy cementum for rapid healing of periodontal tissues. Conventional periodontal treatments for calculus removal, such as hand instrument scaling and ultrasonic scaling, often deeply scrape the surface of the underlying hard tissue and may leave behind a smear layer. Pulsed lasers emitting at violet wavelengths (specifically, 380 to 400 nm) are a potential alternative treatment since they can selectively ablate dental calculus without ablating pristine hard tissue (i.e., enamel, cementum, and dentin). In this study, light and scanning electron microscopy are used to compare and contrast the efficacy of in vitro calculus removal for several conventional periodontal treatments (hand instruments, ultrasonic scaler, and Er:YAG laser) to calculus removal with a frequency-doubled Ti:sapphire (λ = 400 nm). After calculus removal, enamel and cementum surfaces are investigated for calculus debris and damage to the underlying hard tissue surface. Compared to the smear layer, grooves, and unintentional hard tissue removal typically found using these conventional treatments, calculus removal using the 400-nm laser is complete and selective without any removal of pristine dental hard tissue. Based on these results, selective ablation from the 400-nm laser appears to produce a root surface that would be more suitable for successful healing of periodontal tissues.
Significant Association of Streptococcus bovis with Malignant Gastrointestinal Diseases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salah Shanan
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Streptococcus bovis is a Gram-positive bacterium causing serious human infections, including endocarditis and bacteremia, and is usually associated with underlying disease. The aims of the current study were to compare prevalence of the bacterium associated with malignant and nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases and to determine the susceptibility of the isolated strains to different antimicrobial agents. The result showed that the prevalence of S. bovis in stool specimens from patients with malignant or with nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases was statistically significant. This result may support the idea that there is correlation between S. bovis and the malignant gastrointestinal diseases.
QUANTILE CALCULUS AND CENSORED REGRESSION.
Huang, Yijian
2010-06-01
Quantile regression has been advocated in survival analysis to assess evolving covariate effects. However, challenges arise when the censoring time is not always observed and may be covariate-dependent, particularly in the presence of continuously-distributed covariates. In spite of several recent advances, existing methods either involve algorithmic complications or impose a probability grid. The former leads to difficulties in the implementation and asymptotics, whereas the latter introduces undesirable grid dependence. To resolve these issues, we develop fundamental and general quantile calculus on cumulative probability scale in this article, upon recognizing that probability and time scales do not always have a one-to-one mapping given a survival distribution. These results give rise to a novel estimation procedure for censored quantile regression, based on estimating integral equations. A numerically reliable and efficient Progressive Localized Minimization (PLMIN) algorithm is proposed for the computation. This procedure reduces exactly to the Kaplan-Meier method in the k-sample problem, and to standard uncensored quantile regression in the absence of censoring. Under regularity conditions, the proposed quantile coefficient estimator is uniformly consistent and converges weakly to a Gaussian process. Simulations show good statistical and algorithmic performance. The proposal is illustrated in the application to a clinical study.
Electronic Algebra and Calculus Tutor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Larissa Fradkin
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Modern undergraduates join science and engineering courses with poorer mathematical background than most contemporaries of the current faculty had when they were freshers. The problem is very acute in the United Kingdom but more and more countries adopt less resource intensive models of teaching and the problem spreads. University tutors and lecturers spend more and more time covering the basics. However, most of them still rely on traditional methods of delivery which presuppose that learners have a good memory and considerable time to practice, so that they can memorize disjointed facts and discover for themselves various connections between the underlying concepts. These suppositions are particularly unrealistic when dealing with a large number of undergraduates who are ordinary learners with limited mathematics background. The first author has developed a teaching system that allows such adult learners achieve relatively deep learning of mathematics – and remarkably quickly – through a teacher-guided (often called Socratic dialog, which aims at the frequent reinforcement of basic mathematical abstractions through Eulerian sequencing. These ideas have been applied to create a prototype of a Cognitive Mathematics Tutoring System aimed at teaching basic mathematics to University freshers., an electronic Personal Algebra and Calculus Tutor (e- PACT.
Genetic variations among Mycoplasma bovis strains isolated from Danish cattle
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Kokotovic, Branko; Ojeniyi, B.
2000-01-01
The genetic heterogeneity of Mycoplasma bovis strains isolated in Denmark over a 17-year period was investigated. Forty-two field strains isolated from different geographic locations and specimens, including strains from 21 herds involved in two outbreaks of M. bovis-induced mastitis, and the type....... Among the analyzed strains, 18 different AFLP profiles were detected. The similarity between individual fingerprints, calculated by Dice similarity coefficient, ranged from 0.9 to 1.0. Twenty-five strains, including 23 which were isolated during two outbreaks of M. bovis-induced mastitis which occurred...... 2 years apart; showed indistinguishable AFLP patterns. More genetic diversify was observed among the recent strains. The similarity of the genotypes of the field strains to that of the M. bovis type strain (PG45(T)) was 97.7%. The results of this study have demonstrated a remarkable genomic...
Tuberculous adenitis from Mycobacterium bovis: a case report
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miguel A. Serra Valdés
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Introduction. Tuberculous lymphadenitis, which currently is most often caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, was once mainly caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Objective. To describe an unusual case of tuberculous adenitis from Mycobacterium bovis. Case report. A woman with a history of consuming raw milk and unsupervised dairy home-made products presents with cervical adenitis of 5 month course unassociated to other symptoms. A diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis tuberculous adenitis was made by biopsy, ELISA, PCR and culture. Discussion. Approximately 11 to 25% of all TB cases are extrapulmonary exclusively. Cervical lymphadenitis is the most common presentation of peripheral disease. Treatment usually is based on four drugs. Surgery is indicated for diagnostic procedures and complications. Conclusion. Mycobacterium bovis infection is uncommon in our environment, but must be considered in the diagnostic evaluation of all patients with cervical adenitis and epidemiological correlations.
Streptococcus bovis Bacteremia in Neonates in a Predominantly Hispanic Population
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YI eJIA
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Background: Streptococcus bovis bacteremia has been associated with gastrointestinal diseases, especially colon cancer, neoplastic colon polyps and other malignancies of the GI tract in adults. Sporadic cases of S. bovis disease have also been reported in neonates and young infants. Although uncommon, S. bovis infection can cause fulminant neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Objectives: We report a series of pediatric patients with S. bovis bacteremia in a county hospital in a United States - Mexico border city in order to examine the demographic and clinical associations. Methods: We characterized the demographic and clinical features in all pediatric patients with blood cultures positive for S. bovis at University Medical Center in El Paso, Texas between January 2000 and December 2010. Hospital records were systematically reviewed by using a standardized protocol.Results: A total of 7 episodes of S. bovis bacteremia were documented in 7 pediatric patients (4 female and 3 male. Mean age was 1.2 days (range 1-3 days, all were Hispanic, average birth weight (3.25 kg. Mode of delivery was spontaneous vaginal delivery (5 and Caesarian section (2. All of our patients developed early (< 1 week onset disease and presented with signs of respiratory distress. Five out of 7 babies presented with abdominal distention and diarrhea. Six had clinical evidence of sepsis at presentation. Respiratory distress was the most common manifestation of sepsis (7. Aspiration pneumonia was diagnosed in 2 of them. Most patients were treated with a combination of antibiotics (6, either ampicillin and gentamicin or ampicillin and cefotaxime, and one with ampicillin alone. None of the pediatric patients had endoscopy and none of them died.Conclusions: S. bovis is considered an uncommon pathogen in the newborn, but can be associated with substantial morbidity and mortality if not identified and treated early. Physicians should be alert to the less common presentation of neonatal
Schistosoma bovis as an immunological analogue of S. haematobium.
Agnew, A M; Murare, H M; Lucas, S B; Doenhoff, M J
1989-07-01
The host-parasite relationships of Schistosoma bovis and S. haematobium have been compared in normal and T-cell-deprived mice, and have been found to contrast with that of S. mansoni. Deprived mice infected with either of the former two schistosome species survived as long as, or longer than, comparably infected immunologically intact controls, and hepatocytes of infected deprived mice were not damaged in the absence of granuloma formation. S. mansoni-infected deprived mice, however, die earlier than intact controls, and suffer extensive hepatocellular abnormalities. A high degree of cross-reactivity between S. bovis, S. haematobium and S. mansoni antibodies and antigens was noted in immunoprecipitation but a greater degree of homology between S. haematobium and S. bovis egg antigens was demonstrated by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA). S. haematobium and S. bovis thus resemble each other more closely than either resembles S. mansoni, and in view of the apparent antigenic similarities between S. haematobium and S. bovis and the relatively greater ease with which the S. bovis life-cycle can be maintained in the laboratory, the animal parasite may be useful in providing material for further immunological studies of the human infection.
White noise calculus and Fock space
Obata, Nobuaki
1994-01-01
White Noise Calculus is a distribution theory on Gaussian space, proposed by T. Hida in 1975. This approach enables us to use pointwise defined creation and annihilation operators as well as the well-established theory of nuclear space.This self-contained monograph presents, for the first time, a systematic introduction to operator theory on fock space by means of white noise calculus. The goal is a comprehensive account of general expansion theory of Fock space operators and its applications. In particular,first order differential operators, Laplacians, rotation group, Fourier transform and their interrelations are discussed in detail w.r.t. harmonic analysis on Gaussian space. The mathematical formalism used here is based on distribution theory and functional analysis , prior knowledge of white noise calculus is not required.
A MATLAB companion for multivariable calculus
Cooper, Jeffery
2001-01-01
Offering a concise collection of MatLab programs and exercises to accompany a third semester course in multivariable calculus, A MatLab Companion for Multivariable Calculus introduces simple numerical procedures such as numerical differentiation, numerical integration and Newton''s method in several variables, thereby allowing students to tackle realistic problems. The many examples show students how to use MatLab effectively and easily in many contexts. Numerous exercises in mathematics and applications areas are presented, graded from routine to more demanding projects requiring some programming. Matlab M-files are provided on the Harcourt/Academic Press web site at http://www.harcourt-ap.com/matlab.html.* Computer-oriented material that complements the essential topics in multivariable calculus* Main ideas presented with examples of computations and graphics displays using MATLAB * Numerous examples of short code in the text, which can be modified for use with the exercises* MATLAB files are used to implem...
Fuzzy relational calculus theory, applications and software
Peeva, Ketty
2004-01-01
This book examines fuzzy relational calculus theory with applications in various engineering subjects. The scope of the text covers unified and exact methods with algorithms for direct and inverse problem resolution in fuzzy relational calculus. Extensive engineering applications of fuzzy relation compositions and fuzzy linear systems (linear, relational and intuitionistic) are discussed. Some examples of such applications include solutions of equivalence, reduction and minimization problems in fuzzy machines, pattern recognition in fuzzy languages, optimization and inference engines in textile and chemical engineering, etc. A comprehensive overview of the authors' original work in fuzzy relational calculus is also provided in each chapter. The attached CD-Rom contains a toolbox with many functions for fuzzy calculations, together with an original algorithm for inverse problem resolution in MATLAB. This book is also suitable for use as a textbook in related courses at advanced undergraduate and graduate level...
Calculus of tensors and differential forms
Sinha, Rajnikant
2014-01-01
Calculus of tensors and differential forms is an introductory-level textbook. Through this book, students will familiarize themselves with tools they need in order to use for further study on general relativity and research, such as affine tensors, tensor calculus on manifolds, relative tensors, Lie derivatives, wedge products, differential forms, and Stokes' theorem. The treatment is concrete and in detail, so that abstract concepts do not deter even physics and engineering students. This self contained book requires undergraduate-level calculus of several variables and linear algebra as prerequisite. Fubini's theorem in real analysis, to be used in Stokes' theorem, has been proved earlier than Stokes' theorem so that students don't have to search elsewhere.
A BRUTUS Logic for a Spi-Calculus Dialect
Gnesi, S.; Latella, D.; Lenzini, Gabriele
2000-01-01
In the field of process algebras, the spi-calculus, a modified version of the π-calculus with encryption primitives, is indicated as an expressive specification language for cryptographic protocols. In spi-calculus basic security properties, such as secrecy and integrity can be formalized as
GIANT CALCULUS IN THE MOUTH OF A PARTIALLY EDENTULOUS
African Journals Online (AJOL)
prevention. Report:- This describes the oral condition of a partially edentulous woman with a giant calculus in the mouth. It highlights the effect of such an enormous calculus in the oral cavity. Conclusi0n:- Such gross calculus formation could have resulted from oral hygiene neglect, facilitated by the anatomical position of.
TWO-PHASE EJECTOR of CARBON DIOXIDE HEAT PUMP CALCULUS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sit B.M.
2010-12-01
Full Text Available It is presented the calculus of the two-phase ejector for carbon dioxide heat pump. The method of calculus is based on the method elaborated by S.M. Kandil, W.E. Lear, S.A. Sherif, and is modified taking into account entrainment ratio as the input for the calculus.
Improving Calculus II and III through the Redistribution of Topics
George, C. Yousuf; Koetz, Matt; Lewis, Heather A.
2016-01-01
Three years ago our mathematics department rearranged the topics in second and third semester calculus, moving multivariable calculus to the second semester and series to the third semester. This paper describes the new arrangement of topics, and how it could be adapted to calculus curricula at different schools. It also explains the benefits we…
Giant Calculus In The Mouth Of Partially Edentulous Woman, (Case ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Objective: This case report is to create awareness of the presence of giant calculus in the mouth, the possible causes and its prevention. Report: This describes the oral condition of a partially edentulous woman with a giant calculus in the mouth. It highlights the effect of such an enormous calculus in the oral cavity.
A Transition Course from Advanced Placement to College Calculus
Lucas, Timothy A.; Spivey, Joseph
2011-01-01
In the Spring of 2007, a group of highly motivated mathematics graduate students conducted a review of Duke's Calculus curriculum. They focused on two main problems. The first problem is the result of a very positive trend: a growing number of students are earning AP credit for Calculus I in high school. However, this results in Calculus II…
Science 101: How Do We Use Calculus in Science?
Robertson, Bill
2014-01-01
How is calculus used in science? That might seem like an odd question to answer in a magazine intended primarily for elementary school teachers. After all, how much calculus gets used in elementary science? Here the author guesses that quite a few readers of this column do not know a whole lot about calculus and have not taken a course in…
An introductory calculus-based mechanics investigation
Allen, Bradley
2017-11-01
One challenge for the introductory physics teacher is incorporating calculus techniques into the laboratory setting. It can be difficult to strike a balance between presenting an experimental task for which calculus is essential and making the mathematics accessible to learners who may be apprehensive about applying it. One-dimensional kinematics is a common way to do so and has been discussed in this publication. This article outlines a two-dimensional kinematics experiment that is straightforward for students to perform, but for which the ideas of differentiation and maximizing are necessary to justify the results theoretically. It also leads to a satisfying result that ties into a derivation which students may recognize.
Sequent Calculus in the Topos of Trees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clouston, Ranald; Goré, Rajeev
2015-01-01
Nakano’s “later” modality, inspired by Gödel-Löb provability logic, has been applied in type systems and program logics to capture guarded recursion. Birkedal et al modelled this modality via the internal logic of the topos of trees. We show that the semantics of the propositional fragment...... that decomposes implication into its static and irreflexive components. Our calculus provides deterministic and terminating backward proof-search, yields decidability of the logic and the coNP-completeness of its validity problem. Our calculus and decision procedure can be restricted to drop linearity and hence...
Projects for calculus the language of change
Stroyan, Keith D
1999-01-01
Projects for Calculus is designed to add depth and meaning to any calculus course. The fifty-two projects presented in this text offer the opportunity to expand the use and understanding of mathematics. The wide range of topics will appeal to both instructors and students. Shorter, less demanding projects can be managed by the independent learner, while more involved, in-depth projects may be used for group learning. Each task draws on special mathematical topics and applications from subjects including medicine, engineering, economics, ecology, physics, and biology.Subjects including:* Medicine* Engineering* Economics* Ecology* Physics* Biology
The lambda sigma calculus and strong normalization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten
Explicit substitution calculi can be classified into several dis- tinct categories depending on whether they are confluent, meta-confluent, strong normalization preserving, strongly normalizing, simulating, fully compositional, and/or local. In this paper we present a variant of the λσ-calculus......, which satisfies all seven conditions. In particular, we show how to circumvent Mellies counter-example to strong normalization by a slight restriction of the congruence rules. The calculus is implemented as the core data structure of the Celf logical framework. All meta-theoretic aspects of this work...
A sequent calculus for signed interval logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Thomas Marthedal
2001-01-01
We propose and discuss a complete sequent calculus formulation for Signed Interval Logic (SIL) with the chief purpose of improving proof support for SIL in practice. The main theoretical result is a simple characterization of the limit between decidability and undecidability of quantifier-free SIL....... We present a mechanization of SIL in the generic proof assistant Isabelle and consider techniques for automated reasoning. Many of the results and ideas of this report are also applicable to traditional (non-signed) interval logic and, hence, to Duration Calculus....
Safety versus Security in the Quality Calculus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming
2013-01-01
Safety and security are both needed for ensuring that cyber-physical systems live up to expectations, but often an intelligent trade-off is called for, because sometimes it is impossible to obtain optimal safety at the same time as optimal security. In the context of the Quality Calculus we develop...... be performed in highly trusted contexts. This is potentially too demanding and the Quality Calculus is therefore extended with a primitive for endorsing data to a higher trust level (accepting violations of the explicit flow) and for temporarily asserting a higher trust in the context (accepting violations...
Probabilistic Analysis of the Quality Calculus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming
2013-01-01
We consider a fragment of the Quality Calculus, previously introduced for defensive programming of software components such that it becomes natural to plan for default behaviour in case the ideal behaviour fails due to unreliable communication. This paper develops a probabilistically based trust...... analysis supporting the Quality Calculus. It uses information about the probabilities that expected input will be absent in order to determine the trustworthiness of the data used for controlling the distributed system; the main challenge is to take accord of the stochastic dependency between some...
Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, René Rydhof
2007-01-01
In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate a rational reconstruction of a previously published control flow analysis for the mobile ambients calculus and we further show how a more precise flow-sensitive analysis, that takes the ordering of action sequences into account, can be formulated...... in a natural way. We show that hybrid logic is very well suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can be exploited to reduce the "administrative overhead" of the analysis specification and thus simplify it. Finally, we use HyLoTab, a fully automated...
Multivariable dynamic calculus on time scales
Bohner, Martin
2016-01-01
This book offers the reader an overview of recent developments of multivariable dynamic calculus on time scales, taking readers beyond the traditional calculus texts. Covering topics from parameter-dependent integrals to partial differentiation on time scales, the book’s nine pedagogically oriented chapters provide a pathway to this active area of research that will appeal to students and researchers in mathematics and the physical sciences. The authors present a clear and well-organized treatment of the concept behind the mathematics and solution techniques, including many practical examples and exercises.
Calculus of Variations, Classical and Modern
Conti, Roberto
2011-01-01
A. Blaquiere: Quelques aspects geometriques des processus optimaux.- C. Castaing: Quelques problemes de mesurabilite lies a la theorie des commandes.- L. Cesari: Existence theorems for Lagrange and Pontryagin problems of the calculus of variations and optimal control of more-dimensional extensions in Sobolev space.- H. Halkin: Optimal control as programming in infinite dimensional spaces.- C. Olech: The range of integrals of a certain class vector-valued functions.- E. Rothe: Weak topology and calculus of variations.- E.O. Roxin: Problems about the set of attainability.
Cattle were inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or Mycobacterium kansasii to compare antigen-specific immune responses to varied patterns of mycobacterial disease. Disease expression ranged from colonization with associated pathology (M. bovis), colonization without path...
Van Rhijn, Ildiko; Nguyen, Thi Kim Anh; Michel, Anita; Cooper, Dave; Govaerts, Marc; Cheng, Tan-Yun; van Eden, Willem; Moody, D. Branch; Coetzer, Jacobus A. W.; Rutten, Victor; Koets, Ad P.
2011-01-01
Although CD1 proteins are known to present mycobacterial lipid antigens to T cells, there is little understanding of the in vivo behavior of T cells restricted by CD1a, CD1b and CD1c, and the relative immunogenicity and immunodominance of individual lipids within the total array of lipids that comprise a bacterium. Because bovines express multiple CD1 proteins and are natural hosts of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP), we used them as a new animal model of CD1 function. Here, we report the surprisingly divergent responses against lipids produced by these two pathogens during infection. Despite considerable overlap in lipid content, only three out of 69 animals cross-react with M. bovis and MAP total lipid preparations. The unidentified immunodominant compound of M. bovis is a hydrophilic compound, whereas the immunodominant lipid of MAP is presented by CD1b and was identified as glucose monomycolate (GMM). The preferential recognition of GMM antigen by MAP-infected cattle may be explained by the higher expression of GMM by MAP than by M. bovis. The bacterial species-specific nature of the CD1-restricted, adaptive T-cell response affects the approach to development of lipid based immunodiagnostic tests. PMID:19688747
Bolt, Mike
2010-01-01
Many optimization problems can be solved without resorting to calculus. This article develops a new variational method for optimization that relies on inequalities. The method is illustrated by four examples, the last of which provides a completely algebraic solution to the problem of minimizing the time it takes a dog to retrieve a thrown ball,…
Using MathCAD in General Calculus.
Wieder, Sol
1991-01-01
This article utilizes several examples to describe the use of MathCAD, a computer scratchpad for calculations, within a lecture-demonstration method of teaching general calculus. Both hardware requirements and software features are discussed specifically related to the proper design of student worksheets with emphasis on parameter variation. (JJK)
Spinor calculus on 5-dimensional spacetimes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gomez-Lobo, Alfonso Garcia-Parrado [Centro de Matematica, Universidade do Minho. 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Martin-Garcia, Jose M, E-mail: alfonso@math.uminho.p, E-mail: jose.martin-garcia@obspm.f [Laboratoire Univers et Theories, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, University Paris Diderot, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France)
2010-05-01
We explain how Penrose's spinor calculus of 4-dimensional Lorentzian geometry is implemented in a 5-dimensional Lorentzian manifold. A number of issues, such as the essential spin algebra, the spin covariant derivative and the algebro-differential properties of the curvature spinors are discussed.
Enabling quaternion derivatives: the generalized HR calculus
Xu, Dongpo; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Took, Clive C.; Mandic, Danilo P.
2015-01-01
Quaternion derivatives exist only for a very restricted class of analytic (regular) functions; however, in many applications, functions of interest are real-valued and hence not analytic, a typical case being the standard real mean square error objective function. The recent HR calculus is a step forward and provides a way to calculate derivatives and gradients of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables; however, the HR calculus can become cumbersome in complex optimization problems due to the lack of rigorous product and chain rules, a consequence of the non-commutativity of quaternion algebra. To address this issue, we introduce the generalized HR (GHR) derivatives which employ quaternion rotations in a general orthogonal system and provide the left- and right-hand versions of the quaternion derivative of general functions. The GHR calculus also solves the long-standing problems of product and chain rules, mean-value theorem and Taylor's theorem in the quaternion field. At the core of the proposed GHR calculus is quaternion rotation, which makes it possible to extend the principle to other functional calculi in non-commutative settings. Examples in statistical learning theory and adaptive signal processing support the analysis. PMID:26361555
Inverted Pedagogy in Second Semester Calculus
Kennedy, Ellie; Beaudrie, Brian; Ernst, Dana C.; St. Laurent, Roy
2015-01-01
This study investigates the effects of applying an inverted classroom model in a second-semester calculus course at a large regional university in the southwest during the Spring of 2013. The sample consisted of four class sections with the same instructor, with a total of 173 students; two class sections were in the experimental group, whereas…
Bladder calculus presenting as excessive masturbation.
De Alwis, A C D; Senaratne, A M R D; De Silva, S M P D; Rodrigo, V S D
2006-09-01
Masturbation in childhood is a normal behaviour which most commonly begins at 2 months of age, and peaks at 4 years and in adolescence. However excessive masturbation causes anxiety in parents. We describe a boy with a bladder calculus presenting as excessive masturbation.
Optimal control and the calculus of variations
Pinch, Enid R
1993-01-01
This introduction to optimal control theory is intended for undergraduate mathematicians and for engineers and scientists with some knowledge of classical analysis. It includes sections on classical optimization and the calculus of variations. All the important theorems are carefully proved. There are many worked examples and exercises for the reader to attempt.
Symbolic boundary calculus and feedback operators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Michael
1991-01-01
The recent developments in microlocal analysis and pseudodifferential boundary calculus are well suited tools in the investigation of a large number of problems occurring in control theory for partial differential equations. We explain some of the basic ideas of a pseudodifferential model...
Classroom Voting Patterns in Differential Calculus
Cline, Kelly; Zullo, Holly; VonEpps, Lahna
2012-01-01
We study how different sections voted on the same set of classroom voting questions in differential calculus, finding that voting patterns can be used to identify some of the questions that have the most pedagogic value. We use statistics to identify three types of especially useful questions: 1. To identify good discussion questions, we look for…
Partial differential equations and calculus of variations
Leis, Rolf
1988-01-01
This volume contains 18 invited papers by members and guests of the former Sonderforschungsbereich in Bonn (SFB 72) who, over the years, collaborated on the research group "Solution of PDE's and Calculus of Variations". The emphasis is on existence and regularity results, on special equations of mathematical physics and on scattering theory.
Enabling quaternion derivatives: the generalized HR calculus.
Xu, Dongpo; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Took, Clive C; Mandic, Danilo P
2015-08-01
Quaternion derivatives exist only for a very restricted class of analytic (regular) functions; however, in many applications, functions of interest are real-valued and hence not analytic, a typical case being the standard real mean square error objective function. The recent HR calculus is a step forward and provides a way to calculate derivatives and gradients of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables; however, the HR calculus can become cumbersome in complex optimization problems due to the lack of rigorous product and chain rules, a consequence of the non-commutativity of quaternion algebra. To address this issue, we introduce the generalized HR (GHR) derivatives which employ quaternion rotations in a general orthogonal system and provide the left- and right-hand versions of the quaternion derivative of general functions. The GHR calculus also solves the long-standing problems of product and chain rules, mean-value theorem and Taylor's theorem in the quaternion field. At the core of the proposed GHR calculus is quaternion rotation, which makes it possible to extend the principle to other functional calculi in non-commutative settings. Examples in statistical learning theory and adaptive signal processing support the analysis.
Boolean integral calculus for digital systems
Tucker, J. H.; Tapia, M. A.; Bennett, A. W.
1985-01-01
The concept of Boolean integration is introduced and developed. When the changes in a desired function are specified in terms of changes in its arguments, then ways of 'integrating' (i.e., realizing) the function, if it exists, are presented. Boolean integral calculus has applications in design of logic circuits.
Are Homeschoolers Prepared for College Calculus?
Wilkens, Christian P.; Wade, Carol H.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.
2015-01-01
Homeschooling in the United States has grown considerably over the past several decades. This article presents findings from the Factors Influencing College Success in Mathematics (FICSMath) survey, a national study of 10,492 students enrolled in tertiary calculus, including 190 students who reported homeschooling for a majority of their high…
Is Calculus a Failure in Cryptography?
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 3. Is Calculus a Failure in Cryptography? P Vanchinathan. General Article Volume 21 Issue 3 March 2016 pp 239-245. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/021/03/0239-0245. Keywords.
A robust interpretation of duration calculus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Franzle, M.; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt
2005-01-01
Calculus (DC), our findings are that the robust interpretation of DC is equivalent to a multi-valued interpretation that uses the real numbers as semantic domain and assigns Lipschitz-continuous interpretations to all operators of DC. Furthermore, this continuity permits approximation between discrete...
Differential Calculus in Normed Linear Spaces
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 2. Differential Calculus in Normed Linear Spaces. Harish Seshadri. Book Review Volume 9 Issue 2 February 2004 pp 90-91. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/02/0090-0091 ...
Some Factors Effected Student's Calculus Learning Outcome
Rajagukguk, Wamington
2016-01-01
The purpose of this study is to determine the factors effected calculus learning outcome of the student. This study was conducted with 176 respondents, which were selected randomly. The data were obtained by questionnaire, and then analyzed by using multiple regressions, and correlation, at level of a = 0.05. The findings showed there is the…
an aid to mastering fundamental calculus concepts
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Erna Kinsey
the classroom, they do not indicate why it happened. The research reported here differs from those quoted above in that it was not a quantitative comparative study conducted with two groups of subjects, but an action research study over an extended period of time with students enrolled for a first course in calculus.
Exploring Flipped Classroom Instruction in Calculus III
Wasserman, Nicholas H.; Quint, Christa; Norris, Scott A.; Carr, Thomas
2017-01-01
In an undergraduate Calculus III class, we explore the effect of "flipping" the instructional delivery of content on both student performance and student perceptions. Two instructors collaborated to determine daily lecture notes, assigned the same homework problems, and gave identical exams; however, compared to a more traditional…
Sharks, Minnows, and Wheelbarrows: Calculus Modeling Projects
Smith, Michael D.
2011-01-01
The purpose of this article is to present two very active applied modeling projects that were successfully implemented in a first semester calculus course at Hollins University. The first project uses a logistic equation to model the spread of a new disease such as swine flu. The second project is a human take on the popular article "Do Dogs Know…
Mathematics for engineers III vector calculus
Baumann, Gerd
2011-01-01
This book is part of a four-volume textbook on Engineering Mathematics for undergraduates. Volume III treats vector calculus and differential equations of higher order. The text uses Mathematica as a tool to discuss and to solve examples from mathematics. The basic use of this language is demonstrated by examples.
A Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming Calculus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia Posso, Frank Darwin
2001-01-01
The tcc model is a formalism for reactive concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we propose a model of temporal concurrent constraint programming which adds to tcc the capability of modeling asynchronous and non-deterministic timed behavior. We call this tcc extension the ntcc calculus...
A Stochastic Broadcast Pi-Calculus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Song, Lei; Nielson, Flemming; Nielsen, Bo Friis
2011-01-01
In this paper we propose a stochastic broadcast PI-calculus which can be used to model server-client based systems where synchronization is always governed by only one participant. Therefore, there is no need to determine the joint synchronization rates. We also take immediate transitions...
Students' Difficulties with Vector Calculus in Electrodynamics
Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; De Cock, Mieke
2015-01-01
Understanding Maxwell's equations in differential form is of great importance when studying the electrodynamic phenomena discussed in advanced electromagnetism courses. It is therefore necessary that students master the use of vector calculus in physical situations. In this light we investigated the difficulties second year students at KU Leuven…
Fractional vector calculus for fractional advection dispersion
Meerschaert, Mark M.; Mortensen, Jeff; Wheatcraft, Stephen W.
2006-07-01
We develop the basic tools of fractional vector calculus including a fractional derivative version of the gradient, divergence, and curl, and a fractional divergence theorem and Stokes theorem. These basic tools are then applied to provide a physical explanation for the fractional advection-dispersion equation for flow in heterogeneous porous media.
On Online Assignments in a Calculus Class
Jungic, Veselin; Kent, Deborah; Menz, Petra
2012-01-01
In this paper, we describe our experience with the creation and utilization of online assignments for several calculus classes at Simon Fraser University (SFU). We present our findings regarding available software by considering the needs and perspectives of the instructors, students, and administrators. We provide a list of questions that guide…
Characteristics of subgingival calculus detection by multiphoton fluorescence microscopy
Tung, Oi-Hong; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Lai, Yu-Lin; Chen, How-Foo
2011-06-01
Subgingival calculus has been recognized as a major cause of periodontitis, which is one of the main chronic infectious diseases of oral cavities and a principal cause of tooth loss in humans. Bacteria deposited in subgingival calculus or plaque cause gingival inflammation, function deterioration, and then periodontitis. However, subgingival calculus within the periodontal pocket is a complicated and potentially delicate structure to be detected with current dental armamentaria, namely dental x-rays and dental probes. Consequently, complete removal of subgingival calculus remains a challenge to periodontal therapies. In this study, the detection of subgingival calculus employing a multiphoton autofluorescence imaging method was characterized in comparison with a one-photon confocal fluorescence imaging technique. Feasibility of such a system was studied based on fluorescence response of gingiva, healthy teeth, and calculus with and without gingiva covered. The multiphoton fluorescence technology perceived the tissue-covered subgingival calculus that cannot be observed by the one-photon confocal fluorescence method.
Fractional calculus in bioengineering, part 3.
Magin, Richard L
2004-01-01
Fractional calculus (integral and differential operations of noninteger order) is not often used to model biological systems. Although the basic mathematical ideas were developed long ago by the mathematicians Leibniz (1695), Liouville (1834), Riemann (1892), and others and brought to the attention of the engineering world by Oliver Heaviside in the 1890s, it was not until 1974 that the first book on the topic was published by Oldham and Spanier. Recent monographs and symposia proceedings have highlighted the application of fractional calculus in physics, continuum mechanics, signal processing, and electromagnetics, but with few examples of applications in bioengineering. This is surprising because the methods of fractional calculus, when defined as a Laplace or Fourier convolution product, are suitable for solving many problems in biomedical research. For example, early studies by Cole (1933) and Hodgkin (1946) of the electrical properties of nerve cell membranes and the propagation of electrical signals are well characterized by differential equations of fractional order. The solution involves a generalization of the exponential function to the Mittag-Leffler function, which provides a better fit to the observed cell membrane data. A parallel application of fractional derivatives to viscoelastic materials establishes, in a natural way, hereditary integrals and the power law (Nutting/Scott Blair) stress-strain relationship for modeling biomaterials. In this review, I will introduce the idea of fractional operations by following the original approach of Heaviside, demonstrate the basic operations of fractional calculus on well-behaved functions (step, ramp, pulse, sinusoid) of engineering interest, and give specific examples from electrochemistry, physics, bioengineering, and biophysics. The fractional derivative accurately describes natural phenomena that occur in such common engineering problems as heat transfer, electrode/electrolyte behavior, and sub
Galdy, Salvatore; Nastasi, Giuseppe
2012-01-01
A relationship between infective endocarditis and colon cancer was established in 1950, and Streptococcus bovis was successfully isolated in 1970. However, this association and its pathogenesis still remain unclear. In this paper, we describe the clinical case of a patient with a history of colon cancer and infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis. The role of S bovis as an aetiological agent in the development of colon cancer is intriguing but uncertain. S bovis infection should ...
Hamid, Penny H; Hirzmann, Jörg; Hermosilla, Carlos; Taubert, Anja
2014-11-01
Eimeria bovis macromeront formation in bovine endothelial host cells is an energy- and nutrient-demanding process. Obligate intracellular replicating coccidians are generally considered as auxotrophic for cholesterol synthesis and scavenge cholesterol from the host cell by either enhancing the uptake of extracellular cholesterol sources or by upregulating the host cellular de novo biosynthesis. We here focused on the latter mechanism and analyzed the effects of several inhibitors targeting the host cellular mevalonate biosynthesis pathway and cholesterol processing. The following inhibitors were used: lovastatin, squalestatin, CI976 and C75 targeting HMG-CoA reductase, squalene synthase, acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase, and fatty acid synthase, respectively. In summary, all inhibitors significantly interfered with E. bovis meront formation and merozoite production in a dose-dependent manner. Dose effect responses identified lovastatin as the most effective compound, followed by CI976, C75, and squalestatin, respectively. Overall, merozoite production was inhibited by 99.6, 99.7, 84.6, and 70.2% via lovastatin (1 μM), CI976, C75, and squalestatin (all 5 μM) treatments, respectively. Concerning macromeront formation, both the rate and size of developing meronts were affected by inhibitor treatments. The effects were characterized by developmental arrest and meront degradation. In the case of CI976 treatment, we additionally observed detrimental effects on host cellular lipid droplet formation leading to meront developmental arrest irrespective of the time point of treatment onset. These analyses clearly indicate that successful E. bovis intracellular development strictly depends on the host cellular de novo biosynthesis of cholesterol and on the adequate subsequent processing thereof.
Mycobacterium bovis meningitis in young Nigerian-born male
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Lillebæk, Troels; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan
2014-01-01
In Denmark, tuberculous meningitis is rare. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement with Mycobacterium bovis is even rarer and has only been seen three times since 1992. We present a case of M. bovis meningitis in a previously healthy young Nigerian-born male, who had been exposed to unpasteuriz...... meningitis and treated empirically. After 13 days he was discharged without neurological sequelae. Later, the culture revealed M. bovis and treatment was adjusted accordingly.......In Denmark, tuberculous meningitis is rare. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement with Mycobacterium bovis is even rarer and has only been seen three times since 1992. We present a case of M. bovis meningitis in a previously healthy young Nigerian-born male, who had been exposed to unpasteurized...... dairy products in Nigeria but had no known contact with larger mammals. Before the development of meningitis, the patient had several contacts with the health system due to fever and non-specific symptoms. Finally, upon hospital admission, the patient was diagnosed with M. tuberculosis complex...
Mycobacterium bovis infection in humans and cats in same household, Texas, USA, 2012
Mycobacterium bovis infection of cats is exceedingly rare in non-endemic regions for bovine tuberculosis. This case study describes the diagnosis and clinical management of pulmonary M. bovis infection in two indoor-housed cats and their association with at least one M. bovis-infected human in Texas...
Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis Disease in Humans, the Netherlands, 1993-2007
Majoor, C.J.; Magis-Escurra, C.; van Ingen, J.; Boeree, M.J.; van Soolingen, D.
2011-01-01
In the Netherlands, 1.4% of tuberculosis (TB) cases are caused by Mycobacterium bovis. After we admitted 3 patients with M. bovis infections to our reference hospital, we conducted a retrospective analysis of all M. bovis disease in the Netherlands during 1993-2007. We analyzed data from 231
Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis disease in humans, The Netherlands, 1993-2007
Majoor, C.J.; Magis-Escurra Ibanez, C.; Ingen, J. van; Boeree, M.J.; Soolingen, D. van
2011-01-01
In the Netherlands, 1.4% of tuberculosis (TB) cases are caused by Mycobacterium bovis. After we admitted 3 patients with M. bovis infections to our reference hospital, we conducted a retrospective analysis of all M. bovis disease in the Netherlands during 1993-2007. We analyzed data from 231
Fractional calculus in bioengineering, part 2.
Magin, Richard L
2004-01-01
Fractional calculus (integral and differential operations of noninteger order) is not often used to model biological systems. Although the basic mathematical ideas were developed long ago by the mathematicians Leibniz (1695), Liouville (1834), Riemann (1892), and others and brought to the attention of the engineering world by Oliver Heaviside in the 1890s, it was not until 1974 that the first book on the topic was published by Oldham and Spanier. Recent monographs and symposia proceedings have highlighted the application of fractional calculus in physics, continuum mechanics, signal processing, and electromagnetics, but with few examples of applications in bioengineering. This is surprising because the methods of fractional calculus, when defined as a Laplace or Fourier convolution product, are suitable for solving many problems in biomedical research. For example, early studies by Cole (1933) and Hodgkin (1946) of the electrical properties of nerve cell membranes and the propagation of electrical signals are well characterized by differential equations of fractional order. The solution involves a generalization of the exponential function to the Mittag-Leffler function, which provides a better fit to the observed cell membrane data. A parallel application of fractional derivatives to viscoelastic materials establishes, in a natural way, hereditary integrals and the power law (Nutting/Scott Blair) stress-strain relationship for modeling biomaterials. In this review, I will introduce the idea of fractional operations by following the original approach of Heaviside, demonstrate the basic operations of fractional calculus on well-behaved functions (step, ramp, pulse, sinusoid) of engineering interest, and give specific examples from electrochemistry, physics, bioengineering, and biophysics. The fractional derivative accurately describes natural phenomena that occur in such common engineering problems as heat transfer, electrode/electrolyte behavior, and sub
Blocking Babesia bovis vaccine reactions of dairy cattle in milk
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael P. Combrink
2012-02-01
Full Text Available The use of 1.16 mg/kg (one third of the recommended dose of diminazene aceturate, administered indiscriminately to cattle on day seven of the unfrozen Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina bivalent live blood vaccine reaction, was an infection and block treatment method of immunisation used successfully with no known adverse effect on the parasites or the development of protective immunity. Continuing with this practice after replacement of the unfrozen vaccine with deep-frozen monovalent B. bovis and B. bigemina live blood vaccines resulted in reports of vaccine failure. Laboratory investigation indicated the harmful effect of block treatment in preventing the development of durable immunity against B. bigemina as opposed to the much lesser effect it had on B. bovis. Consequently the practice was no longer recommended. A B. bovis vaccination attempt aimed at controlling the disease of dairy cows in milk (n = 30 resulted in 20% fatalities during the expected vaccine reaction period. The practice of block treating B. bovis was therefore reinvestigated, this time in a field trial using dairy cattle in milk (n = 11. Using 0.88 mg/kg (one quarter of the recommended dose of diminazene administered on day 12 of the B. bovis vaccine reaction resulted in only two animals (n = 5 testing ≥ 1/80 positive with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT although parasites could be demonstrated in three. In the untreated control group, by contrast, five of the vaccinated animals (n = 6 tested ≥ 1/80 positive with IFAT and parasites could be demonstrated in all. The unsatisfactory outcome obtained in this study, combined with that of the earlier investigation, indicated that there are more factors that influence successful vaccination than previously considered. It is therefore concluded that block treatment of the live frozen South African cattle babesiosis vaccines reactions is not recommended.
Blocking Babesia bovis vaccine reactions of dairy cattle in milk.
Combrink, Michael P; Carr, Graham; Mans, Ben J; Marais, Frances
2012-12-06
The use of 1.16 mg/kg (one third) of the recommended dose of diminazene aceturate, administered indiscriminately to cattle on day seven of the unfrozen Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina bivalent live blood vaccine reaction, was an infection and block treatment method of immunisation used successfully with no known adverse effect on the parasites or the development of protective immunity. Continuing with this practice after replacement of the unfrozen vaccine with deep-frozen monovalent B. bovis and B. bigemina live blood vaccines resulted in reports of vaccine failure. Laboratory investigation indicated the harmful effect of block treatment in preventing the development of durable immunity against B. bigemina as opposed to the much lesser effect it had on B. bovis. Consequently the practice was no longer recommended. A B. bovis vaccination attempt aimed at controlling the disease of dairy cows in milk (n = 30) resulted in 20% fatalities during the expected vaccine reaction period. The practice of block treating B. bovis was therefore reinvestigated, this time in a field trial using dairy cattle in milk (n = 11). Using 0.88 mg/kg (one quarter) of the recommended dose of diminazene administered on day 12 of the B. bovis vaccine reaction resulted in only two animals (n = 5) testing ≥ 1/80 positive with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) although parasites could be demonstrated in three. In the untreated control group, by contrast, five of the vaccinated animals (n = 6) tested ≥ 1/80 positive with IFAT and parasites could be demonstrated in all. The unsatisfactory outcome obtained in this study, combined with that of the earlier investigation, indicated that there are more factors that influence successful vaccination than previously considered. It is therefore concluded that block treatment of the live frozen South African cattle babesiosis vaccines reactions is not recommended.
KAMYINGKIRD, Ketsarin; CAO, Shinuo; MASATANI, Tatsunori; MOUMOUNI, Paul Franck Adjou; VUDRIKO, Patrick; MOUSA, Ahmed Abd El Moniem; TERKAWI, Mohamad Alaa; NISHIKAWA, Yoshifumi; IGARASHI, Ikuo; XUAN, Xuenan
2013-01-01
ABSTRACT The emergence of drug resistance and adverse side effects of current bovine babesiosis treatment suggest that the search of new drug targets and development of safer and effective compounds are required. This study focuses on dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), the fourth enzyme of pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway as a potential drug target for bovine babesiosis. Recombinant Babesia bovis DHODH protein (rBboDHODH) was produced in Escherichia coli and used for characterization and measurement of enzymatic activity. Furthermore, the effects of DHODH inhibitors were evaluated in vitro. The recombinant B. bovis DHODH histidine fusion protein (rBboDHODH) had 42.4-kDa molecular weight and exhibited a specific activity of 475.7 ± 245 Unit/mg, a Km = 276.2 µM for L-dihydroorotate and a Km= 94.41 µM for decylubiquinone. A 44-kDa band of native BboDHODH was detected by Western blot analysis and found in parasites mitochondria using a confocal microscope. Among DHODH inhibitors, atovaquone (ATV) and leflunomide (LFN) significantly inhibited the activity of rBboDHODH as well as the growth of B. bovis in vitro. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of ATV and LFN was 2.38 ± 0.53 nM and 52.41 ± 11.47 µM, respectively. These results suggest that BboDHODH might be a novel target for development of new drug for treatment of B. bovis infection. PMID:24189582
Species identification of Streptococcus bovis group isolates causing bacteremia
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Agergaard, Charlotte N; Knudsen, Elisa; Dargis, Rimtas
2017-01-01
This study compared two MALDI-TOF MS systems (Biotyper and VITEK MS) on clinical Streptococcus bovis group isolates (n=66). The VITEK MS gave fewer misidentifications and a higher rate of correct identifications than the Biotyper. Only the identification of S. lutetiensis by the VITEK MS was reli......This study compared two MALDI-TOF MS systems (Biotyper and VITEK MS) on clinical Streptococcus bovis group isolates (n=66). The VITEK MS gave fewer misidentifications and a higher rate of correct identifications than the Biotyper. Only the identification of S. lutetiensis by the VITEK MS...
Cysticercus bovis: I. Ensaios de evaginação
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hélio Martins de Araújo Costa
1988-04-01
Full Text Available Fresh bovine and swine bile and dehidrated bovine bile in association with chloridric acid, glucose, peptone or distilled water were utilized to induce evagination of C. bovis. Better results were obtained by using bovine or swine fresh bile 15% or dehidrated bovine bile 4% in distilled water. The C. bovis evagination pattern was the same in broths containing bovine or swine bile. The bovine dehidrated bile at 4% is better for the evagination than the natural one; in the studied concentrations a increase in the percentage of evagination was observed with a concomitant increase in the concentration of bile.
Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis isolates from Ethiopian cattle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dahle Ulf
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine Tuberculosis (BTB is a widespread and endemic disease of cattle in Ethiopia. Information relating to genotypic characteristics of Mycobacterium bovis strains affecting the cattle population in Ethiopia is limited. We carried out molecular characterization of M. bovis strains isolated from BTB infected cattle using the spoligotyping technique. The relationship between distribution of spoligotypes and recorded variables was also investigated. A new approach that can numerically reflect the degree of genetic polymorphism in a M. bovis population was also developed. The study was conducted from July 2006 to January 2007 in cattle slaughtered at five representative abattoirs in Ethiopia. Results Forty-five M. bovis isolates were obtained from 406 pathologic tissue specimens collected from 337 carcasses with lesions compatible with BTB. Twelve spoligotypes were identified from 34 distinct strains; with SB1176 as a dominant spoligotype (41.2% of the isolates followed by SB0133 (14.7%. Comparison of spoligotypes with an M. bovis global database http://www.mbovis.org revealed six new spoligotypes which were subsequently registered in the database with international identification codes of SB1517, SB1518, SB1519, SB1520, SB1521 and SB1522. The majority of strains were obtained from cattle slaughtered at Addis Ababa abattoir. On the basis of the Spoligotype Evolutionary Index, SEI (a numeric expression approach to make standardized comparison of spoligotype evolution, M. bovis isolates from Ethiopia were relatively more heterogeneous (SEI = 3.2 compared to isolates from other countries. This might be attributed to extensive livestock movement linked to trading or seasonal migration, high degree of livestock mingling, and also diversities of the country's agricultural and livestock ecosystems, in addition to lack of disease control measures that led to high infection prevalence. Multiple spoligotype infection was recorded in nine
Differential calculus in normed linear spaces
Mukherjea, Kalyan
2007-01-01
This book presents Advanced Calculus from a geometric point of view: instead of dealing with partial derivatives of functions of several variables, the derivative of the function is treated as a linear transformation between normed linear spaces. Not only does this lead to a simplified and transparent exposition of "difficult" results like the Inverse and Implicit Function Theorems but also permits, without any extra effort, a discussion of the Differential Calculus of functions defined on infinite dimensional Hilbert or Banach spaces.The prerequisites demanded of the reader are modest: a sound understanding of convergence of sequences and series of real numbers, the continuity and differentiability properties of functions of a real variable and a little Linear Algebra should provide adequate background for understanding the book. The first two chapters cover much of the more advanced background material on Linear Algebra (like dual spaces, multilinear functions and tensor products.) Chapter 3 gives an ab ini...
A Simplified Stabilizer ZX-calculus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miriam Backens
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The stabilizer ZX-calculus is a rigorous graphical language for reasoning about quantum mechanics.The language is sound and complete: a stabilizer ZX-diagram can be transformed into another one if and only if these two diagrams represent the same quantum evolution or quantum state. We show that the stabilizer ZX-calculus can be simplified, removing unnecessary equations while keeping only the essential axioms which potentially capture fundamental structures of quantum mechanics. We thus give a significantly smaller set of axioms and prove that meta-rules like 'colour symmetry' and 'upside-down symmetry', which were considered as axioms in previous versions of the language, can in fact be derived. In particular, we show that the additional symbol and one of the rules which had been recently introduced to keep track of scalars (diagrams with no inputs or outputs are not necessary.
Semiclassical dynamics and magnetic Weyl calculus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lein, Maximilian Stefan
2011-01-19
Weyl quantization and related semiclassical techniques can be used to study conduction properties of crystalline solids subjected to slowly-varying, external electromagnetic fields. The case where the external magnetic field is constant, is not covered by existing theory as proofs involving usual Weyl calculus break down. This is the regime of the so-called quantum Hall effect where quantization of transverse conductance is observed. To rigorously derive semiclassical equations of motion, one needs to systematically develop a magnetic Weyl calculus which contains a semiclassical parameter. Mathematically, the operators involved in the analysis are magnetic pseudodifferential operators, a topic which by itself is of interest for the mathematics and mathematical physics community alike. Hence, we will devote two additional chapters to further understanding of properties of those operators. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roly Perera
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Formalising the pi-calculus is an illuminating test of the expressiveness of logical frameworks and mechanised metatheory systems, because of the presence of name binding, labelled transitions with name extrusion, bisimulation, and structural congruence. Formalisations have been undertaken in a variety of systems, primarily focusing on well-studied (and challenging properties such as the theory of process bisimulation. We present a formalisation in Agda that instead explores the theory of concurrent transitions, residuation, and causal equivalence of traces, which has not previously been formalised for the pi-calculus. Our formalisation employs de Bruijn indices and dependently-typed syntax, and aligns the "proved transitions" proposed by Boudol and Castellani in the context of CCS with the proof terms naturally present in Agda's representation of the labelled transition relation. Our main contributions are proofs of the "diamond lemma" for residuation of concurrent transitions and a formal definition of equivalence of traces up to permutation of transitions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Valerga
2005-06-01
Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis, también llamado bacilo de la tuberculosis (TBC bovina, fue en otras épocas el principal agente etiológico de la TBC en países industrializados. Actualmente, los casos humanos se han vuelto poco frecuentes, excepto en aquellas naciones donde la enfermedad es aún endémica en el ganado. En pacientes inmunodeficientes, suele presentarse como una enfermedad sistémica. Presentamos el caso de una mujer con SIDA y TBC diseminada por M. bovis. La micobacteria aislada resultó ser resistente a la rifampicina y a la pirazinamida. Se realizó tratamiento con isoniacida, etambutol y ofloxacina con buena respuesta clínica. Este caso resultó ser el primer aislamiento de M. bovis en una paciente con SIDA, en el Hospital Muñiz.M. bovis, the agent of bovine tuberculosis, was in other times, the main ethiological agent of tuberculosis (TBC in industrialized countries. At the moment, the human cases have become not very frequent, except in those countries where the illness is even endemic. In patients with immunodeficiency syndrome, it usually presents as a systemic illness. We present the case of a woman with AIDS and disseminated TBC caused by M. bovis. The isolated micobacteria turned out to be resistant to rifampin and pyrazinamide. She was treated with isoniazid, ethambutol and ofloxacin with good clinical evolution. This case turned out to be the first isolation of M. bovis in a patient with AIDS, in Muñiz hospital.
Quantum stochastic calculus with maximal operator domains
Lindsay, J. Martin; Attal, Stéphane
2004-01-01
Quantum stochastic calculus is extended in a new formulation in which its stochastic integrals achieve their natural and maximal domains. Operator adaptedness, conditional expectations and stochastic integrals are all defined simply in terms of the orthogonal projections of the time filtration of Fock space, together with sections of the adapted gradient operator. Free from exponential vector domains, our stochastic integrals may be satisfactorily composed yielding quantum Itô formulas for op...
Introduction to the calculus of variations
Sagan, Hans
1992-01-01
Excellent text provides basis for thorough understanding of the problems, methods and techniques of the calculus of variations and prepares readers for the study of modern optimal control theory. Treatment limited to extensive coverage of single integral problems in one and more unknown functions. Carefully chosen variational problems and over 400 exercises. ""Should find wide acceptance as a text and reference.""-American Mathematical Monthly. 1969 edition. Bibliography.
Index matrices towards an augmented matrix calculus
Atanassov, Krassimir T
2014-01-01
This book presents the very concept of an index matrix and its related augmented matrix calculus in a comprehensive form. It mostly illustrates the exposition with examples related to the generalized nets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets which are examples of an extremely wide array of possible application areas. The present book contains the basic results of the author over index matrices and some of its open problems with the aim to stimulating more researchers to start working in this area.
An application of Malliavin Calculus to Finance
Kohatsu-Higa, Arturo; Montero, Miquel
2001-01-01
In this article, we give a brief informal introduction to Malliavin Calculus for newcomers. We apply these ideas to the simulation of Greeks in Finance. First to European-type options where formulas can be computed explicitly and therefore can serve as testing ground. Later we study the case of Asian options where close formulas are not available. The Greeks are computed through Monte Carlo simulation.
Algebraic difficulties as an obstacle for high school calculus
Kraemer, Karl
2011-01-01
The mistakes in algebraic manipulations often hinder students’ performance on calculus tasks. This observation is supported by the literature review, revealing that students, who are all supposedly strong in mathematics, are experiencing significant difficulties in their university level calculus course. Several researchers suggest that the biggest hurdle in first year calculus is the significant lack of proficiency with high school algebra. However, most studies do not itemize what such prof...
Everyday calculus discovering the hidden math all around us
Fernandez, Oscar E
2014-01-01
Calculus. For some of us, the word conjures up memories of ten-pound textbooks and visions of tedious abstract equations. And yet, in reality, calculus is fun, accessible, and surrounds us everywhere we go. In Everyday Calculus, Oscar Fernandez shows us how to see the math in our coffee, on the highway, and even in the night sky. Fernandez uses our everyday experiences to skillfully reveal the hidden calculus behind a typical day's events. He guides us through how math naturally emerges from simple observations-how hot coffee cools down, for example-and in discussions of over fifty familia
Modelling and Analysis of Dynamic Reconfiguration in BP-Calculus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abouzaid, Faisal; Mullins, John; Mazzara, Manuel
2012-01-01
The BP-calculus is a formalism based on the π-calculus and encoded in WS-BPEL. The BP-calculus is intended to specificaly model and verify Service Oriented Applications. One important feature of SOA is the ability to compose services that may dynamically evolve along runtime. Dynamic...... reconfiguration of services increases their availability, but puts accordingly, heavy demands for validation, verification, and evaluation. In this paper we formally model and analyze dynamic reconfigurations and their requirements in BP-calculus and show how reconfigurable components can be modeled using...
A Calculus of Communicating Systems with Label Passing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Nielsen, Mogens
Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS) is extended with a mechanism for label passing - as an attempt to remedy some of the shortcomings of CCS w.r.t. dynamic change of agent interconnections. In the extended calculus, restriction is viewed formally as a binder, and the calculus allows...... dynamic change of scope (of label) in connection with communication. It is proved that algebraic properties of strong (and observational) equivalence for CCS are preserved by the extension. Examples illustrating the expressive power of the calculus and its methods for reasoning are given....
Renal vein thrombosis mimicking urinary calculus: a dilemma of diagnosis.
Wang, Yimin; Chen, Shanwen; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jianyong; Jin, Baiye
2015-07-02
Renal vein thrombosis (RVT) with flank pain, and hematuria, is often mistaken with renal colic originating from ureteric or renal calculus. Especially in young and otherwise healthy patients, clinicians are easily misled by clinical presentation and calcified RVT. A 38-year-old woman presented with flank pain and hematuria suggestive of renal calculus on ultrasound. She underwent extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy that failed, leading to the recommendation that percutaneous lithotomy was necessary to remove the renal calculus. In preoperative view of the unusual shape of the calculus without hydronephrosis, noncontrast computed tomography was taken and demonstrated left ureteric calculus. However computed tomography angiography revealed, to our surprise, a calcified RVT that was initially thought to be a urinary calculus. This case shows that a calcified RVT might mimic a urinary calculus on conventional ultrasonography and ureteric calculus on noncontrast computed tomography. Subsequent computed tomography angiography disclosed that a calcified RVT caused the imaging findings, thus creating a potentially dangerous clinical pitfall. Hence, it is suggested that the possibility of a RVT needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis whenever one detects an uncommon shape for a urinary calculus.
Malliavin Calculus With Applications to Stochastic Partial Differential Equations
Sanz-Solé, Marta
2005-01-01
Developed in the 1970s to study the existence and smoothness of density for the probability laws of random vectors, Malliavin calculus--a stochastic calculus of variation on the Wiener space--has proven fruitful in many problems in probability theory, particularly in probabilistic numerical methods in financial mathematics.This book presents applications of Malliavin calculus to the analysis of probability laws of solutions to stochastic partial differential equations driven by Gaussian noises that are white in time and coloured in space. The first five chapters introduce the calculus itself
Pre-calculus 1,001 practice problems for dummies
Sterling, Mary Jane; Sterling
2014-01-01
Prepare for calculus the smart way, with customizable pre-calculus practice 1,001 Pre-Calculus Practice Problems For Dummies offers 1,001 opportunities to gain confidence in your math skills. Much more than a workbook, this study aid provides pre-calculus problems ranked from easy to advanced, with detailed explanations and step-by-step solutions for each one. The companion website gives you free online access to all 1,001 practice problems and solutions, and you can track your progress and ID where you should focus your study time. Accessible on the go by smart phone, tablet, o
Comparative Proteomic Profiling of Mycobacterium bovis and BCG Vaccine Strains
Gao, Ge
2013-09-01
BCG is the only licensed human vaccine currently available against TB. Derived from a virulent strain of M. bovis, the vaccine was thought to have struck a balance between reduced virulence and preserved immunogenicity. Nowadays, BCG vaccine strains used in different countries and vaccination programs show clear variations in their genomes and immune protective properties. The aim of this study was to characterize the proteomic profile on Mycobacterium bovis and five BCG strains Pasteur, Tokyo, Danish, Phipps and Birkhaug by Tandem Mass Tag® (TMT®)-labeling quantitative proteomic approach. In total, 420 proteins were identified and 377 of them were quantitated for their relative abundance. We reported the number and relationship of differential expressed proteins in BCG strains compared to M. bovis and investigated their functions by bioinformatics analysis. Several interesting up-regulated and down-regulated protein targets were found. The identified proteins and their quantitative expression profiles provide a basis for further understanding of the cellular biology of M. bovis and BCG vaccine strains, and hopefully would assist in the design of better anti-TB vaccine and drugs.
Verrucous endocarditis associated with Streptococcus bovis in mink (Mustela vison)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Karl; Jørgensen, J.C.; Dietz, Hans-Henrik
2003-01-01
Between 1998 and 2001, mortalities due to verrucous endocarditis were experienced at several mink farms. Gram-positive cocci were isolated from the endocardium of all the animals examined but not always from other internal organs. Almost all the isolates were identified as Streptococcus bovis and...
Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in dairy cows in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Administrator
2011-09-19
Sep 19, 2011 ... (Butler et al., 2000; Stipkovits et al., 2000; Gagea et al.,. 2006; Caswell and Archambault, 2009; Maunsell et al.,. 2009; Wiggins et al., 2011). However, despite the widespread socioeconomic impact of the pathogen, knowledge on the seroprevalence of M. bovis in China is scarce and there has been only ...
Success in Introductory Calculus: The Role of High School and Pre-Calculus Preparation
Ayebo, Abraham; Ukkelberg, Sarah; Assuah, Charles
2017-01-01
Calculus at the college level has significant potential to serve as a pump for increasing the number of students majoring in STEM fields. It is a foundation course for all STEM majors and, if mastered well, should provide students with a positive and successful first-year experience and gateway into more advanced courses. Studies have shown that a…
Improving Student Success in Calculus I Using a Co-Requisite Calculus I Lab
Vestal, Sharon Schaffer; Brandenburger, Thomas; Furth, Alfred
2015-01-01
This paper describes how one university mathematics department was able to improve student success in Calculus I by requiring a co-requisite lab for certain groups of students. The groups of students required to take the co-requisite lab were identified by analyzing student data, including Math ACT scores, ACT Compass Trigonometry scores, and…
Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis in domestic livestock. The cause for many faltering eradication programs is the presence of wildlife reservoirs of M. bovis. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccinate ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. J. Zumárraga
2009-12-01
Full Text Available In the present work, 19 Mycobacterium bovis isolates from different cats were typified by spoligotyping. We detected nine spoligotypes. There was only one cluster, which grouped 11 of the isolates (57.9%, showing the main spoligotype from cattle from Argentina. The rest of the spoligotypes presented only one isolate each. Five of them were not found in cattle, and were unique and exclusive of cats. The isolates studied show that tuberculosis of bovine origin in cats constitutes a potential public health problem in Buenos Aires region. The identification of genotypes from non-natural hosts could contribute to understand the spread of bovine tuberculosis. This is the first report showing genetic profiles of M. bovis isolates in felines from Argentina.En el presente trabajo se tipificaron por spoligotyping 19 aislamientos de M. bovis de diferentes gatos. Se detectaron 9 espoligotipos y un único agrupamiento o cluster integrado por 11 aislamientos (57,9% y relacionado con el principal espoligotipo de bovinos de Argentina. El resto de los espoligotipos detectados presentaron solamente un aislamiento cada uno; 5 de ellos no se encontraron en bovinos y fueron únicos y exclusivos de gatos. La presencia de estos aislamientos indica que la tuberculosis bovina en los gatos constituye un potencial problema de salud pública en la ciudad de Buenos Aires. La identificación de genotipos de aislamientos de M. bovis de hospedadores no convencionales podría contribuir a la mejor comprensión de la diseminación de la tuberculosis bovina. Este es el primer informe en el que se muestran los perfiles genotípicos de aislamientos de M. bovis obtenidos de felinos de Argentina.
Automatic Binding Time Analysis for a Typed Lambda-Calculus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming
1988-01-01
A binding time analysis imposes a distinction between the computations to be performed early (e.g. at compile-time) and those to be performed late (e.g. at run-time). For the lambda-calculus this distinction is formalized by a two-level lambda-calculus. The authors present an algorithm for static...
A Calculus of Circular Proofs and its Categorical Semantics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Santocanale, Luigi
2002-01-01
We present a calculus of “circular proofs”: the graph underlying a proof is not a finite tree but instead it is allowed to contain a certain amount of cycles.The main challenge in developing a theory for the calculus is to define the semantics of proofs, since the usual method by induction...
On flipping the classroom in large first year calculus courses
Jungić, Veselin; Kaur, Harpreet; Mulholland, Jamie; Xin, Cindy
2015-05-01
Over the course of two years, 2012--2014, we have implemented a 'flipping' the classroom approach in three of our large enrolment first year calculus courses: differential and integral calculus for scientists and engineers. In this article we describe the details of our particular approach and share with the reader some experiences of both instructors and students.
Transitioning from Introductory Calculus to Formal Limit Conceptions
Nagle, Courtney
2013-01-01
The limit concept is a fundamental mathematical notion both for its practical applications and its importance as a prerequisite for later calculus topics. Past research suggests that limit conceptualizations promoted in introductory calculus are far removed from the formal epsilon-delta definition of limit. In this article, I provide an overview…
The Enriched Eﬀect Calculus: Syntax and Semantics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers; Simpson, Alex; Egger, Jeff
2014-01-01
This article introduces the enriched effect calculus, which extends established type theories for computational effects with primitives from linear logic. The new calculus provides a formalism for expressing linear aspects of computational effects; e.g. the linear usage of imperative features suc...
A Calculus of Circular Proofs and its Categorical Semantics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Santocanale, Luigi
2002-01-01
We present a calculus of "circular proofs": the graph underlying a proof is not a finite tree but instead it is allowed to contain a certain amount of cycles.The main challenge in developing a theory for the calculus is to define the semantics of proofs, since the usual method by induction...
Calculus: A Computer Oriented Presentation, Part 1 [and] Part 2.
Stenberg, Warren; Walker, Robert J.
Parts one and two of a one-year computer-oriented calculus course (without analytic geometry) are presented. The ideas of calculus are introduced and motivated through computer (i.e., algorithmic) concepts. An introduction to computing via algorithms and a simple flow chart language allows the book to be self-contained, except that material on…
Calculus Students' Early Concept Images of Tangent Lines
Vincent, Brittany; LaRue, Renee; Sealey, Vicki; Engelke, Nicole
2015-01-01
This study explored first-semester calculus students' understanding of tangent lines as well as how students used tangent lines within the context of Newton's method. Task-based interviews were conducted with twelve first-semester calculus students who were asked to verbally describe a tangent line, sketch tangent lines for multiple curves, and…
Partial Fractions in Calculus, Number Theory, and Algebra
Yackel, C. A.; Denny, J. K.
2007-01-01
This paper explores the development of the method of partial fraction decomposition from elementary number theory through calculus to its abstraction in modern algebra. This unusual perspective makes the topic accessible and relevant to readers from high school through seasoned calculus instructors.
Giant urinary bladder calculus: Case report | Otieno | East African ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A vertical calculus weighing more than 100 g is categorised as a giant urinary bladder stone. Giant urinary bladder stones are very rare and very few cases have been reported in English literature and only one case from Africa. This is a case report of a patient with a giant urinary bladder calculus presenting as a rectal ...
Type Inference for Session Types in the Pi-Calculus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Graversen, Eva Fajstrup; Harbo, Jacob Buchreitz; Huttel, Hans
2014-01-01
In this paper we present a direct algorithm for session type inference for the π-calculus. Type inference for session types has previously been achieved by either imposing limitations and restriction on the π-calculus, or by reducing the type inference problem to that for linear types. Our approach...
An Exploration of Definition and Procedural Fluency in Integral Calculus
Grundmeier, Todd A.; Hansen, Jennifer; Sousa, Emily
2006-01-01
A survey was administered to calculus students who had previously been exposed to a course on integral calculus. The purpose of the survey was to explore students' understanding of the definition of a definite integral, their abilities to evaluate definite integrals, and their graphical interpretations of definite integrals. The analysis of…
On Flipping the Classroom in Large First Year Calculus Courses
Jungic, Veselin; Kaur, Harpreet; Mulholland, Jamie; Xin, Cindy
2015-01-01
Over the course of two years, 2012-2014, we have implemented a "flipping" the classroom approach in three of our large enrolment first year calculus courses: differential and integral calculus for scientists and engineers. In this article we describe the details of our particular approach and share with the reader some experiences of…
Prostatic fossa calculus | El Abiad | Pan African Medical Journal
African Journals Online (AJOL)
As part of the evaluation, a plain radiograph was performed and incidentally showed a radiopaque prostatic calculus (Red arrows). A retrograde urethrocystography, performed after a 10-days course of antibiotics, confirmed the presence of an approximately 35 mm non-obstructive calculus occupying almost the whole ...
Visual Thinking and Gender Differences in High School Calculus
Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk; Chicken, Eric
2012-01-01
This study sought to examine calculus students' mathematical performances and preferences for visual or analytic thinking regarding derivative and antiderivative tasks presented graphically. It extends previous studies by investigating factors mediating calculus students' mathematical performances and their preferred modes of thinking. Data were…
Stochastic Model Checking of the Stochastic Quality Calculus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Zeng, Kebin
2015-01-01
The Quality Calculus uses quality binders for input to express strategies for continuing the computation even when the desired input has not been received. The Stochastic Quality Calculus adds generally distributed delays for output actions and real-time constraints on the quality binders for input...
Utilizing Microsoft Mathematics in Teaching and Learning Calculus
Oktaviyanthi, Rina; Supriani, Yani
2015-01-01
The experimental design was conducted to investigate the use of Microsoft Mathematics, free software made by Microsoft Corporation, in teaching and learning Calculus. This paper reports results from experimental study details on implementation of Microsoft Mathematics in Calculus, students' achievement and the effects of the use of Microsoft…
Formalization of the Resolution Calculus for First-Order Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schlichtkrull, Anders
2018-01-01
I present a formalization in Isabelle/HOL of the resolution calculus for first-order logic with formal soundness and completeness proofs. To prove the calculus sound, I use the substitution lemma, and to prove it complete, I use Herbrand interpretations and semantic trees. The correspondence...
Secure Data Flow in a Calculus for Context Awareness
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bucur, Doina; Nielsen, Mogens
2008-01-01
We present a Mobile-Ambients-based process calculus to describe context-aware computing in an infrastructure-based Ubiquitous Computing setting. In our calculus, computing agents can provide and discover contextual information and are owners of security policies. Simple access control to contextual...
Effects of Clicker Use on Calculus Students' Mathematics Anxiety
Batchelor, John
2015-01-01
This paper reports the results of a survey study of clicker use and mathematics anxiety among students enrolled in an undergraduate calculus course during the Fall 2013 semester. Students in two large lecture sections of calculus completed surveys at the beginning and end of the course. One class used clickers, whereas the other class was taught…
Modelling the Landing of a Plane in a Calculus Lab
Morante, Antonio; Vallejo, Jose A.
2012-01-01
We exhibit a simple model of a plane landing that involves only basic concepts of differential calculus, so it is suitable for a first-year calculus lab. We use the computer algebra system Maxima and the interactive geometry software GeoGebra to do the computations and graphics. (Contains 5 figures and 1 note.)
Coordinating Multiple Representations in a Reform Calculus Textbook
Chang, Briana L.; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Tran, Nhi
2016-01-01
Coordination of multiple representations (CMR) is widely recognized as a critical skill in mathematics and is frequently demanded in reform calculus textbooks. However, little is known about the prevalence of coordination tasks in such textbooks. We coded 707 instances of CMR in a widely used reform calculus textbook and analyzed the distributions…
Equality and fixpoints in the calculus of structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chaudhuri, Kaustuv; Guenot, Nicolas
2014-01-01
The standard proof theory for logics with equality and fixpoints suffers from limitations of the sequent calculus, where reasoning is separated from computational tasks such as unification or rewriting. We propose in this paper an extension of the calculus of structures, a deep inference formalism...
Reflections on Our First Calculus Undergraduate Teaching Assistant
Deshler, Jessica M.
2016-01-01
This article describes some reflections from the first Calculus I undergraduate teaching assistant in our department as she explored the various ways in which she was able to support both novice and experienced Calculus teachers and the effect of her experience on her academic and career plans.
Decidable Fragments of a Higher Order Calculus with Locations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hüttel, Hans; Godskesen, Jens Christian; Haagensen, Bjørn
2009-01-01
Homer is a higher order process calculus with locations. In this paper we study Homer in the setting of the semantic finite control property, which is a finite reachability criterion that implies decidability of barbed bisimilarity. We show that strong and weak barbed bisimilarity are undecidable...... control π-calculus in Homer....
A Technical Approach in Graphical Study of Calculus Using Maple ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We were recently presented with the challenge of rethinking how to teach Calculus to First year IT students as part of an integrated curriculum. We immediately saw this as an opportunity to motivate calculus concepts by using graphical representations and animations. Animation provides motivation, reinforcement, and ...
Calculus Instructors' and Students' Discourses on the Derivative
Park, Jungeun
2011-01-01
Recently, there has been an increasing interest in collegiate mathematics education, especially teaching and learning calculus (e.g., Oehrtman, Carlson, & Thompson, 2008; Speer, Smith, & Horvath, 2010). Of many calculus concepts, the derivative is known as a difficult concept for students to understand because it involves various concepts…
Descartes' Calculus of Subnormals: What Might Have Been
Boudreaux, Gregory Mark; Walls, Jess E.
2013-01-01
Rene Descartes' method for finding tangents (equivalently, subnormals) depends on geometric and algebraic properties of a family of circles intersecting a given curve. It can be generalized to establish a calculus of subnormals, an alternative to the calculus of Newton and Leibniz. Here we prove subnormal counterparts of the well-known…
Use of Technology to Develop Student Intuition in Multivariable Calculus
Kaur, Manmohan
2006-01-01
In order to get undergraduates interested in mathematics, it is essential to involve them in its "discovery". In this paper, we will explain how technology and the knowledge of lower dimensional calculus can be used to help them develop intuition leading to their discovering the first derivative rule in multivariable calculus. (Contains 7 figures.)
An introduction to quantum stochastic calculus
Parthasarathy, KR
2012-01-01
An Introduction to Quantum Stochastic Calculus aims to deepen our understanding of the dynamics of systems subject to the laws of chance both from the classical and the quantum points of view and stimulate further research in their unification. This is probably the first systematic attempt to weave classical probability theory into the quantum framework and provides a wealth of interesting features: The origin of Ito's correction formulae for Brownian motion and the Poisson process can be traced to commutation relations or, equivalently, the uncertainty principle.Quantum stochastic integration
Some Integral Inequalities Using Quantum Calculus Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Uzair Awan
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce a new class of preinvex functions which is called as generalized beta preinvex functions. We show that this class includes some other new classes of preinvex functions. We derive some new integral inequalities using the approach of quantum calculus. These integral inequalities involve generalized preinvex functions and q-Euler-Beta functions. Our results can be viewed as new quantum estimates for trapezoidal like inequalities. Some new special cases are also discussed which can be deduced from the main results of the paper.
A calculus for attribute-based communication
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alrahman, Yehia Abd; De Nicola, Rocco; Loreti, Michele
2015-01-01
The notion of attribute-based communication seems promising to model and analyse systems with huge numbers of interacting components that dynamically adjust and combine their behaviour to achieve specific goals. A basic process calculus, named AbC, is introduced that has as primitive construct...... exactly attribute-based communication and its impact on the above mentioned kind of systems is considered. An AbC system consists of a set of parallel components each of which is equipped with a set of attributes. Communication takes place in a broadcast fashion and communication links among components...
Giant Submandibular Calculus Eroding Oral Cavity Mucosa.
Lim, Eng Haw; Nadarajah, Sanjeevan; Mohamad, Irfan
2017-09-01
Sialolithiasis is the formation of calculi or sialoliths in the salivary gland. It is the most common benign condition of the salivary gland. Sialolithiasis can occur in all salivary glands. The submandibular gland is most commonly affected followed by the parotid gland. Calculi commonly measure less than 10 mm. Calculi of more than 15 mm are termed giant salivary gland calculi and are infrequently reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of unusually large submandibular gland calculus of 5 cm in greatest dimension which caused erosion of the oral cavity.
Intitialization, Conceptualization, and Application in the Generalized Fractional Calculus
Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.
1998-01-01
This paper provides a formalized basis for initialization in the fractional calculus. The intent is to make the fractional calculus readily accessible to engineering and the sciences. A modified set of definitions for the fractional calculus is provided which formally include the effects of initialization. Conceptualizations of fractional derivatives and integrals are shown. Physical examples of the basic elements from electronics are presented along with examples from dynamics, material science, viscoelasticity, filtering, instrumentation, and electrochemistry to indicate the broad application of the theory and to demonstrate the use of the mathematics. The fundamental criteria for a generalized calculus established by Ross (1974) are shown to hold for the generalized fractional calculus under appropriate conditions. A new generalized form for the Laplace transform of the generalized differintegral is derived. The concept of a variable structure (order) differintegral is presented along with initial efforts toward meaningful definitions.
Initialization, conceptualization, and application in the generalized (fractional) calculus.
Lorenzo, Carl F; Hartley, Tom T
2007-01-01
This paper provides a formalized basis for initialization in the fractional calculus. The intent is to make the fractional calculus readily accessible to engineering and the sciences. A modified set of definitions for the fractional calculus is provided which formally include the effects of initialization. Conceptualizations of fractional derivatives and integrals are shown. Physical examples of the basic elements from electronics are presented along with examples from dynamics, material science, viscoelasticity, filtering, instrumentation, and electrochemistry to indicate the broad application of the theory and to demonstrate the use of the mathematics. The fundamental criteria for a generalized calculus established by Ross (1974) are shown to hold for the generalized fractional calculus under appropriate conditions. A new generalized form for the Laplace transform of the generalized differintegral is derived. The concept of a variable structure (order) differintegral is presented along with initial efforts toward meaningful definitions.
Calculus detection technologies: where do we stand now?
Archana, V
2014-01-01
Epidemiological studies have implicated dental calculus as an ideal substrate for subgingival microbial colonization. Therefore, the main objective of periodontal therapy is to eliminate the microbial biofilm along with the calculus deposits from the root surface by root surface debridement. Over the past years, a large number of clinical and laboratory studies have been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of calculus removal by various methods. None of these conventional methods or devices was effective in completely eliminating all the calculus from the diseased root surfaces. In this context, a number of newer technologies have been developed to identify and selectively remove the dental calculus. Regarding this fact, the present article highlights a critical review of these devices based on published clinical and experimental data.
Polymorphisms of 20 regulatory proteins between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis.
Bigi, María M; Blanco, Federico Carlos; Araújo, Flabio R; Thacker, Tyler C; Zumárraga, Martín J; Cataldi, Angel A; Soria, Marcelo A; Bigi, Fabiana
2016-08-01
Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis are responsible for tuberculosis in humans and animals, respectively. Both species are closely related and belong to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). M. tuberculosis is the most ancient species from which M. bovis and other members of the MTC evolved. The genome of M. bovis is over >99.95% identical to that of M. tuberculosis but with seven deletions ranging in size from 1 to 12.7 kb. In addition, 1200 single nucleotide mutations in coding regions distinguish M. bovis from M. tuberculosis. In the present study, we assessed 75 M. tuberculosis genomes and 23 M. bovis genomes to identify non-synonymous mutations in 202 coding sequences of regulatory genes between both species. We identified species-specific variants in 20 regulatory proteins and confirmed differential expression of hypoxia-related genes between M. bovis and M. tuberculosis. © 2016 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mahmmod, Yasser
2014-01-01
Background: There is a little or no data available on the natural Babesia bovis (B. bovis) infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) comparing to the available one for cattle. This study was conducted to investigate the natural B. bovis infection in water buffaloes in comparison to crossbred....... Conclusion: This paper documents the first description of natural B. bovis infection in water buffaloes which were found to be more likely to be tolerant than cattle to the natural clinical infection with B. bovis and its subsequent haematological changes. Our finding may lead to a better understanding...... of the disease pattern of B. bovis infection under field conditions in buffaloes....
Ferguson, Leann J.
2012-01-01
Calculus is an important tool for building mathematical models of the world around us and is thus used in a variety of disciplines, such as physics and engineering. These disciplines rely on calculus courses to provide the mathematical foundation needed for success in their courses. Unfortunately, due to the basal conceptions of what it means to…
Introduction to stochastic analysis and Malliavin calculus
Prato, Giuseppe
2014-01-01
This volume presents an introductory course on differential stochastic equations and Malliavin calculus. The material of the book has grown out of a series of courses delivered at the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa (and also at the Trento and Funchal Universities) and has been refined over several years of teaching experience in the subject. The lectures are addressed to a reader who is familiar with basic notions of measure theory and functional analysis. The first part is devoted to the Gaussian measure in a separable Hilbert space, the Malliavin derivative, the construction of the Brownian motion and Itô's formula. The second part deals with differential stochastic equations and their connection with parabolic problems. The third part provides an introduction to the Malliavin calculus. Several applications are given, notably the Feynman-Kac, Girsanov and Clark-Ocone formulae, the Krylov-Bogoliubov and Von Neumann theorems. In this third edition several small improvements are added and a new section devo...
Sequent Calculus Representations for Quantum Circuits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cameron Beebe
2016-06-01
Full Text Available When considering a sequent-style proof system for quantum programs, there are certain elements of quantum mechanics that we may wish to capture, such as phase, dynamics of unitary transformations, and measurement probabilities. Traditional quantum logics which focus primarily on the abstract orthomodular lattice theory and structures of Hilbert spaces have not satisfactorily captured some of these elements. We can start from 'scratch' in an attempt to conceptually characterize the types of proof rules which should be in a system that represents elements necessary for quantum algorithms. This present work attempts to do this from the perspective of the quantum circuit model of quantum computation. A sequent calculus based on single quantum circuits is suggested, and its ability to incorporate important conceptual and dynamic aspects of quantum computing is discussed. In particular, preserving the representation of phase helps illustrate the role of interference as a resource in quantum computation. Interference also provides an intuitive basis for a non-monotonic calculus.
A type system for Continuation Calculus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Herman Geuvers
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Continuation Calculus (CC, introduced by Geron and Geuvers, is a simple foundational model for functional computation. It is closely related to lambda calculus and term rewriting, but it has no variable binding and no pattern matching. It is Turing complete and evaluation is deterministic. Notions like "call-by-value" and "call-by-name" computation are available by choosing appropriate function definitions: e.g. there is a call-by-value and a call-by-name addition function. In the present paper we extend CC with types, to be able to define data types in a canonical way, and functions over these data types, defined by iteration. Data type definitions follow the so-called "Scott encoding" of data, as opposed to the more familiar "Church encoding". The iteration scheme comes in two flavors: a call-by-value and a call-by-name iteration scheme. The call-by-value variant is a double negation variant of call-by-name iteration. The double negation translation allows to move between call-by-name and call-by-value.
First molecular survey of Anaplasma bovis in small ruminants from Tunisia.
Ben Said, Mourad; Belkahia, Hanène; Karaoud, Maroua; Bousrih, Maha; Yahiaoui, Mouna; Daaloul-Jedidi, Monia; Messadi, Lilia
2015-09-30
To date, no information is available regarding the presence of Anaplasma bovis in the South Mediterranean area. In this study, prevalence, risk factors, and genetic diversity of A. bovis were assessed in small ruminants. A total of 563 healthy small ruminants (260 sheep and 303 goats), from 25 randomly selected flocks located in 5 localities from two bioclimatic areas in Tunisia, were investigated for the detection of A. bovis in blood by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) assay. The overall infection rates of A. bovis were 42.7 and 23.8% in sheep and goats, respectively. Goats located in a sub-humid area were statistically more infected than those located in a humid area. A. bovis prevalence rate varied significantly according to sheep and goat flocks, and to the sheep breed. Infection with A. bovis was validated by sequencing. Sequence analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that A. bovis from Tunisian goats and sheep clustered with other strain sequences detected from wild and domestic animals and published in GenBank. This study gives the first insight of presence of A. bovis DNA in small ruminants in Tunisia and suggests that these animal species may be playing an important role in the bovine anaplasmosis natural cycle caused by A. bovis in the South Mediterranean ecosystem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mycoplasma bovis associated with decubital abscesses in Holstein calves.
Kinde, H; Daft, B M; Walker, R L; Charlton, B R; Petty, R
1993-04-01
Between April of 1990 and March of 1992, calves on a Holstein calf ranch experienced subcutaneous decubital abscesses involving the brisket region, dorsal aspect of the carpus, and lateral aspect of the stifle joints. Fifty out of 2,500 (2%) Holstein calves between the ages of 3 and 12 weeks were affected. Needle aspirates of brisket abscesses from 8 calves and 6 live or dead calves with 1 or more decubital abscesses were submitted for examination. Two of the 6 calves in addition had bronchopneumonia. Mycoplasma bovis was isolated from all abscesses and 1 lung. Formalin fixed tissues taken from the affected areas also revealed M. bovis by immunoperoxidase staining. No evidence of joint involvement was apparent, and no mycoplasma was isolated from the joints adjacent to affected areas. Attempts to isolate mycoplasma from milk and environmental samples were unsuccessful.
Detection of Mycoplasma bovis with an improved pcr assay.
Tenk, M; Bálint, A; Stipkovits, L; Biró, Judit; Dencso, L
2006-12-01
A Mycoplasma bovis species-specific PCR assay has been developed with improvement of a previously described method (Ghadersohi et al., 1997). This test and its semi-nested version (Hayman and Hirst, 2003) did not function at all in our hands. A new reverse primer (Mbr2) was designed using previously published sequence data. For testing specificity, DNA was extracted from the most frequently occurring mycoplasma species and bacteria of bovine origin. The new PCR detected only Mycoplasma bovis. Moreover, no cross-reaction was observed with the genetically closest relative species, M. agalactiae. The target organism could be detected in a dose as low as 150 CFU ml(-1) in broth cultures using ethidium-bromide-stained agarose gels.
Importance of differentiating Mycobaterium bovis in tuberculous meningitis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alejandra Gonzàlez-Duarte
2011-08-01
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to describe the principal findings among patients with M.tuberculosis and M. bovis CNS infection. Mycoba - cterium tuberculosis is one of the most common infectious agents that cause death and neurological sequelae around the world. Most of the complications of CNS TB can be attributed to a delay in the diagnosis. Unfortu nately, there are no specific diagnostic tools to support an early diagnosis. Other prognostic factors different from delay in treatment have not been identified. Clinical, radiological and laboratory characteristics were analyzed retrospectively from the medical files of all the patients admitted with the diagnoses of tuberculosis. Of 215 patients admitted with systemic tuberculosis, 64 (30% had a neurological infection. Positive cultures were found in 54 (84% cases, 18 (33% in the CSF and the rest in other fluids or tissues. Adenosin deaminase (ADA enzyme determination was more sensitive than M. tuberculosis PCR in the CSF for supporting an early diagnosis. In addition to a later clinical stage and treatment lag, positive CSF cultures (P=0.001 and the presence of M. bovis (P=0.020 were prognostic factors for a worse outcome. Neither older age, the presence of tuberculomas versus meningeal enhancement, or HIV co-infection, was associated to a worse prognosis. The isolation of M. bovis subspecies was more common that previously reported, and it was associated to the development of parenchymal lesions (P=0.032 when compared to M. tuberculosis. In this study, positive CSF cultures for M. tuberculosis and further identifying M. bovis species were additional prognostic factors for worse outcome. Positive cultures in systemic fluids other than CSF, even when the patient had no obvious systemic manifestations, and ADA determination in the CSF were noteworthy diagnostic tools for the diagnosis.
Increasing prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis in Danish cattle
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Ojeniyi, B.; Friis, N.F.
2000-01-01
-Ureaplasma (18.6%) and M. dispar-M. bovirhinis-Ureaplasma (11.6%) infections being the most frequently encountered combinations. There appears to be an increasing prevalence of Al. bovis (24.0%) as compared to earlier reports (0.6-2.0%), thus calling fur special attention upon this mycoplasma. Pulsed field gel...... population is still free fi om this group of mycoplasma in spite of their presence in some other European countries....
How Students Use Their Knowledge of Calculus in an Engineering Mechanics Course.
Roddick, Cheryl Stitt
This study investigated students' conceptual and procedural understanding of calculus within the context of an engineering mechanics course. Four traditional calculus students were compared with three students from one of the calculus reform projects, Calculus & Mathematica. Task-based interviews were conducted with each participant throughout…
Valuation Semantics for Intuitionic Propositional Calculus and some of its Subcalculi
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andréa Loparić
2010-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present valuation semantics for the Propositional Intuitionistic Calculus (also called Heyting Calculus and three important subcalculi: the Implicative, the Positive and the Minimal Calculus (also known as Kolmogoroff or Johansson Calculus. Algorithms based in our definitions yields decision methods for these calculi.
Öztürk, Cihadiye Elif; Şahin, İdris; Öksüz, Şükrü; Kılıç, Nida; Kılınçel, Özge; Aydın, Leyla; Atik, Dursun; Afşin, Emine
2016-07-01
Throughout the history of mankind, tuberculosis (TB) has caused serious illness and still continues to do so. Archaeobiological studies indicated that TB in humans dates back to 4000-8000 BC, and cases were shown to be due to Mycobacterium bovis subsp.bovis rather than Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Moreover, this situation was thought to begin with domestication of animals, consumption of their milk, and living together in the same environment with them. Over time, with the consumption of boiled milk and with the establishment of separate animal shelters, M.bovis subsp. bovis infection began to be seen rarely. Today, M.bovis infection is mostly transmitted from animals to humans and very rarely from humans to other humans. The most significant means of transmission of the infection are to the gastrointestinal tract via consumption of raw milk and to the respiratory system via droplet infection from the animals with disease. In this study, it was planned to investigate the cause of occurrence of TB in cattles in Düzce in the past few years along with the presence of bovine type TB in cases of human tuberculosis. We aimed to carry out subtype determination of the M.tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains isolated in our mycobacteriology laboratory between the years 2004-2014, and evaluate the clinical and sociodemographic data of patients in whom M.bovis subsp. bovis was detected. The strains that were selected for the study have been isolated from radiometric BACTEC™ 12B broth and/or Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) media between 2004-2009, and BACTEC™ MGIT™ (Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube) and/or LJ media between 2009-2014 periods. The GenoType MTBC Kit (Hain-Lifescience GmbH, Germany) was used in the study for determination of the subspecies. Extraction and amplification of DNA and hybridizations were performed according to test procedure in order to investigate the presence of subtypes of the MTBC species in skimmed milk from collections stored at -20°C. In the
Production of bacteriocins by Streptococcus bovis strains from Australian ruminants.
Joachimsthal, E L; Reeves, R K H; Hung, J; Nielsen, L K; Ouwerkerk, D; Klieve, A V; Vickers, C E
2010-02-01
To examine the prevalence of bacteriocin production in Streptococcus bovis isolates from Australian ruminants and the feasibility of industrial production of bacteriocin. Streptococcus bovis strains were tested for production of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) by antagonism assay against Lactococcus lactis. BLIS production was associated with source animal location (i.e. proximity of other bacteriocin-positive source animals) rather than ruminant species/breed or diet. One bacteriocin showing strong inhibitory activity (Sb15) was isolated and examined. Protein sequence, stability and activity spectrum of this bovicin were very similar to bovicin HC5. Production could be increased through serial culturing, and increased productivity could be partially maintained during cold storage of cultures. BLIS production is geographically widely distributed in Eastern Australia, and it appears that the bacteriocin(+) trait is maintained in animals at the same location. The HC5-like bacteriocin, originally identified in North America, is also found in Australia. Production of bacteriocin can be increased through serial culturing. The HC5-like bacteriocins appear to have a broad global distribution. Serial culturing may provide a route towards commercial manufacturing for use in industrial applications, and purified bacteriocin from S. bovis Sb15 could potentially be used to prevent food spoilage or as a feed additive to promote growth in ruminant species.
Mycobacterium bovis: realities and challenges for the veterinary biopharmaceutical industry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aníbal Domínguez Odio
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis is the main etiological agent of bovine tuberculosis, bacterial diseases of world distribution, chronicle, of easy transmission, debilitating, zoonotic and antropozoonotic that affects any organ and which can be presented without symptoms On this base, it was carried out a study with the objective of approaching the current state and the scientific-technological projections for the prevention and diagnosis of the bovine tuberculosis, caused by M. bovis. It was demonstrated that the 45.09% of the original articles on inmunoprophylaxis against bacteria, registered in the Scopus database and contextualised until principles of 2014, were focused toward M. bovis. In spite of the advances in molecular biology and the hopes deposited in the Ag85A, Rv0287, Rv0288, Rv0251c, MPB70, MPB83, ESAT-6 and CFP-10 molecules, jointly with their combinations, it will continue absent in the market an effective, safety and differentiating vaccine; as well as a robust DIVA diagnosis system. It can be concluded that in the next 5 years, an officially recognized vacinal formulation will continue absent and that the tuberculin test in spite of its weaknesses will continue being the main tool of surveillance.
[Cutaneous tuberculosis of the ear due to Mycobacterium bovis].
Lhote, R; Raskine, L; Gottlieb, J; Mougari, F; Lafaurie, M; Vignon-Pennamen, M-D; Bagot, M; Petit, A; Cordoliani, F
2016-10-01
Isolated cutaneous tuberculosis is uncommon, accounting for only 0.14 to 5% of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. We report a rare case of ear cutaneous tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in an immunocompetent woman. A 59-year-old woman presented an erythematous and scaly lesion of the ear present for two years. The histological findings were compatible with a diagnosis of sarcoidosis, with non-necrotic granuloma. After failure of dermal corticosteroid therapy, a further biopsy identified M. bovis; the patient was cured following anti-tubercular treatment. Ear lesions are predominantly associated with tumors, fungal infections, chondritis, lupus and sarcoidosis. The ear, like the face in general, is a classic localization of lupus vulgaris, a chronic form of confined tuberculosis infection with progressive evolution. The paucibacillary nature of these lesions is the reason why their diagnosis is based in some cases on clinical, histological and immunological findings without bacteriological evidence. However, given the potential therapeutic implications, it is important to push the microbiological analysis as far as possible. In our case, culture and identification provided evidence of M. bovis infection, enabling suitable and effective therapy to be given. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
A many-sorted calculus based on resolution and paramodulation
Walther, Christoph
1987-01-01
A Many-Sorted Calculus Based on Resolution and Paramodulation emphasizes the utilization of advantages and concepts of many-sorted logic for resolution and paramodulation based automated theorem proving.This book considers some first-order calculus that defines how theorems from given hypotheses by pure syntactic reasoning are obtained, shifting all the semantic and implicit argumentation to the syntactic and explicit level of formal first-order reasoning. This text discusses the efficiency of many-sorted reasoning, formal preliminaries for the RP- and ?RP-calculus, and many-sorted term rewrit
Quantum stochastic calculus and representations of Lie superalgebras
Eyre, Timothy M W
1998-01-01
This book describes the representations of Lie superalgebras that are yielded by a graded version of Hudson-Parthasarathy quantum stochastic calculus. Quantum stochastic calculus and grading theory are given concise introductions, extending readership to mathematicians and physicists with a basic knowledge of algebra and infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. The develpment of an explicit formula for the chaotic expansion of a polynomial of quantum stochastic integrals is particularly interesting. The book aims to provide a self-contained exposition of what is known about Z_2-graded quantum stochastic calculus and to provide a framework for future research into this new and fertile area.
A calculus of quality for robustness against unreliable communication
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Vigo, Roberto
2015-01-01
A main challenge in the development of distributed systems is to ensure that the components continue to behave in a reasonable manner even when communication becomes unreliable. We propose a process calculus, the Quality Calculus, for programming software components where it becomes natural to plan....... The framework is illustrated on the design of a fragment of a wireless sensor network, and is substantiated by formal proofs of correctness of the analysis, which relate the original reduction semantics of the calculus to a new semantics with explicit substitutions....
The dental calculus metabolome in modern and historic samples
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Velsko, Irina M.; Overmyer, Katherine A.; Speller, Camilla
2017-01-01
present the first comprehensive characterization of the human dental calculus metabolome using a multi-platform approach. Methods: Ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) quantified 285 metabolites in modern and historic (200 years old) dental calculus, including...... in the archaeological record. Recent studies have confirmed the survival of authentic ancient DNA and proteins within historic and prehistoric dental calculus, making it a promising substrate for investigating oral microbiome evolution via direct measurement and comparison of modern and ancient specimens. Objective: We...
Regge calculus models of closed lattice universes
Liu, Rex G
2016-01-01
This paper examines the behaviour of closed `lattice universes' wherein masses are distributed in a regular lattice on the Cauchy surfaces of closed vacuum universes. Such universes are approximated using a form of Regge calculus originally developed by Collins and Williams to model closed FLRW universes. We consider two types of lattice universes, one where all masses are identical to each other and another where one mass gets perturbed in magnitude. In the unperturbed universe, we consider the possible arrangements of the masses in the Regge Cauchy surfaces and demonstrate that the model will only be stable if each mass lies within some spherical region of convergence. We also briefly discuss the existence of Regge models that are dual to the ones we have considered. We then model a perturbed lattice universe and demonstrate that the model's evolution is well-behaved, with the expansion increasing in magnitude as the perturbation is increased.
Tensor calculus for engineers and physicists
de Souza Sánchez Filho, Emil
2016-01-01
This textbook provides a rigorous approach to tensor manifolds in several aspects relevant for Engineers and Physicists working in industry or academia. With a thorough, comprehensive, and unified presentation, this book offers insights into several topics of tensor analysis, which covers all aspects of N dimensional spaces. The main purpose of this book is to give a self-contained yet simple, correct and comprehensive mathematical explanation of tensor calculus for undergraduate and graduate students and for professionals. In addition to many worked problems, this book features a selection of examples, solved step by step. Although no emphasis is placed on special and particular problems of Engineering or Physics, the text covers the fundamentals of these fields of science. The book makes a brief introduction into the basic concept of the tensorial formalism so as to allow the reader to make a quick and easy review of the essential topics that enable having the grounds for the subsequent themes, without need...
Introduction to calculus and classical analysis
Hijab, Omar
2016-01-01
This completely self-contained text is intended either for a course in honors calculus or for an introduction to analysis. Beginning with the real number axioms, and involving rigorous analysis, computational dexterity, and a breadth of applications, it is ideal for undergraduate math majors. This fourth edition includes an additional chapter on the fundamental theorems in their full Lebesgue generality, based on the Sunrise Lemma. Key features of this text include: • Applications from several parts of analysis, e.g., convexity, the Cantor set, continued fractions, the AGM, the theta and zeta functions, transcendental numbers, the Bessel and gamma functions, and many more; • A heavy emphasis on computational problems, from the high-school quadratic formula to the formula for the derivative of the zeta function at zero; • Traditionally transcendentally presented material, such as infinite products, the Bernoulli series, and the zeta functional equation, is developed over the reals; • A self-contained t...
Generalized Differential Calculus and Applications to Optimization
Rector, Robert Blake Hayden
This thesis contains contributions in three areas: the theory of generalized calculus, numerical algorithms for operations research, and applications of optimization to problems in modern electric power systems. A geometric approach is used to advance the theory and tools used for studying generalized notions of derivatives for nonsmooth functions. These advances specifically pertain to methods for calculating subdifferentials and to expanding our understanding of a certain notion of derivative of set-valued maps, called the coderivative, in infinite dimensions. A strong understanding of the subdifferential is essential for numerical optimization algorithms, which are developed and applied to nonsmooth problems in operations research, including non-convex problems. Finally, an optimization framework is applied to solve a problem in electric power systems involving a smart solar inverter and battery storage system providing energy and ancillary services to the grid.
Functional analysis and the Feynman operator calculus
Gill, Tepper L
2016-01-01
This book provides the mathematical foundations for Feynman's operator calculus and for the Feynman path integral formulation of quantum mechanics as a natural extension of analysis and functional analysis to the infinite-dimensional setting. In one application, the results are used to prove the last two remaining conjectures of Freeman Dyson for quantum electrodynamics. In another application, the results are used to unify methods and weaken domain requirements for non-autonomous evolution equations. Other applications include a general theory of Lebesgue measure on Banach spaces with a Schauder basis and a new approach to the structure theory of operators on uniformly convex Banach spaces. This book is intended for advanced graduate students and researchers.
Correlators in tensor models from character calculus
Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.
2017-11-01
We explain how the calculations of [20], which provided the first evidence for non-trivial structures of Gaussian correlators in tensor models, are efficiently performed with the help of the (Hurwitz) character calculus. This emphasizes a close similarity between technical methods in matrix and tensor models and supports a hope to understand the emerging structures in very similar terms. We claim that the 2m-fold Gaussian correlators of rank r tensors are given by r-linear combinations of dimensions with the Young diagrams of size m. The coefficients are made from the characters of the symmetric group Sm and their exact form depends on the choice of the correlator and on the symmetries of the model. As the simplest application of this new knowledge, we provide simple expressions for correlators in the Aristotelian tensor model as tri-linear combinations of dimensions.
Correlators in tensor models from character calculus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Mironov
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We explain how the calculations of [20], which provided the first evidence for non-trivial structures of Gaussian correlators in tensor models, are efficiently performed with the help of the (Hurwitz character calculus. This emphasizes a close similarity between technical methods in matrix and tensor models and supports a hope to understand the emerging structures in very similar terms. We claim that the 2m-fold Gaussian correlators of rank r tensors are given by r-linear combinations of dimensions with the Young diagrams of size m. The coefficients are made from the characters of the symmetric group Sm and their exact form depends on the choice of the correlator and on the symmetries of the model. As the simplest application of this new knowledge, we provide simple expressions for correlators in the Aristotelian tensor model as tri-linear combinations of dimensions.
A Fractional Probability Calculus View of Allometry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bruce J. West
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The scaling of respiratory metabolism with body size in animals is considered by many to be a fundamental law of nature. An apparent corollary of this law is the scaling of physiologic time with body size, implying that physiologic time is separate and distinct from clock time. However, these are only two of the many allometry relations that emerge from empirical studies in the physical, social and life sciences. Herein, we present a theory of allometry that provides a foundation for the allometry relation between a network function and the size that is entailed by the hypothesis that the fluctuations in the two measures are described by a scaling of the joint probability density. The dynamics of such networks are described by the fractional calculus, whose scaling solutions entail the empirically observed allometry relations.
VEST: Abstract vector calculus simplification in Mathematica
Squire, J.; Burby, J.; Qin, H.
2014-01-01
We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce three-dimensional scalar and vector expressions of a very general type to a well defined standard form. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by reduction, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper Burby et al. (2013) [12], we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of high-order Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, a computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations.
Improving Student Success in Calculus: A Comparison of Four College Calculus Classes
Bagley, Spencer Franklin
The quality of education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields is an issue of particular educational and economic importance, and Calculus I is a linchpin course in STEM major tracks. A national study is currently being conducted examining the characteristics of successful programs in college calculus (CSPCC, 2012). In work related to the CSPCC program, this study examines the effects on student outcomes of four different teaching strategies used at a single institution. The four classes were a traditional lecture, a lecture with discussion, a lecture incorporating both discussion and technology, and an inverted model. This dissertation was guided by three questions: (1) What impact do these four instructional approaches have on students' persistence, beliefs about mathematics, and conceptual and procedural achievement in calculus? (2) How do students at the local institution compare to students in the national database? And (3) How do the similarities and differences in opportunities for learning presented in the four classes contribute to the similarities and differences in student outcomes? Quantitative analysis of surveys and exams revealed few statistically significant differences in outcomes, and students in the inverted classroom often had poorer outcomes than those in other classes. Students in the technology-enhanced class scored higher on conceptual items on the final exam than those in other classes. Comparing to the national database, local students had similar switching rates but less expert-like attitudes and beliefs about mathematics than the national average. Qualitative analysis of focus group interviews, classroom observations, and student course evaluations showed that several implementation issues, some the result of pragmatic constraints, others the result of design choice, weakened affordances provided by innovative features and shrunk the differences between classes. There were substantial differences between the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ouzrout Rachid
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine Tuberculosis is prevalent in Algeria despite governmental attempts to control the disease. The objective of this study was to conduct, for the first time, molecular characterization of a population sample of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from slaughter cattle in Algeria. Between August and November 2007, 7250 animals were consecutively screened at the abattoirs of Algiers and Blida. In 260 animals, gross visible granulomatous lesions were detected and put into culture. Bacterial isolates were subsequently analysed by molecular methods. Results Altogether, 101 bacterial strains from 100 animals were subjected to molecular characterization. M. bovis was isolated from 88 animals. Other bacteria isolated included one strain of M. caprae, four Rhodococcus equi strains, three Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM and five strains of other bacterial species. The M. bovis strains isolated showed 22 different spoligotype patterns; four of them had not been previously reported. The majority of M. bovis strains (89% showed spoligotype patterns that were previously observed in strains from European cattle. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR typing supported a link between M. bovis strains from Algeria and France. One spoligotype pattern has also been shown to be frequent in M. bovis strains from Mali although the VNTR pattern of the Algerian strains differed from the Malian strains. Conclusion M. bovis infections account for a high amount of granulomatous lesions detected in Algerian slaughter cattle during standard meat inspection at Algiers and Blida abattoir. Molecular typing results suggested a link between Algerian and European strains of M. bovis.
Is colonoscopy necessary in cases of infection by Streptococcus bovis biotype II?
Corredoira, J.C.; Alonso, M.P.; Garcia-Pais, M.J.; Rabunal, R.; Garcia-Garrote, F.; Lopez-Roses, L.; Lancho, A.; Coira, A.; Pita, J.; Velasco, D.; Lopez-Alvarez, M.J.; Tjalsma, H.; Varela, J.
2014-01-01
The association of colorectal neoplasia (CRN) with Streptococcus bovis biotype I (SBI) infection is well recognized. However, this is not the case for Streptococcus bovis biotype II (SBII). We conducted this study in order to analyze the relationship between SBII and CRN. We analyzed all cases of
Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis are responsible for tuberculosis in humans or animals, respectively. Both species are closely related and belong to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). M. tuberculosis is the most ancient species from which M. bovis and the other members o...
Patterns and processes of Mycobacterium bovis evolution revealed by phylogenomic analyses
Mycobacterium bovis is an important animal pathogen worldwide that parasitizes wild and domesticated vertebrate livestock as well as humans. A comparison of the five M. bovis complete genomes from UK, South Korea, Brazil and USA revealed four novel large-scale structural variations of at least 2,000...
Adesokan, H.K.; Jenkins, A.O.; Soolingen, D. van; Cadmus, S.I.
2012-01-01
SETTING: Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is endemic in the cattle population in Nigeria. Livestock workers are at risk of Mycobacterium bovis infection and unaware of their health status. OBJECTIVE: To determine the occurrence of pulmonary M. bovis infection among livestock workers. DESIGN: A
Mycobacterium bovis is the cause of tuberculosis in most animal species, including cattle and is a serious zoonotic pathogen. In humans, M. bovis infection can result in disease clinically indistinguishable from that caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the cause of most tuberculosis in humans. Reg...
Sahraoui, Naima; Müller, Borna; Guetarni, Djamel; Boulahbal, Fadéla; Yala, Djamel; Ouzrout, Rachid; Berg, Stefan; Smith, Noel H; Zinsstag, Jakob
2009-01-01
Background Bovine Tuberculosis is prevalent in Algeria despite governmental attempts to control the disease. The objective of this study was to conduct, for the first time, molecular characterization of a population sample of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from slaughter cattle in Algeria. Between August and November 2007, 7250 animals were consecutively screened at the abattoirs of Algiers and Blida. In 260 animals, gross visible granulomatous lesions were detected and put into culture. Bacterial isolates were subsequently analysed by molecular methods. Results Altogether, 101 bacterial strains from 100 animals were subjected to molecular characterization. M. bovis was isolated from 88 animals. Other bacteria isolated included one strain of M. caprae, four Rhodococcus equi strains, three Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) and five strains of other bacterial species. The M. bovis strains isolated showed 22 different spoligotype patterns; four of them had not been previously reported. The majority of M. bovis strains (89%) showed spoligotype patterns that were previously observed in strains from European cattle. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) typing supported a link between M. bovis strains from Algeria and France. One spoligotype pattern has also been shown to be frequent in M. bovis strains from Mali although the VNTR pattern of the Algerian strains differed from the Malian strains. Conclusion M. bovis infections account for a high amount of granulomatous lesions detected in Algerian slaughter cattle during standard meat inspection at Algiers and Blida abattoir. Molecular typing results suggested a link between Algerian and European strains of M. bovis. PMID:19173726
Fractional and multivariable calculus model building and optimization problems
Mathai, A M
2017-01-01
This textbook presents a rigorous approach to multivariable calculus in the context of model building and optimization problems. This comprehensive overview is based on lectures given at five SERC Schools from 2008 to 2012 and covers a broad range of topics that will enable readers to understand and create deterministic and nondeterministic models. Researchers, advanced undergraduate, and graduate students in mathematics, statistics, physics, engineering, and biological sciences will find this book to be a valuable resource for finding appropriate models to describe real-life situations. The first chapter begins with an introduction to fractional calculus moving on to discuss fractional integrals, fractional derivatives, fractional differential equations and their solutions. Multivariable calculus is covered in the second chapter and introduces the fundamentals of multivariable calculus (multivariable functions, limits and continuity, differentiability, directional derivatives and expansions of multivariable ...
Stochastic integration by parts and functional Itô calculus
Vives, Josep
2016-01-01
This volume contains lecture notes from the courses given by Vlad Bally and Rama Cont at the Barcelona Summer School on Stochastic Analysis (July 2012). The notes of the course by Vlad Bally, co-authored with Lucia Caramellino, develop integration by parts formulas in an abstract setting, extending Malliavin's work on abstract Wiener spaces. The results are applied to prove absolute continuity and regularity results of the density for a broad class of random processes. Rama Cont's notes provide an introduction to the Functional Itô Calculus, a non-anticipative functional calculus that extends the classical Itô calculus to path-dependent functionals of stochastic processes. This calculus leads to a new class of path-dependent partial differential equations, termed Functional Kolmogorov Equations, which arise in the study of martingales and forward-backward stochastic differential equations. This book will appeal to both young and senior researchers in probability and stochastic processes, as well as to pract...
Discrete calculus applied analysis on graphs for computational science
Grady, Leo J
2010-01-01
This unique text brings together into a single framework current research in the three areas of discrete calculus, complex networks, and algorithmic content extraction. Many example applications from several fields of computational science are provided.
From Calculus to Wavelets: A New Mathematical Technique Wavelet ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 4. From Calculus to Wavelets: A New Mathematical Technique Wavelet Analysis Physical Properties. Gerald B Folland. General Article Volume 2 Issue 4 April 1997 pp 25-37 ...
Forest Carbon Uptake and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
Zobitz, John
2013-01-01
Using the fundamental theorem of calculus and numerical integration, we investigate carbon absorption of ecosystems with measurements from a global database. The results illustrate the dynamic nature of ecosystems and their ability to absorb atmospheric carbon.
Model-checking dense-time Duration Calculus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fränzle, Martin
2004-01-01
Since the seminal work of Zhou Chaochen, M. R. Hansen, and P. Sestoft on decidability of dense-time Duration Calculus [Zhou, Hansen, Sestoft, 1993] it is well-known that decidable fragments of Duration Calculus can only be obtained through withdrawal of much of the interesting vocabulary...... of this logic. While this was formerly taken as an indication that key-press verification of implementations with respect to elaborate Duration Calculus specifications were also impossible, we show that the model property is well decidable for realistic designs which feature natural constraints...... suitably sparser model classes we obtain model-checking procedures for rich subsets of Duration Calculus. Together with undecidability results also obtained, this sheds light upon the exact borderline between decidability and undecidability of Duration Calculi and related logics....
A Fluent Calculus Approach to Automatic Web Service Composition
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CHIFU, V.
2009-10-01
Full Text Available Web service composition is mandatory when complex functional requirements cannot be satisfied by a single Web service. Because of the exponential growth of available Web services, their automatic discovery and composition are highly desirable tasks. This paper presents a new approach for automatic Web service composition based on the formalism of Fluent Calculus using semantic service descriptions. In our approach, the Web service composition process is viewed as an AI planning problem in the Fluent Calculus formalism. To semantically describe Web services, we have used a Web service domain ontology which is then translated into a Fluent Calculus knowledge base, necessary for the composition planning phase. For verifying the composed services, the Label Transition System Analyzer (LTSA formalism is used. The paper also presents an experimental prototype for the Fluent Calculus based Web service composition and demonstrates its effectiveness with the help of an application scenario from the social event planning domain.
Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mardare, Radu Iulian; Priami, Corrado; Qualia, Paola
2005-01-01
Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus. In Proc. of the second International Workshop on Computational Methods in Systems Biology (CMSB04), Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics 3082:85-103, Springer, 2005.......Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus. In Proc. of the second International Workshop on Computational Methods in Systems Biology (CMSB04), Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics 3082:85-103, Springer, 2005....
Calculus introductory theory and applications in physical and life science
Johnson, R M
1995-01-01
This lucid and balanced introduction for first year engineers and applied mathematicians conveys the clear understanding of the fundamentals and applications of calculus, as a prelude to studying more advanced functions. Short and fundamental diagnostic exercises at the end of each chapter test comprehension before moving to new material.Provides a clear understanding of the fundamentals and applications of calculus, as a prelude to studying more advanced functionsIncludes short, useful diagnostic exercises at the end of each chapter
Dynamic Compartments in the Imperative π-Calculus
John, Mathias; Lhoussaine, Cédric; Niehren, Joachim
Dynamic compartments with mutable configurations and variable volumes are of basic interest for the stochastic modeling of biochemistry in cells. We propose a new language to express dynamic compartments that we call the imperative π -calculus. It is obtained from the attributed π -calculus by adding imperative assignment operations to a global store. Previous approaches to dynamic compartments are improved in flexibility or efficiency. This is illustrated by an appropriate model of osmosis and a correct encoding of bioambBioAmbients.
On the Expressive Power of Polyadic Synchronisation in π- calculus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carbone, Marco; Maffeis, Sergio
2002-01-01
We extend the pi-calculus with polyadic synchronisation, a generalisation of the communication mechanism which allows channel names to be composite. We show that this operator embeds nicely in the theory of pi-calculus, we suggest that it permits divergence-free encodings of distributed calculi...... of a language increases its expressive power by means of a separation result in the style of Palamidessi's result for mixed choice....
UTILIZING MICROSOFT MATHEMATICS IN TEACHING AND LEARNING CALCULUS
Rina Oktaviyanthi; Yani Supriani
2015-01-01
The experimental design was conducted to investigate the use of Microsoft Mathematics, free software made by Microsoft Corporation, in teaching and learning Calculus. This paper reports results from experimental study details on implementation of Microsoft Mathematics in Calculus, students’ achievement and the effects of the use of Microsoft Mathematics on students’ attitudes in relation to such experience. Two classes of the students from the first year student in Universitas Serang Raya wer...
Applications of Malliavin calculus to Monte Carlo methods in finance
Eric Fournié; Jean-Michel Lasry; Pierre-Louis Lions; Jérôme Lebuchoux; Nizar Touzi
1999-01-01
This paper presents an original probabilistic method for the numerical computations of Greeks (i.e. price sensitivities) in finance. Our approach is based on the {\\it integration-by-parts} formula, which lies at the core of the theory of variational stochastic calculus, as developed in the Malliavin calculus. The Greeks formulae, both with respect to initial conditions and for smooth perturbations of the local volatility, are provided for general discontinuous path-dependent payoff functional...
Abáné, J L; Oleaga, A; Ramajo, V; Casanueva, P; Arellano, J L; Hillyer, G V; Muro, A
2000-07-24
Two strains of mice (NMRI and C57/BL) were each immunized with a 15kDa recombinant Fasciola hepatica fatty acid binding protein (FABP) (Fh15) and challenged percutaneously with Schistosoma bovis cercariae. C57/BL mice immunized with Fh15 had significant reductions in S. bovis worm burden recoveries (72% reductions over controls). When using NMRI mice, Fh15 in Freund's adjuvant failed to induce significant protection against S. bovis. In C57/BL mice, only antibodies to the IgG2a isotype increased after the second immunization and remained high through 8 weeks of S. bovis infection. This is the first time that a heterologous recombinant molecule from F. hepatica has been used in vaccination against S. bovis, obtaining a significant reduction in the number of worms in C57/BL mice.
Hall, Angela Renee
2011-01-01
This investigative research focuses on the level of readiness of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) students entering Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) in the college Calculus sequence. Calculus is a fundamental course for STEM courses. The level of readiness of the students for Calculus can very well play a…
Rewriting Modulo β in the λΠ-Calculus Modulo
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Ronan Saillard
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The lambda-Pi-calculus Modulo is a variant of the lambda-calculus with dependent types where beta-conversion is extended with user-defined rewrite rules. It is an expressive logical framework and has been used to encode logics and type systems in a shallow way. Basic properties such as subject reduction or uniqueness of types do not hold in general in the lambda-Pi-calculus Modulo. However, they hold if the rewrite system generated by the rewrite rules together with beta-reduction is confluent. But this is too restrictive. To handle the case where non confluence comes from the interference between the beta-reduction and rewrite rules with lambda-abstraction on their left-hand side, we introduce a notion of rewriting modulo beta for the lambda-Pi-calculus Modulo. We prove that confluence of rewriting modulo beta is enough to ensure subject reduction and uniqueness of types. We achieve our goal by encoding the lambda-Pi-calculus Modulo into Higher-Order Rewrite System (HRS. As a consequence, we also make the confluence results for HRSs available for the lambda-Pi-calculus Modulo.
Miniature endoscopic optical coherence tomography for calculus detection.
Kao, Meng-Chun; Lin, Chun-Li; Kung, Che-Yen; Huang, Yi-Fung; Kuo, Wen-Chuan
2015-08-20
The effective treatment of periodontitis involves the detection and removal of subgingival dental calculus. However, subgingival calculus is more difficult to detect than supragingival calculus because it is firmly attached to root surfaces within periodontal pockets. To achieve a smooth root surface, clinicians often remove excessive amounts of root structure because of decreased visibility. In addition, enamel pearl, a rare type of ectopic enamel formation on the root surface, can easily be confused with dental calculus in the subgingival environment. In this study, we developed a fiber-probe swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) technique and combined it with the quantitative measurement of an optical parameter [standard deviation (SD) of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) intensity] to differentiate subgingival calculus from sound enamel, including enamel pearl. Two-dimensional circumferential images were constructed by rotating the miniprobe (0.9 mm diameter) while acquiring image lines, and the adjacent lines in each rotation were stacked to generate a three-dimensional volume. In OCT images, compared to sound enamel and enamel pearls, dental calculus showed significant differences (Pcalculus.
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Leopoldo Santos-Neto
2005-09-01
Full Text Available Cerebral ischemic processes associated with infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis are rare; only 2 cases having been reported. Here we report a case of a 50-year-old man with S. bovis endocarditis who presented signs of frontal, parietal and occipital lobe cerebral ischemia. This is the first case reported in which the presence of hemianopsia preceded the endocarditis diagnosis. Initially, the clinical manifestations suggested a systemic vasculitis. Later, vegetating lesions were identified in the aortic valve and S. bovis grew in blood cultures. Antibiotic use and aortic valve replacement eliminated the infection and ceased thromboembolic events. A videocolonoscopy examination revealed no mucosal lesions as a portal of entry in this case, although such lesions have been encountered in up to 70% of reported cases of S. bovis endocarditis.A associação de isquemia cerebral e endocardite por Streptococcus bovis é um evento raro, tendo sido publicados apenas 2 casos anteriormente. Nós relatamos o caso de um homem de 50 anos com endocardite por S. bovis que apresentou sinais isquêmicos nos lobos frontal, parietal e occipital. Este é o primeiro caso em que a hemianopsia precedeu o diagnóstico de endocardite. Inicialmente, o quadro foi confundido com vasculite. Posteriormente, foi confirmada a presença de vegetações na válvula aórtica e a hemocultura identificou S. bovis. Os eventos tromboembólicos foram controlados com o uso de antibióticos e a troca da válvula aórtica. Estudo videocolonoscópico não identificou nenhuma lesão, apesar de lesões colônicas serem descritas em até 70% dos casos de indivíduos com endocardite por S. bovis.
Water content contribution in calculus phantom ablation during Q-switched Tm:YAG laser lithotripsy.
Zhang, Jian J; Rajabhandharaks, Danop; Xuan, Jason Rongwei; Wang, Hui; Chia, Ray W J; Hasenberg, Tom; Kang, Hyun Wook
2015-01-01
Q-switched (QS) Tm:YAG laser ablation mechanisms on urinary calculi are still unclear to researchers. Here, dependence of water content in calculus phantom on calculus ablation performance was investigated. White gypsum cement was used as a calculus phantom model. The calculus phantoms were ablated by a total 3-J laser pulse exposure (20 mJ, 100 Hz, 1.5 s) and contact mode with N=15 sample size. Ablation volume was obtained on average 0.079, 0.122, and 0.391 mm3 in dry calculus in air, wet calculus in air, and wet calculus in-water groups, respectively. There were three proposed ablation mechanisms that could explain the effect of water content in calculus phantom on calculus ablation performance, including shock wave due to laser pulse injection and bubble collapse, spallation, and microexplosion. Increased absorption coefficient of wet calculus can cause stronger spallation process compared with that caused by dry calculus; as a result, higher calculus ablation was observed in both wet calculus in air and wet calculus in water. The test result also indicates that the shock waves generated by short laser pulse under the in-water condition have great impact on the ablation volume by Tm:YAG QS laser.
Biochemical characterization of the maltokinase from Mycobacterium bovis BCG
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Lamosa Pedro
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Maltose-1-phosphate was detected in Mycobacterium bovis BCG extracts in the 1960's but a maltose-1-phosphate synthetase (maltokinase, Mak was only much later purified from Actinoplanes missouriensis, allowing the identification of the mak gene. Recently, this metabolite was proposed to be the intermediate in a pathway linking trehalose with the synthesis of glycogen in M. smegmatis. Although the M. tuberculosis H37Rv mak gene (Rv0127 was considered essential for growth, no mycobacterial Mak has, to date, been characterized. Results The sequence of the Mak from M. bovis BCG was identical to that from M. tuberculosis strains (99-100% amino acid identity. The enzyme was dependent on maltose and ATP, although GTP and UTP could be used to produce maltose-1-phosphate, which we identified by TLC and characterized by NMR. The Km for maltose was 2.52 ± 0.40 mM and 0.74 ± 0.12 mM for ATP; the Vmax was 21.05 ± 0.89 μmol/min.mg-1. Divalent cations were required for activity and Mg2+ was the best activator. The enzyme was a monomer in solution, had maximal activity at 60°C, between pH 7 and 9 (at 37°C and was unstable on ice and upon freeze/thawing. The addition of 50 mM NaCl markedly enhanced Mak stability. Conclusions The unknown role of maltokinases in mycobacterial metabolism and the lack of biochemical data led us to express the mak gene from M. bovis BCG for biochemical characterization. This is the first mycobacterial Mak to be characterized and its properties represent essential knowledge towards deeper understanding of mycobacterial physiology. Since Mak may be a potential drug target in M. tuberculosis, its high-level production and purification in bioactive form provide important tools for further functional and structural studies.
Kho, Kai-Ling; Koh, Fui-Xian; Jaafar, Tariq; Nizam, Quaza Nizamuddin Hassan; Tay, Sun-Tee
2015-07-16
Bartonellosis is an emerging zoonotic infection responsible for a variety of clinical syndromes in humans and animals. Members of the genus Bartonella exhibit high degrees of genetic diversity and ecologic plasticity. The infection is usually transmitted to animals and humans through blood-feeding arthropod vectors such as fleas, lice, ticks and sandflies. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Bartonella species in 184 beef cattle, 40 dairy cattle, 40 sheep and 40 goats in eight animal farms across Peninsular Malaysia. Bartonella-specific PCR assays and sequence analysis of partial fragments of the citrate synthase gene were used for detection and identification of B. bovis. Isolation of B. bovis was attempted from PCR-positive blood samples. Molecular heterogeneity of the isolates was investigated based on sequence analysis of gltA, ITS, rpoB genes, ERIC-PCR, as well as using an established multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method. The carriage rate of B. bovis in ticks was also determined in this study. B. bovis was detected using Bartonella gltA-PCR assays from ten (4.5 %) of 224 cattle blood samples, of which three (1.3 %) were from beef cattle and seven (3.1 %) were from dairy cattle. None of the blood samples from the sheep and goats understudied were positive for B. bovis. Haemaphysalis bispinosa and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus were the predominant tick species identified in this study. B. bovis was detected from eight of 200 H. bispinosa ticks and none from the R. microplus ticks. Isolation of B. bovis was successful from all PCR-positive cattle blood samples, except one. Strain differentiation of B. bovis isolates was attempted based on sequence analysis of gltA, ITS, rpoB, and ERIC-PCR assay. B. bovis isolates were differentiated into six genotypes using the approach. The genetic heterogeneity of the isolates was confirmed using MLST method. Of the six MLST sequence types identified, five were designated new sequence types (ST
Tenk, M; Stipkovits, L; Hufnagel, L
2004-01-01
The authors screened 34 large cattle herds for the presence of Mycoplasma bovis infection by examining slaughtered cattle for macroscopic lung lesions, by culturing M. bovis from lung lesions and at the same time by testing sera for the presence of antibodies against M. bovis. Among the 595 cattle examined, 33.9% had pneumonic lesions, mycoplasmas were isolated from 59.9% of pneumonic lung samples, and 10.9% of sera from those animals contained antibodies to M. bovis. In 25.2% of the cases M. bovis was isolated from lungs with no macroscopic lesions. The proportion of seropositive herds was 64.7%. The average seropositivity rate of individuals was 11.3% but in certain herds it exceeded 50%. A probability model was developed for examining the relationship among the occurrence of pneumonia, the isolation of M. bovis from the lungs and the presence of M. bovis specific antibodies in sera.
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Degrave Wim M
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG is currently the only available vaccine against tuberculosis (TB and comprises a heterogeneous family of sub-strains with genotypic and phenotypic differences. The World Health Organization (WHO affirms that the characterization of BCG sub-strains, both on genomic and proteomic levels, is crucial for a better comprehension of the vaccine. In addition, these studies can contribute in the development of a more efficient vaccine against TB. Here, we combine two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE and mass spectrometry to analyse the proteomic profile of culture filtrate proteins (CFPs from M. bovis BCG Moreau, the Brazilian vaccine strain, comparing it to that of BCG Pasteur. CFPs are considered of great importance given their dominant immunogenicity and role in pathogenesis, being available for interaction with host cells since early infection. Results The 2DE proteomic map of M. bovis BCG Moreau CFPs in the pH range 3 - 8 allowed the identification of 158 spots corresponding to 101 different proteins, identified by MS/MS. Comparison to BCG Pasteur highlights the great similarity between these BCG strains. However, quantitative analysis shows a higher expression of immunogenic proteins such as Rv1860 (BCG1896, Apa, Rv1926c (BCG1965c, Mpb63 and Rv1886c (BCG1923c, Ag85B in BCG Moreau when compared to BCG Pasteur, while some heat shock proteins, such as Rv0440 (BCG0479, GroEL2 and Rv0350 (BCG0389, DnaK, show the opposite pattern. Conclusions Here we report the detailed 2DE profile of CFPs from M. bovis BCG Moreau and its comparison to BCG Pasteur, identifying differences that may provide relevant information on vaccine efficacy. These findings contribute to the detailed characterization of the Brazilian vaccine strain against TB, revealing aspects that may lead to a better understanding of the factors leading to BCG's variable protective efficacy against TB.
Generalized Functions for the Fractional Calculus
Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.
1999-01-01
Previous papers have used two important functions for the solution of fractional order differential equations, the Mittag-Leffler functionE(sub q)[at(exp q)](1903a, 1903b, 1905), and the F-function F(sub q)[a,t] of Hartley & Lorenzo (1998). These functions provided direct solution and important understanding for the fundamental linear fractional order differential equation and for the related initial value problem (Hartley and Lorenzo, 1999). This paper examines related functions and their Laplace transforms. Presented for consideration are two generalized functions, the R-function and the G-function, useful in analysis and as a basis for computation in the fractional calculus. The R-function is unique in that it contains all of the derivatives and integrals of the F-function. The R-function also returns itself on qth order differ-integration. An example application of the R-function is provided. A further generalization of the R-function, called the G-function brings in the effects of repeated and partially repeated fractional poles.
q-fractional calculus and equations
Annaby, Mahmoud H
2012-01-01
This nine-chapter monograph introduces a rigorous investigation of q-difference operators in standard and fractional settings. It starts with elementary calculus of q-differences and integration of Jackson’s type before turning to q-difference equations. The existence and uniqueness theorems are derived using successive approximations, leading to systems of equations with retarded arguments. Regular q-Sturm–Liouville theory is also introduced; Green’s function is constructed and the eigenfunction expansion theorem is given. The monograph also discusses some integral equations of Volterra and Abel type, as introductory material for the study of fractional q-calculi. Hence fractional q-calculi of the types Riemann–Liouville; Grünwald–Letnikov; Caputo; Erdélyi–Kober and Weyl are defined analytically. Fractional q-Leibniz rules with applications in q-series are also obtained with rigorous proofs of the formal results of Al-Salam-Verma, which remained unproved for decades. In working ...
Meshes optimized for discrete exterior calculus (DEC).
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Mousley, Sarah C. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Deakin, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Knupp, Patrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Scott A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-12-01
We study the optimization of an energy function used by the meshing community to measure and improve mesh quality. This energy is non-traditional because it is dependent on both the primal triangulation and its dual Voronoi (power) diagram. The energy is a measure of the mesh's quality for usage in Discrete Exterior Calculus (DEC), a method for numerically solving PDEs. In DEC, the PDE domain is triangulated and this mesh is used to obtain discrete approximations of the continuous operators in the PDE. The energy of a mesh gives an upper bound on the error of the discrete diagonal approximation of the Hodge star operator. In practice, one begins with an initial mesh and then makes adjustments to produce a mesh of lower energy. However, we have discovered several shortcomings in directly optimizing this energy, e.g. its non-convexity, and we show that the search for an optimized mesh may lead to mesh inversion (malformed triangles). We propose a new energy function to address some of these issues.
Vector difference calculus for physical lattice models
Schwalm, W.; Moritz, B.; Giona, M.; Schwalm, M.
1999-01-01
A vector difference calculus is developed for physical models defined on a general triangulating graph G, which may be a regular or an extremely irregular lattice, using discrete field quantities roughly analogous to differential forms. The role of the space Λp of p-forms at a point is taken on by the linear space generated at a graph vertex by the geometrical p-simplices which contain it. The vector operations divergence, gradient, and curl are developed using the boundary ∂ and coboundary d. Dot, cross, and scalar products are defined in such a way that discrete analogs of the vector integral theorems, including theorems of Gauss-Ostrogradski, Stokes, and Green, as well as most standard vector identities hold exactly, not as approximations to a continuum limit. Physical conservation laws for the models become theorems satisfied by the discrete fields themselves. Three discrete lattice models are constructed as examples, namely a discrete version of the Maxwell equations, the Navier-Stokes equation for incompressible flow, and the Navier linearized model for a homogeneous, isotropic elastic medium. Weight factors needed for obtaining quantitative agreement with continuum calculations are derived for the special case of a regular triangular lattice. Green functions are developed using a generalized Helmholtz decomposition of the fields.
DNA probes distinguish geographical isolates and identify a novel DNA molecule of Babesia bovis.
Jasmer, D P; Reduker, D W; Goff, W L; Stiller, D; McGuire, T C
1990-12-01
A genomic DNA library of Babesia bovis was screened to identify DNA probe candidates for direct detection of the parasite. Two sequences, Bo6 and Bo25, had the highest sensitivity and further analysis revealed unique characteristics of each of these. Neither sequence hybridized detectably to bovine DNA. Bo6 detected 100 pg of both a Mexican and an Australian isolate of B. bovis, but Bo6 also detected 1.0 ng of Babesia bigemina DNA under identical conditions. A unique characteristic of Bo6 is that it hybridizes to an apparent 7.4-kilobase DNA in undigested genomic DNA of both B. bovis and B. bigemina. The sequence is well conserved between the 2 geographic isolates of B. bovis, but it is apparently divergent in B. bigemina. Bo25 did not hybridize detectably to bovine or B. bigemina DNA. This sequence detected 100 pg of homologous B. bovis Mexican isolate DNA, but the sensitivity was reduced to 1 ng for the Australian isolate DNA. The restriction enzyme profile of the Bo25 sequence in genomic DNA differed markedly in the number, size, and intensity of bands between the 2 B. bovis geographic isolates tested. Thus, the Bo25 sequence can distinguish geographic isolates of B. bovis.
Ferreras, M C; García-Iglesias, M J; Manga-González, M Y; Pérez-Martínez, C; Mizinska, Y; Ramajo, V; González-Lanza, M C; Escudero, A; García-Marín, J F
2000-12-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-resistance between Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma bovis in lambs assessing parasitologic, gross pathologic, histopathologic and immunohistochemical changes in liver and small intestine. Thirty Castellana breed lambs were divided into five comparable groups and exposed to F. hepatical S. bovis (group F/S), S. bovis/F. hepatica (group S/F), S. bovis (group S) or F. hepatica (group F) and six unexposed lambs were used as non-infected controls (group C). Primary patent infection with F. hepatica induced a lower number of schistosome eggs and a higher number of lymphocytes in intestinal and liver schistosome egg-induced granulomas in group F/S than in the groups S/F and S, liver damage being mainly attributed to F. hepatica. S. bovis infection followed by challenge with F. hepatica particularly increased the severity of the most significant liver alterations (cholangiohepatitis by F. hepatica and mesoendophlebitis by S. bovis) and F. hepatica seemed not to have an influence on established S. bovis infection. In addition, immunohistochemical results suggested that the predominant local immune response in both double-infected groups was different, being mainly a cell-mediated immune response in group F/S and a mucosal response in group S/F.
[Mycobacterial bovis BCG cutaneous infections following mesotherapy: 2 cases].
Marco-Bonnet, J; Beylot-Barry, M; Texier-Maugein, J; Barucq, J P; Supply, P; Doutre, M S; Beylot, C
2002-05-01
Infectious complications following mesotherapy are usually due to ordinary bacteria or atypical mycobacteria. We report two new cases of mycobacterial bovis BCG infections following mesotherapy. To our knowledge only one case has already been reported. A 52 year-old woman developed vaccinal MERIEUX BCG cutaneous abscesses following mesotherapy. Identification was made by a novel class of repeated sequences: Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units. Despite prolonged anti-tuberculous therapy, complete remission was not obtained and surgical excision was performed. The second case was a 49 year-old man who developed a mycobacterial bovis BCG cutaneous abscess (Connaught) after mesotherapy, the regression of which was obtained with anti-tuberculous therapy. The severity of these two mycobacterial infections following mesotherapy illustrate the potential risks of mesotherapy. Identification is possible by molecular biology techniques (PCR and sequencing). The origin of this infection is unclear and therapeutic decision is difficult. Some authors recommend anti-tuberculous therapy but surgical excision may be necessary as in our cases.
Murine Schistosoma bovis infection: analysis of parasitic and immune parameters.
Viana da Costa, A; Gaubert, S; Fontaine, J; Lafitte, S; Seixas, A; De Lourdes Sampaio Silva, M; Capron, A; Grzych, J M
1998-03-01
Humoral and cellular responses to Schistosoma bovis antigens have been evaluated over a period of 11 weeks in mice exposed to S. bovis cercariae and data analysed in the context of the parasitic parameters (worm and egg loads) recorded at days 30, 60 and 80 of the ongoing infection. Results revealed a decrease of worm burden, particularly marked for female worms, between day 60 and day 80 of infection suggesting a higher susceptibility of female schistosomes to attrition mechanisms. The B-cell response, studied by measuring the production of different isotypes, was directed against different stage specific antigens, with a predominance of IgG1 antibodies associated with a significant increase of IgA and IgE antibodies after egg deposition. The T-cell response, assessed after in vitro stimulation of splenocytes, showed a predominant production of Th-2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10) occurring after egg laying. Interestingly in contrast to S. mansoni infection the Th-2 polarization did not seem to be exclusively triggered by egg-associated antigens since significant amounts of IL-10 were produced after stimulation with adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP) before the beginning of egg deposition.
Analysis of Streptococcus bovis infections at a monographic oncological centre
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Lozano TG
2014-02-01
Full Text Available The Streptococcus bovis is a Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic, catalase and oxidase negative coccus belonging to the genus Streptococcus. It is part of Streptoccus bovis/ equinus complex and it express the Lancefield antigen D on the surface.This complex has been characterized by molecular biology techniques and specifically by 16S rRNA and sodA gene. Phylogenetic trees based on these techniques are complex and therefore the routine work in laboratories, biochemical techniques are used to identify subspecies if it is necessary.The complex is divided into two subtypes based on biochemical properties: positive mannitol fermentation (biotype I including S. gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus and S. gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus, mannitol negative and ß-glucuronidase negative (biotype II/ 1, which includes more species (S. infantarius subsp. coli and S. lutetiensis and mannitol negative and ß-glucuronidase positive (biotype II/ 2, with a single species called S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus.Owing to the relationship between colon cancer tumour and Streptococcus bovis, we intend to analyse all isolates in our hospital between the periods of 2010 until March 2013 and analyse tumor epidemiology at our center, in patients infected with this pathogen.Despite the different types of samples and out of the possibility of identification of subspecies, were isolated 14 S. bovis of 14 different patients. The isolates patients were (at the beginning: 4 blood (blood culture, 5 urine, 4 multiple exudates and 1 bronchoalveolar lavage. The proportion of men and women was 8/6. The mean age was 67 years (56±91. Malignant tumor distribution was: 6 prostate cancer, 1 breast cancer, 1 biliary tract, 1 skin, 1, stomach, 1 uterus, 1 vulvar, 1 pyriform sinus and other reproductive organs without specify.The study of antimicrobial in vitro susceptibility was performed by microdilution (MicroScan® WalkAway, Siemens, Sacramento, CA, USA and the
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Adama Sanou
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, bovine tuberculosis (bTB is a potential hazard for animals and humans health. The goal of this study was to improve our understanding of bTB epidemiology in Burkina Faso and especially Mycobacterium bovis transmission within and between the bovine and human populations.Twenty six M. bovis strains were isolated from 101 cattle carcasses with suspected bTB lesions during routine meat inspections at the Bobo Dioulasso and Ouagadougou slaughterhouses. In addition, 7 M. bovis strains were isolated from 576 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Spoligotyping, RDAf1 deletion and MIRU-VNTR typing were used for strains genotyping. The isolation of M. bovis strains was confirmed by spoligotyping and 12 spoligotype signatures were detected. Together, the spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR data allowed grouping the 33 M. bovis isolates in seven clusters including isolates exclusively from cattle (5 or humans (1 or from both (1. Moreover, these data (genetic analyses and phenetic tree showed that the M. bovis isolates belonged to the African 1 (Af1 clonal complex (81.8% and the putative African 5 (Af5 clonal complex (18.2%, in agreement with the results of RDAf1 deletion typing.This is the first detailed molecular characterization of M. bovis strains from humans and cattle in Burkina Faso. The distribution of the two Af1 and putative Af5 clonal complexes is comparable to what has been reported in neighbouring countries. Furthermore, the strain genetic profiles suggest that M. bovis circulates across the borders and that the Burkina Faso strains originate from different countries, but have a country-specific evolution. The genetic characterization suggests that, currently, M. bovis transmission occurs mainly between cattle, occasionally between cattle and humans and potentially between humans. This study emphasizes the bTB risk in cattle but also in humans and the difficulty to set up proper disease control strategies in Burkina Faso.
Alozie, Anthony; Köller, Kerstin; Pose, Lumi; Raftis, Maximilian; Steinhoff, Gustav; Westphal, Bernd; Lamprecht, Georg; Podbielski, Andreas
2015-01-01
To assess the prevalence of gastrointestinal neoplasia in patients with Streptococcus bovis infectious endocarditis we performed a retrospective cohort analysis of all episodes of S. bovis infectious endocarditis treated at our institution between January 2000 through December 2014. Twenty-five patients were identified for this purpose. 12/25 patients received colonoscopy and 1/25 of the patients was assessed with CT colonography. Of the 13 who underwent colonic assessment, 11 were diagnosed with colonic neoplasms at different stages of development. In the absence of any strong contraindication, gastroenteroscopic evaluation in all patients diagnosed with S. bovis infectious endocarditis should be pursued.
On flipping first-semester calculus: a case study
Petrillo, Joseph
2016-05-01
High failure rates in calculus have plagued students, teachers, and administrators for decades, while science, technology, engineering, and mathematics programmes continue to suffer from low enrollments and high attrition. In an effort to affect this reality, some educators are 'flipping' (or inverting) their classrooms. By flipping, we mean administering course content outside of the classroom and replacing the traditional in-class lectures with discussion, practice, group work, and other elements of active learning. This paper presents the major results from a three-year study of a flipped, first-semester calculus course at a small, comprehensive, American university with a well-known engineering programme. The data we have collected help quantify the positive and substantial effects of our flipped calculus course on failure rates, scores on the common final exam, student opinion of calculus, teacher impact on measurable outcomes, and success in second-semester calculus. While flipping may not be suitable for every teacher, every student, and in every situation, this report provides some evidence that it may be a viable option for those seeking an alternative to the traditional lecture model.
Colloquium: Fractional calculus view of complexity: A tutorial
West, Bruce J.
2014-10-01
The fractional calculus has been part of the mathematics and science literature for 310 years. However, it is only in the past decade or so that it has drawn the attention of mainstream science as a way to describe the dynamics of complex phenomena with long-term memory, spatial heterogeneity, along with nonstationary and nonergodic statistics. The most recent application encompasses complex networks, which require new ways of thinking about the world. Part of the new cognition is provided by the fractional calculus description of temporal and topological complexity. Consequently, this Colloquium is not so much a tutorial on the mathematics of the fractional calculus as it is an exploration of how complex phenomena in the physical, social, and life sciences that have eluded traditional mathematical modeling become less mysterious when certain historical assumptions such as differentiability are discarded and the ordinary calculus is replaced with the fractional calculus. Exemplars considered include the fractional differential equations describing the dynamics of viscoelastic materials, turbulence, foraging, and phase transitions in complex social networks.
Backpropagation and ordered derivatives in the time scales calculus.
Seiffertt, John; Wunsch, Donald C
2010-08-01
Backpropagation is the most widely used neural network learning technique. It is based on the mathematical notion of an ordered derivative. In this paper, we present a formulation of ordered derivatives and the backpropagation training algorithm using the important emerging area of mathematics known as the time scales calculus. This calculus, with its potential for application to a wide variety of inter-disciplinary problems, is becoming a key area of mathematics. It is capable of unifying continuous and discrete analysis within one coherent theoretical framework. Using this calculus, we present here a generalization of backpropagation which is appropriate for cases beyond the specifically continuous or discrete. We develop a new multivariate chain rule of this calculus, define ordered derivatives on time scales, prove a key theorem about them, and derive the backpropagation weight update equations for a feedforward multilayer neural network architecture. By drawing together the time scales calculus and the area of neural network learning, we present the first connection of two major fields of research.
VOLMER, M; WOLTHERS, BG; METTING, HJ; DEHAAN, THY; COENEGRACHT, PMJ; VANDERSLIK, W
Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is used to analyze urinary calculus (renal stone) constituents. However, interpretation of IR spectra for quantifying urinary calculus constituents in mixtures is difficult, requiring expert knowledge by trained technicians. In our laboratory IR spectra of unknown calculi
Introduction to Integral Calculus Systematic Studies with Engineering Applications for Beginners
Rohde, Ulrich L; Poddar, Ajay K; Ghosh, A K
2011-01-01
An accessible introduction to the fundamentals of calculus needed to solve current problems in engineering and the physical sciences I ntegration is an important function of calculus, and Introduction to Integral Calculus combines fundamental concepts with scientific problems to develop intuition and skills for solving mathematical problems related to engineering and the physical sciences. The authors provide a solid introduction to integral calculus and feature applications of integration, solutions of differential equations, and evaluation methods. With logical organization coupled with cle
Multivariable calculus with Matlab with applications to geometry and physics
Lipsman, Ronald L
2017-01-01
This comprehensive treatment of multivariable calculus focuses on the numerous tools that MATLAB® brings to the subject, as it presents introductions to geometry, mathematical physics, and kinematics. Covering simple calculations with MATLAB®, relevant plots, integration, and optimization, the numerous problem sets encourage practice with newly learned skills that cultivate the reader’s understanding of the material. Significant examples illustrate each topic, and fundamental physical applications such as Kepler’s Law, electromagnetism, fluid flow, and energy estimation are brought to prominent position. Perfect for use as a supplement to any standard multivariable calculus text, a “mathematical methods in physics or engineering” class, for independent study, or even as the class text in an “honors” multivariable calculus course, this textbook will appeal to mathematics, engineering, and physical science students. MATLAB® is tightly integrated into every portion of this book, and its graphical ...
Bacteria and archaea paleomicrobiology of the dental calculus: a review.
Huynh, H T T; Verneau, J; Levasseur, A; Drancourt, M; Aboudharam, G
2016-06-01
Dental calculus, a material observed in the majority of adults worldwide, emerged as a source for correlating paleomicrobiology with human health and diet. This mini review of 48 articles on the paleomicrobiology of dental calculus over 7550 years discloses a secular core microbiota comprising nine bacterial phyla - Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, TM7, Synergistetes, Chloroflexi, Fusobacteria, Spirochetes - and one archaeal phylum Euryarchaeota; and some accessory microbiota that appear and disappear according to time frame. The diet residues and oral microbes, including bacteria, archaea, viruses and fungi, consisting of harmless organisms and pathogens associated with local and systemic infections have been found trapped in ancient dental calculus by morphological approaches, immunolabeling techniques, isotope analyses, fluorescent in situ hybridization, DNA-based approaches, and protein-based approaches. These observations led to correlation of paleomicrobiology, particularly Streptococcus mutans and archaea, with past human health and diet. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Stochastic calculus an introduction through theory and exercises
Baldi, Paolo
2017-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the theory of stochastic calculus and some of its applications. It is the only textbook on the subject to include more than two hundred exercises with complete solutions. After explaining the basic elements of probability, the author introduces more advanced topics such as Brownian motion, martingales and Markov processes. The core of the book covers stochastic calculus, including stochastic differential equations, the relationship to partial differential equations, numerical methods and simulation, as well as applications of stochastic processes to finance. The final chapter provides detailed solutions to all exercises, in some cases presenting various solution techniques together with a discussion of advantages and drawbacks of the methods used. Stochastic Calculus will be particularly useful to advanced undergraduate and graduate students wishing to acquire a solid understanding of the subject through the theory and exercises. Including full mathematical ...
Golden quantum oscillator and Binet-Fibonacci calculus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pashaev, Oktay K; Nalci, Sengul, E-mail: oktaypashaev@iyte.edu.tr [Department of Mathematics, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla-Izmir 35430 (Turkey)
2012-01-13
The Binet formula for Fibonacci numbers is treated as a q-number and a q-operator with Golden ratio bases q = {phi} and Q = -1/{phi}, and the corresponding Fibonacci or Golden calculus is developed. A quantum harmonic oscillator for this Golden calculus is derived so that its spectrum is given only by Fibonacci numbers. The ratio of successive energy levels is found to be the Golden sequence, and for asymptotic states in the limit n {yields} {infinity} it appears as the Golden ratio. We call this oscillator the Golden oscillator. Using double Golden bosons, the Golden angular momentum and its representation in terms of Fibonacci numbers and the Golden ratio are derived. Relations of Fibonacci calculus with a q-deformed fermion oscillator and entangled N-qubit states are indicated. (paper)
Equations involving Malliavin calculus operators applications and numerical approximation
Levajković, Tijana
2017-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive and unified introduction to stochastic differential equations and related optimal control problems. The material is new and the presentation is reader-friendly. A major contribution of the book is the development of generalized Malliavin calculus in the framework of white noise analysis, based on chaos expansion representation of stochastic processes and its application for solving several classes of stochastic differential equations with singular data involving the main operators of Malliavin calculus. In addition, applications in optimal control and numerical approximations are discussed. The book is divided into four chapters. The first, entitled White Noise Analysis and Chaos Expansions, includes notation and provides the reader with the theoretical background needed to understand the subsequent chapters. In Chapter 2, Generalized Operators of Malliavin Calculus, the Malliavin derivative operator, the Skorokhod integral and the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck operator are introdu...
Fractional vector calculus and fractional Maxwell’s equations
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2008-11-01
The theory of derivatives and integrals of non-integer order goes back to Leibniz, Liouville, Grunwald, Letnikov and Riemann. The history of fractional vector calculus (FVC) has only 10 years. The main approaches to formulate a FVC, which are used in the physics during the past few years, will be briefly described in this paper. We solve some problems of consistent formulations of FVC by using a fractional generalization of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. We define the differential and integral vector operations. The fractional Green's, Stokes' and Gauss's theorems are formulated. The proofs of these theorems are realized for simplest regions. A fractional generalization of exterior differential calculus of differential forms is discussed. Fractional nonlocal Maxwell's equations and the corresponding fractional wave equations are considered.
Generalized calculus with applications to matter and forces
Campos, L M B C
2014-01-01
Combining mathematical theory, physical principles, and engineering problems, Generalized Calculus with Applications to Matter and Forces examines generalized functions, including the Heaviside unit jump and the Dirac unit impulse and its derivatives of all orders, in one and several dimensions. The text introduces the two main approaches to generalized functions: (1) as a nonuniform limit of a family of ordinary functions, and (2) as a functional over a set of test functions from which properties are inherited. The second approach is developed more extensively to encompass multidimensional generalized functions whose arguments are ordinary functions of several variables. As part of a series of books for engineers and scientists exploring advanced mathematics, Generalized Calculus with Applications to Matter and Forces presents generalized functions from an applied point of view, tackling problem classes such as: •Gauss and Stokes’ theorems in the differential geometry, tensor calculus, and theory of ...
Understanding and Interpreting Calculus Graphs: Refining an Instrument
Perez-Goytia, Nadia; Dominguez, Angeles; Zavala, Genaro
2010-10-01
The objective of this ongoing study is to refine an instrument to evaluate conceptual understanding and graphical interpretation of a function and its derivative. The instrument is based on a modified version of the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K) which consists of 26 items (7 dimensions). In the new instrument, Test of Understanding Graphs in Calculus (TUG-C), the kinematics context has been removed from the items creating a new context-free version. To favor the translation from kinematics to Calculus, the focus is on 5 out of the 7 original dimensions of the test, giving a 16-item test. A total of 526 students from a university level Introductory Physics course participated in the study. Half of the students were administered the kinematics test and the other half took the calculus test. This work will present data showing preliminary results of the instrument and new directions on improving the instrument.
Dental wax decreases calculus accumulation in small dogs.
Smith, Mark M; Smithson, Christopher W
2014-01-01
A dental wax was evaluated after unilateral application in 20 client-owned, mixed and purebred small dogs using a clean, split-mouth study model. All dogs had clinical signs of periodontal disease including plaque, calculus, and/or gingivitis. The wax was randomly applied to the teeth of one side of the mouth daily for 30-days while the contralateral side received no treatment. Owner parameters evaluated included compliance and a subjective assessment of ease of wax application. Gingivitis, plaque and calculus accumulation were scored at the end of the study period. Owners considered the wax easy to apply in all dogs. Compliance with no missed application days was achieved in 8 dogs. The number of missed application days had no effect on wax efficacy. There was no significant difference in gingivitis or plaque accumulation scores when comparing treated and untreated sides. Calculus accumulation scores were significantly less (22.1 %) for teeth receiving the dental wax.
The early period of the calculus of variations
Freguglia, Paolo
2016-01-01
This monograph explores the early development of the calculus of variations in continental Europe during the Eighteenth Century by illustrating the mathematics of its founders. Closely following the original papers and correspondences of Euler, Lagrange, the Bernoullis, and others, the reader is immersed in the challenge of theory building. We see what the founders were doing, the difficulties they faced, the mistakes they made, and their triumphs. The authors guide the reader through these works with instructive commentaries and complements to the original proofs, as well as offering a modern perspective where useful. The authors begin in 1697 with Johann Bernoulli’s work on the brachystochrone problem and the events leading up to it, marking the dawn of the calculus of variations. From there, they cover key advances in the theory up to the development of Lagrange’s δ-calculus, including: • The isoperimetrical problems • Shortest lines and geodesics • Euler’s Methodus Inveniendi and the two Addi...
Integral calculus problem solving: an fMRI investigation.
Krueger, Frank; Spampinato, Maria Vittoria; Pardini, Matteo; Pajevic, Sinisa; Wood, Jacqueline N; Weiss, George H; Landgraf, Steffen; Grafman, Jordan
2008-07-16
Only a subset of adults acquires specific advanced mathematical skills, such as integral calculus. The representation of more sophisticated mathematical concepts probably evolved from basic number systems; however its neuroanatomical basis is still unknown. Using fMRI, we investigated the neural basis of integral calculus while healthy participants were engaged in an integration verification task. Solving integrals activated a left-lateralized cortical network including the horizontal intraparietal sulcus, posterior superior parietal lobe, posterior cingulate gyrus, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Our results indicate that solving of more abstract and sophisticated mathematical facts, such as calculus integrals, elicits a pattern of brain activation similar to the cortical network engaged in basic numeric comparison, quantity manipulation, and arithmetic problem solving.
UTILIZING MICROSOFT MATHEMATICS IN TEACHING AND LEARNING CALCULUS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rina Oktaviyanthi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The experimental design was conducted to investigate the use of Microsoft Mathematics, free software made by Microsoft Corporation, in teaching and learning Calculus. This paper reports results from experimental study details on implementation of Microsoft Mathematics in Calculus, students’ achievement and the effects of the use of Microsoft Mathematics on students’ attitudes in relation to such experience. Two classes of the students from the first year student in Universitas Serang Raya were participated in the study. This study found that students who taught by using Microsoft Mathematics had higher achievement and has a positive effect on students’ confidence of mathematics.Keywords: Calculus, Educational Technology, Mathematics Education, Microsoft Mathematics, Technology Application DOI: dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.61.63
A study of ∇-discrete fractional calculus operator on the radial ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The fractional calculus includes concepts of integrals and derivatives of any complex or real order. The fractional calculus is as old as the usual calculus. Recently, many scientists have been studying on this eld to provide the development and applicability to various areas of mathematics, physics, engineering and other ...
Patel, Rita Manubhai; McCombs, Paul; Zollman, Alan
2014-01-01
Novice students have difficulty with the topic of limits in calculus. We believe this is in part because of the multiple perspectives and shifting metaphors available to solve items correctly. We investigated college calculus instructors' personal concepts of limits. Based upon previous research investigating introductory calculus student…
Teaching and learning of pre-calculus: an insights of educators ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The high-failure of Calculus courses has bring dilemma to the educators worldwide. This study has focus on teaching and learning of Pre-Calculus, a fundamental course for higher level Calculus courses. A well-designed questionnaire was distributed to all respondents to find the difficulties faced by both lecturers and ...
The Development and Nature of Problem-Solving among First-Semester Calculus Students
Dawkins, Paul Christian; Epperson, James A. Mendoza
2014-01-01
This study investigates interactions between calculus learning and problem-solving in the context of two first-semester undergraduate calculus courses in the USA. We assessed students' problem-solving abilities in a common US calculus course design that included traditional lecture and assessment with problem-solving-oriented labs. We investigate…
Recalling Prerequisite Material in a Calculus II Course to Improve Student Success
Mokry, Jeanette
2016-01-01
This article discusses preparation assignments used in a Calculus II course that cover material from prerequisite courses. Prior to learning new material, students work on problems outside of class involving concepts from algebra, trigonometry, and Calculus I. These problems are directly built upon in order to answer Calculus II questions,…
Linear Uniform Receptiveness in a Pi-Calculus with Location Failures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hüttel, Hans; Garm Nielsen, Johannes; Finderup, Peter
2010-01-01
The notion of receptiveness arises in the pi-calculus as a guarantee of determinacy in the behaviour of callable entities and was first investigated by Sangiorgi. The DpiF process calculus, introduced by Francalanza and Hennessy, extends the pi-calculus with located processes and location and link...
Detection of Mycobacterium bovis in artisanal cheese in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil
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Renata D. S Cezar
2016-01-01
Conclusion: The results of the present study highlight the need for improving sanitary measures during the production of artisanal cheese to prevent zoonotic tuberculosis in humans, resulting from the consumption of food contaminated with M. bovis.
Development of one-tube multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting Mycobacterium bovis.
Quan, Zhang; Haiming, Tan; Xiaoyao, Cai; Weifeng, Yuan; Hong, Jia; Hongfei, Zhu
2017-01-10
A multiplex PCR (m-PCR) with primers targeting the 16S rRNA, Rv3873 and a 12.7-kb fragment in the genomes of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex was designed for the differential diagnosis of M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. bovis BCG and non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium (NTM). The specificity of this assay was 100%, and the detection limit was 15 pg of genomic DNA. Of the 206 blinded clinical samples, the detection rate of M. bovis infection by m-PCR was lower than that of the interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release assay; however, the false-positive rate by the tuberculin skin test and false-negative samples in the IFN-γ release assay were reduced. Our findings indicated that our m-PCR method is a useful tool for complementation to differentiate M. bovis from M. tuberculosis and NTM species.
High Mobility Group Box 1 Protein Induction by Mycobacterium Bovis BCG
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Péter Hofner
2007-01-01
Conclusion: Our pilot experiments draw attention to the HMGB1 inducing ability of Mycobacterium bovis. Assesment of the pathophysiological role of this late cytokine in mycobacterial infections demands further in vitro and in vivo examinations.
Pathogenic mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex such as Mycobacterium bovis, induce a characteristic lesion known as a granulomas. Granulomas represent a specific host response to chronic antigenic stimuli, such as foreign bodies, certain bacterial components, or persistent pathoge...
Nicholas, Robin A J; Ayling, Roger D; Stipkovits, Laszlo P
2002-10-04
A single dose of vaccine for Mycoplasma bovis pneumonia, inactivated with saponin, was inoculated subcutaneously into 3-4 week-old calves. The calves were challenged 3 weeks later with a virulent strain of M. bovis on two occasions within 24h using the aerosol route. The calves were monitored for clinical signs and serological responses then post mortemed 3 weeks after challenge. The vaccine was shown to be highly immunogenic in calves and did not cause adverse effects. Vaccinated calves showed few clinical signs while all unvaccinated calves developed signs of pneumonia. There was a significant decrease in body weight gain in unvaccinated calves compared to vaccinates and a significant increase in lung lesions and rectal temperatures in unvaccinated calves. The vaccine also reduced the spread of M. bovis to internal organs. In conclusion the M. bovis vaccine produced a significant level of protection against a large virulent challenge.
Stochastic Calculus and Differential Equations for Physics and Finance
McCauley, Joseph L.
2013-02-01
1. Random variables and probability distributions; 2. Martingales, Markov, and nonstationarity; 3. Stochastic calculus; 4. Ito processes and Fokker-Planck equations; 5. Selfsimilar Ito processes; 6. Fractional Brownian motion; 7. Kolmogorov's PDEs and Chapman-Kolmogorov; 8. Non Markov Ito processes; 9. Black-Scholes, martingales, and Feynman-Katz; 10. Stochastic calculus with martingales; 11. Statistical physics and finance, a brief history of both; 12. Introduction to new financial economics; 13. Statistical ensembles and time series analysis; 14. Econometrics; 15. Semimartingales; References; Index.
Control Flow Analysis for the Pi-calculus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bodei, C.; Degano, P.; Nielson, Flemming
1998-01-01
Control Flow Analysis is a static technique for predicting safe and computable approximations to the set of values that the objects of a program may assume during its execution. We present an analysis for the pi-calculus that shows how names will be bound to actual channels at run time....... The formulation of the analysis requires no extensions to the pi-calculus, except for assigning ``channels'' to the occurrences of names within restrictions, and assigning ``binders'' to the occurrences of names within input prefixes. The result of our analysis establishes a super-set of the set of names to which...
Three qubit entanglement within graphical Z/X-calculus
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Bob Coecke
2011-03-01
Full Text Available The compositional techniques of categorical quantum mechanics are applied to analyse 3-qubit quantum entanglement. In particular the graphical calculus of complementary observables and corresponding phases due to Duncan and one of the authors is used to construct representative members of the two genuinely tripartite SLOCC classes of 3-qubit entangled states, GHZ and W. This nicely illustrates the respectively pairwise and global tripartite entanglement found in the W- and GHZ-class states. A new concept of supplementarity allows us to characterise inhabitants of the W class within the abstract diagrammatic calculus; these method extends to more general multipartite qubit states.
A Calculus for Control Flow Analysis of Security Protocols
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buchholtz, Mikael; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming
2004-01-01
analysis methodology. We pursue an analysis methodology based on control flow analysis in flow logic style and we have previously shown its ability to analyse a variety of security protocols. This paper develops a calculus, LysaNS that allows for much greater control and clarity in the description......The design of a process calculus for anaysing security protocols is governed by three factors: how to express the security protocol in a precise and faithful manner, how to accommodate the variety of attack scenarios, and how to utilise the strengths (and limit the weaknesses) of the underlying...
Laser modeling a numerical approach with algebra and calculus
Csele, Mark Steven
2014-01-01
Offering a fresh take on laser engineering, Laser Modeling: A Numerical Approach with Algebra and Calculus presents algebraic models and traditional calculus-based methods in tandem to make concepts easier to digest and apply in the real world. Each technique is introduced alongside a practical, solved example based on a commercial laser. Assuming some knowledge of the nature of light, emission of radiation, and basic atomic physics, the text:Explains how to formulate an accurate gain threshold equation as well as determine small-signal gainDiscusses gain saturation and introduces a novel pass
The GHZ/W-calculus contains rational arithmetic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bob Coecke
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Graphical calculi for representing interacting quantum systems serve a number of purposes: compositionally, intuitive graphical reasoning, and a logical underpinning for automation. The power of these calculi stems from the fact that they embody generalized symmetries of the structure of quantum operations, which, for example, stretch well beyond the Choi-Jamiolkowski isomorphism. One such calculus takes the GHZ and W states as its basic generators. Here we show that this language allows one to encode standard rational calculus, with the GHZ state as multiplication, the W state as addition, the Pauli X gate as multiplicative inversion, and the Pauli Z gate as additive inversion.
Utilizing Microsoft Mathematics In Teaching And Learning Calculus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rina Oktaviyanthi
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The experimental design was conducted to investigate the use of Microsoft Mathematics, free software made by Microsoft Corporation, in teaching and learning Calculus. This paper reports results from experimental study details on implementation of Microsoft Mathematics in Calculus, students’ achievement and the effects of the use of Microsoft Mathematics on students’ attitudes in relation to such experience. Two classes of the students from the first year student in Universitas Serang Raya were participated in the study. This study found that students who taught by using Microsoft Mathematics had higher achievement and has a positive effect on students’ confidence of mathematics.
[Cutaneous infection with Orthopoxvirus bovis in a German Spaniel].
Jäger, Kathrin; Steinborn, Päivi; Weider, Karola; Wohlsein, Peter
2016-08-17
A 4-year-old female German Spaniel was presented with anorexia. Clinically, the dog showed papular to ulcerative lesions on the nasal planum and on the tongue. Hematological, bacteriological and mycological examinations did not contribute any evidence for the etiology of the lesions. Histopathological examination of skin biopsies revealed a proliferative dermatitis and folliculitis with hydropic degeneration of keratinocytes and cytoplasmatic inclusion bodies. Cowpox virus antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy showed pox virus particles in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells. DNA of Orthopoxvirus bovis was identified by polymerase chain reaction. Consequently, in dogs with papular to ulcerative lesions in the face or on the tongue, infection with cowpoxvirus should be considered as an etiological differential diagnosis. Infected dogs represent a potential risk of infection for humans and other animals with close contact.
Recognition of multiple Mycoplasma bovis antigens by monoclonal antibodies.
Dénes, Béla; Tenk, Miklós; Tekes, Lajos; Varga, Ildikó; Ferenczné, Ildikó P; Stipkovits, László
2003-02-01
To produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), Balb/c AnN Crl BR mice were inoculated with the cell suspension of a Hungarian Mycoplasma bovis strain designated 26034. Three days after the last immunization the spleen of the immunized mouse was removed aseptically. The fusion of spleen cells with Sp2/0-Ag14 murine myeloma cells was performed in the presence of polyethylene glycol. The obtained hybrid cells were selected with hipoxantine, aminopterine and thymidine (HAT) medium. Two weeks after the fusion, the supernatants of the grown cells were tested by a self-developed indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that 63 antibody-producing hybridomas had been obtained. For accurate determination of the molecular weight of antigen determinants, the supernatants giving positive reaction in the ELISA were tested by Western blotting. According to the results, the obtained MAbs recognize the antigen determinants of the following molecular weights: 1B11: 63 kDa, 1C7: 63 kDa, 2C5: 22, 25 and 27 kDa, 2C9: 69 kDa, 3G12: 67, 69 and 72 kDa, 4H9: 63 kDa, 5B8: 22, 25 and 27 kDa, 5D3: 22, 25 and 27 kDa, 5C11: 69 kDa, 5E5: 22, 25 and 27 kDa, 6F11: 63 kDa, and 6H10: 22, 25 and 27 kDa. The 12 cell groups selected on the basis of the Western blotting were cloned twice by end-point dilution method. The cloned cells were propagated, and with 5 cell lines antibodies were produced in the CELLine bioreactor (Integra Biosciences, Zurich, Switzerland). Cell line 3G12 showed the highest productivity with an average daily output of 1.5 mg immunoglobulin. Cell line 5E5 produced 1.1 mg, 6H10 0.8 mg, 2C9 0.47 mg and 6F11 0.4 mg antibody per day. The isotype of the antibodies was determined by ELISA. The antibodies produced by the 12 cell lines tested were assigned to the IgG(1) subclass according to the heavy chain. Ten cell lines produced kappa and two produced lambda light-chain antibody. Possible cross-reactions of the produced monoclonal anti-M. bovis antibodies with
Hamid, Penny H.; Hirzmann, Joerg; Kerner, Katharina; Gimpl, Gerald; Lochnit, Guenter; Hermosilla, Carlos R.; Taubert, Anja
2015-01-01
During first merogony Eimeria bovis forms large macromeronts in endothelial host cells containing >120 000 merozoites I. During multiplication, large amounts of cholesterol are indispensable for the enormous offspring membrane production. Cholesterol auxotrophy was proven for other apicomplexan parasites. Consequently they scavenge cholesterol from their host cell apparently in a parasite-specific manner. We here analyzed the influence of E. bovis infection on endothelial host cell cholestero...
Schistosoma curassoni Brumpt, 1931 and S. bovis (Sonsino, 1876) in cattle in northern Nigeria.
Ndifon, G T; Betterton, C; Rollinson, D
1988-03-01
Schistosoma curassoni has been recovered from cattle in northern Nigeria. Rectal scrapings of 90 cows slaughtered at the Kano abattoir, Kano, Nigeria during March and April 1986 revealed a prevalence of 7.8% S. bovis and 2.2% S. curassoni. Further examination of the mesenteric and rectal veins of 502 cows showed that the overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 31.1%. Local Bulinus globosus were infected successfully in the laboratory with s. bovis miracidia.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E M D L van der Heijden
Full Text Available Conventional control and eradication strategies for bovine tuberculosis (BTB face tremendous difficulties in developing countries; countries with wildlife reservoirs, a complex wildlife-livestock-human interface or a lack of veterinary and veterinary public health surveillance. Vaccination of cattle and other species might in some cases provide the only suitable control strategy for BTB, while in others it may supplement existing test-and-slaughter schemes. However, the use of live BCG has several limitations and the global rise of HIV/AIDS infections has furthermore warranted the exploration of inactivated vaccine preparations. The aim of this study was to compare the immune response profiles in response to parenteral vaccination with live BCG and two inactivated vaccine candidates in cattle. Twenty-four mixed breed calves (Bos taurus aged 4-6 months, were allocated to one of four groups and vaccinated sub-cutaneously with live M. bovis BCG (Danish 1331, formalin-inactivated M. bovis BCG, heat-killed M. bovis or PBS/Montanide™ (control. Interferon-γ responsiveness and antibody production were measured prior to vaccination and at weekly intervals thereafter for twelve weeks. At nine weeks post-priming, animals were skin tested using tuberculins and MTBC specific protein cocktails and subsequently challenged through intranodular injection of live M. bovis BCG. The animals in the heat-killed M. bovis group demonstrated strong and sustained cell-mediated and humoral immune responses, significantly higher than the control group in response to vaccination, which may indicate a protective immune profile. Animals in this group showed reactivity to the skin test reagents, confirming good vaccine take. Lastly, although not statistically significant, recovery of BCG after challenge was lowest in the heat-killed M. bovis group. In conclusion, the parenteral heat-killed M. bovis vaccine proved to be clearly immunogenic in cattle in the present study
van der Heijden, E M D L; Chileshe, J; Vernooij, J C M; Gortazar, C; Juste, R A; Sevilla, I; Crafford, J E; Rutten, V P M G; Michel, A L
2017-01-01
Conventional control and eradication strategies for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) face tremendous difficulties in developing countries; countries with wildlife reservoirs, a complex wildlife-livestock-human interface or a lack of veterinary and veterinary public health surveillance. Vaccination of cattle and other species might in some cases provide the only suitable control strategy for BTB, while in others it may supplement existing test-and-slaughter schemes. However, the use of live BCG has several limitations and the global rise of HIV/AIDS infections has furthermore warranted the exploration of inactivated vaccine preparations. The aim of this study was to compare the immune response profiles in response to parenteral vaccination with live BCG and two inactivated vaccine candidates in cattle. Twenty-four mixed breed calves (Bos taurus) aged 4-6 months, were allocated to one of four groups and vaccinated sub-cutaneously with live M. bovis BCG (Danish 1331), formalin-inactivated M. bovis BCG, heat-killed M. bovis or PBS/Montanide™ (control). Interferon-γ responsiveness and antibody production were measured prior to vaccination and at weekly intervals thereafter for twelve weeks. At nine weeks post-priming, animals were skin tested using tuberculins and MTBC specific protein cocktails and subsequently challenged through intranodular injection of live M. bovis BCG. The animals in the heat-killed M. bovis group demonstrated strong and sustained cell-mediated and humoral immune responses, significantly higher than the control group in response to vaccination, which may indicate a protective immune profile. Animals in this group showed reactivity to the skin test reagents, confirming good vaccine take. Lastly, although not statistically significant, recovery of BCG after challenge was lowest in the heat-killed M. bovis group. In conclusion, the parenteral heat-killed M. bovis vaccine proved to be clearly immunogenic in cattle in the present study, urging further
Molecular Typing of Mycobacterium bovis from Cattle Reared in Midwest Brazil.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ricardo César Tavares Carvalho
Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (BTB, the pathogen responsible for serious economic impact on the livestock sector. In order to obtain data on isolated M. bovis strains and assist in the control and eradication program for BTB, a cross sectional descriptive molecular epidemiology study in the Brazilian Midwest was conducted. Through spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR methods, 37 clinical isolates of M. bovis circulating in the region were analyzed, 10 isolated from the state of Mato Grosso, 12 from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and 15 from the state of Goiás. The spoligotyping analysis identified 10 distinct M. bovis profiles (SB0121 n = 14, SB0295 n = 6, SB0140 n = 6, SB0881 n = 3, SB1144 n = 2, SB1145 n = 2, SB0134 n = 1, SB1050 n = 1, SB1055 n = 1, SB1136 n = 1 grouped in six clusters and four orphan patterns. The MIRU-VNTR 24-loci grouped the same isolates in six clusters and 22 unique orphan patterns, showing higher discriminatory power than spoligotyping. When associating the results of both techniques, the isolates were grouped in five clusters and 24 unique M. bovis profiles. Among the 24-loci MIRU-VNTR evaluated, two, ETR-A and QUB 11b loci, showed high discriminatory ability (h = ≥ 0.50, while MIRU 16, MIRU 27, ETR-B, ETR-C, Mtub21 and QUB 26 loci showed moderate ability (h = 0.33 or h = 0.49 and were the most effective in evaluating the genotypic similarities among the clinical M. bovis isolate samples. Herein, the 29 patterns found amongst the 37 isolates of M. bovis circulating in the Brazilian Midwest can be due to the animal movement between regions, municipalities and farms, thus causing the spread of various M. bovis strains in herds from Midwest Brazil.
Use of released pigs as sentinels for Mycobacterium bovis.
Nugent, Graham; Whitford, Jackie; Young, Nigel
2002-10-01
Identifying the presence of bovine tuberculosis (TB; Mycobacterium bovis) in wildlife is crucial in guiding management aimed at eradicating the disease from New Zealand. Unfortunately, surveys of the principal wildlife host, the introduced brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), require large samples (> 95% of the population) before they can provide reasonable confidence that the disease is absent. In this study, we tested the feasibility of using a more wide-ranging species, feral pig (Sus scrofa), as an alternative sentinel capable of indicating TB presence. In January 2000, 17 pigs in four groups were released into a forested area with a low density of possums in which TB was known to be present. The pigs were radiotracked at 2 wk intervals from February to October 2000, and some of them were killed and necropsied at various intervals after release. Of the 15 pigs successfully recovered and necropsied, one killed 2 mo after release had no gross lesions typical of TB, and the only other pig killed at that time had greatly enlarged mandibular lymph nodes. The remainder were killed at longer intervals after release and all had gross lesions typical of TB. Mycobacterium bovis was isolated from all 15 pigs by mycobacterial culture. Home range sizes of pigs varied widely and increased with the length of time the pigs were in the forest, with minimum convex polygon range-size estimates averaging 10.7 km2 (range 4.7-20.3 km2) for the pigs killed after 6 mo. A 6 km radius around the kill site of each pig would have encompassed 95% of all of their previous locations at which they could have become infected. However, one pig shifted 35 km, highlighting the main limitation of using unmarked feral pigs as sentinels. This trial indicates use of resident and/or released free-ranging pigs is a feasible alternative to direct prevalence surveys of possums for detecting TB presence.
The molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infections in Tanzania.
Kazwala, R R; Kusiluka, L J M; Sinclair, K; Sharp, J M; Daborn, C J
2006-02-25
A molecular epidemiological study to determine the zoonotic importance of bovine tuberculosis was carried out in Tanzania. Specimens from human cases of tuberculosis as well as from slaughtered cattle were collected from regions with a high proportion of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. In order to determine the similarity of strains from the two sources, molecular typing techniques, namely RFLP and spoligotyping, were used to determine the genetic profile of the strains involved. The results of pTBN12 typing of M. bovis from cattle and man has shown a rather heterogeneous population of this species spread all over Tanzania, assuming that the present sample is representative. There were 13 different pTBN12 RFLP types encountered. The genetic relatedness between the pTBN12 RFLP patterns indicated a high degree of relatedness (86%) between the dominant pTBN12 genotypes existing in Tanzania. There were 13 different spoligotypes found in this study, whose genetic relatedness was also high (79%). DNA profiles were also confirmed by IS986 RFLP, which revealed that strains have 1-13 copies of IS986. Geographically, there was overlap between pTBN12 RFLP and spoligotypes amongst strains isolated from various parts of Tanzania. The diversity of the RFLP and spoligotype patterns observed in Tanzania probably reflects the extensive internal movements of cattle belonging to pastoralists. The evidence of overlap between DNA fingerprints of M. bovis from cattle and man has once more highlighted a need for synergy of veterinary and medical policies in the control of tuberculosis in Tanzania and probably in other developing countries.
Comparative study of Mycobacterium bovis primary isolation methods.
de Azevedo Issa, Marina; Martins Soares Filho, Paulo; Fonseca Júnior, Antônio Augusto; Arrais Hodon, Mikael; Cristian Dos Santos, Lílian; Karlisson Pimenta Dos Reis, Jenner; Cerqueira Leite, Rômulo
For the definitive diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis, isolation of the etiologic agent is required. However, there is no consensus on the best methodology for isolation of Mycobacterium bovis in Brazil. This study evaluated the most used decontaminants and culture media in the country, in order to identify the best combination for the Brazilian samples. Three decontaminants - 2% sodium hydroxide (w/v), 0.75% hexadecylpiridinium chloride (w/v) and 5% sulphuric acid (v/v) and four culture media - 7H11 Middlebrook with additives and OADC supplement "A" (7H11 A), the same media with another supplement trademark (7H11 B), tuberculosis blood agar (B83) and Stonebrink's medium were compared. Regarding the isolation, there were no significant differences between the decontaminants and media combinations, except 7H11A combined to any decontaminant. However, the mean colonies score was significantly greater when the samples were decontaminated with 5% sulphuric acid and inoculated in 7H11 B or SB, without significant difference between them, although colonies appeared earlier on 7H11B than on SB. The trademark of OADC supplement influenced the isolation rate and the number of isolated colonies in Middlebrook 7H11. An incubation time of four weeks was required to detect all positive samples in 7H11 B after decontamination with 5% sulphuric acid but there was an increase in the number of colonies until the sixth week of incubation. Overall, the best strategy for the primary isolation of M. bovis from Brazilian samples was the decontamination with 5% sulphuric acid (final concentration) and inoculation in Middlebrook 7H11 medium formulated with OADC supplement "B". Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis in Respiratory Tract of Cattle Slaughtered in Balochistan, Pakistan
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zafar Ahmad
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Cattle lungs (n=1200 obtained from abattoir of 10 districts of Balochistan were processed for isolation and identification of Mycoplasma species. A total of 156 isolates produced typical fried egg colonies on Modified Hayflick’s agar medium and 87.8% were preliminarily identified as Mycoplasma species, 12.2% species were Acholeplasmas. All the digitonin sensitive isolates were further subjected to different biochemical and PCR tests for further identification. Overall prevalence of M. bovis lungs samples obtained from slaughter house samples was 9%. Among the Mycoplasma isolates; 108 M. bovis, 29 Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc and 16 M. arginini were identified through the biochemical tests. M. bovis and Mycoplasma mycoides subcluster members were further validated through PCR and RFLP. Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony type (Mmm SC was not isolated from any of the lung samples. Among the Mycoplasma bovis species isolated, the highest number was observed from Quetta district (16% followed by Pishin (15%, Zhob (11 % and Kalat (10%. Conversely the lowest number of M. bovis isolates was found in Bolan (2% district followed by Jaffarabad (3%, 4%, each from Khuzdar, Mustung, Killasaifullah and 7% in Sibi district. Statistical analysis using chi square test, showed a significance difference (χ²=33.38 in the recovery of Mycoplasma bovis from the lungs of cattle slaughtered in 10 districts of Balochistan.
An overview of Mycoplasma bovis mastitis in Israel (2004-2014).
Lysnyansky, Inna; Freed, Mor; Rosales, Ruben S; Mikula, Inna; Khateb, Nihaya; Gerchman, Irena; van Straten, Michael; Levisohn, Sharon
2016-01-01
The prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis in milk samples submitted to the Israeli National Service for Udder Health and Milk Quality was determined during the period 2004-2014 and the genetic pattern of the obtained isolates was assessed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Mycoplasma spp. were identified in 66 herds including M. bovis (n = 60), M. cottewii (n = 3), M. bovigenitalium (n = 2), M. alkalescens (n = 2) and M. yeatsii (n = 1). The proportion of M. bovis infected herds was relatively low (0-0.68%) in 2004-2007, increased to 3.77% during the 2008 outbreak, and ranged from 0.77 to 2.77% during the 2009-2014 period. Since 2008, about eight M. bovis positive dairy herds have been identified in Israel annually, with six of which on average being newly infected. MLST of 57 M. bovis isolates revealed that sequence type 10 was the dominant genotype identified in 60% of the herds. In conclusion, these data show that M. bovis is the main mycoplasmal mastitic pathogen in Israel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Congenital infection with Schistosoma japonicum but not with Schistosoma bovis in sheep.
Johansen, M V; lburg, T; Morad, J; Ornbjerg, N
2002-04-01
The present study investigated whether Schistosoma japonicum or Schistosoma bois could establish prenatally in lambs. Three ewes were exposed to S. japonicum by intramuscular injection of cercariae, and 3 ewes were exposed to S. bovis cercariae using the leg-emerging technique approximately 2 mo before delivery, and 1 age-matched pregnant ewe served as an uninfected control. The study lasted 18-20 wk after infection, which was 8-9 wk after delivery. All 6 exposed ewes became infected with either S. bovis or S. japonicum. Eight lambs were borne by the 7 ewes, of which 1 (S. bovis exposed) was dead and 1 (S. japonicum exposed) died at delivery. Of the 3 S. japonicum-exposed lambs, 2 were found infected. Four lambs born of S. bovis-exposed ewes were negative. Despite having no worms, these 4 S. bovis-exposed lambs as well as the 1 negative S. japonicum-exposed lamb had, in contrast to the nonexposed control lamb, few, but distinct, liver granulomas dominated by eosinophils and giant cells with large central necrotic areas but with no remnants of eggs or worms. Hence, congenital infection was demonstrated in S. japonicum-infected lambs, but not in S. bovis-infected ones.
Measuring bovine γδ T cell function at the site of Mycobacterium bovis infection.
Rusk, Rachel A; Palmer, Mitchell V; Waters, W Ray; McGill, Jodi L
2017-12-01
Bovine γδ T cells are amongst the first cells to accumulate at the site of Mycobacterium bovis infection; however, their role in the developing lesion remains unclear. We utilized transcriptomics analysis, in situ hybridization, and a macrophage/γδ T cell co-culture system to elucidate the role of γδ T cells in local immunity to M. bovis infection. Transcriptomics analysis revealed that γδ T cells upregulated expression of several novel, immune-associated genes in response to stimulation with M. bovis antigen. BCG-infected macrophage/γδ T cell co-cultures confirmed the results of our RNAseq analysis, and revealed that γδ T cells from M. bovis-infected animals had a significant impact on bacterial viability. Analysis of γδ T cells within late-stage M. bovis granulomas revealed significant expression of IFN-γ and CCL2, but not IL-10, IL-22, or IL-17. Our results suggest γδ T cells influence local immunity to M. bovis through cytokine secretion and direct effects on bacterial burden. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Advances in fractional calculus theoretical developments and applications in physics and engineering
Sabatier, J; Machado, J A Teneiro
2007-01-01
Fractional Calculus is a new growing field. Up to this point, researchers, scientists, and engineers have been reluctant to accept the fact that Fractional Calculus can be used in the analysis and design of many systems of practical interests, whereas in similar applications the traditional calculus either fails or provides poor solutionsMany engineers, scientists, and applied mathematicians are looking for books that can provide many applications of Fractional Calculus. This book will provide a partial solution to this problem. Since it covers recent applications of Fractional Calculus, it will be attractive to many engineers, scientists, and applied mathematicians.
Convex functions and some inequalities in terms of the Non-Newtonian Calculus
Unluyol, Erdal; Salas, Seren; Iscan, Imdat
2017-04-01
Differentiation and integration are basic operations of calculus and analysis. Indeed, they are many versions of the subtraction and addition operations on numbers, respectively. From 1967 till 1970 Michael Grossman and Robert Katz [1] gave definitions of a new kind of derivative and integral, converting the roles of subtraction and addition into division and multiplication, and thus establish a new calculus, called Non-Newtonian Calculus. So, in this paper, it is investigated to the convex functions and some inequalities in terms of Non-Newtonian Calculus. Then we compare with the Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Calculus.
Gautier-Bouchardon, Anne V.; Séverine Ferré; Dominique Le Grand; Agnès Paoli; Emilie Gay; François Poumarat
2014-01-01
Mycoplasma (M.) bovis is frequently implicated in respiratory diseases of young cattle worldwide. Today, to combat M. bovis in Europe, only antimicrobial therapy is available, but often fails, leading to important economical losses. The antimicrobial susceptibility of M. bovis is not covered by antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks. The objectives of this study were to identify resistances that were acquired over the last 30 years in France and to determine their prevalence within co...
Geometric Error Analysis in Applied Calculus Problem Solving
Usman, Ahmed Ibrahim
2017-01-01
The paper investigates geometric errors students made as they tried to use their basic geometric knowledge in the solution of the Applied Calculus Optimization Problem (ACOP). Inaccuracies related to the drawing of geometric diagrams (visualization skills) and those associated with the application of basic differentiation concepts into ACOP…
Peer Conferences in Calculus: The Impact of Systematic Training
Reinholz, Daniel
2017-01-01
This paper describes an intervention for improving the quality of peer assessment conferences in calculus. Although a body of work highlights the learning benefits of peer assessment, few papers have described the nature of student conversations during peer conferences/assessment in detail. This paper provides deeper insight into what those…
Spontaneous calyceal rupture caused by a ureteral calculus
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A. Chaabouni
Ureteroscopy revealed a little calculus in distal ureter. The patient successfully underwent endoscopic treatment. The clinical manifestation of spontaneous urinary extravasation is diverse, ranging from mild flank discomfort to unremitting abdom- inal pain such as acute abdomen. Gastrointestinal symptoms like nausea and ...
Algorithms, The Calculus and Programming-An Intuitive Approach
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 4. Algorithms, The Calculus and Programming - An Intuitive Approach. Abhijat Vichare. General Article Volume 18 Issue 4 April 2013 pp 345-367. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Mathematica empowered applets for learning school algebra and calculus
Heck, A.; Boon, P.; van Velthoven, W.
2008-01-01
We describe the development and use of Mathematica empowered applets for learning and practising algebra and calculus at secondary school level. We discuss how Mathematica can be used as back engine to evaluate students' answers and provide appropriate feedback. These applets provide scoring
Airfoil Design in Multivariable Calculus: Tying It All Together
Laverty, Rich; Povich, Timothy; Williams, Tasha
2005-01-01
Near the conclusion of their final term in the calculus sequence at The United States Military Academy, cadets are given a week long group project. At the end of the week, the project is briefed to their instructors, classmates, and superior officers. From a teaching perspective, the goal is to encapsulate as much of the course as possible in one…
Assessing Online Homework in First-Semester Calculus
Callahan, Jason T.
2016-01-01
This paper describes and assesses the implementation of online homework in a first-semester calculus course. Comparing sections of the course before implementation to those after, we find statistically significant improvements in retention rates, measures of student engagement, and participation on homework. We do not, however, find statistically…
Towards a calculus for expressive timing in music
Desain, P.; Honing, H.
1991-01-01
This paper presents a calculus that enables expressive timing to be transformed on the basis of the structural aspects of the music. Expression within a unit is defined as the deviations of its parts with respect to the norm set by the unit itself. The behaviour of musical material under expressive
Relation of Spatial Skills to Calculus Proficiency: A Brief Report
Cromley, Jennifer G.; Booth, Julie L.; Wills, Theodore W.; Chang, Briana L.; Tran, Nhi; Madeja, Michael; Shipley, Thomas F.; Zahner, William
2017-01-01
Spatial skills have been shown in various longitudinal studies to be related to multiple science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) achievement and retention. The specific nature of this relation has been probed in only a few domains, and has rarely been investigated for calculus, a critical topic in preparing students for and in STEM…
Quantum calculus new concepts, impulsive IVPs and BVPs, inequalities
Ahmad, Bashir; Tariboon, Jessada
2016-01-01
The main objective of this book is to extend the scope of the q-calculus based on the definition of q-derivative [Jackson (1910)] to make it applicable to dense domains. As a matter of fact, Jackson's definition of q-derivative fails to work for impulse points while this situation does not arise for impulsive equations on q-time scales as the domains consist of isolated points covering the case of consecutive points. In precise terms, we study quantum calculus on finite intervals.In the first part, we discuss the concepts of qk-derivative and qk-integral, and establish their basic properties. As applications, we study initial and boundary value problems of impulsive qk-difference equations and inclusions equipped with different kinds of boundary conditions. We also transform some classical integral inequalities and develop some new integral inequalities for convex functions in the context of qk-calculus. In the second part, we develop fractional quantum calculus in relation to a new qk-shifting operator and e...
vesical gossypiboma mimicking calculus: a report of two
African Journals Online (AJOL)
should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with persistent bladder symptoms and intravesical calcification following open prostatectomy. Key Words: gossypiboma, urinary bladder, calculus. INTRODUCTION. Gossypiboma is an iatrogenic mass lesion resulting from retention of a surgical sponge. The word ...
Calculus Students' Understanding of Area and Volume Units
Dorko, Allison; Speer, Natasha
2015-01-01
Units of measure are critical in many scientific fields. While instructors often note that students struggle with units, little research has been conducted about the nature and extent of these difficulties or why they exist. We investigated calculus students' unit use in area and volume computations. Seventy-three percent of students gave…
Using Origami Boxes to Explore Concepts of Geometry and Calculus
Wares, Arsalan
2011-01-01
The purpose of this classroom note is to provide an example of how a simple origami box can be used to explore important concepts of geometry and calculus. This article describes how an origami box can be folded, then it goes on to describe how its volume and surface area can be calculated. Finally, it describes how the box could be folded to…
Executable Behaviour and the π-Calculus (extended abstract
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Bas Luttik
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Reactive Turing machines extend classical Turing machines with a facility to model observable interactive behaviour. We call a behaviour executable if, and only if, it is behaviourally equivalent to the behaviour of a reactive Turing machine. In this paper, we study the relationship between executable behaviour and behaviour that can be specified in the pi-calculus. We establish that all executable behaviour can be specified in the pi-calculus up to divergence-preserving branching bisimilarity. The converse, however, is not true due to (intended limitations of the model of reactive Turing machines. That is, the pi-calculus allows the specification of behaviour that is not executable up to divergence-preserving branching bisimilarity. Motivated by an intuitive understanding of executability, we then consider a restriction on the operational semantics of the pi-calculus that does associate with every pi-term executable behaviour, at least up to the version of branching bisimilarity that does not require the preservation of divergence.
A Team Taught Interdisciplinary Approach To Physics and Calculus Education.
Johnson, David B.
The Special Intensive Program for Scientists and Engineers (SIPSE) at Diablo Valley College in California replaces the traditional engineering calculus and physics sequences with a single sequence that combines the two subjects into an integrated whole. The project report provides an overview of SIPSE, a section that traces the project from…
SOME CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE STRENGTH CALCULUS OF A LATHE TOOL
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Catălin ROŞU
2013-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper a strength calculus of a lathe tool is made. The main purpose of this study is to determineequivalent stress relations that can be useful for an engineer in the design situation. The simplifying assumptionsand the equivalent stress relations are presented from an original point of view.
The history of the calculus and its conceptual development
Boyer, Carl B
1959-01-01
Fluent description of the development of both the integral and differential calculus. Early beginnings in antiquity, medieval contributions, and a century of anticipation lead up to a consideration of Newton and Leibniz, the period of indecison that followed them, and the final rigorous formulation that we know today.
Formalization of the Resolution Calculus for First-Order Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schlichtkrull, Anders
2016-01-01
A formalization in Isabelle/HOL of the resolution calculus for first-order logic is presented. Its soundness and completeness are formally proven using the substitution lemma, semantic trees, Herbrand’s theorem, and the lifting lemma. In contrast to previous formalizations of resolution...
Formalization of the Integral Calculus in the PVS Theorem Prover
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Ricky Wayne Butler
2009-04-01
Full Text Available The PVS Theorem prover is a widely used formal verification tool used for the analysis of safetycritical systems. The PVS prover, though fully equipped to support deduction in a very general logic framework, namely higher-order logic, it must nevertheless, be augmented with the definitions and associated theorems for every branch of mathematics and Computer Science that is used in a verification. This is a formidable task, ultimately requiring the contributions of researchers and developers all over the world. This paper reports on the formalization of the integral calculus in the PVS theorem prover. All of the basic definitions and theorems covered in a first course on integral calculus have been completed.The theory and proofs were based on Rosenlicht’s classic text on real analysis and follow the traditional epsilon-delta method. The goal of this work was to provide a practical set of PVS theories that could be used for verification of hybrid systems that arise in air traffic management systems and other aerospace applications. All of the basic linearity, integrability, boundedness, and continuity properties of the integral calculus were proved. The work culminated in the proof of the Fundamental Theorem Of Calculus. There is a brief discussion about why mechanically checked proofs are so much longer than standard mathematics textbook proofs.
Using the Pottery Wheel to Explore Topics in Calculus
Farnell, Elin; Snipes, Marie A.
2015-01-01
Students sometimes struggle with visualizing the three-dimensional solids encountered in certain integral problems in a calculus class. We present a project in which students create solids of revolution with clay on a pottery wheel and estimate the volumes of these objects using Riemann sums. In addition to giving students an opportunity for…
Formalization of the Integral Calculus in the PVS Theorem Prover
Butler, Ricky W.
2004-01-01
The PVS Theorem prover is a widely used formal verification tool used for the analysis of safety-critical systems. The PVS prover, though fully equipped to support deduction in a very general logic framework, namely higher-order logic, it must nevertheless, be augmented with the definitions and associated theorems for every branch of mathematics and Computer Science that is used in a verification. This is a formidable task, ultimately requiring the contributions of researchers and developers all over the world. This paper reports on the formalization of the integral calculus in the PVS theorem prover. All of the basic definitions and theorems covered in a first course on integral calculus have been completed.The theory and proofs were based on Rosenlicht's classic text on real analysis and follow the traditional epsilon-delta method. The goal of this work was to provide a practical set of PVS theories that could be used for verification of hybrid systems that arise in air traffic management systems and other aerospace applications. All of the basic linearity, integrability, boundedness, and continuity properties of the integral calculus were proved. The work culminated in the proof of the Fundamental Theorem Of Calculus. There is a brief discussion about why mechanically checked proofs are so much longer than standard mathematics textbook proofs.
Making Implicit Multivariable Calculus Representations Explicit: A Clinical Study
McGee, Daniel; Moore-Russo, Deborah; Martinez-Planell, Rafael
2015-01-01
Reviewing numerous textbooks, we found that in both differential and integral calculus textbooks the authors commonly assume that: (i) students can generalize associations between representations in two dimensions to associations between representations of the same mathematical concept in three dimensions on their own; and (ii) explicit…
Calculus in physics classes at UFRGS: an exploratory study
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Maria Cecilia Pereira Santarosa
2011-11-01
Full Text Available This study is part f a larger one whose general objective is to investigate and to develop a new strategy for teaching Differential and Integral Calculus I, specifically for physics majors, through a possible integration with the teaching of General and Experimental Physics I. With the specific objective of identifying physics problem-situations that may help in making sense of the mathematical concepts used in Calculus I, and languages and notations that might be used in the teaching of Calculus to favor physics learning, it was investigates, through an ethnographic study, the may mathematics is transposed to classes of General and Experimental Physics I, in classes of physics courses at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS. Some findings of this study confirmed those reported in the literature regarding the teaching and learning process in introductory college physics courses. These findings will subsidize the preparation of potentially meaningful instructional materials that will be used in a second stage of the research designed to investigate the learning of declarative and procedural knowledge in basic college physics under an approach that integrates problem-situation in physics and calculus mathematical concepts.
Inertial Navigation: A Bridge between Kinematics and Calculus
Sadler, Philip M.; Garfield, Eliza N.; Tremblay, Alex; Sadler, Daniel J.
2012-01-01
Those who come to Cambridge soon learn that the fastest route between Harvard and MIT is by the subway. For many students, this short ride is a quick and easy way to link physics and calculus. A simple, homemade accelerometer provides all the instrumentation necessary to produce accurate graphs of acceleration, velocity, and displacement position…
Non-Mathematics Students' Reasoning in Calculus Tasks
Jukic Matic, Ljerka
2015-01-01
This paper investigates the reasoning of first year non-mathematics students in non-routine calculus tasks. The students in this study were accustomed to imitative reasoning from their primary and secondary education. In order to move from imitative reasoning toward more creative reasoning, non-routine tasks were implemented as an explicit part of…
Unusual giant prostatic urethral calculus | Bello | Journal of Surgical ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Giant vesico-prostatic urethral calculus is uncommon. Urethral stones rarely form primarily in the urethra, and they are usually associated with urethral strictures, posterior urethral valve or diverticula. We report a case of a 32-year-old man with giant vesico-prostatic (collar-stud) urethral stone presenting with sepsis and ...
The Resolution Calculus for First-Order Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schlichtkrull, Anders
2016-01-01
This theory is a formalization of the resolution calculus for first-order logic. It is proven sound and complete. The soundness proof uses the substitution lemma, which shows a correspondence between substitutions and updates to an environment. The completeness proof uses semantic trees, i.e. trees...
Flipping the Calculus Classroom: A Cost-Effective Approach
Young, Andrea
2015-01-01
This article discusses a cost-effective approach to flipping the calculus classroom. In particular, the emphasis is on low-cost choices, both monetarily and with regards to faculty time, that make the daunting task of flipping a course manageable for a single instructor. Student feedback and overall impressions are also presented.
Bladder calculus resulting from an intravesical translocation of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Although perforation of the uterus by an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is commonly encountered, intravesical translocation and secondary calculus formation is a very rare complication.We report a case of a 60-year old multiparous woman in whom an intrauterine contraceptive Copper-T device inserted 12 years ...
Simple Trigonometric Identities and Basic Calculus Leading to ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 6. Simple Trigonometric Identities and Basic Calculus Leading to Interesting Series. R Govindaraj. Classroom Volume 12 Issue 6 June 2007 pp 67-70. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Calculus of multivariate functions: it's application in business | Awen ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Calculus of multivariate functions is a mathematical concept that has to do with two sets of variables, the dependent variables and the independent variables. Multivariate functions can be applied to situations in business organizations like a manufacturer‟s profit (which is a dependent variable) depending on sales, ...
Inquiry-Based Learning of Transcendental Functions in Calculus
Ekici, Celil; Gard, Andrew
2017-01-01
In a series of group activities supplemented with independent explorations and assignments, calculus students investigate functions similar to their own derivatives. Graphical, numerical, and algebraic perspectives are suggested, leading students to develop deep intuition into elementary transcendental functions even as they lay the foundation for…
Bladder Calculus Following an Unusual Vesical Foreign Body ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Bladder calculus following vesical foreign bodies is uncommon. The usual presentation is presence of lower urinary symptoms. Most of these foreign bodies are either left inadvertently after open bladder operations or migrate from adjacent structures. This is a case report of an unusual self inserted foreign body in a female ...
On Flipping First-Semester Calculus: A Case Study
Petrillo, Joseph
2016-01-01
High failure rates in calculus have plagued students, teachers, and administrators for decades, while science, technology, engineering, and mathematics programmes continue to suffer from low enrollments and high attrition. In an effort to affect this reality, some educators are "flipping" (or inverting) their classrooms. By flipping, we…
Contrasting Cases of Calculus Students' Understanding of Derivative Graphs
Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk; Aspinwall, Leslie; Presmeg, Norma C.
2010-01-01
This study adds momentum to the ongoing discussion clarifying the merits of visualization and analysis in mathematical thinking. Our goal was to gain understanding of three calculus students' mental processes and images used to create meaning for derivative graphs. We contrast the thinking processes of these three students as they attempted to…
Calculus of One and More Variables with Maple
Samkova, Libuse
2012-01-01
This is a guide to using Maple in teaching fundamental calculus of one, two and three variables (limits, derivatives, integrals, etc.), also suitable for Maple beginners. It outlines one of the ways to effective use of computers in the teaching process. It scans advantages and disadvantages of using Maple in relation to students and teacher. The…
Calculus Problem Solution And Simulation Using GUI Of Matlab
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Syaharuddin
2017-09-01
Full Text Available This research aims to develop the project application in teaching and learning Calculus using Grapichal User Interface GUI of Matlab. The scope of the development result includes 1 PreCalculus 2 Function Limit 3 Derivative and its application and 4 Integral and its application. Every aspect of development is presented according to the standards of material competence learning achievement indicators and solutions or settlement steps on each issue presented. This project application can be used by lecturers and students in universities to improve motivation mastery of material and student learning outcomes in the Calculus course. Development of this project application is done through 4 stages called 4-D namely Define Design Development and Dissemination. Based on the data analysis the results obtained at the validation stage of expert validity level average of 3.575 which means quite valid. Then on a limited trial the average student gave a response of 92.00 which means very good. While in the first field trial the average student gave a response of 89.30 which means very good and in the second field trial the average student gave a responded of 90.15 which means very good. Besides that we also solve computational calculus problems in Edwin J. Purcell Dale Varbergs Book of Volume 1 of Edition 5 of 48 questions that are divided into 64 cases.
A metric model of lambda calculus with guarded recursion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birkedal, Lars; Schwinghammer, Jan; Støvring, Kristian
2010-01-01
We give a model for Nakano’s typed lambda calculus with guarded recursive definitions in a category of metric spaces. By proving a computational adequacy result that relates the interpretation with the operational semantics, we show that the model can be used to reason about contextual equivalence....
Elements of stream calculus : an extensive exercise in coinduction
J.J.M.M. Rutten (Jan)
2001-01-01
textabstractBased on the presence of a final coalgebra structure on the set of streams (infinite sequences of real numbers), a coinductive calculus of streams is developed. The main ingredient is the notion of stream derivative, with which both coinductive proofs and definitions can be formulated.
New trends in nanotechnology and fractional calculus applications
Baleanu, Dumitru; Machado, JA Tenreiro
2010-01-01
In recent years, fractional calculus has played a major role in various fields such as mechanics, electricity, biology and economics. This book presents the state-of-the-art in the study of fractional systems and the application of fractional differentiation.
Integrating Precalculus Review with the First Course in Calculus.
Sevilla, Alicia; Somers, Kay
1993-01-01
Describes a course designed by Moravian College, Pennsylvania, to integrate precalculus topics as needed into a first calculus course. The textbook developed for the course covers the concepts of functions, Cartesian coordinates, limits, continuity, infinity, and the derivative. Examples are discussed. (MDH)