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Sample records for calculus bovis compound

  1. Effects of in vitro cultivated Calculus Bovis compound on pulmonary lesions in rabbits with schistosomiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To explore the interventional effects and mechanism of in vitro cultivated Calculus Bovis compound preparation(ICCBco) on pulmonary lesions in portal hypertensive rabbits with schistosomiasis. METHODS:The experimental group included 20 portal hypertensive rabbits with schistosomiasis treated by ICCBco.The control group included 20 portal hypertensive rabbits with schistosomiasis treated by praziquantel. The morphological changes of the pulmonary tissues were observed under light and electron microscopy....

  2. Eye Irritation Test of Bovis Calculus Pharmacopuncture Solutions for Eye Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-sik Seo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was done to investigate the safety of Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution manufactured with freezing dryness method to use eye drop. Methods : The eye irritation test of this material was performed according to the Regulation of Korea Food & Drug Administration (2005. 10. 21, KFDA 2005-60. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, the auther observed eye irritation of the cornea, iris, conjunctiva at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 7day. Results : 1. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, there wasn’t physical problem at 9 rabbits. 2. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solutionwas medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, there wasn’t eye irritation of the cornea, iris, conjunctiva at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 7day. Conclusions : I suggested that Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution didn’t induced eye irritation in rabbits.

  3. Taurine as a marker for the identification of natural Calculus Bovis and its substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kayoko; Azuma, Yuko; Kawase, Masaya; Takahashi, Toshiharu; Schaffer, Stephen W; Takahashi, Kyoko

    2013-01-01

    Calculus Bovis (C. Bovis) is a commonly used animal-derived therapeutic preparation. To meet the increasing clinical demand for the preparation, two artificial substitutes for Bos Taurus have been introduced in China: artificial C. Bovis and in vitro cultured C. Bovis. However, information on their efficacy and safety is inadequate. Therefore, we investigated the biological differences between the commonly used natural preparation and its two substitutes, with the aim of not only identifying the differences but also providing a procedure to distinguish between the different preparations.In the study, we prepared 9 natural C. Bovis, 2 artificial C. Bovis, and 2 in vitro cultured C. Bovis preparations for evaluation. Differences were noted between the three preparations relative to their effect on viability of cardiac fibroblasts from 1-day-old Wistar rats. Although natural C. Bovis had no effect on cell viability, 1-h treatment of the cells with 0.25 mg/ml of the substitutes significantly reduced cell viability, as detected by the MTS assay. Based on liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, the preparations also differed in composition. Indeed, the substitutes contained more taurine, cholic acid, iron, magnesium, and calcium than the natural preparations. They also differed spectroscopically.The present results reveal significant biological differences between natural C. Bovis and two of its substitutes. Since the substitutes appear to contain more taurine, cholic acid, and elements, these constituents may serve as markers to distinguish between natural C. Bovis and its substitutes. PMID:23392879

  4. Taurine as a marker for the identification of natural Calculus Bovis and its substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kayoko; Azuma, Yuko; Kawase, Masaya; Takahashi, Toshiharu; Schaffer, Stephen W; Takahashi, Kyoko

    2013-01-01

    Calculus Bovis (C. Bovis) is a commonly used animal-derived therapeutic preparation. To meet the increasing clinical demand for the preparation, two artificial substitutes for Bos Taurus have been introduced in China: artificial C. Bovis and in vitro cultured C. Bovis. However, information on their efficacy and safety is inadequate. Therefore, we investigated the biological differences between the commonly used natural preparation and its two substitutes, with the aim of not only identifying the differences but also providing a procedure to distinguish between the different preparations.In the study, we prepared 9 natural C. Bovis, 2 artificial C. Bovis, and 2 in vitro cultured C. Bovis preparations for evaluation. Differences were noted between the three preparations relative to their effect on viability of cardiac fibroblasts from 1-day-old Wistar rats. Although natural C. Bovis had no effect on cell viability, 1-h treatment of the cells with 0.25 mg/ml of the substitutes significantly reduced cell viability, as detected by the MTS assay. Based on liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, the preparations also differed in composition. Indeed, the substitutes contained more taurine, cholic acid, iron, magnesium, and calcium than the natural preparations. They also differed spectroscopically.The present results reveal significant biological differences between natural C. Bovis and two of its substitutes. Since the substitutes appear to contain more taurine, cholic acid, and elements, these constituents may serve as markers to distinguish between natural C. Bovis and its substitutes.

  5. The Experimental Study of Safety and Efficacy in Using Bovis Calculus Pharmacopuncture Solution as Eye Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongsik Seo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This experimental study was performed to investigate the safety and efficacy of Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution manufactured with freezing dryness method to use eye drop. To identify the use of it as eye drop, the eye irritation test of rabbits and the antibacterial test of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, and Candida albicans were performed. Methods : 1. The eye irritation test of this material was performed according to the Regulation of Korea Food & Drug Administration(2005. 10. 21, KFDA 2005-60. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was administered in the left eye of the rabbits, eye irritation of the cornea, iris and conjunctiva was observed at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 7day. 2. After administering Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution on bacterial species(Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Candida albicans which cause Keratitis, MIC(Minimum Inhibition Concentration and the size of inhibition zone were measured. Anti-bacterial potency was also measured using the size of inhibition zone. Results : 1. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was administered in the left eye of the rabbits, it was found that none of nine rabbits have abnormal signs and weight changes. 2. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, no eye irritation of the cornea, iris and conjunctiva was observed at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 7day. 3. There was no response to MIC on bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Candida albicans after Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was medicated. Conclusions : The present study suggests that Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution is a nontoxic and non-irritant medicine, which does not cause eye irritation in

  6. 正交试验优化复方体外培育牛黄凝胶的处方工艺%Optimization of the Formulation and Technology of Compound Bovis Calculus Sativus Gel by Orthogonal Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程璐; 宋志龙; 熊鑫; 伍彬

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To optimize the preparation technology of Compound bovis calculus sativus gel. METHODS:The ul-trasonic emulsifying technology was optimized by orthogonal test using ultrasonic power,ratio of ultrasonic time to interval time, total ultrasonic time as factors,using centrifugal stability constant(KE)as index.Ultrasonic emulsifying method was applied to pre-pare O/W emulsions using paeonol,berberine hydrochloride and eucalyptus oil;then calculus bovis sativus powder was added into O/W emulsions,and then mixed with carbomer(940)gel matrix to prepare gel. The formulation of gel was optimized by orthogo-nal test with the amount of carbomer (940),glycerool and triethanolamine as factors,using compactibility score,comprehensive score of release rate in vitro as index. Validation test,stability test and content determination of bilirubin were conducted for gel pre-pared by optimized technology. RESULTS:The optimal ultrasonic emulsifying technology was as follows as ultrasonic power 450 W,ratio of ultrasonic time to interval time 2:1,and total ultrasonic time 5 min. The optimal formulation of gel was as follows as carbomer(940)0.5%,glycerool 15%,triethanolamine 0.20%(g/100 g). The average of KE of validation test and average compre-hensive score were 0.175 and 98.67(RSD<2%,n=3);the appearance of the preparation had no obvious change in stability test, and average percentage of bilirubin in labeled content was 100.8%. CONCLUSIONS:The optimal formulation and preparation tech-nology of gel is feasible,and the prepared gel is stable and controllable in quality.%目的:优选复方体外培育牛黄凝胶的制备工艺.方法:以超声功率、超声时间与间歇时间比、超声总时间为考察因素,以离心稳定性常数(KE)为评价指标,正交试验优化超声乳化工艺;采用超声乳化法将丹皮酚、盐酸小檗碱、桉油制成O/W型乳剂,将体外培育牛黄粉末加入O/W型乳剂中研匀,再与卡波姆(940)凝胶基质混合均

  7. Comparison on the Contents of Cholic Acid in Natural Calculus Bovis and Calculus Bovis Artifactus Determined by Thin Layer Chromatography Scanning%薄层扫描法测定天然牛黄与人工牛黄胆酸含量比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志强; 刘海津

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine and compare the total contents of cholic acid in natural calculus bovis and calculus bovis artifactus in 6 product units. Methods: The silica G thin layer plate was used with isooctane - butyl acetate - glacial acetic acid - formic acid (8 : 4 : 2 : 1) as developing solvent, λs =380 nm,λR =650 nm,in the reflection of jagged scanning. Results:The content of cholic acid in calculus bovis artifactus was the same as that in natural calculus bovis. The content of free bile acid in calculus bovis artifactus was more than that in natural calculus bovis. Therefore, calculus bovis artifactus could be the substitute for natural calculus bovis within limits. Conclusion: Thin layer chromatography ( TLC ) scanning is a reliable method to determine the contents of cholic acid in natural calculus bovis and calculus bovis artifactus.%摘要:目的:测定天然牛黄与6个生产单位的人工牛黄中胆酸的含量总量比较。方法:硅胶G薄层板,异辛烷—醋酸丁酯—冰醋酸—甲酸(8∶4∶2∶1)为展开剂,λS= 380ntm,λR=650ntm,用反射法锯齿形扫描。结果:人工牛黄与天然牛黄中的胆酸成分相同,且人工牛黄中的游离胆汁酸比天然牛黄略高,在一定范围内,人工牛黄可替代天然牛黄。结论:薄层扫描法测定天然牛黄与人工牛黄中胆酸含量方法可靠。

  8. Simultaneous quantification of the major bile acids in artificial Calculus bovis by high-performance liquid chromatography with precolumn derivatization and its application in quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Xiong, Jing; Sun, Dongmei; Liu, Wei; Wei, Feng; Ma, Shuangcheng; Lin, Ruichao

    2015-08-01

    An accurate and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with ultralviolet detection and precolumn derivatization was developed for the simultaneous quantification of the major bile acids in Artificial Calculus bovis, including cholic acid, hyodeoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, and deoxycholic acid. The extraction, derivatization, chromatographic separation, and detection parameters were fully optimized. The samples were extracted with methanol by ultrasonic extraction. Then, 2-bromine-4'-nitroacetophenone and 18-crown ether-6 were used for derivatization. The chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent SB-C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm id, 5 μm) at a column temperature of 30°C and liquid flow rate of 1.0 mL/min using water and methanol as the mobile phase with a gradient elution. The detection wavelength was 263 nm. The method was extensively validated by evaluating the linearity (r(2) ≥ 0.9980), recovery (94.24-98.91%), limits of detection (0.25-0.31 ng) and limits of quantification (0.83-1.02 ng). Seventeen samples were analyzed using the developed and validated method. Then, the amounts of bile acids were analyzed by hierarchical agglomerative clustering analysis and principal component analysis. The results of the chemometric analysis showed that the contents of these compounds reflect the intrinsic quality of artificial Calculus bovis, and two compounds (hyodeoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid) were the most important markers for quality evaluating.

  9. Protective Effect of Calculus Bovis Sativus on Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiping Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Calculus Bovis Sativus (CBS is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, which has been reported to exhibit antispasmodic, fever-reducing, anti-inflammatory, and gallbladder-repairing effects. The present study aims to investigate the protective effect of CBS on dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS- induced ulcerative colitis (UC in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to 5% DSS in drinking water. CBS was given orally at 50 and 150 mg/kg once per day for 7 days. Body weight, disease activity index (DAI, colon length, colonic myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA and nitric oxide (NO levels were measured. Administration of CBS significantly reserved these changes, decreased the MPO activity and MDA and NO level, and increased the SOD activity in the colon tissue. Histological observation suggested that CBS alleviated edema, mucosal damage, and inflammatory cells infiltration induced by DSS in the colon. Moreover, CBS significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin- (IL- 1β and IL-6 in the colon tissue. Our data suggested that CBS exerted protective effect on DSS-induced UC partially through the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

  10. Protective Effect of Calculus Bovis Sativus on Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiping; Xu, Yanjiao; Zhang, Chengliang; Deng, Li; Chang, Mujun; Yu, Zaoqin; Liu, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Calculus Bovis Sativus (CBS) is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, which has been reported to exhibit antispasmodic, fever-reducing, anti-inflammatory, and gallbladder-repairing effects. The present study aims to investigate the protective effect of CBS on dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS-) induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to 5% DSS in drinking water. CBS was given orally at 50 and 150 mg/kg once per day for 7 days. Body weight, disease activity index (DAI), colon length, colonic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured. Administration of CBS significantly reserved these changes, decreased the MPO activity and MDA and NO level, and increased the SOD activity in the colon tissue. Histological observation suggested that CBS alleviated edema, mucosal damage, and inflammatory cells infiltration induced by DSS in the colon. Moreover, CBS significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin- (IL-) 1β and IL-6 in the colon tissue. Our data suggested that CBS exerted protective effect on DSS-induced UC partially through the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26579201

  11. Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Practice makes perfect-and helps deepen your understanding of calculus 1001 Calculus Practice Problems For Dummies takes you beyond the instruction and guidance offered in Calculus For Dummies, giving you 1001 opportunities to practice solving problems from the major topics in your calculus course. Plus, an online component provides you with a collection of calculus problems presented in multiple-choice format to further help you test your skills as you go. Gives you a chance to practice and reinforce the skills you learn in your calculus courseHelps you refine your understanding of calculusP

  12. Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Stanley I

    1981-01-01

    Calculus, Second Edition discusses the techniques and theorems of calculus. This edition introduces the sine and cosine functions, distributes ?-? material over several chapters, and includes a detailed account of analytic geometry and vector analysis.This book also discusses the equation of a straight line, trigonometric limit, derivative of a power function, mean value theorem, and fundamental theorems of calculus. The exponential and logarithmic functions, inverse trigonometric functions, linear and quadratic denominators, and centroid of a plane region are likewise elaborated. Other topics

  13. Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Larson, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The Larson CALCULUS program has a long history of innovation in the calculus market. It has been widely praised by a generation of students and professors for its solid and effective pedagogy that addresses the needs of a broad range of teaching and learning styles and environments. Each title is just one component in a comprehensive calculus course program that carefully integrates and coordinates print, media, and technology products for successful teaching and learning.

  14. The Protective Effects of In Vitro Cultivated Calculus Bovis on the Cerebral and Myocardial Cells in Hypoxic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Hongjiao; GUANG Yang; LIU Liegang; YAO Ping; QIU Fazu

    2007-01-01

    The protective effects of in vitro cultivated calculus bovis (ICCB) on the cerebral and myocardial cells in hypoxic mice and the mechanism were examined. In one group, mice were intra-gastrically (i.g.) given ICCB for 15 days and then they were subjected to acute cerebral ischemia by decapitation, and then the panting time was recorded. In the other group, 12 min after exposure to hypoxia, mice was administered the ICCB i.g. for 5 days, and then the blood serum and tissues of brain,heart, liver were harvested and examined for SOD, GSH-px and T-AOC activity and content of MDA. The tissues of brain and heart were observed electron-microscopically for ultrastructural changes. The corpus striatum and hippocampus of brain were collected and examined for content of dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE). The ultrastrural examination showed that the pathological change in brain and heart in the ICCB group was very slight, while abnormal changes in the control group were obviously more serious. ICCB significantly prolonged the panting time of the hypoxic mice (P<0.001), increased the activity of SOD, GSH-px, T-AOC in serum and tissues of brain, liver,heart and elevated the content of DA and NE. ICCB also pronouncedly reduced content of MDA in serum and tissues of brain, heart and liver. Significant differences in these parameters were noted between ICCB group and controls. It is concluded that ICCB can exert protective effect on the cells of brain and myocardium by enhancing the tolerance of the tissues to hypoxia and the body's ability to remove free radicals and regulating the neurotransmitters.

  15. CULTIVATING CALCULUS BOVIS IN THE EXTERNAL GENERATOR%牛体外牛黄发生器内培植牛黄技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马卫明; 李建基; 王春趝; 阎青; 朱守弘; 李永海

    2001-01-01

    Forty-eight healthy yellow cattle,on whi ch catheterizations of the gallbladder a nd duodenum were performed after choledo ch being cut off,were used to cultivate calculus bovis simultaneously in the ext ernal calculus bovis generators (CBG) an d internal gallbladders.After operations the normal passage of bile excretion wa s changed from the liver,biliary duct,ga llbladder,via the gallbladder catheter a nd generator to the duodenum.The results indicated that both biliary pH value an d viscosity of the experimental cattle d ecreased,the biliary viscosity in the CB G decreased more than that in the gallbl adder.The E.coli content was decreased and the inflammation of the g allbladder was lessened after injecting benzalkoni bromidum into it.As far as th e material of calculus bovis carrier was concerned,cotton excelled both polyamid e 66 and polyester in both output and qu ality of calculus bovis.The netting-shap ed carrier filled with material could in crease the yield and improve the quality of calculus bovis.Over a period of five to seven months,the output of calculus bovis was 14.1~19.6 g per cattle and the bilirubin content in cultivated calculu s bovis was 29.05%±7.51%.%利用48头健康黄牛同时施行胆总管结扎术、胆囊插管术、十二指肠插管术和体外安装牛黄发生器,将原胆汁流通径路改建为肝脏→胆管→胆囊→引胆汁管→牛黄发生器→十二指肠,在体外牛黄发生器内和胆囊内同时培植牛黄。结果表明,植黄牛胆汁pH值降低,胆酸含量下降,牛黄发生器内胆汁粘度低于胆囊内胆汁粘度。胆囊内注入新洁尔灭,可减少胆汁中细菌数量,减轻胆囊炎症反应。全棉材料牛黄床的牛黄产量高于锦纶66和涤纶材料牛黄床,以网眼状全腔充盈型牛黄床的牛黄产量高、质量好。在5~7个月的培植期内,每头牛能生产牛黄14.1~19.6 g,牛黄胆红素含量为29

  16. Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Spivak, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Spivak's celebrated textbook is widely held as one of the finest introductions to mathematical analysis. His aim is to present calculus as the first real encounter with mathematics: it is the place to learn how logical reasoning combined with fundamental concepts can be developed into a rigorous mathematical theory rather than a bunch of tools and techniques learned by rote. Since analysis is a subject students traditionally find difficult to grasp, Spivak provides leisurely explanations, a profusion of examples, a wide range of exercises and plenty of illustrations in an easy-going approach that enlightens difficult concepts and rewards effort. Calculus will continue to be regarded as a modern classic, ideal for honours students and mathematics majors, who seek an alternative to doorstop textbooks on calculus, and the more formidable introductions to real analysis.

  17. Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Stanley I

    1984-01-01

    Calculus, Third Edition emphasizes the techniques and theorems of calculus, including many applied examples and exercises in both drill and applied-type problems.This book discusses shifting the graphs of functions, derivative as a rate of change, derivative of a power function, and theory of maxima and minima. The area between two curves, differential equations of exponential growth and decay, inverse hyperbolic functions, and integration of rational functions are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the fluid pressure, ellipse and translation of axes, graphing in polar coordinates, pro

  18. Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Zandy, Bernard V

    2003-01-01

    We take great notes-and make learning a snap When it comes to pinpointing the stuff you really need to know, nobody does it better than CliffsNotes. This fast, effective tutorial helps you master core Calculus concepts-from functions, limits, and derivatives to differentials, integration, and definite integrals- and get the best possible grade. At CliffsNotes, we're dedicated to helping you do your best, no matter how challenging the subject. Our authors are veteran teachers and talented writers who know how to cut to the chase- and zero in on the essential information you need to succeed.

  19. Fecal volatile organic compound profiles from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as indicators of Mycobacterium bovis exposure or Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) serve as a reservoir for bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, and can be a source of infection in cattle. Vaccination with M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is being considered for management of bovine tuberculosis in deer. Presently, no...

  20. Infinitesimal calculus

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    Henle, James M

    2014-01-01

    Introducing calculus at the basic level, this text covers hyperreal numbers and hyperreal line, continuous functions, integral and differential calculus, fundamental theorem, infinite sequences and series, infinite polynomials, more. 1979 edition.

  1. Soergel calculus and Schubert calculus

    OpenAIRE

    He, Xuhua; Williamson, Geordie

    2015-01-01

    We reduce some key calculations of compositions of morphisms between Soergel bimodules ("Soergel calculus") to calculations in the nil Hecke ring ("Schubert calculus"). This formula has several applications in modular representation theory.

  2. Calculus light

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    Friedman, Menahem

    2011-01-01

    Another Calculus book? As long as students find calculus scary, the failure rate in mathematics is higher than in all other subjects, and as long as most people mistakenly believe that only geniuses can learn and understand mathematics, there will always be room for a new book of Calculus. We call it Calculus Light. This book is designed for a one semester course in ""light"" calculus -- mostly single variable, meant to be used by undergraduate students without a wide mathematical background and who do not major in mathematics but study subjects such as engineering, biology or management infor

  3. Tuplix calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J. A.; Ponse, A.; van der Zwaag, M. B.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a calculus for tuplices, which are expressions that generalize matrices and vectors. Tuplices have an underlying data type for quantities that are taken from a zero-totalized field. We start with the core tuplix calculus CTC for entries and tests, which are combined using conjunctive composition. We define a standard model and prove that CTC is relatively complete with respect to it. The core calculus is extended with operators for choice, information hiding, scalar multiplicatio...

  4. Operational calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Boehme, Thomas K

    1987-01-01

    Operational Calculus, Volume II is a methodical presentation of operational calculus. An outline of the general theory of linear differential equations with constant coefficients is presented. Integral operational calculus and advanced topics in operational calculus, including locally integrable functions and convergence in the space of operators, are also discussed. Formulas and tables are included.Comprised of four sections, this volume begins with a discussion on the general theory of linear differential equations with constant coefficients, focusing on such topics as homogeneous and non-ho

  5. Calculus refresher

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    Klaf, A A

    1956-01-01

    This book is unique in English as a refresher for engineers, technicians, and students who either wish to brush up their calculus or find parts of calculus unclear. It is not an ordinary textbook. It is, instead, an examination of the most important aspects of integral and differential calculus in terms of the 756 questions most likely to occur to the technical reader. It provides a very easily followed presentation and may also be used as either an introductory or supplementary textbook. The first part of this book covers simple differential calculus, with constants, variables, functions, inc

  6. Tuplix Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Bergstra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a calculus for tuplices, which are expressions that generalize matrices and vectors. Tuplices have an underlying data type for quantities that are taken from a zero-totalized field. We start with the core tuplix calculus CTC for entries and tests, which are combined using conjunctive composition. We define a standard model and prove that CTC is relatively complete with respect to it. The core calculus is extended with operators for choice, information hiding, scalar multiplication, clearing and encapsulation. We provide two examples of applications; one on incremental financial budgeting, and one on modular financial budget design.

  7. Continuation calculus

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    Bram Geron

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Programs with control are usually modeled using lambda calculus extended with control operators. Instead of modifying lambda calculus, we consider a different model of computation. We introduce continuation calculus, or CC, a deterministic model of computation that is evaluated using only head reduction, and argue that it is suitable for modeling programs with control. It is demonstrated how to define programs, specify them, and prove them correct. This is shown in detail by presenting in CC a list multiplication program that prematurely returns when it encounters a zero. The correctness proof includes termination of the program. In continuation calculus we can model both call-by-name and call-by-value. In addition, call-by-name functions can be applied to call-by-value results, and conversely.

  8. ESeal Calculus: A Secure Mobile Calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Rong; Chen Xin-meng; Liu Ping

    2003-01-01

    The ESeal Calculus is a secure mobile calculus based on Seal Calculus. By using open-channels, ESeal Calculus makes it possible to communicate between any two arbitrary seals with some secure restrictions. It improves the expression ability and efficiency of Seal calculus without losing security.

  9. Calculus for Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdahl, Kenn; Loats, Jim

    This book, written for students of calculus, is designed to augment the explanations of concepts covered in a calculus class. It consists of an overview of calculus divided into basic ideas and vocabulary, the process of differential calculus, and integral calculus. The book is intended as a resource to explain the concepts of calculus in everyday…

  10. Advanced calculus

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    Nickerson, HK; Steenrod, NE

    2011-01-01

    ""This book is a radical departure from all previous concepts of advanced calculus,"" declared the Bulletin of the American Mathematics Society, ""and the nature of this departure merits serious study of the book by everyone interested in undergraduate education in mathematics."" Classroom-tested in a Princeton University honors course, it offers students a unified introduction to advanced calculus. Starting with an abstract treatment of vector spaces and linear transforms, the authors introduce a single basic derivative in an invariant form. All other derivatives - gradient, divergent, curl,

  11. CLEP calculus

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    Hill, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Earn College Credit with REA's Test Prep for CLEP* Calculus Everything you need to pass the exam and get the college credit you deserve.Our test prep for CLEP* Calculus and the free online tools that come with it, will allow you to create a personalized CLEP* study plan that can be customized to fit you: your schedule, your learning style, and your current level of knowledge.Here's how it works:Diagnostic exam at the REA Study Center focuses your studyOur online diagnostic exam pinpoints your strengths and shows you exactly where you need to focus your study. Armed with this information, you

  12. Flipping Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGivney-Burelle, Jean; Xue, Fei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we discuss flipping pedagogy and how it can transform the teaching and learning of calculus by applying pedagogical practices that are steeped in our understanding of how students learn most effectively. In particular, we describe the results of an exploratory study we conducted to examine the benefits and challenges of flipping a…

  13. Mycoplasma bovis research update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycoplasma bovis in bison is a newly emerging and potentially devastating threat to the bison industry. This bacterium is increasingly being identified, both in the United States and Canada, as the cause of severe respiratory disease outbreaks with devastating consequences for the health of the ani...

  14. Introduction to Tensor Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Sochi, Taha

    2016-01-01

    These are general notes on tensor calculus which can be used as a reference for an introductory course on tensor algebra and calculus. A basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra with some commonly used mathematical terminology is presumed.

  15. The Rewriting Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Cirstea, Horatiu; Kirchner, Claude

    2000-01-01

    The Rho-calculus is a new calculus that integrates in a uniform and simple setting first-order rewriting, lambda-calculus and non-deterministic computations. This paper describes the calculus from its syntax to its basic properties in the untyped case. We show how it embeds first-order conditional rewriting and lambda-calculus. Finally we use the Rho-calculus to give an operational semantics to the rewrite based language Elan.

  16. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2007-01-01

    This rigorous two-part treatment advances from functions of one variable to those of several variables. Intended for students who have already completed a one-year course in elementary calculus, it defers the introduction of functions of several variables for as long as possible, and adds clarity and simplicity by avoiding a mixture of heuristic and rigorous arguments.The first part explores functions of one variable, including numbers and sequences, continuous functions, differentiable functions, integration, and sequences and series of functions. The second part examines functions of several

  17. Calculus diaries

    CERN Document Server

    Ouellette,, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Jennifer Ouellette never took maths in the sixth form, mostly because she – like most of us – assumed she wouldn't need it much in real life. But then the English graduate, now an award-winning science-writer, had a change of heart and decided to revisit the equations and formulas that had haunted her youth. The Calculus Diaries is the fun and fascinating account of a year spent confronting her numbers-phobia head on. With wit and verve, Ouellette explains how she discovered that maths could apply to everything from petrol mileages to dieting, rollercoaster rides to winning in Las Vegas.

  18. Matrix calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Bodewig, E

    1959-01-01

    Matrix Calculus, Second Revised and Enlarged Edition focuses on systematic calculation with the building blocks of a matrix and rows and columns, shunning the use of individual elements. The publication first offers information on vectors, matrices, further applications, measures of the magnitude of a matrix, and forms. The text then examines eigenvalues and exact solutions, including the characteristic equation, eigenrows, extremum properties of the eigenvalues, bounds for the eigenvalues, elementary divisors, and bounds for the determinant. The text ponders on approximate solutions, as well

  19. Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans What is Mycobacterium bovis ? In the United States, the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in people are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( ...

  20. Renal calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Pyrah, Leslie N

    1979-01-01

    Stone in the urinary tract has fascinated the medical profession from the earliest times and has played an important part in the development of surgery. The earliest major planned operations were for the removal of vesical calculus; renal and ureteric calculi provided the first stimulus for the radiological investigation of the viscera, and the biochemical investigation of the causes of calculus formation has been the training ground for surgeons interested in metabolic disorders. It is therefore no surprise that stone has been the subject of a number of monographs by eminent urologists, but the rapid development of knowledge has made it possible for each one of these authors to produce something new. There is still a technical challenge to the surgeon in the removal of renal calculi, and on this topic we are always glad to have the advice of a master craftsman; but inevitably much of the interest centres on the elucidation of the causes of stone formation and its prevention. Professor Pyrah has had a long an...

  1. Calculator calculus

    CERN Document Server

    McCarty, George

    1982-01-01

    How THIS BOOK DIFFERS This book is about the calculus. What distinguishes it, however, from other books is that it uses the pocket calculator to illustrate the theory. A computation that requires hours of labor when done by hand with tables is quite inappropriate as an example or exercise in a beginning calculus course. But that same computation can become a delicate illustration of the theory when the student does it in seconds on his calculator. t Furthermore, the student's own personal involvement and easy accomplishment give hi~ reassurance and en­ couragement. The machine is like a microscope, and its magnification is a hundred millionfold. We shall be interested in limits, and no stage of numerical approximation proves anything about the limit. However, the derivative of fex) = 67.SgX, for instance, acquires real meaning when a student first appreciates its values as numbers, as limits of 10 100 1000 t A quick example is 1.1 , 1.01 , 1.001 , •••• Another example is t = 0.1, 0.01, in the functio...

  2. Propositional Calculus in Coq

    OpenAIRE

    van Doorn, Floris

    2015-01-01

    I formalize important theorems about classical propositional logic in the proof assistant Coq. The main theorems I prove are (1) the soundness and completeness of natural deduction calculus, (2) the equivalence between natural deduction calculus, Hilbert systems and sequent calculus and (3) cut elimination for sequent calculus.

  3. Calculus of one variable

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Stanley I

    1986-01-01

    Calculus of One Variable, Second Edition presents the essential topics in the study of the techniques and theorems of calculus.The book provides a comprehensive introduction to calculus. It contains examples, exercises, the history and development of calculus, and various applications. Some of the topics discussed in the text include the concept of limits, one-variable theory, the derivatives of all six trigonometric functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, and infinite series.This textbook is intended for use by college students.

  4. Calculus ABCs: A Gateway for Freshman Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Scott R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a gateway testing program designed to ensure that students acquire basic skills in freshman calculus. Students must demonstrate they have mastered standards for "Absolutely Basic Competency"--the Calculus ABCs--in order to pass the course with a grade of C or better. We describe the background, standards, and testing program.…

  5. On the refinement calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Vickers, Trevor

    1992-01-01

    On the Refinement Calculus gives one view of the development of the refinement calculus and its attempt to bring together - among other things - Z specifications and Dijkstra's programming language. It is an excellent source of reference material for all those seeking the background and mathematical underpinnings of the refinement calculus.

  6. Giant urethral calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Kotkar, Kunal; Thakkar, Ravi; Songra, MC

    2011-01-01

    Primary urethral calculus is rarely seen and is usually encountered in men with urethral stricture or diverticulum. We present a case of giant urethral calculus secondary to a urethral stricture in a man. The patient was treated with calculus extraction with end to end urethroplasty.

  7. Fundamentals of calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Carla C

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Calculus encourages students to use power, quotient, and product rules for solutions as well as stresses the importance of modeling skills.  In addition to core integral and differential calculus coverage, the book features finite calculus, which lends itself to modeling and spreadsheets.  Specifically, finite calculus is applied to marginal economic analysis, finance, growth, and decay.  Includes: Linear Equations and FunctionsThe DerivativeUsing the Derivative Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Techniques of DifferentiationIntegral CalculusIntegration TechniquesFunctions

  8. The Safe Lambda Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, William

    2009-01-01

    Safety is a syntactic condition of higher-order grammars that constrains occurrences of variables in the production rules according to their type-theoretic order. In this paper, we introduce the safe lambda calculus, which is obtained by transposing (and generalizing) the safety condition to the setting of the simply-typed lambda calculus. In contrast to the original definition of safety, our calculus does not constrain types (to be homogeneous). We show that in the safe lambda calculus, there is no need to rename bound variables when performing substitution, as variable capture is guaranteed not to happen. We also propose an adequate notion of beta-reduction that preserves safety. In the same vein as Schwichtenberg's 1976 characterization of the simply-typed lambda calculus, we show that the numeric functions representable in the safe lambda calculus are exactly the multivariate polynomials; thus conditional is not definable. We also give a characterization of representable word functions. We then study the ...

  9. Multivector Differential Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Hitzer, Eckhard

    2013-01-01

    Universal geometric calculus simplifies and unifies the structure and notation of mathematics for all of science and engineering, and for technological applications. This paper treats the fundamentals of the multivector differential calculus part of geometric calculus. The multivector differential is introduced, followed by the multivector derivative and the adjoint of multivector functions. The basic rules of multivector differentiation are derived explicitly, as well as a variety of basic m...

  10. Essential calculus with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Richard A

    1989-01-01

    Rigorous but accessible text introduces undergraduate-level students to necessary background math, then clear coverage of differential calculus, differentiation as a tool, integral calculus, integration as a tool, and functions of several variables. Numerous problems and a supplementary section of ""Hints and Answers."" 1977 edition.

  11. Calculus Demonstrations Using MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Peter K.; Harman, Chris

    2002-01-01

    The note discusses ways in which technology can be used in the calculus learning process. In particular, five MATLAB programs are detailed for use by instructors or students that demonstrate important concepts in introductory calculus: Newton's method, differentiation and integration. Two of the programs are animated. The programs and the…

  12. Initialized Fractional Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.

  13. Teaching the Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerheber, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Methods of teaching the Calculus are presented in honour of Sir Isaac Newton, by discussing an extension of his original proofs and discoveries. The methods, requested by Newton to be used that reflect the historical sequence of the discovered Fundamental Theorems, allow first-time students to grasp quickly the basics of the Calculus from its…

  14. Discrete fractional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Goodrich, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This text provides the first comprehensive treatment of the discrete fractional calculus. Experienced researchers will find the text useful as a reference for discrete fractional calculus and topics of current interest. Students who are interested in learning about discrete fractional calculus will find this text to provide a useful starting point. Several exercises are offered at the end of each chapter and select answers have been provided at the end of the book. The presentation of the content is designed to give ample flexibility for potential use in a myriad of courses and for independent study. The novel approach taken by the authors includes a simultaneous treatment of the fractional- and integer-order difference calculus (on a variety of time scales, including both the usual forward and backwards difference operators). The reader will acquire a solid foundation in the classical topics of the discrete calculus while being introduced to exciting recent developments, bringing them to the frontiers of the...

  15. Effect of milk fermentation by kefir grains and selected single strains of lactic acid bacteria on the survival of Mycobacterium bovis BCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macuamule, C L S; Wiid, I J; van Helden, P D; Tanner, M; Witthuhn, R C

    2016-01-18

    Mycobacterium bovis that causes Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) can be transmitted to humans thought consumption of raw and raw fermented milk products from diseased animals. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) used in popular traditional milk products in Africa produce anti-microbial compounds that inhibit some pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. M. bovis BCG is an attenuated non-pathogenic vaccine strain of M. bovis and the aim of the study was to determine the effect of the fermentation process on the survival of M. bovis BCG in milk. M. bovis BCG at concentrations of 6 log CFU/ml was added to products of kefir fermentation. The survival of M. bovis BCG was monitored at 12-h intervals for 72 h by enumerating viable cells on Middlebrook 7H10 agar plates enriched with 2% BD BACTEC PANTA™. M. bovis BCG was increasingly reduced in sterile kefir that was fermented for a period of 24h and longer. In the milk fermented with kefir grains, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei or Lactobacillus casei, the viability of M. bovis BCG was reduced by 0.4 logs after 24h and by 2 logs after 48 h of fermentation. No viable M. bovis BCG was detected after 60 h of fermentation. Results from this study show that long term fermentation under certain conditions may have the potential to inactivate M. bovis BCG present in the milk. However, to ensure safety of fermented milk in Africa, fermentation should be combined with other hurdle technologies such as boiling and milk pasteurisation.

  16. Baxter Algebras and Umbral Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Li

    2004-01-01

    We apply recent constructions of free Baxter algebras to the study of the umbral calculus. We give a characterization of the umbral calculus in terms of Baxter algebra. This characterization leads to a natural generalization of the umbral calculus that include the classical umbral calculus in a family of $\\lambda$-umbral calculi parameterized by $\\lambda$ in the base ring.

  17. Hermeneutic operative calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Sivakumar; Isawasan, Pradeep; Mohanan, Vasuky

    2014-07-01

    The predicate calculus used currently by mathematical logic in computer science, philosophy and linguistic was found to be too restrictive and inadequate for describing the grammar of natural and artificial language. Therefore many higher order logics have been developed to overcome the limitation of predicate calculus. In this paper a new representation of logic using mathematical principles has been developed for the natural language called Hermeneutic Operative Calculus. This Hermeneutic Operative Calculus is a new language interpretive calculus developed to account for the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic features of natural language and allows removing the restrictions of any particular natural language in the semantic field its map out. The logic of Hermeneutic Operative Calculus capable of represent the syntactic and semantic of factual information of a natural language precisely in any language. The logic of this Hermeneutic Operative Calculus has two different forms of operations called object and meta-operations. The object operation allow for listing the various objects, picturing the various propositions and so forth. The meta-operation would specify what cannot be specified by the object operation like semantical stances of a proposition. The basic operative processes of linguistics and cognitive logic will be mathematically conceptualized and elaborated in this paper.

  18. Calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    Elsgolc, L E; Stark, M

    1961-01-01

    Calculus of Variations aims to provide an understanding of the basic notions and standard methods of the calculus of variations, including the direct methods of solution of the variational problems. The wide variety of applications of variational methods to different fields of mechanics and technology has made it essential for engineers to learn the fundamentals of the calculus of variations. The book begins with a discussion of the method of variation in problems with fixed boundaries. Subsequent chapters cover variational problems with movable boundaries and some other problems; sufficiency

  19. Calculus for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Slay the calculus monster with this user-friendly guide Calculus For Dummies, 2nd Edition makes calculus manageable-even if you're one of the many students who sweat at the thought of it. By breaking down differentiation and integration into digestible concepts, this guide helps you build a stronger foundation with a solid understanding of the big ideas at work. This user-friendly math book leads you step-by-step through each concept, operation, and solution, explaining the ""how"" and ""why"" in plain English instead of math-speak. Through relevant instruction and practical examples, you'll s

  20. The stochastic quality calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Kebin; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the Stochastic Quality Calculus in order to model and reason about distributed processes that rely on each other in order to achieve their overall behaviour. The calculus supports broadcast communication in a truly concurrent setting. Generally distributed delays are associated...... with the outputs and at the same time the inputs impose constraints on the waiting times. Consequently, the expected inputs may not be available when needed and therefore the calculus allows to express the absence of data.The communication delays are expressed by general distributions and the resulting semantics...

  1. Introduction to the Rewriting Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Cirstea, Horatiu; Kirchner, Claude

    1999-01-01

    The $\\rho$-calculus is a new calculus that integrates in a uniform and simple setting first-order rewriting, $\\lambda$-calculus and non-deterministic computations. This paper describes the calculus from its syntax to its basic properties in the untyped case. We show how it embeds first-order conditional rewriting and $\\lambda$-calculus. Finally we use the $\\rho$-calcul- us to give an operational semantics to the rewrite based language ELAN.

  2. A Logical Process Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the Logical Process Calculus (LPC), a formalism that supports heterogeneous system specifications containing both operational and declarative subspecifications. Syntactically, LPC extends Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems with operators from the alternation-free linear-time mu-calculus (LT(mu)). Semantically, LPC is equipped with a behavioral preorder that generalizes Hennessy's and DeNicola's must-testing preorder as well as LT(mu's) satisfaction relation, while being compositional for all LPC operators. From a technical point of view, the new calculus is distinguished by the inclusion of: (1) both minimal and maximal fixed-point operators and (2) an unimple-mentability predicate on process terms, which tags inconsistent specifications. The utility of LPC is demonstrated by means of an example highlighting the benefits of heterogeneous system specification.

  3. Computing for calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Mark J

    1981-01-01

    Computing for Calculus focuses on BASIC as the computer language used for solving calculus problems.This book discusses the input statement for numeric variables, advanced intrinsic functions, numerical estimation of limits, and linear approximations and tangents. The elementary estimation of areas, numerical and string arrays, line drawing algorithms, and bisection and secant method are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the implicit functions and differentiation, upper and lower rectangular estimates, Simpson's rule and parabolic approximation, and interpolating polynomials. Other to

  4. Complex Multiplicative Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Bashirov, Agamirza; Riza, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper we extend the concepts of multiplicative de- rivative and integral to complex-valued functions of complex variable. Some drawbacks, arising with these concepts in the real case, are explained satis- factorily. Properties of complex multiplicative derivatives and integrals are studied. In particular, the fundamental theorem of complex multiplicative calculus, relating these concepts, is proved. It is shown that complex multi- plicative calculus is not just another realizat...

  5. Discrete Exterior Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Desbrun, Mathieu; Hirani, Anil N.; Leok, Melvin; Marsden, Jerrold E.

    2005-01-01

    We present a theory and applications of discrete exterior calculus on simplicial complexes of arbitrary finite dimension. This can be thought of as calculus on a discrete space. Our theory includes not only discrete differential forms but also discrete vector fields and the operators acting on these objects. This allows us to address the various interactions between forms and vector fields (such as Lie derivatives) which are important in applications. Previous attempts at discrete exterior ca...

  6. Fecal Volatile Organic Ccompound Profiles from White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as Indicators of Mycobacterium bovis Exposure or Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Randal S; Ellis, Christine K; Nol, Pauline; Waters, W Ray; Palmer, Mitchell; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2015-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) serve as a reservoir for bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, and can be a source of infection in cattle. Vaccination with M. bovis Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) is being considered for management of bovine tuberculosis in deer. Presently, no method exists to non-invasively monitor the presence of bovine tuberculosis in deer. In this study, volatile organic compound profiles of BCG-vaccinated and non-vaccinated deer, before and after experimental challenge with M. bovis strain 95-1315, were generated using solid phase microextraction fiber head-space sampling over suspended fecal pellets with analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Chromatograms were processed using XCMS Online to characterize ion variation among treatment groups. The principal component scores resulting from significant (α = 0.05) ion responses were used to build linear discriminant analysis models. The sensitivity and specificity of these models were used to evaluate the feasibility of using this analytical approach to distinguish within group comparisons between pre- and post-M. bovis challenge: non-vaccinated male or female deer, BCG-vaccinated male deer, and the mixed gender non-vaccinated deer data. Seventeen compounds were identified in this analysis. The peak areas for these compounds were used to build a linear discriminant classification model based on principal component analysis scores to evaluate the feasibility of discriminating between fecal samples from M. bovis challenged deer, irrespective of vaccination status. The model best representing the data had a sensitivity of 78.6% and a specificity of 91.4%. The fecal head-space sampling approach presented in this pilot study provides a non-invasive method to discriminate between M. bovis challenged deer and BCG-vaccinated deer. Additionally, the technique may prove invaluable for BCG efficacy studies with free-ranging deer as well as for use as a non

  7. The absolute differential calculus (calculus of tensors)

    CERN Document Server

    Levi-Civita, Tullio

    2013-01-01

    Written by a towering figure of twentieth-century mathematics, this classic examines the mathematical background necessary for a grasp of relativity theory. Tullio Levi-Civita provides a thorough treatment of the introductory theories that form the basis for discussions of fundamental quadratic forms and absolute differential calculus, and he further explores physical applications.Part one opens with considerations of functional determinants and matrices, advancing to systems of total differential equations, linear partial differential equations, algebraic foundations, and a geometrical intro

  8. Symmetric π—Calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅育熙

    1998-01-01

    An alternative presentation of the π-calculus is given.This version of the π-calculus is symmetric in the sense that communications are symmetric and there is no difference between input and output prefixes.The point of the symmetric π-calculus is that it has no abstract names.The set of closed names is therefore homogeneous.The π-calculus can be fully embedded into the symmetric π-calculus.The symmetry changes the emphasis of the communication mechanism of the π-calculus and opens up possibility for further variations.

  9. Proof nets for the Displacement calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Moot, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We present a proof net calculus for the Displacement calculus and show its correctness. This is the first proof net calculus which models the Displacement calculus directly and not by some sort of translation into another formalism. The proof net calculus opens up new possibilities for parsing and proof search with the Displacement calculus.

  10. Putting Differentials Back into Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corrine A.

    2010-01-01

    We argue that the use of differentials in introductory calculus courses is useful and provides a unifying theme, leading to a coherent view of the calculus. Along the way, we meet several interpretations of differentials, some better than others.

  11. Investigations on the dual calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Tzevelekos, Nikos

    2006-01-01

    The Dual Calculus, proposed recently by Wadler, is the outcome of two distinct lines of research in theoretical computer science: (A) Efforts to extend the Curry–Howard isomorphism, established between the simply-typed lambda calculus and intuitionistic logic, to classical logic. (B) Efforts to establish the tacit conjecture that call-by-value (CBV) reduction in lambda calculus is dual to call-by-name (CBN) reduction. This paper initially investigates relations of the Dual Calculus t...

  12. A development calculus for specifications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李未

    2003-01-01

    A first order inference system, named R-calculus, is defined to develop the specifications.This system intends to eliminate the laws which are not consistent with users' requirements. TheR-calculus consists of the structural rules, an axiom, a cut rule, and the rules for logical connectives.Some examples are given to demonstrate the usage of the R-calculus. Furthermore, the propertiesregarding reachability and completeness of the R-calculus are formally defined and proved.

  13. Quantum variational calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Malinowska, Agnieszka B

    2014-01-01

    This Brief puts together two subjects, quantum and variational calculi by considering variational problems involving Hahn quantum operators. The main advantage of its results is that they are able to deal with nondifferentiable (even discontinuous) functions, which are important in applications. Possible applications in economics are discussed. Economists model time as continuous or discrete. Although individual economic decisions are generally made at discrete time intervals, they may well be less than perfectly synchronized in ways discrete models postulate. On the other hand, the usual assumption that economic activity takes place continuously, is nothing else than a convenient abstraction that in many applications is far from reality. The Hahn quantum calculus helps to bridge the gap between the two families of models: continuous and discrete. Quantum Variational Calculus is self-contained and unified in presentation. It provides an opportunity for an introduction to the quantum calculus of variations fo...

  14. Schaum's outline of calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Ayres, Frank

    1999-01-01

    Students can gain a thorough understanding of differential and integral calculus with this powerful study tool. They'll also find the related analytic geometry much easier. The clear review of algebra and geometry in this edition will make calculus easier for students who wish to strengthen their knowledge in these areas. Updated to meet the emphasis in current courses, this new edition of a popular guide­­--more than 104,000 copies were bought of the prior edition--­­includes problems and examples using graphing calculators.

  15. Calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfand, I M

    2000-01-01

    Based on a series of lectures given by I. M. Gelfand at Moscow State University, this book actually goes considerably beyond the material presented in the lectures. The aim is to give a treatment of the elements of the calculus of variations in a form both easily understandable and sufficiently modern. Considerable attention is devoted to physical applications of variational methods, e.g., canonical equations, variational principles of mechanics, and conservation laws.The reader who merely wishes to become familiar with the most basic concepts and methods of the calculus of variations need on

  16. The calculus primer

    CERN Document Server

    Schaaf, William L

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive but concise, this introduction to differential and integral calculus covers all the topics usually included in a first course. The straightforward development places less emphasis on mathematical rigor, and the informal manner of presentation sets students at ease. Many carefully worked-out examples illuminate the text, in addition to numerous diagrams, problems, and answers.Bearing the needs of beginners constantly in mind, the treatment covers all the basic concepts of calculus: functions, derivatives, differentiation of algebraic and transcendental functions, partial different

  17. Two-dimensional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Osserman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o

  18. A calculus for quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Vigo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    A main challenge of programming component-based software is to ensure that the components continue to behave in a reasonable manner even when communication becomes unreliable. We propose a process calculus, the Quality Calculus, for programming software components where it becomes natural to plan...... for default behaviour in case the ideal behaviour fails due to unreliable communication and thereby to increase the quality of service offered by the systems. The development is facilitated by a SAT-based robustness analysis to determine whether or not the code is vulnerable to unreliable communication...

  19. From calculus to analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pedersen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    This textbook features applications including a proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, space filling curves, and the theory of irrational numbers.  In addition to the standard results of advanced calculus, the book  contains several interesting applications of these results. The text is intended to form a bridge between calculus and analysis. It is based on the authors lecture notes used and revised nearly every year over the last decade. The book contains numerous illustrations and cross references throughout, as well as exercises with solutions at the end of each section

  20. Discrete Calculus by Analogy

    CERN Document Server

    Izadi, F A; Bagirov, G

    2009-01-01

    With its origins stretching back several centuries, discrete calculus is now an increasingly central methodology for many problems related to discrete systems and algorithms. The topics covered here usually arise in many branches of science and technology, especially in discrete mathematics, numerical analysis, statistics and probability theory as well as in electrical engineering, but our viewpoint here is that these topics belong to a much more general realm of mathematics; namely calculus and differential equations because of the remarkable analogy of the subject to this branch of mathemati

  1. The simply typed rewriting calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Cirstea, Horatiu; Kirchner, Claude

    2000-01-01

    The rewriting calculus is a rule construction and application framework. As such it embeds in a uniform way term rewriting and lambda-calculus. Since rule application is an explicit object of the calculus, it allows us also to handle the set of results explicitly. We present a simply typed version of the rewriting calculus. With a good choice of the type system, we show that the calculus is type preserving and terminating, i.e. verifies the subject reduction and strong normalization properties.

  2. On Multiplicative Fractional Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Abdeljawad, Thabet

    2015-01-01

    We set the main concepts for multiplicative fractional calculus. We define Caputo, Riemann and Letnikov multiplicative fractional derivatives and multiplicative fractional integrals and study some of their properties. Finally, the multiplicative analogue of the local conformable fractional derivative and integral is studied.

  3. Lacroix and the calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Domingues, João Caramalho

    2008-01-01

    Silvestre François Lacroix (Paris, 1765 - ibid., 1843) was a most influential mathematical book author. His most famous work is the three-volume Traité du calcul différentiel et du calcul intégral (1797-1800; 2nd ed. 1810-1819) – an encyclopedic appraisal of 18th-century calculus which remained the standard reference on the subject through much of the 19th century, in spite of Cauchy's reform of the subject in the 1820's. Lacroix and the Calculus is the first major study of Lacroix’s large Traité. It uses the unique and massive bibliography given by Lacroix to explore late 18th-century calculus, and the way it is reflected in Lacroix’s account. Several particular aspects are addressed in detail, including: the foundations of differential calculus, analytic and differential geometry, conceptions of the integral, and types of solutions of differential equations (singular/complete/general integrals, geometrical interpretations, and generality of arbitrary functions). Lacroix’s large Traité... was a...

  4. Malliavin calculus in finance

    OpenAIRE

    Kohatsu, Arturo; Miquel, Montero

    2003-01-01

    This article is an introduction to Malliavin Calculus for practitioners. We treat one specific application to the calculation of greeks in Finance. We consider also the kernel density method to compute greeks and an extension of the Vega index called the local vega index.

  5. From Calculating to Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckroth, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    For nearly three decades, during which the author taught everything from basic algebra to advanced placement calculus, the author thought of himself as a secondary school mathematics teacher. The notion of teaching elementary school math never appealed to him because of its simplicity. The author stresses that anyone could teach children to count,…

  6. Calculus and Sailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmaccio, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    A method of using vector analysis is presented that is an application of calculus that helps to find the best angle for tacking a boat into the wind. While the discussion is theoretical, it is seen as a good illustration of mathematical investigation of a given situation. (MP)

  7. Stochastic network calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Yuming

    2009-01-01

    Network calculus, a theory dealing with queuing systems found in computer networks, focuses on performance guarantees. This title presents a comprehensive treatment for the stochastic service-guarantee analysis research and provides basic introductory material on the subject, as well as discusses the various researches in the area.

  8. Cloning of a species-specific antigen of Mycobacterium bovis.

    OpenAIRE

    Radford, A J; Duffield, B J; Plackett, P

    1988-01-01

    A DNA library from a virulent strain of Mycobacterium bovis was constructed in the expression vector lambda gt11, and the library was probed with antisera to M. bovis. Clones expressing M. bovis antigens were isolated and characterized by using M. bovis-specific monoclonal antibodies that recognize a 22,000-molecular-weight protein (MPB70). MPB70 is a major protein antigen of the vaccine strain of M. bovis BCG and of virulent M. bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis. Of 32 clones ...

  9. ESeal Calculus: A Secure Mobile Calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PengRong; UuPing

    2003-01-01

    The ESeal Calculus is a secure mobile calculus based on Seal Calculus. By using open-channels,ESeal Calculus makes it possible to communicate between any two arbitrary seals with some secure restrictions. It improves the expression ability and efficiency of Seal calculus without losing security.

  10. A Literary Study on Bezoar Bovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Kyu Park

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Literary investigation of existing data was conducted to verify effects of Bezoar Bovis and its herbal acupuncture, and determine quality management through component analysis. Results : Following results were obtained through literary investigation. 1. Bezoar Bovis is dried cystic stone from a cattle. Its characteristics are cool, no toxicity, and bitter taste. Known actions are: quells heat and detoxifies Fire Poison, extinguishes internal movement of Liver Wind and stops convulsion, vaporizes phlegm, and opens orifice. It is mainly used for treating tremor, stroke, delirium, sore throat, oral furuncle, boil, and others. 2. Bezoar Bovis is effective for eliminating liver toxicity, protecting against brain damage, and has anti-microbial activities. 3. Bezoar Bovis is mixed with bear gall bladder and deer musk to be used as herbal acupuncture, and this mixture is effective is invigorating liver functions as well as treating arthritis, headache, and etc. 4. Principal components of Bezoar Bovis are bilirubin-type pigments and cholic acids. The amount of bilirubin can be used as a standard to determine the quality of Bezoar Bovis.

  11. Abortion associated with Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) in a bison (Bison bison) herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) has recently emerged as a significant health threat in bison and is an increasing concern and source of economic loss for producers. Clinical manifestations of infection documented in bison include pneumonia, respiratory distress and polyarthritis. The current study des...

  12. Isolamento de Mycobacterium bovis em cão Mycobacterium bovis isolation in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M.P.C. Mota

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the isolation of Mycobacterium bovis from a dog with a history of co-habitation with bufallos infected with Mycobacterium bovis. After necropsy, the microrganism was isolated from a mesenteric lymphatic node in Stonebrink media and bacterial identification was confirmed by biochemical tests.

  13. Boolean integral calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jerry H.; Tapia, Moiez A.; Bennett, A. Wayne

    1988-01-01

    The concept of Boolean integration is developed, and different Boolean integral operators are introduced. Given the changes in a desired function in terms of the changes in its arguments, the ways of 'integrating' (i.e. realizing) such a function, if it exists, are presented. The necessary and sufficient conditions for integrating, in different senses, the expression specifying the changes are obtained. Boolean calculus has applications in the design of logic circuits and in fault analysis.

  14. Duration Calculus: Logical Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Chaochen, Zhou

    1997-01-01

    The Duration Calculus (abbreviated DC) represents a logical approach to formal design of real-time systems, where real numbers are used to model time and Boolean valued functions over time are used to model states and events of real-time systems. Since it introduction, DC has been applied to many...... case studies and it has been extended in several directions. The aim of this paper is to provide a thorough presentation of the logic....

  15. The Malliavin calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Denis R

    2006-01-01

    This introduction to Malliavin's stochastic calculus of variations is suitable for graduate students and professional mathematicians. Author Denis R. Bell particularly emphasizes the problem that motivated the subject's development, with detailed accounts of the different forms of the theory developed by Stroock and Bismut, discussions of the relationship between these two approaches, and descriptions of a variety of applications.The first chapter covers enough technical background to make the subsequent material accessible to readers without specialized knowledge of stochastic analysis. Succe

  16. Calculus III essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Calculus III includes vector analysis, real valued functions, partial differentiation, multiple integrations, vector fields, and infinite series.

  17. On paragrassmann differential calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper significantly extends and generalizes our previous paper. Here we discuss explicit general constructions for paragrassmann calculus with one and many variables. For one variable nondegenerate differentiation algebras are identified and shown to be equivalent to the algebra of (p+1)x(p+1) complex matrices. For many variables we give a general construction of the differentiation algebras. Some particular examples are related to the multiparametric quantum deformations of the harmonic oscillators. 18 refs

  18. Pre-calculus essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Woodward, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Pre-Calculus reviews sets, numbers, operations and properties, coordinate geometry, fundamental algebraic topics, solving equations and inequalities, functions, trigonometry, exponents

  19. Calculus I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Calculus I covers functions, limits, basic derivatives, and integrals.

  20. Calculus with vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Treiman, Jay S

    2014-01-01

    Calculus with Vectors grew out of a strong need for a beginning calculus textbook for undergraduates who intend to pursue careers in STEM. fields. The approach introduces vector-valued functions from the start, emphasizing the connections between one-variable and multi-variable calculus. The text includes early vectors and early transcendentals and includes a rigorous but informal approach to vectors. Examples and focused applications are well presented along with an abundance of motivating exercises. All three-dimensional graphs have rotatable versions included as extra source materials and may be freely downloaded and manipulated with Maple Player; a free Maple Player App is available for the iPad on iTunes. The approaches taken to topics such as the derivation of the derivatives of sine and cosine, the approach to limits, and the use of "tables" of integration have been modified from the standards seen in other textbooks in order to maximize the ease with which students may comprehend the material. Additio...

  1. Algebraic Properties of Propositional Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Schuh, Bernd R.

    2009-01-01

    In this short note we relate some known properties of propositional calculus to purely algebraic considerations of a Boolean algebra. Classes of formulas of propositional calculus are considered as elements of a Boolean algebra. As such they can be represented by uniquely defined elements of this algebra which we call "logical primes". The algebraic notations appear useful because they make it possible to derive well known properties of propositional calculus by simple calculations or to subs...

  2. Introduction to the operational calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to the Operational Calculus is a translation of ""Einfuhrung in die Operatorenrechnung, Second Edition."" This book deals with Heaviside's interpretation, on the Laplace integral, and on Jan Mikusinki's fundamental work ""Operational Calculus."" Throughout the book, basic algebraic concepts appear as aids to understanding some relevant points of the subject. An important field for research in analysis is asymptotic properties. This text also discusses examples to show the potentialities in applying operational calculus that run beyond ordinary differential equations with constant

  3. Lambda-mu-calculus and Bohm's theorem

    OpenAIRE

    David, René; Py, Walter

    2001-01-01

    The lambda mu-calculus is an extension of the lambda-calculus that has been introduced by M. Parigot to give an algorithmic content to classical proofs. We show that Bohm's theorem fails in this calculus.

  4. Identification of Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus salivarius in clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, K L; Ferraro, M J; Holden, J; Kunz, L J

    1984-01-01

    Streptococci identified as Streptococcus bovis, S. bovis variant, and Streptococcus salivarius were examined with respect to physiological and serological characteristics and cellular fatty acid content. Similarities in physiological reactions and problems encountered in serological analysis were noted, suggesting that an expanded battery of physiological tests is needed to definitively identify these streptococci. Cellular fatty acid analysis provided an accurate method for distinguishing S. salivarius from S. bovis and S. bovis variant. PMID:6490816

  5. Early Vector Calculus: A Path through Multivariable Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    The divergence theorem, Stokes' theorem, and Green's theorem appear near the end of calculus texts. These are important results, but many instructors struggle to reach them. We describe a pathway through a standard calculus text that allows instructors to emphasize these theorems. (Contains 2 figures.)

  6. Polynomial calculus: rethinking the role of calculus in high schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Melva R.; Crombie, William; Enderson, Mary; Cobb, Nell

    2016-08-01

    Access to advanced study in mathematics, in general, and to calculus, in particular, depends in part on the conceptual architecture of these knowledge domains. In this paper, we outline an alternative conceptual architecture for elementary calculus. Our general strategy is to separate basic concepts from the particular advanced techniques used in their definition and exposition. We develop the beginning concepts of differential and integral calculus using only concepts and skills found in secondary algebra and geometry. It is our underlining objective to strengthen students' knowledge of these topics in an effort to prepare them for advanced mathematics study. The purpose of this reconstruction is not to alter the teaching of limit-based calculus but rather to affect students' learning and understanding of mathematics in general by introducing key concepts during secondary mathematics courses. This approach holds the promise of strengthening more students' understanding of limit-based calculus and enhancing their potential for success in post-secondary mathematics.

  7. Fluorescence spectroscopy of dental calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the fluorescence properties of dental calculus in comparison with the properties of adjacent unaffected tooth structure using both lasers and LEDs in the UV-visible range for fluorescence excitation. The influence of calculus color on the informative signal is demonstrated. The optimal spectral bands of excitation and registration of the fluorescence are determined

  8. The Calculus of a Vase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherger, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Of the most universal applications in integral calculus are those involved with finding volumes of solids of revolution. These profound problems are typically taught with traditional approaches of the disk and shell methods, after which most calculus curriculums will additionally cover arc length and surfaces of revolution. Even in these visibly…

  9. Calculus in the Middle School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Rita H.; McCoy, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an example of how middle school teachers can lay a foundation for calculus. Although many middle school activities connect directly to calculus concepts, the authors have decided to look in depth at only one: the concept of change. They will show how teachers can lead their students to see and appreciate the calculus…

  10. The Basic Principle of Calculus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A simple partial version of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus can be presented on the first day of the first-year calculus course, and then relied upon repeatedly in assigned problems throughout the course. With that experience behind them, students can use the partial version to understand the full-fledged Fundamental Theorem, with further…

  11. Advanced calculus problem solver

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    Each Problem Solver is an insightful and essential study and solution guide chock-full of clear, concise problem-solving gems. All your questions can be found in one convenient source from one of the most trusted names in reference solution guides. More useful, more practical, and more informative, these study aids are the best review books and textbook companions available. Nothing remotely as comprehensive or as helpful exists in their subject anywhere. Perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.Here in this highly useful reference is the finest overview of advanced calculus currently av

  12. Calculus problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Ginzburg, A

    2011-01-01

    Ideal for self-instruction as well as for classroom use, this text helps students improve their understanding and problem-solving skills in analysis, analytic geometry, and higher algebra. More than 1,200 problems appear in the text, with concise explanations of the basic notions and theorems to be used in their solution. Many are followed by complete answers; solutions for the others appear at the end of the book. Topics include sequences, functions of a single variable, limit of a function, differential calculus for functions of a single variable, fundamental theorems and applications of dif

  13. Provability Calculus of Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyblad, Kasten

    This thesis presents a type system, Provability Calculus of Constructions (PCoC) that can be used for the formalization of logic. In a theorem prover based on the system, the user can extend the prover with new inference rules in a logically consistent manner. This is done by representing PCo......C as values and data types within PCoC. The new feature of PCoC is that results of the representation of PCoC can be lifted to PCoC itself. The lifting is fully formalized in PCoC, and the logic therefore supports reflection....

  14. Calculus super review

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Get all you need to know with Super Reviews! Each Super Review is packed with in-depth, student-friendly topic reviews that fully explain everything about the subject. The Calculus I Super Review includes a review of functions, limits, basic derivatives, the definite integral, combinations, and permutations. Take the Super Review quizzes to see how much you've learned - and where you need more study. Makes an excellent study aid and textbook companion. Great for self-study!DETAILS- From cover to cover, each in-depth topic review is easy-to-follow and easy-to-grasp - Perfect when preparing for

  15. Rational Orthogonal Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, David

    2015-01-01

    We show that one can use model categories to construct rational orthogonal calculus. That is, given a continuous functor from vector spaces to based spaces one can construct a tower of approximations to this functor depending only on the rational homology type of the input functor, whose layers are given by rational spectra with an action of $O(n)$. By work of Greenlees and Shipley, we see that these layers are classified by torsion $H^*(B SO(n))[O(n)/SO(n)]$-modules.

  16. A Simple Acronym for Doing Calculus: CAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    An acronym is presented that provides students a potentially useful, unifying view of the major topics covered in an elementary calculus sequence. The acronym (CAL) is based on viewing the calculus procedure for solving a calculus problem P* in three steps: (1) recognizing that the problem cannot be solved using simple (non-calculus) techniques;…

  17. Open Calculus: A Free Online Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korey, Jane; Rheinlander, Kim; Wallace, Dorothy

    2007-01-01

    Dartmouth College mathematicians have developed a free online calculus course called "Open Calculus." Open Calculus is an exportable distance-learning/self-study environment for learning calculus including written text, nearly 4000 online homework problems and instructional videos. The paper recounts the evaluation of course elements since 2000 in…

  18. A generalized nonlocal vector calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Bacim; Liu, Kuo; Gunzburger, Max

    2015-10-01

    A nonlocal vector calculus was introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) that has proved useful for the analysis of the peridynamics model of nonlocal mechanics and nonlocal diffusion models. A formulation is developed that provides a more general setting for the nonlocal vector calculus that is independent of particular nonlocal models. It is shown that general nonlocal calculus operators are integral operators with specific integral kernels. General nonlocal calculus properties are developed, including nonlocal integration by parts formula and Green's identities. The nonlocal vector calculus introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) is shown to be recoverable from the general formulation as a special example. This special nonlocal vector calculus is used to reformulate the peridynamics equation of motion in terms of the nonlocal gradient operator and its adjoint. A new example of nonlocal vector calculus operators is introduced, which shows the potential use of the general formulation for general nonlocal models.

  19. Stochastic Calculus of Wrapped Compartments

    CERN Document Server

    Coppo, Mario; Drocco, Maurizio; Grassi, Elena; Troina, Angelo; 10.4204/EPTCS.28.6

    2010-01-01

    The Calculus of Wrapped Compartments (CWC) is a variant of the Calculus of Looping Sequences (CLS). While keeping the same expressiveness, CWC strongly simplifies the development of automatic tools for the analysis of biological systems. The main simplification consists in the removal of the sequencing operator, thus lightening the formal treatment of the patterns to be matched in a term (whose complexity in CLS is strongly affected by the variables matching in the sequences). We define a stochastic semantics for this new calculus. As an application we model the interaction between macrophages and apoptotic neutrophils and a mechanism of gene regulation in E.Coli.

  20. The Guarded Lambda-Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clouston, Ranald; Bizjak, Aleš; Grathwohl, Hans Bugge;

    2016-01-01

    -former inspired by modal logic and Atkey-McBride clock quantification, allowing the typing of acausal functions. We give a call-by-name operational semantics for the calculus, and define adequate denotational semantics in the topos of trees. The adequacy proof entails that the evaluation of a program always......We present the guarded lambda-calculus, an extension of the simply typed lambda-calculus with guarded recursive and coinductive types. The use of guarded recursive types ensures the productivity of well-typed programs. Guarded recursive types may be transformed into coinductive types by a type...

  1. Pre-Calculus For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Kuang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    The fun and easy way to learn pre-calculus Getting ready for calculus but still feel a bit confused? Have no fear. Pre-Calculus For Dummies is an un-intimidating, hands-on guide that walks you through all the essential topics, from absolute value and quadratic equations to logarithms and exponential functions to trig identities and matrix operations. With this guide's help you'll quickly and painlessly get a handle on all of the concepts - not just the number crunching - and understand how to perform all pre-calc tasks, from graphing to tackling proofs. You'll also get a new appreciation for

  2. Mathematics for physics with calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Biman

    2005-01-01

    Designed for students who plan to take or who are presently taking calculus-based physics courses. This book will develop necessary mathematical skills and help students gain the competence to use precalculus, calculus, vector algebra, vector calculus, and the statistical analysis of experimental data. Students taking intermediate physics, engineering, and other science courses will also find the book useful-and will be able to use the book as a mathematical resource for these intermediate level courses. The book emphasizes primarily the use of mathematical techniques and mathematical concepts in Physics and does not go into their rigorous developments.

  3. Advanced calculus a transition to analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Dence, Thomas P

    2010-01-01

    Designed for a one-semester advanced calculus course, Advanced Calculus explores the theory of calculus and highlights the connections between calculus and real analysis -- providing a mathematically sophisticated introduction to functional analytical concepts. The text is interesting to read and includes many illustrative worked-out examples and instructive exercises, and precise historical notes to aid in further exploration of calculus. Ancillary list: * Companion website, Ebook- http://www.elsevierdirect.com/product.jsp?isbn=9780123749550 * Student Solutions Manual- To come * Instructor

  4. Stochastic calculus with infinitesimals

    CERN Document Server

    Herzberg, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Stochastic analysis is not only a thriving area of pure mathematics with intriguing connections to partial differential equations and differential geometry. It also has numerous applications in the natural and social sciences (for instance in financial mathematics or theoretical quantum mechanics) and therefore appears in physics and economics curricula as well. However, existing approaches to stochastic analysis either presuppose various concepts from measure theory and functional analysis or lack full mathematical rigour. This short book proposes to solve the dilemma: By adopting E. Nelson's "radically elementary" theory of continuous-time stochastic processes, it is based on a demonstrably consistent use of infinitesimals and thus permits a radically simplified, yet perfectly rigorous approach to stochastic calculus and its fascinating applications, some of which (notably the Black-Scholes theory of option pricing and the Feynman path integral) are also discussed in the book.

  5. Stochastic calculus and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Samuel N

    2015-01-01

    Completely revised and greatly expanded, the new edition of this text takes readers who have been exposed to only basic courses in analysis through the modern general theory of random processes and stochastic integrals as used by systems theorists, electronic engineers and, more recently, those working in quantitative and mathematical finance. Building upon the original release of this title, this text will be of great interest to research mathematicians and graduate students working in those fields, as well as quants in the finance industry. New features of this edition include: End of chapter exercises; New chapters on basic measure theory and Backward SDEs; Reworked proofs, examples and explanatory material; Increased focus on motivating the mathematics; Extensive topical index. "Such a self-contained and complete exposition of stochastic calculus and applications fills an existing gap in the literature. The book can be recommended for first-year graduate studies. It will be useful for all who intend to wo...

  6. Invasion of erythrocytes by Babesia bovis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaffar, Fasila Razzia

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated the invasion of erythrocytes taking place during the asexual erythrocytic blood stage of the apicomplexan parasites Babesia bovis parasite. Host cell invasion by apicomplexan parasites is a complex process requiring multiple receptor-ligand interactions, involving ass

  7. An operator calculus for surface and volume modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    The mathematical techniques which form the foundation for most of the surface and volume modeling techniques used in practice are briefly described. An outline of what may be termed an operator calculus for the approximation and interpolation of functions of more than one independent variable is presented. By considering the linear operators associated with bivariate and multivariate interpolation/approximation schemes, it is shown how they can be compounded by operator multiplication and Boolean addition to obtain a distributive lattice of approximation operators. It is then demonstrated via specific examples how this operator calculus leads to practical techniques for sculptured surface and volume modeling.

  8. The M-calculus: a Higher-Order Distributed Process Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Alan; Stefani, Jean-Bernard

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a new distributed process calculus, called the -calculus. Key insights for the calculus are similar to those laid out by L. Cardelli for its calculus of ambients. Mobile Ambients and other recent distributed process calculi such as the Join calculus or the D-calculus introduce notions of distributed locations or localities, corresponding to a spatial partitioning of computations and embodying different features of distributed computations (e.g. failures, access control, p...

  9. Cartooning in Algebra and Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, L. Jeneva

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses how teachers can create cartoons for undergraduate math classes, such as college algebra and basic calculus. The practice of cartooning for teaching can be helpful for communication with students and for students' conceptual understanding.

  10. Dynamic Visualizations of Calculus Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embse, Charles Vonder

    2001-01-01

    Presents three fundamental ideas of calculus and explains using the coordinate plane geometrically. Uses Cabri Geometry II to show how computer geometry systems can facilitate student understanding of general conic objects and its dynamic algebraic equations. (KHR)

  11. A Formal Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José

    This dissertation studies the logic underlying category theory. In particular we present a formal calculus for reasoning about universal properties. The aim is to systematise judgements about functoriality and naturality central to categorical reasoning. The calculus is based on a language which...... extends the typed lambda calculus with new binders to represent universal constructions. The types of the languages are interpreted as locally small categories and the expressions represent functors. The logic supports a syntactic treatment of universality and duality. Contravariance requires a definition...... of universality generous enough to deal with functors of mixed variance. Ends generalise limits to cover these kinds of functors and moreover provide the basis for a very convenient algebraic manipulation of expressions. The equational theory of the lambda calculus is extended with new rules for the definitions...

  12. Synthesizing controllers from duration calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin

    1996-01-01

    Duration Calculus is a logic for reasoning about requirements for real-time systems at a high level of abstraction from operational detail, which qualifies it as an interesting starting point for embedded controller design. Such a design activity is generally thought to aim at a control device...... the physical behaviours of which satisfy the requirements formula, i.e. the refinement relation between requirements and implementations is taken to be trajectory inclusion. Due to the abstractness of the vocabulary of Duration Calculus, trajectory inclusion between control requirements and controller designs...... for embedded controller design and exploit this fact for developing an automatic procedure for controller synthesis from specifications formalized in Duration Calculus. As far as we know, this is the first positive result concerning feasibility of automatic synthesis from dense-time Duration Calculus....

  13. Neutrosophic Precalculus and Neutrosophic Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Florentin Smarandache

    2015-01-01

    Neutrosophic Analysis is a generalization of Set Analysis, which in its turn is a generalization of Interval Analysis. Neutrosophic Precalculus is referred to indeterminate staticity, while Neutrosophic Calculus is the mathematics of indeterminate change. The Neutrosophic Precalculus and Neutrosophic Calculus can be developed in many ways, depending on the types of indeterminacy one has and on the methods used to deal with such indeterminacy. In this book, the author presents a few examples o...

  14. Foliated stochastic calculus: Harmonic measures

    CERN Document Server

    Catuogno, Pedro J; Ruffino, Paulo R

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present an intrinsec construction of foliated Brownian motion via stochastic calculus adapted to foliation. The stochastic approach together with a proposed foliated vector calculus provide a natural method to work on harmonic measures. Other results include a decomposition of the Laplacian in terms of the foliated and basic Laplacians, a characterization of totally invariant measures and a differential equation for the density of harmonic measures.

  15. Decidability of Mean Value Calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaoshan

    1999-01-01

    Mean Value Calculus (MVC)[1] is a real-time logicwhich can be used to specify and verify real-time systems[2]. As aconservative extension of Duration Calculus (DC)[3], MVC increasesthe expressive power but keeps the properties of DC. In this paper wepresent decidability results of MVC. An interesting result is that propositional MVC with chop star operator is still decidable, which develops the results of[4]and[5].

  16. Mycoplasma bovis: Mechanisms of Resistance and Trends in Antimicrobial Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysnyansky, Inna; Ayling, Roger D.

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a cell-wall-less bacterium and belongs to the class Mollicutes. It is the most important etiological agent of bovine mycoplasmoses in North America and Europe, causing respiratory disease, mastitis, otitis media, arthritis, and reproductive disease. Clinical disease associated with M. bovis is often chronic, debilitating, and poorly responsive to antimicrobial therapy, resulting in significant economic loss, the full extent of which is difficult to estimate. Until M. bovis vaccines are universally available, sanitary control measures and antimicrobial treatment are the only approaches that can be used in attempts to control M. bovis infections. However, in vitro studies show that many of the current M. bovis isolates circulating in Europe have high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for many of the commercially available antimicrobials. In this review we summarize the current MIC trends indicating the development of antimicrobial resistance in M. bovis as well as the known molecular mechanisms by which resistance is acquired. PMID:27199926

  17. Pengembangan Media Padat untuk Menumbuhkan Mycobacterium bovis (DEVELOPMENT OF SOLID MEDIUM FOR MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazdani Ulfah Daulay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterial culture provides definitive diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB, but commercially readyto-use culture media for Mycobacterium bovis are rarely available. The aims of this study were todevelop and to evaluate the ability of M. Bovis to grow in Modified Ogawa Agar (MOA in comparisonwith the available culture media, such as Löwenstein Jensen (LJ and Modified Ogawa (MO. Eachmedia were inculation with 0.1 ml suspension of 105 CFU/mL M. bovis and M. phlei in PhosphateBuffer Saline (PBS and each media was replicated in five tubes. Mycobacterium phlei grew in everymedium since day 4. M. bovis grew in media LJ and MO since day 17, but failed to grow in mediumMOA. The recovery rate of M. phlei in LJ and MOA were significantly different. The ability of MOA tocultivate M. phlei was different from LJ. Colonies of M. phlei in MOA were easier to be harvested, muchsimpler to prepare, and more feasible than medium LJ. The recovery rate of M. bovis in media LJ andMO were not significantly different, but medium MO were much simpler to prepare and more feasiblethan medium LJ. Media MOA were able to cultivate M. phlei, but proven unable to cultivate M. bovisin this research.

  18. ``Riemann equations'' in bidifferential calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chvartatskyi, O.; Müller-Hoissen, F.; Stoilov, N.

    2015-10-01

    We consider equations that formally resemble a matrix Riemann (or Hopf) equation in the framework of bidifferential calculus. With different choices of a first-order bidifferential calculus, we obtain a variety of equations, including a semi-discrete and a fully discrete version of the matrix Riemann equation. A corresponding universal solution-generating method then either yields a (continuous or discrete) Cole-Hopf transformation, or leaves us with the problem of solving Riemann equations (hence an application of the hodograph method). If the bidifferential calculus extends to second order, solutions of a system of "Riemann equations" are also solutions of an equation that arises, on the universal level of bidifferential calculus, as an integrability condition. Depending on the choice of bidifferential calculus, the latter can represent a number of prominent integrable equations, like self-dual Yang-Mills, as well as matrix versions of the two-dimensional Toda lattice, Hirota's bilinear difference equation, (2+1)-dimensional Nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS), Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation, and Davey-Stewartson equations. For all of them, a recent (non-isospectral) binary Darboux transformation result in bidifferential calculus applies, which can be specialized to generate solutions of the associated "Riemann equations." For the latter, we clarify the relation between these specialized binary Darboux transformations and the aforementioned solution-generating method. From (arbitrary size) matrix versions of the "Riemann equations" associated with an integrable equation, possessing a bidifferential calculus formulation, multi-soliton-type solutions of the latter can be generated. This includes "breaking" multi-soliton-type solutions of the self-dual Yang-Mills and the (2+1)-dimensional NLS equation, which are parametrized by solutions of Riemann equations.

  19. The zoonotic importance of Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, G; Daborn, C J; Grange, J M; Cosivi, O

    1996-04-01

    The zoonotic importance of Mycobacterium bovis has been the subject of renewed interest in the wake of the increasing incidence of tuberculosis in the human population. This paper considers some of the conditions under which transmission of M. bovis from animals to humans occurs and reviews current information on the global distribution of the disease. The paper highlights the particular threat posed by this zoonotic disease in developing countries and lists the veterinary and human public health measures that need to be adopted if the disease is to be contained. The association of tuberculosis with malnutrition and poverty has long been recognized and the need to address these basic issues are as crucial as specific measures against the disease itself.

  20. The untyped stack calculus and Bohm's theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Carraro

    2013-01-01

    The stack calculus is a functional language in which is in a Curry-Howard correspondence with classical logic. It enjoys confluence but, as well as Parigot's lambda-mu, does not admit the Bohm Theorem, typical of the lambda-calculus. We present a simple extension of stack calculus which is for the stack calculus what Saurin's Lambda-mu is for lambda-mu.

  1. Fluorescence detection of dental calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is devoted to the optimization of fluorescence dental calculus diagnostics in optical spectrum. The optimal wavelengths for fluorescence excitation and registration are determined. Two spectral ranges 620 – 645 nm and 340 – 370 nm are the most convenient for supra- and subgingival calculus determination. The simple implementation of differential method free from the necessity of spectrometer using was investigated. Calculus detection reliability in the case of simple implementation is higher than in the case of spectra analysis at optimal wavelengths. The use of modulated excitation light and narrowband detection of informative signal allows us to decrease essentially its diagnostic intensity even in comparison with intensity of the low level laser dental therapy

  2. Essential AOP: The A Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Fraine, Bruno; Ernst, Erik; Südholt, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Aspect-oriented programming (AOP) has produced interesting language designs, but also ad hoc semantics that needs clarification. We contribute to this clarification with a calculus that models essential AOP, both simpler and more general than existing formalizations. In AOP, advice may intercept......-oriented code. Two well-known pointcut categories, call and execution, are commonly considered similar.We formally expose their differences, and resolve the associated soundness problem. Our calculus includes type ranges, an intuitive and concise alternative to explicit type variables that allows advice...... to be polymorphic over intercepted methods. We use calculus parameters to cover type safety for a wide design space of other features. Type soundness is verified in Coq....

  3. An AP Calculus Classroom Amusement Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the school year, AP Calculus teachers strive to teach course content comprehensively and swiftly in an effort to finish all required material before the AP Calculus exam. As early May approaches and the AP Calculus test looms, students and teachers nervously complete lessons, assignments, and assessments to ensure student preparation.…

  4. The Power of Investigative Calculus Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, John Robert; Quinn, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes investigative calculus projects in which students explore a question or problem of their own construction. Three exemplary pieces of student work are showcased. Investigative calculus projects are an excellent way to foster student understanding and interest in calculus. (Contains 4 figures.)

  5. Applying π-Calculus to Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abendroth, Jorg

    2003-01-01

    The π-Calculus has been developed to reason about behavioural equivalence. Different notations of equivalence are defined in terms of process interactions, as well as the context of processes. There are various extensions of the π-Calculus, such as the SPI calculus, which has primitives to facili...

  6. Graphic lambda calculus and knot diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Buliga, Marius

    2012-01-01

    In arXiv:1207.0332 [cs.LO] was proposed a graphic lambda calculus formalism, which has sectors corresponding to untyped lambda calculus and emergent algebras. Here we explore the sector covering knot diagrams, which are constructed as macros over the graphic lambda calculus.

  7. The differential lambda-mu-calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Vaux, Lionel

    2007-01-01

    We define a differential lambda-mu-calculus which is an extension of both Parigot's lambda-mu-calculus and Ehrhard- Regnier's differential lambda-calculus. We prove some basic properties of the system: reduction enjoys Church-Rosser and simply typed terms are strongly normalizing.

  8. Calculus with a quaternionic variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Most of theoretical physics is based on the mathematics of functions of a real or a complex variable; yet we frequently are drawn in trying to extend our reach to include quaternions. The noncommutativity of the quaternion algebra poses obstacles for the usual manipulations of calculus, but we show in this paper how many of those obstacles can be overcome. The surprising result is that the first order term in the expansion of F(x +δ) is a compact formula involving both F'(x) and [F(x )-F(x∗)]/(x -x∗). This advance in the differential calculus for quaternionic variables also leads us to some progress in studying integration.

  9. Elementary calculus an infinitesimal approach

    CERN Document Server

    Keisler, H Jerome

    2012-01-01

    This first-year calculus book is centered around the use of infinitesimals, an approach largely neglected until recently for reasons of mathematical rigor. It exposes students to the intuition that originally led to the calculus, simplifying their grasp of the central concepts of derivatives and integrals. The author also teaches the traditional approach, giving students the benefits of both methods.Chapters 1 through 4 employ infinitesimals to quickly develop the basic concepts of derivatives, continuity, and integrals. Chapter 5 introduces the traditional limit concept, using approximation p

  10. The algebraic lambda-calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Vaux, Lionel

    2009-01-01

    We introduce an extension of the pure lambda-calculus by endowing the set of terms with a structure of vector space, or more generally of module, over a fixed set of scalars. Terms are moreover subject to identities similar to usual point-wise definition of linear combinations of functions with values in a vector space. We then study a natural extension of beta-reduction in this setting: we prove it is confluent, then discuss consistency and conservativity over the ordinary lambda-calculus. W...

  11. A Calculus for Trust Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Nielsen, Mogens; Sassone, Vladimiro

    2004-01-01

    We introduce ctm, a process calculus which embodies a notion of trust for global computing systems. In ctm each principal (location) is equipped with a policy, which determines its legal behaviour, and with a protocol, which allows interactions between principals and the flow of information from...... principals to policies. We elect to formalise policies using a Datalog-like logic, and to express protocols in the process algebra style. This yields an expressive calculus very suitable for the global computing scenarios, and provides a formalisation of notions such as trust evolution. For ctm we define...... barbed equivalences and study their possible applications....

  12. Streptococcus bovis septicemia and meningitis associated with chronic radiation enterocolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadeja, L.; Kantarjian, H.; Bolivar, R.

    1983-12-01

    We describe the first patient with simultaneous S bovis septicemia and meningitis associated with chronic radiation enterocolitis. This case underlines the value of a thorough gastrointestinal evaluation of all patients with S bovis infection, and the need for a neurologic investigation even with minor neurologic manifestations.

  13. Mycobacterium bovis hip bursitis in a lung transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, J M; Crespo, M; Silveira, F P; Kaplan, R; Aslam, S

    2016-02-01

    We present a report of extrapulmonary Mycobacterium bovis infection in a lung transplant recipient. M. bovis is acquired predominantly by zoonotic transmission, particularly from consumption of unpasteurized foods. We discuss epidemiologic exposure, especially as relates to the Mexico-US border, clinical characteristics, resistance profile, and treatment. PMID:26671334

  14. Transmissie van Mycobacterium bovis tussen mens en dier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de G.; Beer, de J.; Bakker, D.; Soolingen, D.

    2015-01-01

    Nederland is officieel vrij van rundertuberculose. Toch komt af en toe nog Mycobacterium bovis-tuberculose voor bij relatief jonge autochtone Nederlanders. Ook zijn er recent nog wel boviene-uitbraken geweest. Dat roept de vraag op of er ook nu nog transmissie is van M.bovis tussen mens en dier. Daa

  15. Identification of Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus salivarius in clinical laboratories.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruoff, K L; Ferraro, M J; Holden, J; Kunz, L J

    1984-01-01

    Streptococci identified as Streptococcus bovis, S. bovis variant, and Streptococcus salivarius were examined with respect to physiological and serological characteristics and cellular fatty acid content. Similarities in physiological reactions and problems encountered in serological analysis were noted, suggesting that an expanded battery of physiological tests is needed to definitively identify these streptococci. Cellular fatty acid analysis provided an accurate method for distinguishing S....

  16. Mastite bovina por Mycoplasma bovis em rebanhos leiteiros Mastitis caused by Mycoplasma bovis in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucienne G. Pretto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinadas 713 vacas de três rebanhos leiteiros localizados na região norte do Estado do Paraná e sudoeste do Estado de São Paulo, das quais 137 apresentaram mastite. Nas três propriedades foram detectados oito animais (1,12% com mastite clínica por Mycoplasma bovis. Destes animais, quatro tratados com oxitetraciclina e tilosina e três com enrofloxacina, não responderam ao tratamento e foram descartados no decorrer da lactação. Uma vaca medicada com enrofloxacina recuperou quase que totalmente a secreção láctea mas a eliminação de M. bovis persistiu por toda lactação. Esta vaca apresentou cura bacteriológica na lactação seguinte. O descarte dos animais positivos, monitora-mento bacteriológico e a aplicação correta das medidas de prevenção para as mastites contagiosas controlaram a disseminação de M. bovis nos rebanhos.In this study 713 cows were examined. The animals were from three dairy farms in northern Paraná and the southwest of the State of São Paulo. From these cows, 137 had mastitis. On the three farms, 8 cows (1.12% with Mycoplasma bovis mastitis were detected. Four were treated with tylosin and oxytetracyclin and three with enrofloxacin. There was no response to the treatments, and these animals were culled during the lactation period. One cow treated with enrofloxacin almost totally recovered milk production, but elimination of M. bovis continued during the lactation, and there was no bacteriological cure. This cow had a normal milk production in the next lactation period, without elimination of M. bovis. Culling of positive animals, the bacteriological study and correct application of preventive practices for contagious mastitis controlled the dissemination of M. bovis to other animals.

  17. Mathematical Features of the Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerheber, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental theorems of the calculus describe the relationships between derivatives and integrals of functions. The value of any function at a particular location is the definite derivative of its integral and the definite integral of its derivative. Thus, any value is the magnitude of the slope of the tangent of its integral at that position,…

  18. The Algebra of Schubert Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Gatto, Letterio

    2004-01-01

    A flexible unified framework for both classical and quantum Schubert calculus is proposed. It is based on a natural combinatorial approach relying on the Hasse-Schmidt extension of a certain family of pairwise commuting endomorphisms of an infinite free Z-module M to its exterior algebra.

  19. Reading the World with Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzosa, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    It is now increasingly recognized that mathematics is not a neutral value-free subject. Rather, mathematics can challenge students' taken-for-granted realities and promote action. This article describes two issues, namely deforestation and income inequality. These were specifically chosen because they can be related to a range of calculus concepts…

  20. Calculus Students' Understanding of Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorko, Allison; Speer, Natasha M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have documented difficulties that elementary school students have in understanding volume. Despite its importance in higher mathematics, we know little about college students' understanding of volume. This study investigated calculus students' understanding of volume. Clinical interview transcripts and written responses to volume…

  1. Advanced calculus of several variables

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, C H

    1995-01-01

    Modern conceptual treatment of multivariable calculus, emphasizing the interplay of geometry and analysis via linear algebra and the approximation of nonlinear mappings by linear ones. At the same time, ample attention is paid to the classical applications and computational methods. Hundreds of examples, problems and figures. 1973 edition.

  2. ENERGY CALCULUS IN CHINESE LANGUAGESEGMENTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on cognitive science, the EnergyCalculus in Chinese language segmentation was presented to eliminate segmentation ambiguity. The notion of "EnergyCost" was advanced to denote the extent of the under-standability of a certain segmentation. EnergyCost function was defined with Z-notation. This approcah is effective to all natural language segmentation.

  3. A "Model" Multivariable Calculus Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Charlene E.; Schlicker, Steven J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a rich, investigative approach to multivariable calculus. Introduces a project in which students construct physical models of surfaces that represent real-life applications of their choice. The models, along with student-selected datasets, serve as vehicles to study most of the concepts of the course from both continuous and discrete…

  4. Stochastic Pi-calculus Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardelli, Luca; Mardare, Radu Iulian

    2013-01-01

    We develop a version of stochastic Pi-calculus with a semantics based on measure theory. We dene the behaviour of a process in a rate environment using measures over the measurable space of processes induced by structural congruence. We extend the stochastic bisimulation to include the concept of...

  5. Constructivized Calculus in College Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Barbara Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present some of the classical concepts, definitions, and theorems of calculus from the constructivists' point of view in the spirit of the philosophies of L.E.J. Brouwer and Errett Bishop. This presentation will compare the classical statements to the constructivized statements. The method focuses on giving…

  6. Portfolio Analysis for Vector Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Samuel R.

    2015-01-01

    Classic stock portfolio analysis provides an applied context for Lagrange multipliers that undergraduate students appreciate. Although modern methods of portfolio analysis are beyond the scope of vector calculus, classic methods reinforce the utility of this material. This paper discusses how to introduce classic stock portfolio analysis in a…

  7. Dyadic Modalities and Lambek Calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Dirk; de Rijke, Maarten

    1993-01-01

    The Lambek calculus is a logic on the one hand, and a grammar on the other. The system is studied in different disciplines, having their own interests. The logician studies relations with other systems, models in general, cut elimination etc. The linguist is interested in parsing properties, express

  8. Differential Calculus: Concepts and Notation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, David; Relf, Simon

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that many students with A-level mathematics, and even with a degree in mathematics or a related subject, do not have an understanding of the basic principles of calculus. Describes the approach used in three textbooks currently in use. Contains 14 references. (Author/ASK)

  9. A Calculus of Higher-Order Distributed Components

    OpenAIRE

    Stefani, Jean-Bernard

    2003-01-01

    This report presents a calculus for higher-order distributed components, the Kell calculus. The calculus can be understood as a direct extension of the higher-order -calculus with programmable locations. The report illustrates the expressive power of the Kell calculus by encoding several process calculi with explicit locations, including Mobile Ambients, the Distributed Join calculus and the . The latter encoding demonstrates that the Kell calculus retains the expressive power of the but in a...

  10. λμ-calculus and Λμ-calculus: a Capital Difference

    OpenAIRE

    Herbelin, Hugo; Saurin, Alexis

    2009-01-01

    Since Parigot designed the λμ-calculus to algorithmically interpret classical natural deduction, several variants of λμ-calculus have been proposed. Some of these variants derived from an alteration of the original syntax due to de Groote, leading in particular to the Λμ-calculus of the second author, a calculus truly different from λμ-calculus since, in the untyped case, it provides a Böhm separation theorem that the original calculus does not satisfy. In addition to a survey of some aspects...

  11. Severe Mycoplasma bovis outbreak in an Austrian dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothmann, Harald; Spergser, Joachim; Elmer, Josef; Prunner, Isabella; Iwersen, Michael; Klein-Jöbstl, Daniela; Drillich, Marc

    2015-11-01

    A conventional dairy farm, housing 19 Austrian Simmental cows, experienced a spontaneous outbreak of a Mycoplasma bovis infection, showing severe clinical signs of respiratory tract disease, clinical mastitis, and tremendous drop in milk production. Despite intensive therapy, 5 cows died within 2 weeks or were euthanized. From the remaining cows, bacteriological culture and polymerase chain reaction revealed M. bovis in 10 of 14 milk samples. Mycoplasma bovis was found in 1 of 5 randomly collected nasal swabs. Autopsy of 1 cow revealed infection of the lungs and the udder with M. bovis. The 13 M. bovis isolates from milk samples, nasal swabs, lungs, and udder were genotyped by multilocus variable number of tandem-repeat analysis, and indicated that described infections were caused by a single M. bovis strain. The virulent M. bovis strain resulted in dramatic economic loss to the farmer. To control the disease, culling of all animals, including heifers and calves, was recommended, and strict hygienic measures were implemented before introducing new animals to the farm. PMID:26450838

  12. Factors Associated with Success in College Calculus II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosasco, Margaret E.

    2013-01-01

    Students are entering college having earned credit for college Calculus 1 based on their scores on the College Board's Advanced Placement (AP) Calculus AB exam. Despite being granted credit for college Calculus 1, it is unclear whether these students are adequately prepared for college Calculus 2. College calculus classes are often taught…

  13. Decidable Type Inference for the Polymorphic Rewriting Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Cirstea, Horatiu; Kirchner, Claude; Liquori, Luigi; Wack, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    The rewriting calculus is a minimal framework embedding lambda calculus and term rewriting systems that allows abstraction on variables and patterns. The rewriting calculus features higher-order functions (from the lambda calculus) and pattern matching (from term rewriting systems). In this paper, we study extensively the decidability of type inference in the second-order rewriting calculus à la Curry.

  14. Genetic variations among Mycoplasma bovis strains isolated from Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Kokotovic, Branko; Ojeniyi, B.;

    2000-01-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of Mycoplasma bovis strains isolated in Denmark over a 17-year period was investigated. Forty-two field strains isolated from different geographic locations and specimens, including strains from 21 herds involved in two outbreaks of M. bovis-induced mastitis, and the type....... Among the analyzed strains, 18 different AFLP profiles were detected. The similarity between individual fingerprints, calculated by Dice similarity coefficient, ranged from 0.9 to 1.0. Twenty-five strains, including 23 which were isolated during two outbreaks of M. bovis-induced mastitis which occurred...

  15. Significant Association of Streptococcus bovis with Malignant Gastrointestinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Shanan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus bovis is a Gram-positive bacterium causing serious human infections, including endocarditis and bacteremia, and is usually associated with underlying disease. The aims of the current study were to compare prevalence of the bacterium associated with malignant and nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases and to determine the susceptibility of the isolated strains to different antimicrobial agents. The result showed that the prevalence of S. bovis in stool specimens from patients with malignant or with nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases was statistically significant. This result may support the idea that there is correlation between S. bovis and the malignant gastrointestinal diseases.

  16. Cosmological modelling with Regge calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Rex G

    2015-01-01

    The late universe's matter distribution obeys the Copernican principle at only the coarsest of scales. The relative importance of such inhomogeneity is still not well understood. Because of the Einstein field equations' non-linear nature, some argue a non-perturbative approach is necessary to correctly model inhomogeneities and may even obviate any need for dark energy. We shall discuss an approach based on Regge calculus, a discrete approximation to general relativity: we shall discuss the Collins--Williams formulation of Regge calculus and its application to two toy universes. The first is a universe for which the continuum solution is well-established, the $\\Lambda$-FLRW universe. The second is an inhomogeneous universe, the `lattice universe' wherein matter consists solely of a lattice of point masses with pure vacuum in between, a distribution more similar to that of the actual universe compared to FLRW universes. We shall discuss both regular lattices and one where one mass gets perturbed.

  17. Toward lattice fractional vector calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2014-09-01

    An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity.

  18. Reductionism and the Universal Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Sarma, Gopal P

    2016-01-01

    In the seminal essay, "On the unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics in the physical sciences," physicist Eugene Wigner poses a fundamental philosophical question concerning the relationship between a physical system and our capacity to model its behavior with the symbolic language of mathematics. In this essay, I examine an ambitious 16th and 17th-century intellectual agenda from the perspective of Wigner's question, namely, what historian Paolo Rossi calls "the quest to create a universal language." While many elite thinkers pursued related ideas, the most inspiring and forceful was Gottfried Leibniz's effort to create a "universal calculus," a pictorial language which would transparently represent the entirety of human knowledge, as well as an associated symbolic calculus with which to model the behavior of physical systems and derive new truths. I suggest that a deeper understanding of why the efforts of Leibniz and others failed could shed light on Wigner's original question. I argue that the notion o...

  19. Fractal calculus involving gauge function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmankhaneh, Alireza K.; Baleanu, Dumitru

    2016-08-01

    Henstock-Kurzweil integral or gauge integral is the generalization of the Riemann integral. The functions which are not integrable because of singularity in the senses of Lebesgue or Riemann are gauge integrable. In this manuscript, we have generalized Fα-calculus using the gauge integral method for the integrating of the functions on fractal set subset of real-line where they have singularities. The suggested new method leads to the wider class of functions on the fractal subset of real-line that are *Fα-integrable. Using gauge function we define *Fα-derivative of functions their Fα-derivative is not exist. The reported results can be used for generalizing the fundamental theorem of Fα-calculus.

  20. Operational calculus and generalized functions

    CERN Document Server

    Erdelyi, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    This brief monograph by a distinguished professor is based on a mathematics course offered at the California Institute of Technology. The majority of students taking this course were advanced undergraduates and graduate students of engineering. A solid background in advanced calculus is a prerequisite.Topics include elementary and convergence theories of convolution quotients, differential equations involving operator functions, and exponential functions of operators. Tools developed in the preceding chapters are then applied to problems in partial differential equations. Solutions to selected

  1. Schubert calculus and singularity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbounov, Vassily; Petrov, Victor

    2012-02-01

    Schubert calculus has been in the intersection of several fast developing areas of mathematics for a long time. Originally invented as the description of the cohomology of homogeneous spaces, it has to be redesigned when applied to other generalized cohomology theories such as the equivariant, the quantum cohomology, K-theory, and cobordism. All this cohomology theories are different deformations of the ordinary cohomology. In this note, we show that there is, in some sense, the universal deformation of Schubert calculus which produces the above mentioned by specialization of the appropriate parameters. We build on the work of Lerche Vafa and Warner. The main conjecture these authors made was that the classical cohomology of a Hermitian symmetric homogeneous manifold is a Jacobi ring of an appropriate potential. We extend this conjecture and provide a simple proof. Namely, we show that the cohomology of the Hermitian symmetric space is a Jacobi ring of a certain potential and the equivariant and the quantum cohomology and the K-theory is a Jacobi ring of a particular deformation of this potential. This suggests to study the most general deformations of the Frobenius algebra of cohomology of these manifolds by considering the versal deformation of the appropriate potential. The structure of the Jacobi ring of such potential is a subject of well developed singularity theory. This gives a potentially new way to look at the classical, the equivariant, the quantum and other flavors of Schubert calculus.

  2. Extended Report: The Implicit Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Bruno C d S; Choi, Wontae; Lee, Wonchan; Yi, Kwangkeun

    2012-01-01

    Generic programming (GP) is an increasingly important trend in programming languages. Well-known GP mechanisms, such as type classes and the C++0x concepts proposal, usually combine two features: 1) a special type of interfaces; and 2) implicit instantiation of implementations of those interfaces. Scala implicits are a GP language mechanism, inspired by type classes, that break with the tradition of coupling implicit instantiation with a special type of interface. Instead, implicits provide only implicit instantiation, which is generalized to work for any types. This turns out to be quite powerful and useful to address many limitations that show up in other GP mechanisms. This paper synthesizes the key ideas of implicits formally in a minimal and general core calculus called the implicit calculus, and it shows how to build source languages supporting implicit instantiation on top of it. A novelty of the calculus is its support for partial resolution and higher-order rules (a feature that has been proposed bef...

  3. A Calculus of Evolving Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dezani-Ciancaglini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The demands of developing modern, highly dynamic applications have led to an increasing interest in dynamic programming languages and mechanisms. Not only must applications evolve over time, but the object models themselves may need to be adapted to the requirements of different run-time contexts. Class-based models and prototype-based models, for example, may need to co-exist to meet the demands of dynamically evolving applications. Multi-dimensional dispatch, fine-grained and dynamic software composition, and run-time evolution of behaviour are further examples of diverse mechanisms which may need to co-exist in a dynamically evolving run-time environment. How can we model the semantics of these highly dynamic features, yet still offer some reasonable safety guarantees?To this end we present an original calculus in which objects can adapt their behaviour at run-time. Both objects and environments are represented by first-class mappings between variables and values. Message sends are dynamically resolved to method calls. Variables may be dynamically bound, making it possible to model a variety of dynamic mechanisms within the same calculus. Despite the highly dynamic nature of the calculus, safety properties are assured by a type assignment system.

  4. A Process Calculus for Molecular Interaction Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Barbuti; Andrea Maggiolo-Schettini; Paolo Milazzo; Giovanni Pardini; Aureliano Rama

    2009-01-01

    We present the MIM calculus, a modeling formalism with a strong biological basis, which provides biologically-meaningful operators for representing the interaction capabilities of molecular species. The operators of the calculus are inspired by the reaction symbols used in Molecular Interaction Maps (MIMs), a diagrammatic notation used by biologists. Models of the calculus can be easily derived from MIM diagrams, for which an unambiguous and executable interpretation is thus obtained. We give...

  5. Control Flow Analysis for SF Combinator Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Lester, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Programs that transform other programs often require access to the internal structure of the program to be transformed. This is at odds with the usual extensional view of functional programming, as embodied by the lambda calculus and SK combinator calculus. The recently-developed SF combinator calculus offers an alternative, intensional model of computation that may serve as a foundation for developing principled languages in which to express intensional computation, including program transfo...

  6. Monogenic Calculus as an Intertwining Operator

    OpenAIRE

    Kisil, Vladimir V.

    2003-01-01

    We revise a monogenic calculus for several non-commuting operators, which is defined through group representations. Instead of an algebraic homomorphism we use group covariance. The related notion of joint spectrum and spectral mapping theorem are discussed. The construction is illustrated by a simple example of calculus and joint spectrum of two non-commuting selfadjoint (n\\times n) matrices. Keywords: Functional calculus, spectrum, intertwining operator, spectral mapping theorem, jet spaces...

  7. A primer on exterior differential calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Burton D.A.

    2003-01-01

    A pedagogical application-oriented introduction to the cal­culus of exterior differential forms on differential manifolds is presented. Stokes' theorem, the Lie derivative, linear con­nections and their curvature, torsion and non-metricity are discussed. Numerous examples using differential calculus are given and some detailed comparisons are made with their tradi­tional vector counterparts. In particular, vector calculus on R3 is cast in terms of exterior calculus and the traditional Stokes'...

  8. Time scales: from Nabla calculus to Delta calculus and vice versa via duality

    OpenAIRE

    Caputo, M. Cristina

    2009-01-01

    In this note we show how one can obtain results from the nabla calculus from results on the delta calculus and vice versa via a duality argument. We provide applications of the main results to the calculus of variations on time scales.

  9. The call-by-need lambda calculus (unabridged).

    OpenAIRE

    Maraist, John; Odersky, Martin; Wadler, Phil

    2007-01-01

    We present a calculus that captures the operational semantics of call-by-need.We demonstrate that the calculus is confluent and standardizable and entails the same observational equivalences as call-by-name lambda calculus.

  10. Petri nets semantics ofπ-calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenhua YU; Yuanli CAI; Haiping XU

    2008-01-01

    As π-calculus based on the interleaving semantics cannot depict the true concurrency and has few supporting tools,it is translated into Petri nets.π-calculus is divided into basic elements,sequence,concurrency,choice and recursive modules.These modules are translated into Petri nets to construct a complicated system.Petri nets semantics for π-calculus visualize system structure as well as system behaviors.The structural analysis techniques allow direct qualitative analysis of the system properties on the structure of the nets.Finally,Petri nets semantics for π-calculus are illustrated by applying them to mobile telephone systems.

  11. Solutions manual to accompany Fundamentals of calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Carla C

    2015-01-01

    Solutions Manual to Accompany Fundamentals of Calculus the text that encourages students to use power, quotient, and product rules for solutions as well as stresses the importance of modeling skills.  In addition to core integral and differential calculus coverage, the core book features finite calculus, which lends itself to modeling and spreadsheets.  Specifically, finite calculus is applied to marginal economic analysis, finance, growth, and decay.  Includes: Linear Equations and Functions The Derivative Using the Derivative Exponential and Logarithmic

  12. Advanced Calculus An Introduction to Linear Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Leonard F

    2008-01-01

    Features an introduction to advanced calculus and highlights its inherent concepts from linear algebra. Advanced Calculus reflects the unifying role of linear algebra in an effort to smooth readers' transition to advanced mathematics. The book fosters the development of complete theorem-proving skills through abundant exercises while also promoting a sound approach to the study. The traditional theorems of elementary differential and integral calculus are rigorously established, presenting the foundations of calculus in a way that reorients thinking toward modern analysis. Following an introdu

  13. CALCULUS AND THE RACE TRACK PRINCIPLE

    OpenAIRE

    Akritas, Alkiviadis

    1999-01-01

    Calculus and Mathematica (C&M) by Davis, Porta and Uhl ia a well thought-out method that, when used properly, gives students an intuitive understanding of, and a feeling for, all the major calculus concepts. It is comprised of the following four books: C&M / Derivatives, C&M / Integrals, C&M / Vector Calculus, and C&M / Approximation, known also as Books 1-4. In these books the authors advocate an explore-and-discover method for teaching the basic concepts of Calculus to u...

  14. Generalized vector calculus on convex domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Om P.; Xu, Yufeng

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we apply recently proposed generalized integral and differential operators to develop generalized vector calculus and generalized variational calculus for problems defined over a convex domain. In particular, we present some generalization of Green's and Gauss divergence theorems involving some new operators, and apply these theorems to generalized variational calculus. For fractional power kernels, the formulation leads to fractional vector calculus and fractional variational calculus for problems defined over a convex domain. In special cases, when certain parameters take integer values, we obtain formulations for integer order problems. Two examples are presented to demonstrate applications of the generalized variational calculus which utilize the generalized vector calculus developed in the paper. The first example leads to a generalized partial differential equation and the second example leads to a generalized eigenvalue problem, both in two dimensional convex domains. We solve the generalized partial differential equation by using polynomial approximation. A special case of the second example is a generalized isoperimetric problem. We find an approximate solution to this problem. Many physical problems containing integer order integrals and derivatives are defined over arbitrary domains. We speculate that future problems containing fractional and generalized integrals and derivatives in fractional mechanics will be defined over arbitrary domains, and therefore, a general variational calculus incorporating a general vector calculus will be needed for these problems. This research is our first attempt in that direction.

  15. A Higher-Order Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    in their free variables. There are special binders for limits and more general ends. The rules for limits and ends support an algebraic manipulation of universal constructions as opposed to a more traditional diagrammatic approach. Duality within the calculus and applications in proving continuity are discussed......A calculus for a fragment of category theory is presented. The types in the language denote categories and the expressions functors. The judgements of the calculus systematise categorical arguments such as: an expression is functorial in its free variables; two expressions are naturally isomorphic...... with examples. The calculus gives a basis for mechanising a theory of categories in a generic theorem prover like Isabelle....

  16. A Calculus for Context-Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmer, Pascal

    2005-01-01

    In order to answer the challenge of pervasive computing, we propose a new process calculus, whose aim is to describe dynamic systems composed of agents able to move and react differently depending on their location. This Context-Aware Calculus features a hierarchical structure similar to mobile...... ambients, and a generic multi-agent synchronization mechanism, inspired from the join-calculus. After general ideas and introduction, we review the full calculus' syntax and semantics, as well as some motivating examples, study its expressiveness, and show how the notion of computation itself can be made...

  17. Pre-calculus workbook for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Kuang, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Get the confidence and math skills you need to get started with calculus Are you preparing for calculus? This hands-on workbook helps you master basic pre-calculus concepts and practice the types of problems you'll encounter in the course. You'll get hundreds of valuable exercises, problem-solving shortcuts, plenty of workspace, and step-by-step solutions to every problem. You'll also memorize the most frequently used equations, see how to avoid common mistakes, understand tricky trig proofs, and much more. Pre-Calculus Workbook For Dummies is the perfect tool for anyone who wa

  18. Fractional calculus with applications for nuclear reactor dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Santanu Saha

    2015-01-01

    Introduces Novel Applications for Solving Neutron Transport EquationsWhile deemed nonessential in the past, fractional calculus is now gaining momentum in the science and engineering community. Various disciplines have discovered that realistic models of physical phenomenon can be achieved with fractional calculus and are using them in numerous ways. Since fractional calculus represents a reactor more closely than classical integer order calculus, Fractional Calculus with Applications for Nuclear Reactor Dynamics focuses on the application of fractional calculus to describe the physical behavi

  19. Biochemical and antigenic properties of Streptococcus bovis isolated from pigeons.

    OpenAIRE

    De Herdt, P; Haesebrouck, F; DEVRIESE, L.A.; Ducatelle, R.

    1992-01-01

    Biochemical and serological properties of 60 strains of Streptococcus bovis isolated from healthy pigeons and from pigeons that died from S. bovis septicemia were determined. On the basis of the hemolysis of bovine erythrocytes, the production of polysaccharides on saccharose-containing media, and the fermentation of mannitol, inulin, trehalose, and L-arabinose, the isolates were classified in five biotypes and two subbiotypes. Slide agglutination and microagglutination tests using monospecif...

  20. The hidden structural rules of the discontinuous Lambek calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Valentín Fernández Gallart, José Oriol

    2014-01-01

    The sequent calculus sL for the Lambek calculus L (lambek 58) has no structural rules. Interestingly, sL is equivalent to a multimodal calculus mL, which consists of the nonassociative Lambek calculus with the structural rule of associativity. This paper proves that the sequent calculus or hypersequent calculus hD of the discontinuous Lambek calculus (Morrill and Valent\\'in), which like sL has no structural rules, is also equivalent to an omega-sorted multimodal calculus mD. More concretely, ...

  1. Experimental inoculation of wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, K R; Fitzgerald, S D; Hattey, J A; Bolin, C A; Berry, D E; Church, S V; Reed, W M

    2006-03-01

    Although avian species are known to be susceptible to infection with Mycobacterium spp. organisms, much remains unknown about the susceptibility of birds to infection with M. bovis. The objective of this current study was to determine if wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) can be infected with M. bovis when inoculated by the oral or intratracheal route. Six turkeys were orally inoculated and another six were inoculated via the trachea with a high dose of M. bovis, 1 x 10(5) CFU/ml. Six turkeys were sham-inoculated controls. Two turkeys from each treatment group were sacrificed on days 30, 60, and 90 postinoculation. There were no gross or microscopic lesions consistent with mycobacteriosis in the 23 inoculated turkeys over the 90-day duration of this study. Fecal cultures were also consistently negative for M. bovis when sampled before inoculation and on days 1, 30, and 60 postinoculation. Two intratracheally inoculated turkeys were positive for M. bovis in visceral tissues at 30 days postinoculation. However, this finding was only indicative of passive persistence of mycobacteria in the tissues and not of infection, as there were no attendant lesions or clinical compromise to support infection. Thus, it can be concluded that young wild turkeys are resistant to infection with M. bovis and, therefore, pose minimal threat as reservoir or spillover hosts for this organism.

  2. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  3. Programming Language Concepts - The Lambda Calculus Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkinga, Maarten M.; Asveld, P.R.J.; Nijholt, A.

    1987-01-01

    The Lambda Calculus is a formal system, originally intended as a tool in the foundation of mathematics, but mainly used to study the concepts of algorithm and effective computability. Recently, the Lambda Calculus and related systems acquire attention from Computer Science for another reason too: s

  4. Raise Test Scores: Integrate Biology and Calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukens, Jeffrey D.; Feinstein, Sheryl

    This paper presents the results of research that compared the academic achievement of high school students enrolled in an integrated Advanced Placement Biology/Advanced Placement Calculus course with students enrolled in traditional Advanced Placement Biology and Advanced Placement Calculus courses. Study subjects included high school students…

  5. Imagine Yourself in This Calculus Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Luajean

    2007-01-01

    The efforts to attract students to precalculus, trigonometry, and calculus classes became more successful at the author's school when projects-based classes were offered. Data collection from an untethered hot air balloon flight for calculus students was planned to maximize enrollment. The data were analyzed numerically, graphically, and…

  6. Heisenberg algebra and a graphical calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Khovanov, Mikhail

    2010-01-01

    A new calculus of planar diagrams involving diagrammatics for biadjoint functors and degenerate affine Hecke algebras is introduced. The calculus leads to an additive monoidal category whose Grothendieck ring contains an integral form of the Heisenberg algebra in infinitely many variables. We construct bases of vector spaces of morphisms between products of generating objects in this category.

  7. Aspects of Calculus for Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fothergill, Lee

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the perspectives of faculty members who had experience teaching undergraduate calculus and preservice teachers who had recently completed student teaching in regards to a first semester undergraduate calculus course. An online survey was created and sent to recent student teachers and college mathematics…

  8. RAMAN-SPECTRA OF HUMAN DENTAL CALCULUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TSUDA, H; ARENDS, J

    1993-01-01

    Raman spectra of human dental calculus have been observed for the first time by use of micro-Raman spectroscopy. The spectral features of calculus were influenced easily by heating caused by laser irradiation. Therefore, the measurements were carried out at relatively low power (5 mW, 1-mu m spot si

  9. Educating about Sustainability while Enhancing Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    We give an overview of why it is important to include sustainability in mathematics classes and provide specific examples of how to do this for a calculus class. We illustrate that when students use "Excel" to fit curves to real data, fundamentally important questions about sustainability become calculus questions about those curves. (Contains 5…

  10. Calculus and Success in a Business School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-gook; Garcia, Fernando; Dey, Ishita

    2012-01-01

    Many business schools or colleges require calculus as a prerequisite for certain classes or for continuing to upper division courses. While there are many studies investigating the relationship between performance in calculus and performance in a single course, such as economics, statistics, and finance, there are very few studies investigating…

  11. A Cross-National Study of Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jun; Friedler, Louis M.; Wolff, Edward F.; Li, Jun; Rhea, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The results from a cross-national study comparing calculus performance of students at East China Normal University (ECNU) in Shanghai and students at the University of Michigan before and after their first university calculus course are presented. Overall, ECNU significantly outperformed Michigan on both the pre- and post-tests, but the Michigan…

  12. Areas and Volumes in Pre-Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Joscelyn A.

    2008-01-01

    This article suggests the introduction of the concepts of areas bounded by plane curves and the volumes of solids of revolution in Pre-calculus. It builds on the basic knowledge that students bring to a pre-calculus class, derives a few more formulas, and gives examples of some problems on plane areas and the volumes of solids of revolution that…

  13. Attendance and Attainment in a Calculus Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulenbroek, Bernard; van den Bogaard, Maartje

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the relationship between attendance and attainment in a standard calculus course is investigated. Calculus could in principle be studied without attending lectures due to the wealth of material available (in hardcopy and online). However, in this study we will show that the pass rate of students attending classes regularly (>75%…

  14. Spikes in Quantum Regge Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Ambjorn, J.; Nielsen, J.; Rolf, J.; Savvidy, G.

    1997-01-01

    We demonstrate by explicit calculation of the DeWitt-like measure in two-dimensional quantum Regge gravity that it is highly non-local and that the average values of link lengths $l, $, do not exist for sufficient high powers of $n$. Thus the concept of length has no natural definition in this formalism and a generic manifold degenerates into spikes. This might explain the failure of quantum Regge calculus to reproduce the continuum results of two-dimensional quantum gravity. It points to sev...

  15. OVARIAN CALCIFICATION MIMICKING VESICLE CALCULUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Calcification in ovary is usually dystrophic in natu re, forming secondary to degeneration of the epithelium or in association wit h areas of necrosis. It may occur in cases of endometriosis [1] or in some ovarian tumor eg. Fibro thecoma [2] , Brenner’s tumor [3] , cavernous hemangioma [4] etc. Benign unilateral densely calcified ovary wit hout any association with tumor or endometriosis has not been reported previously. We report a case of heavily calcified left ovary which mimicked as vesicle calculus on X- ray leading to confusion in diagnosis.

  16. A course in advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Borden, Robert S

    1997-01-01

    This remarkable undergraduate-level text offers a study in calculus that simultaneously unifies the concepts of integration in Euclidean space while at the same time giving students an overview of other areas intimately related to mathematical analysis. The author achieves this ambitious undertaking by shifting easily from one related subject to another. Thus, discussions of topology, linear algebra, and inequalities yield to examinations of innerproduct spaces, Fourier series, and the secret of Pythagoras. Beginning with a look at sets and structures, the text advances to such topics as lim

  17. Technical calculus with analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gersting, Judith L

    2010-01-01

    This well-thought-out text, filled with many special features, is designed for a two-semester course in calculus for technology students with a background in college algebra and trigonometry. The author has taken special care to make the book appealing to students by providing motivating examples, facilitating an intuitive understanding of the underlying concepts involved, and by providing much opportunity to gain proficiency in techniques and skills.Initial chapters cover functions and graphs, straight lines and conic sections, new coordinate systems, the derivative, using the derivative, in

  18. Modern calculus and analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    A self-contained text for an introductory course, this volume places strong emphasis on physical applications. Key elements of differential equations and linear algebra are introduced early and are consistently referenced, all theorems are proved using elementary methods, and numerous worked-out examples appear throughout. The highly readable text approaches calculus from the student's viewpoint and points out potential stumbling blocks before they develop. A collection of more than 1,600 problems ranges from exercise material to exploration of new points of theory - many of the answers are fo

  19. Advanced calculus of several variables

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Devendra

    2014-01-01

    ADVANCED CALCULUS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES covers important topics of Transformations and topology on Euclidean in n-space Rn Functions of several variables, Differentiation in Rn, Multiple integrals and Integration in Rn. The topics have been presented in a simple clear and coherent style with a number of examples and exercises. Proofs have been made direct and simple. Unsolved problems just after relevant articles in the form of exercises and typical problems followed by suggestions have been given. This book will help the reader work on the problems of Numerical Analysis, Operations Research, Differential Equations and Engineering applications.

  20. Matlab differential and integral calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    MATLAB is a high-level language and environment for numerical computation, visualization, and programming. Using MATLAB, you can analyze data, develop algorithms, and create models and applications. The language, tools, and built-in math functions enable you to explore multiple approaches and reach a solution faster than with spreadsheets or traditional programming languages, such as C/C++ or Java. MATLAB Differential and Integral Calculus introduces you to the MATLAB language with practical hands-on instructions and results, allowing you to quickly achieve your goals. In addition to givi

  1. AP calculus AB/BC

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Stu

    2013-01-01

    All Access for the AP® Calculus AB & BC Exams Book + Web + Mobile Everything you need to prepare for the Advanced Placement® exam, in a study system built around you! There are many different ways to prepare for an Advanced Placement® exam. What's best for you depends on how much time you have to study and how comfortable you are with the subject matter. To score your highest, you need a system that can be customized to fit you: your schedule, your learning style, and your current level of knowledge. This book, and the free online tools that come with it, will help you personalize your AP® Cal

  2. Cartan Calculus via Pauli Matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro, D.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we will provide a new operatorial counterpart of the path-integral formalism of classical mechanics developed in recent years. We call it new because the Jacobi fields and forms will be realized via finite dimensional matrices. As a byproduct of this we will prove that all the operations of the Cartan calculus, such as the exterior derivative, the interior contraction with a vector field, the Lie derivative and so on, can be realized by means of suitable tensor products of Pauli...

  3. Cartan Calculus via Pauli Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Mauro, D

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we will provide a new operatorial counterpart of the path-integral formalism of classical mechanics developed in recent years. We call it new because the Jacobi fields and forms will be realized via finite dimensional matrices. As a byproduct of this we will prove that all the operations of the Cartan calculus, such as the exterior derivative, the interior contraction with a vector field, the Lie derivative and so on, can be realized by means of suitable tensor products of Pauli and identity matrices.

  4. A functional presentation of Pi calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    From the very beginning process algebra introduced the dichotomy between channels and processes. This dichotomy prevails in all present process calculi.The situation is in contrast to that with lambda calculus which has only one class of entities——the lambda terms. We introduce in this paper a process calculus called Lamp in which channels are process names. The language is more uniform than existing process calculi in two aspects: First it has a unified treatment of channels and processes. There is only one class of syntactical entities——processes. Second it has a unified presentation of both first order and higher order process calculi. The language is functional in the sense that lambda calculus is functional.Two bisimulation equivalences, barbed and closed bisimilarities, are proved to coincide.A natural translation from Pi calculus to Lamp is shown to preserve both operational and algebraic semantics. The relationship between lazy lambda calculus and Lamp is discussed.

  5. Toward lattice fractional vector calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity. (papers)

  6. Characterization of Hemolysin of Moraxella bovis Using a Hemolysis-Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody

    OpenAIRE

    Billson, F. Mark; Harbour, Colin; Michalski, Wojtek P.; Tennent, Jan M.; Egerton, John R.; Hodgson, Jennifer L.

    2000-01-01

    A concentrated bacterial culture supernatant from the hemolytic Moraxella bovis strain UQV 148NF was used to immunize mice and generate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). One, MAb G3/D7, neutralized the hemolytic activity of M. bovis and recognized a 94-kDa protein by Western blot analysis in hemolytic M. bovis strains representing each of the different fimbrial serogroups. Exposure of corneal epithelial cells to M. bovis concentrated culture supernatants demonstrated a role for an exotoxin in the...

  7. Computer-Oriented Calculus Courses Using Finite Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    The so-called discrete approach in calculus instruction involves introducing topics from the calculus of finite differences and finite sums, both for motivation and as useful tools for applications of the calculus. In particular, it provides an ideal setting in which to incorporate computers into calculus courses. This approach has been…

  8. Pseudodifferential calculus on manifolds with corners and groupoids

    OpenAIRE

    Monthubert, Bertrand

    1997-01-01

    We build a longitudinally smooth differentiable groupoid associated to any manifold with corners. The pseudodifferential calculus on this groupoid coincides with the pseudodifferential calculus of Melrose (also called b-calculus). We also define an algebra of rapidly decreasing functions on this groupoid; it contains the kernels of the smoothing operators of the (small) b-calculus.

  9. Using Dynamic Software to Address Common College Calculus Stumbling Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneres, Alice W.; Kerrigan, John A.

    2014-01-01

    There are specific topics in college calculus that can be major stumbling blocks for students. Having taught college calculus for four years to over a thousand students, we observed that even the students who have already taken pre-calculus or calculus during their high school careers had common misunderstandings. Students may remember a technique…

  10. Necrotic pharyngitis associated with Mycoplasma bovis infections in American bison (Bison bison)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) has recently emerged as a significant and costly infectious disease problem in bison, generally presenting as severe, caseonecrotic pneumonia. Here we describe three diagnostic cases in which M. bovis is strongly implicated as a causative agent of necrotic pharyngitis. ...

  11. Babesia bovis infection in cattle in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Luciana G; Rocha, Rodrigo B; Barbieri, Fábio da S; Ribeiro, Elisana S; Vendrami, Fabiano B; Souza, Gislaine C R; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Regitano, Luciana C A; Falcoski, Thaís O R S; Tizioto, Polyana C; Oliveira, Márcia C S

    2013-02-01

    The present study provides the first epidemiological data on infection with Babesia bovis in cattle raised in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon. Blood clot samples were filtered through nylon cloth before being submitted to DNA extraction. PCR and nested-PCR were applied to assess the frequency of infection with B. bovis in calves with ages from 4 to 12 months bred in 4 microregions each in the states of Rondônia and Acre. After the DNA was extracted from the samples, the infection in cattle was investigated by amplification of the "rap1" gene from B. bovis. The DNA amplification results revealed a frequency of infection with B. bovis of 95.1% (272/286) in the samples from Rondônia and 96.1% (195/203) in those from Acre. The high frequency of B. bovis infection in the animals with ages from 4 to 12 months indicates a situation of enzootic stability in the regions studied. The infection rates are comparable to those detected by immunodiagnostic techniques in other endemic regions of Brazil. PMID:23312480

  12. Motivation and Study Habits of College Calculus Students: Does Studying Calculus in High School Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Due in part to the growing popularity of the Advanced Placement program, an increasingly large percentage of entering college students are enrolling in calculus courses having already taken calculus in high school. Many students do not score high enough on the AP calculus examination to place out of Calculus I, and many do not take the…

  13. The Impact of Taking a College Pre-Calculus Course on Students' College Calculus Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    Poor performance on placement exams keeps many US students who pursue a STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) career from enrolling directly in college calculus. Instead, they must take a pre-calculus course that aims to better prepare them for later calculus coursework. In the USA, enrollment in pre-calculus courses in two- and…

  14. Calculus a complete introduction : teach yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Neill, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    Calculus: A Complete Introduction is the most comprehensive yet easy-to-use introduction to using calculus. Written by a leading expert, this book will help you if you are studying for an important exam or essay, or if you simply want to improve your knowledge. The book covers all areas of calculus, including functions, gradients, rates of change, differentiation, exponential and logarithmic functions and integration. Everything you will need to know is here in one book. Each chapter includes not only an explanation of the knowledge and skills you need, but also worked examples and test questions.

  15. Applications of fractional calculus in physics

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Fractional calculus is a collection of relatively little-known mathematical results concerning generalizations of differentiation and integration to noninteger orders. While these results have been accumulated over centuries in various branches of mathematics, they have until recently found little appreciation or application in physics and other mathematically oriented sciences. This situation is beginning to change, and there are now a growing number of research areas in physics which employ fractional calculus.This volume provides an introduction to fractional calculus for physicists, and co

  16. Pre-calculus workbook for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gilman, Michelle Rose; Neal, Karina

    2009-01-01

    Get the confidence and the math skills you need to get started with calculus! Are you preparing for calculus? This easy-to-follow, hands-on workbook helps you master basic pre-calculus concepts and practice the types of problems you'll encounter in your cour sework. You get valuable exercises, problem-solving shortcuts, plenty of workspace, and step-by-step solutions to every problem. You'll also memorize the most frequently used equations, see how to avoid common mistakes, understand tricky trig proofs, and much more. 100s of Problems! Detailed, fully worked-out solutions to problem

  17. AP calculus AB & BC crash course

    CERN Document Server

    Rosebush, J

    2012-01-01

    AP Calculus AB & BC Crash Course - Gets You a Higher Advanced Placement Score in Less Time Crash Course is perfect for the time-crunched student, the last-minute studier, or anyone who wants a refresher on the subject. AP Calculus AB & BC Crash Course gives you: Targeted, Focused Review - Study Only What You Need to Know Crash Course is based on an in-depth analysis of the AP Calculus AB & BC course description outline and actual AP test questions. It covers only the information tested on the exams, so you can make the most of your valuable study time. Written by experienced math teachers, our

  18. A Stochastic Broadcast Pi-Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Lei; Nielson, Flemming; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a stochastic broadcast PI-calculus which can be used to model server-client based systems where synchronization is always governed by only one participant. Therefore, there is no need to determine the joint synchronization rates. We also take immediate transitions into ac...... to show the application of this calculus.......In this paper we propose a stochastic broadcast PI-calculus which can be used to model server-client based systems where synchronization is always governed by only one participant. Therefore, there is no need to determine the joint synchronization rates. We also take immediate transitions...

  19. Recursive sequences in first-year calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainer, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    This article provides ready-to-use supplementary material on recursive sequences for a second-semester calculus class. It equips first-year calculus students with a basic methodical procedure based on which they can conduct a rigorous convergence or divergence analysis of many simple recursive sequences on their own without the need to invoke inductive arguments as is typically required in calculus textbooks. The sequences that are accessible to this kind of analysis are predominantly (eventually) monotonic, but also certain recursive sequences that alternate around their limit point as they converge can be considered.

  20. From X to Pi; Representing the Classical Sequent Calculus in the Pi-calculus

    CERN Document Server

    van Bakel, Steffen; Vigliotti, Maria Grazia

    2011-01-01

    We study the Pi-calculus, enriched with pairing and non-blocking input, and define a notion of type assignment that uses the type constructor "arrow". We encode the circuits of the calculus X into this variant of Pi, and show that all reduction (cut-elimination) and assignable types are preserved. Since X enjoys the Curry-Howard isomorphism for Gentzen's calculus LK, this implies that all proofs in LK have a representation in Pi.

  1. Astrophysical Applications of Fractional Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislavsky, Aleksander A.

    The paradigm of fractional calculus occupies an important place for the macroscopic description of subdiffusion. Its advance in theoretical astrophysics is expected to be very attractive too. In this report we discuss a recent development of the idea to some astrophysical problems. One of them is connected with a random migration of bright points associated with magnetic fields at the solar photosphere. The transport of the bright points has subdiffusive features that require the fractional generalization of the Leighton's model. Another problem is related to the angular distribution of radio beams, being propagated through a medium with random inhomogeneities. The peculiarity of this medium is that radio beams are trapped because of random wave localization. This idea can be useful for the diagnostics of interplanetary and interstellar turbulent media.

  2. A CALCULUS FOR SERVICES INNOVATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James M.TIEN; Daniel BERG

    2007-01-01

    Innovation in the services area - especially in the electronic services (e-services) domain - can be systematically developed by first considering the strategic drivers and foci, then the tactical principles and enablers, and finally the operational decision attributes, all of which constitute a process or calculus of services innovation. More specifically, there are four customer drivers (i.e., collaboration,customization, integration and adaptation), three business foci (i.e., creation-focused, solution-focused and competition-focused), six business principles (i.e., reconstruct market boundaries, focus on the big picture not numbers, reach beyond existing demand, get strategic sequence right, overcome organizational hurdles and build execution into strategy), eight technical enablers (i.e., software algorithms, automation, telecommunication, collaboration, standardization, customization,organization, and globalization), and six attributes of decision informatics (i.e., decision-driven,information-based, real-time, continuously-adaptive, customer-centric and computationally-intensive).It should be noted that the four customer drivers are all directed at empowering the individual - that is,at recognizing that the individual can, respectively, contribute in a collaborative situation, receive customized or personalized attention, access an integrated system or process, and obtain adaptive real-time or just-in-time input. The developed process or calculus serves to identify the potential white spaces or blue oceans for innovation. In addition to expanding on current innovations in services and related experiences, white spaces are identified for possible future innovations; they include those that can mitigate the unforeseen consequences or abuses of earlier innovations, safeguard our rights to privacy, protect us from the always-on, interconnected world, provide us with an authoritative search engine, and generate a GDP metric that can adequately measure the growing

  3. Mycobacterium bovis meningitis in young Nigerian-born male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Lillebæk, Troels; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan;

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark, tuberculous meningitis is rare. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement with Mycobacterium bovis is even rarer and has only been seen three times since 1992. We present a case of M. bovis meningitis in a previously healthy young Nigerian-born male, who had been exposed to unpasteurized...... dairy products in Nigeria but had no known contact with larger mammals. Before the development of meningitis, the patient had several contacts with the health system due to fever and non-specific symptoms. Finally, upon hospital admission, the patient was diagnosed with M. tuberculosis complex...... meningitis and treated empirically. After 13 days he was discharged without neurological sequelae. Later, the culture revealed M. bovis and treatment was adjusted accordingly....

  4. The Calculus Concept Readiness (CCR) Instrument: Assessing Student Readiness for Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson, Marilyn; West, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The Calculus Concept Readiness (CCR) instrument is based on the broad body of mathematics education research that has revealed major understandings, representational abilities, and reasoning abilities students need to construct in precalculus level courses to be successful in calculus. The CCR is a 25-item multiple-choice instrument, and the CCR taxonomy articulates what the CCR assesses. The methodology used to develop and validate the CCR is described and illustrated. Results from administering the CCR as a readiness examination in calculus are provided along with data to guide others in using the CCR as a readiness examination for beginning calculus.

  5. The calculus lifesaver all the tools you need to excel at calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Banner, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    For many students, calculus can be the most mystifying and frustrating course they will ever take. The Calculus Lifesaver provides students with the essential tools they need not only to learn calculus, but to excel at it. All of the material in this user-friendly study guide has been proven to get results. The book arose from Adrian Banner's popular calculus review course at Princeton University, which he developed especially for students who are motivated to earn A's but get only average grades on exams. The complete course will be available for free on the Web in a series of

  6. Molecular Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis in Humans and Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, A; El-Shannat, S; Kamel, M; Castañeda-Vazquez, M A; Castañeda-Vazquez, H

    2016-06-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), is a serious re-emerging disease in both animals and humans. The evolution of the Multi- and Extensively drug-resistant M. bovis strains (MDR-TB and XDR-TB) represents a global threat to public health. Worldwide, the disease is responsible for great economic losses in the veterinary field, serious threat to the ecosystem, and about 3.1% of human TB cases, up to 16% in Tanzania. Only thorough investigation to understand the pathogen's epidemiology can help in controlling the disease and minimizing its threat. For this purpose, various tools have been developed for use in advanced molecular epidemiological studies of bTB, either alone or in combination with standard conventional epidemiological approaches. These techniques enable the analysis of the intra- and inter-species transmission dynamics of bTB. The delivered data can reveal detailed insights into the source of infection, correlations among human and bovine isolates, strain diversity and evolution, spread, geographical localization, host preference, tracing of certain virulence factors such as antibiotic resistance genes, and finally the risk factors for the maintenance and spread of M. bovis. They also allow for the determination of epidemic and endemic strains. This, in turn, has a significant diagnostic impact and helps in vaccine development for bTB eradication programs. The present review discusses many topics including the aetiology, epidemiology and importance of M. bovis, the prevalence of bTB in humans and animals in various countries, the molecular epidemiology of M. bovis, and finally applied molecular epidemiological techniques. PMID:26684712

  7. Blocking Babesia bovis vaccine reactions of dairy cattle in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Combrink

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of 1.16 mg/kg (one third of the recommended dose of diminazene aceturate, administered indiscriminately to cattle on day seven of the unfrozen Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina bivalent live blood vaccine reaction, was an infection and block treatment method of immunisation used successfully with no known adverse effect on the parasites or the development of protective immunity. Continuing with this practice after replacement of the unfrozen vaccine with deep-frozen monovalent B. bovis and B. bigemina live blood vaccines resulted in reports of vaccine failure. Laboratory investigation indicated the harmful effect of block treatment in preventing the development of durable immunity against B. bigemina as opposed to the much lesser effect it had on B. bovis. Consequently the practice was no longer recommended. A B. bovis vaccination attempt aimed at controlling the disease of dairy cows in milk (n = 30 resulted in 20% fatalities during the expected vaccine reaction period. The practice of block treating B. bovis was therefore reinvestigated, this time in a field trial using dairy cattle in milk (n = 11. Using 0.88 mg/kg (one quarter of the recommended dose of diminazene administered on day 12 of the B. bovis vaccine reaction resulted in only two animals (n = 5 testing ≥ 1/80 positive with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT although parasites could be demonstrated in three. In the untreated control group, by contrast, five of the vaccinated animals (n = 6 tested ≥ 1/80 positive with IFAT and parasites could be demonstrated in all. The unsatisfactory outcome obtained in this study, combined with that of the earlier investigation, indicated that there are more factors that influence successful vaccination than previously considered. It is therefore concluded that block treatment of the live frozen South African cattle babesiosis vaccines reactions is not recommended.

  8. Brownian motion, martingales, and stochastic calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Le Gall, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a rigorous and self-contained presentation of stochastic integration and stochastic calculus within the general framework of continuous semimartingales. The main tools of stochastic calculus, including Itô’s formula, the optional stopping theorem and Girsanov’s theorem, are treated in detail alongside many illustrative examples. The book also contains an introduction to Markov processes, with applications to solutions of stochastic differential equations and to connections between Brownian motion and partial differential equations. The theory of local times of semimartingales is discussed in the last chapter. Since its invention by Itô, stochastic calculus has proven to be one of the most important techniques of modern probability theory, and has been used in the most recent theoretical advances as well as in applications to other fields such as mathematical finance. Brownian Motion, Martingales, and Stochastic Calculus provides a strong theoretical background to the reader interested i...

  9. Newton Binomial Formulas in Schubert Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Cordovez, Jorge; Gatto, Letterio; Santiago, Taise

    2008-01-01

    We prove Newton's binomial formulas for Schubert Calculus to determine numbers of base point free linear series on the projective line with prescribed ramification divisor supported at given distinct points.

  10. Umbral Calculus a Model from Convoloids

    CERN Document Server

    Kisil, V V

    1997-01-01

    We are working in the three-borders-point between combinatorics (umbral calculus), functional analysis (linear functionals and operators) and harmonic analysis (convolutions on group-like structures). The profit from the ``contraband'' in all directions is investigated.

  11. Extending Stochastic Network Calculus to Loss Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss is an important parameter of Quality of Service (QoS. Though stochastic network calculus is a very useful tool for performance evaluation of computer networks, existing studies on stochastic service guarantees mainly focused on the delay and backlog. Some efforts have been made to analyse loss by deterministic network calculus, but there are few results to extend stochastic network calculus for loss analysis. In this paper, we introduce a new parameter named loss factor into stochastic network calculus and then derive the loss bound through the existing arrival curve and service curve via this parameter. We then prove that our result is suitable for the networks with multiple input flows. Simulations show the impact of buffer size, arrival traffic, and service on the loss factor.

  12. A primer on exterior differential calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A pedagogical application-oriented introduction to the cal­culus of exterior differential forms on differential manifolds is presented. Stokes' theorem, the Lie derivative, linear con­nections and their curvature, torsion and non-metricity are discussed. Numerous examples using differential calculus are given and some detailed comparisons are made with their tradi­tional vector counterparts. In particular, vector calculus on R3 is cast in terms of exterior calculus and the traditional Stokes' and divergence theorems replaced by the more powerful exterior expression of Stokes' theorem. Examples from classical continuum mechanics and spacetime physics are discussed and worked through using the language of exterior forms. The numerous advantages of this calculus, over more traditional ma­chinery, are stressed throughout the article. .

  13. A Temporal Approach to Stochastic Network Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Jing; Xie, Min

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic network calculus is a newly developed theory for stochastic service guarantee analysis of computer networks. In the current stochastic network calculus literature, its fundamental models are based on the cumulative amount of traffic or cumulative amount of service. However, there are network scenarios where direct application of such models is difficult. This paper presents a temporal approach to stochastic network calculus. The key idea is to develop models and derive results from the time perspective. Particularly, we define traffic models and service models based on the cumulative packet inter-arrival time and the cumulative packet service time, respectively. Relations among these models as well as with the existing models in the literature are established. In addition, we prove the basic properties of the proposed models, such as delay bound and backlog bound, output characterization, concatenation property and superposition property. These results form a temporal stochastic network calculus an...

  14. Multi-instanton calculus in supersymmetric theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this talk I review some recent results concerning multi-instanton calculus in supersymmetric field theories. More in detail, I will show how these computations can be efficiently performed using the formalism of topological field theories. (author)

  15. Fractional Vector Calculus and Fractional Special Function

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ming-Fan; Ren, Ji-Rong; Zhu, Tao

    2010-01-01

    Fractional vector calculus is discussed in the spherical coordinate framework. A variation of the Legendre equation and fractional Bessel equation are solved by series expansion and numerically. Finally, we generalize the hypergeometric functions.

  16. Fractional Calculus and -Valently Starlike Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan Öznur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this investigation, the authors prove coefficient bounds, distortion inequalities for fractional calculus of a family of multivalent functions with negative coefficients, which is defined by means of a certain nonhomogenous Cauchy-Euler differential equation.

  17. Applying Change of Variable to Calculus Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachapova, Farida; Kachapov, Ilias

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the technique of introducing a new variable in some calculus problems to help students master the skills of integration and evaluation of limits. This technique is algorithmic and easy to apply.

  18. Introductory analysis a deeper view of calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Bagby, Richard J

    2000-01-01

    Introductory Analysis addresses the needs of students taking a course in analysis after completing a semester or two of calculus, and offers an alternative to texts that assume that math majors are their only audience. By using a conversational style that does not compromise mathematical precision, the author explains the material in terms that help the reader gain a firmer grasp of calculus concepts.* Written in an engaging, conversational tone and readable style while softening the rigor and theory* Takes a realistic approach to the necessary and accessible level of abstraction for the secondary education students* A thorough concentration of basic topics of calculus* Features a student-friendly introduction to delta-epsilon arguments * Includes a limited use of abstract generalizations for easy use* Covers natural logarithms and exponential functions* Provides the computational techniques often encountered in basic calculus

  19. Model-Checking Discrete Duration Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    1994-01-01

    Duration calculus was introduced by Chaochen Zhou et al. (1991) as a logic to specify and reason about requirements for real-time systems. It is an extension of interval temporal logic where one can reason about integrated constraints over time-dependent and Boolean valued states without explicit...... mention of absolute time. Several major case studies have shown that duration calculus provides a high level of abstraction for both expressing and reasoning about specifications. Using timed automata one can express how real-time systems can be constructed at a level of detail which is close to an actual...... implementation. We consider in the paper the correctness of timed automata with respect to duration calculus formulae. For a subset of duration calculus, we show that one can automatically verify whether a timed automaton ℳ is correct with respect to a formula 𝒟, abbreviated ℳ|=𝒟, i.e. one...

  20. Tuplix Calculus Specifications of Financial Transfer Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bergstra, J A; van der Zwaag, M B

    2008-01-01

    We study the application of Tuplix Calculus in modular financial budget design. We formalize organizational structure using financial transfer networks. We consider the notion of flux of money over a network, and a way to enforce the matching of influx and outflux for parts of a network. We exploit so-called signed attribute notation to make internal streams visible through encapsulations. Finally, we propose a Tuplix Calculus construct for the definition of data functions.

  1. The Britannica Guide to Analysis and Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The dynamism of the natural world means that it is constantly changing, sometimes rapidly, sometimes gradually. By mathematically interpreting the continuous change that characterizes so many natural processes, analysis and calculus have become indispensable to bridging the divide between mathematics and the sciences. This comprehensive volume examines the key concepts of calculus, providing students with a robust understanding of integration and differentiation. Biographies of important figures will leave readers with an increased appreciation for the sometimes competing theories that informe

  2. A calculus for attribute-based communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrahman, Yehia Abd; De Nicola, Rocco; Loreti, Michele;

    2015-01-01

    The notion of attribute-based communication seems promising to model and analyse systems with huge numbers of interacting components that dynamically adjust and combine their behaviour to achieve specific goals. A basic process calculus, named AbC, is introduced that has as primitive construct...... of how well-established process calculi could be encoded into AbC is given by considering the translation into AbC of a proto-typical π-calculus process....

  3. A Tableaux Calculus for Ambiguous Quantification

    OpenAIRE

    Monz, Christof; de Rijke, Maarten

    2000-01-01

    Coping with ambiguity has recently received a lot of attention in natural language processing. Most work focuses on the semantic representation of ambiguous expressions. In this paper we complement this work in two ways. First, we provide an entailment relation for a language with ambiguous expressions. Second, we give a sound and complete tableaux calculus for reasoning with statements involving ambiguous quantification. The calculus interleaves partial disambiguation steps with steps in a t...

  4. A Superposition Calculus for Abductive Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Echenim, Mnacho; Peltier, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    We present a modification of the superposition calculus that is meant to generate consequences of sets of first-order axioms. This approach is proven to be sound and deductive-complete in the presence of redundancy elimination rules, provided the considered consequences are built on a given finite set of ground terms, represented by constant symbols. In contrast to other approaches, most existing results about the termination of the superposition calculus can be carried over to our procedure....

  5. Łukasiewicz mu-Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Mio

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores properties of Łukasiewicz mu-calculus, a version of the quantitative/probabilistic modal mu-calculus containing both weak and strong conjunctions and disjunctions from Łukasiewicz (fuzzy logic. We show that this logic encodes the well-known probabilistic temporal logic PCTL. And we give a model-checking algorithm for computing the rational denotational value of a formula at any state in a finite rational probabilistic nondeterministic transition system.

  6. Variational time discretization of geodesic calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Rumpf, Martin; Wirth, Benedikt

    2012-01-01

    We analyze a variational time discretization of geodesic calculus on finite- and certain classes of infinite-dimensional Riemannian manifolds. We investigate the fundamental properties of discrete geodesics, the associated discrete logarithm, discrete exponential maps, and discrete parallel transport, and we prove convergence to their continuous counterparts. The presented analysis is based on the direct methods in the calculus of variation, on $\\Gamma$-convergence, and on weighted finite ele...

  7. Ordered Models of the Lambda Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Salibra, Antonino; Carraro, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Answering a question by Honsell and Plotkin, we show that there are two equations between lambda terms, the so-called subtractive equations, consistent with lambda calculus but not simultaneously satisfied in any partially ordered model with bottom element. We also relate the subtractive equations to the open problem of the order-incompleteness of lambda calculus, by studying the connection between the notion of absolute unorderability in a specific point and a weaker notion of subtractivity ...

  8. A phenomenological calculus of Wiener description space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, I W; Louie, A H

    2007-10-01

    The phenomenological calculus is a categorical example of Robert Rosen's modeling relation. This paper is an alligation of the phenomenological calculus and generalized harmonic analysis, another categorical example. Our epistemological exploration continues into the realm of Wiener description space, in which constitutive parameters are extended from vectors to vector-valued functions of a real variable. Inherent in the phenomenology are fundamental representations of time and nearness to equilibrium. PMID:17955459

  9. Fractional Vector Calculus and Fractional Maxwell's Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Vasily E. Tarasov

    2009-01-01

    The theory of derivatives and integrals of non-integer order goes back to Leibniz, Liouville, Grunwald, Letnikov and Riemann. The history of fractional vector calculus (FVC) has only 10 years. The main approaches to formulate a FVC, which are used in the physics during the past few years, will be briefly described in this paper. We solve some problems of consistent formulations of FVC by using a fractional generalization of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. We define the differential and i...

  10. Superconformal tensor calculus in five dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a full superconformal tensor calculus in five spacetime dimensions in which the Weyl multiplet has 32 Bose plus 32 Fermi degrees of freedom. It is derived using dimensional reduction from the 6D superconformal tensor calculus. We present two types of 32+32 Weyl multiplets, a vector multiplet, linear multiplet, hypermultiplet and nonlinear multiplet. Their superconformal transformation laws and the embedding and invariant action formulas are given. (author)

  11. Superconformal Tensor Calculus in Five Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Tomoyuki; Ohashi, Keisuke

    2001-01-01

    We present a full superconformal tensor calculus in five spacetime dimensions in which the Weyl multiplet has 32 Bose plus 32 Fermi degrees of freedom. It is derived by the dimensional reduction from the 6D superconformal tensor calculus. We present two types of 32+32 Weyl multiplets, vector multiplet, linear multiplet, hypermultiplet and nonlinear multiplet. Their superconformal transformation laws and the embedding and invariant action formulas are given.

  12. Sandboxing in a Distributed Pi-Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Kühnrich, Morten

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of the Dpi-calculus due to Hennessy and Riely with constructs for signing and authenticating code and for sandboxing. A sort system, built on Milner's sort systems for the polyadic pi-calculus, is presented and proven sound with respect to an error predicate which...... ensures that errors do not occur outside sandboxes and that authentication and migration only happen when allowed. Futhermore a weak subject reduction result involving partial well sortedness is presented....

  13. A Graph Calculus for Predicate Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. S. Veloso

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a refutation graph calculus for classical first-order predicate logic, which is an extension of previous ones for binary relations. One reduces logical consequence to establishing that a constructed graph has empty extension, i. e. it represents bottom. Our calculus establishes that a graph has empty extension by converting it to a normal form, which is expanded to other graphs until we can recognize conflicting situations (equivalent to a formula and its negation.

  14. Bacteremia with Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus salivarius: clinical correlates of more accurate identification of isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, K L; Miller, S I; Garner, C V; Ferraro, M J; Calderwood, S B

    1989-01-01

    Two biotypes of Streptococcus bovis can be identified by laboratory testing and can be distinguished from the phenotypically similar organism Streptococcus salivarius. We assessed the clinical relevance of careful identification of these organisms in 68 patients with streptococcal bacteremia caused by these similar species. S. bovis was more likely to be clinically significant when isolated from blood (89%) than was S. salivarius (23%). There was a striking association between S. bovis I bacteremia and underlying endocarditis (94%) compared with that of S. bovis II bacteremia (18%). Bacteremia with S. bovis I was also highly correlated with an underlying colonic neoplasm (71% of patients overall, 100% of those with thorough colonic examinations) compared with bacteremia due to S. bovis II or S. salivarius (17% overall, 25% of patients with thorough colonic examinations). We conclude that careful identification of streptococcal bacteremic isolates as S. bovis biotype I provides clinically important information and should be more widely applied. PMID:2915024

  15. Barbed congruence of the asymmetric chi calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Xiao-ju; FU Yu-xi

    2006-01-01

    The chi calculus is a model of mobile processes. It has evolved from the pi-calculus with motivations from simplification and communication-as-cut-elimination. This paper studies the chi calculus in the framework incorporating asymmetric communication. The major feature of the calculus is the identification of two actions:x/x and τ. The investigation on the barbed bisimilarity shows how the property affects the observational theory.Based on the definition of the barbed bisimilarity, the simulation properties of the barbed bisimilarity are studied. It shows that the algebraic properties of the barbed bisimilarity have changed greatly compared with the chi calculus. Although the definition of the barbed bisimilarity is very simple, the property of closeness under contexts makes it difficult to understand the barbed bisimilarity directly. Therefore an open style definition of the barbed bisimilarity is given, which is a context free description of barbed bisimilarity. Its definition is complex,but it is a well-behaved relation for it coincides with the barbed bisimilarity. It also helps to build an axiomatization system for the barbed congruence. Besides the axioms for the strong barbed bisimilarity, the paper proposes a new tau law and four new update laws for the barbed congruence. Both the operational and algebraic properties of the enriched calculus improve the understanding of the bisimulation behaviors of the model.

  16. The Sustainability of Dental Calculus for Archaeological Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackie, Meaghan Emma; Radini, Anita; Speller, Camilla

    Dental calculus is a mineralized plaque biofilm formed by microbiota of the oral microbiome. Until recently, the information potential of dental calculus for archaeological study was not fully realised and it was often discarded. However, it is now recognized that dental calculus entombs and pres......Dental calculus is a mineralized plaque biofilm formed by microbiota of the oral microbiome. Until recently, the information potential of dental calculus for archaeological study was not fully realised and it was often discarded. However, it is now recognized that dental calculus entombs...... and preserve biomolecules related to diet, health and disease....

  17. Sensitivity of Mycobacterium bovis to common beef processing interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction. Cattle infected with Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis and a relevant zoonosis to humans, may be sent to slaughter before diagnosis of infection because of slow multiplication of the pathogen. Purpose. This study evaluates multiple processing interventi...

  18. The life and legacy of William T. Bovie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Preston L

    2013-05-01

    This Historian's Address, presented at the North Pacific Surgical Association 2012 meeting, held in Spokane, Washington, on November 9, 2012, briefly reviews the life and surgical contributions of the inventor William T. Bovie and his collaboration with Dr Harvey Cushing, which led to the widespread acceptance of surgical electrocautery for dissection and hemostasis.

  19. Outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis infection in a wild animal park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidbauer, S-M; Wohlsein, P; Kirpal, G; Beineke, A; Müller, G; Müller, H; Moser, I; Baumgartner, W

    2007-09-01

    An outbreak of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis occurred in a wild animal park. Three pot-bellied pigs (Sus scrofa vittatus), one red deer (Cervus elaphus), one buffalo (Bison bonasus) and two European lynxes (Lynx lynx) were affected and showed clinical signs including weight loss, enlarged lymph nodes and paralysis of the hindlimbs. Postmortem examinations revealed multifocal granulomatous lesions in various organs, including the lymph nodes, lungs, intestines, kidneys and the central nervous system. Acid-fast organisms were demonstrated in various organs histologically and bacteriologically. Spoligotyping of 17 isolates from various organs of the affected animals confirmed an infection by M bovis and revealed an identical pattern indicating a common origin. The spoligotype was different from the pattern of M bovis recorded in the cattle population in Germany between 2000 and 2006. Investigations of sentinel animals such as an aged silver fox (Vulpes vulpes), a badger (Meles meles), a ferret (Mustela putorius) and rodents, and tuberculin skin tests of the animal attendants and randomly collected faecal samples from the enclosures were all negative for M bovis. PMID:17766809

  20. 9 CFR 113.409 - Tuberculin-PPD Bovis, Intradermic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... animals. (3) Thirty-five days post-injection, the guinea pigs shall be used for tuberculin testing. (4... the same sensitization and the same PPD tuberculin injection, then divide by the number of animals in... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tuberculin-PPD Bovis, Intradermic....

  1. Comparative Proteomic Profiling of Mycobacterium bovis and BCG Vaccine Strains

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Ge

    2013-09-01

    BCG is the only licensed human vaccine currently available against TB. Derived from a virulent strain of M. bovis, the vaccine was thought to have struck a balance between reduced virulence and preserved immunogenicity. Nowadays, BCG vaccine strains used in different countries and vaccination programs show clear variations in their genomes and immune protective properties. The aim of this study was to characterize the proteomic profile on Mycobacterium bovis and five BCG strains Pasteur, Tokyo, Danish, Phipps and Birkhaug by Tandem Mass Tag® (TMT®)-labeling quantitative proteomic approach. In total, 420 proteins were identified and 377 of them were quantitated for their relative abundance. We reported the number and relationship of differential expressed proteins in BCG strains compared to M. bovis and investigated their functions by bioinformatics analysis. Several interesting up-regulated and down-regulated protein targets were found. The identified proteins and their quantitative expression profiles provide a basis for further understanding of the cellular biology of M. bovis and BCG vaccine strains, and hopefully would assist in the design of better anti-TB vaccine and drugs.

  2. Verrucous endocarditis associated with Streptococcus bovis in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Jørgensen, J.C.; Dietz, Hans-Henrik;

    2003-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2001, mortalities due to verrucous endocarditis were experienced at several mink farms. Gram-positive cocci were isolated from the endocardium of all the animals examined but not always from other internal organs. Almost all the isolates were identified as Streptococcus bovis...

  3. Human Mycobacterium bovis Infections in London and Southeast England

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, M J; Brown, T. J.; Drobniewski, F. A.

    2012-01-01

    Variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) and spoligotyping analyses were used to assess transmission of Mycobacterium bovis between humans. VNTR was more discriminatory than spoligotyping. Low case numbers, despite a substantial animal reservoir, and resolution of all isolates provided no evidence of recent human-to-human transmission or recent significant infection from animals.

  4. Electronic Algebra and Calculus Tutor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Fradkin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern undergraduates join science and engineering courses with poorer mathematical background than most contemporaries of the current faculty had when they were freshers. The problem is very acute in the United Kingdom but more and more countries adopt less resource intensive models of teaching and the problem spreads. University tutors and lecturers spend more and more time covering the basics. However, most of them still rely on traditional methods of delivery which presuppose that learners have a good memory and considerable time to practice, so that they can memorize disjointed facts and discover for themselves various connections between the underlying concepts. These suppositions are particularly unrealistic when dealing with a large number of undergraduates who are ordinary learners with limited mathematics background. The first author has developed a teaching system that allows such adult learners achieve relatively deep learning of mathematics – and remarkably quickly – through a teacher-guided (often called Socratic dialog, which aims at the frequent reinforcement of basic mathematical abstractions through Eulerian sequencing. These ideas have been applied to create a prototype of a Cognitive Mathematics Tutoring System aimed at teaching basic mathematics to University freshers., an electronic Personal Algebra and Calculus Tutor (e- PACT.

  5. First description of Bartonella bovis in cattle herds in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudoler, Nir; Rasis, Michal; Sharir, Benny; Novikov, Anna; Shapira, Gregory; Giladi, Michael

    2014-09-17

    Bartonella bovis has been described in beef and dairy cattle worldwide, however the reported prevalence rates are inconsistent, with large variability across studies (0-89%). This study describes the first isolation and characterization of B. bovis among cattle herds in the Middle East. Blood samples from two beef cattle herds (each sampled thrice) and one dairy herd (sampled twice) in Israel were collected during a 16-months period. Overall, 71 of 95 blood samples (75%) grew Bartonella sp., with prevalence of 78% and 59% in beef and dairy cattle, respectively. High level bacteremia (≥100,000 colony forming units/mL) was detected in 25 specimens (26%). Such high-level bacteremia has never been reported in cattle. Two dairy cows and one beef cow remained bacteremic when tested 60 or 120 days apart, respectively, suggesting that cattle may have persistent bacteremia. One third of animals were infested with ticks. Sequence analysis of a gltA fragment of 32 bacterial isolates from 32 animals revealed 100% homology to B. bovis. Species identification was confirmed by sequence analysis of the rpoB gene. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated sequences of gltA and rpoB demonstrated that the isolates described herein form a monophyletic group with B. bovis strains originating from cattle worldwide. Taken together, the high prevalence of bacteremia, including high-level bacteremia, in beef and dairy cattle, the potential to develop prolonged bacteremia, the exposure of cattle to arthropod vectors, and proximity of infected animals to humans, make B. bovis a potential zoonotic agent. PMID:25096531

  6. More calculus of a single variable

    CERN Document Server

    Mercer, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    This book goes beyond the basics of a first course in calculus to reveal the power and richness of the subject. Standard topics from calculus — such as the real numbers, differentiation and integration, mean value theorems, the exponential function — are reviewed and elucidated before digging into a deeper exploration of theory and applications, such as the AGM inequality, convexity, the art of integration, and explicit formulas for π. Further topics and examples are introduced through a plethora of exercises that both challenge and delight the reader. While the reader is thereby exposed to the many threads of calculus, the coherence of the subject is preserved throughout by an emphasis on patterns of development, of proof and argumentation, and of generalization. More Calculus of a Single Variable is suitable as a text for a course in advanced calculus, as a supplementary text for courses in analysis, and for self-study by students, instructors, and, indeed, all connoisseurs of ingenious calculations.

  7. Ancient DNA analysis of dental calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyrich, Laura S; Dobney, Keith; Cooper, Alan

    2015-02-01

    Dental calculus (calcified tartar or plaque) is today widespread on modern human teeth around the world. A combination of soft starchy foods, changing acidity of the oral environment, genetic pre-disposition, and the absence of dental hygiene all lead to the build-up of microorganisms and food debris on the tooth crown, which eventually calcifies through a complex process of mineralisation. Millions of oral microbes are trapped and preserved within this mineralised matrix, including pathogens associated with the oral cavity and airways, masticated food debris, and other types of extraneous particles that enter the mouth. As a result, archaeologists and anthropologists are increasingly using ancient human dental calculus to explore broad aspects of past human diet and health. Most recently, high-throughput DNA sequencing of ancient dental calculus has provided valuable insights into the evolution of the oral microbiome and shed new light on the impacts of some of the major biocultural transitions on human health throughout history and prehistory. Here, we provide a brief historical overview of archaeological dental calculus research, and discuss the current approaches to ancient DNA sampling and sequencing. Novel applications of ancient DNA from dental calculus are discussed, highlighting the considerable scope of this new research field for evolutionary biology and modern medicine.

  8. Standardization of a Call-By-Value Lambda-Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrieri, Giulio; Paolini, Luca; Ronchi Della Rocca, Simona

    2015-01-01

    We study an extension of Plotkin's call-by-value lambda-calculus by means of two commutation rules (sigma-reductions). Recently, it has been proved that this extended calculus provides elegant characterizations of many semantic properties, as for example solvability. We prove a standardization theorem for this calculus by generalizing Takahashi's approach of parallel reductions. The standardization property allows us to prove that our calculus is conservative with respect to the Plotkin's one...

  9. A MATLAB companion for multivariable calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Jeffery

    2001-01-01

    Offering a concise collection of MatLab programs and exercises to accompany a third semester course in multivariable calculus, A MatLab Companion for Multivariable Calculus introduces simple numerical procedures such as numerical differentiation, numerical integration and Newton''s method in several variables, thereby allowing students to tackle realistic problems. The many examples show students how to use MatLab effectively and easily in many contexts. Numerous exercises in mathematics and applications areas are presented, graded from routine to more demanding projects requiring some programming. Matlab M-files are provided on the Harcourt/Academic Press web site at http://www.harcourt-ap.com/matlab.html.* Computer-oriented material that complements the essential topics in multivariable calculus* Main ideas presented with examples of computations and graphics displays using MATLAB * Numerous examples of short code in the text, which can be modified for use with the exercises* MATLAB files are used to implem...

  10. Enhancing Students’ Understanding in Calculus Trough Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraini Idris

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using writing activities on students’ understanding and achievement in Calculus. The design of this study was quasi-experimental. The subjects of this study consisted of two secondary schools in one of the states in Malaysia. Each school was assigned one intact class of Form Four to be the experimental group and another one intact class as the control. The experimental group learned mathematics by using the writing activities for five weeks, while the control group learned mathematics by using traditional whole-class instruction. A 20-item Calculus Achievement test was designed with reliability .87. The findings showed that the experimental group exhibited significantly greater improvement on calculus achievement. The students showed positive reaction towards the use of writing. Findings of this study provide information to schools to take advantage of writing activities to promote understanding.

  11. Formalizing BPEL-TC Through ?-Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Marwaha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available WS-BPEL is way to define business processes that interact with external entities through webservice operations using WSDL. We have proposed BPEL-TC, an extension to existing WS-BPEL whichuses temporally customized Web Services (WSDL-TC as a model for process decomposition and assembly.WSDL-TC handles both backward compatible and incompatible changes and also maintains variousversions of the artifacts that results due to changes over time and customizations desired by the users. Inthis paper, we are using pi-calculus to formalize Business Process Execution Language- TemporalCustomization (BPEL-TC process. π -calculus is a model of computation for concurrent systems alongwith changing connectivity of interactive systems. Pi-calculus is an extension of the process algebra CCS,with added mobility to CCS while preserving its algebraic properties.

  12. Quantum geometry in dynamical Regge calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study geometric properties of dynamical Regge calculus which is a hybridization of dynamical triangulation and quantum Regge calculus. Lattice diffeomorphisms are generated by certain elementary moves on a simplicial lattice in the hybrid model. At the semiclassical level, we discuss a possibility that the lattice diffeomorphisms give a simple explanation for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of a black hole. At the quantum level, numerical calculations of 3D pure gravity show that a fractal structure of the hybrid model is the same as that of dynamical triangulation in the strong-coupling phase. In the weak-coupling phase, on the other hand, space-time becomes a spiky configuration, which often occurs in quantum Regge calculus

  13. Fractional vector calculus and fractional Maxwell's equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory of derivatives and integrals of non-integer order goes back to Leibniz, Liouville, Grunwald, Letnikov and Riemann. The history of fractional vector calculus (FVC) has only 10 years. The main approaches to formulate a FVC, which are used in the physics during the past few years, will be briefly described in this paper. We solve some problems of consistent formulations of FVC by using a fractional generalization of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. We define the differential and integral vector operations. The fractional Green's, Stokes' and Gauss's theorems are formulated. The proofs of these theorems are realized for simplest regions. A fractional generalization of exterior differential calculus of differential forms is discussed. Fractional nonlocal Maxwell's equations and the corresponding fractional wave equations are considered

  14. Reasoning about objects using process calculus techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleist, Josva

    This thesis investigates the applicability of techniques known from the world of process calculi to reason about properties of object-oriented programs. The investigation is performed upon a small object-oriented language - The Sigma-calculus of Abadi and Cardelli. The investigation is twofold: We...... and Cardelli's denotational model is sound but not complete with respect to the operational semantics. We also construct a modal logic for the typed functional Sigma-calculus, provide a translation of types to a sub-logic and prove the translation is sound and complete. The amount work required to perform...... these investigations indicate, that although it is perfectly possible to use process calculus techniques on object oriented languages, such techniques will not come to widespread use, but only be limited to reasoning about critical parts of a language or program design....

  15. A sequent calculus for signed interval logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Marthedal

    2001-01-01

    We propose and discuss a complete sequent calculus formulation for Signed Interval Logic (SIL) with the chief purpose of improving proof support for SIL in practice. The main theoretical result is a simple characterization of the limit between decidability and undecidability of quantifier-free SI....... We present a mechanization of SIL in the generic proof assistant Isabelle and consider techniques for automated reasoning. Many of the results and ideas of this report are also applicable to traditional (non-signed) interval logic and, hence, to Duration Calculus.......We propose and discuss a complete sequent calculus formulation for Signed Interval Logic (SIL) with the chief purpose of improving proof support for SIL in practice. The main theoretical result is a simple characterization of the limit between decidability and undecidability of quantifier-free SIL...

  16. Anatomical distribution of Mycobacterium bovis genotypes in experimentally infected white-tailed deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Tyler C; Palmer, Mitchell V; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Stuber, Tod P; Waters, W Ray

    2015-10-22

    Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) causes tuberculosis in white-tailed deer (WTD). Natural infection of WTD with M. bovis is most closely mimicked by instilling inoculum into palatine tonsillar crypts. One hundred fifty days after intratonsillar inoculation, M. bovis was cultured from 30 tissues originating from 14 deer. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on the original inoculum, single colonies subcultured from the original inoculum, and M. bovis isolated from each culture positive tissue. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified by comparing the derived sequences to the reference strain AF2122/97. Results indicate that the majority of the SNPs that were identified were homogeneous between the inoculum and the isolates from the tissues. The majority of individual tissues had different WGS genotypes from each other, suggesting that dissemination of M. bovis beyond the initial site of infection may require few mycobacteria representing a bottleneck. PMID:26243696

  17. Research of Semantic Comparison between χ-calculus and π-calculus%χ-演算与π-演算的语义比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐林; 傅育熙

    2000-01-01

    Through the comparison of syntactic structure,operational semantics and algebraic semantics between χ-calculus and π-calculus, this paper concludes that χ-calculus has more succinct syntactic structure,more explicit operational semantics,more intuitionistic algebraic semantics and more favorable algebraic property. And a translation from π-calculus to χ-calculus is presented.

  18. Functional calculus for generators of analytic semigroups of operators

    OpenAIRE

    Lopushansky O.V.; Sharyn S.V.

    2012-01-01

    We construct a functional calculus for generators of one-parameter boundedanalytic semigroups of operators on a Banach space. The calculus symbol classconsist of the Laplace image of the convolution algebra $cal S'_+$ of tempereddistributions with supports in $[0, infty)$. Domain of constructed calculus isdense in the Banach space.

  19. Functional calculus for generators of analytic semigroups of operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopushansky O.V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We construct a functional calculus for generators of one-parameter boundedanalytic semigroups of operators on a Banach space. The calculus symbol classconsist of the Laplace image of the convolution algebra $cal S'_+$ of tempereddistributions with supports in $[0, infty$. Domain of constructed calculus isdense in the Banach space.

  20. A Transition Course from Advanced Placement to College Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Timothy A.; Spivey, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In the Spring of 2007, a group of highly motivated mathematics graduate students conducted a review of Duke's Calculus curriculum. They focused on two main problems. The first problem is the result of a very positive trend: a growing number of students are earning AP credit for Calculus I in high school. However, this results in Calculus II…

  1. TWO-PHASE EJECTOR of CARBON DIOXIDE HEAT PUMP CALCULUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit B.M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is presented the calculus of the two-phase ejector for carbon dioxide heat pump. The method of calculus is based on the method elaborated by S.M. Kandil, W.E. Lear, S.A. Sherif, and is modified taking into account entrainment ratio as the input for the calculus.

  2. A BRUTUS Logic for a Spi-Calculus Dialect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnesi, S.; Latella, D.; Lenzini, G.

    2000-01-01

    In the field of process algebras, the spi-calculus, a modified version of the π-calculus with encryption primitives, is indicated as an expressive specification language for cryptographic protocols. In spi-calculus basic security properties, such as secrecy and integrity can be formalized as may-tes

  3. Laparoscopic Ureterolithotomy for Giant Ureteric Calculus: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad V. Magdum; Rajendra B. Nerli; Shishir Devaraju; Hiremath, Murigendra B.

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a 21 year old male who presented with symptomatic right upper ureteric calculus measuring 5 cm × 1.5 cm fulfilling the criteria to be named as giant ureteric calculus. Laparoscopic right ureterolithotomy was performed and the giant ureteric calculus was retrieved.

  4. Improving Calculus II and III through the Redistribution of Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, C. Yousuf; Koetz, Matt; Lewis, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Three years ago our mathematics department rearranged the topics in second and third semester calculus, moving multivariable calculus to the second semester and series to the third semester. This paper describes the new arrangement of topics, and how it could be adapted to calculus curricula at different schools. It also explains the benefits we…

  5. Science 101: How Do We Use Calculus in Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2014-01-01

    How is calculus used in science? That might seem like an odd question to answer in a magazine intended primarily for elementary school teachers. After all, how much calculus gets used in elementary science? Here the author guesses that quite a few readers of this column do not know a whole lot about calculus and have not taken a course in…

  6. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate three control flow analyses for Mobile Ambients, a process calculus designed for modelling mobility. We show that hybrid logic is very well-suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can...... be exploited to reduce the "administrative overhead" of the analysis specification and thus simplify it. Finally, we use HyLoTab, a fully automated theorem prover for hybrid logic, both as a convenient platform for a prototype implementation as well as to formally prove the correctness of the analysis. (C...

  7. A Cone Pseudo-differential Calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@  The calculus of pseudo-differential operators on singular spaces and theconcept of ellipti-city in operator algebras on manifolds with singularitieshave become an enormous challenge for analysists. The so-called cone algebras(with discrete and continuous asymptotics) are investigated by manymathematicians, especially by B. W. Schulze, who developed and enrichedcone and edge pseudo-differential calculus, see Schulze[4-7], Rempel and Schulze [2, 3]. In this note,we construct a cone pseudo-differentialcalculus for operators which respect conormal asymptotics of a prescribedasymptotic type.

  8. Dynamical Regge calculus as lattice gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagura, Hiroyuki

    2001-03-01

    We propose a hybrid approach to lattice quantum gravity by combining simultaneously the dynamical triangulation with the Regge calculus, called the dynamical Regge calculus (DRC). In this approach lattice diffeomorphism is realized as an exact symmetry by some hybrid ( k, l) moves on the simplicial lattice. Numerical study of 3D pure gravity shows that an entropy of the DRC is not exponetially bounded if we adopt the uniform measure Π idli. On the other hand, using the scale-invariant measure Π idli/ li, we can calculate observables and observe a large hysteresis between two phases that indicates the first-order nature of the phase transition.

  9. Probabilistic Analysis of the Quality Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    We consider a fragment of the Quality Calculus, previously introduced for defensive programming of software components such that it becomes natural to plan for default behaviour in case the ideal behaviour fails due to unreliable communication. This paper develops a probabilistically based trust...... analysis supporting the Quality Calculus. It uses information about the probabilities that expected input will be absent in order to determine the trustworthiness of the data used for controlling the distributed system; the main challenge is to take accord of the stochastic dependency between some...

  10. Modular invariance and covariant loop calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The covariant loop calculus provides and efficient technique for computing explicit expressions for the density on moduli space corresponding to arbitrary (bosonic string) loop diagrams. Since modular invariance is not manifest, however, we carry out a detailed comparison with known explicit 2- and 3- loop results derived using analytic geometry (1 loop is known to be ok). We establish identity to 'high' order in some moduli and exactly in others. Agreement is found as a result of various non-trivial cancellations, in part related to number theory. We feel our results provide very strong support for the correctness of the covariant loop calculus approach. (orig.)

  11. Dynamical Regge calculus as lattice gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a hybrid approach to lattice quantum gravity by combining simultaneously the dynamical triangulation with the Regge calculus, called the dynamical Regge calculus (DRC). In this approach lattice diffeomorphism is realized as an exact symmetry by some hybrid (k, l) moves on the simplicial lattice. Numerical study of 3D pure gravity shows that an entropy of the DRC is not exponetially bounded if we adopt the uniform measure Πidli. On the other hand, using the scale-invariant measure Πidli/li, we can calculate observables and observe a large hysteresis between two phases that indicates the first-order nature of the phase transition

  12. A residue calculus for root systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ban, E. P. van den; Schlichtkrull, H.

    2001-01-01

    Let V be a nite dimensional real vector space on which a root system is given. Consider a meromorphic function ' on VC = V +iV , the singular locus of which is a locally nite union of hyperplanes of the form f 2 VC j h; i = sg, 2 , s 2 R. Assume ' is of suitable decay in the imaginary directions, so that integrals of the form R +iV '() d make sense for generic 2 V . A residue calculus is developed that allows shifting . This residue calculus can be used to obtain Plancherel and Paley{Wiener t...

  13. Variational calculus with constraints on general algebroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variational calculus on a vector bundle E equipped with a structure of a general algebroid is developed, together with the corresponding analogs of Euler-Lagrange equations. Constrained systems are introduced in the variational and geometrical settings. The constrained Euler-Lagrange equations are derived for analogs of holonomic, vakonomic and nonholonomic constraints. This general model covers the majority of first-order Lagrangian systems which are present in the literature and reduces to the standard variational calculus and the Euler-Lagrange equations in classical mechanics for E = TM

  14. Projects for calculus the language of change

    CERN Document Server

    Stroyan, Keith D

    1999-01-01

    Projects for Calculus is designed to add depth and meaning to any calculus course. The fifty-two projects presented in this text offer the opportunity to expand the use and understanding of mathematics. The wide range of topics will appeal to both instructors and students. Shorter, less demanding projects can be managed by the independent learner, while more involved, in-depth projects may be used for group learning. Each task draws on special mathematical topics and applications from subjects including medicine, engineering, economics, ecology, physics, and biology.Subjects including:* Medicine* Engineering* Economics* Ecology* Physics* Biology

  15. Mapping the Join Calculus to Heterogeneous Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Calvert

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As modern architectures introduce additional heterogeneity and parallelism, we look for ways to deal with this that do not involve specialising software to every platform. In this paper, we take the Join Calculus, an elegant model for concurrent computation, and show how it can be mapped to an architecture by a Cartesian-product-style construction, thereby making use of the calculus' inherent non-determinism to encode placement choices. This unifies the concepts of placement and scheduling into a single task.

  16. The lambda sigma calculus and strong normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Explicit substitution calculi can be classified into several dis- tinct categories depending on whether they are confluent, meta-confluent, strong normalization preserving, strongly normalizing, simulating, fully compositional, and/or local. In this paper we present a variant of the λσ-calculus......, which satisfies all seven conditions. In particular, we show how to circumvent Mellies counter-example to strong normalization by a slight restriction of the congruence rules. The calculus is implemented as the core data structure of the Celf logical framework. All meta-theoretic aspects of this work...

  17. Multiplex-PCR for differentiation of Mycobacterium bovis from Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spositto, F L E; Campanerut, P A Z; Ghiraldi, L D; Leite, C Q F; Hirata, M H; Hirata, R D C; Siqueira, V L D; Cardoso, R Fressatti

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated a multiplex-PCR to differentiate Mycobacterium bovis from M. tuberculosis Complex (MTC) by one step amplification based on simultaneous detection of pncA 169 C > G change in M. bovis and the IS6110 present in MTC species. Our findings showed the proposed multiplex-PCR is a very useful tool for complementation in differentiating M. bovis from other cultured MTC species.

  18. Amplification of a 500-Base-Pair Fragment from Cultured Isolates of Mycobacterium bovis

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Juan Germán; Fissanoti, Juan Carlos; Del Portillo, Patricia; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Romano, María Isabel; Cataldi, Angel

    1999-01-01

    The presence of a 500-bp fragment which amplifies a region from the genome of Mycobacterium bovis (J. G. Rodriguez, G. A. Meija, P. Del Portillo, M. E. Patarroyo, and L. A. Murillo, Microbiology 141:2131–2138, 1995) was evaluated by carrying out PCR on 121 M. bovis isolates. The M. bovis strains, previously characterized by culture and biochemical tests, were isolated from cattle in different regions of Argentina, Mexico, and Colombia. Four additional strains isolated from sea lions that belo...

  19. Validation and use of an ELISA kit for the diagnosis of Babesia bovis in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babesia bovis, the most important etiological agent causing bovine babesiosis, is widely distributed in Cuba and affects mainly adult cattle. A survey of the prevalence of the disease in cattle using an ELISA kit (FAO/IAEA) revealed that 34.2% of the animals between 6 and 18 months of age were positive to Babesia bovis, whereas 69.9% on the cattle older than 18 months were positive. Antibodies to Babesia bovis were detected in 96.9% of calves vaccinated with an attenuated Babesia bovis vaccine. A good correlation was found between the results of ELISA kit with those from indirect immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase tests developed in Cuba. (author)

  20. Mycobacterium bovis infection in a wild sow (Sus scrofa): first case in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Bok Kyung; Jeon, Bo-Young; Kim, Jae Myung; Jang, Young-Boo; Jang, Yunho; Yu, So Yoon; Kim, Jiro; Moon, Oun Kyung; Jung, Suk Chan; Lee, Min Kwon; Jeong, Tae Nam

    2016-09-30

    Mycobacterium (M.) bovis causes tuberculosis and has a broad host range, including humans, livestock, and wild animals. M. bovis infection of wild boar has been reported in several European countries. We report here the first case of M. bovis infection in a domesticated wild sow in Korea. Granulomatous and necrotizing lesions with small numbers of acid-fast bacilli were observed in nodules of the lung of wild sow. Furthermore, the M. bovis isolate from the wild sow had spoligotype SB0140 and a novel MIRU-VNTR allelic profile, which is not found in cattle and deer in Korea.

  1. First molecular survey of Anaplasma bovis in small ruminants from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Said, Mourad; Belkahia, Hanène; Karaoud, Maroua; Bousrih, Maha; Yahiaoui, Mouna; Daaloul-Jedidi, Monia; Messadi, Lilia

    2015-09-30

    To date, no information is available regarding the presence of Anaplasma bovis in the South Mediterranean area. In this study, prevalence, risk factors, and genetic diversity of A. bovis were assessed in small ruminants. A total of 563 healthy small ruminants (260 sheep and 303 goats), from 25 randomly selected flocks located in 5 localities from two bioclimatic areas in Tunisia, were investigated for the detection of A. bovis in blood by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) assay. The overall infection rates of A. bovis were 42.7 and 23.8% in sheep and goats, respectively. Goats located in a sub-humid area were statistically more infected than those located in a humid area. A. bovis prevalence rate varied significantly according to sheep and goat flocks, and to the sheep breed. Infection with A. bovis was validated by sequencing. Sequence analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that A. bovis from Tunisian goats and sheep clustered with other strain sequences detected from wild and domestic animals and published in GenBank. This study gives the first insight of presence of A. bovis DNA in small ruminants in Tunisia and suggests that these animal species may be playing an important role in the bovine anaplasmosis natural cycle caused by A. bovis in the South Mediterranean ecosystem. PMID:26088935

  2. Calculus on manifolds a modern approach to classical theorems of advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Spivak, Michael D

    1965-01-01

    This little book is especially concerned with those portions of "advanced calculus" in which the subtlety of the concepts and methods makes rigor difficult to attain at an elementary level. The approa

  3. Detection, removal and prevention of calculus: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa G. Kamath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental plaque is considered to be a major etiological factor in the development of periodontal disease. Accordingly, the elimination of supra- and sub-gingival plaque and calculus is the cornerstone of periodontal therapy. Dental calculus is mineralized plaque; because it is porous, it can absorb various toxic products that can damage the periodontal tissues. Hence, calculus should be accurately detected and thoroughly removed for adequate periodontal therapy. Many techniques have been used to identify and remove calculus deposits present on the root surface. The purpose of this review was to compile the various methods and their advantages for the detection and removal of calculus.

  4. The Development of Newtonian Calculus in Britain, 1700-1800

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guicciardini, Niccoló

    2003-11-01

    Introduction; Overture: Newton's published work on the calculus of fluxions; Part I. The Early Period: 1. The diffusion of the calculus (1700-1730); 2. Developments in the calculus of fluxions (1714-1733); 3. The controversy on the foundations of the calculus (1734-1742); Part II. The Middle Period: 4. The textbooks on fluxions (1736-1758); 5. Some applications of the calculus (1740-1743); 6. The analytic art (1755-1785); Part III. The Reform: 7. Scotland (1785-1809); 8. The Military Schools (1773-1819); 9. Cambridge and Dublin (1790-1820); 10. Tables; Endnotes; Bibliography; Index.

  5. About compositional analysis of pi-calculus processes

    OpenAIRE

    Martinelli, Fabio

    2003-01-01

    We set up a logical framework for the compositional analysis of finite pi-calculus processes. In particular, we extend the partial model checking techniques developed for value passing process algebras to a nominal calculus, i.e. the pi-calculus. The logic considered is an adaptation of the ambient logic to the pi-calculus. As one of the possible applications, we show that our techniques may be used to study interesting security properties as confidentiality for (finite) pi-calculus processes.

  6. About compositional analysis of pi-calculus processes

    OpenAIRE

    Martinelli, Fabio

    2001-01-01

    We set up a logical framework for the compositional analysis of finite pi-calculus processes. In particular, we extend the partial model checking techniques developed for value passing process algebras to a nominal calculus, i.e. the pi-calculus. The logic considered is an adaptation of the ambient logic to the pi-calculus. As one of the possible applications, we show that our techniques may be used to study interesting security properties as confidentiality for (finite) pi-calculus processes.

  7. Mycoplasma bovis mastitis and arthritis in a dairy heifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-19

    Mycoplasma bovis causing mastitis and arthritis in a dairy heifer. Nutritional myopathy in a three-month-old suckler calf. Acute fasciolosis in ewes in Ayrshire. Cardiomyopathy of unknown aetiology causing death of a three-year-old Suffolk ram. Spinal aspergillosis in a seven-week-old pheasant poult These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for August from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:26679914

  8. Mechanisms of recrudescence of Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, J H; Knight, B. C.; Ivanyi, J.

    1989-01-01

    The capacity of various immunosuppressive agents to cause a recrudescence of the replication of Mycobacterium bovis BCG in the spleens of chronically infected mice was investigated. The actions of three corticosteroid preparations, cyclosporin A, and anti-T-cell subset monoclonal antibodies were compared. Treatment of mice with hydrocortisone acetate, which depressed the number of splenic lymphocytes and suppressed T-cell responses, most effectively exacerbated the stationary BCG counts, at 4...

  9. Importance of differentiating Mycobaterium bovis in tuberculous meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Gonzàlez-Duarte

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to describe the principal findings among patients with M.tuberculosis and M. bovis CNS infection. Mycoba - cterium tuberculosis is one of the most common infectious agents that cause death and neurological sequelae around the world. Most of the complications of CNS TB can be attributed to a delay in the diagnosis. Unfortu nately, there are no specific diagnostic tools to support an early diagnosis. Other prognostic factors different from delay in treatment have not been identified. Clinical, radiological and laboratory characteristics were analyzed retrospectively from the medical files of all the patients admitted with the diagnoses of tuberculosis. Of 215 patients admitted with systemic tuberculosis, 64 (30% had a neurological infection. Positive cultures were found in 54 (84% cases, 18 (33% in the CSF and the rest in other fluids or tissues. Adenosin deaminase (ADA enzyme determination was more sensitive than M. tuberculosis PCR in the CSF for supporting an early diagnosis. In addition to a later clinical stage and treatment lag, positive CSF cultures (P=0.001 and the presence of M. bovis (P=0.020 were prognostic factors for a worse outcome. Neither older age, the presence of tuberculomas versus meningeal enhancement, or HIV co-infection, was associated to a worse prognosis. The isolation of M. bovis subspecies was more common that previously reported, and it was associated to the development of parenchymal lesions (P=0.032 when compared to M. tuberculosis. In this study, positive CSF cultures for M. tuberculosis and further identifying M. bovis species were additional prognostic factors for worse outcome. Positive cultures in systemic fluids other than CSF, even when the patient had no obvious systemic manifestations, and ADA determination in the CSF were noteworthy diagnostic tools for the diagnosis.

  10. The Calculus Concept Readiness (CCR) Instrument: Assessing Student Readiness for Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Marilyn; Madison, Bernard; West, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The Calculus Concept Readiness (CCR) instrument is based on the broad body of mathematics education research that has revealed major understandings, representational abilities, and reasoning abilities students need to construct in precalculus level courses to be successful in calculus. The CCR is a 25-item multiple-choice instrument, and the CCR taxonomy articulates what the CCR assesses. The methodology used to develop and validate the CCR is described and illustrated. Results from administe...

  11. [Investigation of Mycobacterium bovis subsp. bovis among the strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolated in Düzce Province, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Cihadiye Elif; Şahin, İdris; Öksüz, Şükrü; Kılıç, Nida; Kılınçel, Özge; Aydın, Leyla; Atik, Dursun; Afşin, Emine

    2016-07-01

    Throughout the history of mankind, tuberculosis (TB) has caused serious illness and still continues to do so. Archaeobiological studies indicated that TB in humans dates back to 4000-8000 BC, and cases were shown to be due to Mycobacterium bovis subsp.bovis rather than Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Moreover, this situation was thought to begin with domestication of animals, consumption of their milk, and living together in the same environment with them. Over time, with the consumption of boiled milk and with the establishment of separate animal shelters, M.bovis subsp. bovis infection began to be seen rarely. Today, M.bovis infection is mostly transmitted from animals to humans and very rarely from humans to other humans. The most significant means of transmission of the infection are to the gastrointestinal tract via consumption of raw milk and to the respiratory system via droplet infection from the animals with disease. In this study, it was planned to investigate the cause of occurrence of TB in cattles in Düzce in the past few years along with the presence of bovine type TB in cases of human tuberculosis. We aimed to carry out subtype determination of the M.tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains isolated in our mycobacteriology laboratory between the years 2004-2014, and evaluate the clinical and sociodemographic data of patients in whom M.bovis subsp. bovis was detected. The strains that were selected for the study have been isolated from radiometric BACTEC™ 12B broth and/or Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) media between 2004-2009, and BACTEC™ MGIT™ (Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube) and/or LJ media between 2009-2014 periods. The GenoType MTBC Kit (Hain-Lifescience GmbH, Germany) was used in the study for determination of the subspecies. Extraction and amplification of DNA and hybridizations were performed according to test procedure in order to investigate the presence of subtypes of the MTBC species in skimmed milk from collections stored at -20°C. In the

  12. [Investigation of Mycobacterium bovis subsp. bovis among the strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolated in Düzce Province, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Cihadiye Elif; Şahin, İdris; Öksüz, Şükrü; Kılıç, Nida; Kılınçel, Özge; Aydın, Leyla; Atik, Dursun; Afşin, Emine

    2016-07-01

    Throughout the history of mankind, tuberculosis (TB) has caused serious illness and still continues to do so. Archaeobiological studies indicated that TB in humans dates back to 4000-8000 BC, and cases were shown to be due to Mycobacterium bovis subsp.bovis rather than Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Moreover, this situation was thought to begin with domestication of animals, consumption of their milk, and living together in the same environment with them. Over time, with the consumption of boiled milk and with the establishment of separate animal shelters, M.bovis subsp. bovis infection began to be seen rarely. Today, M.bovis infection is mostly transmitted from animals to humans and very rarely from humans to other humans. The most significant means of transmission of the infection are to the gastrointestinal tract via consumption of raw milk and to the respiratory system via droplet infection from the animals with disease. In this study, it was planned to investigate the cause of occurrence of TB in cattles in Düzce in the past few years along with the presence of bovine type TB in cases of human tuberculosis. We aimed to carry out subtype determination of the M.tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains isolated in our mycobacteriology laboratory between the years 2004-2014, and evaluate the clinical and sociodemographic data of patients in whom M.bovis subsp. bovis was detected. The strains that were selected for the study have been isolated from radiometric BACTEC™ 12B broth and/or Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) media between 2004-2009, and BACTEC™ MGIT™ (Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube) and/or LJ media between 2009-2014 periods. The GenoType MTBC Kit (Hain-Lifescience GmbH, Germany) was used in the study for determination of the subspecies. Extraction and amplification of DNA and hybridizations were performed according to test procedure in order to investigate the presence of subtypes of the MTBC species in skimmed milk from collections stored at -20°C. In the

  13. [Infection due to Mycobacterium bovis in common variable immunodeficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Sánchez, Diana Andrea; Castilla-Rodríguez, Jaisel Luz; Castrejón-Vázquez, María Isabel; Vargas-Camaño, María Eugenia; Medina-Torres, Edgar Alejandro; Blancas-Galicia, Lizbeth; Espinosa-Padilla, Sara Elva

    2015-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is an heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by impaired antibody production. It shows a wide spectrum of manifestations including severe and recurrent respiratory infections (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus) and gastrointestinal (Campylobacter jejuni, rotavirus and Giardia lamblia). Viral infections caused by herpes zoster, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and hepatitis C are rare. The opportunistic agents such as CMV, Pneumocystis jirovecii, cryptococcus and atypical mycobacteria have been reported as isolated cases. This paper reports the case of a 38-year-old female patient, who began six years before with weight loss of 7 kg in six months, fatigue, weakness, sweating, fever and abdominal pain. Furthermore, patient had intestinal obstruction and abdominal CT showed mesenteric lymph growth. The mesenteric lymph node biopsy revealed positives Mycobacterium PCR, Ziehl-Neelsen staining and culture for M. bovis. In the laparotomy postoperative period was complicated with nosocomial pneumonia, requiring mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy. Two years later, she developed right renal abscess that required surgical drainage, once again with a positive culture for Mycobacterium bovis. She was referred to highly specialized hospital and we documented panhypogammaglobulinemia and lymphopenia. Secondary causes of hypogammaglobulinemia were ruled out and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) was confirmed, we started IVIG replacement. Four years later she developed mixed cellularity Hodgkin's lymphoma. Until today she continues with IVIG and chemotherapy. This report of a patient with CVID and Mycobacterium bovis infection, a unusual association, shows the cellular immunity susceptibility in this immunodeficiency, additional to the humoral defect. PMID:25758115

  14. Flipping a Calculus Class: One Instructor's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes one instructor's experiences during a year of flipping four calculus classes. The first exploration attempts to understand student expectations of a math class and their preference towards a flipped classroom. The second examines success of students from a flipped classroom, and the last investigates relationships with student…

  15. Partial differential equations and calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    Leis, Rolf

    1988-01-01

    This volume contains 18 invited papers by members and guests of the former Sonderforschungsbereich in Bonn (SFB 72) who, over the years, collaborated on the research group "Solution of PDE's and Calculus of Variations". The emphasis is on existence and regularity results, on special equations of mathematical physics and on scattering theory.

  16. Boolean integral calculus for digital systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, J. H.; Tapia, M. A.; Bennett, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    The concept of Boolean integration is introduced and developed. When the changes in a desired function are specified in terms of changes in its arguments, then ways of 'integrating' (i.e., realizing) the function, if it exists, are presented. Boolean integral calculus has applications in design of logic circuits.

  17. A TENTATIVE GUIDE, DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL CALCULUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRANT, VINCENT; GERARDI, WILLIAM

    THE COURSE IS INTENDED TO GO BEYOND THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE ADVANCED PLACEMENT PROGRAM IN MATHEMATICS AS DESIGNED BY THE COLLEGE ENTRANCE EXAMINATION BOARD. THE ADVANCED PLACEMENT PROGRAM CONSISTS OF A 1-YEAR COURSE COMBINING ANALYTIC GEOMETRY AND CALCULUS. PRESUPPOSED HERE ARE--A SEMESTER COURSE IN ANALYTIC GEOMETRY AND A THOROUGH KNOWLEDGE OF…

  18. Enabling quaternion derivatives: the generalized HR calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongpo; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Took, Clive C; Mandic, Danilo P

    2015-08-01

    Quaternion derivatives exist only for a very restricted class of analytic (regular) functions; however, in many applications, functions of interest are real-valued and hence not analytic, a typical case being the standard real mean square error objective function. The recent HR calculus is a step forward and provides a way to calculate derivatives and gradients of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables; however, the HR calculus can become cumbersome in complex optimization problems due to the lack of rigorous product and chain rules, a consequence of the non-commutativity of quaternion algebra. To address this issue, we introduce the generalized HR (GHR) derivatives which employ quaternion rotations in a general orthogonal system and provide the left- and right-hand versions of the quaternion derivative of general functions. The GHR calculus also solves the long-standing problems of product and chain rules, mean-value theorem and Taylor's theorem in the quaternion field. At the core of the proposed GHR calculus is quaternion rotation, which makes it possible to extend the principle to other functional calculi in non-commutative settings. Examples in statistical learning theory and adaptive signal processing support the analysis. PMID:26361555

  19. A planar calculus for infinite index subfactors

    OpenAIRE

    Penneys, David

    2011-01-01

    We develop an analog of Jones' planar calculus for II_1-factor bimodules with arbitrary left and right von Neumann dimension. We generalize to bimodules Burns' results on rotations and extremality for infinite index subfactors. These results are obtained without Jones' basic construction and the resulting Jones projections.

  20. A Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia Posso, Frank Darwin

    2001-01-01

    The tcc model is a formalism for reactive concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we propose a model of temporal concurrent constraint programming which adds to tcc the capability of modeling asynchronous and non-deterministic timed behavior. We call this tcc extension the ntcc calculus...

  1. Advanced calculus of a single variable

    CERN Document Server

    Geveci, Tunc

    2016-01-01

    This advanced undergraduate textbook is based on a one-semester course on single variable calculus that the author has been teaching at San Diego State University for many years. The aim of this classroom-tested book is to deliver a rigorous discussion of the concepts and theorems that are dealt with informally in the first two semesters of a beginning calculus course. As such, students are expected to gain a deeper understanding of the fundamental concepts of calculus, such as limits (with an emphasis on ε-δ definitions), continuity (including an appreciation of the difference between mere pointwise and uniform continuity), the derivative (with rigorous proofs of various versions of L’Hôpital’s rule) and the Riemann integral (discussing improper integrals in-depth, including the comparison and Dirichlet tests). Success in this course is expected to prepare students for more advanced courses in real and complex analysis and this book will help to accomplish this. The first semester of advanced calculus...

  2. Exposing Calculus Students to Advanced Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Barry J.; Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk

    2014-01-01

    To ensure the competitiveness of the USA in the global economy, and its role as a leader in science and engineering, it is important to cultivate the next generation of home grown mathematicians. However, while universities across the USA offer calculus classes to thousands of undergraduate students each year, very few of them go on to major in…

  3. Students' Difficulties with Vector Calculus in Electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; De Cock, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Understanding Maxwell's equations in differential form is of great importance when studying the electrodynamic phenomena discussed in advanced electromagnetism courses. It is therefore necessary that students master the use of vector calculus in physical situations. In this light we investigated the difficulties second year students at KU Leuven…

  4. Using Matlab in a Multivariable Calculus Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlatter, Mark D.

    The benefits of high-level mathematics packages such as Matlab include both a computer algebra system and the ability to provide students with concrete visual examples. This paper discusses how both capabilities of Matlab were used in a multivariate calculus class. Graphical user interfaces which display three-dimensional surfaces, contour plots,…

  5. Sharks, Minnows, and Wheelbarrows: Calculus Modeling Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present two very active applied modeling projects that were successfully implemented in a first semester calculus course at Hollins University. The first project uses a logistic equation to model the spread of a new disease such as swine flu. The second project is a human take on the popular article "Do Dogs Know…

  6. Dogs Don't Need Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Many optimization problems can be solved without resorting to calculus. This article develops a new variational method for optimization that relies on inequalities. The method is illustrated by four examples, the last of which provides a completely algebraic solution to the problem of minimizing the time it takes a dog to retrieve a thrown ball,…

  7. A Planar Calculus for Infinite Index Subfactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penneys, David

    2013-05-01

    We develop an analog of Jones' planar calculus for II 1-factor bimodules with arbitrary left and right von Neumann dimension. We generalize to bimodules Burns' results on rotations and extremality for infinite index subfactors. These results are obtained without Jones' basic construction and the resulting Jones projections.

  8. Thunks and the λ-calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatcliff, John; Danvy, Olivier

    1997-01-01

    Thirty-five years ago, thunks were used to simulate call-by-name under call-by-value in Algol 60. Twenty years ago, Plotkin presented continuation-based simulations of call-by-name under call-by-value and vice versa in the λ-calculus. We connect all three of these classical simulations by...

  9. Thunks and the λ-calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatcliff, John; Danvy, Olivier

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-five years ago, thunks were used to simulate call-by-name under call-by-value in Algol 60. Twenty years ago, Plotkin presented continuation-based simulations of call-by-name under call-by-value and vice versa in the λ-calculus. We connect all three of these classical simulations by...

  10. A few calculus rules for chain differentials

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Daniel E.; Houssineau, Jeremie; Delande, Emmanuel D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes the core definitions and results regarding the chain differential for functions in locally convex topological vector spaces. In addition, it provides a few elementary calculus rules of practical interest, notably for the differentiation of characteristic functionals in various domains of physical science and engineering.

  11. Cartan calculus on quantum Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A generalization of the differential geometry of forms and vector fields to the case of quantum Lie algebras is given. In an abstract formulation that incorporates many existing examples of differential geometry on quantum spaces we combine an exterior derivative, inner derivations, Lie derivatives, forms and functions au into one big algebra, the ''Cartan Calculus.''

  12. Enabling quaternion derivatives: the generalized HR calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongpo; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Took, Clive C; Mandic, Danilo P

    2015-08-01

    Quaternion derivatives exist only for a very restricted class of analytic (regular) functions; however, in many applications, functions of interest are real-valued and hence not analytic, a typical case being the standard real mean square error objective function. The recent HR calculus is a step forward and provides a way to calculate derivatives and gradients of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables; however, the HR calculus can become cumbersome in complex optimization problems due to the lack of rigorous product and chain rules, a consequence of the non-commutativity of quaternion algebra. To address this issue, we introduce the generalized HR (GHR) derivatives which employ quaternion rotations in a general orthogonal system and provide the left- and right-hand versions of the quaternion derivative of general functions. The GHR calculus also solves the long-standing problems of product and chain rules, mean-value theorem and Taylor's theorem in the quaternion field. At the core of the proposed GHR calculus is quaternion rotation, which makes it possible to extend the principle to other functional calculi in non-commutative settings. Examples in statistical learning theory and adaptive signal processing support the analysis.

  13. The Inductive Applications of Probability Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Gini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Author goes back to Founders of Probability calculus to investigate their original interpretation of the probability measure in the applications of the probability theory to real problems. The Author puts in evidence some misunderstandings related to the inversion of deductions derived by the use of probability distributions for investigating the causes of events.

  14. A Functional Calculus for Quotient Bounded Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Mirel Stoian

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available If (X, P is a sequentially locally convex space, then a quotient bounded operator T beloging to QP is regular (in the sense of Waelbroeck if and only if it is a bounded element (in the sense of Allan of algebra QP. The classic functional calculus for bounded operators on Banach space is generalized for bounded elements of algebra QP.

  15. Teaching Calculus with Wolfram|Alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimiceli, Vincent E.; Lang, Andrew S. I. D.; Locke, LeighAnne

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the benefits and drawbacks of using Wolfram|Alpha as the platform for teaching calculus concepts in the lab setting. It is a result of our experiences designing and creating an entirely new set of labs using Wolfram|Alpha. We present the reasoning behind our transition from using a standard computer algebra system (CAS) to…

  16. A robust interpretation of duration calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzle, M.; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2005-01-01

    Calculus (DC), our findings are that the robust interpretation of DC is equivalent to a multi-valued interpretation that uses the real numbers as semantic domain and assigns Lipschitz-continuous interpretations to all operators of DC. Furthermore, this continuity permits approximation between discrete...

  17. Some Factors Effected Student's Calculus Learning Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagukguk, Wamington

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the factors effected calculus learning outcome of the student. This study was conducted with 176 respondents, which were selected randomly. The data were obtained by questionnaire, and then analyzed by using multiple regressions, and correlation, at level of a = 0.05. The findings showed there is the…

  18. On Online Assignments in a Calculus Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungic, Veselin; Kent, Deborah; Menz, Petra

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our experience with the creation and utilization of online assignments for several calculus classes at Simon Fraser University (SFU). We present our findings regarding available software by considering the needs and perspectives of the instructors, students, and administrators. We provide a list of questions that guide…

  19. Are Homeschoolers Prepared for College Calculus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, Christian P.; Wade, Carol H.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.

    2015-01-01

    Homeschooling in the United States has grown considerably over the past several decades. This article presents findings from the Factors Influencing College Success in Mathematics (FICSMath) survey, a national study of 10,492 students enrolled in tertiary calculus, including 190 students who reported homeschooling for a majority of their high…

  20. Expressing First-Order π-Calculus in Higher-Order Calculus of Communicating Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian Xu

    2009-01-01

    In the study of process calculi, encoding between different calculi is an effective way to compare the expressive power of calculi and can shed light on the essence of where the difference lies. Thomsen and Sangiorgi have worked on the higher-order calculi (higher-order Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS) and higher-order It-calculus, respectively) and the encoding from and to first-order π-calculus. However a fully abstract encoding of first-order π-calculus with higher-order CCS is not available up-today. This is what we intend to settle in this paper. We follow the encoding strategy, first proposed by Thomsen, of translating first-order π-calculus into Plain CHOCS. We show that the encoding strategy is fully abstract with respect to early bisimilarity (first-order π-calculus) and wired bisimilarity (Plain CHOCS) (which is a bisimulation defined on wired processes only sending and receiving wires), that is the core of the encoding strategy. Moreover from the fact that the wired bisimilarity is contained by the well-established context bisimilarity, we secure the soundness of the encoding, with respect to early bisimilarity and context bisimilarity. We use index technique to get around all the technical details to reach these main results of this paper. Finally, we make some discussion on our work and suggest some future work.

  1. Fractional calculus in bioengineering, part 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magin, Richard L

    2004-01-01

    Fractional calculus (integral and differential operations of noninteger order) is not often used to model biological systems. Although the basic mathematical ideas were developed long ago by the mathematicians Leibniz (1695), Liouville (1834), Riemann (1892), and others and brought to the attention of the engineering world by Oliver Heaviside in the 1890s, it was not until 1974 that the first book on the topic was published by Oldham and Spanier. Recent monographs and symposia proceedings have highlighted the application of fractional calculus in physics, continuum mechanics, signal processing, and electromagnetics, but with few examples of applications in bioengineering. This is surprising because the methods of fractional calculus, when defined as a Laplace or Fourier convolution product, are suitable for solving many problems in biomedical research. For example, early studies by Cole (1933) and Hodgkin (1946) of the electrical properties of nerve cell membranes and the propagation of electrical signals are well characterized by differential equations of fractional order. The solution involves a generalization of the exponential function to the Mittag-Leffler function, which provides a better fit to the observed cell membrane data. A parallel application of fractional derivatives to viscoelastic materials establishes, in a natural way, hereditary integrals and the power law (Nutting/Scott Blair) stress-strain relationship for modeling biomaterials. In this review, I will introduce the idea of fractional operations by following the original approach of Heaviside, demonstrate the basic operations of fractional calculus on well-behaved functions (step, ramp, pulse, sinusoid) of engineering interest, and give specific examples from electrochemistry, physics, bioengineering, and biophysics. The fractional derivative accurately describes natural phenomena that occur in such common engineering problems as heat transfer, electrode/electrolyte behavior, and sub

  2. Failure of PCR-Based IS6110 Analysis To Detect Vertebral Spondylodiscitis Caused by Mycobacterium bovis

    OpenAIRE

    Steensels, Deborah; Fauville-Dufaux, Maryse; Boie, Johan; De Beenhouwer, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is responsible for a zoonosis originating in cattle. We report a case of a man with vertebral spondylodiscitis caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Diagnosis was complicated because of the lack of IS6110. These strains are rare, but microbiologists should be aware of their existence.

  3. Polymorphisms of twenty regulatory proteins between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis are responsible for tuberculosis in humans or animals, respectively. Both species are closely related and belong to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). M. tuberculosis is the most ancient species from which M. bovis and the other members o...

  4. In situ cytokine expression in pulmonary granulomas of cattle experimentally infected by aerosolized Mycobacterium bovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium bovis is the cause of tuberculosis in most animal species, including cattle and is a serious zoonotic pathogen. In humans, M. bovis infection can result in disease clinically indistinguishable from that caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the cause of most tuberculosis in humans. Reg...

  5. Multilocus sequence typing of Mycoplasma bovis reveals host-specific genotypes in cattle versus bison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycoplasma bovis is a primary agent of mastitis, pneumonia and arthritis in cattle and is the bacterium isolated most frequently from the polymicrobial syndrome known as bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). Recently, M. bovis has emerged as a significant health problem in bison, causing necro...

  6. A multilocus sequence typing method and curated database for Mycoplasma bovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycoplasma bovis is a primary agent of mastitis, pneumonia and arthritis in cattle and is the bacterium isolated most frequently from the polymicrobial syndrome known as bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). Recently, M. bovis has emerged as a significant problem in bison, causing necrotic pha...

  7. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle slaughtered at two abattoirs in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouzrout Rachid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine Tuberculosis is prevalent in Algeria despite governmental attempts to control the disease. The objective of this study was to conduct, for the first time, molecular characterization of a population sample of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from slaughter cattle in Algeria. Between August and November 2007, 7250 animals were consecutively screened at the abattoirs of Algiers and Blida. In 260 animals, gross visible granulomatous lesions were detected and put into culture. Bacterial isolates were subsequently analysed by molecular methods. Results Altogether, 101 bacterial strains from 100 animals were subjected to molecular characterization. M. bovis was isolated from 88 animals. Other bacteria isolated included one strain of M. caprae, four Rhodococcus equi strains, three Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM and five strains of other bacterial species. The M. bovis strains isolated showed 22 different spoligotype patterns; four of them had not been previously reported. The majority of M. bovis strains (89% showed spoligotype patterns that were previously observed in strains from European cattle. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR typing supported a link between M. bovis strains from Algeria and France. One spoligotype pattern has also been shown to be frequent in M. bovis strains from Mali although the VNTR pattern of the Algerian strains differed from the Malian strains. Conclusion M. bovis infections account for a high amount of granulomatous lesions detected in Algerian slaughter cattle during standard meat inspection at Algiers and Blida abattoir. Molecular typing results suggested a link between Algerian and European strains of M. bovis.

  8. Complete Genome Sequences of Field Isolates of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium caprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, José; Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Contreras, Marinela; Vicente, Joaquín; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Manrique, Marina; Tobes, Raquel; López, Vladimir; Romero, Beatriz; Domínguez, Lucas; Garrido, Joseba M; Juste, Ramón; Gortazar, Christian

    2015-06-25

    Here we report the complete genome sequences of field isolates of Mycobacterium bovis and the related mycobacterial species, Mycobacterium caprae. The genomes of three M. bovis (MB1, MB3, MB4) and one M. caprae (MB2) field isolates with different virulence, prevalence, and host distribution phenotypes were sequenced.

  9. Is colonoscopy necessary in cases of infection by Streptococcus bovis biotype II?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corredoira, J.C.; Alonso, M.P.; Garcia-Pais, M.J.; Rabunal, R.; Garcia-Garrote, F.; Lopez-Roses, L.; Lancho, A.; Coira, A.; Pita, J.; Velasco, D.; Lopez-Alvarez, M.J.; Tjalsma, H.; Varela, J.

    2014-01-01

    The association of colorectal neoplasia (CRN) with Streptococcus bovis biotype I (SBI) infection is well recognized. However, this is not the case for Streptococcus bovis biotype II (SBII). We conducted this study in order to analyze the relationship between SBII and CRN. We analyzed all cases of ba

  10. Molecular detection of natural Babesia bovis infection from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and crossbred cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser

    2013-01-01

    Babesia bovis (B. bovis) is a major causative agent of bovine babesiosis, with a considerable worldwide impact. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of PCR assay and microscopical examination (ME) for detection of B. bovis in naturally infected and apparently healthy water...... were apparently healthy. Two blood samples were collected from each animal; one was used for preparation of Giemsa-stained smears for ME while the other sample was used for DNA extraction and PCR testing. Out of 34 cattle and buffaloes, ME identified 13 animals (38.2%) as infected by B. bovis whereas...... apparently healthy, 5 animals (26.3%) were identified as infected by ME meanwhile 15 animals (78.9%) were identified by PCR. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that water buffalos are likely to have a natural tolerance to B. bovis pathogen and/or more likely to be persistent carriers which were...

  11. Targeted surface expression of an exogenous antigen in stably transfected Babesia bovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob M Laughery

    Full Text Available Babesia bovis is a tick-borne intraerythocytic protozoan responsible for acute disease in cattle which can be controlled by vaccination with attenuated B. bovis strains. Emerging B. bovis transfection technologies may increase the usefulness of these live vaccines. One use of transfected B. bovis parasites may be as a vaccine delivery platform. Previous transfection methods for B. bovis were limited by single expression sites and intracellular expression of transfected antigens. This study describes a novel transfection system in which two exogenous genes are expressed: one for selection and the other for a selected antigen designed to be delivered to the surface of the parasites. The strategy for duplicating the number of transfected genes was based on the use of the putative bidirectional promoter of the B. bovis 1.4 Kb ef-1α intergenic region. The ability of this region to regulate two independent expression sites was demonstrated using a luciferase assay on transiently transfected B. bovis parasites and then incorporated into a stable transfection plasmid to control independent expression of the selectable marker GFP-BSD and another gene of interest. A chimeric gene was synthetized using sequences from the protective B-cell epitopes of Rhipicephalus microplus tick antigen Bm86 along with sequences from the surface exposed B. bovis major surface antigen-1. This chimeric gene was then cloned into the additional expression site of the transfection plasmid. Transfection of the B. bovis Mo7 strain with this plasmid resulted in stable insertion into the ef-1α locus and simultaneous expression of both exogenous genes. Expression of the Bm86 epitopes on the surface of transfected merozoites was demonstrated using immunofluorescence analyses. The ability to independently express multiple genes by the inclusion of a bidirectional promoter and the achievement of surface expression of foreign epitopes advances the potential of transfected B. bovis as

  12. Development of a specific DNA probe and PCR for the detection of Mycoplasma bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadersohi, A; Coelen, R J; Hirst, R G

    1997-05-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is responsible for several production diseases in cattle, including mastitis, arthritis, pneumonia, abortion and infertility. Current methodologies for detecting and identifying M. bovis are time consuming and difficult. Tests which rely on antigen or antibody detection have poor sensitivity and specificity. In this paper associated protocols for the development of a hybridization probe and PCR are described. A genomic library (SauIIIA digested) was prepared from M. bovis DNA (Colindale Reference Strain: NC10131:02) and cloned into pUC19. Colony hybridization, using a probe preparation made from purified M. bovis DNA, was used to identify colonies of interest. M. bovis DNA fragments were retrieved from recombinant plasmids by digestion with EcoRI and HindIII. This DNA was used to prepare randomly primed probes for dot blot hybridization analysis with immobilized DNA from M. bovis (two strains), M. dispar, M. agalactiae, M. bovigenitalium (two strains), M. ovipneumoniae, a Group 7 strain, M. arginini and bacteria belonging to different genera. Four probes were found to hybridize only with M. bovis and M. ovipneumoniae DNA, whereas one probe reacted with genomic DNA from only one of the two M. bovis strains. The level of sensitivity of the dot blot hybridization assay was 200 CFU (colony forming units)/mL. To enhance the sensitivity further, an M. bovis-specific PCR assay was developed. The primers were designed using sequences obtained from the probe DNA which discriminated M. bovis from all other Mycoplasma DNA tested. The minimum amount of target DNA that could be detected by the PCR assay was that isolated from 10-20 CFU/mL. The PCR assay was therefore 10 times more sensitive than dot blot hybridization.

  13. Targeted surface expression of an exogenous antigen in stably transfected Babesia bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughery, Jacob M; Knowles, Donald P; Schneider, David A; Bastos, Reginaldo G; McElwain, Terry F; Suarez, Carlos E

    2014-01-01

    Babesia bovis is a tick-borne intraerythocytic protozoan responsible for acute disease in cattle which can be controlled by vaccination with attenuated B. bovis strains. Emerging B. bovis transfection technologies may increase the usefulness of these live vaccines. One use of transfected B. bovis parasites may be as a vaccine delivery platform. Previous transfection methods for B. bovis were limited by single expression sites and intracellular expression of transfected antigens. This study describes a novel transfection system in which two exogenous genes are expressed: one for selection and the other for a selected antigen designed to be delivered to the surface of the parasites. The strategy for duplicating the number of transfected genes was based on the use of the putative bidirectional promoter of the B. bovis 1.4 Kb ef-1α intergenic region. The ability of this region to regulate two independent expression sites was demonstrated using a luciferase assay on transiently transfected B. bovis parasites and then incorporated into a stable transfection plasmid to control independent expression of the selectable marker GFP-BSD and another gene of interest. A chimeric gene was synthetized using sequences from the protective B-cell epitopes of Rhipicephalus microplus tick antigen Bm86 along with sequences from the surface exposed B. bovis major surface antigen-1. This chimeric gene was then cloned into the additional expression site of the transfection plasmid. Transfection of the B. bovis Mo7 strain with this plasmid resulted in stable insertion into the ef-1α locus and simultaneous expression of both exogenous genes. Expression of the Bm86 epitopes on the surface of transfected merozoites was demonstrated using immunofluorescence analyses. The ability to independently express multiple genes by the inclusion of a bidirectional promoter and the achievement of surface expression of foreign epitopes advances the potential of transfected B. bovis as a future vaccine

  14. GIANT VESICAL CALCULUS – A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanumanthaiah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Until 20th century, bladder stones were one of the most prevalent disorders among the poor class and the incidence was especially high in childhood and adolescent. 1 The decrease in incidence of bladder calculi is attributed mainly to dietary and nutritional progress especially in children. 2 A solitary bladder calculus is usual, although multiple stones are found in 25% of cases. 3 Bladder stones are rare, and they constitute about 5% of all urinary stones, 4, 5 it is classified as migrated from upper urinary tract, primary idiopathic, or secondary calculi. 6 Bladder stones are managed by Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy (ESWL, endourology procedures, or open surgery. We report an unusual case of giant vesical calculus weighing 600grams in a 55 year old female with no evidence of hematuria, urinary retention, and dysuria.

  15. Students' difficulties with vector calculus in electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bollen, Laurens; De Cock, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Understanding Maxwell's equations in differential form is a prerequisite to study the electrodynamic phenomena that are discussed in advanced electromagnetism courses. It is therefore necessary that students master the use of vector calculus in physical situations. In this light we investigated the difficulties second year students at KU Leuven encounter with the divergence and curl of a vector field in mathematical and physical contexts. We have found they are quite skilled at doing calculations, but struggle with interpreting graphical representations of vector fields and applying vector calculus to physical situations. We have found strong indications that traditional instruction is not sufficient for our students to fully understand the meaning and power of Maxwell's equations in electrodynamics.

  16. Attendance and attainment in a Calculus course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulenbroek, Bernard; van den Bogaard, Maartje

    2013-10-01

    In this paper the relationship between attendance and attainment in a standard calculus course is investigated. Calculus could in principle be studied without attending lectures due to the wealth of material available (in hardcopy and online). However, in this study we will show that the pass rate of students attending classes regularly (>75% of the classes) is much higher than the pass rate of students attending fewer classes. We use a logistic model to investigate whether this correlation is significant. We will argue why we believe that this correlation between attendance and attainment is causal, i.e. why it is necessary for most students to attend classes in order to (improve their chances to) pass the exam.

  17. Intersection Logic in sequent calculus style

    CERN Document Server

    Della Rocca, Simona Ronchi; Stavrinos, Yiorgos; Veneti, Anastasia; 10.4204/EPTCS.45.2

    2011-01-01

    The intersection type assignment system has been designed directly as deductive system for assigning formulae of the implicative and conjunctive fragment of the intuitionistic logic to terms of lambda-calculus. But its relation with the logic is not standard. Between all the logics that have been proposed as its foundation, we consider ISL, which gives a logical interpretation of the intersection by splitting the intuitionistic conjunction into two connectives, with a local and global behaviour respectively, being the intersection the local one. We think ISL is a logic interesting by itself, and in order to support this claim we give a sequent calculus formulation of it, and we prove that it enjoys the cut elimination property.

  18. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate a rational reconstruction of a previously published control flow analysis for the mobile ambients calculus and we further show how a more precise flow-sensitive analysis, that takes the ordering of action sequences into account, can be formulated...... in a natural way. We show that hybrid logic is very well suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can be exploited to reduce the "administrative overhead" of the analysis specification and thus simplify it. Finally, we use HyLoTab, a fully automated...... theorem prover for hybrid logic, both as a convenient platform for a prototype implementation as well as to formally prove the correctness of the analysis....

  19. Affine connection form of Regge calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Khatsymovsky, V M

    2015-01-01

    Regge action is represented analogously to how the Palatini action for general relativity (GR) as some functional of the metric and a general connection as independent variables represents the Einstein-Hilbert action. The piecewise flat (or simplicial) spacetime of Regge calculus is equipped with some world coordinates and some piecewise affine metric which is completely defined by the set of edge lengths and the world coordinates of the vertices. The conjugate variables are the general nondegenerate matrices on the 3-simplices which play a role of a general discrete connection. Our previous result on some representation of the Regge calculus action in terms of the local Euclidean (Minkowsky) frame vectors and orthogonal connection matrices as independent variables is somewhat modified for the considered case of the general linear group GL(4,R) of the connection matrices. As a result, we have some action invariant w. r. t. arbitrary change of coordinates of the vertices (and related GL(4,R) transformations in...

  20. Investigations on a Pedagogical Calculus of Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Colson, Loïc

    2012-01-01

    In the last few years appeared pedagogical propositional natural deduction systems. In these systems, one must satisfy the pedagogical constraint: the user must give an example of any introduced notion. First we expose the reasons of such a constraint and properties of these "pedagogical" calculi: the absence of negation at logical side, and the "usefulness" feature of terms at computational side (through the Curry-Howard correspondence). Then we construct a simple pedagogical restriction of the calculus of constructions (CC) called CCr. We establish logical limitations of this system, and compare its computational expressiveness to Godel system T. Finally, guided by the logical limitations of CCr, we propose a formal and general definition of what a pedagogical calculus of constructions should be.

  1. Semiclassical dynamics and magnetic Weyl calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyl quantization and related semiclassical techniques can be used to study conduction properties of crystalline solids subjected to slowly-varying, external electromagnetic fields. The case where the external magnetic field is constant, is not covered by existing theory as proofs involving usual Weyl calculus break down. This is the regime of the so-called quantum Hall effect where quantization of transverse conductance is observed. To rigorously derive semiclassical equations of motion, one needs to systematically develop a magnetic Weyl calculus which contains a semiclassical parameter. Mathematically, the operators involved in the analysis are magnetic pseudodifferential operators, a topic which by itself is of interest for the mathematics and mathematical physics community alike. Hence, we will devote two additional chapters to further understanding of properties of those operators. (orig.)

  2. On the interpretation of Stratonovich calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Itô–Stratonovich dilemma is revisited from the perspective of the interpretation of Stratonovich calculus using shot noise. Over the long time scales of the displacement of an observable, the principal issue is how to deal with finite/zero autocorrelation of the stochastic noise. The former (non-zero) noise autocorrelation structure preserves the normal chain rule using a mid-point selection scheme, which is the basis Stratonovich calculus, whereas the instantaneous autocorrelation structure of Itô's approach does not. By considering the finite decay of the noise correlations on time scales very short relative to the overall displacement times of the observable, we suggest a generalization of the integral Taylor expansion criterion of Wong and Zakai (1965 Ann. Math. Stat. 36 1560–4) for the validity of the Stratonovich approach. (paper)

  3. Two cosmological solutions of Regge calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cosmological solutions of Regge calculus are presented which correspond to the flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker and the Kasner solutions of general relativity. By taking advantage of the symmetries that are present, I am able to show explicitly that a limit of Regge calculus does yield Einstein's equations for these cases. The method of averaging these equations when taking limits is important, especially for the Kasner model. I display the leading error term that arises from keeping the Regge equations in discrete form rather than using their continuum limit. In particular, this work shows that for the ''Reggeized'' Friedmann model the minimum volume is a velocity-dominated singularity as in the continuum Friedmann model. However, unlike the latter, the Regge version has a nonzero minimum volume

  4. Some Applications of Fractional Calculus in Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tenreiro Machado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractional Calculus (FC goes back to the beginning of the theory of differential calculus. Nevertheless, the application of FC just emerged in the last two decades, due to the progress in the area of chaos that revealed subtle relationships with the FC concepts. In the field of dynamical systems theory some work has been carried out but the proposed models and algorithms are still in a preliminary stage of establishment. Having these ideas in mind, the paper discusses FC in the study of system dynamics and control. In this perspective, this paper investigates the use of FC in the fields of controller tuning, legged robots, redundant robots, heat diffusion, and digital circuit synthesis.

  5. Semiclassical dynamics and magnetic Weyl calculus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lein, Maximilian Stefan

    2011-01-19

    Weyl quantization and related semiclassical techniques can be used to study conduction properties of crystalline solids subjected to slowly-varying, external electromagnetic fields. The case where the external magnetic field is constant, is not covered by existing theory as proofs involving usual Weyl calculus break down. This is the regime of the so-called quantum Hall effect where quantization of transverse conductance is observed. To rigorously derive semiclassical equations of motion, one needs to systematically develop a magnetic Weyl calculus which contains a semiclassical parameter. Mathematically, the operators involved in the analysis are magnetic pseudodifferential operators, a topic which by itself is of interest for the mathematics and mathematical physics community alike. Hence, we will devote two additional chapters to further understanding of properties of those operators. (orig.)

  6. Index matrices towards an augmented matrix calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Atanassov, Krassimir T

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the very concept of an index matrix and its related augmented matrix calculus in a comprehensive form. It mostly illustrates the exposition with examples related to the generalized nets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets which are examples of an extremely wide array of possible application areas. The present book contains the basic results of the author over index matrices and some of its open problems with the aim to stimulating more researchers to start working in this area.

  7. Predicateμ-Calculus for Mobile Ambients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Min Lin

    2005-01-01

    Ambient logics have been proposed to describe properties for mobile agents which may evolve over time as well as space. This paper takes a predicate-based approach to extending an ambient logic with recursion, yielding a predicate t-calculus in which fixpoint formulas are formed using predicate variables. An algorithm is developed for model checking finite-control mobile ambients against formulas of the logic, providing the first decidability result for model checking a spatial logic with recursion.

  8. Enriching an effect calculus with linear types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egger, Jeff; Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers; Simpson, Alex

    2009-01-01

    We define an ``enriched effect calculus'' by conservatively extending  a type theory for computational effects with primitives from linear logic. By doing so, we obtain a generalisation of linear type theory, intended as a formalism for expressing linear aspects of effects. As a worked example, w....... In particular, the involution property amounts to the  self-duality of the free (syntactic) model....

  9. A Calculus for Higher Spin Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Joung, Euihun; Waldron, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Higher spin theories can be efficiently described in terms of auxiliary St\\"uckelberg or projective space field multiplets. By considering how higher spin models couple to scale, these approaches can be unified in a conformal geometry/tractor calculus framework. We review these methods and apply them to higher spin vertices to obtain a generating function for massless, massive and partially massless three-point interactions.

  10. Introduction to the calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    Sagan, Hans

    1992-01-01

    Excellent text provides basis for thorough understanding of the problems, methods and techniques of the calculus of variations and prepares readers for the study of modern optimal control theory. Treatment limited to extensive coverage of single integral problems in one and more unknown functions. Carefully chosen variational problems and over 400 exercises. ""Should find wide acceptance as a text and reference.""-American Mathematical Monthly. 1969 edition. Bibliography.

  11. Quantum stochastic calculus with maximal operator domains

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay, J Martin; Attal, Stéphane

    2004-01-01

    Quantum stochastic calculus is extended in a new formulation in which its stochastic integrals achieve their natural and maximal domains. Operator adaptedness, conditional expectations and stochastic integrals are all defined simply in terms of the orthogonal projections of the time filtration of Fock space, together with sections of the adapted gradient operator. Free from exponential vector domains, our stochastic integrals may be satisfactorily composed yielding quantum Itô formulas for op...

  12. Variational calculus with constraints on general algebroids

    OpenAIRE

    Grabowska, Katarzyna; Grabowski, Janusz

    2007-01-01

    Variational calculus on a vector bundle E equipped with a structure of a general algebroid is developed, together with the corresponding analogs of Euler-Lagrange equations. Constrained systems are introduced in the variational and in the geometrical setting. The constrained Euler-Lagrange equations are derived for analogs of holonomic, vakonomic and nonholonomic constraints. This general model covers majority of first-order Lagrangian systems which are present in the literature and reduces t...

  13. Cartan Calculus on Quantum Lie Algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Schupp, Peter; Watts, Paul; Zumino, Bruno

    1993-01-01

    A generalization of the differential geometry of forms and vector fields to the case of quantum Lie algebras is given. In an abstract formulation that incorporates many existing examples of differential geometry on quantum spaces we combine an exterior derivative, inner derivations, Lie derivatives, forms and functions all into one big algebra, the ``Cartan Calculus''. (This is an extended version of a talk presented by P. Schupp at the XXII$^{th}$ International Conference on Differential Geo...

  14. Students' difficulties with vector calculus in electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; De Cock, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Understanding Maxwell's equations in differential form is of great importance when studying the electrodynamic phenomena discussed in advanced electromagnetism courses. It is therefore necessary that students master the use of vector calculus in physical situations. In this light we investigated the difficulties second year students at KU Leuven encounter with the divergence and curl of a vector field in mathematical and physical contexts. We have found that they are quite skilled at doing ca...

  15. Mould Calculus for Hamiltonian Vector Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Cresson, Jacky; Morin, Guillaume

    2008-01-01

    We present the general framework of \\'Ecalle's moulds in the case of linearization of a formal vector field without and within resonances. We enlighten the power of moulds by their universality, and calculability. We modify then \\'Ecalle's technique to fit in the seek of a formal normal form of a Hamiltonian vector field in cartesian coordinates. We prove that mould calculus can also produce successive canonical transformations to bring a Hamiltonian vector field into a normal form. We then p...

  16. VEST: abstract vector calculus simplification in Mathematica

    OpenAIRE

    Squire, Jonathan; Burby, Joshua; Qin, Hong

    2013-01-01

    We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce three-dimensional scalar and vector expressions of a very general type to a well defined standard form. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by reduction, subsequently applying these to simplify l...

  17. GAUSSIAN WHITE NOISE CALCULUS OF GENERALIZED EXPANSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泽乾

    2002-01-01

    A new framework of Gaussian white noise calculus is established, in line with generalized expansion in [3, 4, 7]. A suitable frame of Fock expansion is presented on Gaussian generalized expansion functionals being introduced here, which provides the integral kernel operator decomposition of the second quantization of Koopman operators for chaotic dynamical systems, in terms of annihilation operators (e)t and its dual, creation operators (e)*t.

  18. Bigeometric Calculus and Runge Kutta Method

    OpenAIRE

    Riza, Mustafa; Eminağa, Buğçe

    2014-01-01

    The properties of the Bigeometric or proportional derivative are presented and discussed explicitly. Based on this derivative, the Bigeometric Taylor theorem is worked out. As an application of this calculus, the Bigeometric Runge-Kutta method is derived and is applied to academic examples, with known closed form solutions, and a sample problem from mathematical modelling in biology. The comparison of the results of the Bigeometric Runge-Kutta method with the ordinary Runge-Kutta method shows...

  19. The Malliavin calculus and hypoelliptic differential operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Denis

    2015-03-01

    This article is intended as an introduction to Malliavin's stochastic calculus of variations and his probabilistic approach to hypoellipticity. Topics covered include an elementary derivation of the basic integration by parts formulae, a proof of the probabilistic version of Hörmander's theorem as envisioned by Malliavin and completed by Kusuoka and Stroock, and an extension of Hörmander's theorem valid for operators with degeneracy of exponential type due to the author and S. Mohammed.

  20. Calculus teaching and learning in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Karjanto, N.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses an experience of teaching Calculus classes for the freshmen students enrolled at Sungkyunkwan University, one of the private universities in South Korea. The teaching and learning approach is a balance combination between the teacher-oriented traditional style of lecturing and other activities that encourage students for active learning and classroom participation. Based on the initial observation during several semesters, some anecdotal evidences show that students' le...

  1. Natural Babesia bovis infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and crossbred cattle under field conditions in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser

    2014-01-01

    . Conclusion: This paper documents the first description of natural B. bovis infection in water buffaloes which were found to be more likely to be tolerant than cattle to the natural clinical infection with B. bovis and its subsequent haematological changes. Our finding may lead to a better understanding......Background: There is a little or no data available on the natural Babesia bovis (B. bovis) infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) comparing to the available one for cattle. This study was conducted to investigate the natural B. bovis infection in water buffaloes in comparison to crossbred...

  2. Oral vaccination of guinea pigs with a Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine in a lipid matrix protects against aerosol infection with virulent M. bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Simon; Cross, Martin L; Nadian, Allan; Vipond, Julia; Court, Pinar; Williams, Ann; Hewinson, R Glyn; Aldwell, Frank E; Chambers, Mark A

    2008-08-01

    Increased incidence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in the United Kingdom caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis is a cause of considerable economic loss to farmers and the government. The Eurasian badger (Meles meles) represents a wildlife source of recurrent M. bovis infections of cattle in the United Kingdom, and its vaccination against TB with M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is an attractive disease control option. Delivery of BCG in oral bait holds the best prospect for vaccinating badgers over a wide geographical area. Using a guinea pig pulmonary challenge model, we evaluated the protective efficacy of candidate badger oral vaccines, based on broth-grown or ball-milled BCG, delivered either as aqueous suspensions or formulated in two lipids with differing fatty acid profiles (one being animal derived and the other being vegetable derived). Protection was determined in terms of increasing body weight after aerosol challenge with virulent M. bovis, reduced dissemination of M. bovis to the spleen, and, in the case of one oral formulation, restricted growth of M. bovis in the lungs. Only oral BCG formulated in lipid gave significant protection. These data point to the potential of the BCG-lipid formulation for further development as a tool for controlling tuberculosis in badgers.

  3. CLINICO-BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF VESICAL CALCULUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Vesical calculi are the most common manifestation of lower urinary tract lithiasis. Urinary infections play an important role in aetiopathogenesis of vesical calculi. OBJECTIVE Aim of this study was proposed to establish the bacteriology of stone and urine in an attempt to evaluate the role of infection in the formation of stone. Associated factors like age, sex, site of infection, obstruction, diet were also evaluated. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. METHODS The patients were admitted in surgical ward as provisional diagnosed cases of vesical calculus, were subjected to investigations including CBC, RBS, urine analysis, renal function test, x-ray KUB region and ultrasonography. Patients who were fit for surgery, various surgical procedures were done. Gross examination and core culture of stone was done to establish their aetiology. RESULTS Ninety-four patients with vesical calculus were evaluated. Incidence of vesical calculus was 1.13%. Majority of cases were from rural areas (92.55%. Urinary tract infection was present in 37.2% of cases, majority of cases urine culture was positive (30.95%. Core culture of stone was positive in 18 cases (25.17%. E. coli was the predominant organism both in urine culture (19.04% and core culture of stone (25.71%. CONCLUSIONS There is significant association regarding the presence of vesical calculi and the development of urinary infections. E. coli was the predominant organism found both in urine and core culture of stone.

  4. Biochemical characterization of the maltokinase from Mycobacterium bovis BCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamosa Pedro

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maltose-1-phosphate was detected in Mycobacterium bovis BCG extracts in the 1960's but a maltose-1-phosphate synthetase (maltokinase, Mak was only much later purified from Actinoplanes missouriensis, allowing the identification of the mak gene. Recently, this metabolite was proposed to be the intermediate in a pathway linking trehalose with the synthesis of glycogen in M. smegmatis. Although the M. tuberculosis H37Rv mak gene (Rv0127 was considered essential for growth, no mycobacterial Mak has, to date, been characterized. Results The sequence of the Mak from M. bovis BCG was identical to that from M. tuberculosis strains (99-100% amino acid identity. The enzyme was dependent on maltose and ATP, although GTP and UTP could be used to produce maltose-1-phosphate, which we identified by TLC and characterized by NMR. The Km for maltose was 2.52 ± 0.40 mM and 0.74 ± 0.12 mM for ATP; the Vmax was 21.05 ± 0.89 μmol/min.mg-1. Divalent cations were required for activity and Mg2+ was the best activator. The enzyme was a monomer in solution, had maximal activity at 60°C, between pH 7 and 9 (at 37°C and was unstable on ice and upon freeze/thawing. The addition of 50 mM NaCl markedly enhanced Mak stability. Conclusions The unknown role of maltokinases in mycobacterial metabolism and the lack of biochemical data led us to express the mak gene from M. bovis BCG for biochemical characterization. This is the first mycobacterial Mak to be characterized and its properties represent essential knowledge towards deeper understanding of mycobacterial physiology. Since Mak may be a potential drug target in M. tuberculosis, its high-level production and purification in bioactive form provide important tools for further functional and structural studies.

  5. Increasing prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis in Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Ojeniyi, B.; Friis, N.F.

    2000-01-01

    A study on the prevalence of mycoplasmas in pneumonic bovine lungs was performed on material submitted for diagnostic pul poses at the Danish Veterinary Laboratory, Copenhagen. Among the 50 examined cases 43 (86.0%) were found to be infected with mycoplasmas. The predominant mycoplasmas were...... electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of ii field isolates of M. bovis from 9 different farms revealed different profiles except for 2 isolates which were recovered from the same farm. Because mycoplasmas belonging to the M.mycoides cluster' were not encountered during this study; it appears that the Danish cattle...

  6. Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG as an HIV Vaccine Vector

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Rosamund; Chege, Gerald; Shephard, Enid; Stutz, Helen; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 has resulted in a devastating AIDS pandemic. An effective HIV/AIDS vaccine that can be used to either, prevent HIV infection, control infection or prevent progression of the disease to AIDS is needed. In this review we discuss the use of Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the tuberculosis vaccine, as a vaccine vector for an HIV vaccine. Numerous features make BCG an attractive vehicle to deliver HIV antigens. It has a good safety profile, elicits long-lasting cellular immune responses and in addi...

  7. Extending the Lambda Calculus to Express Randomized and Quantumized Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Maymin, Philip

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces a formal metalanguage called the lambda-q calculus for the specification of quantum programming languages. This metalanguage is an extension of the lambda calculus, which provides a formal setting for the specification of classical programming languages. As an intermediary step, we introduce a formal metalanguage called the lambda-p calculus for the specification of programming languages that allow true random number generation. We demonstrate how selected randomized alg...

  8. Ecological Modelling with the Calculus of Wrapped Compartments

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo, de, P.J.; Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The Calculus of Wrapped Compartments is a framework based on stochastic multiset rewriting in a compartmentalised setting originally developed for the modelling and analysis of biological interactions. In this paper, we propose to use this calculus for the description of ecological systems and we provide the modelling guidelines to encode within the calculus some of the main interactions leading ecosystems evolution. As a case study, we model the distribution of height of Croton wagneri, a sh...

  9. Detection, removal and prevention of calculus: Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kamath, Deepa G.; Sangeeta Umesh Nayak

    2013-01-01

    Dental plaque is considered to be a major etiological factor in the development of periodontal disease. Accordingly, the elimination of supra- and sub-gingival plaque and calculus is the cornerstone of periodontal therapy. Dental calculus is mineralized plaque; because it is porous, it can absorb various toxic products that can damage the periodontal tissues. Hence, calculus should be accurately detected and thoroughly removed for adequate periodontal therapy. Many techniques have been used t...

  10. Numerical method for Darcy flow derived using Discrete Exterior Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Hirani, Anil N.; Nakshatrala, Kalyana B.; Chaudhry, Jehanzeb H.

    2008-01-01

    We derive a numerical method for Darcy flow, hence also for Poisson's equation in mixed (first order) form, based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). Exterior calculus is a generalization of vector calculus to smooth manifolds and DEC is one of its discretizations on simplicial complexes such as triangle and tetrahedral meshes. DEC is a coordinate invariant discretization, in that it does not depend on the embedding of the simplices or the whole mesh. We start by rewriting the governing equa...

  11. The Complex Gradient Operator and the CR-Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Kreutz-Delgado, Ken

    2009-01-01

    A thorough discussion and development of the calculus of real-valued functions of complex-valued vectors is given using the framework of the Wirtinger Calculus. The presented material is suitable for exposition in an introductory Electrical Engineering graduate level course on the use of complex gradients and complex Hessian matrices, and has been successfully used in teaching at UC San Diego. Going beyond the commonly encountered treatments of the first-order complex vector calculus, second-...

  12. Non-mathematics Students’ Reasoning in Calculus Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Matić, Ljerka Jukić

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the reasoning of first year non-mathematics students in non-routine calculus tasks. The students in this study were accustomed to imitative reasoning from their primary and secondary education. In order to move from imitative reasoning toward more creative reasoning, non-routine tasks were implemented as an explicit part of the students’ calculus course. We examined the reasoning of six students in the middle of the calculus course and at the end of the course. The ana...

  13. Mikusi\\'nski's Operational Calculus with Algebraic Foundations and Applications to Bessel Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Bengochea, Gabriel; G, Gabriel López

    2013-01-01

    We construct an operational calculus supported on the algebraic operational calculus introduced by Bengochea and Verde. With this operational calculus we study the solution of certain Bessel type equations.

  14. Everyday calculus discovering the hidden math all around us

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez, Oscar E

    2014-01-01

    Calculus. For some of us, the word conjures up memories of ten-pound textbooks and visions of tedious abstract equations. And yet, in reality, calculus is fun, accessible, and surrounds us everywhere we go. In Everyday Calculus, Oscar Fernandez shows us how to see the math in our coffee, on the highway, and even in the night sky. Fernandez uses our everyday experiences to skillfully reveal the hidden calculus behind a typical day's events. He guides us through how math naturally emerges from simple observations-how hot coffee cools down, for example-and in discussions of over fifty familia

  15. Pre-calculus 1,001 practice problems for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, Mary Jane; Sterling

    2014-01-01

    Prepare for calculus the smart way, with customizable pre-calculus practice 1,001 Pre-Calculus Practice Problems For Dummies offers 1,001 opportunities to gain confidence in your math skills. Much more than a workbook, this study aid provides pre-calculus problems ranked from easy to advanced, with detailed explanations and step-by-step solutions for each one. The companion website gives you free online access to all 1,001 practice problems and solutions, and you can track your progress and ID where you should focus your study time. Accessible on the go by smart phone, tablet, o

  16. Categorical Models for a Semantically Linear Lambda-calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Gaboardi; Mauro Piccolo

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about a categorical approach to model a very simple Semantically Linear lambda calculus, named Sll-calculus. This is a core calculus underlying the programming language SlPCF. In particular, in this work, we introduce the notion of Sll-Category, which is able to describe a very large class of sound models of Sll-calculus. Sll-Category extends in the natural way Benton, Bierman, Hyland and de Paiva's Linear Category, in order to soundly interpret all the constructs of Sll-calculu...

  17. Modelling and Analysis of Dynamic Reconfiguration in BP-Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abouzaid, Faisal; Mullins, John; Mazzara, Manuel;

    2012-01-01

    The BP-calculus is a formalism based on the π-calculus and encoded in WS-BPEL. The BP-calculus is intended to specificaly model and verify Service Oriented Applications. One important feature of SOA is the ability to compose services that may dynamically evolve along runtime. Dynamic...... reconfiguration of services increases their availability, but puts accordingly, heavy demands for validation, verification, and evaluation. In this paper we formally model and analyze dynamic reconfigurations and their requirements in BP-calculus and show how reconfigurable components can be modeled using...

  18. Topology,randomness and noise in process calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING Mingsheng

    2007-01-01

    Formal models of communicating and concurrent systems are one of the most important topics in formal methods,and process calculus is one of the most successful formal models of communicating and concurrent systems.In the previous works,the author systematically studied topology in process calculus,probabilistic process calculus and pi-calculus with noisy channels in order to describe approximate behaviors of communicating and concurrent systems as well as randonmess and noise in them.This article is a brief survey of these works.

  19. A Calculus of Communicating Systems with Label Passing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Nielsen, Mogens

    Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS) is extended with a mechanism for label passing - as an attempt to remedy some of the shortcomings of CCS w.r.t. dynamic change of agent interconnections. In the extended calculus, restriction is viewed formally as a binder, and the calculus allows...... dynamic change of scope (of label) in connection with communication. It is proved that algebraic properties of strong (and observational) equivalence for CCS are preserved by the extension. Examples illustrating the expressive power of the calculus and its methods for reasoning are given....

  20. Extended finite operator calculus as an example of algebraization of analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kwasniewski, A. K.

    2008-01-01

    A calculus of sequences started by professor morgan ward constitutes the general scheme for extensions of classical operator calculus of the distinguished gian carlo rota considered by many afterwards and after ward morgan. Because of the historically now established notation we call the wardian calculus of sequences in its afterwards elaborated form a psi calculus. The psi calculus in parts appears to be almost automatic, natural extension of classical operator calculus or equivalently of um...

  1. Immunological evaluation of a component isolated from Mycobacterium bovis BCG with a monoclonal antibody to M. bovis BCG.

    OpenAIRE

    Minden, P; Kelleher, P J; Freed, J. H.; Nielsen, L. D.; Brennan, P J; McPheron, L; McClatchy, J K

    1984-01-01

    A component of Mycobacterium bovis BCG referred to as BCG-a was isolated through the combined use of monoclonal antibody directed to BCG and affinity chromatography. Analysis of BCG-a by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a single prominent band with a molecular weight of ca. 10,000. Structural characterization of BCG-a consisting of amino acid composition and amino-terminal sequence determination was carried out. The intact BCG-a antigen was bound by neither t...

  2. Immune responses to Mycoplasma bovis proteins formulated with different adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prysliak, Tracy; Perez-Casal, Jose

    2016-06-01

    Most vaccines for protection against Mycoplasma bovis disease are made of bacterins, and they offer varying degrees of protection. Our focus is on the development of a subunit-based protective vaccine, and to that end, we have identified 10 novel vaccine candidates. After formulation of these candidates with TriAdj, an experimental tri-component novel vaccine adjuvant developed at VIDO-InterVac, we measured humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in vaccinated animals. In addition, we compared the immune responses after formulation with TriAdj with the responses measured in animals vaccinated with a mix of a commercial adjuvant (Emulsigen™) and 2 of the components of the TriAdj, namely polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) and the cationic innate defense regulator (IDR) peptide 1002 (VQRWLIVWRIRK). In this latter trial, we detected significant IgG1 humoral immune responses to 8 out of 10 M. bovis proteins, and IgG2 responses to 7 out of 10 proteins. Thus, we concluded that the commercial adjuvant formulated with poly I:C and the IDR peptide 1002 is the best formulation for the experimental vaccine. PMID:27105454

  3. Mycobacterium bovis in Burkina Faso: epidemiologic and genetic links between human and cattle isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adama Sanou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, bovine tuberculosis (bTB is a potential hazard for animals and humans health. The goal of this study was to improve our understanding of bTB epidemiology in Burkina Faso and especially Mycobacterium bovis transmission within and between the bovine and human populations.Twenty six M. bovis strains were isolated from 101 cattle carcasses with suspected bTB lesions during routine meat inspections at the Bobo Dioulasso and Ouagadougou slaughterhouses. In addition, 7 M. bovis strains were isolated from 576 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Spoligotyping, RDAf1 deletion and MIRU-VNTR typing were used for strains genotyping. The isolation of M. bovis strains was confirmed by spoligotyping and 12 spoligotype signatures were detected. Together, the spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR data allowed grouping the 33 M. bovis isolates in seven clusters including isolates exclusively from cattle (5 or humans (1 or from both (1. Moreover, these data (genetic analyses and phenetic tree showed that the M. bovis isolates belonged to the African 1 (Af1 clonal complex (81.8% and the putative African 5 (Af5 clonal complex (18.2%, in agreement with the results of RDAf1 deletion typing.This is the first detailed molecular characterization of M. bovis strains from humans and cattle in Burkina Faso. The distribution of the two Af1 and putative Af5 clonal complexes is comparable to what has been reported in neighbouring countries. Furthermore, the strain genetic profiles suggest that M. bovis circulates across the borders and that the Burkina Faso strains originate from different countries, but have a country-specific evolution. The genetic characterization suggests that, currently, M. bovis transmission occurs mainly between cattle, occasionally between cattle and humans and potentially between humans. This study emphasizes the bTB risk in cattle but also in humans and the difficulty to set up proper disease control strategies in Burkina Faso.

  4. Analysis of Streptococcus bovis infections at a monographic oncological centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano TG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Streptococcus bovis is a Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic, catalase and oxidase negative coccus belonging to the genus Streptococcus. It is part of Streptoccus bovis/ equinus complex and it express the Lancefield antigen D on the surface.This complex has been characterized by molecular biology techniques and specifically by 16S rRNA and sodA gene. Phylogenetic trees based on these techniques are complex and therefore the routine work in laboratories, biochemical techniques are used to identify subspecies if it is necessary.The complex is divided into two subtypes based on biochemical properties: positive mannitol fermentation (biotype I including S. gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus and S. gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus, mannitol negative and ß-glucuronidase negative (biotype II/ 1, which includes more species (S. infantarius subsp. coli and S. lutetiensis and mannitol negative and ß-glucuronidase positive (biotype II/ 2, with a single species called S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus.Owing to the relationship between colon cancer tumour and Streptococcus bovis, we intend to analyse all isolates in our hospital between the periods of 2010 until March 2013 and analyse tumor epidemiology at our center, in patients infected with this pathogen.Despite the different types of samples and out of the possibility of identification of subspecies, were isolated 14 S. bovis of 14 different patients. The isolates patients were (at the beginning: 4 blood (blood culture, 5 urine, 4 multiple exudates and 1 bronchoalveolar lavage. The proportion of men and women was 8/6. The mean age was 67 years (56±91. Malignant tumor distribution was: 6 prostate cancer, 1 breast cancer, 1 biliary tract, 1 skin, 1, stomach, 1 uterus, 1 vulvar, 1 pyriform sinus and other reproductive organs without specify.The study of antimicrobial in vitro susceptibility was performed by microdilution (MicroScan® WalkAway, Siemens, Sacramento, CA, USA and the

  5. Untersuchungen zur zellulären Immunantwort sowie zu wirtszellgebundenen Reaktionen gegen Eimeria bovis-Infektionen

    OpenAIRE

    Taubert, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Die individuell variierende Empfänglichkeit von Kälbern für eine E. bovis-Erstinfektion könnte mit unterschiedlich stark ausgeprägten, nicht-adaptativen Immunreaktionen zusammen-hängen. Um deren Natur zu überprüfen, wurden Analysen zu Interaktionen von Monozyten, Makrophagen, NK-Zellen und PMN mit E. bovis-Sporozoiten durchgeführt. Während Monozyten nur eine geringe Reaktivität nach Konfrontation mit E. bovis-Sporozoiten in vitro zeigten, waren alle anderen Zelltypen hochreaktiv, führten zur ...

  6. The history of the calculus and its conceptual development (the concepts of the calculus)

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Carl B

    1959-01-01

    Fluent description of the development of both the integral and differential calculus. Early beginnings in antiquity, medieval contributions, and a century of anticipation lead up to a consideration of Newton and Leibniz, the period of indecison that followed them, and the final rigorous formulation that we know today.

  7. An Evaluative Calculus Project: Applying Bloom's Taxonomy to the Calculus Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaali, Gizem

    2011-01-01

    In education theory, Bloom's taxonomy is a well-known paradigm to describe domains of learning and levels of competency. In this article I propose a calculus capstone project that is meant to utilize the sixth and arguably the highest level in the cognitive domain, according to Bloom et al.: evaluation. Although one may assume that mathematics is…

  8. Improving Student Success in Calculus I Using a Co-Requisite Calculus I Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestal, Sharon Schaffer; Brandenburger, Thomas; Furth, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes how one university mathematics department was able to improve student success in Calculus I by requiring a co-requisite lab for certain groups of students. The groups of students required to take the co-requisite lab were identified by analyzing student data, including Math ACT scores, ACT Compass Trigonometry scores, and…

  9. Experimental Design: Utilizing Microsoft Mathematics in Teaching and Learning Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktaviyanthi, Rina; Supriani, Yani

    2015-01-01

    The experimental design was conducted to investigate the use of Microsoft Mathematics, free software made by Microsoft Corporation, in teaching and learning Calculus. This paper reports results from experimental study details on implementation of Microsoft Mathematics in Calculus, students' achievement and the effects of the use of Microsoft…

  10. On flipping the classroom in large first year calculus courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungić, Veselin; Kaur, Harpreet; Mulholland, Jamie; Xin, Cindy

    2015-05-01

    Over the course of two years, 2012--2014, we have implemented a 'flipping' the classroom approach in three of our large enrolment first year calculus courses: differential and integral calculus for scientists and engineers. In this article we describe the details of our particular approach and share with the reader some experiences of both instructors and students.

  11. DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL CALCULUS. A TENTATIVE CURRICULUM GUIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRANT, VINCENT; GERARDI, WILLIAM

    A GUIDE FOR A 1-YEAR COURSE IN DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL CALCULUS PREREQUISITED KNOWLEDGE IN ALGEBRA, ANALYTIC TRIGONOMETRY, AND ELEMENTARY ANALYSIS. EACH ASSIGNMENT CONTAINED BOTH NEW AND REVIEW WORK TO REINFORCE THE NEW WORK. THERE WERE ELEVEN UNITS OF STUDY USING THE FOLLOWING FOUR BOOKS--"CALCULUS AND ANALYTIC GEOMETRY, THIRD EDITIONS," BY…

  12. Modelling the Landing of a Plane in a Calculus Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morante, Antonio; Vallejo, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    We exhibit a simple model of a plane landing that involves only basic concepts of differential calculus, so it is suitable for a first-year calculus lab. We use the computer algebra system Maxima and the interactive geometry software GeoGebra to do the computations and graphics. (Contains 5 figures and 1 note.)

  13. Advanced Placement Mathematics Calculus, Grade 12 Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, John; And Others

    This document is a guide to the advanced placement program in calculus for grade 12 in the city schools in Warren, Ohio. The program covers analytic geometry, differential and integral calculus of algebraic functions, elementary transcendental functions, and applications of differentiation and integration. The philosophy and aims of the program…

  14. Calculus: A Computer Oriented Presentation, Part 1 [and] Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Warren; Walker, Robert J.

    Parts one and two of a one-year computer-oriented calculus course (without analytic geometry) are presented. The ideas of calculus are introduced and motivated through computer (i.e., algorithmic) concepts. An introduction to computing via algorithms and a simple flow chart language allows the book to be self-contained, except that material on…

  15. Type Inference for Session Types in the Pi-Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huttel, Hans; Graversen, Eva Fajstrup; Wahl, Sebastian;

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a direct algorithm for session type inference for the π-calculus. Type inference for session types has previously been achieved by either imposing limitations and restriction on the π-calculus, or by reducing the type inference problem to that for linear types. Our approach...

  16. A compositional proof system for the modal μ-calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Stirling, C.; Winskel,, G.

    1994-01-01

    We present a proof system for determining satisfaction between processes in a fairly general process algebra and assertions of the modal μ-calculus. The proof system is compositional in the structure of processes. It extends earlier work on compositional reasoning within the modal μ-calculus and ...

  17. Descartes' Calculus of Subnormals: What Might Have Been

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Gregory Mark; Walls, Jess E.

    2013-01-01

    Rene Descartes' method for finding tangents (equivalently, subnormals) depends on geometric and algebraic properties of a family of circles intersecting a given curve. It can be generalized to establish a calculus of subnormals, an alternative to the calculus of Newton and Leibniz. Here we prove subnormal counterparts of the well-known…

  18. Visual Thinking and Gender Differences in High School Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk; Chicken, Eric

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to examine calculus students' mathematical performances and preferences for visual or analytic thinking regarding derivative and antiderivative tasks presented graphically. It extends previous studies by investigating factors mediating calculus students' mathematical performances and their preferred modes of thinking. Data were…

  19. Calculus of Variations with Fractional and Classical Derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Odzijewicz, Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    We give a proper fractional extension of the classical calculus of variations. Necessary optimality conditions of Euler-Lagrange type for variational problems containing both fractional and classical derivatives are proved. The fundamental problem of the calculus of variations with mixed integer and fractional order derivatives as well as isoperimetric problems are considered.

  20. Partial Fractions in Calculus, Number Theory, and Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackel, C. A.; Denny, J. K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the development of the method of partial fraction decomposition from elementary number theory through calculus to its abstraction in modern algebra. This unusual perspective makes the topic accessible and relevant to readers from high school through seasoned calculus instructors.

  1. Evaluating the Use of Learning Objects for Improving Calculus Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Robin; Kletskin, Ilona

    2010-01-01

    Pre-calculus concepts such as working with functions and solving equations are essential for students to explore limits, rates of change, and integrals. Yet many students have a weak understanding of these key concepts which impedes performance in their first year university Calculus course. A series of online learning objects was developed to…

  2. Improving Student Success in Calculus at Seattle University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J. D.; Helliwell, D.; Henrich, Allison; Principe, M.; Sloughter, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Finding ways to improve student success in calculus is a critically important step on the path to supporting students who are pursuing degrees in STEM fields. Far too many students fail calculus 1 and are pushed to drop their majors in technical fields. One way of addressing this issue is by following a program that was pioneered at University of…

  3. The Arrow Calculus as a Quantum Programming Language

    OpenAIRE

    Vizzotto, Juliana Kaizer; Bois, Andre Rauber Du; Sabry, Amr

    2009-01-01

    We express quantum computations (with measurements) using the arrow calculus extended with monadic constructions. This framework expresses quantum programming using well-understood and familiar classical patterns for programming in the presence of computational effects. In addition, the five laws of the arrow calculus provide a convenient framework for equational reasoning about quantum computations that include measurements.

  4. The Enriched Effect Calculus: Syntax and Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers; Simpson, Alex; Egger, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the enriched effect calculus, which extends established type theories for computational effects with primitives from linear logic. The new calculus provides a formalism for expressing linear aspects of computational effects; e.g. the linear usage of imperative features suc...

  5. Using the Finite Difference Calculus to Sum Powers of Integers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Lee

    1991-01-01

    Summing powers of integers is presented as an example of finite differences and antidifferences in discrete mathematics. The interrelation between these concepts and their analogues in differential calculus, the derivative and integral, is illustrated and can form the groundwork for students' understanding of differential and integral calculus.…

  6. Calculus Reform and Graphing Calculators: A University View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stick, Marvin E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the results of a teacher's exploration of the effects of using graphing calculators in calculus instruction in sections other than those that are experimental. Two experimental and two traditional sections of Calculus I and II participated in the study. (DDR)

  7. Calculus Students' Early Concept Images of Tangent Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Brittany; LaRue, Renee; Sealey, Vicki; Engelke, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    This study explored first-semester calculus students' understanding of tangent lines as well as how students used tangent lines within the context of Newton's method. Task-based interviews were conducted with twelve first-semester calculus students who were asked to verbally describe a tangent line, sketch tangent lines for multiple curves, and…

  8. Transitioning from Introductory Calculus to Formal Limit Conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Courtney

    2013-01-01

    The limit concept is a fundamental mathematical notion both for its practical applications and its importance as a prerequisite for later calculus topics. Past research suggests that limit conceptualizations promoted in introductory calculus are far removed from the formal epsilon-delta definition of limit. In this article, I provide an overview…

  9. A calculus of quality for robustness against unreliable communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Vigo, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    A main challenge in the development of distributed systems is to ensure that the components continue to behave in a reasonable manner even when communication becomes unreliable. We propose a process calculus, the Quality Calculus, for programming software components where it becomes natural to pl...

  10. Towards Model Checking a Spi-Calculus Dialect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnesi, S.; Latella, D.; Lenzini, G.

    2002-01-01

    We present a model checking framework for a spi-calculus dialect which uses a linear time temporal logic for expressing security properties. We have provided our spi-calculus dialect, called SPID, with a semantics based on labeled transition systems (LTS), where the intruder is modeled in the Dolev-

  11. Coordinating Multiple Representations in a Reform Calculus Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Briana L.; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Tran, Nhi

    2015-01-01

    Coordination of multiple representations (CMR) is widely recognized as a critical skill in mathematics and is frequently demanded in reform calculus textbooks. However, little is known about the prevalence of coordination tasks in such textbooks. We coded 707 instances of CMR in a widely used reform calculus textbook and analyzed the distributions…

  12. Stochastic Model Checking of the Stochastic Quality Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Zeng, Kebin

    2015-01-01

    The Quality Calculus uses quality binders for input to express strategies for continuing the computation even when the desired input has not been received. The Stochastic Quality Calculus adds generally distributed delays for output actions and real-time constraints on the quality binders for input...

  13. Utilizing Microsoft Mathematics in Teaching and Learning Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktaviyanthi, Rina; Supriani, Yani

    2015-01-01

    The experimental design was conducted to investigate the use of Microsoft Mathematics, free software made by Microsoft Corporation, in teaching and learning Calculus. This paper reports results from experimental study details on implementation of Microsoft Mathematics in Calculus, students' achievement and the effects of the use of Microsoft…

  14. Equality and fixpoints in the calculus of structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhuri, Kaustuv; Guenot, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The standard proof theory for logics with equality and fixpoints suffers from limitations of the sequent calculus, where reasoning is separated from computational tasks such as unification or rewriting. We propose in this paper an extension of the calculus of structures, a deep inference formalism...

  15. Effects of Clicker Use on Calculus Students' Mathematics Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey study of clicker use and mathematics anxiety among students enrolled in an undergraduate calculus course during the Fall 2013 semester. Students in two large lecture sections of calculus completed surveys at the beginning and end of the course. One class used clickers, whereas the other class was taught…

  16. Decidable Fragments of a Higher Order Calculus with Locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Godskesen, Jens Christian; Haagensen, Bjørn;

    2009-01-01

    Homer is a higher order process calculus with locations. In this paper we study Homer in the setting of the semantic finite control property, which is a finite reachability criterion that implies decidability of barbed bisimilarity. We show that strong and weak barbed bisimilarity are undecidable...... control π-calculus in Homer....

  17. A Calculus of Circular Proofs and its Categorical Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santocanale, Luigi

    2002-01-01

    We present a calculus of "circular proofs": the graph underlying a proof is not a finite tree but instead it is allowed to contain a certain amount of cycles.The main challenge in developing a theory for the calculus is to define the semantics of proofs, since the usual method by induction...

  18. On Flipping the Classroom in Large First Year Calculus Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungic, Veselin; Kaur, Harpreet; Mulholland, Jamie; Xin, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Over the course of two years, 2012-2014, we have implemented a "flipping" the classroom approach in three of our large enrolment first year calculus courses: differential and integral calculus for scientists and engineers. In this article we describe the details of our particular approach and share with the reader some experiences of…

  19. A Calculus of Circular Proofs and its Categorical Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santocanale, Luigi

    2002-01-01

    We present a calculus of “circular proofs”: the graph underlying a proof is not a finite tree but instead it is allowed to contain a certain amount of cycles.The main challenge in developing a theory for the calculus is to define the semantics of proofs, since the usual method by induction...

  20. Reflections on Our First Calculus Undergraduate Teaching Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshler, Jessica M.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes some reflections from the first Calculus I undergraduate teaching assistant in our department as she explored the various ways in which she was able to support both novice and experienced Calculus teachers and the effect of her experience on her academic and career plans.

  1. Wick Calculus for Nonlinear Gaussian Functionals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao-zhong Hu; Jia-an Yan

    2009-01-01

    This paper surveys some results on Wick product and Wick renormalization. The framework is the abstract Wiener space. Some known results on Wick product and Wick renormaiization in the white noise analysis framework are presented for classical random variables. Some conditions are described for random variables whose Wick product or whose renormaiization are integrable random variables. Relevant results on multiple Wiener integrals, second quantization operator, Malliavin calculus and their relations with the Wick product and Wick renormalization are also briefly presented. A useful tool for Wick product is the S-transform which is also described without the introduction of generalized random variables.

  2. The Qualitative Trajectory Calculus on Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Peter; van de Weghe, Nico; Cohn, Anthony G.; Witlox, Frank; de Maeyer, Philippe

    Moving objects are commonly handled using quantitative methods and information. However, in many cases, qualitative information can be more efficient and more meaningful than quantitative information. A lot of research has been done in generating, indexing, modelling and querying network-based moving objects, but little work has been done in building a calculus of relations between these objects in a qualitative way. In this paper, we introduce a formal definition of how to represent and reason about the relative trajectories of pairs of objects moving along a network.

  3. An introduction to the calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    Pars, LA

    2009-01-01

    This clear, rigorous introduction to the calculus of variations covers applications to geometry, dynamics, and physics. Focusing upon problems with one independent variable, the text connects the abstract theory to its use in concrete problems. It offers a working knowledge of relevant techniques, plus an impetus for further study.Starting with an overview of fundamental problems and theories, the text advances to illustrative examples and examinations of variable end-points and the fundamental sufficiency theorem. Subsequent chapters explore the isoperimetrical problem, curves in space, the p

  4. Electrostatics in Fractal Geometry: Fractional Calculus Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Baskin, Emmanuel; Iomin, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The electrostatics properties of composite materials with fractal geometry are studied in the framework of fractional calculus. An electric field in a composite dielectric with a fractal charge distribution is obtained in the spherical symmetry case. The method is based on the splitting of a composite volume into a fractal volume $V_d\\sim r^d$ with the fractal dimension $d$ and a complementary host volume $V_h=V_3-V_d$. Integrations over these fractal volumes correspond to the convolution int...

  5. Algorithmic Differentiation for Calculus-based Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Andrea

    2010-10-01

    For numerous applications, the computation and provision of exact derivative information plays an important role for optimizing the considered system but quite often also for its simulation. This presentation introduces the technique of Algorithmic Differentiation (AD), a method to compute derivatives of arbitrary order within working precision. Quite often an additional structure exploitation is indispensable for a successful coupling of these derivatives with state-of-the-art optimization algorithms. The talk will discuss two important situations where the problem-inherent structure allows a calculus-based optimization. Examples from aerodynamics and nano optics illustrate these advanced optimization approaches.

  6. Regge calculus and observations. II. Further applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ruth M.; Ellis, G. F. R.

    1984-11-01

    The method, developed in an earlier paper, for tracing geodesies of particles and light rays through Regge calculus space-times, is applied to a number of problems in the Schwarzschild geometry. It is possible to obtain accurate predictions of light bending by taking sufficiently small Regge blocks. Calculations of perihelion precession, Thomas precession, and the distortion of a ball of fluid moving on a geodesic can also show good agreement with the analytic solution. However difficulties arise in obtaining accurate predictions for general orbits in these space-times. Applications to other problems in general relativity are discussed briefly.

  7. Safety versus Security in the Quality Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Safety and security are both needed for ensuring that cyber-physical systems live up to expectations, but often an intelligent trade-off is called for, because sometimes it is impossible to obtain optimal safety at the same time as optimal security. In the context of the Quality Calculus we develop...... a type system for checking the extent to which safety and security goals have been met. Safety goals include showing that certain error configurations are in fact not reachable and hence do not require intelligent error handling. Security goals include showing that highly trusted communications can only...

  8. Covariant super reggeon calculus for superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A previously developed formalism for the bosonic string is extended to the Neveu-Schwarz-Ramond string using 2-d superspace techniques throughout. 3-string vertices for NS- and R-strings are constructed, sewing rules developed, and the technique of quasi-superconformal modes is set up for constructing the measure on super moduli space. Symmetries, such as superconformal invariance and BRST-invariance, are guaranteed ab initio. Picture changing and bosonization are avoided. Examples are given. The formalism should allow a superstring loop calculus based on supermoduli. Results concerning the ensuing super-Schottky description are given. (orig.)

  9. On the origins of generalized fractional calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryakova, Virginia

    2015-11-01

    In Fractional Calculus (FC), as in the (classical) Calculus, the notions of derivatives and integrals (of first, second, etc. or arbitrary, incl. non-integer order) are basic and co-related. One of the most frequent approach in FC is to define first the Riemann-Liouville (R-L) integral of fractional order, and then by means of suitable integer-order differentiation operation applied over it (or under its sign) a fractional derivative is defined - in the R-L sense (or in Caputo sense). The first mentioned (R-L type) is closer to the theoretical studies in analysis, but has some shortages - from the point of view of interpretation of the initial conditions for Cauchy problems for fractional differential equations (stated also by means of fractional order derivatives/ integrals), and also for the analysts' confusion that such a derivative of a constant is not zero in general. The Caputo (C-) derivative, arising first in geophysical studies, helps to overcome these problems and to describe models of applied problems with physically consistent initial conditions. The operators of the Generalized Fractional Calculus - GFC (integrals and derivatives) are based on commuting m-tuple (m = 1, 2, 3, …) compositions of operators of the classical FC with power weights (the so-called Erdélyi-Kober operators), but represented in compact and explicit form by means of integral, integro-differential (R-L type) or differential-integral (C-type) operators, where the kernels are special functions of most general hypergeometric kind. The foundations of this theory are given in Kiryakova 18. In this survey we present the genesis of the definitions of the GFC - the generalized fractional integrals and derivatives (of fractional multi-order) of R-L type and Caputo type, analyze their properties and applications. Their special cases are all the known operators of classical FC, their generalizations introduced by other authors, the hyper-Bessel differential operators of higher integer

  10. Endocardite infecciosa por Streptococcus bovis em paciente com carcinoma colônico Endocarditis infecciosa por Streptococcus bovis en paciente con carcinoma colónico Infectious endocarditis due to Streptococcus bovis in a patient with colon carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Maulaz Barcelos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos o caso de uma paciente de 66 anos de idade, com endocardite infecciosa por Streptococcus bovis e adenocarcinoma colônico, que desenvolveu insuficiência aórtica grave aguda. Foi submetida à cirurgia de troca valvar aórtica e posteriormente à ressecção tumoral (hemicolectomia direita. É importante ressaltar a necessidade de complementação do estudo do cólon, mesmo em indivíduos assintomáticos, quando diagnosticamos endocardite infecciosa por S. bovis.Describimos el caso de una paciente de 66 años de edad, con endocarditis infecciosa por streptococcus bovis y adenocarcinoma colónico, que desarrolló insuficiencia aórtica grave aguda. Fue sometida a cirugía de reemplazo valvular aórtico y posteriormente a resección tumoral (hemicolectomía derecha. Es importante destacar la necesidad de complementación del estudio del colon, aun en individuos asintomáticos, cuando diagnosticamos endocarditis infecciosa por S. bovis.We report the case of a 66 year-old female patient with infectious endocarditis due to Streptococcus bovis and adenocarcinoma of the colon that developed acute aortic insufficiency. She was submitted to aortic valve replacement surgery and later to tumor resection (right hemicolectomy. It is important to emphasize the need for complementing the study of the colon, even in asymptomatic individuals, when infectious endocarditis due to S. bovis is diagnosed.

  11. Initialization, conceptualization, and application in the generalized (fractional) calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carl F; Hartley, Tom T

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a formalized basis for initialization in the fractional calculus. The intent is to make the fractional calculus readily accessible to engineering and the sciences. A modified set of definitions for the fractional calculus is provided which formally include the effects of initialization. Conceptualizations of fractional derivatives and integrals are shown. Physical examples of the basic elements from electronics are presented along with examples from dynamics, material science, viscoelasticity, filtering, instrumentation, and electrochemistry to indicate the broad application of the theory and to demonstrate the use of the mathematics. The fundamental criteria for a generalized calculus established by Ross (1974) are shown to hold for the generalized fractional calculus under appropriate conditions. A new generalized form for the Laplace transform of the generalized differintegral is derived. The concept of a variable structure (order) differintegral is presented along with initial efforts toward meaningful definitions. PMID:19583533

  12. The ZX-calculus is complete for stabilizer quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ZX-calculus is a graphical calculus for reasoning about quantum systems and processes. It is known to be universal for pure state qubit quantum mechanics (QM), meaning any pure state, unitary operation and post-selected pure projective measurement can be expressed in the ZX-calculus. The calculus is also sound, i.e. any equality that can be derived graphically can also be derived using matrix mechanics. Here, we show that the ZX-calculus is complete for pure qubit stabilizer QM, meaning any equality that can be derived using matrices can also be derived pictorially. The proof relies on bringing diagrams into a normal form based on graph states and local Clifford operations. (paper)

  13. Intitialization, Conceptualization, and Application in the Generalized Fractional Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides a formalized basis for initialization in the fractional calculus. The intent is to make the fractional calculus readily accessible to engineering and the sciences. A modified set of definitions for the fractional calculus is provided which formally include the effects of initialization. Conceptualizations of fractional derivatives and integrals are shown. Physical examples of the basic elements from electronics are presented along with examples from dynamics, material science, viscoelasticity, filtering, instrumentation, and electrochemistry to indicate the broad application of the theory and to demonstrate the use of the mathematics. The fundamental criteria for a generalized calculus established by Ross (1974) are shown to hold for the generalized fractional calculus under appropriate conditions. A new generalized form for the Laplace transform of the generalized differintegral is derived. The concept of a variable structure (order) differintegral is presented along with initial efforts toward meaningful definitions.

  14. Mycobacterium leprae phenolglycolipid-1 expressed by engineered M. bovis BCG modulates early interaction with human phagocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Tabouret

    Full Text Available The species-specific phenolic glycolipid 1 (PGL-1 is suspected to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of leprosy, a chronic disease of the skin and peripheral nerves caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Based on studies using the purified compound, PGL-1 was proposed to mediate the tropism of M. leprae for the nervous system and to modulate host immune responses. However, deciphering the biological function of this glycolipid has been hampered by the inability to grow M. leprae in vitro and to genetically engineer this bacterium. Here, we identified the M. leprae genes required for the biosynthesis of the species-specific saccharidic domain of PGL-1 and reprogrammed seven enzymatic steps in M. bovis BCG to make it synthesize and display PGL-1 in the context of an M. leprae-like cell envelope. This recombinant strain provides us with a unique tool to address the key questions of the contribution of PGL-1 in the infection process and to study the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that PGL-1 production endowed recombinant BCG with an increased capacity to exploit complement receptor 3 (CR3 for efficient invasion of human macrophages and evasion of inflammatory responses. PGL-1 production also promoted bacterial uptake by human dendritic cells and dampened their infection-induced maturation. Our results therefore suggest that M. leprae produces PGL-1 for immune-silent invasion of host phagocytic cells.

  15. Understanding Calculus beyond Computations: A Descriptive Study of the Parallel Meanings and Expectations of Teachers and Users of Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Leann J.

    2012-01-01

    Calculus is an important tool for building mathematical models of the world around us and is thus used in a variety of disciplines, such as physics and engineering. These disciplines rely on calculus courses to provide the mathematical foundation needed for success in their courses. Unfortunately, due to the basal conceptions of what it means to…

  16. Amplification of a 500-Base-Pair Fragment from Cultured Isolates of Mycobacterium bovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Juan Germán; Fissanoti, Juan Carlos; Del Portillo, Patricia; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Romano, María Isabel; Cataldi, Angel

    1999-01-01

    The presence of a 500-bp fragment which amplifies a region from the genome of Mycobacterium bovis (J. G. Rodriguez, G. A. Meija, P. Del Portillo, M. E. Patarroyo, and L. A. Murillo, Microbiology 141:2131–2138, 1995) was evaluated by carrying out PCR on 121 M. bovis isolates. The M. bovis strains, previously characterized by culture and biochemical tests, were isolated from cattle in different regions of Argentina, Mexico, and Colombia. Four additional strains isolated from sea lions that belong to the M. tuberculosis complex were also included in the study. All of the isolates tested were PCR positive, rendering the expected 500-bp band and giving a correlation of 100% with previous microbiological characterization. Southern blot analysis revealed a common band of 1,800 bp and a polymorphic high-molecular-mass hybridization pattern. The results show that this assay may be useful for diagnosis and identification of M. bovis in cattle. PMID:10364607

  17. The Initial Conditions of Fractional Calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past fifty years , Fractional Calculus has become an original and renowned mathematical tool for the modelling of diffusion Partial Differential Equations and the design of robust control algorithms. However, in spite of these celebrated results, some theoretical problems have not yet received a satisfying solution. The mastery of initial conditions, either for Fractional Differential Equations (FDEs) or for the Caputo and Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives, remains an open research domain. The solution of this fundamental problem, also related to the long range memory property, is certainly the necessary prerequisite for a satisfying approach to modelling and control applications. The fractional integrator and its continuously frequency distributed differential model is a valuable tool for the simulation of fractional systems and the solution of initial condition problems. Indeed, the infinite dimensional state vector of fractional integrators allows the direct generalization to fractional calculus of the theoretical results of integer order systems. After a reminder of definitions and properties related to fractional derivatives and systems, this presentation is intended to show, based on the results of two recent publications [1,2], how the fractional integrator provides the solution of the initial condition problem of FDEs and of Caputo and Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives. Numerical simulation examples illustrate and validate these new theoretical concepts.

  18. Pathogenicity and genetic variation of 3 strains of Corynebacterium bovis in immunodeficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dole, Vandana S; Henderson, Kenneth S; Fister, Richard D; Pietrowski, Michael T; Maldonado, Geomaris; Clifford, Charles B

    2013-07-01

    Corynebacterium bovis has been associated with hyperkeratotic dermatitis and acanthosis in mice. We studied 3 different strains of C. bovis: one previously described to cause hyperkeratotic dermatitis (HAC), one that infected athymic nude mice without leading to the classic clinical signs, and one of bovine origin (ATCC 7715). The 3 strains showed a few biochemical and genetic differences. Immunodeficient nude mice were housed in 3 independent isolators and inoculated with pure cultures of the 3 strains. We studied the transmission of these C. bovis studies to isolator-bedding and contact sentinels housed for 5 to 12 wk in filter-top or wire-top cages in the respective isolators. Using a 16S rRNA-based qPCR assay, we did not find consistent differences in growth and transmission among the 3 C. bovis strains, and neither the incidence nor severity of hyperkeratosis or acanthosis differed between strains. Housing in filter-top compared with wire-top cages did not alter the morbidity associated with any of the strains. Our findings confirmed the variability in the gross and histologic changes associated with C. bovis infection of mice. Although bacteriology was a sensitive method for the detection of Corynebacterium spp., standard algorithms occasionally misidentified C. bovis and several related species. Our study demonstrates that PCR of skin swabs or feces is a sensitive and specific method for the detection of C. bovis infection in mice. An rpoB-based screen of samples from North American vivaria revealed that HAC is the predominant C. bovis strain in laboratory mice. PMID:23849444

  19. A Virulent Babesia bovis Strain Failed to Infect White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueti, Massaro W; Olafson, Pia U; Freeman, Jeanne M; Johnson, Wendell C; Scoles, Glen A

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife are an important component in the vector-host-pathogen triangle of livestock diseases, as they maintain biological vectors that transmit pathogens and can serve as reservoirs for such infectious pathogens. Babesia bovis is a tick-borne pathogen, vectored by cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus spp., that can cause up to 90% mortality in naive adult cattle. While cattle are the primary host for cattle fever ticks, wild and exotic ungulates, including white-tailed deer (WTD), are known to be viable alternative hosts. The presence of cattle fever tick populations resistant to acaricides raises concerns regarding the possibility of these alternative hosts introducing tick-borne babesial parasites into areas free of infection. Understanding the B. bovis reservoir competence of these alternative hosts is critical to mitigating the risk of introduction. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that WTD are susceptible to infection with a B. bovis strain lethal to cattle. Two groups of deer were inoculated intravenously with either B. bovis blood stabilate or a larval extract supernatant containing sporozoites from infected R. microplus larvae. The collective data demonstrated that WTD are neither a transient host nor reservoir of B. bovis. This conclusion is supported by the failure of B. bovis to establish an infection in deer regardless of inoculum. Although specific antibody was detected for a short period in the WTD, the PCR results were consistently negative at multiple time points throughout the experiment and blood from WTD that had been exposed to parasite, transferred into naïve recipient susceptible calves, failed to establish infection. In contrast, naïve steers inoculated intravenously with either B. bovis blood stabilate or the larval extract supernatant containing sporozoites rapidly succumbed to disease. These findings provide evidence that WTD are not an epidemiological component in the maintenance of B. bovis infectivity to livestock. PMID:26083429

  20. Molecular epidemiological analysis of Mycoplasma bovis isolates from the Pennsylvania Animal Diagnostic Laboratory showing genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soehnlen, M K; Kariyawasam, S; Lumadue, J A; Pierre, T A; Wolfgang, D R; Jayarao, B M

    2011-04-01

    We have examined the genetic variability of Mycoplasma bovis strains submitted to the Pennsylvania Animal Diagnostics Laboratory, University Park (PA-ADL), between December 2007 and December 2008. Of 4,868 total samples submitted for Mycoplasma testing, 302 were determined to be culture positive. Mycoplasma bovis (63.6%), Mycoplasma californicum (7.3%), Mycoplasma bovirhinis (2.7%), Mycoplasma bovigenitalium (0.7%), Mycoplasma alkalescens (4.9%), Mycoplasma putrefaciens (0.3%), and Mycoplasma dispar (1.3%) and unidentified Mycoplasma sp. (19.2%) were identified using PCR. Mycoplasma bovis represented the largest portion of the positive samples submitted. Each of the 192 M. bovis isolates was examined for variations in the BglII and MfeI restriction sites of the DNA using amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting and subsequently compared with the M. bovis type strain PG45 (ATCC 25523). Similarity between strains was calculated using the Dice similarity coefficient, which ranged from approximately 0.7 to 1.0. When clustering the isolates at greater than 95% similarity, it was determined that 11 distinct clusters were present. The results are consistent with the existence of at least 2 clonally distinct groups. No clear geographical, month of isolation, or source origination relationship was identified, indicating that a currently unclassified characteristic is responsible for the strain heterogeneity. These data indicate strong heterogeneity of M. bovis isolates submitted to PA-ADL. Additionally, multiple sites throughout Pennsylvania had isolates of separate clonal lineages present concomitantly, indicating the ability of multiple overlapping outbreaks to occur at a single location. Mycoplasma bovis represents the largest portion of Mycoplasma species isolated from PA-ADL samples. We propose that amplified fragment length polymorphism may serve as a valuable tool for molecular characterization of M. bovis strains from the United States. PMID:21426978

  1. Molecular Typing of Mycobacterium bovis from Cattle Reared in Midwest Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ricardo César Tavares; Vasconcellos, Sidra Ezidio Gonçalves; Issa, Marina de Azevedo; Soares Filho, Paulo Martins; Mota, Pedro Moacyr Pinto Coelho; de Araújo, Flábio Ribeiro; Carvalho, Ana Carolina da Silva; Gomes, Harrison Magdinier; Suffys, Philip Noel; Paschoalin, Vânia Margaret Flosi

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (BTB), the pathogen responsible for serious economic impact on the livestock sector. In order to obtain data on isolated M. bovis strains and assist in the control and eradication program for BTB, a cross sectional descriptive molecular epidemiology study in the Brazilian Midwest was conducted. Through spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR methods, 37 clinical isolates of M. bovis circulating in the region were analyzed, 10 isolated from the state of Mato Grosso, 12 from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and 15 from the state of Goiás. The spoligotyping analysis identified 10 distinct M. bovis profiles (SB0121 n = 14, SB0295 n = 6, SB0140 n = 6, SB0881 n = 3, SB1144 n = 2, SB1145 n = 2, SB0134 n = 1, SB1050 n = 1, SB1055 n = 1, SB1136 n = 1) grouped in six clusters and four orphan patterns. The MIRU-VNTR 24-loci grouped the same isolates in six clusters and 22 unique orphan patterns, showing higher discriminatory power than spoligotyping. When associating the results of both techniques, the isolates were grouped in five clusters and 24 unique M. bovis profiles. Among the 24-loci MIRU-VNTR evaluated, two, ETR-A and QUB 11b loci, showed high discriminatory ability (h = ≥ 0.50), while MIRU 16, MIRU 27, ETR-B, ETR-C, Mtub21 and QUB 26 loci showed moderate ability (h = 0.33 or h = 0.49) and were the most effective in evaluating the genotypic similarities among the clinical M. bovis isolate samples. Herein, the 29 patterns found amongst the 37 isolates of M. bovis circulating in the Brazilian Midwest can be due to the animal movement between regions, municipalities and farms, thus causing the spread of various M. bovis strains in herds from Midwest Brazil. PMID:27631383

  2. Coinfection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and Mycoplasma bovis in feedlot cattle with chronic pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Shahriar, Farshid M.; Clark, Edward G.; Janzen, Eugene; West, Keith; Wobeser, Gary

    2002-01-01

    Chronic, antibiotic-resistant pneumonia, sometimes with concurrent polyarthritis, occurs in feedlot cattle in western Canada. The prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, and Haemophilus somnus was determined by using immunohistochemical staining of lung and heart tissue from 2 groups of animals with this history. Mycoplasma bovis antigen was present in 44/48 cases submitted between 1995 and 1998 (retrospective group) and 15/16 of cases from 1999 (prospective group), and w...

  3. Protection against tuberculosis in Eurasian wild boar vaccinated with heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseba M Garrido

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB caused by Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex continues to affect humans and animals worldwide and its control requires vaccination of wildlife reservoir species such as Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa. Vaccination efforts for TB control in wildlife have been based primarily on oral live BCG formulations. However, this is the first report of the use of oral inactivated vaccines for controlling TB in wildlife. In this study, four groups of 5 wild boar each were vaccinated with inactivated M. bovis by the oral and intramuscular routes, vaccinated with oral BCG or left unvaccinated as controls. All groups were later challenged with a field strain of M. bovis. The results of the IFN-gamma response, serum antibody levels, M. bovis culture, TB lesion scores, and the expression of C3 and MUT genes were compared between these four groups. The results suggested that vaccination with heat-inactivated M. bovis or BCG protect wild boar from TB. These results also encouraged testing combinations of BCG and inactivated M. bovis to vaccinate wild boar against TB. Vaccine formulations using heat-inactivated M. bovis for TB control in wildlife would have the advantage of being environmentally safe and more stable under field conditions when compared to live BCG vaccines. The antibody response and MUT expression levels can help differentiating between vaccinated and infected wild boar and as correlates of protective response in vaccinated animals. These results suggest that vaccine studies in free-living wild boar are now possible to reveal the full potential of protecting against TB using oral M. bovis inactivated and BCG vaccines.

  4. Protection against tuberculosis in Eurasian wild boar vaccinated with heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Joseba M; Sevilla, Iker A; Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Minguijón, Esmeralda; Ballesteros, Cristina; Galindo, Ruth C; Boadella, Mariana; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Romero, Beatriz; Geijo, Maria Victoria; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Aranaz, Alicia; Juste, Ramón A; Vicente, Joaquín; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex continues to affect humans and animals worldwide and its control requires vaccination of wildlife reservoir species such as Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Vaccination efforts for TB control in wildlife have been based primarily on oral live BCG formulations. However, this is the first report of the use of oral inactivated vaccines for controlling TB in wildlife. In this study, four groups of 5 wild boar each were vaccinated with inactivated M. bovis by the oral and intramuscular routes, vaccinated with oral BCG or left unvaccinated as controls. All groups were later challenged with a field strain of M. bovis. The results of the IFN-gamma response, serum antibody levels, M. bovis culture, TB lesion scores, and the expression of C3 and MUT genes were compared between these four groups. The results suggested that vaccination with heat-inactivated M. bovis or BCG protect wild boar from TB. These results also encouraged testing combinations of BCG and inactivated M. bovis to vaccinate wild boar against TB. Vaccine formulations using heat-inactivated M. bovis for TB control in wildlife would have the advantage of being environmentally safe and more stable under field conditions when compared to live BCG vaccines. The antibody response and MUT expression levels can help differentiating between vaccinated and infected wild boar and as correlates of protective response in vaccinated animals. These results suggest that vaccine studies in free-living wild boar are now possible to reveal the full potential of protecting against TB using oral M. bovis inactivated and BCG vaccines.

  5. Prosthetic Joint Infection due to Mycobacterium bovis after Intravesical Instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Gomez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG is a treatment to prevent recurrence of superficial urothelial bladder carcinoma. Complications after bladder instillation of BCG have been reported including locally invasive and systemic infections due to dissemination of Mycobacterium bovis from the bladder. We present an uncommon case and literature review of prosthetic joint infection due to M. bovis after intravesical BCG treatment of bladder cancer.

  6. Gamma Irradiation Elimination of Cysticercus Bovis in Meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In some developing countries taeniasis and cysticercosis are considered among the more grave parasite diseases. Some regions are believed to have an infection as high as 80%. To combat cysticercosis one is confined to the inspection of slaughtered cattle. Cysts in meat can be eradicated by heat as well as by cold. A heat treatment devaluates the meat, and freezing methods appear to be too expensive for developing countries. For this reason destruction by irradiation seems to be interesting. No clear conclusions about the lethal dose of Cysticercus bovis can be found in the literature. A direct inactivation of the parasite requires more than 300 krad. A combined treatment of a 300 krad and a minimum storage of 7 days at 2°C is fatal for cysts in beef. (author)

  7. Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG as an HIV vaccine vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Rosamund; Chege, Gerald; Shephard, Enid; Stutz, Helen; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2010-06-01

    HIV-1 has resulted in a devastating AIDS pandemic. An effective HIV/AIDS vaccine that can be used to either, prevent HIV infection, control infection or prevent progression of the disease to AIDS is needed. In this review we discuss the use of Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the tuberculosis vaccine, as a vaccine vector for an HIV vaccine. Numerous features make BCG an attractive vehicle to deliver HIV antigens. It has a good safety profile, elicits long-lasting cellular immune responses and in addition manufacturing costs are affordable, a necessary consideration for developing countries. In this review we discuss the numerous factors that influence generation of a genetically stable recombinant BCG vaccine for HIV. PMID:20353397

  8. [Cutaneous infection with Orthopoxvirus bovis in a German Spaniel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Kathrin; Steinborn, Päivi; Weider, Karola; Wohlsein, Peter

    2016-08-17

    A 4-year-old female German Spaniel was presented with anorexia. Clinically, the dog showed papular to ulcerative lesions on the nasal planum and on the tongue. Hematological, bacteriological and mycological examinations did not contribute any evidence for the etiology of the lesions. Histopathological examination of skin biopsies revealed a proliferative dermatitis and folliculitis with hydropic degeneration of keratinocytes and cytoplasmatic inclusion bodies. Cowpox virus antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy showed pox virus particles in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells. DNA of Orthopoxvirus bovis was identified by polymerase chain reaction. Consequently, in dogs with papular to ulcerative lesions in the face or on the tongue, infection with cowpoxvirus should be considered as an etiological differential diagnosis. Infected dogs represent a potential risk of infection for humans and other animals with close contact. PMID:27300695

  9. A Study of the Persistence of Mycobacterium bovis in the Environment under Natural Weather Conditions in Michigan, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E. Fine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reisolation of Mycobacterium bovis from inoculated substrates was used to follow the persistence of viable M. bovis bacteria exposed to natural weather conditions over a 12-month period. Environmental factors were recorded continuously, and factors affecting M. bovis persistence (i.e., temperature, season, and substrate were studied using survival analysis and Cox's proportional hazards regression. Persistence of M. bovis in the environment was significantly shorter in the spring/summer season, characterized by the highest average daily temperatures over the 12-month period. M. bovis persisted up to 88 days in soil, 58 days in water and hay, and 43 days on corn. These studies demonstrate that M. bovis bacteria persist long enough to represent a risk of exposure for cattle and/or wildlife and strengthen evidence that suggests cattle farm biosecurity and efforts to eliminate supplemental feeding of white-tailed deer will decrease the risk of bovine TB transmission among and between cattle and deer populations.

  10. Prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis in Respiratory Tract of Cattle Slaughtered in Balochistan, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cattle lungs (n=1200 obtained from abattoir of 10 districts of Balochistan were processed for isolation and identification of Mycoplasma species. A total of 156 isolates produced typical fried egg colonies on Modified Hayflick’s agar medium and 87.8% were preliminarily identified as Mycoplasma species, 12.2% species were Acholeplasmas. All the digitonin sensitive isolates were further subjected to different biochemical and PCR tests for further identification. Overall prevalence of M. bovis lungs samples obtained from slaughter house samples was 9%. Among the Mycoplasma isolates; 108 M. bovis, 29 Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc and 16 M. arginini were identified through the biochemical tests. M. bovis and Mycoplasma mycoides subcluster members were further validated through PCR and RFLP. Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony type (Mmm SC was not isolated from any of the lung samples. Among the Mycoplasma bovis species isolated, the highest number was observed from Quetta district (16% followed by Pishin (15%, Zhob (11 % and Kalat (10%. Conversely the lowest number of M. bovis isolates was found in Bolan (2% district followed by Jaffarabad (3%, 4%, each from Khuzdar, Mustung, Killasaifullah and 7% in Sibi district. Statistical analysis using chi square test, showed a significance difference (χ²=33.38 in the recovery of Mycoplasma bovis from the lungs of cattle slaughtered in 10 districts of Balochistan.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma bovis isolates from veal calves and dairy cattle in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuvelink, Annet; Reugebrink, Constance; Mars, Jet

    2016-06-30

    Control of Mycoplasma bovis infections depends on good husbandry practices and antibiotic treatment. To allow more prudent use of antimicrobial drugs, there is a need for information on the susceptibility profile of this pathogen. The objective of the present study was to analyse the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical M. bovis isolates in the Netherlands. The collection comprised 95 bovine isolates, originating from lungs (n=56), mastitis milk (n=27), and synovial fluid (n=12), collected between 2008 and 2014. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were assessed by broth microdilution, both by using in-house prepared MIC plates and by using commercially available MIC plates. For each antimicrobial agent, the range of MIC results, the MIC50, and MIC90 values were calculated. M. bovis strains recently isolated in the Netherlands appeared to be characterized by relatively high MIC values for antimicrobial agents that, until now, have been recommended by the Dutch Association of Veterinarians for treating pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma species. Fluoroquinolones appeared to be the most efficacious in inhibiting M. bovis growth, followed by tulathromycin and oxytetracycline. The highest MIC values were obtained for erythromycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin. Future studies should be done on determining M. bovis specific clinical breakpoints, standardization of methods to determine MIC values as well as molecular studies on detection of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of M. bovis isolates to develop PCR assays for determining resistance. PMID:27259820

  12. Valuation Semantics for Intuitionic Propositional Calculus and some of its Subcalculi

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa Loparić

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present valuation semantics for the Propositional Intuitionistic Calculus (also called Heyting Calculus) and three important subcalculi: the Implicative, the Positive and the Minimal Calculus (also known as Kolmogoroff or Johansson Calculus). Algorithms based in our definitions yields decision methods for these calculi.

  13. How Students Use Their Knowledge of Calculus in an Engineering Mechanics Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddick, Cheryl Stitt

    This study investigated students' conceptual and procedural understanding of calculus within the context of an engineering mechanics course. Four traditional calculus students were compared with three students from one of the calculus reform projects, Calculus & Mathematica. Task-based interviews were conducted with each participant throughout the…

  14. The Riesz-Clifford Functional Calculus for Non-Commuting Operators and Quantum Field Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kisil, Vladimir V.; de Arellano, Enrique Ramírez

    1995-01-01

    We present a Riesz-like hyperholomorphic functional calculus for a set of non-commuting operators based on the Clifford analysis. Applications to the quantum field theory are described. Keywords: Functional calculus, Weyl calculus, Riesz calculus, Clifford analysis, quantization, quantum field theory. AMSMSC Primary:47A60, Secondary: 81T10

  15. On Simple Characterisations of Sheffer psi- polynomials and Related Propositions of the Calculus of Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Kwasniewski, A. K.

    2003-01-01

    A calculus of sequences started in 1936 opened the way for future extensions of umbral calculus in its finite operator form. Because of historically established notation we call it the psi-calculus.It appears in parts to be almost automatic extension of the standard classical finite operator calculus.

  16. A Formal Software Development Approach Using Refinement Calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云峰; 庞军; 等

    2001-01-01

    The advantage of COOZ(Complete Object-Oriented Z) is to specify large scale software,but it does not support refinement calculus.Thus its application is comfined for software development.Including refinement calculus into COOZ overcomes its disadvantage during design and implementation.The separation between the design and implementation for structure and notation is removed as well .Then the software can be developed smoothly in the same frame.The combination of COOZ and refinement calculus can build object-oriented frame,in which the specification in COOZ is refined stepwise to code by calculus.In this paper,the development model is established.which is based on COOZ and refinement calculus.Data refinement is harder to deal with in a refinement tool than ordinary algorithmic refinement,since data refinement usually has to be done on a large program component at once.As to the implementation technology of refinement calculus,the data refinement calculator is constructed and an approach for data refinement which is based on data refinement calculus and program window inference is offered.

  17. A Formal Software Development Approach Using Refinement Calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yunfeng; PANG Jun; ZHA Ming; YANG Zhaohui; ZHENG Guoliang

    2001-01-01

    The advantage of COOZ (Complete Object-Oriented Z) is to specify large scale software, but it does not support refinement calculus. Thus its applica tion is confined for software development. Including refinement calculus into COOZ overcomes its disadvantage during design and implementation. The separation be tween the design and implementation for structure and notation is removed as well. Then the software can be developed smoothly in the same frame. The combina tion of COOZ and refinement calculus can build object-oriented frame, in which the specification in COOZ is refined stepwise to code by calculus. In this paper, the development model is established, which is based on COOZ and refinement calculus. Data refinement is harder to deal with in a refinement tool than ordinary algorithmic refinement, since data refinement usually has to be done on a large program compo nent at once. As to the implementation technology of refinement calculus, the data refinement calculator is constructed and an approach for data refinement which is based on data refinement calculus and program window inference is offered.

  18. Quantum stochastic calculus and representations of Lie superalgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Eyre, Timothy M W

    1998-01-01

    This book describes the representations of Lie superalgebras that are yielded by a graded version of Hudson-Parthasarathy quantum stochastic calculus. Quantum stochastic calculus and grading theory are given concise introductions, extending readership to mathematicians and physicists with a basic knowledge of algebra and infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. The develpment of an explicit formula for the chaotic expansion of a polynomial of quantum stochastic integrals is particularly interesting. The book aims to provide a self-contained exposition of what is known about Z_2-graded quantum stochastic calculus and to provide a framework for future research into this new and fertile area.

  19. Analyzing multimode wireless sensor networks using the network calculus

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The network calculus is a powerful tool to analyze the performance of wireless sensor networks. But the original network calculus can only model the single-mode wireless sensor network. In this paper, we combine the original network calculus with the multimode model to analyze the maximum delay bound of the flow of interest in the multimode wireless sensor network. There are two combined methods A-MM and N-MM. The method A-MM models the whole network as a multimode component, and the method N...

  20. A Proof System for the Linear Time μ-Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dax, Christian; Hofmann, Martin; Lange, Martin

    2006-01-01

    for the latter because of nestings of fixpoint operators and variables with several occurrences. We present a simple sound and complete infinitary proof system for the linear time μ-calculus and then present two decision procedures for provability in the system, hence validity of formulas. One uses......The linear time μ-calculus extends LTL with arbitrary least and greatest fixpoint operators. This gives it the power to express all ω-regular languages, i.e. strictly more than LTL. The validity problem is PSPACE-complete for both LTL and the linear time μ-calculus. In practice it is more difficult...