WorldWideScience

Sample records for calculi

  1. [Unusual elements in renal calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Miñón Cifuentes, J L; Salvador, E; Traba Villameytide, M L

    2006-01-01

    A group of 54 renal calculi were spontaneously passed renal stone after a nephritic colic. Two groups of calculi were found: papillary and non-papillary calculi. All calculi were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and electronic microscopy scan (EMS) and EDAX. When the stones were analyzed with EDAX, elements such as C, N, O, Na, S, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn were detected. The possible origin of these elements is discussed in this work.

  2. Verification of Stochastic Process Calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrypnyuk, Nataliya

    Stochastic process calculi represent widely accepted formalisms within Computer Science for modelling nondeterministic stochastic systems in a compositional way. Similar to process calculi in general, they are suited for modelling systems in a hierarchical manner, by explicitly specifying...... subsystems as well as their interdependences and communication channels. Stochastic process calculi incorporate both the quantified uncertainty on probabilities or durations of events and nondeterministic choices between several possible continuations of the system behaviour. Modelling of a system is often...

  3. States in Process Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Wagner

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Formal reasoning about distributed algorithms (like Consensus typically requires to analyze global states in a traditional state-based style. This is in contrast to the traditional action-based reasoning of process calculi. Nevertheless, we use domain-specific variants of the latter, as they are convenient modeling languages in which the local code of processes can be programmed explicitly, with the local state information usually managed via parameter lists of process constants. However, domain-specific process calculi are often equipped with (unlabeled reduction semantics, building upon a rich and convenient notion of structural congruence. Unfortunately, the price for this convenience is that the analysis is cumbersome: the set of reachable states is modulo structural congruence, and the processes' state information is very hard to identify. We extract from congruence classes of reachable states individual state-informative representatives that we supply with a proper formal semantics. As a result, we can now freely switch between the process calculus terms and their representatives, and we can use the stateful representatives to perform assertional reasoning on process calculus models.

  4. Dissolution of struvite calculi by hemiacidrin solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, F J; Weiner, B; Sant, G R; Meares, E M

    1983-01-01

    Struvite calculi result from urinary tract infections secondary to urease-producing bacteria. To prevent recurrent infection and stone formation complete removal of struvite calculi is recommended. Two illustrative reports of patients with renal struvite calculi are presented in which 10% hemiacidrin (Renacidin) irrigation was instituted for stone dissolution. After surgical removal of the calculi a nephrostomy tube was placed in the renal pelvis. With confirmation of residual struvite calculi, 10% hemiacidrin irrigation was initiated. Urine cultures, electrolytes and nephrotomograms were performed and adverse effects monitored. Using strict aseptic technique and appropriate precautions, hemiacidrin irrigation safely dissolves struvite calculi.

  5. Percutaneous dissolution of renal calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dretler, S P; Pfister, R C

    1983-01-01

    The use of percutaneous nephrostomy catheters has allowed access to intrarenal urinary calculi for dissolution. Renacidin is the successful agent for dissolving struvite stones. THAM-E is the most effective agent for the intrarenal dissolution of cystine stone. Calcium oxalate stones are still resistant to dissolution techniques.

  6. Calculi of meta-variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masahiko SATO; Takafumi SAKURAI; Yukiyoshi KAMEYAMA; Atsushi IGARASH

    2008-01-01

    The notion of meta-variable plays a fun-damental role when we define formal systems such as logical and computational calculi. Yet it has been usually understood only informally as is seen in most textbooks of logic. Based on our observations of the usages of meta-variables in textbooks, we propose two formal systems that have the notion of meta-variable. In both calculi, each variable is given a level (non-negative integer), which classifies variables into object variables (level 0), meta-variables (level 1), metameta-variables (level 2) and so on. Then, simple arity systems are. used to exclude meaningless terms like a meta-level function operating on the metameta-level. A main difference of the two calculi lies in the definitions of substitution. The first calculus uses textual substitution, which can often be found in definitions of quantified formulae: when a term is substituted for a meta-variable, free object-level variables in the term may be captured. The second cal-culus is based on the observation that predicates can be regarded as meta-level functions on object-level terms, hence uses capture-avoiding substitution. We show that both calculi enjoy a number of properties including Church-Rosser and Strong Normalization, which are indispensable when we use them as frameworks to define logical systems.

  7. Differential calculi on noncommutative bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Pflaum, Markus J.; Schauenburg, Peter

    1996-01-01

    We introduce a category of noncommutative bundles. To establish geometry in this category we construct suitable noncommutative differential calculi on these bundles and study their basic properties. Furthermore we define the notion of a connection with respect to a differential calculus and consider questions of existence and uniqueness. At the end these constructions are applied to basic examples of noncommutative bundles over a coquasitriangular Hopf algebra.

  8. Flow Logic for Process Calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Flow Logic is an approach to statically determining the behavior of programs and processes. It borrows methods and techniques from Abstract Interpretation, Data Flow Analysis and Constraint Based Analysis while presenting the analysis in a style more reminiscent of Type Systems. Traditionally...... developed for programming languages, this article provides a tutorial development of the approach of Flow Logic for process calculi based on a decade of research. We first develop a simple analysis for the π-calculus; this consists of the specification, semantic soundness (in the form of subject reduction...... and adequacy results), and a Moore Family result showing that a least solution always exists, as well as providing insights on how to implement the analysis. We then show how to strengthen the analysis technology by introducing reachability components, interaction points, and localized environments...

  9. Primary dissolution therapy of struvite calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dretler, S P; Pfister, R C

    1984-05-01

    Percutaneous nephrostomy and hemiacidrin were used as primary treatment of magnesium ammonium phosphate calculi in 32 surgical candidates. Of 28 patients who actually received hemiacidrin 24 (85 per cent) had successful treatment (no surgery necessary), including 19 (68 per cent) who had total stone dissolution. There were no significant complications. Patients have been followed for 3 months to 7 years. Percutaneous nephrostomy with hemiacidrin infusion is another possible treatment in the growing alternatives available for patients with urinary struvite calculi.

  10. Renal pelvic calculi and neoplasm. New indication for treatment of asymptomatic renal pelvic calculi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vibitis, H; Jørgensen, J B

    1990-01-01

    Metaplasia of the renal pelvis caused by chronic irritation, calculi, infection is a reversible pre-malignant condition. The application of ESWL on renal calculi as a safe treatment in relation to metaplasia is discussed and a case history is presented....

  11. Holmium laser lithotripsy of bladder calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaghler, Marc A.; Poon, Michael W.

    1998-07-01

    Although the overall incidence of bladder calculi has been decreasing, it is still a significant disease affecting adults and children. Prior treatment options have included open cystolitholapaxy, blind lithotripsy, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, and visual lithotripsy with ultrasonic or electrohydraulic probes. The holmium laser has been found to be extremely effective in the treatment of upper tract calculi. This technology has also been applied to the treatment of bladder calculi. We report our experience with the holmium laser in the treatment of bladder calculi. Twenty- five patients over a year and a half had their bladder calculi treated with the Holmium laser. This study was retrospective in nature. Patient demographics, stone burden, and intraoperative and post-operative complications were noted. The mean stone burden was 31 mm with a range of 10 to 60 mm. Preoperative diagnosis was made with either an ultrasound, plain film of the abdomen or intravenous pyelogram. Cystoscopy was then performed to confirm the presence and determine the size of the stone. The patients were then taken to the operating room and given a regional or general anesthetic. A rigid cystoscope was placed into the bladder and the bladder stone was then vaporized using the holmium laser. Remaining fragments were washed out. Adjunctive procedures were performed on 10 patients. These included transurethral resection of the prostate, transurethral incision of the prostate, optic internal urethrotomy, and incision of ureteroceles. No major complications occurred and all patients were rendered stone free. We conclude that the Holmium laser is an effective and safe modality for the treatment of bladder calculi. It was able to vaporize all bladder calculi and provides a single modality of treating other associated genitourinary pathology.

  12. Management of Pancreatic Calculi: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandan, Manu; Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Reddy, Duvvur Nageshwar

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatolithiasis, or pancreatic calculi (PC), is a sequel of chronic pancreatitis (CP) and may occur in the main ducts, side branches or parenchyma. Calculi are the end result, irrespective of the etiology of CP. PC contains an inner nidus surrounded by successive layers of calcium carbonate. These calculi obstruct the pancreatic ducts and produce ductal hypertension, which leads to pain, the cardinal feature of CP. Both endoscopic therapy and surgery aim to clear these calculi and decrease ductal hypertension. In small PC, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) followed by sphincterotomy and extraction is the treatment of choice. Large calculi require fragmentation by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) prior to their extraction or spontaneous expulsion. In properly selected cases, ESWL followed by ERCP is the standard of care for the management of large PC. Long-term outcomes following ESWL have demonstrated good pain relief in approximately 60% of patients. However, ESWL has limitations. Per oral pancreatoscopy and intraductal lithotripsy represent techniques in evolution, and in current practice their use is limited to centers with considerable expertise. Surgery should be offered to all patients with extensive PC, associated multiple ductal strictures or following failed endotherapy. PMID:27784844

  13. Stochastic Simulation of Process Calculi for Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Andrew; Paulevé, Loïc; 10.4204/EPTCS.40.1

    2010-01-01

    Biological systems typically involve large numbers of components with complex, highly parallel interactions and intrinsic stochasticity. To model this complexity, numerous programming languages based on process calculi have been developed, many of which are expressive enough to generate unbounded numbers of molecular species and reactions. As a result of this expressiveness, such calculi cannot rely on standard reaction-based simulation methods, which require fixed numbers of species and reactions. Rather than implementing custom stochastic simulation algorithms for each process calculus, we propose to use a generic abstract machine that can be instantiated to a range of process calculi and a range of reaction-based simulation algorithms. The abstract machine functions as a just-in-time compiler, which dynamically updates the set of possible reactions and chooses the next reaction in an iterative cycle. In this short paper we give a brief summary of the generic abstract machine, and show how it can be instant...

  14. A criterion for separating process calculi

    CERN Document Server

    Banti, Federico; Tiezzi, Francesco; 10.4204/EPTCS.41.2

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new criterion, replacement freeness, to discern the relative expressiveness of process calculi. Intuitively, a calculus is strongly replacement free if replacing, within an enclosing context, a process that cannot perform any visible action by an arbitrary process never inhibits the capability of the resulting process to perform a visible action. We prove that there exists no compositional and interaction sensitive encoding of a not strongly replacement free calculus into any strongly replacement free one. We then define a weaker version of replacement freeness, by only considering replacement of closed processes, and prove that, if we additionally require the encoding to preserve name independence, it is not even possible to encode a non replacement free calculus into a weakly replacement free one. As a consequence of our encodability results, we get that many calculi equipped with priority are not replacement free and hence are not encodable into mainstream calculi like CCS and pi-calculus, t...

  15. Mobility in process calculi and natural computing

    CERN Document Server

    Aman, Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    The design of formal calculi in which fundamental concepts underlying interactive systems can be described and studied has been a central theme of theoretical computer science in recent decades, while membrane computing, a rule-based formalism inspired by biological cells, is a more recent field that belongs to the general area of natural computing. This is the first book to establish a link between these two research directions while treating mobility as the central topic. In the first chapter the authors offer a formal description of mobility in process calculi, noting the entities that move

  16. Stochastic Simulation of Process Calculi for Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Phillips

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological systems typically involve large numbers of components with complex, highly parallel interactions and intrinsic stochasticity. To model this complexity, numerous programming languages based on process calculi have been developed, many of which are expressive enough to generate unbounded numbers of molecular species and reactions. As a result of this expressiveness, such calculi cannot rely on standard reaction-based simulation methods, which require fixed numbers of species and reactions. Rather than implementing custom stochastic simulation algorithms for each process calculus, we propose to use a generic abstract machine that can be instantiated to a range of process calculi and a range of reaction-based simulation algorithms. The abstract machine functions as a just-in-time compiler, which dynamically updates the set of possible reactions and chooses the next reaction in an iterative cycle. In this short paper we give a brief summary of the generic abstract machine, and show how it can be instantiated with the stochastic simulation algorithm known as Gillespie's Direct Method. We also discuss the wider implications of such an abstract machine, and outline how it can be used to simulate multiple calculi simultaneously within a common framework.

  17. Internalization of Calcium Oxalate Calculi Developed in Narrow Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fèlix Grases

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a patient with calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate calculi occluded in cavities. All those calculi were located inside narrow cavities covered with a thin epithelium that permits their visualization. Urinary biochemical analysis showed high calciuria, not hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, and a ratio [calcium]/[citrate] >0.33. The existence of cavities of very low urodynamic efficacy was decisive in the formation of such calculi. It is important to emphasize that we observed a thin epithelium covering such cavities, demonstrating that this epithelium may be formed after the development of the calculi through a re-epithelialization process.

  18. Cyclic and Inductive Calculi are equivalent

    CERN Document Server

    Voicu, Razvan

    2011-01-01

    Brotherston and Simpson [citation] have formalized and investigated cyclic reasoning, reaching the important conclusion that it is at least as powerful as inductive reasoning (specifically, they showed that each inductive proof can be translated into a cyclic proof). We add to their investigation by proving the converse of this result, namely that each inductive proof can be translated into an inductive one. This, in effect, establishes the equivalence between first order cyclic and inductive calculi.

  19. Bladder calculi complicating intermittent clean catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, M A; Sonda, L P; Diokno, A C; Vidyasagar, M

    1983-10-01

    Eight male patients on clean intermittent catheterization programs for neurogenic bladder dysfunction developed vesical calculi around pubic hairs inadvertently introduced into the bladder, acting as a nidus for incrustation. In three patients, the radiographic appearance of serpentine calcifications in the pelvis was highly consistent with calcareous deposits on strands of hair. Familiarity with this radiologic appearance should suggest the diagnosis in the appropriate clinical setting and help avoid misinterpretation of these calcifications, atypical of usual bladder stones.

  20. Recurrent bilateral renal calculi in a tetraplegic patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaidyanathan, S; Soni, B M; Biering-Sorensen, F;

    1998-01-01

    annual urological evaluation. Urinary tract calculi, if detected, should be dealt with promptly to prevent renal damage due to urinary obstruction and urosepsis. Renal calculi can be treated effectively and safely by ESWL in spinal cord injury patients, thus avoiding the need for an invasive procedure...

  1. Actor Network Procedures as Psi-calculi for Security Ceremonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Prisacariu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The actor network procedures of Pavlovic and Meadows are a recent graphical formalism developed for describing security ceremonies and for reasoning about their security properties. The present work studies the relations of the actor network procedures (ANP to the recent psi-calculi framework. Psi-calculi is a parametric formalism where calculi like spi- or applied-pi are found as instances. Psi-calculi are operational and largely non-graphical, but have strong foundation based on the theory of nominal sets and process algebras. One purpose of the present work is to give a semantics to ANP through psi-calculi. Another aim was to give a graphical language for a psi-calculus instance for security ceremonies. At the same time, this work provides more insight into the details of the ANPs formalization and the graphical representation.

  2. A standardisation proof for algebraic pattern calculi

    CERN Document Server

    Kesner, Delia; Ríos, Alejandro; 10.4204/EPTCS.49.5

    2011-01-01

    This work gives some insights and results on standardisation for call-by-name pattern calculi. More precisely, we define standard reductions for a pattern calculus with constructor-based data terms and patterns. This notion is based on reduction steps that are needed to match an argument with respect to a given pattern. We prove the Standardisation Theorem by using the technique developed by Takahashi and Crary for lambda-calculus. The proof is based on the fact that any development can be specified as a sequence of head steps followed by internal reductions, i.e. reductions in which no head steps are involved.

  3. Concurrency Models with Causality and Events as Psi-calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkon Normann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Psi-calculi are a parametric framework for nominal calculi, where standard calculi are found as instances, like the pi-calculus, or the cryptographic spi-calculus and applied-pi. Psi-calculi have an interleaving operational semantics, with a strong foundation on the theory of nominal sets and process algebras. Much of the expressive power of psi-calculi comes from their logical part, i.e., assertions, conditions, and entailment, which are left quite open thus accommodating a wide range of logics. We are interested in how this expressiveness can deal with event-based models of concurrency. We thus take the popular prime event structures model and give an encoding into an instance of psi-calculi. We also take the recent and expressive model of Dynamic Condition Response Graphs (in which event structures are strictly included and give an encoding into another corresponding instance of psi-calculi. The encodings that we achieve look rather natural and intuitive. Additional results about these encodings give us more confidence in their correctness.

  4. SEM and X-ray microanalysis of human prostatic calculi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilches, J.; Lopez, A.; De Palacio, L.; Munoz, C.; Gomez, J.

    1982-02-01

    Calculi removed from human prostates affected with nodular hyperplasia were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and EDAX system. The general spectrum was made up of Na, Al, Mg, S, P, Ca and Zn. Two types of stone were identified morphostructurally and microanalytically: calculi type I of nodular surface with high peaks of S, and calculi type II polyfaceted with high peaks of P and Ca. Their formation from corpora amylacea and/or exogenous constituents is discussed. The superficial deposit of Zn suggests its incorporation from the prostatic liquid and does not seem to play an important role in the genesis.

  5. Inhibition of urinary calculi -- a spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manciu, Felicia; Govani, Jayesh; Durrer, William; Reza, Layra; Pinales, Luis

    2008-10-01

    Although a considerable number of investigations have already been undertaken and many causes such as life habits, metabolic disorders, and genetic factors have been noted as sources that accelerate calculi depositions and aggregations, there are still plenty of unanswered questions regarding efficient inhibition and treatment mechanisms. Thus, in an attempt to acquire more insights, we propose here a detailed scientific study of kidney stone formation and growth inhibition based on a traditional medicine approach with Rotula Aquatica Lour (RAL) herbal extracts. A simplified single diffusion gel growth technique was used for synthesizing the samples for the present study. The unexpected Zn presence in the sample with RAL inhibitor, as revealed by XPS measurements, explains the inhibition process and the dramatic reflectance of the incident light observed in the infrared transmission studies. Raman data demonstrate potential binding of the inhibitor with the oxygen of the kidney stone. Photoluminescence results corroborate to provide additional evidence of Zn-related inhibition.

  6. Nonlocal Operational Calculi for Dunkl Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan H. Dimovski

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The one-dimensional Dunkl operator $D_k$ with a non-negative parameter $k$, is considered under an arbitrary nonlocal boundary value condition. The right inverse operator of $D_k$, satisfying this condition is studied. An operational calculus of Mikusinski type is developed. In the frames of this operational calculi an extension of the Heaviside algorithm for solution of nonlocal Cauchy boundary value problems for Dunkl functional-differential equations $P(D_ku = f$ with a given polynomial $P$ is proposed. The solution of these equations in mean-periodic functions reduces to such problems. Necessary and sufficient condition for existence of unique solution in mean-periodic functions is found.

  7. Large bilateral star-shaped calculi in the seminal vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namjoshi S

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Calculi in the seminal vesicles (SV are extremely rare. A patient having large bilateral star-shaped calculi in the SV is reported. They were seen on plain x-ray and confirmed by computed tomography. On the reconstructed CT scans the large stone on the right side measured about 35 X 35 X 50 mm and the one on the left, 30 X 20 X 45 mm. They were not felt on rectal examination, as they were situated laterally.

  8. TREATMENT WITH TAMSULOSIN IN PATIENTS WITH DISTAL URETERAL CALCULI

    OpenAIRE

    Jagodic, K.; Bizjak, I.; Erklavec, M.; Poteko, S.; Korosec-Jagodic, H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Symptomatic ureteral calculi are one of the most important issues in urologist emergency clinical settings. Spontaneous passage of distal ureteral calculi is usually achieved with good hydration and spasmoanalgetic drugs. alpha-blocker therapy may facilitate and accelerate the spontaneous passage of ureteral stones.Patients and methodsIn retrospective study we analyzed patients with renal colic admitted to our department in 2006. All of them had clinical examination, urine and blo...

  9. Staghorn calculi and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis associated with transitional cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Wei Tseng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Untreated staghorn calculi can cause xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP, diminished renal function, and renal malignancy. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the upper urinary tract is associated with kidney stones and chronic infection, but their association with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC has not been proven and has rarely been reported in literature. We present a rare case of staghorn calculi and XGP associated with TCC.

  10. Percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy of symptomatic renal calculi in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanicolaou, N.; Pfister, R.C.; Yoder, I.C.; Young, H.H. II; Herrin, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    Percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy of upper urinary tract lithiasis is a well-established procedure in adults. We successfully applied this technique to completely remove symptomatic renal calculi in two children with idiopathic hypercalciuria. The procedure was well tolerated and no complications occurred. Both patients were discharged within 4 days of the lithotripsy. This method is an alternative to surgery for the removal of large or impacted calculi from the upper urinary tracts of pediatric patients. (orig.).

  11. Site of impaction of ureteric calculi requiring surgical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Barky, Ehab; Ali, Yusuf; Sahsah, Mohammed; Terra, Ali A; Kehinde, Elijah O

    2014-02-01

    Textbooks describe three narrowest anatomic sites in the ureter as the most likely places for ureteral calculi to lodge, these are: the pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ), the point where the ureters cross over the iliac vessels and the ureterovesical junction (UVJ). The purpose of this study is to determine whether calculi causing ureteric obstruction and requiring surgical treatment are found mostly at these three narrowest anatomic points of the ureter. Three hundred consecutive patients with impacted ureteric calculi who required surgical intervention were studied. The location of the impacted calculus on the day of surgical intervention was categorized according to nine predetermined levels outlined in a designed diagram based on findings on non-contrast CT of kidneys, ureters and bladder. Two peaks in stone distribution in the ureters were encountered; the first was above the ischial spine in the proximal part of the lower third ureter (84 patients, 28%), while the second was at the level between L3 and L4 lumbar vertebrae (66 patients, 22%). Overall, the location of impacted calculi was as follows, 53, 34, 10 and 3% in the lower third ureter, upper third ureter, PUJ and mid ureter, respectively. This study demonstrates two peaks of calculi distribution in the ureter where ureteric calculi become impacted: the upper ureter below the PUJ and a second in the lower ureter, more proximal than the UVJ. There was an absence of the peak in stone location over the iliac vessels, that is, the mid ureter.

  12. The incidence and location of prostatic calculi on noncontrast computed tomography images in patients with renal calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasar, Mehmet; Poyraz, Necdet; Göğer, Yunus Emre; Unal, Yunus; Pişkin, Mehmet Mesut

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the incidence and location of prostatic calculi on noncontrast abdominal computed tomography (NCACT) images of patients with and without renal stones were investigated. Between 2006 and 2013, NCACT images were taken of 133 patients treated for renal stones (Group I) and of 100 age-matched control patients with putative urinary stone disease (Group II) in our clinic. The incidence and location of prostatic calculi on these images were determined. The location of prostatic calculus was classified as type A if they were located in the main prostatic ducts, and type B if they were located outside the ducts. Prostatic calculi were present in 44.4% of patients in Group I and 21.0% of patients in Group II. The incidence of prostatic calculi was significantly higher in patients with urinary stones compared with those without (Pincidence of prostatic calculi is more prevalent in patients with renal stones. On NCACT images, prostatic calculi were mostly detected in the main prostatic ducts, which were defined as type A.

  13. Extensive prostatic calculi in alkaptonuria: An unusual manifestation of rare disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Extensive prostatic calculi in a young man should always elicit the suspicion of alkaptonuria. Although prostatic calculi are seen in chronic prostatitis, chronic pelvic pain syndrome and benign prostate hyperplasia, none of these have prostatic calculi or calcification as extensive as in alkaptonuria. A 36 years young man who had severed obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms with extensive prostatic calculi was found to be alkaptonuric on further evaluation.

  14. Extensive prostatic calculi in alkaptonuria: An unusual manifestation of rare disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Sali; Appu Thomas; Ginil Kumar; Balagopalan Nair; Kalvampara Sanjeevan; Georgie Mathew; Kannan Nair

    2015-01-01

    Extensive prostatic calculi in a young man should always elicit the suspicion of alkaptonuria. Although prostatic calculi are seen in chronic prostatitis, chronic pelvic pain syndrome and benign prostate hyperplasia, none of these have prostatic calculi or calcification as extensive as in alkaptonuria. A 36 years young man who had severed obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms with extensive prostatic calculi was found to be alkaptonuric on further evaluation.

  15. Existence families, functional calculi and evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    deLaubenfels, Ralph

    1994-01-01

    This book presents an operator-theoretic approach to ill-posed evolution equations. It presents the basic theory, and the more surprising examples, of generalizations of strongly continuous semigroups known as 'existent families' and 'regularized semigroups'. These families of operators may be used either to produce all initial data for which a solution in the original space exists, or to construct a maximal subspace on which the problem is well-posed. Regularized semigroups are also used to construct functional, or operational, calculi for unbounded operators. The book takes an intuitive and constructive approach by emphasizing the interaction between functional calculus constructions and evolution equations. One thinks of a semigroup generated by A as etA and thinks of a regularized semigroup generated by A as etA g(A), producing solutions of the abstract Cauchy problem for initial data in the image of g(A). Material that is scattered throughout numerous papers is brought together and presented in a fresh, ...

  16. Aeromedical certification of aircrew and controllers with renal calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drane, A Michael C; Navathe, Pooshan; Clem, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Acute renal colic is an incapacitating condition. Advances in understanding the pathogenesis of calculi and their detection and treatment require a new approach to aeromedical risk assessment. Can this new information support the stratification of aeromedical risk into "High" and "Low" categories, and fulfill the paramount responsibility of the Civil Aviation Safety Authority, Australia's aviation regulator, which isthe maintenance of aviation safety? This article reviews the epidemiology of calculi and finds 2-10% annual risk of a symptomatic event following incidental detection of a calculus. While calculi 4 mm or less in size may not require surgical intervention, this does not equate to a pain-free passage. Similarly, calculus recurrence rates may vary in different anatomical locations, but no location can be considered "safe." The recognition of parenchymal calcification and Randall's plaques as precursors to the development of calculi places such individuals at elevated risk of developing calculi. More recently evidence has supported a link between metabolic syndrome and calculus formation. In an occupational group where there is potential for elevated radiation exposure, appropriate imaging is of particular importance. CT, X-ray, and ultrasound modalities are reviewed with recommendations presented for aeromedical assessment and surveillance based on identification of those at high risk of colic and minimization of investigational radiation exposure.

  17. [Functional evaluation in patients with kidney calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojimirović, B

    1998-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a common disorder and a significant problem because of incidence, recurrence and severe consequences. Stone disease is a surgical as well as a medical problem. Major progress has been made recently in understanding the pathophysiological disturbances responsible for stone formation as well as in the techniques of stone removal. The introduction of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy has considerably reduced the need for surgery. Improvements in methods of kidney stone removal have not diminished the need for the application of an effective prophylactic program. The internist should take a complete history of stone events (number, composition, location and outcome of stone event), family history of stones, dietary habits (focusing on the consumption of animal protein, salt and dairy products), medications and physical examination. Radiopaque stones should be documented by plane X-ray films. Ultrasonography should be used to image calculi that are nonopaque, and to easily distinguish them from masses such as tumour or blood clot. Computed tomography is also an excellent method for imaging nonopaque renal calculi but higher cost and radiation exposure are disadvantages [2]. Crystallographic analysis is the essential diagnostic procedure. If available, previous stones should also be examined. "In stone disease, everything is measurement. What the laboratory cannot tell you, you will not know; what it tells you in error, you will not correct by using your instincts, your medical experience, or your art [3]". Reliable diagnostic protocols are available for the identification of different causes of stones. The complexity of protocols depend on the severity of nephrolithiasis. Patients with a single stone episode undergo simple protocol, and extensive detailed protocol is used for patients with recurrent stone disease, or patients at increased risk. Simple protocol, besides the already mentioned history of stone events, radiographic investigation and

  18. Treatment of giant ureterocele calculi by Holmium Laser Lithotripsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Söylemez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Most ureteral stones pass spontaneously. But patients who have a calculi in an ureterocele could not pass their stone, because of narrow ureteral orifice. These stones may remain asymptomatic until hematuria or obstruction occurs.Materials and Methods: Holmium laser has many uses in urology, including soft tissue incision and calculus fragmentation. These properties are ideal for endoscopic management of the ureterocele calculusResults: We present a young patient who has no spesific and severe symptoms with a hypofunctional left kidney because of giant calculi in an ureterocele Conclusion: Its imaging characteristics on intravenous pyelography and endoscopic treatment were emphasized.

  19. Labelled Lambda-calculi with Explicit Copy and Erase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Fernández

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We present two rewriting systems that define labelled explicit substitution lambda-calculi. Our work is motivated by the close correspondence between Levy's labelled lambda-calculus and paths in proof-nets, which played an important role in the understanding of the Geometry of Interaction. The structure of the labels in Levy's labelled lambda-calculus relates to the multiplicative information of paths; the novelty of our work is that we design labelled explicit substitution calculi that also keep track of exponential information present in call-by-value and call-by-name translations of the lambda-calculus into linear logic proof-nets.

  20. Dissolution of Ureteral Uric Acid Calculi with Local Litholytic Irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhiqiang; YAO Linfang; YE Zhangqun; YANG Weimin

    2005-01-01

    Summary: This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of local litholytic irrigation (LLI) in the treatment of ureteral uric acid calculi. Fourteen cases of ureteral uric acid calculi were diagnosed by abdominal plain radiography (KUB),retrograde urography,ultrasonography(B-mode ultrasound),spiral computerized tomography(CT) and blood biochemical examinations. A ureteral catheter was passed retrogradely across ureteral calculi by cystoscopy. LLI with tromethamine-E(THAM-E) was performed via the ureteral catheter after the improvement of renal function and general situation and the control of urinary tract infection under the condition of intravenous application of antibiotics. The irrigation rate varied from 1000 to 1500 ml per day. Retrograde pyelography demonstrated complete dissolution of all the stones,13 cases within 10 days and 1 within 12 days. Mild hematuria was observed in the majority of the cases and temporary aggravated lumbago in 1 case,with no other side effects. It is concluded that LLI is a practical and effective method in the treatment of ureteral uric acid calculi for its advantages of shorter duration,lower cost,less physical suffering and no severe complications.

  1. Ureteroscopy assisted retrograde nephrostomy for complete staghorn renal calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Takashi; Ito, Hiroki; Terao, Hideyuki; Ogawa, Takehiko; Uemura, Hiroji; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Matsuzaki, Junichi

    2012-09-01

    Complete staghorn calculi are typically managed with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). However, dilating nephrostomy and inserting a nephro access sheath can be difficult to perform without hydronephrosis. We reported the procedure of ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy (UARN) during PCNL. UARN is effective without dilating the renal collecting system in cases of complete staghorn calculi. A 63-year old female with a left complete staghorn renal calculus was referred to our hospital. Under general and epidural anesthesia, the patient was placed in a modified-Valdivia position. A flexible ureteroscope was inserted and a Lawson retrograde nephrostomy puncture wire was advanced into the flexible ureteroscope. The puncture wire was forwarded along the route from the renal pelvis to the exit skin. Calculus fragmentation was done using a pneumatic lithotripter and the Ho: YAG laser. UARN during PCNL was effective for the treatment of a complete staghorn calculus.

  2. Bacterial spectrum of urine in staghorn calculi nephrolithiasis

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    Kogan М.I

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the role of the bacterial spectrum of urine in the development and clinical course of staghorn calculi nephrolithiasis. Patients and Methods. From 2008 to 2010 in the urological department of Rostov State Medical University urine culture was assessed in 86 patients with staghorn calculi. Mean age was 50,4±5,9 (25-73 years. Results: Most of the patients with staghorn calculus (89,5% have microbial contamination of urine, which has a high correlation with leucocituria, and the spectrum of microorganisms often has the various bacterial associations, which caused more infection complications during treatment. Conclusion: In the urine urease-producing bacteria, E. Coli, gram-positive organisms, nonclostridial anaerobic bacteria were predominated

  3. Determination of Lead in Human Calculi and Its Effects on Renal Function of Lead Occupational Workers

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    F. Memon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Seventy five samples of renal and eighteen samples of supra gingival calculi of lead recycling workers were collected over the period of seven years (2008-2014 and studied for the accumulation of lead. The results were compared with those of non exposed subjects. The lead content of calculi was investigated for its dependence on type and composition of calculi, blood lead, job status and duration of exposure. The effect of blood lead and renal calculi was also investigated in relation to kidney function of respective subjects. The mean lead levels of various types of calculi were found to follow the order as phosphate > oxalate > urate .> cystine while single principal group of supra gingival calculi resulted in lower levels of metal. The lead content of calculi positively correlated with phosphate content of both of the renal (r = 0.655 and supra gingival calculi (r= 0.866, Impaired renal function was more pronounced in active workers and depended on blood lead levels in addition to presence of metal in renal calculi

  4. Treatment of giant ureterocele calculi by Holmium Laser Lithotripsy

    OpenAIRE

    Haluk Söylemez; Bülent Altınoluk; Murat Y. Uğraş

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Most ureteral stones pass spontaneously. But patients who have a calculi in an ureterocele could not pass their stone, because of narrow ureteral orifice. These stones may remain asymptomatic until hematuria or obstruction occurs.Materials and Methods: Holmium laser has many uses in urology, including soft tissue incision and calculus fragmentation. These properties are ideal for endoscopic management of the ureterocele calculusResults: We present a young patient who has no spesific and ...

  5. The efficacy of tamsulosin in lower ureteral calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griwan M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There has been a paradigm shift in the management of ureteral calculi in the last decade with the introduction of new less invasive methods, such as ureterorenoscopy and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL. Aims: Recent studies have reported excellent results with medical expulsive therapy (MET for distal ureteral calculi, both in terms of stone expulsion and control of ureteral colic pain. Settings and Design: We conducted a comparative study in between watchful waiting and MET with tamsulosin. Materials and Methods: We conducted a comparative study in between watchful waiting (Group I and MET with tamsulosin (Group II in 60 patients, with a follow up of 28 days. Statistical Analysis: Independent ′t′ test and chi-square test. Results: Group II showed a statistically significant advantage in terms of the stone expulsion rate. The mean number of episodes of pain, mean days to stone expulsion and mean amount of analgesic dosage used were statistically significantly lower in Group II (P value is 0.007, 0.01 and 0.007, respectively as compared to Group I. Conclusions: It is concluded that MET should be considered for uncomplicated distal ureteral calculi before ureteroscopy or extracorporeal lithotripsy. Tamsulosin has been found to increase and hasten stone expulsion rates, decrease acute attacks by acting as a spasmolytic, reduces mean days to stone expulsion and decreases analgesic dose usage.

  6. Factors affecting calcium oxalate dihydrate fragmented calculi regrowth

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    Sanchis P

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL to treat calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD renal calculi gives excellent fragmentation results. However, the retention of post-ESWL fragments within the kidney remains an important health problem. This study examined the effect of various urinary conditions and crystallization inhibitors on the regrowth of spontaneously-passed post-ESWL COD calculi fragments. Methods Post-ESWL COD calculi fragments were incubated in chambers containing synthetic urine varying in pH and calcium concentration: pH = 5.5 normocalciuria (3.75 mM, pH = 5.5 hypercalciuria (6.25 mM, pH = 6.5 normocalciuria (3.75 mM or pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria (6.25 mM. Fragment growth was evaluated by measuring increases in weight. Fragment growth was standardized by calculating the relative mass increase. Results Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM crystals formed on COD renal calculi fragments under all conditions. Under pH = 5.5 normocalciuria conditions, only COM crystals formed (growth rate = 0.22 ± 0.04 μg/mg·h. Under pH = 5.5 hypercalciuria and under pH = 6.5 normocalciuria conditions, COM crystals and a small number of new COD crystals formed (growth rate = 0.32 ± 0.03 μg/mg·h and 0.35 ± 0.05 μg/mg·h, respectively. Under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions, large amounts of COD, COM, hydroxyapatite and brushite crystals formed (growth rate = 3.87 ± 0. 34 μg/mg·h. A study of three crystallization inhibitors demonstrated that phytate completely inhibited fragment growth (2.27 μM at pH = 5.5 and 4.55 μM at pH = 6.5, both under hypercalciuria conditions, while 69.0 μM pyrophosphate caused an 87% reduction in mass under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions. In contrast, 5.29 mM citrate did not inhibit fragment mass increase under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions. Conclusion The growth rate of COD calculi fragments under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions was approximately ten times that observed under

  7. Possible etiology of calculi formation in salivary glands: biophysical analysis of calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Masafumi; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Ichinose, Shizuko; Kimijima, Yutaka; Amagasa, Teruo

    2005-09-01

    Sialolithiasis is one of the common diseases of the salivary glands. It was speculated that, in the process of calculi formation, degenerative substances are emitted by saliva and calcification then occurs around these substances, and finally calculi are formed. However, the exact mechanism of the formation of calculi is still unclear. In this study, we identify some possible etiologies of calculi formation in salivary glands through biophysical analysis. Calculi from 13 patients with submandibular sialolithiasis were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalyzer, and electron diffraction. Transmission electron microscopic observation of calculi was performed in the submandibular gland (n = 13). In 3 of the 13 cases, a number of mitochondria-like structures and lysosomes were found near calcified materials. Scanning electron microscopic examination of these materials revealed that there were lamellar and concentric structures and that the degree of calcification was different among the calculi. X-ray microanalysis disclosed the component elements in the calculi to be Ca, P, S, Na, etc., and the main constituents were Ca and P. The calcium-to-phosphorus ratio was 1.60-1.89. Analysis of the area including mitochondria-like structures, lysosomes, and the fibrous structures by electron diffraction revealed the presence of hydroxyapatite and calcified materials. It is speculated that mitochondria and lysosomal bodies from the ductal system of the submandibular gland are an etiological source for calcification in the salivary gland.

  8. A Syntactic Correspondence between Context-Sensitive Calculi and Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata; Danvy, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    We present a systematic construction of environment-based abstract machines from context-sensitive calculi of explicit substitutions, and we illustrate it with ten calculi and machines for applicative order with an abort operation, normal order with generalized reduction and call/cc, the lambda-mu-calculus...

  9. A Syntactic Correspondence between Context-Sensitive Calculi and Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata; Danvy, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    We present a systematic construction of environment-based abstract machines from context-sensitive calculi of explicit substitutions, and we illustrate it with ten calculi and machines for applicative order with an abort operation, normal order with generalized reduction and call/cc, the lambda-mu-calculus...

  10. Unenhanced CT findings can predict the development of urinary calculi in stone-free patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciudin, Alexandru; Luque Galvez, Maria Pilar; Franco de Castro, Agustin; Garcia-Cruz, Eduardo; Alcover Garcia, Juan; Alvarez-Vijande Garcia, Jose Ricardo; Alcaraz Asensio, Antonio [Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Urology Department, Barcelona (Spain); Salvador Izquierdo, Rafael; Nicolau, Carlos [Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Radiology Department, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    To determine if calcium deposits in the papillae can be identified by unenhanced computed tomography (uCT) even before renal stones develop. A retrospective review of 413 patients with calculi identified 31 patients (stone-forming group) with a history of urinary tract calculi with a calculus demonstrated by uCT and a stone-free uCT before calculi had developed. The control group (n = 31) was composed of live kidney donors with no history of calculi and a stone-free uCT. CT attenuation was measured in all CTs using two regions of interest of 0.05 cm{sup 2} and 0.1 cm{sup 2} over the tip and the neighbouring area of the papillae. Student's and Wilcoxon t-tests were used for comparing results in the two groups. The attenuation of the tip of the papilla was higher in the stone-forming group when compared to the controls after (45.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.001) and even before frank calculi had developed (44.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in papillary attenuation in the stone group before and after calculi had developed (45.2 HU versus 44.2 HU, P = 0.82). Stone-forming patients exhibit higher papillary density even before calculi develop. This could define a population at risk of developing calculi. (orig.)

  11. Papillary and Nonpapillary Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Renal Calculi: Comparative Study of Etiologic Factors

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    Enrique Pieras

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM renal calculi can be classified into two groups: papillary and nonpapillary. In this paper, a comparative study between etiologic factors of COM papillary and nonpapillary calculi is performed. The study included 40 patients with COM renal calculi. The urine of these individuals was analyzed. Case history, lifestyle, and dietetic habits were obtained.No significant differences between urinary biochemical data of both groups were observed; 50% of COM papillary stone formers and 40% of COM nonpapillary stone formers had urolithiasis family history. A low consumption of phytate-rich products was observed for both groups. A relationship between profession with occupational exposure to cytotoxic products and COM papillary renal lithiasis was detected.The results suggest that COM papillary calculi would be associated to papillary epithelium alterations together with a crystallization inhibitors deficit, whereas COM nonpapillary calculi would be associated to the presence of heterogeneous nucleants and a crystallization inhibitors deficit.

  12. Types of Renal Calculi and Management Regimen for Chinese Minimally Invasive Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Si-Ping; Zeng, Guo-Hua; You, Zhi-Yuan; Lu, Yi-Jin; Huang, Yun-Teng; Wang, Qing-Mao; He, Zhao-Hui

    2015-12-01

    Strict selection of patients for minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy could effectively improve the success rate of surgery. This study aimed to understand the required skills and the efficacy of mini-PCNL in the treatment of five types of upper ureteral calculi. Data collected after X-ray analysis and B mode ultrasound from 633 patients with upper ureteral and renal pelvis calculi who underwent B ultrasound-guided lithotomy was reviewed, including the following: type I, upper ureteral or renal pelvis calculi with moderate hydronephrosis (154 cases); type II, upper ureteral or renal pelvis calculi with severe hydronephrosis (157 cases); type III, upper ureteral or renal pelvis calculi without hydronephrosis (61 cases); type IV, renal pelvis calculi, one or two renal calyx calculi (206 cases); and type V, renal staghorn calculi (55 cases). Operations on 611 cases were successful. The treatment method for five patients was converted to open surgery. Twelve cases were treated by indwelling double-J tube retro-catheterization and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Five patients gave up the treatment. The rate of calculus clearance was 82.3 %, and the rate of residual calculus was 17.6 %. Selective renal artery embolization was performed in nine cases. Hydropneumothorax occurred in nine cases. No intestinal fistula occurred, and no patient had to undergo nephrectomy. The difficulty and the curative effect of the operation were different because the types of calculi varied. Selection of the procedure based on the different types of calculi could effectively improve the success rate of the procedure, reduce complications, and shorten the learning curve.

  13. Spectral triples and differential calculi related to the Kronecker foliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthes, R.; Richter, O.; Rudolph, G.

    2003-04-01

    Following the ideas of Connes and Moscovici, we describe two spectral triples related to the Kronecker foliation, whose generalized Dirac operators are related to first and second order signature operators. We also consider the corresponding differential calculi Ω D, which are drastically different in the two cases. For the second order signature operator we calculate the Chern character of the spectral triple and the Dixmier trace of certain powers of its Dirac operator. As a side-remark, we give a description of a known calculus on the two-dimensional noncommutative torus in terms of generators and relations.

  14. [Dissolution therapy of struvite calculi with solution G].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosomi, M; Maeda, O; Matsumiya, K; Koide, T; Takaha, M; Oka, T; Sonoda, T

    1988-07-01

    In 6 patients (9 kidneys) irrigation with Solution G in the renal pelvis was performed for the dissolution of their infectious stones. Staghorn calculi larger than 30 mm in diameter were observed in all patients. In two kidneys all stones were dissolved and the rest were dissolved into small fragments that constituted no problem in those kidneys. Irrigation was done with no major side effects or complications. The dissolution of infectious stones with Solution G is another possible treatment that could be first chosen among percutaneous nephrolithotripsy, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and other treatments.

  15. Ultrasonic fragmentation in the treatment of male urethral calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazi, M H; Samiei, M R

    1988-11-01

    In the last 8 months, 7 patients have presented with acute retention of urine due to impacted urethral stones. Four stones were in the posterior urethra, 2 in the penile urethra and 1 proximal to the external urethral meatus. The patients were managed as emergencies. Stone fragmentation by ultrasound (US) through a 24F obliquely offset eyepiece nephroscope was achieved with minimal urethral trauma. Follow-up was for 6 months and no evidence of urethral stricture or recurrent stones was found. It was concluded that US fragmentation of urethral calculi is a safe and efficient procedure with minimal complications when used in the management of impacted urethral stones.

  16. Results of urinary dissolution therapy for radiolucent calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Maneesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose In this paper we present our experience with dissolution therapy of radiolucent calculi. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective analysis of patients who were offered urinary dissolution therapy between January 2010 and June 2011. Patients were treated with tablets containing potassium citrate and magnesium oxide. Partial dissolution was defined as at least a 50% reduction in stone size. Patients with complete or partial dissolution were classified in the successful dissolution group. Patients with no change, inadequate reduction, increase in stone size and those unable to tolerate alkali therapy were classified as failures. Patient sex, stenting before alkalinization, stone size, urine pH at presentation and serum uric acid levels were analyzed using Fisher t-test for an association with successful dissolution. Results Out of 67, 48 patients reported for follow up. 10 (15% had complete dissolution and 13 (19% had partial dissolution. Alkalinization was unsuccessful in achieving dissolution in 25 (37%. Stenting before alkalinization, patient weight ( 75kg and serum uric acid levels (≤ 6 vs. > 6 were the only factors to significantly affected dissolution rates (p = 0.039, p 0.035, p 0.01 respectively. CONCLUSIONS A policy of offering dissolution therapy to patients with radiolucent calculi had a successful outcome in 34% of patients.

  17. How accurate is unenhanced multidetector-row CT (MDCT) for localization of renal calculi?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetschi, Stefan, E-mail: goetschi@gmx.net [Institute of Radiology, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Umbehr, Martin, E-mail: martin.umbehr@triemli.ch [Urology Clinic, Department of Surgery, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Ullrich, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.ullrich@triemli.ch [Institute of Radiology, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Glenck, Michael, E-mail: michael.glenck@triemli.ch [Institute of Radiology, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Suter, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.suter@triemli.ch [Urology Clinic, Department of Surgery, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland); Weishaupt, Dominik, E-mail: dominik.weishaupt@triemli.ch [Institute of Radiology, Triemli Hospital, Birmensdorferstrasse 497, 8063 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation between unenhanced MDCT and intraoperative findings with regard to the exact anatomical location of renal calculi. Design, setting, and participants: Fifty-nine patients who underwent unenhanced MDCT for suspected urinary stone disease, and who underwent subsequent flexible ureterorenoscopy (URS) as treatment of nephrolithiasis were included in this retrospective study. All MDCT data sets were independently reviewed by three observers with different degrees of experience in reading CT. Each observer was asked to indicate presence and exact anatomical location of any calcification within pyelocaliceal system, renal papilla or renal cortex. Results were compared to intraoperative findings which have been defined as standard of reference. Calculi not described at surgery, but present on MDCT data were counted as renal cortex calcifications. Results: Overall 166 calculi in 59 kidneys have been detected on MDCT, 100 (60.2%) were located in the pyelocaliceal system and 66 (39.8%) in the renal parenchyma. Of the 100 pyelocaliceal calculi, 84 (84%) were correctly located on CT data sets by observer 1, 62 (62%) by observer 2, and 71 (71%) by observer 3. Sensitivity/specificity was 90-94% and 50-100% if only pyelocaliceal calculi measuring >4 mm in size were considered. For pyelocaliceal calculi {<=}4 mm in size diagnostic performance of MDCT was inferior. Conclusion: Compared to flexible URS, unenhanced MDCT is accurate for distinction between pyelocaliceal calculi and renal parenchyma calcifications if renal calculi are >4 mm in size. For smaller renal calculi, unenhanced MDCT is less accurate and distinction between a pyelocaliceal calculus and renal parenchyma calcification is difficult.

  18. Ureolytic Citrobacter freundii infection of the urine as a cause of dissolution of cystine renal calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez Millet, V; Praga, M; Miranda, B; Bello, I; Ruilope, L; Diaz Gonzalez, R; Leyva, O; Alcazar, J M; Barrientos, A; Rodicio, J L

    1985-03-01

    We report a case of cystinuria with staghorn renal lithiasis in a solitary right kidney and chronic renal failure. Right nephropyelolithotomy was performed and although 29 renal calculi were extracted many stones remained in situ. A permanent nephrostomy was left in the kidney. Several months later the urine was infected chronically with a ureolytic Citrobacter freundii bacteria and urinary pH oscillated between 8.0 and 9.2. Spontaneous dissolution of the cystine calculi was observed and many tiny fragments of cystine were expulsed through the nephrostomy, following which renal function improved. Despite the conditions favoring struvite calculi, formation did not occur.

  19. [Experiences with transparenchymal coral calculi removal under local hypothermia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, L; Zacher, W; Meyer, S

    1984-06-01

    Under certain conditions genuine coral calculi are an absolute offication for nephrotomy. In order to achieve complete hygienization of the cavity ischaemia times of more than 25-30 min are often necessary. Controlled surface cooling proved to be very good for improving ischaemia tolerance and reducing post-ischaemic loss of function in 21 necessary nephrotomies out of a total of 651 operations for concrements in the calyx system of the renal pelvis (= 3.2%; = 32.8% of all nephrotomies). A kidney thermometer with a temperature feeler developed by us allows fine control of the hypothermia induced by means of plastic bags filled with ice crystals. The technique of operation together with its advantages and disadvantages are described.

  20. Medullary Sponge Kidney and Urinary Calculi Aeromedical Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeffrey A.; Cherian, Sebastian F.; Barr, Yael R.; Stocco, Amber

    2008-01-01

    Medullary Sponge Kidney (MSK) is a benign disorder associated with renal stones in 60% of patients. Patients frequently have episodic painless hematuria but are otherwise asymptomatic unless renal calculi or infections complicate the disease. Nephrolithiasis is a relative, but frequently enforced, contraindication to space or other high performance flight. Two case reports of asymptomatic NASA flight crew with MSK and three cases of military aviators diagnosed with MSK are reviewed, all cases resulted in waiver and return to flight status after treatment and a vigorous follow up and prophylaxis protocol. MSK in aviation and space flight necessitates a highly case-by-case dependent evaluation and treatment process to rule out other potential confounding factors that might also contribute to stone formation and in order to re-qualify the aviator for flight duties.

  1. Spectroscopic analysis of urinary calculi and inhibition of their growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manciu, Felicia; Durrer, William; Govani, Jayesh; Reza, Layra; Pinales, Luis

    2009-10-01

    We present here a study of kidney stone formation and growth inhibition based on a traditional medicine approach with Aquatica Lour (RAL) herbal extracts. Kidney stone material systems were synthesized in vitro using a simplified single diffusion gel growth technique. With the objective of revealing the mechanism of inhibition of calculi formation by RAL extracts, samples prepared without the presence of extract, and with the presence of extract, were analyzed using Raman, photoluminescence, and XPS. The unexpected presence of Zn revealed by XPS in a sample prepared with RAL provides an explanation for the inhibition process, and also explains the dramatic reflectance of incident light observed in attempts to obtain infrared transmission data. Raman data are consistent with the binding of the inhibitor to the oxygen of the kidney stone. Photoluminescence data corroborate with the other results to provide additional evidence of Zn-related inhibition.

  2. Non-contrast thin-section helical CT of urinary tract calculi in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strouse, Peter J. [Section of Pediatric Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bates, Gregory D. [Department of Radiology, Columbus Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Bloom, David A. [Department of Pediatric Imaging, Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI (United States); Goodsitt, Mitchell M. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2002-05-01

    Background: Non-contrast thin-section helical CT has gained acceptance for the diagnosis of urinary tract calculi in adults, but experience with the technique in children is limited. Purpose: To evaluate the utility of non-contrast thin section helical CT for the diagnosis of urinary tract calculi in children. Materials and methods: Radiology databases at three pediatric institutions were searched to identify all pediatric patients evaluated by ''renal stone'' protocol CT scans (no oral or intravenous contrast, scans covering the entire urinary tract obtained in helical mode with narrow collimation (< 5 mm)). CT scans were reviewed for the primary finding of urinary tract calculi, for secondary signs of acute urinary tract obstruction and for evidence of alternative diagnoses. Medical records were reviewed to determine clinical presentation and to confirm the eventual diagnosis. Results: One hundred thirty-seven scans of 113 children (mean age: 11.2 years) were studied. Thirty-eight of 94 examinations (40%) performed on 82 children for acute pain and/or hematuria showed ureteral calculi. Alternative diagnoses were suggested by CT on 16 scans (17%). Twenty-eight scans were performed on 10 asymptomatic children with known calculus disease confirming renal stone burden on 21 scans (75%) and persistent ureteral calculi on 6 scans (21%). Upper tract calculi were demonstrated on 10 of 15 scans (67%) performed to evaluate for calculi in patients with known non-calculus genitourinary tract abnormalities. Conclusions: Non-contrast thin section helical CT is a useful method to diagnose urinary tract calculi in children. Radiation dose in this retrospective study may exceed the lowest possible radiation dose for diagnostic accuracy. Further research is needed to optimize CT imaging parameters, while maintaining diagnostic accuracy and minimizing radiation dose. (orig.)

  3. Acute urinary retention in women due to urethral calculi: A rare case

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a 51-year-old woman with acute urinary retention caused by a urethral calculus. Urethral calculi in women are extremely rare and are usually formed in association with underlying genitourinary pathology. In this case, however, no pathology was detected via thorough urological evaluation. We discuss the pathogenesis, clinical presentation and treatment of urethral calculi. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of a primary urethral calculus in a female with an...

  4. Association between schizophrenia and urinary calculi: a population-based case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Ping Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with schizophrenia have been demonstrated to have higher overall morbidity and all-cause mortality rates from general medical conditions. However, little attention has been given to the urinary system of people with schizophrenia. As no direct evidence has been reported demonstrating a link between schizophrenia and urinary calculi, this study utilized a population-based case-control study design to investigate the possibility of an association between schizophrenia and the occurrence of urinary calculi. METHOD: This study used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Cases consisted of 53,965 urinary calculi patients newly diagnosed between 2002 and 2008. In total, 269,825 controls were randomly selected and matched with the cases in terms of age and sex. Each person was traced to discern whether he had previously received a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Conditional logistic regression models were performed for the analysis. RESULTS: A total of 3,119 (1.0% subjects had been diagnosed with schizophrenia prior to the index date. This included 0.7% of the patients with urinary calculi, and 1.0% of the controls. A prior diagnosis of schizophrenia was independently associated with a 30% decrease (95% CI = 0.62-0.76 in the occurrence of urinary calculi. The reduction was even more remarkable in males (38%, 95% CI = 0.55-0.71 and in elder individuals independent of gender (48% in those aged >69, 95% CI = 0.36-0.77. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an inverse association between schizophrenia and urinary calculi. Future studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which schizophrenia negatively associates with urinary calculi.

  5. Nondestructive analysis of urinary calculi using micro computed tomography

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    Lingeman James E

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micro computed tomography (micro CT has been shown to provide exceptionally high quality imaging of the fine structural detail within urinary calculi. We tested the idea that micro CT might also be used to identify the mineral composition of urinary stones non-destructively. Methods Micro CT x-ray attenuation values were measured for mineral that was positively identified by infrared microspectroscopy (FT-IR. To do this, human urinary stones were sectioned with a diamond wire saw. The cut surface was explored by FT-IR and regions of pure mineral were evaluated by micro CT to correlate x-ray attenuation values with mineral content. Additionally, intact stones were imaged with micro CT to visualize internal morphology and map the distribution of specific mineral components in 3-D. Results Micro CT images taken just beneath the cut surface of urinary stones showed excellent resolution of structural detail that could be correlated with structure visible in the optical image mode of FT-IR. Regions of pure mineral were not difficult to find by FT-IR for most stones and such regions could be localized on micro CT images of the cut surface. This was not true, however, for two brushite stones tested; in these, brushite was closely intermixed with calcium oxalate. Micro CT x-ray attenuation values were collected for six minerals that could be found in regions that appeared to be pure, including uric acid (3515 – 4995 micro CT attenuation units, AU, struvite (7242 – 7969 AU, cystine (8619 – 9921 AU, calcium oxalate dihydrate (13815 – 15797 AU, calcium oxalate monohydrate (16297 – 18449 AU, and hydroxyapatite (21144 – 23121 AU. These AU values did not overlap. Analysis of intact stones showed excellent resolution of structural detail and could discriminate multiple mineral types within heterogeneous stones. Conclusions Micro CT gives excellent structural detail of urinary stones, and these results demonstrate the feasibility

  6. MEDICAL EXPULSIVE THERAPY OF URETERIC CALCULI - OUR EXPERIENCE

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    Ramesh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Uretric stones can be treated with multiple modalities including medical therapy, uretroscopy, shockwave lithotripsy (SWS, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, open/laparoscopic stone removal, and/or combinations of these modalities. The aim is to study the effectivene ss of medical management of uretric stones and to compare the effectiveness of Tamsulosin and Tamsulosin with steroid . MATERIALS & METHODS: 120 Patients who came with acute uretric colic were categorized into III categories of less than 5mm, 5mm to 7mm and more than 7mm based on NCCT. They were consecutively allotted to one of the three groups, the group I patients received Anti - Biotics with NSAIDs group II received Tamsulosin in addition Anti - Biotics and NSAIDs and III rd group received Anti - Biotics, Tamsu losin, NSAIDs in addition Deflazacart 30mg for a period of 10 days. The results were evaluated at the end of 10 days medical treatment. RESULTS : 90 out of 120 patients were re - evaluated at the end of 10 days. The calculi of 7mm should be removed as the chances of passage is <20%. The medical treatment with Tamsulosin or Tamsulosin with Deflazacart does not offer significant benefit.

  7. Outcomes of urethral calculi patients in an endemic region and an undiagnosed primary fossa navicularis calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verit, Ayhan; Savas, Murat; Ciftci, Halil; Unal, Dogan; Yeni, Ercan; Kaya, Mete

    2006-02-01

    Urethral calculus is a rare form of urolithiasis with an incidence lower than 0.3%. We determined the outcomes of 15 patients with urethral stone, of which 8 were pediatric, including an undiagnosed primary fossa navicularis calculus. Fifteen consecutive male patients, of whom eight were children, with urethral calculi were assessed between 2000 and 2005 with a mean of 19 months' follow-up. All stones were fusiform in shape and solitary. Acute urinary retention, interrupted or weak stream, pain (penile, urethral, perineal) and gross hematuria were the main presenting symptoms in 7 (46.7%), 4 (26.7%), 3 (20%) and 1 (6.6%) patient, respectively. Six of them had accompanying urethral pathologies such as stenosis (primary or with hypospadias) and diverticulum. Two patients were associated with upper urinary tract calculi but none of them secondary to bladder calculi. A 50-year-old patient with a primary urethral stone disease had urethral meatal stenosis accompanied by lifelong lower urinary tract symptoms. Unlike the past reports, urethral stones secondary to bladder calculi were decreasing, especially in the pediatric population. However, the pediatric patients in their first decade are still under risk secondary to the upper urinary tract calculi or the primary ones.

  8. "THE ROLE OF HARDNESS OF POTABLE WATER IN THE FORMATION OF URINARY CALCULI IN UROMIEH, Iran"

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    K.Imandel

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation of renal and urinary calculi is not due to a single cause but occurs as a multifactor entity, by which some of them still are unknown. Three theories of Stones formation including nucleation, stone matrix and inhibition of crystallization do not accuse water hardness as a main cause of the formation of urinary calculi 120 patients suffering from renal and urinary calculi and the same number of control persons were studied in the city of Uromieh. The analysis of uroliths and water samples fulfilled the laboratory Standard methods Chi-square test was done on the results obtained The results of water analyses showed that the total hardness of Calcium and Magnesium were 300, 69, 32 mg/I as CaCo3 , TDS , 410 mg/I, electrical conductivity 600 us/cm and water classified as very hard. The abundance of uroliths were, oxalate, cystjne, uric acid infectious respectively, There was no statistical significant association between water hardness and urinary calculi of patients under study with respect to age and sex. The abundance blood groups in patients were A , 0 , AB and B respectively and the occurrence of 3 renal calculi mentioned above were more in men than Women The formation of renal stones were most occurred in summer season. The most abundant was calcium oxalate, the incidence was between the ages 30 to 50 years old and calcium stones were 2.7 times more in men than woman.

  9. The feasibility of using microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography for detection and evaluation of renal calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Caijun; Nie, Liming; Lou, Cunguang; Xing, Da

    2010-09-01

    Imaging of renal calculi is important for patients who suffered a urinary calculus prior to treatment. The available imaging techniques include plain x-ray, ultrasound scan, intravenous urogram, computed tomography, etc. However, the visualization of a uric acid calculus (radiolucent calculi) is difficult and often impossible by the above imaging methods. In this paper, a new detection method based on microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography was developed to detect the renal calculi. Thermoacoustic images of calcium oxalate and uric acid calculus were compared with their x-ray images. The microwave absorption differences among the calcium oxalate calculus, uric acid calculus and normal kidney tissue could be evaluated by the amplitude of the thermoacoustic signals. The calculi hidden in the swine kidney were clearly imaged with excellent contrast and resolution in the three orthogonal thermoacoustic images. The results indicate that thermoacoustic imaging may be developed as a complementary method for detecting renal calculi, and its low cost and effective feature shows high potential for clinical applications.

  10. First-order differential calculi over multi-braided quantum groups

    CERN Document Server

    Durdevic, M

    1996-01-01

    A differential calculus of the first order over multi-braided quantum groups is developed. In analogy with the standard theory, left/right-covariant and bicovariant differential structures are introduced and investigated. Furthermore, antipodally covariant calculi are studied. The concept of the *-structure on a multi-braided quantum group is formulated, and in particular the structure of left-covariant *-covariant calculi is analyzed. A special attention is given to differential calculi covariant with respect to the action of the associated braid system. In particular it is shown that the left/right braided-covariance appears as a consequence of the left/right-covariance relative to the group action. Braided counterparts of all basic results of the standard theory are found.

  11. Proceedings Fourth Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Ciobanu, Gabriel; 10.4204/EPTCS.40

    2010-01-01

    The 4th Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi (MeCBIC 2010) is organized in Jena as a satellite event of the Eleventh International Conference on Membrane Computing (CMC11). Biological membranes play a fundamental role in the complex reactions which take place in cells of living organisms. The importance of this role has been considered in two different types of formalisms introduced recently. Membrane systems were introduced as a class of distributed parallel computing devices inspired by the observation that any biological system is a complex hierarchical structure, with a flow of biochemical substances and information that underlies their functioning. The modeling and analysis of biological systems has also attracted considerable interest of the process algebra research community. Thus the notions of membranes and compartments have been explicitly represented in a family of calculi, such as ambients and brane calculi. A cross fertilization of these two research areas has ...

  12. PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF TAMSULOSIN IN THE MANAGEMENT OF CALCULI IN LOWER THIRD OF URETER

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    Arunabha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Urinary calculus disease is one of the 3 most common urological diseases . It affects about 12 % of the world population and has become a worldwide health problem . Of all the urinary tract stones 20% are ureteral stones , of which 70% are found in the lower third of ureter . Patients with ureteric calculi have wide range of complications which includes acute pain necessitating hospitalization , urinary tract infection , anuria , acute renal failure , chronic renal failure , hydronephrosis , pyonephrosis , pyelonephritis . The objective of the study is , t o study the effect of Tamsulosin in the passage of calculi in the lower one third of the ureter compared to NSAIDs and oral and IV fluids . MATERI AL AND METHOD: This study included a total of 82 patients between the study period from Nov 20 10 to May 201 3 . 42 patients were chosen randomly and advised to take plenty of oral fluids and treated with NSAIDs ( Diclofenac sodium and the other 40 patients w ere treated with Tamsulosin ( alpha blocker 0 . 4mg HS for one month along with oral fluids and NSAIDs ( Diclofenac sodium . RESULTS: Majority of the patients were in the age group of 20 - 40 yrs . The mean size of the calculus was 6 . 62 cms on the right side and 6 . 07 cms on the left side . Out of the 40 patients who were on alpha 1 blocker ( Tamsulosin 31 patients had passed the calculi and 9 patients had no results with a success rate of 77 . 5% . In the 42 patients who were not on Tamsulosin , 8 patients passed the calculi and 34 patients did not pass the calculi . 9 patients among the 42 underwent ureterorenoscopy ( URS . CONCLUSION : Tamsulosin is an effective and safe drug in the management of calculi in the lower 1/3 rd of the ureter . Most patients with ureteric calc uli were rendered stone free with endourological procedures if conservative treatment failed .

  13. US and MDCT findings in a caudal blind ending bifid ureter with calculi

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    Caglar Uzun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Herein we present a rare ureteric duplication anomaly; blind ending bifid ureter with calculi which is asymptomatic unless complicated by infection, reflux, calculi or malignancy. The diagnosis is often missed at intravenous urography (IVU and US because the ipsilateral ureter and kidney are grossly normal. In this case the diagnosis was established with ultrasound (US and mainly with multidetector computerized tomography (MDCT imaging using multiplanar reformats and 3-D reconstructions which were unique to this case. MDCT scans not only revealed the exact diagnosis and anatomic relationships but also ruled out other pathologies included in the differential diagnosis as well, such as ureter and bladder diverticula.

  14. US and MDCT findings in a caudal blind ending bifid ureter with calculi

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    Evren Ustuner

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Herein we present a rare ureteric duplication anomaly; blind ending bifid ureter with calculi which is asymptomatic unless complicated by infection, reflux, calculi or malignancy. The diagnosis is often missed at intravenous urography (IVU and US because the ipsilateral ureter and kidney are grossly normal. In this case the diagnosis was established with ultrasound (US and mainly with multidetector computerized tomography (MDCT imaging using multiplanar reformats and 3-D reconstructions which were unique to this case. MDCT scans not only revealed the exact diagnosis and anatomic relationships but also ruled out other pathologies included in the differential diagnosis as well, such as ureter and bladder diverticula.

  15. Combined oral and local therapy for the dissolution of urinary calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, F; Frang, D; Hübler, J; Nagy, Z

    1982-01-01

    The factors underlying the formation of Ca-phosphate and struvite calculi, as well as the present possibilities for oral and local therapy, their advantages and drawbacks are discussed in the light of published evidence. In this context a clinical case of multiple injuries is reported in which practically complete chemolitholysis has been achieved by combined oral and local therapy. The rapid growth of the calculi and their alarming tendency to recurrence in case of inadequate treatment is emphasized. The therapeutic method used in this case is regarded as suitable for practical purposes.

  16. Flexible Ureteroscopic Management of Horseshoe Kidney Renal Calculi

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    Jie Ding

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To evaluate the clinical efficacy of flexible ureteroscope (F-URS combined with holmium laser lithotripter in treating renal calculi in horseshoe kidney.Materials and Methods:From November 2010 to December 2013, the medical history and charts of sixteen patients (mean age 42.9±11.6 years, range 26-66 years, including 13 males and 3 females were analyzed retrospectively. Mean stone burden was 29±8 mm (range 17-42 mm2. Mean stone digitized surface area (DSA was 321±94 mm2 (range 180-538 mm2. Under spinal anesthesia in a modified lithotomy position with the head down, rigid ureteroscope was placed firstly into the ureter to reach the level of the pelvis, a zebra guide wire was inserted and following the removal of the rigid ureteroscope, an ureteral access sheath was positioned along the guide wire, then passed the URF P-5 flexible ureteroscope into the renal cavities over the guidewire. After locating the stones, holmium laser lithotripsy was performed.Results:The average operative time was 92±16 minutes (range 74-127 min.. No major complications were encountered. Ten patients obtained stone-free status with one session, four obtained stone-free status after two sessions. Single session stone-free rate was 62.5%, overall stone-free rate was 87.5%. Two patients have small residual stones in the lower pole.Conclusions:F-URS combined with holmium laser lithotripter and nitinol basket, is safe and effective in dealing with moderate stone diameter (<30 mm in HSKs with high clearance rates and low complication rates.

  17. On the expressiveness and decidability of higher-order process calculi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanese, Ivan; Perez, Jorge A.; Sangiorgi, Davide; Schmitt, Alan

    2011-01-01

    In higher-order process calculi, the values exchanged in communications may contain processes. A core calculus of higher-order concurrency is studied; it has only the operators necessary to express higher-order communications: input prefix, process output, and parallel composition. By exhibiting a d

  18. Declarative event based models of concurrency and refinement in psi-calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normann, Håkon; Johansen, Christian; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    -calculi representation of Dynamic Condition Response Graphs, which conservatively extends prime event structures to allow finite representations of (omega) regular finite (and infinite) behaviours and have been shown to support run-time adaptation and refinement. We end by outlining the final aim of this research, which...

  19. From exponential coordinates to bicovariant differential calculi on matrix quantum groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijligenberg, N.W. van den; Martini, R.

    1995-01-01

    A procedure to obtain bicovariant differential calculi on matrix quantum groups is presented. The construction is based on the description of the matrix quantum group as a quantized universal enveloping algebra by the use of exponential coordinates. The procedure is illustrated by applying it to the

  20. A Case of Randall's Plugs Associated to Calcium Oxalate Dihydrate Calculi

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    Felix Grases

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A case of a patient who developed multiple calcium oxalate dihydrate calculi, some of them connected to intratubular calcifications (Randall's plugs, is presented. Randall's plugs were isolated and studied. The mechanism of Randall's plug development is also suggested.

  1. Management of Ureteric Calculi in Dhule City of North-western Maharashtra

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    Lokesh Patni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urolithiasis, usually affecting people in the prime of life, causes significant morbidity and loss of productivity. Uretericstones account for 2/3rd of all urinary calculi brought to attention of doctors. The damaging effects of the calculi may result in obstruction with dilatation of the urinary tract, leading to stasis and severe infection. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate patients with urinary stones with regards to the incidence, age, sex,clinical presentation, site, size, side, management and their complications. Material and Methods:It was a prospective study carried out by Department of Surgery at Annasaheb Chudaman Patil Memorial Medical College, and Hospital Dhule for a period of two years. Patients were selected after they were diagnosed as having ureteric calculi. The patients were treated by conservative or surgical methods, and the outcome was monitored. Statistical analysis of the data was done for obtaining results.Result: The majority of the patients were males with peak age group in the second and third decade. Pain in abdomen or loin tenderness was the most common presenting symptom. Most of the patients were treated by conservative medical management. Endourological procedures were the most commonly performed surgical intervention. Conclusion: Most of the patients with ureteric calculi present with painin abdomen and majority can be treated by medical management. With the availability of better facilities the requirement for open surgery is decreasing and endourological procedures are becoming the means of surgical intervention.Complications are minimal with surgical expertise for endourological procedures.

  2. Ureteropyeloscopy and homium: YAG laser lithotripsy for treatment of ureteral calculi (report of 356 cases)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhong; Din, Qiang; Jiang, Hao-wen; Zen, Jing-cun; Yu, Jiang; Zhang, Yuanfang

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of holmium YAG laser lithotripsy for the treatment of ureteral calculi. Methods: A total of 356 patients underwent ureteropyeloscopic lithotripsy using holmium YAG laser with a semirigid uretesopyeloscope, 93 upper, 135 middle, and 128 lower ureteral stones were treated. Results: The overall successful fragmentation rate for all ureteral stones in a single session achieved 98% (349/356). The successful fragmentation rate stratified by stone location was 95% 88/93 in the upper ureter, 99% (134/135) in the mid ureter , and 99%(127/128) in the distal ureter. 12 cases with bilateral ureteral stones which caused acute renal failure and anuria were treated rapidly and effectively by the holmium YAG laser lithotripsy. No complications such as perforation and severe trauma were encountered during the operations. 2 weeks 17months (with an average of 6.8 month ) follow up postoperatively revealed that the overall stone-free rate was 98%(343/349) and no ureteral stenosis was found. Conclusions Holmium YAG laser lithotripsy is a highly effective, minimally invasive and safe therapy for ureteral calculi. It is indicated as a first choice of treatment for patients with ureteral calculi, especially for the ones with mid- lower levels of ureteral calculi.

  3. Therapeutic effects of potassium sodium hydrogen citrate on melamine-induced urinary calculi in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jie; SHEN Ying; SUN Ning; JIA Li-qun; PAN Yue-song; SUN Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Background In 2008, a sharp increase of the number of children diagnosed with urinary calculi was observed in China, 9433 children were diagnosed as having melamine-induced urinary calculi at outpatient clinic in Beijing Children's Hospital. This study examined the therapeutic efficacy of potassium sodium hydrogen citrate (PSHC) used to treat melamine-induced urinary stones in Chinese children who consumed melamine-containing infant formula. Methods Seventy-two infants and children (average age (18.2±7.7) months) who were diagnosed with urinary calculi were icuidomly divided into three treatment groups using the SAS Plan program. Group 1 was given a low dose (1 g/d) of PSHC, group 2 was given high dose of PSHC (2 g/d) and group 3 was given no PSHC (control group). The dose of drug was adjusted according to the baseline urinary pH. This study analyzed the influence of the dose of PSHC, the age of patients, stone size and position, and urinary pH on the level of efficacy of PSHC (cured, effectively treated or not cured).Results After 1-6 months of therapy, 19 patients from group 1, five patients from group 2 and six patients from group 3 were cured. Five patients from group 1, five patients from group 2 and four patients from group 3 were effectively treated. There were significant differences in therapeutic efficacy between the two treatment doses after 3 and 6 months as measured by the increase in the successful expulsion rate and time of melamine-induced urinary calculi. After 6 months the mean time of expulsion of urinary calculi in groups 1 and 2 was significantly shorter than in the control group. Conclusions PSHC can significantly increase the successful expulsion rate and time of melamine-induced urinary calculi. The therapeutic efficacy is affected by PSHC dose, treatment duration, calculi position, and urinary pH. There is no relationship between the therapeutic efficacy and the stone size or patient age.

  4. Comparative study of minimally invasive endoscopic surgery and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for proximal ureteral calculi in pilots

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, He-Qing; Li, Jian-Ye; Zhou, Gao-Biao; Mu, Da-Wei; Jing-min YAN; Wang, Guang-Feng; Sun, Bin; Liu, Hong-Ming; Ji-zhang XING; Hong, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe and compare the therapeutic effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and minimally invasive endoscopic surgery (URL/PCNL) for proximal urinary calculi in pilots. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted for the clinical data of 115 pilots who had received ESWL, URL and PCNL for the treatment of proximal urinary tract calculi from Sep, 2005 to Sep, 2012. The patients were divided into two groups according to the way of treatment: ESWL group (n=83) and U...

  5. Scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalyses of the crystalline components of human and animal dental calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGeros, R Z; Orly, I; LeGeros, J P; Gomez, C; Kazimiroff, J; Tarpley, T; Kerebel, B

    1988-03-01

    A review of the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe microanalyses in the study of dental calculus showed that such studies provided confirmatory and supplementary data on the morphological features of human dental calculi but gave only limited information on the identity of the crystalline or inorganic components. This study aimed to explore the potential of combined SEM and microanalyses in the identification of the crystalline components of the human and animal dental calculi. Human and animal calculi were analyzed. Identification of the crystalline components were made based on the combined information of the morphology (SEM) and Ca/P molar ratios of the crystals with the morphology and Ca/P molar ratio of synthetic calcium phosphates (brushite or DCPD; octacalcium phosphate, OCP; Mg-substituted whitlockite, beta-TCMP; CO3-substituted apatite, (CHA); and calcite. SEM showed similarities in morphological features of human and animal dental calculi but differences in the forms of crystals present. Microanalyses and crystal morphology data suggested the presence of CaCO3 (calcite) and CHA in the animal (cat, dog, tiger) and of OCP, beta-TCMP and CHA in human dental calculi. X-ray diffraction and infrared (IR) absorption analyses confirmed these results. This exploratory study demonstrated that by taking into consideration what is known about the crystalline components of human and animal dental calculi, combined SEM and microanalyses can provide qualitative identification.

  6. Scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalyses of the crystalline components of human and animal dental calculi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeGeros, R.Z.; Orly, I.; LeGeros, J.P.; Gomez, C.; Kazimiroff, J.; Tarpley, T.; Kerebel, B.

    1988-03-01

    A review of the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe microanalyses in the study of dental calculus showed that such studies provided confirmatory and supplementary data on the morphological features of human dental calculi but gave only limited information on the identity of the crystalline or inorganic components. This study aimed to explore the potential of combined SEM and microanalyses in the identification of the crystalline components of the human and animal dental calculi. Human and animal calculi were analyzed. Identification of the crystalline components were made based on the combined information of the morphology (SEM) and Ca/P molar ratios of the crystals with the morphology and Ca/P molar ratio of synthetic calcium phosphates (brushite or DCPD; octacalcium phosphate, OCP; Mg-substituted whitlockite, beta-TCMP; CO/sub 3/-substituted apatite, (CHA); and calcite. SEM showed similarities in morphological features of human and animal dental calculi but differences in the forms of crystals present. Microanalyses and crystal morphology data suggested the presence of CaCO/sub 3/ (calcite) and CHA in the animal (cat, dog, tiger) and of OCP, beta-TCMP and CHA in human dental calculi. X-ray diffraction and infrared (IR) absorption analyses confirmed these results. This exploratory study demonstrated that by taking into consideration what is known about the crystalline components of human and animal dental calculi, combined SEM and microanalyses can provide qualitative identification.

  7. Cystic calculi removal in African spurred Tortoise (Geochelone sulcata using transplstron coeliotomy

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    Azlan Che' Amat

    Full Text Available The present report was carried out to manage a case of calculi in the bladder of African spurred tortoise. A 6 year old African spurred tortoise presented with history of anorexia and whitish discharged from the vent. Upon physical examination, the tortoise were 10% dehydrated, hindlegs muscle wasting and whitish materials came out from the vent. Plain radiograph revealed increased radiopacity in the bladder and also both right and left kidney. Contrast gastrointestinal radiograph showed less possibility of foreign body. Inconclusive radiological findings required the decision to proceed with exploratory transplastron coeliotomy by using dental burr. About 4 cm solid, hard whitish mass was removed from the bladder and both kidney was congested with whitish material. The findings were suggestive for urates crystal calculi based on histology result. [Vet. World 2012; 5(8.000: 489-492

  8. Swapping: a natural bridge between named and indexed explicit substitution calculi

    CERN Document Server

    Mendelzon, Ariel; Ziliani, Beta; 10.4204/EPTCS.49.1

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to the presentation of lambda_rex, an explicit substitution calculus with de Bruijn indexes and a simple notation. By being isomorphic to lambda_ex - a recent formalism with variable names -, lambda_rex accomplishes simulation of beta-reduction (Sim), preservation of beta-strong normalization (PSN) and meta-confluence (MC), among other desirable properties. Our calculus is based on a novel presentation of lambda_dB, using a swap notion that was originally devised by de Bruijn. Besides lambda_rex, two other indexed calculi isomorphic to lambda_x and lambda_xgc are presented, demonstrating the potential of our technique when applied to the design of indexed versions of known named calculi.

  9. [Microscopic investigation of the partial stages of dissolution processes in urinary calculi (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfarth, H H; Hahne, B; Rostek, F P; Sluka, G; Eismann, D

    1975-11-14

    The formation of urinary calculi cannot yet be prevented with certainty. Consequently the dissolution of stones remains a focus of medical interest. The speed of solution of a calculus is not a quantity typical of the substance, but depends largely on the structural formation of the urinary calculi. With very different types of structure (e.g. Whewellite and Weddellite stones) the rate of dissolution can therefore fluctuate between wide limits in spite of similar phase composition. Consequently, type of structure, course of solution and rate of solution can be clearly correlated. Stones with relatively uniform structure formation (e.g. Struvite stones) on the other hand show largely similar solution rates. Medically, it is of interest that in certain structural types, solution may lead to disintegration of the stone into isolated solution residues.

  10. Primary Giant Cell Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of the Kidney with Staghorn Calculi

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    Chen C

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant fibrous histiocytomas (MFH as primary renal tumours are rare, with less than 50 cases described in the literature. We report a case of primary renal MFH of giant cell type in a 56-year-old man, who presented with bilateral dull flank pain, intermittent gross haematuria and body weight loss (6 kg in 3 months. Intravenous urography, computerized tomography (CT and magnetic resonance image (MRI showed right ureteral stones with mild hydronephrosis, and a solid mass at the lower pole of the left kidney associated with staghorn calculi, as well as tumour thrombi in the left renal vein and inferior vena cava. Left radical nephrectomy and evacuation of tumour thrombi from the left renal vein and inferior vena cava were performed. Histopathologic examination revealed malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH of giant cell type. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of primary renal MFH associated with staghorn calculi.

  11. Spectroscopic study of the inhibition of calcium oxalate calculi by Larrea tridentata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinales, Luis Alonso

    The causes of urolithiasis include such influences as diet, metabolic disorders, and genetic factors which have been documented as sources that aggravate urinary calculi depositions and aggregations, and, implicitly, as causes of urolithiasis. This study endeavors to detail the scientific mechanisms involved in calcium oxalate calculi formation, and, more importantly, their inhibition under growth conditions imposed by the traditional medicinal approach using the herbal extract, Larrea tridentata. The calculi were synthesized without and with Larrea tridentata infusion by employing the single diffusion gel technique. A visible decrease in calcium oxalate crystal growth with increasing amounts of Larrea tridentata herbal infusion was observed in photomicrographs, as well as a color change from white-transparent for pure crystals to light orange-brown for crystals with inhibitor. Analysis of the samples, which includes Raman, infrared absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) techniques, demonstrate an overall transition in morphology of the crystals from monohydrate without herbal extract to dihydrate with inhibitor. Furthermore, the resulting data from Raman and infrared absorption support the possibilities of the influences, in this complex process, of NDGA and its derivative compounds from Larrea tridentata, and of the bonding of the magnesium of the inhibitor with the oxalate ion on the surface of the calculi crystals. This assumption corroborates well with the micrographs obtained under higher magnification, which show that the separated small crystallites consist of darker brownish cores, which we attribute to the dominance of growth inhibition by NDGA, surrounded by light transparent thin shells, which possibly correspond to passivation of the crystals by magnesium oxalate. The SEM results reveal the transformation from the dominant monoclinic structure of the calcium oxalate crystals grown alone to the tetragonal

  12. Towards a Theory of Bisimulation for the Higher-Order Process Calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-JianLi; Xin-XinLiu

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a labelled transition semantics for higher-order process calculi is studied. The labelled transition semantics is relatively clean and simple, and corresponding bisimulation equivalence can be easily formulated based on it. And the congruence properties of the bisimulation equivalence can be proved easily. To show the correspondence between the proposed semantics and the well-established ones, the bisimulation is characterized as a version of barbed equivalence and a version of context bisimulation.

  13. Towards a Theory of Bisimulation for the Higher-Order Process Calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Jian Li; Xin-Xin Liu

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a labelled transition semantics for higher-order process calculi is studied. The labelled transition semantics is relatively clean and simple, and corresponding bisimulation equivalence can be easily formulated based on it. And the congruence properties of the bisimulation equivalence can be proved easily.To show the correspondence between the proposed semantics and the well-established ones, the bisimulation is characterized as a version of barbed equivalence and a version of context bisimulation.

  14. SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF PERCUTANEOUS NEPHROLITHOTOMY IN INFANTS PRESENTING WITH OBSTRUCTIVE RENAL CALCULI AND ANURIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugesh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Urolithiasis in infancy is rare but important health issue. Etiology is multi factorial . Optimal management of pediatric stone disease is still evolving . Infants with bilateral obstructive renal stones are unique group of patients in whom prompt evaluation and management is necessary. AI MS AND OBJECTIVE: To evaluate safety and efficacy of PCNL in infants presenting with bilateral obstructive renal calculi and anuria . MATERIALS AND METHOD S: From N ov . 2012 to M arch 2014, 18 renal units with calculi in 9 infants (6 boys, 3 girls were treated with PCNL ( P ercutaneous N ephrolithotomy at our institution. All infants presented with anuria, rised serum creatinin (mean 6.1mg/dl and uremic symptoms due to bilateral obstructive renal calculi. All patients managed initially with peritoneal dialysis a t nephrology u nit, followed by bilateral DJ (D ouble J stenting, then bilateral PCNL performed in two sittings. Mean age 8.5 months (4m to 12m, mean stone burden 1.7 cm (0.6cm to 3.0 cm, 20 F pediatric nephroscope through 22F percutaneous access was used . Stones were fragmented with pneumatic lithotripter. RESULTS: Mean operative time was 60.22 mins (30 mins to 90 mins. Complete stone clearance was done in all cases without need for second look PCNL. Mean post op serum creatinin is 0.6 mg/dl. No patient r equired blood transfusion, developed urosepsis, or had a procedure related complications. CONCLUSION: When performed by experienced urologists, PCNL is safe and effective procedure in infants presenting with bilateral obstructive renal calculi and anuria, provided these patients managed preoperatively with peritoneal dialysis and DJ stenting to optimise renal function and to relieve sepsis.

  15. Er:YAG removal of subgingival calculi: efficiency, temperature, and surface quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Karl; Hibst, Raimund; Keller, Ulrich

    1996-12-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate a handpiece with a special fiber tip for Er:YAG laser removal of subgingival calculus. The morphological changes of the treated areas were observed by light microscopy and SEM. To evaluate the efficiency, the time for complete removal of the calculi was measured. The temperature development in the pulp during laser treatment was investigated by a thermocouple inserted into a root canal. After calculi ablation, only smooth ablation traces are visible. The depth of the ablation traces is about 100 micrometers . Roughness of the treated area is similar to the untreated area. The ablation efficiency depends strongly on the shape and location of the calculi and varies between 4.6 and 20 mm2/min. During non stop preparation the maximum occurred temperature in pulp was 7.8 K. The results show that the Er:YAG laser with the used fiber delivery systems and handpiece is suitable for effective and sparing removal of subgingival calculus in periodontal treatment.

  16. Retroperitoneoscopic pyelolithotomy: a good alternative treatment for renal pelvic calculi in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Nicolino Cezarino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Nephrolitiasis, once considered an adult disease, has become increasingly prevalent in children, with an increase from 6% to 10 % annually in past 25 years. Kidney stones in pediatric population can result from metabolic diseases in up to 50% of children affected. Other factors associated with litiasis are infection, dietary factors, and anatomic malformations of urinary tract. Standard treatment procedures for pediatric population are similar to adult population. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL, ureterorenoscopy (URS, percutaneous nepfrolithotomy (PCNL, as well as laparoscopic and retroperitoneoscopic approaches can be indicated in selected cases. The advantages of laparoscopic or retroperitoneoscopic approaches are shorter mean operation time, no trauma of renal parenchyma, lower bleeding risk, and higher stone-free rates, especially in pelvic calculi with extrarenal pelvis, where the stone is removed intact. Patient and Methods: A 10 year-old girl presented with right abdominal flank pain, macroscopic hematuria, with previous history of urinary infections‥ Further investigation showed an 1,5 centimeter calculi in right kidney pelvis. A previous ureterorenoscopy was tried with no success, and a double J catheter was placed. After discussing options, a retroperitoneoscopic pielolithotomy was performed. Results: The procedure occurred with no complications, and the calculi was completely removed. The foley catheter was removed in first postoperative day and she was discharged 2 days after surgery. Double J stent was removed after 2 weeks. Conclusions: Retroperitoneoscopic pielolithotomy is a feasible and safe procedure in children, with same outcomes of the procedure for adult population.

  17. AN UNASCENDED RIGHT KIDNEY WITH LEFT SIDED URETERIC CALCULI: A CADAVERIC CASE REPORT

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    Meril Ann Soman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anomalies of the urinary system constitute approximately 30% of all the congenital malformations. There are various associated anomalies involving number, size, shape, position and vascularity of the kidneys. Unascended kidneys refers to a halt in the migration of the kidneys during their normal embryological development. Defect in the ascent of the kidneys are closely related with variations in the branching pattern of aorta. Here we report a case of an unilateral unascended right kidney in a male cadaver encountered during routine medical dissection. A left sided ureteric calculi was also seen as an incidental finding in the same cadaver. Ureterolithiasis occurs worldwide in all sets of population with 80% of the stones found in the male sex in the age group of 30- 60 years. There are various factors which favour the formation of ureteric calculi which includes geographical, socio-economical as well as the mineral content of water consumed and some general medical causes. An attempt has been made to document the causes for this variation and the preventive measures that can be adopted to prevent the formation of ureteric calculi.

  18. Prostatic calculi influence the antimicrobial efficacy in men with chronic bacterial prostatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Ping Zhao; Yong-Tao Li; Jun Chen; Zhi-Gen Zhang; Hai Jiang; Dan Xia; Shuo Wang; Ping Wang

    2012-01-01

    We studied the efficacy of culture-specific antibiotic therapy for chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) patients with or without prostatic calculi.This study included 101 patients (21-62 years old) who met the consensus criteria for CBP (National Institutes of Health category Ⅱ).According to the results of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS),all patients were divided into two groups:Group 1,CBP with prostatic calculi,n=39; Group 2,CBP without prostatic calculi,n=62.All patients received optimal antimicrobial therapy for 4 weeks and followed up for a minimum of 3 months (range:3-8 months).In addition to expressed prostatic secretions (EPS) and urine culture,all patients were asked to complete the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) and the subjective global assessment (SGA).The microbiological eradication rate at the end of treatment were 32/39 (82.1%) and 54/62 (87.1%),while the rates for continued eradication at the end of study were 17/39 (43.6%) and 45/62 (72.6%) in Group 1 and Group 2 (P<0.01 ),respectively.We observed a decrease in the total NIH-CPSI score median values from 24 to 1 9 in Group 1 and from 24 to 11 in Group 2.The pain subscore (P<0.01),urinary sunscore (P<0.05) and quality of life (QoL; P<0.05) as well as the total NIH-CPSI score (P<0.01) were significantly improved after antimicrobial treatment in Group 2 compared to Group 1.Response,defined as a decrease of the NIH-CPSI total score by at least 50%,was seen in Group 1 versus Group 2 in 38.5% and 58.1% (P<0.01 ),respectively.Our results showed that prostatic calculi influence the antimicrobial efficacy in men with CBP.There was a noticeable decrease in the cure rate of CBP patients with prostatic calculi due to relapse after antimicrobial therapy.

  19. Outcomes of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser for upper urinary tract calculi

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    Marcello Cocuzza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the perioperative and financial outcomes of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser for upper tract calculi in 44 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between February 2004 and September 2006, 44 patients treated for upper tract stone with flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy were evaluated. Renal stones were associated with collecting system obstruction in 15 (34% patients, failed extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL occurred in 14 (32% patients, unilateral multiple stones in 18 (41% patients, and multiple bilateral stones in 3 (7%. In 29 (66% patients, the stone was located in the inferior calyx. Perioperative and financial outcomes were also evaluated. RESULTS: 50 procedures were performed in 44 patients. The mean stone burden on preoperative CT scan was 11.5 ± 5.8 mm. The mean operative time was 61.3 ± 29.4 min. The stone free rate was 93.1% after one procedure and 97.7% after a second procedure, with overall complication rate of 8%. Therapeutic success occurred in 92% and 93% of patients with lower pole stones and SWL failure, respectively. Treatment failure of a single session was associated with presence of a stone size larger than 15 mm (p = 0.007, but not associated with inferior calyx location (p = 0.09. Surgical disposables were responsible for 78% of overall costs. CONCLUSION: Flexible ureteroscopy using holmium laser is a safe and effective option for the treatment of upper urinary tract calculi. In addition, it can be considered an attractive option as salvage therapy after SWL failure or kidney calculi associated with ureteral stones. Stone size larger than 15 mm is associated with single session treatment failure.

  20. Comparison of the trauma degree after retroperitoneoscopy and percutaneous nephtoscopy treatment of complicated upper ureteral calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Run Zhao; Zhan-Peng Lu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To compare the trauma degree after retroperitoneoscopy and percutaneous nephtoscopy treatment of complicated upper ureteral calculi.Methods:A total of 82 cases of patients with complicated upper ureteral calculi who received surgical treatment in our hospital from July 2013 to January 2015 were included for study. According to the different surgical methods, included subjects were randomly divided into observation group 41 cases and control group 41 cases. Control group received percutaneous nephtoscopy treatment, observation group received retroperitoneoscopy treatment, and then differences in early postoperative coagulation indicators, blood glucose and insulin levels, stress protein levels as well as PI3K/Akt and p38MAPK signaling pathway expression were compared between two groups.Results:Early postoperative PLCR, PDW, APTT and D-D values of observation group were lower than those of control group while Ca2+ value was higher than that of control group; early postoperative GLU, fasting lactate, fasting lactate/pyruvic acid and HOMA-IR values of observation group were lower than those of control group while HOMA-β value was higher than that of control group; early postoperative HSP70, DNA ligaseⅣ, JAB1 and ATF4 expression levels of observation group were higher than those of control group whileβ-tubulin and IFIT1 expression levels were lower than those of control group; early postoperative p38MAPK mRNA and protein expression levels of observation group were lower than those of control group while PI3K and Akt mRNA and protein expression levels were higher than those of control group.Conclusion: Retroperitoneoscopy treatment of patients with complicated upper ureteral calculi causes less injury to patients and less effect on internal environment, and helps to patients’ early postoperative rehabilitation.

  1. Common site of urinary calculi in kidney, ureter and bladder region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, R B; Shah, A K; Pant, D K; Paudel, S

    2013-03-01

    Urolithiasis is an ancient disease with global distribution. It refers to stones originating anywhere in the urinary system. Urinary calculi or stones are the most common cause of acute urinary system obstruction. The study was aimed with finding out the common site of urinary calculus in kidney ureter bladder (KUB) region. This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted from June 2012 to September 2012 at Tribhuvan University, Teaching Hospital, Maharajgunj. A total 240 urolitiasis patients were enrolled for plain KUB examination. Site of urinary calculus was identified by observing KUB film of the subjects under the supervision of radiologist. The data were analyzed prospectively with outcome measures of gender & stone location. Out of 240 patients, 138 were male and 102 were female with male to female ratio of 1.35:1. The age ranged from 9 to 83 years. Out of total 240 patients, 71.9% (187) patients belonged to productive age group (20-60 years). Total number of urinary calculi was 345 in which 208 were found in male patients and 137 were found in female patients. Of total 345 calculi, 237 were renal stones, 47 were ureteric stones, 22 of the stones were found in pelviureteric junction (PUJ), 33 of stones were found in vesicoureteric junction (VUJ), and 6 were in bladder. In conclusion, urinary stone disease is a major public health problem in a developing country like Nepal with male and productive age group predominance. Kidney stones are most common. Distal ureter is the most common site of ureteric stone.

  2. Comparative efficacy of tamsulosin versus nifedipine for distal ureteral calculi: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang H

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hai Wang, Li Bo Man, Guang Lin Huang, Gui Zhong Li, Jian Wei WangDepartment of Urology, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to systematically compare the therapeutic effect and safety of tamsulosin with nifedipine in medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteral calculi.Methods: Databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and Clinical Trial Register Centers, were comprehensively searched. Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs were selected, and quality assessment was performed according to the Cochrane Handbook. RevMan software was used to analyze the outcome measures, which consisted of expulsion rate, expulsion time, and complications.Results: Twelve RCTs consisting of 4,961 patients were included (tamsulosin group, 2,489 cases; nifedipine group, 2,472 cases. Compared with nifedipine, tamsulosin significantly increased the expulsion rate (risk ratio =1.29, 95% CI [1.25, 1.33], P<0.0001 and reduced the expulsion time (standard mean difference =-0.39, 95% CI [−0.72, −0.05], P=0.02. Regarding safety, tamsulosin was associated with fewer complications than nifedipine (risk ratio =0.45, 95% CI [0.28, 0.72], P=0.0008, and further subgroup analysis showed that tamsulosin was associated with a lower risk of both mild and moderate-to-severe complications.Conclusion: On the bias of current evidence, tamsulosin showed an overall superiority to nifedipine for distal ureteral calculi <10 mm in aspects of expulsion rate, expulsion time, and safety. Tamsulosin was supposed to be the first drug to be recommended to patients willing to receive medical expulsive therapy.Keywords: tamsulosin, nifedipine, medical expulsive therapy, MET, lower urinary calculi

  3. [Infection-induced urinary calculi in children; current therapeutic schedule and prevention of recurrence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, D; Brühl, P; Hesse, A

    1988-01-01

    Infection stones have an outstanding position in childhood urolithiasis. In non-infection stones one can mostly find a certain--for example metabolic--causes of stone formation. In infection stones, the urease-producing and thus urea-cleaving properties of some gram-negative bacteria are responsible for alkalization of the urine and lead especially in combination with disturbances of urine transport to the staghorn calculi. Therefore in such children early diagnosis, adequate therapy and consequent maintenance is the crucial point for good life quality in future. Preliminary condition for therapeutic success is a close coworking between pediatric nephrologist, pediatric urologist, family doctor and parents.

  4. Treatment of small lower pole calculi--SWL vs. URS vs. PNL?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Thomas; Tasca, Andrea; Buchholz, Noor P

    2011-03-01

    According to current guideline recommendations extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) remains the first choice treatment for small and mid-sized renal calculi. However, the results of SWL treatment for lower pole stones can be disappointing whilst more invasive endoscopic modalities, such as flexible ureterorenoscopy (fURS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) are often considered more effective. This article summarizes a point-counterpoint discussion at the 9th eULIS symposium in Como, Italy, and discusses the potential advantages and disadvantages of the different therapeutic approaches.

  5. Hemiacidrin irrigation in the management of struvite calculi: long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, G R; Blaivas, J G; Meares, E M

    1983-12-01

    Renacidin (10 per cent hemiacidrin) irrigation has been used in the management of renal struvite calculi in 25 patients. Of these patients 22 were free of stone after irrigation: 16 after dissolution of residual stone fragments postoperatively, 4 after prophylactic postoperative irrigation and 2 after primary, nonsurgical percutaneous dissolution. Recurrent urinary tract infections owing to the original urease-producing bacteria occurred in 14 per cent of these patients and recurrent nephrolithiasis occurred in 9 per cent during an average followup period of 66 months.

  6. Case series demonstrating the clinical utility of dual energy computed tomography in patients requiring stents for urinary calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepperson, Maria A; Thiel, David D; Cernigliaro, Joseph G; Broderick, Gregory A; Haley, William E

    2014-02-01

    Dual energy computed tomography (DECT) utilizes the material change in attenuation when imaged at two different energies to determine the composition of urinary calculi as uric acid or non-uric acid. We discuss a series of case reports illustrating DECT's ability to provide immediate determination of uric acid versus non-uric acid calculi and facilitate more informed clinical decision-making. Further, these cases demonstrate a unique population of patients with ureteral stents and percutaneous nephrostomy tubes that benefit from DECT's ability to create a virtual color contrast between an indwelling device and the stone material and thereby significantly impacting patient morbidity.

  7. Ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy for lower calyx calculi in horseshoe kidney: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawahara Takashi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We previously reported on the effectiveness of ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy during percutaneous nephrolithotomy and report two cases of lower calyx calculi in horseshoe kidney that were successfully treated with ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy. During the ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy procedure, a ureteroscope is advanced in the desired calyx and a Lawson retrograde nephrostomy puncture wire is inserted. The wire is advanced through the calyx to exit the skin. The wire is then used for the percutaneous dilation. Case presentation Case 1 was a 68-year-old man who was shown on radiography to have left lower calyx calculi (19 × 15mm, 7 × 5mm, and 7 × 3mm in horseshoe kidney. Case 2 was a 36-year-old woman shown on radiography to have a left lower calyx calculus (10 × 8mm in horseshoe kidney. Conclusions Both patients were stone-free after ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy during percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy is a promising procedure for safely and effectively treating lower calyx stones in horseshoe kidney.

  8. The Dual Action of Varunadi Kwath in Renal Calculi as well as Uterine Fibroid- A Case Study

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    Padavi D. M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mutrashmari (Renal Calculi is very common disorder. This distressing urinary disorder affects around 5-7 million people in India [11]. The chances of recurrence are always high and the surgery having disadvantage of high cost. The available treatment in modern science is only conservative and surgical in this present study an effort was made to evaluate the role of Varunadi Kwath in Mutrashmari. The main aim of this particular study was inclined towards the disintegration, dissolution, dislodgement and expulsion of renal calculi. The contents of Varunadi Kwath are easily available, economical and are easy to administer, which are having Anti-inflammatory, Diuretic and Antilithic properties. A case of renal calculi with uterine fibroid was diagnosed and the treatment was given for a period of 9 months. The size of the calculus was studied by periodic ultrasonography; the symptoms Mutrakruchrata (Dysuria, Shula (Pain in abdomen, Sadaha Mutrata (Burning micturition are significantly reduced within less than 45 days and total expulsion of calculi in less than 180 days.

  9. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of urinary calculi. Results from the first 306 patients treated at the Copenhagen Municipal Stone Center with a second generation lithotriptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J T; Mogensen, P

    1991-01-01

    The first Danish experience with Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) using a second generation Lithotriptor (Siemens Lithostar) is reported. 306 patients underwent 392 treatments for 363 stones. There were 339 renal calculi including 5 staghorn calculi and 54 ureteral calculi. Treatments...... were performed under local analgesia (82%) or epidural or general anesthesia (18%) when invasive procedures had to be done in connection with the treatment. Stone fragmentation was achieved with 2487 +/- 1262 shocks. The first months stone clearance rate was 45%; 26% had fragments less than 6 mm; 29...

  10. PRE-AND POST-OPERATIVE CORTICAL FUNCTION OF THE KIDNEY WITH STAGHORN CALCULI ASSESSED BY 99mTc-DMSA RENAL SCINTIGRAPHY

    OpenAIRE

    川村, 寿一

    1982-01-01

    99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy consisting of the cortical image and DMSA renal uptake was used to assess the pre- and post-operative renal function in 39 patients with staghorn calculi or complicated calculi occupying more than 2 major calices. Extended pyelolithotomy was performed on 14 patients, nephrolithotomy on 14 patients, pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy on 7 patients, and partial nephrectomy on 4 patients. Nine out of 14 patients who underwent pyelolithotomy and 4 out of 14 pati...

  11. Zdravljenje s tamsulozinom pri kamnih v spodnji tretjini sečevoda: Treatment with tamsulosin in patients with distal ureteral calculi:

    OpenAIRE

    Bizjak, Igor; Erklavec, Marko; Jagodič, Klemen; Korošec, Helena; Poteko, Sandi

    2008-01-01

    Background Symptomatic ureteral calculi are one of the most important issues in urologist emergency clinical settings. Spontaneous passage of distal ureteral calculi is usually achieved with good hydration and spasmoanalgetic drugs. á-blocker therapy may facilitate and accelerate the spontaneous passageof ureteral stones.Patients and In retrospective study we analyzed patients with renal colic admitted to our department in methods 2006. All of them had clinical examination, urine and blood an...

  12. Helical CT evaluation of the chemical composition of urinary tract calculi with a discriminant analysis of CT-attenuation values and density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellin, Marie-France; Meric, Jean-Baptiste [AP-HP, Department of Radiology, Hopital Paul-Brousse, Villejuif Cedex (France); Renard-Penna, Raphaelle; Grenier, Philippe [AP-HP, Department of Radiology, Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Conort, Pierre; Richard, Francois [AP-HP, Department of Urology, Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Bissery, Anne; Mallet, Alain [AP-HP, Department of Biostatistics, Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Daudon, Michel [AP-HP, Department of Biochemistry, Hopital Necker, Paris Cedex 15 (France)

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of helical CT using a combination of CT-attenuation values and visual assessment of stone density as well as discriminant linear analysis to predict the chemical composition of urinary calculi. One hundred human urinary calculi were obtained from a stone-analysis laboratory and placed in 20 excised pig kidneys. They were scanned at 80, 120 and 140 kV with 3-mm collimation. Average, highest and lowest CT-attenuation values and CT variability were recorded. The internal calculus structure was assessed using a wide window setting, and visual assessment of stone density was recorded. A stepwise discriminant linear analysis was performed. The following three variables were discriminant: highest CT-attenuation value, visual density, and highest CT-attenuation value/area ratio, all at 80 kV. The probability of correctly classifying stone composition with these three variables was 0.64, ranging from 0.54 for mixed calculi to 0.69 for pure calculi. The probabilities of correctly classifying calculus composition were: 0.91 for calcium oxalate monohydrate and brushite, 0.89 for cystine, 0.85 for uric acid, 0.11 for calcium oxalate dihydrate, 0.10 for hydroxyapatite, and 0.07 for struvite calculi. When the first two ranks of highest probability for the accurate classification of each calculus type were taken into account, 81% of the calculi were correctly classified. Assessment at 80 kV of the highest CT-attenuation value, visual density and the highest CT-attenuation value/area ratio accurately predicts the chemical composition of 64-81% of urinary calculi. When the first two ranks of highest probability for the accurate classification of each calculus type were taken into account, all cystine, calcium oxalate monohydrate and brushite calculi were correctly classified. (orig.)

  13. Influence of ultrasonic adsorption lithotripsy by percutaneous nephroscope on inflammation mediators and stress hormones of patients with infectious renal calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Lu; Xiao-Lei Jiang; Ming-Hui Wu; Yun-Jun Wu; Qiang Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the influence of ultrasonic adsorption lithotripsy by percutaneous nephroscope on inflammation mediators and stress hormones of the patients with infectious renal calculi. Methods:A total of 62 patients with infectious renal calculi in our hospital from January 2014 to June 2015 were selected as the study object,and they were randomly divided into control group(pneumatic ballistic lithotripsy by percutaneous nephroscope group) 31 cases and observation group(ultrasonic adsorption lithotripsy by percutaneous nephroscope group) 31 cases,then the serum expression levels of inflammation mediators and stress hormones of two groups before the treatment and at 12 h-24 h and 48 h after the treatment were compared. Results:The serum expression levels of inflammation mediators and stress hormones of two groups before the treatment were compared,all P>0.05,and the serum expression levels of observation group at 12 h-24 h and 48 h after the treatment were significantly lower than those of control group,while the expression levels of two groups after the treatment were all significantly higher than those before the treatment,all P<0.05. Conclusions:The inflammation mediators and stress hormones of patients with infectious renal calculi who are treated with pneumatic ballistic lithotripsy by percutaneous nephroscope are relatively lower,and it shows that the trauma and bad stress for the body are better controlled, so its clinical application value are relatively higher.

  14. Symptomatic small non-obstructing lower ureteric calculi: comparison of ureteroscopy and extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andankar M

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the success, efficacy and complications of ureteroscopy (URS and extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL for the treatment of symptomatic small non obstructing lower ureteric calculi. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This prospective non-randomised study was conducted simultaneously at two urological referral centres, included 280 patients with symptomatic small (4-10 mm lower ureteric calculi (situated below the sacroiliac joint, with good renal function on intravenous urography. Patients were offered both the treatment options. One hundred and sixty patients chose ureteroscopy, whereas 120 patients were treated by ESWL. Standard techniques of ureteroscopy and ESWL were employed. Patients were followed-up to assess the success rates and complications of the two procedures. RESULTS: Ureteroscopy achieved complete stone clearance in one session in 95% of patients. In six patients ureteroscopy had failed initially and was later accomplished in second session improving the success rate to 98.7%. Two patients had a proximal migration of calculus that needed ESWL. Of the 120 patients treated by ESWL, 90% achieved stone free status at three months. Ureteroscopy was needed for twelve patients (10% where ESWL failed to achieve stone clearance. There were no significant ESWL related complications. ESWL was administered on outpatient basis, while patients needed hospitalisation and anaesthesia for ureteroscopy. CONCLUSION: ESWL can be the primary mode of treatment for symptomatic small non-obstructing lower ureteric calculi as it is minimally invasive and safe. Ureteroscopy can be offered to patients who demand immediate relief or when ESWL fails.

  15. Combined micro-and standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy for complex renal calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldu, İbrahim; Tepeler, Abdulkadir; Karatağ, Tuna; İnan, Ramazan; Armağan, Abdullah; İstanbulluoğlu, Okan

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to present the technique of combination of standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) with microperc for achieving higher success rates without increasing complication rates in the management of complex renal calculi. Material and methods The patients who underwent microperc procedure as a complementary procedure to standard PNL for complex kidney stones in two reference hospitals between 2013 and 2015, were evaluated retrospectively. Results All patients underwent a total of two accesses one for standard PNL and one for microperc. The mean stone size was measured as 54.3 mm. The procedures were completed after an average operative time of 88.2 minutes and fluoroscopy time of 5.3 minutes. Stone free status was achieved in 18 cases (78.2%) and small residual fragments (≤4 mm) were detected in 3 cases (13.1%). Complications were seen in three patients (13%) as hemorrhage in one and postoperative fever in two patients. Conclusion Despite the limitations of this study, the combination of standard PNL and microperc might reduce the complication rates and increase the success rates when treating complex kidney stones. Future prospective and comparative studies are needed. PMID:27635289

  16. Scintigraphy and Doppler ultrasonography for the evaluation of obstructive urinary calculi

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    L. Gandolpho

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty-seven patients with unilateral obstructive calculi (12 males and 35 females were submitted to 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA or 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA scans for assessment of renal function. The scans revealed unilateral functional deficit in 68 and 66% of the patients, respectively. A calculus size of 1.1 to 2.0 cm was significantly associated with deficit detected by DTPA, but duration of obstruction and calculus localization were not. After relief of the obstruction, the mean percent renal function of the affected kidney was found to be significantly increased from 25 ± 12% to 29 ± 12% in DTPA and from 21 ± 15% to 24 ± 12% in DMSA. Initial Doppler ultrasonography performed in 35 patients detected an increased resistive index in 10 (29%. In the remaining patients with a normal resistive index, ureteral urinary jet was observed, indicating partial obstruction. The high frequency of renal function impairment detected by DTPA and of tubulointerstitial damage detected by DMSA as well as the slight amelioration of unilateral renal function after relief of obstruction suggest that scintigraphy assessment may help evaluate the unilateral percentage of renal function and monitor renal function recovery when it occurs. The presence of a urinary jet detected by Doppler ultrasonography further indicates the severity of obstruction and the recovery prognosis.

  17. Photothermal ablation is the primary mechanism in holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy of urinary calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickman, Randolph D.; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Corbin, Nicole S.; Vassar, George J.; Weintraub, Susan T.; Chan, Kin Foong; Welch, Ashley J.

    1999-09-01

    Because of the >= 250 microsecond(s) pulsewidth emitted by the Ho:YAG laser used in clinical lithotripsy, it is unlikely that stress confinement occurs within the irradiated stones. Experimental data supports a thermal mechanism for Ho:YAG laser stone ablation. Previous work has shown that stone fragmentation occurs soon after the onset of the laser pulse, is uncorrelated to cavitation bubble formation or collapse, and is associated with low pressures. Moreover, lithotripsy proceeds fastest with desiccated stones in air (data based on laser ablation of calcium oxalate monohydrate stones), indicating that direct absorption of the laser radiation by the stone material is required for the most efficient ablation. Lowering the initial temperature of calculi reduces the stone mass-loss following 20 J of delivered laser energy: 2.2 +/- 1.1 mg vs 5.2 +/- 1.6 mg for calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones (-80 vs 23 degree(s)C), and 0.8 +/- 0.4 mg vs 2.2 +/- 1.1 mg for cystine stones (-80 vs 23 degree(s)C), p cystine; Ca2O7P2 from calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate, and cyanide and alloxan from uric acid. All of these observations are most consistent with a photothermal breakdown process induced by Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy.

  18. Identification of mineral compositions in some renal calculi by FT Raman and IR spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonannavar, J.; Deshpande, Gouri; Yenagi, Jayashree; Patil, Siddanagouda B.; Patil, Nikhil A.; Mulimani, B. G.

    2016-02-01

    We present in this paper accurate and reliable Raman and IR spectral identification of mineral constituents in nine samples of renal calculi (kidney stones) removed from patients suffering from nephrolithiasis. The identified mineral components include Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate (COM, whewellite), Calcium Oxalate Dihydrate (COD, weddellite), Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate Hexahydrate (MAPH, struvite), Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate Dihydrate (CHPD, brushite), Pentacalcium Hydroxy Triphosphate (PCHT, hydroxyapatite) and Uric Acid (UA). The identification is based on a satisfactory assignment of all the observed IR and Raman bands (3500-400 cm- 1) to chemical functional groups of mineral components in the samples, aided by spectral analysis of pure materials of COM, MAPH, CHPD and UA. It is found that the eight samples are composed of COM as the common component, the other mineral species as common components are: MAPH in five samples, PCHT in three samples, COD in three samples, UA in three samples and CHPD in two samples. One sample is wholly composed of UA as a single component; this inference is supported by the good agreement between ab initio density functional theoretical spectra and experimental spectral measurements of both sample and pure material. A combined application of Raman and IR techniques has shown that, where the IR is ambiguous, the Raman analysis can differentiate COD from COM and PCHT from MAPH.

  19. Tratamiento no quirúrgico de la litiasis biliar Non-Surgical treatment of biliary calculi

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    Felipe Franco

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Se describen diversos procedimientos para el tratamiento no quirúrgico de la colelitiasis: la administración de ácidos billares orales, la litotripsia extracorpórea, la colecistostomía percutánea, la escleroterapia de la vesícula y la litotripsia mecánica; se consignan las indicaciones, ventajas, desventajas y limitaciones de cada uno de ellos.

    Several procedures are described for non-surgical treatment of biliary calculi, namely: oral administration of bile acids, extracorporeal shock-wave lithotrypsy I percutaneous cholecystostomy I gallbladder sclerotherapy

    and mechanicallithotrypsy. lndications, advantages, disadvantages and limitations of each procedure are discussed.

  20. First case report of staghorn calculi successfully removed by mini-endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery in a 2-year-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Kazumi; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Okada, Atsushi; Mizuno, Kentaro; Tozawa, Keiichi; Hayashi, Yutaro; Kohri, Kenjiro; Yasui, Takahiro

    2015-10-01

    Less-invasive therapy for pediatric urolithiasis is available due to the miniaturization of equipment and improved optics; however, surgical treatment strategies, especially for large calculi, remain controversial. We describe here our experience of treating a 2-year-old boy with left renal staghorn calculi with a single session of mini-endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery in the prone split-leg position with pre-ureteral stenting and the directional enhanced flow imaging ultrasound technique. This is the first report of successful pediatric mini-endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery without any major complications. We believe this technique provides an important therapeutic option for large renal calculus in pediatric patients.

  1. Protective effect of Urtica dioica methanol extract against experimentally induced urinary calculi in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiying; Li, Ning; Li, Kun; Li, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Renal calculi formation is one of the most common urological disorders. Urinary stone disease is a common disease, which affects 10‑12% of the population in industrialized countries. In males, the highest prevalence of the disease occurs between the age of 20 and 40 years, while in females, the highest incidence of the disease occurs later. Previous studies have shown that long‑term exposure to oxalate is toxic to renal epithelial cells and results in oxidative stress. In the present study, a methanolic extract of aerial parts of Urtica dioica was screened for antiurolithiatic activity against ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride‑induced calcium oxalate renal stones in male rats. In the control rats, ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride administration was observed to cause an increase in urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine levels, as well as an increase in renal calcium and oxalate deposition. Histopathological observations revealed calcium oxalate microcrystal deposits in the kidney sections of the rats treated with ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride, indicating the induction of lithiasis. In the test rats, treatment with the methanolic extract of Urtica dioica was found to decrease the elevated levels of urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine, and significantly decrease the renal deposition of calcium and oxalate. Furthermore, renal histological observations revealed a significant reduction in calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the test rats. Phytochemical analysis of the Urtica dioica extract was also performed using liquid chromatography‑electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection, to determine the chemical composition of the extract. The eight chemical constituents identified in the extract were protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, luteolin, gossypetin, rutin, kaempferol‑3‑O‑rutinoside, kaempferol‑3‑O‑glucoside and chlorogenic acid. In conclusion

  2. The value of ultrasound-monitoring calculi drifting in transureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy for upper ureteral calculi%输尿管镜气压弹道碎石治疗输尿管上段结石时B超监测结石漂移的价值探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹刚; 郑如华; 金永有; 陈尧康; 虞利民

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术(URSL)治疗输尿管上段结石时B超监测结石漂移的临床价值。方法对40例输尿管上段结石患者行URSL治疗时采用床边B超实时监测术中结石漂移情况。结果原位碎石成功32例(80.0%),结石一次清除23例(57.5%),碎石失败8例(20.0%)。进镜时B超发现结石整枚漂移9例(9/40),其中1例移入肾内;碎石时B超早于输尿管镜发现结石整枚漂移12例(12/36),其中2例移入肾内;结石粉碎后B超发现有结石碎片逆向漂移16例(16/32),其中5例共7枚碎片漂移入肾内,其余漂移碎片最后均被输尿管镜证实并在B超引导下成功清除。结论 URSL治疗输尿管上段结石时,B超监测能早于输尿管镜发现结石漂移,有助于减少结石漂移入肾内的风险。%Objective To evaluate the application of ultrasound- monitoring calculi drifting in transureteroscopic pneu-matic lithotripsy (URSL) for upper ureteral calculi. Methods From January 2010 to December 2012, a total of 40 patients with upper ureteral calculi underwent pneumatic lithotripsy through rigid ureteroscope, and intraoperative drifting stones were moni-tored by bedside ultrasonography(US) in our hospital. Results Among 40 cases of ureteral calculi, rate of successful fragmen-tation in situ was 80.0%(32/40), and the stones were cleared away immediately after a single procedure in 23 patients (57.5%) and 8 patients failed, among whom calculi integral drifted into the kidney pelvis in 3 cases. Before ureteroscope entering ureter and calculi were found, calculi integral drifting were detected by US in 9 patients(9/40). During stones broke, 12 cases with cal-culi integral drifting and 16 cases with calculi debris drifting were detected by US in time, and a total of 7 calculi debrises drifted into the kidney in 5 patients, the others debrises were cleaned away under ultrasound- guidance. Al the drifting stones

  3. Ureteroscopy and holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy: an emerging definitive management strategy for symptomatic ureteral calculi in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, James D.; Girvan, Andrew R.; Beiko, Darren T.; Nott, Linda; Wollin, Timothy A.; Razvi, Hassan A.; Denstedt, John D.

    2003-06-01

    Objectives: Symptomatic urolithiasis in pregnancy that does not respond to conservative measures has traditionally been managed with ureteral stent insertion or percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN). Holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) laser lithotripsy using state-of-the-art ureteroscopes represents an emerging strategy for definitive stone management in pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to review the results of holmium laser lithotripsy in a cohort of patients who presented with symptomatic urolithiasis in pregnancy. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted at 2 tertiary stone centers from January 1996 to August 2001 to identify pregnant patients who were treated with ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy for symptomatic urolithiasis or encrusted stents. Eight patients with a total of 10 symptomatic ureteral calculi and 2 encrusted ureteral stents were treated. Mean gestational age at presentation was 22 weeks. Mean stone size was 8.1 mm. Stones were located in the proximal ureter/ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) (3), mid ureter (1), and distal ureter (6). Results: Complete stone fragmentation and/or removal of encrusted ureteral stents were achieved in all patients using the holmium:YAG laser. The overall procedural success rate was 91%. The overall stone-free rate was 89%. No obstetrical or urological complications were encountered. Conclusions: Ureteroscopy and holmium laser lithotripsy can be performed safely in all stages of pregnancy providing definitive management of symptomatic ureteral calculi. The procedure can be done with minimal or no fluoroscopy and avoids the undesirable features of stents or nephrostomy tubes.

  4. 急诊首选B超定位ESWL治疗输尿管结石%Preferred B-positioning emergency ESWL treatment of ureteral calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏远峰

    2014-01-01

    目的:总结急诊首选B超定位ESWL治疗输尿管结石的临床经验。方法:回顾分析2010年5月~2014年3月急诊首选第五代JC-Eswl-B型体外碎石机治疗2328例输尿管结石患者临床资料。结果:ESWL治疗输尿管结石成功率97.2%(1次成功率86.3%)。结论:急诊首选B超定位ESWL治疗输尿管结石是有效的,但要严格掌握适应证,以提高治疗效果。%Objective:To summarize the preferred B ~positioning emergency ESWL treatment of ureteral calculi clinical experience . Methods:Analysis from May 2010-November 2014 B-positioning emergency preferred using electromagnetic shock wave lithotripsy ma -chine2328 cases of clinical data in patients with ureteral calculi .Results:ESWL treatment of ureteral calculi success rate of 97.2% ( a success rate of 86.3%).Conclusion:Preferred B-positioning emergency ESWL treatment of ureteral calculi was effective , but to strictly indications to improve the therapeutic effect .

  5. Treatment of lower urethral calculi with extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy and pneumatic ureteroscopic lithotripsy: a comparison of effectiveness and complications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟惟德; 曾广翘; 蔡岳斌; 戴奇山; 胡建波; 魏鸿蔼

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy and incidence of complications of extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) compared with pneumatic ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URSL) in the treatment of lower uretheral calculi. Methods From August 1997 to June 1999, 210 patients with lower ureteric calculi were treated with ESWL and the other 180 with URSL. The stones were fragmented with pneumatic lithotripter. The outcome was assessed by evacuation, retreatment and complication rates.Results ESWL for lower ureteric calculi resulted in a stone evacuation rate of 78.1%, compared with 93.3% for URSL (P<0.05). ESWL had a retreatment rate of 11.9% and a perforation rate of 0, while URSL caused perforation of ureters in 3.3% of patients and a refreatment of 2.2%. Conclusion For the management of lower ureteric calculi, ESWL provides a non-invasive, simple and safe option, and URSL has a higher stone evacuation rate but causes ureter perforation more frequently than ESWL does. Both ESWL and URSL have their respective advantages. It is recommended, however, that URSL be extensively developed for better treatment efficacy, given that the operator has an adequate technical background.

  6. A rare case of asymptomatic bilateral submandibular gland sialolithiasis: a giant, fistulized calculus on the right and multiple calculi on the left.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emir, Hatice; Kaptan, Zeynep Kizilkaya; Uzunkulaoglu, Hakki; Dogan, Sedat

    2010-10-01

    Sialolithiasis is the most common disease of the submandibular gland; sialoliths account for at least 80% of all salivary duct calculi. We present a rare case of asymptomatic bilateral submandibular gland sialoliths. On the right, the patient had a giant (35 × 35 mm) sialolith that had fistulized into the oral cavity. In the left submandibular gland, he had 30 differently sized sialoliths.

  7. Evaluation of the efficacy of tamsulosin with or without deflazacort for stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for upper ureteral and renal calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev T. P.

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: Addition of alpha-blocker tamsulosin along with deflazacort post ESWL for renal and upper ureteric calculi increases the stone expulsion rate and reduces the expulsion duration as shown by highly statistically significant results in group C. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(2.000: 643-648

  8. The relative cost-effectiveness of PCNL and ESWL for medium sized (2 cms renal calculi in a tertiary care urological referral centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep P Rao

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of cost-effectiveness studies in India comparing PCNL and ESWL in the treatment of renal cal-culi. We are dependent on costing studies from western literature, although the nature of expenses in developed countries is quite different from those in India. This study compares the two procedures with regards to cost-effec-tiveness & efficacy in clearing medium-sized renal calculi (2.0 cms at our institute. All costs borne by the patient & the institute were taken into account, including equip-ment costs, stay charges & cost of travel incurred, for re-peat visits to the institute. The groups compared had similar stone characteristics & were from our early experience with the two methods. All costing was done at 1998 rates by submitting case sheets to a fresh billing. PCNL, was significantly more efficient at clearing calculi (94% vs 69% than ESWL, but patients needed hospitalization. The re-quirement of ancillary procedures was significantly less with PCNL than ESWL (1 vs 35 and ESWL was more expensive although the difference was not statistically sig-nificant. High initial cost of a lithotripter along with the need for repeated visits to the hospital for clearance of the calculus contribute to the increased cost of ESWL. PCNL ensures clearance of calculi at a single hospital admission with minimal morbidity.

  9. Combined minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy and retrograde intrarenal surgery for staghorn calculi in patients with solitary kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehui Lai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To present our experience with simultaneous combined minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS to manage patients with staghorn calculi in solitary kidney, and evaluate the safety, efficiency and feasibility of this approach. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study included 20 patients with staghorn calculi in solitary kidney. Demographic characteristics, stone location and surface area were recorded. After informed consent, the patients underwent one stage MPCNL firstly. Combined second stage MPCNL and RIRS simultaneously were performed at postoperative 5-7 days. Operative parameters, stone-free rate (SFR, stone analyses and complications were evaluated. Serum creatinine (Scr, glomerular filtration rate (GFR and chronic kidney disease (CKD were measured preoperatively, postoperatively at 1 month, and each follow-up visit. All patients had staghorn stones involving multiple calyces. The mean stone burden was 1099.9 ± 843.95 mm(2. All patients had only one percutaneous access tract. The mean whole operative duration was 154.37 ± 32.45 min. The mean blood loss was 64 (12-140 ml. The final SFR was 90%. During the 1-month follow-up study period, four patients improved in CKD stage. Two patients who had CKD (stage 5 still needed dialysis postoperatively. Mean Scr of the rest patients preoperatively was 187.16 ± 94.12 compared to 140.99 ± 57.92 umol/L by the end of 1-month follow-up period (p = 0.019. The same findings were observed in GFR in that preoperatively it was 43.80 ± 24.74 ml/min and by the end of the 1-month follow-up it was 49.55 ± 21.18 ml/min (p = 0.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Combined MPCNL and RIRS management effectively decrease the number and size of percutaneous access tracts, which is safe, feasible, and efficient for managing staghorn calculi in solitary kidney with satisfactory SFR and reducing blood loss, potential morbidity associated with multiple

  10. /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA renography before and after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal calculi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtake, Eiji; Murata, Hajime; Kanemura, Mikio; Yokoyama, Masao

    1988-09-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA renography before and after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Twelve patients with renal calculi were examined in this study. In three patients, bilateral kidneys were treated with ESWL. Sequential renal images of the vascular phase, and the functional and excretory phases were taken using a gamma camera (ZLC 7500, Siemens), after intravenous injection of 555 MBq of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA. Renograms were generated using data stored every 10 seconds for a period of 30 minutes by computer (Scintipac-2400, Shimadzu). Some treated kidneys were enlarged and/or showed uniform retention of radioactivity on sequential images, within a week after ESWL. Renogram patterns after ESWL were varied in each patient. The renogram findings after ESWL seemed to be affected by the presence or absence of stone fragments in the urinary tract.

  11. Influence of ureter mirror holmium laser lithotripsy on blood rheology and oxidative stress in patients with upper ureteral calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Dong Chen; Jian Dong; Jun Ding; Guo-Bo Li; Chen-Xi Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the influence of ureter mirror holmium laser lithotripsy on blood rheology and oxidative stress in patients with upper ureteral calculi.Methods:A total of 113 cases patients who underwent surgical treatment of ureter mirror holmium laser lithotripsy were divided into observation group (n=76) and the control group (n=37) according to different therapeutic methods. Patients in the observation group were treated by ureteroscopy holmium laser lithotripsy treatment and patients in control group were treated by open surgery treatment. Venous blood was collected ro test the blood rheology and oxidative stress indicators respectively in the preoperative and postoperative 1 d, 7 d after treatment.Results:The postoperative backlog of red blood cells increased performance first decreased after treatment in two groups, the plasma viscosity and whole blood viscosity, high shear viscosity of whole blood were increased after the stable trend, the postoperative hematocritg, plasma viscosity, whole blood viscosity, high shear viscosity of whole blood were significantly lower than the control group in the observation group 1 d and 7 d after operation; The postoperative Cor, MDA in two groups showed a rising trend, SOD showed a decreasing trend, the difference was statistically significant; MDA in observation group 1 d and 7 d after operation was significantly lower than the control group, SOD was significantly higher than control group in the same point in time.Conclusions:Patients with upper ureteral calculi treated by surgical treatment may cause abnormal blood rheology and oxidative stress. And compared with open surgery, ureteroscopy holmium laser lithotripsy is of smaller side effect, and is beneficial for postoperative recovery.

  12. Minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy guided by ultrasonography to treat upper urinary tract calculi complicated with severe spinal deformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhaohui; Zhang, Caixia; Zeng, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To report our experience of minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy(MPCNL) in managing upper urinary tract calculi complicated with severe spinal deformity. Materials and Methods: Between August 2001 to December 2012, 16 upper urinary calculi in 13 patients with severe spinal deformity were treated by MPCNL. Preoperative investigation of the respiratory function, evaluation of anatomy by intravenous urography (IVU) and CT scan, and preoperative kidney ultrasonagraphy with simulation of the percutaneous puncture were performed in all patients. The percutaneous puncture was guided by ultrasonography. Results: A total of 19 MPCNL procedures were performed in 16 kidneys, with an average 1.2 procedures in each kidney. Three kidneys needed two sessions of MPCNL, and 2 kidneys needed combined treatment with retrograde flexible ureterscopic lithotripsy. All procedures were successfully completed with no major complications during or after surgery. The mean (range) operative duration was 67 (20-150) min and the mean postoperative haemoglobin drop was 1.0 (0.2-3.1) g/dL. Complete stone-free status was achieved in 14 kidneys. At a mean follow-up of 48(3-86) months, recurrence of small lower calyx stone was detected in one patient. Recurrent UTI was documented by urine culture in two patients and managed with sensitive antibiotics. Conclusion: PCNL for patients with severe spinal deformities is challenging. Ultrasonography-assisted puncture can allow safe and successfully establishment of PCN tract through a narrow safety margin of puncture and avoid the injury to the adjacent organs. However, the operation should be performed in tertiary centers with significant expertise in managing complex urolithiasis. PMID:27509373

  13. Minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy guided by ultrasonography to treat upper urinary tract calculi complicated with severe spinal deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui He

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To report our experience of minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy(MPCNL in managing upper urinary tract calculi complicated with severe spinal deformity. Materials and Methods: Between August 2001 to December 2012, 16 upper urinary calculi in 13 patients with severe spinal deformity were treated by MPCNL. Preoperative investigation of the respiratory function, evaluation of anatomy by intravenous urography (IVU and CT scan, and preoperative kidney ultrasonagraphy with simulation of the percutaneous puncture were performed in all patients. The percutaneous puncture was guided by ultrasonography. Results: A total of 19 MPCNL procedures were performed in 16 kidneys, with an average 1.2 procedures in each kidney. Three kidneys needed two sessions of MPCNL, and 2 kidneys needed combined treatment with retrograde flexible ureterscopic lithotripsy. All procedures were successfully completed with no major complications during or after surgery. The mean (range operative duration was 67 (20-150 min and the mean postoperative haemoglobin drop was 1.0 (0.2-3.1 g/dL. Complete stone-free status was achieved in 14 kidneys. At a mean follow-up of 48(3-86 months, recurrence of small lower calyx stone was detected in one patient. Recurrent UTI was documented by urine culture in two patients and managed with sensitive antibiotics. Conclusion: PCNL for patients with severe spinal deformities is challenging. Ultrasonography-assisted puncture can allow safe and successfully establishment of PCN tract through a narrow safety margin of puncture and avoid the injury to the adjacent organs. However, the operation should be performed in tertiary centers with significant expertise in managing complex urolithiasis.

  14. Diagnosis of uric acid calculi by dual energy CT: with ex vivo calculi spectroscopy as the reference standard%双能CT对离体泌尿系尿酸结石的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范兵; 邱建星; 王霄英; 郭小超; 董健; 张蓓; 龚侃; 黄海超

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To prospectively determine the capability of dual energy CT Gemstone spectral imaging and advanced post-processing techniques to identify uric acid calculi, with ex vivo urinary calculi spectroscopy as the reference standard. Methods: Sixty-three urinary stones were obtained by endoscopic lithotripsy. The chemical composition of the stones was confirmed by spectroscopy (including 9 cases of uric acid calculus,54 cases of non-uric acid stones). These urinary calculi were placed in the fresh porcine kidney pelvis dipped in physiological saline. Both routine CT scan and dual energy CT scan were performed. All the images of 63 urinary calculi were analyzed at workstation. CT value of the calculi was measured on the images of routine scan,40keV monoenergic (MONO) images,and 140keV MONO images,respectively. Effective Z (Eff-Z) was measured for each calculus. The spectral HU curve and histogram of 63 urinary calculi were created. Kruskal-Wallis U test and ROC curve analysis were used to evaluate the capability of these parameters to differentiate the urinary calculi components. Results:CT values of uric acid stones were as follows:(403±112)HU on routine scan images, (341±127)HU on 40keV MONO images,(404± 119) HU on 140keV MONO images. CT values of non-uric acid stones were as follows: (854 ± 335) HU on routine scan images, (1689±853) HU on 40keV MONO images, (445 ± 130) HU on 140keV MONO images. The CT values of uric acid stone and non-uric acid stone were different on both routine scan (P< 0. 01) and 40keV MONO images (P<0. 01). But the CT values of uric acid stone and non-uric acid stone were not significantly different (P=0. 436) on 140keV MONO images. Eff-Z of uric acid stones and non-uric acid stones were significantly different (P<0. 01). Seven in 9 (77. 8%) uric acid stones demonstrated rising spectral energy curve,whereas the other 56 non-uric acid stones all demonstrated reversed spectral energy curve. Conclusion: Dual energy CT is a promising

  15. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy before Urethral Calculi in Situ%体外冲击波治疗原位前尿道结石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游加芹; 沈金秀

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy Eswl treatment effect for the treatment of urethral calculi before.Methods Selection in our hospital between January 2011 and January 2013, 23 patients with former urethral calculi in situ as the research object, al patients prone position, the implementation of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment.Results 23 cases of urethral calculi before al the pieces, success rate 100%, no serious complications. Postoperative folow-up of 12 months, without the occurrence of impotence and urethral stricture.Conclusion Urethral calculi before taking Eswl treatment effect is significant, economic, convenient and damage in patients with smal, safe and reliable, has the value of clinical application.%目的 分析探讨体外冲击波碎石术Eswl治疗前尿道结石的治疗效果.方法 选取本院2011年1月~2013年1月收治的原位前尿道结石患者23例为本组研究对象,所有患者采用俯卧位,实施体外冲击波碎石治疗.结果 23例前尿道结石均全部粉碎,成功率100%,无严重并发症.术后随访12个月,无阳痿与尿道狭窄的发生.结论 前尿道结石采取Eswl治疗效果显著,经济方便,对患者的损伤小,安全可靠,具有临床推广应用的价值.

  16. Comparative study of minimally invasive endoscopic surgery and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL for proximal ureteral calculi in pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He-qing GUO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe and compare the therapeutic effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL and minimally invasive endoscopic surgery (URL/PCNL for proximal urinary calculi in pilots. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted for the clinical data of 115 pilots who had received ESWL, URL and PCNL for the treatment of proximal urinary tract calculi from Sep, 2005 to Sep, 2012. The patients were divided into two groups according to the way of treatment: ESWL group (n=83 and URL/PCNL group (n=32. In ESWL group, the patients received ESWL for a maximum of 3 times. In URL/PCNL group, the patients received URS or PCNL after ESWL for 3 times without lithecbole. Results All the patients were male and the mean age was 36.1±9.1 years. The average diameter of the stones was 0.68±0.22cm in ESWL group and 0.78±0.25cm in URL/PCNL group. There was no significant difference in stone diameter between the two groups (P=0.526. The rate of qualification for flying was 68.7% in ESWL group and 81.3% in URL/PCNL group (URL 80.0%, PCNL 100%, showing a significant difference (P=0.002. In ESWL group, the rate of qualification for flying of pilots harboring renal and proximal ureteral stone, middle ureteral stone and distal ureteral stone was 64.3%, 88.9% and 33.3% respectively, with a significant difference (P=0.023. The rate of flying qualification of pilots harboring proximal ureteral stone, middle ureteral stone and distal ureteral stone was 71.4%, 86.7% and 87.5% respectively after URL, and there was no significant difference (P=0.174. Among the five patients who received URL but did not achieve satisfactory effect, two had stones retreated to the renal pelvis during the operation, and in two patients distal ureter was too narrow to allow passage of ureteroscope, and the ureteroscope was enveloped by inflammatory polyp in one patient. Conclusion URL/PCNL maybe more effective than ESWL in the treatment of proximal urinary calculus in pilots

  17. Significance of acoustic shadowing and comet tail artifacts in diagnosis of urinary calculi%超声伪像声影彗尾征在尿结石诊断中的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈光勇; 林雨冬; 黄维; 范武林

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the significance of acoustic shadowing and comet tail artifacts in detection of urinary calculi. Methods 238 cases of urinary calculi were researched,including the mineral composition and the size( height and width) of calculi,the occurrence of acoustic shadowing and comet tail artifacts,then analyzed those relevant relationships by Statistical Analysis System. Results (1) There was no statistical relationship between the acoustic shadowing artifacts and urinary calculi mineral composition}P0. 05); (3(There was no statistical relationship between the occurrence of comet tail artifacts and urinary calculi width or height(P>0. 05). Conclusion (l)The occurrence of acoustic shadowing and comet tail artifacts is no relationship with urinary calculi mineral composition,and can not be used to predict urinary calculi mineral composition; (2)There is a directly relationship between the occurrence of acoustic shadowing artifacts and urinary calculi height, but there is no relationship between the occurrence of comet tail artifacts and urinary calculi width or height.%目的 研究超声伪像中的声影、彗尾征在尿结石超声影像检查中的意义.方法 对238例尿石症患者的尿结石成分、大小及超声检查时声影、彗尾征出现情况进行统计学评估,分析其相关性.结果 (1)声影的出现与尿结石成分无关(P>0.05);(2)声影与结石最大厚度有关(P<0.05),而声影与结石最大宽度无关(P>0.05);(3)彗尾征与结石的最大宽度及最大厚度均无关(P>0.05).结论 (1)声影的出现与尿结石的成分无关,不能用于判定结石成分;(2)声影的出现与尿结石的厚度有直接的关系,但彗尾征的出现与尿结石的厚度和宽度无关.

  18. Melamine-induced infant urinary calculi: a report on 24 cases and a 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangbo; Bai, Jinliang; Ma, Pengcheng; Ma, Jianhua; Wan, Jianghou; Jiang, Bin

    2010-10-01

    Melamine has been the main factor leading to infant urinary calculi occurring on a rather wide scale in China in 2008, which were the results of a rapid aggradation of metabolites such as cyanuric acid diamide, cyanuric acid, etc., causing uric acid stone to accumulate. Here, we present a report on 24 infants who were admitted to our department, their ages ranging from 3 to 10 months. All of these infants had a confirmed history of having been fed with the "Sanlu" brand milk powder, which contained excessive levels of melamine, with the highest being 2,563 mg/kg. The diagnosis, medical treatment and follow-up by ultrasonography at 1, 3, 6, 12 months were reported. 22 cases of these infants were rehabilitated after medical treatment and 1 infant underwent pyelolithotomy for relieving an obvious ureter obstruction. No recurrence was found in these babies thereafter. Another infant died from rapidly worsening renal failure. Therefore, this series of cases have demonstrated that melamine contained in the "Sanlu" milk powder was the main cause of these urinary stones. Urine alkalinization and stone liberalization were the most effective treatments. Fast diagnosis and treatment of acute obstructive urolithiasis may prevent the development of acute renal failure, which is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates.

  19. 双源 CT 双能量技术在泌尿系结石诊断中的应用价值%Application value of dual energy technique of dual source CT in the diagnosis of urinary calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高江晖; 马洪宇; 郭文伟; 于庆康

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨双源 CT 双能量技术在尿路结石组成分析中的预测价值。方法对30例泌尿系统结石患者行双源 CT 双能量扫描,对结石组成成份进行分析,将结果与红外光谱法分析的结石组成相比,计算双源 CT 分析尿酸盐结石、非尿酸盐结石的特异度与灵敏度,判断预测结石的准确性。结果30例泌尿系结石中尿酸盐类结石10例,非尿酸盐类结石20例,尿酸盐结石、非尿酸盐结石在140 kV 能量下 CT 值分别为(312.5±55.5)HU、(650.6±255.5)HU,在100 kV 能量下 CT 值分别为(328.5±50.5)HU、(960.8±180.5)HU,尿酸盐结石、非尿酸盐结石在两种能量下的差值分别为(16.5±5.1)HU、(310.2±26.7)HU,比值分别为(1.05±0.01)HU、(1.47±0.02) HU,尿酸盐结石差值、比值明显低于非尿酸盐结石(P <0.05),双源 CT 可切确辨别尿酸盐类结石与非尿酸盐类结石,其灵敏度、特异度分别为90%、95%。结论双源 CT 双能量成像技术能在尿路结石治疗前对其组成进行分析,对认识结石的成因及预防结石形成有很大帮助。%Objective To investigate the clinical value of dual source dual energy CT( DS-DECT)in predict chemical component of urinary calculi. Methods Selected 30 cases with urinary cal-culi underwent dual source Flash CT,analysed the component of the calculi,compared the results and in-frared spectroscopy analysis of calculi composition,calculated the specificity and sensitivity of urate cal-culi,non urate calculus by dual source CT analysis,and judged the forecasting accuracy of the calculi. Results Among the 30 urinary calculi patients,10 cases had uric acid calculi and 20 cases had non-u-ric acid calculi. Uric acid calculi and non-uric acid calculi under 140 kV energy:CT values were (312. 5 ± 55. 5)HU,(650. 6 ± 255. 5)HU;under 100 kV energy:CT values were(328. 5 ± 50. 5) HU,(960. 8 ± 180. 5)HU;the difference of acid

  20. B超诊断输尿管结石的价值%Diagnostic value of B type ultrasound in ureteral calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the diagnostic value of B type ultrasound in ureteral calculi. Methods B type ultrasound examination were performed on 100 cases with ureteral calculi who were confirmed by open surgery, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and comprehensive therapy. Results The diagnostic accuracy was 94. 00% in 100 cases,no false positive was found,and the rate of missed diagnosis was 6.00% (6 cases). Conclusion B type ultrasound has a high application value in the diagnosis of ureteral calculi, which has low false positive rate and can clear display negative stone. It can also afford some accurate clues for diagnosis and clinical treatment in tihe according to abdomenal B type ultrasound and it will be preferred in way for diagnosis of acute nephrite colic especially in basic hospitals.%目的 评价B超在输尿管结石中的诊断价值.方法 对100例经手术取石、体外震波碎石和综合疗法排石证实为输尿管结石患者进行B超检查诊断分析.结果 本组100例输尿管结石患者中,B超诊断正确率为94.00%,无假阳性,漏诊6例,占6.00%.结论 B超诊断输尿管结石假阳性率低,可清晰显示X线阴性结石,有较高的临床应用价值和为临床及时准确地提供诊断和治疗依据,是急性肾绞痛的首选检查方法,特别是在基层医疗单位为首选检查方法.

  1. Therapeutic effect evaluation of TUPKEP combined with percutaneous cystotomy and nephroscopic EMS minimally invasive therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia with multiple large bladder calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hu Zhu; Bing-Xun He; Hou-Bin Kang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the therapeutic effect of TUPKEP combined with nephroscopic EMS pneumatic minimally invasive therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia with multiple large bladder calculi.Methods: Benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with multiple (large) bladder calculi who received surgical treatment in our hospital from May 2012 to October 2015 were selected as the research subjects and randomly divided into TUPKEP group and TURP group, and then perioperative situation, serum PSA levels, liver and kidney function and the degree of inflammation were compared between two groups.Results: During operation, the amount of bleeding and the weight of removed prostate of TUPKEP group were significantly lower than those of TURP group; during postoperative recovery, the time of retention catheterization of TUPKEP group was shorter than that of TURP group; 1 d, 3 d and 7 d after operation, serum PSA levels of both groups were significantly higher than those before operation and serum PSA levels of TUPKEP group were significantly lower than those of TURP group; 3 days after operation, ALT, AST, BUN and Scr levels of TUPKEP group and TURP group were not different, and IL-1β and IL-18 levels in serum as well as mRNA levels of NLPR3, ACS, Caspase-1, IL-1β and IL-18 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of TUPKEP group were significantly lower than those of TURP group.Conclusion: TUPKEP combined with nephroscopic EMS pneumatic minimally invasive therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia with multiple large bladder calculi causes less damage, has better resection effect on the hyperplastic gland tissue than TURP, and has equivalent long-term curative effect to TURP.

  2. Ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy for treatment of complicated ureteral calculi%输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术治疗复杂性输尿管结石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文生; 薛建; 俞小明; 张钢; 李鑫; 李保国; 唐科伟

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术治疗复杂性输尿管结石的疗效.方法 采用输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术治疗复杂性输尿管结石56例,其中输尿管上段结石15例,中下段结石41例,体外冲击波碎石术(ESWL)失败25例,合并高热8例.结果 56例患者中,中下段结石均一次完全粉碎,成功率100.0%(41/41).上段结石一次完全粉碎10例,成功率66.7%(10/15).3例结石术中移位至肾脏,后辅以ESWL治疗1~2次,1例进镜困难终止手术,1例因输尿管穿孔改行开放手术.术后4周结石总清除率87.5%(49/56).8例合并高热者均急诊手术,7例一次结石粉碎成功,1例结石移位至肾脏,但梗阻均经手术得以解除,术后高热停止.输尿管穿孔发生率为1.8%(1/56).结论 输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术治疗复杂性输尿管结石安全、有效.%Objective To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy for treatment of complicated ureteral calculi. Methods Clinical data of 56 cases with complicated ureteral calculi who were treated with ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy was reviewed. Among them 15 cases were proximal ureteral calculi,41 cases were middle and distal ureteral calculi. Treatment by extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) failed in 25 cases,8 cases complicated with fever. Results In 41 cases with middle and distal ureteral calculi, successful lithotripsy was achieved after the first treatment session,the success rate was 100.0% (41/41). In 15 cases with proximal ureteral calculi ,successful lithotripsy was achieved in 10 cases after the first treatment session,the success rate was 66.7%(l0/15). Calculi migrated to kidney in 3 cases who treated by ESWL for 1-2 times. The failure was due to ureteral kink in 1 case and due to ureteral perforation that required surgical repair in another case. Forty-nine cases were calculi-free after 4 weeks,the calculi-free rate was 87.5%(49/56). Emergency operation was performed in 8

  3. 头孢曲松钠相关双侧输尿管结石%Ceftriaxone sodium associated with bilateral ureteral calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锐; 岳明; 刘小勇

    2013-01-01

    1例26岁女性患者因上呼吸道感染静脉滴注头孢曲松钠2 g,1次/d.第4天突然出现下腹持续性胀痛,腹部超声及CT检查提示双侧输尿管结石.给予对症支持治疗.第5天患者尿中排出少许沉渣.当天腹痛缓解,尿频、尿急症状消失.第6天复查CT,双侧输尿管结石消失.%A 26-year-old female patient received an Ⅳ infusion of ceftriaxone 2 g once daily for upper respiratory tract infection.On day 4,the patient developed persistent distending pain in her lower abdomen.Abdominal ultrasonography and CT examinations revealed bilateral ureteral calculi.The patient received symptomatic treatments and supportive therapy.On day 5,little sediment was excreted in the urine.On the same day,the abdominal pain was alleviated and symptoms of urinary frequency and urgency disappeared.On day 6,CT reexamination showed that the bilateral ureteral calculi disappeared.

  4. Epidemiological Survey of Renal Calculi in Adult Yao Population in Guangxi%广西瑶族成年人肾结石流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤宗源; 江顺建; 李江; 李秀清; 钟明涛; 黄日波; 李萍; 邹爱俐

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析广西恭城瑶族自治县瑶族成年人肾结石的患病状况及其影响因素。方法采用整群分层随机抽样方法,于2012年10—12月选取广西恭城瑶族自治县7个社区、31个村屯共3475例常住瑶族人为调查对象。采用自行设计的调查问卷,调查研究对象人口学资料、生活饮食习惯、疾病史。并采用肾脏 B 超确诊肾结石患者。采用单因素分析和多因素 Logistic 回归分析肾结石的影响因素。结果3475例调查对象中肾结石患者418例,患病率为12.0%(418/3475)。不同性别、年龄、职业、文化程度、婚姻状况、年收入、体质指数(BMI)者肾结石患病率比较,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。是否吸烟、是否饮酒、不同饮用水源、睡前是否饮水、饮用水是否煮沸及不同频率食用新鲜绿色蔬菜、豆类制品、柿子、动物内脏者肾结石患病率比较,差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05)。既往是否有胆结石、肾炎、泌尿系结石者肾结石患病率比较,差异有统计学意义( P <0.05)。多因素 Logistic 回归分析结果显示:年龄、性别、职业、文化程度、年收入、饮用水源、饮用水煮沸、食柿子、食新鲜绿色蔬菜、食豆类制品、食动物内脏及既往有肾炎、泌尿系结石史是肾结石的影响因素(P <0.05)。结论该地区瑶族成年人肾结石患病率较高,与饮食等多种因素有关,应针对高危因素开展肾结石的防治工作。%Objective To investigate the prevalence of renal calculi in adult Yao population in Gongcheng Yao Autonomous County of Guangxi and its influencing factors. Methods By using stratified cluster random sampling method,we enrolled 3 475 Yao permanent residents from 7 communities and 31 villages of Gongcheng County from October to December in 2012. A self - designed questionnaire was employed to investigate on demographic data,life habit

  5. Qinghai urinary calculi in composition analysis and prevention%青海地区泌尿系结石成分分析及防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欣雨; 蔡辉霞

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究青海地区581例泌尿系结石化学构成,为临床预防、治疗提供依据.方法:化学反应测定581例泌尿系结石标本,研究其成分,并结合临床资料进行比较.结果:在581例尿石中混合结石占70.56%(410/581),其中草酸盐结石59.89%,磷酸盐结石34.59%,碳酸盐结石24.61%,尿酸结石26.33%;单纯结石17.42%.上尿路结石473例,下尿路结石108例,上、下尿路结石之比为4.36:1,肾、输尿管结石主要以草酸钙和磷酸钙混合结石及单纯草酸钙结石为主,膀胱结石主要以尿酸结石为主,尿路结石部位和化学成份构成密切相关,肾、膀胱结石与其化学成份构成经统计学检验差异有显著性(P<0.05),提示上、下尿路结石的发病机理不同.结论:结石成分分析对于了解结石成因、预防结石形成和复发具有重要的意义.%Objective To study the 581 cases of qinghai region urinary calculi chemical composition, for clinical prevention, treatment, provides the basis. Methods 581 cases of chemical reaction determination of urinary calculi specimens, and study the composition, and combined with clinical data are compared. Results Among 581 cases in urine mixed stones accounted for 70.56%(410/581), of which 59.89% salt oxalate stone, phosphate stone 34.59%, 24.61% carbonate stone, stone uric acid 26.33%; Simple stone 17.42%. Urinary calculi in 473 cases, urinary calculi under 108 cases, on under the ratio of urinary calculus 4.36:1, kidney, ureter stone mainly calcium oxalate stone and calcium phosphate and mixed pure calcium oxalate stone is given priority to, bladder calculi mainly uric acid as stone, urinary calculus parts and chemical composition constitute a closely related, the kidney, bladder calculus and its chemical composition form after statistics inspection (P<0.05), hintunder the pathogenesis of urinary calculus is different. Conclusion stone composition analysis to understand the stone cause, prevention

  6. 结石肾并肾癌的诊断和治疗%Diagnosis and treatment of renal calculi associated with renal cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周光; 宋超; 喻翔翔; 杨嗣星

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnosis and treatment of renal calculi associated with renal cell carcinoma ( RCC). Methods The clinical data of 9 cases of renal calculi associated with RCC were retrospectively analyzed. Results The diagnosis were confirmed in 2 cases before open surgery. The remaining were diagnosed during or after operation ;4 cases with doubtful focus were confirmed RCC by in-tra - operative frozen section ,3 were confirmed by pathology after nephrectomy. All 7 confirmed cases were performed radical nephrorectomy. All cases underwent follow up:2 cases were dead of metastasis of RCC within 1 year,and no recurrence or metastasis was noted in other 7 cases during follow up. Conclusion The pre - diagnosis of renal calculi associated with RCC is difficult. Patients with renal calculi over 50 years of age or with a long standing history of urolithiasis within the background of an atypical or asympto-matic presentation should be screened for the possibility of an occult renal cancer by using appropriate in-vestigations. Once the diagnosis is confirmed, radical nephrorectomy rather than treatment of renal calculi should be performed as soon as possible.%目的 探讨结石肾合并肾癌的诊断与治疗策略.方法 回顾分析9例结石肾合并肾癌患者的病例资料及诊治经过.结果 9例患者中2例术前检查已发现结石肾合并肾占位病变行根治性肾切除;另7例中4例因结石手术术中发现可疑病灶行快速冰冻切片病检证实为肾细胞癌而行根治性肾切除,3例因结石肾积水合并感染形成脓肾行患肾切除,术后病理证实为肾癌.对所有患者进行随访,2例术后1年内死于癌肿转移,其他患者在随访期间未发现肾癌复发或转移.结论 结石肾合并肾癌诊断较困难,对50岁以上肾结石患者或长期肾结石并非典型性症状患者,应考虑结石合并肾癌的可能,应联合多种检查方法对其进行检查,争取术前明确诊断.对术

  7. Large subcapsular hematoma following ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy of renal calculi in a spina bifida patient: lessons we learn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidyanathan S

    2016-08-01

    % to 17%. Follow-up CT revealed reduction in the size of subcapsular hematoma, no hydronephrosis, and several residual calculi.Conclusion: Risk of subcapsular hematoma following ureteroscopic lithotripsy can be reduced by avoiding prolonged endoscopy and performing ureteroscopy under low pressure. When a paraplegic patient develops features of infection after ureteroscopy, renal imaging should be carried out promptly. Extended perioperative medical care is required for spinal cord injury patients because of their propensity to develop sepsis. Antibiotics should be prescribed on the basis of recent urine microbiology results. Spinal cord injury patients should be treated by senior, experienced doctors and cared for in a spinal injuries unit in order to minimize complications. Keywords: spina bifida, paraplegia, ureteroscopy, lithotripsy, subcapsular hematoma, prevention

  8. RANDOMIZED TRIAL OF THE SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF TAMSULOSIN AND SILODOSIN IN MEDICAL EXPULSIVE THERAPY FOR DISTAL THIRD URETERIC CALCULI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajanna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Urolithiasis is a common condition that affects approximately 5% to 10% of the population and the incidence of Urolithiasis is rising. Ureteric stones account for 20% of urinary tract stones and about 70% of them are found in the lower third of the ureter at presentation. Recent literatures show the efficacy of various drugs and minimally invasive procedures for the management of lower third ureteral stones. We performed a randomized, prospective study to assess and compare the efficacy of tamsulosin and silodosin as medical expulsive therapy for lower third ureteral stones. SETTING AND DURATION: Department of Surgery, Hassan Institute of Medical Sciences/ Teaching Hospital, Hassan. from August 2013 to August 2014. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The prospective data of 60 symptomatic patients with unilateral, lower third ureteral calculi of less than ≤10 mm were randomly allocated for out- patient treatment with tamsulosin and silodosin groups Patients aged ≥ 18 years with a single, unilateral, symptomatic, radio-opaque ureteric stone of 10 mm or smaller in the largest dimension located between the lower border of the sacroiliac joint and vesico-ureteric junction were included. For Group I tamsulosin a daily single dose of 0.4 mg for 28days and for Group II a daily single dose of silodosin 8mg was given. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were used on demand for both the groups. All the patients were told to observe passage of stone by filtering urine stream. The primary end point was the expulsion of the stone and the secondary end points were expulsion time, analgesic use, socioeconomic status, need for hospitalization, endoscopic treatment and drug side effects were documented. RESULTS: The stone expulsion rates in patients treated with tamsulosin and silodosin were 83.3% and 86.6% respectively. Mean stone expulsion times in tamsulosin group and silodosin group were 6.8 and 6.2 days respectively. Mean number of pain episodes were

  9. The clinical analysis of 300 Patients with Lower Ureteral Calculi%输尿管下段结石300例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨输尿管下段结石的治疗方法.方法 回顾性分析300例输尿管下段结石患者的临床资料.300例输尿管下段结石患者中,采用体外冲击波碎石术(ESWL)治疗171例,输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术(URL)治疗95例,腹腔镜输尿管切开取石术治疗34例.结果 ESWL治疗171例患者,1个月后结石排净率为91.81%(151/171);URL治疗95例,输尿管下段结石取净率为86.32%( 82/95);腹腔镜输尿管切开取石取净率为100%(34/34).结论 ESWL可作为输尿管下段结石的首选方法,但当结石长径≥1 cm时,URL的疗效明显优于ESWL;对于合并输尿管下段狭窄或输尿管息肉,结石嵌顿严重,周围形成肉芽组织包裹的输尿管下段结石的治疗,腹腔镜输尿管切开取石术疗效确切.%Objective To evaluate the treatment of lower ureteral calculi.Methods Clinical data of 300 cases of lower ureteral calculi were retrospectively analyzed.Among the 300 patients with lower ureteral calculi,171 patients were treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL),95 patients were treated with ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URL),34 patients were treated with laparoscopic ureterolithotomy.Results The clearances of the calculus was 91.81% with the treatment of ESWL,86.32% with the treatment of URL and 100% with the treatment of laparoscopic ureterolithotomy after one month of the treatments.Conclusion ESWL is the preferred methods for the treatment of lower ureteral stones.But when the stones≥ 1 cm,URL is superior to ESWL in efficacy; Laparoscopic ureterolithotomy is effective for the treatment of lower ureteral stones which combined with ureteral stricture or ureteral polyps,and with serious incarceration,granulation tissue wrapped around the stone.

  10. Ureteral Stent Placement for Ureteral Calculi during Pregnancy:An Analysis of 50 Cases%输尿管支架置入术治疗孕期输尿管结石50例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进峰; 卢晓明; 王礼平; 尹九湖

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Objective To explorer the value of ureteral stent placement in the treatment of ure-teral calculi during pregnancy.Methods Clinical data of 50 patients who underwent ureteral stent placement for ureteral calculi during pregnancy were retrospectively analyzed.Auxiliary examina-tion confirmed that all patients had ureteral calculi complicated by renal colic and failed to respond to conservative drug treatment.Among the 50 patients,25 had right ureteral calculi,22 had left u-reteral calculi,3 had bilateral ureteral calculi,31 had middle/upper ureteral calculi,and 19 had lower ureteral calculi.Results Thirty-seven patients successfully underwent cystoscopic catheter-ization after topical anesthesia.Twelve patients underwent successful ureteroscopic catheterization after failed cystoscopic catheterization.One patient underwent successful percutaneous renal an-terograde catheterization under local anaesthesia after failed retrograde catheterization.After treatment,renal colic was relieved obviously and hydronephrosis was alleviated to varying degrees with no threatened abortion in all patients.Postoperative reexamination showed that ureteral stents were placed appropriately in 48 patients and were located in upper ureter in 1 patient.In ad-dition,ureteral stents fell out in 1 patient when urinary catheter was removed on postoperative day 3.However,ureteral stents were appropriately placed after recatheterization in this patient. Conclusion Ureteral stent placement is a simple,effective,safe and reliable treatment for ureteral calculi during pregnancy.%目的:探讨输尿管支架置入术在治疗孕期输尿管结石中的应用价值。方法对50例输尿管支架置入术治疗的孕期输尿管结石患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析。50例患者均经辅助检查证实输尿管结石,同时合并肾绞痛,经药物保守治疗无效,其中右输尿管结石25例、左输尿管结石22例、双侧输尿管结石3例,31例

  11. [Complications of urinary calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joual, A; Fekak, H; Rabii, R; el Moussasoui, A; Benjelloun, S

    1996-01-01

    Urinary stones is a frequent disease whose renal complications can engage both functional and vital prognosis. We report 769 complicated cases observed 10 years. The diagnosis was made by intravenous urography and ultrasonography. 607 cases were mechanical complications, 582 hydronephrosis, 25 anuria, 262 were infectious complications, 82 chronic pyelonephritis, 60 pyonephrosis, 10 perinephric abscess. Treatment included adapted antibiotic therapy, ureteral catheter in case of anuria ; surgical extraction of the stone nephrectomy was performed in 100 patients. Results were generally good. 9 patients had endstage chronic renal failure. The high frequency of urinary stone complications is due to the fact that most patients consult late. The diagnosis must obviously be made.

  12. [Urinary calculi and infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Infection urinary stones resulting from urease-producing bacteria are composed by struvite and/or carbonate apatite. Bacterial urease splits urea and promotes the formation of ammonia and carbon dioxide leading to urine alkalinization and formation of phosphate salts. Proteus species are urease-producers, whereas a limited number of strains of other Gram negative and positive species may produce urease. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Corynebacterium urealyticum are urease-producers that are not isolated by conventional urine cultures, but require specific tests for identification. Primary treatment requires surgical removal of stones as complete as possible. Extracorporeal and endoscopic treatments are usually preferred, while open surgery is actually limited to few selected cases. Residual stones or fragments should be treated by chemolysis via ureteral catheter or nephrostomy or administration of citrate salts in order to achieve a stone-free renal unit. Postoperatively, recurrent urinary tract infection should be treated with appropriate antibiotic treatment although long-term antibiotic prophylaxis can cause resistance. Urinary acidification has been proposed for the prophylaxis of infection stones, but long-term acidification is difficult to achieve in urine infected by urease-producing bacteria. Urease inhibitors lead to prevention and/or dissolution of stones and encrustations in patients with infection by urea-splitting bacteria, but their use is limited by their toxicity. The administration of citrate salts involves an increase of the value of nucleation pH (pHn), that is the pH value at which calcium and magnesium phosphate crystallization occurs, in a greater way than the corresponding increase in the urinary pH due to its alkalinizing effect and resulting in a reduction of the risk of struvite crystallization. In conclusion prevention of the recurrence of infection stones can be achieved by an integrated approach tailored on the single patient. Complete clearance of the stone must be achieved by primary surgical procedure and residual fragments should be extensively treated. In the case of persistent infection, conservative measures, such as acidification and urease inhibitors or citrate administration, should be adopted to minimize its effect on urinary saturation with respect to struvite.

  13. Effect of Dietary Countermeasures and Impact of Gravity on Renal Calculi Size Distributions Predicted by PBE-System and PBE-CFD Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassemi, M.; Thompson, D.; Goodenow, D.; Gokoglu, S.; Myers, J.

    2016-01-01

    Renal stone disease is not only a concern on earth but can conceivably pose a serious risk to the astronauts health and safety in Space. In this work, two different deterministic models based on a Population Balance Equation (PBE) analysis of renal stone formation are developed to assess the risks of critical renal stone incidence for astronauts during space travel. In the first model, the nephron is treated as a continuous mixed suspension mixed product removal crystallizer and the PBE for the nucleating, growing and agglomerating renal calculi is coupled to speciation calculations performed by JESS. Predictions of stone size distributions in the kidney using this model indicate that the astronaut in microgravity is at noticeably greater but still subcritical risk and recommend administration of citrate and augmented hydration as effective means of minimizing and containing this risk. In the second model, the PBE analysis is coupled to a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model for flow of urine and transport of Calcium and Oxalate in the nephron to predict the impact of gravity on the stone size distributions. Results presented for realistic 3D tubule and collecting duct geometries, clearly indicate that agglomeration is the primary mode of size enhancement in both 1g and microgravity. 3D numerical simulations seem to further indicate that there will be an increased number of smaller stones developed in microgravity that will likely pass through the nephron in the absence of wall adhesion. However, upon reentry to a 1g (Earth) or 38g (Mars) partial gravitational fields, the renal calculi can lag behind the urinary flow in tubules that are adversely oriented with respect to the gravitational field and grow agglomerate to large sizes that are sedimented near the wall with increased propensity for wall adhesion, plaque formation, and risk to the astronauts.

  14. Pre- and post-operative cortical function of the kidney with staghorn calculi assessed by sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Juichi (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-08-01

    sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy consisting of the cortical image and DMSA renal uptake was used to assess the pre- and post-operative renal function in 39 patients with staghorn calculi or complicated calculi occupying more than 2 major calices. Extended pyelolithotomy was performed on 14 patients, nephrolithotomy on 14 patients, pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy on 7 patients, and partial nephrectomy on 4 patients. Nine out of 14 patients who underwent pyelolithotomy and 4 out of 14 patients who underwent nephrolithotomy showed an increase or no change in the postoperative DMSA renal uptake in the diseased kidney. However, there was no increase in the postoperative DMSA renal uptake in the patients who underwent pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy or partial nephrectomy. Eight percent of the preoperative DMSA renal uptake in the diseased kidney seems to be the absolute level for predicting a postoperative recovery of the kidney function. The contralateral kidney function can affect the postoperative recovery of the function in the operative side. It seems to be hard to expect an increment in the DMSA renal uptake postoperatively when the ratio of DMSA renal uptake in the operative side to the total DMSA renal uptake is less than 20%. At least 6 months of the follow-up period is necessary for the evaluation of the kidney function in the operative side. DMSA renal scintigraphy is a useful modality to assess pre- and post-operative kidney function in nephrolithiasis from the point of both morphological and functional changes in the renal cortex.

  15. Nursing Experience of Gout Calculi in Patients Undergoing Resection%痛风结石切除术患者的护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐慧慧

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析痛风结石切除术后的护理措施。方法分析我科对2013年05月~12月进行的4例痛风结石手术切除患者进行手术前后的护理措施,总结在心理、术前准备、术后恢复方面的护理经验。结果经严密护理,患者对痛风疾病有了深刻的了解,术后恢复快,住院时间短,对护理工作满意。结论认为术前加强患者的心理护理,健康宣教,术后密切观察生命体征的变化,指导患者功能锻炼是患者顺利康复的保证。%Objective Tto analyze the gout calculi after resection of nursing measures. Methods Analysis of our department in 2013 05 months to 2013 December 4 cases of gout calculi operation excision were nursing before and after operation, summarized in the psychological, preoperative preparation, postoperative recovery nursing experience. Results Through careful nursing, patients have a deep understanding of the gout disease, faster postoperative recovery, shorter hospitalization time, satisfaction to nursing work. Conclusion Preoperative mental nursing, the patient's health education, change after close observation of vital signs, guide the patients to exercise is to ensure the successful rehabilitation of the patients.

  16. 复杂性肾结石不同手术治疗方法的疗效分析%Different surgical procedures for complex renal calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永昌; 陈志雄; 潘翔

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical efficacy of mini-invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL) with that of open surgery for the treatment of complex renal calculi.Methods 82 patients with complex renal calculi who had undergone surgical treatment during the period of April 2006 to April 2011 were assigned to MPCNL group (41 patients) and open-surgery group (41 patients) based on the type of procedures.Surgical duration,intraoperative bleeding volume,rate of complications,postoperative length of hospital stay,total medical cost,and rate of calculi clearance were compared between the two groups.Results Surgical duration and length of hospital stay were shorter,intraoperative bleeding volume was less,rate of complications was lower,medical cost was greater,and rate of calculi clearance was higher in MPCNL group than in open-surgery group [(110 ± 21)min vs.(178 ± 33)min,(7.31 ± 0.94)days vs.(13.32 ± 2.84)days,(96.25 ± 12.34)ml vs.(176.56 ± 11.35)ml,12.2% (5/41) vs.29.3% (12/41),(12 636.6 ± 672.37) yuans vs.(8532.20 ± 350.56) yuans,and 80.49% (33/41) vs.65.85% (27/41); P<0.05].Conclusions As compared with open surgery,mini-invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy has shorter surgical duration and postoperative hospital stay,higher rate of calculi clearance,quicker recovery,less blood loss,and fewer complications,though it has higher total medical cost.It is a safe,effective way to treat complex renal calculi.%目的 比较、分析微创经皮肾镜取石术与开放手术治疗复杂性肾结石的临床疗效.方法 选择2006年3月至2011年3月于我院接受手术治疗的82例复杂性肾结石患者,按治疗方法分为微创经皮肾镜取石组41例和开放手术组41例.比较两组在手术时间、术中出血量、并发症发生率、术后住院时间、总治疗费用及结石清除率方面的差异.结果 微创经皮肾镜取石组手术时间[(110±21) min vs.(178±33) min]、术中出血量[(96.25±12.34) ml vs.(176.56±11

  17. Pneumatic Ballistic Lithotripsy for Bladder Calculi by Nephroscope Combined with Resectoscope%肾镜联合电切器械气压弹道碎石治疗膀胱结石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任维果; 章建胜; 夏宝山; 冒辰; 钱麟

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate and discuss the efficacy of pneumatic ballistic lithotripsy for bladder calculi by nephroscope combined with resectoscope (electric cutting instrument). Methods A total of 45 patients who had suffered from the bladder calculi were admitted and treated in Boai Hospital between January 2013 and January 2015,whose clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. All of them received therapies of fetching cal-culi by electric cutting ring,pneumatic ballistic lithotripsy,Ellick irrigator rushing out of calculi,via the ne-phroscope and outer sheath of resectoscope combinations. Results All 45 cases went successfully without calculi remnants,no complications were occurred,such as bladder bleeding,bladder perforation and septic shock,etc. The duration of operation was 5~60 minutes,25 minutes in average. Conclusions The pneumatic ballistic litho-tripsy for bladder calculi by nephroscope combined with resectoscope is safe and efficient,which is an effective method in treating the bladder calcui.%目的:探讨肾镜联合电切器械气压弹道碎石治疗膀胱结石的疗效。方法回顾性分析江苏省如皋市博爱医院2013年1月至2015年1月收治45例膀胱结石患者的临床资料,对全部患者均应用肾镜、电切镜鞘组合,利用电切环勾取结石、气压弹道碎石、Ellick冲洗器冲出结石的方法治疗。结果45例均获得成功,无结石残留、无膀胱大出血、膀胱穿孔、感染性休克等并发症。手术时间5~60分钟,平均25分钟。结论肾镜联合电切器械气压弹道碎石治疗膀胱结石安全、高效,是治疗膀胱结石的有效方法。

  18. Analysis of chemical composition of urinary calculi%南疆地区197例患者泌尿系结石成份分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄睿; 孟晓辉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the composition of urinary stone and investigate its prevention method. Methods 197 cases with urinary stones related to melamine milk were collected. The qualitative determination was performed by infrared spectroscopy automatic analyzer. Results 8 components in urinary stone were detected. 98 cases (51. 8%) were pure type, while 91 cases (48. 1%) were the mixed type. 38% of the calculi were calcium-containing stones. 34. 8% of the stones were non-calcium- containing. The rest were mixed. The percentage of various stone compositions were as follows: urinary ammonium calculi was 44. 9% (48 cases) , calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) + urinary ammonium calculi was 28. 5% (28 cases), calcium lactate was 26. 8% (24cases). The clinical features of three kinds of urinary stones were Uygur nationality cases accounted for 67% , 71% male and 52. 8% was infants under 3 years old. The proportion of patients with kidney stones was 61. 4%. The urinary stones ammonium was the main ingredient, while a certain percentage of patients with calcium oxalate stones. Conclusion Combination of case history, inferred that incidence of kidney stones in Uighur nationality is higher than that of Han nationality significantly. It is inferred that urinary ammonium stones could be easily induced by melamine milk powder.%目的 探讨南疆地区泌尿系结石患者的结石成份及防治方法.方法 搜集新疆南部地区与三聚氰胺奶粉相关尿路结石病例197例.手术取石,采用红外光谱自动分析仪定性检测.结果 除外8例资料不全,纳入统计189例,共检测出8种成份,其中单纯成份结石51.85%(98例),混合成份结石48.15%(91例).按结石主要成份分为含钙结石72例(38%),非钙结石66例(34.8%),混合型结石51例(28%).各种成份的结石病例的构成比从高到低依次为尿酸铵结石44例(44.9%),一水草酸钙和尿酸铵28例(28.5%),一水草酸钙24例(26.3%).三种结石的临床特点是67

  19. 318 Cases of Ureteral Calculi Ultrasound Diagnosis Experience%318例输尿管结石超声诊断体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀丽; 于涛

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the color doppler ultrasonography in the diagnosis value of ureteral calculi. Methods: In our hospital for the treatment of ureteral stones in 318 cases, of which 198 cases were male, female 120 cases, aged 17~69 years old, the GE Vivid7 color doppler ultrasound diagnostic instrument to the diagnosis. Results: the 318 cases are all the medication, gravel or surgery for stone confirmed. Accept ultrasound in patients 306 example actually ureter stone, misdiagnosis in 12 cases. Ultrasound performance as the main performance of the ureter water for no echo with strong echo light appeared at the far end, accompanied by the rear of sound, part of the stone color doppler figure visible "hui tail levy" strong light group with arc light band or avoid looking frumpy fine narrow light band, stone size of 0.3~1 .8 cm. Conclusion: color doppler ultrasound examination of the quick and convenient, and is now the preferred method of ureteral calculi.%目的 评价彩色多普勒超声对输尿管结石的诊断价值.方法 选取在我院进行诊治的输尿管结石患者318 例,其中男198 例,女120 例,年龄17~69 岁,采用GE Vivid7 彩色多普勒超声诊断仪对其进行诊断.结果 接318 例患者均经服药、碎石或手术后证实为结石.接受超声检查患者中306 例证实为输尿管结石,漏诊12 例.超声表现为主要表现为积水的输尿管无回声带远段出现强回声光团,伴有后方声影,部分结石彩色血流图可见"慧尾征"强光团呈弧形细狭光带或粗厚光带,结石大小为0.3~1.8cm.结论 彩色多普勒超声检查快捷方便,是目前输尿管结石的首选方法.

  20. Unenhanced low-dose versus standard-dose CT localization in patients with upper urinary calculi for minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Licheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: With the ethical concern about the dose of CT scan and wide use of CT in protocol of suspected renal colic, more attention has been paid to low dose CT. The aim of the present study was to make a comparison of unenhanced low-dose spiral CT localization with unenhanced standard-dose spiral CT in patients with upper urinary tract calculi for minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL treatment. Methods: Twenty eight patients with ureter and renal calculus, preparing to take MPCNL, underwent both abdominal low-dose CT (25 mAs and standard-dose CT (100 mAs. Low-dose CT and standard-dose CT were independently evaluated for the characterization of renal/ureteral calculi, perirenal adjacent organs, blood vessels, indirect signs of renal or ureteral calculus (renal enlargement, pyeloureteral dilatation, and the indices of localization (percutaneous puncture angulation and depth used in the MPCNL procedure. Results: In all 28 patients, low-dose CT was 100 per cent coincidence 100 per cent sensitive and 100 per cent specific for depicting the location of the renal and ureteral calculus, renal enlargement, pyeloureteral dilatation, adjacent organs, and the presumptive puncture point and a 96.3 per cent coincidence 96 per cent sensitivity and 93 per cent specificity for blood vessel signs within the renal sinus, and with an obvious lower radiation exposure for patients when compared to standard-dose CT (P<0.05. The indices of puncture depth, puncture angulation, and maximum calculus transverse diameter on the axial surface showed no significant difference between the two doses of CT scans, with a significant variation in calculus visualization slice numbers (P<0.05. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings show that unenhanced low-dose CT achieves a sensitivity and accuracy similar to that of standard-dose CT in assessing the localization of renal ureteral calculus and adjacent organs conditions and identifying the

  1. Clinical Study of Ureter Mirror in the Treatment of Ureteral Calculi%输尿管镜治疗输尿管结石的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏奇

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the Ureter mirror (Ureter mirror, UM) in the treatment of ureteral calculus (Ureteral calculi,UC) clinical efficacy; Methods January 2015 forecast December UC patients receiving treatment in hospital in 78 cases, UM-line treatment, observe the upper segment of ureter, middle and lower exploration success rate of stones and the total success rate. Results The success rate of upper ureteral stone removal was 88.89%, the Success rate of middle ureteral stone was 95.24%, the success rate of lower ureteral stone was 95.83%, upper, middle and lower part of the ureter stones no significant differences in success rates (P>0.05). Total exploration success rate of 94.87%.Total ex-ploration success rate of 94.87%. Conclusion UM high UC exploration success rate, effective, more reliable method is the treatment of UC, and clinical applications.%目的:研究输尿管镜(Ureter mirror, UM)治疗输尿管结石(Ureteral calculi,UC)的临床疗效;方法选择2015年1一12月于该院接受治疗的UC患者78例,行UM治疗,观察输尿管上段、中段、下段取石成功率及取石总成功率。结果输尿管上段取石成功率为88.89%,输尿管中段取石成功率为95.24%,输尿管下段取石成功率为95.83%,输尿管上、中、下段取石成功率差异无统计学意义(P〉0.05)。总取石成功率为94.87%。总取石成功率为94.87%。结论 UM治疗UC取石成功率高,疗效显著,是治疗UC较为可靠的方法,值得临床应用。

  2. Percutaneous nephrolithotripsy with 2 μm laser in treating nephritic staghorn calculi%经皮肾镜下2μm激光碎石治疗肾铸型结石55例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘津念; 陈强; 刘显中; 刘德云; 周健; 闻斌; 刘聪颖; 张茂; 田波; 周述银

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨经皮肾镜下2 μm激光治疗肾铸型结石的有效性、安全性及相关技巧.方法 采用经皮肾镜下2 μm激光治疗肾铸型结石患者55例,其中双侧肾铸型结石8例.结果 55例患者中,一次碎石成功率为74.5%,手术平均时间70 min;术后恢复快、并发症少;随访3个月,无残余碎石,肾积水均有不同程度减轻或消失.结论 经皮肾镜下2 μm激光治疗肾铸型结石是安全、有效的微创治疗方法,具有避免开放手术、手术时间短、恢复快、创伤小等优点.%Objective To investigate the efficacy, safety and techniques of percutaneous nephrolithotripsy with 2 μm laser in treating nephritic staghorn calculi. Methods The clinical data of 55 patients treated with PCNL with 2 μm laser during January 2008 to December 2009 were analyzed. Results Among 55 cases of nephritic staghorn calculi,all calculi were successfully fragmented,the one-time calculi clearance rate was 74. 5% (41/55) and the clearance time was 40-120 min(mean 70 min). No severe complications such as massive haemorrhage, ureteral perforation, conglutinant stenosis happened. Infection or recurrence was observed during the postoperative follow-up for 3 months, and no recurrence was found. Conclusion The percutaneous nephrolithotripsy with 2 μm laser in treating nephritic staghorn calculi could avoid patency operation,reduce the operation time,have a quick recovery and take small wound for patients. So this method has the advantages of safety and efficacy, and has higher value for widespread application in clinic.

  3. Ureteroscopic Holmium Laser Combined with Ultrasound Lithotripsy for Treating Ureteral Calculi%输尿管镜下钬激光联合超声碎石治疗输尿管结石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄华武; 黄群; 黄勇平; 吴军; 梁庆祖

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the method and efficacy of ureteroscopic holmium laser combined with ultrasound lithotripsy for treating ureteral calculi.Methods:163 cases of ureteral calculi were treated with ureterosopic holmium laser combined with ultrasound lithotripsy.The greatest dimension of the calculus ranged from 5 to 17 mm.The calculus were located in upper ureter in 51 cases,middle ureter in 52 cases,lower ureter in 60 cases.5 ~7F double J tube were put in routine place postoperative 1~4 weeks, antibiotics was used to prevent infection.Results:The calculi clearance rate was 95.9% (155/163) once,8 cases of failure were changed to PCNL ,open operation or double J tube and ESWL treatment , no the complications such as perforation avulsed ureter and urinary severe infection.Conclusion:The holmium laser combined ultrasound lithotripsy is a safe and effective for treating ureteral calculi ,and calculi removes completely.%目的:探讨输尿管镜下钬激光联合超声碎石治疗输尿管结石的方法和疗效。方法:采用输尿管镜下钬激光联合超声碎石治疗输尿管结石163例,结石直径5~17 mm,其中上段结石51例,中段结石52例,下段结石60例。常规放置5~7F双J管于术后1~4周拔除,应用抗生素预防感染。结果:结石一次性成功取出155例占95.09%,8例失败术中转PCNL、开放手术或留置双J管再行ESWL后结石排净。无输尿管穿孔撕脱及泌尿系严重感染等并发症。结论:输尿管镜下钬激光联合超声碎石治疗输尿管结石效率高、结石清除彻底、安全有效。

  4. Long-term incidence and risk factors for recurrent stones following percutaneous nephrostolithotomy or percutaneous nephrostolithotomy/extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for infection related calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streem, S B

    1995-03-01

    A study was done to determine the long-term incidence and cause of recurrent stones following percutaneous nephrostolithotomy alone (13 patients) or combined with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (31) for management of documented infection related struvite renal calculi. The patients were followed for 12 to 111 months (mean 41.7) to censorship or time of new stone formation. Of these patients 12 (27%) had recurrent stones at 12 to 61 months (mean 32.3) after treatment. As determined by a Kaplan-Meier estimate, the risk of new stone formation 5 years after treatment was 36.8%. Potential risk factors for recurrence, including history of stones, associated anatomical abnormalities, procedure used, radiographic status at completion of treatment and recurrent infection during followup, were analyzed with Cox's proportional hazards model. Of these potential risk factors, only an associated anatomical abnormality was found to influence significantly the rate of recurrent stone formation (p = 0.005). We conclude that continued surveillance for recurrent stones is mandatory even for patients initially rendered stone-free and those who maintain sterile urine. In addition, because the presence of a significant anatomical or functional urinary tract abnormality places a patient at much higher risk for recurrence, we suggest that subsequent studies be stratified as to the presence or absence of these abnormalities.

  5. National Practice Pattern and Time Trends in Treatment of Upper Urinary Tract Calculi in Korea: a Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinsung; Suh, Beomseok; Lee, Myung Shin; Woo, Seung Hyo; Shin, Dong Wook

    2016-12-01

    Despite high prevalence of upper urinary tract calculi (UUTC), there are few studies regarding patterns of care in Asian populations. We investigated treatment patterns and time trends in patients with newly diagnosed UUTC in Korea using the National Health Insurance database that includes de-identified claims from a random 2% sample of the entire population (> 1 million people). A total of 14,282 patients who received active treatments, including shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), ureteroscopic surgery (URS), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), and uretero/pyelolithotomy (UPL), for newly diagnosed UUTC between 2003 and 2013 were included. The number of primary and all treated cases of UUTC significantly (43% and 103.3%, respectively) increased over the 10-year period. While patients undergoing SWL, URS, PNL, and UPL as primary treatment increased by 43.7%, 31.9%, 87.5%, and 0%, respectively, the relative proportion undergoing each treatment remained constant over the 10 years (SWL > 90%, URS 4.5% to 7.8%, PNL 0.4% to 1.0%, and UPL 40 years (compared to age PNL, and UPL, rather than SWL, while patients living in urban or suburban/rural areas (compared to metropolitan) were significantly less likely to undergo URS and PNL. In summary, the majority of Korean patients underwent SWL as primary treatment for UUTC, and the predominant use of SWL remained steady over a 10-year period in Korea. Our results will be valuable in examining treatment patterns and time trends in Korean UUTC patients.

  6. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy under Ultrasound Guidance in Patients with Renal Calculi and Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Report of 11 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis accelerates the renal failure in the patients with ADPKD. In order to evaluate the role of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in management of calculus in these patients, 11 patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and renal stones were included in the study. Two patients had bilateral renal stones. All patients were treated by percutaneous nephrolithotomy under ultrasound guidance. 13 percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedures were performed in 1 stage by the urology team under ultrasound guidance. 5 people received second operation with flexible nephroscopy in lateral position. The success rate and morbidity and mortality of the technique and hospital stay were recorded. Results. The puncture procedure was fully successful in all cases. The renal function improved in these patients. 5 patients had moderate fever after the surgery. 5 patients received flexible nephroscopy to take out the residual calculi. 2 persons had ESWL therapy after the surgery. Conclusion. PCNL is an ideal, safe, and effective method to remove the stones from those patients with no definite increase in the risk of complication. The outcome and stone-free rate are satisfactory comparable to the PCNL in the patients without ADPKD.

  7. Treatment of upper urinary tract calculi with flexible cystoscope conducted holmium laser lithotripsy via percutaneous nephrostomy%经皮肾造瘘软膀胱镜下钬激光碎石术治疗上尿路结石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢剑; 肖春雷; 马潞林; 庄申榕; 刘余庆; 田晓军; 张荣新

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of flexible cystoscope conducted holmium laser lithotripsy via percutaneous nephrostomy in the treatment of upper urinary tract calculi.Methods The flexible cystoscope conducted holmium laser lithotripsy via percutaneous nephrostomy was performed on 26 patients from Jul 2005 to Jan 2007. Among these patients, 8 had bilateral renal calculi and ureteral calculi, 5 had multiple renal calculi, 4 had renal calyx calculi and 9 had ureteral calculi. The average diameter of the calculus was 2.2 cm (range from 1.0-3.2 cm). Four patients had mild hydronephrosis, others had moderate or severe hydronephrosis. Insufficient renal function was noted in 13 cases. The procedure was performed via a single tract through the middle calyx under the ultrasonic guidance in all cases.Results Twenty-two cases achieved stone free at primary procedure, secondary procedure was needed in 4 cases. A 18 F tract was used in 18 cases and 24 F tract was used in the left 8 cases. The average operation time was 72 min, stone-free rate was 96.2%(25/26),and there was no blood transfusion. One patient had fever after the procedure and recovered 2 days after the administration of antibiotics. No other complication was recorded. In an average 11 month follow-up in 22 patients, hydronephrosis reduction was significant observed by ultrasound scan. No calculus relapse was found.Conclusions Flexible cystoscope conducted holmium laser lithotripsy via percutaneous nephrostomy is an effective and minimally invasive technique for the treatment of upper urinary tract calculus. It has the advantages in dealing with the calyx and ureteral calculus located in the proximal or middle segment as well.%目的 探讨经皮肾造瘘软膀胱镜下应用钬激光治疗上尿路结石的有效性与安全性.方法经皮肾造瘘软膀胱镜下应用钬激光治疗肾和输尿管中上段结石26例.其中肾结石合并输尿管结石8例、肾多发结石5例、

  8. 多排CT对肾结石并肾盂恶性肿瘤的诊断价值%Value of Multi-slice CT for the Diagnosis of Kidney Calculi with Renal Pelvis Malignant Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易志军; 刘建滨; 范立新; 谢安; 郑海军; 王诗斌; 彭国洪

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To explore the CT diagnosis and the reason of missed diagnosis of kidney calculi with renal pelvis malignant tumor. [Methods] The CT data of 9 cases of kidney calculi with renal pelvis malignant tumor confirmed by pathology were analyzed retrospectively. The site of pathogenesis, histological type, metastasis, complication and the relation with the surrounding tissue were observed. [Results] Among 9 cases of kidney calculi with renal pelvis malignant tumor, 5 cases were transitional cell carcinoma, 3 cases were squamous cell carcinoma and 1 case was adenocarcinoma. Retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis was found in 5 cases including one case of adenocarcinoma and one case of transitional cell carcinoma involving the metastasis of renal capsule and adjacent adipose tissue, liver and adrenal gland. Seven cases were combined with the inflammation of renal pelvis and ureter or pyonephrosis. Three cases were combined with inflammatory granulation of renal pelvis. Two cases of transitional cell carcinoma and one case of cases of squamous cell carcinoma were misdiagnosed as kidney calculi with hydronephrosis infection. The definite diagnosis rate was 66. 7% (6/9) and the misdiagnosis rate was 33. 3% (3/9). [Conclusion] Multi-slice CT for kidney calculi with renal pelvis malignant tumor has higher diagnostic value. However, kidney calculi with renal pelvis accompanied by other lesions are easy to be misdiagnosed.%[目的]探讨肾结石并肾盂恶性肿瘤的CT诊断和漏诊原因.[方法]回顾性分析经手术病理证实的9例肾结石并肾盂恶性肿瘤的CT资料,重点观察肾结石并肾盂恶性肿瘤的发生部位、病理类型、有无转移、合并症及与周围组织关系.[结果]9例肾结石并肾盂恶性肿瘤患者5例为肾盂移行细胞癌,3例为肾盂鳞癌,1例腺癌;5例有腹膜后淋巴结转移,鳞癌、移行细胞癌各1例,累及肾被膜及邻近脂肪组织及肝、肾上腺等多处转移;7例合并肾盂、

  9. 上尿路结石患者血清、尿液、结石中纳米细菌的检测%Detection of nanobacteria in serum,urine and calculus of patients with upper urinary calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    粟宏伟; 朱永生; 邓清富; 陈同良

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the infection status of nanobacteria on patients with upper urinary calculi and healthy sub-jects ,and analyze the role of nanobacteria in the formation of upper urinary calculi .Methods The serum ,urine and calculus of 42 patients with upper urinary calculi were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and by bacteria cultivation with 10% γ-FBS and PMBI 1640 .The resulting PCR products were sequenced for further comparison with the reported sequence in gene bank . The serum and urine from 30 healthy adults were used as controls .Results After 4 to 6 weeks′culture ,the white or yellow precipi-tate was visible at the bottom of the tube .The positive rate of PCR was 90 .4% in calculous patients urine and 6 .7% in healthy a-dults urine ,as the positive was 92 .8% and 6 .7% in serum .which there is significant difference (P<0 .01) .The positive rate of the nanabactria in urinary calculi was 95 .2% .The coincidence rate was 98 .72% between the PCR products and the reported sequence in gene bank .Conclusion Nanobacteria are widely existed in the serum ,urine and calculus of the patients with upper urinary calcu-li ,this indicate that the nanobacteria might be have the most important influence on the formation process of urinary calculi .%目的:检测上尿路结石患者与健康者的血清、尿液里纳米细菌和尿路结石标本里的纳米细菌感染情况,分析纳米细菌在尿路结石形成中的作用。方法对30例健康者和42例上尿路结石患者的血清、尿液标本以及后者的结石标本处理后用含10%热灭活γ-胎牛血清(γ-FBS)的 PMBI 1640培养基行纳米细菌培养,观察其生长情况,并对培养后的标本行聚合酶链反应(PCR)检测,PCR产物通过测序与原序列比对进一步分析。结果培养4~6周后,部分培养管底出现肉眼可见的白色(或黄色)絮状物或沉淀物。PCR检测结石患者与健康者的血清纳

  10. Application of localized ultrasound lithotripsy in the treatment of middle-ureteral calculi%超声定位碎石在输尿管中段结石治疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄春燕; 梁峭嵘; 刘照宏; 俞抒姝

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of middle-ureteral calculi and the application of ultrasound-guided extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Methods Three hundred and twenty-four patients of middle-ureteral calculi were treated by ultrasound-guided ESWL. The positioning accuracy and calculus breaking effect were analyzed, and the incidence of complications after calculus breaking was observed. Results The ultrasound diagnosis and ESWL were successfully performed in all the patients, with a success rate of 98.5% (319/324). Conclusion Ultrasound diagnosis and ultrasound localized ESWL is currently a preferred method for treating middle-ureteral calculi, which can be used to substitute most of the X-ray positioning lithotripsy and ureteroscopy calculus removing.%目的 探讨超声对输尿管中段结石诊断及超声引导下进行体外冲击波碎石的应用价值.方法 对324例超声诊断输尿管中段结石患者进行体外冲击波碎石治疗,并分析输尿管中段结石的超声诊断技巧、定位准确性及碎石效果,追踪观察碎石后并发症的发生.结果 本组患者均顺利完成输尿管结石超声显像及碎石治疗,98.5%获得较满意疗效.结论 超声诊断及定位体外冲击波碎石治疗输尿管中段结石是目前非手术治疗的首选方法,可替代绝大部份X光定位碎石及输尿管镜取石.

  11. Clinical analysis of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in the treatment of 37 cases with complex renal calculi%信息化条件下三甲医院计量检测管理体系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜楠; 丁晖; 白凤英

    2013-01-01

    在三甲医院医疗设备管理中,只有切实加强计量检测管理,才能确保医疗的质量,这对现代医院管理的提高有着十分重要的意义.本文首先探讨了三甲医院计量检测管理的重要性,论述了当前三甲医院计量检测信息化管理存在的问题,建立了信息化条件下三甲医院计量检测管理体系,有很好的运行效果.同时本文还提出了相关的配套措施:加强规范化法律建设,建立医院计量检测制度和完善计量检测管理流程.%Objective To investigate the methods and efficacy of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in the treatment of complex renal calculi. Methods Clinical data of 37 cases with percutaneous nephrolithotomy for treatment of complex renal calculi were analyzed retrospectively,including 22 cases of ultrasound lithotripsy and 16 cases of combining pneumatic and ultrasound lithotripsy. Results The operative time of 37 cases were 90-200 minutes,the mean was 130 minutes. The rate of residual tones was 27.27% in the ultrasound lithotripsy,and 13.33% in the combining pneumatic and ultrasound lithotripsy,but cured in the second lithotripsy. The average hospitalization was 9.5 days. No complications occurred during 1 to 12 months follow-up. Conclusion PCNL has advantages of little trauma,fast recovery,few complication,less complications,safe,high cleaning rate and repeat. PCNL may be a good method for treating complex renal calculi.

  12. Experience of PTCSL in treatment of complicated biliary calculi (30 cases)%经皮肝取石处理复杂性肝胆管结石体会(附30例报道)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪新天; 袁武雄; 李浩; 陈晨; 蒋超; 朱朝庚; 段文斌; 肖志亚; 何自力

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨经皮肝取石处理复杂性肝胆管结石的方法及疗效.方法 回顾性探讨该科30例经皮肝取石处理复杂性肝胆管结石资料.分析患者资料、手术疗效、手术并发症及随访情况.结果 30例经皮肝取石处理均顺利完成,术中术后无大出血及手术死亡病例.其中16例取净结石,术后无明显胆瘘和胆汁性腹膜炎等情况.结论 经皮肝取石处理复杂肝胆管结石安全、可靠,围手术并发症低,在一定范围内值得推广.%Objective To discuss the technique and clinical effects of percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopic lithotomy (PTCSL) in treatment of complicated biliary calculi. Methods Clinical data of 30 patients that used PTCSL to deal with complicated biliary calculi were retrospectively reviewed. The general data, clinical efficacy, postopera-tive complications and follow-up surveys were analyzed. Results All the patients were successfully performed PTC-SL, there are no massive haemorrhage and death during and after operation. It is net extraction in 16 cases, without biliary leakage and bile peritonitis. Conclusion PTCSL in treatment of complicated biliary calculi is safe, with less perioperative complications. It worth of popularizing and applied clinically.

  13. ANALYSIS OF THE CURATIVE EFFECT OF URL AND ESWL ON URETERAL CALCULI TREAT OF THE OLD PATIENTS%URL与ESWL治疗老年输尿管结石的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘岩山

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨输尿管镜下气压弹道碎石(URL)和体外冲击波碎石(ESWL)治疗老年输尿管结石的疗效.[方法]回顾性分析2007年1月~2010年12月在某院分别采用URL与ESWL治疗的输尿管结石老年患者临床资料.[结果] URL组总成功率和中下段结石成功率明显高于ESWL组,差异有统计学意义(均P<0.01);上段结石成功率低于ESWL组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).URL组发热和肾绞痛均明显少于ESWL组,差异有统计学意义(均P<0.01);恶心呕吐、肉眼血尿和输尿管穿孔差异均无统计学意义(均P> 0.05).[结论]URL在微创性上更有优势,ESWL应作为老年输尿管上段结石的首选,URL应作为老年输尿管中下段结石的首选.%{Objective] To investigate the therapeutic effect of Ureteroscopic Iithotripsy (URL) and Extracorporeal Shock Wave Iithotripsy {ESWL) on the ureterai calculi in the old patients. [Methods] A retrospective analysis was carried out for the therapeutic effect of URL and ESWL treatment on ureterai calculi of elderly patients from January 2007 years to De* 0.0S). [Conclusion] Minimally invasive URL treatment has more advantages. ESWL should be the Crest choice with upper ureleral calculi, and URL should be the first choice for lower ureterai cal-cuili for the old patients.

  14. Pneumatic lithotripsy through ureteroscope for treating ureteral calculi%输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术治疗输尿管结石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林飞鹤; 谢春发; 高海亮; 蔡伯基; 蔡道广

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the pneumatic lithotripsy through ureteroscope for the treatment of ureteral calculi.Methods A total of 920 patients underwent ureteroscopic lithotripsy using pneu-matic lithotripsy 259 upper,375 middle,and 286 lower ureteral stone were treated.Results The overall successful fragmentation rate for all levels of ureteral stones in a single session achieved 94.0% (864 /920),failure rate 6.0%(56 /920).28 cases failed because of ureteral stricture.24 cases of stone moved up into the kidney.All worst -cases were in dewelled shock wave lithotripsy ESWL.Conclusion Ureteroscopic lithotripsy using pneumatic lithotripsy is a highly effective,minimally invasive and safe therapy for ureteral calculi.It is indicated as a first choice for treatment patients with ureteral stones,especially for the ones with the middle and lower uneteral stones.Develop particularly suitable for basic hospital.%目的:总结分析经尿道输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术治疗输尿管结石的疗效及其安全性。方法应用输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术治疗920例输尿管结石,其中输尿管上段结石259例,输尿管中段结石375例,输尿管下段结石286例。结果920例输尿管结石单次成功率94%(864/920),失败率6%(56/920)。失败原因:28例因输尿管口畸形狭窄而上镜失败,24例碎石过程中部分结石进入肾内,52例失败病例在留置双 J管条件下术后辅助冲击波体外碎石治疗。4例因既往有输尿管手术史或多次 ESWL 史,结石远端输尿管明显扭曲或狭窄,术中输尿管镜试图扩张通过而发生穿孔。结论输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术治疗输尿管结石有效,微创、安全、经济,是治疗输尿管结石特别是输尿管中、下段结石的首选治疗方法,特别适合在基层医院开展。

  15. 输尿管下段结石致尿脓毒血症1例及文献复习%Treatment of Urosepsis Caused by Lower Ureteral Calculi: A Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂勇; 张秉虎; 何安仁; 杜建兵; 万齐福; 宋洪飞

    2012-01-01

    目的:结合1例输尿管下段结石致尿脓毒血症患者的抢救经过,探讨梗阻性尿脓毒血症的救治流程.方法:报告1例输尿管下段结石致尿脓毒血症女性患者,经抗休克、急诊肾造瘘引流处理,随之生命体征改善后再加强抗感染治疗,持续引流3月,肾功能改善,一般情况好转后Ⅱ期行钬激光碎石去除梗阻,成功抢救并治愈.结合文献对梗阻性尿脓毒血症救治进行复习.结果:抗休克及肾穿刺造瘘后待生命体征稍稳定后加强抗感染,Ⅱ期钬激光碎石等治疗后治愈.结论:结石梗阻性尿脓毒血症需早期诊断积极救治,有效的抗感染须建立在早期抗休克及充分引流基础之上,引流数周肾功能好转、全身状态改善后再手术去除梗阻是安全有效的处理流程.%Objective; To evaluate the treatment of urosepsis by reporting a uroseptic case of lower ureteral calculi. Methods; A female uroseptic patient due to lower ureteral calculi was reported here. The processes of anti-shock and percutaneous nephrostomy were performed immediately, and anti-infection treatment followed when the vital sign was stable. Three months later, holmium laser lithotrity was performed and the calculi were removed. Results: Anti-infection treatment after the vital sign was stable was proved to be an effective method of the treatment of urosepsis, while the ureteral calculi was cured by holmium laser lithotrity later. Conclusion: Urosepsis should be treated immediately, and anti-infection treatment should be performed after the control of shock. Lithotrity is a safe therapy for uroseptic patients when shock and renal function were controlled

  16. 输尿管软镜下钬激光碎石术治疗肾盏内小结石%Flexible Ureteroscopy Combined with Holmium Laser Lithotripsy for Small Renal Calix Calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彭; 于江; 尉春晓; 曲华伟; 陈修德; 张建军

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of the flexible ureteroscopy with Holmium laser lithotripsy for renal calculi.Methods From May 2011 to Jan 2013, 21 cases of renal calculi(sized between 0.5 to 1.5cm in diameter , 72 calculi in total ) were treated by flexible ureteroscopy with Holmium laser lithotripsy in our hospi-tal.Observe the ureteric orifice and then a ureteric access sheath was placed and a Olympus URF -V flexible ureteroscopy with Holmium laser lithotripsy was used to perform the procedure , and a F5 double-J stent would be setup at the end of procedure for 4 weeks.Result In 2 cases the ureteric access sheath was failed to be placed.20 cases out of 21 (95.2%) had stone clearance at 4 weeks post primary operation , and the total stone clearance rate was 100% ( 21/21 ) .The average operation time was 42 minutes ( 18 ~65 mins ) .No serious complication occurred .Conclusion Flexible ureteroscopy combined holmium laser lithotripsy is a safe and effec-tive procedure for renal calculi , it has high clearance rate of stones and less complication and morbidity , it is the best option for managing small renal calculi .%目的:评价输尿管软镜联合钬激光治疗肾盏内小结石的效果。方法2011年5月至2013年1月21例输尿管软镜钬激光碎石病例。术前均行逆行造影检查,明确输尿管及集合系统解剖位置正常。共52枚结石,结石直径0.5~1.5 cm。探查输尿管口置入斑马导丝,导丝引导下置入 F12输尿管软镜鞘,经鞘置入日本Olympus URF-V输尿管软镜,抵达目标肾盏行钬激光碎石。留置5 F双J管一根4周。结果2例无法置入输尿管软镜鞘,斑马导丝引导下置入输尿管软镜。钬激光碎石成功率100.0%(21/21)。4周后结石清除率为95.2%(20/21)。总的结石清除率为100.0%(81/86)。平均手术时间为42分钟(18~65分钟)。术后平均住院时间3.8天(3~5天)。无严重并发症。结论输尿

  17. 微创治疗上尿路结石所致急性肾功能衰竭%Minimally Invasive Management of Acute Obstructive Renal Failure Caused by Upper Urinary Calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁建奇; 林灼怡; 黄蔚山; 卓梅; 何仍富

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨微创治疗上尿路结石所致急性肾功能衰竭的临床效果。方法2012年12月~2013年8月,对30例上尿路结石致急性梗阻性肾功能衰竭先行输尿管置管或经皮肾穿刺造瘘,根据病情行输尿管镜取石术或微通道经皮肾镜取石术。结果均成功解除尿路梗阻,输尿管镜气压弹道取石术18例,结石取净率94.4%(17/18);微通道经皮肾镜气压弹道取石术12例,结石取净率91.7%(11/12),无严重并发症发生。术后3~14 d血Cr由285~1162μmol/L 降至58~343μmol/L。术后随访1~6个月,平均3个月,肾功能恢复正常25例,5例仍有氮质血症,但肾功能明显改善。结论输尿管镜取石术或微通道经皮肾镜取石术治疗上尿路结石所致急性肾功能衰竭具有微创、安全、效果好等优点。%Objective-To-investigate-the-feasibility-and-clinical-effect-of-minimally-invasive-management-acute-obstructive-renal-failure-caused-by-upper-urinary-calculi-.-Methods-From-December-2012-to-August-2013,-data-of-30-patients-with-acute-obstructive-renal-failure-caused-by-upper-urinary-calculi-who-underwent-minimally-invasive-management-were-reviewed-retrospectively-.-All-the-patients-were-given-dwelling-ureteral-stent-or-percutaneous-nephrostomy-(-PCNL)-in-the-first-period,-and-then,-according-to-specific-conditions,-received-either-ureteroscopic-holmium-laser-lithotripsy-(URL)-or-mini-percutaneous-nephrostomy-(mini-PCNL).-Results-All-the-patients-were-treated-successfully-.The-stone-free-rate-of-URL-was-94.4%(17/18)-in-18-patients-with-middle-and-lower-ureteral-calculi,-and-the-stone-free-rate-of-mini-PCNL-was-91.7%-(11/12)-in-12-patients.No-ureteral-perforation-and-other-complications-were-recorded-.In-the-30-cases,-the-serum-Cr-level-decreased-from-285--1162-μmol/L-preoperatively-to-58--343μmol/L-at-3--14-days-postoperatively-.Renal-functions-recovered-to-normal-within-1-month-after-operation-in-25-cases

  18. Combined pneumatic and ultrasound lithotripsy in percutaneous nephrolithomy for complicated renal calculi%经皮肾镜气压弹道超声联合碎石治疗复杂性肾结石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁可权; 许承斌; 曹希亮; 于文朝

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨超声定位引导下经皮肾镜气压弹道超声联合碎石术治疗复杂性肾结石的安全性及其疗效.方法 回顾分析经皮肾镜气压弹道超声联合碎石取石术治疗复杂性肾结石289例共312侧的临床资料.结果 经皮肾镜碎石一期手术276侧,平均手术时间76 min,平均出血75 ml,结合体外冲击波碎石,一期单侧结石清除率88.5%,36侧行二期手术.结肠损伤1例,术后大出血13例,需肾动脉栓塞止血3例,发热63例,严重感染3例,术后平均住院8d.无肾切除、中转开放及肾功能不全.结论 超声定位引导下经皮肾镜气压弹道超声联合碎石术是治疗复杂性肾结石的最佳选择,具有损伤小,康复快,住院时间短,结石清除率高等优点.%Objective To investigate the safety and efficacy of combined pneumatic and ultrasound lithotripsy for complicated renal calculi by B-type ultrasound guidance in percutaneous nephrolithomy. Methods Two hundred and eighty nine cases (312 sides) , who were treated by percutaneous nephrolithotriPsy of using pneumatic and ultrasonic system (EMS IV ) , were reviewed retrospectively. Results Two hundred and seventy six sides were performed on stage I . The mean time of the operation was 76 minutes. The average blood loss was 75ml. With the treatment of ESWL, the first calculi clearance rate was 84. 3%. 36 sides were performed on stage Ⅱ. There were one cases with colon injure, 13 patients with severe hemorrhage after operation while 3 cases were cured by selectivity thrombosis of renal artery; 63 patients had severe fever after operation and 3 cases had severe infection. There were no nephrectomy, transferring to open operation and renal dysfunction. The average lengths of stay after operation were 8 days. Conclusion The combined pneumatic and ultrasound lithotripsy in percutaneous nephrohlhomy by B-type ultrasound guidance for complicated renal calculi hare the advantage of small wound, rapid recovery, shorter

  19. Treatment of 88 Cases with Ureteral Calculi by Using Ureteroscopic Pneumatic Ballistic Lithotripsy%输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术治疗88例输尿管结石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阚乃尧; 杜耀安; 乔羽; 陈健

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of ureteroscopic pneumatic ballistic lithotripsy for ureteral calculi. Methods A retrospective analysis was made in 88 cases treated by ureteroscopic pneumatic ballistic lithotripsy from June 2006 to November 2010. There are 9 cases of bilateral ureteral calculi ,7 cases of isolated renal and 14 cases of acute obstructive renal failure. Results The locations of ureteral calculi were in the upper portion in 20 sides,in the middle portion in 28 sides,in the lower portion in 50 sides. The total success rate of one stage for patients was 91.8% (75.0% in upper portion,92.8% in middle portion,98.0% in lower portion). The mean operation time was 56 minutes( range from 20 to 100 minutes). 3 cases were changed into open operation. 5 cases needed auxiliary ESWL. In the patients with acute obstructive renal failure, the serum Bun and Cr levels decreased at different degree or return to normal. Conclusion The ureteroscopic pneumatic ballistic lithotripsy is safe,effective and less invasive, and is the first choice in the treatment of lower and middle ureteral calculi, which can treat the bilateral ureteral calculi simultaneously;it can rapidly remove the obstruction for the patients with obstructive acute renal failure.%目的 探讨输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术治疗输尿管结石的效果.方法 回顾性分析2004年6月-2010年11月88例输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术治疗输尿管结石的临床资料.其中孤立肾7例,双侧结石9例,急性梗阻性肾功能衰竭14例.结果 输尿管结石位于上、中、下段分别为20侧、28侧、50侧.一次性碎石91.8%,其中上段75.0%,中段92.8%,下段98.0%.3例改开放手术,体外震波碎石术(ESWL)5例.手术时间20~100 min,平均56 min.急性肾功能衰竭患者血BUN,Cr恢复正常或接近正常.结论 输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术安全、高效、损伤小,可作为输尿管中下段结石的首选方法,能同时处理双侧结石.对梗阻性急

  20. Combined pneumatic and ultrasound lithotripsy in percutaneous nephrolithomy for upper urinary tract calculi%经皮肾镜气压弹道超声联合碎石治疗上尿路结石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁可权; 许承斌; 曹希亮; 于文朝; 巩家存; 于明乐

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨超声定位引导下经皮肾镜气压弹道超声联合碎石术治疗上尿路结石的安全性及其疗效.方法 回顾分析经皮肾镜气压弹道超声联合碎石取石术治疗上尿路结石385例(401侧)的临床资料.结果 经皮肾镜碎石Ⅰ期手术364侧,平均手术时间51 min,平均出血110 ml,结合体外冲击波碎石,Ⅰ期单侧结石清除率84.8%(340/401),行Ⅱ期手术37侧.结肠损伤1例,术后大出血需肾动脉栓塞止血3例,严重感染3例.无肾切除、中转开放及肾功能不全.术后肾造瘘管平均留置5d,术后平均住院7d.结论 超声定位经皮肾镜气压弹道超声联合碎石术治疗上尿路结石,具有损伤小,康复快,住院时间短,结石清除率高等优点,是治疗上尿路结石较好的选择.%Objective To investigate (he safety and efficacy of combined pneumatic and ultrasound lithotripsy for upper urinary tract calculi by B-type ultrasound guidance in percutaneous nephrolithomy. Methods Three hundred and eighty-five cases(401 sides) ,who were treated by percutaneous nephrolithotripsy of u-sing pneumatic and ultrasonic system (EMS Ⅳ) were reviewed retrospectively. Results Three hundred and sixty-four sides were performed on stage I . The mean time of the operation was 51 minutes. The average blood loss was 110 ml. With the treatment of ESWL,the first calculi clearance leaded 84. 8%. 37 sides were performed on stage Ⅱ - One cases with colon injure was performed colostomy. 3 cases with delayed hemorrhage were cured by selectivity thrombosis of renal artery ,3 cases with severe sepsis. No nephrectomy, transferring to open operation and renal dysfunction were found. The mean time of indwelling pelvis fistula was 3 days, and the average lengths of stay after operation were 7 days. Conclusion The combined pneumatic and ultrasound lithotripsy in percutaneous nephrolithomy by B-type ultrasound guidance for upper urinary tract calculi have the advantage of small wound

  1. 超声引导微创经皮肾镜治疗输尿管上段结石的应用%Ultrasound-guided minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy in the treatment of upper ureteral calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘应清; 陶凌松; 陈弋生; 邹滨; 孔艰; 刘卫平; 江雪峰

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate the clinical application value and method of ultrasound-guided minimally invasive percutaneous nephro-lithotomy(MPCNL)in the treatment of upper ureteral calculi.Methods Twenty-one patients with upper ureteral calculi received mini-really invasive percutaneous renal puncture and ureteroscopic lithotripsy under the guidance of ultrasound.Twelve male,9 female,Mean patient age was 45.6 years(18~57 years).The calculi located in the left upper ureter were 11 cases,10 in the right.Combined with ip-silateral renal calculus were in 8 cases,one patient associated with ureteral stricture,intermediate hydrops in 9 cases,severe hydrops in 6 cases.Mean stone size was 16 mm(10~30 mm)in diameter.Results All the patients were punctured successfully at one prick and twenty patients with upper ureteral calculi were removed out through single passage in phrase I.Operative duration was 60~150 min.The total stone clearance rate was 95.2%.Residual stone fragment was found in 1 patient.Then discharged one week later after pull out D-J tube.No serious complications occurred in the operation.Conclusion Ultrasound-guided minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithoto-my is a safe and effective technique for the treatment of upper ureteral calculi or associated with ipsilateral renal calculus or ureteral stric-ture with the advantages of little trauma and rapid recovery.Meanwhile,ipsilateral renal calculus and ureteral stricture can also be trea-ted effectively.%目的 探讨微创经皮肾镜取石术(MPCNL)治疗输尿管上段结石的方法及效果.方法在超声引导下对21例输尿管上段结石患者行经皮肾穿刺建立碎石微通道,经通道于输尿管镜下行碎石取石术.其中男性12例,女性9例,年龄18~57岁,平均年龄45.6岁.左侧输尿管上段结石11例,右侧10例.8例合并同侧肾脏结石.1例合并输尿管狭窄,肾脏中度积水15例,重度积水6例.结石1.0~3.0 cm大小不等.结果21例均成功建立经皮肾镜

  2. 腹腔镜下胆道镜液电碎石术治疗肝内外胆管结石%The clinical analysis of cholangioscopy electrohydraulic lithotripsy with laparoscopy to treat intrahepatic bile duct calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晟; 喻强; 金昆; 陈明亮; 张京平

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To summarize the methods,efficacy and safety of the cholangioscopy electrohydraulic lithotripsy with laparoscopy to treat intrahepatic bile duct calculi. Methods: The clinical data of 23 cases from Jan. 2005 to Jan. 2012 with refractory extra-hepatic and intrahepatic bile duct stones underwent cholangioscopy electrohydraulic lithotripsy with laparoscopy were retrospectively analyzed. The calculi-free rate and the incidence of complications were observed. Results:The rate of lithotripsy was 100 % in 23 cases, of which 22 were one-time free of biliary calculi, the free rate was 95. 7% ;0ne cases with more calculi underwent choledochoscope lithotomy through the T tube six weeks after surgery. No complications including biliary tract perforation, bleeding, bile leakage, wound infection and others were accurred. The peritoneal drainage tube was removed 3-4 d after operation,The hospital stay time was 5-7 d. 4 weeks after surgery, routine T-tube cholangiography was done, the T-tube was pinched for 3 d and then was removed. Conclusions: Lap-aroscopic cholangioscopy combined with electrohydraulic lithotripsy could significantly improve the therapeutic effect of the extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile duct calculi,which is safe and reliable.%目的:总结腹腔镜下胆道镜液电碎石术治疗肝内外胆管结石的手术方法、效果及安全性.方法:回顾分析2005年1月至2012年1月采用腹腔镜下胆道镜液电碎石术治疗23例难取性肝内外胆管结石患者的临床资料,观察结石取净率及并发症发生率.结果:23例术中均碎石成功,其中22例一次性取净结石,结石取净率95.7%;1例因结石数量较多,术后6周经T管窦道行胆道镜取石术.无胆道穿孔、大出血、胆漏、切口感染等并发症发生.术后3~4d拔除腹腔引流管,5~7d出院.术后4周常规行T管造影,夹管3d后拔除T管.结论:腹腔镜下结合胆道镜液电碎石术可显著提高肝内外胆管结石的疗效,手术安全、可靠.

  3. 妊娠期输尿管结石合并感染的微创处理%Minimally Invasive Management of Ureteric Calculi Complicated with Urinary Tract Infection During Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥军; 米其武; 叶照华; 罗道升; 莫俊华

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and clinical effect of minimally invasive management of ureteric calculi complicated with urinary tract infection during pregnancy. Methods:From May 2006 to April 2010 ,the data of 21 pregnant women (gestational 6-36 weeks;mean, 24weeks ) with ureteric calculi complicated with infection were analyzed retrospectively. Theureteric calculi were 5-15 mm in greatest dimension. Five cases had calculi in upper ureter;10,in middle ureter and 6,in lower ureter. Routine urinary anlysis:WBC + + - + + + +. Eight cases received intra-ureteral double-J cannula alone; 12 cases received ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy, 1 case received percutaneous nephrostomy. Results: Symptoms and signs of renal colic and fever were disappeared completely in all cases after operation. The stones were removed completely one time in 12 cases. Double J tube and nephrostomy tube were placed until post partum. No threaten edabortion or premature labor was happened. All cases were labor smoothly and infants were healthy, All procedures were successful, no ureteral perforation and other complications were found. Conclusions: Minimally invasive technique is a safe and effective method for the treatment of ureteric calculi complicated with urinary tract infection during pregnancy.%目的:探讨利用微创技术治疗妊娠期输尿管结石合并感染的可行性及临床效果.方法:2006年5月~2010年4月对21例妊娠期输尿管结石合并泌尿系感染患者行微创技术治疗.21例患者孕6~36周,平均24周.结石最大径5~15 mm.左侧输尿管结石9例,右侧12例.输尿管结石上段5例,中段10例,下段6例.尿常规:白细胞++~++++,伴不同程度发热.单纯留置双J管8例,12例采用输尿管镜下钬激光碎石术,1例行经皮肾穿刺造痿术.结果:所有患者肾绞痛、发热等急症症状经治疗后消失.结石一次性取净12例,留置双J管及肾造痿管者至分娩后再行微创手术取石.无一例

  4. The management of urolithiasis (ureteral calculi)in pregnancy%妊娠合并泌尿系结石的治疗方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵纯雄; 陈洪波; 胡晓辉; 朱圣亮

    2015-01-01

    目的::探讨妊娠合并泌尿系结石的治疗方法。方法:对51例因泌尿系结石入院的患者先给予间苯三酚(40 mg,每天2次)止痛解痉;若症状无缓解,给予单纯双 J 管留置或者硬膜外麻醉下输尿管镜碎石术。结果:23例患者经过保守治疗结石自动排出;28例症状无缓解,12例给予单纯双 J 管留置(2例结石自动排出,10例产后给予碎石治疗后痊愈),16例给予输尿管镜下钬激光碎石术,术后3周结石完全排出。所有患者治疗期间无产科及泌尿外科相关并发症发生。结论:妊娠合并泌尿系结石,首选保守治疗;若保守治疗无效,双 J 管留置或者输尿管镜下钬激光碎石术亦是安全有效的治疗措施。%Objective:To explore the treatment of of urolithiasis in pregnancy.Methods:51 pregnant women with urinary stone were given the benzene three phenol (40 mg,2 times a day)firstly;if symptoms were not re-lieved,patients were treated with double J tube insertion or ureteroscopic lithotripsy under local anesthesia or contin-ued epidural anesthesia.Results:Twenty-eight cases received conservative therapy which resulted in spontaneous stone expulsion.For patients failed to passage stone spontaneously,ten cases were performed double J tube insertion and 1 6 cases were performed ureteroscopic lithotripsy.There was no complication occurring associated to obstetrics and urology.Conclusions:It is advisable that conservative treatment is preferred to pregnancy associated with urinary calculi.if conservative treatment is invalid,the double J tube insertion or ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy is also safe and effective.

  5. 胆总管结石成因的研究进展%Research Progress of Common Bile Duct Calculi Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国海超; 党彤

    2016-01-01

    Bravery manager is a common digestive system disease, its incidence present a growth trend in recent years, more than the abdominal pain, jaundice and chills hot so-called charcot views as the main symptoms, if the patient is in critical condition can occur hypotension consciousness and mental symptoms such as sadness, coma, the so-called raynald immovable. At present, for the cause of the formation of the common bile duct calculi remains to be further research. A lot of literature thought is the outcome of combined action of multiple factors. The related factors including age, next to the duodenal papilla diverticulum, Oddi sphincter, biliary ascariasis, biliary infection, hypothyroidism, gastrointestinal dysfunction. Now this paper reviews the research progress of its origin.%胆总管结石是一种较为普遍的消化系统疾病,其发病率在近年呈现出增长的趋势,以上腹部疼痛、黄疸和寒战高热即所谓charcot三联征为主要症状,若患者病情危急则可出现低血压及神志忧伤、昏迷等精神症状,即所谓的raynald五联征。目前,针对胆总管结石的形成原因还有待进一步研究。诸多文献资料认为是多因素共同作用的结果,其有关因素包括年龄、十二指肠乳头旁憩室、Oddi括约肌、胆道蛔虫、胆道感染、甲状腺功能减退、胃肠功能紊乱等。本文就其成因的研究进展做如下综述。

  6. 经皮肾镜超声联合弹道一期治疗结石性脓肾%One phase treatment of renal calculi accompanied with pyonephrosis by percutaneous nephrolithotripsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范先明; 李建兴; 夏永强; 牛敬; 孙康; 王鹏飞; 赵衍昕

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨经皮肾镜超声联合弹道一期治疗结石性脓肾的方法及疗效. 方法结石性脓肾患者66例,均在B超定位及引导下穿刺,筋膜扩张器依次从8 F扩张至16 F,放入软鞘后置人金属套式扩张器,退出软鞘,继续扩张至21 F,置入24 F肾镜鞘,置人肾镜,采用EMSⅢ代超声弹道清石系统治疗.先用超声吸附装置清理脓液及脓栓,并在低压或无压力状况下超声碎石后吸出脓液,再行超声联合弹道碎石和清石. 结果 66例术中、术后均未出现高热等菌血症或脓血症情况,无严重并发症发生.60例一期取净结石;4例铸型结石术后有<1.5 cm结石残留,行体外冲击波碎石术后结石排净;2例术后残留结石较大,1周后再次行经皮肾镜另建通道将结石取净.63例获随访,术后3个月血肌酐56~203/μmol/L,较术前平均降低40μmol/L;肾小球滤过率(GFR)5.0~56.2ml/min,平均增加23.6 ml/min.术后6个月血肌酐56~158μmol/L,平均降低31μmol/L;GFR 5.0~79.2 ml/min,平均增加30.2 ml/min. 结论 经皮肾镜EMSⅢ代超声吸附装置在低压或无压力状况下吸出脓液、脓栓后,再行超声联合弹道碎石和清石,治疗结石性脓肾安全、经济、高效.%Objective To evaluate the method, clinical efficacy and safety of one phase treat-ment of renal calculi associated with pyonephrosis by percutaneous nephrolithotripsy(PCNL) by pneu-matic combined with ultrasonic lithotriptor. Methods Sixty-six cases of renal calculi accompanied with pyonephrosis were treated with PCNL. The renal calyx was punctured under ultrasound gui-dance, then the tract was dilated from F8 to F16 by peel-away vascular access sheathes. After the in-sertion of the flexible sheath, metallic dilator was inserted and the flexible sheath was pulled out. The tract was dilated by metallic sheath to F21 and the operation sheath and nephroseope were placed into working tract. EMS III LithoClast Master was used. Ultrasonic powered

  7. 钬激光碎石术在复杂性输尿管结石的临床应用%Holmium Laser Lithotripsy in the Complexity of the Clinical Application of Ureteral Calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱建荣; 陈毅来; 邓小虎; 黄辉健

    2012-01-01

      Objective to study the therapeutic effect and safety of Holmium laser on the endoscopic treatment of ureteral calculi. Methods in 67 cases with ureteroscopic holmium: YaG laser lithotripsy of ureteral calculi pa-tients were retrospectively analyzed. 39 cases were male, 28 were female; aged 28 ~ 65 years, average 37 years old. Upper ureteral calculi in 32 cases, in the middle of calculus in 11 cases, stones in the lower segment in 24 cases. in 1 cases the stones in the holmium: YaG laser lithotripsy in renal calices during shift, after treated by esWl one case experienced open operation because of Ureteral stricture.Results 97.01%(65/67)stones were fragmented in one treatment session. Conclusion the ureteroscopy holmium laser lithotripsy for complex ureter stone safe and effective.%  目的探讨经输尿管镜下实施钬激光治疗复杂性输尿管结石的有效性和安全性.方法对67例进行输尿管镜下钬激光碎石的输尿管结石患者资料进行回顾性分析.其中男39例,女28例;年龄28~65岁,平均37岁.输尿管上段结石32例,中段结石11例,下段结石24例.结果全部患者中有65例通过一次钬激光碎石术成功碎石,成功率达97.01%,1例患者出现术中结石移位,于碎石术后进行 esWl 治疗;1例结石患者输尿管狭窄无法入镜,中转开放手术.结论在复杂性输尿管结石治疗采用经输尿管镜钬激光碎石术是安全有效的治疗方法.

  8. 问题奶粉事件中婴幼儿泌尿系统结石成分鉴定%Chemical analysis of urinary calculi in pediatric patients exposed to infant formula milk powder contaminated with melamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许莉; 孙宇; 肖宏展; 孙宁; 张潍平; 李明磊; 沈颖; 李旭冉; 李喜来; 阳伦娟; 陈致; 殷俊; 唐丽君; 林晓艳; 王丽娟

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify the main compositions of urinary calculi found in pediatric patients who had the history of exposing to infant formula milk powder contaminated with melamine and try to find out the urinary calculus formation mechanism in these patients.Methods Sixteen patients were studied.These infant patients with urinary calculi due to consumption of melamine tainted milk powder had been admitted to hospital from June,2008 to August,2008.The components of the urinary calculi were separated by liquid chromatograph,and identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry,electron bombard ionization mass spectrometry,Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,and quantitatively determined by liquid chromatograph.Results The main chemical components of the urinary ealculi were melamine and uric acid.The molar ratio of uric acid tO melamine was 2:1.Conclusion The main urinary calculus formation mechanism in infant patients who exposed to the inrant formula milk powder contaminated with melamine is melamine and uric acid formed indissoluble complex.%目的 通过对婴幼儿泌尿系统结石的成分分析,探讨结石成因,以利于预防和治疗.方法 收集婴幼儿泌尿系统结石标本16例,均有同一品牌问题奶粉喂养史.结石组分用高效液相色谱分离制备,电喷雾质谱、电子轰击质谱和傅里叶变换红外光谱进行结构鉴定,并用高效液相色谱对结石中的主要组分进行定量测定.结果 通过分离和组分结构鉴定及定量测定.结石中的主要组分为三聚氰胺和尿酸,尿酸和三聚氰胺的比例约为2:1(摩尔比).结石中尿酸平均含量为(53.9±11.7)%,三聚氰胺为(23.2±5.7)%.结论 因食用问题奶粉而导致婴幼儿泌尿系统结石的主要原因是三聚氰胺与尿酸形成了不溶性盐而导致结石形成.

  9. Multi-stage Multi-Channel Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Treatment Complete Staghorn Calculi%多期多通道经皮肾镜取石术治疗完全性鹿角形结石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段建军; 燕东亮; 王彭; 张建军

    2015-01-01

    目的 研究多期多通道经皮肾镜取石术( PNL )治疗完全性鹿角形结石的安全性及有效性. 方法 回顾性分析了本院2012年3月至2014年9月接受PNL治疗的完全性鹿角形肾结石患者的临床资料,共35例,双侧鹿角形结石5例,单侧30例,鹿角形结石共40枚. 结果 40枚完全性鹿角形结石共穿刺126条通道,平均3 .15条/枚. 共行PNL术85期,平均2 .1期/枚. 手术时间76~260分钟,平均(96.2 ±14.5)分钟. 结石清除率87.5%. 输血2例,胸膜损伤1例,无其他严重并发症. 术后平均住院时间(7.8+1.21)天. 结论 多期多通道经皮肾镜取石术治疗鹿角形结石安全可行,疗效确切,具有创伤小、恢复快、可反复操作等优点.%Objective To assess the safety and the curative effect of treatment with multi-stage multi -channel percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) in complete staghorn calculi.Methods Retrospective analysis in Mar 2012 to Sep 2014 by the method of treatment 35 patients with complete staghorn calculi ,of whom five had bilateral stones.Results 40 stones were built 126 tracts, the average being 3.15.85 stages were performed, the average being 2.1.The mean ( ±SD) operating time was (96.2 ±24.9) minutes, the stone-free rate was 87.5%, blood transfusions 2, membrane hazard 1, no other complications.Mean ( ±SD) postoperative hospital stay was (7.8+1.21) days.Conclusions Multi-stage multi-channel percutaneous nephrolithotomy treatment complete staghorn calculi is safe and effective .It may offer advantages with respect to less intraoperative and postoperative complications, less invasion and easy recovery.

  10. Application and analysis of ureteral calculi with double J tube in pregnancy%双J管在治疗妊娠期输尿管结石的应用与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪洋; 夏勇

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To discuss the clinical effect and safety of double J tube in treatment of pregnancy complicated with ureteral calculi.Methods Retrospective analysis of clinical data of 36 cases of pregnancy complicated with ureteral calculi treated with double J tube under the endoscope in the hospital from January 2009 to December 2014 were performed.The curative effect and the occurrence of adverse events were record and observed.Results The operations of 36 patients were successful and no serious complications occurred.36 patients with renal colic,kidney water and upper urinary tract infection were relieved after implantation of double J tube.Patients were successfully delivered at term.After delivery,22 cases of patients with stone self discharge,the other 14 cases were treated with extracorporeal lithotripsy and holmium laser lithotripsy.Conclusions For invalid conservative treatment of pregnancy with ureteral calculi,the occurrence of renal colic,kidney water and upper urinary tract infection,double J tube placed under the endoscope is a safe and effective treatment method.%目的 探讨放置双J管治疗妊娠合并输尿管结石的临床疗效和安全性.方法 回顾性分析汉中市中心医院2009年1月至2014年12月行膀胱镜下置入双J管治疗的36例妊娠合并输尿管结石患者的临床资料.观察其疗效并记录不良事件发生情况.结果 36例手术均成功,无严重并发症出现.置入双J管后36例患者肾绞痛、肾积水及上尿路感染均缓解,患者均足月顺利分娩.分娩后复查22例患者结石自行排出,另14例患者行体外碎石、输尿管镜钬激光碎石术.随访7~60个月,无严重不良反应发生.结论 对于保守疗法无效的妊娠合并输尿管结石患者,发生肾绞痛、肾积水及上尿路感染者,膀胱镜下放置双J管是一种安全、有效的治疗方法.

  11. 后腹腔镜与输尿管镜治疗输尿管上段结石的比较研究%Comparative Study of Retroperitoneoscopy and Ureteroscope in the Treatment of Upper Ureteral Calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄广龙; 梁华良; 黄伙; 陆荣森; 梁多

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较分析后腹腔镜与输尿管镜治疗输尿管上段结石的临床效果。方法:采用随机数字表法选取100例采用输尿管镜治疗输尿管上段结石的患者作为对照组,选取86例采用后腹腔镜治疗输尿管上段结石的患者作为试验组,比较两组患者取石成功率、结石滑入肾内无法取出率及术后结石残余率情况。结果:试验组取石成功率(100%)明显高于对照组(75.00%),试验组结石滑入肾内无法取出率(0)和术后结石残余率(0)都明显低于对照组结石滑入肾内无法取出率(15.00%)和术后结石残余率(10.00%),试验组结石一次性清除率(100%)明显高于对照组结石一次性清除率(75.00%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:采用后腹腔镜的方法相较于输尿管镜技术治疗输尿管上段结石,取石成功率高,无结石滑入肾内无法取出,术后无结石残留,结石清除更彻底,安全,可靠,输尿管上段结石在输尿管镜上镜困难或结石较大时采用后腹腔镜取石更具优势。%Objective:To compare and analyze the clinical effects of retroperitoneoscopy and ureteroscope in the treatment of upper ureteral calculi. Method:100 cases with upper ureteral calculi treated by ureteroscope were selected as the control group,and another 86 patients treated by retroperitoneoscopy were selected as the experimental group,by method of random number table,calculus successfully removed rate,rate of calculus slidding into kidney which couldn’t remove,residual ratio of calculus after operation of two groups were compared.Result:The successful calculus removal rate of experimental group(100%) was significantly higher than control group(75.00%) after observation,rate of calculus slidding into kidney which couldn’t remove and residual calculus of experimental group(0,0) were significantly lower than control group(15.00%,10.00%),and disposable clearance rate of experimental group(100

  12. 双源双能CT在尿路结石成分分析中的应用%Dual source dual energy CT in the analysis of urinary calculi composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范璐; 郭君武; 张慧

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨双源CT双能量技术应用于尿路结石成分分析中的临床价值.方法:226例尿路结石患者行双源CT双能量扫描,对其结石成分进行分析,将结果与用红外光谱法分析结石成分的结果作对比,计算双源CT在体分析草酸钙结石、磷酸盐结石、胱氨酸结石及尿酸结石的灵敏度与特异度.结果:双源CT能够准确的区分尿酸结石和非尿酸结石(灵敏度和特异度均为100%),较准确的区分草酸钙结石(灵敏度为89.03%、特异度为85.62%),磷酸盐结石(灵敏度为67.28%、特异度为90.71%)及胱氨酸结石(灵敏度为73.56%、特异度为93.43%).结论:双源CT双能量技术能在治疗前对尿路结石的成分进行初步分析,对了解结石成因,预防结石形成及指导治疗具有重要的意义.%Objective: To assess the clinical value of dual source dual energy CT in the analysis of urinary calculi composition. Methods:Dual-source CT with dual-energy scanning technique was performed in 226 patients with urinary calculi. The composition of urinary stones was compared with the results of the urinary stones composition analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The sensitivity and specificity of dual energy CT in evaluating the composition of calcium oxalate stone, phosphate stone, cystine stone and uric acid stone in vivo were calculated. Results:Dual-source CT could accurately distinguish uric acid stones and non-uric acid stones with the sensitivity and specificity as 100% respectively. The sensitivity of differentiating calcium oxalate stone, cystine stone and phosphate stone was 89. 3%, 67. 28% and 73. 56% respectively,and the specificity of the above mentioned calculi was 85. 62%,90. 71% and 93. 43% respectively. Conclusion: Analysis of urinary calculi composition before treatment could be obtained by dual-source CT with dual-energy technique, which had significant importance to understand the causes of stone,to prevent

  13. Ureteroscope pneumatic lithotripsy for 204 cases of ureteral calculi%输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术治疗输尿管结石204例效果观察及治疗策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力; 胡兴平; 王凯

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of ureteroscope pneumatic lithotripsy for ureteral calculi. Methods Pneumatic lithotripsy under ureteroscopy was used to treat 204 cases of ureteral calculi, including 16 cases (8% ) in middle ureter and 188 cases (92% ) in lower ureter, in which 6 cases were in the wall of urinary bladder. Results The operation time varied from 15 to 116 min (45 min on average). The success rate of ureteroscope pneumatic lithotripsy was 98.0% (200 cases). The intraoperative stone free rate was 96. 6%. Stones in 2 cases transferred to kidney. Thus the surgery ended in failure. Some stones in 3 cases transferred to kidney after ureteroscope pneumatic lithotripsy (diameterIS3 mm). Stones in 1 case were exceptionally hard which could not be shattered by pneumatic lithotripsy probe and transferred to surgery. In another case, due to severe local mucosal edema with hemorrhage caused by swelling in the opening of the wall of urinary bladder, we could not find the front opening of ureter and insert a guide wire into it. This case was then cured by both surgery and ureteroscope pneumatic lithotripsy. Postoperative hematuria was observed by naked eye or microscope in all the cases, and disappeared 2-3 days after operation. No complications such as perforation and infection were found in any cases. Conclusions Ureteroscope pneumatic lithotripsy for ureteral calculi is effective, safe, with small damage of tissue, fewer complications, which can be used as the top choice for ureteral calculi in middle and lower ureter.%目的 观察输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术治疗输尿管结石的效果.方法 应用输尿管镜下气压弹道碎石治疗输尿管结石204例,其中输尿管中段结石16例(占8%),输尿管下段结石188例(占92%),膀胱壁内段结石6例.结果 204例手术时间15 ~116分钟,平均45分钟;碎石成功率98.0%(200例),术中结石排净率96.6%,2例结石漂移至肾脏,未能完成手术;3例碎石后,

  14. 经皮肾镜气压弹道联合超声碎石术治疗感染性肾结石%Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy for Infection-induced Renal Calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹赟杰; 宋广来; 徐仁芳; 许贤林; 何小舟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the skills and efficacy of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for infection-induced renal calculi. Methods From September 2007 to April 2010, 27 patients with infection-induced renal calculi received PCNL after anti-infection therapy. After the renal calyx was punctured under ultrasound guidance, F24 standard renal access tract was established when the tract was dilated. EMS Ⅲ LithoClast Master was then employed to remove the stones. Ultrasonic powered lithotriptor probe with suction was used to clear the liquor pus, and the stones were fragmented and cleared by pneumatic combined with ultrasonic lithotriptor. Results Stone clearance was achieved in a single session in 22 cases; 3 patients received a second PNCL because of residual stones > 1 cm in diameter, and 2 patients underwent ESWL due to residual calculi < 1 cm. No patients showed massive hemorrhage, perinephric abscesss or injury to the adjacent organs during and after the operation. Three patients developed systemic inflammatory response syndrome after the surgery, and one patient showed renal arteriovenous fistula, all of them were cured afterwards. In one month postoperation, serum examination showed decreased level of creatinine by 76 μ mol/L in 8 patients who had renal insufficiency. Conclusion By using PCNL combined with EMS Ⅲ LithoClast Master to clear liquid pus before removing stones is a safe and effective method for infection-induced renal calculi.%目的 探讨经皮肾镜气压弹道联合超声碎石术治疗感染性肾结石的方法和疗效.方法 2007年9月~2010年4月,27例感染性肾结石患者术前抗感染治疗后,在B超定位及引导下穿刺,用筋膜扩张器、金属扩张器扩张,置入F的肾镜鞘.采用EMS第三代超声气压弹道碎石清石系统,先用超声吸附装置清理脓液、脓栓及附壁脓苔,并在低压或无压力的状况下超声碎石后吸出脓液,再行超声联合弹道碎石和清石.结果 22

  15. [Radionuclide diagnosis of kidney calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlakhov, N; Penkova, D

    1986-09-01

    Radionuclide investigations were conducted in 322 patients with nephrolithiasis. Unilateral calculosis was established in 46.3% of the patients, bilateral calculosis in 50.6%. The nature of changes on renograms, scintigrams and in clearance values was shown to depend on the localization of concrements, their size and the presence of concomitant infection. A conclusion has been made as to the usefulness of the methods with relation to operative treatment, especially in a bilateral localization of a pathological renal process.

  16. Management of ureteric calculi by ballistic lithotripsy%输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术治疗输尿管结石的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵福军; 李虹; 唐秀泉

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical use of ballistic lithotriptorin the endoscopic management of ureteric calculi. Methods: Between Feb 2000 to Aug 2000, a total of 28 patients with ureteric calculi, including upper third ureteric stones, middle and lower ureteric stones, were treated with the ballistic lithotriptor. Results: Satisfactory fragmentation was obtained in 24 of the 28 stones (85.7%) and failed fragmentation, in 4(14.3%) in two of which stones were pushed up into pelvis and adjunctive ESWL was performed and in one of which ureteric perforation was emerged and it underwent open surgery and in another case of which the ureterorenoscope failed to be inserted in ureterostoma. Conclusion: The ballistic lithoclast, as a new technique, is claimed to be safe and a high success rate and less trauma, which is valuable to be greatly spread.%目的:探讨输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术治疗输尿管结石的临床疗效。方法:应用输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术治疗输尿管结石28例。结果:26例中、下段输尿管结石中24例获得成功,2例失败。2例上段输尿管结石,因推入肾盂内改行ESWL。结论;输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术作为一种新兴技术,具有碎石时间短、效果明显、工作时不产生热、不易损伤组织、手术并发症少等优点,是很值得推广的。

  17. 结合输尿管软硬镜钬激光技术治疗输尿管上段结石%Ureteral soft mirror and hard microscopically holmium laser lithotripsy in the treatment of upper ureteral calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦坤; 刘齐贵; 周庆余; 赵谦

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Discuss with ureteral soft hard mirror on the effectiveness of the treatment of upper ureteral calculi.Methods Through the ureteral soft and hard mirror arrive at the ureteral calculus section,through the holmium laser lithotripsy,achieve gravel and qing stone,remove the purpose of ureteral obstruction.Results 386 patients by small ureteroscopy (F4.5) a gravel success rate was 71%.Combined with ureteral soft mirror treatment a gravel success rate was 98.4%.Conclusions Ureteral soft and hard mirror on the treatment of upper ureteral calculi with high success rate,safe and effective.%目的 探讨输尿管软硬镜结合治疗输尿管上段结石的临床效果.方法 结合应用输尿管软、硬镜到达输尿管上段目标结石,通过钬激光碎石,达到碎石、清石,解除输尿管梗阻的目的.结果 386例患者经小口径输尿管硬镜(F4.5)一次碎石成功率达71%(274/386),结合输尿管软镜治疗后一次碎石成功率达98.4%.结论 输尿管软、硬镜结合治疗输尿管上段结石成功率高、安全、有效.

  18. Curative effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in the treatment of urinary calculi%体外冲击波碎石术治疗泌尿系结石的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐红亮

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the curative effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in the treatment of urinary calculi. Methods The clinical data of 98 cases with urinary calculi admitted to People's Hospital of Yunyang County in Chongqing City from January 2012 to January 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. All patients were taken the therapy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, and the curative effect and conditions of complications were observed. Results Among patients of this study, 44 cases of patients egested calculi completely for once, accounting for 44.90%, 30 cases of patients egested calculi completely for twice, accounting for 30.61%, 21 cases of patients egested calculi completely for three times, accounting for 22.45%, 3 cases of patients were failed after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and then took open surgery. The clinical curative effect showed that, there were 54 cases of cured, 41 cases of improved, 3 cases of failed, the total effective rate was 96.94%. Complications after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, all pa-tients showed more or less gross hematuria or microscopic hematuria, 1-2 days later, they were disappeared;the skin of 5 cases of patients showed petechiae or ecchymosis, the symptoms were disappeared without any treatment; 4 cases of patients showed more or less ureteral colic, the symptoms were improved through symptomatic treatment;2 cases of pa-tients were formed ureteral “stone street”, the symptom was disappeared after another extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy; 1 case was combined with slight ureteral stricture; 2 cases had fever, the symptom was improved through antifebrile precessing; there were no other serious complications. Conclusion Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in the treatment of urinary calculi has advantages of simple handling, safe and fast, exact curative effect, less side effects, and so on, which is worthy of clinical promotion and application.%目的:观察体外冲击波碎石

  19. Pneumatic combined with ultrasonic lithotripsy in ultrasound-guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy for complicated renal calculi (Report of 180 cases)%B超引导超声联合弹道EMSⅢ代治疗复杂性肾结石(附180例报告)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂传仕; 崔维奇; 谌辉鹏; 魏世杰; 罗庆华; 姜贤

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨B超引导下超声联合弹道EMSⅢ代治疗复杂性肾结石的方法及疗效.方法:回顾性分析2008年11月~2011年6月收治180例复杂性肾结石患者的临床资料,包括单发肾盂或肾盏结石25例,多发性结石135例,肾鹿角形或铸型结石20例;其中双肾结石35例,结石合并脓肾3例.B超引导下穿刺并扩张建立F24经皮肾镜操作通道,采用超声联合气压弹道碎石清石.结石合并脓肾患者先用超声吸附装置清理脓液和脓栓,并在低压下超声碎石后吸出脓液,再行碎石清石术.结果:所有病例均一次穿刺成功.8例鹿角形巨大结石行双通道取石,余均为单通道取石,全部一期完成手术.手术时间50~120 min,平均70 min.术中出血量50~300ml,平均120ml.结石一次性取净率91.1%(164/180),残留小结石16例,结石直径<0.7 cm,术后1个月行ESWL治疗,结石完全排净.术中术后未发生严重并发症.结论:B超引导下经皮肾镜超声联合弹道碎石清石治疗复杂性肾结石安全、高效,是临床微创治疗复杂性肾结石的理想选择.%Objective:To evaluate the techniques and effects of pneumatic combined with ultrasonic lithotripsy in ultrasound-guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy (the third generation EMS) for the treatment of complicated renal calculi. Methods: A total of 180 patients with complicated renal calculi underwent operations in our hospital from November 2008 to June 2011. The data were retrospectively investigated. There were 25 case pelvocalyceal calculi, 135 case mulitiple renal calculi, and 20 case staghorn calculi, including 35 case bilateral renal calculi in and 3 case renal calculi accompainied with pyonephrosis. In ultrasound-guided, a F24 percutaneous working channel for nephroscopy was established. Renal stones were treated with combined pneumatic and ultrasound lithotripsy by u-sing the Litho Clast Master. For treatment of renal calculi accompainied with pyonephrosis(3 cases

  20. Percutaneons nephrolithotomy for calculi in solitary kidney: challenge and risk%孤立肾肾结石经皮肾镜取石术安全性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建兴; 胡卫国; 杨波; 陈亮; 马凯; 黄晓波; 王晓峰

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of standard percutaneous nephrolithot- omy(PCNL)in the treatment of calculi in solitary kidney. Methods One hundred and fifty-six pa- tients of renal calculi with functional or anatomic solitary kidney had undergone PCNL accessed by two steps dilation to 24 F tract with ultrasound guidance from Aug 2003 to Oct 2008.Fifty-seven cases were with staghorn calculi,83 were with multiple calculi,16 were with single stone.There were 71 cases with abnormal renal function and 11with open nephrolithotomy history.All calculi were frag- mented and extracted by pneumatic and ultrasound lithotripter. Results The percutaneous renal ac- cess was successfully established in 1 56 patients under ultrasound guidance and immediate lithotripsy was performed.The calculi of 143(91.7%)patients were cleared by single access,9(5.8%)by double accesses,1 by triple accesses in one session and 3 by multiple accesses in multiple-session pro- cedures.The mean operating time was(46.7±11.2)min,the mean first accessing time was(4.5± 0.8)min.The stone-free rate after the first operation was 74.4%.There were 2 1 kidnevs accepted another PCNL to remove the residual calculi.The stone-free rate of this group was 87.8%.Five cases (3.2%)needed transfusion,4(2.6%)underwent hyperseleetive angioembolization for bleeding con- trol.No injury of adjacent organs or urosepsis happened.The plasma creatinine decreased after opera- tion in 81.7%of patients with pre-operative abnormal renal function.and no patient needed replace- ment therapy for deteriorated renal function. Conclusion Standard PCNL for calCUIus in solitary kidnev accessed by two steps dilation to 24 F tract with uhrasound-guided punCture is safe and effective.%目的 探讨孤立肾肾结石经皮肾镜取石术(PCNL)的安全性及临床疗效.方法 孤立肾合并肾结石患者156例,其中解剖性孤立肾35例,功能性孤立肾121例(对侧肾GFR<10ml

  1. 胆囊颈部结石嵌顿实施腹腔镜胆囊切除术的临床探析%Clinical analysis of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the treatment of gallbladder neck calculi incarceration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宇

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the clinical effect of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the treatment of gallbladder neck calculi incarceration.Methods:92 patients with gallbladder neck calculi incarceration were divided into the control group and the experimental group with 46 cases in each.The control group was given conventional open cholecystectomy treatment.The experimental group was given laparoscopic surgery treatment.The operation time,intraoperative blood loss,postoperative recovery feeding time,hospitalization time and complications were compared in two groups.Results:The two groups were successfully completed surgery.The experimental group had no transfer laparotomy cases.The operation time,intraoperative blood loss, postoperative recovery feeding time,hospitalization time of the experimental group were significantly less than those of the control group(P<0.05).The incidence rate of postoperative complication in the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the treatment of gallbladder neck calculi incarceration has exact effect.It has the advantages of less trauma, less bleeding,high safety.It is beneficial to the rapid recovery of patients.%目的:分析胆囊颈部结石嵌顿实施腹腔镜胆囊切除术治疗的临床效果。方法:将92例胆囊颈部结石嵌顿患者分为对照组和试验组各46例,对照组给予常规开腹胆囊切除术治疗,试验组给予腹腔镜手术治疗,比较两组患者手术耗时、术中失血量、术后恢复进食时间、住院时间以及并发症等。结果:两组均顺利完成手术,试验组无中转开腹病例;试验组手术耗时、术中失血量、术后恢复进食时间以及住院时间明显少于对照组(P<0.05);试验组术后并发症发生率明显低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:胆囊颈部结石嵌顿实施腹腔镜胆囊切除术治疗效果确切,且具

  2. Retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy for complex upper ureteral calculi%后腹腔镜输尿管切开取石术治疗复杂性输尿管上段结石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧平; 邓晓洪; 郑军; 王元中; 陈高亮

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and surgical techniques of retroperitoneal laparoscopic uret-erolithotomy(RLU) in the trectment of complex upper ureteral calculi .Methods The clinical data of 33 cases(21 males and 12 females) of complex upper ureteral calculi patients who underwent RLU ,from March 2009 to August 2013 ,were retrospectively analyzed .Results All the 33 cases underwent RLU successfully .Operative time ranged from 60 to 150 min(mean ,90 .6 min) .The average volume of surgical blood loss was 32 mL ,ranged from 22 to 52 mL .During the operations ,we dealed with 15 cases of ureteral calculi complicated by ureteric polyps simultaneously . No serious complications were encountered .B ultrasound after 3 months of operation showed the hydronephrosis dis-appeared or observably reduced compared with the preoperative status .During the period followed 3-27 months ,ure-teral stricture or recurrent calculus had not been found .Conclusion RLU is safe ,effective and minimally invasive procedure .It may be considered as the first-choice treatment for patients with complex upper ureteral stones or the other experienced unsuccessful minimally invasive treatments .It can replace the conventional open surgery .%目的:探讨后腹腔镜输尿管切开取石术(RL U )治疗复杂性输尿管上段结石的疗效和手术技巧。方法回顾性分析2009年3月至2013年8月术前确诊为复杂性输尿管上段结石并行RL U治疗的33例患者的临床资料,其中男21例,女12例,平均年龄43岁,结石停留时间均大于8周。结果33例手术均获得成功,手术时间60~150 min ,平均90.6 min ,术中出血量约22~52 mL ,平均32 mL。15例术中发现合并输尿管息肉,同时进行处理。无严重并发症发生。术后3个月复查B超示患者肾积水消失或较术前明显减轻。所有患者均获得随访,随访3~27个月,无结石复发和输尿管狭窄等并发症发生。结论 RL U手术安全有

  3. 输尿管封堵器在输尿管镜中上段取石术中的应用%Application of Ureteral Occlusion Devices in Ureteroscopic Holium Laser Lithotripsy for Treatment of Upper Ureteral Calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙宇; 李炯明; 陈戬; 刘建和; 闫永吉; 姜永明

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨输尿管封堵器在输尿管镜钬激光碎石治疗输尿管中上段结石中的应用.方法 2010年10月至2011年10月,采用输尿管镜下置入英诺伟(TMIVX-SC10)输尿管封堵器封堵结石后钬激光碎石治疗输尿管中上段结石78例,其中上段41例,中段37例.结石直径为10~24mm.结果 成功封堵的71例(91%) URS手术,一次性彻底击碎结石.未有效封堵的7例手术中,2例辅助ESWL手术.手术时间为32~66 min,平均46min;术后2~7 d出院,平均3.3 d;术中无明显输尿管损伤及明显出血等严重并发症.结论 输尿管封堵器下进行的URS手术,可有效缩短手术时间及术后住院时间,有利于结石的完全粉碎,提高结石排净率,最大程度减少其它辅助治疗,是一种值得普及和推广的方法.%Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ureteral occlusion devices used in ureteroscopic holium laser lithotripsy for treatment of upper-middle ureteral calculi. Methods From October 2010 to October 2011, a total of 78 patients with upper-middle ureteral calculi, 41 upper ureteral calculus and 37 middle ureteral lacalus, were treated with holium laser lithotripsy via a F8/9.8 ureteroscope, combined with a INNOVEX IVX- SC10 ureteral occlusion device. The diameters of ureteral calculi were 10~24 mm. Results All operations were successfully performed without obvious ureteral injury and serious bleeding. 71 (91%) cases were successfully occluded with stones being completely crushed once. 7 cases were not effectively occluded, two of which were treated with ESWL. Mean Operative time was 46 min (32~66min). Mean postoperative hospital stay was 3.3 days C2~7 days) . Conclusions The newureteral occlusion device is worthy of popularization and promotion in favor of shortening operative time and postoperative hospital stay, increasing stone- free rate, reducing other adjuvant therapies with the maximum extent.

  4. URL及MPCNL治疗输尿管上段结石的临床疗效研究%Research on the Clinical Effect of URL and MPCNL in the Treatment of Upper Ureteral Calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万跃平; 李红艳; 习明; 万颂; 华伟

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To research the clinical effect of transurethral ureteroscopic lithotripsy(URL) and minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy(MPCNL) in the treatment of upper ureteral calculi. Method:320 cases of upper ureteral calculi patients in our hospital from July 2008 to December 2014 were selected as the research objects.They were randomly divided into group A and group B,with 160 cases in each group.Group A was given URL and group B was given MPCNL.Patients with calculus less than 1.5 cm in the two groups were selected as group A1 and group B1 respectively,patients with calculus longer than 1.5 cm in the two groups were selected as group A2 and group B2 respectively.The indexes of intraoperative and postoperative in each group were retrospectively analyzed and compared.Result:The time of operation,intraoperative blood loss,postoperative hospital stay,hospitalization expenses,intraoperative blood transfusion rate,incidence of secondary bleeding,incidence rate of peripheral viscera injury,incidence of postoperative infection and drug use rate for postoperation pain in group A1 and group B1 were lower than those in group A2 and group B2 respectively, the differences were statistically significant(P0.05).The incidence rate of calculi residual 1 month after operation in group B2 was lower than that in group A2,the difference was statistically significant(P1.5 cm的患者分别设为A2、B2组。回顾分析并比较各组术中及术后各项指标。结果:A1、A2组手术时间、术中出血量、术后住院时间、住院费用、术中输血率、继发出血发生率、周围脏器损伤发生率、术后感染发生率、术后疼痛药物使用率均分别低于B1、B2组,比较差异均有统计学意义(P0.05);B2组术后1个月结石残留发生率明显低于A2组,比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论:当输尿管上段结石长径大于1.5 cm时首选MPCNL术,它具有非常高的结石清除率;当输

  5. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy with Cyberwand Dual Probe Ultrasonic Lithotriptor for Treatment of Renal Staghorn Calculi%经皮肾镜Cyberwand双导管超声碎石清石系统治疗肾铸型结石体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文增; 崔振宇; 马涛; 魏若晶; 张伟; 李昱; 师晓强

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and skill of ultrasonography - guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy with dual probe ultrasonic lithotriptor in the treatment of renal staghorn calculi. Methods Clinical data of 27 cases including one case with cavitas pelvisectopic kidney staghorn calculi treated hy ultrasonography - guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy with dual probe ultrasonic lithotriptor from July 2009 to April 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Results The percutaneous renal accesses were successfully established under ultrasound guidance and phase one operation was performed in all patients. The operative duration was 40 ~ 100 minutes, averaged 68 minutes. The intraoperative hlood loss was 30 ~ 150 ml, averaged 72 ml. 23 cases were discharged completely in first phase operation and the stone clearance rate was 85. 2% . 3 cases were treated by ESWL due to residual stones and the residual stones were discharged completely. One case with big residual stones due to hemorrhage was performed second operation. The length of hospitalization was 9 ~ 12 days, averaged 10 days. No severe complications such as delayed hemorrhage and severe infection were found during 1 to 9 months' follow - up. Conclusion Ultrasonography - guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy with dual probe ultrasonic lithotriptor in treatment of upper urinary tract calculi has the advantages of high efficacy, short operative duration, little blood loss and few complications. Estahlishment of Percutaneous renal accesses is very important and attention should be paid in operational skills.%目的 探讨B超引导下经皮肾镜Cyberwand双导管超声碎石清石系统治疗肾铸型结石的疗效及技巧.方法 回顾性分析2009年7月-2010年4月27例在B超引导下应用经皮肾镜Cyberwand双导管超声碎石清石系统治疗肾铸型结石患者的临床资料,其中1例为盆腔异位肾铸型结石.结果 27例均成功建立F24皮肾通道,Ⅰ期完成手术.手术时间40~100

  6. One-stage Percutaneous Nephroscopy for Secondary Upper Urinary Stricture Combined with Renal Calculi%经皮肾镜一期治疗继发性上尿路狭窄合并肾结石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范先明; 郭昭建; 林剑锋; 王世先; 涂建平; 叶振扬; 郑健忠; 梁福律

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨经皮肾镜一期治疗继发性上尿路狭窄合并肾结石的可行性与临床疗效。方法回顾分析我院2006年7月~2013年7月97例继发性上尿路狭窄合并肾结石的临床资料。建立F24标准经皮肾镜操作通道,超声联合气压弹道将结石击碎并吸出体外,应用自制电钩或钬激光直视下将狭窄段切开。放置F5双J管2枚内引流。结果93例一期手术成功,手术时间30~180 min,平均75 min。1例因输尿管管腔完全闭塞,改开放手术;2例穿刺出脓性尿液,肾镜下碎石取石后,放置肾造瘘,二期内切开术;1例碎石时间较长,改二期内切开术。93例一期手术成功者术后随访3个月~3年,平均12个月。治愈84例,有效6例,无效3例。结论经皮肾镜一期治疗继发性上尿路狭窄合并肾结石,临床效果较好,手术创伤较小,术后恢复好、快,安全,具有可重复性的优点。%Objective To investigate the feasibility and the efficacy of one-stage percutaneous nephroscopy in the treatment of secondary upper urinary stricture combined with renal calculi. Methods A retrospective analysis was carried out on clinical data of 97 patients with secondary upper urinary stricture complicated with renal calculi from July 2006 to July 2013. Percutaneous nephroscopy was performed through the F24 standard approach.The renal stones were broken and sucked out by the combination of pneumatic and ultrasonic measures.The ureterostenosis segment was opened by using endoscopic incision with monopolar or holmium laser.Two F5 D-J stent were placed after the operation. Results The operation was successfully accomplished in one session in 93 patients.The operation time ranged from 30 to 180 min, with a mean of 75 min.Conversion to open surgery was required in 1 patient because of complete ureteral occlusion.Two patients with renal stones were accompanied with pyonephrosis, and after a renal cannula was

  7. 3种微创手术治疗复杂性输尿管上段结石212例比较%A comparison of three surgical procedures of complicated upper ureteral calculi for 212 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭明; 程洪林; 郭闯; 程宗勇; 李锋; 张力; 李元仲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of three procedures, ureteroscopic litripsy(URL), minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy(MPCNL) ,and retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithomy(RLU), for the treatment of complicated upper ureteral calculi. Methods Two hundred and thirteen cases of complicated upper ureteral calculi were treated in this hospital from February 2002 to February 2010,including fifty-two cases of URL, one hundred and seven cases of MPCNL, and fifty-four cases of RLU. Results The stone free rate seven days after operation:URL was 36.5%(19/52),MPCNL was 75.7%(81/107),RLU was 90.6% (48/53); the stone free rate one months after operation: URL was 71. 1% (38/52), MPCNL was 95. 3% (102/107), RLU was 96.2%(51/53); the stone-free rate three months after operation:URL was 82.7%(43/52),MPCNL was 98. 1%(105/107),RLU was 98.1%(52/53). There was significantly difference between URL and MPCNL(P<0.05) ,URL and RLU (P<0.05). There was also significantly difference between MPCNL and RLU in the near future(P<0. 05) ,but had no difference in long term. Conclusion High stone free rate can be obtained with RLU and MPCNL for impacted upper ureteral calculi. The stone-free rate is less satisfactory with URL.%目的 比较输尿管镜碎石(URL)、微创经皮肾镜取石(MPCNL)、后腹腔镜下输尿管切开取石(RLU)治疗复杂性输尿管上段结石的疗效.方法 回顾分析2002年2月至2010年2月复杂性输尿管上段结石212例,其中URL治疗52例,MPCNL治疗107例,RLU治疗54例.比较分析3种手术的治疗效果.结果 术后7 d结石清除率:URL组36.5%(19/52),MPCNL组75.7%(81/107),RLU组90.6%(48/53).术后1个月结石清除率:URL组73.1%(38/52),MPCNL组95.3%(102/107),RLU组96.2%(51/53).术后3个月结石清除率:URL组82.7%(43/52),MPCNL组98.1%(105/107),RLU组98.1%(52/53).URL组分别与MPCNL组、RLU组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),MPCNL、RLU组之间比较近期差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),

  8. 上尿路结石患者腔内术后并发尿脓毒血症的护理%Nursing care for urosepsis after endoscopic surgery for patients with upper urinary tract calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽欢

    2016-01-01

    目的 尿脓毒血症是上尿路结石术后众多严重并发症中的一个,严重威胁患者的生命安全,通过分析此类病人的护理及结果,探讨上尿路结石患者腔内术后并发尿脓毒血症的护理经验.方法 回顾性分析2011年4月至2015年11月于本科室行经皮肾镜取石术术后并发尿脓毒血症而转入ICU的患者的临床资料,分析患者手术前后病情变化和采取的治疗护理措施,总结早期识别上尿路结石腔内术后并发尿脓毒血症患者的护理经验.结果 72例患者经及时、有序、规范及有效的对症治疗和积极护理均痊愈出院,平均住院时间为(14.79±16.20)d,体温恢复正常的时间为(24.54±24.23)h.结论 上尿路结石腔内术后应密切观察患者病情,及早发现和及时处理尿脓毒血症,同时做好心理康复护理,才能最大化尿脓毒血症患者治疗效果,改善其预后和提高其生存率.%Objective Urosepsis is a severe complication after surgery for upper urinary tract calculi and is a great threat on the patients's life safety.This study aimed to explore the nursing care for postoperative urosepsis after endoscopic surgery for patients with upper urinary tract calculi analyzing the nursing experience and results.Methods The clinical data of 72 patients complicated with urosepsis after taking percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) at our department from April,2011 to November,2015 and transferred to ICU were retrospectively analyzed.The patients' disease conditions and the nursing measures were analyzed.The nursing experience of early observation of urosepsis patients after PCNL was summarized.Results All the 72 patients recovered and discharged from hospital after timely and efficient symptomatic tr.eatment and active nursing care.The hospital stay was (14.79±16.20) d.The time for body temperature recovering to normal was (24.54±24.23) h.Conclusions Patients with upper urinary calculi should be closely observed after surgery

  9. 超声引导建立经皮肾镜通道处理肾盏结石的技巧%B-ultrasonography-guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy for treatment of renal caliceal calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    湛海伦; 周祥福; 杨飞; 陆敏华; 卢杨柏; 黄洁夫

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the skills in establishment of work tract for percutaneous nephrolithotomy under the guidance of B-ultrasonography for patients with renal caliceal calculi. Methods: Data of 78 cases of renal caliceal calculi, underwent percutaneous nephrolithotripsy under the guidance of B-ultrasonography from May 2006 to October 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The number and location of percutaneous track, operative time, in-traoperative blood loss, and stone-free rate were analyzed. Results; All operations were successful without serious complications. Single, dual and trial tract were established in 58, 15 and 5 cases, respectively, with most tracts through the middle calyx. The stone-free rate was 92. 3%. The mean operative time was 45 - 180 min, and the in-traoperative blood loss was 80 ~ 350 ml. Conclusions; Improved efficacy and fewer complications in percutaneous nephrolithotomy come with the familiarity of anatomy of renal calices and the location of renal calculus, sufficient operative plan of optimal percutaneous track, and the skilled application of B-ultrasonography.%目的:总结B超引导建立经皮肾镜通道处理肾盏结石的技巧.方法:收集2006年5月-2010年10月行B超引导经皮肾镜钬激光碎石取石术的78例肾盏结石患者的手术资料,观察穿刺通道位置及数目、手术时间、术中失血量和结石清除率.结果:全部手术均获成功,其中单通道取石58例,双通道15例,三通道5例,并以穿刺肾后组中盏为主,结石清除率92.3%.手术时间45~180 min,中位时间75 min;出血80~350 ml,中位出血量110ml.无严重并发症发生.结论:熟悉肾盏结构和结石的相对位置关系、术前拟定最佳经皮肾穿刺通道、术中注重B超操作技巧可提高经皮肾镜处理肾盏结石疗效,降低并发症的发生率.

  10. Treatment of renal calculi with percutaneous nephrolithotomy under the guidance of ultrasound and local infiltration anesthesia%局部浸润麻醉超声引导下经皮肾镜取石术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀书; 罗光恒; 刘军; 单刚; 宋大龙

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨局部浸润麻醉下超声引导经皮肾穿刺取石术( PCNL) 治疗肾结石或输尿管上段结石的方法及效果.方法 该组42例肾结石或输尿管上段结石均采用超声引导, 局部浸润麻醉下行经皮肾穿刺取石术.结果 42例均一期穿刺造瘘成功,39例一期成功PCNL, 3例患者因脓肾改行二期PCNL, 一期手术结石清除率为83.8%.手术时间为15~80 min, 平均55 min, 无严重并发症.结论 局麻下超声引导PCNL治疗多发性肾结石或输尿管上段结石具有操作简单、创伤小、并发症少、恢复快、结石清除率高等优点, 可作为部分简单肾结石或输尿管上段结石的治疗方法.%Objective To evaluate the feasibility and availability of percutaneous nephrolithotomy(PCNL) under the guidance of ultrasound and local infiltration anesthesia on renal calculi or ureteral calculus. Methods We retrospectively investigated 42 patients with renal calculi or ureteral calculus who underwent PCNL. All the 42 cases underwent PCNL with local infiltration anesthesia under the guidance of ultrasound. Results Among 42 cases, 39 cases were stone free after one stage PCNL, 3 cases stone free after two stages PCNL for renal pyonephrosis. The total stone free rate was 83.8%. The operative duration was 55 min (15-80 min). No severe complications were observed. Conclusions PCNL under the guidance of ultrasound and local infiltration anesthesia offers advantages with respect to easy operation, less invasion, less complications, high stone free rate. It is a minimally invasive way in treatment of simple renal and ureteral calculus.

  11. Observation Clinical Effect on Percutaneous Renal Endoscopy in Treatment of Upper Ureteral Incarceration Calculi%经皮肾镜治疗输尿管上段嵌顿性结石的临床效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪伟; 苏丹

    2016-01-01

    Abstract]Objective To investigate the clinical effect of percutaneous renal endoscopy in the treatment of upper ureteral calculi.Methods To upper ureteral block incarcerated stone in patients with 96 cases as the research object, which were randomly assigned to two groups, each group had 48 cases, observe group received percutaneous nephrolithotomy in the treatment, and the control group was given treatment of ureteral lithotripsy, compared two groups of patients with treatment effect differences. Results Observation group of patients in hospital time (3.8±1.2) days, stone complete clearance rate were better than the control group, was difference had statistically significance (P<0.05).Conclusion The percutaneous nephrolithotomy treatment of upper ureteric calculi patients compared to conventional ureteral lithotripsy, can be more comprehensive and remove the calculus patients and shorten the hospitalization time.%目的:探讨经皮肾镜治疗输尿管上段嵌顿性结石患者的临床效果。方法以输尿管上段嵌顿性结石患者96例作为研究对象,将患者随机分为两组,各48例。观察组给予经皮肾镜治疗,对照组给予输尿管镜碎石术治疗,对比两组患者治疗效果差异。结果观察组患者住院时间(3.8±1.2)d、结石完全清除率均优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论经皮肾镜治疗输尿管上段嵌顿性结石患者相较于常规输尿管碎石术,能更加全面的清除患者体内结石并缩短其住院时间。

  12. Analysis on curative effect of slow and fast ESWL in treatment of urinary calculi%慢速与快速ESWL治疗尿路结石的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨天

    2014-01-01

    目的:对慢速与快速ESWL治疗尿路结石的疗效进行分析。方法:选取2012年11月~2013年5月间上尿路结石患者78例,随机分为慢速组和快速组,分别给予不同ESWL速率治疗。对2组患者临床疗效进行分析比较。结果:结石直径小于15 mm的尿路结石患者采取慢速ESWL治疗总有效率94.12%,高于快速ESWL治疗总有效率84.21%;结石直径大于等于15 mm的患者采取快速ESWL治疗,总有效率90.00%,高于慢速ESWL治疗总有效率72.73%,p<0.05。结论:根据尿路结石患者结石大小情况选择合适震波采取ESWL治疗,能有效提高患者临床治疗总有效率。%To discuss the curative effect of slow and fast ESWL in treatment of urinary calculi .Methods:From November 2012 to May 2013, patients with urinary calculi in 78 cases, were randomly divided into the slow and fast group , were treated with differ-ent ESWL rate treatment .Analysis and comparison of two groups of patients with clinical curative effect .Results:The stone diameter less than urinary 15mm take slow ESWL and effective rate of treatment was 94.12%higher than ESWL treatment the total effective rate was 84.21%;stone diameter greater than or equal to 15mm with fast ESWL and effective rate of treatment was 90%higher than the slow ES-WL treatment the total effective rate was 72.73%, P <0.05.Conclusion:According to the urinary stone size appropriate shock adopted the ESWL treatment could effectively improve the clinical treatment of patients and the total efficiency .

  13. 尿路结石微创手术的护理危险因素与预防措施%Nursing Risk Factors of Urinary Calculi Treated by Minimally Invasive Surgery and the Corresponding Preventive Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段光兰; 刘金芳

    2015-01-01

    尿路结石是临床上常见的疾病,这种疾病机制复杂,诱因也比较多,患者发病后临床上主要表现为:排尿困难、尿流变细、中断等,对于感染患者甚至出现尿频、尿急等,影响患者生活质量。目前,医学界对于这种疾病缺乏理想的治疗方法,常规方法主要微创手术治疗为主,但是患者在患者在手术治疗过程中风险因素较大,部分患者手术后容易产生不良反应或并发症等,影响患者治疗预后。该文将以尿路结石为起点,分析尿路结石微创手术的护理危险因素,并根据其危险因素提出针对性的解决措施,提高患者手术成功率及患者生活质量。%Urinary calculi is a clinical common disease with complex mechanisms and many incentives. The main clinical manifestations of the disease are as follows: dysuria, thinning or intermittency of urinary stream and so on; those with infection even have urinary frequency, urgency and so forth, which affect the quality of life. At present, there is no ideal treatment method for the disease. And the conventional treatment method is mainly minimally invasive surgical treatment, however, the patient has many risk factors during the surgery, and some patients are prone to adverse reactions or complications, which in turn affect the treatment and prognosis. This paper analyzes the nursing risk factors of minimally invasive surgery for urinary calculi, and puts forward corresponding countermeasures so as to improve the success rate of surgery and the quality of life of the patients.

  14. 软镜配合腹腔镜治疗输尿管结石合并肾结石的临床疗效观察%Clinical Curative Effect Observation Treating Ureteral Calculi with Renal Calculi with Soft Lenses and Laparoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安勇; 李斌; 余乐

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of laparoscopy joined with oledochoscope on the treatment of ureteral and renal calculus.Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis form march 2011 to september 2013 on the patients who were diagnosed with kidney stones ipsilateral ureteral stones in our hospital.We evaluated the efficacy of laparoscopy joined with oledochoscope on the treatment of ureteral and renal calculus.Results All 32 patients were successfully removed the stones and completed the surgery.There were no bleeding and other complications in surgery. The average completion time was 165min,and there were eight patients whose operation time were longer than 160min.The average hospital stay was 12 days after surgery.7 days after surgery,we found the clearance rate of stones were 100%.We follow-up after surgery,and found hydronephrosis of patients had been significantly improved,and there no ureteral stricture and renal function deterioration.Conclusion Laparoscopy joined with oledochoscope on the treatment of ipsilateral kidney with middle and upper ureteral calculi was safe,effective,fewer complications,and had high stone clearance rate,and had a therapeutic advantage on the treatment of ureteral and renal calculus disposably.%目的:评价软镜配合腹腔镜治疗输尿管结石合并肾结石的疗效。方法回顾性分析,2011年3月至2013年9月32例在我院被诊断为输尿管结石合并同侧肾结石患者临床资料。同时分析经腹径入路腹腔镜输尿管切开除石,联合软镜除肾结石治疗这32例患者输尿管中上段结石合并同侧肾结石的治疗效果。结果32例患者均顺利取出结石,完成手术。术中未出现大出血等并发症。手术平均完成时间为165min;其中有8例患者手术操作时间大于160min。术中平均出血量为26ml。术后平均住院天数为12天。术后7天,检查发现除石率100%。术后随访,发现患者肾积水得到明显改

  15. Ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy in treatment of middle or lower ureteral calculi:a report of 70 cases%输尿管镜钬激光碎石术治疗输尿管中下段结石70例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许海斌; 关超; 谷明利; 方文革; 赵维多; 徐卫强; 谢海龙; 郭园园

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨输尿管镜钬激光碎石术治疗输尿管中下段结石的有效性及安全性.方法:应用硬性输尿管镜联合钬激光碎石术治疗输尿管中下段结石70例,其中中段结石26例,下段结石44例.结石合并急性肾绞痛8例,合并输尿管息肉22例,合并输尿管狭窄5例.结果:单次碎石成功67例,成功率95.7%.1例因输尿管开口水肿狭窄导致置镜困难,1例术中结石移位至肾脏,1例结石息肉包裹改开放手术.术中发生输尿管穿孔4例,术后并发泌尿系感染1例,经积极抗感染治疗后痊愈.随访2~6个月,无结石残留及输尿管狭窄发生.结论:输尿管镜钬激光碎石术治疗输尿管中下段结石具有高效、微创、安全等优点,是输尿管中下段结石首选的治疗方法.%Objective:To investigate the efficacy and safety of ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy in treatment of middle or lower ureteral calculi. Methods: Holmium laser lithotripsy was conducted in 70 cases of middle and lower ureteral calculi via rigid ureteroscope. There were 26 cases with middle ureteral calculi and 44 cases with lower ureteral calculi. Acute renal colic was occurred in 8 cases. Polyp was found in 22 cases and ureteral stenosis was found in 5 cases. Results: The successful lithotripsy in a single procedure was achieved in 67 cases and the success rate was 95.7%. Failure of ureteroscopy placement occurred in one case because of stricture of ureteral orifice. Calculi was translocated to renal pelvis in one case. Conversion to open surgery was occurred in one case because of polyp package of ureteral calculi. Ureteral perforation was occurred in 4 cases and urinary tract infection was occurred in one case who was recovered after use of antibiotics. There was no ureteral stenosis or calculous remnant happening after following-up of 2 to 6 months. Conclusions:Treatment of ureteral calculi by ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy is an effective,less invasive and safe

  16. New dual-source CT and dual-energy imaging in analysis of compositions of urinary calculi%新双源CT双能量成像对泌尿系结石成分定性诊断的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林黛英; 吴先衡; 汪丹凤; 林少帆; 黄宝泉

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨新双源CT双能量成像分析泌尿系统结石成分的临床价值.方法 对45例尿路结石患者行双源CT双能量扫描,分析其结石成分,比较体外红外光谱法分析结石成分的结果,分析双源CT分析各种成分泌尿系结石的特异性与敏感性.结果 双源CT能准确区分尿酸结石和非尿酸结石,灵敏度和特异度均为100.00%;磷酸盐结石的诊断灵敏度为93.10%,特异度为92.00%;胱氨酸结石的诊断灵敏度为66.67%,特异度为97.90%;草酸钙结石灵敏度为85.71%,特异度为100.00%.结论 新双源CT双能量成像能在治疗前对泌尿系结石的成分进行分析,对结石的治疗及预防具有重要意义.%Objective To explore the clinical value of new dual-source CT and dual-energy imaging in the analysis of the compositions of urinary calculi.Methods The compositions of urinary calculi in 45 patients were analyzed being scanned with new dual-source CT and dual-energy imaging.The compositions of urinary calculi was compared with the results from infrared spectrometry in vitro.The sensitivity and specificity of the composition of urinary calculi were analyzed with new dual-source CT.Results Dual-source CT could accurately distinguish nonuric acid stones from uric acid calculi,and its sensitivity and specificity were both 100.00%; the diagnosis sensitivity and specificity to phosphate stones were 93.10% and 92.00%; the diagnosis sensitivity and specificity to cystine stones were 66.67% and 97.90%; and the diagnosis sensitivity and specificity to calcium oxalate stones were 85.71% and 100.00%.Conclusions Dual-source CT and dual-energy imaging can analyze the compositions of urinary calculi before treatment and has important significance in preventing and treating calculi.

  17. B超引导单通道经皮肾镜气压弹道联合超声碎石术治疗肾及输尿管上段结石%Percutaneous nephrolithotomy with pneumatic and ultrasonic power under single channel by B-type ultrasound guidance for treatment of renal and upper ureteral calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊丙建; 张志伟; 江铎; 唐明忠; 徐宝海; 张胜茹; 耿红卫; 雷霆; 张选举; 余义

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the possibility and safety of curing the renal and upper ureteral calculi by percutaneous nephrolithotripsy with pneumatic and ultrasonic powers under singel channel by the guide of B-typc ultrasound. Methods The clinical data of 258 cases(271 sides) were treated by percutaneous nephrolithotripsy of using pneumatic and ultrasonic system (EMS Ⅲ) carryed on analysis, the curing effect and surgical operation carryed on summary. Results All cases were performed with single channel, surgical operation time 30 ~180 mins. Single side first calculi clearance leaded 84. 9 % (230/ 271) , renal calculi (include renal merger upper ureteral calculi) clearance leaded 79. 8% (154/193) . 39 remaining calcului second clearance leaded 92. 3% (36/39). Single side upper ureteral calculi first clearance leaded 97. 4% (76/78). No nephrectomyhem.opneumothorax and septic shock. 2 cases with delayed hemorrhage were cured by selectivity thrombosis of renal artery, the colon hurted a, turned to open 2.Conclusions Percutancous nephrolithotrpsy with pneumatic and ultrasonic powers under single channel treating the renal and upper ureteral calculi have operation time shorter and small wound,successive rate higher and have the advantage of operation through passage again. safety of operation and reliable efficacy.%目的 探讨B超引导单通道经皮肾镜气压弹道联合超声碎石术治疗肾及输尿管上段结石的可行性和安全性.方法 对本组258例(271侧)采用经皮肾镜气压弹道联合超声碎石清石系统(EMS Ⅲ)治疗肾及输尿管上段结石的临床资料进行分析,对一期治疗效果及手术并发症进行总结.结果 271侧全部经单通道取石,手术时间30~180 min.一期单侧结石清除率84.9%(230/271),肾结石(包括肾合并输尿管上段结石)一期清除率79.8%(154/193).39例残余结石二期结石清除率92.3%(36/39).输尿管上段结石一期单侧结石清除率97.4%(76/78).无肾切除、血气

  18. 输尿管软镜下钬激光碎石术治疗上尿路结石——附126例报告%Treatment of Upper Urinary Calculi with Holmium Laser Lithotriptor under Flexible Ureteroscope (Appended with Report of 126 Cases)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周振宇; 何朝晖; 杨江根; 曾国华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical effect of holmium laser with flexible ureteroscope on upper urinary calculi.Methods All 126 patients of upper urinary calculi were treated with Holmium laser lithotriptor under flexible ureteroscope in our hospital.Of them,75 patients had calculi in the right side and 51 patients in the left side.The calculi were in the kidney for 64 patients,in the upper ureteral for 33 patients,and both in the upper ureteral and kidney for 29 patients.The diameter of the calculi ranged 0.6-2.0 cm,mean 1.33 cm.After ureter dilation and placement of ureteral access sheath,the stone were fragmented and removed with 200μm Ho ∶ YAG laser fiber,energy 0.8-1.0 J,frequency 5-10 Hz.Results The successful rate of stone fragmentation after single session was 92.86% (117/126).Mean operation time was 48 min(23-71 min).Six patients had low fever after the operation.Neither ureteral perforation nor pyonephrosis was observed.Conclusions The therapy of Holmium laser lithotriptor under flexible ureteroscope is safe and effective for upper urinary calculi,especially for upper ureteral,pelvis,middle calyx and upper calyx stones.%目的 探讨输尿管软镜下钬激光碎石术治疗上尿路结石的疗效.方法 上尿路结石患者126例,其中右侧结石75例,左侧结石51例.输尿管上段结石33例,输尿管上段合并肾结石29例,肾结石64例.结石大小0.6 ~2.0 cm,平均1.33 cm.经输尿管硬镜扩张后留置输尿管扩张鞘寻找结石,采用输尿管软镜下钬激光碎石术治疗,光纤直径200μm,能量0.8~1.0J,频率5~10Hz.结果 单次碎石成功117例(占92.86%),手术时间25~ 75 min,平均48 min.术后6例出现低热,无脓肾、输尿管穿孔等并发症.结论 输尿管软镜下钬激光碎石术治疗上尿路结石安全有效,尤其适用于输尿管上段、肾盂、肾中盏及肾上盏结石.

  19. 体外冲击波碎石在治疗结石形成导致双J管滞留中的价值%ESWL for Calculi-caused Double-J Tube Retention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭松; 李明杰; 王祥涛; 张见超; 徐洋; 杨彬; 孙晓璐; 魏巍

    2012-01-01

    To study the efficacy of ESWL for double-J tube retention caused by renal stones formation. Methods Since January 2003 to January 2012, 31 patients developed double-J tube retention because of renal stones formation after percutaneous nephrolithotomy with pneumatic lithotripsy and ureteroscopy. We performed ESWL on all the patients with the voltage started from 6 kV, which could be increased to 7 kV depending on the tolerance of the patients, and 3000 - 3500 shock waves were delivered within 90 min ( started from the bladder, followed by the ureter and renal pelvis, and focused on the ureteropelvic junction) , until the double-J tube was separated from the stones, and the stones were smaller than 3 mm in diameter. Results The double-J tube was removed after one session of ESWL in 22 patients, and two sessions in 5 patients. In the other 4 patients, we could not remove the double-J tube even after two sessions of ESWL, therefore ureteroscopy (2 cases) or minimally invasive PCNL (2 cases, who showed large stones complicated with renal pelvic calculi) was carried out. The patients were followed up for 6 months, during which 5 patients had recurrent renal calculi, and then were cured by medication (4 cases) or ESWL (1 case). Conclusion ESWL is a simple, safe, and effective method for double-J tube retention caused by renal stones formation.%目的 探讨体外冲击波碎石术在在治疗结石形成导致双J管滞留的应用价值. 方法 2003年1月~ 2012年1月对31例经皮肾镜气压弹道碎石术、输尿管镜检查及碎石术后结石形成导致双J管滞留者采用体外冲击波碎石,电压从6kV开始,根据患者耐受力逐渐增加至7 kV,冲击次数3000 ~3500次,时间约90 min.冲击从膀胱端开始,依次为输尿管、肾盂,重点冲击肾盂输尿管连接部,当透视发现结石与双J管分离且结石直径<3 mm治疗结束. 结果 22例1次ESWL后双J管顺利拔出;5例2次ESWL后拔出;2例2次ESWL后仍不能拔出,改

  20. 腹膜后腹腔镜治疗难治性输尿管结石45例分析%Retroperitoneal laparoscopy in the treatment of 45 cases with refractory ureteral calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖祥钧

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical efficacy of retroperitoneal laparoscopy in the treatment of refractory for ureteral stones.Methods From January 2010 to January 2015,the clinical data of 45 patients with refractory ureteral stones were retrospectively analyzed.The manner,duration of surgery,complications and length of stay and other indicators were summarized,and the treatment effect was evaluated.Results 45 patients were success-fully operated,of which 38 patients taken simple lithotomy,7 cases received simultaneous resection and anastomosis of ureter stenosis,the surgery time was 35 -135 minutes,5 -15 days in the hospital after surgery.Postoperative compli-cations:urinary fistula in 3 cases and 2 cases of wound infection was curable with appropriate treatment.Postoperative follow -up 3 -24 months,3 cases of recurrent calculus,2 patients with mild stenosis of ureter.Conclusion The retroperitoneal laparoscopy in treatment of refractory ureteral calculi trauma has quicker recovery and fewer complica-tions,which is currently the preferred method for treatment of refractory for ureteral calculi.%目的:探讨腹膜后腹腔镜治疗难治性输尿管结石的临床疗效。方法回顾性分析2010年1月至2015年1月收治的45例难治性管结石输尿患者的临床资料,总结手术方式、手术时间、并发症及住院时间等指标,评价治疗效果。结果45例患者均顺利完成手术,其中38例采取单纯切开取石术,7例同时行狭窄段输尿管切除吻合术,手术时间35~135 min,术后住院时间5~15 d。术后并发症:3例发生尿瘘,2例发生切口感染,均通过相应治疗后治愈。术后随访3~24个月,3例结石复发,2例并发输尿管轻度狭窄。结论腹膜后腹腔镜治疗难治性输尿管结石创伤小,恢复快,并发症少,是目前治疗难治性输尿管结石的首选方法。

  1. 甲状旁腺增生致反复泌尿系结石1例报告并文献复习%Repeated urinary calculi caused from parathyroid hyperplasia:a case report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丰; 陈亮

    2013-01-01

    To Summary the experience on diagnosis and treatment of urinary calculi caused from parathyroid hyperplasia,and to improve awareness and therapeutic level of urological physicians.Methods:The clinical data of a patient with repeated urinary stones due to parathyroid hyperplasia was retrospectively analyzed as follow:urinary calculi occurred frequently with both upper limbs pain for more than ten years,repeated extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL),ureteroscopic lithotripsy(URSL) and related orthopedic treatment were used,and the symptom control was not ideal.This case was suggested to be hyperparathyroidism according to a detailed medical history obtained from the patient at this time by our urology department.The diagnosis was confirmed further by the laboratory examinations and the surgery was conducted by thyroid and breast department.Results:After parathyroidectomy,the patient symptom was relieved and pathological result was disclosed to be parathyroid hyperplasia.The patient went ahead to receive stones clearance in bilateral ureters in urology department.Followed up for two years,no recurrence was reported on stone and bone pain.Conclusions:The urologists should consider the possibility of hyperparathyroidism when encountered patients with repeated stones.The parathyroid hormone test can help diagnose.The pattern of multidisciplinary team may be in use of improving the patient's therapeutic effect.%目的:总结甲状旁腺增生导致的反复泌尿系结石的诊断和治疗经验,提高泌尿外科医师对此病的认识、分析和治疗水平.方法:回顾性分析1例由甲状旁腺增生导致的反复泌尿系结石患者的临床资料:因反复泌尿系结石伴双上肢骨痛十余年,反复行体外冲击波碎石、输尿管镜碎石及相关骨科治疗,症状控制不理想.本次就诊时在详细追问病史下经科室会诊考虑为甲状旁腺机能亢进导致的泌尿系结石,遂经实验室检查证实.联合甲状腺乳腺外

  2. 铂立组合式输尿管软镜联合钬激光碎石术治疗肾结石的疗效观察%Curative observation of polyscope modular flexible ureteroscope combined with Holmium laser lithotripsy in the treatment of renal calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢俊安; 邓国贤; 郑霁; 宋思吉; 李前伟; 姚基伟; 代林勇; 李为兵; 周占松

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the curative effect of polyscope modular flexible ureteroscope combined with Holmium laser lithotrip-sy in the treatment of renal calculi. Methods 53 patients with renal calculi were performed CTU to detect the position of renal calculi before operation. The patients were treated with polyscope modular flexible ureteroscope combined with Holmium laser, and the double J tube were routinely indwelled 4 to 12 weeks after surgery. Results All the 52 patients has successfully completed the operation in the frist stage. The mean operative time was about 38 minutes. 6 patients were treated with flexible ureteroscope for second stage operation. One week after oper-ation, the review showed that there were residual calculi existed in 24 cases and there were 56 cases of post-operative infection, including 17 cases of sepsis or sepsis shock. Conclusion Polyscope modular flexible ureteroscope can be used for all kinds of kidney stones surgery and is characterized by safety and mild tissue injury. But we should pay more attention to the post-operative infection especially urosepsis.%目的:探讨使用铂立组合式输尿管软镜联合钬激光治疗肾结石的疗效。方法58例肾结石患者,经术前尿路造影( CTU)定位,采用输尿管软镜联合钬激光碎石,术后留置双J管4~12周。结果52例一期完成手术,平均手术时间38 min左右,6例行二期软镜治疗,术后1周复查有24例结石残留,56例术后发生感染,其中17例脓毒症/脓毒症休克。结论铂立组合式输尿管软镜能较好完成各类肾结石手术,损伤小,但伴发的感染尤其是脓毒症要引起足够重视。

  3. 输尿管镜下气压弹道碎石治疗输尿管结石的临床疗效分析%Clinical experience of Ureteroscopic Pneumatic Lithotripsy in the Treatment of Ureteral Calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾明祥

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨输尿管镜下气压弹道碎石治疗输尿管结石的疗效。方法对我院2009年10月至2011年12月76例输尿管结石患者行输尿管镜下气压弹道碎石术。结果输尿管镜下气压弹道碎石治疗输尿管结石76例中。一次性成功碎石的有73例(96.1%),2例因液压灌注压力高被冲至肾盂内,术后行体外冲击波碎石术(ESWL)后碎石成功,1例因输尿管下段狭窄输尿管镜无法通过转开放手术。结论输尿管镜下气压弹道碎石术具有疗效确切,成功率高、并发症少的特点,是输尿管中段,下段结石的有效方法。%Objective To probe the clinical effects of Ureteroscopic Pneumatic Lithotripsy in the treatment of ureteral calculi.Methods To the 76 patients who got ureteral calculus and treated in our hospital,by the using of rigid Ureteroscopic Pneumatic lithotripsy to process lithotripsy.Results In tiffs group which includes 76 patients,73 cascs were healed,the success rate were 96.1%.Conclusions Ureteroscopic Pneumatic Lithotripsy was highly effective and safety for the treatment of ureteral calculus.

  4. Clinical analysis of percutaneous nephrolithotomy for staghorn calculi with different stone branch number%鹿角形肾结石分支数对经皮肾镜取石术的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐士勇; 张志宏; 张昌文; 刘冉录; 史启铎; 徐勇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of staghorn stone branch number on outcomes of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL).Methods From January 2009 to January 2013,the 371 patients with staghorn stones who were referred to our hospital for PNL were considered for this study.All calculi were showed with CT 3-dimentional reconstruction (3-DR) imaging.The computerized database of the patients had been reviewed.Our exclusion criterion was patients with congenital renal anomalies,such as horse-shoe and ectopic kidneys.And borderline stones that branched to one major calyx only were also not included.From 3-DR images,the number of stone branching into minor renal calices was recorded.We made "3" as the branch breakdown between groups.And the patients were divided into four groups.The number of percutaneous tract,operative time,staged PNL,intra-operative blood loss,complications,stone clearance rate,and postoperative hospital day were compared.Results The 371 patients (386 renal units)underwent PNL successfully,included 144 single-tract PNL,242 multi-tract PNL,97 staged PNL.The average operative time was (100±50) minutes; the average intra-operative blood loss was (83 ± 67) ml.The stone clearance rate were 61.7% (3 days) and 79.5% (3 months).The postoperative hospital stay was (6.9 ± 3.4) days.A significantly higher ratio of multi-tract (x2 =212.220,P < 0.01) and staged PNL (x2 =49.679,P < 0.01),longer operative time (F =4.652,P < 0.01) and postoperative hospital day (F =2.067,P =0.043) and lower rate of stone clearance (x2 =10.691 and 47.369,P < 0.05) were found in PNL for calculi with stone branch number ≥ 5.There was no statistically meaningful difference among the 4 groups based on Clavien complication system (P =0.460).Conclusion The possibility of multi-tract and staged PNL,lower rate of stone clearance and longer postoperative hospital day increase for staghorn calculi with stone branch number more than 5.%目的 探讨鹿角形肾结石分支数对

  5. 自拟方治疗虚实夹杂型肾结石的疗效观察%Observation of Efficacy of Self-made Prescription in Treatment of Kidney Calculi of Deficiency-excessiveness Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈伟明

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To probe into the efficacy of self-made prescription in treatment of kidney calculi of deficiency-excessiveness types .METHODS:90 cases with kidney calculi of deficiency-excessiveness types admitted into the Community Health Services Center of Guangzhou Yuexiu District Beijing St .from Jun.2013 to Nov.2014 were selected as the research objects , who were divided into observation group and control group via the random number table , with 45 cases in each group .The control group were treated with orally hydrochlorothiazide ( 25 mg/time, 3 times/day), and orally anisodamine (10 mg/time, 3 times/day), and patients with urinary tract infection would be treated with antibiotics .The observation group received the self-made prescription treatment .The efficacy of patients, efficacy of TCM syndrome and indicators changes of urine β2-MG, blood β2-MG, Cr and BUN before and after treatment in two group of patients were observed .RESULTS: The total effective rate of observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group [ 93.33%( 42/45 ) VS 82.22%( 37/42 ) ] , with statistically significant difference(P<0.05).The urineβ2-MG, bloodβ2-MG, Cr and BUN of observation group was significantly lower than that of before treatment ,and it was lower than the control group , with statistically significant difference ( P<0.05).Also, the total effective rate of TCM syndrome in observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group [ 91.11%(41/45)VS 80.00%(36/45)], the difference was significant(P<0.05).CONCLUSIONS:Self-made prescription in treatment of kidney calculi of deficiency-excessiveness types has good efficacy , which is worthy of clinical promotion .%目的:探讨自拟方治疗虚实夹杂型肾结石的疗效。方法:选取2013年6月—2014年11月广州市越秀区北京街社区卫生服务中心收治的90例虚实夹杂型肾结石患者为研究对象,按随机数字表法分为观察组和对照组各45例。对

  6. 一期标准肾镜治疗鹿角型肾结石临床探讨%Standard tract percutaneous nephrolithotomy in a single session for the treatment of renal staghorn calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪培; 任选义; 魏金星; 王智勇; 王庆伟

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨经皮标准肾镜技术(SPCNL)治疗鹿角型肾结石的手术技巧和经验,并分析其并发症.方法:一期SPCNL治疗鹿角型肾结石66例,其中男42例,女24例,对所有患者的临床资料进行分析.结果:经皮肾通道均成功建立,第一主通道分别穿刺上盏29例、中盏20例、下盏1 7例.一期建立单通道碎石7例、双通道40例、三通道15例、四通道4例.平均手术时间75 min,无胸膜、肝脾、结肠损伤者,一期结石取净率69.7%(46/66).术后发热(体温高于38.5C)20例(30.3%),无感染性休克者.术中2例出血较多,术后4例迟发出血,其中1例行肾动脉栓塞(1.51%),2例需输血,无肾切除者.一期术后残石20例,6例需二期SPCNL碎石4例取净,5例输尿管镜取石均取净,7例配合ESWL治疗.随访3~12个月,总清石率为89.4%(59/66).结论:一期多通道SPCNL治疗鹿角型肾结石清石率高,且不增加肾脏大出血的风险.结石清除的越彻底,则术后感染、发热的概率越低.%Objective:To investigate the experience and technique of standard tract percutaneous nephrolithotomy (SPCNL) for the treatment of renal staghorn calculi,and analyze the accidental complications. Methods:We analysed all the clinical data of 66 renal staghorn calculi patients(42 males and 24 females)whom underwent SPCNL in a single session. Results: All percutaneous tunnels were successfully established. The firstly renal tunnel went through supra-calyces of 29 cases and middle-calyces of 20 and infra-calyces of 17, of which single tunnels were used in 7 cases, dual tunnel in 40, three-way tunnels in 15 and four-way tunnels in 4 simultaneously. No severe complications such as the injury of membrana pleuralis or abdominal organs occurred, the average operative time of single stage SPCNL was 75 min and the stone clearance rate was 69. 7% (46/75). 20 cases had a post-op fever that more than 38. 5℃(30. 3%)with no one septic shock. 2 cases had an immediate

  7. 伴脊柱畸形上尿路结石的经皮肾镜取石术%Percutaneous nephrolithotomy for upper urinary tract calculi in patients with deformity of spine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建兴; 胡卫国; 杨波; 于澄钒; 黄晓波; 王晓峰

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of standard percutaneous nephrolithot-omy (PCNL) for patients with deformity of spine. Methods Between Aug 2003 and May 2009, 35 patients of upper urinary tract calculi with scoliosis and kyphosis had undergone PCNL accessed by two steps dilation to 24F tract with ultrasound guidance. Clinical data were analyzed retrospectively. Results The pereutaneous renal access was successfully established in 35 patients under ultrasound guidance and immediate lithotripsy was performed. Prone position 9 units,lateral position 14 units,and other unconventional position 14 units. 34 (91.9 %) units were operated by single access and 3 (8.1%) by double in one session. The mean first accessing time was (8. 5±1.7)min, and stone management time was (39.3±14.6)min. The stone-free rate after the first operation was 86.5%, 2 kidneys ac-cepted another PCNL to remove the residual calculi, and the last stone-free rate was 91.9%. 2 cases needed transfusion. No injury of adjacent organs or urosepsis occurred. No severe complications oc-curred. Conclusions Standard PCNL for calculi in patients with deformity of spine accessed by two steps dilation to 24 F tract with ultrasound-guided puncture could be effective and safe. Special indi-vidual operative position and experienced clinical technique are needed.%目的 探讨应用超声定位经皮肾镜取石术(PCNL)治疗伴脊柱畸形上尿路结石的可行性及安全性.方法 伴脊柱畸形的上尿路结石患者35例.男19例,女16例.平均年龄32(22~64)岁.患者均经B超、KUB、CT检查确诊.左侧21例、右侧12例、双侧2例,共37侧.鹿角状结石7侧,多发结石21侧,单发结石9侧.结石长径平均26(12~45)mm.伴发脊柱畸形单纯侧凸3例,侧凸合并前、后凸32例.凸向患肾20侧,凸向健肾17侧.脊柱弯曲角度Cobb角>45°16例,<45°19例.脊柱畸形引发患肾形态改变13侧(35.1%),位置明显移位26侧(70.3%).引发胸廓畸形31例(88.6%).

  8. 盐酸坦索罗辛联合速尿在输尿管不同部位结石治疗中的疗效观察%Efficacy of tamsulosin hydrochloride with furosemide in the treatment of calculi in different parts of ureter Efficacy of tamsulosin hydrochloride with furosemide in the treatment of calculi in different parts of ureter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张自刚; 奚晓龙; 刘铁柱; 付毅; 杨亮; 邴建勇; 付继承; 朴庆华; 李秀凤

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and side‐effect of tamsulosin hydrochloride with furosemide in the treat‐ment of calculi in different parts of ureter after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) .Methods Clinical data of 238 patients with ureteral stones treated during June 2010 and June 2014 were retrospectively analyzed .The patients were ran‐domly divided into observation group (n=120 ,55 with stones in middle or upper parts of ureter ,65 with stones in lower part of ureter) and control group (n=118 cases ,58 with stones in middle or upper parts of ureter ,60 with stones in lower part of ureter) .Patients in control group received treatment of furosemide ,while patients in observation group received treatment of tamsulosin hydrochloride with furosemide .The time of lithecbole ,stone clearance rate ,incidence and severity of pain ,condi‐tion of combined analgesics as well as side‐effect were compared between the two groups .Results There was no statistical difference between the size of lithiasis (P>0 .05) .The time of lithecbole in observation group was (5 .36 ± 2 .12)d in middle or upper parts of ureter and (4 .34 ± 2 .42)d in lower part of ureter ,which was shorter than that of the control group [(8 .76 ± 1.51)d and (7 .20 ± 1 .03)d ,respectively] .The difference had a statistical significance ( P0 .05) .Conclusions Oral tamsulosin hydrochloride plus intravenous furosemide after ESWL can effectively short‐en the time of lithecbole ,elevate the stone clearance rate ,reduce incidence rate of renal colic ,alleviate the severity of pain and does not intensify adverse reaction .It is safe and effective .%目的:研究盐酸坦索罗辛联合速尿注射液在体外冲击波碎石(ESWL)后治疗输尿管不同部位结石中的临床效果及不良反应。方法入组研究对象共238例,随机分为观察组(共120例,其中输尿管中上段结石55例,输尿管下段结石65例)与对照组(共118例,

  9. NTrap网篮在输尿管镜钬激光碎石术治疗输尿管上段结石中的应用研究%Clinical study on holmium laser combined with NTrap basket in ureteroscopic lithotripsy for upper ureteral calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任晓磊; 夏海波; 高志明; 包国昌; 兰东阳; 王海鹏; 庞自力

    2013-01-01

    目的:对比单独使用钬激光与配合钬激光使用NTrap网篮在输尿管镜碎石术治疗上段输尿管结石中的临床疗效.方法:诊断患有输尿管上段结石的患者共106例11 5侧,住院期间均采用输尿管镜下钬激光碎石术进行治疗.其中对照组70侧,观察组45侧,对照组在术中单独使用钬激光碎石,观察组在术中同时配合钬激光使用NTrap网篮.比较对照组和观察组术中结石上移率、手术成功率,术后1个月结石排净率及术中术后并发症的发生情况.结果:术中对照组和观察组结石上移率分别为24.29%(17/70)和6.67%(3/45),碎石成功率分别为80.00% (56/70)和95.56%(43/45),手术成功的两组术后1个月结石排净率分别为82.14%(46/56)和95.35%(41/43),两组术中结石上移率、手术成功率和术后结石排净率相比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).对照组术中发生输尿管穿孔 2侧,观察组发生输尿管穿孔1侧.术后对照组有2例患者出现严重血尿,观察组1例出现严重血尿.对照组与观察组术后各有4例患者出现发热.两组术中术后相关并发症的发生率相比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:在输尿管镜碎石术治疗输尿管上段结石时,使用NTrap网篮配合钬激光碎石可以显著降低结石的上移率,提高手术成功率和术后1个月结石排净率,是一种安全、有效的方法.%Objective:To compare the clinical efficacy of holmium laser alone and holmium laser combined with NTrap basket in ureteroscopic lithotripsy for the treatment of upper ureteral calculi. Method:The clinic data of 106 cases(115 sides) of upper ureteral calculi treated by ureteroscope with holmium laser lithotripsy were retrospectively analyzed. These cases were divided into two groups randomly; control group (70 sides) which didn't apply NTrap basket and observation group ( 45 sides) which applied NTrap basket . The rate of calculi translocatton, success rate of

  10. 输尿管镜下气压弹道碎石术治疗复杂性输尿管结石影响因素分析%Influencing factors analysis of ureteroscopic pneumatic ballistic lithotripsy in the treatment of complicated ureteral calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左泽平; 方军; 宇洪涛; 钱俊杰; 朱金海

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influencing factors of ureteroscopic pneumatic ballistic lithotripsy ( URSL) in the treatment of complicated ureteral calculi. Methods From June 2009 to July 2013, clinical data of 132 cases with complicated ureteral calculi at Tongling People’s Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, the successful operation for 111 cases as group A and 21 failed cases as group B , test was used to investigate the effect of treatment and influencing factors of patients in two groups. Results When the course of disease was more than 8 weeks, incarceration stones, stone size had significant difference (all P values 8周 vs≤8周)、结石嵌顿与否、结石大小(>1.2 cm vs≤1.2 cm)等指标两组患者比较差异有统计学意义(P值均<0.05),是影响URSL治疗输尿管结石疗效的主要因素。结论病程长、结石嵌顿、结石较大等因素直接影响URSL的效果;采取有效的干预措施,可减少输尿管镜碎石术的失败比例。

  11. Research of perioperative nursing for upper urinary tract calculi treated by C-arm X-ray guided ;percutaneous nephroscope and ureteroscope%C型臂X线定位经皮肾输尿管镜治疗上尿路结石的围手术期护理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘萍; 李燕玲

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究C型臂X线定位经皮肾输尿管镜治疗上尿路结石的围手术期护理。方法50例上尿路结石患者,采用随机数字表法分为护理组与对照组,各25例。两组患者均采取X线定位下经皮肾镜、输尿管镜治疗上尿路结石,对照组患者采取临床基础护理措施,护理组患者在对照组护理基础上进行综合护理干预,比较两组各项临床指标。结果护理组患者手术用时、住院时间、术后并发症发生率均低于对照组(P<0.05);一次性结石清除率高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论对于C型臂X线定位经皮肾镜、输尿管镜治疗上尿路结石手术患者采取综合护理干预可显著提高患者一次性结石清除率,有助于降低术中、术后疼痛情况及手术并发症,具有临床应用及推广价值。%Objective To research perioperative nursing for upper urinary tract calculi treated by C-arm X-ray guided percutaneous renal ureteroscope. Methods A total of 50 upper urinary tract calculi patients were divided by random number table into nursing group and control group, with 25 cases in each group. Both groups received C-arm X-ray guided p percutaneous nephroscope and ureteroscope for treatment. The control group received basic clinical nursing measures, and the nursing group received additional comprehensive nursing intervention. Clinical indexes of the two groups were compared. Results The nursing group had all lower operation time, hospital stay, and incidence of postoperative complications than the control group (P<0.05), and it had higher one-time calculi clearance rate than the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion Implement of comprehensive intervention for upper urinary tract calculi treated by C-arm X-ray guided percutaneous renal ureteroscope can remarkably improve one-time calculi clearance rate, and it is helpful to reducing intraoperative and postoperative pain and postoperative complications. This method contains value of

  12. 输尿管硬镜下钬激光碎石取石术治疗输尿管上段结石112例%Study on treatment of upper ureteral calculi using rigid ureteroscope and holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy (report of 112 cases)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐汉新; 吴兆春; 黄海

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical effect and safety of holmium: YAG laser lithotripsy under ureteroscopy for managing upper ureteral calculi. Methods The clinical data of 112 cases of ureter calculi treated by ureteroscope with Holmium laser lithotripsy were retrospectively analyzed. Among these patients, 63 were male, and 49 were female. The age of the patients varied between 18~87 years with a mean age of 46.7 years. The largest diameter of the largest stone was 0.7~2.2 cm (1.2±0.5 cm). There are 5 cases of bilateral upper ureteral calculi, and the total number of left upper ureteral calculi was 61, and the right side was 46. There were 26 cases affiliated with ureteral polypus, and 31 cases with ESWL treatment history preoperative. All the cases had different degrees of hydronephrosis. Results The overall successful operation rate for all level of ureteral stones in single procedure was 88.4% (99/112). The operation time ranged 15~80 min (33.6 ±16.8 min), and the postoperative hospital stay was 3~14 d (4.7 ±2.1 d). No complications occurred such as severe hematouria, ureteral perforation, ureteral avulsion and ureteral stone street in this post cohort operation. There were three cases with urinary tract infection and suffered fever. Urosepsis occurred in one case , and cured by timely anti-infection treatment. Conclusion Rigid ureterorenoscopy using Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy for upper ureteral calculi can be an effective and safely performed technique.%目的:探讨输尿管硬镜下钬激光碎石取石术治疗输尿管上段结石的临床效果及安全性。方法应用输尿管硬镜下钬激光碎石取石术治疗112例输尿管上段结石患者。男63例,女49例,年龄18~87岁(46.7±13.6岁),左侧61例,右侧46例,双侧5例。结石长径0.7~2.2 cm (1.2±0.5 cm)。26例合并输尿管息肉,31例曾行体外冲击波碎石术,所有患侧肾脏均合并不同程度肾积水。结果手术成功率88.4

  13. Comparison of two minimally invasive procedures for upper ureteral calculi in solitary kidney%两种微创术治疗孤立肾输尿管上段结石的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段有军; 曹友汉; 李解方

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To evaluate the effect of minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy and retroperi-toneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy for the treatment of upper ureteral calculus in solitary kidney. [Methods] 45 patients with upper ureteral calculi enrolled in the study (29 cases were treated with MPCNL and 16 cases with RLUL) were compared to two sets of bleeding, postoperative fever rates (>38.5t), postoperative bed time, total number of days after surgery. [ Results ] All operations were successful, the bleeding loss of MPCNL group was about (120±50)Ml, high fever (37.9%), bed time and total number of days are (5.0±1.5) and (7.0±3.5)d respective. Correspondence of RLUL group are (60±20) Ml, 6.2%, (1.5±1.5) and (4.0±1.3)d, showing statistically significant differences between group (P<0.05). [Conclusion] The RLUL have a high success rate and is a safe and effective way for the treatment of upper ureteral calculus.%目的 比较微造瘘经皮肾镜取石术( MPCNL)与后腹腔镜取石术(RLUL)在治疗孤立肾输尿管上段结石的临床价值.方法 回顾分析该院45例微创术治疗孤立肾输尿管上段结石的临床资料.其中,MPCNL组29例,RLUL组16例,对比两组出血量、术后高热率(>38.5℃)、术后下床时间、住院总天数.结果 45例手术全部成功.MPCNL组出血量(120±50)mL、术后高热率(37.9%)、术后下床时间(5.0±1.5)d、住院总天数(7.0±3.5)d.RLUL组出血量(60±20)mL、术后高热率(6.2%)、术后下床时间(1.5±1.5)d、住院总天数(4.0±1.3)d.组间比较差异均有显著性(P<0.05).结论治疗孤立肾输尿管上段结石RLUL术较MPCNL术更安全、有效.

  14. Management experience of acute renal failure induced by unilateral ureteral calculi obstruction%一侧输尿管结石梗阻致急性肾功能衰竭的治疗经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭付清; 沈柏华; 谢立平; 孟宏舟; 方丹波; 汪超军

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the causes and treatment options of acute renal failure induced by unilateral ureteral calculi obstruction.Methods The clinical data of 12 cases of acute renal failure induced by unilateral ureteral calculi obstruction between August 2008 and July 2012 were reviewed retrospectively.There were 5 males and 7 females with an average age of 65.7 years.Their clinical data and treatment options were retrospectively analyzed and summarized.Seven cases showed right side ureteral calculus with hydronephrosis while another 5 presented left side ureteral calculus with hydronephrosis.Serum creatinine was higher than 310 μmol/L in 12 cases.Anuria appeared in 4 cases for 1-7 days while oliguria in 8 cases for 2-10 days.High fever was present in 11 cases,the highest of whom was 40 ℃.White blood cell count increased in 10 cases (> 10 × 109/L) and decreased in 2 cases (<4 × 109/L).Results The therapeutic options included insertion of double J stent for internal drainage (n =1),percutaneous nephrostomy for external drainage (n =10) and open operation (n =1).Traditional treatments were performed to manage ureteral calculus in the above 11 cases with drainage.All cases had improved renal function after comprehensive treatment of anti-infection,antishock,rinsing stones and relieving obstruction.All 12 cases were treated successfully.Conclusions Unilateral ureteral calculus may impair contralateral renal function and cause acute renal failure due to the absorption of toxin at obstructive side.The keys of management are eliminating toxin and relieving obstruction.%目的 总结一侧输尿管结石梗阻继发急性肾功能衰竭的原因及治疗经验,提高诊治的及时性.方法 回顾性分析了浙江大学附属第一医院2008年8月至2012年7月诊治的一侧输尿管结石梗阻继发急性肾功能衰竭12例患者的临床资料,探讨其发病原因、治疗措施及转归.12例患者中,男5例,女7例,平均年龄65.7岁.其中,右

  15. Unenhanced spiral CT localization combined with C-arm in minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy(MPCNL) for complex renal calculi%非增强螺旋CT定位联合C臂微创经皮肾镜取石治疗复杂肾结石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋立城; 徐忠华; 张英晨; 王学廷; 丁吉阳; 程玉峰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of non-contrast-enhanced spiral CT-assistant localization combined with C-arm in the treatment of complex renal calculi by minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy ( mPCNL). Methods 50 patients with complex renal calculi underwent a non-contrast-enhanced spiral CT scan localization to simulate intraoperative posture before the operation and accepted the mPCNL treatment combined with C-arm (CT group). Another 38 patients with complex renal calculi who directly underwent puncture by C-arm localization were studied as the control group (C-arm group). Results In the CT group, the average number of punctures [(1.27 ±0.56) per side vs (2.28 ±1.19) punctures per side, P<0.01 ], channel building time[ (5.51 ±2.31)minutes per side vs (11.36 ± 6.15) minutes per side, P<0.01], C-arm usage counter[ (2.53 ±0. 77) vs (7.44 ± 1. 87), P <0.01 ] ,and X-ray exposure time for surgeons[ (0.32 ±0.73) minutes per side vs (0.53 ±0.28)minutes per side, P<0.05] and patients [ (0.43 ± 0.72) minutes per side vs (0.72 ± 0. 28) minutes per side, P < 0.01 ] were significantly lower than those of the C-arm group. Conclusion Non-contrast-enhanced spiral CT localization combined with C-arm can contribute to percutaneous renal puncture in the complex renal calculi treatment by m-PCNL, and effectively reduce the C-arm usage counter and intraoperative radiation exposure time.%目的 探讨非增强螺旋CT定位联合C型臂在复杂肾结石微创治疗中的应用价值.方法 对50例复杂肾结石患者术前模拟术中体位行螺旋CT扫描定位(CT组),术中联合C臂行微创经皮肾镜取石术,并与同期38例复杂肾结石直接C臂定位者(C臂组)进行比较.结果 CT组与C臂组比较,平均穿刺次数[(1.27±0.56)次/侧vs (2.28±1.19)次/侧,P<0.01]、通道建立时间[(5.51±2.31 )min/侧vs (11.36±6.15) min/侧,P<0.01]、C臂使用次数[(2.53±0.77)次/侧vs (7.44±1.87)次/侧,P<0.01]及医生

  16. Comparison of EMS ultrasonic pressure ballistic lithotripsy and holmium laser lithotripsy in ther-apy of complex renal calculi%EMS 超声-气压弹道碎石与微通道钬激光碎石治疗复杂性肾结石对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安家利

    2016-01-01

    目的:比较 EMS 超声-气压弹道碎石与微通道钬激光碎石治疗复杂性肾结石的临床疗效。方法选择2012年1月至2015年1月收治的400例复杂性肾结石患者作为研究对象,根据其治疗方式分为两组,每组200例,观察组给予 EMS 超声-气压弹道碎石术治疗,对照组给予微通道钬激光碎石术治疗,比较两组患者临床疗效、围术期情况及并发症发生率。结果观察组碎石时间、造瘘管留置时间、住院时间均低于对照组(P ﹤0.05);观察组鹿角形结石患者术后5 d、1个月清除率分别高于对照组(P ﹤0.05);两组患者术后并发症发生率比较差异均未见统计学意义(P ﹥0.05)。结论 EMS 超声-气压弹道碎石术治疗复杂性肾结石效果显著,能促进患者早期康复,值得临床重视。%Objective To compare the clinical curative effect of EMS ultrasonic pressure ballistic lithotripsy and holmium laser lithotripsy in therapy of complex renal calculi. Methods From January 2012 to January 2015,400 patients with complex renal calculi were selected as the research objects,and were divided into two groups according to different treatment methods with 200 cases in each group. The observation group were treated by the EMS ultrasonic and pneumatic lithotripsy,control group were trea-ted by micro channel holmium laser lithotripsy. The clinical curative effect,confining operation period and the incidence of complications were compared between the two groups. Results The lithotripsy time,making the fistula indwelling time and hospitalization time in observation group were lower than those in the control group(P ﹤ 0. 05);the clearance rates of patients with staghorn calculi in observation group 5 d,one month after operation were higher than those in control group(P ﹤ 0. 05);the postopera-tive complication rate after operation had no significant difference between the two groups(P ﹥ 0. 05). Conclusions EMS

  17. 经皮肾镜钬激光碎石治疗复杂性上尿路结石120例临床分析%Percutaneous Nephroscope Holmium Laser Lithotripsy for Upper Urinary Calculi:Clinical Re-port of 120 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王县平; 严海员; 胡俊; 杨锋; 张端桥; 王炜

    2016-01-01

    [目的]探讨经皮肾镜钬激光碎石术治疗复杂性上尿路结石的临床效果.[方法]选择本科室收治的120例诊断为复杂性上尿路结石的患者,应用经皮肾镜钬激光碎石术治疗,记录患者的结石清除率、术后拔除肾造瘘管时间及相关的并发症情况.[结果]经皮钬激光碎石术治疗复杂性上尿路结石的一期碎石成功率达到80.0%,二期碎石成功率达到90.0%;一期手术的中位时间为85.0(30~240)min,二期手术时间为62.5(25~180)min.术后相关并发症有迟发性的出血病例2例,胸腔积液病例1例,无其他相关并发症发生.[结论]经皮肾镜钬激光碎石术治疗复杂性上尿路结石的临床效果显著,一次碎石率高,相关的并发症少,推荐在临床上广泛应用.%[Objective]To observe the clinical effect of percutaneous nephrolithotomy with holmium laser on the treatment of complex upper urinary tract calculi and understand its related complications.[Methods]The clinical diagnosis of 120 cases of complex upper urinary tract calculi were collected from the department at our hospital were treated using percutaneous nephrolithotomy holmium laser lithotripsy.The patient's stone clearance rate,average time of postoperative removal nephrostomy fistula,and related complications were re-corded.[Results]Collection of percutaneous holmium laser lithotripsy for the treatment of complex upper uri-nary tract calculi had a first success rate of 80.0%;second success rate reached 90.0%.The length of the one-stage operation was 85.0(30~240)minutes;the length of two-stage operation was 62.5(25~180)minutes.Re-lated postoperative complications were delayed hemorrhages in 2 cases;one case was pleural effusion.No other complications resulted.[Conclusion]The clinical effect of percutaneous nephrolithotomy with holmium laser for treatment of complex upper urinary tract calculi was significant.Other related complications were fewer.It is recommended widely in clinical

  18. Contrast Research on treatment of Ureteral Calculi with retroperitoneoscopic ureterlithotomy and Ureteroscopic Pneumatic lithotripsy%后腹腔镜与输尿管镜气压弹道碎石治疗输尿管上段结石的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李育斌; 高兴成; 黄伟佳; 刘平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss the effect comparison of treating ureteral calculi by retroperitoneoscopic ureterlithotomy and ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy. Methods Adopt retroperitoneoscopic ureterlithotomy for the treatment of ureteral calculi ( Group A ), Ureteroscopic Pneumatic lithotripsy for the treatment of ureteral calculi( Group B ) for 21 cases and 38 cases, respectively,to review and analyses the stone clearance rate and complication incidence of the above two treatments.Results Group A's stone clearance rate is 95.2% ( 20/21 ), while Group B is 68.4% ( 26/38 ), twosets of compartment make difference ( x 2= 4.21, P < 0.05 ) possess statistics sense; A group complication incidence for 9.5% ( 2 / 21 ), B group for 10.5% ( 4 / 38 ), two-sets of compartment without significant difference ( x 2= 0.11, P > 0.05 ). Conclusions Laparoscopic ureterolithotomy is supposed to be a feasible and safely technique in ureteric calculus treatment,as this treatment cause minor trauma, patients can recover rapidly, and the rate for clearing stone is relatively high; while Ureteroscopic Pneumatic lithotripsy for the treatment of ureteral calculi is with low stone clearance rate and exsits the complication indicence of Ureter remove.%目的 探讨后腹腔镜与输尿管镜气压弹道碎石治疗输尿管上段结石的效果对比。方法 分别用后腹腔镜下输尿管切开取石术(A组)、输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术(B组)治疗输尿管上段结石21例、38例,回顾分析两种方法 的结石清除率、并发症发生率。结果 A组结石清除率为95.2%( 20/21),B组为68.4%( 26/38),两组之间有差异(x 2=4.21,p<0.05)具有统计学意义;A组并发症发生率为9.5%( 2/21),B组为10.5%( 4/38),两组之间无显著性差异(x 2=0.11,P> 0.05)。结论 后腹腔镜下输尿管切开取石术是一种创伤小、恢复快、结石清除率高、安全有效的外科微创技术,在治疗输尿管上段结

  19. 应用拦石网输尿管镜下钬激光碎石术治疗输尿管上段结石%Treatment of upper ureteral calculi with intercept stone network combined with holmium: YAG laser lithotripsy under ureteroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟令超; 杨嗣星

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment of upper ureteral calculi with intercept stone network combined with holmium: YAG lithotripsy under ureteroscopy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the data of 58 patients(36 males and 22 females,with an average age of 47.2 years) with upper ureteral calculi, who were treated with intercept stone network combined with holmium: YAG laser lithotripsy under ureteroscopy.The width of calculus ranges from 3 to 23 mm,and the length 3 to 25 mm. Results The success rate of fragmenta tion in a single procedure was 93.1 % (54/58 ). The calculi retrograded to renal in 2 cases. 1 case converted to open surgery because the upper ureter twisted. Operations in 1 case had to be changed to PCNL, because the zebra urological guidewire can not reach the upper ureter. The operation time was 25~90 min,and the mean operative time was 37.4 min. The postoperative hospital stay was 3~11 d,and the mean postoperative hospital stay was 4.7 d. Only 2cases had urinary infection. No severe complications such as ureteral perforation were seen in this operation. Conclusions The treatment of upper ureteral calculi with intercept stone network combined with holmium laser lithotripsy under ureteroscopy is safe and effective, and the intercept stone network is an effective tool that blocks the upward movement of the stone and aids in safe stone removal. This therapeutic method and tool are worth recommending in clinical practice.%目的 探讨应用拦石网输尿管镜下钬激光碎石术治疗输尿管上段结石的临床疗效.方法 回顾性分析输尿管镜下拦石网配合钬激光碎石术治疗58例输尿管上段结石患者的临床资料.男36例,女22例,平均47.2岁.结石横径为3~23 mm,纵径为3~25mm.结果 本组单次碎石成功率93.1%(54/58).2例结石上移入肾内,1例因输尿管上段迂曲而改行输尿管切开取石术,1例因斑马导丝无法进入输尿管上段而改为经皮肾镜钬激

  20. Ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy in the treatment of upper urinary tract obstruction by ureteral cal-culi during pregnancy%输管尿镜下气压弹道碎石术治疗妊娠期输尿管结石引起上尿路梗阻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑卓敏; 庄泽平; 连乐林; 黄芸珊; 陈燕东

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility and clinical efficacy of ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotrips in the treatment of upper urinary tract obstruction by ureteral calculi in pregnant women.Methods Thirty six women diagnosed with upper urinary tract obstruction by ureteral calculi during pregnancy were char-acterized with persistent and recurrent severe renal colic.Ureteroscope-guided pneumatic lithotripsy was per-formed.Results The ureteral calculi were successfully treated in 32 patients by ureteroscopic pneumatic litho-trips.Double-J ureteral stents were retained in four patients complicated with pyonephrosis,who were treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy after parturition.Renal colic and fever were absent after surgery.No abortion,prematurity,fetal death,ureter perforation or avulsion was noted.All pregnant women had full-term delivery and all newborns were healthy.Conclusion Ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy could effectively and safely alleviate renal colic and treat obstruction in pregnant women with upper urinary tract obstruction by ure-teral calculi.%目的:探讨利用输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术治疗妊娠期输尿管结石引起上尿路梗阻的可行性及临床效果。方法对36例持续性或反复发作剧烈肾绞痛的妊娠期输尿管结石引起上尿路梗阻患者,采用输尿管镜下气压弹道碎石术治疗,观察手术疗效及安全性。结果输尿管镜下气压弹道碎石术一次性碎石成功32例,4例输尿管上段结石患者因合并脓肾予留置双 J 管,待患者妊娠结束后行体外冲击波碎石。术后所有患者的肾绞痛、发热等症状消失。36例均未出现流产、早产或死胎,无出现输尿管穿孔、撕脱等并发症,所有孕妇均足月分娩,新生儿发育均正常。结论输尿管镜下气压弹道碎石术治疗妊娠期输尿管结石引起上尿路梗阻能有效缓解患者疼痛,解除梗阻,且安全性高。

  1. 联用多种措施提高经皮肾镜取石术治疗鹿角形肾结石的清除率%Several strategies of increasing the stone-free rate of staghorn calculi by percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟东亮; 吴玉姬; 刘冠炤; 吴文起

    2016-01-01

    目的::总结提高经皮肾镜取石术(PCNL)治疗鹿角形肾结石的结石清除率的措施。方法:83例鹿角形肾结石术前行 CT 平扫,PCNL术时,如患侧输尿管扩张,留置两条 F5输尿管导管,术中见尿液混浊或合并多发微细结石,联用负压吸引器,用气压弹道碎石器有序碎石,手术结束前必须用C 臂复查结石残余情况,术后2~4 d 行 KUB 检查,统计结石清除率。结果:一期手术后56例鹿角形肾结石完全清除(67.5%,56/83),手术时间平均81 min(28~142 min),血红蛋白平均下降23 g/L(0~54 g/L),1例患者术后血红蛋白持续下降,行肾动脉造影+超选择性血管栓塞术,术后发热7例,无尿源性脓毒血症发生,无周围脏器损伤,无患者死亡。结论:术前CT平扫,术中必要时留置两条输尿管导管、联用负压吸引器,有序碎石,手术结束前C臂机检查结石残余等综合措施有助提高鹿角形肾结石PCNL术的结石清除率。%Objective:To summarize the strategies of increasing the stone-free rate of staghorn calculi by per-cutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL).Methods:Eighty-three cases of staghorn calculi were subjected to kidney non-contrast CT (NCCT)scan preoperatively.During PCNL,two F5 ureteral catheters were indwelled when the expansion of the ipsilateral ureter was found,together with a suction device if preoperative diagnosis of urinary tract infection was done or cloudy urine or merge multiple tiny stones were found intraoperatively.Pneumatic lith-otripsy device was used to shatter stones orderly.The C-arm was used to check the residual stones before the end of operation.KUB radiography was carried out to statistically analyze the stone free-rate 2-4 days postoperation. Results:After the first stage PCNL,56 cases of staghorn calculi were removed completely (67.5%,56/83).The mean operative time was 81 min (28-142 min),and mean hemoglobin decrease was 23 g/L (0-54 g/L),In one case of postoperatively declined

  2. 双源双能量CT对新疆南疆地区儿童输尿管结石的诊断价值%The Value of Dual-source Dual-energy CT in the Diagnosis of Ureteral Cal-culi in Children in Southern Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马依迪丽·尼加提; 田序伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the application value of low-dose dual-source dual-energy CT in the diagnosis of urinary tract stones in children. Methods This study will explore the dual energy CT technology in southern xinjiang xinjiang regional chil-dren's disease diagnosis and differential diagnosis of ureteral calculi application value, and the image quality, the signal-to-noise ratio, lesion detection rate and identify differences, evaluate the feasibility of its application in clinical, 56 children cases CT in-spection and ultrasonic inspection group, analysis between the two groups statistically for difficult diagnosis of ureteral calculi. Results The dual source CT dual energy diagnosis of 56 cases of ureteral calculi children, all cases by ultrasound, including 1 case of abdominal segment, 3 cases of basin section, 2 cases of multiple ultrasound was not diagnosed or missed diagnosis of ureteral calculi. CT in the diagnosis of 47 cases with kidney seeper, 14 patients with moderately severe water, 9 cases with merger of urinary tract infection, 2 cases of diagnosis of urinary tuberculosis, 1 case of neurogenic bladder. Conclusion Low-dose CT in the diagnosis of dual energy not diagnosed with routine inspection method and its complications, complications were found very good diagnostic value.%目的:双源双能量低剂量CT在诊断儿童泌尿系结石中的应用价值。方法该研究将探究采用双能量CT技术在新疆南疆地区儿童输尿管结石疾病诊断和鉴别诊断的意义,然后比较其图像质量、信噪比、病变检出率这几方面,分析其在临床诊断中的可行性,将56例儿童病例分CT检查组及超声检查组,分析两组间对于难诊断型输尿管结石的统计学差异。结果双源双能量CT诊断输尿管结石儿童56例,所有病例均经过B超检查,其中1例腹段、3例盆段、2例多发输尿管结石B超未诊出或漏诊;CT诊断47例有肾积水、其中14例伴有中重度积水,9

  3. 输尿管镜下气压弹道碎石术治疗输尿管结石的疗效分析%Efficacy Analysis of Ureteral Microscopically Pneumatic Ballistic Lithoclast in the Treatment of Ureteral Calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄斌; 陈桂莲; 黄伟

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察经输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术治疗输尿管结结石的疗效和并发症.方法 随机选取牡丹江医学院第二附属医院泌尿外科自2007年10月至2010年10月收治的180例输尿管结石患者.根据治疗方法的不同,将180例患者分为两组,A组80例采用经输尿管镜超声碎石术,B组100例采用经输尿管镜气压弹道碎石.观察两组患者的单次手术操作成功率、结石排净率、平均住院时间及并发症发生率.结果 A组的首次结石排净率76.3%,尿路感染、输尿管狭窄、穿孔的发生率分别为12.5%、11.3%、12.5%,平均住院时间(6.0 ±2.3)d.B组的结石排净率89.0%,尿路感染、输尿管狭窄、穿孔的发生率分别为25.0%、3.0%、4.0%,平均住院时间(4.2 ±1.8)d,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 输尿管镜下气压弹道碎石术是高效、安全、易使用的方法.%Objective To observe the curative effect and complications of the ureteral mirror pneumatic ballistic lithoclast in the treatment of ureteral calculi.Methods To randomly selecte 180 patients since October 2007 October 2010 from urinary surgical of the second affiliated hospital of Mudanjiang medical School.According to the different treatment methods, 180 were divided into two groups, A group of 80 patients with ureteral mirror by ultrasonic lithotripsy,B group of 100 patients with ureteral mirror by pneumatic ballistic gravel.To observe two groups in single operation success rate, the stone row net rate, the average hospitalization time and complications.Results The first stone row net rate of group A was 76.3%, the incidence of urinary tract infection, ureteral stricture, fenestration showed 12.5 %, 11.3 %, 12.5 % respectively, the average hospitalization time was( 6.0 ±2.3 )d.The stone row net rate of group B was 89.0% ,the incidence of urinary tract infection,ureteral stricture,fenestration showed 25.0% 、3.0% 、4.0% respectively,the average

  4. The Complexity of Enriched Mu-Calculi

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatti, Piero A; Murano, Aniello; Vardi, Moshe Y

    2008-01-01

    The fully enriched mu-calculus is the extension of the propositional mu-calculus with inverse programs, graded modalities, and nominals. While satisfiability in several expressive fragments of the fully enriched mu-calculus is known to be decidable and ExpTime-complete, it has recently been proved that the full calculus is undecidable. In this paper, we study the fragments of the fully enriched mu-calculus that are obtained by dropping at least one of the additional constructs. We show that, in all fragments obtained in this way, satisfiability is decidable and ExpTime-complete. Thus, we identify a family of decidable logics that are maximal (and incomparable) in expressive power. Our results are obtained by introducing two new automata models, showing that their emptiness problems are ExpTime-complete, and then reducing satisfiability in the relevant logics to these problems. The automata models we introduce are two-way graded alternating parity automata over infinite trees (2GAPTs) and fully enriched automa...

  5. Cyclic and Inductive Calculi are equivalent

    OpenAIRE

    Razvan VOICU; Li, Mengran

    2011-01-01

    Brotherston and Simpson [citation] have formalized and investigated cyclic reasoning, reaching the important conclusion that it is at least as powerful as inductive reasoning (specifically, they showed that each inductive proof can be translated into a cyclic proof). We add to their investigation by proving the converse of this result, namely that each inductive proof can be translated into an inductive one. This, in effect, establishes the equivalence between first order cyclic and inductive...

  6. Formalization of malware through process calculi

    CERN Document Server

    Jacob, Gregoire; Debar, Herve

    2009-01-01

    Since the seminal work from F. Cohen in the eighties, abstract virology has seen the apparition of successive viral models, all based on Turing-equivalent formalisms. But considering recent malware such as rootkits or k-ary codes, these viral models only partially cover these evolved threats. The problem is that Turing-equivalent models do not support interactive computations. New models have thus appeared, offering support for these evolved malware, but loosing the unified approach in the way. This article provides a basis for a unified malware model founded on process algebras and in particular the Join-Calculus. In terms of expressiveness, the new model supports the fundamental definitions based on self-replication and adds support for interactions, concurrency and non-termination allows the definition of more complex behaviors. Evolved malware such as rootkits can now be thoroughly modeled. In terms of detection and prevention, the fundamental results of undecidability and isolation still hold. However th...

  7. [Symptomatic bladder calculi: diagnostic and therapeutic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabii, R; Fekak, H; Moufid, K; Mezz Our, H; Joual, A; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    2003-06-01

    The authors report the case of a 50 years old woman who consulted with bilateral lumbar pain and urinary infections. Intravenous Urography (IVU) showed bilateral renal and bladder stones. Treatment was by upper polary nephrectomy in the left kidney. Removing all urinary and bladder stone. We then the removed surgically renal stones in the right kidney. Using this case as an we discuss the diagnosis and therapeutic aspects of the hydrocalyx.

  8. Enriched MU-Calculi Module Checking

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrante, Alessandro; Parente, Mimmo

    2008-01-01

    The model checking problem for open systems has been intensively studied in the literature, for both finite-state (module checking) and infinite-state (pushdown module checking) systems, with respect to Ctl and Ctl*. In this paper, we further investigate this problem with respect to the Mu-calculus enriched with nominals and graded modalities (hybrid graded Mu-calculus), in both the finite-state and infinite-state settings. Using an automata-theoretic approach, we show that hybrid graded Mu-calculus module checking is solvable in exponential time, while hybrid graded Mu-calculus pushdown module checking is solvable in double-exponential time. These results are also tight since they match the known lower bounds for Ctl. We also investigate the module checking problem with respect to the hybrid graded Mu-calculus enriched with inverse programs (Fully enriched Mu-calculus): by showing a reduction from the domino problem, we show its undecidability. We conclude with a short overview of the model checking problem ...

  9. Intuitive Minimal Abduction in Sequent Calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊波; 陶先平; 等

    1998-01-01

    Sme computational issues on abduction are discussed in a framework of the first order sequent calculus.Starting from revising the meaning of “good” abduction ,a new criterion of abduction called intuitive-minimal abduction(IMA)is introduced.An IMA is an abuctive formula equivalent to the minimal abductive formula under the theory part of a sequent and literally as simple as possible.Abduction algorithms are presented on the basis of a complete natural reduction system.An abductive formula,obtained by the algorithms presented in this paper,is an IMA if the reduction tree,from which the abduction is performed,is fully expanded.Instead of using Skolem functions,a term-ordering is used to indicate dependency between terms.

  10. Hi tech microeconomics and information nonintensive calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Dohnal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article establishes link between the contributions made to the study of hi tech phenomena. It analyzes the evolution undergone by studies on the topic of the knowledge economics (HI-TECH process carried out by different disciplines (hard and soft sciences – sociology, ecology etc. from the point of view of the objectives they pursue. The attentions are concentrated on analysis of applicable mathematical tools used to develop realistic formal models. Information intensity is defined as the amount of information which is needed for the realistic application of a corresponding formal tool. High information intensity is desirable because it influences the model accuracy. Low information intensity is preferred when high information intensity requires more information items than are available and this is usually the case in knowledge engineering. Fuzzy models seem to be a useful extension of formal tool used in hi tech microeconomics. However, even fuzzy sets could be prohibitively information intensive. Therefore the range of available formal tools must be considerably broader. This paper introduces qualitative and semiqualitative models and rough sets. Each formal tool is briefly characterized.

  11. Dichotomy and H^infinity functional calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. DeLaubenfels

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available densely defined closed operator on a Banach space is studied. We give conditions under which an operator with an $H^infty$ functional calculus has dichotomy. For the operators with imaginary axis contained in the resolvent set and with polynomial growth of the resolvent along the axis we prove the existence of dichotomy on subspaces and superspaces. Applications to the dichotomy of operators on $L_p$-spaces are given. The principle of linearized instability for nonlinear equations is proved.

  12. The clinical analysis of the treatment of upper ureteric calculi by ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy combined with ureteral block calculus extraction catheter%输尿管镜下钬激光碎石术配合封堵取石导管治疗上段结石的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 蒋晓明

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore the clinical effect of the treatment of upper ureteric calculi by ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy combined with ureteral block calculus extraction catheter.Methods Retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of the patients of upper ureteric calculi (23 cases) treated by ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy combined with ureteral block calculus extraction catheter in the first half of this year.There were 6 cases with the calculi at the level of L2,9 at the level of L3,8 at the level of L4.The size varied from (0.7cm * 1.1 cm) to (1.4cm * 1.8cm),with the average of 1.0cm * 1.4cm.Results 22 out of the 23 cases were successfully implanted with uteroscope and block calculus extraction catheter at the first attempt,with the 95.7% successful rate of lithotripsy at first attempt.The operation time was from 15 to 45 minutes,with the average of 25 ± 10 minutes.Postoperative hospital stay was from 1 to 4 days,with the average of 2.5 ± 1.0 days.1 case of the calculi moved up into the kidney and was successfully expelled by indwelling D-J tube in operation and employing extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) after operation.All the cases were with little hemorrhage,no complications of perforation,mucosal antrectomy,etc.No patient had fever or bacteremia after operation.No remained calculi found in reexamination by abdominal plain films and ultrasonography in urology 3 to 4 weeks after operation.Conclusions It is a safe and effective method to treat the upper ureteric calculi by ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy combined with ureteral block calculus extraction catheter.Ureteral block calculus extraction catheter is a safe and effective tool,which can significantly reduce the calculus shift in ureterscopic lithotripsy,enhance the successful rate of lithotripsy at first attempt,and shorten the time of operation and hospital stay,thus to reduce the hospitalization expenses.It could also avoid the expensive price of flexible

  13. 输尿管管路封堵器在防止输尿管中上段结石上移应用的体会%The Application of Ureteral Occlusion Devive in Preventing Moving up of Middle and Upper Ureteral Calculi Ureteral

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    於佶; 罗成斌; 刘小平

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical application of ureteral occlusion devive in prevention of moving up of middle of upper ureteral calculi ureteral. Method:From December 2011 to December 2012 62 cases of unilateral middle and upper ureteral calculi with ureteroscopic working channel was arranged in the Yingnuowei TMIVX-SC10 ureteral occlusion devive,completely beyond calculus after operation in vitro,handle to blade folding to prevent movement of calculus, and then using the holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy or ballistic lithotripsy,after the completion of the blade in the rubble stone fragments from ureter folded cavity. D-J tube indwelling ureter stenosis patients without stricture of ureter catheter 4 weeks,patients with stricture of ureter catheter for eight weeks.Result:5 cases of upper ureteral calculi ureteral stones in the placement of pipeline occluder when moved to the ipsilateral renal calyx with D-J indwelling tube,carried out the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy postoperative,the effect was satisfaction.Residual ureteral calculi patients were occluded satisfaction,there were no patients with ureteral perforation or ureteral mucosa avulsion.There were no postoperative patients with high fever,bacteremia,renal failure.After D-J tube removal of abdominal plain film,except for 5 cases of calculus into a calculus patients with extracorporeal lithotripsy kidney in the light of not emptying,more than 57 cases of no residual stones.Conclusion:Ureteral occlusion devive can significantly reduce the ureteral calculi ureteral calculi lithotripsy up,improve the stone clearance rate,reduce the two operation or follow-up treatment,the operation is simple,is worthy of clinical application.%目的::探讨输尿管管路封堵器在防止输尿管中上段结石上移应用的临床疗效。方法:2011年12月-2012年12月,对62例单侧输尿管中上段结石患者于输尿管镜工作通道内安置英诺伟TMIVX-SC10输尿管管路封堵器,完全超越

  14. Clinical comparison of therapeutic methods for calculi in congenital anomalous kidneys%先天性异常肾合并结石的临床治疗方法比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文卫; 涂响安; 何朝辉; 瞿虎; 曾国华; 陈凌武

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the therapeutic methods for stones in congenital anomalous kidneys. Methods The clinical outcomes of 126 patients(75 males and 51 females: mean age 39 years, range 12-66 years)who underwent extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL, n= 37), minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL, n = 41) or open surgery (n = 48) were retrospectively reviewed. There were 40 horseshoe kidneys(31.8%), 51 duplex kidneys(40.5%), 35 malrotated kidneys(27.8%). Seventyl calculi were located in left kidneys(55.6%)and 56 in right kid-neys(44.4%). There were 96 single stones(76.2%)and 30 complex stones(23.8%). The greatest di-ameter of stone ranged from0.8 cm to 2.2 cm(mean 1.5 cm) in ESWL group, 1.0 cm to 4.0 cm (mean 2.5 cm) in MPCNL group and 1.5 cm to 3.8 cm(mean 2.7 cm) in open surgery group. The therapeutic effects of 3 methods were compared. Results The stone-free rate at 1 session was 78.4%(29/31) in ESWL group, 85.4%(35/41) in MPCNL group and 87.5%(42/48) in open sur-gery group. No significant difference was found among the 3 groups(x2 = 1.39,P=0.50). The inci-dence of complications was 13.5% in ESWL group, 9.7% in MPCNL group and 6.3% in open sur-gery group(x2=1.28, P=0.53). Only 1 case of malrotated kidney suffered massive hemorrhage and was cured by selective embolism of renal artery. No major complications occurred in the other pa-tients. Conclusions With rigorous indication, ESWL or MPCNL is as safe and effective as open sur-gery in the management of stones in congenital anomalous kidneys. It should be considered as the pri-mary therapy. But the treatment must be individualized in terms of the type anomalous kidney, stone characteristics and obstruction.%目的 探讨先天性异常肾合并结石的合理治疗方法.方法 回顾性分析126例不同类型先天性异常肾合并结石的患者资料.男75例,女51例.年龄12~66岁,平均39岁.马蹄肾40例(31.8%)、重复肾51例(40.5%)、肾旋转不良35例(27.8%).

  15. Minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy for treatment of upper urinary calculi in children%经皮肾穿刺微造瘘碎石取石术治疗小儿上尿路结石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文秀华; 张辉; 冯志刚; 刘太阳; 张永; 张雪培

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the clinical effect and safety of minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithot-omy(mPCNL)for the treatment of upper urinary calculi in children. Method: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 12 cases of children who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedures from February 2008 to May 2011. All patients received retrogradeplacement of F3-F5 ureteral catheter under the ureteroscope, with the help of B type ultrasonography.a Fi6 percutaneous working channel for ureteroscope was established. Renal stones were tried to fragment and extract one stage under a F8.0,s.ureteroscope by using the fourth generation Swiss Litho Clast Master. Result: A F16 percutaneous renal access was successfully established in all patients. The stones were cleared out completely in 10 out of 12 cases, a 83. 3% slone-free rate was achieved using percutaneous nephrolithotomy monotherapy. Other 2 cases had a residual stones,they underwent extracorporeal shock-wave lithotrip-sy(ESWL)and lithagogue medicine. The operation duration was 30-116 minutes,averaged 53 minutes. No complications such as blood transfusion,pneumothorax or injury of intra-abdominal organs were recorded. All patients were followed up for at least 3-21 months. Renal function test got a better result. Uronephrosis relieved. No complications such as palindromia of lithiasis, ureterostenosis, hydronephrosis or renal inadequacy were recorded. Conclusion: Treatment of children's upper urinary tract stone by mPCNL has the advantages of high efficiency,reliability, safety,mini- invasion.less haemorrhage and rapid recovery. It should be the first choice for children's upper urinary tract stone at present.%目的:探讨微造瘘经皮肾镜气压弹道联合超声碎石取石术治疗小儿上尿路结石的安全性及有效性.方法:回顾性分析自2008年2月~2011年5月12例应用微造瘘经皮肾镜气压弹道联合超声碎石取石术治疗小儿上尿路结石的临床资料.12

  16. 腹腔镜胆囊切除术治疗胆囊颈部结石嵌顿并急性化脓性胆囊炎的疗效%Research on the curative effect of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the treatment of calculi incarcerated in neck of gallbladder and acute suppurative cholecystitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文彬

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the curative effect of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the treatment of calculi incarcerated in necK of gallbladder and acute suppurative cholecystitis .Methods:80 cases of calculi incarcerated in necK of gallbladder and acute suppurative cho-lecystitis were divided into observation group and control group according to the difference in therapeutic methods ,40 cases in each group .The observation group received laparoscopic cholecystectomy ,and the control group accepted conventional open operation ,with the time of operation ,intraoperative blood loss ,the time of hospital stay and complication between the two groups compared .Results:There were significant differences in the time of operation ,intraoperative blood loss ,the time of hospitalization ,and the complication rate between the two groups .The time of operation and hospitalization in the observation group was shorter than those in the control group , and intraoperative blood loss in the former group was less than that in the latter group ( P <0 .05) .Conclusion:Laparoscopic cholecys-tectomy in the treatment of calculi incarcerated in necK of gallbladder and acute suppurative cholecystitis is of better clinical effect ,and higher treatment security ,which can help patients recover quicKly .%目的:观察腹腔镜胆囊切除术治疗胆囊颈部结石嵌顿合并急性化脓性胆囊炎的疗效.方法:80 例胆囊颈部结石嵌顿并急性化脓性胆囊炎患者 ,按照治疗方法的差异分为观察组与对照组 ,每组各40例.其中观察组患者以腹腔镜胆囊切除术进行治疗 ,对照组患者以常规开腹手术进行治疗 ,对比两组患者的手术时间、术中出血量、住院时间及并发症等. 结果:两组患者在手术时间、术中出血量、住院时间、并发症发生率等指标上比较 ,差异有统计学意义 ,观察组患者的手术时间、住院时间均短于对照组 ,术中出血量也少于对照组( P <0 .05 ).结论:腹腔镜

  17. Nursing adverse downstream flushing ureteroscopic ultrasound lithotripsy for treatment of ureteral calculi ;after operation%逆向顺流冲洗输尿管镜超声碎石治疗输尿管结石的术后护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞玉霞

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨逆向顺流冲洗经输尿管镜超声碎石清石治疗输尿管结石的护理措施。方法回顾性分析我院2013年3月至2014年6月运用逆向顺流冲洗经输尿管镜超声碎石清石治疗30例输尿管结石的临床资料。术前对患者进行心理护理和术后针对并发症护理。结果30例患者经精心的护理均取得良好的临床疗效,1例结石移位,经体外碎石排出;肉眼血尿18例、术后肾绞痛4例、发热2例( T<38℃)经及时处理和针对性护理均迅速改善;双“J”管移位1例,经输尿管镜取出。无输尿管损伤及尿脓毒症等并发症发生。29例碎石清石成功,清石率96.67%。结论逆向顺流冲洗经输尿管镜超声碎石清石治疗输尿管结石清石率高,术前心理护理和术后针对并发症护理是减少并发症发生和提高手术安全性、促进术后康复的重要措施。%Objective To explore the nursing measures of reverse flow rinsing ureteroscopic ultrasound lithotripsy for the treatment of ureteral calculi .Methods Retrospective analysis of our hospital from 2013 March to 2014 June using the reverse flow rinsing clinical data of ureteroscopic ultrasound lithotripsy in treating 30 ureteral calculus .The patients psychological nursing and preoperative nursing for complications after operation . Results 30 cases of patients with careful nursing can obtain good clinical curative effect , 1 case of calculi translocation, discharged after extracorporeal lithotripsy;2 cases of hematuria , 18 cases of renal colic in 4 cases after operation , postoperative fever ( T<38℃) after timely treatment and nursing were improved rapidly;shift of 1 cases of double "J"tube, ureteroscopic removal .No ureteral injury and complications such as urinary sepsis . 29 cases of successful lithotripsy , stone clearance rate was 96.67%.Conclusions Reverse flow rinsing ureteroscopic ultrasound lithotripsy in treatment of ureteral calculi

  18. 肝切除术联合术中胆道镜治疗17例肝内胆管结石的疗效分析%The therapy experience of liver resection combined intraoperative choledochoscope for intrahepatic biliary calculi in 17 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵本泉; 吴伟; 项建斌; 马中林

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨肝切除术联合术中胆道镜治疗肝内胆管结石的临床疗效。方法回顾性分析该院肝胆外科2005~2014年行肝切除术联合术中胆道镜治疗肝内胆管结石17例患者的临床资料,根据肝内胆管结石的分布,其中左外叶6例,左半肝5例,右肝第Ⅵ段3例,第Ⅶ段1例,第Ⅷ段1例,左外叶合并右后叶下段1例。17例患者均采用传统肝叶或肝段切除术(单钳法联合第一肝门阻断技术),其中左外叶切除6例,左半肝切除5例,右肝第Ⅵ段切除3例,第Ⅶ段切除1例,第Ⅷ段切除1例,左外叶联合右后叶下段切除1例,同时行胆总管切开取石、T管引流附加手术10例,所有患者术中均常规行胆道镜检查。结果17例患者均治愈,无严重并发症,无远期结石复发。结论肝切除术联合术中胆道镜是治疗肝内胆管结石积极、有效、彻底的方法。%Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of liver resection combined intraoperative choledochoscope for intra‐hepatic biliary calculi .Methods A retrospective analysis of clinical data in seventeen patients with intrahepatic biliary calculi ,who have been received liver resection combined intraoperative choledochoscope in the department of hepatobiliary surgery during 2005 to 2014 was conducted .According to the distribution of intrahepatic bile duct stones ,six cases located in left liver lobe ,five cases lo‐cated in left half liver ,three cases located in liver section Ⅵ ,one case located in liver section Ⅶ ,one case located in liver section Ⅷ , one case located in left liver lobe associated with right posterior lobe lower segment .Seventeen cases were treated with hepatolobec‐tomy or segmental liver resection (single clamp method combined first hilar occlusion) ,among which six cases received hepatic left lateral lobectomy ,five cases received left hemihepatectomy ,three cases received partial hepatic resection in

  19. Clinical effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy combined with drug therapy in the treatment of lower ureteral calculi%体外冲击波碎石联合药物治疗输尿管下段结石的临床效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪海; 谭琳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy combined with terazosin hydrochloride in the treatment of lower ureteral calculi. Methods 184 patients with lower ureteral calculi in the urinary system in our hospital from November 2012 to November 2014 were selected and randomly divided into the control group and the experiment group,92 patients in each group.The control group was treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy alone,the experiment group was treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy combined with terazosin hydrochloride.The clinical effect in two groups was compared. Results The cure rate and the total effective rate in the experiment group was higher than that in the control group,with significant difference (P<0.05).The application rate of painkiller in the experiment group was lower than that in the control group,with significant difference (P<0.05). Con-clusion The effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy combined with terazosin hydrochloride in the treatment of lower ureteral calculi in the urinary system is significant,which can eliminate the stones inside patients’body,reduce patients’pain.%目的:探讨体外冲击波碎石联合盐酸特拉唑嗪治疗输尿管下段结石的临床效果。方法选取2012年11月~2014年11月本院收治的184例泌尿系统输尿管下段结石患者作为研究对象,随机分为对照组和试验组,各92例。对照组采用体外冲击波碎石治疗,试验组采用体外冲击波碎石联合盐酸特拉唑嗪治疗,比较两组的临床效果。结果试验组的治愈率与总有效率显著高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。试验组的止痛药物使用率显著低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论体外冲击波碎石联合盐酸特拉唑嗪治疗输尿管下段结石效果显著,能更好地清除患者体内的碎石,减少患者病痛。

  20. 微通道经皮肾镜取石术治疗上尿路结石的疗效及安全性评价(附4533例报告)%The Evaluation of Efficacy and Safety in Mini-PNL for Upper Urinary Tract Calculi(Report of 4 533 Cases)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炯明; 刘建和; 陈戬; 姜永明; 张劲松; 闫永吉; 王光; 张海燕; 郭海翔

    2011-01-01

    Objective..To evaluate the safety and clinical efficacy of mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy(mPNL) for the treatment of upper urinary tract tcalculi.Methods:4 533 patients with upper urinary tract calculi underwent mPNL from September 1999 to December 2010,including 3 434 pelvic and calyx calculi,342 partial staghorn nephrolithiasis,38 staghorn nephrolithiasis,737 impacted upper ureterolithiasis, stone size 12-103 mm.All patients were treated by the supracostal access or subcostal access mPNL, the pucture via renal papillary to the posterior renal calyx.Results: 4 528 cases(99.8%)were successful of total 4 533 patients,the operation time 30-186 min.The stone clearance rate in upper ureterolithiasis was 99.2 %, nephrolithiasis was 96.5 % ,partial staghorn nephrolithiasis was 92.3% (combined the ESWL) and staghorn nephrolithiasis was 86.2% (combined the ESWL).The complication includced blood transfusion 1.39 % ,high selective renal artery angioembolization 0.13%%, pleural effusion0.13 %, colon injury 0.110%, liquid absorption syndrome 0.110%, septic shock 0.06 %, no death and renal failure cases.Conclusions:The treatment of mPNL for upper urinary tract calculi,including partial staghorn nephrolithiasis,can receive high rate of stone clearance,high safety,and lower surgical bleeding, blood transfusion and other complications.%目的:探讨微通道经皮肾镜取石术(mPNL)治疗上尿路结石的疗效和安全性.方法:1999年9月~2010年12月应用mPNL治疗上尿路结石患者4 533例,其中肾盂及肾盏结石患者3434例,部分鹿角形肾结石患者324例,完全鹿角形肾结石患者38例,嵌顿性输尿管上段结石患者737例,结石大小12~103 mm.采用肋上或肋下人路,经肾乳头穿刺后组肾盏建立手术通道.结果:4 528例(99.8%)获得成功,手术时间30~185 min,结石清除率分别为:输尿管上段结石99.2%,肾盏或肾盂结石96.5%,部分鹿角形肾结石92.3%(

  1. Experience of Minimally Invasive Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Guided by B Ultrasound and X-ray in the Treatment of Complicated Renal Calculi%B超联合X线引导定位下微创经皮肾镜治疗复杂性肾结石的体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏淑英

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究 B 超联合 X 线引导定位下微创经皮肾镜治疗复杂性肾结石的效果。方法选择2012年3月~2014年3月来我院治疗的复杂性肾结石患者166例,随机分成对照组和治疗组,每组各83例,对照组患者采用 X 线引导定位下微创经皮肾镜治疗,治疗组患者采用 B超联合 X 线引导定位下微创经皮肾镜治疗,观察两组患者的穿刺效果及手术时间、结石清除率等指标。结果治疗组患者的穿刺时间、穿刺出血量少于对照组患者,1针穿刺成功率高于对照组患者,差异具有统计学意义(P <0.05);治疗组患者的平均手术时间及住院时间少于对照组患者,结石的清除率高于对照组患者,差异具有统计学意义(P <0.05)。治疗后仅对照组患者出现2例不良情况。结论对复杂性肾结石的患者采用 B 超联合 X 线引导定位下微创经皮肾镜治疗,能有效地减少手术时间,提高治疗的成功率,并发症较少。%Objective To study the effect of minimal y invasive percutaneous endoscopic guided by ultrasound combined with X-ray guidance in the treatment of complex renal calculi. Methods From March 2012 to March 2014,166 patients with complex renal calculi were randomly divided into control group and treatment group,83 cases in each group. The control group were treated with X ray guided percutaneous endoscopic treatment. Results In the treatment group,the puncture time and bleeding volume were significantly less than those in the control group,the success rate was significantly higher than the control group,the difference was statistical y significant(P < 0.05). The average operation time and hospitalization time of the treatment group were significantly less than those of the control group,the removal rate of stone was significantly higher than that of the control group(P < 0.05).After treatment,the control group was treated with 2 cases of adverse conditions

  2. Discussion on Clinical Efficacy of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy for the Treatment of 42 Patients with Complex Renal Calculi%经皮肾镜取石治疗复杂性肾结石42例临床效果探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商昌欢

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨经皮肾镜取石术治疗复杂性肾结石的临床效果.[方法]回顾性分析84例复杂性肾结石一般资料,按照入院时间先后分为研究组和对照组各42例.对照组采用开放性肾窦内肾盂或肾实质切开取石术进行治疗,研究组经皮肾镜取石进行治疗,观察和比较两组患者手术情况.[结果]研究组患者平均手术时间、术中出血量、平均住院时间、结石清除情况明显优于对照组(P<0.05或0.01).[结论]采用经皮肾镜取石术治疗复杂性肾结石创伤较小,术中出血量少、术后恢复较快、并发症少、结石清除率高.%[Objective] To explore the clinical efficacy of the treatment of complex renal calculi. [Methods] General materials of 84 patients with complex nephrolithiasis were analyzed retrospectively. According to the admission time, all patients were divided into study group and control group with 42 cases in each group. The control group underwent open nephrolithotomy of renal sinus in renal pelvis or renal parenchyma, while the study group underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy. The operation situation was observed and compared between two groups. [Results]The average operation time, intraoperative blood loss, the average stay and stone-free rate in the study group were obviously superior to the control group, and there were significant differences( P <0. 05 or 0. 01). [Conclusion]Percutaneous nephrolithotomy for the treatment of complex renal calculi has good effect, small trauma, less intraoperative blood loss, rapid postoperative recovery faster, fewer complications and high stone-free rate.

  3. 层级整体护理模式在肾结石患者取石术后造瘘管护理工作中的应用%Application of stratified holistic nursing model on nephrostomy tube nursing after percutaneous nephroscope ultrasonic lithotripsy in patients with renal calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究层级整体护理模式在肾结石患者取石术后造瘘管护理工作中的应用效果。方法选取2010年1月~2015年1月陕西省榆林市第二医院泌尿外科收治的肾结石患者160例,将其随机分为实验组和对照组,每组各80例。在肾结石患者取石术后的造瘘管护理工作中,实验组采用层级整体护理模式,对照组采用常规小组责任制的护理模式。比较两组患者的住院时间、拔除造瘘管时间、术后并发症发生率、护理差错发生率及满意度等。结果实验组患者住院时间及拔除造瘘管时间均明显短于对照组,差异均有高度统计学意义(t =8.462,P<0.01;t=6.842,P<0.01),并且术后并发症发生率也明显低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(字2=8.183,P<0.05),此外,实验组对疾病及护理知识的掌握率明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(字2=8.374,P<0.05)。实验组的护理质量在护士长管理、重危患者护理、基础护理及护理文书书写方面明显高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(t =9.325,P<0.05;t =10.333,P<0.05;t=8.345,P<0.05;t =9.341,P<0.05)。实验组患者、护士、医生的满意度均明显高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(字2=14.267,P<0.01;字2=8.283,P<0.05;字2=7.682,P<0.05)。结论在肾结石患者取石术后造瘘管护理工作中采用层级整体护理模式,能明显缩短住院时间及拔除瘘管时间,降低术后并发症发生率,改善术后的护理质量和护理效率,提高患者及医护人员的满意度,值得临床推广应用。%Objective To study the application effect of stratified holistic nursing model on nephrostomy tube nursing after percutaneous nephroscope ultrasonic lithotripsy in patients with renal calculi. Methods One hundred and sixty cases of patients with renal calculi admitted to Department of Urology Surgery, the Second Hospital of Yulin City from January 2010 to January 2015 were chosen and randomly divided

  4. 经皮肾镜取石与输尿管镜碎石术治疗嵌顿性输尿管上段结石疗效比较分析%Comparative analysis of curative effects between percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ureteroscopy lithotripsy in the treatment of impacted upper ureteral calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓助朋; 陈宁; 刘东彪; 陈结能; 周晓帆; 吴春志

    2015-01-01

    目的:对比经皮肾镜取石与输尿管镜碎石术治疗嵌顿性输尿管上段结石的临床疗效。方法84例嵌顿性输尿管上段结石患者,采用随机数表法将其分为经皮肾镜组与输尿管镜组,每组42例。经皮肾镜组采用经皮肾镜取石术进行治疗,输尿管镜组采用经尿道输尿管镜碎石术治疗,比较两组患者结石清除率、手术用时、住院时间及术后并发症发生率。结果经皮肾镜组患者结石清除率、手术用时、住院时间及并发症发生率明显优于输尿管镜组,差异具有统计学意义(P complications in treating impacted upper ureteral calculi. This method can shorten hospital stay and reduce patients’ cost, and it contains value in clinical promotion and application.

  5. Comparison of Standard Channel Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy with Ultrasonic and Pneumatic Lithotripsy and Microchannel Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy with Pneumatic Lithotripsy in the Treatment of Staghorn Calculi%标准通道经皮肾弹道超声碎石取石与微通道经皮肾气压弹道碎石取石术治疗肾鹿角形结石的疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄瑞旭; 覃智标; 毕革文; 李峰; 伍松合; 郑仿; 黄新; 赵书晓

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of ultrasonic and pneumatic lithotripsy through standard channel on staghorn calculi,as compared to pneumatic lithotripsy through microchannel.Methods From June 2004 to June 2010,a total of 129 patients suffering from staghorn calculi were treated in our hospital.Sixty one patients received standard channel procedure (standard channel group),while the other sixty eight patients received microchannel procedure(microchannel group).Clinical data including operation time,first-stage stone clearance rate,and complications were compared.Results The operating time in standard channel group was (92 ± 22) min,significantly less than that of microchannel group (139 ± 23)min (t =11.828,P =0.000); the postoperative fever rate in standard channel group was 8.2%,significantly less than that of microchannel group (26.5%,x2 =11.828,P =0.007) ; the first-stage stone clearance rate in standard channel group and microchannel group was 52.5% (32/61) and 51.5% (35/68) respectively,and no statistical difference was observed between the two groups (x2 =0.013,P =0.911).Conclusions Compared with microchannel,standard channel procedure for staghorn calculi has shorter operation time,higher lithotripsy efficiency,and lower postoperative fever rate.Therefore,standard channel procedure is a priority for staghorn calculi.%目的 比较标准通道弹道超声碎石取石与微通道经皮肾气压弹道碎石取石术治疗鹿角形肾结石的疗效.方法 2004年6月~2010年6月,对129例肾鹿角形结石分别采用标准通道弹道超声碎石取石与微通道经皮肾气压弹道碎石取石术治疗,标准通道组61例,微通道组68例,比较2组手术时间、一期结石清除率和手术并发症等指标. 结果 标准通道组手术时间(92±22)min,显著少于微通道组(139±23) min(t=11.828,P=0.000);标准通道组术后发热率为8.2%,显著低于微通道组26.5%(x2 =11.828,P=0.007);标准

  6. The value of MSCT three-dimensional reconstruction technique in the treatment of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in stag horn calculi%多层螺旋CT三维重建技术在经皮肾镜治疗鹿角状肾结石中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晶; 李香营; 陈旭

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To assess the safety and efficacy of multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT)through percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for the treatment of staghorn renal calculi.[Methods]We retrospectively reviewed charts of patients who received MSCT scanning before underwent PCNL procedures from 2003 to 2008.The three dimensional reconstruction movie images were acquired in Wizad workstation.According to the movie image, the spatial distribution of the stone was pinpoint, PCNL access was then perfectly designed.Postoperative stone clearance was documented on B-mode ultrasonic diagnostic equipment or X-ray KUB.[Results]A total of 105 staghorn renal calculi patients underwent 124 separate procedures.The number of tracts per procedure were single tract in 79 and 2 tracts in 45.38 cases with residual stone diameter <1.0 em in kidney calices.The stone clearance rate was 69.4% (86/124).[Conclusion]The MSCT movie image can help to find the stone accurately,showing the structure detail as the size, shape and location of the stone.It offers the potential advantages of better access for PCNL procedures, lower residual rate and higher operation safety.%目的 探讨多层螺旋CT(MSCT)三维重建技术在经皮肾镜治疗鹿角状肾结石中的价值.方法 105例鹿角形肾结石患者行双肾MSCT平扫,在Wizad工作站进行三维重建,根据结石空间分布特点建立经皮肾镜建立的理想通道进行腔内碎石取石术.术后通过术后复查B超或KUB平片观察结石残留情况.结果 105例(124侧)鹿角状肾结石患者根据MSCT三维重建建立经皮肾镜通道,79侧采用单一通道,45侧加做第二通道,术后38侧肾盏内有小于1cm结石残余,结石清除率为69.4%(86/124).结论 MSCT三维重建技术可以准确地发现结石,明确其大小、形态、位置,生动地显示结石的三雏形态和空间位置关系,为经皮肾镜治疗肾鹿角形结石提供了明确的手术径路,能够准确确

  7. Role of artificial neural network and logistic regression model in predicting effect of extracorporeal shock wave for upper urinary tract calculi%人工神经网络及Logistic回归模型对预测体外冲击波治疗上尿路结石的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋杰宏; 姚聪; 陈健芬; 徐乐

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨人工神经网络和Logistic回归模型对预测体外冲击波治疗上尿路结石的治疗效果预测.方法 从2010年1月至2015年1月,本院泌尿科共接受ESWL治疗的肾结石患者340例,将治疗前的病例资料10项(年龄大小、体重指数大小、病程时间长短、性别、尿路刺激症、血尿、肾绞痛、结石位置、患侧和大小)纳入预测参数,建立人工神经网络和Logistic回归模型,预测体外冲击波治疗上尿路结石的临床疗效.结果 人工神经网络得到预测参数重要性的前5位依次为结石大小、病程时间、血尿、结石位置、体重指数,进行显著性检验时,P< 0.05.Logistic回归模型中重要的参数分别为病程时间、血尿和结石位置,差异有统计学意义,P< 0.05.结论 人工神经网络和Logistic回归模型预测ESWL治疗上尿路结石成功率有较好的准确性,可以在临床上广泛推广.%Objective To explore the role of artificial neural network and logistic regression model in predicting the effect of extracorporeal shock wave for upper urinary tract calculi.Methods From January,2010 to January,2015,d 340 patients with renal calculus were treated by ESWL at our hospital.The predictive parameters were sex,symptoms induced by urethral irritation,blood urine,renal colic,stone position,stone of one side,age,BMI,disease course,and stone size.Artificial neural network and logistic regression model were built basing on these parameters to predict the clinical effect of ESWL for calculus of upper urinary tract.Results The most important five parameters in artificial neural network were stone size,disease course,blood urine,stone position,and BMI,with statistical differences (P<0.05).The most important parameters in logistic regression model were disease course,blood urine,and stone position,with statistical differences (P<0.05).Conclusions Artificial neural network and logistic regression model in predicting the effect of

  8. 微创经皮肾取石术处理移植肾上尿路结石八例报告%Minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy in treating the upper urinary tract calculi in transplanted kidneys (report or 8 cases)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何朝辉; 李逊; 曾国华; 陈文忠; 何永忠; 雷鸣; 王露萍; 袁坚

    2008-01-01

    目的 报告8例微创经皮肾取石术处理移植肾上尿路结石的结果,并评估其安全性和有效性.方法 2002年8月至2006年10月,对8例肾移植术后发生移植肾上尿路结石的患者采用微创经皮.肾取石术.在B型超声波引导下穿刺移植肾前中盏成功后,将穿刺通道扩张到F14~F16,在输尿管镜或李逊肾镜直视下将结石击碎并取出.术后每3个月随诊1次,行B型超声波、尿培养和肾功能检查.结果 对所有患者进行的取石术均获成功,且1次性将结石取净,术中和术后无并发症发生.有2例患者因术中穿刺抽出液为脓性,而先置肾造瘘管引流,1周后行二期取石术.患者的手术时间平均为51 min,血红蛋白平均下降了5.6 g/L.术后随访时间为3~48个月,未见有结石复发;血肌酐稳定于76~131 μmol/L.结论 微创经皮肾取石术处理移植肾上尿路结石安全有效,可作为一线治疗方法.%Objective To report the outcome of minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mPCNL) in treating upper urinary tract calculi in transplanted kidney and to evaluate its safety and effectiveness. Methods Between August 2002 to October 2006, 8 patients (mean age 41 years) with upper urinary tract stones in transplanted kidneys were treated by mPCNL. Under the guidance of ultrasonography, an anterior middle calyx was performed. The percutaneous tract was dilated to F14-16 by fascial dilators and a F14-16 Peel-away sheath was placed as the percutaneous access port, a LIXUN nephroscope or a F8/9.8 ureteroscope was used for manipulation. During follow-up, serum urea, creatinine, uric acid determinations, urine culture and ultrasound examination were performed every 2~3 months. Results All patients were rendered stone-free at one rnPCNL procedure, with no complications during or after surgery. The mean (range) operative duration was 51 (20~100) min and the mean haemoglobin decrease was 5.6 g/L. At a mean (range) follow

  9. Safety and Efifcacy Analysis of the Ureteroscope Holmium Laser Lithotripsy for Ureteral Calculi%输尿管肾镜钬激光碎石术治疗输尿管结石的安全性与有效性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳学春

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study and explore the safety and effectiveness of ureteroscope holmium laser lithotripsy for ureteral calculi. Methods:Our choice of 148 cases of ureteral were on calculus patients were randomly divided into observation group and control group and observation group of 75 patients with ureteral renal mirror holmium laser lithotripsy in the treatment group, 73 cases of the external shock wave lithotripsy treatment, compared between the two groups of patients with surgical effect and complications. Results:The observation group operation time [(28.6±3.8)min vs (47.5±8.2)min] and hospitalization time [(5.7±1.3)d vs (7.4±1.9)d] significantly shorter than control group, gravel success rate, stones row net rate is significantly higher than control group, complication rates significantly lower than control group, two groups have significant difference, there is statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusion:Ureteral renal mirror holmium laser lithotripsy for the treatment of ureteral calculi operation is simple, safe, minimally invasive, high efficiency, it is worth clinical application.%目的:研究与探讨输尿管结石应用输尿管肾镜钬激光碎石术治疗的安全性与有效性。方法:选择我院收治的148例输尿管上段结石患者,随机分为观察组和对照组,观察组75例采用输尿管肾镜钬激光碎石术进行治疗,对照组73例采用体外冲击波碎石术进行治疗,比较两组患者的手术效果及并发症发生情况。结果:观察组手术时间[(28.6±3.8)min vs(47.5±8.2)min]和住院时间[(5.7±1.3)d vs(7.4±1.9)d]显著短于对照组,碎石成功率、结石排净率显著高于对照组,并发症发生率显著低于对照组,两组有显著性差异,有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:输尿管肾镜钬激光碎石术治疗输尿管结石操作简便、安全、微创、高效,值得临床推广应用。

  10. 后腹腔镜肾切开取石与经皮肾镜取石术治疗复杂性肾结石的临床疗效比较%Efficacy of retroperitoneal laparoscopic nephrolithotomy vs.percutaneous nephrolithotomy in patients with complex renal calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忆勤; 张爱军; 姚俊; 王照凡; 叶明; 杨超

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the efficacy between retroperitoneal laparoscopic nephrolithotomy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) in patients with complex renal calculi.Methods Clinical data for 126 patients with complex renal calculi from January2010 to December 2014 were reviewed.They were divided into laparoscopic group (n =54) underwent retroperitoneal laparoscopic nephrolithotomy and PNL group (n =72) underwent PNL.The condition related to surgery and indexes for therapeutic effects between the two groups were compared.Results All of the patients underwent surgery successfully and no perioperative death occurred.In the laparoscopic group,operative time was longer than that in the PNL group(P <0.05),and blood loss was less than that in the PNL group (P < 0.05).No difference in the hospital stay and rate of conversion between the two groups were found (P > 0.05).In the laparoscopic group,the rate of two-stage operation was higher than that in the PNL group(P <0.05),and intraoperative stone-free rate was lower than that in the PNL group (P < 0.05).After two-stage operation,the postoperative stone-free rate was 100%.Conclusions Laparoscopic biliary tract surgery for choledocholithiasis in elderly patients is safe and effective.But surgeons should grasp the operation indication flexibly and optimize the perioperative management.%目的 比较后腹腔镜肾切开取石与经皮肾镜取石术(PNL)治疗复杂性肾结石的临床疗效.方法 选取本院2010年1月至2014年12月收治的126例复杂性肾结石,其中行后腹腔镜肾切开取石术者54例(腹腔镜组),行PNL治疗72例(PNL组).比较两组患者的手术相关情况及疗效指标.结果 两组患者手术均顺利完成,无围手术期死亡病例.腹腔镜组的手术时间长于PNL组,但术中出血量小于PNL组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).两组患者的住院时间和中转开放率比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).腹腔镜组二期手术率高于PNL组,

  11. Clinical management of ureteral calculi complicated with acute renal pelvis infec-tions during pregnancy%妊娠期输尿管结石合并急性肾盂感染43例临床治疗与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡嘉盛; 袁鹤胜; 谢国海; 刘冠琳; 贾晓龙; 郑重; 程跃

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨妊娠期输尿管结石合并急性肾盂感染的治疗方法,总结相关临床经验.方法 回顾性分析2012年1月~2014年8月妊娠期输尿管结石合并急性肾盂感染43例患者资料,积极抗感染治疗的同时积极在局麻下行输尿管支架置入,其中4例患者插管前后发生感染性休克.结果 本组43例,39例妊娠期输尿管结石合并急性肾盂感染患者行局麻下行输尿管支架置入后,体温在1~4 d内恢复,白细胞计数在3~6 d内恢复正常.4例发生感染性休克,转IC U 治疗.其中2例患者在支架管置入后发生感染性休克转IC U,1例入院后即刻发生感染性休克,转IC U积极抗感染、抗休克治疗1~2 d病情稳定后再行支架管置入,1例插管时出现感染性休克前兆,插管后立刻转入IC U治疗.所有患者内置双J管3月后更换或拔除.结论 输尿管双J管置入治疗妊娠期输尿管结石合并急性肾盂感染安全有效,即使出现感染性休克前兆,只要有可能应尽早行输尿管双J管置入,解除梗阻,生命体征不稳定时,积极抗感染,抗休克、补液对症治疗生命体征平稳后仍应尽早采取输尿管双J管置入,为感染性休克的控制治疗创造有利条件.%Objective To explore the treatment of ureteral calculi complicated with acute renal pelvis infections during pregnancy.Methods Clinical data of 43 pregnant patients who suffered from ureteral calculi complicated with acute renal pel-vis infections treated in our hospital during Jan.2012 to Aug.2014 were retrospectively analyzed.The patients received active anti-infection treatment,and then ureteral stents under local anesthesia were placed.Results After the placement of ureteral stents,the body temperature of 39 patients returned to normal within 1 to 4 days,and white blood cell count returned to nor-mal within 3 to 6 days.Septic shock occurred in 4 patients,who were immediately transferred to ICU.Of these 4 cases,septic shock occurred in 2

  12. Co mparative study on cli nical therapeutic effect of B ultrasound and X-ray locati ng percutaneous nephrolithoto my for treat ment of upper uri nary tract calculi%B 超和 X 线定位经皮肾镜治疗上尿路结石的临床疗效对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钢; 刘中文; 张杨; 陈强; 胡鹏; 陈智勇; 丁伟

    2015-01-01

    目的::探讨 B 超和 X 线定位经皮肾镜取石治疗上尿路结石的临床疗效比较。方法:回顾性分析2010年2月~2013年12月收治的300例上尿路结石患者的临床资料,根据定位方式分为 X 线定位组(164例)和B 超定位组(146例),对两组患者围手术期临床数据进行比较。结果:X 线定位组的穿刺时间为(10.3±4.2)mi n 、手术时间为(103.5±27.5)mi n 、穿刺中出血量为(45.8±9.8)ml 、手术出血量为(96.7±34.8)ml 、穿刺针数为(1.72±0.84)次,均显著的低于 B 超定位组(P <0.05);两组患者的住院时间差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。术后 X 线定位组的感染率(8.54%)、术后继发出血(3.66%)、术后脏器损伤(0.00%)与 B 超定位组差异无统计学意义(P >0.05);但 X 线定位组的结石残余率7.93%显著低于 B 超定位组的15.07%。结论:X 线定位经皮肾镜取石治疗上尿路结石较 B 超定位具有时间短、出血量少、术后结石残余率低等优势,值得临床推广应用。%Objective :To i nvesti gate the cli nical efficacy of percutaneous nephrolithoto my for the treat ment of upper uri nary tract calculi by the B ultrasound and X-ray l ocalizati on .Methods :The cli nical data of 300 cases of up-per uri nary calculi i n Depart ment of Urol ogy of our hospital fro m 201 0 February to 201 3 Dece mber were retrospec-ti vel y anal yzed .The patients were di vi ded i nto X-ray positi oni ng group (1 64 cases )and B ultrasound positi oni ng group (1 46 cases )accordi ng to the positi oni ng modes .So me peri operati ve data were co mpared .Results :The punc-ture ti me (1 0.3 ±4.2 mi n )and operati on ti me (1 03.5 ±27.5 mi n )were shortened ,the a mount of he morrhage i n puncture (45.8 ±9.8 mL ),i ntraoperati ve bl ood l oss (96.7 ±34.8 mL )and puncture ti mes (1.72 ±0.84 )were re-duced i n X-ray positi oni ng group as co mpared with B ultrasound positi oni ng group (P 0.05 ).The postoperati

  13. 膀胱镜下留置双 J 管治疗妊娠期输尿管结石的临床观察%The clinical observation and prognosis of indwelling double J tube by cystoscope for pregnancy with ureteral calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢大乔; 周长春; 熊冰; 金亿里

    2016-01-01

    目的探讨膀胱镜下留置双 J 管治疗妊娠期输尿管结石临床效果,并观察与分析其预后,为临床治疗提供依据。方法选取妊娠期输尿管结石患者46例,均应用膀胱镜下留置双 J 管治疗。观测指标为手术时间、手术基本情况、术后一周随访观察其并发症等;治疗前后48 h 采用视觉类比量表(VAS)对疼痛程度进行评估。观察分娩前孕妇双 J 管位置情况及分娩状况。结果46例患者均成功置管,平均手术时间(29.14±3.27)min。37例患者的腰部绞痛及发热等症状经治疗后均得到缓解。6例患者均于双 J 管置入术2个月门诊复查后更换双 J 管。治疗后 VAS 评分为(1.16±0.83)分,低于治疗前(6.93±1.02)分,差异均有统计学意义(t =9.64,P <0.05);治疗后肾积水和尿路感染分别为4.35%(2/46)和0.00%(0/46),低于治疗前的32.61%(15/46)和19.57%(9/46),差异均有统计学意义(χ2=8.33、9.05,均 P <0.05);46例孕妇均顺利生产,无流产等产科并发症。平均留置双 J 管(5.08±1.16)个月。结论膀胱镜下留置双 J 管治疗妊娠期输尿管结石创伤较小、结石清除率高、术后并发症少且安全性高、预后良好,是一种安全有效的方法。%Objective To explore the effect of the cystoscope indwelling double J tube for the treatment of pregnancy with ureteral calculi,and to observe and analyze the prognosis,and provide the basis for clinical therapy. Methods 46 pregnant women with ureteral calculi were selected.All patients were treated by cystoscope indwelling double J tube.Observation indexes were the follow -up complications after a week of operation time,operation situa-tion,Visual analogue scale (VAS)was used to evaluate the degree of pain operation before and after treatment 48 h. To observe the pregnant women with double J tube placement and

  14. 女性患者上尿路结石腔内碎石并发尿脓毒血症的护理方案探讨%Nursing countermeasures of urinary sepsis of female patients with upper urinary tract calculi after endoscopic lithotripsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍慧; 钱卫红; 潘铁军

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨女性患者上尿路结石行腔内碎石术后发生尿脓毒症的护理方案.方法 总结2013年5月至2015年12月在本科室22例行上尿路结石腔内碎石术并发尿脓毒血症患者的临床数据,分析术前风险评估和原发症的控制、术后早期液体复苏及各种护理方案.结果 21例患者1周内体温、脉搏、血压和血常规恢复正常,平均住院12d康复出院.1例患者腔内碎石术后12h内出现弥漫性血管内凝血并多器官功能障碍,经积极抢救无效死亡.结论 早期发现及规范化的护理,可显著减少上尿路结石腔内碎石术后并发尿脓毒血症患者不良后果的发生,降低死亡率.%Objectives To investigate our experience in the early observation and nursing countermeasures of urinary sepsis after endoscopic lithotripsy for female patients with upper urinary tract calculi.Methods Tthe clinical date of 22 female patients with upper urinary tract stones who have urinary sepsis after endoscopic lithotripsy from May 2013 to December 2015 were collected.The preoperative condition,the change state of illness during and postoperation and the nursing countermeasure of patients were retrospectively analyzed.Results A total of 21 patients were discharged from hospital upon recovery after timely and efficiently symptomatic treatment and active nursing,and 1 patient died because of serious infections and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.Conclusions We should pay attention to susceptible factors of urosepsis,and early diagnosis and active treatment can improve the incidence of rescue rate of urinary sepsis.

  15. Lower pole calculi larger than one centimeter: Retrograde intrarenal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas J Gross

    2008-01-01

    The technical developments in laser technology as well as significant improvement in flexible renoscopes have made RIRS for larger lower pole stones possible. The low complication rate gives RIRS for lower pole stones superiority over the invasive percutaneous approach, which is associated with significant morbidity, even in experienced hands.

  16. Pathophysiological aspects of ureterorenoscopic management of upper urinary tract calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, Palle J S; Pedersen, Katja V; Lildal, Søren K;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Indications for ureterorenoscopy are expanding without hard scientific evidence to support its efficacy. Therefore, it is extremely important to focus on potential harmful effects of the procedure itself. This review explores how physiology of the upper urinary tract reacts...... of the β-receptor agonist isoproterenol in the irrigation fluid has shown a potential for reducing both intrarenal pressure and ureteral tone during ureterorenoscopy. SUMMARY: Upper urinary tract physiology has unique features that may be pushed into pathophysiological processes by the unique elements...

  17. Therapy for renal calculi via percutaneous nephrostomy: dissolution and extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, J H; Pfister, R C

    1981-01-01

    Nephrostomy catheters offer nonsurgical modes of therapy for some renal stones. Continuous lavage of the stones using hemiacidrin (Renacidin) for struvite stones, THAM-E or acetylcysteine for cystine stones, and bicarbonate solution for uric acid stones may dissolve either entire stones or stone fragments remaining after surgery. Although irrigation is not without potential complications, recent developments in technique have minimized these. Nephrostomy tubes can also be used to transmit stone baskets through steerable catheters to snare stones from the upper collecting system or from the ureter; any stone that can be engaged and withdrawn through the tube tract can be removed; stones larger than those which can be safely extracted through the ureterovesical junction can be so treated. Neither of these procedures requires general anesthesia, the rate of serious morbidity is low, and the required hospital stay is often less than that for surgery; these modes of therapy are therefore valuable for certain patients.

  18. Adjunctive chemotherapy of infection-induced staghorn calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, D P; Moskowitz, P A; Carlton, C E

    1979-06-01

    Bacteria induce urinary crystallization of struvite and carbonate-apatite as a by-product of ureolysis by urease. Eradication of infection and/or inhibition of urease with acetohydroxamic acid for 5 to 30 months retarded stone growth and brought about partial or comple dissolution of stones in 9 patients. Long-term chemotherapy with antimicrobial agents that achieve steril urine or acetohydroxamic acid in those patients with recalcitrant infection lessens the risk of recurrent calculogenesis.

  19. Implications of the Hopf algebra properties of noncommutative differential calculi

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    We define a noncommutative algebra of four basic objects within a differential calculus on quantum groups: functions, 1-forms, Lie derivatives and inner derivations, as the cross-product algebra associated with Woronowicz's (differential) algebra of functions and forms. This definition properly takes into account the Hopf algebra structure of the Woronowicz calculus. It also provides a direct proof of the Cartan identity.

  20. Transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter and struvite calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielo Garcia de Freitas

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The association of primary carcinoma of the ureter and lithiasis is extremely rare. We report a rare case of a primary carcinoma of the ureter with corariform calculus. CASE REPORT: 60-year-old phaeodermal female, reported a history of right-side nephritic colic, hyperthermia and pyuria during the past 20 years and had received treatment for urinary infections a number of times. The first clinical presentation was related to lithiasis and the tumor had not been shown up by excretory urography, cystoscopy or ultrasonography. Two months after the calculus had been eliminated, the patient began to have serious symptoms and a grade III transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter was discovered. Total nephroureterectomy and M.V.A.C. (Metotrexate + Vinblastina + Doxo Rubicina + Cisplatina chemotherapy were tried unsuccessfully. In this report we emphasize the diagnostic difficulty caused by the concomitant presence of the two pathologies. In our opinion, the rapid evolution in this case is directly related to the high grade of the tumor.

  1. Transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter and struvite calculi

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    CONTEXT: The association of primary carcinoma of the ureter and lithiasis is extremely rare. We report a rare case of a primary carcinoma of the ureter with corariform calculus. CASE REPORT: 60-year-old phaeodermal female, reported a history of right-side nephritic colic, hyperthermia and pyuria during the past 20 years and had received treatment for urinary infections a number of times. The first clinical presentation was related to lithiasis and the tumor had not been shown up by excretory ...

  2. Aphallia with urethrorectal fistula, bladder and urethral calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Movarrekh

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aphallia is a very rare urogenital anomaly with incidence rate of 1 in 30,000,000. It usually coexists with other anomalies such as cardiovascular anomalies which are incompatible with normal life, and therefore infants are delivered stillbirth or live for a very short period of time. Methods: We present an 18 months old boy with aphallia associated with congenital urethrorectal fistula, bladder and urethral stones. All stones were removed endourologically, recto-urethral fistula was repaired and perincal urethrostomy was performed. Results: The stones were composed of calcium phosphate colonized by klebiella pneumonia and proteus mirabilis. Urethrorectal fistula repairment was confirmed by cystography. Patient was discharged without a urinary catheter. Conclusion: In developed countries, management of such patients is to raise them as females. However, we must consider socio-cultural conditions, parents preference and patients tendency in management of aphallia.

  3. Probabilistic Models and Process Calculi for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Lei

    Due to the wide use of communicating mobile devices, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) have gained in popularity in recent years. In order that the devices communicate properly, many protocols have been proposed working at different levels. Devices in an MANET are not stationary but may keep moving......, thus the network topology may undergo constant changes. Moreover the devices in an MANET are loosely connected not depending on pre-installed infrastructure or central control components, they exchange messages via wireless connections which are less reliable compared to wired connections. Therefore...... issues in MANETs e.g. mobility and unreliable connections. Specially speaking, 1. We first propose a discrete probabilistic process calculus with which we can model in an MANET that the wireless connection is not reliable, and the network topology may undergo changes. We equip each wireless connection...

  4. Medical management of urinary calculi: up to date 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangella, Martino

    2016-09-26

    Nephrolithiasis (NL) is one of the most prevalent nontransmissible diseases in western countries. It is being associated with other frequent diseases, including osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, through a putative common link with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance or altered mineral metabolism. This review will focus on classification, physicochemical basis, risk factors, laboratory and imaging investigations, medical management.Classification as to stone composition includes calcium, uric acid (UA), cystine (Cys), infected, 2-8 dihydroxyadenine and rare NL. According to pathophysiology, NL is classified as primary, secondary to systemic diseases or drugs, caused by renal or metabolic hereditary disorders.A stone can only form in supersaturated environment, and this is sufficient in UA, Cys and infected NL, but not in Ca-NL, which results from the imbalance between supersaturation and inhibition. All types are characterized by derangements of peculiar risk factors. Laboratory investigations aim at identifying type of NL, underlying risk factors and state of saturation, and pathophysiology. This justifies a rationale therapy able to dissolve some types of stones and/or produce reduction in recurrence rate in others.Medical management includes alkali and allopurinol for UA nephrolithiasis (UA-NL), thiols and alkali in Cys-NL, dietary and pharmacological intervention for Ca-NL. Thiazides and alkaline citrate salts are the most widely used drugs in Ca-NL, where they proved efficient to prevent new stones. Other drugs have only been used in particular subsets.Proper medical management and modern urological approaches have already notably improved clinical outcomes. Future studies will further clarify mechanisms of NL with expected new and targeted therapeutic options.

  5. Alias and Change Calculi, Applied to Frame Inference

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Alias analysis, which determines whether two expressions in a program may reference to the same object, has many potential applications in program construction and verification. We have developed a theory for alias analysis, the "alias calculus", implemented its application to an object-oriented language, and integrated the result into a modern IDE. The calculus has a higher level of precision than many existing alias analysis techniques. One of the principal applications is to allow automati...

  6. Highly selective α1 blocker tamsulosin as adjunctive medical expulsion therapy following extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of renal calculi%坦索罗辛对肾结石体外震波碎石术后辅助排石作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶烈夫; 傅长德; 杨泽松; 何延瑜; 詹汉雄; 林玉琴; 许庆均; 张志刚; 黄水通

    2013-01-01

    addition to standard therapy.Patients were followed up for 2 months.Results Parameters including stone expulsion rate,mean expulsion time,rate of steinstrasse development,number of renal colic episodes and analgesics used were in favor of the tamsulosin group and the differences were significant (P =0.009,0.000,0.028,0.012,0.002 respectively).Unfortunately the stone free rate was not significantly different between two groups(P =0.125).In the subgroup analysis,patients with stone ≥ 10 mm had significantly greater stone free rate in the tamsulosin group(62.8%)compared with the control group (40.5%,P =0.044),and all other parameters were significantly in favor of the tamsulosin group(P <0.05).For patients with stone < 10 mm,only mean expulsion time and number of renal colic episodes were significantly different between two groups (P.=0.001,0.026).The incidence of side effects was not significantly different between two groups,and all side effects were minimal which did not require cessation of therapy in any patient.Conclusions After a single session of ESWL for renal calculi,tamsulosin helps to facilitate stone fragmentation passage,decrease expulsion time,reduce steinstrasse development,colic episodes and amount of analgesics required,but the stone free rate is significantly increased only for renal stones ≥ 10 mm in size.Adjuvant treatment with tamsulosin is effective in improving the outcome of ESWL with minimal side effects.

  7. Evaluation of Tamsulosin Combined with Methylprednisolone as Medical Expulsive Therapy after ESWL in Patients with Proximal Ureter Calculi%坦索罗辛联合甲基泼尼松龙对输尿管上段结石体外震波碎石术后辅助排石作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶烈夫; 杨泽松; 傅长德; 何延瑜; 詹汉雄; 林玉琴

    2012-01-01

    目的 评估坦索罗辛联合甲基泼尼松龙对输尿管上段结石体外震波碎石(ESWL)术后辅助排石作用的有效性及安全性.方法 109例输尿管上段结石患者ESWL术后,随机分为A组(34例)、B组(33例)及C组(42例),分别应用尿石通、尿石通+坦索罗辛、尿石通+坦索罗辛+甲基泼尼松龙辅助排石,随访2月.结果 A,B,C组的结石排净率分别为50.0%,63.6%,81.0%(C组vs A组,P<0.01),结石排出时间为(3.35±1.16)d,(2.10±1.22)d,(1.54±0.85)d(B组、C组vs A组,P<0.01).石街形成8例,其中A组6例,B组和C组各1例(C组vs A组,P<0.05).3组肾绞痛发生人次分别为(0.38±0.60),(0.15±0.36),(0.10±0.37)(C组vs A组,P<0.05).C组药物副作用发生率为11.9%(5/42),无一例因副作用停药.结论 输尿管上段结石ESWL术后采用坦索罗辛联合甲基泼尼松龙治疗能够增加结石清除率、缩短排石时间、降低石街形成率并减少肾绞痛的发生,用于辅助排石安全有效.%Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tamsulosin combined -with methyl-prednisolone as adjuvant expulsive therapy in patients with upper ureteral calculi after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Methods 109 patients with single upper ureteral calculus who underwent ESWL -were randomly divided into three groups, group A (34 patients)received a traditional chinese medicine(Niaoshitong) , group B(33 patients) received Tamsulosin and Niaoshitong -while group C(42 patients) received Methylprednisolone plus Tamsulosin and Niaoshitong. All patients -were folio-wed up regularly for 2 months, stone free status was confirmed with both a plain X-ray of the urinary tract and urinary ultra-sonography. Results The stone-free rate was 50. 0% , 63. 6%, 81. 0% for group A, B and C, respec-tively(group C vs A, P<0. 01). The mean expulsion time was (3. 35 + 1. 16) days in group A, (2. 10 + 1. 22) days in group B, and (1. 54 + 0. 85) days in group C (group C and B vs A, P<0. 01). Six patients in

  8. 微通道和标准通道经皮肾镜碎石术对上尿路结石患者血流动力学和血气分析的影响%Effects of Microchannel and Standard Percutaneous Nephrostolithotomy on Hemodynamics and Blood Gas Analysis in Patients with upper urinary Tract Calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石国忠; 李风; 夏宗禹; 余昆

    2015-01-01

    析的影响逐渐增加;对于心、肺、肾功能正常的患者,由于器官功能的代偿,微通道 PCNL 与标准通道 PCNL 引起的灌流液吸收量的差异不足以引起患者血流动力学和血气分析的不同。%Objective To explore the effects of percutaneous nephrostolithotomy(PCNL) and microchannel PCNL (mPCNL) on hemodynamics and blood gas analysis( BGA) in patients with upper urinary tract calculi. Methods From january 2012 to November 2013,200 kidney stone patients from Three Gorges Central Hospital were randomized into groups PCNL,mPCNL,100 in each. The mPCNL group were injected with F16 plastic sheath,PCNL group with F24 plastic sheath to establish percutaneous renal access. Patientsˊ mean arterial pressure( MAP),heart rate( HR),central venous pressure (CVP)before anesthesia,before perfusion,at minutes 10,30,60,90,120 of perfusion and after operations were recorded and blood routine examination, venous electrolyte, BGA including Na + , Cl - , K + , pH, base excess ( BE ) were determined. Results The surgical time of mPCNL group was(102. 3 ± 19. 1)min,higher than that of PCNL group〔(83. 8 ± 15. 2)min〕(t = 7. 58,P 0. 05),MAP,CVP lower before perfusion than before anesthesia in 2 groups (P 0. 05),but higher at minutes 30,60,90,120 than before perfusion(P 0. 05),K + ,pH,BE lower after operation than before anesthesia(P < 0. 01). No urosepsis or other severe complications were found in 2 groups after operation. Conclusion With the increase of operative time,the effects of the absorption of perfusate on hemodynamics and BGA increase. For the patients with normal functions of heart,lung and total kidney,the difference of absorption of perfusate caused by mPCNL and PCNL is insufficient to lead the difference of hemodynamics and BGA.

  9. Ureteroscopy for treatment of obstructing ureteral calculi in pregnant women: Single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.K. Fathelbab

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Ureteroscopy is a safe and effective therapeutic option for the treatment of obstructing ureteral stones in pregnancy with stone-free and complication rates comparable to the non-pregnant population.

  10. Infrared analysis of urinary calculi by a single reflection accessory and a neural network interpretation algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volmer, M; de Vries, JCM; Goldschmidt, HMJ

    2001-01-01

    Background: Preparation of KBr tablets, used for Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis of urinary calculus composition, is time-consuming and often hampered by pellet breakage. We developed a new F:T-IR method for urinary calculus analysis. This method makes use of a Golden Gate Single Refecti

  11. Dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Deflux) implants mimicking distal ureteral calculi on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Caleb P. [Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Urology, Boston, MA (United States); Chow, Jeanne S. [Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Periureteral or subtrigonal injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid (Dx/HA) copolymer (Deflux, Q-Med, Uppsala, Sweden) is an increasingly common endoscopic treatment for vesicoureteral reflux. We report a confusing radiographic finding of bilateral calcified Dx/HA injections initially thought to represent bilateral distal ureteral stones in a boy who presented with intermittent periumbilical pain. Urologists, radiologists, and emergency room physicians should be aware of the potential for calcification of ureteral implants of Dx/HA, and of the potentially confusing radiographic images that may result. (orig.)

  12. [The endoprosthetic management of biliary calculi larger than 20 mm: the long-term results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farca, A; Rodríguez, G; Mundo, F; Moreno, M

    1991-01-01

    We present our experiences in fifteen high-risk surgical patients, with large bile duct stones, treated with endoscopic home-made biliary stents. We observed good immediate and mediate results in all patients, with a 19.9 months follow-up. In one case, acute cholangitis developed after 25 months and the patient died. Other three died of unrelated causes. None of the patients required surgery. We conclude that endoscopic stenting is a useful procedure in the treatment of large bile duct stones in poor-risk surgical patients.

  13. A Comparative Study on the Suitability of Smartphones and IMU for Mobile, Unsupervised Energy Expenditure Calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Zafra, Angel; Orantes-González, Eva; Noguera, Manuel; Benghazi, Kawtar; Heredia-Jimenez, Jose

    2015-07-27

    The metabolic equivalent of task (MET) is currently the most used indicator for measuring the energy expenditure (EE) of a physical activity (PA) and has become an important measure for determining and supervising a person's state of health. The use of new devices which are capable of measuring inertial movements by means of built-in accelerometers enable the PA to be measured objectively on the basis of the reckoning of "counts". These devices are also known as inertial measurement units (IMUs) and each count is an aggregated value indicating the intensity of a movement and can be used in conjunction with other parameters to determine the MET rate of a particular physical activity and thus it's associated EE. Various types of inertial devices currently exist that enable count calculus and physical activity to be monitored. The advent of mobile devices, such as smartphones, with empowered computation capabilities and integrated inertial sensors, has enabled EE to be measure in a distributed, ubiquitous and natural way, thereby overcoming the reluctance of users and practitioners associated with in-lab studies. From the point of view of the process analysis and infrastructure needed to manage data from inertial devices, there are also various differences in count computing: extra devices are required, out-of-device processing, etc. This paper presents a study to discover whether the estimation of energy expenditure is dependent on the accelerometer of the device used in measurements and to discover the suitability of each device for performing certain physical activities. In order to achieve this objective, we have conducted several experiments with different subjects on the basis of the performance of various daily activities with different smartphones and IMUs.

  14. A Comparative Study on the Suitability of Smartphones and IMU for Mobile, Unsupervised Energy Expenditure Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Ruiz-Zafra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic equivalent of task (MET is currently the most used indicator for measuring the energy expenditure (EE of a physical activity (PA and has become an important measure for determining and supervising a person’s state of health. The use of new devices which are capable of measuring inertial movements by means of built-in accelerometers enable the PA to be measured objectively on the basis of the reckoning of “counts”. These devices are also known as inertial measurement units (IMUs and each count is an aggregated value indicating the intensity of a movement and can be used in conjunction with other parameters to determine the MET rate of a particular physical activity and thus it’s associated EE. Various types of inertial devices currently exist that enable count calculus and physical activity to be monitored. The advent of mobile devices, such as smartphones, with empowered computation capabilities and integrated inertial sensors, has enabled EE to be measure in a distributed, ubiquitous and natural way, thereby overcoming the reluctance of users and practitioners associated with in-lab studies. From the point of view of the process analysis and infrastructure needed to manage data from inertial devices, there are also various differences in count computing: extra devices are required, out-of-device processing, etc. This paper presents a study to discover whether the estimation of energy expenditure is dependent on the accelerometer of the device used in measurements and to discover the suitability of each device for performing certain physical activities. In order to achieve this objective, we have conducted several experiments with different subjects on the basis of the performance of various daily activities with different smartphones and IMUs.

  15. Management of calyceal diverticular calculi: a comparison of percutaneous nephrolithotomy and flexible ureterorenoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Okan; Ozyuvali, Ekrem; Aydogmus, Yasin; Sener, Nevzat Can; Dede, Onur; Ozgun, Serhat; Hizli, Fatih; Senocak, Cagri; Bozkurt, Omer Faruk; Basar, Halil; Imamoglu, Abdurrahim

    2015-04-01

    To compare the outcomes in patients who have been treated with flexible ureterorenoscopy (f-URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) in managing stone-bearing caliceal diverticula. Between April 2007 and October 2013, we performed a retrospective analysis of 54 evaluable patients (28 women and 26 men) with symptomatic stone-bearing caliceal diverticula, who underwent PNL (n = 29) or F-URS (n = 25) in four referral hospitals in Turkey. The groups were compared with respect to demographics, stone location/size, success rate, stone-free status, symptom-free status, complication rates, and hospital stay. The average stone burden preoperatively was significantly larger in patients who were treated with PNL, with the average size for f-URS being 154 ± 77 mm(2) and that for PNL being 211 ± 97 mm(2) (p = 0.023). Symptom-free rates, success rates, stone-free rates and clinically insignificant residual fragments were similar between the groups (p = 0.880 vs. p = 0.537 vs. p = 0.539, and p = 0.877, respectively). There was no statistical difference between the groups for minor complications (p = 0.521) but no major complication (Clavien III-V) occured in the f-URS group; although there were three major complications (10.3 %) (Clavien III) in the PNL group (p PNL group (p PNL. The f-URS procedure is advantageous with respect to a shorter hospital stay and absence of major complications. Therefore, it should be emphasized that the location of the stone and diverticula is an important factor for the selection of the procedure.

  16. In vitro studies of epithelium-associated crystallization caused by uropathogens during urinary calculi development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torzewska, Agnieszka; Budzyńska, Aleksandra; Białczak-Kokot, Magdalena; Różalski, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Infectious urinary stones account for about 10% of all urinary stones. In 50% of cases urolithiasis is a recurrent illness, which can lead to the loss of a kidney if not properly treated. One of the reasons for recurrence of the disease may be the ability of bacteria to invade urothelial cells, persist in the host cells and serve as potential reservoirs for infection. Various uropathogens are associated with the formation of bacteria-induced urinary stones but Proteus mirabilis is the most commonly isolated (70%). An in vitro model was used in this study to analyze intracellular growth and crystallization in the presence of P. mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Human ureter (Hu 609) and bladder (HCV 29) epithelial cell lines were infected with bacteria and incubated (3-72 h) in the presence of synthetic urine and amikacin to prevent extracellular bacterial growth. During the incubation the number of bacteria (CFU/ml) inside epithelial cells and the intensity of crystallization were established. Crystallization was determined as an amount of a calcium radioisotope. The chosen strains of uropathogens were able to invade both types of epithelial cells but the Hu 609 cells were invaded to a higher extent. However, crystallization occurred only in the presence of P. mirabilis strains which were invasive and urease-positive. The highest intensity of cell-associated crystallization was observed when the number of bacteria within the urothelium remained stable during the time of incubation. These results show that P. mirabilis has an ability to form crystals inside the host cells. Under these conditions bacteria are protected from antibiotic killing, which leads to persistent and recurrent infections. We also suspect that this phenomenon may be an important stage of kidney stones formation.

  17. Decreased renal vitamin K-dependent γ-glutamyl carboxylase activity in calcium oxalate calculi patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊汇; 刘继红; 章咏裳; 叶章群; 王少刚

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the activity of vitamin K-dependent γ-glutamyl carboxylase in patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis compared with healthy individuals and to assess its relationship to the renal calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Methods Renal parenchymas were harvested from urolithic patients and renal tumor patients undergoing nephrectomy. The renal carboxylase activity was evaluated as the radioactivity of [14C] labeled sodium bicarbonate in carboxylic reactions in vitro using β-liquid scintillation counting. Results Significantly reduced activity of renal vitamin K-dependent γ-glutamyl carboxylase was observed in the urolithic group as compared with normal controls (P<0.01). Conclusion It suggests that the reduced carboxylase activity observed in the urolithic patients may play an important role in the course of renal calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

  18. First experience with blind lithotripsy of ureteral calculi by ruby laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupkova, Ludmila S.; Reznikov, Leonid L.; Sokolovsky, Alexander A.; Mursin, A. G.; Soms, Leonid N.; Berenberg, Vladimir A.; Polikarpov, Sergey S.; Parkhomchuk, N. A.; Voskresensky, M. A.

    1994-05-01

    For the last two years we have applied continuous dual-wavelength Nd:YAG 20 - 60 W power laser to various urologic operations. Transmission of laser irradiation via a flexible quartz fiber permitted operating at any depth of the wound. High-intensity irradiation of 1.06 mkm wavelength was effective in making thin incisions into a variety of tissues, including skin, subcutaneous fat, aponeurosis, muscles, urinary bladder wall, prostate gland, renal pelvis, renal capsule and parenchyma, and urethra. The incisions were especially effective if the contact method was used. Operational access was accomplished in 3 - 5 minutes. At the same time, hemostasis occurred in small diameter vessels. More reliable hemostasis could be achieved by means of 1.32 mkm wavelength. With the present laser device, we carried out 57 different urologic operations in our clinic. Examples of such operations include prostatectomy, pyelolithotomy, ureterolithotomy, nephrectomy, resection of renal cysts, condylomata acuminata of the urogenital organs, and papilloma of the urethra and bladder. The results suggest that a combination of these two wavelengths may prove most effective. Advantages of this approach include a decreased blood loss and decreased surgical time, asepsis, good short- and long-term results, and no complications.

  19. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for lower pole calculi smaller than one centimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Chaussy

    2008-01-01

    When complete stone-free status is the primary goal , follow-up examinations with new radiological technologies like spiral CT show that the stone-free rate of ESWL and endoscopically treated patients (RIRS does not differ significantly. However, in comparison to endoscopic stone removal, shockwave therapy is noninvasive, anesthesia-free and can be performed in an outpatient setup. Therefore, ESWL remains the first choice option for the treatment of lower caliceal stones up to 1 cm. The patient will definitely favour this procedure.

  20. Chemolysis of residual stone fragments after extensive surgery for staghorn calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaivas, J G; Pais, V M; Spellman, R M

    1975-12-01

    Chemical dissolution of residual stone fragments was attempted in twelve instances via nephrostomy tube irrigation. Appropriate solutions containing either hemiacidrin or sodium bicarbonate were used for struvite and uric acid stones, respectively. Precautions were taken to prevent and recognize outflow obstruction and urinary infection. Seventy-five per cent of the stones so treated were completely dissolved, and there were no major complications. The incidence of retained stones, natural history, and indications for chemical dissolution are reviewed.

  1. [The conservative treatment of phosphate calculi by citrate buffer (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechner, O; Höltl, G

    1975-05-02

    3 patients with U-tube pyelonephrostomy were treated conservatively for multiple struvite (triple phosphate) stones in the kidney by means of constant irrigation with citrate buffer (pH 4.8). Complete dissolution of the stones was achieved in 2 patients. Conservative therapy was unsuccessful in the third case in view of narrowing of the renal calyces. Combined therapy by means of direct irrigation and oral chemotherapy is recommended.

  2. US detection of renal and ureteral calculi in patients with suspected renal colic

    OpenAIRE

    Vallone, Gianfranco; Napolitano, Giuseppina; Fonio, Paolo; Antinolfi, Gabriele; Romeo, Antonio; Macarini, Luca; Genovese, Eugenio Annibale; Brunese, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether the color Doppler twinkling sign could be considered as an additional diagnostic feature of small renal lithiasis (_5mm). Methods 181 patients underwent CT scans performed for other pathologies; the images were also analyzed by a radiologists to identify the incidental presence of renal lithiasis equal to or smaller than 5 mm. These patients underwent an abdominal ultrasound examination, including grayscale analysis of the kidneys and...

  3. Comparative spectroscopic analysis of urinary calculi inhibition by Larrea Tridentata infusion and NDGA chemical extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manciu, Felicia

    2012-10-01

    In the present comparative spectroscopic study we try to understand calcium oxalate kidney stone formation as well as its inhibition by using a traditional medicine approach with Larrea Tridentata (LT) herbal extracts and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), which is a chemical extract of the LT bush. The samples were synthesized without and with LT or NDGA using a simplified single diffusion gel growth technique. While the use of infusion from LT decreases the sizes of calcium oxalate crystals and also changes their structure from monohydrate for pure crystals to dihydrate for crystals grown with different amounts of inhibitor, both Raman and infrared absorption spectroscopic techniques, which are the methods of analysis employed in this work, reveal that NDGA is not responsible for the change in the morphology of calcium oxalate crystals and does not contribute significantly to the inhibition process. The presence of NDGA slightly affects the structure of the crystals by modifying the strength of the C-C bonds as seen in the Raman data. Also, the current infrared absorption results demonstrate the presence of NDGA in the samples through a vibrational line that corresponds to the double bond between carbon atoms of the ester group of NDGA.

  4. Renal blood flow and metabolism after cold ischaemia: peroperative measurements in patients with calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H K; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1984-01-01

    correlated inversely to arterial-renal venous O2-difference (r = -0.74, P less than 0.05, n = 9) and directly to the preoperatively estimated unilateral glomerular filtration rate (r = 0.76, P less than 0.05, n = 8). After hypothermic ischaemia RBF decreased on the average by 42% (P less than 0.......01) immediately after re-established perfusion and 36% (P less than 0.02) 30 min later. In one additional patient, who had a short warm ischaemia (8 min), the flow pattern was the same. As arterial pressure remained constant, the reduced RBF signifies an increased renal vascular resistance. Renal O2-uptake...... and renal venous L/P ratio were almost constant, indicating no significant anaerobic processes being involved in the flow response. None of the patients showed any signs of reactive hyperaemia. It is concluded that hypothermic renal ischaemia may be followed by an increased renal vascular resistance even...

  5. COMPARISON OF ROLE OF IVP AND USG IN EVALUATING URETERIC CALCULI DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Rathore

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of urolithiasis varies according to geographic area, age, and sex distribution. 1 Various studies have shown that in economically developed countries the prevalence rate ranged between 4% and 20%. Urolithiasis may affect up to 10% of the population over the course of a lifetime. In India, upper and lower urinary tract stones occur frequently, but the incidence shows wide regional variation. Smaller stones (Up to 5 mm may cause severe symptoms such as flank pain and nausea, but pass without intervention. Though, they may need supportive care, but larger stones need intervention. Surgery has been used to remove stones (Lithotomy or to break them all into small pieces (Lithotripsy since antiquity. Twenty five years ago, open surgery was the sole form of therapy for urolithiasis, but now endourology is the surgical treatment of choice. 2 URETERIC JET When the bolus of urine being transmitted through the ureter reaches the terminal portion. It is ejected forcefully into the bladder through the Vesicoureteric Junction (VUJ. This creates a jet of urine that can be seen within the urinary bladder during cystoscopy and grey-scale Ultrasonography (US. Urine secreted from the renal glomeruli is excreted into the upper urinary tract including the collecting system, calyces-pelvis system, and ureter. Although, the precise mechanism of urine drainage through the whole system remains somewhat contentious. The trigger of ureteric jets is undoubtedly the pumping effect of calyceal peristalsis. 3 The latter comprises an autonomic and rhythmic minor calyceal peristalsis and a pressure-dependent major calyceal peristalsis, and the pressure of the major calyces comes from the resistance of the intrinsic tone of the upper ureter to the urine draining in the renal pelvic volume and tone and the rate of urine inflow. 4 Continuous discrete boluses of urine drainage into the ureter from pelvis, then fill the ureter, and finally, a ureteric jet is produced after the ureter is wholly filled throughout the autonomic, myogenic, ureteral peristalses. 5

  6. [Hormonal and metabolic disorders as systemic factor for the formation of urinary calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaev, Iu G; Egshatian, L V; Rapoport, L M; Lartsova, E V

    2014-01-01

    In patients suffering from urolithiasis, metabolic diagnostics often reveals abnormalities contributing to the formation of stones: hypocitraturia, hyper- and hypocalcemia, hypercalciuria, hypomagnesemia/hypomagnesuria, hyperoxalaturia, etc. Before surgery, complex biochemical examination of blood and 24-hourcollection urine in 82 patients with urolithiasis was performed. The analysis of the main laboratory parameters of carbohydrate, lipid, calcium and phosphorus and purine metabolism found the prevalence of violations of calcium and phosphorus metabolism in these patients. Dyslipidemia was diagnosed in 31 (37.8%) patients. There was a significant positive correlation between serum total cholesterol and serum total calcium (rs = 0.3315, P = 0.0103). Low serum calcium levels were associated with hyperoxalaturia (rs = -0.4270, P = 0.0295). There was a significant effect of natriuria on urinary excretion of oxalate (rs = 0.6107, P = 0.0001), Mg (rs = 0.4156, P = 0.0096) and K (rs = 0.5234, P = 0.00005). The study shows the role of magnesium in the prevention of recurrence and manifestation of urolithiasis. The combination of two or more types of hormonal and metabolic disorders increases the incidence of recurrent stones. Timely correction of hormonal-metabolic status allows to reduce the risk of stone formation, and hospitalization attributable to the complications associated.

  7. Uniform Labeled Transition Systems for Nondeterministic, Probabilistic, and Stochastic Process Calculi

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardo, Marco; Loreti, Michele; 10.4204/EPTCS.60.5

    2011-01-01

    Labeled transition systems are typically used to represent the behavior of nondeterministic processes, with labeled transitions defining a one-step state to-state reachability relation. This model has been recently made more general by modifying the transition relation in such a way that it associates with any source state and transition label a reachability distribution, i.e., a function mapping each possible target state to a value of some domain that expresses the degree of one-step reachability of that target state. In this extended abstract, we show how the resulting model, called ULTraS from Uniform Labeled Transition System, can be naturally used to give semantics to a fully nondeterministic, a fully probabilistic, and a fully stochastic variant of a CSP-like process language.

  8. [The combination of extracorporeal lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrostomy in the treatment of obstructive ureteral urate calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Boca, C; Ferrari, C; Dotti, E; Corsi, G; Guardamagna, A; Giuberti, A C; Colloi, D

    1994-04-01

    The authors report their experience with combined percutaneous nephrostomy and extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy to treat obstructive uratic ureteral stones. The role of nephrostomy is stressed as a diagnosis and treatment method before, during and after lithotripsy. Thus, the method proved especially useful to drain obstructed kidneys and restore peristalsis, to evacuate septic urine, to facilitate the elimination of lithiasic fragments, to perform anterograde pyelography before, during and after lithotripsy and finally to allow pharmacological litholysis. Fourteen patients were successfully treated with combined extracorporeal lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrostomy and the results compared with those obtained with other techniques--e.g., ureteroscopy, whose value appears lower because the method requires general anesthesia and is more traumatic to the ureter. The authors conclude that combined extracorporeal lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrostomy make the best technique to treat obstructive uric acid stones thanks to their positive results, low invasiveness and to patients compliance.

  9. 胰管结石的治疗进展%Advance in pancreatic duct calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恺; 邵江华

    2009-01-01

    胰管结石在我国的发病率有逐年升高的趋势.目前治疗手段主要有非手术治疗及手术治疗2种.非手术治疗方法主要有内镜下取石和/或体外震波碎石后取石,手术治疗方法分为胰管引流减压术及胰腺切除术2大类.具体的治疗方法或手术方式的选择需遵循个体化的原则.%The morbidity of pancreatic duct calculus is increasing every year in China. Currently the main therapeutic methods include non-surgical treatment and surgical treatment. Non-surgical treatments contain endoscopic calculus extracting and / or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Surgical treatment has two categories: drainage of the pancreatic duct decompression and pancreatectomy. Concrete treatment or surgical options should follow the strategy of individual.

  10. A rare case of preputial calculi in a child with balanitis xerotica obliterans: A short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Kekre

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Preputial stones are the rarest form of urolithiasis in pediatric patients with only a few cases reported in the literature. Following, we present the case of an 11-year-old boy who developed preputial stones.

  11. A rare case of preputial calculi in a child with balanitis xerotica obliterans: A short communication

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Preputial stones are the rarest form of urolithiasis in pediatric patients with only a few cases reported in the literature. Following, we present the case of an 11-year-old boy who developed preputial stones.

  12. Hydronephrosis of one kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acute hydronephrosis; Urinary obstruction; Unilateral hydronephrosis; Nephrolithiasis - hydronephrosis; Kidney stone - hydronephrosis; Renal calculi - hydronephrosis; Ureteral calculi - hydronephrosis; ...

  13. Large impacted upper ureteral calculi: A comparative study between retrograde ureterolithotripsy and percutaneous antegrade ureterolithotripsy in the modified lateral position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Moufid

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: In our series, Perc-URS is a safe and efficient treatment option for proximal ureteral stone, especially when the stone size is superior to 15 mm with the presence of moderate or severe hydronephrosis.

  14. Characteristic plain radiographic and intravenous urographic findings of bladder calculi formed over a hair nidus: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hak Jong; Kim, Seung Hyup [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-01

    We present the characteristic plain radiographic and intravenous urographic (IVU) findings of calculus formed over a hair. A 66-year-old man who had been quadriplegic for 40 years because of vertebral injury was admitted for further evaluation of frequent urinary tract infection. Plain radiography showed a linear, serpiginous calcification in the lower abdomen, and IVU revealed a round filling defect with linear radiopacity in the bladder, suggesting calculus. The gross appearance of the stone after extraction demonstrated that calcification had formed over a hair.

  15. [Practical experiences with antegrade local chemolysis of struvite/apatite, uric acid and cystine calculi in the kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weirich, W; Frohneberg, D; Ackermann, D; Alken, P

    1984-03-01

    In 18 patients (20 kidneys) with struvite/apatite-, uric acid- and cystine stones antegrade local chemolysis was performed via percutaneous or operative nephrostomy. Complete stone dissolution was achieved in 11 kidneys, while in six kidneys partial dissolution of stones was performed. In these six cases added instrumental manipulations shortened the time of therapy. In three cases chemolysis was unsuccessful. Average irrigation time was 21 days per renal unit. Only minor complications like dysuria and skin rashes were seen. Due to long time of irrigation we recommend chemolitholysis mainly as an additional form of therapy in case of residual stones after operative or percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

  16. [Transperitoneal nephrectomy of crossed ectopic kidney without fusion associated with stenosis of the pyeloureteral junction and pyelocaliceal staghorn calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Boca, C; Colloi, D; Ferrari, C; Giuberti, A C; Guardamagna, A; Beretta, M

    1994-09-01

    The authors report their experience on a case of crossed ectopic kidney without fusion associated with stenosis of the pyeloureteral junction and secondary pyelocaliceal staghorn calculosis. After a brief summary of the various types of kidney ectopia and related principles of operation they describe their case report underlying the rarity of their case and the surgical approach. They consider the anterior transperitoneal approach as the most indicated for this type of malformation as it permits a better surgical view of the kidney and of the vascular structures.

  17. Optimal Skin-to-Stone Distance Is a Positive Predictor for Successful Outcomes in Upper Ureter Calculi following Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy: A Bayesian Model Averaging Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Su Cho

    Full Text Available To investigate whether skin-to-stone distance (SSD, which remains controversial in patients with ureter stones, can be a predicting factor for one session success following extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL in patients with upper ureter stones.We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 1,519 patients who underwent their first ESWL between January 2005 and December 2013. Among these patients, 492 had upper ureter stones that measured 4-20 mm and were eligible for our analyses. Maximal stone length, mean stone density (HU, and SSD were determined on pretreatment non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT. For subgroup analyses, patients were divided into four groups. Group 1 consisted of patients with SSD<25th percentile, group 2 consisted of patients with SSD in the 25th to 50th percentile, group 3 patients had SSD in the 50th to 75th percentile, and group 4 patients had SSD≥75th percentile.In analyses of group 2 patients versus others, there were no statistical differences in mean age, stone length and density. However, the one session success rate in group 2 was higher than other groups (77.9% vs. 67.0%; P = 0.032. The multivariate logistic regression model revealed that shorter stone length, lower stone density, and the group 2 SSD were positive predictors for successful outcomes in ESWL. Using the Bayesian model-averaging approach, longer stone length, lower stone density, and group 2 SSD can be also positive predictors for successful outcomes following ESWL.Our data indicate that a group 2 SSD of approximately 10 cm is a positive predictor for success following ESWL.

  18. Treatment of Solitary Kidney Calculi with Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy%经皮肾镜取石术治疗孤立肾肾结石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彭; 于江; 张建军

    2011-01-01

    目的 评估经皮肾镜取石术(PNL)治疗孤立肾肾结石的安全性及有效性.方法 回顾性分析接受PNL治疗的孤立肾肾结石患者10例的临床资料.结果 10例患者中9例行一期PNL,1例先行经皮肾穿刺造瘘术,1周后行二期PNL,均为单通道穿刺取石,手术时间35~220 min,平均118.8 min,无出血、感染等并发症发生.术后尿路平片(KUB)示8例结石清除干净,2例残存结石者行体外冲击波碎石(ESWL).随访6~12个月,肾功能不全的3例患者肾功能恢复正常.结论 PNL治疗孤立肾肾结石安全可行,疗效确切,具有创伤小、恢复快、可反复操作等优点.

  19. Effect of Supine vs Prone Position on Outcomes of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in Staghorn Calculi: Results From the Clinical Research Office of the Endourology Society Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astroza, Gaston; Lipkin, Michael; Neisius, Andreas;

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the effect of patient positioning on outcomes of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) among patients with staghorn stones. The choice of optimal position for these patients undergoing PNL remains challenging. No previous studies exclusively addressing this point have been performed....

  20. Towards evidence-based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. BET 4: Alpha blockers v calcium blockers to increase spontaneous passage of renal calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alexander; Ferguson, Craig

    2013-02-01

    A short cut review was carried out to establish the administration of an alpha-1 receptor antagonist or a calcium channel blocker would facilitate the most rapid and successful expulsion of a stone from a patient with uncomplicated renal colic. 597 articles were found using the reported search, of which five trials were selected as providing the best evidence to answer this question. The authors, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these papers are tabulated. It is concluded that in a patient with an uncomplicated ureteric calculus tamsulosin is more effective than nifedipine in promoting speedy and successful expulsion of the stone.

  1. Association with meteo-climatological factors and daily emergency visits for renal colic and urinary calculi in Cuneo, Italy. A retrospective observational study, 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condemi, Vincenzo; Gestro, Massimo; Dozio, Elena; Tartaglino, Bruno; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano Marco; Solimene, Umberto; Meco, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    The incidence of nephrolithiasis is rising worldwide, especially in women and with increasing age. Incidence and prevalence of kidney stones are affected by genetic, nutritional, and environmental factors. The aim of this study is to investigate the link between various meteorological factors (independent variables) and the daily number of visits to the Emergency Department (ED of the S. Croce and Carle Hospital of Cuneo for renal colic (RC) and urinary stones (UC) as the dependent variable over the years 2007-2010. The Poisson generalized regression models (PGAMs) have been used in different progressive ways. The results of PGAMs (stage 1) adjusted for seasonal and calendar factors confirmed a significant correlation ( p 1), with a first peak after 5 days (lag ranges 0-1, 0-3, and 0-5) and a second weak peak observed along the 5-15 lag range days. The estimated RR for females was significant, mainly in the second and fourth age group considered (19-44 and >65 years): RR for total ED visits 1.27, confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.46 (lag 0-5 days); RR 1.42, CI 1.01-2.01 (lag 0-10 days); and RR 1.35, CI 1.09-1.68 (lag 0-15 days). The research also indicated a moderate involvement of the thermal factor in the onset of RC caused by UC, exclusively in the female sex. Further studies will be necessary to confirm these results.

  2. OT位ESWL与URL治疗输尿管下段结石比较%Comparison OT ESWL and URL in treatment of lower ureteral calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左庆军; 王国增; 章璟; 顾燕; 杨佳伟; 贾德升

    2014-01-01

    目的 通过比较OT位体外冲击波碎石术(ESWL)和输尿管镜钬激光碎石术(URL)治疗输尿管下段结石的结石排净率和卫生经济学,研究经济有效的治疗手段.方法 将120例输尿管下段结石患者分为2组,OT位ESWL组与URL组,ESWL组60例患者采用OT位体外冲击波碎石术,URL组60例患者采用输尿管镜钬激光碎石术.结果 术后3d的排石率、排净率,URL组明显高于OT位ESWL组,2组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);术后2周、3个月的排石率、排净率,URL组高于OT位ESWL组,但2组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);手术时间、效率商(EQ)URL组明显低于OT位ESWL组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);住院时间、住院花费:URL组明显高于OT位ESWL组,2组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);并发症率URL组低于OT位ESWL组,2组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 OT位ESWL、URL均是输尿管下段结石高效安全的治疗方法,OT位ESWL结石的排净率低于URL,但URL治疗周期及住院花费高于OT位ESWL.

  3. [Biliary calculi in the golden hamster. XXXVII. The prophylactic action of the creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) in pigmented cholelithiasis produced by vitamin A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, H; Cárdenas, R

    1994-01-01

    In the present work the results of an experiment performed in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), strain ChCM, are presented, in which the possible preventive action of pigment cholelithiasis by a powdered, desiccated, hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of "gobernadora" (Larrea tridentata) was studied. The extract was added to the lithogenic diet (basic diet + 25,000 I.U. of Vitamin A) at the 4% level; the hamsters were fed with the experimental diets during 70 days. The results showed that the group which received the diet with "gobernadora" did not develop pigment cholelithiasis, whereas the group that received the lithogenic diet alone developed cholelithiasis in 63% of cases. It is suggested that the active principle present in the leaves of "gobernadora", responsible for the prevention of the cholelithiasis is nordihydroguiaretic acid (NDGA), a potent antioxidant. On the other hand, the hamsters that received the diet containing "gobernadora" showed serious signs of toxicity and pathological changes, such as a marked reduction of growth, pronounced irritability and aggressiveness, and a marked hypoplasia both testicular and of the accessory sex glands.

  4. Primary vaginal calculus in a middle-aged woman with mental and physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Yuji; Oda, Katsutoshi; Matsuzawa, Naoki; Shimizu, Ken

    2013-07-01

    Vaginal calculi are rarely encountered and are often misdiagnosed as bladder calculi because of the difficulty in achieving an appropriate diagnosis. Most vaginal calculi result from the presence of a urethrovaginal fistula; those occurring in the absence of such fistulas are extremely rare. We present a case of a 42-year-old bedridden woman with mental and physical disabilities who had been misdiagnosed for a decade as having a bladder calculus. We removed the calculus nonsurgically and the analyzed the components. Results demonstrated the presence of a primary vaginal calculus. Vaginal calculi may occasionally occur in disabled women, but further investigation of the etiology of such calculi is required.

  5. 输尿管软镜联合经皮肾镜治疗鹿角状肾结石的临床研究%Combination flexible and rigid endoscopy in treating staghorn calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛广成; 李中兴; 冯瑞; 贾跃军; 钟文

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析输尿管软镜碎石术(FUL)联合经皮肾镜取石术(PCNL)治疗鹿角状肾结石的结果及并发症情况,探寻治疗鹿角状肾结石的合适方法.方法:30例鹿角状肾结石患者接受治疗,一期PCNL术中采用F20~22经皮肾通道清理大部分结石,二期手术采用FUL击碎经皮肾通道平行肾盏残留结石,必要时转二期PCNL清理残留碎石.结果:30例患者均接受联合治疗成功,术后1个月结石清除率93.3%,2例患者残留0.8~1.2 cm结石位于下盏及中盏.术后3例(10%)患者发热,2例(6.7%)患者需输血2U,无其他严重并发症.结论:采用一期PCNL清除鹿角状肾结石的大部分,二期FUL处理平行肾盏残留结石,减少了新增经皮肾通道的需要及相应的并发症,并提高了结石清除率,是鹿角状肾结石治疗的安全有效方法.

  6. Management of the upper urinary tract calculi in patients on antiplatelet/anticoagulant therapy%抗凝药物治疗的患者合并上尿路结石的处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    满立波; 李贵忠

    2015-01-01

    抗凝药的使用在一般人群明显增加,这促使外科医生在给长期抗凝治疗的患者手术时需要考虑血栓和出血的风险。对于服用抗凝药物合并上尿路结石的处理尤其比较棘手。本文回顾了服用抗凝药物治疗的患者合并尿路结石处理的文献。同时汇报了北京积水潭医院采用三步法经皮肾镜处理血栓栓塞高危风险长期服用抗凝和抗血小板药物合并上尿路结石的经验。%Use of chronic anticoagulation has increased recently, leading to more surgical intervention on patients taking chronic anticoagulation. This review discusses anticoagulation and the management of urolithiasis. In this study, we would like to report our experience of performing three-step PCNLs. We identified and reviewed 3 patients under antiplatelet/anticoagulant agent therapy performed in a single institute.

  7. Treatment of solitary kidney calculi with minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy%B超引导微创经皮肾镜取石术治疗孤立肾肾结石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建军; 蔡恒; 梁荣兴; 袁鹏飞; 邹谨; 廖继红; 杨英刚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the histological features, clinical manifestations, treatment options and prognosis of Acyclovir-induced acute renal failure. Methods The clinical, pathological and prognosis of 1 case of Acyclovir-induced acute renal failure were reviewed respectively, and the related literature was reviewed. ResultS A middle-aged man suffering from cutaneous herpes zoster was given Acyclovir by intravenous drip and per os, when he developed acute abdominal pain and general malaise. Renal examin on showed, his serum creatinine (CRE) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentrations rose to560.3 ymol/L and 20. 7 mmol/L, respectively. The pathology of kidney exhibited acute renal tubular necrosis acompanied with slight glomerular sclerosis. Renal impairment was restored afrer discontinuation of Acyclovir, hemodialysis and symptomatic treatment. Conclusion Acute abdominal pain and nausea are the most common symptoms of Acyclovir-induced acute renal failure. The pathology revealed acute renal tubular necrosis. Hemodialysis, symptomatic treatment and discontinuation of Acyclovir are the effective treatment.%目的 探讨B超引导下微创经皮肾镜取石术(MPCNL)治疗孤立肾肾结石的安全性和疗效.方法 回顾性分析2005年12月~2010年1月在B超引导下行MPCNL治疗孤立肾肾结石27例患者的临床资料.其中21例I期穿刺碎石取石,并发肾积脓的4例和肾功能衰竭的2例患者先行经皮肾穿刺造瘘引流,在感染控制和肾功能好转后行Ⅱ期MPCNL.结果 27例患者中,经单通道取石22例,双通道取石5例.一次取尽结石21例,需2次取尽结石3例,总结石清除率88.89%(余3例联合体外冲击波碎石治疗结石排尽).随访3~12月,肾功能不全的9例患者中,5例恢复正常,3例明显改善,1例因尿毒症需血液透析治疗,无其他重大并发症发生.结论 B超引导MPCNL治疗孤立肾肾结石安全、有效,创伤小、恢复快、并发症少.

  8. 膀胱前壁憩室并结石、憩室炎的超声检查%Ultrasound Analysis of the Anterior Wall of the Bladder Diverticulum with Calculi and Diverticulitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李纯玉; 蔡梅; 谢美金

    2015-01-01

    Bladder diverticula are rare, much like a bag of the bladder wal is prominent, the anterior wal of the bladder diverticula calculus, diverticulitis and rare, comprehensive application of imaging examination is helpful to improve the preoperative diagnosis rate of the disease.%膀胱憩室较少见,多为膀胱壁的袋状突出,膀胱前壁腔内憩室并结石、憩室炎罕见,综合应用影像学检查有助于提高本病的术前正确诊断率。

  9. Comparison on the different therapies for treatment of complex renal calculi%不同方法治疗泌尿系复杂肾结石的效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨育军

    2009-01-01

    目的 比较体外冲击波碎石(Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy,ESWL)联合输尿管镜、微创配合气压弹道联合超声碎石取石术治疗复杂肾结石的疗效.方法 95例复杂结石患者采用ESWL联合输尿管镜治疗,101例复杂结石患者采用微创配合气压弹道联合超声碎石取石术治疗.治疗后评估结石清除率,随访4个月观察结石排出情况.比较两种方法的优缺点.结果 ESWL联合输尿管镜组结石清除率93.6%,排净率91.0%;微创配合气压弹道联合超声碎石取石术治疗组结石清除率95.1%,排净率99%.结论 微创手术是治疗是治疗复杂肾结石的首选,尤其在对于大的复杂肾结石;对较大鹿角形肾结石者先行微创手术再看残留结石情况决定是否行Ⅱ期微创手术或行ESWL.

  10. Use of computed tomography scout film and Hounsfield unit of computed tomography scan in predicting the radio-opacity of urinary calculi in plain kidney, ureter and bladder radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Chua

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Urolithiases identified on the CT-scout film were also seen as radiopaque on the KUB radiograph while those stones not visible on the CT-scout film, but above the optimal HU cut-off value of 630 are also likely to be radiopaque.

  11. 改良无萎缩性肾切开术治疗肾铸型多发性结石%Improve Anatrophic Nephrolithotomy in The Treatment Of Renal Gaint Staghorn And Multiple Renal Calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司徒灿; 张荣权; 邝玉爱; 杨文清; 庄骏; 潘耀权; 谢国均; 李建提; 余捷强

    2005-01-01

    目的本文借鉴Boyce-Smith的经验,提出对无萎缩性肾切开取石术的改进和创新,试图在治疗肾铸型多发性结石这一方面探讨一种更具安全性和实用性且便于在基层医院推广应用的手术方法.方法采用改良无萎缩性肾切开术治疗肾铸型多发性结石8例.常温下不阻断肾蒂血流,应用手法阻滞肾后动脉显示段间线,尔后根据每一例肾结石实际情况决定选择性行前后段间线、后基段间线、后尖段间线单独或联合的肾切开取石.术后一般留置输尿管导管内引流外置固定,肾旁留置思华龙硅胶管引流.结果本组35例均一次取净结石.手术入路采用前后段间线切开5例、后基段间线切开22例、后基段间线加前后段间线9例,其中6例再加后尖段间线切开.术中输血17例,平均输血350ml.腰部伤口全部一期愈合,无尿瘘发生.外置输尿管导管内引流术后7至9天拔除,平均住院14日.本组未见术后继发感染或者出血.术后半年21例KUB、IVU复查,术侧肾脏显影良好,未见残存结石.结论改良无萎缩性肾切开术,具备简便易行、安全可靠和成功率较高的特点.本文提出选择性行段间线切开,可减少不必要的肾损伤,最大限度地保护肾功能.外置输尿管导管作内引流不但免除术后经膀胱镜取管的麻烦,而且节省了医疗费用.

  12. Nursing prowess on percutaneous nephrolithotomy in treating complex renal calculi%经皮肾镜取石术治疗复杂性肾结石的护理进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秀华; 覃慕平

    2014-01-01

    介绍经皮肾镜碎石术治疗复杂性肾结石的手术方法、术前护理,常见并发症及其相关因素和护理、术后管道护理进展,为进一步提高临床护理质量提供指导.

  13. Cultivation and morphology of nanobacteria in sera of patients with kidney calculi%肾结石患者血清中纳米细菌的培养和形态学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亮; 黄晓波; 许清泉; 李建兴; 贾晓军; 王晓峰

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨纳米细菌(nanobacteria,NB)在结石患者血清的感染情况,并对其进行形态学观察和特征描述.方法:采集北京大学人民医院泌尿外科24例行经皮肾镜碎石术治疗的肾结石患者和3例健康志愿者的血清进行NB的培养,应用免疫组织化学、von kossa染色、扫描电镜、透射电镜等方法对培养的NB予以观察和鉴定.结果:经鉴定,24位结石患者中有22例感染NB,而健康志愿者组未见NB感染,结石患者组NB的感染率高于健康对照组.培养4周后,NB在光镜下成球形,直径约100~500nm,能够被免疫组织化学和von kossa染色特异的识别.NB在透射电镜(负染法)下具有"毛刺"状磷灰石外壳、内部为着色较浅的菌体结构,并能够进行出芽繁殖.结论:绝大多数结石患者的血清中可以培养出NB,且阳性率高于健康对照组,这说明它可能与肾结石形成密切相关.免疫组织化学、von kossa染色、扫描电镜、透射电镜都是在不同方面对NB进行检测和鉴定的特异方法.NB的特异形态与特征是它区别于其他纳米颗粒的重要依据.

  14. Experience in diagnosis and treatment of urosepsis following ureteroscopic lithotripsy of upper urinary tract calculi%上尿路结石术后尿源性脓毒血症的诊治研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程应生; 杨代俊; 郑攀丰; 张志炎

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析上尿路结石尿源性脓毒血症临床特点,为预防尿源性脓毒血症发生及早期诊断、治疗提供依据.方法:回顾性分析2003年4月~2014年4月23例患者行输尿管镜取石术(URL)和经皮肾镜取石术(PCNL)术后并发脓毒血症的临床资料.结果:23例均及时诊断尿源性脓毒血症,并进行相应的处理,无一例死亡.结论:对上尿路结石腔内手术后并发尿源性脓毒血症的患者,术前控制感染,术中预防,正确救治,可减少尿源性脓毒血症的发生率,提高抢救成功率.

  15. 输尿管结石梗阻致尿脓毒症急症减压方法的探讨%Discussion on urgent decompression for urosepsis associated with ureteral obstruction caused by ureteral calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解海杰; 史启铎

    2013-01-01

    目的:本研究探讨输尿管结石梗阻致尿脓毒症的急症减压方法.方法:输尿管结石梗阻导致尿脓毒症患者106例,根据病情分期采取不同急症减压方法解除梗阻:①膀胱镜下逆行留置双J管引流.②经皮肾造瘘引流.③经尿道输尿管镜气压弹道碎石术后留置双J管引流.结果:所有患者均减压成功,其中105例患者术后情况有不同程度的改善,感染得到控制.一般脓毒症患者术后恢复时间(3.25±1.71)d,严重脓毒症患者术后恢复时间(6.38±1.94)d,脓毒性休克患者术后恢复时间(15.55±2.46) d(P<0.01);1例脓毒性休克伴有弥漫性血管内凝血患者死亡.结论:根据病情分期选择适当的急症减压方法及时解除梗阻对于控制输尿管结石梗阻致尿源性脓毒症至关重要.

  16. Holmium laser lithotripsy for the treatment of urinary calculi: Report of 1216 cases%钬激光碎石术治疗泌尿系结石(附1 216例报告)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴忠; 姜昊文; 张华魏; 陈智新; 历春军; 丁强; 张元芳

    2006-01-01

    目的探讨钬激光碎石术治疗泌尿系结石的疗效及其安全性. 方法应用输尿管肾镜和膀胱镜联合钬激光碎石术治疗1 216例泌尿系结石,其中输尿管结石1 006例(上段302例,中段364例,下段340例),膀胱结石210例. 结果1例输尿管上段结石因前列腺增生症致置镜困难改体外冲击波碎石(extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, ESWL)治疗.1 006例输尿管结石单次碎石成功率95.5%(961/1 006)),其中上、中、下段结石单次碎石成功率分别为89.4%(270/302)、96.4% (351/364)和100%(340/340),术中发生6例输尿管穿孔.膀胱结石单次碎石成功率为100%(210/210),无出血和膀胱穿孔发生.881例输尿管结石术后随访0.5~40个月,平均18.6月,输尿管上、中、下段结石排净率分别为91.1%(224/246)、98.5%(318/323)、100%(312/312 ),总结石排净率为96.9%(854/881);6例发生输尿管狭窄.187例膀胱结石术后随访0.5~31个月,平均12.4月,结石排净率98.4%(184/187). 结论钬激光碎石术治疗泌尿系结石疗高效、微创、安全,是输尿管结石和膀胱结石首选治疗方法.

  17. Minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy for the treatment of upper ureteral calculi:A Report of 216 cases%微创经皮肾镜取石术治疗输尿管上段结石216例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宇杰; 黄志远; 杨建设; 张毅; 王威; 何育霖

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨微创经皮肾镜取石术(minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy,MPCNL)治疗输尿管上段结石的疗效.方法 2004年7月至2010年1月对采用MPCNL治疗的216例输尿管上段结石患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 216例均为一期取石,结石清除率98.5%,平均手术时间70 min,术中平均估计出血量50 ml,无严重并发症发生.结论 MPCNL治疗输尿管上段结石,结石清除率高,创伤小,出血少,恢复快,安全有效.

  18. 压电晶体碎石机B超定位治疗输尿管下段结石%Therapy of lower ureter calculi in situ using ESWL with the B - us locatizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏明; 史启铎; 张祖诏

    2001-01-01

    目的:改变传统药物和手术治疗输尿管下段结石的方法,B超定位行ESWL治疗输尿管下段结石.方法:使用PIEZOLITH2300和PIEZO LITH2501型体外冲击波碎石机B超定位治疗输尿管下段结石.结果:3 543例输尿管下段结石用ESWL治疗,治疗成功率达99.7%.结论:本方法是治疗输尿管下段结石的首选治疗手段,可以在临床广泛推广应用.

  19. A giant dumbbell shaped vesico-prostatic urethral calculus: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhuswamy, Vinod Kumar; Tiwari, Rahul; Krishnamoorthy, Ramakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Calculi in the urethra are an uncommon entity. Giant calculi in prostatic urethra are extremely rare. The decision about treatment strategy of calculi depends upon the size, shape, and position of the calculus and the status of the urethra. If the stone is large and immovable, it may be extracted via the perineal or the suprapubic approach. In most of the previous reported cases, giant calculi were extracted via the transvesical approach and external urethrotomy. A 38-year-old male patient presented with complaints of lower urinary tract symptoms. Further investigations showed a giant urethral calculus secondary to stricture of bulbo-membranous part of the urethra. Surgical removal of calculus was done via transvesical approach. Two calculi were found and extracted. One was a huge dumbbell calculus and the other was a smaller round calculus. This case was reported because of the rare size and the dumbbell nature of the stone. Giant urethral calculi are better managed by open surgery.

  20. Familial prostatic calcification in childhood associated with cranial-bone thickening: Review of literature and report of three cases

    OpenAIRE

    Rifat, Usama Nihad; Mohammed, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To review the few published cases of prostatic calculi, a rare condition in children, and to report three further cases. Methods The databases PUBMED and HINARI were searched using the keywords ‘childhood’ and ‘prostatic calculi’; the search included reports from 1956 to the present. Further cases from three families with children having prostatic calculi are reported here. Results Four cases were recorded previously but no association was stated between the presence of calculi and...

  1. Spatial Analysis of BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Programming language technology can contribute to the development and understanding of Systems Biology by providing formal calculi for specifying and analysing the dynamic behaviour of biological systems. Our focus is on BioAmbients, a variation of the ambient calculi developed for modelling...

  2. Automorphisms of associative algebras and noncommutative geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimakis, A.; Müller-Hoissen, F.

    2004-02-01

    A class of differential calculi is explored which is determined by a set of automorphisms of the underlying associative algebra. Several examples are presented. In particular, differential calculi on the quantum plane, the h-deformed plane and the quantum group GLp,q(2) are recovered in this way. Geometric structures such as metrics and compatible linear connections are introduced.

  3. Renal acidification defects in medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1988-01-01

    Thirteen patients with medullary sponge kidney underwent a short ammonium chloride loading test to investigate their renal acidification capacity. All but 1 presented with a history of recurrent renal calculi and showed bilateral widespread renal medullary calcification on X-ray examination. Nine...... of renal calculi in medullary sponge kidney, have considerable therapeutic implications....

  4. Initialized Fractional Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.

  5. Bilateral single system ectopic ureter with urolithiasis: a rare case entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ankur; Kumar, Manoj; Sokhal, Ashok; Purkait, Bimalesh; Kanodia, Gautam

    2016-11-18

    ABSTRACTBilateral single system ureteral ectopia (BSSEU) is an uncommon entity. Ureteric calculi in BSSEU are never reported so far. We herein report a case of BSSEU with left lower urtereic calculi managed by bilateral ureteric tapering and reimplantation with stone removal.

  6. Rotavirus gastroenteritis-associated urinary ammonium acid urate crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Tadafumi; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Kato, Eiji; Ohta, Kazuhide; Ishikawa, Sayaka; Ueno, Kazuyuki; Shimizu, Masaki; Yachie, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    Although ammonium acid urate (AAU) calculi are extremely rare renal stone components, it was recently found that many urinary tract calculi that cause post-renal renal failure in rotavirus (RV) gastroenteritis are AAU calculi. The mechanism of AAU calculi development in RV gastroenteritis has not been fully elucidated. We analyzed data from eight RV gastroenteritis patients who transiently had AAU crystals in their urinary sediment. In these patients, formation of AAU crystals occurred earlier than the formation of AAU calculi. No difference was observed in serum and urine uric acid levels between RV gastroenteritis patients with or without AAU crystals. Interestingly, fractional excretion of sodium was extremely low among patients with AAU crystals. These results suggest that the formation of AAU crystals might not be due to excretion of uric acid, but excretion of sodium.

  7. Reasoning about objects using process calculus techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleist, Josva

    This thesis investigates the applicability of techniques known from the world of process calculi to reason about properties of object-oriented programs. The investigation is performed upon a small object-oriented language - The Sigma-calculus of Abadi and Cardelli. The investigation is twofold: We...... investigate translations of Sigma-calculi into process calculi, with the idea that one should be able to show properties of Sigma-calculus program by showing properties about their translation. We present translations of two Sigma-calculi into Pi-calculi. A translation of the untyped functional Sigma-calculus...... turns out to be insufficient. Based on our experiences, we present a translation of a typed imperative Sigma-calculus, which looks promising. We are able to provide simple proofs of the equivalence of different Sigma-calculus objects using this translation. We use a labelled transition system adapted...

  8. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of urinary calculus caused by melamine in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Li-qun; SHEN Ying; WANG Xiao-man; HE Le-jian; XIN Yue; HU Yan-xiu

    2009-01-01

    Background Intake of melamine can cause renal and ureteral lithiasis in infants and children. The present study aimed to understand the value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of renal and ureteral lithiasis in infants and young children caused by melamine, and the characteristics of ultrasonograms of melamine-associated calculi.Methods Ultrasonographic examination on the urinary system was performed for 28 332 children who ingested milk powder that was possibly tainted with melamine; 395 of the children were diagnosed by ultrasonography as having urinary calculus, and 231 cases had lump-like calculi and 164 cases had sand gravel-like calculi. The features of the calculi, the sites of obstruction and the status of hydronephrosis and hydroureterosis were analyzed. Ultrasonographic reexamination was performed for 116 patients and the findings were compared with those of the first ultrasonography, and the short-term expulsion of the calculi was evaluated.Results Most of the 395 patients with urinary lithiasis, except for those who developed renal failure, had no symptoms. The whole profile of the calculi could be seen in most of the cases, because the echogenicity of the calculi with no sharp or absent acoustical shadowing, was weaker as compared with those from calcium-containing calculi. Comet tail sign could be seen behind the echogenicity of single gravel calculus. The rate of diagnostic consistency of ureteral lithiasis between the ultrasound and the results of clinical observation (including stones expelled spontaneously or after cystoscopic intervention) in 51 cases for 76 ureters was 100%. Percutaneous renal biopsy was performed for one case, and histopathological examination showed flocculent, fine strip-like, ellipse and circular deeply stained sand gravel-like material in the renal tubules, and the circular calculi were found to be attached to the walls of the tubules. Chemical analysis of the calculi expelled from 12 cases showed that the main contents

  9. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for pancreatic and large common bile duct stones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manu Tandan; D Nageshwar Reddy

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of large pancreatic and common bile duct (CBD) calculi has always challenged the therapeutic endoscopist. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) is an excellent tool for patients with large pancreatic and CBD calculi that are not amenable to routine endotherapy. Pancreatic calculi in the head and body are targeted by ESWL, with an aim to fragment them to < 3 mm diameter so that they can be extracted by subsequent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). In our experience, complete clearance of the pancreatic duct was achieved in 76% and partial clearance in 17% of 1006 patients. Short-term pain relief with reduction in the number of analgesics ingested was seen in 84% of these patients. For large CBD calculi, a nasobiliary tube is placed to help target the calculi, as well as bathe the calculi in saline - a simple maneuver which helps to facilitate fragmentation.The aim is to fragment calculi to < 5 mm size and clear the same during ERCP. Complete clearance of the CBD was achieved in 84.4% of and partial clearance in 12.3% of 283 patients. More than 90% of the patients with pancreatic and biliary calculi needed three or fewer sessions of ESWL with 5000 shocks being delivered at each session. The use of epidural anesthesia helped in reducing patient movement. This, together with the better focus achieved with newer third-generation generation lithotripters, prevents collateral tissue damage and minimizes the complications. Complications in our experience with nearly 1300 patients were minimal, and no extension of hospital stay was required. Similar rates of clearance of pancreatic and biliary calculi with minimal adverse effects have been reported from the centers where ESWL is performed regularly. In view of its high efficiency, non-invasive nature and low complication rates, ESWL can be offered as the first-line therapy for selected patients with large pancreatic and CBD calculi.

  10. Urinary pH and renal lithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, F; Costa-Bauzá, A; Gomila, I; Ramis, M; García-Raja, A; Prieto, R M

    2012-02-01

    Formation of calcium oxalate crystals, either as monohydrate or dihydrate, is apparently unrelated to urinary pH because the solubilities of these salts are practically unaltered at physiologic urinary pH values. However, a urinary pH 6.0 may induce uric acid or calcium phosphate crystals formation, respectively, which under appropriate conditions may induce the development of the calcium oxalate calculi. We assessed the relationship between the urinary pH and the formation of different types of calculi. A retrospective study in 1,478 patients was done. We determined the composition, macrostructure, and microstructure of the calculi and the urinary pH, 50.9% of calcium oxalate monohydrate unattached calculi were present in patients with urinary pH 6.0, respectively. Infectious calculi were found primarily in patients with urinary pH >6.0 (50.7%). Only calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi were associated with urinary pH between 5.5 and 6.0 (43.1%). Urine of pH 6.0 has an increased capacity to develop calcium phosphate crystals, which can act as a heterogeneous nuclei of calcium oxalate crystals. Oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi were associated to pH between 5.5 and 6.0 because the injured papilla acts as a heterogeneous nucleant. Consequently, measurement of urinary pH may be used to evaluate the lithogen risk of given urine.

  11. A Giant Urethral Calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigdel, G; Agarwal, A; Keshaw, B W

    2014-01-01

    Urethral calculi are rare forms of urolithiasis. Majority of the calculi are migratory from urinary bladder or upper urinary tract. Primary urethral calculi usually occur in presence of urethral stricture or diverticulum. In this article we report a case of a giant posterior urethral calculus measuring 7x3x2 cm in a 47 years old male. Patient presented with acute retention of urine which was preceded by burning micturition and dribbling of urine for one week. The calculus was pushed in to the bladder through the cystoscope and was removed by suprapubic cystolithotomy.

  12. Female urethral diverticulum containing a giant calculus: a CARE-compliant case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, ZhiLong; Wang, Hanzhang; Zuo, LinJun; Hou, MingLi

    2015-05-01

    Urethral diverticula with calculi have a low incidence as reported in the literature. Diverticulum of female urethra is rare, often discovered due to associated complications. We report a case of diverticulum of the female urethra containing giant calculi in a 62-year-old multiparous woman. She consulted with our office due to dysuria and a hard, painful periurethral mass in the anterior vagina wall. The diverticulum was approached surgically by a vaginal route, and local extraction of the calculi and subsequent diverticulectomy successfully treated the condition.Diagnosis of a complicated diverticulum can be easily achieved if one possesses a high degree of clinical symptoms.

  13. Non determinism through type isomorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Díaz-Caro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We define an equivalence relation on propositions and a proof system where equivalent propositions have the same proofs. The system obtained this way resembles several known non-deterministic and algebraic lambda-calculi.

  14. Ureteroscopy-Assisted Retrograde Nephrostomy (UARN) after Anatrophic Nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Takashi; Ito, Hiroki; Terao, Hideyuki; Kato, Yoshitake; Ogawa, Takehiko; Uemura, Hiroji; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Matsuzaki, Junichi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Open surgical anatrophic nephrolithotomy (ANL) had been the standard treatment for large renal calculi prior to the development of endoscopic devices and endoscopic techniques. A previous report described the efficacy of ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy (UARN) and presented a case of renal calculi successfully treated with UARN during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in a patient after ANL. Case Presentation. A 61-year-old male with left renal calculi was referred for further treatment. The patient was placed under general and epidural anesthesia, in a Galdakao-modified Valdivia position. A flexible ureteroscope (URS) was inserted, and a Lawson retrograde nephrostomy puncture wire was advanced into the flexible URS. The puncture wire then followed the route from the renal pelvis to the exit skin. Calculus fragmentation was undertaken using a pneumatic lithotripter. Conclusions. UARN for PCNL was therefore found to be a safe, effective, and appropriate treatment for a patient presenting with renal calculi after undergoing ANL.

  15. Ureteroscopy-Assisted Retrograde Nephrostomy (UARN after Anatrophic Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kawahara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Open surgical anatrophic nephrolithotomy (ANL had been the standard treatment for large renal calculi prior to the development of endoscopic devices and endoscopic techniques. A previous report described the efficacy of ureteroscopy-assisted retrograde nephrostomy (UARN and presented a case of renal calculi successfully treated with UARN during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL in a patient after ANL. Case Presentation. A 61-year-old male with left renal calculi was referred for further treatment. The patient was placed under general and epidural anesthesia, in a Galdakao-modified Valdivia position. A flexible ureteroscope (URS was inserted, and a Lawson retrograde nephrostomy puncture wire was advanced into the flexible URS. The puncture wire then followed the route from the renal pelvis to the exit skin. Calculus fragmentation was undertaken using a pneumatic lithotripter. Conclusions. UARN for PCNL was therefore found to be a safe, effective, and appropriate treatment for a patient presenting with renal calculi after undergoing ANL.

  16. State of the art extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandel, L.B. (State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (US)); Harrison, L.H.; McCullough, D.L. (Wake Forest Univ. Medical Center, Winston-Salem, NC (US))

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 16 chapters. Some of the topics that are covered are: Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Development; Laser-Generated Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripter; Radiation Exposure during ESWL; Caliceal Calculi; and Pediatric ESWL.

  17. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF SOME EXPERIMENTAL FATIGUE TESTS RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Stere PARIS; Gheorghe AMZA; Claudiu BABIŞ; Dan Niţoi

    2012-01-01

    The paper details the results of processing the fatigue data experiments to find the regression function. Application software for statistical processing like ANOVA and regression calculi are properly utilized, with emphasis on popular software like MSExcel and CurveExpert

  18. Renal stone disease: Pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, C.Y.C.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiologic considerations; Physiochemistry of urinary stone formations; Nutritional aspects of stone disease; Prevention of recurrent nephrolithiasis; Struvite stones; and Contemporary approaches to removal of renal and ureteral calculi.

  19. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL-NETWORK PREDICTIONS OF URINARY CALCULUS COMPOSITIONS ANALYZED WITH INFRARED-SPECTROSCOPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VOLMER, M; WOLTHERS, BG; METTING, HJ; DEHAAN, THY; COENEGRACHT, PMJ; VANDERSLIK, W

    1994-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is used to analyze urinary calculus (renal stone) constituents. However, interpretation of IR spectra for quantifying urinary calculus constituents in mixtures is difficult, requiring expert knowledge by trained technicians. In our laboratory IR spectra of unknown calculi

  20. Analysis the Impact of Huadanlishitang on CYP7A1 ERCP and B-UGT in the Treatment Forpatients with Common Bile Duct Calculi with ERCP%化石利胆汤对胆总管结石ERCP术后患者CYP7A1和B-UGT的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查火龙; 孙泽群; 李彩丽; 廖应英

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨化石利胆汤对逆行胰胆管造影取石(ERCP)术后胆总管结石患者血液以及血脂中的胆固醇7α羟化酶以及二磷酸葡萄糖醛酸基转移酶的影响.方法:选取90例行ERCP检查且证实胆总管结石并行碎石取石术患者,将其随机分为治疗组及对照组,每组45例,治疗组给予常规治疗结合化石利胆汤,对照组予常规治疗,分别比较治疗前以及治疗后第7天、1个月患者血CYP7A1、B-UGT mRNA以及蛋白的表达情况.结果:治疗组服药后第7天、1个月的CYP7A1、B-UGT mRNA表达水平均明显高于治疗前,且与对照组同时期比较明显升高,治疗组服药治疗后第7天的CYP7A1、B-UGT蛋白表达水平明显较治疗前升高,且与对照组同时期比较明显升高,组间比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:化石利胆汤可上调胆总管结石ERCP术后患者CYP7A1、B-UGT mRNA及其蛋白的表达.

  1. 纤维胆道镜和C臂X线机在手术治疗肾铸型结石合并肾盏多发结石中的应用价值%Application of the Choledochofiberscope and C-arm X-ray Device for the Surgical Management of Renal Cast-Calculus Complicated Calyceal Multiple Calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高强利; 张超雄; 陈昌贵

    2005-01-01

    目的:提高手术治疗肾铸型结石合并肾盏多发结石的疗效.方法:全组32例均先采用肾盂切开或肾窦内肾盂切开取石,再用纤维胆道镜在术中经肾盂切口观察和协助取出结石,最后用C臂X线机确定是否有残留结石.结果:30例取尽结石,2例肾盏内共残留3枚直径小于0.5 cm×0.5 cm的结石.结论:在术中联合应用纤维胆道镜和C臂X线机能协助取尽结石,减少肾盂粘膜的损伤和失血量,提高手术疗效并实现一机多用,经济、安全、方便.

  2. Contributions to the qualification of the ''CRISTAL'' criticality calculi scheme: interpretation of critical experiments. Elaboration of a characterization system of neutronic configurations; Contributions a la qualification du schema de calcul de criticite ''cristal'': interpretation d'experiences critiques. Elaboration d'un systeme de caracterisation des configurations neutroniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnier, E

    1999-06-01

    This thesis work is about the validation of the new criticality-safety package CRISTAL and contributes to the modernization and the improvement of the computational tools. The first part presents neutronic elements, the objectives of safety criticality studies and the package CRISTAL. Then, the validation work concerned two series of experiments involving uranyl solutions (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) and UO{sub 2} powders. For these experiments, the differences between the computation results and the experimental results were analysed. It was highlighted interesting physical phenomena such of the compensations of errors between the approximate representation by the 99 energy group structure on the first resonance of oxygen and the anisotropy of the diffusion simulation as well as the influence of uranium 234 in high enriched solutions in uranium 235. Once the work of the experimental qualification carried out, raises the question of the use the base of qualification and the ''calculation-experiment'' variations which are referred to it. It is often difficult to establish the link between the ''studied configuration'' and the experiments of the base of qualification. The presented characterisation system proposes to answer in a way automatic and quantified this difficulty: - in bringing an answer on the package qualification for the studied configuration, - in giving an estimate of the package bias. To answer these points, it was defined a set of 35 characteristic neutronic parameters representing the behaviour of the medium. To process the information brought by these parameters and to use it to answer the objectives of the system, we called upon statistical methods (Principal Components Analysis and Sliced Inverse Regression). The results obtained in the feasibility studies showed the relevance of these methods for the considered objectives. (author)

  3. Clinical Treatment and Analysis of 43 Patients with Ureteral Calculi in Pregnancy Combined with Acute renal Pelvis Infection%妊娠期输尿管结石合并急性肾盂感染43例临床治疗与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘雨平; 蒋杰宏

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨输尿管镜下碎石术联合双J管留置治疗妊娠期输尿管结石并急性肾盂感染的疗效.方法 对2012年1月~2014年12月在我院和番禺区何贤纪念医院就诊的43例输尿管结石合并急性肾盂感染患者的临床资料行回顾性分析,根据随机数字表分组,观察组(n=22例)予以输尿管镜下碎石术,对照组(n=21例)予以气压弹道碎石术,两组均联合双J管留置治疗,比较两组的治疗有效性、安全性.结果 43例患者均一次清石;较之对照组,观察组的手术时间、血尿时间、术后住院时间明显短,术后肾功能改善也明显好,差异有统计学意义(P0.05).所有患者随访至分娩,除2例患者自行要求引产外,均顺利生产,均无严重产科并发症发生.结论 输尿管镜下碎石术联合双J管留置治疗妊娠期输尿管结石并急性肾盂感染,有效且安全,值得深究推广.

  4. 输尿管软镜与经皮肾镜治疗输尿管上段结石的疗效与优势对比%Comparative study on curative effects between flexible ureteroscopy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy in the management of proximal ureteral calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伦晓璐; 赵亚伟; 张刚; 孔祥波

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨输尿管软镜取石术(flexible ureteroscopy,FURS)与经皮肾镜取石术(percutaneous nephrolithotomy,PNL)治疗输尿管上段结石的疗效与优势.方法:2013年5月~2014年10月我院收治单侧单发输尿管上段结石(长径10~20 mm)患者78例,其中30例行输尿管软镜取石术,48例行经皮肾镜取石术.从48例中随机抽取30例作为PNL组,对两组患者年龄、性别、肾盂积水程度、结行大小、手术时间、手术并发症发生率(依据elavien系统分级[1])、结石清除率、术后住院时间、手术费用等进行统计学分析.结果:两组患者年龄、性别、肾盂积水程度差异无统计学意义.两组结石大小为(14.6±2.6)和(14.1±2.4)mm(P=0.408),手术时间为(75.1±10.2)和(41.5±6.4)min(P<0.001),手术总并发症发生率为13.33%和26.67%(P=0.197),一期术后无石率(残留结石≤3 mm)为76.67%和93.33% (P=0.071),术后3个月无石率为90%和100%(P=0.236),术后住院时间为(2.7±0.7)和(5.1±0.7)d(P<0.001),住院费用为(37 089.1±1 325.5)和(26 549.5±854.9)元(P<0.001).结论:FURS与PNL均为治疗输尿管上段结石有效且安全的手术方法,FURS更具微创性,患者术后恢复快,住院时间更短,而PNL手术时间短,住院费用更低.

  5. 输尿管软镜碎石术与经皮肾镜碎石术治疗鹿角形肾结石疗效比较%Comparison of the efficacy of flexible ureteroscopy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy in treatment of renal staghorn calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李龚龙; 乔庆东; 王华礼; 王磊; 孙旭东; 郑艳丽

    2016-01-01

    目的 比较输尿管软镜碎石术(FURS)与经皮肾镜碎石术(PNL)治疗鹿角形肾结石的临床疗效.方法 选择2014年6月至2016年1月新乡市中心医院收治的42例鹿角形肾结石患者,根据患者意愿分为FURS组(n=22)和PNL组(n=20),对2组患者手术并发症发生率、手术时间、结石清除率、术后住院时间等进行比较.结果 FURS组和PNL组患者手术并发症总发生率分别为18.2% (4/22)和10.0%(2/20),手术时间分别为(127.7 ±55.9)和(97.9±50.8) min,结石清除率分别为68.2% (15/22)和95.0% (19/20),术后住院时间分别为(5.5±1.1)和(7.0±1.3)d,2组患者手术时间、结石清除率及术后住院时间比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 FURS和PNL均是鹿角形肾结石有效的治疗方法,PNL有更高的结石清除率、更短的手术时间,而FURS创伤更小、恢复更快、住院时间更短.

  6. 不同频率体外冲击波碎石术治疗输尿管单发结石疗效分析%Effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy with different shock wave frequency on solitary ureteral calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚史武; 李汉莱; 何强

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨不同频率体外冲击波碎石术(extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy,ESWL)治疗输尿管单发结石的疗效和安全性.方法 行ESWL治疗的输尿管单发结石患者268例,根据ESWL冲击波频率分为低频组142例和高频组126例,分别应用频率60、90 Hz冲击波进行治疗.术后随访3个月,比较2组术后1、4周及3个月排石率、排净率及并发症发生率.结果 低频组术后4周、3个月结石排净率(69.0%、85.9%)高于高频组(56.3%、75.4%)(P<0.05),术后疼痛或肾绞痛发生率(2.8%)低于高频组(8.7%)(P<0.05).结论 60 Hz频率冲击波可提高ESWL治疗输尿管单发结石术后结石排净率,降低疼痛或肾绞痛发生率.

  7. 小功率钬激光经皮肾输尿管镜碎石术联合冲击波碎石治疗复杂性肾结石%Low-power holmium laser with mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for complex renal cal-culi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠继红; 吕建林; 唐庆来; 周兴祝; 柳发德; 王义兆

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨小功率钬激光经皮.肾输尿管镜碎石术联合体外冲击波碎石治疗复杂性.肾结石的有效性和安全性.方法 应用小功率(20 W:0.6~0.8 J×10~20 Hz)钬激光经皮.肾穿刺微造瘘输尿管镜配合体外冲击波治疗复杂性肾结石31例,分析小功率钬激光碎石术联合体外冲击波碎石的碎石时间、结石排净率、并发症等.结果 平均碎石时间为85 min(60~120 min),总的取净率为87.09%(27/31);术中出血量估计平均为80 ml;术后3例患者出现高热,无其他严重并发症.结论 小功率钬激光经皮.肾输尿管镜碎石术联合体外冲击波碎石治疗复杂性.肾结石是一种安全、有效的方法.

  8. 孤立肾结石患者电子输尿管软镜钬激光碎石术后出现尿脓毒血症的诊治分析%Diagnosis and treatment of postoperative urosepsis following digital flexible ureteroscopy with holmium laser lithotripsy for solitary kidney calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凌琪; 杨嗣星; 吴天鹏; 宋超; 廖文彪; 郑府; 柯芹

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨孤立肾结石患者接受电子输尿管软镜钬激光碎石术后出现尿脓毒血症的临床特点及治疗方法.方法:回顾性分析孤立肾结石患者行电子输尿管软镜钬激光碎石术后出现尿脓毒血症的5例患者的临床资料:2例为单侧肾切除术后,3例为功能性孤立肾.结石位于肾下盏3例,多肾盏2例;结石大小20~31 mm,平均25 mm.术前3例患者尿培养阳性,其中2例为大肠埃希氏菌,1例为克雷伯杆菌.患者经由同一术者在全麻下行电子输尿管软镜钬激光碎石术.结果:5例患者术后出现不同程度尿脓毒血症.经及时进行有效液体复苏,选用敏感抗生素或亚胺培南,并选用小剂量短期地塞米松及血管活性药物等对症支持治疗,术后1周内均逐渐恢复,痊愈出院.结论:尿脓毒血症是上尿路结石腔内治疗后的严重并发症之一.充分的术前准备,熟练的手术操作,严密的术后监测,早期发现和及时有效的治疗,是防治孤立肾结石电子输尿管软镜钬激光碎石术后出现尿脓毒血症的有效措施.

  9. The Prevalence and Characteristic Differences in Prostatic Calcification between Health Promotion Center and Urology Department Outpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Chan Gyu; Yoon, Byung Il; Choe, Hyun-Sop; Ha, U-Syn; Sohn, Dong Wan; Cho, Yong-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the differences in calculi characteristics and their prevalence according to the presence of lower urinary tract symptoms between adult patients examined at the Urology Department and those examined at the Health Promotion Center (HPC). Materials and Methods The prevalence of prostatic calcification, characteristics of calculi (number, size, and location), and differences in lower urinary tract symptoms were compared and analyzed for 479 subjects who underwent transrectal...

  10. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroovand, R.L.; Harrison, L.H.; McCullough, D.L.

    1987-10-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is the treatment of choice for the majority of upper urinary calculi in adults. Technical limitations, including patient size and concerns over post-treatment stone fragment passage, have made the application of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in children less clearly defined. We report the successful application of the Dornier lithotriptor in the management of 18 children (22 kidneys) with upper urinary calculi.

  11. Multiple ureterolithiasis resembling steinstrasse: An unusual presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Praveen Kumar Pandey; Suruchi Shukla; Anup Kumar Kundu; Pramod Kumar Sharma; Mukesh Kumar Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Steinstrasse or “stone street” is an expected complication after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in patients with high stone burden. However, there are published reports of multiple ureterolithiasis resembling steinstrasse in patients with distal renal tubular acidosis. Here we report an uncommon case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with right renal calculi. Her right ureter was studded with multiple calculi up to the vesicoureteric junction. The affected right kidney was nonfuncti...

  12. Holmium laser for multifunctional use in urology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Graham M.; Shroff, Sunil; Thomas, Robert; Kellett, Michael

    1994-05-01

    The holmium laser pulsed at 350 microsecond cuts tissue and fragments calculi. It has been assessed for minimally invasive urological intervention. It is useful for partly excising and partly coagulating tumors, incising strictures and the obstructed PUJ. It partly drill and partly fragments urinary calculi however hard. Other lasers are more effective at any one particular application, but this laser is a useful compromise as a multifunctional device.

  13. 神农化石丹治疗泌尿系结石的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶修翠; 叶婷婷

    2005-01-01

    Objective Observing the curative effect and safety of shennong Calculi - stopping Bolus for treating the calculi in the urinary system.Method Choosing 160 patients of the calculi in the urinaruy system,who are divided randomly in two groups,in which,the curative group thkes orally the Shennong Calculi - removal granule. The period of treatment is three months. Symptom sign, ealculi removal and clinic comprehensive curative effect after observing and treating. Results Total effective rate of curative group and control group is separately up to 93.59% and 80% ,the comparing diffetenee of two groups is obvious,the curative effect ot curative group is obviously higher than control group(P < 0.05). The curative effect of creative group is better than control group on symptom sign and calculi removal for improving the dull pain of lumbar region, anuria, macroscopic hematuria, real region pain by tapping and so on. The serious untoward reaction dpes not occur. Conclusion The curative effect of Shennong Calculistopping Bolus is obvious and its safety is excellent.

  14. Spatial reasoning with augmented points: Extending cardinal directions with local distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Moratz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach for supplying existing qualitative direction calculi with a distance component to support fully fledged positional reasoning. The general underlying idea of augmenting points with local reference properties has already been applied in the OPRAm calculus. In this existing calculus, point objects are attached with a local reference direction to obtain oriented points and able to express relative direction using binary relations. We show how this approach can be extended to attach a granular distance concept to direction calculi such as the cardinal direction calculus or adjustable granularity calculi such as OPRAm or the Star calculus. We focus on the cardinal direction calculus and extend it to a multi-granular positional calculus called EPRAm. We provide a formal specification of EPRAm including a composition table for EPRA2 automatically determined using real algebraic geometry. We also report on an experimental performance analysis of EPRA2 in the context of a topological map-learning task proposed for benchmarking qualitative calculi. Our results confirm that our approach of adding a relative distance component to existing calculi improves the performance in realistic tasks when using algebraic closure for consistency checking.

  15. Robotic extended pyelolithotomy for complete staghorn calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Rene; Astigueta, Juan Carlos; Giedelman, Camilo; de Andrade, Robert; Carmona, Oswaldo; Ramirez, Daniel; Clavijo, Rafael

    2010-08-01

    Staghorn stones represent a therapeutic challenge to urologists. We present our experience with laparoscopic extended pyelolithotomy for treatment of staghorn and complex renal calculi in highly selected cases. This approach provides the principles of open surgery with the advantages of minimally invasive surgery. We describe our experience with robot-assisted extended pyelolithotomy for complex coralliform calculi. Since January 2007, robotic extended pyelolithotomy has been performed by transperitoneal approach in two patients with complete coralliform lithiasis (calculi average size 8 cm). One patient had history of percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Demographic and operative data were collected. All procedures were technically successful without need for open conversion. Mean estimated blood loss was 175 ml (range 50-300 ml), and mean operative time was 150 min (range 120-150 min). A perinephric drain was employed in one patient with duration of 5 days. Postoperative imaging confirmed complete stone clearance. Robotic extended pyelolithotomy is a feasible and reproducible procedure for removal of complete and partial staghorn calculi in selected patients with complex nephrolithiasis. This approach might limit the role of open surgery for these calculi, but further publications with more cases are necessary to further define its utility.

  16. Unenhanced helical CT in the evaluation of the urinary tract in children and young adults following urinary tract reconstruction: comparison with sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, M.T.; Elder, J.S.; Sivit, C.J.; Applegate, K.E. [Dept. of Radiology, Rainbow Babies and Children' s Hospital, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Purpose. To compare the accuracy of unenhanced, helical CT with sonography for the detection of complications of urinary tract reconstruction. Materials and methods. Forty-six kidneys in 24 patients were examined with CT and sonography. All scans were assessed for ease of renal visualization, presence of renal, ureteral, and bladder calculi, renal scars, hydronephrosis, and abdominal wall hernia. The results of both imaging modalities were independently reported. Results. CT provided excellent visualization of all 46 kidneys, while sonography provided poor visualization of 8 kidneys (17 %) (P < 0.001). CT detected calculi in 10 kidneys, 1 ureter, and 7 bladders. Sonography detected calculi in only 2 kidneys, and 2 bladders. Overall, CT detected significantly more calculi than US (18 vs 4, P = 0.01). CT detected scarring in 15 kidneys, while sonography detected scarring in 10. Hydronephrosis was detected in 6 kidneys by CT and in 8 kidneys by sonography. Three abdominal wall hernias were seen at CT that were not seen at sonography. Conclusion. CT is superior to sonography for the detection of urinary tract calculi and renal scarring. CT will demonstrate abdominal wall hernias that are unsuspected. (orig.)

  17. Functions as proofs as processes

    CERN Document Server

    Beffara, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a logical approach to the translation of functional calculi into concurrent process calculi. The starting point is a type system for the {\\pi}-calculus closely related to linear logic. Decompositions of intuitionistic and classical logics into this system provide type-preserving translations of the \\lambda- and \\lambda\\mu-calculus, both for call-by-name and call-by-value evaluation strategies. Previously known encodings of the \\lam-calculus are shown to correspond to particular cases of this logical embedding. The realisability interpretation of types in the \\pi-calculus provides systematic soundness arguments for these translations and allows for the definition of type-safe extensions of functional calculi.

  18. MRI of oriental cholangiohepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wani, N.A., E-mail: ahmad77chinar@gmail.co [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS), Srinagar (India); Robbani, I.; Kosar, T. [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS), Srinagar (India)

    2011-02-15

    Oriental cholangiohepatitis (OCH) also called recurrent pyogenic cholangitis is characterized by intrahepatic duct calculi, strictures, and recurrent infections. In turn cholangitis can result in multiple hepatic abscesses, further biliary strictures, and in severe cases, progressive hepatic parenchymal destruction, cirrhosis, and portal hypertension. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and conventional T1-weighted (T1 W) and T2-weighted (T2 W) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings have been described in patients with OCH. MRCP findings include duct dilation, strictures, and calculi. MRCP can help to localize the diseased ducts and determine the severity of involvement. T1 and T2 W sequences reveal the parenchymal changes of atrophy, abscess formation, and portal hypertension in addition to calculi. Post-treatment changes are also well depicted using MRI. Comprehensive, non-invasive assessment is achieved by using conventional MRI and MRCP in OCH providing a roadmap for endoscopic or surgical management.

  19. Implementation of inherence calculus in the PowerLoom environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachulski, Marcin F.; Mulawka, Jan J.; Nieznański, Edward

    The article describes an attempt to implement abstract and concrete inherence calculi in the PowerLoom technology. Issues in the field of artificial intelligence, ontology and philosophy have been addressed. The inherence calculus is a type of a formal logic system. The PowerLoom technology consists of a knowledge representation language and an inference engine. Six inherence calculi have been implemented and an appropriate testing environment has been developed. The inherence calculus has been also extended by categorical properties and a theoretical discussion of ontological Boolean algebra has been conducted. Carried out experiments showed properties of the inherence calculi and also verified capabilities of PowerLoom to construct such logic systems. It occurred that expert system operational mode of PowerLoom outperforms its abilities to work as a mathematical theorem prover.

  20. A functional presentation of Pi calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    From the very beginning process algebra introduced the dichotomy between channels and processes. This dichotomy prevails in all present process calculi.The situation is in contrast to that with lambda calculus which has only one class of entities——the lambda terms. We introduce in this paper a process calculus called Lamp in which channels are process names. The language is more uniform than existing process calculi in two aspects: First it has a unified treatment of channels and processes. There is only one class of syntactical entities——processes. Second it has a unified presentation of both first order and higher order process calculi. The language is functional in the sense that lambda calculus is functional.Two bisimulation equivalences, barbed and closed bisimilarities, are proved to coincide.A natural translation from Pi calculus to Lamp is shown to preserve both operational and algebraic semantics. The relationship between lazy lambda calculus and Lamp is discussed.

  1. Extraction of prostatic lumina and automated recognition for prostatic calculus image using PCA-SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuocai; Xu, Xiangmin; Ding, Xiaojun; Xiao, Hui; Huang, Yusheng; Liu, Jian; Xing, Xiaofen; Wang, Hua; Liao, D Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Identification of prostatic calculi is an important basis for determining the tissue origin. Computation-assistant diagnosis of prostatic calculi may have promising potential but is currently still less studied. We studied the extraction of prostatic lumina and automated recognition for calculus images. Extraction of lumina from prostate histology images was based on local entropy and Otsu threshold recognition using PCA-SVM and based on the texture features of prostatic calculus. The SVM classifier showed an average time 0.1432 second, an average training accuracy of 100%, an average test accuracy of 93.12%, a sensitivity of 87.74%, and a specificity of 94.82%. We concluded that the algorithm, based on texture features and PCA-SVM, can recognize the concentric structure and visualized features easily. Therefore, this method is effective for the automated recognition of prostatic calculi.

  2. Rare calcium oxalate monohydrate calculus attached to the wall of the renal pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Felix; Costa-Bauza, Antonia; Prieto, Rafael M; Saus, Carlos; Servera, Antonio; García-Miralles, Reyes; Benejam, Joan

    2011-04-01

    Most renal calculi can be classified using well-established criteria in a manner that reflects both composition and fine structure under specific pathophysiological conditions. However, when a large patient population is considered, rare renal calculi invariably appear, some of which have never been classified; careful study is required to establish stone etiology in such cases. The patient in the present case report formed two types of calculi. One was attached on the wall of the renal pelvis near the ureter and part of the calculus was embedded inside pelvic renal tissue. The calculus developed on an ossified calcification located in the pelvis tissue. Current knowledge on the development of calcification in soft tissues suggests a pre-existing injury as an inducer of its development. A mechanism of calculus formation is proposed. The second stone was a typical jack-stone calculus.

  3. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano T. DeMarco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The surgical management of pediatric stone disease has evolved significantly over the last three decades. Prior to the introduction of shockwave lithotripsy (SWL in the 1980s, open lithotomy was the lone therapy for children with upper tract calculi. Since then, SWL has been the procedure of choice in most pediatric centers for children with large renal calculi. While other therapies such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL were also being advanced around the same time, PNL was generally seen as a suitable therapy in adults because of the concerns for damage in the developing kidney. However, recent advances in endoscopic instrumentation and renal access techniques have led to an increase in its use in the pediatric population, particularly in those children with large upper tract stones. This paper is a review of the literature focusing on the indications, techniques, results, and complications of PNL in children with renal calculi.

  4. On the Expressiveness of Intensional Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Given-Wilson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The expressiveness of communication primitives has been explored in a common framework based on the pi-calculus by considering four features: synchronism (asynchronous vs synchronous, arity (monadic vs polyadic data, communication medium (shared dataspaces vs channel-based, and pattern-matching (binding to a name vs testing name equality. Here pattern-matching is generalised to account for terms with internal structure such as in recent calculi like Spi calculi, Concurrent Pattern Calculus and Psi calculi. This paper explores intensionality upon terms, in particular communication primitives that can match upon both names and structures. By means of possibility/impossibility of encodings, this paper shows that intensionality alone can encode synchronism, arity, communication-medium, and pattern-matching, yet no combination of these without intensionality can encode any intensional language.

  5. An Intensional Concurrent Faithful Encoding of Turing Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Given-Wilson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The benchmark for computation is typically given as Turing computability; the ability for a computation to be performed by a Turing Machine. Many languages exploit (indirect encodings of Turing Machines to demonstrate their ability to support arbitrary computation. However, these encodings are usually by simulating the entire Turing Machine within the language, or by encoding a language that does an encoding or simulation itself. This second category is typical for process calculi that show an encoding of lambda-calculus (often with restrictions that in turn simulates a Turing Machine. Such approaches lead to indirect encodings of Turing Machines that are complex, unclear, and only weakly equivalent after computation. This paper presents an approach to encoding Turing Machines into intensional process calculi that is faithful, reduction preserving, and structurally equivalent. The encoding is demonstrated in a simple asymmetric concurrent pattern calculus before generalised to simplify infinite terms, and to show encodings into Concurrent Pattern Calculus and Psi Calculi.

  6. Acute pancreatitis and development of pancreatic pseudo cyst after extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy to a left renal calculus: A rare case with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Mylarappa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL is considered the standard of care for the treatment of small upper ureteric and renal calculi. A few centers have extended its use to the treatment of bile duct calculi and pancreatic calculi. The complication rates with SWL are low, resulting in its wide spread acceptance and usage. However, some of the serious complications reported in 1% of patients include acute pancreatitis, perirenal hematoma, urosepsis, venous thrombosis, biliary obstruction, bowel perforation, lung injury, rupture of aortic aneurysm and intracranial hemorrhage. To our knowledge, only six cases of acute pancreatitis or necrotizing pancreatitis following SWL have been documented in the literature. Herein, we report a rare case of acute pancreatitis and formation of a pseudo cyst following SWL for left renal pelvic calculus.

  7. Many-valued logics

    CERN Document Server

    Bolc, Leonard

    1992-01-01

    Many-valued logics were developed as an attempt to handle philosophical doubts about the "law of excluded middle" in classical logic. The first many-valued formal systems were developed by J. Lukasiewicz in Poland and E.Post in the U.S.A. in the 1920s, and since then the field has expanded dramatically as the applicability of the systems to other philosophical and semantic problems was recognized. Intuitionisticlogic, for example, arose from deep problems in the foundations of mathematics. Fuzzy logics, approximation logics, and probability logics all address questions that classical logic alone cannot answer. All these interpretations of many-valued calculi motivate specific formal systems thatallow detailed mathematical treatment. In this volume, the authors are concerned with finite-valued logics, and especially with three-valued logical calculi. Matrix constructions, axiomatizations of propositional and predicate calculi, syntax, semantic structures, and methodology are discussed. Separate chapters deal w...

  8. Bigraphical Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Mackie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Interaction nets are a graphical model of computation, which has been used to define efficient evaluators for functional calculi, and specifically lambda calculi with patterns. However, the flat structure of interaction nets forces pattern matching and functional behaviour to be encoded at the same level, losing some potential parallelism. In this paper, we introduce bigraphical nets, or binets for short, as a generalisation of interaction nets using ideas from bigraphs and port graphs, and we present a formal notation and operational semantics for binets. We illustrate their expressive power by examples of applications.

  9. Using location types to control interferences in mobile resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Cheng; YOU Jin-yuan

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a type system, called Location System (L-S), to control the interferences in the ambient-like calculi. The L-S allows well-behaved (non-interfering) processes to run in parallel if they do not access shared location during their execution life cycle. This approach is designed for a variant of Mobile Ambient (MA), called Safe Mobile Resources (SR), but it can be also used in other ambient-like calculi which are also discussed in this paper.

  10. Recurrent Pure Calcite Urolithiasis Confirmed by Endoscopic Removal and Infrared Spectroscopy in a Malnourished Anorectic Female

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Kim Hovgaard; Sloth Osther, Palle Jörn

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Often when calcite is found as a component of urinary calculi, they are considered false calculi or artifacts. We present a case of true calcite urolithiasis. The stone material was removed percutaneously from a severely malnourished anorectic woman and analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (IRS). In addition, calcite urolithiasis was confirmed in several recurrent stone events by IRS. Laxative abuse with magnesium oxide was believed to be the underlying cause of stone formation, and ammonium chloride given as one weekly dose turned out to be effective for stone prevention. PMID:27579419

  11. Note on a simple type system for non-interference

    CERN Document Server

    van Bakel, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    We consider CCS with value passing and elaborate a notion of noninterference for the process calculi, which matches closely that of the programming language. The idea is to view channels as information carriers rather than as "events", so that emitting a secret on output channel can be considered safe, while inputting a secret may lead to some kind of leakage. This is in contrast with the standard notion of noninterference for the process calculi where any causal dependency of low-level action from any high-level action is forbidden.

  12. Reaction Graph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅育熙

    1998-01-01

    The paper proposes reaction graphs as graphical representations of computational objects.A reaction graph is a directed graph with all its arrows and some of its nodes labeled.Computations are modled by graph rewriting of a simple nature.The basic rewriting rules embody the essence of both the communications among processes and cut-eliminations in proofs.Calculi of graphs are ideentified to give a formal and algebraic account of reaction graphs in the spirit of process algebra.With the help of the calculi,it is demonstrated that reaction graphs capture many interesting aspects of computations.

  13. Multiple ureterolithiasis resembling steinstrasse: An unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Pandey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Steinstrasse or “stone street” is an expected complication after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in patients with high stone burden. However, there are published reports of multiple ureterolithiasis resembling steinstrasse in patients with distal renal tubular acidosis. Here we report an uncommon case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with right renal calculi. Her right ureter was studded with multiple calculi up to the vesicoureteric junction. The affected right kidney was nonfunctional and was managed by nephroureterectomy.

  14. First experience with a modified Siemens Lithostar shock wave system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, K D; Köhler, G; Folberth, W; Planz, K

    1991-01-01

    A Siemens Lithostar shock wave system was modified and investigated clinically. The modified system yields increased focal pressure and energy density. The first clinical experience in renal calculi shows a significant reduction in shock wave numbers per treatment. Higher energy output enables better treatment results for difficult stones such as staghorn and infections calculi. Despite the higher energy output more than 90% of treatments could be performed without anesthesia or analgesia. No significant side effects could be detected. The service life of the modified shock wave system increased by a factor of two.

  15. Controller Design from Temporal Logic: Undecidability need not matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin

    1997-01-01

    ``Controller Design from Temporal Logic: Undecidability Need Not Matter'' sets out to prove that this hypothesis is actually true and applies to some well-studied design formalisms. The demonstrator formalism used throughout is the core of the Duration Calculi, which is a major group of calculi proposed...... that the impact of these findings goes much deeper than just Duration Calculus. Formal methods are intended to be mathematically rigorous design instruments, aiming at subjecting the development process to mathematical verification. Hence, the only rationale for taking idealizations in the formal representation...

  16. Semantics of a Typed Algebraic Lambda-Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Valiron, Benoît

    2010-01-01

    Algebraic lambda-calculi have been studied in various ways, but their semantics remain mostly untouched. In this paper we propose a semantic analysis of a general simply-typed lambda-calculus endowed with a structure of vector space. We sketch the relation with two established vectorial lambda-calculi. Then we study the problems arising from the addition of a fixed point combinator and how to modify the equational theory to solve them. We sketch an algebraic vectorial PCF and its possible denotational interpretations.

  17. PRIMARY SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF KIDNEY: REPORT OF TWO CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta DR, Bose Chaitali, Panda Sasmita, Upadhaya Ashis, Das Abhijit, Senapati SN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary squamous cell carcinoma of renal pelvis is rare clinical entity with only few cases have been reported in the literature. It is usually associated with long standing renal calculi. Insidious onset of symptom and inconclusive clinical and radiological features leads to locally advanced or metastatic disease at presentation; resulting in poor prognosis. Here we are reporting two cases of squamous cell carcinoma of kidney having renal calculi to highlight its clinical presentation and to document the association of squamous cell carcinoma in longstanding nephrolithiasis due to its rarity.

  18. Application of Ureteroscope in Emergency Treatment with Persistent Renal Colic Patients during Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilin Zhang

    Full Text Available Although the application of ureteroscopy in the treatment of ureteral calculi during pregnancy has been on the rise, for persistent renal colic patients without ultrasound-detected ureteral calculi, it may represent a clinical dilemma due to the potential risks for both mother and fetus.The aim of the present study is to present our experience with the application of the ureteroscope in the emergency treatment of persistent renal colic patients during pregnancy.From March 2009 to September 2014, a total of 117 pregnant women who received ureteroscopy for persistent renal colic were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into three groups according to duration of the persistent renal colic: Group A (within 12 hours; 24 cases; Group B (12 to 24 hours; 76 cases; and Group C (more than 24 hours; 17 cases. The stone-free rate, complications, and other qualitative data were analyzed.Of the 117 patients, 31 patients who were found not to have renal or ureteral calculi received ureteroscopic double-J (DJ stent insertion, whereas 86 patients who were found with ureteral calculi received ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URSL and DJ stent insertion. Among them, 24 patients (27.9% were found with ureteral calculi by ureteroscopy rather than ultrasound. In addition, 73 patients (84.9% had complete fragmentation of calculi; 12 patients (10.3% had a threatened abortion (the rates of threatened abortion in Groups A, B and C were 8.3% vs. 6.5% vs. 29.4%; Group C compared with Groups A and B, p<0.05, and one patient (1.2% had urosepsis (in Group C. However, these complications were cured with conservative treatment, without postpartum infant and maternal complications.For pregnant patients with persistent renal colic/ureteral calculi and hydronephrosis, ureteroscopic DJ stent insertion and URSL are effective and safe options when conservative treatment fails, even if no urinary calculi were found by ultrasound. At the same time, for patients with persistent

  19. Drug: D03635 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03635 Drug Cysteamine hydrochloride (USAN); Cystagon (TN) C2H7NS. HCl 113.0066 113...eplacement/Modifiers Cysteamine D03635 Cysteamine hydrochloride (USAN) CAS: 156-57-0 PubChem: 17397739 DrugB....6096 D03635.gif Anti-urolithic [cysteine calculi] [DS:H00275] USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Enzyme R

  20. Experiences in enhancing existing BPM Tools with BPEL Import and Export

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendling, Jan; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; Zdun, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    utilize graph-based BPM languages such as EPCs, Workflow Nets, UML Activity Diagrams, and BPMN in their modeling component while BPEL is rather a block-oriented language inspired by process calculi. In this paper we identify transformation strategies as reusable solutions for mapping control flow between...

  1. Severely calcified leiomyoma of broad ligament in a postmenopausal woman: Report of a rare case

    OpenAIRE

    Subrata Pal; Sajeeb Mondal; Palash Kr Mondal; Gargi Raychaudhuri; Rajashree Pradhan; Suparna Banerjee

    2016-01-01

    Calcified broad ligament leiomyoma is a rare benign lesion in postmenopausal age group. It causes diagnostic confusion with solid calcified adnexal mass and large bladder calculi at the pelvic region. Clinical and radiological diagnoses were confirmed by histopathology of the hysterectomy specimen. We hereby present a case of heavily calcified broad ligament fibroid in a postmenopausal woman.

  2. Severely calcified leiomyoma of broad ligament in a postmenopausal woman: Report of a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Pal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcified broad ligament leiomyoma is a rare benign lesion in postmenopausal age group. It causes diagnostic confusion with solid calcified adnexal mass and large bladder calculi at the pelvic region. Clinical and radiological diagnoses were confirmed by histopathology of the hysterectomy specimen. We hereby present a case of heavily calcified broad ligament fibroid in a postmenopausal woman.

  3. Abstract Interpretation of Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, René Rydhof; Jensen, J. G.; Nielson, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate that abstract interpretation is useful for analysing calculi of computation such as the ambient calculus (which is based on the p-calculus); more importantly, we show that the entire development can be expressed in a constraint-based formalism that is becoming exceedingly popular...

  4. Predictors of radiation exposure to providers during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Wenzler

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Increased stone burden, partial or staghorn calculi, surgery and fluoroscopy duration, and absence of preexisting access were associated with high provider radiation exposure. Radiation safety awareness is essential to minimize exposure and to protect the patient and all providers from potential radiation injury.

  5. Coherence Generalises Duality: A Logical Explanation of Multiparty Session Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Lindley, Sam; Montesi, Fabrizio;

    2016-01-01

    these three calculi, giving semantics-preserving translations from GCP to CP and from MCP to GCP. The translation from GCP to CP interprets a coherence proof as an arbiter process that mediates communications in a session, while MCP adds annotations that permit processes to communicate directly without...

  6. Case of pancreatolithiasis. CT observation of calculus formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Fumio; Koga, Sukehiko; Takeuchi, Akira (Fujita-Gakuen Univ., School of Medicine, Aichi (Japan))

    1982-11-01

    During 3-year follow-up of a case of pancreatolithiasis localized in the pancreatic head, CT showed sudden new appearance of calculi over an extensive area of the body and tail of the pancreas after acute exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis. This case and the etiology and mechanism of pancreatolithiasis were discussed on the basis of literature.

  7. Experimental removal of subgingival calculus with the Er:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Ulrich; Hibst, Raimund

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the Er:YAG laser removal of subgingival calculi in periodontal treatment and to describe laser-induced cementum surface alterations. Freshly extracted human teeth with adherent plaques and mineralized calculi were laser treated using modified quartz fiber tips in direct contact to the root surface. For the fiber tip tested, the ablation threshold was 6.5 mJ. An effective removal of calculi was possible with 50 mJ resp. 150 mJ for a triple fiber. For the latter, a mass loss with a mean of about 5.1. mg/min was achieved. Histologic examinations of the cementum surface showed smoothed appearance alternately with rough depressions of the fiber tips, which can be discussed as a good precondition for periodontal tissue regeneration. Maximum temperature increase of 1.4 K was reached in the pulp, if an additional water irrigation was applied to the root surface. From these results it can be concluded that with the Er:YAG laser an effective removal of subgingival calculi can be performed without thermal risk for the pulp.

  8. Improvements in Intracorporeal Lithotripters for Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ramsay L.

    2007-04-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is an effective minimally invasive surgical approach for the treatment of large renal stone burden. Intracorporeal lithotripters (ICL) are utilized during PNL to fragment calculi, with some devices capable of concurrently removing fragments as well. Much progress has been made in the design of ICL devices, resulting in potentially more efficient treatment of nephrolithiasis.

  9. Quality of Life and Functional Status Across the Life Course. Project 2: Investigating Mechanisms to Explain Age Associated Differences in Quality of Life Among Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    pills LJ Kidney or bladder stones (renal or urinary calculi) Kidney or renal failure requiring kidney dialysis of a kidney transplant Migraine ...praying or meditating . ...... .......... 28. I’ve been making fun of the situation. 29. I’ve tried to keep my feelings to myself

  10. Pathological study of elective nephrectomies for a two year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vijay Sreedhar

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Inflammatory causes more commonly required a nephrectomy in the study population. Chronic calculous pyelonephritis was the most common underlying pathophysiology leading to a nonfunctioning kidney thus highlighting the early treatment of renal calculi. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(6.000: 1496-1500

  11. Retrograde intrarenal stone surgery for extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy-resistant kidney stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene; Nørby, Bettina; Osther, Palle Jörn

    2006-01-01

    ) for extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL)-resistant kidney stones. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 38 consecutive patients (18 males, 20 females) participated in the study. All patients had undergone ESWL prior to RIRS without success. In all cases the stones could be reached with the endoscope. Calculi...

  12. Modal Logics for Cryptographic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frendrup, U.; Huttel, Hans; Jensen, N. J.

    2002-01-01

    We present three modal logics for the spi-calculus and show that they capture strong versions of the environment sensitive bisimulation introduced by Boreale et al. Our logics differ from conventional modal logics for process calculi in that they allow us to describe the knowledge of an attacker ...

  13. Model Checking Is Static Analysis of Modal Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2010-01-01

    Flow Logic is an approach to the static analysis of programs that has been developed for functional, imperative and object-oriented programming languages and for concurrent, distributed, mobile and cryptographic process calculi. In this paper we extend it; to deal with modal logics and prove...

  14. Transurethral lithotripsy with holmium-YAG laser of a large exogenous prostatic calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Masanori; Ohara, Rei; Kanao, Kent; Nakajima, Yosuke

    2011-04-01

    Prostatic calculi are classified into two types, endogenous and exogenous calculi, based on their origin. Endogenous calculi are commonly observed in elderly men; however, exogenous prostatic calculi are extremely rare. We report here the case of a 51-year-old man who suffered incontinence and pollakiuria with a giant exogenous prostatic calculus almost completely replacing the prostatic tissue. X-rays and computed tomography demonstrated a large calculus of 65 × 58 mm in the small pelvic cavity. The patient underwent a transurethral lithotripsy with a holmium-YAG laser and a total of 85 g of disintegrated stones was retrieved and chemical stone analysis revealed the presence of magnesium ammonium phosphate. The incontinence improved and the voiding volume increased dramatically, and no stone recurrence in the prostatic fossa occurred at the 2 years follow-up. The etiology of this stone formation seemed to be based on some exogenous pathways combined with urinary stasis and chronic urinary infection due to compression fracture of the lumbar vertebra.

  15. Expressing First-Order π-Calculus in Higher-Order Calculus of Communicating Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian Xu

    2009-01-01

    In the study of process calculi, encoding between different calculi is an effective way to compare the expressive power of calculi and can shed light on the essence of where the difference lies. Thomsen and Sangiorgi have worked on the higher-order calculi (higher-order Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS) and higher-order It-calculus, respectively) and the encoding from and to first-order π-calculus. However a fully abstract encoding of first-order π-calculus with higher-order CCS is not available up-today. This is what we intend to settle in this paper. We follow the encoding strategy, first proposed by Thomsen, of translating first-order π-calculus into Plain CHOCS. We show that the encoding strategy is fully abstract with respect to early bisimilarity (first-order π-calculus) and wired bisimilarity (Plain CHOCS) (which is a bisimulation defined on wired processes only sending and receiving wires), that is the core of the encoding strategy. Moreover from the fact that the wired bisimilarity is contained by the well-established context bisimilarity, we secure the soundness of the encoding, with respect to early bisimilarity and context bisimilarity. We use index technique to get around all the technical details to reach these main results of this paper. Finally, we make some discussion on our work and suggest some future work.

  16. Urolithiasis in a herd of beef cattle associated with oxalate ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltner-Toews, D; Meadows, D H

    1980-02-01

    An unusually high incidence of urinary calculi in a group of feeder cattle is described. Necropsy findings in one affected animal suggested that oxalates in the feed, specifically in fescue (Festuca spp.) seed screenings, may have been the cause. Low dietary calcium and decreased water intake by the cattle appear to have been predisposing factors. Control measures are discussed.

  17. Urolithiasis in a Herd of Beef Cattle Associated with Oxalate Ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Waltner-Toews, D; Meadows, D H

    1980-01-01

    An unusually high incidence of urinary calculi in a group of feeder cattle is described. Necropsy findings in one affected animal suggested that oxalates in the feed, specifically in fescue (Festuca spp.) seed screenings, may have been the cause. Low dietary calcium and decreased water intake by the cattle appear to have been predisposing factors. Control measures are discussed.

  18. A nontraumatic para-aortic lymphocele complicating nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyson, E A; Belleza, N A; Lowman, R M

    1977-09-01

    Many cases of traumatic para-aortic lymphocele have been reported. Recently, a case of nontraumatic para-aortic lymphocele was investigated. The etiologic consideration for this lymphocele formation is either a localized inflammatory process, or fibrosis induced by prior passage of calculi.

  19. Noncommutative de Sitter and FRW spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burić, Maja, E-mail: majab@ipb.ac.rs [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 44, 11001, Belgrade (Serbia); Madore, John, E-mail: madore@th.u-psud.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, 91405, Orsay (France)

    2015-10-24

    Several versions of fuzzy four-dimensional de Sitter space are constructed using the noncommutative frame formalism. Although all noncommutative spacetimes which are found have commutative de Sitter metric as a classical limit, the algebras and the differential calculi which define them have many differences, which we derive and discuss.

  20. Noncommutative de Sitter and FRW spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buric, Maja [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physics, P.O. Box 44, Belgrade (Serbia); Madore, John [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Orsay (France)

    2015-10-15

    Several versions of fuzzy four-dimensional de Sitter space are constructed using the noncommutative frame formalism. Although all noncommutative spacetimes which are found have commutative de Sitter metric as a classical limit, the algebras and the differential calculi which define them have many differences, which we derive and discuss. (orig.)

  1. Static analysis of a Model of the LDL degradation pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henrik; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2005-01-01

    BioAmbients is a derivative of mobile ambients that has shown promise of describing interesting features of the behaviour of biological systems. As for other ambient calculi static program analysis can be used to compute safe approximations of the behavior of modelled systems. We use these tools ...

  2. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF SOME EXPERIMENTAL FATIGUE TESTS RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Stere PARIS

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper details the results of processing the fatigue data experiments to find the regression function. Application software for statistical processing like ANOVA and regression calculi are properly utilized, with emphasis on popular software like MSExcel and CurveExpert

  3. Infinitary Term Graph Rewriting is Simple, Sound and Complete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Based on a simple metric and a simple partial order on term graphs, we develop two infinitary calculi of term graph rewriting. We show that, similarly to infinitary term rewriting, the partial order formalisation yields a conservative extension of the metric formalisation of the calculus. By show...

  4. Effect of extract of Phyllanthus niruri on crystal deposition in experimental urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Marcio E; Lima, Roberta; Mercuri, Lucildes P; Matos, Jivaldo R; Schor, Nestor; Boim, Mirian A

    2006-12-01

    Phyllanthus niruri (Pn) is a plant that has been shown to interfere in the growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals. In the present study we evaluated the effect of Pn on the preformed calculus induced by introduction of a CaOx seed into the bladder of male Wistar rats. Pn treatment (5 mg/ rat/day) was initiated immediately or 30 days after CaOx seeding and thus in the presence of a preformed calculus. Animals were sacrificed 50 or 70 days after surgery. The resulting calculi were weighed and analyzed by X-ray diffraction, stereomicroscopy and scanning electronic microscopy. Precocious Pn treatment reduced the number (75%, P struvite crystals over the CaOx seed and Pn did not change the crystalline composition of the calculi. This suggests that Pn interfered with the arrangement of the precipitating crystals, probably by modifying the crystal-crystal and/or crystal-matrix interactions. Results suggest that Pn may have a therapeutic potential, since it was able to modify the shape and texture of calculi to a smoother and probably more fragile form, which could contribute to elimination and/or dissolution of calculi.

  5. Benurestat, a urease inhibitor for the therapy of infected ureolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, J A

    1975-03-01

    A single oral administration of the urease inhibitor benurestat (2-(p-chlorobenz-amido)acetohydroxamic acid) to the human at 15 or 25 mg per kg produced, for 4 hr, mean urinary levels of inhibitory activity that were 700 to 1900 times that equivalent concentration of benurestat required to inhibit Proteus mirabilis urease by 90 per cent. In the rat these same dosage levels produced urinary inhibitory activity equivalent to 16 to 140 fold that required for 90 per cent urease inhibition. Benurestat administration, 25, 50, or 100 mg per kg, caused a decrease in the urinary excretion of ammonia from rats with experimental P. mirabilis genitourinary tract infection. The formation of struvite calculi was inhibited under these conditions. Nitrofurantoin, sulfamethoxazole, and ampicillin also slowed the formation of struvite calculi in infected rats and together with benurestat a potentiation of the inhibition of calculi formation was secured. Some combination therapies composed of benurestat plus an antibacterial agent, sulfamethoxazole or ampicillin, were effective in promoting the net dissolution of formed calculi. The number of viable bacteria present in the bladders of infected rats was significantly less after the administration of benurestat plus nitrofurantoin, sulfamethoxazole, or ampicillin than the respective numbers that were obtained from control infected rats or from rats administered either component of the combination separately.

  6. Spectral methods for the uncertainties propagation in numerical simulation; Methodes spectrales robustes pour la propagation d'incertitudes en simulation numerique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crestaux, Th. [CEA Saclay, Dept. Modelisation de Systemes et Structures (DEN/DANS/DM2S/SFME), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2008-07-01

    The context of this thesis is the development of the numerical simulation in industrial processes. It aims to study and develop methods allowing a decrease of the numerical cost of calculi of Chaos Polynomials development. The implementing concerns problems of high stochastic dimension and more particularly the transport model of radionuclides in radioactive wastes disposal. (A.L.B.)

  7. Noncommutative de Sitter and FRW spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Buric, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Several versions of fuzzy four-dimensional de Sitter space are constructed using the noncommutative frame formalism. Although all noncommutative spacetimes which are found have commutative de Sitter metric as a classical limit, the algebras and the differential calculi which define them have many differences which we derive and discuss.

  8. Listen, wind energy costs nothing; Oyez tous, L'eolien ne coute rien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poizat, F

    2008-09-15

    The author discusses the affirmation of the ADEME and the Environmental and sustainable development Ministry: the french wind park will costs in 2008 0,5 euro year for each household. He criticizes strongly this calculi, bringing many data on energy real cost today and in the next 10 years. Many references are provided. (A.L.B.)

  9. The Enriched Effect Calculus: Syntax and Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers; Simpson, Alex; Egger, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    . The second half of the article investigates models for the enriched effect calculus, based on enriched category theory. We give several examples of such models, relating them to models of standard effect calculi (such as those based on monads), and to models of intuitionistic linear logic. We also prove...

  10. CONTROL CLINICAL EVALUATION OF KULATTHADI YOGA AS ASHMARIBHEDAN IN MUTRASHMARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jangle Vidya Muralidhar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Urolithiasis, a presence of calculi single or multiple in renal or urinary tracks is a clinical entity which has been universally accepted as problematic condition regarding its treatment in all systems of medical science. There is no known drug therapy at present which dissolves or fragments the calculi by changing lithogenic potential of particular person. Urinary calculi disease has been described in detail under the heading of Ashmari in Ayurvedic texts. Ashmari is one of the few surgical conditions which have been given very prominent place in Ayurveda by Acharya Sushruta and Various herbs like Kulattha (Dolicos Biflorus, Gokshura (Tribulus Terrestris, Apamarga (Achyranthes Aspera, Pashanbheda (Berginia Lingulata and Varuna (Crataeva Nurvela etc. and herbomineral compounds are described which are effective against urolithiasis by dissolving calculi thus facilitating their expulsion. This study was aimed to evaluate Ashmaribhedana property of “Kulatthadi yoga” in Mutrashmari to make an effective, long lasting, cost effective, authentic alternative & easily available conservative management of Mutrashmari. After observation, it was found that Kulatthadi Yoga is effective in Kapha-Vataja Mutrashmari & control group shows significant result in Mutrashmari.

  11. Structured Communication-Centered Programming for Web Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Honda, Kohei; Yoshida, Nobuko

    2012-01-01

    This article relates two different paradigms of descriptions of communication behavior, one focusing on global message flows and another on end-point behaviors, using formal calculi based on session types. The global calculus, which originates from a Web service description language (W3C WS...

  12. Effects of dietary calcium, phosphorus and magnesium on intranephronic calculosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, J C; Jee, W S

    1984-12-01

    The effects of varying dietary levels of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium on the incidence and severity of intranephronic calculosis were studied. Renal calculi were induced by feeding female rats the AIN-76TM semipurified diet for 4 weeks. During this time period, dietary levels of 350, 450 or 550 mg calcium per 100 g diet did not influence the occurrence of urolithiasis. Increasing dietary magnesium levels from 50 to 350 mg was beneficial in preventing the occurrence of calculi if the diet contained 400 mg or less phosphorus. The protective effects of dietary magnesium were counteracted when dietary phosphorus levels were increased from 400 mg to 550 or 700 mg. If the dietary content of phosphorus and magnesium permitted the formation of renal calculi, the severity of the condition was also influenced by the dietary level of calcium. Some animal groups fed semipurified diets did not have microscopic or radiographic evidence of renal calculi but were found to have significantly elevated renal calcium values. It was suggested that these animals might be in a precalculus-forming state.

  13. Comparison between ultrasound and noncontrast helical computed tomography for identification of acute ureterolithiasis in a teaching hospital setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Ronan Marquez Ferreira de Souza

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have shown noncontrast computed tomography (NCT to be more effective than ultrasound (US for imaging acute ureterolithiasis. However, to our knowledge, there are few studies directly comparing these techniques in an emergency teaching hospital setting. The objectives of this study were to compare the diagnostic accuracy of US and NCT performed by senior radiology residents for diagnosing acute ureterolithiasis; and to assess interobserver agreement on tomography interpretations by residents and experienced abdominal radiologists. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study of 52 consecutive patients, who underwent both US and NCT within an interval of eight hours, at Hospital São Paulo. METHODS: US scans were performed by senior residents and read by experienced radiologists. NCT scan images were read by senior residents, and subsequently by three abdominal radiologists. The interobserver variability was assessed using the kappa statistic. RESULTS: Ureteral calculi were found in 40 out of 52 patients (77%. US presented sensitivity of 22% and specificity of 100%. When collecting system dilatation was associated, US demonstrated 73% sensitivity, 82% specificity. The interobserver agreement in NCT analysis was very high with regard to identification of calculi, collecting system dilatation and stranding of perinephric fat. CONCLUSIONS: US has limited value for identifying ureteral calculi in comparison with NCT, even when collecting system dilatation is present. Residents and abdominal radiologists demonstrated excellent agreement rates for ureteral calculi, identification of collecting system dilatation and stranding of perinephric fat on NCT.

  14. Anuric renal failure after same-session bilateral atraumatic flexible ureteroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Bandi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the first known case of anuric renal failure after same-session bilateral atraumatic flexible ureteroscopy for renal calculi. Although, there is no consensus about stenting patients who undergo same-session bilateral ureteroscopy due to the lack of prospective randomized studies; strong consideration should be given to stenting the ureter at least one side to avoid this complication.

  15. Usability: Formalising (un)definedness in typed lambda calculu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, J.; Pacholski, L.; Tiuryn, J.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we discuss usability, and propose to take that notion as a formalisation of (un)definedness in typed lambda calculus, especially in calculi based on PCF. We discuss some important properties that make usability attractive as a formalisation of (un)definedness. There is a remarkable dif

  16. A Generic Language for Biological Systems based on Bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Troels Christoffer; Krivine, Jean

    Several efforts have shown that process calculi developed for reasoning about concurrent and mobile systems may be employed for modelling biological systems at the molecular level. In this paper, we initiate investigation of the meta-language framework bigraphical reactive systems, due to Milner et...

  17. Type Systems for Bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Ebbe; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Sangiorgi, Davide

    of controls and a set of reaction rules, collectively a bigraphical reactive system (BRS). Possible advantages of developing bigraphical type systems include: a deeper understanding of a type system itself and its properties; transfer of the type systems to the concrete family of calculi that the BRS models...

  18. 上尿路胱氨酸结石诊治22例报告%Diagnosis and Treatment of Upper Urinary Cystine Calculi:a Report of 22 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵建国; 侯飓; 宋飞; 赵谦; 郭环宇; 黄伟; 韩增箎

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨上尿路胱氨酸结石的诊治方法。方法2005年3月~2013年3月治疗22例上尿路胱氨酸结石,其中肾脏铸型结石10例,肾多发结石9例,肾多发结石合并输尿管结石3例,8例仅行经皮肾镜碎石清石术( percutaneous nephrolithotomy lithotripsy,PCNL),3例行PCNL+输尿管镜碎石术( ureteroscopic lithotripsy,URL),9例行PCNL+体外冲击波碎石(extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy,ESWL)+经肾造瘘管肾盂内灌注氨基丁三醇-E(THAM-E)溶石,2例仅行ESWL。结果17例结石完全清除,5例结石残留,清石清除率77.2%(17/22),无严重并发症发生。22例随访6~36个月,平均24个月,3例结石复发,5例结石残留中4例结石体积增大。结论 PCNL联合ESWL及药物溶石治疗上尿路复杂胱氨酸结石,结石清除效果满意。%Objective To evaluate diagnosis and treatment of upper urinary cystine calculi. Methods We retrospectively analyzed clinical data of 22 patients with upper urinary cystine calculi from March 2005 to March 2013.There were 10 cases of staghorm calculi, 9 cases of multiple calculi, and 3 cases of upper ureteral calculi combined with multiple renal calculi.Eight patients underwent PCNL only, 3 patients underwent PCNL+URL, 9 patients underwent PCNL +ESWL +litholytic therapy with THAM-E perfusing into renal pelvis through nephrostomy tubes, and 2 patients underwent ESWL only. Results The calculi completely disappeared in 17 cases (77.2%), while residual stones occurred in 5 cases, the clearance rate being 77.2% (17/22).No major complications were noted.All the 22 patients were followed up for 6-36 months, with an average of 24 months.Recurrence of calculi was found in 3 cases, and calculi enlarged with different degree in 4 out of 5 cases of residual stones. Conclusion Combination of PCNL, ESWL, and litholytic therapy has good effects in the treatment of complicated renal cystine calculi.

  19. O que há de novo no diagnóstico e tratamento da litíase urinária? What's new in the diagnosis and management of urinary lithiasis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mazzucchi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Atualizar aspectos do diagnóstico e do tratamento da litíase urinária. MÉTODOS. Uma revisão dos principais artigos publicados sobre o tema em revistas indexadas no "Medline" entre 1979 e 2009. RESULTADOS. A ocorrência de cálculos é maior em pacientes com IMC > 30. A TC sem contraste promove o diagnóstico correto em até 98% dos casos. O uso de bloqueadores alfa-adrenérgicos aumenta a eliminação de cálculos ureterais menores que 8 mm em 29%. O índice de pacientes livres de cálculo após LEOC varia entre 35% e 91%, conforme seu tamanho e localização. Cálculos renais maiores que 2 cm são eliminados pela NLPC entre 60% e 100% dos casos. Cálculos de ureter distal são tratados com sucesso em até 94% dos casos pela ureteroscopia semirrígida contra 74% da LEOC. Já para cálculos de ureter superior as taxas de sucesso situam-se entre 77% e 91% para ureteroscopia e 41% e 82% para a LEOC. CONCLUSÃO. A associação da calculose urinária com obesidade e Diabetes mellitus está bem estabelecida. A TC sem contraste é atualmente o padrão-ouro no diagnóstico da litíase urinária. A LEOC é o método de eleição em nosso meio para tratamento de cálculos renais menores que 2 cm e com densidade tomográfica OBJECTIVE. To review developments in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary lithiasis. METHODS. A review of the most important articles on the subject published in Medline indexed periodicals between 1979 and 2009.RESULTS. Stones occur with greater frequency among people with BMI > 30. Computerized tomography without contrast provides the correct diagnosis in up to 98% of cases. Alpha-adrenergic blockers increase elimination of ureteral calculi smaller than 8 mm by 29%. The proportion of patients free from calculi after ESWL varies from 35% to 91%, depending on size and location. In between 60% and 100% of cases, renal calculi larger than 2 cm are eliminated with PCNL. Calculi of the distal ureter are successfully

  20. Metabolic investigation of patients with staghorn calculus: is it necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen R. P. Amaro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of metabolic disorders in patients with staghorn calculi treated at the Regional Center of Lithiasis Metabolic Studies in central region of São Paulo State, Brazil. Materials and methods: Between February 2000 and February 2008, 630 patients with urinary calculi were evaluated in the lithiasis outpatient clinic. Thirty-seven of them had staghorn calculi (35 women and 2 men. The inclusion criteria for the metabolic investigation included the absence of urological manipulation 30 days before the examination, negative urine culture and creatinine clearance > 60 mL/min. The protocol for metabolic investigation consisted of qualitative search for cystinuria. Two non-consecutive 24-hour urine samples collected to measure calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, sodium, potassium, magnesium, oxalate and citrate, and serum calcium levels , phosphorus, uric acid, sodium, potassium, magnesium, chloride, parathormone and urine pH. Results: Among patients with lithiasis, 5.9% (37/ 630 had staghorn calculus and in 48.6% (18/37 were diagnosed with urinary infection. The females were predominant for 94.5% of cases. The calculi were unilateral in 31 of cases and bilateral in six. Metabolic abnormalities were found in 68.2% of patients with hypercalciuria (64.2% and hypocitraturia (53.3% being the most common disorders. Conclusions: The presence of metabolic disorders in nearly 70% of patients with staghorn calculus reinforces the necessity for evaluation of these patients. The diagnosis and treatment of identified metabolic abnormalities can contribute to the prevention of recurrent staghorn calculi.

  1. Adjunctive medical therapy with α-blocker after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of renal and ureteral stones: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchao Li

    Full Text Available Although some trials assessed the efficacy and safety of the α-blocker in facilitating renal and ureteral stones expulsion after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL, the role of the α-blocker in facilitating upper urinary calculi expulsion after ESWL remain controversial.To determine the efficacy and safety of the α-blocker in facilitating renal and ureteral stones expulsion after ESWL.A literature search was carried out using the PubMed database, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library database to identify relevant studies. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed methodological quality. Pooled effect estimates were obtained using a fixed- and random-effects meta-analysis.The meta-analysis included 23 RCTs, α-blocker significantly enhanced expulsion rate of upper urinary tract calculi after ESWL (P<0.00001; RR 1.21; 95% CI 1.12-1.31, significantly promoted steinstrasse expulsion (P=0.03; RR 1.25; 95% CI 1.03-1.53, significantly shortened the discharge time of upper urinary tract calculi (P=0.0001; MD -2.12; 95% CI -3.20--1.04, significantly reduced the patient's pain VAS score (P=0.001; RR -1.0; 95% CI -1.61--0.39. Compared with the control group, dizziness (P=0.002; RR 5.48; 95% CI 1.91-15.77, anejaculation (P=0.02; RR 12.17; 95% CI 1.61-91.99 and headache (P=0.04; RR 4.03; 95% CI 1.04-15.72 in the α-blocker group was associated with a higher incidence.Treatment with α-blocker after ESWL appears to be effective in enhancing expulsion rate of upper urinary tract calculi, shortening the discharge time of upper urinary tract calculi, reducing the patient's pain. The side effects of α-blocker were light and few.

  2. Toxicological review and oral risk assessment of terephthalic acid (TPA) and its esters: A category approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Gwendolyn L; McLellan, Clifton J; Bhat, Virunya S

    2012-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate, a copolymer of terephthalic acid (TPA) or dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) with ethylene glycol, has food, beverage, and drinking water contact applications. Di-2-ethylhexyl terephthalate (DEHT) is a plasticizer in food and drinking water contact materials. Oral reference doses (RfDs) and total allowable concentrations (TACs) in drinking water were derived for TPA, DMT, and DEHT. Category RfD and TAC levels were also established for nine C(1)-C(8) terephthalate esters. The mode of action of TPA, and of DMT, which is metabolized to TPA, involves urinary acidosis, altered electrolyte elimination and hypercalciuria, urinary supersaturation with calcium terephthalate or calcium hydrogen terephthalate, and crystallization into bladder calculi. Weanling rats were more sensitive to calculus formation than dams. Calculi-induced irritation led to bladder hyperplasia and tumors in rats fed 1000 mg/kg-day TPA. The lack of effects at 142 mg/kg-day supports a threshold for urine saturation with calcium terephthalate, a key event for calculus formation. Chronic dietary DMT exposure in rodents caused kidney inflammation, but not calculi. Chronic dietary DEHT exposure caused general toxicity unrelated to calculi, although urine pH was reduced suggesting the TPA metabolite was biologically-active, but of insufficient concentration to induce calculi. Respective oral reference doses of 0.5, 0.5, and 0.2 mg/kg-day and total allowable drinking water concentrations of 3, 3, and 1 mg/L were derived for TPA, DMT, and DEHT. An oral RfD of 0.2 mg/kg-day for the terephthalate category chemicals corresponded to a drinking water TAC of 1 mg/L.

  3. Structured Operational Semantics for Graph Rewriting

    CERN Document Server

    Dorman, Andrei; 10.4204/EPTCS.59.4

    2011-01-01

    Process calculi and graph transformation systems provide models of reactive systems with labelled transition semantics. While the semantics for process calculi is compositional, this is not the case for graph transformation systems, in general. Hence, the goal of this article is to obtain a compositional semantics for graph transformation system in analogy to the structural operational semantics (SOS) for Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS). The paper introduces an SOS style axiomatization of the standard labelled transition semantics for graph transformation systems. The first result is its equivalence with the so-called Borrowed Context technique. Unfortunately, the axiomatization is not compositional in the expected manner as no rule captures "internal" communication of sub-systems. The main result states that such a rule is derivable if the given graph transformation system enjoys a certain property, which we call "complementarity of actions". Archetypal examples of such systems are interacti...

  4. Structured Operational Semantics for Graph Rewriting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Heindel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Process calculi and graph transformation systems provide models of reactive systems with labelled transition semantics (LTS. While the semantics for process calculi is compositional, this is not the case for graph transformation systems, in general. Hence, the goal of this article is to obtain a compositional semantics for graph transformation system in analogy to the structural operational semantics (SOS for Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS. The paper introduces an SOS style axiomatization of the standard labelled transition semantics for graph transformation systems that is based on the idea of minimal reaction contexts as labels, due to Leifer and Milner. In comparison to previous work on inductive definitions of similarly derived LTSs, the main feature of the proposed axiomatization is a composition rule that captures the communication of sub-systems so that it can feature as a counterpart to the communication rule of CCS.

  5. Objective and subjective outcome in 42 patients after treatment of sialolithiasis by transoral incision of Warthon's duct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Marie Louise; Wagner, Niels

    2014-01-01

    In this retrospective follow-up study, we present the middle-term results of transoral removal of submandibular calculi by incision in the floor of the mouth together with a patient satisfaction survey. These results will be compared with those of international studies. This is an individual...... retrospective cohort follow-up study. Forty-two patients had salivary calculi removed by incision in the mouth in the period from August 2009 to July 2012 at the Ear-nose-throat department of the North Zealand Hospital, Hillerød, Denmark. A retrospective study was carried out, focusing on the effects...... of the surgery and on patient satisfaction. The patients completed a questionnaire and underwent an objective physical exam. We found a high success rate (93 %), high patient satisfaction (94 %) and a high number of patients with no symptoms (92 %). In 94 % of the patients the gland was preserved, and there were...

  6. Severe Vesico-ureteral Reflux and Urine Sequestration: Mathematical Relations and Urodynamic Consequences

    CERN Document Server

    de Jesus, Lisieux Eyer

    2009-01-01

    Some simple mathematical formulae to calculate the volumes of proximal pyeloureteral reflexive systems are presented, and the results are compared to bladder capacity values. Using the results of the calculi, the author discusses possible implications of severe urinary sequestration in the pyeloureteral systems. Using geometrical and topological approximations we calculate the volumes of ureters and renal pelvises, applying in vivo measurements obtained from conventional ultrasound, retrograde cystourethrograms and topographic anatomic references. Approximations use 2 decimals and assumed $\\pi$ value was 3.14. Ureteral and pyelic volumes are calculated, respectively, from the mathematical formula for the cylinder and cone volumes. Dolicomegaureter are compensated using proportional calculi. Bladder volumes are estimated from conventional formulae. Proximal urinary sequestration is compared between infants and older children with VUR. Mechanisms of direct induction of bladder urodynamic failure from VUR are su...

  7. Giant tonsillolith: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre-Donat, Francisco Javier; Pla-Mocholi, Angel; Estelles-Ferriol, Enrique; Martinez-Mihi, Victoria

    2005-01-01

    Tonsilloliths or tonsil stones are calcifications that form in the crypts of the palatal tonsils. These calculi are composed of calcium salts either alone or in combination with other mineral salts, and are usually of small size - though there have been occasional reports of large tonsilloliths or calculi in peritonsillar locations. We present the case of a 55-year-old woman with a one-year history of dysphagia and pharyngeal discomfort with a foreign body sensation, though the manifestations had recently intensified. Exploration of the oral cavity revealed a hard bulging submucosal mass in the region of the soft palate, at right anterior tonsillar pillar level. The mucosa overlying the lesion appeared erythematous. Computed tomography revealed a large, delimited and highly calcified oval image measuring 2.5 x 1.5 cm, which was subsequently surgically removed.

  8. Renal pelvic stones: choosing shock wave lithotripsy or percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Marcovich

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of minimally invasive techniques has revolutionized the surgical management of renal calculi. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy are now both well-established procedures. Each modality has advantages and disadvantages, and the application of each should be based on well-defined factors. These variables include stone factors such as number, size, and composition; factors related to the stone's environment, including the stone's location, spatial anatomy of the renal collecting system, presence of hydronephrosis, and other anatomic variables, such as the presence of calyceal diverticula and renal anomalies; and clinical or patient factors like morbid obesity, the presence of a solitary kidney, and renal insufficiency. The morbidity of each procedure in relation to its efficacy should be taken in to account. This article will review current knowledge and suggest an algorithm for the rational management of renal calculi with shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

  9. Silicate Urolithiasis during Long-Term Treatment with Zonisamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Taguchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicate urinary calculi are rare in humans, with an incidence of 0.2% of all urinary calculi. Most cases were related to excess ingestion of silicate, typically by taking magnesium trisilicate as an antacid for peptic ulcers over a long period of time; however, there also existed unrelated cases, whose mechanism of development remains unclear. On the other hand, zonisamide, a newer antiepileptic drug, is one of the important causing agents of iatrogenic urinary stones in patients with epilepsy. The supposed mechanism is that zonisamide induces urine alkalinization and then promotes crystallization of urine components such as calcium phosphate by inhibition of carbonate dehydratase in renal tubular epithelial cells. Here, we report a case of silicate urolithiasis during long-term treatment with zonisamide without magnesium trisilicate intake and discuss the etiology of the disease by examining the silicate concentration in his urine.

  10. Hybrid Calculus of Wrapped Compartments

    CERN Document Server

    Coppo, Mario; Drocco, Maurizio; Grassi, Elena; Sciacca, Eva; Spinella, Salvatore; Troina, Angelo; 10.4204/EPTCS.40.8

    2010-01-01

    The modelling and analysis of biological systems has deep roots in Mathematics, specifically in the field of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Alternative approaches based on formal calculi, often derived from process algebras or term rewriting systems, provide a quite complementary way to analyze the behaviour of biological systems. These calculi allow to cope in a natural way with notions like compartments and membranes, which are not easy (sometimes impossible) to handle with purely numerical approaches, and are often based on stochastic simulation methods. Recently, it has also become evident that stochastic effects in regulatory networks play a crucial role in the analysis of such systems. Actually, in many situations it is necessary to use stochastic models. For example when the system to be described is based on the interaction of few molecules, when we are at the presence of a chemical instability, or when we want to simulate the functioning of a pool of entities whose compartmentalised structur...

  11. Developing Bigraphical Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Troels Christoffer

    , a prototype tool for experimenting with bigraphical reactive systems. In a second line of work, we study bigraphical reactive systems as a vehicle for developing a language to model biochemical reactions at the level of cells and proteins. We discuss and isolate B,R-calculi, a family of bigraphical reactive......In this dissertation, we study bigraphical languages—languages based on the theory for bigraphs and bigraphical reactive systems developed by Milner and coworkers. We begin by examining algebraic theory for binding bigraphs. We give a term language for binding bigraphs and develop a complete...... systems that we deem sufficient for the language. We develop a self-contained presentation of the syntax and operational semantics for B,R-calculi that exploits the restrictions we have made on the family. We also treat how one may extend certain bigraphical reaction rules to include negative contextual...

  12. Retroperitoneal laparoscopic pyelolithotomy versus extra corporeal shock-wave lithotripsy for management of renal stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chander Jagdish

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of retroperitoneal laparoscopic pyelolithotomy (RPPL and its comparison with extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy in the management of renal calculi. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the Department of surgery, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India. The study included 86 cases of solitary renal calculi in the retroperitoneoscopic (RPPL group and 82 cases in the shock wave lithotripsy (SWL group. The parameters compared were stone clearance, hospital stay, number of postoperative visits, mean time to resume normal activities, number of man days lost, and analgesic requirement. Results : The RPPL group showed better stone clearance, fewer hospital visits, low analgesic requirement, fewer number of man days lost, and early resumption of normal activities, as compared to the SWL group. Conclusions : Shock wave lithotripsy, being a noninvasive modality, is an established procedure all over the world. However RPPL achieves comparable or better results in high volume centers.

  13. Challenges on percutaneous nephrolithotomy in pregnancy: Supine position approach through ultrasound guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Fregonesi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urolithiasis in pregnancy represents a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the obstetrician, urologist, radiologist and anesthetist. It is a cause of major concern, considering the potential adverse effects of radiation exposure and of any invasive surgical procedure and anesthesia on the mother and fetus. Fortunately, with conservative management, 70-80% of symptomatic calculi pass spontaneously with no sequel. However, fever, infection, uncontrolled pain and progressive hydronephrosis are indications for surgical intervention when retrograde placements of a ureteral stent or a percutaneous nephrostomy tube are the most traditional options. The recent technological advances in stone fragmentation devices and the administration of safe anesthesia have forced clinicians to embark on more definitive stone management techniques in pregnancy. Ureteroscopy is considered the first definitive treatment of obstructive ureteral calculi during all trimesters of pregnancy, but also has limitations. Although generally avoided during pregnancy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy can be a good treatment choice in selected patients.

  14. Challenges on percutaneous nephrolithotomy in pregnancy: Supine position approach through ultrasound guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregonesi, Adriano; Dias, Fernando G F; Saade, Ricardo D; Dechaalani, Vanessa; Reis, Leonardo Oliveira

    2013-07-01

    Urolithiasis in pregnancy represents a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the obstetrician, urologist, radiologist and anesthetist. It is a cause of major concern, considering the potential adverse effects of radiation exposure and of any invasive surgical procedure and anesthesia on the mother and fetus. Fortunately, with conservative management, 70-80% of symptomatic calculi pass spontaneously with no sequel. However, fever, infection, uncontrolled pain and progressive hydronephrosis are indications for surgical intervention when retrograde placements of a ureteral stent or a percutaneous nephrostomy tube are the most traditional options. The recent technological advances in stone fragmentation devices and the administration of safe anesthesia have forced clinicians to embark on more definitive stone management techniques in pregnancy. Ureteroscopy is considered the first definitive treatment of obstructive ureteral calculi during all trimesters of pregnancy, but also has limitations. Although generally avoided during pregnancy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy can be a good treatment choice in selected patients.

  15. Electron micrographic study of precipitates formed by interaction of silicic acid and alkaline phosphatase: contribution to a study of silica urolithiasis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, C B; Cheng, K J; Costerton, J W

    1982-12-01

    Association of alkaline phosphatase with silicic acid in precipitates formed in dilute solution was studied as a model for the nonspecific reaction between silicic acid and protein. Precipitates contained 68-83% of the silicic acid and 52-83% of the enzyme in the original mixture and were in the form of aggregates of roundish particles 150-800 nm in diameter. Enzyme protein formed a tightly bound layer on the surface of particles formed in solutions of freshly prepared silicic acid. The similarity between the ultrastructural features of precipitates from solutions of silicic acid and of internal portions of siliceous urinary calculi from cattle suggests that deposition of silica during development of such calculi is due, at least in part, to the interaction of protein with silicic acid in urine.

  16. Noncommutative Yang-Mills-Higgs actions from derivation-based differential calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Cagnache, Eric; Wallet, Jean-Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Derivations of a (noncommutative) algebra can be used to construct various consistent differential calculi, the so-called derivation-based differential calculi. We apply this framework to the noncommutative Moyal algebras for which all the derivations are inner and analyse in detail the case where the derivation algebras generating the differential calculus are related to area preserving diffeomorphisms. The ordinary derivations corresponding to spatial dimensions are supplemented by additional derivations necessarely related to additional covariant coordinates. It is shown that these latter have a natural interpretation as Higgs fields when involved in gauge invariant actions built from the noncommutative curvature. The UV/IR mixing problem for (some of) the resulting Yang-Mills-Higgs models is discussed. A comparition to other noncommutative geometries already considered in the litterature is given.

  17. Comparative Study for the Effect of Tamsulosin on Biomarkers between Renal and Urethral Stone Lithotripsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Khalid Abood

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis are multi-factorial diseases that result from the combined influence of epidemiological, biochemical and genetically risk factors. Defective drainage due to urinary tract obstruction at the narrowest part (ureterovesical junction, ureteropelvic junction, and near the pelvic brim via stones will eventually cause the agonizing renal colic pain. Therapeutic managements of nephrolithiasis to relief acute colic pain are the primary objective. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the most commonly used drugs as suggested by many studies. It is very important to consider side effects of the drugs used in the treatment of colic pain. In order to preserve renal function and to relief obstruction, medical expulsion therapy are used for urethral calculi as a conservative management. These medications will aid the passage urethral calculi, an area that currently seems to be a field for continuous investigation.

  18. [Strategy changes in the treatment of ureteral lithiasis and nephritic colic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Enguita, C; Calahorra Fernández, F J; García de la Peña, E; Rodríguez-Miñón Cifuentes, J L; Vela Navarrete, R

    1996-04-01

    Since lithotripters were first introduced to the clinical practice in 1980, extracorporeal shock wave lithotrite (ESWL) has been universally recognized as the first choice to resolve urinary tract lithiasis, ureteral calculi being the most susceptible lithiasic site for controversy. The urologist approach to the lithiasic patient has changed mainly as compared to that of ureteral calculi. These profound changes translate an undeniable advance of the extracorporeal procedures versus those of endourology, basically based on ESWL low morbidity. In those cases when lithiasis is found in a situation of nephritic colic, there is a real therapeutical chance with ESWL, thus leading to drug therapy losing its major role. We present 768 patients with ureteral lithiasis (1991-1994), 20-25% of which were examined for a nephritic colic. Once the colic situation is overcome in all instances, 35% will require a new lithotrite for complete lithiasic resolution. Overall, our rate of successful ureteral lithiasis resolution is 97% (30% need repeated session).

  19. RARE CASE OF GIANT VESICAL CALCULUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Ramraj

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Giant vesical calculus is a rare entity. Vesical calculi can be primary (stones form de novo in bladder or secondary to the migrated renal calculi, chronic UTI, bladder outlet obstruction, bladder diverticulum or carcinoma, foreign body and neurogenic bladder. We report a case of an 85year old male patient who presented with history of recurrent episodes of burning micturition, pain abdomen, straining at micturition and diminished stream. Ultrasonography and X ray KUB showed a large vesical calculus. Patient underwent a n Open Cystolithomy and a large calculus of size 9x13cm weighing 310gms was removed. Bladder wall hypertrophy was seen with signs of inflammation. Bladder mucosal biopsy was taken which was normal on histopathological examination. Post - operative recovery was uneventful

  20. CASE REPORT OF AN UNUSUALLY LARGE RENAL CALCULUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal calculus is a solid or crystal aggregation formed in the kidneys from minerals in the u rine . Many calculi are formed and passed without causing symptoms. A kidney stone is a hard, crystalline mineral material formed within the kidney or urinary tract. Renal calculi affect all geographical, racial and groups with a worldwide prevalence of bet ween 2 and 20%. Majority of the patients are usually between the 20 - 55 years of age. The highest incidence of kidney stone is in 30 - 45 years of age group and the incidence declines after the age of 50 years of age. Stones that obstruct the ureter or renal pelvis cause excruciating, intermittent pain.

  1. GIANT VESICAL CALCULUS – A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanumanthaiah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Until 20th century, bladder stones were one of the most prevalent disorders among the poor class and the incidence was especially high in childhood and adolescent. 1 The decrease in incidence of bladder calculi is attributed mainly to dietary and nutritional progress especially in children. 2 A solitary bladder calculus is usual, although multiple stones are found in 25% of cases. 3 Bladder stones are rare, and they constitute about 5% of all urinary stones, 4, 5 it is classified as migrated from upper urinary tract, primary idiopathic, or secondary calculi. 6 Bladder stones are managed by Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy (ESWL, endourology procedures, or open surgery. We report an unusual case of giant vesical calculus weighing 600grams in a 55 year old female with no evidence of hematuria, urinary retention, and dysuria.

  2. Ureteroscopy for treatment of upper urinary tract stones in children: technical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Natasha; Ko, Joan; Matlaga, Brian R; Wang, Ming-Hsien

    2014-05-01

    The incidence of pediatric urolithiasis is increasing. While many smaller stones may pass spontaneously, surgical therapy is sometimes warranted. Surgical options include shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and open surgery. Ureteroscopy represents a minimally invasive approach, and it is increasingly being used to treat pediatric upper tract calculi. Ureteroscopy is performed under anesthesia and fluoroscopic guidance, with basket extraction or lithotripsy of the calculi. Technical considerations include active or passive ureteral dilatation, the use of ureteral access sheaths for larger stone burdens, and post-operative stent placement. The current pediatric literature suggests high success rates (equal to or surpassing shock wave lithotripsy) and low complication rates. However, concerns remain regarding feasibility in patients with variant anatomies and risk due to intra-operative radiation exposure.

  3. Deriving Extensional Spatial Composition Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Geresy, Baher; Abdelmoty, Alia I.; Ware, Andrew J.

    Spatial composition tables are fundamental tools for the realisation of qualitative spatial reasoning techniques. Studying the properties of these tables in relation to the spatial calculi they are based on is essential for understanding the applicability of these calculi and how they can be extended and generalised. An extensional interpretation of a spatial composition table is an important property that has been studied in the literature and is used to determine the validity of the table for the models it is proposed for. It provides means for consistency checking of ground sets of relations and for addressing spatial constraint satisfaction problems. Furthermore, two general conditions that can be used to test for extensionality of spatial composition tables are proposed and applied to the RCC8 composition table to verify the allowable models in this calculus.

  4. Hypovolemic Shock Caused by Massive Renal Hematoma After a Third Consecutive Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy Session: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermeus, Loic; Vander Eeckt, Kathy; Ost, Dieter; Van Den Branden, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) is a commonly used technique for treating urinary calculi. Although noninvasive, highly effective, and widely accepted, SWL is not without complications. Next to fragmenting the calculi, the surrounding tissue is damaged, which can result in renal hematoma, a well-described complication. In most cases, the collateral tissue damage is mild and resolves with conservative treatment. However, rarely, severe complications may arise. Here we present a case of a 46-year-old male who developed a massive hematoma, both subcapsular and retroperitoneal, after a third consecutive SWL session, resulting in hypovolemic shock. Different probable causes are proposed, of which one cause, the length of the interval between SWL sessions, is not yet studied properly. Probably, short intervals keep the damaged tissue from healing sufficiently, as proposed in our case. Possibly, life-threatening situations can be avoided if more evidence-based guidelines are available.

  5. Struvite calculus in the vagina of a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFee, Wayne E; Carl A, Osborne

    2004-01-01

    On 27 January 2000, a struvite calculus was observed in the vagina during necropsy of a 138-cm-long female bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) collected from the Stono River, South Carolina (USA). Vaginal calculi have been reported in other species of cetaceans but not in bottlenose dolphins. Urinary tract infection might have been an underlying cause of the calculus. While urinary tract inflammation was not detected by light microscopic evaluation of sections of the urinary tract, it is conceivable that sufficient time had lapsed following voiding of the calculus through the urethra for urinary tract infection to have resolved. To further define the prevalence and significance of urolithiasis, prosectors of dead stranded marine mammals are encouraged to closely observe their urinary and genital tracts for calculi and to submit them for quantitative analysis.

  6. Recent Developments in Computed Tomography for Urolithiasis: Diagnosis and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Mc Laughlin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To critically evaluate the current literature in an effort to establish the current role of radiologic imaging, advances in computed tomography (CT and standard film radiography in the diagnosis, and characterization of urinary tract calculi. Conclusion. CT has a valuable role when utilized prudently during surveillance of patients following endourological therapy. In this paper, we outline the basic principles relating to the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation as a result of CT scanning. We discuss the current developments in low-dose CT technology, which have resulted in significant reductions in CT radiation doses (to approximately one-third of what they were a decade ago while preserving image quality. Finally, we will discuss an important recent development now commercially available on the latest generation of CT scanners, namely, dual energy imaging, which is showing promise in urinary tract imaging as a means of characterizing the composition of urinary tract calculi.

  7. L'axiomatisation et les théories économiques

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Mongin

    2003-01-01

    This essay aims at first reconsidering the « axiomatic method », and then showing how it is implemented in Debreu’ s general equilibrium theory, von Neumann and Morgenstern’s theory of decision, and Arrow’s, Nash’s and their followers’ contributions to normative economics. We separate an axiomatisation from other ways of formalization in terms of the following : first, a formal system, and second, the orderly interaction of a syntax and a semantics. We argue that logical calculi constitute a ...

  8. Proceedings of the Conference on Hypothetical Reasoning, 23-24 August 2014, Tübingen

    OpenAIRE

    Piecha, Thomas; Schroeder-Heister, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Hypothetical reasoning or reasoning under assumptions is a key concept of logic, philosophy of science and mathematics. The Conference on Hypothetical Reasoning focussed on its logical aspects, such as assumption-based calculi and their proof theory, logical consequence from a proof-theoretic or model-theoretic point of view, logics of conditionals, proof systems, structure of assumption-based proofs, hypotheses in proof-theoretic semantics, notions of implication, substructural logics, hy...

  9. Ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Biophytum sensitivum DC

    OpenAIRE

    Bharati, Abinash C.; Sahu, Alakh N.

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal plants are widely being used by the traditional medical practitioners for curing various diseases in their day-to-day practice. Biophytum sensitivum DC (Oxalidaceae) is used as a traditional folk medicine in ailments such as inflammation, arthritis, wounds, tumors and burns, gonorrhea, stomach ache, asthma, cough, degenerative joint disease, urinary calculi, diabetes, snake bite, amenorrhea and dysmenorrhea. It is a small, flowering, annual herb with sensitive leaves. It grows throu...

  10. Ureterolithiasis: classical and atypical findings on unenhanced helical computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaswani, Kuldeep K; El-Dieb, Adam; Vitellas, Kenneth M; Bennett, William F; Bova, James G

    2002-03-01

    Evaluation of patients with acute flank pain using helical computed tomography (CT) is a well-accepted, rapid, and safe procedure in the emergency setting. Various primary and secondary signs are described in the literature for evaluation of these patients. Our purpose is to demonstrate both the classical findings associated with ureteral calculi on unenhanced helical CT and atypical findings and potential pitfalls. We also provide readers with a systematic approach to interpreting unenhanced helical CT scans performed for acute flank pain.

  11. Urolithiasis in renal transplantation: Diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Cicerello

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Obiectives: To report our experience of diagnosis and multimodal management of urolithiasis in renal transplantation. Patients and Methods: From January 1995 to December 2012, 953 patients underwent renal transplantation in the Kidney Transplant Unit of Treviso General Hospital. Ten (10% of them developed urinary calculi and were referred at our institution. Their mode of presentation, investigation and treatment were recorded. Results: Seven had renal and 3 ureteral calculi. Urolithiasis was incidentally discovered on routine ultrasound in 6 patients, 1 presented with oliguria, 1 with anuria and acute renal failure and in 2 urolithiasis was found at removal of the ureteral stent. Nephrostomy tube was placed in 5 patients. Hypercalcemia with hyperparathyroidism (HPT was present in 5 patients and hyperuricemia in 3. Two patients were primary treated by shock wave lithotripsy (SWL and one of them was stone-free after two sessions. Two patients, one with multiple pielocaliceal calculi and the other with staghorn calculus in the lower calyx, were treated with percutaneous nephrolitothotomy (PCNL. Three patients were treated by ureteroscopy (URS and in one of them two treatments were carried out. One patient had calculus impacted in the uretero-vesical anastomosis and surgical ureterolithotomy with re-do ureterocystoneostomy was performed after failure of URS. Two patients with calculi discovered at removal of the ureteral stent were treated by URS. Conclusions: The incidence of urolithiasis in renal transplantation is uncommon. In the most of patients the condition occurs without pain. Metabolic anomalies and medical treatment after renal transplantation may cause stone formation. Advancements in endourology and interventional radiology have influenced the management of urolithiasis that can be actually treated with a minimal incidence of risk for the renal allograft.

  12. [Percutaneous nephrolitholapaxy combined with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in the treatment of staghorn lithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrea Masvidal, E; García Serrano, C; Castillo Rodríguez, M; Hernández Silverio, D; Casals Armada, J; Valdés Gómez, C; Báez Hernández, D

    1990-05-01

    From December, 1988 to July, 1989, 41 patients with renal or juxtapyelic ureteral calculi were submitted to percutaneous litholapaxy (PCN) at the Stone Center of the Hermanos Amerijeiras Hospital in Havana. This series comprise our early experience utilizing this procedure. PCN was initially limited to pelvic and juxtapyelic ureteric calculi with dilated renal cavities. It was subsequently used in combination with extracorporeal lithotripsy (ESWL) in the treatment of staghorn stones. The present study analyzed the results achieved with PCN in 30 patients with staghorn calculi; 21 (70%) incomplete staghorns and 9 (30%) complete staghorns. Posteriorly, 6 additional borderline staghorns were completely removed by PCN and are not included in the present study. PCN was performed to reduce stone mass and for placement of a large renal drain to permit subsequent ESWL. At two months following treatment, 86.6% of the patients were completely stone-free. The remaining 13.4% with stone remnants presented anatomic and functional renal conditions that allow us to predict complete elimination within a short period of time. Since 6 months had not elapsed in these cases, these were not considered as residual fragments. One patient presented massive absorption of fluids. This was the only observed major and non-lethal complication. Episodes of fever were observed in 23% post-PCN. No patient presented severe sepsis. In our view, PCN combined with ESWL is one of the currently available therapeutic options in the treatment of staghorn calculi. This approach permits adequate resolution of cases that would have otherwise required surgery.

  13. NEW FRONTIERS ON NEPHROLITHIASIS: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT OF KIDNEY STONES

    OpenAIRE

    Malan Rajat; Walia Anu; Gupta Sumeet

    2011-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis (also known as kidney stones, renal stones, urinary stones, urolithiasis, and renal calculi) affects a great number of patients worldwide. These can be of different types like calcium-oxalate, struvite, uric acid, cysteine. Larger stones in the urinary tract can cause extreme pain in the lower back or side. Urinary tract infections, kidney disorders and certain metabolic disorders such as hyperparathyroidism are also linked to stone formation. Cystinuria, hyperoxaluria, Hyperc...

  14. Smooth Frechet subalgebras of *-algebras defined by first order differential seminorms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subhash J Bhatt

    2016-02-01

    The differential structure in a *-algebra defined by a dense Frechet subalgebra whose topology is defined by a sequence of differential seminorms of order 1 is investigated. This includes differential Arens–Michael decomposition, spectral invariance, closure under functional calculi as well as intrinsic spectral description. A large number of examples of such Frechet algebras are exhibited; and the smooth structure defined by an unbounded self-adjoint Hilbert space operator is discussed.

  15. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy for musculoskeletal pathology--a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, A

    2005-07-01

    For more than two decades extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy has emerged as the standard therapy for calculi in the kidney and urinary tract, and biliary system. Application of extracorporeal shock waves in orthopaedics involves treatment of recalcitrant chronic pain of plantar fasciitis, tennis elbow and calcifying tendonitis of the shoulder. This review explores current evidence-based issues related to its potential use as a treatment option for some musculoskeletal conditions.

  16. [Comparative assessment of truncal and selective vagotomy combined with gastric drainage in the treatment of duodenal ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurygin, A A; Zhuk, A M

    1977-01-01

    Comparative estimation of trunk and selective vagotomy associated with stomach drainage operations in treatment of duodenal ulcer revealed no essential advantages of selective vagotomy in comparison with trunk one. At the same time, technically trunk vagotomy is a more simple procedure and a more reliable one in relation to ulcer cure. The question concerning high-risk of calculi formation in the gallbladder after trunk vagotomy in females is unsolved yet and needs further studies.

  17. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico Prezioso; Pasquale Strazzullo; Tullio Lotti; Giampaolo Bianchi; Loris Borghi; Paolo Caione; Marco Carini; Renata Caudarella; Giovanni Gambaro; Marco Gelosa; Andrea Guttilla; Ester Illiano; Marangella Martino; Tiziana Meschi; Piergiorgio Messa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Diet interventions may reduce the risk of urinary stone formation and its recurrence, but there is no conclusive consensus in the literature regarding the effectiveness of dietary interventions and recommendations about specific diets for patients with urinary calculi. The aim of this study was to review the studies reporting the effects of different dietary interventions for the modification of urinary risk factors in patients with urinary stone disease. Materials and Methods: A s...

  18. Pathophysiology of kidney, gallbladder and urinary stones treatment with herbal and allopathic medicine: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Alok, Shashi; Jain, Sanjay Kumar; Verma, Amita; Kumar, Mayank; Sabharwal, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been known for millennia and are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention of various ailments. Today large number of population suffers from kidney stone, gall stone and urinary calculi. Stone disease has gained increasing significance due to changes in living conditions i.e. industrialization and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence and incidence, the occurrence of stone types and stone location, and the manner of stone...

  19. Comparison of Ultrasonic and Pneumatic Intracorporeal Lithotripsy Techniques during Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Tolga Karakan; Akif Diri; Ahmet Metin Hascicek; Berat Cem Ozgur; Serkan Ozcan; Muzaffer Eroglu

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the effectiveness and safety of ultrasonic and pneumatic lithotripters in the treatment of renal stone disease. Materials and Methods. A total of 227 consecutive percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedures for renal calculi were performed. In 107 patients ultrasonic lithotriptors were used (group I) and in 83 patients pneumatic lithotriptors were used (group II). In the remaining 37 patients, stones were managed with both pneumatic and ultrasonic lithotripters. Follow-up st...

  20. Calculus-related ureteral intussusception: A case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    James Sewell; Gideon Blecher; Ken Tsai; Conrad Bishop

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Ureteral intussusception is a rarely reported condition, primarily as a complication of ureteric tumours. Fewer than 30 case reports have been made. This case represents the first reported case, to our knowledge, of ureteral intussusception caused by a ureteric calculus. Presentation of case: We present the case of a 70 year old man with a history of conservatively managed renal calculi, in whom obstructive ureterolithiasis was incidentally detected. Retrograde pyelography an...

  1. Renal colic, where is it headed? An observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Beltrami; Andrea Guttilla; Lorenzo Ruggera; Patrizia Bernich; Filiberto Zattoni

    2016-01-01

    Aim: In the last thirty years, the treatment for renal and ureteral calculi has undergone profound variations. The objective of this study has been to evaluate the existence of parameters which can affect the spontaneous expulsion of a symptomatic ureteral stone in a reasonably brief period of time and to identify whether certain parameters such as sex, age, the location and dimension of the stone, the presence of dilation in the urinary tract together with the administered therapy, can be us...

  2. Challenges On Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy In Pregnancy: Supine Position Approach Through Ultrasound Guidance

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Urolithiasis in pregnancy represents a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the obstetrician, urologist, radiologist and anesthetist. It is a cause of major concern, considering the potential adverse effects of radiation exposure and of any invasive surgical procedure and anesthesia on the mother and fetus. Fortunately, with conservative management, 70-80% of symptomatic calculi pass spontaneously with no sequel. However, fever, infection, uncontrolled pain and progressive hydronephr...

  3. Sequent calculus proof systems for inductive definitions

    OpenAIRE

    Brotherston, James

    2006-01-01

    Inductive definitions are the most natural means by which to represent many families of structures occurring in mathematics and computer science, and their corresponding induction / recursion principles provide the fundamental proof techniques by which to reason about such families. This thesis studies formal proof systems for inductive definitions, as needed, e.g., for inductive proof support in automated theorem proving tools. The systems are formulated as sequent calculi for...

  4. A calculus for attribute-based communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrahman, Yehia Abd; De Nicola, Rocco; Loreti, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The notion of attribute-based communication seems promising to model and analyse systems with huge numbers of interacting components that dynamically adjust and combine their behaviour to achieve specific goals. A basic process calculus, named AbC, is introduced that has as primitive construct...... of how well-established process calculi could be encoded into AbC is given by considering the translation into AbC of a proto-typical π-calculus process....

  5. Vaginal Calculus in a Woman With Mixed Urinary Incontinence and Vaginal Mesh Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, William D; Rabban, Joseph T; Korn, Abner P

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal calculi are extremely rare and are most commonly encountered in the setting of an urethrovaginal or vesicovaginal fistula. We present a case of a 72-year-old woman with mixed urinary incontinence and vaginal mesh exposure incidentally found to have a large vaginal calculus. We removed the calculus surgically and analyzed the components. Results demonstrated the presence of ammonium-magnesium phosphate hexahydrate and carbonate apatite.

  6. Biliary peritonitis following percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Minimally invasive management

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Siddharth; Singh, Animesh; Singh, Prabhjot

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is a standard procedure for large renal calculi but has potential for complications. Rarely, biliary tract injury can occur during PCNL that can lead to biliary peritonitis with sepsis. Such cases are usually managed by emergent cholecystectomy. We present a case of biliary peritonitis resulting from gall bladder injury during PCNL, managed minimally invasively with an abdominal drain and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography with common bile duct stenting.

  7. Biliary peritonitis following percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Minimally invasive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Siddharth; Singh, Animesh; Singh, Prabhjot

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is a standard procedure for large renal calculi but has potential for complications. Rarely, biliary tract injury can occur during PCNL that can lead to biliary peritonitis with sepsis. Such cases are usually managed by emergent cholecystectomy. We present a case of biliary peritonitis resulting from gall bladder injury during PCNL, managed minimally invasively with an abdominal drain and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography with common bile duct stenting.

  8. The CommUnity Workbench

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Cristóvão; Wermelinger, Michel

    2007-01-01

    CommUnity is a formal approach to Software Architecture with a strict separation of the computation, coordination, and distribution aspects. The approach is based on a parallel design language with state, which facilitates the specification of computations compared to the process calculi used by other formal approaches, and on category theory, which provides an intuitive yet precise graph-based semantics for the configuration of components and connectors.\\ud \\ud The CommUnity Workbench is bei...

  9. End-to-end integrated security and performance analysis on the DEGAS Choreographer platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Mikael; Gilmore, Stephen; Haenel, Valentin

    2005-01-01

    with the analysers of the calculi, and the results of the analysis are reflected back into a modified version of the input UML model. The design platform supporting the methodology, Choreographer, interoperates with state-of-the-art UML modelling tools. We illustrate the approach with a well known protocol...... and report on the experience of industrial users who have applied Choreographer in their development work....

  10. Transitional Cell Carcinoma of Kidney- Report of a Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyesh Halgaonkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematuria is a common presentation in the surgical outpatient department. The most common causes being urinary tract infection or renal calculi that causes hematuria. Few of them are being diagnosed as Renal or Bladder mass. Transitional cell carcinoma affecting urogenital tract accounts for 5-10% of the primary renal malignancies which is relatively rare. Here we report such rare case in an elderly female who presented with painless hematuria.

  11. The stack calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Carraro; Thomas Ehrhard; Antonino Salibra

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a functional calculus with simple syntax and operational semantics in which the calculi introduced so far in the Curry-Howard correspondence for Classical Logic can be faithfully encoded. Our calculus enjoys confluence without any restriction. Its type system enforces strong normalization of expressions and it is a sound and complete system for full implicational Classical Logic. We give a very simple denotational semantics which allows easy calculations of the interpretation of ...

  12. The stack calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carraro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a functional calculus with simple syntax and operational semantics in which the calculi introduced so far in the Curry-Howard correspondence for Classical Logic can be faithfully encoded. Our calculus enjoys confluence without any restriction. Its type system enforces strong normalization of expressions and it is a sound and complete system for full implicational Classical Logic. We give a very simple denotational semantics which allows easy calculations of the interpretation of expressions.

  13. The Logic of Resources and Capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the logic of resources and (agents') capabilities (LRC) as a logic designed to describe and reason about key aspects of social behaviour in organizations. The results of the present paper (soundness, completeness, canonicity, conservative analytic calculus with cut-elimination and subformula property) lay at the intersection of the algebraic theory of unified correspondence and the theory of multi-type calculi in structural proof theory. Case studies are discussed which ...

  14. Advances in percutaneous stone surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Hartman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of large renal stones has changed considerably in recent years. The increasing prevalence of nephrolithiasis has mandated that urologists perform more surgeries for large renal calculi than before, and this has been met with improvements in percutaneous stone surgery. In this review paper, we examine recent developments in percutaneous stone surgery, including advances in diagnosis and preoperative planning, renal access, patient position, tract dilation, nephroscopes, lithotripsy, exit strategies, and post-operative antibiotic prophylaxis.

  15. Knowledge of knots: shapes in action

    OpenAIRE

    Casati, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Logic is to natural language what knot theory is to natural knots. Logic is concerned with some cognitive performances; in particular, some natural language inferences are captured by various types of calculi (propositional, predicate, modal, deontic, quantum, probabilistic, etc.), which in turn may generate inferences that are arguably beyond natural logic abilities, or non-well synchronized therewith (eg. ex falso quodlibet, material implication). Mathematical knot theory accounts for some ...

  16. Partial dissolution of struvite calculus with oral acetohydroxamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodman, J S; Williams, J J; Peterson, C M

    1983-10-01

    Most staghorn calculi occur in patients who have chronic urinary tract infections with urea-splitting organisms. Acetohydroxamic acid, an inhibitor of the bacterial urease enzyme, is currently undergoing clinical trials to determine whether or not it can prevent stone growth in patients at risk. We report on a patient whose stones grew while she was taking placebo and then decreased in size when she took the active drug.

  17. Infrared Spectroscopy in the Study of Renal Lithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Almeida, Jesús; Fernández-Gacio, Ana; Marcos, Carlos F.; Fernández-Gacio, Maira

    2003-08-01

    Infrared spectroscopic analysis of urinary stones is presented as a laboratory experiment for undergraduate students studying life sciences. Infrared spectroscopy, usually combined with the observation of macroscopic and microscopic features, is the preferred tool for unequivocal determination of renal stones composition. In this paper we represent and discuss the IR spectra of some of the most common types of urinary calculi occurring in humans and domestic animals.

  18. Calcium renal lithiasis: metabolic diagnosis and medical treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Angel Arrabal-Polo; Miguel Arrabal-Martin; Juan Garrido-Gomez

    2013-01-01

    Calcium renal lithiasis is a frequent condition that affects the worldwide population and has a high recurrence rate. Different metabolic changes may trigger the onset of calcium stone disorders, such as hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, hypocitraturia and others. There are also other very prevalent disorders that are associated with calcium calculi, such as arterial hypertension, obesity and loss of bone mineral density. A correct diagnosis needs to be obtained through examinin...

  19. Selective sphincteroplasty of the papilla in cases at risk due to atypical anatomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F Mugica; G Urdapilleta; A Castiella; A Berbiela; F Alzate; E Zapata; L Zubiaurre; P Lopez; JI Arenas

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the indications, efficacy and safety of sphincteroplasty in our centre.METHODS: A retrospective study of sphincteroplasty in 53 cases of papilla at high risk was performed in 2004-2006. The procedure consisted of duodenoscopy with Olympus TJF 145 Videoduodenoscope, approach to the biliary tract using a catheter with a guidewire, and dilatation of the papilla with a dilatation balloon catheter using a syringe with a manometer for control of the filling pressure.RESULTS: The indications included intradiverticular papilla in 26 patients (49%), stenosis of a previous sphincterotomy in 19 patients (35.8%), small size of the papilla in 4 patients (7.5%), Billroth Ⅱ gastrectomy in 3 patients (5.6%), and coagulopathy in one patient (1.9%). The efficacy was 97.8%, with all the calculi extracted from the common bile duct in 84.4% of the patients, even though 21 of the patients (39.6%) had calculi with a diameter equal to or greater than 10 mm. Seven patients (13.2%) presented complications: haemorrhage in 1 patient (1.9%) and mild pancreatitis in 6 patients (11.3%). The mean hospital stay in case of complications was of 3 ± 0.63 d.CONCLUSION: Sphincteroplasty is highly effective, with a complication rate similar to that of sphincterotomy, furthermore, the complications are of low clinical importance. The use of the 10 mm balloon makes it possible to extract calculi with a diameter of over 15 mm and to extract more than 3 calculi without increasing the rate of complications and reduces the need to resort to lithotripsy or rescue sphincterotomy.

  20. Detection of urinary stones at reduced radiation exposure: a phantom study comparing computed radiography and a low-dose digital radiography linear slit scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs-Farkas, Zsolt; Chakraborty, D. P.; Thoeny, Harriet C.; Loupatatzis, Christos; Vock, Peter; Harald, Bonel

    2010-01-01

    Objective In this experimental study we assessed the diagnostic performance of linear slit scanning radiography (LSSR) compared to conventional computed radiography (CR) in the detection of urinary calculi in an anthropomorphic phantom imitating patients weighing approximately 58 to 88 kg. Conclusion Compared to computed radiography, LSSR is superior in the detection of urinary stones and may be used for pretreatment localization and follow-up at a lower patient exposure. PMID:19457787