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Sample records for calculi

  1. [Salivary calculi in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerena, J; Sancho, M A; Cáceres, F; Krauel, L; Parri, F; Morales, L

    2007-04-01

    The main salivary glands are the submaxillary, sublingual and parotid glands. Infectious and tumoral conditions are prominent in the parotid gland whilst calculi are in submaxillary and sublingual glands. METHODS. Medical record review of 18 cases with a diagnosis of salivary calculi over a 13 year period. Data collected consisted in, clinical presentation, ultrasound (US), sialography (SG) and computarized tomography (CT), and treatment. 13 male and 5 female. Mean age was 7.2 years. All of them presented with pain and tenderness. Parotid gland was affected in 10 cases. An infectious cause for calculi was found in 7 while 3 presented calculi with no underlying infectious cause. Submaxillary gland was affected in 6 and sublingual in 2. No infectious condition was associated to submaxillary and sublingual calculi. Surgical treatment consisted in duct canalization for calculi removal and was performed in all patients after initial treatment with antibiotics. Neither complications nor relapse was found after surgical removal. Diagnosis of salivary calculi is made by clinical symptoms and imaging exams. Treatment is surgical and has to be performed after medical treatment for infection and inflamation.

  2. Psi-calculi in Isabelle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a mechanisation of psi-calculi, a parametric framework for modelling various dialects of process calculi including (but not limited to) the pi-calculus, the applied pi-calculus, and the spi calculus. Psi-calculi are significantly more expressive, yet their semantics is as simp...... to mechanise substantial results from the meta-theory of psi-calculi, including congruence properties of bisimilarity and the laws of structural congruence. To our knowledge, this is the most extensive formalisation of process calculi mechanised in a proof assistant to date....

  3. Lambda Calculi: A Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Chris

    One of the universal notions of programming languages is functional abstraction. The methods of Java and the functions defined and used in functional programming languages, such as Haskell, are instances of this general notion. The inspiration for this form of abstraction mechanism comes from Mathematical Logic; notably Church's λ(lambda)-calculi and Schönfinkel's and Curry's Combinatory Logic. A proper study of these foundations leads to a better understanding of some of the fundamental issues in Computer Science.

  4. Observational Calculi and Association Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Observational calculi were introduced in the 1960’s as a tool of logic of discovery. Formulas of observational calculi correspond to assertions on analysed data. Truthfulness of suitable assertions can lead to acceptance of new scientific hypotheses. The general goal was to automate the process of discovery of scientific knowledge using mathematical logic and statistics. The GUHA method for producing true formulas of observational calculi relevant to the given problem of scientific discovery was developed. Theoretically interesting and practically important results on observational calculi were achieved. Special attention was paid to formulas - couples of Boolean attributes derived from columns of the analysed data matrix. Association rules introduced in the 1990’s can be seen as a special case of such formulas. New results on logical calculi and association rules were achieved. They can be seen as a logic of association rules. This can contribute to solving contemporary challenging problems of data minin...

  5. States in Process Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Wagner

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Formal reasoning about distributed algorithms (like Consensus typically requires to analyze global states in a traditional state-based style. This is in contrast to the traditional action-based reasoning of process calculi. Nevertheless, we use domain-specific variants of the latter, as they are convenient modeling languages in which the local code of processes can be programmed explicitly, with the local state information usually managed via parameter lists of process constants. However, domain-specific process calculi are often equipped with (unlabeled reduction semantics, building upon a rich and convenient notion of structural congruence. Unfortunately, the price for this convenience is that the analysis is cumbersome: the set of reachable states is modulo structural congruence, and the processes' state information is very hard to identify. We extract from congruence classes of reachable states individual state-informative representatives that we supply with a proper formal semantics. As a result, we can now freely switch between the process calculus terms and their representatives, and we can use the stateful representatives to perform assertional reasoning on process calculus models.

  6. Urinary calculi following traumatic spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke Bølling; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Kristensen, Jørgen Kvist

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the time aspect of the development of renal and bladder calculi in individuals with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) and a possible relation between the development of calculi and the bladder-emptying method. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study comprised a retrospective data...... calculus was highest within the first 6 months post-injury. The cumulative proportion of calculi-free participants 45 years post-injury was 62% for renal calculi and 85% for bladder calculi. For participants who did not develop renal calculi within the first 2 years post-injury, the risk of having a renal...... calculi was higher in the SCI population compared to the normal population. Bladder calculi primarily occur early post-injury and renal calculi appear both early post-injury and years later. Therefore, it is important to follow individuals with SCI regularly by means of urological investigations from...

  7. Verification of Stochastic Process Calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrypnyuk, Nataliya

    process calculi. The description of a system in the syntax of a particular stochastic process calculus can be analysed in a compositional way, without expanding the state space by explicitly resolving all the interdependencies between the subsystems which may lead to the state space explosion problem...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urinary calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780... Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is a device intended for the analysis of urinary calculi. Analysis of urinary calculi is...

  9. [Porphyrins in renal calculi (review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traba Villameytide, Ma L

    2005-02-01

    We performed a review of the porphyrines content in a type of black, charcoal-like, renal calculi exhibiting infrared spectra (IRS) similar to those characteristic of "organic material" which has not yet been fully elucidate. Several other types of renal calculi, mainly those of small size, spontaneous passage renal stone, may also have diffuse or isolated dark charcoal components showing "organic material" IRS. After observing that haemoglobin has an "organic material" IRS, we studied, by a sensitive thin layer chromatography method, the presence of porphyrines in several types of dark or charcoal renal stones, since porphyrines are the physiological precursors of haemo group biosynthesis. We found two types of porphyrine content: coproporphyrin, in patients suffering from hepatopathy, and uroporphyrin and heptacarboxil-porphyrin in patients with some types of porphyria or with chronic renal failure.

  10. Medical management of common urinary calculi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Table 1: Risk factors for the development of urinary calculi Acute Episodes: Diagnosis and Treat-. ' ment .... nary calculi and prolongs the average interval between recurrences. A target of 2.1 qt (2 L) of ... Obesity is an independent risk factor for ...

  11. Flow Logic for Process Calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Flow Logic is an approach to statically determining the behavior of programs and processes. It borrows methods and techniques from Abstract Interpretation, Data Flow Analysis and Constraint Based Analysis while presenting the analysis in a style more reminiscent of Type Systems. Traditionally...... developed for programming languages, this article provides a tutorial development of the approach of Flow Logic for process calculi based on a decade of research. We first develop a simple analysis for the π-calculus; this consists of the specification, semantic soundness (in the form of subject reduction...

  12. Renal pelvic calculi and neoplasm. New indication for treatment of asymptomatic renal pelvic calculi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vibitis, H; Jørgensen, J B

    1990-01-01

    Metaplasia of the renal pelvis caused by chronic irritation, calculi, infection is a reversible pre-malignant condition. The application of ESWL on renal calculi as a safe treatment in relation to metaplasia is discussed and a case history is presented....

  13. Management of Pancreatic Calculi: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandan, Manu; Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Reddy, Duvvur Nageshwar

    2016-11-15

    Pancreatolithiasis, or pancreatic calculi (PC), is a sequel of chronic pancreatitis (CP) and may occur in the main ducts, side branches or parenchyma. Calculi are the end result, irrespective of the etiology of CP. PC contains an inner nidus surrounded by successive layers of calcium carbonate. These calculi obstruct the pancreatic ducts and produce ductal hypertension, which leads to pain, the cardinal feature of CP. Both endoscopic therapy and surgery aim to clear these calculi and decrease ductal hypertension. In small PC, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) followed by sphincterotomy and extraction is the treatment of choice. Large calculi require fragmentation by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) prior to their extraction or spontaneous expulsion. In properly selected cases, ESWL followed by ERCP is the standard of care for the management of large PC. Long-term outcomes following ESWL have demonstrated good pain relief in approximately 60% of patients. However, ESWL has limitations. Per oral pancreatoscopy and intraductal lithotripsy represent techniques in evolution, and in current practice their use is limited to centers with considerable expertise. Surgery should be offered to all patients with extensive PC, associated multiple ductal strictures or following failed endotherapy.

  14. The value of ultrasound in diagnosis of ureteral calculi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Seong Ku; Kim, J. S.; Suh, S. J.; Lee, S. J. [Seoul National University University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-12-15

    To determine the diagnostic value of ultrasound in patient with clinically suspected ureteral calculi, a prospective study was performed on 58 patients. Of these, 42 patients had 44 ureteral calculi and 16 patients had no calculi. The sonographic of a distal shadowign highly echogenic reflector along the ureter, with or without dilatation of the proximal ureter. Ultrasound correctly diagnosed 42 stones among 44 calculi and there was one false positive examination. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 95% Ultrasonography appears to be a very useful adjunct for the diagnosis of ureteral calculi when excretory urography is equivocal or contraindicated. Also ultrasonography was valuable in monitoring passage of radiolucent ureteral stones

  15. Stochastic Simulation of Process Calculi for Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Phillips

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological systems typically involve large numbers of components with complex, highly parallel interactions and intrinsic stochasticity. To model this complexity, numerous programming languages based on process calculi have been developed, many of which are expressive enough to generate unbounded numbers of molecular species and reactions. As a result of this expressiveness, such calculi cannot rely on standard reaction-based simulation methods, which require fixed numbers of species and reactions. Rather than implementing custom stochastic simulation algorithms for each process calculus, we propose to use a generic abstract machine that can be instantiated to a range of process calculi and a range of reaction-based simulation algorithms. The abstract machine functions as a just-in-time compiler, which dynamically updates the set of possible reactions and chooses the next reaction in an iterative cycle. In this short paper we give a brief summary of the generic abstract machine, and show how it can be instantiated with the stochastic simulation algorithm known as Gillespie's Direct Method. We also discuss the wider implications of such an abstract machine, and outline how it can be used to simulate multiple calculi simultaneously within a common framework.

  16. bilateral single session ureteroscopy for ureteral calculi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the feasibility, safety and success rate of bilateral single session rigid retrograde ureteroscopy (URS) for bilateral ureteral calculi. Patients and Methods: Thirty-five patients underwent bilateral single session ureteroscopic calculus removal. Results: Out of 70 renal units in 35 patients treated, ...

  17. Medical management of common urinary calculi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Watorvbactértatitinéss; ': ” ' 1' from most imaging modalities, provid-. ~. ; ' . ' ' it : ' a ; q ing prognostic information. tierlgl?%acssicuh' urethehal tUmO'r' UT" BPH' ' With hydration and pain control, calculi smaller than 5 mm will pass spontane- ously in approximately 90 percent of pa- tients. The rates of passage decrease.

  18. Distal ureteral calculi: US follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moesbergen, Todd C; de Ryke, Rex J; Dunbar, Sally; Wells, J Elisabeth; Anderson, Nigel G

    2011-08-01

    To assess accuracy of ultrasonographic (US) follow-up of distal ureteral calculi by using computed tomography (CT) and conventional radiography (kidneys, ureters, and bladder) as reference standards. The study was approved by the Regional Ethics Committee, and written informed consent was obtained. One hundred fifty-eight patients with CT-diagnosed symptomatic ureteral calculi, for whom follow-up imaging was ordered, were enrolled from February 2006 to December 2008. Six were excluded, having not met study entry criteria, with 121 men (mean age, 49 years; range, 20-91 years) and 31 women (mean age, 44 years; range, 34-77 years) completing the protocol with adequate reference standard imaging. Targeted transabdominal US occurred coincidently with follow-up CT (n = 92) or radiography (n = 60), with US evaluation prospectively compared considering sensitivity and specificity. Statistical analysis was performed with a χ(2) test, t test, or paired t test, as appropriate. Results of nine US examinations were nondiagnostic because of inadequate ureteral visualization, and among these, two cases showed residual distal calculi. Of the remaining 143 patients, 33 had residual distal calculi, all visualized with US. There was a single false-positive study, giving sensitivity, including nondiagnostic US examinations, of 94.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 80.8%, 99.3%) and specificity of 99.1% (95% CI: 95.3%, 100%). All calculi appeared hyperechoic with posterior acoustic shadowing. Additional diagnostic features included presence of a hypoechoic rim and Doppler twinkle artifact. Mean stone length was 7.2 mm ± 2.6 (standard deviation) (range, 4-18 mm). Mean ureteral length visualized was 36.4 mm (range, 12-77 mm), with calculi positioned at a mean of 13.1 mm ± 11.2 (range, 0-40 mm) from the ureterovesical junction (UVJ). Nondiagnostic results were more likely with bladder volume of 110 mL or less (eight [16%] of 50 vs one [1%] of 102, P = .0009). Ureteral calculi within 35

  19. Bladder calculi complicating intermittent clean catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, M A; Sonda, L P; Diokno, A C; Vidyasagar, M

    1983-10-01

    Eight male patients on clean intermittent catheterization programs for neurogenic bladder dysfunction developed vesical calculi around pubic hairs inadvertently introduced into the bladder, acting as a nidus for incrustation. In three patients, the radiographic appearance of serpentine calcifications in the pelvis was highly consistent with calcareous deposits on strands of hair. Familiarity with this radiologic appearance should suggest the diagnosis in the appropriate clinical setting and help avoid misinterpretation of these calcifications, atypical of usual bladder stones.

  20. Internalization of Calcium Oxalate Calculi Developed in Narrow Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fèlix Grases

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a patient with calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate calculi occluded in cavities. All those calculi were located inside narrow cavities covered with a thin epithelium that permits their visualization. Urinary biochemical analysis showed high calciuria, not hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, and a ratio [calcium]/[citrate] >0.33. The existence of cavities of very low urodynamic efficacy was decisive in the formation of such calculi. It is important to emphasize that we observed a thin epithelium covering such cavities, demonstrating that this epithelium may be formed after the development of the calculi through a re-epithelialization process.

  1. Intersection Type Systems and Explicit Substitutions Calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Daniel Lima; Ayala-Rincón, Mauricio; Kamareddine, Fairouz

    The λ-calculus with de Bruijn indices, called λ dB , assembles each α-class of λ-terms into a unique term, using indices instead of variable names. Intersection types provide finitary type polymorphism satisfying important properties like principal typing, which allows the type system to include features such as data abstraction (modularity) and separate compilation. To be closer to computation and to simplify the formalisation of the atomic operations involved in β-contractions, several explicit substitution calculi were developed most of which are written with de Bruijn indices. Although untyped and simply types versions of explicit substitution calculi are well investigated, versions with more elaborate type systems (e.g., with intersection types) are not. In previous work, we presented a version for λ dB of an intersection type system originally introduced to characterise principal typings for β-normal forms and provided the characterisation for this version. In this work we introduce intersection type systems for two explicit substitution calculi: the λσ and the λs e . These type system are based on a type system for λ dB and satisfy the basic property of subject reduction, which guarantees the preservation of types during computations.

  2. Analysis of urinary calculi in Mauritius | Jhaumeer-Lualloo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University of Mauritius Research Journal ... In Mauritius, urinary calculi are routinely analysed for cations and anions using qualitative wet chemical spot tests as outlined in standard textbooks of clinical ... Keywords : Stone analysis, urinary calculi, wet chemical tests, spectrophotometry, calcium, oxalate, phosphate.

  3. Outcome of ureteroscopy for the management of distal ureteric calculi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To review our 5 years' experience with ureteroscopy treatment of distal ureteric calculi. Patients and methods: We reviewed the medical records of 136 patients who underwent ureteroscopic procedures for the treatment of distal ureteric calculi from February 2007 to October 2012. Patient and stone characteristics, ...

  4. Classification of Urinary Calculi using Feed-Forward Neural Networks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    promising tool for the identification of these types of calculi. KEY WORDS. Urinary calculi, infrared spectroscopy, classification, neural networks, variable selection, genetic algorithms. 1. Introduction. Owing to the considerable advances in instrumentation used in clinical laboratories today, it is easy and relatively inexpensive.

  5. Giant prostatic calculi | Najoui | Pan African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prostatic parenchymal calculi are common, usually incidental, findings on morphological examinations. They are typically asymptomatic and may be present in association with normal glands, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and prostate cancer. However giant prostatic calculi are rare. Less than 20 cases have been reported ...

  6. Statistical field theories deformed within different calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olemskoi, A. I.; Borysov, S. S.; Shuda, I. A.

    2010-09-01

    Within the framework of basic-deformed and finite-difference calculi, as well as deformation procedures proposed by Tsallis, Abe, and Kaniadakis and generalized by Naudts, we develop field-theoretical schemes of statistically distributed fields. We construct a set of generating functionals and find their connection with corresponding correlators for basic-deformed, finite-difference, and Kaniadakis calculi. Moreover, we introduce pair of additive functionals, which expansions into deformed series yield both Green functions and their irreducible proper vertices. We find as well formal equations, governing by the generating functionals of systems which possess a symmetry with respect to a field variation and are subjected to an arbitrary constrain. Finally, we generalize field-theoretical schemes inherent in concrete calculi in the Naudts manner. From the physical point of view, we study dependences of both one-site partition function and variance of free fields on deformations. We show that within the basic-deformed statistics dependence of the specific partition function on deformation has in logarithmic axes symmetrical form with respect to maximum related to deformation absence; in case of the finite-difference statistics, the partition function takes non-deformed value; for the Kaniadakis statistics, curves of related dependences have convex symmetrical form at small curvatures of the effective action and concave form at large ones. We demonstrate that only moment of the second order of free fields takes non-zero values to be proportional to inverse curvature of effective action. In dependence of the deformation parameter, the free field variance has linearly arising form for the basic-deformed distribution and increases non-linearly rapidly in case of the finite-difference statistics; for more complicated case of the Kaniadakis distribution, related dependence has double-well form.

  7. Interaction of laser radiation with urinary calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Mayo, M E

    2009-01-01

    Urolithias, calculus formation in the urinary system, affects 5 – 10% of the population and is a painful and recurrent medical condition. A common approach in the treatment of calculi is the use of laser radiation, a procedure known as laser lithotripsy, however, the technique has not yet been fully optimised. This research examines the experimental parameters relevant to the interactions of the variable microsecond pulsed holmium laser (λ = 2.12 μm, τp = 120 – 800 μs, I ~ 3 MW...

  8. Renal calculi in wild Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, V R; Tomlinson, A J; Molenaar, F M; Lawson, B; Rogers, K D

    2011-07-09

    Macroscopic renal calculi were seen in 50 of 492 (10.2 per cent) wild Eurasian otters found dead in England from 1988 to 2007. Forty-eight adults and two subadults were affected. Calculi were present in 15.7 per cent (31 of 197) of adult males and 12.7 per cent (17 of 134) of adult females. There was an increase in prevalence in the study population over time; no calculi were found in 73 otters examined between 1988 and 1996, but in most subsequent years they were observed with increased frequency. Calculi occurred in both kidneys but were more common in the right kidney. They varied greatly in shape and size; larger calculi were mostly seen in the calyces while the smallest ones were commonly found in the renal medulla. Calculi from 45 cases were examined by x-ray diffraction analysis; in 43 (96 per cent), they were composed solely of ammonium acid urate. Affected otters had heavier adrenal glands relative to their body size than unaffected otters (P0.05). Many otters had fresh bite wounds consistent with intraspecific aggression. The proportion bitten increased over time and this coincided with the increased prevalence of renal calculi.

  9. Prevalence of scrotal calculi and their relationship with pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sinan; Özcan, Muhammet Fuat; Karaoğlanoğlu, Mustafa; Ipek, Ali; Özcan, Ayşenur Sirin; Arslan, Halil

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of scrotal calculi in men referred for scrotal ultrasonography (US), to identify any associated pathologies, and to investigate if any relationship exists between scrotal lithiasis and pain. This was a retrospective study in which 4084 scrotal US examinations in 3435 men were evaluated. Scrotal US was performed using a high-frequency linear transducer. Forty patients were questioned as to whether scrotal pain was present. Patients were asked to grade their scrotal pain intensity using the Numerical Rating Scale. Sixty-seven of the 3435 patients with scrotal US examinations had scrotal calculi with a mean size of 3.7 ± 1.4 mm (range, 1.6-7 mm). Twenty patients with scrotal calculi had no scrotal pain. Nine patients with scrotal pain (22.5%) had no US or clinical abnormalities except scrotal calculi. The frequency of scrotal calculi was 1.95%. Approximately one-quarter of patients with scrotal calculi and pain had no additional abnormalities. Therefore, scrotal calculi should be considered in the differential diagnosis of scrotal pain.

  10. SEM and X-ray microanalysis of human prostatic calculi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilches, J.; Lopez, A.; De Palacio, L.; Munoz, C.; Gomez, J.

    1982-02-01

    Calculi removed from human prostates affected with nodular hyperplasia were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and EDAX system. The general spectrum was made up of Na, Al, Mg, S, P, Ca and Zn. Two types of stone were identified morphostructurally and microanalytically: calculi type I of nodular surface with high peaks of S, and calculi type II polyfaceted with high peaks of P and Ca. Their formation from corpora amylacea and/or exogenous constituents is discussed. The superficial deposit of Zn suggests its incorporation from the prostatic liquid and does not seem to play an important role in the genesis.

  11. Percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy of symptomatic renal calculi in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanicolaou, N.; Pfister, R.C.; Yoder, I.C.; Young, H.H. II; Herrin, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    Percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy of upper urinary tract lithiasis is a well-established procedure in adults. We successfully applied this technique to completely remove symptomatic renal calculi in two children with idiopathic hypercalciuria. The procedure was well tolerated and no complications occurred. Both patients were discharged within 4 days of the lithotripsy. This method is an alternative to surgery for the removal of large or impacted calculi from the upper urinary tracts of pediatric patients. (orig.).

  12. An algorithm for calculi segmentation on ureteroscopic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Benoît; Mozer, Pierre; Szewczyk, Jérôme

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the study is to develop an algorithm for the segmentation of renal calculi on ureteroscopic images. In fact, renal calculi are common source of urological obstruction, and laser lithotripsy during ureteroscopy is a possible therapy. A laser-based system to sweep the calculus surface and vaporize it was developed to automate a very tedious manual task. The distal tip of the ureteroscope is directed using image guidance, and this operation is not possible without an efficient segmentation of renal calculi on the ureteroscopic images. We proposed and developed a region growing algorithm to segment renal calculi on ureteroscopic images. Using real video images to compute ground truth and compare our segmentation with a reference segmentation, we computed statistics on different image metrics, such as Precision, Recall, and Yasnoff Measure, for comparison with ground truth. The algorithm and its parameters were established for the most likely clinical scenarii. The segmentation results are encouraging: the developed algorithm was able to correctly detect more than 90% of the surface of the calculi, according to an expert observer. Implementation of an algorithm for the segmentation of calculi on ureteroscopic images is feasible. The next step is the integration of our algorithm in the command scheme of a motorized system to build a complete operating prototype.

  13. [Extracorporeal lithotripsy of ureteral calculi using the Dormier HM3 device. A series of 176 calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusti, M; Benizri, E; Azoulai, G; Cukier, J

    1991-01-01

    In a series gathered over 5 years (November 1984 to November 1989), we have treated 356 patients with ureteral lithiasis. Out of these, 170 (134 men and 36 women) were treated with extracorporeal shock-wave lithotrity with a Dornier HM3 system, in situ and as a first intention. The calculi (176 stones) were regularly distributed along the ureter: their location was subpyelic in 44 cases, lumboiliac in 59, upper pelvic in 42 and lower pelvic in 32. The average diameter of the calculi was 10 mm for subpyelic stones and 8 mm for the others. A preliminary urine drainage was required for 24 calculi causing acute obstructive pyelonephritis (32 ureteral drains surrounding the stone, and 2 percutaneous nephrostomies). Radioscopic localization required intravenous pyelography during lithotrity in 52 cases (30%). On radiographs without preparation taken the next day, 170 stones were regarded as fragmented (96%). After some time the 6 patients whose calculus had not been fragmented underwent another treatment (4 ureterotomies and 2 ureteroscopies). Five patients had an additional treatment because of a painful and/or febrile episode (3 drain insertions and 2 ureterotomies) and 2 patients required a second session of lithotrity because fragmentation was not sufficient; 4 patients were lost to follow-up. A total of 153 patients (90%) got rid of their fragments, 146 during the first months and the remaining 7 before the sixth month. No severe complication was noted. Besides the 5 patients who had required additional treatment, 11 patients suffering from pain and/or fever had a medical treatment. These treatments lead us to proposing first-intention "in situ" extracorporeal shock wave lithotrity for all ureteral lithiases requiring a treatment.

  14. Existence families, functional calculi and evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    deLaubenfels, Ralph

    1994-01-01

    This book presents an operator-theoretic approach to ill-posed evolution equations. It presents the basic theory, and the more surprising examples, of generalizations of strongly continuous semigroups known as 'existent families' and 'regularized semigroups'. These families of operators may be used either to produce all initial data for which a solution in the original space exists, or to construct a maximal subspace on which the problem is well-posed. Regularized semigroups are also used to construct functional, or operational, calculi for unbounded operators. The book takes an intuitive and constructive approach by emphasizing the interaction between functional calculus constructions and evolution equations. One thinks of a semigroup generated by A as etA and thinks of a regularized semigroup generated by A as etA g(A), producing solutions of the abstract Cauchy problem for initial data in the image of g(A). Material that is scattered throughout numerous papers is brought together and presented in a fresh, ...

  15. Labelled Lambda-calculi with Explicit Copy and Erase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Fernández

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We present two rewriting systems that define labelled explicit substitution lambda-calculi. Our work is motivated by the close correspondence between Levy's labelled lambda-calculus and paths in proof-nets, which played an important role in the understanding of the Geometry of Interaction. The structure of the labels in Levy's labelled lambda-calculus relates to the multiplicative information of paths; the novelty of our work is that we design labelled explicit substitution calculi that also keep track of exponential information present in call-by-value and call-by-name translations of the lambda-calculus into linear logic proof-nets.

  16. Surgical Management of Cystic Calculi and Testicular Tumour in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abu Rafee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A ten year old male uncastrated spitz dog weighing 10 kg was presented with a history of straining to urinate, dribbling blood tinged urine from the prepuce, anorexia and distended abdomen since 4 days and enlargement of scrotum since one month. The physical examination showed asymmetrical testicles and tense abdomen. Radiography and ultrasonography diagnosed cystic calculi. Cystotomy and retropulsion was done to remove all the calculi from the urinary bladder and removal of testis along with scrotal ablation was performed for testicular tumour. After 6 months, animal was presented with tumour between phalanges which was removed surgically.

  17. Renal calculi with retrocaval ureter: is percutaneous nephrolithotomy sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Jai; Raj, Anubhav; Sankhwar, Satyanarayan; Singh, Vishwajeet

    2013-03-26

    A 60-year-old woman presented with complaints of intermittent right flank pain which had begun one year ago. Ultrasonography and intravenous urogram showed right pelvic (15 mm) and inferior calyceal (6 mm) calculi along with suspected retrocaval course of right ureter, which was confirmed by contrast CT scan. Tc-99m diethylene-triamine-penta-acetic acid (DTPA) scan showed normal function and normal drainage of right kidney. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) was performed for right renal calculi. Because of curved ureteric course, negotiation of ureteric catheter in pelvis was anticipated to be troublesome, so intraoperative retrograde pyelogram (RGP) was performed to delineate the anatomy. Puncture was performed safely after air contrast pyelography. No complications occurred intraoperatively and postoperatively. On follow-up of up to 1 year patient was asymptomatic and renal scan showed normal function and drainage. So in the presence of retrocaval ureter and associated renal calculi, PCNL is a safe and optimal procedure and in condition of non-obstructive drainage, management of calculi only is adequate.

  18. Ureteroscopy for treatment of obstructing ureteral calculi in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To evaluate our experiences with ureteroscopic treatment of ureteral calculi in pregnancy. Patients and methods: Between April 2006 and October 2013, 41 pregnant women with persistent renal colics and/or hematuria refractory to conservative measures were treated with ureteroscopy. The patients' mean age ...

  19. Ureteroscopy for treatment of obstructing ureteral calculi in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    T.K. Fathelbab

    2015-11-25

    Nov 25, 2015 ... Abstract. Objectives: To evaluate our experiences with ureteroscopic treatment of ureteral calculi in pregnancy. Patients and methods: Between April 2006 and October 2013, 41 pregnant women with persistent renal colics and/or hematuria refractory to conservative measures were treated with ureteroscopy ...

  20. Classification of Urinary Calculi using Feed-Forward Neural Networks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work the results of classification of these types of calculi (using their infrared spectra in the region 1450–450 cm–1) by feed-forward neural networks are presented. Genetic algorithms were used for optimization of neural networks and for selection of the spectral regions most suitable for classification purposes.

  1. Original Article Ureteroscopy for Treatment of Ureteral Calculi in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patients were not specifically evaluated for vesicoureteral reflux. Conclusion: Ureteroscopic HolmiumzYAG laser lithotripsy is an efficient and safe treatment modality for ureteric calculi in children. Routine ureteral dilatation and stent placement post- operatively is not always necessary. Keywords : Ureteroscopy, ureter ...

  2. Renal calculi with retrocaval ureter: is percutaneous nephrolithotomy sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Jai; Raj, Anubhav; Sankhwar, Satyanarayan; Singh, Vishwajeet

    2013-01-01

    A 60-year-old woman presented with complaints of intermittent right flank pain which had begun one year ago. Ultrasonography and intravenous urogram showed right pelvic (15 mm) and inferior calyceal (6 mm) calculi along with suspected retrocaval course of right ureter, which was confirmed by contrast CT scan. Tc-99m diethylene-triamine-penta-acetic acid (DTPA) scan showed normal function and normal drainage of right kidney. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) was performed for right renal calculi. Because of curved ureteric course, negotiation of ureteric catheter in pelvis was anticipated to be troublesome, so intraoperative retrograde pyelogram (RGP) was performed to delineate the anatomy. Puncture was performed safely after air contrast pyelography. No complications occurred intraoperatively and postoperatively. On follow-up of up to 1 year patient was asymptomatic and renal scan showed normal function and drainage. So in the presence of retrocaval ureter and associated renal calculi, PCNL is a safe and optimal procedure and in condition of non-obstructive drainage, management of calculi only is adequate. PMID:23536623

  3. Medical management of common urinary calculi | Pietrow | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calcium-sparing diuretics such as thiazides often are used to treat hypercalciuria. Citrate medications increase levels of this naturally occurring stone inhibitor. Allopurinol can be helpful in patients with hyperuricosuria, and urease inhibitors can help break the cycle of infectious calculi. Aggressive fluid intake and moderated ...

  4. PAEDIATRIC URETERIC CALCULI: lN-SITU EXTRACORPOREAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ance of calculi at all levels of the ureter without postoperative morbidity. REFERENCES. 1. Chaussy C, Brandel W, Schmidt E. Extra- corporeally induced destruction of kidney stones by shock waves. Lancet 1980, 2:1265. 2. Myers DA, Mobly TB, Jenkins KM et al. Pediatric low energy lithotripsy with the Lithostar. Br J Urol.

  5. Giant vesical calculi: experience with management of two Nigerians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two cases of Giant Vesical Calculi were encountered in a semi-urban health facility (Nakowa Hospital, Yauri, Nigeria). careful clinical evaluation and investigation is important in the work up of the patients. surgical technique and accurate diagnosis are essential in their treatment. Nigerian Journal of Surgical Research Vol.

  6. paediatric ureteric calculi: in-situ extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective To evaluate prospectively the efficacy of in-situ extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in the treatment of ureteric calculi in the paediatric age group. Patients and Methods Twenty children (aged 2.2 16 years) with 22 ureteric stones were evaluated and treated with in-situ ESWL using the Dornier S lithotripter ...

  7. Conservative management of staghorn calculi: a single-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Peter G; Subramonian, Kesavapilla

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of conservatively managed staghorn calculi, specifically looking at morbidity and mortality, incidence of infections and progressive changes in renal function. A total of 22 patients with unilateral or bilateral staghorn calculi, who were treated conservatively, were included in the study. Patients were reviewed yearly with symptom assessment, urine culture and measurement of estimated glomerular filtration rate. The presentations to the urology department of staghorn calculi were incidental (41%), haematuria (36%), abdominal discomfort (5%) and recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs; 18%). The reasons for conservative management in the cohort were comorbidities (59%), patient choice (36%) or poor access/anatomy (5%). In the whole cohort the rate of recurrent UTIs was 50%, the progressive renal failure rate was 14%, the disease-specific mortality rate was 9%, the dialysis dependence rate was 9% and the rate of hospital attendances attributable to stone-related morbidity was 27%. Comparison of outcome measures between the unilateral and bilateral staghorn stones showed statistically significant differences in disease-specific mortality (0 vs 40%) and morbidity (12 vs 80%) in favour of the unilateral group. Although there was a lower incidence of UTIs (41 vs 80%), renal deterioration (6 vs 40%) and dialysis requirement (6 vs 20%) in the unilateral group, these findings were not statistically significant. From the results, we conclude that conservative management of staghorn calculi is not as unsafe as previously thought. Careful patient selection to include unilateral asymptomatic stones with minimal infection, and thorough counselling with regard to the risks, could make conservative management a suitable option for specific patient groups. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Urethral Diverticulum Calculi in a Male: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Gadimaliyev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old male presented to the urology department, complaining of frequency and dysuria. A large number of calculi were revealed on IVU and USS. On endoscopic investigation, there were 3 stones ( cm found in the bladder and 5 more ( cm in the diverticulum of the posterior urethra. All of the stones were successfully broken down via a transurethral approach. This paper contains a detailed description of the case.

  9. A Syntactic Correspondence between Context-Sensitive Calculi and Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata; Danvy, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    We present a systematic construction of environment-based abstract machines from context-sensitive calculi of explicit substitutions, and we illustrate it with ten calculi and machines for applicative order with an abort operation, normal order with generalized reduction and call/cc, the lambda......-mu-calculus, delimited continuations, stack inspection, proper tail-recursion, and lazy evaluation. Most of the machines already exist but have been obtained independently and are only indirectly related to the corresponding calculi. All of the calculi are new and they make it possible to directly reason about...

  10. A Syntactic Correspondence between Context-Sensitive Calculi and Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata; Danvy, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    We present a systematic construction of environment-based abstract machines from context-sensitive calculi of explicit substitutions, and we illustrate it with ten calculi and machines for applicative order with an abort operation, normal order with generalized reduction and call/cc, the lambda......-mu-calculus, delimited continuations, stack inspection, proper tail-recursion, and lazy evaluation. Most of the machines already exist but they have been obtained independently and are only indirectly related to the corresponding calculi. All of the calculi are new and they make it possible directly to reason about...

  11. The efficacy of tamsulosin in lower ureteral calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griwan M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There has been a paradigm shift in the management of ureteral calculi in the last decade with the introduction of new less invasive methods, such as ureterorenoscopy and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL. Aims: Recent studies have reported excellent results with medical expulsive therapy (MET for distal ureteral calculi, both in terms of stone expulsion and control of ureteral colic pain. Settings and Design: We conducted a comparative study in between watchful waiting and MET with tamsulosin. Materials and Methods: We conducted a comparative study in between watchful waiting (Group I and MET with tamsulosin (Group II in 60 patients, with a follow up of 28 days. Statistical Analysis: Independent ′t′ test and chi-square test. Results: Group II showed a statistically significant advantage in terms of the stone expulsion rate. The mean number of episodes of pain, mean days to stone expulsion and mean amount of analgesic dosage used were statistically significantly lower in Group II (P value is 0.007, 0.01 and 0.007, respectively as compared to Group I. Conclusions: It is concluded that MET should be considered for uncomplicated distal ureteral calculi before ureteroscopy or extracorporeal lithotripsy. Tamsulosin has been found to increase and hasten stone expulsion rates, decrease acute attacks by acting as a spasmolytic, reduces mean days to stone expulsion and decreases analgesic dose usage.

  12. Declarative event based models of concurrency and refinement in psi-calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normann, Håkon; Johansen, Christian; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    -calculi representation of Dynamic Condition Response Graphs, which conservatively extends prime event structures to allow finite representations of (omega) regular finite (and infinite) behaviours and have been shown to support run-time adaptation and refinement. We end by outlining the final aim of this research, which...... is to explore nominal calculi for declarative, run-time adaptable mobile processes with shared resources....

  13. Associations of diet and breed with recurrence of calcium oxalate cystic calculi in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Heidi S; Swecker, William S; Becvarova, Iveta; Weeth, Lisa P; Werre, Stephen R

    2015-05-15

    To evaluate the long-term risk of recurrence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) cystic calculi in dogs of various breeds fed 1 of 2 therapeutic diets. Retrospective cohort study. Animals-135 dogs with a history of CaOx cystic calculi. Medical records for 4 referral hospitals were searched to identify dogs that had had CaOx cystic calculi removed. Owners were contacted and medical records evaluated to obtain information on postoperative diet, recurrence of signs of lower urinary tract disease, and recurrence of cystic calculi. Dogs were grouped on the basis of breed (high-risk breeds, low-risk breeds, and Miniature Schnauzers) and diet fed after removal of cystic calculi (diet A, diet B, and any other diet [diet C], with diets A and B being therapeutic diets formulated to prevent recurrence of CaOx calculi). Breed group was a significant predictor of calculi recurrence (as determined by abdominal radiography or ultrasonography), with Miniature Schnauzers having 3 times the risk of recurrence as did dogs of other breeds. Dogs in diet group A had a lower prevalence of recurrence than did dogs in diet group C, but this difference was not significant in multivariable analysis. Results indicated that Miniature Schnauzers had a higher risk of CaOx cystic calculi recurrence than did dogs of other breeds. In addition, findings suggested that diet may play a role in decreasing recurrence, but future prospective studies are needed to validate these observations.

  14. Outcome of Open Surgery for Urinary Tract Calculi at Jos University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outcome of Open Surgery for Urinary Tract Calculi at Jos University Teaching Hospital. SI Shu'aibu, CG Ofoha, IC Akpayak, NK Dakum, VM Ramyil. Abstract. Background: Urinary tract calculi are common affliction of humans. Surgeries to remove stones from the urinary tract are among the oldest forms of open surgery.

  15. Unenhanced CT findings can predict the development of urinary calculi in stone-free patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciudin, Alexandru; Luque Galvez, Maria Pilar; Franco de Castro, Agustin; Garcia-Cruz, Eduardo; Alcover Garcia, Juan; Alvarez-Vijande Garcia, Jose Ricardo; Alcaraz Asensio, Antonio [Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Urology Department, Barcelona (Spain); Salvador Izquierdo, Rafael; Nicolau, Carlos [Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Radiology Department, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    To determine if calcium deposits in the papillae can be identified by unenhanced computed tomography (uCT) even before renal stones develop. A retrospective review of 413 patients with calculi identified 31 patients (stone-forming group) with a history of urinary tract calculi with a calculus demonstrated by uCT and a stone-free uCT before calculi had developed. The control group (n = 31) was composed of live kidney donors with no history of calculi and a stone-free uCT. CT attenuation was measured in all CTs using two regions of interest of 0.05 cm{sup 2} and 0.1 cm{sup 2} over the tip and the neighbouring area of the papillae. Student's and Wilcoxon t-tests were used for comparing results in the two groups. The attenuation of the tip of the papilla was higher in the stone-forming group when compared to the controls after (45.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.001) and even before frank calculi had developed (44.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in papillary attenuation in the stone group before and after calculi had developed (45.2 HU versus 44.2 HU, P = 0.82). Stone-forming patients exhibit higher papillary density even before calculi develop. This could define a population at risk of developing calculi. (orig.)

  16. Giant Ureteric and Staghorn Calculi in a Young-Adult Nigerian Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Ureteric calculi are usually small and solitary.The term “giant” has been applied to ureteric calculi that aremore than five cms in length and/or 50g or more in weight. These are uncommon and may present with few or no urological symptoms and might be ignored or be missed. OBJECTIVE: To present a rare ...

  17. Papillary and Nonpapillary Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Renal Calculi: Comparative Study of Etiologic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Pieras

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM renal calculi can be classified into two groups: papillary and nonpapillary. In this paper, a comparative study between etiologic factors of COM papillary and nonpapillary calculi is performed. The study included 40 patients with COM renal calculi. The urine of these individuals was analyzed. Case history, lifestyle, and dietetic habits were obtained.No significant differences between urinary biochemical data of both groups were observed; 50% of COM papillary stone formers and 40% of COM nonpapillary stone formers had urolithiasis family history. A low consumption of phytate-rich products was observed for both groups. A relationship between profession with occupational exposure to cytotoxic products and COM papillary renal lithiasis was detected.The results suggest that COM papillary calculi would be associated to papillary epithelium alterations together with a crystallization inhibitors deficit, whereas COM nonpapillary calculi would be associated to the presence of heterogeneous nucleants and a crystallization inhibitors deficit.

  18. Concentration effect of trace metals in Jordanian patients of urinary calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Iyad Ahmed

    2008-02-01

    Due to the increase in the number of urinary calculi disease cases in Jordan, stone samples were collected from patients from various Jordanian hospitals (Princes Basma (PBH), King Abdullah University (KAUH), Al-Basheer (ABH) and Al-Mafraq (AMH)). This study concentrates on the effect of trace metals in patients of urinary calculi. Trace metals were detected in 110 urinary calculi samples using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) techniques. Of the calculi examined, 21 were pure calcium oxalate (CaOax), 29 were mixed calcium oxalate/uric acid, 23 were mixed calcium oxalate/phosphate (apatite), 25 were phosphate calculi (apatite/struvite), five were mixed calcium oxalate monohydrate/struvite, four were urate calculi (mixed ammonium acid urate/sodium acid urate) and three were pure cystine calculi. The concentration measurement of Ca and other trace metals levels has been found useful in understanding the mechanism of stone formation and in evaluating pathological factors. It has been found that Ca is the main constituent of the urinary calculi, especially those stones composed of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. The concentration of most of the trace metals that were analyzed was (Ca = 48.18, Na = 1.56, K = 0.9, Mg = 3.08, Fe = 1.17, Al = 0.49, Zn = 0.7, Cu = 0.19, Mn = 0.029, P = 10.35, S = 1.88, Sr = 0.306, Mo = 0.2, Cr = 0.146, Co = 0.05, Ni = 0.014)%. In conclusion, metals concentration in Jordanian patient's urinary calculi samples was higher than its equivalents of other patients'. It has been noted that there is no concentration of toxic trace elements (like Li, V, Pb, Cd, and As). Some heavy metals, however, were detected Mo, Cr, Co and Ni as traces. P and S ions are present in few calculi stones as traces.

  19. Dual-energy computed tomography for characterizing urinary calcified calculi and uric acid calculi: A meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Xingju; Liu, Yuanyuan; Li, Mou; Wang, Qiyan; Song, Bin, E-mail: binsong65@yahoo.com

    2016-10-15

    Objective: A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the accuracy of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) for differentiating urinary uric acid and calcified calculi. Methods: The databases PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched up to May 2016 for relevant original studies. Data were extracted to calculate the pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (OR), positive and negative likelihood ratios (PLR and NLR), and areas under summary receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves for analysis. Results: Nine studies (609 stones in 415 patients) were included. For differentiating uric acid (UA) and non-UA calculi with DECT, the analysis indicated: pooled weighted sensitivity, 0.955 (95% CI, 0.888–0.987); specificity, 0.985 (95% CI, 0.970–0.993); PLR, 0.084 (95% CI, 0.041–0.170); NLR 33.327 (95% CI, 18.516–59.985); and diagnostic OR 538.18 (95% CI, 195.50–1478.5). The AUROC value was 0.9901. For calcified stones, the analysis indicated: pooled weighted sensitivity, 0.994 (95% CI, 0.969–1); specificity, 0.973 (95% CI, 0.906–0.997); PLR, 11.200 (95% CI, 4.922–25.486); NLR 0.027 (95% CI, 0.010–0.072); and diagnostic OR 654.89 (95% CI, 151.31–2834.4). The AUROC value was 0.9915. Conclusion: This meta-analysis found that DECT is a highly accurate noninvasive method for characterizing urinary uric acid and calcified calculi.

  20. Results of urinary dissolution therapy for radiolucent calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Maneesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose In this paper we present our experience with dissolution therapy of radiolucent calculi. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective analysis of patients who were offered urinary dissolution therapy between January 2010 and June 2011. Patients were treated with tablets containing potassium citrate and magnesium oxide. Partial dissolution was defined as at least a 50% reduction in stone size. Patients with complete or partial dissolution were classified in the successful dissolution group. Patients with no change, inadequate reduction, increase in stone size and those unable to tolerate alkali therapy were classified as failures. Patient sex, stenting before alkalinization, stone size, urine pH at presentation and serum uric acid levels were analyzed using Fisher t-test for an association with successful dissolution. Results Out of 67, 48 patients reported for follow up. 10 (15% had complete dissolution and 13 (19% had partial dissolution. Alkalinization was unsuccessful in achieving dissolution in 25 (37%. Stenting before alkalinization, patient weight ( 75kg and serum uric acid levels (≤ 6 vs. > 6 were the only factors to significantly affected dissolution rates (p = 0.039, p 0.035, p 0.01 respectively. CONCLUSIONS A policy of offering dissolution therapy to patients with radiolucent calculi had a successful outcome in 34% of patients.

  1. Scrotal calculi in clinical practice and their role in scrotal pain: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ahmet; Tan, Sinan; Yıldırım, Halil; Dönmez, Uğur; Çam, Ali; Gezer, Mehmet Can; Teber, Mehmet Akif; Arslan, Halil

    2015-09-01

    Scrotal calculi are rare, and their clinical significance is uncertain. Scrotal pain is a frequent, hard-to-manage problem in urology clinics. Our purpose in this study was to determine the relationship between the presence of scrotal calculi and scrotal pain in a prospective manner. Sonography and color Doppler ultrasound of the scrotum were performed in 758 consecutive patients referred with scrotal pain. The pain was rated by using an 11-point numeric rating scale; scores were compared among patients with scrotal calculi with and without additional scrotal pathology. Scrotal calculi were detected in 73 of the 758 patients (9.6%). Scrotal pain (n = 50 [61%]) and a palpable mass in the scrotum (n = 25 [30.5%]) were the most common complaints in patients with scrotal calculi. Hydrocele (n = 17 [29.8%]) and varicocele (n = 15 [26.3%]) were the most commonly associated abnormalities; there was a statistically significant association between the presence of scrotal calculi and hydrocele (p pain was present in 61 (83.5%) patients with scrotal calculi, and this association was significant (p pain and the correlation between location of calculi and pain in patients without additional scrotal abnormalities were also significant (p = 0.04 and p pain. Because the etiology of scrotal pain is essential for appropriate treatment, scrotal calculi should be kept in mind when making a differential diagnosis of scrotal pain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 43:406-411, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Validation of a Functional Pyelocalyceal Renal Model for the Evaluation of Renal Calculi Passage While Riding a Roller Coaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Marc A; Wartinger, David D

    2016-10-01

    The identification and evaluation of activities capable of dislodging calyceal renal calculi require a patient surrogate or validated functional pyelocalyceal renal model. To evaluate roller coaster facilitation of calyceal renal calculi passage using a functional pyelocalyceal renal model. A previously described adult ureteroscopy and renoscopy simulator (Ideal Anatomic) was modified and remolded to function as a patient surrogate. Three renal calculi of different sizes from the patient who provided the original computed tomographic urograph on which the simulator was based were used. The renal calculi were suspended in urine in the model and taken for 20 rides on the Big Thunder Mountain Railroad roller coaster at Walt Disney World in Orlando, Florida. The roller coaster rides were analyzed using variables of renal calculi volume, calyceal location, model position on the roller coaster, and renal calculi passage. Sixty renal calculi rides were analyzed. Independent of renal calculi volume and calyceal location, front seating on the roller coaster resulted in a passage rate of 4 of 24. Independent of renal calculi volume and calyceal location, rear seating on the roller coaster resulted in a passage rate of 23 of 36. Independent of renal calculi volume in rear seating, calyceal location differed in passage rates, with an upper calyceal calculi passage rate of 100%; a middle calyceal passage rate of 55.6%; and a lower calyceal passage rate of 40.0%. The functional pyelocalyceal renal model serves as a functional patient surrogate to evaluate activities that facilitate calyceal renal calculi passage. The rear seating position on the roller coaster led to the most renal calculi passages.

  3. [Presence and role of trace elements in urinary calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannache, B; Boutefnouchet, A; Bazin, D; Daudon, M; Foy, E; Rouzière, S; Dahdouh, A

    2015-01-01

    To assess the possible nature and role of trace elements in the pathogenesis of urinary stones. A series of 76 calculi from the East-Algerian region has been investigated through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for chemical analysis and X-ray fluorescence for detecting trace elements. Among the detected trace elements, Zn, Sr, Pb, Cu, Rb and Se, only the first three had significant values. Overall, the calcium components, namely calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, were the most loaded by these elements contrary to organic components such as uric acid and cystine, which had low contents. The correlation of contents of Zn and Sr with the stone components (carbapatite, weddellite and whewellite) suggests an adsorption of these trace elements in the case of calcium stones rather than a catalytic process. 3. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Medullary Sponge Kidney and Urinary Calculi Aeromedical Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeffrey A.; Cherian, Sebastian F.; Barr, Yael R.; Stocco, Amber

    2008-01-01

    Medullary Sponge Kidney (MSK) is a benign disorder associated with renal stones in 60% of patients. Patients frequently have episodic painless hematuria but are otherwise asymptomatic unless renal calculi or infections complicate the disease. Nephrolithiasis is a relative, but frequently enforced, contraindication to space or other high performance flight. Two case reports of asymptomatic NASA flight crew with MSK and three cases of military aviators diagnosed with MSK are reviewed, all cases resulted in waiver and return to flight status after treatment and a vigorous follow up and prophylaxis protocol. MSK in aviation and space flight necessitates a highly case-by-case dependent evaluation and treatment process to rule out other potential confounding factors that might also contribute to stone formation and in order to re-qualify the aviator for flight duties.

  5. Holmium laser lithotripsy (HoLL) of ureteral calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Rainer M.; Lehrich, Karin; Fayad, Amr

    2001-05-01

    The effectiveness and side effects of ureteroscopic HoLL of ureteral stones should be evaluated. In 63 patients (17 female, 46 males) a total of 75 stones of 3-20 mm diameter were treated with ureteroscopic HoLL. 18.7 percent of stones were located in the proximal third, 24.0 percent in the middle third and 57.3 percent in the distal third of the ureter. HoLL was performed with small diameter semirigid and flexible ureteroscopes, 220 or 365 nm flexible laser fibers and a holmium:YAG laser at a power of 5-15 W (0.5-1.0 J, 10- 15 Hz). 47 of 63 patients (74.6 percent) were immediately free of stones, and 8 others (12.6 percent) lost their residual fragments spontaneously within two weeks. Another 2 patients received additional chmolitholysis for uric acid stone fragments, i.e. 90.5 percent of patients were stone free by one sitting of ureterscopic HoLL. Of the remaining 6 patients (9.5 percent) who still had residual calculi 4 weeks after HoLL, 2 asymptomatic patients refused any additional treatment, 2 patients preferred treatment with ESWL, and 2 patients had a successful second HoLL, thereby raising the success rate of ureteroscopic HoLL to 93.7 percent. 2 patients showed contrast medium extravasation on retrograde ureterograms, due to guide wire perforation. No ureteral stricture occurred. In conclusion, transurethral ureteroscopic HoLL proved to be a safe and successful minimal invasive treatment of ureteral calculi.

  6. Cystine-containing urinary calculi in dogs: 102 cases (1981-1989).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, L C; Ling, G V; Franti, C E; Ruby, A L; Stevens, F; Johnson, D L

    1992-07-01

    One hundred and seven cystine-containing urinary calculi from 1 female and 101 male dogs were analyzed. Cystine-containing calculi accounted for 2% (107 of 5,375) of all canine urinary calculi submitted to the urinary stone analysis laboratory from July 1981 through December 1989. Male dogs that formed cystine calculi were compared with 3 other canine populations to determine whether certain breeds were apparently at increased or decreased risk for cystine calculus formation. In one or more of 3 population comparisons, significantly increased risk of cystine calculus formation was found in Mastiffs, Australian Cattle Dogs, English Bulldogs, Chihuahuas, Bullmastiffs, Newfoundlands, Dachshunds, Basenjis, Australian Shepherd Dogs, Scottish Deerhounds, Staffordshire Terriers, Miniature Pinschers, pitbull terriers, Welsh Corgis, Silky Terriers, and Bichon Frises. Significantly low risk of cystine calculus formation was found in German Shepherd Dogs, Poodles, Schnauzers, and mixed-breed dogs.

  7. Non-contrast thin-section helical CT of urinary tract calculi in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strouse, Peter J. [Section of Pediatric Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bates, Gregory D. [Department of Radiology, Columbus Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Bloom, David A. [Department of Pediatric Imaging, Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI (United States); Goodsitt, Mitchell M. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2002-05-01

    Background: Non-contrast thin-section helical CT has gained acceptance for the diagnosis of urinary tract calculi in adults, but experience with the technique in children is limited. Purpose: To evaluate the utility of non-contrast thin section helical CT for the diagnosis of urinary tract calculi in children. Materials and methods: Radiology databases at three pediatric institutions were searched to identify all pediatric patients evaluated by ''renal stone'' protocol CT scans (no oral or intravenous contrast, scans covering the entire urinary tract obtained in helical mode with narrow collimation (< 5 mm)). CT scans were reviewed for the primary finding of urinary tract calculi, for secondary signs of acute urinary tract obstruction and for evidence of alternative diagnoses. Medical records were reviewed to determine clinical presentation and to confirm the eventual diagnosis. Results: One hundred thirty-seven scans of 113 children (mean age: 11.2 years) were studied. Thirty-eight of 94 examinations (40%) performed on 82 children for acute pain and/or hematuria showed ureteral calculi. Alternative diagnoses were suggested by CT on 16 scans (17%). Twenty-eight scans were performed on 10 asymptomatic children with known calculus disease confirming renal stone burden on 21 scans (75%) and persistent ureteral calculi on 6 scans (21%). Upper tract calculi were demonstrated on 10 of 15 scans (67%) performed to evaluate for calculi in patients with known non-calculus genitourinary tract abnormalities. Conclusions: Non-contrast thin section helical CT is a useful method to diagnose urinary tract calculi in children. Radiation dose in this retrospective study may exceed the lowest possible radiation dose for diagnostic accuracy. Further research is needed to optimize CT imaging parameters, while maintaining diagnostic accuracy and minimizing radiation dose. (orig.)

  8. Insights of the dental calculi microbiome of pre-Columbian inhabitants from Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M.; Yvonne Narganes-Storde; Luis Chanlatte-Baik; Gary A Toranzos; Raul J Cano

    2017-01-01

    Background The study of ancient microorganisms in mineralized dental plaque or calculi is providing insights into microbial evolution, as well as lifestyles and disease states of extinct cultures; yet, little is still known about the oral microbial community structure and function of pre-Columbian Caribbean cultures. In the present study, we investigated the dental calculi microbiome and predicted function of one of these cultures, known as the Saladoid. The Saladoids were horticulturalists t...

  9. Usefulness of reversed display of soft-copy abdominal radiographs for urinary calculi detection

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    Kang, S.S.; Kim, J.K.; Ryu, J.A.; Choi, N.; Bae, S.J.; Kim, B. [Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2004-05-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the usefulness of reversed display of soft-copy abdominal radiographs for urinary calculi detection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty radiographs with a single urinary calculus less than 5 mm in the long diameter (15 in the kidney; 15 in the proximal ureter; 15 in the mid-ureter, 15 in the distal ureter) and 15 radiographs without calculi were evaluated. Four readers blinded to the presence or absence of urinary calculi on each radiograph reviewed the radiographs in the conventional display, reversed display, and combination of conventional and reversed displays at 1-week intervals. All images were evaluated in random order and the presence or absence of urinary calculi was interpreted using the confidence score from 1 to 5. RESULTS: Multireader analysis for calculi in all locations showed a greater area under the receiver operating curve for combination of the two displays (0.764) than for the conventional display alone (0.655) (P=0.031). In the single-reader analysis for calculi in all locations, the third reader showed a greater area under the receiver operating curve for the reversed display (0.784) than for the conventional display (0.622) (P=0.027). Multireader analysis of the calculi in the kidney showed a greater area under the receiver operating curve for combination of the two displays (0.824) than for the conventional display alone (0.703) (P=0.043). CONCLUSION: The reversed display of soft-copy abdominal radiographs may be useful for urinary calculi detection.

  10. Investigation of upper tracts after resolution of symptoms due to ureteric calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sells, H; Kabala, J; Persad, R A; Sibley, G N

    2001-03-01

    To determine whether patients with proven ureteric calculi on IVU require repeat IVU after resolution of symptoms and passage of calculus on plain X-ray. IVU reports for a 12-month period were obtained and notes and X-rays of those patients with ureteric calculi were reviewed. Presentation, management and subsequent imaging after resolution of symptoms were determined for each patient. All X-rays were reviewed by a uroradiologist. Fifty-eight patients were investigated for the study. All initial IVUs showed upper tract dilation or obstruction. Forty-three eventually passed their calculi spontaneously and of these, 18 had KUB, all of which showed passage of the calculus and 25 had repeat IVU, 22 of which were normal. The 3 abnormal IVUs showed persisting calculi which were visible on the plain film. Fifteen patients required surgical intervention and all had repeat IVU, of which 5 were abnormal. This study suggests that following resolution of symptoms due to ureteric colic, patients who pass their calculi spontaneously can be followed up by KUB. Only those with persistent calculi on KUB or those who have had surgical intervention require repeat IVU.

  11. [Exclusive piezoelectric lithotripsy in the treatment of calculi larger than 30 mm (partial or complete coralliform, pyelic calculi)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiel, J A; Peyrottes, A Y; Dujardin, T; Benizri, E J; Toubol, J

    1990-01-01

    Thirty patients with partial or total staghorn stones or calculi larger than 30 mm were treated by piezoelectric lithotripsy (PEL) monotherapy using an EDAP LT-01 lithotripter with ultrasound guidance. Nineteen of these patients had pelvic stones; the other 11 had partial (9) or total (2) staghorn stones. All patients first underwent an initial lithotripsy session. No anesthesia or IV sedation was required in any case. If stone fragmentation was achieved during this first session, a double-J stent was inserted before the second lithotripsy session. Prior to the first session, 18 of 30 patients had sterile urine cultures; 12 of 30 presented major distension of the excretory tract. Results were analyzed to determine the factors influencing the outcome of this therapy. Three months after the first session, patients were considered cured if their stones had completely disappeared according to plain abdominal films (14 of 30, 46%). In seven patients (23.3%) fragmentation had occurred but residual fragments remained (1 to 3 fragments less than or equal to 4 mm). No fragmentation was obtained after the first session in nine patients (30.7%) (1 total staghorn stone, 8 pelvic stones). The mean number of treatment sessions was five (range, 1 to 15). Complications occurred in only 10% of patients (3 of 30): two steinstrassen and one acute pyelonephritis. Eighty-three percent of patients without major excretory tract distension and 55% of patients whose initial urine culture was sterile achieved a stone-free state. Therefore the best indications for PEL monotherapy for calculi larger than 30 mm are pelvic stones and partial staghorn stones and no major excretory tract dilatation in patients with sterile initial urine cultures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. ASSESSING THE EFFICACY OF ALPHA ADRENERGIC BLOCKER ON LOWER THIRD URETERIC CALCULI

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    Dibin Mohammed Bedardeen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Urinary calculus disease is one of the 3 most common urological diseases. It affects about 12% of the world population. Of all the urinary tract stones 20% are ureteral stones of which 70% are found in the lower third of ureter. Patients with ureteric calculi have wide range of complications which include acute pain necessitating hospitalization, urinary tract infection, anuria, acute renal failure, chronic renal failure, hydronephrosis, pyelonephritis and dehydration. The objective of the study is to study the effect of alpha adrenergic blockers in the passage of calculi in the lower third of the ureter compared to NSAIDs and oral fluids. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study included a total of 60 patients between the study period from Aug 2014 to Aug 2015. 30 patients were chosen randomly and advised to take plenty of oral fluids and treated with NSAID (diclofenac. The patients were then observed weekly and asked for any history of passage of calculi and ultrasound scan was repeated after 15 days to look for any passage of calculi. The findings were recorded and the patients are monitored and followed up for a period of one month. If the stone was passed successfully, it was confirmed with ultrasonography. After 1 month if treatment failed, conservative management was discontinued and advised surgery. RESULTS Majority of the patients were in the age group 20-40 yrs. The mean size of the calculi was 6.62 cms on the right side and 6.0 cms on left side. Out of the 30 patients who were on alpha 1 blocker 22 patients had passed calculi and 8 patients had no results with 73 % success rate. In 30 patients who were not on alpha adrenergic blockers 7 passed out the calculi and 23 did not pass the calculi. 5 among the 23 underwent urethrorenoscopy (URS. CONCLUSION Alpha adrenergic blockers is an effective and safe drug in the management of calculi in the lower third of the ureter. Most patients with ureteric calculi were rendered stone free with

  13. Nondestructive analysis of urinary calculi using micro computed tomography

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    Lingeman James E

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micro computed tomography (micro CT has been shown to provide exceptionally high quality imaging of the fine structural detail within urinary calculi. We tested the idea that micro CT might also be used to identify the mineral composition of urinary stones non-destructively. Methods Micro CT x-ray attenuation values were measured for mineral that was positively identified by infrared microspectroscopy (FT-IR. To do this, human urinary stones were sectioned with a diamond wire saw. The cut surface was explored by FT-IR and regions of pure mineral were evaluated by micro CT to correlate x-ray attenuation values with mineral content. Additionally, intact stones were imaged with micro CT to visualize internal morphology and map the distribution of specific mineral components in 3-D. Results Micro CT images taken just beneath the cut surface of urinary stones showed excellent resolution of structural detail that could be correlated with structure visible in the optical image mode of FT-IR. Regions of pure mineral were not difficult to find by FT-IR for most stones and such regions could be localized on micro CT images of the cut surface. This was not true, however, for two brushite stones tested; in these, brushite was closely intermixed with calcium oxalate. Micro CT x-ray attenuation values were collected for six minerals that could be found in regions that appeared to be pure, including uric acid (3515 – 4995 micro CT attenuation units, AU, struvite (7242 – 7969 AU, cystine (8619 – 9921 AU, calcium oxalate dihydrate (13815 – 15797 AU, calcium oxalate monohydrate (16297 – 18449 AU, and hydroxyapatite (21144 – 23121 AU. These AU values did not overlap. Analysis of intact stones showed excellent resolution of structural detail and could discriminate multiple mineral types within heterogeneous stones. Conclusions Micro CT gives excellent structural detail of urinary stones, and these results demonstrate the feasibility

  14. Association between schizophrenia and urinary calculi: a population-based case-control study.

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    Shih-Ping Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with schizophrenia have been demonstrated to have higher overall morbidity and all-cause mortality rates from general medical conditions. However, little attention has been given to the urinary system of people with schizophrenia. As no direct evidence has been reported demonstrating a link between schizophrenia and urinary calculi, this study utilized a population-based case-control study design to investigate the possibility of an association between schizophrenia and the occurrence of urinary calculi. METHOD: This study used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Cases consisted of 53,965 urinary calculi patients newly diagnosed between 2002 and 2008. In total, 269,825 controls were randomly selected and matched with the cases in terms of age and sex. Each person was traced to discern whether he had previously received a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Conditional logistic regression models were performed for the analysis. RESULTS: A total of 3,119 (1.0% subjects had been diagnosed with schizophrenia prior to the index date. This included 0.7% of the patients with urinary calculi, and 1.0% of the controls. A prior diagnosis of schizophrenia was independently associated with a 30% decrease (95% CI = 0.62-0.76 in the occurrence of urinary calculi. The reduction was even more remarkable in males (38%, 95% CI = 0.55-0.71 and in elder individuals independent of gender (48% in those aged >69, 95% CI = 0.36-0.77. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an inverse association between schizophrenia and urinary calculi. Future studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which schizophrenia negatively associates with urinary calculi.

  15. Zonisamide and renal calculi in patients with epilepsy: how big an issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroe, Stephen

    2007-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of renal calculi in patients treated with zonisamide during randomized, controlled and open-label clinical trials, and from post-marketing surveillance data. Reports of renal calculi from four placebo-controlled double-blind trials of zonisamide, their long-term open-label treatment extension phases, and the US/European zonisamide clinical trial programme were reviewed. One double-blind study and its extension included routine ultrasound screening to identify asymptomatic calculi. Post-marketing surveillance data were also investigated, as was concomitant treatment with topiramate. No symptomatic renal calculi were reported during four randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trials involving 848 subjects (including 498 zonisamide recipients) treated for up to 3 months. In long-term extension studies with treatment for up to 24 months, symptomatic renal calculi were reported in 9/626 (1.4%) patients. Pooled safety data from all US/European clinical trials identified 15/1296 (1.2%) patients with symptomatic renal calculi during treatment for up to 8.7 years. Post-marketing surveillance revealed nine cases from 59 667 patient-years of exposure in the USA, and 14 from 709 294 patient-years of exposure in Japan; only one case occurred during concomitant topiramate and zonisamide treatment. No imbalance in electrolyte levels was found from 35 patients receiving such co-treatment in clinical trials. The available data suggest that the risk of developing renal calculi during zonisamide treatment is low. Data are insufficient to determine whether concomitant treatment with topiramate increases the risk of renal stones.

  16. MEDICAL EXPULSIVE THERAPY OF URETERIC CALCULI - OUR EXPERIENCE

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    Ramesh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Uretric stones can be treated with multiple modalities including medical therapy, uretroscopy, shockwave lithotripsy (SWS, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, open/laparoscopic stone removal, and/or combinations of these modalities. The aim is to study the effectivene ss of medical management of uretric stones and to compare the effectiveness of Tamsulosin and Tamsulosin with steroid . MATERIALS & METHODS: 120 Patients who came with acute uretric colic were categorized into III categories of less than 5mm, 5mm to 7mm and more than 7mm based on NCCT. They were consecutively allotted to one of the three groups, the group I patients received Anti - Biotics with NSAIDs group II received Tamsulosin in addition Anti - Biotics and NSAIDs and III rd group received Anti - Biotics, Tamsu losin, NSAIDs in addition Deflazacart 30mg for a period of 10 days. The results were evaluated at the end of 10 days medical treatment. RESULTS : 90 out of 120 patients were re - evaluated at the end of 10 days. The calculi of 7mm should be removed as the chances of passage is <20%. The medical treatment with Tamsulosin or Tamsulosin with Deflazacart does not offer significant benefit.

  17. [A retrospective review of children hospitalised with urinary tract calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsgaard, Maria; Larsen, Maiken Kudahl

    2008-06-02

    The incidence of urinary stones in Danish children is unknown. An estimate from The National Diagnosis Registry in Denmark is approximately 1:13,500. The purpose was to estimate the incidence of urinary stones and their composition in children in relation to sex, age and family history. A retrospective review of all children presented at Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, or Roskilde Hospital from October 1999 through October 2005 with urinary tract calculi. 42 patients with an average age of 7.9 years. The sex ratio was 1.7 boys to 1 girl. 7 were of an ethnic origin other than Danish. 12, all boys, had inborn urogenital tract malformation. Two had secondary malformation and one had inborn error of metabolism. The incidence of urogenital infection was higher in children with malformation. In 26 patients, stone analysis and composition were available. 54% of the stones had a calcium component. One third of the children had a family history of urolithiasis. Urinary tract stone is a rather difficult pediatric diagnosis. The most frequent symptom is abdominal pain. Ultrasound established the diagnosis in 50% of cases. All concrements were diagnosed with excretory urogram or computerized tomography. 30% of the children had a family history of urolithiasis. This confirms the importance of metabolic screening and stone analysis in children.

  18. Factors affecting urinary calculi treatment by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

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    Tarawneh Emad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL is still the treatment of choice for most renal and upper ureteric stones; however the outcome depends on multiple factors. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of stone density, as measured by Hounsfield Units (H.U by non-contrast Computerized Tomography (CT, stone size and stone location on ESWL treatment outcome of urinary calculi in Jordanian patients. 65 patients underwent clinical, biochemical and radiological assessments followed by ESWL treatment. Statistical analyses including chi-square, analysis of variance (ANOVA, correlation, regression were performed for statistical significance between ESWL treatment, stone fragmentation and stone density, size and location in the renal pelvis. ESWL success rate was high (94% for low density stones (< 500 Hounsfield units. In general CT densities of 750 Hounsfield units or less were almost always successfully treated by ESWL. An inverse association between ESWL treatment outcome and stone size was also documented. CT stone density and stone size combined account for nearly 73% of the variation in the number of shock waves required to attain fragmentation. Stones located in lower calyceal area had less success rates. In conclusion, stones with higher density, large size and lower location may better be managed by percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

  19. Factors affecting urinary calculi treatment by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarawneh, Emad; Awad, Zeyad; Hani, Audy; Haroun, Azmi Amin; Hadidy, Azmi; Mahafza, Waleed; Samarah, Osama

    2010-07-01

    Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) is still the treatment of choice for most renal and upper ureteric stones; however the outcome depends on multiple factors. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of stone density, as measured by Hounsfield Units (H.U) by non-contrast Computerized Tomography (CT), stone size and stone location on ESWL treatment outcome of urinary calculi in Jordanian patients. 65 patients underwent clinical, biochemical and radiological assessments followed by ESWL treatment. Statistical analyses including chi-square, analysis of variance (ANOVA), correlation, regression were performed for statistical significance between ESWL treatment, stone fragmentation and stone density, size and location in the renal pelvis. ESWL success rate was high (94%) for low density stones (< 500 Hounsfield units). In general CT densities of 750 Hounsfield units or less were almost always successfully treated by ESWL. An inverse association between ESWL treatment outcome and stone size was also documented. CT stone density and stone size combined account for nearly 73% of the variation in the number of shock waves required to attain fragmentation. Stones located in lower calyceal area had less success rates. In conclusion, stones with higher density, large size and lower location may better be managed by percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

  20. Roux-en-Y longitudinal Pancreatico Jejunostomy for Pancreatic Calculi in Children

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    AKM Zahid Hossain

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pancreatic calculi is distinctly uncommon in children and usually present wit recurrent abdominal pain. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of longitudinal pancreatico-jejunostomy in relieving intractable abdominal pain in children with pancreatic calculi. Methods: this prospective study was conducted from 2003-2009 at Paediatric Surgery Department of BSMMU. Ductal decompression by longitudinal pancreatic jejunostomy (LPJ was done in 14 children (10 male, 4 female suffering from intractable abdominal pain due to pancreatic calculi. The operative outcomes were divided in to satisfactory and unsatisfactory according to whether the patients were completely or almost completely relieved of pain or continued to be troubled by pain. The main outcome measures were pain relief, postoperative morbidity and mortality. Results: There was no mortality and no significant postoperative morbidity. 14 patients were followed up till 2009. The mean follow-up period were 22 (range 8-72 months. Operative results was satisfactory (no pain in 12 patients and unsatisfactory (moderate pain in 2 patients. Complete pain relief was seen 12 patients. Conclusion: Longitudianal pancreatico-jejunostomy is a good operative procedure to relieve intractable abdominal pain in patients with pancreatic calculi. Key words: Pancreatic calculi; Pancreatico-jejunostomy; abdominal pain  DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v3i2.7055BSMMU J 2010; 3(2: 72-75

  1. Impact of stone branch number on outcomes of percutaneous nephrolithotomy for treatment of staghorn calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shiyong; Li, Li; Liu, Ranlu; Qiao, Baomin; Zhang, Zhihong; Xu, Yong

    2014-02-01

    To determine the impact of staghorn calculi branch number on outcomes of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL). Retrospectively, we evaluated 371 patients (386 renal units) who underwent PNL for staghorn calculi. All calculi were showed with CT three-dimensional reconstruction (3DR) imaging preoperatively. From 3DR images, the number of stone branching into minor renal calices was recorded. According to the number, patients were divided into four groups. Group 1: the branch number 2-4; Group 2: the branch number 5-7; Group 3: the branch number 8-10; Group 4: the branch number >10. The number of percutaneous tract, operative time, staged PNL, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative hospital stay, complications, main stone composition, and stone clearance rate were compared. A significantly higher ratio of multitract (pPNL (pPNL for calculi with a stone branch number ≥5. There was no statistical difference in intraoperative blood loss (p=0.101) and main stone composition (p=0.546). There was no statistically meaningful difference among the four groups based on the Clavien complication system (p=0.46). With the stone branch number more than five, the possibility of multitract and staged PNL, lower rate of stone clearance, and a longer postoperative hospital stay increases for staghorn calculi.

  2. Computer-aided detection of renal calculi from noncontrast CT images using TV-flow and MSER features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jianfei; Wang, Shijun; Turkbey, Evrim B.; Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald M., E-mail: rms@nih.gov [Radiology and Imaging Sciences, National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1182 (United States); Linguraru, Marius George [Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Children’s National Health System Center, Washington, DC 20010 and School of Medicine and Health Sciences, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20010 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Renal calculi are common extracolonic incidental findings on computed tomographic colonography (CTC). This work aims to develop a fully automated computer-aided diagnosis system to accurately detect renal calculi on CTC images. Methods: The authors developed a total variation (TV) flow method to reduce image noise within the kidneys while maintaining the characteristic appearance of renal calculi. Maximally stable extremal region (MSER) features were then calculated to robustly identify calculi candidates. Finally, the authors computed texture and shape features that were imported to support vector machines for calculus classification. The method was validated on a dataset of 192 patients and compared to a baseline approach that detects calculi by thresholding. The authors also compared their method with the detection approaches using anisotropic diffusion and nonsmoothing. Results: At a false positive rate of 8 per patient, the sensitivities of the new method and the baseline thresholding approach were 69% and 35% (p < 1e − 3) on all calculi from 1 to 433 mm{sup 3} in the testing dataset. The sensitivities of the detection methods using anisotropic diffusion and nonsmoothing were 36% and 0%, respectively. The sensitivity of the new method increased to 90% if only larger and more clinically relevant calculi were considered. Conclusions: Experimental results demonstrated that TV-flow and MSER features are efficient means to robustly and accurately detect renal calculi on low-dose, high noise CTC images. Thus, the proposed method can potentially improve diagnosis.

  3. Current status of minimally invasive management of pediatric upper urinary tract calculi

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    Kolla Surendra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The surgical management of pediatric upper urinary tract calculi has evolved from open surgery to minimally invasive techniques. With advancement in instrumentation, endourological procedures are being performed more commonly in children. However, the endourological management of renal and ureteral stones in the pediatric population is considered challenging, owing to the smaller size of the urinary tract. Various minimally invasive techniques that are being applied in the management of pediatric urolithiasis, include shock wave lithitripsy (SWL, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL, ureterorenoscopy and a combination of these procedures. The role of SWL is well established and is considered the first line of treatment in the management of urinary calculi in pediatric patients. Recent reports have confirmed the safety of PCNL and ureteroscopy in children, although they are not as widely practiced in children as in adults. This article reviews literature published till October 2005, pertaining to the minimally invasive management of pediatric upper urinary tract calculi.

  4. Internal Structure of Kidney Calculi as a Predictor for Shockwave Lithotripsy Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Frederikke Eichner; Andreassen, Kim Hovgaard; Osther, Susanne Sloth

    2016-01-01

    was to evaluate whether the internal morphology of calculi defined by CT bone window influences SWL outcome in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred eleven patients with solitary renal calculi treated with SWL were included. Treatment data were registered prospectively and follow-up data were collected...... retrospectively. All patients had noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) performed before SWL and at 3-month follow-up. The stones were categorized as homogeneous or inhomogeneous. At follow-up, the patient's stone status was registered. Stone-free status was defined as no evidence of calculi on NCCT. Treatment...... was considered successful if the patient was either stone free or had clinically insignificant residual fragments. RESULTS: Using simple logistic regression, the odds for being stone free 3 months post-SWL were significantly reduced in the patients with inhomogeneous stones compared with patients...

  5. Antegrade flexible ureteroscopy in supine position for impacted multiple ureteric calculi

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    Rahul Gupta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible retrograde ureteroscope is now being widely used in endoscopic management of the urinary calculi. We report technique of supine ante grade flexible ureteroscopy in treating impacted upper and mid ureteric calculi in a pediatric patient. A six year-old boy with a history of acute right ureteric colic was investigated and found to have right upper and middle impacted ureteric calculi. He was planned for ureteroscopy, but the intramural part of the ureter could not be dilated. Hence, a decision was taken to do an antegrade flexible ureteroscopy in the supine position. An antegrade renal access was established in the supine position using ultrasound- guided puncture, a 22 Fr Amplatz was placed after serial dilatation of the tract and the stones were accessed using a flexible ureteroscope. The stones were then disintegrated using holmium laser. The ureter was stented at the end of the procedure. IVU done after six months revealed normal right kidney.

  6. Toward the classification of differential calculi on κ-Minkowski space and related field theories

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    Jurić, Tajron; Meljanac, Stjepan; Pikutić, Danijel [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Theoretical Physics Division,Bijenička c.54, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Štrajn, Rina [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari,viale Merello 92, I-09123 Cagliari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari,Cagliari (Italy)

    2015-07-13

    Classification of differential forms on κ-Minkowski space, particularly, the classification of all bicovariant differential calculi of classical dimension is presented. By imposing super-Jacobi identities we derive all possible differential algebras compatible with the κ-Minkowski algebra for time-like, space-like and light-like deformations. Embedding into the super-Heisenberg algebra is constructed using non-commutative (NC) coordinates and one-forms. Particularly, a class of differential calculi with an undeformed exterior derivative and one-forms is considered. Corresponding NC differential calculi are elaborated. Related class of new Drinfeld twists is proposed. It contains twist leading to κ-Poincaré Hopf algebra for light-like deformation. Corresponding super-algebra and deformed super-Hopf algebras, as well as the symmetries of differential algebras are presented and elaborated. Using the NC differential calculus, we analyze NC field theory, modified dispersion relations, and discuss further physical applications.

  7. Insights of the dental calculi microbiome of pre-Columbian inhabitants from Puerto Rico

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    Tasha M. Santiago-Rodriguez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The study of ancient microorganisms in mineralized dental plaque or calculi is providing insights into microbial evolution, as well as lifestyles and disease states of extinct cultures; yet, little is still known about the oral microbial community structure and function of pre-Columbian Caribbean cultures. In the present study, we investigated the dental calculi microbiome and predicted function of one of these cultures, known as the Saladoid. The Saladoids were horticulturalists that emphasized root-crop production. Fruits, as well as small marine and terrestrial animals were also part of the Saladoid diet. Methods Dental calculi samples were recovered from the archaeological site of Sorcé, in the municipal island of Vieques, Puerto Rico, characterized using 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing, and compared to the microbiome of previously characterized coprolites of the same culture, as well modern plaque, saliva and stool microbiomes available from the Human Microbiome Project. Results Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes comprised the majority of the Saladoid dental calculi microbiome. The Saladoid dental calculi microbiome was distinct when compared to those of modern saliva and dental plaque, but showed the presence of common inhabitants of modern oral cavities including Streptococcus sp., Veillonella dispar and Rothia mucilaginosa. Cell motility, signal transduction and biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites may be unique features of the Saladoid microbiome. Discussion Results suggest that the Saladoid dental calculi microbiome structure and function may possibly reflect a horticulturalist lifestyle and distinct dietary habits. Results also open the opportunity to further elucidate oral disease states in extinct Caribbean cultures and extinct indigenous cultures with similar lifestyles.

  8. Insights of the dental calculi microbiome of pre-Columbian inhabitants from Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M; Narganes-Storde, Yvonne; Chanlatte-Baik, Luis; Toranzos, Gary A; Cano, Raul J

    2017-01-01

    The study of ancient microorganisms in mineralized dental plaque or calculi is providing insights into microbial evolution, as well as lifestyles and disease states of extinct cultures; yet, little is still known about the oral microbial community structure and function of pre-Columbian Caribbean cultures. In the present study, we investigated the dental calculi microbiome and predicted function of one of these cultures, known as the Saladoid. The Saladoids were horticulturalists that emphasized root-crop production. Fruits, as well as small marine and terrestrial animals were also part of the Saladoid diet. Dental calculi samples were recovered from the archaeological site of Sorcé, in the municipal island of Vieques, Puerto Rico, characterized using 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing, and compared to the microbiome of previously characterized coprolites of the same culture, as well modern plaque, saliva and stool microbiomes available from the Human Microbiome Project. Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes comprised the majority of the Saladoid dental calculi microbiome. The Saladoid dental calculi microbiome was distinct when compared to those of modern saliva and dental plaque, but showed the presence of common inhabitants of modern oral cavities including Streptococcus sp., Veillonella dispar and Rothia mucilaginosa. Cell motility, signal transduction and biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites may be unique features of the Saladoid microbiome. Results suggest that the Saladoid dental calculi microbiome structure and function may possibly reflect a horticulturalist lifestyle and distinct dietary habits. Results also open the opportunity to further elucidate oral disease states in extinct Caribbean cultures and extinct indigenous cultures with similar lifestyles.

  9. US and MDCT findings in a caudal blind ending bifid ureter with calculi

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    Caglar Uzun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Herein we present a rare ureteric duplication anomaly; blind ending bifid ureter with calculi which is asymptomatic unless complicated by infection, reflux, calculi or malignancy. The diagnosis is often missed at intravenous urography (IVU and US because the ipsilateral ureter and kidney are grossly normal. In this case the diagnosis was established with ultrasound (US and mainly with multidetector computerized tomography (MDCT imaging using multiplanar reformats and 3-D reconstructions which were unique to this case. MDCT scans not only revealed the exact diagnosis and anatomic relationships but also ruled out other pathologies included in the differential diagnosis as well, such as ureter and bladder diverticula.

  10. US and MDCT findings in a caudal blind ending bifid ureter with calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren Ustuner

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Herein we present a rare ureteric duplication anomaly; blind ending bifid ureter with calculi which is asymptomatic unless complicated by infection, reflux, calculi or malignancy. The diagnosis is often missed at intravenous urography (IVU and US because the ipsilateral ureter and kidney are grossly normal. In this case the diagnosis was established with ultrasound (US and mainly with multidetector computerized tomography (MDCT imaging using multiplanar reformats and 3-D reconstructions which were unique to this case. MDCT scans not only revealed the exact diagnosis and anatomic relationships but also ruled out other pathologies included in the differential diagnosis as well, such as ureter and bladder diverticula.

  11. Efficacy of percutaneous treatment of biliary tract calculi using the holmium:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazey, J W; McCreary, M; Guy, G; Melvin, W S

    2007-07-01

    Few Western studies have focused on percutaneous techniques using percutaneous transhepatic choledochoscopy (PTHC) and holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) laser to ablate biliary calculi in patients unable or unwilling to undergo endoscopic or surgical removal of the calculi. The authors report the efficacy of the holmium:YAG laser in clearing complex biliary calculi using percutaneous access techniques. This study retrospectively reviewed 13 non-Asian patients with complex secondary biliary calculi treated percutaneously using holmium:YAG laser. Percutaneous access was accomplished via left, right, or bilateral hepatic ducts and upsized for passage of a 7-Fr video choledochoscope. Lithotripsy was performed under choledochoscopic vision using a holmium:YAG laser with 200- or 365-microm fibers generating 0.6 to 1.0 joules at 8 to 15 Hz. Patients underwent treatment until stone clearance was confirmed by PTHC. Downsizing and subsequent removal of percutaneous catheters completed the treatment course. Seven men and six women with an average age of 69 years underwent treatment. All the patients had their biliary tract stones cleared successfully. Of the 13 patients, 3 were treated solely as outpatients. The average length of percutaneous access was 108 days. At this writing, one patient still has a catheter in place. The average number of holmium:YAG laser treatments required for stone clearance was 1.6, with no patients requiring more than 3 treatments. Of the 13 patients, 8 underwent a single holmium:YAG laser treatment to clear their calculi. Prior unsuccessful attempts at endoscopic removal of the calculi had been experienced by 7 of the 13 patients. Five patients underwent percutaneous access and subsequent stone removal as their sole therapy for biliary stones. Five patients were cleared of their calculi after percutaneous laser ablation of large stones and percutaneous basket retrieval of the remaining stone fragments. There was one complication of pain

  12. Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Management of Caliceal Diverticular Calculi

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    Anneleen Verbrugghe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Standard treatment modalities of caliceal diverticular calculi range from extracorporal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL over retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL and laparoscopic stone removal. A 55-year-old woman presented with a history of pyelonephritis based on a caliceal diverticular calculus. Due to the narrow infundibulum and anterior location, a robot-assisted laparoscopic calicotomy with extraction of the calculi and fulguration of the diverticulum was performed, with no specific perioperative problems and good stone-free results. This article shows technical feasibility with minimal morbidity of robot-assisted laparoscopic stone removal and obliteration of a caliceal diverticulum.

  13. [Analysis of development, safety and efficacy of percutaneous nephrolithotomy for management of upper urinary tract calculi in pediatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L P; Xu, T

    2017-08-18

    To evaluate the development, safety and efficacy of percutaneous nephrolithotomy(PNL) for management of upper urinary tract calculi in pediatric patients. In the study, 77 pediatric patients undergoing 87 PNLs through mini or standard tract for upper urinary tract calculi between January 2005 and December 2016 in Peking University People's hospital were reviewed, including 69 renal calculi, 6 upper ureteral calculi, 12 renal and upper ureteral calculi, 35 single calculi, 43 multiple calculi and 9 staghorn calculi. The development and efficacy of PNL in pediatric patients were studied by analyzing the characteristics and clinical indexes, and by reviewing the associated literature. The Clavien classification system was used to evaluate the complications after PNL. A total of 87 PNLs were performed in 77 pediatric patients. Eighty-one upper urinary tract calculi were managed through a single tract(93.1%), 5 pediatric patients were managed through 2 tracts(5.7%), and 1 pediatric patient was managed through 3 tracts(1.2%). The mean operating time was (77.0±29.8) min. The stone-free rate after one session was 100% for single calculi and 71.2% for multiple or staghorn calculi, 5(5.8%) children underwent auxiliary procedure to remove the residual calculi and the final stone-free rate of PNL was 88.5%. One of the main complications of pediatric PNL was fever. Sixteen (18.4%) had moderate fever(38-39 °C), 5 (5.7%) had high fever (39-40 °C) and there were no severe complications of infection, such as sepsis or septic shock. The mean hemoglobin loss was (10.3±16.1) g/L and the serum creatinine rise was (7.0±13.3) μmol/L. One(1.2%) pediatric patient suffered ureteroscopic lithotripsy because of the obstruction by the residual stone in ureter. No injury of organs or retroperitoneal urinary extravasation occurred. General assessment of the complications showed Clavien grade I complications in 14 (16.1%) pediatric patients, grade II in 7(8.0%) children and grade III in 1

  14. Renal papillary calcification and the development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary renal calculi: a case series study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to determine in a case series (four patients) how calcified deposits in renal papillae are associated with the development of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) papillary calculi. Methods From the recently collected papillary calculi, we evaluated retrospectively patients, subjected to retrograde ureteroscopy, with COM papillary lithiasis. Results The COM papillary calculi were found to result from subepithelial injury. Many of these lesions underwent calcification by hydroxyapatite (HAP), with calculus morphology and the amount of HAP in the concave zone dependent on the location of the calcified injury. Most of these HAP deposits grew, eroding the epithelium covering the renal papillae, coming into contact with urine and starting the development of COM calculi. Subepithelial HAP plaques may alter the epithelium covering the papillae, resulting in the deposit of COM crystals directly onto the epithelium. Tissue calcification depends on a pre-existing injury, the continuation of this process is due to modulators and/or crystallization inhibitors deficiency. Conclusions Since calculus morphology and the amount of detected HAP are dependent on the location and widespread of calcified injury, all types of papillary COM calculi can be found in the same patient. All patients had subepithelial calcifications, with fewer papillary calculi, demonstrating that some subepithelial calcifications did not further evolve and were reabsorbed. A high number of subepithelial calcifications increases the likelihood that some will be transformed into COM papillary calculi. PMID:23497010

  15. [Study of a intestinal enteroliths in human patient with colon adenocarcinoma. Is it similar to renal calculi?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traba Villameytide, M L; Orts Costa, J A; Morell, M

    2006-02-01

    This work shows the study performance to intestinal enterolithis from a 91 year old patient with multiple enterolithiasis confirmed by abdominal X-ray and TAC analyses showing the presence of intestinal, renal and bile stones. This enterolithis is associated with colon adenocarcinoma. The enteroliths were obtained by hemicolectomia and were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (IR), giving non-stoichiometry carbonate apatite whitloquite-like with, possibly, organic material. By atomic emission spectroscopy we found Ca, Mg, K, Na and K (mg/100 mg of calculi) and Zn, Ba, Mn, Fe, Cu, Si, Ti and Br in minor proportion (microg/100 mg of calculi). Because of calculi morphology and the IR spectra (non-stoichiometry carbonate apatite) we carried out analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and found coproporphyrin (about microg/g of calculi) and uroporphyrin, protoporphyrin and heptacarboxy-porphyrin in minor extent. Calculi were also studied by scanning electronic microscopy and EDX and X-ray diffraction giving crystals of CaP4O11. All these results show that intestinal enteroliths composition are similar to renal calculi although its morphology differs from renal calculi.

  16. A rare case of preputial calculi in a child with balanitis xerotica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G.A. Kekre

    2016-07-26

    Jul 26, 2016 ... penile region, consistent with the palpable hard nodular structures suggestive of a stone. Other investigations such as a shunt series were normal. ... complication of preputial calculi in a 12-year-old boy suffering from neurogenic bladder and paraparesis secondary to a repaired meningomyelocele [3].

  17. On the expressiveness and decidability of higher-order process calculi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanese, Ivan; Perez, Jorge A.; Sangiorgi, Davide; Schmitt, Alan

    In higher-order process calculi, the values exchanged in communications may contain processes. A core calculus of higher-order concurrency is studied; it has only the operators necessary to express higher-order communications: input prefix, process output, and parallel composition. By exhibiting a

  18. Management of Ureteric Calculi in Dhule City of North-western Maharashtra

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    Lokesh Patni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urolithiasis, usually affecting people in the prime of life, causes significant morbidity and loss of productivity. Uretericstones account for 2/3rd of all urinary calculi brought to attention of doctors. The damaging effects of the calculi may result in obstruction with dilatation of the urinary tract, leading to stasis and severe infection. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate patients with urinary stones with regards to the incidence, age, sex,clinical presentation, site, size, side, management and their complications. Material and Methods:It was a prospective study carried out by Department of Surgery at Annasaheb Chudaman Patil Memorial Medical College, and Hospital Dhule for a period of two years. Patients were selected after they were diagnosed as having ureteric calculi. The patients were treated by conservative or surgical methods, and the outcome was monitored. Statistical analysis of the data was done for obtaining results.Result: The majority of the patients were males with peak age group in the second and third decade. Pain in abdomen or loin tenderness was the most common presenting symptom. Most of the patients were treated by conservative medical management. Endourological procedures were the most commonly performed surgical intervention. Conclusion: Most of the patients with ureteric calculi present with painin abdomen and majority can be treated by medical management. With the availability of better facilities the requirement for open surgery is decreasing and endourological procedures are becoming the means of surgical intervention.Complications are minimal with surgical expertise for endourological procedures.

  19. Renal colic: comparison of spiral CT, US and IVU in the detection of ureteral calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, S; Sindel, T; Arslan, G; Ozkaynak, C; Karaali, K; Kabaalioğlu, A; Lüleci, E

    1998-01-01

    The aim of our study was to compare non-contrast spiral CT, US and intravenous urography (IVU) in the evaluation of patients with renal colic for the diagnosis of ureteral calculi. During a period of 17 months, 112 patients with renal colic were examined with spiral CT, US and IVU. Fifteen patients were lost to follow-up and excluded. The remaining 97 patients were defined to be either true positive or negative for ureterolithiasis based on the follow-up data. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and accuracy of spiral CT, US and IVU were determined, and secondary signs of ureteral stones and other pathologies causing renal colic detected with these modalities were noted. Of 97 patients, 64 were confirmed to have ureteral calculi based on stone recovery or urological interventions. Thirty-three patients were proved not to have ureteral calculi based on failure to recover a stone and diagnoses unrelated to ureterolithiasis. Spiral CT was found to be the best modality for depicting ureteral stones with a sensitivity of 94 % and a specificity of 97 %. For US and IVU, these figures were 19, 97, 52, and 94 %, respectively. Spiral CT is superior to US and IVU in the demonstration of ureteral calculi in patients with renal colic, but because of its high cost, higher radiation dose and high workload, it should be reserved for cases where US and IVU do not show the cause of symptoms.

  20. Outcomes of percutaneous nephrolithotomy versus open stone surgery for patients with staghorn calculi

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    Friedrich Bo-Yuan Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Both OSS and PNL are viable options for the management of staghorn stones. Considering the lower postoperative complication rate and need for auxiliary treatment, we suggest that OSS is more suitable for staghorn stones with large burdens. OSS should still be considered as a valid treatment for patients with complex staghorn calculi, although PNL is a less invasive treatment option in most cases.

  1. Is tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy a feasible technique for the treatment of staghorn calculi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Cheol; Kim, Chang Hee; Kim, Kwang Taek; Kim, Tae Beom; Kim, Khae Hawn; Jung, Han; Yoon, Sang Jin; Oh, Jin Kyu

    2013-10-01

    Tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) remains a challenging technique for the surgical treatment of staghorn renal calculi. Our study was designed to compare surgical outcomes between conventional and tubeless PNL. We retrospectively enrolled consecutive patients who underwent conventional or tubeless PNL under general anesthesia performed by a single surgeon (H.J.) for the treatment of staghorn calculi between 2003 and 2012. All patients were divided into two groups: group 1 included patients who underwent conventional PNL and group 2 included patients who were managed by tubeless PNL for the treatment of staghorn calculi. Preoperative and postoperative parameters were analyzed between the two groups, including age, stone burden, complications, any interventions, and duration of hospital stay. A total of 165 patients (group 1, 106; group 2, 59) were enrolled in the study. No significant differences in age, sex, body mass index, or stone laterality were observed between the two groups. The mean stone burdens (±standard deviation) of group 1 and group 2 were 633.6 (±667.4) and 529.9 (±362.8), respectively (p=0.271). The postoperative stone-free clearance rate was higher in group 2 (78.0%) than in group 1 (69.8%); however, the difference was not clinically significant (p=0.127). In addition, no significant differences in postoperative complications, including fever, bleeding, infection, or additional interventions, were observed between the two groups. Our results demonstrated that tubeless PNL has the same effectiveness and safety as conventional PNL in the treatment of staghorn calculi. Tubeless PNL may be feasible for managing renal staghorn calculi.

  2. Successful Management of Repetitive Urinary Obstruction and Anuria Caused by Double J Stent Calculi Formation after Renal Transplantation

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    Zongyao Hao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This report firstly describes an extremely rare case of repetitive double J stent calculi formation after renal transplantation caused by the antihyperparathyroidism (HPT drug calcitriol. In 2012, a woman initially presented to our hospital for anuria with lower abdominal pain. She was diagnosed with allograft hydronephrosis and double J stents obstruction by calculi formation after transplantation and treated with triplicate stents replacements in another hospital without clinical manifestations improvements. Through detailed exploration of medical history, we conclude that the abnormal calculi formation is due to the calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 administration, a drug which can increase renal tubular reabsorption of calcium for treating posttransplant HPT bone disease. After discontinuing calcitriol, the patient was stone-free and had a good recovery without severe complications during the 9-month follow-up. Our novel findings may provide an important clue and approach to managing formidable repetitive double J stent calculi formation in the clinical trial.

  3. Successful management of repetitive urinary obstruction and anuria caused by double j stent calculi formation after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zongyao; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Xiansheng; Shi, Haoqiang; Zhang, Yifei; Wei, Pengfei; Liang, Chaozhao

    2014-01-01

    This report firstly describes an extremely rare case of repetitive double J stent calculi formation after renal transplantation caused by the antihyperparathyroidism (HPT) drug calcitriol. In 2012, a woman initially presented to our hospital for anuria with lower abdominal pain. She was diagnosed with allograft hydronephrosis and double J stents obstruction by calculi formation after transplantation and treated with triplicate stents replacements in another hospital without clinical manifestations improvements. Through detailed exploration of medical history, we conclude that the abnormal calculi formation is due to the calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) administration, a drug which can increase renal tubular reabsorption of calcium for treating posttransplant HPT bone disease. After discontinuing calcitriol, the patient was stone-free and had a good recovery without severe complications during the 9-month follow-up. Our novel findings may provide an important clue and approach to managing formidable repetitive double J stent calculi formation in the clinical trial.

  4. Robust detection of renal calculi from non-contract CT images using TV-flow and MSER features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianfei; Wang, Shijun; Linguraru, Marius George; Summers, Ronald M.

    2013-03-01

    Renal calculi are one of the most painful urologic disorders causing 3 million treatments per year in the United States. The objective of this paper is the automated detection of renal calculi from CT colonography (CTC) images on which they are one of the major extracolonic findings. However, the primary purpose of the CTC protocols is not for the detection of renal calculi, but for screening of colon cancer. The kidneys are imaged with significant amounts of noise in the non-contrast CTC images, which makes the detection of renal calculi extremely challenging. We propose a computer-aided diagnosis method to detect renal calculi in CTC images. It is built on three novel techniques: 1) total variation (TV) flow to reduce image noise while keeping calculi, 2) maximally stable extremal region (MSER) features to find calculus candidates, 3) salient feature descriptors based on intensity properties to train a support vector machine classifier and filter false positives. We selected 23 CTC cases with 36 renal calculi to analyze the detection algorithm. The calculus size ranged from 1.0mm to 6.8mm. Fifteen cases were selected as the training dataset, and the remaining eight cases were used for the testing dataset. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values were 0.92 in the training datasets and 0.93 in the testing datasets. The testing dataset confidence interval for AUC reported by ROCKIT was [0.8799, 0.9591] and the training dataset was [0.8974, 0.9642]. These encouraging results demonstrated that our detection algorithm can robustly and accurately identify renal calculi from CTC images.

  5. Effective Root-Finding Methods for Nonlinear Equations Based on Multiplicative Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Özyapıcı

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent studies, papers related to the multiplicative based numerical methods demonstrate applicability and efficiency of these methods. Numerical root-finding methods are essential for nonlinear equations and have a wide range of applications in science and engineering. Therefore, the idea of root-finding methods based on multiplicative and Volterra calculi is self-evident. Newton-Raphson, Halley, Broyden, and perturbed root-finding methods are used in numerical analysis for approximating the roots of nonlinear equations. In this paper, Newton-Raphson methods and consequently perturbed root-finding methods are developed in the frameworks of multiplicative and Volterra calculi. The efficiency of these proposed root-finding methods is exposed by examples, and the results are compared with some ordinary methods. One of the striking results of the proposed method is that the rate of convergence for many problems are considerably larger than the original methods.

  6. A case of hereditary xanthinuria type 1 accompanied by bilateral renal calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yutaka; Kawakami, Yoshikazu; Shinohara, Yoshihiko; Ichida, Kimiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary xanthinuria is an extremely rare purine metabolism disorder caused by a genetic abnormality in xanthine dehydrogenase. A new case of hereditary xanthinuria type 1 accompanied by bilateral renal calculi was encountered. We performed an allopurinol loading test and diagnosed classical type 1 xanthinuria. Through genetic diagnosis, we identified a mutation site in the xanthine dehydrogenase gene. Genetic analysis revealed a homozygous deletion of cytosine 2,567 in the xanthine dehydrogenase gene, and as a result, a stop codon was formed at position 928. Renal failure caused by the deposition of xanthine crystals is a known complication because xanthine is poorly soluble in water. With high fluid intake and low purine diet, no significant increase in calculi has been observed in this patient for 2 years.

  7. Cystic calculi removal in African spurred Tortoise (Geochelone sulcata using transplstron coeliotomy

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    Azlan Che' Amat

    Full Text Available The present report was carried out to manage a case of calculi in the bladder of African spurred tortoise. A 6 year old African spurred tortoise presented with history of anorexia and whitish discharged from the vent. Upon physical examination, the tortoise were 10% dehydrated, hindlegs muscle wasting and whitish materials came out from the vent. Plain radiograph revealed increased radiopacity in the bladder and also both right and left kidney. Contrast gastrointestinal radiograph showed less possibility of foreign body. Inconclusive radiological findings required the decision to proceed with exploratory transplastron coeliotomy by using dental burr. About 4 cm solid, hard whitish mass was removed from the bladder and both kidney was congested with whitish material. The findings were suggestive for urates crystal calculi based on histology result. [Vet. World 2012; 5(8.000: 489-492

  8. Anatrophic Nephrolithotomy in the Management of Large Staghorn Calculi - A Single Centre Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavamurthy, Ramaiah; Karthikeyan, Vilvapathy Senguttuvan; Mallya, Ashwin; Sreenivas, Jayaram; Nelivigi, Girish Gurubasappa; Kamath, Ananth Janarthan

    2017-05-01

    With advances in endourology, open stone surgery for staghorn calculi has markedly diminished. Anatrophic Nephrolithotomy (AN) is performed for complex staghorn stones which cannot be cleared by a reasonable number of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PNL) attempts. To assess the indications and outcomes of AN in the modern era. Between April 2008 and July 2015, AN was done in 14 renal units in 13 patients. In this retrospective study, demography, stone characteristics, operative details, clearance and long term outcomes were assessed. AN was performed for complex staghorn calculi involving pelvis and all calyces in 10 patients, infundibular stenosis in two patients and failed PNL in one patient. Mean (SD) in situ cold ischemia time was 47.64 (5.27) minutes. Retroperitoneal drain and double J stent were placed in all 13 patients. Median (IQR) estimated blood loss was 130 (75) ml. There was no perioperative mortality. Surgical site infection was seen in 2 patients and urosepsis in 2 patients. Drain was removed at a mean (SD) of 9.11 (6.15) days. Mean (SD) postoperative length of hospitalization was 15.44 (7.14) days. Stent removal was done in all patients between 2-8 weeks. Median (IQR) clearance was 95 (7.5%). There was no renal failure or new calculi during the follow up period {median (IQR): 1(3) years}. AN is effective in management of large staghorn calculi failed minimally invasive approaches and achieves 80%-100% clearance without much need for secondary interventions. Renal function is preserved and with emergence of laparoscopy and robotics, postoperative stay is minimized with expedited recovery and comparable results with open surgery.

  9. Bilateral Giant Ureteric and Staghorn Calculi in a Patient with Incomplete Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis

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    Mustafa Gunes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a 18-year-old adult presenting with acute pyelonephritis, bilateral giant ureteral stones, nephrocalcinosis and left staghorn calculi most probably due to the underlying incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis (idRTA. Particularly, we want to underline that, idRTA should be kept in mind in the setting of calcium stone disease where urinary pH is persistently high in the absence of systemic acidosis.

  10. Differentiation of urinary calculi with dual energy CT: effect of spectral shaping by high energy tin filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christoph; Krauss, Bernhard; Ketelsen, Dominik; Tsiflikas, Ilias; Reimann, Anja; Werner, Matthias; Schilling, David; Hennenlotter, Jörg; Claussen, Claus D; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Heuschmid, Martin

    2010-07-01

    In dual energy (DE) computed tomography (CT), spectral shaping by additional filtration of the high energy spectrum can theoretically improve dual energy contrast. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the influence of an additional tin filter for the differentiation of human urinary calculi by dual energy CT. A total of 36 pure human urinary calculi (uric acid, cystine, calciumoxalate monohydrate, calciumoxalate dihydrate, carbonatapatite, brushite, average diameter 10.5 mm) were placed in a phantom and imaged with 2 dual source CT scanners. One scanner was equipped with an additional tin (Sn) filter. Different combinations of tube voltages (140/80 kV, 140/100 kV, Sn140/100 kV, Sn140/80 kV, with Sn140 referring to 140 kV with the tin filter) were applied. Tube currents were adapted to yield comparable dose indices. Low- and high energy images were reconstructed. The calculi were segmented semiautomatically in the datasets and DE ratios (attenuation@low_kV/attenuation@high_kV) and were calculated for each calculus. DE contrasts (DE-ratio_material1/DE-ratio_material2) were computed for uric acid, cystine and calcified calculi and compared between the combinations of tube voltages. Using exclusively DE ratios, all uric acid, cystine and calcified calculi (as a group) could be differentiated in all protocols; the calcified calculi could not be differentiated among each other in any examination protocol. The highest DE ratios and DE contrasts were measured for the Sn140/80 protocol (53%-62% higher DE contrast than in the 140/80 kV protocol without additional filtration). The DE ratios and DE contrasts of the 80/140 kV and 100/Sn140 kV protocols were comparable. Uric acid, cystine and calcified calculi could be reliably differentiated by any of the protocols. A dose-neutral gain of DE contrast was found in the Sn-filter protocols, which might improve the differentiation of smaller calculi (Sn140/80 kV) and improve image quality and calculi differentiation in

  11. Invasive treatment trends in urinary calculi in a third level hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Galisteo, E; Sánchez-Martínez, N; Molina-Díaz, P; López-Rueda, B; Baena-González, V

    2015-01-01

    In the following study, we observe the progress of various invasive calculi treatments that have taken place in our hospital in the last 15 years. We extracted data from our hospital database on patients who underwent extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), endoscopic surgery and open surgery. We analyzed how the incidence of these treatments has evolved over the last 15 years. We also studied the number of publications in PubMed that reference invasive calculi treatments. From January 1998 to December 2012, a total of 10,947 patients were treated instrumentally for lithiasis, 9,695 of whom (90.4%) underwent ESWL and 1,034 of whom underwent endoscopic or open surgery (9.6%). The incidence of lithotripsy treatments reached its maximum in 2006, with a progressive reduction thereafter. The incidence of endoscopic surgery increased progressively until 2009 and then leveled off. We can see how in recent years there has been a clear increase in the number of studies that have covered endoscopic surgery, with a decreasing number covering ESWL. In our community, ESWL remains the most widely used invasive treatment for calculi. In recent years, there has been a reduction in the number of ESWL treatments and an increase in the number of endoscopic treatments, with open surgery showing a clearly decreasing trend. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Retroperitoneoscopic pyelolithotomy: a good alternative treatment for renal pelvic calculi in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezarino, Bruno Nicolino; Park, Rubens; Moscardi, Paulo Renato Marcelo; Lopes, Roberto Iglesias; Denes, Francisco T; Srougi, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Nephrolitiasis, once considered an adult disease, has become increasingly prevalent in children, with na increase from 6% to 10 % annually in past 25 years. Kidney stones in pediatric population can result from metabolic diseases in up to 50% of children affected. Other factors associated with litiasis are infection, dietary factors, and anatomic malformations of urinary tract. Standard treatment procedures for pediatric population are similar to adult population. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureterorenoscopy (URS), percutaneous nepfrolithotomy (PCNL), as well as laparoscopic and retroperitoneoscopic approaches can be indicated in selected cases. The advantages of laparoscopic or retroperitoneoscopic approaches are shorter mean operation time, no trauma of renal parenchyma, lower bleeding risk, and higher stone-free rates, especially in pelvic calculi with extrarenal pelvis, where the stone is removed intact. A 10 year-old girl presented with right abdominal flank pain, macroscopic hematuria,with previous history of urinary infections.. Further investigation showed an 1,5 centimeter calculi in right kidney pelvis. A previous ureterorenoscopy was tried with no success, and a double J catheter was placed. After discussing options, a retroperitoneoscopic pielolithotomy was performed. The procedure occurred with no complications, and the calculi was completely removed. The foley catheter was removed in first postoperative day and she was discharged 2 days after surgery. Double J stent was removed after 2 weeks. Retroperitoneoscopic pielolithotomy is a feasible and safe procedure in children, with same outcomes of the procedure for adult population. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  13. Percutaneous endoscopic holmium laser lithotripsy for management of complicated biliary calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Kelly; Chamsuddin, Abbas; Spivey, James; Martin, Louis; Nieh, Peter; Ogan, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Advances in endoscopic techniques have transformed the management of urolithiasis. We sought to evaluate the role of such urological interventions for the treatment of complex biliary calculi. We conducted a retrospective review of all patients (n=9) undergoing percutaneous holmium laser lithotripsy for complicated biliary calculi over a 4-year period (12/2003 to 12/2007). All previously failed standard techniques include ERCP with sphincterotomy (n=6), PTHC (n=7), or both of these. Access to the biliary system was obtained via an existing percutaneous transhepatic catheter or T-tube tracts. Endoscopic holmium laser lithotripsy was performed via a flexible cystoscope or ureteroscope. Stone clearance was confirmed intra- and post-operatively. A percutaneous transhepatic drain was left indwelling for follow-up imaging. Mean patient age was 65.6 years (range, 38 to 92). Total stone burden ranged from 1.7 cm to 5 cm. All 9 patients had stones located in the CBD, with 2 patients also having additional stones within the hepatic ducts. All 9 patients (100%) were visually stone-free after one endoscopic procedure. No major perioperative complications occurred. Mean length of stay was 2.4 days. At a mean radiological follow-up of 5.4 months (range, 0.5 to 21), no stone recurrence was noted. Percutaneous endoscopic holmium laser lithotripsy is a minimally invasive alternative to open salvage surgery for complex biliary calculi refractory to standard approaches. This treatment is both safe and efficacious. Success depends on a multidisciplinary approach.

  14. Bilateral urinary calculi after treatment with a silicate-containing milk thickener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulinski, Tim; Sabot, Jean-François; Bourlon, Isabelle; Cochat, Pierre

    2004-04-01

    Nephrocalcinosis and/or urinary calculi are rare in infants. Furosemide treatment during the neonatal period, vitamin D intoxication, hereditary diseases such as hyperoxaluria or distal tubular acidosis are among the most common aetiologies. We report the case of a 6-month-old boy with an extra-hepatic biliary duct atresia treated by the Kasai procedure and a gastro-oesophageal reflux treated with a silicate containing milk thickener (Gelopectose, 5.5% colloidal silicate) since the neonatal period. He did not present any other endogenous risk factor for urinary stone formation (normal urinary calcium/creatinine ratio; normal urinary magnesium excretion). The nephrolithiasis was discovered as the boy presented painful episodes of macroscopic haematuria. Ultrasound examination revealed bilateral nephrocalcinosis and multiple bilateral calculi without infection or urinary obstruction. Infrared spectroscopy revealed silicate as the major component suggesting silicate absorption to be responsible for the described symptoms. After replacement of the silicate-containing agent by a silicate-free milk thickener, the lesions were completely reversible as confirmed by repeated renal ultrasound examinations over a 2-month period. Silicate-containing milk thickeners can be responsible for urinary calculi and/or nephrocalcinosis.

  15. Retroperitoneoscopic pyelolithotomy: a good alternative treatment for renal pelvic calculi in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Nicolino Cezarino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Nephrolitiasis, once considered an adult disease, has become increasingly prevalent in children, with an increase from 6% to 10 % annually in past 25 years. Kidney stones in pediatric population can result from metabolic diseases in up to 50% of children affected. Other factors associated with litiasis are infection, dietary factors, and anatomic malformations of urinary tract. Standard treatment procedures for pediatric population are similar to adult population. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL, ureterorenoscopy (URS, percutaneous nepfrolithotomy (PCNL, as well as laparoscopic and retroperitoneoscopic approaches can be indicated in selected cases. The advantages of laparoscopic or retroperitoneoscopic approaches are shorter mean operation time, no trauma of renal parenchyma, lower bleeding risk, and higher stone-free rates, especially in pelvic calculi with extrarenal pelvis, where the stone is removed intact. Patient and Methods: A 10 year-old girl presented with right abdominal flank pain, macroscopic hematuria, with previous history of urinary infections‥ Further investigation showed an 1,5 centimeter calculi in right kidney pelvis. A previous ureterorenoscopy was tried with no success, and a double J catheter was placed. After discussing options, a retroperitoneoscopic pielolithotomy was performed. Results: The procedure occurred with no complications, and the calculi was completely removed. The foley catheter was removed in first postoperative day and she was discharged 2 days after surgery. Double J stent was removed after 2 weeks. Conclusions: Retroperitoneoscopic pielolithotomy is a feasible and safe procedure in children, with same outcomes of the procedure for adult population.

  16. Renal calculi in dogs and cats: prevalence, mineral type, breed, age, and gender interrelationships (1981-1993).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, G V; Ruby, A L; Johnson, D L; Thurmond, M; Franti, C E

    1998-01-01

    Three hundred seventeen specimens of urinary calculi of renal origin from 214 female dogs and 103 male dogs, and 71 specimens of urinary calculi of renal origin from 38 female cats and 33 male cats were submitted for mineral analysis between July 1, 1981, and December 31, 1993. Among dogs, 45 breeds were affected with renal calculi. Thirty-three breeds and a crossbred group were represented among females, but 8 breeds and the crossbred group accounted for 81% of the total. Among male dogs, 30 breeds and a crossbred group were represented, but 7 breeds and the crossbred group accounted for 69% of the total. Among cats, 10 breeds and a crossbred group were represented. Dogs and cats with renal calculi were older than those of 2 comparison population groups. More than one-half of the renal calculi in both dogs and cats were from the 1st known episode of urolithiasis. The risk of formation of renal calculi was found to be higher for cats than for dogs, when compared to other stone-forming cats and dogs (approximately 4.95 per 100 stone-forming cats and 2.88 per 100 stone-forming dogs). Among dogs, breeds at highest risk of developing renal calculi were Miniature Schnauzers, Shih Tzus, Lhasa Aposos, Yorkshire Terriers, and female Pugs. Also at high risk were male Dalmatians and male Basset Hounds. Among small dogs, females generally were at higher risk of developing renal calculi than were males. Regardless of size, terrier breed males generally were at higher risk of developing renal calculi. Breeds of dogs at low risk for development of renal calculi included crossbreds. German Shepherd Dogs, Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers, and female Dachshunds. When only 1 kidney was involved, the risk of left renal calculus was greatest for both dogs and cats, but bilateral renal involvement was relatively common in both species (19% and 9%, respectively). Among dogs, specimens composed of 1 mineral substance (e.g., struvite) occurred more often in males (58.3%) than in

  17. [Clinical analysis of percutaneous nephrolithotomy for staghorn calculi with different stone branch number].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shi-yong; Zhang, Zhi-hong; Zhang, Chang-wen; Liu, Ran-lu; Shi, Qi-duo; Xu, Yong

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the impact of staghorn stone branch number on outcomes of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL). From January 2009 to January 2013, the 371 patients with staghorn stones who were referred to our hospital for PNL were considered for this study. All calculi were showed with CT 3-dimentional reconstruction (3-DR) imaging. The computerized database of the patients had been reviewed. Our exclusion criterion was patients with congenital renal anomalies, such as horse-shoe and ectopic kidneys. And borderline stones that branched to one major calyx only were also not included. From 3-DR images, the number of stone branching into minor renal calices was recorded. We made "3" as the branch breakdown between groups. And the patients were divided into four groups. The number of percutaneous tract, operative time, staged PNL, intra-operative blood loss, complications, stone clearance rate, and postoperative hospital day were compared. The 371 patients (386 renal units) underwent PNL successfully, included 144 single-tract PNL, 242 multi-tract PNL, 97 staged PNL. The average operative time was (100 ± 50) minutes; the average intra-operative blood loss was (83 ± 67) ml. The stone clearance rate were 61.7% (3 days) and 79.5% (3 months). The postoperative hospital stay was (6.9 ± 3.4) days. A significantly higher ratio of multi-tract (χ(2) = 212.220, P PNL (χ(2) = 49.679, P PNL for calculi with stone branch number ≥ 5. There was no statistically meaningful difference among the 4 groups based on Clavien complication system (P = 0.460). The possibility of multi-tract and staged PNL, lower rate of stone clearance and longer postoperative hospital day increase for staghorn calculi with stone branch number more than 5.

  18. Extensive bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis with calculi managed conservatively with antibiotics and DJ stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhulika Mahashabde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a life threatening, necrotizing upper urinary tract infection associated with gas within the kidney and/or perinephric space. To prevent mortality from this fulminant infection, early diagnosis is essential. CT scan should be done early in patients with suspected emphysematous pyelonephritis. Here, we present a case of Type II Diabetes Mellitus complicated with left obstructive ureteric calculi, diagnosed on CT scan to have extensive bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis of class 4. We treated conservatively with antibiotics and DJ stent. The patient responded and a repeat CT scan was done after 4 weeks which showed no evidence of emphysematous pyelonephritis.

  19. Treatment of small lower pole calculi--SWL vs. URS vs. PNL?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Thomas; Tasca, Andrea; Buchholz, Noor P

    2011-03-01

    According to current guideline recommendations extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) remains the first choice treatment for small and mid-sized renal calculi. However, the results of SWL treatment for lower pole stones can be disappointing whilst more invasive endoscopic modalities, such as flexible ureterorenoscopy (fURS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) are often considered more effective. This article summarizes a point-counterpoint discussion at the 9th eULIS symposium in Como, Italy, and discusses the potential advantages and disadvantages of the different therapeutic approaches.

  20. Robot-assisted anatrophic nephrolithotomy with renal hypothermia for managing staghorn calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Khurshid R; Rogers, Craig G; Sood, Akshay; Kumar, Ramesh; Ehlert, Michael; Jeong, Wooju; Ganpule, Arvind; Bhandari, Mahendra; Desai, Mahesh; Menon, Mani

    2013-11-01

    Treatment of patients with staghorn calculi with percutaneous nephrolithotomy can be challenging, often necessitating multiple tracts or sessions for complete stone clearance. Although open anatrophic nephrolithotomy can result in higher stone-free rates, it is rarely performed because of increased morbidity. To provide a minimally invasive alternative, we developed the technique of robot-assisted anatrophic nephrolithotomy (RANL) incorporating ice slush for renal hypothermia. Three patients with staghorn calculi (mean total stone volume 12887.67 mm(3)) underwent RANL with iced cold ischemia. A GelPOINT™ port was used for ice slush insertion. Intracorporeal temperatures were cold ischemia. Mean console and cold ischemia times were 167 and 56.7 minutes, respectively. Mean blood loss was 100 mL. There were no complications. Two patients had residual fragments measuring 13 mm, and two 9 mm stones, respectively. RANL with iced cold ischemia is a safe and feasible option that may be considered in patients with staghorn stones. Further study is needed to refine the technique and assess long-term functional outcomes.

  1. Plasma levels and urinary excretion of amino acids by subjects with renal calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassova, Stoyanka Slavcheva; Panchev, P; Ivanova, M

    2010-05-01

    Plasma levels and urinary amino acid excretions were estimated by high-performance liquid chromatography in 15 control subjects and 36 stone formers (SFs) classified according to the stone type: (1) 22 cases with calcium oxalate stones; (2) four cases with pure uric acid stones; (3) 10 cases with magnesium-ammonium phosphate stones, either pure or mixed with apatite. Some types of stones (namely oxalate and uric acid calculi) are mainly formed as a result of a metabolic deficiency that may affect the amino acid metabolism, and thus may be reflected in the urinary amino acid pattern. Data demonstrated clearly that there is a general tendency towards decreased amino acid excretions in all SFs with all types of stones. As a whole, one can observe a higher percentage of patients with calcium oxalate and phosphate calculosis, who have low urine excretions of amino acids; about 50% are the SFs with lower urine excretion of serine, glycine, taurine and i-leucine; the high percentage of patients with CaOX calculi shows lower urine excretions of tyrosine and ornithine.

  2. Expanding endourology for biliary stone disease: the efficacy of intracorporeal lithotripsy on refractory biliary calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sninsky, Brian C; Sehgal, Priyanka D; Hinshaw, J Louis; McDermott, John C; Nakada, Stephen Y

    2014-07-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of ureteroscopic therapy (electrohydraulic lithotripsy [EHL] and intraductal laser lithotripsy [ILL]) in patients with challenging biliary stones secondary to anatomic variations resulting from a previous surgical procedure, including liver transplantation. A retrospective chart review was performed for all patients with previous surgical alteration of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract who underwent EHL or ILL via peroral or percutaneous access for choledocholithiasis by a single surgeon at our institution from 2000 to 2012. A database containing clinical and surgical variables was created, and long-term follow-up was conducted (3-138 months; median, 99 months). Thirteen patients (51.7±20.0 years; M:F, 10:3) in whom endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC), or both failed were identified. Failure of ERCP/PTHC was because of inaccessibility of the calculi in all cases. Stone clearance was achieved in 12/13 (93%) patients; 8/12 (62%) after one procedure, and 4/12 (31%) after two procedures. One patient with biliary cast syndrome needed four interventions over 9 years. Major complications were low, with only one patient with hypotension and cholangitis that resolved with 24 hours of administration of intravenous fluids and antibiotics. Both endoscopic and percutaneous lithotripsies are effective treatments for refractory biliary calculi resulting from the post-surgical GI tract. Although a staged second procedure may be necessary in patients with significant stone burden, this is significantly better than extensive open surgery.

  3. [Mortality predictive factors in patients with urinary sepsis associated to upper urinary tract calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia, M; Iglesias, S; Serviá, L; Domingo, J; Gormaz, P; Vilanova, J; Gavilan, R; Trujillano, J

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the clinical characteristics of patients with urinary sepsis associated to ureteral calculi admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), and to identify predictors of mortality in the first 24 hours of admission. A retrospective observational study covering a 16-year period (2006-2011) was carried out. The combined clinical/surgical ICU of a secondary-level University hospital. All patients admitted to the ICU due to obstructive urinary sepsis. None. We analyzed general clinical and laboratory test and urological data. The diagnostic technique, affected side, decompression technique, isolated microorganism and antibiotic therapy used were also considered. The assessment of risk factors was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. A total of 107 patients admitted to the ICU were included in the study, with a mortality rate of 19.6%. The diagnosis was mainly established by ultrasound, and the most commonly used decompression technique was retrograde JJ stenting. Microorganisms were isolated in 48.6% of the patients. In total, 20.6% of the patients had bacteremia. Multivariate analysis found age, acute renal failure and the use of vasoactive drugs administered continuously for the first 24 hours of admission to be independently associated to mortality. Advanced age, acute renal failure and the need for vasoactive drugs were associated to an increased risk of mortality in patients with urinary sepsis associated to upper urinary tract calculi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  4. SCANNING ELECTRON-MICROSCOPIC EVALUATION OF THE FRACTURED SURFACES OF CANINE CALCULI FROM SUBSTRATA WITH DIFFERENT SURFACE FREE-ENERGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    UYEN, HMW; JONGEBLOED, WL; BUSSCHER, HJ

    1991-01-01

    The strength of adhesion between dental calculus and enamel or dentin surfaces determines the ease with which the calculus can be removed by brushing or professional dental treatment. In this study, we examined the adhesion of canine calculi formed on substrata with different surface free energies

  5. Urinary Calculi*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1973-01-27

    Jan 27, 1973 ... determined in 3 population groups. 'Calcium stones' comprised 53,1% of the total and most of the remainder were triple phosphate. The dis- tribution of these ... phosphate. Four of the uric acid and one of the cystine stones also contained magnesium ammonium phosphate. It is suggested that magnesium ...

  6. Renal blood flow and metabolism after cold ischaemia: peroperative measurements in patients with calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H K; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1984-01-01

    .01) immediately after re-established perfusion and 36% (P less than 0.02) 30 min later. In one additional patient, who had a short warm ischaemia (8 min), the flow pattern was the same. As arterial pressure remained constant, the reduced RBF signifies an increased renal vascular resistance. Renal O2-uptake......Peroperative measurements of renal blood flow (RBF), renal O2-uptake, and renal venous lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratio were performed before and after a period of 30-71 min of hypothermic (10-15 degrees C) renal ischaemia in nine patients, undergoing surgery for renal calculi. Before ischaemia, RBF...... and renal venous L/P ratio were almost constant, indicating no significant anaerobic processes being involved in the flow response. None of the patients showed any signs of reactive hyperaemia. It is concluded that hypothermic renal ischaemia may be followed by an increased renal vascular resistance even...

  7. Comparison of 2 pulsed lasers for lithotripsy of ureteral calculi: report on 154 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benizri, E; Wodey, J; Amiel, J; Toubol, J

    1993-12-01

    Extracorporeal lithotripsy does not always provide satisfactory results for the treatment of ureteral stones. Such cases appear to be excellent indications for endocorporeal lithotripsy based on an association of ureteroscopy and laser. To compare the performances of 2 pulsed lasers, the pulsed dye laser (Candela) and solid Q switched laser (HMT), for the treatment of these calculi 161 ureteral stones were treated successively from November 1990 to March 1992 by a combination of ureteroscopy and laser. Endocorporeal lithotripsy was performed in 102 cases with the Candela laser, in 47 with the HMT laser and in 7 with both lasers. With a stable success rate greater than 90%, both lasers demonstrated equivalent performances regardless of the location of the stone along the ureter. However, while stone fragmentation was more rapid with the Candela laser, the HMT laser appeared to be more effective for dark stones (monohydrate calcium oxidate).

  8. Calculus anuria in a spina bifida patient, who had solitary functioning kidney and recurrent renal calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, S; Soni, B M; Wyndaele, J-J; Buczynski, A Z; Iwatsubo, E; Stoehrer, M; Madersbacher, H; Peschel, R; Singh, G; Watt, J W H; Hughes, P L; Sett, P

    2004-01-01

    Clinical case report with comments by colleagues from Austria, Belgium, Germany, Japan, and Poland. To discuss challenges in the management of spinal bifida patients, who have marked kyphoscoliosis and no vascular access. Regional Spinal Injuries Centre, Southport, UK. A female patient, who was born with spina bifida, paraplegia and solitary right kidney, had undergone ileal loop urinary diversion. Renal calculi were noted in 1986. Percutaneous nephrostolithotomy was performed in 1989 and there was no residual stone fragment. However, she developed recurrence of calculi in the lower pole of the right kidney in 1991. Intravenous urography, performed in 1995, revealed right staghorn calculus and hydronephrosis. Chest X-ray showed markedly restricted lung volume due to severe kyphoscoliosis. In 2000, she was declared unsuitable for anaesthesia due to a lack of venous access and a high likelihood of difficulty in weaning off the ventilator in the postoperative period. In June 2002, she developed anuria (urine output=18 ml/24 h) due to ball-valve-type obstruction by a renal stone at the ureteropelvic junction. Urea: 14.4 mmol/l; creatinine: 236 microl/l. Ultrasound showed right hydronephrosis. Percutaneous nephrostomy was performed. Following relief of urinary tract obstruction, there was postobstructive diuresis (3765 ml/24 h). However, the patient expired 19 days later due to progressive respiratory failure. In this spina bifida patient, who had reached the age of 35 years, severe kyphoscoliosis and lack of vascular access presented insurmountable challenges to implement the desired surgical procedure for removal of stones from a solitary kidney.

  9. [Ensuring quality in the analyses of urinary calculi by a comparison of methods. 3d International Ring Trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebentisch, G; Berg, W; Pirlich, W; Hommann, D

    1986-01-01

    Of 5 analysis tests of the 3rd International Ring Experiment for the control of the quality of methods of the analysis of urinary calculi 38 findings compiled according to 9 different techniques came in from 12 countries. The average deviation per component concerning all 5 analysis tests is considerably low with 0.10 mol proportions. The average quality measure SQ concerning all participants is approximately 2.00; it deteriorates from the X-ray diffraction method over the IR-technique to the other quantitative methods used. Advantages and disadvantages of the X-ray diffraction and IR-spectroscopic analysis are discussed. A methodically homogeneous and centralized performed analysis of urinary calculi shows advantages in the quality of the analyses.

  10. Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation of the Fractured Surfaces of Canine Calculi from Substrata with Different Surface Free Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Uyen, H. M. W.; Jongebloed, W. L.; Busscher, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    The strength of adhesion between dental calculus and enamel or dentin surfaces determines the ease with which the calculus can be removed by brushing or professional dental treatment. In this study, we examined the adhesion of canine calculi formed on substrata with different surface free energies (sfe) and roughness by means of scanning electron microscopy. In 4 beagle dogs fenestrated crowns were made on the upper fourth premolars. Subsequently, facings of glass (sfe = 120 mJ. m-2), bovine ...

  11. PA01.04. Clinical study of shvadmstradi kwatha in the management of mutra ashmari (urinary calculi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thameem, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Renal calculi are the second most common disease of the urinary tract. Ashmari is a disease in which there is formation of stone, resulting into severe pain as given by enemy. It occurs commonly in the Mutravahasrotas. The symptoms like pain abdomen, burning Micturation, heamturia. Objectives of the present study were to get a solution to Mutra Ashmari by evaluating the efficacy of Shvadmstradi Kvatha. Method: 30 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria of Mutra Ashmari were randomly selected from the opd and ipd of S.D.M College of Ayurveda & hospital, Hassan. Shvadmstradi Kvatha was given with 50ml bd before food for 21 days follow up was done for the period of 2 months. Clinical sign and symptoms were given on the basis of self formulated scoring scale. The result having p value less than <0.05 were considered as statistically significant in this study. Result: Overall effect of therapies after the course of treatment showed based on signs & symptoms. Pain abdomen 83.95 %, frequency of micturition 43.28 %, burning micturition 100 %, haematuria 100 % no of calculi 30.0 %, size of calculus 49.91%, descent of calculi 44.77%. Conclusion: Shvadmstradi Kvatha has significant effect in the management of Mutra Ashmari. Reduction in clinical symptoms was appreciated after internally administration of medicine which is proved statistically significant.

  12. Management of ureteral calculi and medical expulsive therapy in emergency departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Picozzi C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Ureteral stones are a common problem in daily emergency department practice. Patients may be offered medical expulsive therapy (MET1 to facilitate stone expulsion and this should be offered as a treatment for patients with distal ureteral calculi, who are amenable to waiting management. Emergency department clinicians and family practitioners are often in the front line regarding the diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic nephrolithiasis and this commentary is dedicated to them because their decisions directly influence the outcome of the acute stone episode and appropriate referral patterns. Materials and Methods : The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to understand the role of MET in the treatment of obstructing ureteral calculi. A bibliographic search covering the period from January 1980 to March 2010 was conducted in PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE. The searches were restricted to publications in English. This analysis is based on the 21 studies that fulfilled the predefined inclusion criteria. Results : A metaregression analysis of expulsion time showed a statistically significant advantage in the experimental group, in which the mean expulsion time was 6.2 days compared to 10.3 days in controls. The treatment effect on expulsion rate (P = 0.53 was partially lost as the size of the stones decreased because of the high spontaneous expulsion rate of small stones and the expulsion time was not influenced by pharmacological treatment (P = 0.76 if the stone size was smaller than 5 mm. Analysis of the tamsulosin database : A total of 1283 participants were included in the 17 studies. These studies showed that compared to standard therapy or placebo, tamsulosin had significant benefits, being associated with both a higher stone expulsion rate (P < 0.001 and reduction of the expulsion time (P = 0.02. Reductions in the need for analgesic therapy, hospitalization and surgery are also shown. Analysis of the nifedipine

  13. Flexible ureterorenoscopy versus miniaturized PNL for solitary renal calculi of 10-30 mm size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Thomas; Jessen, Jan Peter; Honeck, Patrick; Wendt-Nordahl, Gunnar

    2011-12-01

    The value of flexible ureterorenoscopy (fURS) and miniaturized PNL (mPNL) for larger renal calculi is under discussion. This non-randomized prospective study aimed to evaluate fURS and mPNL for solitary renal stones of 10-30 mm size. fURS was carried out in 21 patients with last generation 7.5F endoscopes. Ureteral access sheaths were used in 19 patients. For mPNL, an 18F modified Amplatz sheath with a 14F nephroscope were used (n = 25). The procedure was performed either tubeless with an antegrade stent or a nephrostomy. Outcome and complications of both procedures were assessed. Patients' demographics and stone sizes were comparable (18 ± 5 vs. 19 ± 4 mm, P = 0.08). Patients in the fURS group had a higher mean BMI (31 vs. 27, P < 0.05). Total OR time was significantly longer for fURS (106 ± 51 vs. 59 ± 19 min., P < 0.001). More patients were stone-free after one single percutaneous treatment, while 2nd-stage treatments with fURS were common (total procedures 1.04 vs. 1.52, P < 0.001; immediate stone-free rate (SFR) 96% vs. 71.5%, P < 0.001). SFR after 4 weeks was 100% (mPNL) and 85.8% (fURS) (P < 0.01). Minor complications as classified by Clavien I or II occurred in 16 and 23.8%, mPNL and fURS, respectively, P = 0.13). No major complications (Clavien III-V) occured in both groups. Our series supports both the concept of either percutaneous or retrograde endoscopic treatment for renal calculi with both modalities offering excellent safety. However, while for fURS, a significantly higher rate of 2nd-stage procedures was necessary, and mPNL led to faster and higher SFR without increasing complication rate.

  14. Management of symptomatic ureteral calculi during pregnancy: Experience of 23 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S Abdel-Kader

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present our experience in the management of symptomatic ureteral calculi during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three pregnant women, aged between 19 and 28 years presented to the obstetric and urology departments with renal colic (17 cases, 73.9% and fever and renal pain (6 cases, 26.1%; suggesting ureteric stones. The diagnosis was established by ultrasonography (abdominal and transvaginal. Outpatient follow-up consisted of clinical assessment and abdominal ultrasonography. Follow-up by X-ray of the kidneys, ureter, and bladder (KUB, or intravenous urography (IVU was done in the postpartum period. Results: Double J (DJ stent was inserted in six women (26% with persistent fever followed by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL one month post-partum. Ureteroscopic procedure and pneumatic lithotripsy were performed for 17 women (distal ureteric stone in 10, middle ureter in 5, and upper ureteric stone in 2. Stone-free rate was 100%. No urologic, anesthetic, or obstetric complications were encountered. Conclusions: Ureteroscopy, pneumatic lithotripsy, and DJ insertion could be a definitive and safe option for the treatment of obstructive ureteric stones during pregnancy.

  15. Value of intravenous urography before shockwave lithotripsy in the treatment of renal calculi: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameh, Wael M

    2007-06-01

    To study the impact of preprocedure intravenous urography (IVU) on the outcome of SWL for renal stones. Two hundred patients with radiopaque renal stones IVU before the start of SWL, whereas patients in the second group (n = 100) underwent SWL without IVU. Thirteen patients in the IVU group and seven patients in the no-IVU group were excluded from the study. Patients in both groups received the same treatment and follow-up protocols. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were evaluated in all patients. An endpoint assessment by plain film was done 3 months after the conclusion of treatment to evaluate the success and stone-free rates. The success rate (81.6% in group 1 v 77.4% in group 2), stone-free rate (65.5% v 62.3%), re-treatment rate (59.8% v 69.9%), auxiliary-procedure rate (6.9% v 5.4%), and complication rate (11.5% v 14%) were similar in the two groups. It is not necessary to obtain an IVU for patients who have renal calculi with no or minimal back pressure before scheduling them for SWL, thus minimizing the cost, avoiding exposure to contrast medium, and reducing radiation exposure.

  16. Piezoelectric lithotripsy monotherapy for partial or total staghorn lithiasis and calculi larger than thirty millimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiel, J A; Peyrottes, A Y; Touabi, K; Benizri, E J; Toubol, J

    1991-07-01

    Thirty patients with partial or total staghorn lithiasis or calculi larger than 30 mm were treated by piezoelectric lithotripsy (PEL) monotherapy using an EDAP LT-01 lithotripter with ultrasound guidance. Nineteen of these patients had a pelvic stone; the other 11 had partial (nine) or total (two) staghorn lithiasis. All patients first underwent an initial lithotripsy session. No anesthesia or intravenous sedation was required in any case. If stone fracturization was achieved after this first session, a double J stent was inserted before the second lithotripsy session. Prior to the first session, 18 of 30 patients had a sterile urine culture; 12 of 30 presented major distention of the excretory tract. Results were analyzed to determine those factors influencing the outcome of this therapy. Three months after the first session, patients were considered cured if their stone had completely disappeared on abdominal plain films (14/30 = 46%). In seven patients (23.3%), fracturization had occurred but residual fragments remained (1-3 fragments less than or equal to 4 mm). No fracturization was obtained after the first session in nine patients (30.7%) (one total staghorn lithiasis, eight pelvic stones). The mean number of treatment sessions was five (range 1-15). Complications occurred in only 10% of patients (3/30): two steinstrasse and one acute pyelonephritis. Eighty-three percent of patients without major excretory tract distention and 55% of patients whose initial urine culture was sterile, achieved a stone-free state.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Scintigraphy and Doppler ultrasonography for the evaluation of obstructive urinary calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gandolpho

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty-seven patients with unilateral obstructive calculi (12 males and 35 females were submitted to 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA or 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA scans for assessment of renal function. The scans revealed unilateral functional deficit in 68 and 66% of the patients, respectively. A calculus size of 1.1 to 2.0 cm was significantly associated with deficit detected by DTPA, but duration of obstruction and calculus localization were not. After relief of the obstruction, the mean percent renal function of the affected kidney was found to be significantly increased from 25 ± 12% to 29 ± 12% in DTPA and from 21 ± 15% to 24 ± 12% in DMSA. Initial Doppler ultrasonography performed in 35 patients detected an increased resistive index in 10 (29%. In the remaining patients with a normal resistive index, ureteral urinary jet was observed, indicating partial obstruction. The high frequency of renal function impairment detected by DTPA and of tubulointerstitial damage detected by DMSA as well as the slight amelioration of unilateral renal function after relief of obstruction suggest that scintigraphy assessment may help evaluate the unilateral percentage of renal function and monitor renal function recovery when it occurs. The presence of a urinary jet detected by Doppler ultrasonography further indicates the severity of obstruction and the recovery prognosis.

  18. Tratamiento no quirúrgico de la litiasis biliar Non-Surgical treatment of biliary calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Franco

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Se describen diversos procedimientos para el tratamiento no quirúrgico de la colelitiasis: la administración de ácidos billares orales, la litotripsia extracorpórea, la colecistostomía percutánea, la escleroterapia de la vesícula y la litotripsia mecánica; se consignan las indicaciones, ventajas, desventajas y limitaciones de cada uno de ellos.

    Several procedures are described for non-surgical treatment of biliary calculi, namely: oral administration of bile acids, extracorporeal shock-wave lithotrypsy I percutaneous cholecystostomy I gallbladder sclerotherapy

    and mechanicallithotrypsy. lndications, advantages, disadvantages and limitations of each procedure are discussed.

  19. [Comparative study of X-ray digital tomosynthesis imaging based on intravenous urography and unenhanced multidetector-row computerized tomography in urinary calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuerdi, Batuer; Wang, Hui; Huo, Zhong; Abula, Gulipiyan; Mahemuti, Biekemulati; Abulizi, Maihemuti

    2014-04-22

    To evaluate the clinical application value of X-ray digital DTSynthesis (DTS) based on IVU (Intravenous Urography)in urinary calculi contrasted with unenhanced multidetector-row computerized tomography. 75 patients suspected of urinary calculi underwent IVU, DTS based on IVU and UMDCT. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive of the three imaging ways were acquired according to operations, respectively. Chi-square test was used to evaluate the difference among the three ways. In 75 cases, 60 cases were proved to be urinary calculi. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive of IVU, DTS based on IVU,UMDCT is 70.0%, 73.3%, 70.7%, 91.3%, 37.9%; 91.7%, 86.7%, 90.7%, 96.5%, 72.2%; 96.7%, 86.7%, 94.7%, 96.7%, 86.7%, respectively.No significant differences between DTS based on IVU and UMDCT were found in sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive. Both cases are better than IVU in diagnostic ability. There is no significant difference in diagnostic ability of urinary calculi between DTS and UMDCT. DTS can be used as a routine imaging technique in diagnosis and follow up of urinary calculi.

  20. Treatment of ureteral calculi by ureteroscopy: experience of 100 cases at the Faculdade de Medicina do ABC (FMABC – Medical School

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    Antonio Corrêa Lopes Neto

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the experience of treating ureteral calculi byureteroscopy at the Faculdade de Medicina do ABC – SP, with anemphasis on the efficacy and safety of the method. Methods: Aretrospective analysis of 100 ureteroscopies performed fromJanuary 2001 to August 2003 in 98 patients with ureteral calculi.Results: A 91% success rate was observed with a single procedureusing this technique. Intracorporeal lithotripsy was necessary in61% of cases before removing the stone; in the remaining cases, itwas extracted with no disintegration. Endoscopic approach wasimpossible in only one patient who required conversion toconventional open surgery. The double-J stent was inserted in73.7% of procedures. Complications were observed in 8% of cases.Conclusion: The present study demonstrated results comparablewith those reported in large series in the literature. The high successrates, low morbidity, rapid convalescence and lack of estheticconsequences corroborate the role of ureteroscopy as an attractivealternative for treating ureteral calculi.

  1. Efficacy of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors for the treatment of distal ureteral calculi: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Carlos Eduardo Montes Cardona

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the efficacy of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5i as medical expulsive therapy (MET for the treatment of distal ureteral calculi. Materials and Methods: A search strategy was conducted in the MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and Embase databases. Searches were also conducted in other databases and unpublished literature. Clinical trials were included without language restrictions. The risk of bias was evaluated with the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool. An analysis of random effects due to statistical heterogeneity was conducted. The primary outcome was the expulsion rate of the distal ureteral calculus in 28 days. The secondary outcomes were the time to expulsion, side effects of treatment, and amount (mg of nonopioid analgesia. The measure of the effect was the risk difference (RD with a 95% confidence interval (CI. The planned interventions were PDE5i vs. placebo, tadalafil vs. placebo, and tadalafil vs. tamsulosin. Results: Four articles were included in the qualitative and quantitative analysis. Records of 580 patients were found among the four studies. A low risk of bias was shown for the majority of the study items. The calculi expulsion rate had an RD of 0.26 (95% CI, 0.15–0.37 and a less prolonged expulsion as a secondary outcome with a mean difference of -4.39 days (95% CI, -6.69 to -2.09 in favor of PDE5i compared with the placebo. No significant difference was found for these outcomes when comparing tadalafil with tamsulosin. Conclusions: Compared with a placebo, PDE5i could be effective as MET for the treatment of distal ureter calculi.

  2. Anti-Urolithiatic Effect of Cow Urine Ark on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Renal Calculi

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    A.B Shukla

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To investigate the anti-urolithiatic effect of cow urine ark (medicinal distilled cow urine on ethylene glycol (EG induced renal calculi. Materials and Methods 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 equal groups. Group I animals served as vehicle control and received distilled water for 28 days. Group II to VI animals received 1% v/v EG in distilled water for 28 days. Group II served as EG control. Group III and IV (preventive groups received cow urine ark orally for 28 days in doses of 1 mL/kg and 2 mL/kg, respectively. Group V and VI (treatment groups received 1 mL/kg and 2 mL/kg cow urine ark orally, respectively from 15th to 28th days. 24-hour urine samples were collected on day 0 and 28. Urine volume and oxalate levels were measured. On day 28, blood was collected for biochemical parameters. Animals were sacrificed and kidneys were harvested, weighed and histopathologically evaluated for calcium oxalate (CaOx crystals. To calculate the percentage of inhibition of mineralization, simultaneous flow static in-vitro model was used. Results EG significantly increased urine oxalate, serum creatinine, blood urea level; kidney weight and CaOx deposits. Provision of cow urine ark resulted in significantly lower levels of urine oxalate, serum creatinine, blood urea and CaOx depositions as compared to Group II. (p value < 0.05 It also significantly restored kidney weight. (p value < 0.05 Cow urine ark inhibited 40% and 35% crystallization of CaOx and calcium phosphate, respectively. Conclusion Cow urine ark is effective in prevention and treatment of EG induced urolithiasis in Wistar rats.

  3. Protective effect of Urtica dioica methanol extract against experimentally induced urinary calculi in rats.

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    Zhang, Haiying; Li, Ning; Li, Kun; Li, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Renal calculi formation is one of the most common urological disorders. Urinary stone disease is a common disease, which affects 10‑12% of the population in industrialized countries. In males, the highest prevalence of the disease occurs between the age of 20 and 40 years, while in females, the highest incidence of the disease occurs later. Previous studies have shown that long‑term exposure to oxalate is toxic to renal epithelial cells and results in oxidative stress. In the present study, a methanolic extract of aerial parts of Urtica dioica was screened for antiurolithiatic activity against ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride‑induced calcium oxalate renal stones in male rats. In the control rats, ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride administration was observed to cause an increase in urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine levels, as well as an increase in renal calcium and oxalate deposition. Histopathological observations revealed calcium oxalate microcrystal deposits in the kidney sections of the rats treated with ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride, indicating the induction of lithiasis. In the test rats, treatment with the methanolic extract of Urtica dioica was found to decrease the elevated levels of urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine, and significantly decrease the renal deposition of calcium and oxalate. Furthermore, renal histological observations revealed a significant reduction in calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the test rats. Phytochemical analysis of the Urtica dioica extract was also performed using liquid chromatography‑electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection, to determine the chemical composition of the extract. The eight chemical constituents identified in the extract were protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, luteolin, gossypetin, rutin, kaempferol‑3‑O‑rutinoside, kaempferol‑3‑O‑glucoside and chlorogenic acid. In conclusion

  4. Complications of surgical management of upper tract calculi in spina bifida patients: analysis of nationwide data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsin-Hsiao S; Wiener, John S; Ferrandino, Michael N; Lipkin, Michael E; Routh, Jonathan C

    2015-04-01

    The management of upper urinary tract stones in patients with spina bifida is challenging but poorly described in the literature. We compared urolithiasis interventions and related complications in patients with spina bifida to those in other stone formers using a national database. We retrospectively reviewed the NIS to identify hospital admissions for renal and ureteral stones from 1998 to 2011. We used ICD-9-CM codes to identify urological interventions, including shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ureteral stent placement. NSQIP data were used to identify postoperative complications. We identified 4,287,529 weighted stone hospital admissions, including 12,315 (0.3%) of patients with spina bifida. Compared to those without spina bifida the patients with spina bifida who had urolithiasis were significantly younger (mean age 34 vs 53 years), more likely to have public insurance (72% vs 44%) and renal vs ureteral calculi (81% vs 58%), and undergo percutaneous nephrolithotomy (27% vs 8%). After adjusting for age, insurance, comorbidity, treatment year, surgery type, stone location and hospital factors patients with spina bifida were more likely to have urinary tract infections (OR 2.5), urinary complications (OR 3.1), acute renal failure (OR 1.9), respiratory complications (OR 2.0), pneumonia (OR 1.5), respiratory insufficiency (OR 3.2), prolonged mechanical ventilation (OR 3.2), sepsis (OR 2.7), pulmonary embolism (OR 3.0), cardiac complications (OR 2.4) and bleeding (OR 1.6). Compared to those without spina bifida the patients with spina bifida who were hospitalized for urolithiasis were younger, and more likely to have renal stones and undergo percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Urolithiasis procedures in patients with spina bifida were associated with a significantly higher risk of in-hospital postoperative complications. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  5. The relative cost-effectiveness of PCNL and ESWL for medium sized (2 cms renal calculi in a tertiary care urological referral centre

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    Pradeep P Rao

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of cost-effectiveness studies in India comparing PCNL and ESWL in the treatment of renal cal-culi. We are dependent on costing studies from western literature, although the nature of expenses in developed countries is quite different from those in India. This study compares the two procedures with regards to cost-effec-tiveness & efficacy in clearing medium-sized renal calculi (2.0 cms at our institute. All costs borne by the patient & the institute were taken into account, including equip-ment costs, stay charges & cost of travel incurred, for re-peat visits to the institute. The groups compared had similar stone characteristics & were from our early experience with the two methods. All costing was done at 1998 rates by submitting case sheets to a fresh billing. PCNL, was significantly more efficient at clearing calculi (94% vs 69% than ESWL, but patients needed hospitalization. The re-quirement of ancillary procedures was significantly less with PCNL than ESWL (1 vs 35 and ESWL was more expensive although the difference was not statistically sig-nificant. High initial cost of a lithotripter along with the need for repeated visits to the hospital for clearance of the calculus contribute to the increased cost of ESWL. PCNL ensures clearance of calculi at a single hospital admission with minimal morbidity.

  6. A rare case of asymptomatic bilateral submandibular gland sialolithiasis: a giant, fistulized calculus on the right and multiple calculi on the left.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emir, Hatice; Kaptan, Zeynep Kizilkaya; Uzunkulaoglu, Hakki; Dogan, Sedat

    2010-10-01

    Sialolithiasis is the most common disease of the submandibular gland; sialoliths account for at least 80% of all salivary duct calculi. We present a rare case of asymptomatic bilateral submandibular gland sialoliths. On the right, the patient had a giant (35 × 35 mm) sialolith that had fistulized into the oral cavity. In the left submandibular gland, he had 30 differently sized sialoliths.

  7. Virtual nonenhanced dual-energy CT urography with tin-filter technology: determinants of detection of urinary calculi in the renal collecting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Stefanie; Thomas, Christoph; Fenchel, Michael; Vuust, Morten; Krauss, Bernhard; Ketelsen, Dominik; Tsiflikas, Ilias; Claussen, Claus D; Heuschmid, Martin

    2012-07-01

    To retrospectively determine which features of urinary calculi are associated with their detection after virtual elimination of contrast medium at dual-energy computed tomographic (CT) urography by using a novel tin filter. The institutional ethics committee approved this retrospective study, with waiver of informed consent. A total of 152 patients were examined with single-energy nonenhanced CT and dual-energy CT urography in the excretory phase (either 140 and 80 kV [n=44] or 140 and 100 kV [n=108], with tin filtration at 140 kV). The contrast medium in the renal pelvis and ureters was virtually removed from excretory phase images by using postprocessing software, resulting in virtual nonenhanced (VNE) images. The sensitivity regarding the detection of calculi on VNE images compared with true nonenhanced (TNE) images was determined, and interrater agreement was evaluated by using the Cohen k test. By using logistic regression, the influences of image noise, attenuation, and stone size, as well as attenuation of the contrast medium, on the stone detection rate were assessed. Threshold values with maximal sensitivity and specificity were calculated by means of receiver operating characteristic analyses. Eighty-seven stones were detected on TNE images; 46 calculi were identified on VNE images (sensitivity, 52.9%). Interrater agreement revealed a κ value of 0.95 with TNE images and 0.91 with VNE data. Size (long-axis diameter, P=.005; short-axis diameter, P=.041) and attenuation (P=.0005) of the calculi and image noise (P=.0031) were significantly associated with the detection rate on VNE images. As threshold values, size larger than 2.9 mm, maximum attenuation of the calculi greater than 387 HU, and image noise less than 20 HU were found. After virtual elimination of contrast medium, large (>2.9 mm) and high-attenuation (>387 HU) calculi can be detected with good reliability; smaller and lower attenuation calculi might be erased from images, especially with

  8. [Effects of retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy and flexible-ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy for complex upper ureteral calculi].

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    Zhang, L J; Wu, B; Zha, Z L; Zhao, H; Yang, W; Chen, X H; Jiang, B; Huang, Q; Li, W J; Yuan, J

    2017-10-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical effects of retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy (RPLU) and flexible-ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy (f-UHLL) for complicated upper ureteral calculi. Methods: A total of 45 cases of complicated upper ureteral calculi between March 2014 and January 2016 in Department of Urology, Affiliated Jiangyin Hospital of Southeast University Medical College were retrospectively analyzed, there were 32 males and 13 females, ranging from 27 to 45 years with an average age of (34.1±9.5) years. Of the 45 patients, 28 had ureteral distortion and 17 had concurrent ureteral stones in the lower or middle ipsilateral ureter. In those patients, 20 cases underwent f-UHLL, and 25 cases received RPLU. The stone size, operation time, hospital stay, stone clearance rates and postoperative fever rates between the two groups were compared with t test and χ(2)test. Results: The operation was successfully performed in all patients, no complications with leakage of urine or ureteral perforation occurred, and no significant difference in renal function between the two methods were founded in postoperative period. There was no significant difference in operation time((78.4±8.5) minuetes vs.(73.3±11.3) minuetes, t=0.61, P=0.67), time of double J tube removed ((33.8±3.4)days vs. (37.6±8.9) d, t=2.37, P=0.08) and ipsilateral renal glomerular filtration rates ((41.3±7.6)ml/minuetes vs.(40.5±7.1) ml/min, t=0.78, P=1.27) between the two groups. However, the hospitalization time ((5.9±1.7)days vs. (4.2±1.6) days, t=1.92, P=0.04), postoperative fever rates (4% vs.30%, χ(2)=5.72, P=0.03) and calculus clearance rates (100% vs. 75%, χ(2)=7.03, P=0.01) in RPLU were significantly higher than f-UHLL. Besides, 5 patients in the f-UHLL group had postoperative stone residue and were treated with extracorpore shock wave lithotripsy. Conclusions: Both RPLU and f-UHLL are safety and validity for complex upper ureteral calculi. RPLU can improve the rate of

  9. Minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy guided by ultrasonography to treat upper urinary tract calculi complicated with severe spinal deformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhaohui; Zhang, Caixia; Zeng, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To report our experience of minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy(MPCNL) in managing upper urinary tract calculi complicated with severe spinal deformity. Materials and Methods: Between August 2001 to December 2012, 16 upper urinary calculi in 13 patients with severe spinal deformity were treated by MPCNL. Preoperative investigation of the respiratory function, evaluation of anatomy by intravenous urography (IVU) and CT scan, and preoperative kidney ultrasonagraphy with simulation of the percutaneous puncture were performed in all patients. The percutaneous puncture was guided by ultrasonography. Results: A total of 19 MPCNL procedures were performed in 16 kidneys, with an average 1.2 procedures in each kidney. Three kidneys needed two sessions of MPCNL, and 2 kidneys needed combined treatment with retrograde flexible ureterscopic lithotripsy. All procedures were successfully completed with no major complications during or after surgery. The mean (range) operative duration was 67 (20-150) min and the mean postoperative haemoglobin drop was 1.0 (0.2-3.1) g/dL. Complete stone-free status was achieved in 14 kidneys. At a mean follow-up of 48(3-86) months, recurrence of small lower calyx stone was detected in one patient. Recurrent UTI was documented by urine culture in two patients and managed with sensitive antibiotics. Conclusion: PCNL for patients with severe spinal deformities is challenging. Ultrasonography-assisted puncture can allow safe and successfully establishment of PCN tract through a narrow safety margin of puncture and avoid the injury to the adjacent organs. However, the operation should be performed in tertiary centers with significant expertise in managing complex urolithiasis. PMID:27509373

  10. Minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy guided by ultrasonography to treat upper urinary tract calculi complicated with severe spinal deformity

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    Zhaohui He

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To report our experience of minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy(MPCNL in managing upper urinary tract calculi complicated with severe spinal deformity. Materials and Methods: Between August 2001 to December 2012, 16 upper urinary calculi in 13 patients with severe spinal deformity were treated by MPCNL. Preoperative investigation of the respiratory function, evaluation of anatomy by intravenous urography (IVU and CT scan, and preoperative kidney ultrasonagraphy with simulation of the percutaneous puncture were performed in all patients. The percutaneous puncture was guided by ultrasonography. Results: A total of 19 MPCNL procedures were performed in 16 kidneys, with an average 1.2 procedures in each kidney. Three kidneys needed two sessions of MPCNL, and 2 kidneys needed combined treatment with retrograde flexible ureterscopic lithotripsy. All procedures were successfully completed with no major complications during or after surgery. The mean (range operative duration was 67 (20-150 min and the mean postoperative haemoglobin drop was 1.0 (0.2-3.1 g/dL. Complete stone-free status was achieved in 14 kidneys. At a mean follow-up of 48(3-86 months, recurrence of small lower calyx stone was detected in one patient. Recurrent UTI was documented by urine culture in two patients and managed with sensitive antibiotics. Conclusion: PCNL for patients with severe spinal deformities is challenging. Ultrasonography-assisted puncture can allow safe and successfully establishment of PCN tract through a narrow safety margin of puncture and avoid the injury to the adjacent organs. However, the operation should be performed in tertiary centers with significant expertise in managing complex urolithiasis.

  11. Content and Face Validation of a Curriculum for Ultrasonic Propulsion of Calculi in a Human Renal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunmire, Barbrina; Cunitz, Bryan W.; He, Xuemei; Sorensen, Mathew D.; Harper, Jonathan D.; Bailey, Michael R.; Lendvay, Thomas S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Ultrasonic propulsion to reposition urinary tract calculi requires knowledge about ultrasound image capture, device manipulation, and interpretation. The purpose of this study was to validate a cognitive and technical skills curriculum to teach urologists ultrasonic propulsion to reposition kidney stones in tissue phantoms. Materials and Methods: Ten board-certified urologists recruited from a single institution underwent a didactic session on renal ultrasound imaging. Subjects completed technical skills modules in tissue phantoms, including kidney imaging, pushing a stone through a translucent maze, and repositioning a lower pole calyceal stone. Objective cognitive and technical performance metrics were recorded. Subjects completed a questionnaire to ascertain face and content validity on a five-point Likert scale. Results: Eight urologists (80%) had never attended a previous ultrasound course, and nine (90%) performed renal ultrasounds less frequently than every 6 months. Mean cognitive skills scores improved from 55% to 91% (pultrasound proficiency in stone repositioning technique. Further studies in animate and human models will be required to assess predictive validity. PMID:24228719

  12. Therapeutic Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Cerasus Avium Stem on Ethylene Glycol- Induced Kidney Calculi in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaryan, Ehsaneh; Malekaneh, Mohammad; Shemshadi Nejad, Maryam; Haghighi, Fatemeh

    2017-07-02

    To investigate the therapeutic effects of the aqueous extract of Cerasus Avium stem on kidney calculi. In this experimental study, forty-eight (48) male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into six (6) groups and were studied during a 30 day period. Group A served as normal control and Group B received 1% ethylene glycol in drinking water (EG group). C, D, E, and F Groups, received 1% ethylene glycol from day 1 and were used as prevention and treatment subjects. Rats in prevention groups of low dose (C) and high dose (D) extract, were gavaged with 200 and 400 mg/kg extract respectively from first day of the experiment and treatmentgroups of low dose (E) and high dose (F) extract, were gavaged with 200 and 400 mg/kg extract respectively from the 15th day of the experiment. On the 30th days of the experiment, serum level of magnesium and potassium decreased significantly in EG group compared with A,C,D,E and F groups (P < .05), while serum level of calcium, creatinine, uric acid, sodium and urine level of calcium, creatinine, uric acid, increased significantly in EG group compared with A,C,D,E and F groups (P < .05). In the prevention and treatment groups, the number of deposits decreased significantly compared with EG group on the 30th day (P < .05). Cerasus Avium stem has a therapeutic effect on calcium oxalate stones in rats with nephrolithiasis and reduces the number of calcium oxalate deposits.

  13. [Exclusive piezo-electric lithotripsy (EDAP LT 01) in the treatment of calculi larger than 30 mm. Pyelic, partial or total staghorn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiel, J; Chevallier, D; Quintens, H; Peyrottes, A; Benizri, E; Touabi, K; Toubol, J

    1991-01-01

    Thirty patients with partial of total staghorn calculi or pyelic calculi greater than 30 mm were treated by extracorporal piezo-electric lithotripsy (PEL) exclusively with an EDAP LT 01 lithotripter equipped with an ultrasound localisation system. Nineteen patients had a pyelic calculus and the others a partial (n = 9) or total (n = 2) staghorn calculus. All patients first underwent extracorporal lithotripsy (ECL). None of the patients received IV sedation or anesthesia. When fragmentation of the calculus was observed after the first session, a double J stent was inserted before the second ELC session. Before the first session, urine samples were sterile in 18 of the 30 patients; 12 of the 30 patients presented major distention of the urinary tract. Results were analysed to identify factors affecting results of this type of treatment. Patients whose calculus had completely disappeared on plain films three months after the first session were considered to be cured clinically and radiologically (14/30 = 46%). Seven patients (23.3%) were clinically cured (absence of pain and sterile urine) but there were residual fragments (1 to 3 fragments less than or equal to 4 mm). No fragmentation was obtained after the first session in 9 patients (30.7%) (1 total staghorn, 8 pyelic calculi). The mean number of sessions was 5 (range 1-15). Only 10% of the patients (3/30) presented a complication: 2 steinstrasses and 1 acute pyelonephritis. 83% of the patients without urinary tract distention and 55% of the patients whose urines were initially sterile were cured.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Comparison of YAG Laser Lithotripsy and Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy in Treatment of Ureteral Calculi: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Li, Shijun; Cui, Yingdong

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficiency and safety of ureteroscopy lithotripsy (URSL) with holmium laser technology and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) on ureteral calculi using systematic reviews. Randomized controlled trials and prospective controlled trials accorded with inclusion among PubMed Database, EmBase Database, Cochrane Library and China National Knowledge Infrastructure were collected. Review Manager 5.0 was adopted to estimate the effects of the results among selected articles. Forest plots, sensitivity analysis and bias analysis for the articles included were also conducted. Pooled estimate of risk ratios and standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% CIs were used as measures of effect sizes. Finally 1,770 patients were included in the 14 studies, which eventually satisfied the eligibility criteria. The number of patients in URSL group and ESWL group were 885 and 885, respectively. The results of heterogeneity test suggested that complication events (RR 1.12 (95% CI 0.63-2.00), p = 0.70), hospital days (SMD = -0.08 (95% CI -1.14 to 0.98), p = 0.88) and efficiency quotient (RR 1.31 (95% CI 0.96-1.80), p = 0.09) were insignificantly different, while the stone-free rate (RR 1.15 (95% CI 1.06-1.26), p = 0.002) and operation time (SMD = -2.27 (95% CI -3.42 to -1.11), p = 0.0001) between ESWL and URSL were significantly different. Although both URSL and ESWL have its own advantages and drawbacks, URSL is relatively a more efficient and safe method to treat ureteric stones, since it has shorter operation time and a better stone-free rate. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. [Extracorporeal piezoelectric lithotripsy (EDAP LT 01) in the treatment of ureteral calculi. Apropos of a series of 143 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiel, J; Touabi, K; Peyrottes, A; Toubol, J

    1990-01-01

    The results for 143 cases of ureteral stones treated by EDAP LT01 were analyzed concerning stone location, ureteral manipulation and treatment position. The ureter was divided into six segments: ureteropelvic junction (UPJ), proximal ureter (PU1 and PU2), mid-ureter (MU), distal ureter (D1 and D2). The overall fracturization rate (FR) was 72%, as detailed below: UPJ (89%, 26/29), PU1 (86%, 13/15), PU2-MU (62%, 15/24), DU1 (59%, 25/42), DU2 (72%, 24/33). Anesthesia or iv sedation were never used for PEL. 24% of the patients underwent retrograde ureteral manipulation (in situ/push back = 108/35). For PU1, the FR was twice as high after retrograde manipulation (in situ/push back = 5/8). For PU2 and MU, the supine position was most common. For UPJ and PU1, it was often better to have the patient lie on his side. For DU1 and DU2, a prone position was necessary. For all stones in DU1, the bladder must be well filled; the FR was higher in DU2 than in DU1. DU2 stones appeared to adhere to the bladder wall or were intravesical (stone in the meatus). The stone-free rate for successfully manipulated ureteral calculi (3 month's follow-up) was 93% (27/29). The stone-free rate for in situ stones at 3 months was 94% (70/74). Extracorporeal piezoelectric lithotripsy combined with stone manipulation is highly efficient in the management of UPJ, PU1 and DU2 stones. The success rate of in situ PEL improves after the operator becomes skilled with the procedure. The advantages of the EDAP LT01 are the absence of pain, no need for anesthesia, and the mobility of the shock wave unit.

  16. [Extracorporeal piezoelectric lithotripsy in the treatment of calculi of the ureter. Apropos of a series of 143 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiel, J; Touabi, K; Peyrottes, A; Toubol, J

    1990-01-01

    The results obtained in 143 cases or ureteral stones treated by EDAP LT-01 were analysed concerning stone location, ureteral manipulation, and treatment position. The ureter was divided into six segments: ureteropelvic junction (UPJ), proximal ureter higher than the lower pole of the kidney (PU1), proximal ureter between the lower pole and the iliac crest (PU2), mid-ureter between the iliac crest and the lower end of the sacroiliac joint (MU), distal ureter between the lower end of the sacroiliac joint and the ischial spine (DU1), and the distal ureter below the ischial spine to the meatus (DU2). The overall fragmentation rate (FR) was 72%, as detailed below: (table; see text) Anesthesia or iv sedation was never used for EPL. 28% of the patients underwent retrograde ureteral manipulation (29/103). For PU1, the FR was twice as high after retrograde manipulation (push back/in situ = 5/8). For UPJ, the supine position was most common. For PU1 and PU2, it was often better to have the patient lie on his side. For DU1 and DU2, a prone position was necessary. For all stones in DU1, the bladder had to be well filled and the FR was higher in DU2 than in DU1. DU2 stones appeared to adhere to the bladder wall or were intravesical (stone in the meatus). The stone-free rate for successfully manipulated ureteral calculi (3 month follow-up) is 93% (27/29). The stone-free rate for in situ stones at 3 months is 94% (70/74). Extracorporeal piezoelectric lithotripsy combined with stone manipulation is highly efficient in the management of UPJ, PU1 and DU2 stones.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. [Single-session extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for urinary calculi: factors predicting success after three weeks of follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivaldi, B; Fernández, M I; López, J F; Fuentes, F; Urzúa, C; Krebs, A; Domenech, A; Figueroa, P A; Pizzi, P; Westendarp, M; Zambrano, N; Castro, M; Coz, L F

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify predictive factors of success following a single-session of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) at 3 weeks of follow-up in our center. The medical records of 116 patients with solitary urinary calculi who underwent single-session SWL in our department between October 2007 and August 2009 were reviewed. All preoperative unenhanced computed axial tomographies were reviewed by two radiologists blinded to clinical outcome. Success was defined as complete clearance or the persistence of fragments ≤ 2 mm on a plain film at 3 weeks of follow-up. The impact of clinical and radiological factors on success was assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. The single-session SWL success rate at 3 weeks was 49.1%. Stone size <8 mm, stone area < 30 mm(2), stone location (mid- and distal ureter), stone density <1000 HU and intraoperative fragmentation showed a significant association with SWL success in the univariate analysis (p<0.05). Stone area (OR 2.9), ureteral stone location (OR 3.4) and intraoperative fragmentation (OR 4.2) were the only predictors of success in the multivariate analysis. Stone area and ureteral stone location provide important information when deciding about the indication of a SWL in a patient with stone disease. However, successful resolution of only half of the cases after a single session at 3 weeks in our series undermines the relevance of informing patients about the potential need for additional treatment. Copyright © 2011 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. The relative roles of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and endoscopic ultrasound in diagnosis of common bile duct calculi: a critically appraised topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Colm J

    2008-01-01

    The relative roles of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in the investigation of common bile duct (CD) calculi were evaluated using "evidence-based practice" (EBP) methods. A focused clinical question was constructed. A structured search of primary and secondary evidence was performed. Retrieved studies were appraised for validity, strength and level of evidence (Oxford/CEBM scale: 1-5). Retrieved literature was divided into group A; MRCP slice thickness >or=5 mm, group B; MRCP slice thickness = 3 mm or 3D-MRCP sequences. Six studies were eligible for inclusion (3 = level 1b, 3 = level 3b). Group A: sensitivity and specificity of MRCP and EUS were (40%, 96%) and (80%, 95%), respectively. Group B: sensitivity and specificity of MRCP and EUS were (87%, 95%) and (90%, 99%), respectively. MRCP should be the first-line investigation for CD calculi and EUS should be performed when MRCP is negative in patients with moderate or high pre-test probability.

  19. Outcome of uncomplicated ureteric calculi managed with medical expulsive therapy in the outpatient clinic of a urology unit in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardene, Malaka Dharmakeerthi; Balagobi, Balasingam; Ambegoda, A L A M C; Vidanapathirana, Sanjeewa; Wijayagunawardane, G W A S K; Senthan, V; Ranasinghe, D D; Abeygunasekera, Anuruddha M

    2017-11-28

    Although medical expulsive therapy (MET) is shown to be effective for ureteric calculi, the optimum duration and the stone size suitable for MET are not well established yet. The objectives of the study were to determine the optimum duration and maximum stone size suitable for MET. All patients with radiologically confirmed uncomplicated ureteric calculi treated with MET using tamsulosin over a period of 6 months in the outpatient setting were followed up. There were 213 patients. 165 were men. Mean age was 42 years. At presentation 42 stones were in upper ureter (19.7%), 51 in mid ureter (23.9%), 120 in lower ureter (56.3%). The majority (82.7%) of stones were less than 10 mm. Seven stones (3.3%) were over 15 mm. Ninety-two (43.2%) patients had spontaneous passage of stones within 6-weeks of MET. Another 38.9% passed the stone within the next 6-weeks. Thirty-eight patients (17.8%) required surgery. Uncomplicated ureteric stones up to 10 mm can be given a trial of MET using tamsulosin which can be extended up to 12-weeks with a success rate over 92%. This may have substantial clinical and fiscal benefits by reducing the number of interventional procedures especially in resource-poor settings.

  20. Clinical efficacy, safety, and costs of percutaneous occlusive balloon catheter-assisted ureteroscopic lithotripsy for large impacted proximal ureteral calculi: a prospective, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shiyong; Li, Yanni; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Changwen; Zhang, Hongtuan; Zhang, Zhihong; Xu, Yong

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy, safety, and costs of percutaneous occlusive balloon catheter-assisted ureteroscopic lithotripsy (POBC-URSL) for large impacted proximal ureteral calculi. 156 patients with impacted proximal ureteral stones ≥1.5 cm in size were randomized to ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URSL), POBC-URSL, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) group between May 2010 and May 2013. For URSL, the calculi were disintegrated with the assistance of anti-retropulsion devices. POBC-URSL was performed with the assistance of an 8F percutaneous occlusive balloon catheter. PNL was finished with the combination of an ultrasonic and a pneumatic lithotripter. A flexible ureteroscope and a 200 μm laser fiber were used to achieve stone-free status to a large extent for each group. Variables studied were mean operative time, auxiliary procedure, postoperative hospital stay, operation-related complications, stone clearance rate, and treatment costs. The mean lithotripsy time for POBC-URSL was shorter than URSL, but longer than PNL (42.6±8.9 minutes vs 66.7±15.3 minutes vs 28.1±6.3 minutes, p=0.014). The auxiliary procedure rate and postoperative fever rate for POBC-URSL were significantly lower than URSL and comparable to PNL (pPNL (98.1% vs 75.0% vs 96.2%, pPNL group and similar to URSL group (p=0.016, pPNL.

  1. Mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy with high-power holmium YAG laser in pediatric patients with staghorn and complex calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujons, Anna; Millán, Félix; Centeno, Clara; Emiliani, Esteban; Sánchez Martín, Francisco; Angerri, Oriol; Caffaratti, Jorge; Villavicencio, Humberto

    2016-08-01

    Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is the treatment of choice for most cases of renal lithiasis in children. Some cases, however, are refractory to SWL and may be associated with anatomic and metabolic changes or a large stone burden. In these circumstances, mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PCNL) is an option. The aim was to assess the safety and efficacy of high-power holmium YAG (Ho:YAG) laser in mini-PCNL for staghorn calculi. The clinical records relating to 35 mini-PCNLs (Table) performed between January 2008 and December 2012 in 33 patients (27 boys and 6 girls; mean age 7 years, range 2-18 years) were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-two (66.7%) of the patients had undergone a previous SWL (28.6% three sessions). The mini-PCNL puncture technique used involved fluoroscopic guidance with the C arm at 0-90° in the supine position. An 18F tract was used. Stone fragmentation was performed with a high-power Ho:YAG laser (Lumenis 100 W). Ten of the mini-PCNLs (28.6%) were right sided, and 25 were left sided (71.4%). Stones were located in the lower calyceal group in 64% of patients and in the renal pelvis in 50%. The mean stone size was 4.46 cm(2) (range 3-13.20 cm(2)). The number of stones varied between one and 20, and 83.3% were radiopaque. The laser was set at 70 W (range 50-100 W) (3.5 J/pulse with a frequency of 20 pulses/s). The mean surgical time was 150 min. In 78% of patients, complete stone clearance was achieved, and the overall stone-free rate rose to 85% when residual stones were treated with either SWL or retrograde intrarenal surgery. No perioperative complications were seen. There are few reports in the literature concerning the use of a high-power laser for treatment of complex stones and the few that do exist relate to adults have similar results, showing it to be highly effective and safe, with low morbidity. Some limitations of the present study must be acknowledged. It was retrospective and a relatively small number of patients were

  2. Large subcapsular hematoma following ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy of renal calculi in a spina bifida patient: lessons we learn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidyanathan S

    2016-08-01

    % to 17%. Follow-up CT revealed reduction in the size of subcapsular hematoma, no hydronephrosis, and several residual calculi.Conclusion: Risk of subcapsular hematoma following ureteroscopic lithotripsy can be reduced by avoiding prolonged endoscopy and performing ureteroscopy under low pressure. When a paraplegic patient develops features of infection after ureteroscopy, renal imaging should be carried out promptly. Extended perioperative medical care is required for spinal cord injury patients because of their propensity to develop sepsis. Antibiotics should be prescribed on the basis of recent urine microbiology results. Spinal cord injury patients should be treated by senior, experienced doctors and cared for in a spinal injuries unit in order to minimize complications. Keywords: spina bifida, paraplegia, ureteroscopy, lithotripsy, subcapsular hematoma, prevention

  3. Can a brief period of double J stenting improve the outcome of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal calculi sized 1 to 2 cm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Sharma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL is an established modality for renal calculi. Its role for large stones is being questioned. A novel model of temporary double J (DJ stenting followed by ESWL was devised and outcomes were assessed. Materials and Methods: The study included 95 patients with renal calculi sized 1 to 2 cm. Patients were randomized into 3 groups. Group 1 received ESWL only, whereas group 2 underwent stenting followed by ESWL. In group 3, a distinct model was applied in which the stent was kept for 1 week and then removed, followed by ESWL. Procedural details, analgesic requirements, and outcome were analyzed. Results: Eighty-eight patients (male, 47; female, 41 were available for analysis. The patients’ mean age was 37.9±10.9 years. Stone profile was similar among groups. Group 3 received fewer shocks (mean, 3,155 than did group 1 (mean, 3,859; p=0.05 or group 2 (mean, 3,872; p=0.04. The fragmentation rate was similar in group 3 (96.7% and groups 1 (81.5%, p=0.12 and 2 (87.1%, p=0.16. Overall clearance in group 3 was significantly improved (83.3% compared with that in groups 1 (63.0%, p=0.02 and 2 (64.5%, p=0.02 and was maintained even in lower pole stones. The percentage successful outcome in groups 1, 2, and 3 was 66.7%, 64.5%, and 83.3%, respectively (p=0.21. The analgesic requirement in group 2 was higher than in the other groups (p=0.00. Group 2 patients also had more grade IIIa (2/3 and IIIB (1/2 complications. Conclusions: Stenting adversely affects stone clearance and also makes the later course uncomfortable. Our model of brief stenting followed by ESWL provided better clearance, comfort, and a modest improvement in outcome with fewer sittings and steinstrasse in selected patients with large renal calculi.

  4. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy under Ultrasound Guidance in Patients with Renal Calculi and Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Report of 11 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Yang, Xuecheng; Zhong, Xiulong; Wang, Zhenlin; Xue, Senyao; Yu, Weifeng; Dong, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis accelerates the renal failure in the patients with ADPKD. In order to evaluate the role of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in management of calculus in these patients, 11 patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and renal stones were included in the study. Two patients had bilateral renal stones. All patients were treated by percutaneous nephrolithotomy under ultrasound guidance. 13 percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedures were performed in 1 stage by the urology team under ultrasound guidance. 5 people received second operation with flexible nephroscopy in lateral position. The success rate and morbidity and mortality of the technique and hospital stay were recorded. Results. The puncture procedure was fully successful in all cases. The renal function improved in these patients. 5 patients had moderate fever after the surgery. 5 patients received flexible nephroscopy to take out the residual calculi. 2 persons had ESWL therapy after the surgery. Conclusion. PCNL is an ideal, safe, and effective method to remove the stones from those patients with no definite increase in the risk of complication. The outcome and stone-free rate are satisfactory comparable to the PCNL in the patients without ADPKD.

  5. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy under Ultrasound Guidance in Patients with Renal Calculi and Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Report of 11 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis accelerates the renal failure in the patients with ADPKD. In order to evaluate the role of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in management of calculus in these patients, 11 patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and renal stones were included in the study. Two patients had bilateral renal stones. All patients were treated by percutaneous nephrolithotomy under ultrasound guidance. 13 percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedures were performed in 1 stage by the urology team under ultrasound guidance. 5 people received second operation with flexible nephroscopy in lateral position. The success rate and morbidity and mortality of the technique and hospital stay were recorded. Results. The puncture procedure was fully successful in all cases. The renal function improved in these patients. 5 patients had moderate fever after the surgery. 5 patients received flexible nephroscopy to take out the residual calculi. 2 persons had ESWL therapy after the surgery. Conclusion. PCNL is an ideal, safe, and effective method to remove the stones from those patients with no definite increase in the risk of complication. The outcome and stone-free rate are satisfactory comparable to the PCNL in the patients without ADPKD.

  6. Evaluation of anti-urolithiatic effect of aqueous extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. leaves using ethylene glycol-induced renal calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apexa Bhanuprasad Shukla

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the anti-urolithiatic effect of aqueous extract of leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum (B. pinnatum on ethylene glycol-induced renal calculi. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six Wistar male rats were randomly divided into six equal groups. group A animals received distilled water for 28 days. Group B to group F animals received 1% v/v ethylene glycol in distilled water for 28 days and group B served as ethylene glycol control. Groups C and D (preventive groups received aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum 50 and 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally, respectively for 28 days. Groups E and F (treatment groups received aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum 50 and 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally, respectively from 15th to 28th day. On days 0 and 28, 24 hrs urine samples were collected for urinary volume and urinary oxalate measurement. On day 28, blood was collected for serum creatinine and blood urea level monitoring. All animals were sacrificed and kidneys were removed, weighed, and histopathologically evaluated for calcium oxalate crystals deposition. Results: Administration of aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum reduced urine oxalate level significantly, as compared with Group B (p

  7. Ureteric stents vs percutaneous nephrostomy for initial urinary drainage in children with obstructive anuria and acute renal failure due to ureteric calculi: a prospective, randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSheemy, Mohammed S; Shouman, Ahmed M; Shoukry, Ahmed I; ElShenoufy, Ahmed; Aboulela, Waseem; Daw, Kareem; Hussein, Ahmed A; Morsi, Hany A; Badawy, Hesham

    2015-03-01

    To compare percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) tube vs JJ ureteric stenting as the initial urinary drainage method in children with obstructive calcular anuria (OCA) and post-renal acute renal failure (ARF) due to bilateral ureteric calculi, to identify the selection criteria for the initial urinary drainage method that will improve urinary drainage, decrease complications and facilitate the subsequent definitive clearance of stones, as this comparison is lacking in the literature. A series of 90 children aged ≤12 years presenting with OCA and ARF due to bilateral ureteric calculi were included from March 2011 to September 2013 at Cairo University Pediatric Hospital in this randomised comparative study. Patients with grade 0-1 hydronephrosis, fever or pyonephrosis were excluded. No patient had any contraindication for either method of drainage. Stable patients (or patients stabilised by dialysis) were randomised (non-blinded, block randomisation, sealed envelope method) into PCN-tube or bilateral JJ-stent groups (45 patients for each group). Initial urinary drainage was performed under general anaesthesia and fluoroscopic guidance. We used 4.8-6 F JJ stents or 6-8 F PCN tubes. The primary outcomes were the safety and efficacy of both groups for the recovery of renal functions. Both groups were compared for operative and imaging times, complications, and the period required for a return to normal serum creatinine levels. The secondary outcomes included the number of subsequent interventions needed for clearance of stones. Additional analysis was done for factors affecting outcome within each group. All presented patients completed the study with intention-to-treat analysis. There was no significant difference between the PCN-tube and JJ-stent groups for the operative and imaging times, period for return to a normal creatinine level and failure of insertion. There were significantly more complications in the PCN-tube group. The stone size (>2 cm) was the only factor

  8. Litotricia por ondas de choque extracorpóreas como tratamiento de los cálculos del conducto pancreático principal Extracorporeal shock- wave lithotripsy as a treatment of the calculi of the main pancreatic duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Pérez González

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Las ondas de choque extracorpóreas se utilizan desde hace varios años con buenos resultados en la fragmentación de cálculos vesiculares y de las vías biliares en pacientes seleccionados. Cuando los cálculos del conducto pancreático principal no pueden extraerse endoscópicamente está indicada esta variante no quirúrgica. Se presentan 4 pacientes del sexo masculino, entre 41 y 55 años de edad, con antecedentes de alcoholismo y el diagnóstico de pancreatitis crónica con litiasis en el conducto principal, 3 de ellos con más de 1 cálculo, que recibieron ondas de choque generadas por el principio electromagnético. Todos fragmentaron. El paciente con cálculo único eliminó los fragmentos espontáneamente, mientras que en los 3 restantes fue necesario asociar la endoscopia para obtener la limpieza total de Wirsung . Durante el seguimiento de más de 5 años se constató la regresión de los síntomas, fundamentalmente del dolor, sin recidivasThe extracorporeal shock waves have been used for several years with good results in the fragmentation of calculi of the gallbladder and of the biliary tract in selected patients. When the calculi of the main pancreatic duct cannot be endoscopically removed, this non-surgical variant is indicated. 4 male patients aged 41-55 with alcoholism history and the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis with lithiasis in the main duct are presented. 3 of them with more than a calculus received shock waves generated by electromagnetic principle. All the calculi were fragmented. The patient with only one calculus eliminated the fragments spontaneously, whereas in the other 3 it was necessary to associate endoscopy to obtain Wirsung's total cleaning. During the follow-up of more than 5 years it was proved the regression of the symptoms, mainly pain, without relapses

  9. [Radionuclide diagnosis of kidney calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlakhov, N; Penkova, D

    1986-09-01

    Radionuclide investigations were conducted in 322 patients with nephrolithiasis. Unilateral calculosis was established in 46.3% of the patients, bilateral calculosis in 50.6%. The nature of changes on renograms, scintigrams and in clearance values was shown to depend on the localization of concrements, their size and the presence of concomitant infection. A conclusion has been made as to the usefulness of the methods with relation to operative treatment, especially in a bilateral localization of a pathological renal process.

  10. Factores que influyen en la fragmentación de cálculos vesiculares por ondas de choque extracorpóreas Factors influencing on the fragmentation of gallbladder calculi by extracorporeal shock waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Pérez González

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available La litotricia por ondas de choque extracorpóreas es una de las variantes terapéuticas para la litiasis vesicular sintomática. Se aplicaron en 626 pacientes 479 (76,6 % del sexo femenino y 147 (23,4 % del masculino, con más de 40 años de edad en 473 (69,9 %. Los índices de fragmentación completa fueron mayores en los pacientes con cálculos únicos (79,5 %, de menos de 20 mm de diámetro (72,3 %, radiotransparentes (89,2 % y con densidades inferiores a las 50 unidades Houndsfield (72,6 %. Necesitaron 2, 3 y 4 sesiones de tratamiento 215 pacientes (34,3 %, 35 (5,6 % y 11 (1,8 % respectivamente. Finalmente la fragmentación fue completa en 332 (53,0 %, parcial en 241 (38,5 % y solo no fragmentaron 53 (8,5 %, donde se demostró el valor de las características físicas e imagenológicas de los cálculos en este procesoExtracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy is one of the therapeutic variants for symptomatic gallbladder lithiasis. It was applied to 626 patients, 479 (76.6 % females and 147 (23.4 % males. 473 (69.9 % were over 40. The indexes of complete fragmentation were higher in patients with a single calculus (79.5 % of less than 20 mm of diameter (72.3 %·, radiotransparent (89.2% and with densities under 50 Houndsfield units (72.6 %. 215 patients (34.3 %, 35 (5.6 % and 11 (1.8 % needed 2,3 and 4 treatment sessions, respectively. Finally, the fragmentation was complete in 332 (53.0 %, partial in 241 (38.5 % and only 53 (8.5 % were not fragmented. The value of the physical and imaging characteristics of the calculi in this process was demonstrated

  11. Formalization of malware through process calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Gregoire; Filiol, Eric; Debar, Herve

    2009-01-01

    Since the seminal work from F. Cohen in the eighties, abstract virology has seen the apparition of successive viral models, all based on Turing-equivalent formalisms. But considering recent malware such as rootkits or k-ary codes, these viral models only partially cover these evolved threats. The problem is that Turing-equivalent models do not support interactive computations. New models have thus appeared, offering support for these evolved malware, but loosing the unified approach in the wa...

  12. ANALYSIS OF URINARY CALCULI IN MAURITIUS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cistvr

    the formation of inorganic minerals by living organisms (Lieske et al. 1995). However, kidney stone is a pathological manifestation of the phenomenon, exhibiting .... descriptive classification of stones in the upper urinary tract. Journal of Urology. 153, 378-379. LIESKE, J., LEONARD, R. & TOBACK, G. (1995). Adhesion of ...

  13. URETERAL CALCULI NOT AMENABLE FOR LESS INVASIVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stay was 6 days. Postoperative complications in the form of prolonged urinary leakage and high-grade fever occurred in 2 patients (5.9%) and 1 patient (2.9%), respectively. In conclusion, retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy is a good minimally invasive alternative line of treatment for ureteral stones in cases not.

  14. Hi tech microeconomics and information nonintensive calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Dohnal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article establishes link between the contributions made to the study of hi tech phenomena. It analyzes the evolution undergone by studies on the topic of the knowledge economics (HI-TECH process carried out by different disciplines (hard and soft sciences – sociology, ecology etc. from the point of view of the objectives they pursue. The attentions are concentrated on analysis of applicable mathematical tools used to develop realistic formal models. Information intensity is defined as the amount of information which is needed for the realistic application of a corresponding formal tool. High information intensity is desirable because it influences the model accuracy. Low information intensity is preferred when high information intensity requires more information items than are available and this is usually the case in knowledge engineering. Fuzzy models seem to be a useful extension of formal tool used in hi tech microeconomics. However, even fuzzy sets could be prohibitively information intensive. Therefore the range of available formal tools must be considerably broader. This paper introduces qualitative and semiqualitative models and rough sets. Each formal tool is briefly characterized.

  15. MEDICAL EXPULSIVE THERAPY OF URETERIC CALCULI - OUR EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh; Shobha Rani; Ravi Prabhu

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Uretric stones can be treated with multiple modalities including medical therapy, uretroscopy, shockwave lithotripsy (SWS), percutaneous nephrolithotomy, open/laparoscopic stone removal, and/or combinations of these modalities. The aim is to study the effectivene ss of medical management of uretric stones and to compare the effectiveness of Tamsulosin and Tamsulosin with steroid . MATERIALS & METHODS: 120 P...

  16. Probabilistic Models and Process Calculi for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Lei

    , thus the network topology may undergo constant changes. Moreover the devices in an MANET are loosely connected not depending on pre-installed infrastructure or central control components, they exchange messages via wireless connections which are less reliable compared to wired connections. Therefore...... issues in MANETs e.g. mobility and unreliable connections. Specially speaking, 1. We first propose a discrete probabilistic process calculus with which we can model in an MANET that the wireless connection is not reliable, and the network topology may undergo changes. We equip each wireless connection...

  17. [Regional external quality control of the analysis of urinary calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebentisch, G

    1989-01-01

    Within one year's period a model for external quality control of urolithiasis was tested. This model includes specifications concerning precision as well as accuracy derived from diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. The quality indices obtained for precision QI-P and accuracy QI-R confirm that all analytical centres of urolithiasis in the GDR are to be found under the fixed specifications, partially to a considerable extent. Thus all participants indirectly demonstrated that the state of adjustment of instrumentation and thereby the reference factors remain stable for at least one year. The system being continued the specifications of precision (ST 0%) and accuracy (D0) might even be fixed more exactly from an analytical point of view.

  18. [Pathophysiology, diagnosis and conservative therapy in calcium kidney calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, B

    2003-02-01

    Annual incidences of kidney stones are about 0.1-0.4% of the population, and lifetime prevalences in the USA and Europe range between 8 and 15%. Kidney stones occur more frequently with increasing age and among men. Within ten years, the disease usually recurs in more than 50% of patients. Nowadays, about 85% of all kidney stones contain calcium salts (calcium oxalate and/or calcium phosphate) as their main crystalline components. Because human urine is commonly supersaturated with respect to calcium salts as well as to uric acid, crystalluria is very common, i.e. healthy people excrete up to ten millions of microcrystals every day. Recurrent stone formers appear to excrete lower amounts or structurally defective forms of crystallization inhibitors which allows for the formation of large crystal aggregates as precursors of stones. Alternatively, crystal adhesion to urothelial surfaces may be enhanced in stone formers. Medical treatment of renal colic is based on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, because prostaglandins appear to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of pain during ureteral obstruction. In addition, centrally acting analgesics such as pethidine-HCl may be required in many cases. The administration of high amounts (3-4 liters/day) of intravenous fluids should be abandoned, since it may raise intraureteral pressure whereby pain increases and kidney pelvis or fornices may rupture. All first-stone formers should undergo a simple basic evaluation, including stone analysis (x-ray diffraction or infrared spectrometry), serum values of ionized calcium (alternatively: total calcium and albumin) and creatinine, urinalysis and repeated measurements of fasting urine pH in order to detect urinary acidification disorders or low urine pH. In high-risk patients with as first stone episode (i.e. strongly positive family history, inflammatory bowel disease, short-bowel syndrome, nephrocalcinosis, bilateral stones, hypercalcemia, renal tubular acidosis, airline pilots) as well as in all recurrent stone formers, an extended metabolic evaluation should be performed. Two 24-hurines should be collected on free-choice diet not prior to three months after stone passage or urological intervention. Analysis includes measurements of volume, creatinine, calcium, oxalate, uric acid and citrate; sodium and urea as markers of salt and protein consumption are optional but clinically very helpful. Since hypercalciuria is of much less importance than increases in urinary oxalate, therapeutic efforts should primarily focus on lowering urinary oxalate excretion. Sufficient calcium intake, i.e. 1200 mg per day, is crucial, because it allows for binding of oxalate at the intestinal level whereby increases of urinary oxalate (reciprocal hyperoxaluria) can be avoided. Excess intake of flesh protein (meat, fish, poultry) is lithogenic since it increases urinary calcium, oxalate and uric acid, and lower citrate. On the other hand, a diet rich in alkali (vegetables, fruit) is associated with a lower risk of stone formation. A "common sense diet" containing sufficient amounts of fluids, 1200 mg of calcium per day and reduced amounts of flesh protein as well as salt is able to reduce the 5-year stone recurrence rate in calcium stone formers by 50%. The scientific evidence for drug treatment (thiazides, alkali citrate) is rather poor: the most widely quoted randomized thiazide trial included only 42 patients of whom 36% left the protocol prematurely, whereas 36-48% of patients included in three randomized studies with alkali citrate suffered from undesirable side-effects; nevertheless, citrate therapy reduced the stone recurrence rate by 38%, compared with 22% in patients on placebo treatment (p < 0.0005).

  19. Recurrent bilateral renal calculi in a tetraplegic patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaidyanathan, S; Soni, B M; Biering-Sorensen, F

    1998-01-01

    An 18-year-old male developed C-5 complete tetraplegia following a motor-cycle accident in May 1975. The neuropathic bladder was managed by an indwelling urethral catheter. He developed recurrent episodes of urinary infection with Proteus species. In September 1975, an X-ray of the abdomen revealed...

  20. PROTEUS MIRABILIS VIABILITY AFTER LITHOTRIPSY OF STRUVITE CALCULI. (R825503)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  1. Duality and calculi without exceptions for convex objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Brinkhuis (Jan)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this paper is to make a contribution to the investigation of the roots and essence of convex analysis, and to the development of the duality formulas of convex calculus. This is done by means of one single method: firstly conify, then work with the calculus of convex cones,

  2. Aphallia with urethrorectal fistula, bladder and urethral calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Movarrekh

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aphallia is a very rare urogenital anomaly with incidence rate of 1 in 30,000,000. It usually coexists with other anomalies such as cardiovascular anomalies which are incompatible with normal life, and therefore infants are delivered stillbirth or live for a very short period of time. Methods: We present an 18 months old boy with aphallia associated with congenital urethrorectal fistula, bladder and urethral stones. All stones were removed endourologically, recto-urethral fistula was repaired and perincal urethrostomy was performed. Results: The stones were composed of calcium phosphate colonized by klebiella pneumonia and proteus mirabilis. Urethrorectal fistula repairment was confirmed by cystography. Patient was discharged without a urinary catheter. Conclusion: In developed countries, management of such patients is to raise them as females. However, we must consider socio-cultural conditions, parents preference and patients tendency in management of aphallia.

  3. Kidney and bladder calculi in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Wexler, B. C.; McMurtry, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    Naturally occurring kidney stones are rare in animals. The Japanese strains of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are normotensive at birth but develop high blood pressure, hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia as they mature. The SHR strain is prone to develop kidney stones. A unique sub-strain of SHR has been developed in which some animals develop hypothalamic obesity concomitantly with their rising blood pressure, i.e. Obese/SHR. The Obese/SHR characteristically develop microscopic kidney...

  4. Predicting The Fragility Of Renal Calculi In Response To Shock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ray film of the kidneys, ureters and bladder (KUB) area as predictors of stone fragility during shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). Patients and Methods: This prospective study included 336 patients who had a single renal pelvic stone .20 mm and ...

  5. Transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter and struvite calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielo Garcia de Freitas

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The association of primary carcinoma of the ureter and lithiasis is extremely rare. We report a rare case of a primary carcinoma of the ureter with corariform calculus. CASE REPORT: 60-year-old phaeodermal female, reported a history of right-side nephritic colic, hyperthermia and pyuria during the past 20 years and had received treatment for urinary infections a number of times. The first clinical presentation was related to lithiasis and the tumor had not been shown up by excretory urography, cystoscopy or ultrasonography. Two months after the calculus had been eliminated, the patient began to have serious symptoms and a grade III transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter was discovered. Total nephroureterectomy and M.V.A.C. (Metotrexate + Vinblastina + Doxo Rubicina + Cisplatina chemotherapy were tried unsuccessfully. In this report we emphasize the diagnostic difficulty caused by the concomitant presence of the two pathologies. In our opinion, the rapid evolution in this case is directly related to the high grade of the tumor.

  6. CT urography of a vesicourachal diverticulum containing calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbülbül, Nilgün Işiksalan; Dağli, Mustafa; Akdoğan, Gökçen; Olçer, Tülay

    2010-03-01

    Urachal remnant disease is a relatively rare urological condition that presents a variety of clinical problems in adult patients. Contrast-enhanced multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) urography is a new diagnostic imaging technique providing comprehensive evaluation of the upper and lower urinary tract. MDCT urography performed with a combination of unenhanced, nephrographic phase, and excretory- phase imaging can demonstrate a wide spectrum of disease in these patients with a single study. We report a case of vesicourachal diverticulum containing calculus, which was diagnosed by MDCT urography.

  7. Pathophysiological aspects of ureterorenoscopic management of upper urinary tract calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, Palle J S; Pedersen, Katja V; Lildal, Søren K

    2016-01-01

    of the ureter and strain-induced ureteral contractions (peristalsis). Different receptor types modulate this peristaltic activity. β-receptor agonists have been investigated in animal and human trials for the purpose of relaxing the ureter. In randomized, placebo-controlled trials in pigs and humans, usage...... ureterorenoscopy without access sheaths have been measured, thus by far exceeding the threshold for intrarenal backflow, potentially resulting in septic complications. Intrarenal pressure may be reduced by use of ureteral access sheaths, which, however, may cause ureteral damage due to the limited size...... of the β-receptor agonist isoproterenol in the irrigation fluid has shown a potential for reducing both intrarenal pressure and ureteral tone during ureterorenoscopy. SUMMARY: Upper urinary tract physiology has unique features that may be pushed into pathophysiological processes by the unique elements...

  8. Recurrent bilateral renal calculi in a tetraplegic patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaidyanathan, S; Soni, B M; Biering-Sorensen, F

    1998-01-01

    sessions of Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy (ESWL), about 80% clearance was achieved on the left side. Right staghorn renal stone awaits treatment. This case shows that recurrent urinary infection in spinal cord injury patients is a predisposing factor for renal lithiasis. These patients require...

  9. [An aged case of hereditary xanthinuria with xanthine urinary calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kario, K; Matsuo, T; Nakao, K

    1991-01-01

    A 74-year-old female with hereditary xanthinuria and xanthine stones is reported. She has a family history of consanguineous parents and a past history of right side nephrectomy due to a xanthine renal stone and vesicolithotomy of 3 bladder stones approximately 5 X 4 X 4 cm in size at the age of 58 and 71, respectively. Her young brother exhibited a slightly elevated urinary excretion of oxypurines. Laboratory examination showed a low serum level (0.3 mg/dl) and urinary excretion (1.56 mg/day) of uric acid, and high plasma and urine levels of oxypurines. No xanthine oxidase activity was detectably in duodenal mucosa by biopsy specimen obtained by duodenofiberscopy. Now she has another stone approximately 5 X 4 X 4 cm in her bladder. There have been are few elderly cases of hereditary xanthinuria with recurrent giant urolithiasis.

  10. Reduced time from diagnosis to stone-free status in patients with ureteral calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Annelie; Rosengren, Kristina

    2016-04-18

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to describe an improvement project and its effects on decreasing the time from diagnosis to treatment for patients with kidney stones and to reduce the negative effects related to untreated stones at one hospital in western Sweden. Design/methodology/approach - A quantitative descriptive study based on Nolan's improvement model was used. The quality improvement effects were evaluated using statistical process control. Findings - Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment's positive effects within 48 hours were described as efficiency (decreased waiting time) from diagnosis to treatment, even if a re-treatment was necessary. The results also showed a reduction in the usage of percutaneous nephropyelostomies as a treatment option. Research limitations/implications - This study includes data from one department at one hospital in one country. Comparative data include the time from acute radiological examination to final treatment but not total re-treatments, complications or time to up following radiological examination. However, the study was performed over one year and analyzed data from medical records in a systematic way. Practical implications - This study may inspire measuring and developing routines from diagnosis to treatment for patients who are transferred within different departments at one hospital. Social implications - By measuring the working process, resource use within a healthcare organization could be visualized. Planning and co-operation at different managerial levels are key factors for success when improvement projects are performed. Originality/value - Studies in improvement projects considering ureteral or kidney stones are generally lacking; thus, this study is important for improving the care of patients with this diagnose.

  11. [Computerized diagnostic interpretation of quantitative x-ray diffraction analysis of urinary calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebentisch, G; Pusinelli, W D; Muche, J; Beyer, H

    1992-02-01

    The computerized investigation of the results of urinary calculus analysis, using the program UROQUANT, can be supplemented by using a PC program to analyse 10 typical constellations of results. Dietary and therapeutic measures, as well as further laboratory diagnostic procedures are produced in verbal form.

  12. Comparison of methods and guaranteeing quality of analyses of urinary calculi--5th international ring test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebentisch, G; Berg, W

    1989-01-01

    For five samples of our 5th international ring test for the quality control of methods of urinary calculus analysis we received 46 results from 19 countries obtained by means of ten different methods. The mean standard of quality (SQ) for all participants with quantitative methods is 2.11. Most laboratories employed X-ray diffraction (n = 21; SQ = 2.09) for quantitative calculus analysis. The mean deviation (delta x) per component from the ideal composition is fortunately low--about 0.10 molar parts for all participants, 0.06 molar parts for X-ray and infrared spectroscopy technique together. From the aspect of accuracy, the physical methods of analysis, X-ray diffraction and IR spectrophotometry, are clearly superior to all other analytical techniques.

  13. Visualisation of uric acid renal calculi (UARC) using computed radiography (CR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dom, Sulaiman M. [Medical Imaging Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 46000 Petaling Jaya (Malaysia)], E-mail: smd_dom@hotmail.com; Yusoff, Nadzri M.; Amin, Zulkifli M. [Medical Imaging Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 46000 Petaling Jaya (Malaysia)

    2010-05-15

    Aim: To investigate the capability of CR to visualise UARC through inverse image post-processing technique. Methods. A patient-equivalent phantom (PEP) consisting of six 2.5-cm thick Perspex layers and one 1-mm thick aluminium layer was used to represent human tissues and bones respectively. A total of eight exposures were made on PEP to radiograph 1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm UARC located between three layers of 2-cm thick cattle muscle, positioned inside the PEP. After each exposure, a layer of Perspex was removed, and another exposure was made until only one Perspex layer and one layer of muscle (containing the three UARC) remained. For each exposure, two images (a positive and an inverse image) were produced for comparison using Fuji XG1 computed radiography system with IP0 type C-ST-VI Fuji imaging plate (equivalent to 400 speed radiographic screen-film systems). Results: In positive image, UARC of all three sizes (1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm) located in the cattle muscle, cannot be visualised when the PEP consists of more than one layer of Perspex. In inverse image, the 3-mm UARC can be seen even when the PEP consists of five layers of Perspex. Conclusion: This study revealed the post-processing capability of CR to increase the visualisation of UARC which has been categorised as radiolucent. A further study of clinical image quality should be performed using blinded observers to test diagnostic accuracy, which was not included in this study.

  14. A Comparative Study on the Suitability of Smartphones and IMU for Mobile, Unsupervised Energy Expenditure Calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Zafra, Angel; Orantes-González, Eva; Noguera, Manuel; Benghazi, Kawtar; Heredia-Jimenez, Jose

    2015-07-27

    The metabolic equivalent of task (MET) is currently the most used indicator for measuring the energy expenditure (EE) of a physical activity (PA) and has become an important measure for determining and supervising a person's state of health. The use of new devices which are capable of measuring inertial movements by means of built-in accelerometers enable the PA to be measured objectively on the basis of the reckoning of "counts". These devices are also known as inertial measurement units (IMUs) and each count is an aggregated value indicating the intensity of a movement and can be used in conjunction with other parameters to determine the MET rate of a particular physical activity and thus it's associated EE. Various types of inertial devices currently exist that enable count calculus and physical activity to be monitored. The advent of mobile devices, such as smartphones, with empowered computation capabilities and integrated inertial sensors, has enabled EE to be measure in a distributed, ubiquitous and natural way, thereby overcoming the reluctance of users and practitioners associated with in-lab studies. From the point of view of the process analysis and infrastructure needed to manage data from inertial devices, there are also various differences in count computing: extra devices are required, out-of-device processing, etc. This paper presents a study to discover whether the estimation of energy expenditure is dependent on the accelerometer of the device used in measurements and to discover the suitability of each device for performing certain physical activities. In order to achieve this objective, we have conducted several experiments with different subjects on the basis of the performance of various daily activities with different smartphones and IMUs.

  15. Third prize: the impact of fluid environment manipulation on shockwave lithotripsy artificial calculi fragmentation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Probst, Carlos E; Fernadez, Alfonso; Erdeljan, Petar; Vanjecek, Maaike; Cadieux, Peter A; Razvi, Hassan

    2011-03-01

    Studies have suggested that shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) stone fragmentation rates can be affected by characteristics of the fluid media surrounding the stone, although evidence to implicate the impact of urine specific gravity (SG) is limited and inconclusive. Our aim is to further explore the impact fluid media and SGs have on stone fragmentation using a variable focus lithotripter. Artificial stones were presoaked for 24 hours in urine and then shocked in various fluid media including artificial urine (SG 1.010 control, 1.020, and 1.07), human pooled urine (HPU), degassed HPU, Pentastarch, 100% and 30% contrast, degassed 30% contrast, 100% ethanol, deionized water (dH(2)O), degassed dH(2)O, 5% glucose, Ringer lactate, 0.9% saline, glycerol, whole blood, and lubricating gel. After soaking, SWL using the Modulith SLX-F2 electromagnetic lithotripter was performed. Fragments were dried and sieved using a 4-mm diameter opening grid. Fragments >4 mm were weighed and fragmentation coefficients (FCs) calculated (pre-SWL weight - post-SWL weight)/(pre-SWL weight) × 100. Fifteen stones were shocked for each fluid group. Fluid type, viscosity, and degassing all significantly impacted stone fragmentation. While the solutions' SG, per se, did not appear to affect stone fragmentation, the use of degassed 30% contrast significantly improved stone destruction over the SG 1.010 artificial urine control (95.3% vs 71.4, P < 0.01). Furthermore, degassing improved comminution rates by increasing the number of completely fragmented stones (FC = 100%). Using degassed 30% contrast, 12/15 stones were completely fragmented, compared with only 2/15 in the control group (P = 0.007). Among the whole blood, glycerol, and lubricating gel groups, only 1/15, 0/15, and 1/15 stones reached 100% FC respectively in the narrow focus, possibly because of the detrimental impact of increased viscosity. Different fluid media can significantly affect FC in vitro. Among the various fluids tested, degassed 30% contrast significantly increased the FC and total number of completely fragmented stones.

  16. Incidental detection of purulent fluid in kidney at percutaneous nephrolithotomy for branched renal calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Monish; Goel, Rajiv; Gupta, Narmada P; Seth, Amlesh

    2005-03-01

    Some patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) have purulent fluid in the pelvicaliceal system at the time of puncture, although preoperative features are not suggestive of infection. We report the management and outcome of 19 such patients. Among the 639 patients who underwent PCNL at our center from July 2000 to October 2003, 19 had purulent fluid in the kidney at initial puncture. The preoperative findings, operative details, hospital course, and final outcome in these patients were analyzed. Twelve patients had stone removal at the first sitting (option 1), while seven had a nephrostomy tube placed initially with stone removal deferred for 3 to 7 days (option 2). With option 1, stones were cleared with one to three tracts in 45 to 120 minutes. Seven patients recovered smoothly, three had transient fever, while one had grade I and another had grade II sepsis. The purulent fluid grew E. coli in two cases and Proteus or Serratia in one case each and was sterile in eight. With option 2, stones were cleared using one to three tracts in 60 to 100 minutes. The fluid grew E. coli or Klebsiella in one case each and was sterile in five. Three patients had a smooth recovery, two had transient fever, one had grade I sepsis, and another had grade II sepsis. Risk factors for sepsis, irrespective of the option, were a recent history of febrile urinary-tract infection, borderline elevation of total leukocyte count, thick or foul pus as opposed to mere turbidity, the use of a single tube or tract or delayed creation of second tracts, and operating time >90 minutes. Despite normal preoperative urine and blood values, one may find purulence on puncture during PCNL, which is not always infected. If any one or more of the above risk factors is present, it is safer to drain the kidney initially, making sure that all blocked calices are drained, inserting multiple tubes if necessary.

  17. Infrared analysis of urinary calculi by a single reflection accessory and a neural network interpretation algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volmer, M; de Vries, JCM; Goldschmidt, HMJ

    Background: Preparation of KBr tablets, used for Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis of urinary calculus composition, is time-consuming and often hampered by pellet breakage. We developed a new F:T-IR method for urinary calculus analysis. This method makes use of a Golden Gate Single

  18. Dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Deflux) implants mimicking distal ureteral calculi on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Caleb P. [Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Urology, Boston, MA (United States); Chow, Jeanne S. [Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Periureteral or subtrigonal injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid (Dx/HA) copolymer (Deflux, Q-Med, Uppsala, Sweden) is an increasingly common endoscopic treatment for vesicoureteral reflux. We report a confusing radiographic finding of bilateral calcified Dx/HA injections initially thought to represent bilateral distal ureteral stones in a boy who presented with intermittent periumbilical pain. Urologists, radiologists, and emergency room physicians should be aware of the potential for calcification of ureteral implants of Dx/HA, and of the potentially confusing radiographic images that may result. (orig.)

  19. Percutaneous Endoscopic Holmium Laser Lithotripsy for Management of Complicated Biliary Calculi

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Healy, Kelly; Chamsuddin, Abbas; Spivey, James; Martin, Louis; Nieh, Peter; Ogan, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    ...). All previously failed standard techniques include ERCP with sphincterotomy (n=6), PTHC (n=7), or both of these. Access to the biliary system was obtained via an existing percutaneous transhepatic catheter or T-tube tracts...

  20. Protective effect of Urtica dioica methanol extract against experimentally induced urinary calculi in rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ZHANG, HAIYING; LI, NING; LI, KUN; LI, PENG

    2014-01-01

    .... In the present study, a methanolic extract of aerial parts of Urtica dioica was screened for antiurolithiatic activity against ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride-induced calcium oxalate renal stones in male rats...

  1. US detection of renal and ureteral calculi in patients with suspected renal colic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether the color Doppler twinkling sign could be considered as an additional diagnostic feature of small renal lithiasis (_5mm). Methods 181 patients underwent CT scans performed for other pathologies; the images were also analyzed by a radiologists to identify the incidental presence of renal lithiasis equal to or smaller than 5 mm. These patients underwent an abdominal ultrasound examination, including grayscale analysis of the kidneys and color Doppler. Lithiasis were divided into three groups, on the basis of the diagnostic agreement provided by CT and gray scale results. Then, the twinkling sign sensitivity was assessed in the three groups. Results The twinkling sign was positive in 177 out of 206 lithiasis (86 %) visible on CT, while the grayscale was absolutely positive in 98 out of 206 lithiasis (47.6%) and doubtful positive in 71 out of 206 lithiasis (31%). The twinkling sign was positive in 100% of absolutely positive and doubtful positive lithiasis on bmode, and in 8 out of 31 lithiasis not visible on b-mode. Conclusions In the diagnosis of small renal lithiasis, integrating gray-scale with color Doppler may be the most suitable procedure, because the color-Doppler twinkling sign is able to confirm the doubtful diagnosis of renal lithiasis and to detect some lithiasis that are not visible on b-mode. PMID:23902730

  2. US detection of renal and ureteral calculi in patients with suspected renal colic

    OpenAIRE

    Vallone, Gianfranco; Napolitano, Giuseppina; Fonio, Paolo; Antinolfi, Gabriele; Romeo, Antonio; Macarini, Luca; Genovese, Eugenio Annibale; Brunese, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether the color Doppler twinkling sign could be considered as an additional diagnostic feature of small renal lithiasis (_5mm). Methods 181 patients underwent CT scans performed for other pathologies; the images were also analyzed by a radiologists to identify the incidental presence of renal lithiasis equal to or smaller than 5 mm. These patients underwent an abdominal ultrasound examination, including grayscale analysis of the kidneys and...

  3. [Conceptual evolution regarding the pathogenesis of biliary lithiasis due to cholesterol calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigotti, A; Miquel, J F; Nervi, F

    1991-03-01

    In the recent 5 years, several important conceptual changes in the understanding of cholesterol gallstone formation have occurred. This article discusses the molecular basis of the disease, as we understand it today. The discovery of a vesicular carrier of biliary lipids and the metabolic regulation of biliary cholesterol secretion have markedly modified our understanding of the pathogenesis of cholelithiasis, giving more emphasis to molecular and cell biology aspects, rather than to physicochemistry, as occurred in the late seventies (micellar theory). The critical step in gallstone formation is cholesterol crystallization and it occurs after vesicle aggregation and fusion. This process is probably dependent of hepatic glycoproteins secreted into bile, presumably associated to the vesicular carrier of biliary cholesterol. Risk factors such as sex, obesity, sexual hormones, and diet seem to modify either biliary cholesterol secretion, and/or nucleation (crystallization) in the gallbladder, and/or gallbladder motility. It seems most likely that gallstones is a multifactorial disease, dependent of an interactions between environmental and genetic, or ethnic, factors.

  4. Gist of medicinal plants of Pakistan having ethnobotanical evidences to crush renal calculi (kidney stones).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Muhammad Jawad; Bin Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan; Durr-e-Sabih; Ikram, Raja Muhammad; Hussain, Muhammad Sikandar; Khan, Muhammad Tajammal; Ahamad, Ghafoor; Karim, Sabiha; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2014-01-01

    Human civilization is facing the problem of kidney stones since ancient ages. Although mortality rate is not so high, yet it affects the victim's quality of life. The patient suffers from intense pain and many other symptoms modifying his life style and affecting his socioeconomic status. Many drugs and invasive methods have also been developed for the treatment, but these are highly costly and unaffordable for poor people and the rate of reoccurrence is also high. The use of medicinal plants is both affordable and effective in this respect. In this article, 35 medicinal plants of Pakistan origin and their crucial information have been enumerated in alphabetical order of plant's scientific name, family, place (distribution), part used, local name, habit, major constituents and references. It can also be seen that all parts are used for the treatment of kidney stones. Leaves represent 28% contribution, whole plants and seeds 12%, fruits and roots 11% contribution in this respect. Flowers contribute 8% in the treatment of kidney stone while branches, bark, bushes, buds, milk and shoots contribute only 3% in the removal of kidney stones. Habits of plants were also taken under consideration. It was noticed that herbs are the most useful life form in this regard which contributed 63% for the removal of kidney stone. Shrubs contributed 20%, trees 11% while bushes and weeds contributed 3% for the removal of kidney stones.

  5. A Comparative Study on the Suitability of Smartphones and IMU for Mobile, Unsupervised Energy Expenditure Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Ruiz-Zafra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic equivalent of task (MET is currently the most used indicator for measuring the energy expenditure (EE of a physical activity (PA and has become an important measure for determining and supervising a person’s state of health. The use of new devices which are capable of measuring inertial movements by means of built-in accelerometers enable the PA to be measured objectively on the basis of the reckoning of “counts”. These devices are also known as inertial measurement units (IMUs and each count is an aggregated value indicating the intensity of a movement and can be used in conjunction with other parameters to determine the MET rate of a particular physical activity and thus it’s associated EE. Various types of inertial devices currently exist that enable count calculus and physical activity to be monitored. The advent of mobile devices, such as smartphones, with empowered computation capabilities and integrated inertial sensors, has enabled EE to be measure in a distributed, ubiquitous and natural way, thereby overcoming the reluctance of users and practitioners associated with in-lab studies. From the point of view of the process analysis and infrastructure needed to manage data from inertial devices, there are also various differences in count computing: extra devices are required, out-of-device processing, etc. This paper presents a study to discover whether the estimation of energy expenditure is dependent on the accelerometer of the device used in measurements and to discover the suitability of each device for performing certain physical activities. In order to achieve this objective, we have conducted several experiments with different subjects on the basis of the performance of various daily activities with different smartphones and IMUs.

  6. Management of calyceal diverticular calculi: a comparison of percutaneous nephrolithotomy and flexible ureterorenoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Okan; Ozyuvali, Ekrem; Aydogmus, Yasin; Sener, Nevzat Can; Dede, Onur; Ozgun, Serhat; Hizli, Fatih; Senocak, Cagri; Bozkurt, Omer Faruk; Basar, Halil; Imamoglu, Abdurrahim

    2015-04-01

    To compare the outcomes in patients who have been treated with flexible ureterorenoscopy (f-URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) in managing stone-bearing caliceal diverticula. Between April 2007 and October 2013, we performed a retrospective analysis of 54 evaluable patients (28 women and 26 men) with symptomatic stone-bearing caliceal diverticula, who underwent PNL (n = 29) or F-URS (n = 25) in four referral hospitals in Turkey. The groups were compared with respect to demographics, stone location/size, success rate, stone-free status, symptom-free status, complication rates, and hospital stay. The average stone burden preoperatively was significantly larger in patients who were treated with PNL, with the average size for f-URS being 154 ± 77 mm(2) and that for PNL being 211 ± 97 mm(2) (p = 0.023). Symptom-free rates, success rates, stone-free rates and clinically insignificant residual fragments were similar between the groups (p = 0.880 vs. p = 0.537 vs. p = 0.539, and p = 0.877, respectively). There was no statistical difference between the groups for minor complications (p = 0.521) but no major complication (Clavien III-V) occured in the f-URS group; although there were three major complications (10.3 %) (Clavien III) in the PNL group (p PNL group (p PNL. The f-URS procedure is advantageous with respect to a shorter hospital stay and absence of major complications. Therefore, it should be emphasized that the location of the stone and diverticula is an important factor for the selection of the procedure.

  7. Hydronephrosis of one kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acute hydronephrosis; Urinary obstruction; Unilateral hydronephrosis; Nephrolithiasis - hydronephrosis; Kidney stone - hydronephrosis; Renal calculi - hydronephrosis; Ureteral calculi - hydronephrosis; ...

  8. Efficacy of model-based iterative reconstruction technique in non-enhanced CT of the renal tracts for ureteric calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, T J; Lau, Kenneth K; Jackson, Dana; Ardley, Nicholas; Borasu, Adina

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), statistical iterative reconstruction (SIR), and filtered back projection (FBP) image reconstruction algorithms in the delineation of ureters and overall image quality on non-enhanced computed tomography of the renal tracts (NECT-KUB). This was a prospective study of 40 adult patients who underwent NECT-KUB for investigation of ureteric colic. Images were reconstructed using FBP, SIR, and MBIR techniques and individually and randomly assessed by two blinded radiologists. Parameters measured were overall image quality, presence of ureteric calculus, presence of hydronephrosis or hydroureters, image quality of each ureteric segment, total length of ureters unable to be visualized, attenuation values of image noise, and retroperitoneal fat content for each patient. There were no diagnostic discrepancies between image reconstruction modalities for urolithiasis. Overall image qualities and for each ureteric segment were superior using MBIR (67.5 % rated as 'Good to Excellent' vs. 25 % in SIR and 2.5 % in FBP). The lengths of non-visualized ureteric segments were shortest using MBIR (55.0 % measured 'less than 5 cm' vs. ASIR 33.8 % and FBP 10 %). MBIR was able to reduce overall image noise by up to 49.36 % over SIR and 71.02 % over FBP. MBIR technique improves overall image quality and visualization of ureters over FBP and SIR.

  9. Large impacted upper ureteral calculi: A comparative study between retrograde ureterolithotripsy and percutaneous antegrade ureterolithotripsy in the modified lateral position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Moufid

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: In our series, Perc-URS is a safe and efficient treatment option for proximal ureteral stone, especially when the stone size is superior to 15 mm with the presence of moderate or severe hydronephrosis.

  10. Interaction probability value calculi for some scintillators; Calculo de los valores de la probabilidad de interaccion fotonica para varios centelleadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Torano Martinez, E.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1989-07-01

    Interaction probabilities for 17 gamma-ray energies between 1 and 1.000 KeV have been computed and tabulated. The tables may be applied to the case of cylindrical vials with radius 1,25 cm and volumes 5, 10 and 15 ml. Toluene, Toluene/Alcohol, Dioxane-Naftalen, PCS, INSTAGEL and HISAFE II scintillators are considered. Graphical results for 10 ml are also given. (Author) 11 refs.

  11. Evaluation with Decision Trees of Efficacy and Safety of Semirigid Ureteroscopy in the Treatment of Proximal Ureteral Calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancak, Eyup Burak; Kılınç, Muhammet Fatih; Yücebaş, Sait Can

    2017-01-01

    The decision on the choice of proximal ureteral stone therapy depends on many factors, and sometimes urologists have difficulty in choosing the treatment option. This study is aimed at evaluating the factors affecting the success of semirigid ureterorenoscopy (URS) using the "decision tree" method. From January 2005 to November 2015, the data of consecutive patients treated for proximal ureteral stone were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 920 patients with proximal ureteral stone treated with semirigid URS were included in the study. All statistically significant attributes were tested using the decision tree method. The model created using decision tree had a sensitivity of 0.993 and an accuracy of 0.857. While URS treatment was successful in 752 patients (81.7%), it was unsuccessful in 168 patients (18.3%). According to the decision tree method, the most important factor affecting the success of URS is whether the stone is impacted to the ureteral wall. The second most important factor affecting treatment was intramural stricture requiring dilatation if the stone is impacted, and the size of the stone if not impacted. Our study suggests that the impacted stone, intramural stricture requiring dilatation and stone size may have a significant effect on the success rate of semirigid URS for proximal ureteral stone. Further studies with population-based and longitudinal design should be conducted to confirm this finding. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Antiurolithiasis Activity of Bioactivity Guided Fraction of Bergenia ligulata against Ethylene Glycol Induced Renal Calculi in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ikshit; Khan, Washim; Parveen, Rabea; Alam, Md Javed; Ahmad, Iftekhar; Ansari, Mohd Hafizur Rehman; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2017-01-01

    Dried rhizome of Bergenia ligulata (pashanbhed) is commonly used as a traditional herbal medicine with a wide range of therapeutic applications including urolithiasis. Aqueous extract of B. ligulata was prepared through maceration followed by decoction (mother extract, 35.9% w/w). Further, polarity based fractions were prepared successively from mother extract which yielded 3.4, 2.9, 5.4, 7.5, and 11.3% w/w of hexane, toluene, dichloromethane (DCM), n-butanol, and water fractions, respectively. The in vitro, ex vivo, and real-time antiurolithiasis activity of mother extract and fractions were carried out using aggregation assay in synthetic urine and in rat plasma. The study revealed that DCM fraction has significantly (p Ethylene glycol in drinking water (0.75%, v/v) for 28 days was used for induction of urolithiasis and the curative effects of mother extract and DCM fraction were checked for the level of oxalate, calcium, creatinine, uric acid, and urea of both urine and serum. Treatment with mother extract and DCM fraction at a dose of 185 mg/kg and 7 mg/kg, respectively, in ethylene glycol induced rats resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in serum and urine markers. Histological study revealed lower number of calcium oxalate deposits with minimum damage in the kidneys of mother extract and DCM fraction treated rats. This result provides a scientific basis for its traditional claims.

  13. Androgen deprivation therapy in prostate cancer and risk of developing renal calculi: Results of a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Convalía, Enrique Javier; Cano-García, María Del Carmen; Miján-Ortiz, José Luis; Arrabal-Martín, Miguel; Arrabal-Polo, Miguel Ángel; Cózar-Olmo, José Manuel

    2017-06-07

    Androgenic deprivation therapy in prostate cancer is associated with the onset of different adverse effects, including osteoporosis and metabolic syndrome. Both are related to the onset of nephrolithiasis. The objective of this article is to study the incidence of renal stones in patients undergoing androgen deprivation therapy with LHRH analogue. Case-control study including a total of 85 patients divided into 2 groups: group 1, with 41 patients on androgen deprivation therapy, and group 2, with 44 patients not receiving androgen deprivation therapy. New-onset lithiasis was observed in 12 cases (29.3%) in group 1 compared to 2 cases (4.5%) in group 2 (P=.0001), 4.4 years after starting the androgen deprivation therapy. The estimated odds ratio was 8.69 (95% CI 1.81-41.76). The incidence of renal stones could be increased in patients receiving treatment with analogue LHRH. However, long-term prospective studies with a metabolic control are required to be able to establish the causes explaining the development of this phenomenon in patients undergoing treatment with androgen deprivation therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. 0YigiI1=11AI1i¢l@ Ureteroscopy for Treatment of Ureteral Calculi in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: In total, 40 ureteroscopic procedures were performed to treat 42 stones in 40 patients and 37/40 patients ... symptoms were flank pain in 28 (70%), urinary ..... Treatment of distal ureteral stones in children: Similarities to the american urological association guidelines in adults. J.Urol. 2000; Sep;164(3. Pt 2):l089-93.

  15. Current practices in the management of patients with ureteral calculi in the emergency room of a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Rojas Claros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Urinary lithiasis is a common disease. The aim of the present study is to assess the knowledge regarding the diagnosis, treatment and recommendations given to patients with ureteral colic by professionals of an academic hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-five physicians were interviewed about previous experience with guidelines regarding ureteral colic and how they manage patients with ureteral colic in regards to diagnosis, treatment and the information provided to the patients. RESULTS: Thirty-six percent of the interviewed physicians were surgeons, and 64% were clinicians. Forty-one percent of the physicians reported experience with ureterolithiasis guidelines. Seventy-two percent indicated that they use noncontrast CT scans for the diagnosis of lithiasis. All of the respondents prescribe hydration, primarily for the improvement of stone elimination (39.3%. The average number of drugs used was 3.5. The combination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioids was reported by 54% of the physicians (i.e., 59% of surgeons and 25.6% of clinicians used this combination of drugs (p = 0.014. Only 21.3% prescribe alpha blockers. CONCLUSION: Reported experience with guidelines had little impact on several habitual practices. For example, only 21.3% of the respondents indicated that they prescribed alpha blockers; however, alpha blockers may increase stone elimination by up to 54%. Furthermore, although a meta-analysis demonstrated that hydration had no effect on the transit time of the stone or on the pain, the majority of the physicians reported that they prescribed more than 500 ml of fluid. Dipyrone, hyoscine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and opioids were identified as the most frequently prescribed drug combination. The information regarding the time for the passage of urinary stones was inconsistent. The development of continuing education programs regarding ureteral colic in the emergency room is necessary.

  16. Current practices in the management of patients with ureteral calculi in the emergency room of a university hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claros, Oliver Rojas; Silva, Carlos Hirokatsu Watanabe; Consolmagno, Horacio; Sakai, Americo Toshiaki; Freddy, Rodrigo; Fugita, Oscar Eduardo Hidetoshi

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Urinary lithiasis is a common disease. The aim of the present study is to assess the knowledge regarding the diagnosis, treatment and recommendations given to patients with ureteral colic by professionals of an academic hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-five physicians were interviewed about previous experience with guidelines regarding ureteral colic and how they manage patients with ureteral colic in regards to diagnosis, treatment and the information provided to the patients. RESULTS: Thirty-six percent of the interviewed physicians were surgeons, and 64% were clinicians. Forty-one percent of the physicians reported experience with ureterolithiasis guidelines. Seventy-two percent indicated that they use noncontrast CT scans for the diagnosis of lithiasis. All of the respondents prescribe hydration, primarily for the improvement of stone elimination (39.3%). The average number of drugs used was 3.5. The combination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioids was reported by 54% of the physicians (i.e., 59% of surgeons and 25.6% of clinicians used this combination of drugs) (p = 0.014). Only 21.3% prescribe alpha blockers. CONCLUSION: Reported experience with guidelines had little impact on several habitual practices. For example, only 21.3% of the respondents indicated that they prescribed alpha blockers; however, alpha blockers may increase stone elimination by up to 54%. Furthermore, although a meta-analysis demonstrated that hydration had no effect on the transit time of the stone or on the pain, the majority of the physicians reported that they prescribed more than 500 ml of fluid. Dipyrone, hyoscine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and opioids were identified as the most frequently prescribed drug combination. The information regarding the time for the passage of urinary stones was inconsistent. The development of continuing education programs regarding ureteral colic in the emergency room is necessary. PMID:22666782

  17. Antiurolithiasis Activity of Bioactivity Guided Fraction of Bergenia ligulata against Ethylene Glycol Induced Renal Calculi in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikshit Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dried rhizome of Bergenia ligulata (pashanbhed is commonly used as a traditional herbal medicine with a wide range of therapeutic applications including urolithiasis. Aqueous extract of B. ligulata was prepared through maceration followed by decoction (mother extract, 35.9% w/w. Further, polarity based fractions were prepared successively from mother extract which yielded 3.4, 2.9, 5.4, 7.5, and 11.3% w/w of hexane, toluene, dichloromethane (DCM, n-butanol, and water fractions, respectively. The in vitro, ex vivo, and real-time antiurolithiasis activity of mother extract and fractions were carried out using aggregation assay in synthetic urine and in rat plasma. The study revealed that DCM fraction has significantly (p<0.05 greater inhibitory potential than other fractions. Ethylene glycol in drinking water (0.75%, v/v for 28 days was used for induction of urolithiasis and the curative effects of mother extract and DCM fraction were checked for the level of oxalate, calcium, creatinine, uric acid, and urea of both urine and serum. Treatment with mother extract and DCM fraction at a dose of 185 mg/kg and 7 mg/kg, respectively, in ethylene glycol induced rats resulted in a significant (p<0.05 decrease in serum and urine markers. Histological study revealed lower number of calcium oxalate deposits with minimum damage in the kidneys of mother extract and DCM fraction treated rats. This result provides a scientific basis for its traditional claims.

  18. Fatigue and somatic symptoms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Viner, Russell; Christie, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    ... appendicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, gastro-oesophageal reflux, peptic ulcer disease, mittelschmerz Rare causes-Inflammatory bowel disease, renal calculi, ovarian cyst, biliary calculi, sickle cell...

  19. Characterization of a Sulfadiazine-Induced Lithiasis Calculus by Physicochemical Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cuervo, C; González, J; Rives, V; Vicente, M A

    2013-01-01

    Currently available information on drug lithiasis usually describes the calculi based on the prescriptions given to the patient, but without a physicochemical characterization of the calculi themselves...

  20. Determining the composition of urinary tract calculi using stone-targeted dual-energy CT: evaluation of a low-dose scanning protocol in a clinical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaytor, Richard J; Rajbabu, Krishnamoorthy; Jones, Paul A; McKnight, Liam

    2016-11-01

    This study will evaluate the accuracy of dual-energy CT (DECT) in characterizing urinary tract stone composition on patients presenting to a UK hospital with renal colic. The study will also assess the additional radiation dose burden of DECT over standard protocol. Data from 106 DECTs between October 2011 and October 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were imaged using a Toshiba Aquilion ONE™ CT scanner (Toshiba Medical Systems, Otawara-shi, Japan). All patients received a low-dose non-contrast CT of the abdomen and pelvis prior to stone-targeted DECT at 80 and 135 kVp and 40-mm field of view. Radiation dose output was evaluated using dose-length product (DLP). 19 stones were recovered and their compositions were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. 137 stones were characterized. Mean stone diameter was 8.8 mm (range 3-48 mm). There was an 18.7% increase in mean DLP for DECT over standard CT protocol (319.4 vs 269.1 mGy cm; p energy correctly predicted 11 (78.6%) of 14 calcium stones, 2 (100%) of 2 mixed composition stones and 0 (0%) of 2 cystine stones, resulting in a fair agreement (Cohen's κ = 0.374, p = 0.009). DECT is able to determine the composition of urinary tract stones with fair accuracy. Its utility is offset by a small but significant supplementary radiation exposure. Advances in knowledge: DECT can provide urological surgeons with useful diagnostic stone material information prior to planning optimal management of stone disease.

  1. Rapid kV-switching single-source dual-energy CT ex vivo renal calculi characterization using a multiparametric approach: refining parameters on an expanded dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegshauser, J Scott; Paden, Robert G; He, Miao; Humphreys, Mitchell R; Zell, Steven I; Fu, Yinlin; Wu, Teresa; Sugi, Mark D; Silva, Alvin C

    2017-09-26

    We aimed to determine the best algorithms for renal stone composition characterization using rapid kV-switching single-source dual-energy computed tomography (rsDECT) and a multiparametric approach after dataset expansion and refinement of variables. rsDECT scans (80 and 140 kVp) were performed on 38 ex vivo 5- to 10-mm renal stones composed of uric acid (UA; n = 21), struvite (STR; n = 5), cystine (CYS; n = 5), and calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM; n = 7). Measurements were obtained for 17 variables: mean Hounsfield units (HU) at 11 monochromatic keV levels, effective Z, 2 iodine-water material basis pairs, and 3 mean monochromatic keV ratios (40/140, 70/120, 70/140). Analysis included using 5 multiparametric algorithms: Support Vector Machine, RandomTree, Artificial Neural Network, Naïve Bayes Tree, and Decision Tree (C4.5). Separating UA from non-UA stones was 100% accurate using multiple methods. For non-UA stones, using a 70-keV mean cutoff value of 694 HU had 100% accuracy for distinguishing COM from non-COM (CYS, STR) stones. The best result for distinguishing all 3 non-UA subtypes was obtained using RandomTree (15/17, 88%). For stones 5 mm or larger, multiple methods can distinguish UA from non-UA and COM from non-COM stones with 100% accuracy. Thus, the choice for analysis is per the user's preference. The best model for separating all three non-UA subtypes was 88% accurate, although with considerable individual overlap between CYS and STR stones. Larger, more diverse datasets, including in vivo data and technical improvements in material separation, may offer more guidance in distinguishing non-UA stone subtypes in the clinical setting.

  2. Evaluation of long-term side effects after shock-wave lithotripsy for renal calculi using a third generation electromagnetic lithotripter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirola, Giacomo Maria; Micali, Salvatore; Sighinolfi, Maria Chiara; Martorana, Eugenio; Territo, Angelo; Puliatti, Stefano; Bianchi, Giampaolo

    2016-10-01

    To assess the incidence of long-term side effects after shock-wave lithotripsy treatment performed with an electromagnetic Dornier Lithotripter S device. A specific follow-up was undertaken on a cohort of 100 selected patients that underwent SWL for a single renal stone in our center from 2002 to 2004. Previous and current data were compared using the Student t test. Factors associated with the incidence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus were determined. Ten years after treatment, mean serum creatinine level and glomerular filtration rate remained similar to previous values (serum creatinine level: 0.96 ± 0.22 vs. 0.92 ± 0.19 mg/dL; glomerular filtration rate: 92.8 ± 17.8 vs. 88.1 ± 21.7 mL/min). There were marked increases in blood cholesterol, blood pressure, and blood glucose levels, while smoking decreased. Age, glomerular filtration rate, body mass index, blood glucose and blood pressure at the time of treatment were significantly associated with the presence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus at follow-up; blood cholesterol was associated with diabetes mellitus development. After 10 years, overall renal function appeared to have been unaffected by shock-wave lithotripsy treatment. The increased rate of hypertension and diabetes mellitus were consistent with the incidence in the global population. This is the first report on the long-term safety of a third generation electromagnetic lithotripter, and indicates that there are no long-term sequelae.

  3. Calculi and comparison of efficiency of solar thermal collector for some applications; Calculo y comparacion de rendimientos de captadores solares termicos para distintas aplicaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, F.; Segador, C.; Marcos, C.; Cuadros, F.

    2004-07-01

    This paper deals with simple procedure, applicable in any part of the world where climatic variables can be estimated, comparing the efficiency of solar collector for designing of specific installations for domestic hot water and general heating. The values of the climatic variables; average daily solar radiation, the max. and min. average monthly temperatures and average monthly hours of sunshine went obtained from the Climwat FAO database. The process, although not taking into account the dynamic evolution of the variables, and using approximate values, is accurate and overall is manageable for its simplicity, comparing rapid the efficiency of the collectors and size the installations. (Author)

  4. Comparison of image quality between filtered back-projection and the adaptive statistical and novel model-based iterative reconstruction techniques in abdominal CT for renal calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardhanabhuti, Varut; Ilyas, Sumaira; Gutteridge, Catherine; Freeman, Simon J; Roobottom, Carl A

    2013-10-01

    To compare image quality on computed tomographic (CT) images acquired with filtered back-projection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) techniques in CT kidney/ureter/bladder (KUB) examination. Eighteen patients underwent standard protocol CT KUB at our institution. The same raw data were reconstructed using FBP, ASIR and MBIR. Objective [mean image noise, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for kidney and mean attenuation values of subcutaneous fat] and subjective image parameters (image noise, image contrast, overall visibility of kidneys/ureters/bladder, visibility of small structures, and overall diagnostic confidence) were assessed using a scoring system from 1 (best) to 5 (worst). Objective image measurements revealed significantly less image noise and higher CNR and the same fat attenuation values for the MBIR technique (P ASIR and 3.08-3.31 for FBP. No significant difference was observed between FBP and ASIR (P > 0.05), while there was a significant difference between ASIR vs. MBIR (P ASIR and FBP CT KUB examinations. • There are many reconstruction options in CT. • Novel model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) showed the least noise and optimal image quality. • For CT of the kidneys/ureters/bladder, MBIR should be utilised, if available. • Further studies to reduce the dose while maintaining image quality should be pursued.

  5. Comparison of image quality between filtered back-projection and the adaptive statistical and novel model-based iterative reconstruction techniques in abdominal CT for renal calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Vardhanabhuti, Varut; Ilyas, Sumaira; Gutteridge, Catherine; Freeman, Simon J.; Roobottom, Carl A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare image quality on computed tomographic (CT) images acquired with filtered back-projection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) techniques in CT kidney/ureter/bladder (KUB) examination. Methods Eighteen patients underwent standard protocol CT KUB at our institution. The same raw data were reconstructed using FBP, ASIR and MBIR. Objective [mean image noise, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for kidney and me...

  6. A case–control study on environmental and biological risk factors for renal calculi persisting in a coastal Union Territory, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Mathiyalagen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Renal stone disease is a common disorder of the urinary tract and also a significant problem because of incidence, recurrence, and severe consequences. The complex pathogenetic mechanisms of renal stone formation involve both biologic and environmental risk factors. The present study was performed to identify the role of these parameters among renal stone patients and normal individuals from a coastal union territory region in South India. Methods: The authors conducted a case–control study of renal stone disease among outpatient department patients more than 30 years of age using systematic random sampling procedure with 100 study participants (50 subjects for each group. A questionnaire to explore some relevant history as well as to note general examination findings was used along with a house visit to collect a sample of water. Analysis was undertaken using appropriate statistical techniques. Results: The study showed statistically significant association for renal stones with female sex, illiteracy, body mass index (BMI (>25 kg/m2, sodium (>50 mg/L, water consumption (<1.5 L/day, water source being borewell, consuming soft drink, sedentary work, and family history of renal stones. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs were significantly higher for consuming soft drink (OR: 8.19; 95% confidence interval: 1.99–33.69, sedentary work (10.01; 1.27–78.91, and water consumption < 1.5 L/day (7.73; 2.24–26.69. Interpretation and Conclusions: We conclude that in this part of India, female gender, illiteracy, high BMI, high sodium in drinking water, inadequate water consumption, borewell drinking water, soft-drink consumption, sedentary work, and family history of renal stones can lead to a significant increase in the risk of renal stone disease.

  7. Randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of isosorbide-SR addition to current treatment in medical expulsive therapy for ureteral calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi Madani, Ali; Kazemzadeh, Majid; Pourreza, Farshid; Shakiba, Maryam; Farzan, Alireza; Asadollahzade, Ahmad; Esmaeili, Samaneh

    2011-10-01

    It has been suggested that nitrates are potent smooth muscle relaxants that may reduce pain and facilitate ureteral stone passage; therefore it may be an option for medical expulsive therapy in ureteral stones. In a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial, we evaluated the efficacy of medical expulsive therapy with isosorbide-SR 40 mg in patients with ureteral stones (≤10 mm). The patients with ureteral stones in KUB or urinary tract ultrasonography were randomized to receive methylprednisolone plus celecoxib without (control group), and with isosorbide-SR 40 mg (treatment group) for 21 days. 66 patients [33(50%) in control, 33(50%) in treatment group] were entered randomly to our study. The stone expulsion rate was not significantly different between two groups (54.5 vs. 45.5%) (P = 0.497). The need for surgical procedures were more common in control group within 21 days (9.4 vs. 6.1%) and more common in treatment group after 21 days (33.3 vs. 21.9%) (P = 0.756).Patients in the treatment group experienced more intractable pain (27.3 vs. 6.1%), intractable vomiting (3 vs. 0%) (P = 0.046) and hospitalization (3 vs. 0%) (P = 0.314). Drug side effects including headache and dizziness were more common in treatment group (39.4 vs. 9.1%) (P = 0.004). In our study, the use of isosorbide-SR in treatment group did not improve the stone expulsion rate in patients with ureteral stones (≤10 mm) but developed more side effects. Then it may not an appropriate alternative for medical expulsive therapy. Of course, further trials are recommended.

  8. Effect of Supine vs Prone Position on Outcomes of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in Staghorn Calculi: Results From the Clinical Research Office of the Endourology Society Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astroza, Gaston; Lipkin, Michael; Neisius, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the effect of patient positioning on outcomes of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) among patients with staghorn stones. The choice of optimal position for these patients undergoing PNL remains challenging. No previous studies exclusively addressing this point have been performed....

  9. Association with meteo-climatological factors and daily emergency visits for renal colic and urinary calculi in Cuneo, Italy. A retrospective observational study, 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condemi, Vincenzo; Gestro, Massimo; Dozio, Elena; Tartaglino, Bruno; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano Marco; Solimene, Umberto; Meco, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    The incidence of nephrolithiasis is rising worldwide, especially in women and with increasing age. Incidence and prevalence of kidney stones are affected by genetic, nutritional, and environmental factors. The aim of this study is to investigate the link between various meteorological factors (independent variables) and the daily number of visits to the Emergency Department (ED of the S. Croce and Carle Hospital of Cuneo for renal colic (RC) and urinary stones (UC) as the dependent variable over the years 2007-2010. The Poisson generalized regression models (PGAMs) have been used in different progressive ways. The results of PGAMs (stage 1) adjusted for seasonal and calendar factors confirmed a significant correlation ( p 1), with a first peak after 5 days (lag ranges 0-1, 0-3, and 0-5) and a second weak peak observed along the 5-15 lag range days. The estimated RR for females was significant, mainly in the second and fourth age group considered (19-44 and >65 years): RR for total ED visits 1.27, confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.46 (lag 0-5 days); RR 1.42, CI 1.01-2.01 (lag 0-10 days); and RR 1.35, CI 1.09-1.68 (lag 0-15 days). The research also indicated a moderate involvement of the thermal factor in the onset of RC caused by UC, exclusively in the female sex. Further studies will be necessary to confirm these results.

  10. NON-STENTED HOLMIUM:YAG URETEROSCOPIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    :YAG laser lithotripsy of distal lower ureteral calculi with respect to efficacy, safety, postoperative pain and hospital stay. Patients and Methods Thirty-five patients with distal lower ureteral calculi underwent ureteroscopy without prior ureteral ...

  11. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    :YAG laser lithotripsy of lower ureteral calculi with respect to efficacy, safety, postoperative pain and hospital stay. Patients and Methods In this randomized prospective study, 35 patients with lower ureteral calculi underwent ureteroscopy.

  12. Unusual Giant Prostatic Urethral Calculus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-06-29

    Jun 29, 2010 ... associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and prostatic cancer.[1] Primary prostatic urethral calculi are ... Giant vesico-prostatic urethral calculus is uncommon. Urethral stones rarely form primarily in the urethra, ... Prostatic calculi associated with hypertrophy of the gland. Group III. Prostatic calculi that ...

  13. Primary vaginal calculus in a middle-aged woman with mental and physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Yuji; Oda, Katsutoshi; Matsuzawa, Naoki; Shimizu, Ken

    2013-07-01

    Vaginal calculi are rarely encountered and are often misdiagnosed as bladder calculi because of the difficulty in achieving an appropriate diagnosis. Most vaginal calculi result from the presence of a urethrovaginal fistula; those occurring in the absence of such fistulas are extremely rare. We present a case of a 42-year-old bedridden woman with mental and physical disabilities who had been misdiagnosed for a decade as having a bladder calculus. We removed the calculus nonsurgically and the analyzed the components. Results demonstrated the presence of a primary vaginal calculus. Vaginal calculi may occasionally occur in disabled women, but further investigation of the etiology of such calculi is required.

  14. A giant dumbbell shaped vesico-prostatic urethral calculus: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhuswamy, Vinod Kumar; Tiwari, Rahul; Krishnamoorthy, Ramakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Calculi in the urethra are an uncommon entity. Giant calculi in prostatic urethra are extremely rare. The decision about treatment strategy of calculi depends upon the size, shape, and position of the calculus and the status of the urethra. If the stone is large and immovable, it may be extracted via the perineal or the suprapubic approach. In most of the previous reported cases, giant calculi were extracted via the transvesical approach and external urethrotomy. A 38-year-old male patient presented with complaints of lower urinary tract symptoms. Further investigations showed a giant urethral calculus secondary to stricture of bulbo-membranous part of the urethra. Surgical removal of calculus was done via transvesical approach. Two calculi were found and extracted. One was a huge dumbbell calculus and the other was a smaller round calculus. This case was reported because of the rare size and the dumbbell nature of the stone. Giant urethral calculi are better managed by open surgery.

  15. Intracellular and intraluminal aspects of renal calculosis in the marine mollusc Macrocallista nimbosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffany, W J; Luer, W H; Watkins, M A

    1980-09-01

    The intracellular and intraluminal development of renal calculi in the bivalved mollusc Macrocallista nimbosa was investigated by histologic techniques. The origin of calculi is within the renal tubule cell. Early events involve the formation of a stone precursor into which are incorporated calcium salts, heavy metals, and mucopolysaccharides. The stone is eventually extruded into the tubule lumen where it continues to grow by epitaxy and aggregation. Various forms of calcium phosphate calculi were identified, including hydroxylapatite, whitlockite, brushite, and chlorapatite.

  16. Urinary stone detection and characterisation with dual-energy CT urography after furosemide intravenous injection: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botsikas, Diomidis; Hansen, Catrina; Stefanelli, Salvatore; Becker, Christoph D.; Montet, Xavier [Geneva University Hospital, Radiology Department, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-03-15

    To investigate the added advantage of IV furosemide injection and the subsequent urine dilution in the detection of urinary calculi in the excretory phase of dual-source dual-energy (DE) computed tomography (CT) urography, and to investigate the feasibility of characterising the calculi through diluted urine. Twenty-three urinary calculi were detected in 116 patients who underwent DECT urography for macroscopic haematuria with a split bolus two- or three-acquisition protocol, including a true unenhanced series and at least a mixed nephrographic excretory phase. Virtual unenhanced images were reconstructed from contrast-enhanced DE data. Calculi were recorded on all series and characterised based on their X-ray absorption characteristics at 100 kVp and 140 kVp in both true unenhanced and nephrographic excretory phase series. All calculi with a diameter more than 2 mm were detected in the virtual unenhanced phase and in the nephrographic excretory phase. Thirteen of these calculi could be characterised in the true unenhanced phase and in the mixed nephrographic excretory phase. The results were strictly identical for both phases, six of them being recognised as non-uric acid calculi and seven as uric acid calculi. Mixed nephrographic excretory phase DECT after furosemide administration allows both detection and characterisation of clinically significant calculi, through the diluted urine. (orig.)

  17. Giant Submandibular Calculus Eroding Oral Cavity Mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eng Haw; Nadarajah, Sanjeevan; Mohamad, Irfan

    2017-09-01

    Sialolithiasis is the formation of calculi or sialoliths in the salivary gland. It is the most common benign condition of the salivary gland. Sialolithiasis can occur in all salivary glands. The submandibular gland is most commonly affected followed by the parotid gland. Calculi commonly measure less than 10 mm. Calculi of more than 15 mm are termed giant salivary gland calculi and are infrequently reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of unusually large submandibular gland calculus of 5 cm in greatest dimension which caused erosion of the oral cavity.

  18. Evaluation of low-dose dual energy computed tomography for in vivo assessment of renal/ureteric calculus composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, Harshavardhan; Lal, Anupam; Mandal, Arup K; Singh, Shrawan Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Shalmoli; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the accuracy of low-dose dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) in predicting the composition of urinary calculi. A total of 52 patients with urinary calculi were scanned with a 128-slice dual-source DECT scanner by use of a low-dose protocol. Dual-energy (DE) ratio, weighted average Hounsfield unit (HU) of calculi, radiation dose, and image noise levels were recorded. Two radiologists independently rated study quality. Stone composition was assessed after extraction by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS). Analysis of variance was used to determine if the differences in HU values and DE ratios between the various calculus groups were significant. Threshold cutoff values to classify the calculi into separate groups were identified by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. A total of 137 calculi were detected. FTIRS analysis differentiated the calculi into five groups: uric acid (n=17), struvite (n=3), calcium oxalate monohydrate and dihydrate (COM-COD, n=84), calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM, n=28), and carbonate apatite (n=5). The HU value could differentiate only uric acid calculi from calcified calculi (p80% sensitivity and specificity to differentiate them. The DE ratio could not differentiate COM from COM-COD calculi. No study was rated poor in quality by either of the observers. The mean radiation dose was 1.8 mSv. Low-dose DECT accurately predicts urinary calculus composition in vivo while simultaneously reducing radiation exposure without compromising study quality.

  19. Outcome of ureteroscopy for the management of distal ureteric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M. El-Qadhi

    Abstract. Objective: To review our 5 years' experience with ureteroscopy treatment of distal ureteric calculi. Patients and methods: We reviewed the medical records of 136 patients who underwent ureteroscopic pro- cedures for the treatment of distal ureteric calculi from February 2007 to October 2012. Patient and stone.

  20. Conditional and preferential logics proof methods and theorem proving

    CERN Document Server

    Pozzato, GL

    2010-01-01

    Contains a version of the author's PhD dissertation and focuses on proof methods and theorem proving for conditional and preferential logics. This book introduces proof methods (sequent and tableau calculi) for conditional and preferential logics, as well as theorem provers obtained by implementing the proposed calculi.

  1. [Suggestion for the evaluation of roentgen diffractometric urinary calculus analysis results based on the 5th and 6th East German trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebentisch, G; Beyer, H

    1983-05-01

    The evaluation system suggested allows the results of urinary-calculi analysis centres to be compared after estimating the calculus stages present, the distinction between primary and secondary components and the deviation from normal composition. Afterwards the quality of the results of analysis of urinary calculi improved using the standard method.

  2. Initialized Fractional Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.

  3. EXTRACORPOREAL SHOCK WAVE LITHOTRIPSY VERSUS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kelly JD, Keane PF, Johnston SR, Kernohan RM. Laser lithotripsy for ureteric calculi: results in 250 patients. Ulster MedJ 1995, 64:126. Shroff S, Watson GM, Parikh A, Thomas R,. Soonawala PF, Pope A. The holmium: YAG laser for ureteric stones. BJU 1996, 78:836. Sayed MA. Use of ESWL in treatment of ureteral calculi.

  4. Renal acidification defects in medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1988-01-01

    Thirteen patients with medullary sponge kidney underwent a short ammonium chloride loading test to investigate their renal acidification capacity. All but 1 presented with a history of recurrent renal calculi and showed bilateral widespread renal medullary calcification on X-ray examination. Nine...... of renal calculi in medullary sponge kidney, have considerable therapeutic implications....

  5. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-02-19

    Feb 19, 2013 ... prostatic secretions, thus forming the nucleus for the calcium precipitation. Prostatic calculi can be single or multiple and their size is usually between 0.5 and 5 mm, although the giant stone with several centimeters have been described like on our patient. The prostatic calculi may be associated with many ...

  6. LA CHIRURGIE ENDOSCOPIQUE BILATERALE ET SIMULTANEE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two patients underwent bilateral simultaneous ureteroscopy for ureteral calculi, on two others bilateral simultaneous PCNL was performed in treatment of renal lithiasis. In one patient bilateral simultaneous ureteroscopic extraction of ureteral calculi was done prior to bilateral PCNL for renal lithiasis. Ureteral stenting was ...

  7. Spatial Analysis of BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Programming language technology can contribute to the development and understanding of Systems Biology by providing formal calculi for specifying and analysing the dynamic behaviour of biological systems. Our focus is on BioAmbients, a variation of the ambient calculi developed for modelling...

  8. A fragment of Foley catheter balloon as a cause of Bladder stone in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary bladder calculi are rarely seen in women and any history of previous pelvic surgery must, therefore, raise suspicion of an iatrogenic etiology. According to the literature, fewer than 2% of all bladder calculi occur in female subjects and, thus, their presence should provoke careful assessment of the etiology. We report ...

  9. Efficacy of the Egyptian pneumatic lithotriptor using cystoscopy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The majority of vesical calculi in adults can now be treated transurethrally with the use of different lithotriptors. The aim of this article was to study the effectiveness of the Egyptian pneumatic lithotriptor through a rigid cystoscope in the treatment of vesical calculi. Patients and Methods: Fourteen adult patients (12 ...

  10. Factors affecting lower calyceal stone clearance after Extracorporeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shanker

    Abstract. Objective: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is one of the most commonly used procedures to remove renal calculi from the lower calyces. The aim of this work is to study the impact of radiological, anatomical and demographic factors on stone clearance after ESWL of lower calyceal calculi. Patients and ...

  11. Factors affecting lower calyceal stone clearance after Extracorporeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is one of the most commonly used procedures to remove renal calculi from the lower calyces. The aim of this work is to study the impact of radiological, anatomical and demographic factors on stone clearance after ESWL of lower calyceal calculi. Patients and ...

  12. A Complete, Co-Inductive Syntactic Theory of Sequential Control and State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Kristian; Lassen, Soren Bo

    2007-01-01

    equivalences between recursive imperative higher-order programs. The theory is modular in the sense that eager normal form bisimilarity for each of the calculi extended with continuations and/or mutable references is a fully abstract extension of eager normal form bisimilarity for its sub-calculi.  For each...

  13. Reasoning about objects using process calculus techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleist, Josva

    This thesis investigates the applicability of techniques known from the world of process calculi to reason about properties of object-oriented programs. The investigation is performed upon a small object-oriented language - The Sigma-calculus of Abadi and Cardelli. The investigation is twofold: We...... investigate translations of Sigma-calculi into process calculi, with the idea that one should be able to show properties of Sigma-calculus program by showing properties about their translation. We present translations of two Sigma-calculi into Pi-calculi. A translation of the untyped functional Sigma-calculus...... turns out to be insufficient. Based on our experiences, we present a translation of a typed imperative Sigma-calculus, which looks promising. We are able to provide simple proofs of the equivalence of different Sigma-calculus objects using this translation. We use a labelled transition system adapted...

  14. Epidemiology of urolithiasis with emphasis on ultrasound detection: A retrospective analysis of 5371 cases in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of urinary calculi in the indigenous population of Saudi Arabia and compare it with expatriates of different nationalities working in Saudi Arabia with emphasis on the anatomic location of the calculi and the role of ultrasound in the detection and management. The study included 5371 patients (both sexes, mean age 36.6 years examined by us from September 2004 to February 2008. The patients hailed from 30 countries, which included Bangladesh (42.3%, Pakistan (18.3%, Yemen (17.5%, India (6.5%, Sudan (3.4%, Saudi Arabia (2.8%, Egypt (2.3% and Eritrea (1.7%. All patients were referred for abdominal/renal ultrasonography. Urinary calculi were detected in 1029 patients. The distribution of calculi was as follows: Renal 73.3%, pelviureteric junction 2.3%, proximal, middle and distal thirds of the ureter 13%, vesicouretic junction 9.8%, vesical 1.1% and urethral 0.5%. The prevalence of urinary calculi according to ethnic origin in descending order of frequency was Egyptians (29.5%, Pakistani (24.9%, Indian (23.3%,Yemeni (20.5%, Sudanese (17.6%, Bangladeshi (16.2%, Eritrean (15.4% and Saudi Arabian (7.4%. Urinary calculi were found in 19.1% of the studied population. Approximately three-quarters of the calculi were located within the kidney. The nationalities with the highest prevalences were Egyptian, Pakistani and Indian.

  15. Pulp stones can help in detection of calculus in the kidneys and/or in the bile--fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksova, Pavlina; Serafimoski, Vladimir; Popovska, Mira; Ristovski, Milčo

    2013-01-01

    Pulp stones or denticles are frequently found in the dental pulp; there is, however, scarce evidence about this phenomenon. Regardless of the obvious endodontic problem of inhibiting access to the canals and their further treatment, they have not been given great importance. The latest experiences of scientific and practical research, including examinations of dental calcifications and their association with calcifications/calculi in the organism, have not been included in the literature. To investigate the possible association between dental calcifications and calculi in the kidney and/or bile. The study group included 200 patients diagnosed with pulptits chronica. All patients underwent dental and systematic examinations. Dental examination included x-rays, which detected the presence of calcifications in the dental pulps. Histopathological analysis of extirpated pulps was also made. Clinical examination comprised ultrasound that detected calculi. The results of the histopathological analysis of the extirpated pulps from the group of patients without denticles, but with calculi in their kidneys, bile and/or other organs, showed a regular presence of "sand" in large quantities in dental pulps. The presence of "sand" was depicted as presence of dystrophic calcifications. There was a percentage difference between the two groups: calculi in the organism (kidney and bile) and denticles--70% and calculi in the organism without denticles--30%. The Student's t-test showed a statistically significant difference for P=0.0000. This study defines the association between the calculi in the organism and the presence of dental calcifications, as well as their possible bacterial association.

  16. Impact of dual energy characterization of urinary calculus on management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habashy, David; Xia, Ryan; Ridley, William; Chan, Lewis; Ridley, Lloyd

    2016-10-01

    Dual energy CT (DECT) is a recent technique that is increasingly being used to differentiate between calcium and uric acid urinary tract calculi. The aim of this study is to determine if urinary calculi composition analysis determined by DECT scanning results in a change of patient management. All patients presenting with symptoms of renal colic, who had not previously undergone DECT scanning underwent DECT KUB. DECT data of all patients between September 2013 and July 2015 were reviewed. Urinary calculi composition based on dual energy characterization was cross-matched with patient management and outcome. A total of 585 DECT KUB were performed. 393/585 (67%) DECT scans revealed urinary tract calculi. After excluding those with isolated bladder or small asymptomatic renal stones, 303 patients were found to have symptomatic stone(s) as an explanation for their presentation. Of these 303 patients, there were 273 (90.1%) calcium calculi, 19 (6.3%) uric acid calculi and 11 (3.4%) mixed calculi. Of those with uric acid calculi, 15 were commenced on dissolution therapy. Twelve of those commenced on dissolution therapy had a successful outcome, avoiding need for surgical intervention (lithotripsy or stone retrieval). Three patients failed dissolution therapy and required operative intervention for definitive management of the stone. Predicting urinary tract calculi composition by DECT plays an important role in identifying patients who may be managed with dissolution therapy. Identification of uric acid stone composition altered management in 15 of 303 (5.0%) patients, and was successful in 12, thereby avoiding surgery and its attendant risks. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  17. Urinary stone detection and characterisation with dual-energy CT urography after furosemide intravenous injection: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsikas, Diomidis; Hansen, Catrina; Stefanelli, Salvatore; Becker, Christoph D; Montet, Xavier

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the added advantage of IV furosemide injection and the subsequent urine dilution in the detection of urinary calculi in the excretory phase of dual-source dual-energy (DE) computed tomography (CT) urography, and to investigate the feasibility of characterising the calculi through diluted urine. Twenty-three urinary calculi were detected in 116 patients who underwent DECT urography for macroscopic haematuria with a split bolus two- or three-acquisition protocol, including a true unenhanced series and at least a mixed nephrographic excretory phase. Virtual unenhanced images were reconstructed from contrast-enhanced DE data. Calculi were recorded on all series and characterised based on their X-ray absorption characteristics at 100 kVp and 140 kVp in both true unenhanced and nephrographic excretory phase series. All calculi with a diameter more than 2 mm were detected in the virtual unenhanced phase and in the nephrographic excretory phase. Thirteen of these calculi could be characterised in the true unenhanced phase and in the mixed nephrographic excretory phase. The results were strictly identical for both phases, six of them being recognised as non-uric acid calculi and seven as uric acid calculi. Mixed nephrographic excretory phase DECT after furosemide administration allows both detection and characterisation of clinically significant calculi, through the diluted urine. • Urinary tract stones can be detected on excretory phase through diluted urine. • Urinary tract stone characterisation with dual-energy CT (DECT) is possible through diluted urine. • A dual energy split-bolus CT urography simultaneously enables urinary stone detection and characterisation.

  18. A Generic Language for Biological Systems based on Bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Troels Christoffer; Krivine, Jean

    Several efforts have shown that process calculi developed for reasoning about concurrent and mobile systems may be employed for modelling biological systems at the molecular level. In this paper, we initiate investigation of the meta-language framework bigraphical reactive systems, due to Milner et...... al., as a basis for developing rule-based languages for molecular biology. We describe a family of BΣR-calculi sharing a small set of familiar operators and operations, and provide them with a simple operational semantics. We show that BΣR-calculi and their reaction semantics correspond to a version...

  19. A Giant Urethral Calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigdel, G; Agarwal, A; Keshaw, B W

    2014-01-01

    Urethral calculi are rare forms of urolithiasis. Majority of the calculi are migratory from urinary bladder or upper urinary tract. Primary urethral calculi usually occur in presence of urethral stricture or diverticulum. In this article we report a case of a giant posterior urethral calculus measuring 7x3x2 cm in a 47 years old male. Patient presented with acute retention of urine which was preceded by burning micturition and dribbling of urine for one week. The calculus was pushed in to the bladder through the cystoscope and was removed by suprapubic cystolithotomy.

  20. Female urethral diverticulum containing a giant calculus: a CARE-compliant case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, ZhiLong; Wang, Hanzhang; Zuo, LinJun; Hou, MingLi

    2015-05-01

    Urethral diverticula with calculi have a low incidence as reported in the literature. Diverticulum of female urethra is rare, often discovered due to associated complications. We report a case of diverticulum of the female urethra containing giant calculi in a 62-year-old multiparous woman. She consulted with our office due to dysuria and a hard, painful periurethral mass in the anterior vagina wall. The diverticulum was approached surgically by a vaginal route, and local extraction of the calculi and subsequent diverticulectomy successfully treated the condition.Diagnosis of a complicated diverticulum can be easily achieved if one possesses a high degree of clinical symptoms.

  1. Contributions to the qualification of the ''CRISTAL'' criticality calculi scheme: interpretation of critical experiments. Elaboration of a characterization system of neutronic configurations; Contributions a la qualification du schema de calcul de criticite ''cristal'': interpretation d'experiences critiques. Elaboration d'un systeme de caracterisation des configurations neutroniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnier, E

    1999-06-01

    This thesis work is about the validation of the new criticality-safety package CRISTAL and contributes to the modernization and the improvement of the computational tools. The first part presents neutronic elements, the objectives of safety criticality studies and the package CRISTAL. Then, the validation work concerned two series of experiments involving uranyl solutions (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) and UO{sub 2} powders. For these experiments, the differences between the computation results and the experimental results were analysed. It was highlighted interesting physical phenomena such of the compensations of errors between the approximate representation by the 99 energy group structure on the first resonance of oxygen and the anisotropy of the diffusion simulation as well as the influence of uranium 234 in high enriched solutions in uranium 235. Once the work of the experimental qualification carried out, raises the question of the use the base of qualification and the ''calculation-experiment'' variations which are referred to it. It is often difficult to establish the link between the ''studied configuration'' and the experiments of the base of qualification. The presented characterisation system proposes to answer in a way automatic and quantified this difficulty: - in bringing an answer on the package qualification for the studied configuration, - in giving an estimate of the package bias. To answer these points, it was defined a set of 35 characteristic neutronic parameters representing the behaviour of the medium. To process the information brought by these parameters and to use it to answer the objectives of the system, we called upon statistical methods (Principal Components Analysis and Sliced Inverse Regression). The results obtained in the feasibility studies showed the relevance of these methods for the considered objectives. (author)

  2. [Renal calculus microflora in urolithiasis and search for agents of control of biofilms formed by uropathogenic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolordava, E R; Tiganova, I G; Alekseeva, N V; Stepanova, T V; Terekhov, A A; Egamberdiev, D K; Mulabaev, N S; Shevliagina, N V; Didenko, L V; Romanova, Iu M

    2012-01-01

    Study bacterial biofilms in native material (renal calculus) by electron microscopy method and developmeit of biofilm model by isolates in vitro on sterile calculi of various chemical composition. Bacterial spectra of microflora of renal calculus lavages were studied, isolated pure cultures were identified up to species. Comparisons of urine microflora obtained before operation in patients with urolithiasis with microflora of removed renal calculi were carried out. Urease activity and genes coding pathogenicity factors were detected, and the ability to form biofilms by isolates was studied. Model of formation of biofilms in vitro on sterile renal calculi was developed and candidate agents reducing the biofilm forming ability were tested. Uropathogenic microorganisms infecting renal calculi and forming biofilms on them not only support chronic infection by increased resistance to therapy but also facilitate novel lithogenesis.

  3. Non determinism through type isomorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Díaz-Caro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We define an equivalence relation on propositions and a proof system where equivalent propositions have the same proofs. The system obtained this way resembles several known non-deterministic and algebraic lambda-calculi.

  4. South African Journal of Chemistry - Vol 59 (2006)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Classification of Urinary Calculi using Feed-Forward Neural Networks · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. I Kuzmanovski, K Zdravkova, M Trpkovska, 12–16 ...

  5. Local anesthesia and hydro-distension to facilitate cystic calculus removal in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Tom; Pollock, Patrick J

    2012-07-01

    To report a technique for improving surgical access to the bladder for removal of cystic calculi in male horses. Retrospective case series. Geldings (8) with cystic calculi. After catheterization of the bladder through the penis, 100 mL 2% lidocaine hydrochloride solution was instilled. After 10 minutes, the bladder was distended with sterile, warmed Hartmann's solution to a pressure of ≈ 40 cm H(2) O, using gravity feed. This was left in place until abdominal access was gained at surgery, then the fluid siphoned off via the catheter. Calculi were 3-11 cm in diameter (median, 6 cm). Bladder capacity ranged from 1.4 to 2.5 L (median, 1.8 L). Exteriorization time from placing a hand in the abdomen to having the bladder in a surgically accessible position was <5 minutes. The described technique facilitates exteriorization of the bladder for removal of cystic calculi. Copyright 2012 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  6. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL-NETWORK PREDICTIONS OF URINARY CALCULUS COMPOSITIONS ANALYZED WITH INFRARED-SPECTROSCOPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VOLMER, M; WOLTHERS, BG; METTING, HJ; DEHAAN, THY; COENEGRACHT, PMJ; VANDERSLIK, W

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is used to analyze urinary calculus (renal stone) constituents. However, interpretation of IR spectra for quantifying urinary calculus constituents in mixtures is difficult, requiring expert knowledge by trained technicians. In our laboratory IR spectra of unknown calculi

  7. Endoscopic partial sphincterotomy coupled with large balloon papilla dilation – Single stage approach for management of extra-hepatic bile ducts macro-lithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Donatelli

    2014-01-01

    We conclude that endoscopic partial sphincterotomy plus large papillary balloon dilation seems a promising, effective and safe approach to treat giant extrahepatic biliary calculi, if performed after correct patient selection and under established guidelines.

  8. Cholecyst-thoracic fistula. A rare complication of lithiasic cholecystitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corral Sánchez, M A; Gómez Sanz, R; Alvarado Astudillo, A; Rico Selas, P; Moreno González, E

    1994-01-01

    .... A computed tomography scan showed a cholecystitis of concealed evolution. Surgery revealed fistulization toward the thorax, with the passage of multiple calculi of a biliary origin to the chest cavity...

  9. Efficacy of the Egyptian pneumatic lithotriptor using cystoscopy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of the Egyptian pneumatic lithotriptor using cystoscopy in vesical calculi treatment Efficacité du lithotripteur pneumatique Egyptien lors d\\'une cystoscopie dans le traitement du calcul vésical.

  10. Benign galdeblærepolyp er en sjælden årsag til hæmobilli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Nielsen, Liv Bjerre; Schultz, Nicolai Aagaard; Hasselby, Jane Preuss

    2013-01-01

    Haemobilia can present with gastrointestinal bleeding, biliary colic and jaundice. Causes include trauma, iatrogenic causes, calculi, inflammation, vascular malformations and neoplasms. Benign gallbladder polyp is a very rare cause. A 63-year-old male with suspected gallbladder cancer due...

  11. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urinary Ca+2; Kidney stones - calcium in urine; Renal calculi - calcium in your urine; Parathyroid - calcium in urine ... Urine calcium level can help your provider: Decide on the best treatment for the most common type of kidney ...

  12. Urolithiasis after kidney transplantation and conservative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Gurkan Yenice

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Renal calculi after renal transplantation is a major complication that can lead to serious condition. Deterioration in graft function after renal transplantation, anuria, oliguria, hematuria, resistant recurrent urinary tract infection,sepsis in patients with tables ,The presence of calculi should be determined by imaging methods. Kidney transplants performed with stone is required close monitoring during the immediate postoperative period. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(0.100: 66-70

  13. Holmium laser for multifunctional use in urology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Graham M.; Shroff, Sunil; Thomas, Robert; Kellett, Michael

    1994-05-01

    The holmium laser pulsed at 350 microsecond cuts tissue and fragments calculi. It has been assessed for minimally invasive urological intervention. It is useful for partly excising and partly coagulating tumors, incising strictures and the obstructed PUJ. It partly drill and partly fragments urinary calculi however hard. Other lasers are more effective at any one particular application, but this laser is a useful compromise as a multifunctional device.

  14. Quadriplegia: Urological Complications

    OpenAIRE

    Fenster, Howard N.; Scarrow, Gayle D.

    1989-01-01

    Unlike the general public, quadriplegics are prone to various urological complications as a direct/indirect result of spinal cord lesions. These complications include neurogenic bladder, urinary tract infections, renal and bladder calculi, obstructive uropathy, renal failure, and bladder neoplasms. A significant portion of upper urinary tract disease, including pyelonephritis, hypernephrosis, and calculi are usually secondary to neurogenic bladder related to detrusor sphincter dysfunction. Th...

  15. Role of Caveolin-1 in Prostate Cancer Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    and cav-1−/− animals. We previously noted that in mice under 6 months of age soft urinary calculi were seen in the bladders of more than 60% of the...the older mice evaluated in the present study soft calculi and calcified deposits were also frequentlyFig. 5. H&E-stained sections of urinary bladder...activators and inhibitors differentially regulate caveolin-1 expression and caveo- lae formation in vascular endothelial cells. Angiogenesis inhibitors

  16. Salivary calculus diagnosis with 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiseidler, Timo; Ritter, Lutz; Rothamel, Daniel; Neugebauer, Jörg; Scheer, Martin; Mischkowski, Robert A

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cone-beam CT (CBCT) diagnoses of sialoliths in the major salivary glands. Twenty-nine CBCT images containing salivary calculi were retrospectively evaluated for image quality and artifact influence. Additionally, the reproducibility of calculus measurement and the differences between CBCT measurements and ultrasonography (US) and histomorphometry (HM) measurements were determined. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity calculations were based on the observations of 3 masked clinicians, who reviewed a total of 58 CBCT volumes. Salivary calculi were sufficiently visualized in all patients. Metal artifacts were detected in images of 7 patients, and movement artifacts in 2. CBCT calculi measurements were highly reproducible, with mean differences of less than 350 microm. Mean CBCT measurements of calculi diameters differed from mean US measurements by approximately 500 microm and differed from mean HM measurements by approximately 1 mm. For calculus diagnoses, the mean sensitivity and specificity were both 98.85%. Although poor image qualities and artifacts can reduce diagnostic information, salivary calculi can be evaluated adequately with CBCT. CBCT measurements of calculi are highly reproducible and differ little from measurements made with US and HM. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity levels with CBCT are as high as or higher than those obtained with other diagnostic methods. Because of its high diagnostic-information-to-radiation-dose ratio, CBCT is the preferable imaging modality for salivary calculus diagnosis. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical correlation of prostatic lithiasis with chronic pelvic pain syndromes in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geramoutsos, Ioannis; Gyftopoulos, Kostis; Perimenis, Petros; Thanou, Vasiliki; Liagka, Dimitra; Siamblis, Dimitrios; Barbalias, George

    2004-03-01

    To investigate the incidence, morphology and clinical presentation of prostatic calculi in a selected population of young adults and to examine any possible correlation with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndromes (CP/CPPS). A population of 1374 young adults was screened with ultrasound imaging of the prostate and 101 cases with prostatic lithiasis were selected. Patients were divided in two groups, according to the type of prostatic calculi (type A: small, multiple or type B: larger, coarser calculi). Further evaluation included history and physical examination, recording of lower urinary tract symptoms and the Meares-Stamey test. Calculi were type A in 71.3% and type B in 28.7% of cases. Localization (central/periurethral) was not correlated with other parameters. Age was closely related to calculus burden ( p =0.034 ). Type B calculi were more often associated with symptoms and chronic prostatitis/CPPS (chi(2)-test, p=0.007 and 0.018 respectively). Small, multiple calcifications are a normal, often incidental ultrasonographic finding in the prostate and represent a result of age rather than a pathologic entity. However, larger prostatic calculi may be related to underlying inflammation and require further evaluation and possibly, treatment.

  18. [Clinical and laboratory parameters in patients with urolithiasis in the presence and absence of primary hyperparathyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzerganov, N K; Egshatian, L V; Mokrysheva, N G; Peretokina, E V

    2013-01-01

    The clinical and laboratory findings in 78 patients with various forms of urolithiasis depending on the presence of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) were analyzed. PHPT was diagnosed in 17 patients. Group "without PHPT" and group "with PHPT" differed significantly in terms of parathyroid hormone (PTH) level, serum calcium, phosphorus, chloride, alkaline phosphatase, calciuria and kaliuria. In patients with staghorn calculi, PHPT was diagnosed in 12.5%, and staghorn calculi in the presence of PHPT were identified in 17.7% of cases. Hypercalciuria in the group "with PHPT" was detected in 82.4% of patients (all 3 patients with staghorn calculi), and in the group "without PHPT"--in 18% of patients (2 of 21 patients with staghorn calculi). Hyperoxaluria was observed in 42.3% of patients "without PHPT" and in 35.3% of patients "with PHPT", in 36.8% of patients with simple stones and in 57.2%--with staghorn calculi. In 39% of patients "without PHPT", secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) was diagnosed. SHPT prevalence was 28% in patients with staghorn calculi, and 45% in patients with simple stones. In 87.5% of patients with hypomagnesemia, staghorn calculi were observed. Significant relationship between magnesium and triglycerides (r(s) = -0.296; P = 0.041), and magnesium and high-density lipoproteins (r(s) = 0.339; P = 0.032) in all patients with urolithiasis were revealed. Thus, the study found no association between staghorn nephrolithiasis and PHPT. Elevated PTH levels usually indicate SHPT rather than PHPT. In hypocalcemia, there was more strong association between PTH and calcium, in normocalcaemia--between PTH and magnesium.

  19. Spatial reasoning with augmented points: Extending cardinal directions with local distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Moratz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach for supplying existing qualitative direction calculi with a distance component to support fully fledged positional reasoning. The general underlying idea of augmenting points with local reference properties has already been applied in the OPRAm calculus. In this existing calculus, point objects are attached with a local reference direction to obtain oriented points and able to express relative direction using binary relations. We show how this approach can be extended to attach a granular distance concept to direction calculi such as the cardinal direction calculus or adjustable granularity calculi such as OPRAm or the Star calculus. We focus on the cardinal direction calculus and extend it to a multi-granular positional calculus called EPRAm. We provide a formal specification of EPRAm including a composition table for EPRA2 automatically determined using real algebraic geometry. We also report on an experimental performance analysis of EPRA2 in the context of a topological map-learning task proposed for benchmarking qualitative calculi. Our results confirm that our approach of adding a relative distance component to existing calculi improves the performance in realistic tasks when using algebraic closure for consistency checking.

  20. Changes in intrarenal resistive index following electromagnetic extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Mohammad Ghasem; H Khazaeli, Mahziar; Aghamir, Seyed Mohammad Kazem; Biniaz, Farzad

    2007-01-01

    Our aim was to study the changes in resistive index (RI) of the ipsilateral and contralateral kidneys following electromagnetic extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) of the kidney calculi. Using color Doppler ultrasonography, the RI was determined in 21 patients with unilateral caliceal and pelvic kidney calculi. The RI of the interlobar renal arteries were measured for the regions near and far from the calculi (distance, less and more than 2 cm), before, 30 minutes after, and 1 week after SWL. The same measurements were carried out for the contralateral kidney. Changes in the RI values and their relation with age were evaluated. The RI near the calculi increased 30 minutes after SWL from 0.594 +/- 0.062 to 0.620 +/- 0.048 (P = .003; 95% confidence interval, 0.020 to 0.073), but returned to the pre-SWL values 1 week later. The RI values of the region remote from the calculus and in the contralateral kidney did not change significantly. There was a weak correlation between age and the RI far from the calculus before and 1 week after SWL. There were no relationships between the RI and age, sex, weight, blood pressure, and smoking. The results suggest that SWL of the kidney calculi changes the RI only near the calculus which is immediate, transient, and not age-related.

  1. Low dose computed tomography in suspected acute renal colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, T; Sukumar, V P; Collingwood, J; Crawley, T; Schofield, D; Henson, J; Lakin, K; Connolly, D; Giles, J

    2001-11-01

    To evaluate whether computed tomography (CT) of the renal tract in suspected renal colic using reduced exposure factors maintains diagnostic accuracy. Prospective multi-centre cohort study. Patients with suspected renal colic were examined using computed tomography (CT) of the renal tract followed by intravenous urography (IVU) in four different centres with five different CT systems. Sixty-nine patients with suspected renal colic had CT of the renal tract followed by IVU. CT was performed with reduced exposure factors, giving a mean CT effective dose of 3.5 (range 2.8-4.5) mSv compared with 1.5 mSv for IVU. Ureteric calculi were detected in 43 patients: CT and IVU detected 40 (93%) ureteric calculi. CT identified other lesions causing symptoms in five patients and identified renal calculi in 24 patients. IVU identified renal calculi in six patients and made false positive diagnosis of renal calculi in seven patients. Mean examination time for CT was 5 minutes and for IVU was 80 minutes. CT examination at reduced exposure factors maintains the diagnostic accuracy recorded in other series. Copyright 2001 The Royal College of Radiologists.

  2. [Intra-scrotal lithiasis. Crystallographic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Merino, José María; Lancina Martín, Alberto; Grases Freixedas, Félix; Parra Muntaner, Luis; Gómez Cisneros, Sergio Carlos; García Alonso, Jesús

    2002-06-01

    To present two cases of intrascrotal lithiasis associated with hydrocele and the results of the crystallographic study. Three intrascrotal calculi in two patients aged 72 and 75 years that underwent surgery for hydrocele were analyzed. Two 2-mm. calculi were incidentally discovered during surgery for a right hydrocele in one patient. An ultrasound scan of the other patient showed a left hydrocele with a free-floating, round, hyperechoic, 6-mm. calculus, with posterior acoustic shadow. None of the patients had a previous history of trauma. The 3 calculi were white and smooth, but turned yellow and rough after removal. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray dispersion studies were performed. All 3 calculi had a center comprised of hydroxyapatite and white organic matter, and an exterior of yellow organic matter. The mineral portion of the center of the 6-mm. calculus and one of the 2-mm. calculi was composed of 33% phosphorus and 67% calcium, and the other 2-mm. calculus contained 32% phosphorus and 68% calcium by x-ray dispersion analysis. Intrascrotal lithiasis is rare. In the two cases described herein, we observed abundant organic matter, particularly on the stone surface, and hydroxyapatite, particularly in the center. Among the possible etiologic causes, the deposit of organic matter in the presence of high oversaturation of calcium phosphates and absence of crystallization inhibitors, can initiate calcification and the subsequent collection of organic matter makes the process irreversible.

  3. Evaluation of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography at 0.5 T in the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamamoto, Tetsuro; Santoh, Yoshiaki; Okubo, Michiko [Yonego Hakuai Hospital, Tottori (Japan)] [and others

    2000-09-01

    The visualization rate of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) with a moderate magnetic field (0.5 T) was compared in terms of the maximum diameter of calculi and the imaging method. MRCP with a fast spin echo (FSE) and/or single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) sequence was performed in 53 patients diagnosed with extrahepatic biliary lithiasis by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The visualization rate of MRCP was 84.9% (45/53). The visualization rate of calculi 5 mm or less in diameter was low, but those 6 mm or more in diameter were visualized in almost every case. Examination by each of the imaging methods yielded a visualization rate of 78.4% (49/51) by FSE, 82.8% (24/29) by SSFSE, and 85.2% (23/27) by a combination of both methods. No calculi 5 mm or less in diameter were detected by FSE, but 4-5 mm calculi were detected in 2 out of 5 cases (40%) by SSFSE. Calculi 6 mm or more in diameter were detected in 40 out of 43 patients by FSE and 22 out of 23 patients by SSFSE. MRCP with a moderate magnetic field was as useful in diagnosing choledocholithiasis as with a high magnetic field. Of the two imaging methods tested, SSFSE appeared to be preferable to FSE. (K.H.)

  4. Unenhanced helical CT in the evaluation of the urinary tract in children and young adults following urinary tract reconstruction: comparison with sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, M.T.; Elder, J.S.; Sivit, C.J.; Applegate, K.E. [Dept. of Radiology, Rainbow Babies and Children' s Hospital, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Purpose. To compare the accuracy of unenhanced, helical CT with sonography for the detection of complications of urinary tract reconstruction. Materials and methods. Forty-six kidneys in 24 patients were examined with CT and sonography. All scans were assessed for ease of renal visualization, presence of renal, ureteral, and bladder calculi, renal scars, hydronephrosis, and abdominal wall hernia. The results of both imaging modalities were independently reported. Results. CT provided excellent visualization of all 46 kidneys, while sonography provided poor visualization of 8 kidneys (17 %) (P < 0.001). CT detected calculi in 10 kidneys, 1 ureter, and 7 bladders. Sonography detected calculi in only 2 kidneys, and 2 bladders. Overall, CT detected significantly more calculi than US (18 vs 4, P = 0.01). CT detected scarring in 15 kidneys, while sonography detected scarring in 10. Hydronephrosis was detected in 6 kidneys by CT and in 8 kidneys by sonography. Three abdominal wall hernias were seen at CT that were not seen at sonography. Conclusion. CT is superior to sonography for the detection of urinary tract calculi and renal scarring. CT will demonstrate abdominal wall hernias that are unsuspected. (orig.)

  5. An Intensional Concurrent Faithful Encoding of Turing Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Given-Wilson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The benchmark for computation is typically given as Turing computability; the ability for a computation to be performed by a Turing Machine. Many languages exploit (indirect encodings of Turing Machines to demonstrate their ability to support arbitrary computation. However, these encodings are usually by simulating the entire Turing Machine within the language, or by encoding a language that does an encoding or simulation itself. This second category is typical for process calculi that show an encoding of lambda-calculus (often with restrictions that in turn simulates a Turing Machine. Such approaches lead to indirect encodings of Turing Machines that are complex, unclear, and only weakly equivalent after computation. This paper presents an approach to encoding Turing Machines into intensional process calculi that is faithful, reduction preserving, and structurally equivalent. The encoding is demonstrated in a simple asymmetric concurrent pattern calculus before generalised to simplify infinite terms, and to show encodings into Concurrent Pattern Calculus and Psi Calculi.

  6. Many-valued logics

    CERN Document Server

    Bolc, Leonard

    1992-01-01

    Many-valued logics were developed as an attempt to handle philosophical doubts about the "law of excluded middle" in classical logic. The first many-valued formal systems were developed by J. Lukasiewicz in Poland and E.Post in the U.S.A. in the 1920s, and since then the field has expanded dramatically as the applicability of the systems to other philosophical and semantic problems was recognized. Intuitionisticlogic, for example, arose from deep problems in the foundations of mathematics. Fuzzy logics, approximation logics, and probability logics all address questions that classical logic alone cannot answer. All these interpretations of many-valued calculi motivate specific formal systems thatallow detailed mathematical treatment. In this volume, the authors are concerned with finite-valued logics, and especially with three-valued logical calculi. Matrix constructions, axiomatizations of propositional and predicate calculi, syntax, semantic structures, and methodology are discussed. Separate chapters deal w...

  7. Review on renal recovery after anatrophic nephrolithotomy: Are we really healing our patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Leonardo de Albuquerque dos Santos; Camilo-Silva, Douglas Gregório; Fiedler, Gustavo; Corguinha, Gustavo Barboza; Paiva, Matheus Miranda; Pereira-Correia, João Antonio; Muller, Valter José Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    The main goals for urinary stone treatment are to preserve renal function, reduce or avoid complications related to calculi, and to render the patient free of calculi as soon as possible. Anatrophic nephrolithotomy (ANL) is a valid and useful alternative for conventional staghorn calculi excision. Although excellent stone free rates can be achieved with ANL there are some drawbacks that may be of concern. Morbidity related to intraoperative and postoperative complications is one of them. Another, great concern is the possibility of reduction on renal function related to the procedure itself. This may be related to nephron injury during nephrotomy and parenchymal closure or to ischemic injury. In this review we assess functional results after anatrophic nephrolithotomy. PMID:25664252

  8. Biliary Lithiasis: Prevalence and Ultrasound Profile in a Service Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, J; Chakraborty, I; Mohan, R

    2003-01-01

    Real time gray scale ultrasonography of upper abdomen was carried out in 1237 cases for varied indications. Overall prevalence of biliary lithiasis was 11.56% with female to male ratio of 4:1. Fifty years and below, female to male ratio was 6.5:1. 88.8% cases of biliary lithiasis were 60 years and below. Gall bladder dyspepsia (61.5%) and right upper quadrant pain (41%) were the main presenting features of biliary lithiasis. 26 patients (18%) presented with acute abdomen. Asymptomatic gallstones were found in 25 (17.5%) cases. Solitary calculus was less common than multiple calculi with a ratio of 1:4. Amongst cases of multiple calculi the small sized (2-4 mm) variety was the maximum (49%) followed by medium sized (5-10mm) and large sized (>10mm) calculi respectively.

  9. Controller Design from Temporal Logic: Undecidability need not matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin

    1997-01-01

    ``Controller Design from Temporal Logic: Undecidability Need Not Matter'' sets out to prove that this hypothesis is actually true and applies to some well-studied design formalisms. The demonstrator formalism used throughout is the core of the Duration Calculi, which is a major group of calculi proposed...... for the rigorous development of embedded real-time control systems. The Duration Calculi are highly undecidable, but most of these undecidability results rely on the number of discrete state changes in a finite time interval not being finitely bounded. In the thesis, positive decidability results are established...... for slightly more restrictive model classes, where the additional constraints on the temporal distribution of possible state changes are derived from considerations concerning the physical properties of embedded controllers. In the remainder, these considerations are shown to apply for interesting classes...

  10. Rare calcium oxalate monohydrate calculus attached to the wall of the renal pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Felix; Costa-Bauza, Antonia; Prieto, Rafael M; Saus, Carlos; Servera, Antonio; García-Miralles, Reyes; Benejam, Joan

    2011-04-01

    Most renal calculi can be classified using well-established criteria in a manner that reflects both composition and fine structure under specific pathophysiological conditions. However, when a large patient population is considered, rare renal calculi invariably appear, some of which have never been classified; careful study is required to establish stone etiology in such cases. The patient in the present case report formed two types of calculi. One was attached on the wall of the renal pelvis near the ureter and part of the calculus was embedded inside pelvic renal tissue. The calculus developed on an ossified calcification located in the pelvis tissue. Current knowledge on the development of calcification in soft tissues suggests a pre-existing injury as an inducer of its development. A mechanism of calculus formation is proposed. The second stone was a typical jack-stone calculus. © 2011 The Japanese Urological Association.

  11. Extraction of prostatic lumina and automated recognition for prostatic calculus image using PCA-SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuocai; Xu, Xiangmin; Ding, Xiaojun; Xiao, Hui; Huang, Yusheng; Liu, Jian; Xing, Xiaofen; Wang, Hua; Liao, D Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Identification of prostatic calculi is an important basis for determining the tissue origin. Computation-assistant diagnosis of prostatic calculi may have promising potential but is currently still less studied. We studied the extraction of prostatic lumina and automated recognition for calculus images. Extraction of lumina from prostate histology images was based on local entropy and Otsu threshold recognition using PCA-SVM and based on the texture features of prostatic calculus. The SVM classifier showed an average time 0.1432 second, an average training accuracy of 100%, an average test accuracy of 93.12%, a sensitivity of 87.74%, and a specificity of 94.82%. We concluded that the algorithm, based on texture features and PCA-SVM, can recognize the concentric structure and visualized features easily. Therefore, this method is effective for the automated recognition of prostatic calculi.

  12. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano T. DeMarco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The surgical management of pediatric stone disease has evolved significantly over the last three decades. Prior to the introduction of shockwave lithotripsy (SWL in the 1980s, open lithotomy was the lone therapy for children with upper tract calculi. Since then, SWL has been the procedure of choice in most pediatric centers for children with large renal calculi. While other therapies such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL were also being advanced around the same time, PNL was generally seen as a suitable therapy in adults because of the concerns for damage in the developing kidney. However, recent advances in endoscopic instrumentation and renal access techniques have led to an increase in its use in the pediatric population, particularly in those children with large upper tract stones. This paper is a review of the literature focusing on the indications, techniques, results, and complications of PNL in children with renal calculi.

  13. MRI of oriental cholangiohepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wani, N.A., E-mail: ahmad77chinar@gmail.co [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS), Srinagar (India); Robbani, I.; Kosar, T. [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS), Srinagar (India)

    2011-02-15

    Oriental cholangiohepatitis (OCH) also called recurrent pyogenic cholangitis is characterized by intrahepatic duct calculi, strictures, and recurrent infections. In turn cholangitis can result in multiple hepatic abscesses, further biliary strictures, and in severe cases, progressive hepatic parenchymal destruction, cirrhosis, and portal hypertension. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and conventional T1-weighted (T1 W) and T2-weighted (T2 W) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings have been described in patients with OCH. MRCP findings include duct dilation, strictures, and calculi. MRCP can help to localize the diseased ducts and determine the severity of involvement. T1 and T2 W sequences reveal the parenchymal changes of atrophy, abscess formation, and portal hypertension in addition to calculi. Post-treatment changes are also well depicted using MRI. Comprehensive, non-invasive assessment is achieved by using conventional MRI and MRCP in OCH providing a roadmap for endoscopic or surgical management.

  14. Sonographic findings of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Chul [Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    To analyze ultrasonographic (US) findings of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP). Thirty-five cases of pathologically proven XGP in 32 patients (bilateral in three patients) were analyzed for preoperative US findings. Compared with findings of computed tomography (CT) and pathology, US findings were retrospectively analyzed for the appearance and size of the kidney, extent and pattern of the disease, and presence and characteristics of calculi, by three radiologists who made a consensus. Of 32 patients, 30 (94%) except two children were older than 27 years, and 25 (78%) were female. The mean age of the patients was 46 (range 3 to 62 years). Of 35 cases in 32 patients, US appearance of the kidney was reniform in all cases, with nephromegaly in 26 (74%) and hydronephrosis 27 (77%). XGP was diffuse in 28 (80%) and focal in 7 (20%). Hypoechoic or anechoic inflammatory lesions of XGP were found on US in 28 cases, but the lesions were not detected on US due to the echo pattern similar to the normal renal parenchyma in two cases and due to marked acoustic shadowing of staghorn calculi in five cases. Acoustic shadowing of renal calculi was minimal due to the dense peripelvic fibrosis in two cases. Of 21 cases with the extrarenal extension of XGP, the extrarenal extension was not definitely detected in five cases (24%) on US. Urinary calculi were detected in 20 (71%) of 28 cases on US. All of the 12 staghorn calculi were detected in US. XGP had variable US findings in addition to the classic ones. Absence of calculi, nephromegaly or diffusibility may be found on US of XGP. In spite of advantages of US, US also had some limitations in the evaluation of renal function, extrarenal extension, and renal parenchyma with large staghorn stone. CT and excretory urography may compensate for these US limitations.

  15. Scientific aspects of urolithiasis: quantitative stone analysis and crystallization experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wandt, M.A.E.

    1986-01-01

    The theory, development and results of three quantitative analytical procedures are described and the crystallization experiments in a rotary evaporator are presented. Of the different methods of quantitative X-ray powder diffraction analyses, the internal standard method and a microanalytical technique were identified as the two most useful procedures for the quantitative analysis of urinary calculi. Reference intensity ratios for 6 major stone phases were determined and were used in the analysis of 20 calculi by the internal standard method. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopic (ICP-AES) methods were also investigated, developed and used in this study. Various procedures for the digestion of calculi were tested and a mixture of HNO3 and HC1O4 was eventually found to be the most successful. The major elements Ca, Mg, and P in 41 calculi were determined. For the determination of trace elements, a new microwave-assisted digestion procedure was developed and used for the digestion of 100 calculi. Fluoride concentrations in two stone collections were determined using a fluoride-ion sensitive electrode and the HNO3/HC1O4 digestion prodecure used for the ICP study. A series of crystallization experiments involving a standard reference artificial urine was carried out in a rotary evaporator. The effect of pH and urine composition was studied by varying the former and by including uric acid, urea, creatinine, MgO, methylene blue, chondroitin sulphate A, and fluoride in the reference solution. Crystals formed in these experiments were subjected to qualitative and semi-quantitative X-ray powder diffraction analyses. Scanning electron microscopy of several deposits was also carried out. Similar deposits to those observed in calculi were obtained with the fast evaporator. The results presented suggest that this system provides a simple, yet very useful means for studying the crystallization characteristics of urine solutions.

  16. Availability by Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto

    languages, language-based techniques, offer a unifying framework to deal with the consequences of DoS, thereby encompassing inadvertent and malicious sources of unavailability in a uniform manner. In support to this claim we develop a family of process calculi, the Quality Calculi, where availability...... considerations are promoted to be first-class object of the language domain. Moreover, these modelling tools are complemented by static analyses that pinpoint where and why unavailability may occur, levering the enhanced expressiveness of the language. The ultimate aim of the framework is to foster...

  17. End-to-end integrated security and performance analysis on the DEGAS Choreographer platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Mikael; Gilmore, Stephen; Haenel, Valentin

    2005-01-01

    We present a software tool platform which facilitates security and performance analysis of systems which starts and ends with UML model descriptions. A UML project is presented to the platform for analysis, formal content is extracted in the form of process calculi descriptions, analysed...... with the analysers of the calculi, and the results of the analysis are reflected back into a modified version of the input UML model. The design platform supporting the methodology, Choreographer, interoperates with state-of-the-art UML modelling tools. We illustrate the approach with a well known protocol...

  18. Multiple ureterolithiasis resembling steinstrasse: An unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Pandey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Steinstrasse or “stone street” is an expected complication after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in patients with high stone burden. However, there are published reports of multiple ureterolithiasis resembling steinstrasse in patients with distal renal tubular acidosis. Here we report an uncommon case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with right renal calculi. Her right ureter was studded with multiple calculi up to the vesicoureteric junction. The affected right kidney was nonfunctional and was managed by nephroureterectomy.

  19. The GHZ/W-calculus contains rational arithmetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Coecke

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Graphical calculi for representing interacting quantum systems serve a number of purposes: compositionally, intuitive graphical reasoning, and a logical underpinning for automation. The power of these calculi stems from the fact that they embody generalized symmetries of the structure of quantum operations, which, for example, stretch well beyond the Choi-Jamiolkowski isomorphism. One such calculus takes the GHZ and W states as its basic generators. Here we show that this language allows one to encode standard rational calculus, with the GHZ state as multiplication, the W state as addition, the Pauli X gate as multiplicative inversion, and the Pauli Z gate as additive inversion.

  20. A call-by-value lambda-calculus with lists and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbert Krebbers

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Calculi with control operators have been studied to reason about control in programming languages and to interpret the computational content of classical proofs. To make these calculi into a real programming language, one should also include data types. As a step into that direction, this paper defines a simply typed call-by-value lambda calculus with the control operators catch and throw, a data type of lists, and an operator for primitive recursion (a la Goedel's T. We prove that our system satisfies subject reduction, progress, confluence for untyped terms, and strong normalization for well-typed terms.

  1. Structural Logical Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Sarnat, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Tait's method (a.k.a. proof by logical relations) is a powerful proof technique frequently used for showing foundational properties of languages based on typed lambda-calculi. Historically, these proofs have been extremely difficult to formalize in proof assistants with weak meta-logics, such as ......Tait's method (a.k.a. proof by logical relations) is a powerful proof technique frequently used for showing foundational properties of languages based on typed lambda-calculi. Historically, these proofs have been extremely difficult to formalize in proof assistants with weak meta...

  2. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy, Ileal Conduit- Lithotripsy and Litholapaxy for a Neglected Encrusted Ureteral Stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Gutierrez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Urolithiasis can result as a complication of urinary diversión, favored by urinary stasis, intestinal mucus, urinary tract bacteriuria, the metabolic derangements and the presence of foreign bodies. We present a 52- year-old male who underwent radical cystectomy with construction of a Bricker uretero-ileostomy. 5 years later he was found with a forgotten ureteral stent, a 6 cm calculi occupying the whole ileal conduit and a 13 mm calculi in the left renal pelvis. We present our experience in the successful endourological management of an encrusted neglected ureteral stent in an ileal conduit, achieving a stone-free status without complications.

  3. Ureteroscopic Lithotripsy

    OpenAIRE

    Bagley, Demetrius H.

    1997-01-01

    There is a wide array of endoscopic lithotriptors presently available. Each of these has its own advantages and disadvantages. No single lithotriptor is suitable for all applications and none can meet the goal of fragmenting all calculi while remaining harmless to tissue.

  4. Probabilistic Mu-Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mardare, Radu Iulian; Xue, Bingtian

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a version of the probabilistic µ-calculus (PMC) built on top of a probabilistic modal logic that allows encoding n-ary inequational conditions on transition probabilities. PMC extends previously studied calculi and we prove that, despite its expressiveness, it enjoys a series of good...... is innovative in many aspects combining various techniques from topology and model theory....

  5. Stone fragmentation by ultrasound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    routine use. These methods are very cumbersome and expensive. Treatment of the patients also takes com- paratively more time because of more number of sittings. ... Introduction. Disintegration of renal calculi, non-invasively, with the use of lithotripters .... Edmonds (New York: Academic Press) 19 pp 355–411. Chaussy C ...

  6. Multiple bilateral stones as a cause of acute renal failure: Three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Ozturk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Complex renal stones are staghorn calculi stones >2 cm and most calculus are calcium stones. In patients found with obstruction may need an emergency intervention. Three patients with multiple stones causing bilateral renal obstruction were operated.

  7. Anuric renal failure after same-session bilateral atraumatic flexible ureteroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Bandi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the first known case of anuric renal failure after same-session bilateral atraumatic flexible ureteroscopy for renal calculi. Although, there is no consensus about stenting patients who undergo same-session bilateral ureteroscopy due to the lack of prospective randomized studies; strong consideration should be given to stenting the ureter at least one side to avoid this complication.

  8. AJU 3087.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mn

    Conclusion: The radiological characteristics of renal calculi could predict their fragility after. SWL. Stones which ... characteristics, the relative importance of ..... D'A Honey RJ, et al. Stone attenuation and skin-to- stone distance on computed tomography predicts for stone fragmentation by shock wave lithotripsy. Urology.

  9. LA CHIRURGIE ENDOSCOPIQUE BILATERALE ET SIMULTANEE DU

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of renal and ureteral lithiasis. Patients and Methods: Five patients were reviewed retrospectively. Two patients underwent bilateral simultaneous ureteroscopy for ureteral calculi, on two others bilateral simultaneous PCNL was performed in treatment of renal lithiasis. in one patient bilateral simultaneous ureteroscopic ...

  10. Managing caliceal stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas J Gross

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural course of untreated asymptomatic caliceal calculi has not been clearly defined, especially in terms of disease progression, and the indications for and outcomes of surgical intervention are not precise. Caliceal stones may remain asymptomatic but, in case of migration, ureteral calculi can cause acute ureteric colic with severe complications. The decision for an active treatment of caliceal calculi is based on stone composition, stone size and symptoms. Extracorporal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL has a low complication rate and is recommended by the current guidelines of the European Association of Urology as a first-line therapy for the treatment of caliceal stones <2 cm in diameter. However, immediate stone removal is not achieved with ESWL. The primary stone-free rates (SFR after ESWL depend on stone site and composition and, especially for lower pole calculi, the SFR differ widely from other caliceal stones. Minimally-invasive procedures including percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ureteroscopy are alternatives for the treatment of caliceal stones, associated with low morbidity and high primary SFR when performed in centers of excellence.

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 475 ... Vol 11, No 3 (2016), Efficacy of Semi-Rigid Ureteroscopy and Holmium:YAG Laser Lithotripsy in the Treatment of Ureteric Calculi, a Retrospective Study, Abstract. Badreldin A Alzain, Abdelazeem H K, Maawia M Elhassan, Eltayeb B E Shamseldin, Ibnouf M A M. Vol 4, No 2 (2009), e-Learning: The ...

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 721 ... Vol 9, No 3 (2003), BILATERAL SINGLE SESSION URETEROSCOPY FOR URETERAL CALCULI: IS IT SAFE AND EFFECTIVE? Abstract PDF. M.G. Andankar, P.N. Maheshwari, H.N. Shah, N.N. Trivedi, V.B. Kausik, R. Jain. Vol 16, No 2 (2010), Bilateral Supernumerary Kidneys: Incidental Finding in a ...

  13. Urolithiasis in Nairobi, Kenya | Ngugi | East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seven patients had bladder calculi managed by either cystolitholapaxy or forceps retrieval. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a higher annual incidence of urolithiasis in Nairobi than earlier literature. Study demonstrates that ESWL and ureteroscopic methods are highly effective in the treatment of renal and ureteral ...

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 401 - 450 of 721 ... Vol 8, No 3 (2002), NON-STENTED HOLMIUM:YAG URETEROSCOPIC MANAGEMENT OF LOWER URETERAL CALCULI, Abstract PDF. H.A. ABOUL ELLA, O.A. IBRAHEIM. Vol 11, No 4 (2005):, Non-surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: where do we stand in 2005, Abstract PDF.

  15. Large renal calculus and ipsilateral flank (incisional) hernia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Adam

    2017-03-11

    Mar 11, 2017 ... As treatment alternatives, ureteroscopy and stone management or the use of ESWL in this situation may be considered to be safer options in some institutions. However,therecentEuropeanAssociationofUrology(EAU)guide- line recommends PCNL as first line in cases of renal calculi greater than 20 mm.

  16. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences - Vol 11, No 3 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of Semi-Rigid Ureteroscopy and Holmium:YAG Laser Lithotripsy in the Treatment of Ureteric Calculi, a Retrospective Study · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Badreldin A Alzain, Abdelazeem H K, Maawia M Elhassan, Eltayeb B E Shamseldin, Ibnouf ...

  17. Feasibility and outcome of emergency ureteroscopic removal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of emergency ureteroscopy (URS) with that of elective URS in the treatment of distal ureteral calculi. Patients and methods: This prospective study included 132 patients diagnosed with a distal unilateral ureteral stone ≤5 mm and treated with either emergency or elective URS between ...

  18. Efficacy of Semi-Rigid Ureteroscopy and Holmium:YAG Laser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Urolithiasis is a common worldwide health problem. Many endosurgical treatments became available for urinary calculi. Objectives: To find out the success clearance and complication rates of ureteric stone treatment using semi-rigid ureteroscopy and Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy as a day case procedure.

  19. An epidemiological study on the composition of urinary stones in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M. Bouatia

    Shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), ureteroscopy (URS), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and open surgery are all effective methods to remove urinary calculi, and knowing the urinary stone composi- tion is frequently a key factor in determining the most appropriate management [5]. Urinary stone analysis is a tool for ...

  20. UROLITHIASIS IN NAIROBI, KENYA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-10-01

    Oct 1, 2010 ... Seven patients had bladder calculi managed by either cystolitholapaxy or forceps retrieval. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a higher annual incidence of urolithiasis in. Nairobi than earlier literature. Study demonstrates that ESWL and ureteroscopic methods are highly effective in the treatment of renal ...

  1. Tamsulosin therapy improved the outcome of ureterorenoscopy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... major complications occurred in 4.25% of patients in control group but in only 1.96% of those received tamsulosin (p = 0.034). Conclusion: Post-tamsulosin ureteroscopy was easier and safer; leading to significantly increased stone-free rates and fewer complications. Keywords: Tamsulosin; Ureteroscopy; Ureteral calculi ...

  2. BILATERAL SINGLE SESSION URETEROSCOPY FOR URETERAL I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    calculus was fragmented with ballistic or hol- mium laser lithotripsy. A ureteric catheter was kept on both sides at the end of the procedure for '24 hours. A double~J stent was utilized in patients with large impacted calculi, patients having residual or migrated fragments or mu- cosal injuries. X-ray KUB was done in all patients ...

  3. Smooth Frechet subalgebras of C-algebras defined by first order ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This includes differential Arens–Michael decomposition, spectral invariance, closure under functional calculi as well as intrinsic spectral description. A large number of examples of such Frechet algebras are exhibited; and the smooth structure defined by an unbounded self-adjoint Hilbert space operator is discussed.

  4. Unusual Giant Prostatic Urethral Calculus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-06-29

    Jun 29, 2010 ... They are typically asymptomatic and may be associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and prostatic cancer.[1] Primary prostatic urethral calculi are usually associated with urethral strictures, posterior urethral valve or diverticula. Acute urinary retention might result secondary to a large urethral calculus.

  5. Effect of oral fructose administration on alchohol-induced increase in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of oral fructose administration on alchohol-induced increase in plasma urate. ... The stimulation of alcohol oxidative metabolism by fructose may not be accompanied by a threatening increase in serum urate, the aetiologic risk factor of gout, renal calculi and hypertension. Albeit, similar study designed for humans is ...

  6. A nontraumatic para-aortic lymphocele complicating nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyson, E A; Belleza, N A; Lowman, R M

    1977-09-01

    Many cases of traumatic para-aortic lymphocele have been reported. Recently, a case of nontraumatic para-aortic lymphocele was investigated. The etiologic consideration for this lymphocele formation is either a localized inflammatory process, or fibrosis induced by prior passage of calculi.

  7. Case Report: Giant Vesical Calculus | Aliyu | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Giant bladder calculi are not common in modern urologic practice and many have been found to grow to enormous proportions with minimal symptoms. METHOD: We report a 1.6 kg stone removed from the urinary bladder of a 48 year old Nigerian man. The stone increase in size associated with ...

  8. [The colecistectomy in primary sclerosing cholangitis: case report and review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, L; Costi, U; Adduci, M; Gazzanelli, S; Casullo, A; Kharrub, Z; Sassayanis, Ph G; Marini, M; Stasolla, A; Pulcinelli, V; Meucci, M; Caputo, M

    2005-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is an idiopathic chronic inflammatory condition affecting intra- and extra-hepatic biliary system. The aim of this study is to stress the importance of cholecystectomy in patients with PSC. Consideration should be given to performing a cholecystectomy in PSC patients with gallbladder adenomyomas or calculi, even asymptomatic; this happens in approximately 15% of cases.

  9. An Environment for Analyzing Space Optimizations in Call-by-Need Functional Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Dallmeyer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an implementation of an interpreter LRPi for the call-by-need calculus LRP, based on a variant of Sestoft's abstract machine Mark 1, extended with an eager garbage collector. It is used as a tool for exact space usage analyses as a support for our investigations into space improvements of call-by-need calculi.

  10. Success of electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter as monotherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K.S. Meitei

    Abstract. Objectives: To evaluate the success of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) as monotherapy for solitary renal stones larger than 2 cm without ureteral stenting. Hence, if our study result demonstrates acceptable success and safety, we can recommend ESWL as a treatment option for patients with large renal calculi.

  11. Noncommutative de Sitter and FRW spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burić, Maja, E-mail: majab@ipb.ac.rs [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 44, 11001, Belgrade (Serbia); Madore, John, E-mail: madore@th.u-psud.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, 91405, Orsay (France)

    2015-10-24

    Several versions of fuzzy four-dimensional de Sitter space are constructed using the noncommutative frame formalism. Although all noncommutative spacetimes which are found have commutative de Sitter metric as a classical limit, the algebras and the differential calculi which define them have many differences, which we derive and discuss.

  12. Polycystic Kidney Disease In Pregnancy In A Nigerian Woman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adult Polycystic Kidney disease (ADPKD) is a known but uncommon cause of haematuria in pregnancy in this environment. Other causes include, haemaglobinopathies, calculi, pyelonephritis, schistosomiasis, haemangiomata and neoplasms. Although ADPKD is the commonest single gene disorder of man affecting both ...

  13. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A clear preoperative understanding of the renal anatomy aids the urologist in dealing more ef- fectively with these patients and in limiting the surgical complicationsI. Anatomy is studied by a pre-operative intravenous urogram and intra- operative retrograde pyelogram. The management of calyceal calculi entails the use of ...

  14. Laparoscopic and open stone surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hruza, Marcel; Zuazu, Jorge Rioja; Goezen, Ali Serdar; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; Rassweiler, Jens J.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Due to the increasing spread and technical enhancement of endourological methods, open surgery for renal and ureteral calculi almost disappeared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on an actual review of literature, we describe indications, technique and clinical importance of the open and

  15. ECAJS 2009 VOL 14 No 1 FINAL EDIT doc

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    recurrent urinary tract infections and microscopic or gross haematuria. There is a high incidence of calculi due to stasis. Diagnosis is confirmed by ultrasonography and intravenous urography. Spiral CT scan and MRI help sometimes to delineate the anatomy clearly and non-invasively. Retrocaval ureter is classified into two ...

  16. ISSN 2073 East Cent. Afr. j. surg.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    Calcoulous biliary. In: Surgery. Scientific principles and practice, LJ Greenfield, editor. Philadelphia, Lippincott 1993; 936-953. 4. Devidson BR, Neoptolemos JP, Carr-hocke DL. Endoscopic sphincterotomy for common bile calculi in patients with gall bladder in situ considered unfit for surgery. Gut 1988;. 29:114-120. 5.

  17. Effects of dietary calcium, phosphorus and magnesium on intranephronic calculosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, J C; Jee, W S

    1984-12-01

    The effects of varying dietary levels of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium on the incidence and severity of intranephronic calculosis were studied. Renal calculi were induced by feeding female rats the AIN-76TM semipurified diet for 4 weeks. During this time period, dietary levels of 350, 450 or 550 mg calcium per 100 g diet did not influence the occurrence of urolithiasis. Increasing dietary magnesium levels from 50 to 350 mg was beneficial in preventing the occurrence of calculi if the diet contained 400 mg or less phosphorus. The protective effects of dietary magnesium were counteracted when dietary phosphorus levels were increased from 400 mg to 550 or 700 mg. If the dietary content of phosphorus and magnesium permitted the formation of renal calculi, the severity of the condition was also influenced by the dietary level of calcium. Some animal groups fed semipurified diets did not have microscopic or radiographic evidence of renal calculi but were found to have significantly elevated renal calcium values. It was suggested that these animals might be in a precalculus-forming state.

  18. Rigid-only versus combined rigid and flexible percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cracco, Cecilia M; Knoll, Thomas; Liatsikos, Evangelos N

    2017-01-01

    /or flexible ureteroscopy) for the treatment of large and/or complex upper urinary tract calculi, with regard to efficacy and safety. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Ovid MedLine (R), PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases were searched in August 2016 to identify relevant studies. Article selection was performed...

  19. Drug: D03635 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03635 Drug Cysteamine hydrochloride (USAN); Cystagon (TN) C2H7NS. HCl 113.0066 113...eplacement/Modifiers Cysteamine D03635 Cysteamine hydrochloride (USAN) CAS: 156-57-0 PubChem: 17397739 DrugB....6096 D03635.gif Anti-urolithic [cysteine calculi] [DS:H00275] USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Enzyme R

  20. Success of electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter asmonotherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To evaluate the success of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) as monotherapy for solitary renalstones larger than 2 cm without ureteral stenting. Hence, if our study result demonstrates acceptable successand safety, we can recommend ESWL as a treatment option for patients with large renal calculi. Subjects and ...

  1. BLADDER AND URETHRAL STONES IN CHILDREN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this series proved to be fragile, and a power stage from 500 ml to 1J was sufficient for complete fragmentation. It is noteworthy that electrohydraulic lithotripsy has been used since 1978 to fragment ureteral calculi with proved efficacy'? The single-shot mode was actually used to test the initial response of the stone to EHL.

  2. [Express-diagnostic methods in urolithiasis for medical check-ups and screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasaeva, L A; Shilov, E M

    2003-08-01

    The suggested tool's set designed for express-diagnosis of urolithiasis and for ultrasonic screening of the kidneys, which comprises a new diagnostic technology ("Litos-System'), provides for stating a diagnosis even before the renal calculi begin to take shape.

  3. 2012 edition JMBR - CORRECTION.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FinePrint

    5 pigs and cats and caused diuresis and bladder calculi in rats and mice following. 6 acute, sub-chronic and chronic exposure . However, there are no literatures to our knowledge detailing the neuro-toxic effect of melamine especially on TR-mediated gene expression and possible mechanism. Thyroid hormones (TH) are ...

  4. Comparison of ultrasonography and intravenous urography in the screening and diagnosis of hematuria causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaie Esfahani, Mohammad; Momeni, Ali

    2006-01-01

    Our aim was to compare transabdominal ultrasonography (US) and intravenous urography (IVU) in the evaluation of patients with hematuria. Two hundred patients with hematuria were assessed by US and IVU, and if needed, by cystoscopy, ureteroscopy, and CT scan, to determine the definite cause of hematuria. The results of US and IVU were compared according to the definite diagnoses. Of 97 patients with microscopic hematuria, 44 (45%) had a documented cause for hematuria, and of 103 patients with gross hematuria, 76 (74%) had a definite disorder (P IVU, respectively (P IVU. Ultrasonography had a higher sensitivity than IVU for diagnoses of kidney calculi, lower ureteral calculi, and urologic neoplasms (95.3% versus 65.1% for kidney calculi, P = .039; 89.7% versus 69.2% for lower ureteral calculi, P IVU. Our results are in favor of using US in the initial evaluation of hematuria. However, we must choose our diagnostic tool according to the patient's condition and suspected disorders causing hematuria.

  5. Changing the Window of Shock Wave Application. How it improves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim of this work is to study the impact of using multiple windows of shock wave application on the results of ESWL therapy for renal calculi. Patients and Methods: Between January 1996 and October 2002, 676 patients with single pelvic stones ≤ 2.5 cm and either no or mild back pressure changes were ...

  6. Full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IndexCopernicus Portal System

    and radiotherapy with squamous cell carcinoma [8]. The current case shows the association with chronic pyelonephritic features without calculi. The case was clinically suspected as renal tuberculosis because of sterile pyuria and past history of cough with fever. The renal malignancy was not considered due to loin pain ...

  7. Effect of hypothermic renal ischaemia on renin secretion rate in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Petersen, H K; Giese, J

    1985-01-01

    Plasma renin concentration (PRC), renal blood flow (RBF) and renin secretion rate (RSR = renal veno-arterial PRC difference multiplied by renal plasma flow) were measured before and after a period of hypothermic renal ischaemia in seven patients undergoing surgery for renal calculi. After...

  8. Chopping a Point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaochen, Z.; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces a super-dense chop modality into the Duration Calculi. The super-dense chop can be used to specify a super-dense computation, where a number of operations happens simultaneously, but in a specific order. With this modality, the paper defines a real-time semantics for an OCCAM...

  9. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guest

    evident from Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy. The finding of no identifiable etiological factor case 2 is not unusual, this has been reported previously12. .The diagnosis of the vesical calculi require a high index of suspicion history of suprapubic pain aggravated by exercise, interruption of urinary stream and terminal hematuria ...

  10. Spectral methods for the uncertainties propagation in numerical simulation; Methodes spectrales robustes pour la propagation d'incertitudes en simulation numerique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crestaux, Th. [CEA Saclay, Dept. Modelisation de Systemes et Structures (DEN/DANS/DM2S/SFME), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2008-07-01

    The context of this thesis is the development of the numerical simulation in industrial processes. It aims to study and develop methods allowing a decrease of the numerical cost of calculi of Chaos Polynomials development. The implementing concerns problems of high stochastic dimension and more particularly the transport model of radionuclides in radioactive wastes disposal. (A.L.B.)

  11. Structured Communication-Centered Programming for Web Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Honda, Kohei; Yoshida, Nobuko

    2012-01-01

    This article relates two different paradigms of descriptions of communication behavior, one focusing on global message flows and another on end-point behaviors, using formal calculi based on session types. The global calculus, which originates from a Web service description language (W3C WS...

  12. Feasibility and outcome of emergency ureteroscopic removal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    W. Shabana

    2016-07-30

    Jul 30, 2016 ... Abstract. Objective: To compare the efficacy of emergency ureteroscopy (URS) with that of elective URS in the treatment of distal ureteral calculi. Patients and methods: This prospective study included 132 patients diagnosed with a distal unilateral ureteral stone ≤5 mm and treated with either emergency or ...

  13. Listen, wind energy costs nothing; Oyez tous, L'eolien ne coute rien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poizat, F

    2008-09-15

    The author discusses the affirmation of the ADEME and the Environmental and sustainable development Ministry: the french wind park will costs in 2008 0,5 euro year for each household. He criticizes strongly this calculi, bringing many data on energy real cost today and in the next 10 years. Many references are provided. (A.L.B.)

  14. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words urinary bladder, stones, pneu— matic lithotriptor. INTRODUCTION. Urinary bladder calculi have plagued man- kind from time immemorial1. Archeologists have discovered a stone in the pelvis of an ancient Egyptian skeleton dating back more than 7000 yearsz. In certain parts of the world, the incidence of vesical ...

  15. Valuation Semantics for Intuitionic Propositional Calculus and some of its Subcalculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Loparić

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present valuation semantics for the Propositional Intuitionistic Calculus (also called Heyting Calculus and three important subcalculi: the Implicative, the Positive and the Minimal Calculus (also known as Kolmogoroff or Johansson Calculus. Algorithms based in our definitions yields decision methods for these calculi.

  16. Xanthinuria in a family of Cavalier King Charles spaniels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanZuilen, CD; Nickel, RF; vanDijk, TH; Reijngoud, DJ

    1997-01-01

    Xanthine calculi mere found in a 7-month-old male Cavalier King Charles spaniel with urethral obstruction and renal insufficiency, Because the only two other reported cases of naturally occurring xanthine urolithiasis concerned a Cavalier King Charles and a King Charles spaniel the urine of the

  17. Severe sepsis secondary to emphysematous cystitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M.M. Gargouri

    tures to septic shock. Herein, we present a new case of EC in a patient who presented with severe sepsis in the absence of known risk factors. The patient was also found to have two vesical calculi and a horseshoe kidney. E-mail address: gargourimourad@yahoo.fr (M.M. Gargouri). Peer review under responsibility of Pan ...

  18. Atypical presentation of an enormous vesical calculus: A case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.T. Lawal

    2016-05-20

    May 20, 2016 ... are detected on time. © 2016 Pan African Urological Surgeons' Association. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Introduction. Urinary bladder stones (vesical calculi) are generally uncommon, however, they represent the most common manifestation of lower urinary tract lithiasis [1].

  19. Comparison of Physicochemical Properties of Nano- and Microsized Crystals in the Urine of Calcium Oxalate Stone Patients and Control Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the properties of different sizes of urinary crystallites between calcium oxalate (CaOx calculi patients and healthy controls. Methods. We studied the average particle size, size distribution, intensity-autocorrelation curve, zeta potential (ζ, conductivity, mobility, aggregation state, and stability of different sizes of urinary crystallites by nanoparticle size analysis and transmission electron microscopy after filtration through a microporous membrane with an aperture size from 0.22 μm to 0.45, 1.2, 3, and 10 μm. Results. The urinary crystallites of the CaOx calculi patients were uneven and much easy to aggregate than those of controls. The number of large-sized crystallites of the patients was significantly more than that of the controls. The main components of the nanosized urinary crystallites in patients were CaOx monohydrate (COM, uric acid, and β-calcium phosphate, and these components were basically similar to those of the microsized urinary crystallites. The urinary crystallites of the calculi patients were easier to aggregate than that of the controls, and the small-sized urinary crystallites were much easier to agglomerate. Conclusions. The urinary system of CaOx calculi patients is unstable and highly susceptible to urinary crystallite aggregation. The rapid aggregation of urinary crystallites may be the key factor affecting urolithiasis formation.

  20. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Lithiasis in general is uncommon in indigenous. African men. We see more gall bladder stone disease in immigrant population of Asian and. Arabic descent. In populations where lithiasis is common, calculi in the bile duct may lie dormant for many years and only come to light because of an episode of pain, jaundice, or.

  1. Comparison between ultrasound and noncontrast helical computed tomography for identification of acute ureterolithiasis in a teaching hospital setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Ronan Marquez Ferreira de Souza

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have shown noncontrast computed tomography (NCT to be more effective than ultrasound (US for imaging acute ureterolithiasis. However, to our knowledge, there are few studies directly comparing these techniques in an emergency teaching hospital setting. The objectives of this study were to compare the diagnostic accuracy of US and NCT performed by senior radiology residents for diagnosing acute ureterolithiasis; and to assess interobserver agreement on tomography interpretations by residents and experienced abdominal radiologists. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study of 52 consecutive patients, who underwent both US and NCT within an interval of eight hours, at Hospital São Paulo. METHODS: US scans were performed by senior residents and read by experienced radiologists. NCT scan images were read by senior residents, and subsequently by three abdominal radiologists. The interobserver variability was assessed using the kappa statistic. RESULTS: Ureteral calculi were found in 40 out of 52 patients (77%. US presented sensitivity of 22% and specificity of 100%. When collecting system dilatation was associated, US demonstrated 73% sensitivity, 82% specificity. The interobserver agreement in NCT analysis was very high with regard to identification of calculi, collecting system dilatation and stranding of perinephric fat. CONCLUSIONS: US has limited value for identifying ureteral calculi in comparison with NCT, even when collecting system dilatation is present. Residents and abdominal radiologists demonstrated excellent agreement rates for ureteral calculi, identification of collecting system dilatation and stranding of perinephric fat on NCT.

  2. Application of mineralogical techniques in the study of human lithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Ruiz, Jose; Arrabal-Polo, Miguel Angel; Sierra, Manuel; Arrabal-Martin, Miguel

    2012-12-01

    The authors review the mineralogical methods and techniques of analyzing calculi, stony concretions in the body. They discuss the main types of kidney stones (prostate, testicular, salivary, and bile) and the different diagnostic methods in mineralogy. By applying the techniques of optical microscopy and electron microscopy, they describe the different characteristics of human stones, based on extensive experience as evidenced by their numerous studies.

  3. CASE 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guest

    evident from Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy. The finding of no identifiable etiological factor case 2 is not unusual, this has been reported previously12. .The diagnosis of the vesical calculi require a high index of suspicion history of suprapubic pain aggravated by exercise, interruption of urinary stream and terminal hematuria ...

  4. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in children: Results and short-term complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha Lima, João Paulo; Duarte, Ricardo Jordão; Cristofani, Lílian Maria; Srougi, Miguel

    2007-08-01

    The introduction of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy represented an important evolution in urinary tract lithiasis management. The aim of this study is to describe the results of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for the treatment of urinary tract lithiasis in children, focusing on the index of elimination of the calculi and the complications occurring during the procedure and during the following three months. From September 1991 to July 2002, 135 children between one and 12 years, suffering from urinary tract lithiasis underwent extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. A retrospective analysis of these patients was carried out. One hundred and ninety-five calculi ranging in size from 5.0 mm to 20.0 mm were treated, out of which 147 were found in the kidneys and 48 in the ureter. Urinary tract dilation was presented by 30% of the children at the time of the procedure. After extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy 75.8% of the calculi were eliminated: 64.1% were stone-free and 11.7% had pain. In children, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy proved to be able to eliminate 75.8% of the treated calculi and 83.7% of the patients presented a complete or partial response. Complications were observed in 23.7% of patients, and pain was the most frequent symptom.

  5. Objective and subjective outcome in 42 patients after treatment of sialolithiasis by transoral incision of Warthon's duct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Marie Louise; Wagner, Niels

    2014-01-01

    In this retrospective follow-up study, we present the middle-term results of transoral removal of submandibular calculi by incision in the floor of the mouth together with a patient satisfaction survey. These results will be compared with those of international studies. This is an individual retr...

  6. [Vesicular lithiasis and cholecystitis associated with total situs inversus. Report of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán Toro, F; Quintero Castro, I

    1993-01-01

    The report of a calculous cholecystitis case in a left sided gallbladder made on 60-year-old woman with total situs inversus is presented, based on the clinical findings, radiological (chest X-ray and upper gastrointestinal series), echocardiographic and ultrasonographic that revealed gallbladder calculi.

  7. Disciplined structured communications with disciplined runtime adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Giusto, Cinzia; Perez, Jorge A.

    2015-01-01

    Session types offer a powerful type-theoretic foundation for the analysis of structured communications, as commonly found in service-oriented systems. They are defined upon core programming calculi which offer only limited support for expressing requirements related to runtime adaptation. This is

  8. JUTH JOURNAL MEDICAL, MAY - AUGUST 2012 EDITION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    reported prevalence of Kidney stones in the. United States. 1976-1994. Kidney Int. 2003;63:1817-23. 4. Ekwere P.D. Urinary calculus disease in. South- Eastern Nigeria. Afr J Med Sci. 1995;. 24(3); 259-95. Outcome Of Open Surgery For Urinary Tract Calculi At Jos University Teaching Hospital. Jos Journal of Medicine, ...

  9. Hyperuricaemia and gout

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    surrounding joints and tissues, leading to chronic pain, and may even lead to deformities.1 Various renal complications may also occur. These complications include, but are not limited to, kidney stones, uric acid calculi and acute and chronic uric acid nephropathy.1 These complications are not only caused by the gout itself ...

  10. SWL Results and Complications at Tokat Devlet Hastanesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Yasar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to evaluate SWL results performed on patients with renal and ureteral stones in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy Unit of our hospital. Material and Method: 81 patients who have undergone extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy due to renal or ureteral calculi between October 2011 -October 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. Mean follow-up was 33.5 days. SWL was applied for 50 kidney stones and 31 ureteral stones. Localization of stones in the urinary tract treated by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy was as follows: % 40, % 26, % 24 and % 10 were pelvic, upper caliceal, middle caliceal and lower caliceal calculi, respectively; whereas % 77.5 and % 22.5 were upper and middle ureteral calculi, respectively. The stones were focused by a C-armed floroscopy having ellipsoid focus. All extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy applications were performed by same urology doctor after a training period of one month using a Stonelith-V3 Lithotripter. Average shock number was 2865 and average voltage was 19 kv for each case. Results: In 33.5 days follow-up, 82% and 87% of the patients with kidney ureteral calculi were stone-free, respectively. Discussion: In the treatment of urinary stone disease; although there are new technological improvements, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy continues to be in the foreground due to its cheapness and effectiveness.

  11. Page 1 1 ff0–5704 African Journal of Urology Vol. 10, No. 4, 2004 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urol Res 1993, 21:273. 19.962 renal and ureteral calculi, J Urol 1993,. 149:1419. 8. Chaussy CG, Schmidt E, Jocham D et al First 44. Segura JW: The role of percutaneous surgery in clinical experience with extracorporeally induced renal and ureteral stone removal. J Urol 1989 destruction of kidney stones by shock waves.

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 721 ... Vol 20, No 1 (2014), Efficacy of shock wave lithotripsy in management of kidney stones in infants, Abstract PDF. AM El Nashara, AH Metwally, O Abd El Kadera, EE Ali, M Abdelbaseer. Vol 11, No 3 (2005):, Efficacy of the Egyptian pneumatic lithotriptor using cystoscopy in vesical calculi treatment

  13. CASE REPORT: A GIANT URINARY BLADDER STONE IN A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A vesical calculus weighing more than 100g is categorized as a giant urinary bladder stone. Male preponderance for urinary bladder calculi is well known. A rare case of a giant urinary bladder calculus weighing 1200g and occurring in a female patient is reported. The stone was removed by open vesicolithotomy.

  14. A review of molecular biomarkers for bladder cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    diagnosis, guide treatment and provide accurate prognostication.[2-5]. A biomarker is a molecular compound .... is substantially reduced in the presence of inflammation, infectious diseases, urinary calculi, foreign body, ... conclude that p53 is a good prognostic marker.[25] Similarly, a recent trail has shown that there was no ...

  15. Parasitaer galdevejsinfektion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen, A; Nielsen, P L

    2001-01-01

    In two cases of cholecystectomy for gall bladder calculi, the histological diagnoses were inflammation, fibrosis, and numerous calcified parasite eggs in the wall of the gall bladder, compatible with eggs from the liver fluke, which can infect humans who eat raw or undercooked fresh water fish...

  16. Packing of Renal Fossa: Useful Technique for Intractable Bleeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to manage patients with complex stag horn calculi.[1]. CASE REPORTS. Case 1. A 65 year old man was taken up for open pyelolithotomy for large staghorn calculus by a urologist in a Medical college. I was called for help as the patient started having intractable bleeding after the removal of staghorn calculus. The urologist.

  17. Giant vesical calculus in a ten year-old boy - a case report | Saleh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a case of longstanding urinary tract symptoms in a 10 year old boy in which multi-modality imaging revealed multiple radio-opaque calculi including a giant vesical calculus. He had surgical removal of the stone with no post-op complications. Keywords: Giant, Vesical Calculus, 10 years old ...

  18. Transurethral lithotripsy with holmium-YAG laser of a large exogenous prostatic calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Masanori; Ohara, Rei; Kanao, Kent; Nakajima, Yosuke

    2011-04-01

    Prostatic calculi are classified into two types, endogenous and exogenous calculi, based on their origin. Endogenous calculi are commonly observed in elderly men; however, exogenous prostatic calculi are extremely rare. We report here the case of a 51-year-old man who suffered incontinence and pollakiuria with a giant exogenous prostatic calculus almost completely replacing the prostatic tissue. X-rays and computed tomography demonstrated a large calculus of 65 × 58 mm in the small pelvic cavity. The patient underwent a transurethral lithotripsy with a holmium-YAG laser and a total of 85 g of disintegrated stones was retrieved and chemical stone analysis revealed the presence of magnesium ammonium phosphate. The incontinence improved and the voiding volume increased dramatically, and no stone recurrence in the prostatic fossa occurred at the 2 years follow-up. The etiology of this stone formation seemed to be based on some exogenous pathways combined with urinary stasis and chronic urinary infection due to compression fracture of the lumbar vertebra.

  19. WAJM 29(3).pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    calculus with an ipsilateral staghorn calculus in a non- functioning hydronephrotic left kidney. There was no evidence of underlying anatomic or metabolic abnormalities. He had left nephroureterectomy. The ureteric calculus measured 10.5 x 3.0cm and weighed 20.1gm. CONCLUSION:Giant ureteric calculi are rare.

  20. Spontaneous calyceal rupture caused by a ureteral calculus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rupture of the urinary collecting system with perirenal and retroperitoneal extravasation of the urine is an unusual condition that is typically caused by ureteral-obstructing calculi. We report a case of calyceal rupture with urinoma formation, due to a stone in the distal ureter. The diagnosis was confirmed by computed ...

  1. Preputial calculus in a neurologically-impaired child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spataru, R I; Iozsa, D A; Ivanov, M

    2015-02-01

    Preputial calculi are rarely encountered in childhood. A 5-year-old boy with symptoms of chronic balanoposthitis. A preputial stone was documented and removed at circumcision. Uneventful postoperative recovery. In children, association between phimosis and neurologic impairment represent predisposing condition for preputial stone formation.

  2. Single-centre comparison of a novel single-step balloon inflation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has been the gold standard in the management of complex renal calculi ≥2 cm in diameter.1,2. Controversy exists regarding the optimal dilatation method in. PCNL. There are several dilatation methods available, including. Amplatz polyurethane serial dilators (ASDs), metallic ...

  3. Static analysis of a Model of the LDL degradation pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henrik; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2005-01-01

    BioAmbients is a derivative of mobile ambients that has shown promise of describing interesting features of the behaviour of biological systems. As for other ambient calculi static program analysis can be used to compute safe approximations of the behavior of modelled systems. We use these tools ...

  4. Abstract Interpretation of Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, René Rydhof; Jensen, J. G.; Nielson, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate that abstract interpretation is useful for analysing calculi of computation such as the ambient calculus (which is based on the p-calculus); more importantly, we show that the entire development can be expressed in a constraint-based formalism that is becoming exceedingly popular...

  5. Faecal pancreatic elastase - l a non invasive measure of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    whether by cancer, ampullary or panceatic calculi or inflam- mation, is a cause of pancreatic insufficiency and malabsorp- tion. However, the diagnosis of chronic exocrine pancreatic. insufficiency is hampered by the absence of easily available histological confirmation and is therefore based on the mor- phology and ...

  6. Urolithiasis in Nairobi, Kenya | Ngugi | East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management: Fourty seven had laser or pneumatic lithotripsy while four had stone removal by Dormia basket. Seven patients had bladder calculi managed by either cystolitholapaxy or forceps retrieval. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a higher annual incidence of urolithiasis in Nairobi than earlier literature.

  7. Beyond prone position in percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosette, Jean J M C H; Tsakiris, Peter; Ferrandino, Michael N; Elsakka, Ahmed M; Rioja, Jorge; Preminger, Glenn M

    2008-12-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is traditionally performed with the patient in the prone position. To assess the efficacy and safety of the prone and supine positions, particularly in obese patients and in those with staghorn calculi. A Medline search was conducted for articles published during the last 10 yr related to PNL in the prone and supine positions. This search revealed 9 published studies for supine and 25 for prone PNL. None of the supine PNL studies reported visceral injuries, while transfusion rates were 0.0-9.4% and stone-free rates were 69.6-95.0%. One study of supine PNL evaluated a significant proportion of obese patients. Prone PNL studies in obese patients report transfusion rates of 3.2-8.8% and stone-free rates of 79.0-89.2%. In the only randomized study, excluding obese patients and staghorn calculi, operative time favors the supine position. A nonrandomized comparative study demonstrated similar complication rates with insignificant improvement in treatment success for supine PNL; however, when comparing series with similar proportions of staghorn calculi cases, there are slightly improved outcomes for prone PNL. Moreover, comparison of weighted means favors prone PNL. For obese patients and staghorn calculi, prone PNL appears to be associated with decreased operative times with similar bleeding rates and slightly better stone-free rates than supine PNL.

  8. Predictors of radiation exposure to providers during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Wenzler

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Increased stone burden, partial or staghorn calculi, surgery and fluoroscopy duration, and absence of preexisting access were associated with high provider radiation exposure. Radiation safety awareness is essential to minimize exposure and to protect the patient and all providers from potential radiation injury.

  9. Beyond Prone Position in Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy: A Comprehensive Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; Tsakiris, Peter; Ferrandino, Michael N.; Elsakka, Ahmed M.; Rioja, Jorge; Preminger, Glenn M.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is traditionally performed with the patient in the prone position. Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of the prone and supine positions, particularly in obese patients and in those with staghorn calculi. Evidence acquisition: A Medline search was

  10. non absorbable sutures in the urinary bladder resulting in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    contain components such as calcium, ammonium, phosphate, oxalate, and uric acid. These components mostly exist as mixtures. The bladder stone in our patient was made of carbonate, i.e., apatite, which is not uncommon. We report a case of bladder calculi formed around suture material following colposuspension.

  11. Septicemia caused by cysteine-dependent Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Yuen, K Y; Seto, W H; Tsui, K H; Hui, W T

    1990-01-01

    A case of septicemia and urinary tract infection caused by cysteine-dependent Escherichia coli in a 70-year-old woman with bilateral staghorn calculi is described. This is the second report of a cysteine-dependent E. coli bacteremia. The bacterium was falsely susceptible to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole when tested on a medium without cysteine supplement.

  12. The value of biliary endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, J M; Berci, G; Morgenstern, L

    1975-04-01

    The value of biliary endoscopy was determined in 100 consecutive patients undergoing choledochotomy. Using a compact, rigid, right-angled choledochoscope with a rod-lens optical system the biliary tract was inspected for residual stomes following conventional exploration. Completion operative cholangiography and postoperative T-tube cholangiography were performed in all patients. Of 52 patients undergoing primary choledocholithotomy, the duct was cleared of all calculi in 51. A small residual stone was found by postoperative cholangiography in one patient. Exploration revealed no calculi in the ducts of the remaining 30 patients. Biliary endoscopy was of benefit to the surgeon in the majority of patients. In 17 patients, calculi missed by standard exploration were detected; in five of these, the calculi could be retrieved only under endoscopic control. In 11 patients, interpretation of operative cholangiograms was aided, while in three the endoscopic findings clarified operative strategy. The use of biliary endoscopy did not increase the postoperative morbidity or mortality rates beyond those oridinarily encountered in choledocholithotomy. Current experience indicates that the new choledhchoscope overcomes limitations of previous endoscopes and should serve as the definitive diagnostic tool for operative biliary endoscopy. The addition of this technique to the armamentarium of the biliary surgeon will play a significant role in overcoming the age-old problem of the retained common duct stone.

  13. Minimally Invasive Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy versus Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery for Upper Urinary Stones: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyang Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PCNL and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS are both alternatives for PCNL to treat renal calculi. This study is aimed at comparing the stone-free rate (SFR and other surgery parameters of two approaches for treating upper urinary calculi. We performed this meta-analysis in September 2016 by searching studies about mini-PCNL and RIRS for treating upper urinary calculi in various databases, and RevMan v.5.3 was applied. Three randomized controlled trials and ten nonrandomized trials were included, involving a total of 1317 patients. Meta-analysis showed that mini-PCNL group led to a higher SFR [odds ratio: 1.96; 95% confidence interval: 1.46–2.64; P<0.00001] but brought a larger postoperative decrease in hemoglobin levels compared with RIRS. RIRS provided a shorter hospital time. There was no significant difference in operation time. Higher postoperative complications were detected in the mini-PCNL, but the difference was not significant. Grade I and III complications did not vary between two procedures, but grade II complications were of lower incidence in RIRS group. In the light of these results, compared with RIRS, mini-PCNL provided significantly higher SFR and efficiency quotient for managing calculi; however, it resulted in higher incidence of postoperative complications, larger hemoglobin drops, and longer hospital stay.

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subratty, AH. Vol 5 (2000) - Articles Effects of genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on light adaptive cellular and synaptic plasticity in the outer retina of a teleost fish (carp) Abstract PDF · Vol 3 (1999) - Articles Analysis of urinary calculi in Mauritius Abstract PDF · Vol 3 (1999) - Articles Plasma Atrial Natriuretic Peptide as a ...

  15. O que há de novo no diagnóstico e tratamento da litíase urinária? What's new in the diagnosis and management of urinary lithiasis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mazzucchi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Atualizar aspectos do diagnóstico e do tratamento da litíase urinária. MÉTODOS. Uma revisão dos principais artigos publicados sobre o tema em revistas indexadas no "Medline" entre 1979 e 2009. RESULTADOS. A ocorrência de cálculos é maior em pacientes com IMC > 30. A TC sem contraste promove o diagnóstico correto em até 98% dos casos. O uso de bloqueadores alfa-adrenérgicos aumenta a eliminação de cálculos ureterais menores que 8 mm em 29%. O índice de pacientes livres de cálculo após LEOC varia entre 35% e 91%, conforme seu tamanho e localização. Cálculos renais maiores que 2 cm são eliminados pela NLPC entre 60% e 100% dos casos. Cálculos de ureter distal são tratados com sucesso em até 94% dos casos pela ureteroscopia semirrígida contra 74% da LEOC. Já para cálculos de ureter superior as taxas de sucesso situam-se entre 77% e 91% para ureteroscopia e 41% e 82% para a LEOC. CONCLUSÃO. A associação da calculose urinária com obesidade e Diabetes mellitus está bem estabelecida. A TC sem contraste é atualmente o padrão-ouro no diagnóstico da litíase urinária. A LEOC é o método de eleição em nosso meio para tratamento de cálculos renais menores que 2 cm e com densidade tomográfica OBJECTIVE. To review developments in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary lithiasis. METHODS. A review of the most important articles on the subject published in Medline indexed periodicals between 1979 and 2009.RESULTS. Stones occur with greater frequency among people with BMI > 30. Computerized tomography without contrast provides the correct diagnosis in up to 98% of cases. Alpha-adrenergic blockers increase elimination of ureteral calculi smaller than 8 mm by 29%. The proportion of patients free from calculi after ESWL varies from 35% to 91%, depending on size and location. In between 60% and 100% of cases, renal calculi larger than 2 cm are eliminated with PCNL. Calculi of the distal ureter are successfully

  16. Intravenous urography in the emergency department: when do we need it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, J R; Christman, C A

    1999-06-01

    Intravenous urography (IVU) is a useful radiographic study in the detection of renal and ureteral calculi. However, it is time consuming, expensive, and exposes the patient to i.v. contrast and radiation. To determine the impact of utilizing IVU less for the detection of renal calculi, criteria for ordering IVU in the emergency department (ED) were evaluated, and patients with high probability of positive IVU were identified. Variables included presence of acute flank pain with haematuria, prior history of renal calculus, degree of haematuria, and uncontrolled pain. We reviewed patients presenting with acute flank and abdominal pain with haematuria from May 1995 to May 1996 at a large urban university hospital. Charts were abstracted for prior history, reason for ordering IVU, time in the ED, laboratory results, IVU result, final diagnosis, and disposition. Data was analysed with Student's t-test, Wilcoxon rank-sum and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. A total of 302 patients were identified, and 185 underwent IVU during the study period. For patients with prior history of renal calculi 82% had positive IVU (sensitivity 51%, specificity 87%). For patients with both acute flank pain and haematuria, 92% had a positive IVU (sensitivity 93%, specificity 43%), and 19% of patients with abdominal pain of unclear aetiology with haematuria had a positive IVU. All patients with uncontrolled pain had evidence of high-grade obstruction on IVU. Degree of haematuria was not predictive of a positive IVU from ROC curve derivation. IVU is a useful study in the ED but may be overutilized, leading to lengthy patient stays. The combined objective findings of acute flank pain and haematuria are sensitive, and prior history is specific in identifying patients with renal calculi. Degree of haematuria was not useful in predicting renal calculi. By utilizing the criteria of acute flank pain and haematuria as a decision aid, 66% of all IVUs ordered could have been avoided.

  17. Metabolic investigation of patients with staghorn calculus: is it necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen R. P. Amaro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of metabolic disorders in patients with staghorn calculi treated at the Regional Center of Lithiasis Metabolic Studies in central region of São Paulo State, Brazil. Materials and methods: Between February 2000 and February 2008, 630 patients with urinary calculi were evaluated in the lithiasis outpatient clinic. Thirty-seven of them had staghorn calculi (35 women and 2 men. The inclusion criteria for the metabolic investigation included the absence of urological manipulation 30 days before the examination, negative urine culture and creatinine clearance > 60 mL/min. The protocol for metabolic investigation consisted of qualitative search for cystinuria. Two non-consecutive 24-hour urine samples collected to measure calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, sodium, potassium, magnesium, oxalate and citrate, and serum calcium levels , phosphorus, uric acid, sodium, potassium, magnesium, chloride, parathormone and urine pH. Results: Among patients with lithiasis, 5.9% (37/ 630 had staghorn calculus and in 48.6% (18/37 were diagnosed with urinary infection. The females were predominant for 94.5% of cases. The calculi were unilateral in 31 of cases and bilateral in six. Metabolic abnormalities were found in 68.2% of patients with hypercalciuria (64.2% and hypocitraturia (53.3% being the most common disorders. Conclusions: The presence of metabolic disorders in nearly 70% of patients with staghorn calculus reinforces the necessity for evaluation of these patients. The diagnosis and treatment of identified metabolic abnormalities can contribute to the prevention of recurrent staghorn calculi.

  18. Type Systems for Bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Ebbe; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Sangiorgi, Davide

    We propose a novel and uniform approach to type systems for (process) calculi, which roughly pushes the challenge of designing type systems and proving properties about them to the meta-model of bigraphs. Concretely, we propose to define type systems for the term language for bigraphs, which...... of controls and a set of reaction rules, collectively a bigraphical reactive system (BRS). Possible advantages of developing bigraphical type systems include: a deeper understanding of a type system itself and its properties; transfer of the type systems to the concrete family of calculi that the BRS models......; and the possibility of modularly adapting the type systems to extensions of the BRS (with new controls). As proof of concept we present a model of a pi-calculus, develop an i/o-type system with subtyping on this model, prove crucial properties (including subject reduction) for this type system, and transfer...

  19. Renal pelvic stones: choosing shock wave lithotripsy or percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Marcovich

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of minimally invasive techniques has revolutionized the surgical management of renal calculi. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy are now both well-established procedures. Each modality has advantages and disadvantages, and the application of each should be based on well-defined factors. These variables include stone factors such as number, size, and composition; factors related to the stone's environment, including the stone's location, spatial anatomy of the renal collecting system, presence of hydronephrosis, and other anatomic variables, such as the presence of calyceal diverticula and renal anomalies; and clinical or patient factors like morbid obesity, the presence of a solitary kidney, and renal insufficiency. The morbidity of each procedure in relation to its efficacy should be taken in to account. This article will review current knowledge and suggest an algorithm for the rational management of renal calculi with shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

  20. Recent Developments in Computed Tomography for Urolithiasis: Diagnosis and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Mc Laughlin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To critically evaluate the current literature in an effort to establish the current role of radiologic imaging, advances in computed tomography (CT and standard film radiography in the diagnosis, and characterization of urinary tract calculi. Conclusion. CT has a valuable role when utilized prudently during surveillance of patients following endourological therapy. In this paper, we outline the basic principles relating to the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation as a result of CT scanning. We discuss the current developments in low-dose CT technology, which have resulted in significant reductions in CT radiation doses (to approximately one-third of what they were a decade ago while preserving image quality. Finally, we will discuss an important recent development now commercially available on the latest generation of CT scanners, namely, dual energy imaging, which is showing promise in urinary tract imaging as a means of characterizing the composition of urinary tract calculi.

  1. A Derivational Approach to the Operational Semantics of Functional Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata

    We study the connections between different forms of operational semantics for functional programming languages and we present systematic methods of interderiving reduction semantics, abstract machines and higher-order evaluators. We first consider two methods based on program transformations......, given a reduction strategy such as normal order or applicative order. Furthermore, we show that the syntactic correspondence applies to languages with context-sensitive reductions, which we illustrate by presenting a number of calculi of explicit substitutions with computational effects (e.g., control...... operators, input/output, stack inspection, laziness and proper tail recursion). Several of the corresponding abstract machines have been independently designed and reported as such in the literature. All the calculi are new. As an application of the syntactic and the functional correspondences, we also...

  2. Silicate Urolithiasis during Long-Term Treatment with Zonisamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Taguchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicate urinary calculi are rare in humans, with an incidence of 0.2% of all urinary calculi. Most cases were related to excess ingestion of silicate, typically by taking magnesium trisilicate as an antacid for peptic ulcers over a long period of time; however, there also existed unrelated cases, whose mechanism of development remains unclear. On the other hand, zonisamide, a newer antiepileptic drug, is one of the important causing agents of iatrogenic urinary stones in patients with epilepsy. The supposed mechanism is that zonisamide induces urine alkalinization and then promotes crystallization of urine components such as calcium phosphate by inhibition of carbonate dehydratase in renal tubular epithelial cells. Here, we report a case of silicate urolithiasis during long-term treatment with zonisamide without magnesium trisilicate intake and discuss the etiology of the disease by examining the silicate concentration in his urine.

  3. Intestinal metaplasia of the renal pelvis: A case report and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHOU, WEIMIN; ZHONG, KUANGBIAO; WANG, JINGRONG; GU, YONGHONG; HUANG, LIHUA; JIANG, ZHIQIANG; HE, LEYE

    2014-01-01

    Metaplastic changes in the renal pelvis are infrequent and may be malignant transformations to adenocarcinoma. The current study reports a case of intestinal metaplasia in the right renal pelvis, which was associated with staghorn calculi, in a 56-year-old female. The patient underwent a percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Immunohistochemical assessment of the mucosa of the renal pelvis revealed the positive expression of carcinoembryonic antigen, cytokeratin (CK)-7 and CK20, but negative expression for CK5/6 and vimentin. Furthermore, Ki67 expression was diffusely positive, while p53 was negative. Unlike other previously reported cases, the patient opted for active surveillance as opposed to radical nephrectomy, following the removal of the calculi. No evidence of progression was observed after three years of follow-up. Therefore, etiological treatment and close follow-up may be a suitable treatment option for localized intestinal metaplasia. PMID:25364445

  4. Rapid communication: first clinical experience with Doli S 220F-XP extracorporeal lithotripter for urinary lithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heretis, John; Daskalopoulos, George; Delibaltidis, Odisseas; Kalivianakis, Dimitrios; Papadimitriou, Vaios; Sofras, Frank

    2006-07-01

    To assess the initial results of the Dornier Doli S 220F-XP extracorporeal lithotripter for the management of solitary urinary calculi. We prospectively examined the outcome of shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) in the first 140 patients with solitary renal and ureteral lithiasis treated by one urologist with the new power Doli S lithotripter. Ninety-one patients (group A) had renal stones, and 49 patients (group B) had ureteral stones. Data were collected with respect to stone size, location, and fragmentation. In group A, clinical success was documented in 77 patients (84%) at 1 month after lithotripsy. Three months after lithotripsy, 69 patients (75.2%) were stone free and 8 (8.8%) had fragments pain during lithotripsy. The majority (91%) mentioned that they were satisfied with this treatment modality for urinary lithiasis (mean visual analog scale satisfaction score 8). The Doli S 220 F-XP is a safe and effective device for managing calculi throughout the urinary tract.

  5. Diagnostic usefulness of computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K.; Tsugawa, R.; Yamakawa, Y. (Kanazawa Medical Univ., Uchinada, Ishikawa (Japan))

    1981-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has been used as a diagnostic technique in various urological diseases. Here demonstrated is a case of ureteral incontinence with double renal pelvis whose upper one has ectopic ureteral orifice. Also a case of ureteral stricture in transplanted kidney and three cases of uric acid calculi are demonstrated. CT provides accurate information in each diagnostic procedure. The use of CT in the diagnosis of urinary stones is estimated. CT number of 75 stones with single component shows specific distribution in relation to the component; ex. calcium stones: 900 - 1000, cystine: 700 - 800, struvite: 600 - 700, uric acid: 400 - 500. Structure and component of the stone is easily demonstrated by CT, especially about nonopaque calculi, whose image is positively displayed only by CT.

  6. Don’t get caught out! A rare case of a calcified urachal remnant mimicking a bladder calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jonathan Carl Luis; Gandhi, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Computer tomography through the kidneys, ureters and bladder (CT KUB) is the mainstay investigation of suspected renal tract calculi. However, several pathologies other than renal tract calculi can cause apparent urinary bladder calcification. We describe the case of a 45 year old man who presented with left sided renal colic. Prone CT KUB performed on admission revealed a calcified urachal remnant mimicking a urinary bladder calculus in the dependent portion of the urinary bladder, confirmed by reviewing the multi-planar reformatted images. This is the first reported case in the literature of this phenomenon. We discuss the importance of using multi-planar reformatted images (MPR) and maximum intensity projection images (MIP), as well as careful review of previous imaging, in making the correct diagnosis. We also discuss the differential diagnoses that should be considered when presented with urinary bladder calcification. PMID:23705044

  7. Cholecystocutaneous fistula: an unusual complication of a para-umbilical hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Steven; Sharma, Mitesh; Holtham, Stephen

    2014-05-26

    This case describes a 94-year-old woman who presented 2 years postsutured para-umbilical hernia repair with a painful black lump protruding through her scar with blood stained discharge. This was initially thought to be either ischaemic bowel secondary to strangulated incisional hernia or a large organised haematoma. An urgent CT scan was performed following which the patient passed two large calculi and bile-stained fluid spontaneously through the wound, making the diagnosis somewhat clearer. The scan revealed an incisional hernia containing the gallbladder and two large calculi at the skin surface and an incidental large caecal cancer with surrounding lymphadenopathy. Frail health and the incidental finding of a colon cancer rendered invasive surgical management inappropriate. Therefore, she was managed conservatively with antibiotics. A catheter was inserted into the fistula tract to allow free drainage and alleviate pressure-related symptoms. The patient was discharged following a multidisciplinary team discussion. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  8. Investigations to improve laser induced lithrotripsy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisel, Max; Ulaganathan, Keerthanan; Strittmatter, Frank; Pongratz, Thomas; Sroka, Ronald

    2017-02-01

    Laser lithotripsy is the preferred application for the destruction of ureteral and kidney stones. Clinically Ho:YAG lasers (λ=2.1μm) are used due to high absorption by water to induce thermomechanical ablation. This study focussed on the investigation of different laser parameters in relation to the stone dusting efficiency. The term dusting was defined when the ablated fragments were dpieces of d> 1mm. The discussion about fragment-size showed advantages like reduced surgery time. Experiments were performed using clinical available Ho:YAG laser energy transferred via a standard fibre (Ø: 365μm) onto phantom calculi (Bego-Stones of different hardness) in a water filled vessel. Dusting can be reached most efficient by using low energy/pulse (approx. 0.5J/pulse) and repetition rate of around 40 Hz. Higher energy/pulse showed strong repulsion and thereby increased mobility, while using lower repetition rates result in longer ablation times. With regard to the hardness of the phantoms it can be derived that on soft calculi or calculi with a very rugged surface dusting can be observed less because the stone breaks into large fragments after a short time of laser application. For hard calculi the ablation process takes a much longer time compared to soft stones. In the following will be shown that dusting and fragmentation process depends not only on the energy/pulse and repetition rate of a Ho:YAG-laser, but also there are differences between Ho:YAG-laser systems according to the dusting efficiency.

  9. The importance of potassium citrate and potassium bicarbonate in the treatment of uric acid renal stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Barbera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Uric acid calculi can also be treated without surgery, with simple medical lytic therapy. After appropriate dietary adjustments and add of mineral water, the needed amount of alkali supplementation can increase pH values of the urine in order to dissolve the stones. Treatment should be prolonged to prevent stone recurrence. A case of bilateral renal uric acid stones that were successfully treated by alakalizing treatment was presented.

  10. Urolithiasis in renal transplantation: Diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Cicerello

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Obiectives: To report our experience of diagnosis and multimodal management of urolithiasis in renal transplantation. Patients and Methods: From January 1995 to December 2012, 953 patients underwent renal transplantation in the Kidney Transplant Unit of Treviso General Hospital. Ten (10% of them developed urinary calculi and were referred at our institution. Their mode of presentation, investigation and treatment were recorded. Results: Seven had renal and 3 ureteral calculi. Urolithiasis was incidentally discovered on routine ultrasound in 6 patients, 1 presented with oliguria, 1 with anuria and acute renal failure and in 2 urolithiasis was found at removal of the ureteral stent. Nephrostomy tube was placed in 5 patients. Hypercalcemia with hyperparathyroidism (HPT was present in 5 patients and hyperuricemia in 3. Two patients were primary treated by shock wave lithotripsy (SWL and one of them was stone-free after two sessions. Two patients, one with multiple pielocaliceal calculi and the other with staghorn calculus in the lower calyx, were treated with percutaneous nephrolitothotomy (PCNL. Three patients were treated by ureteroscopy (URS and in one of them two treatments were carried out. One patient had calculus impacted in the uretero-vesical anastomosis and surgical ureterolithotomy with re-do ureterocystoneostomy was performed after failure of URS. Two patients with calculi discovered at removal of the ureteral stent were treated by URS. Conclusions: The incidence of urolithiasis in renal transplantation is uncommon. In the most of patients the condition occurs without pain. Metabolic anomalies and medical treatment after renal transplantation may cause stone formation. Advancements in endourology and interventional radiology have influenced the management of urolithiasis that can be actually treated with a minimal incidence of risk for the renal allograft.

  11. Ureteroscopy in a community hospital compared to published data of SWL between 1997 and 2003 and the guidelines of the American Urological Association/European Association of Urology and the guidelines of the German Association of Urology

    OpenAIRE

    Benken, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Aim of this retrospective study was to compare the results of a primary ureteroscopy (URS) in patients with flank pain and ureteral calculi of a community hospital and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). 535 patients between 1997 and 2003 have been evaluated and matched to published results of SWL of these era and the AUA/ EAU (2007) guidelines and the guidelines of the German Association of Urology (2009). The overall stone free rate after 3 month has been slightly better in the SWL...

  12. A novel mutation in the AGXT gene causing primary hyperoxaluria ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    an ureterostomy with stone extraction, several ureteroscopy with fragmentation of calculi and a lithotripsy. Stone anal- ysis showed whewellite. Physical examination was normal. Laboratory studies showed: clearance = 72 mL/min per. 1.73 m2, urea = 7.1 mmol/L, creatinine = 84 μmol/L, Na = 136 mmol/L, K = 3.7 mmol/L, Ca ...

  13. Finding a Forest in a Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacci, Giorgio; Miculan, Marino; Rizzi, Romeo

    2014-01-01

    Wide reactive systems are rewriting systems specified by wide reaction rules, where redex and reactum are lists of terms (forests), i.e. rules of the form ⟨l1(x1),…,ln(xn)⟩⇒⟨r1(y1),…,rn(yn)⟩ such that ∪iyi⊆∪ixi. Wide reaction rules are particularly useful for process calculi for mobile and global...

  14. Experience with the Rigid Cysto-urethroscope: A Multicentre Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other indications were for the investigation of hematuria in 31(28.0%) patients, hydronephrosis in 13(11.8%), urethral stricture 9(8.1%), cystitis 2(1.8%), bladder calculi 3(2.7%), prostatitis 1( 0.9%), bladder fistula 1(0.9%), and urinary incontinence 1(0.9%). Conclusion: The indications for Cystoscopy vary from centre to centre ...

  15. Analysis of LYSA-calculus with explicit confidentiality annotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Han; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    Recently there has been an increased research interest in applying process calculi in the verification of cryptographic protocols due to their ability to formally model protocols. This work presents LYSA with explicit confidentiality annotations for indicating the expected behavior of target...... malicious activities performed by attackers as specified by the confidentiality annotations. The proposed analysis approach is fully automatic without the need of human intervention and has been applied successfully to a number of protocols....

  16. Percutaneous transhepatic endoscopic holmium laser lithotripsy for intrahepatic and choledochal biliary stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ierardi, Anna Maria; Fontana, Federico; Petrillo, Mario; Floridi, Chiara; Cocozza, Eugenio; Segato, Sergio; Abou El Abbas, Hatem; Mangano, Alberto; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Dionigi, Renzo

    2013-01-01

    To report our experience in treating complicated biliary calculi by percutaneous transhepatic endoscopic biliary holmium laser lithotripsy (PTBL). Ten symptomatic patients with intrahepatic or common bile duct calculi underwent PTBL. Six of these patients had previously undergone unsuccessful endoscopic treatment; four patients were declared not suitable for endoscopic procedure. PTBL was performed with a flexible choledochoscopy inserted by way of the percutaneous access sheath. A holmium laser was used to fragment the biliary stones. Sphincteroplasty was performed when considered necessary and an occlusion balloon for the clearance of common bile duct (CBD) calculi was used when continuous warm saline irrigation at high pressure was not sufficient. Clinical follow up was performed by the referring physician. Technical success, clinical success and complications were evaluated. Technical success rate was 100%. The overall clinical success rate was 100%. No patients underwent additional procedures for retained stones or developed de novo strictures or other complications related to the procedure. Hospital stay was no more than 4 days after the procedure. Duration of follow-up was 6-25 months (mean 12.6). One patient died from unrelated causes. During this period, no recurrence and/or complications related to procedure were observed. No major complications were registered. Minor complications like temporary abdominal pain were considered not significant by the patients. Complicated or large biliary calculi can be treated successfully using PTBL. In selected patients, this approach should become the first choice of treatment after other treatments are rejected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Surgical Associates Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Transitional Cell Carcinoma of Kidney- Report of a Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyesh Halgaonkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematuria is a common presentation in the surgical outpatient department. The most common causes being urinary tract infection or renal calculi that causes hematuria. Few of them are being diagnosed as Renal or Bladder mass. Transitional cell carcinoma affecting urogenital tract accounts for 5-10% of the primary renal malignancies which is relatively rare. Here we report such rare case in an elderly female who presented with painless hematuria.

  18. Imaging modalities and therapy options in patients with acute flank pain; Bildgebungsmodalitaeten und Therapieoptionen bei Patienten mit akutem Flankenschmerz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, A.; Grosse, C. [Universitaet Bern, Bern (Switzerland)

    2014-07-15

    The objective of this article is the description of imaging techniques for the evaluation of patients with acute flank pain and suspicion of urolithiasis and the impact of these techniques in the therapy management of patients with calculi. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Arbeit ist die Eroerterung der bildgebenden Verfahren zur Abklaerung von Patienten mit akutem Flankenschmerz und Verdacht auf Urolithiasis und die Rolle dieser Verfahren im Therapiemanagement von Steinpatienten. (orig.)

  19. Flow Logics and Operational Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1998-01-01

    Flow logic is a “fast prototyping” approach to program analysis that shows great promise of being able to deal with a wide variety of languages and calculi for computation. However, seemingly innocent choices in the flow logic as well as in the operational semantics may inhibit proving the analysis...... correct. Our main conclusion is that environment based semantics is more flexible than either substitution based semantics or semantics making use of structural congruences (like alpha-renaming)....

  20. Valuation Networks and Conditional Independence

    OpenAIRE

    Shenoy, Prakash P.

    2013-01-01

    Valuation networks have been proposed as graphical representations of valuation-based systems (VBSs). The VBS framework is able to capture many uncertainty calculi including probability theory, Dempster-Shafer's belief-function theory, Spohn's epistemic belief theory, and Zadeh's possibility theory. In this paper, we show how valuation networks encode conditional independence relations. For the probabilistic case, the class of probability models encoded by valuation networks includes undirect...

  1. Do stones still kill? An analysis of death from stone disease 1999-2013 in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kum, Francesca; Mahmalji, Wasim; Hale, Jemma; Thomas, Kay; Bultitude, Matthew; Glass, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    To analyse the trends in the number of deaths attributable to urolithiasis in England and Wales over the past 15 years (1999-2013). Urolithiasis has an estimated lifetime risk of 12% in males and 6% in females and is not perceived as a life-threatening pathology. Admissions with urinary calculi contribute to 0.5% of all inpatient hospital stays, and the number of deaths attributable to stone disease has yet to be identified and presented. Office of National Statistics data relating to causes of death from urolithiasis, coded as International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 N20-N23, was collated and analysed for the 15-year period from 1999 to 2013 in England and Wales. These data were sub-categorised into anatomical location of calculi, age, and gender. In all, 1954 deaths were attributed to urolithiasis from 1999 to 2013 (mean 130.3 deaths/year). Of which, 141 were attributed to ureteric stones (mean 9.4 deaths/year). Calculi of the kidney and ureter accounted for 91% of all deaths secondary to urolithiasis; lower urinary tract (bladder or urethra) calculi contributed to only 7.9% of deaths. The data revealed an overall increasing trend in mortality from urolithiasis over this 15-year period, with an increase of 3.8 deaths/year based on a linear trend (R(2) = 0.65). Overall, the number of deaths in females was significantly higher than in males (ratio 1.5:1, P Wales. This trend of increasing deaths must be placed in the context of the concurrent rising incidence of urolithiasis in the UK and the number of stone-related hospital episodes. The primary cause of death relating to complications of stone disease for each individual case should be further investigated to facilitate prevention of complications of urolithiasis. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Tratamento conservador de trauma renal grave após litotripsia extracorpórea por ondas de choque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Scala Marchini

    Full Text Available Subcapsular and perinephric hematomas are relatively common after shock-wave lithotripsy, but high-grade kidney injuries are extremely rare. We present the first case of a high-grade kidney injury after shock-wave lithotripsy managed conservatively. A 57-year-old white female patient with left 1.5cm superior ureteral calculi was submitted to shock-wave lithotripsy.

  3. Physicochemical evaluation, nutraceutical composition and HPLC-UV fingerprint of Helicanthus elastica (Desr.) Danser (Indian Mango Mistletoe)

    OpenAIRE

    K N Sunil Kumar; R Shakila; S Amerjothy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Helicanthus elastica (Desr.) Danser (Loranthaceae) is less-known Indian medicinal mistletoe growing commonly on mango trees as hemiparsites. It is used to prevent abortion, in vescical calculi and kidney affections. These groups of plants are medicinally important as they are potential sources of anticancer, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial and antioxidant molecules. Materials and Methods: In the current study whole plant of H. elastica growing on mango trees is c...

  4. Magnetic resonance urography (MRU) versus intravenous urography (IVU) in obstructive uropathy: a prospective study of 30 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, P C; Karnik, N D; Jankharia, B G; Merchant, S A; Joshi, Anagha R; Kukreja, K U

    2005-06-01

    Intravenous Urography (IVU) as a diagnostic modality has limitations in patients of obstructive uropathy with impaired renal function. Our aim was to study the technique and diagnostic accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Urography (MRU) in obstructive uropathy and to correlate the findings with IVU. Forty-eight patients, selected over a six-month period, based on mild to severe pelvicalyceal dilatation on screening ultrasonography, underwent an IVU; those having non-obstructive dilatation were excluded (18 patients). Thirty patients (age range 10 to 75 years) with definite obstructive dilatation underwent MRU. These were obtained using an open MRI unit (Siemens Magnetom Open Viva) with low-dose gadolinium-DTPA (0.01 mmol/kg body weight) using various MRI sequences. MRU studies were classified as 'excellent' or 'diagnostic' and data generated was compared with that of IVU. MRU studies were 'excellent' in twelve and 'diagnostic' in eighteen patients. Of the sixty pelvicalyceal systems (PCS) evaluated in thirty patients, there were thirty-seven calculi, nine pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ) obstructions, six with impaired renal function, four malrotated kidneys and one each of horseshoe kidney, pancake kidney, pelvic mass (endometriomas), duplex moieties, ureterocele and vesico-ureteric reflux. MRU better depicted moderate-severe PCS dilatation, staghorn and urethral calculi, impaired renal function, extrinsic ureteric and PUJ obstruction. IVU better depicted small calculi and mild PCS dilatation. In these thirty patients of obstructive uropathy, low magnetic field, open MRI units and low-dose Gd-DTPA provided cost-effective MRU studies with excellent diagnostic utility. MRU scored over IVU in patients with moderate-severe dilatation, staghorn and urethral calculi, impaired renal function, extrinsic ureteric and PUJ obstruction.

  5. Solution of a gallstone with methyl-tertiary butyl ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambs, H.J.; Roeren, T.; Holstege, A.; Raedecke, J.

    1987-08-01

    Methyl-t-butyl ether is a new agent to dissolve gallstones. The substance proves to be very successful and acts very rapidly. A percutaneous transhepatic drainage supplies an adequate access route to dissolve calculi within the bile ducts. We report the case of a patient where before insertion of an internal stent a stone in the common bile duct was dissolved within 3 1/2 hours.

  6. Unenhanced spiral CT in Urolithiasis: indication, performance and interpretation; Native Spiral-CT bei Urolithiasis: Indikation, Durchfuehrung und Interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoeny, H.C. [Universitaetsspital Bern, Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie (Switzerland); Hoppe, H.

    2003-07-01

    Unenhanced spiral computed tomography is now applied in the investigation of patients with acute flank pain to search for suspected urinary tract calculi. Spiral CT can depict urinary calculi more accurately than plain radiographs, sonography or excretory urography, and can be performed using a low dose protocol. Almost all urinary calculi, including calculi composed of uric acid, xanthine and cystine, can be detected. In addition to determining size and location of the stone, unenhanced helical CT can predict its composition. Furthermore, it reveals secondary signs of obstruction, such as dilatation of the renal collecting system and perinephric stranding. In the absence of urolithiasis, CT can frequently detect or exclude other causes of acute flank pain, thus guiding subsequent imaging and the therapeutic management. (orig.) [German] Die Computertomographie (CT) ohne Kontrastmittelgabe findet heute bei Patienten mit akutem Flankenschmerz zunehmend Verwendung zur Abklaerung eines Konkrementes im harnableitenden System. Bezueglich ihrer Erkennungsrate von Konkrementen uebertrifft die Nativ-CT andere Untersuchungsmethoden wie die konventionelle Roentgenaufnahme, den Ultraschall oder die intravenoese Urographie und ist auch in der Niedrigdosistechnik durchfuehrbar. Nahezu saemtliche Konkremente, einschliesslich jener aus Harnsaeure, Xanthin und Cystin, koennen computertomographisch nachgewiesen werden. Neben einer Bestimmung der Konkrementgroesse und -lokalisation kann mit der Nativ-CT zusaetzlich eine Aussage ueber die Steinbeschaffenheit getroffen werden. Ferner sind auch sekundaere Zeichen einer Obstruktion wie eine Dilatation des Nierenbeckenkelchsystems oder perirenale Veraenderungen nachweisbar. Wenn kein Konkrement nachweisbar ist, lassen sich mittels der Nativ-CT-haeufig auch andere Ursachen akuter Flankenschmerzen nachweisen oder ausschliessen, wodurch eine zusaetzlich Bildgebung und das weitere therapeutische Management in die richtige Richtung gelenkt

  7. Static vs Dynamic SAGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Lanese

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available SAGAs calculi (or simply SAGAs have been proposed by Bruni et al. as a model for long-running transactions. The approach therein can be considered static, while a dynamic approach has been proposed by Lanese and Zavattaro. In this paper we first extend both static SAGAs (in the centralized interruption policy and dynamic SAGAs to deal with nesting, then we compare the two approaches.

  8. Detection of urinary stones at reduced radiation exposure: a phantom study comparing computed radiography and a low-dose digital radiography linear slit scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs-Farkas, Zsolt; Chakraborty, D. P.; Thoeny, Harriet C.; Loupatatzis, Christos; Vock, Peter; Harald, Bonel

    2010-01-01

    Objective In this experimental study we assessed the diagnostic performance of linear slit scanning radiography (LSSR) compared to conventional computed radiography (CR) in the detection of urinary calculi in an anthropomorphic phantom imitating patients weighing approximately 58 to 88 kg. Conclusion Compared to computed radiography, LSSR is superior in the detection of urinary stones and may be used for pretreatment localization and follow-up at a lower patient exposure. PMID:19457787

  9. Calculs qualitatifs avec des univers hétérogènes

    OpenAIRE

    Inants, Armen

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative representation and reasoning operate with non-numerical relations holding between objects of some universe. The general formalisms developed in this field are based on various kinds of algebras of relations, such as Tarskian relation algebras. All these formalisms, which are called qualitative calculi, share an implicit assumption that the universe is homogeneous, i.e., consists of objects of the same kind. However, objects of different kinds may also entertain relations. The stat...

  10. Infrared Spectroscopy in the Study of Renal Lithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Almeida, Jesús; Fernández-Gacio, Ana; Marcos, Carlos F.; Fernández-Gacio, Maira

    2003-08-01

    Infrared spectroscopic analysis of urinary stones is presented as a laboratory experiment for undergraduate students studying life sciences. Infrared spectroscopy, usually combined with the observation of macroscopic and microscopic features, is the preferred tool for unequivocal determination of renal stones composition. In this paper we represent and discuss the IR spectra of some of the most common types of urinary calculi occurring in humans and domestic animals.

  11. The use of alpha-1 adrenergic blockers in children with distal ureterolithiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Glina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary lithiasis is the main urologic cause of emergency treatment in adult patient. In the past years, the incidence in children population has increased. However, literature about the use of alpha-1 adrenergic blockers in pediatric population with distal ureterolithiasis is still scarce. The drug acts by decreasing ureter contractions, especially in the distal portion, facilitating calculus expulsion. Objective: This review has the objective to evaluate the use of alpha-1 adrenergic blockers as medical expulsive treatment in children with distal ureterolithiasis. Evidence Acquisition: An electronic literature search was performed using the MEDLINE, COCHRANE, and LILACS databases. We further searched manually the references of the primary studies. Searches were concluded on October 4th, 2014. Articles were selected, independently and in pairs, by the respective titles and summaries. Any divergence was resolved by consensus. Evidence Synthesis: Alpha-1 adrenergic antagonists increased the probability of calculus expulsion by 27% (NNT=4. Calculi smaller than 5mm, increased by 33% (NNT=3. Larger than 5mm, increased by 34% (NNT=3. Conclusion: Alpha-1 adrenergic blocker use is related with a greater incidence of expulsion of ureteral calculi, smaller or greater than 5mm, and fewer episodes of pain when compared to ibuprofen. However it is necessary larger samples to enhance the power analysis of the expulsion of ureteral calculi larger than 5mm and the episodes of pain. Patient Summary: This review analyzed the outcome of alpha adrenergic antagonist in children with ureteral calculi. We conclude that it is the best medicine for use, since it helps the expulsion of the stone.

  12. Colecistectomia laparoscópica em um paciente com ducto cístico duplo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cezar Uili Coelho

    Full Text Available Our objective is to report a case of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a patient with duplicated cystic duct. A 34 year old male presented with episodic pain in the upper rigth quadrant of the abdomen. Murphy' s sign was not present. Ultrassonography showed gallbladder with multiple calculi and a thickened wall. At laparoscopic cholecystectomy, a duplicated cystic duct was found. Careful dissection and intraoperative cholangiography were performed to rule out common bile duct injury.

  13. Vaginal Calculus in a Woman With Mixed Urinary Incontinence and Vaginal Mesh Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, William D; Rabban, Joseph T; Korn, Abner P

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal calculi are extremely rare and are most commonly encountered in the setting of an urethrovaginal or vesicovaginal fistula. We present a case of a 72-year-old woman with mixed urinary incontinence and vaginal mesh exposure incidentally found to have a large vaginal calculus. We removed the calculus surgically and analyzed the components. Results demonstrated the presence of ammonium-magnesium phosphate hexahydrate and carbonate apatite.

  14. The Inverse Method Application for Non-Classical Logics

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlov, V.; Paky, V.

    2015-01-01

    Maslov’s inverse method is an automated theorem proving method: it can be used to develop computer programs that prove theorems automatically (such programs are called theorem provers). The inverse method can be applied to a wide range of logical calculi: propositional logic, first-order logic, intuitionistic logic, modal logics etc. We give a brief historical background of the inverse method, then discuss existing modifications and implementations of the inverse method for non-classical logics...

  15. On the Expressive Power of Polyadic Synchronisation in π- calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Maffeis, Sergio

    2002-01-01

    We extend the pi-calculus with polyadic synchronisation, a generalisation of the communication mechanism which allows channel names to be composite. We show that this operator embeds nicely in the theory of pi-calculus, we suggest that it permits divergence-free encodings of distributed calculi...... of a language increases its expressive power by means of a separation result in the style of Palamidessi's result for mixed choice....

  16. On the Expressive Power of Polyadic Synchronisation in Pi-Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Maffeis, Sergio

    2003-01-01

    We extend the π-calculus with polyadic synchronisation, a generalisation of the communication mechanism which allows channel names to be composite. We show that this operator embeds nicely in the theory of π-calculus, we suggest that it permits divergence-free encodings of distributed calculi...... of a language increases its expressive power by means of a separation result in the style of Palamidessi's result for mixed choice....

  17. Session Types in Abelian Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Hirai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There was a PhD student who says "I found a pair of wooden shoes. I put a coin in the left and a key in the right. Next morning, I found those objects in the opposite shoes." We do not claim existence of such shoes, but propose a similar programming abstraction in the context of typed lambda calculi. The result, which we call the Amida calculus, extends Abramsky's linear lambda calculus LF and characterizes Abelian logic.

  18. Matching Power

    OpenAIRE

    Cirstea, Horatiu; Kirchner, Claude; Liquori, Luigi

    2001-01-01

    Colloque avec actes et comité de lecture. internationale.; International audience; In this paper we give a simple and uniform presentation of the rewriting calculus, also called Rho-Calculus. In addition to its simplicity, this formulation explicitly allows us to encode complex structures such as lists, sets, and objects. We provide extensive examples of the calculus, and we focus on its ability to represent some object oriented calculi, namely the Lambda Calculus of Objects of Fisher, Honsel...

  19. Comparison of the Effects of Oral Diclofenac Sodium Versus Acetaminophen Codein on Pain During Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotrypsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karkhanehei B

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary calculi is the second common chronic renal disease. Todays, the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL is the most common method of treatment of kidney calculi, though this method was invented 30 years ago. This study was conducted to compare the effects of oral diclofenac sodium versus acetaminophen codein on pain during ESWL. Methods: After signing informed consent, 90 patients with urinary calculi were randomly allocated into three equal groups (n = 30. In this study, one hour before the ESWL, 30 patients received the acetaminophen codeine (acetaminophen 650 mg plus codeine 20 mg orally and 30 patients received diclofenac sodium 50 mg orally and 30 patients did not receive any drug. Severity of pain was assessed by the four-point scale during the procedure. Results: The results of our study showed that there was no statistically significant difference among the three groups regarding gender, weight, age, overall satisfaction, and pain severity during ESWL. Although morphine consumption and pain severity in groups of acetaminophen codeine and diclofenac sodium was lower than in the third group, this different was not statistically significant (P = 0.086. Conclusion: Oral prescription of acetaminophen codeine and diclofenac sodium, one hour before ESWL, has a similar effect on pain management.

  20. The Clinical Profile and Prognosis of Chinese Children with Melamine-Induced Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Xin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Studies have reported inconsistent results regarding clinical feature and the prognosis status of the affected children in China melamine-contamination event. We summarized available literatures by performing a review and meta-analysis. Methods. Statistical pooling was performed using random-effects model; the sources of heterogeneity were explored through subgroup analyses. Results. Twenty-six studies involving 2164 patients with kidney abnormalities were identified; 94.4% of the patients had urinary calculi and 95.8% of the calculi were <10 mm in diameter. Of 2040 patients with known types of treatment, 5.6% underwent surgical treatment. The pooled recovery rates at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after diagnosis or treatment initiation were 67.1%, 76.3%, 85.4%, and 92.3%, respectively; these pooled rates did not differ between the study subgroups stratified by mean age at diagnosis, mean duration of melamine exposure, types of patients (inpatient/outpatient, and treatment types (specific/nonspecific, except that the 1-month recovery rate for studies involving a specific treatment (71.9% was higher than that for studies involving non-specific treatment (46.2%. Conclusion. The majority of patients had small calculi and could recover without surgical treatment. Kidney abnormalities remained in about 8% of the patients at 12-month followup, indicating a need for longer-term followup.

  1. Ureteral Stenting after Uncomplicated Ureteroscopy for Distal Ureteral Stones: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. El Harrech

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We compared outcome and complications after uncomplicated ureteroscopic treatment of distal ureteral calculi with or without the use of ureteral stents. Materials and Methods. 117 patients, prospectively divided into three groups to receive a double j stent (group 1, 42 patients, ureteral stent (group 2, 37 patients, or no stent (group 3, 38 patients, underwent ureteroscopic treatment of distal ureteral calculi. Stone characteristics, operative time, postoperative pain, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS, analgesia need, rehospitalization, stone-free rate, and late postoperative complications were all studied. Results. There were no significant differences in preoperative data. There was no significant difference between the three groups regarding hematuria, fever, flank pain, urinary tract infection, and rehospitalisation. At 48 hours and 1 week, frequency/urgency and dysuria were significantly less in the nonstented group. When comparing group 1 and group 3, patients with double j stents had statistically significantly more bladder pain (P=0.003, frequency/urgency (P=0.002, dysuria (P=0.001, and need of analgesics (P=0.001. All patients who underwent imaging postoperatively were without evidence of obstruction or ureteral stricture. Conclusions. Uncomplicated ureteroscopy for distal ureteral calculi without intraoperative ureteral dilation can safely be performed without placement of a ureteral stent.

  2. The diagnostic value of magnetic resonance urography using a balanced turbo field echo sequence

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    Cifci, Egemen; Coban, Goekcen [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Konya (Turkey); Cicek, Tufan; Goenuelalan, Umut [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Urology, Konya (Turkey)

    2016-12-15

    The aim of the study was to compare the inter-observer variability and the accuracy of magnetic resonance urography (MRU) using a thin sectional balanced-turbo field echo (B-TFE) sequence for detecting ureteral calculi and to determine the effect of additional factors (size, density and location of the calculus) on the sensitivity and specificity of the MRU. MRU and CT images were evaluated independently by two radiologists according to presence, density and localization of calculi. The degrees of inter-rater agreement for categorical items were evaluated by the Kappa coefficient. According to the 1st and 2nd observers, the sensitivity of MRU was 65.9 %, 71.8 % and the specificity of MRU was 95.9 %, 100 %, respectively. Inter-observer agreement was 84.6 % for stone detection. The larger size had a better effect on detectability (p < 0.05). Also, the higher density had a better impact on detectability (p < 0.05). Our study has shown that B-TFE MRU was useful to detect ureteral calculi. However, B-TFE MRU has low sensitivity and high specificity in comparison with CT images. MRU is a reasonable alternative imaging technique for follow-up periods of selective groups like patients with large urinary stones, children or pregnant patients when ionizing radiation is undesirable. (orig.)

  3. Pancreatic Calculus Causing Biliary Obstruction: Endoscopic Therapy for a Rare Initial Presentation of Chronic Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Anurag J; Pai, C Ganesh; Shetty, Shiran; Balaraju, Girisha

    2015-09-01

    Biliary obstruction in chronic calcific pancreatitis (CCP) is often caused by inflammatory or fibrotic strictures of the bile duct, carcinoma of head of pancreas or less commonly by compression from pseudocysts. Pancreatic calculi causing ampullary obstruction and leading to obstructive jaundice is extremely rare. The medical records of all patients with CCP or biliary obstruction who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) over 4 years between 2010-2014 at Kasturba Medical College, Manipal were analyzed. Five patients of CCP with impacted pancreatic calculi at the ampulla demonstrated during ERCP were identified. All 5 presented with biliary obstruction and were incidentally detected to have CCP when evaluated for the same; 3 patients had features of cholangitis. All the patients were managed successfully by endoscopic papillotomy and extraction of pancreatic calculi from the ampulla with resolution of biliary obstruction. Pancreatic calculus causing ampullary obstruction, though very rare, should be considered as a possibility in patients with CCP complicated by biliary obstruction. Endoscopic therapy is affective in the resolution of biliary obstruction in such patients.

  4. Retrograde ejaculation associated spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis in four Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumber, Sanjeev; Courtney, Cynthia L; Strait, Karen R; Sharma, Prachi; Freebersyser, Julie E; Crane, Maria M

    2015-01-01

    Retrograde ejaculation (RE) has been reported in humans and animals but RE with subsequent sperm calculi has rarely been reported. This report documents clinical and pathological findings of spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis in four rhesus macaques. While this condition has been associated with repeated electroejaculation, spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis is highly unusual. The animals presented with either stranguria, dysuria, hematuria, distended abdomen or lethargy. Ultrasound examination revealed several hyperechoic masses within the lumen of the urinary bladder. The animals were euthanized due to poor prognosis or study end points. Postmortem examination revealed multiple angular, amorphous, soft to firm, pale yellow to greenish-brown and variably sized calculi in the lumen of the urinary bladder or prostatic/penile urethra. Histologically, the calculi were composed of numerous sperm embedded in abundant brightly eosinophilic matrix. Based on gross and histologic findings, RE associated sperm cystolithiasis was diagnosed, with ulcerative urethritis as the major primary apparent etiology. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of four spontaneous cases of sperm cystolithiasis in rhesus macaques. PMID:23735542

  5. Spectroscopic feedback in laser lithotripsy and laser angioplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi X.; King, Terence A.; Shah, T.; Watson, Graham M.

    1992-08-01

    The feasibility of new forms of monitoring the fragmentation and ablation process through the plasma feedback signals in laser lithotripsy and laser angioplasty has been investigated. In laser lithotripsy it has been found that shock wave feedback monitoring is not as reliable as the plasma emission feedback monitoring. The plasma emission spectra indicate clearly plasma formation on calculi or calcified plaque, while an audible signal can be observed on targets such as dark tissue, catheter, and blood. This technique was successful in ex-vivo experiments in which calculi were inserted into pigs' ureter and then fragmented. Spectra were obtained in vivo indicating calcium abundance in calculi and the feasibility of real-time stone composition analysis. Ex-vivo gallstone fragmentation was also performed successfully under plasma spectra feedback monitoring. In laser angioplasty, in vitro experiments have shown a discriminative effect at laser pulse energies of 40 mJ or greater. Strong plasma spectra can only be observed from calcified plaque and not from normal artery tissue or fibrous plaque. The threshold for plasma formation on calcified plaque increases in blood compared to that in saline while the spectral structure becomes more specific. This study shows promising prospects for the technique in both laser lithotripsy and laser angioplasty.

  6. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in patients with a solitary kidney

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    Tufan Süelözgen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Material and method: The results of percutaneous nephrolithotomy applied to 716 patients in our clinic between January 2008 and January 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. Age, gender, urinary calculi size (mm2, urinary calculi localization, ESWL history, operation duration (min, fluoroscopy duration (sec, access type, reason of solitary kidney, hemoglobin drawdown (g/dl and operation success of the patients with a solitary kidney were recorded. The patients having no preoperative and postoperative non contrast abdominal tomography were excluded from the study. Results: Fifteen of nineteen patients (79% were men and 4 of them (21% were women. The average age of the patients was 42.52 ± 16.72 (14-72. Ten patients had anatomical solitary kidney and nine patients had physiological solitary kidney. In fact counter kidney was non functional in 9 patients (47% whereas there was agenesis in 2 (11% and outcome of nephrectomy in 8 (42% patients. In our study, presence of residual stone less than 4 mm at 1st month postoperative non contrast abdominal tomography was accepted as a successful result and accordingly our success rate was detected as 84%. Mean urinary calculi size was 405 ± 252.9 mm2; urinary calculi localization was pelvic, lower pole, upper-middle pole, middle-lower pole and staghorn in 11 (58%, 4 (21%, 1 (5%, 1 (5% and 1 (5% patients, respectively; previous ESWL history was 16%; operation duration was 55.47-± 28.1 min and fluoroscopy duration 131.10 ± 87.6 sec; access type was subcostal in 79%, supracostal in 10.5% and multiple in 10.5%; hemoglobin drawdown was 1.75 ± 0.97 mg/dl. Conclusions: PNL can be effectively and safely administered for the treatment of solitary kidney. In the treatment of large urinary calculi in patients with a solitary kidney, PNL has some advantages such as short surgery duration, less complication, acceptable hemoglobin drawdown and high success rates. According to our study, PNL operation in patients with a

  7. A litotripsia extracorpórea no tratamento de cálculos urinários em crianças Extracorporeal lithotripsy for the treatment of urolithiasis in children

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    Ricardo J. Duarte

    2002-09-01

    between September 1991 and September 2000, 87 children were submitted to extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy; as six of them presented with two calculi 93 urinary calculi were treated over that period. The Dornier-Philips lithotriptor was used in the procedures. Results: pelvic, superior and medium caliceal calculi were fragmented and eliminated in 87.7% and 77.8% of cases, respectively. Inferior caliceal stones were eliminated in 64.7% of cases. Only one of the three patients with staghorn calculi became stone-free after therapy (33.3%. All patients with ureteral calculi were stone-free after therapy. Bladder stones were fragmented and eliminated in 60% of cases. Conclusions: extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy is a safe and effective treatment for pelvic, caliceal, ureteral and bladder urolithiasis in children. Staghorn calculi have not shown satisfactory results when treated by this method. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy results were influenced in our experience by the position and size of the treated calculi.

  8. Emergency unenhanced multi-slice computed tomography in suspected urinary calculi—with dose reduction method (care dose 4D

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    Syed Nabir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess urinary calculi and the secondary signs of obstruction, in patients referred from the accident and emergency department, by unenhanced computed tomography examination and to review the radiation dose the patients received with the use of automatic dose modulation technique, care dose 4D. Material and methods: Medical records of unenhanced multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT examinations for 114 patients referred to the emergency department for analysis of suspected urinary calculi were reviewed retrospectively. Their treatment involved automatic tube current modulation, a dose reduction method (care dose 4D, in Hamad General Hospital. The cases were analyzed for the presence of stones, size, site, density and the secondary signs of obstruction, namely hydronephrosis, hydroureter, perinephric fat stranding, peri-ureteric fat stranding and renal enlargement. A search for alternate diagnosis was made if no stone was found. The final diagnosis was noted from the discharge summary in medical records. The radiation dose, Computed Tomographic Dose Index volume (CTDI and Dose Length Product (DLP in each patient was recorded from patient protocol. Results: Of 114 patients referred to CT scan for suspected urinary calculi, between March and June 2008, urinary calculi were noted in 75.4 %. An alternate diagnosis was offered to 5.3 % and a diagnosis of normal was given to 19.3 %. The size of stones detected varied from 2mm-35mm. Density of stones varied from 110-1250 hounsfield units (HU. Solitary stones were seen in 54.4 % of cases observed and multiple stones in 22 %. Renal stones were observed in 6.1 % of cases, urteric stones in 26.3%, vesico-uretric junction stones in 18.4%, multiple sites in 23.7%. Hydronephrosis was seen in 68% of cases, hydroureter in 63%, perinephric fat stranding in 51%, periureteral fat stranding in 34%, ureteric rim sign in 28% and renomegaly in 24%. Time interval between onset of symptoms to imaging

  9. Ex-vivo ureteroscopy at the time of live donor nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, George R; Wolf, J Stuart; Faerber, Gary J

    2011-09-01

    Potential transplant renal allograft recipients exceed the number of donors. Our institution now considers patients with small, unilateral, nonobstructing, incidental renal calculi for possible renal donation. We adopted ex-vivo ureteroscopy (ExURS) to render these kidneys stone free at the time of renal transplantation. We examined the safety and efficacy of ExURS. After confirming a lack of significant metabolic defects on 24-hour urinalysis, 23 patients with small nonobstructing unilateral nephrolithiasis detected on preoperative CT angiography underwent donor nephrectomy. Immediately after cold perfusion, ExURS was performed with ice cold saline irrigation. Retrospective review was performed. Pyeloscopy was successfully performed in all 23 patients. A total of 28 calculi, mean largest diameter 3.9 mm (range 3-6 mm), were visualized in 19 kidneys. Basket extraction and holmium laser lithotripsy was performed in 12 and 6 kidneys, respectively. Treatment rendered 17/19 stone-containing kidneys stone free with a mean treatment time of 6.2 minutes (3-10 min). There were no intraoperative complications. Median serum creatinine level of recipients at 1 month and 1 year were 1.4 ± 1.8 mg/dL and 1.3 ± 0.6 mg/dL, respectively. At a median follow-up of 63 ± 47.2 months, there were no transplant urinary calculi among the recipients. ExURS safely renders live donor kidney allografts stone free with low risk of recurrence. When used appropriately, ExURS could safely increase the number of potential kidney donors and minimize the risk of adverse stone events.

  10. [Risk factors for the kidney stones: a hospital-based case-control study in a distric hospital in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiao; Luo, Gong-tang; Niu, Wei-jing; Gong, Man-man; Liu, Lu; Zhou, Jie; Zhou, Xue-wei; He, Li-hua

    2013-12-18

    To explore the risk and protective factors of kidney calculi in order to put forward theoretical basis for preventive and control measures. A 1:1 matched case-control study was performed using data from a hospital in Beijing. The case group included 100 inpatients who were diagnosed kidney calculi using B ultrasonic, X-ray and intravenous pyelography during the survey while other 100 urolithiasis and endocrine disease excluded inpatients who shared the same sex, within five years gap to the case group inpatients were for the control group. A face-to-face survey was conducted with self-made questionnaires which covered demographic characteristics, water issues, dietary habits, genetic and medical history. Epidata 3.0 was used to build the database and SPSS 19.0 for the statistical analysis. In the univariate Logistic regression analysis, ten variables were found showing statistical significance. For the multivariate Logistic regression analysis, variables left in the model were labor intensity (OR=0.622, 95%CI: 0.435-0.889), preferring to drink after dinner (OR=0.316, 95%CI: 0.122-0.815), loving drinking (OR=0.232, 95%CI: 0.084-0.642), drinking tea regularly (OR=1.463, 95%CI: 1.033-2.071), eating more vegetables (OR=0.571, 95%CI: 0.328-0.993), the history of the urolithiasis (OR=2.127, 95%CI: 1.065-90.145). Drinking tea regularly, urolithiasis history and brain work are the risk factors of kidney calculi while loving drinking and eating more vegetables for the protection.

  11. Robot-assisted anatrophic nephrolithotomy: description of technique and early results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Sherita A; Klaassen, Zachary; Madi, Rabii

    2014-03-01

    To assess the feasibility and report early outcomes of robot-assisted anatrophic nephrolithotomy (RAN) as a treatment modality for patients with complex staghorn calculi. In this single-center prospective study, seven consecutive patients underwent RAN for complex staghorn calculi. After dissection to the renal hilum and clamping of the renal vessels, a nephrotomy was made along the Brodel line and dissection carried through the collecting system to the calculus. The stone was extracted, and the collecting system and parenchyma were closed in layers; no cooling of the kidney was performed. The mean patient age was 47±16 years, mean body mass index was 31.9±10.0 kg/m(2), and five of seven patients had complete staghorn calculi. Mean warm ischemia time was 35±7 minutes, mean robotic time was 158±51 minutes, and mean estimated blood loss was 121±39 mL. Mean length of stay was 3.0±1.7 days, and there was one perioperative complication. Five of seven patients had >90% reduction in stone burden, and two (29%) patients were completely stone free. Mean follow-up time was 5.1±4.3 months, and there was no decrease in postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate compared with preoperative values. Our preliminary experience with RAN demonstrates a safe procedure with encouraging outcomes as a minimally invasive treatment modality for patients with extensive stone burden. Longer follow-up to determine the effect of RAN on renal function is needed.

  12. Seasonal Variation of Acute Urolithiasis

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    Albert Tiu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundUrolithiasis is a common condition. It often affects patients in the prime of life causing significant burden to the society. In our study we are interested in determining whether seasonal variation is a risk factor of acute urolithiasis. Method A retrospective study was performed at a tertiary hospital in Canberra, ACT, Australia. Data pertaining to patient demographics, history of renal colic and management were extracted from charts over a 10-year period. Climatic data for the Australia Capital Territory during this period was retrieved from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and correlated to renal colic presentations.ResultsData was obtained for 637 patients all with radiologically confirmed calculi of the urinary tract. The median age at diagnosis was 50 years of age. Overall 37.4% of patients had a previous history of urolithiasis and the male to female ratio was 2.8:1. Presentation was most common in the autumn months (32.8%, with the fewest cases of urolithiasis during the winter months (18.7%. At presentations the majority of the calculi were ≤ 5mm and located within the distal ureter. Conservative treatments were instituted more often when stone size was ≤ 5mm. Proximal ureteric calculi were more likely to be treated with surgical intervention.ConclusionWe demonstrate an association between the presentation of primary urolithiasis and season. A better understanding in the subject may help future health care planning to deal with the seasonal increase in presentations of renal colic to the urology service.

  13. Comparison between retrograde intrarenal surgery and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in the treatment of lower pole kidney stones up to 15 mm. Prospective, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilches, R M; Aliaga, A; Reyes, D; Sepulveda, F; Mercado, A; Moya, F; Ledezma, R; Hidalgo, J P; Olmedo, T; Marchant, F

    2015-05-01

    Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) is currently the recommended treatment for intra-renal calculi smaller than 2 cm. However the low Stone Free Rate (SFR) in lower pole calculi gives rise to new techniques, such us retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS), for improve the surgery outcomes. To compare the efficacy of a treatment with ESWL with RIRS, in terms of SFR after surgery, in patients with kidney stones up to 15 mm in the lower pole. A prospective study was carried out in order to assess the results of ESWL and RIRS in patients with lower pole stones less than 15 mm. Among a total of 55 patients, 31 were underwent to ESWL (Group 1) and the remaining 24 to RIRS (Group 2). Clinical data recorded, including general characteristics of each patient, were: calculi size, side, operative time, complications according to Clavien scale, SFR and the presence of residual fragments at 2 months post-treatment assessed by a CT scan. STATA 11 was used to perform the statistical analysis. There were no differences for general descriptors among groups with the exception of a significantly longer operative time for RIRS. The rates of SFR and residual fragments lesser than 3 mm. were lower in the RIRS group than in ESWL ones. RIRS also showed a lower rate of clinically significant fragments (0% vs 42.3%. P 3 mm (0% vs. 58.8%), being statistically significant (P < .05). Clavien III or higher complications were not reported in any of the groups. In the treatment of lower pole stone RIRS has the same results than ESWL in terms of SFR. Regarding absence of a clinically significant residual fragment, RIRS was superior to ESWL. A bigger sample size is required in order to confirm this results. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Prediction of the energy required for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of certain stones composition using simple radiology and computerized axial tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüelles-Salido, E; Campoy-Martínez, P; Aguilar-García, J; Podio-Lora, V; Medina-López, R

    2014-03-01

    To demonstrate that urinary lithiasis have a specific susceptibility to fracture through extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), which is common for all calculi with the same composition and which can be estimated before treatment using CT or plain x-ray. We present an in vitro, prospective, randomized, blind and multi-centre study involving 308 urinary calculi. 193 of these met the inclusion criteria: whole calculi composed purely of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), uric acid (UA) or carbonate apatite (CA), or a mix of oxalate (COMix) and of a size greater than 0.5 cm. The samples were broken using lithotripsy until reaching a pre-established level of comminution. The variables employed were energy dose (Edose) per cm(3) of lithiasis and Edose adjusted to lithiasic surface (EdAJ) per cm(3). COM was the hardest, requiring an Edose of 119,624 mJ/cm(3) and an EdAJ of 36,983 mJ/cm(3), followed by COMix (75,501/36,983), CA (22,734/21,186) and UA (22,580/6,837) (P < .05). Gmax y Gmda were correlated with Edose (r = 0.434/r = 0.420) and EdAJ (r = 0.599/r = 0.545) (P < .01). UH were correlated, in bone window and soft tissue window, with Edose/cm(3) (r = 0.478/r = 0.539) y EdAJ/cm(3) (r = 0.745/r = 0.758) (P < .01). In our in vitro research lithiasis require, due to the specific nature of their composition, a given amount of energy in order to be broken by ESWL, which is inherent to all those sharing the same composition, and can be predicted using CT or plain x-ray. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficacy of panoramic radiography as a screening procedure in dental examination compared with clinical evaluation

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    An, Seo Young; An, Chang Hyeon; Choi, Karp Shik [Kyungpook National Univ. School of Dentistry, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of panoramic radiography by comparing the results of clinical examination with radiographic findings. We studied 190 patients (20 men and 170 women; mean age, 40 years; range, 22 to 68 years) who visited the health promotion center of Korea Medical Science Institute and were examined both clinically and by panoramic radiography. We compared results from both examinations. Treatment options by clinical examination were described as 'no treatment indicated', 'treatment of dental caries', 'removal of calculus', 'treatment of periodontal disease'. 'prothodonic treatment' and 'extraction of the third molar'. Findings taken from the panoramic radiography were: dental caries, peroapical lesion, alveolar bone loss, calculus deposition, retained root, impaction of the third molar, disease of maxillary sinus, bony change of mandibular condyle, etc. The prevalence of panoramic findings were: 37.9% of dental caries, 17.4% of periapical lesions, 44.7% of alveolar bone losses, 62.6% of calculi deposition. 7.9% of retained roots, 26.8% of third molar impactions, 6.3% of disease of maxillary sinus, 2.1% of bony changes of mandibular condlye and 35.8% of miscellaneous lesions. Abnormal conditions revealed by panoramic radiography which had not been discovered on clinical examination were: 24.2% of the patients had dental caries, 17.4% had periapical lesions, 7.4% had calculi deposition, 5.3% had retained roots, 15.3% had third molar impactions. The opposite cases were: 5.2% had dental caries, 12.6% had calculi deposition, and 9.5% had third molar impactions. The use of panoramic radiography as a supplement to the clinical examination might be a valuable screening technique.

  16. Comparative investigations into the state of health of seamen employed in the Polish Merchant Marine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filikowski, J; Dolmierski, R

    1985-01-01

    In the years 1971-1974 the authors carried out investigations into the state of health of 3000 seamen employed on ships of the Polish Merchant Marine. Ten years later the authors renewed the investigations using the same methods. The only difference was in the number of seamen under investigations, then out of 3000 only 1441 were still in service on ships. The paper shows changes in distribution dynamics of the morbidity rate. It was also demonstrated that specific seamen's work environmental conditions have a significant effect on occurrence and development of different types of neuroses, hypertensive diseases and calculi of kidney and ureter.

  17. SOME STATISTICAL SOFTWARE APPLICATIONS FOR TAGUCHI METHODS

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    Adrian Stere PARIS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper details the variety of Taguchi methods, as important contribution to the quality improvement. The extended use of these methods imposes more and more complex calculi for the practical application and optimization. It should be necessary to benefit by the new software developments, assisted by the advanced statistical methods. The paper presents a few particular applications of some statistical software for the Taguchi methods as a quality enhancement insisting on the quality loss functions, the design of experiments and the new developments of statistical process control.

  18. [Development of bladder stone following a tension-free vaginal tape procedure: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosa Eizaguirre, Egoitz; Rincón Mayans, Aníbal; Zuazu, Jorge Rioja; Bergera, Juan J Zudaire; Abad, Javier Barba; Polo, José Ma Berián

    2009-06-01

    The bladder stone formation due to intravesical mesh erosion of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) is an infrequent complication. We report a case of 73 years old woman, treated in two occasions by means of the positioning of a TVT with the intention of treating its urinary incontinence. The symptoms, of a year of evolution, was characterized by disuria, pelvic pain, diarrea and constitutional syndrome. RM showed bladder stone fixed to bladder wall. The extraction of the bladder stone was made by the section of the polypropilene mesh on which the calculi had been developed. 6 months later, control cystoscopy revealed complete healing of bladder mucosa.

  19. Outcomes using a fourth-generation lithotripter: a new benchmark for comparison?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomikos, Michael S; Sowter, Steven J; Tolley, David A

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a fourth-generation lithotripter, the Sonolith Vision (Technomed Medical Systems, Vaulx-en-Velin, France) for treating single previously untreated renal calculi, and to compare the results with the reference standard HM-3 (Dornier MedTech Europe GmbH, Wessling, Germany) in the same population originally studied by the USA Cooperative Study Group in 1986. The Sonolith Vision uses an innovative electroconductive shock-wave generator with an elliptical reflector specially designed to give the maximum concentration of energy on the stone. We reviewed the treatment sessions from our prospectively maintained database of the first 1000 consecutive patients with urinary stone disease who were treated with the Sonolith Vision between September 2004 and March 2006. Patients with previously untreated solitary renal calculi in anatomically normal kidneys were included. The outcome was assessed by plain films for radio-opaque stones, and renal ultrasonography for radiolucent stones, at 1 and 3 months after lithotripsy; the results were analysed according to stone size and location. Data from 309 patients who had a complete follow-up and with 373 renal calculi that matched the above criteria were analysed. The initial fragmentation rate was 94%. The stone-free rate for stones of 20 mm was 50%. The overall stone-free rate 3 months after lithotripsy was 75%. Within a month of lithotripsy, 221 patients (59%) became stone-free. Additional procedures to render patients stone-free after lithotripsy were needed in only 22 cases (7%). The overall efficiency quotient was 62%. The stone-free rates for lower, upper, middle calyceal and renal pelvic calculi were 74%, 70%, 78.5% and 75%, respectively. There were no serious complications. When similar populations of stone formers were assessed the Sonolith Vision achieved a high success rate, comparable with that using the HM-3 machine but with lower analgesia requirements and very low re-treatment rates. This

  20. Abdominal Dual Energy Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, F. Graham; Brody, William R.; Cassel, Douglas M.; Macovski, Albert

    1981-11-01

    Dual energy scanned projection radiography of the abdomen has been performed using an experimental line-scanned radiographic system. Digital images simultaneously obtained at 85 and 135 kVp are combined, using photoelectric/Compton decomposition algorithms to create images from which selected materials are cancelled. Soft tissue cancellation images have proved most useful in various abdominal imaging applications, largely due to the elimination of obscuring high-contrast bowel gas shadows. These techniques have been successfully applied to intravenous pyelography, oral cholecystography, intravenous abdominal arteriog-raphy and the imaging of renal calculi.

  1. A weak HOAS approach to the POPLmark Challenge

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    Alberto Ciaffaglione

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Capitalizing on previous encodings and formal developments about nominal calculi and type systems, we propose a weak Higher-Order Abstract Syntax formalization of the type language of pure System F<: within Coq, a proof assistant based on the Calculus of Inductive Constructions. Our encoding allows us to accomplish the proof of the transitivity property of algorithmic subtyping, which is in fact the first of the three tasks stated by the POPLmark Challenge, a set of problems that capture the most critical issues in formalizing programming language metatheory.

  2. Assessment and maintenance of the quality of urolith analyses in a comparison of methods. 4th International Ring Test to check quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebentisch, G; Berg, W; Pirlich, W; Hommann, D

    1988-01-01

    For five test samples of the fourth International Ring Test to check the quality of methods for urinary calculus analysis, 45 findings obtained by 10 different methods were sent from 16 countries. The mean deviation of 0.11 molecular parts per component for all five samples is considerably low. The average standard SQ for all participants is 2.44. It falls off from X-ray diffraction via IR down to other quantitative methods. Advantages and disadvantages of X-ray diffraction and IR-spectroscopic analyses are discussed. Analysis of urinary calculi according to centralized, methodically uniform standards offers advantages in analytical quality.

  3. [Need for the differentiation of apatite and carbonate apatite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brien, G; Berg, W; Schubert, G; Rebentisch, G; Schorch, P

    1988-10-01

    With extensive analytical and clinical examinations it is shown that the proof of carbonate in apatite may allow no additional reference of an infection with urea-splitting bacteria. With certain analytical methods the presence of carbonate is demonstrable in each urinary calculus apatite phase. Carbonate-bearing apatite indeed is accompanied frequently with struvite, but may be occur also without an infection. Therefore, in the future it should be renounced on the differentiation of apatite and carbonate apatite in routine analyses of urinary calculi.

  4. Spatial Markov Semigroups Admit Hudson-Parthasarathy Dilations

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    Skeide, Michael

    2008-01-01

    For many Markov semigroups dilations in the sense of Hudson and Parthasarathy, that is a dilation which is a cocycle perturbation of a noise, have been constructed with the help of quantum stochastic calculi. In these notes we show that every Markov semigroup on the algebra of all bounded operators on a separable Hilbert space that is spatial in the sense of Arveson, admits a Hudson-Parthasarathy dilation. In a sense, the opposite is also true. The proof is based on general results on the the...

  5. [Treatment of choledocholithiasis at the General Hospital of Mexico, S.S].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Torres, E; García Guerrero, V A; Sobrino Cossío, S; Abdo Francis, M

    1991-01-01

    We present two years of our surgical experience in the Gastroenterologic department of General Hospital of Mexico city; we studied prospectively 23 patients with choledocholithiasis diagnosed preoperatively and postoperatively, 18 females (78%) and 5 males (22%). Diagnosis were performed preoperatively by sonogram, intravenous cholangiography and/or endoscopic retrograde pancreatocholangiography in 19 cases, and postoperatively in four cases. In 22 cases we performed colecistectomy with choledocotomy, extraction of calculi and placement of a "T" biliary catheter. In only one case was necessary a choledoco-duodenal anastomosis. We observed morbility in 3 cases (13%), and a patient died postoperatively (4%). The postoperative follow up was satisfactory in 83% of these cases.

  6. Multiple Urethral Stones Causing Penile Gangrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Ramdass

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile urethral stones are a rare occurrence resulting from a number of causes including migration of stones within the urinary tract, urethral strictures, meatal stenosis, and obstructing tumours such as adenomatous metaplasia of the uroepithelium, hypospadias, urethral diverticulum, and very rarely primary fossa navicularis calculi. We report the case of a 54-year-old male presenting with penile gangrene and sepsis resulting from impaction of multiple stones within the penile urethra. This paper summarises the topic and discusses the pathophysiology of this unusual condition.

  7. On the independence of axioms in BL and MTL

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chvalovský, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 197, 16 June (2012), s. 123-129 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GEICC/08/E018; GA ČR GD401/09/H007 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 73109/2009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : non-classical logic s * basic fuzzy logic (BL) * monoidal t-norm based logic (MTL) * Hilbert-style calculi * independence of axioms Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.749, year: 2012

  8. A NATO Guide for Assessing Deployability for Military Personnel with Medical Conditions (Guide OTAN d’evaluation de l’aptitude medicale a la projection du personnel militaire)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Equivalent Diseases D-2 D.6 Cardiac Diagnostic Evaluation D-2 D.7 Metabolic Syndrome Definition D-2 Annex E – List of Medications that are Normally...and high uric acid (increased by some medications). They are also called nephrolithiasis or renal calculi. It is Difficult to Predict When a Kidney...with caution if they have either one of the following: • Metabolic syndrome ; AND/OR • Calculated 10-year CHD risk (e.g. Framingham) is 10 to 15 % or

  9. Acute anterior uveitis as the initial presentation of alkaptonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padhan P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaptonuria is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that may present with multi-system involvement such as ochronotic arthropathy, renal, urethral and prostatic calculi, cardiac valvular lesions and pigmentation of the skin, sclera, cartilage and other connective tissues. An association of the disease with uveitis has never been reported. We report the first case of alkaptonuria with ochronotic arthropathy presenting with recurrent acute anterior uveitis as the initial manifestation. The possible common link with the HLA-B27 gene is discussed.

  10. Simultaneous transurethral cystolithotripsy with holmium laser enucleation of the prostate: a prospective feasibility study and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Hemendra N; Hegde, Sunil S; Shah, Jignesh N; Mahajan, Amol P; Bansal, Manish B

    2007-03-01

    To report experience with holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) simultaneously with transurethral holmium laser cystolithotripsy (HLC) for managing bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and associated vesical calculi; we also review previously reported cases of managing vesical calculi and associated BOO. The high-powered holmium laser is a very efficient multifunctional endourological instrument that effectively fragments calculi of all compositions and is capable of haemostatic cutting of tissue, resulting in minimal bleeding after prostatic resection. A prospective study was conducted from April 2003 that included 32 men who underwent simultaneous HoLEP with transurethral HLC at our institution. Demographic, laboratory, peri-operative and follow-up data were analysed. Complications during and after surgery were identified to assess the morbidity of procedure. The mean (range) size of bladder calculi was 34.6 (12-70) mm and the preoperative weight of the prostate was 51.9 (11-172) g. Combined HoLEP with transurethral HLC was technically feasible in all patients, and all were stone-free after surgery. The mean operative duration was 97.7 (40-230) min, the weight of prostate tissue removed 34.6 (5-88) g, and the duration of catheterization and hospital stay 29.3 h and 34.8 h, respectively. Complications during and after surgery occurred in 12.5% and 15.6% of patients, respectively; all complication were minor and none caused any residual disability to the patient. No patient required a blood transfusion or developed clot retention. Managing bladder stones and BOO with simultaneous transurethral HLC and HoLEP should be considered the treatment of choice for such cases. Stones of any size and composition, and prostates of practically any size can be treated endoscopically using the holmium laser, with acceptable morbidity once the technique is mastered. The review of previous reports suggested a need for a prospective study comparing endoscopic management of

  11. Towards a Unified Framework for Declarative Structured Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. López

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a unified framework for the declarative analysis of structured communications. By relying on a (timed concurrent constraint programming language, we show that in addition to the usual operational techniques from process calculi, the analysis of structured communications can elegantly exploit logic-based reasoning techniques. We introduce a declarative interpretation of the language for structured communications proposed by Honda, Vasconcelos, and Kubo. Distinguishing features of our approach are: the possibility of including partial information (constraints in the session model; the use of explicit time for reasoning about session duration and expiration; a tight correspondence with logic, which formally relates session execution and linear-time temporal logic formulas.

  12. Microlithiasis of Seminal Vesicles and Severe Oligoasthenospermia in Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis (PAM: Report of An Unusual Sporadic Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Castellana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM is classified as an elective dysmetabolic thesaurotic pneumoalveolitis and characterized by the presence within the alveoli of the lungs of myriad of tiny calculi. The classic presentation of the chest radiography is unmistakable with multiple small "sand-like" opacities diffusely involving both lung fields. We present a case of male infertility for hypoposia and severe oligoasthenospermia in a young patient with recurrent haematuria and small calcifications in the seminal vesicles similar to pulmonary microliths. PAM was diagnosed on routine chest radiography, computer tomography (CT, transbronchial biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL.

  13. Urolithiasis analysis in a multiethnic population at a tertiary hospital in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathigo, Francis K; Hayombe, Alfred; Maina, Daniel

    2017-04-20

    Urolithiasis is a global problem whose incidence is reported to be on the rise across the world. Previously, urolithiasis was reported as being rare among the indigenous African population but recent data suggest otherwise. This study reviewed the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with urolithiasis seen at the Aga Khan University hospital Nairobi (AKUHN) as well as the chemical composition of the stones and the modalities of therapy used. This was a retrospective study which utilized patients' clinical and laboratory records from 2013 to 2014. Sixty-seven symptomatic patients with confirmed urolithiasis formed the study. This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of patients, modalities of treatment as well as the chemical composition of renal stones from patients diagnosed and managed for urolithiasis during a duration spanning 17 months. Wet chemistry was utilized for analyzing the chemical composition of the urinary calculi. Data on age, sex, symptoms, radiological investigations done, location of the calculi, chemical composition of calculi and therapeutic procedures instituted were extracted and analyzed. Ages ranged from 3 to 87 years with a median of 42; males were the majority (79%) and the commonest presenting symptoms were flank pain (91%) and dysuria (19%). The majority of the stones were located in the ureters (46%) and at the pelvi-ureteric junction (25%). A statistically significant difference in frequency of lodgment at the pelvi-ureteric site between males and females was noted. However, the number of female patients in this study was small and studies with larger numbers of female participants are required to confirm this observation. All stones contained calcium and oxalate, often as the only constituents (72%). In the remainder of the stones, other constituents such bicarbonate, ammonium, phosphorous, magnesium, uric acid and cystine occurred in varying combinations with calcium oxalate. Laser lithotripsy was

  14. Abscesso intrabdominal tardio pós colecistectomia laparoscópica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cezar Uili Coelho

    Full Text Available Perforation of the gallbladder during laparoscopic cholecystectomy may be associated with intraperitoneal gallstone spillage. Several complications secondary to lost gallstones in the abdominal cavity have been described. We report a rare complication of abdominal abscess secondary to two gallstones left in the abdominal cavity. A 75-year-old female presented with spontaneous drainage of pus through the umbilicus five years after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. An ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen revealed a solid mass of 56x26 mm of diameter, with acoustic shadow, localized distal to the umbilicus. At laparotomy, an abscess with two biliary calculi was drained. The patient had good recovery, with no complication.

  15. Retroperitoneal Laparoscopic Pyelolithotomy in an Ectopic Pelvic Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirakoglu, Abdullah; Ozer, Serafettin

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Retroperitoneal laparoscopic pyelolithotomy was performed in an ectopic pelvic kidney with renal pelvis calculi. Methods and Results: Laparoscopic pyelolithotomy was successfully performed in an ectopic pelvic kidney by using the retroperitoneal route. The total operation time was 130 minutes, and the estimated blood loss was 50mL. The patient was discharged on the second postoperative day without any complications. Conclusion: Laparoscopic pyelolithotomy is an effective treatment option for management of stones in the pelvis of an ectopic pelvic kidney. The retroperitoneal route may help to avoid intraoperative and postoperative complications. PMID:23477189

  16. CT urography and hematuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bretlau, Thomas; Hansen, Rasmus H; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2015-01-01

    undergoing CT urography due to hematuria. The patients were followed for 3 years. RESULTS: A total of 771 patients had hematuria diagnosed at the time of referral. In 137 patients (18%), a tumor and / or a complex cyst was found in the urinary tract (renal, ureteral, or bladder), in 68 (9%) a calculi, in 118...... or complex cyst was found in the kidneys or the ureters in patients with nonvisible hematuria. CONCLUSION: CT urography with its low dose of contrast medium and radiation is a useful diagnostic imaging test for investigating patients with hematuria....

  17. Urological applications of the holmium laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaghler, Marc A.; Poon, Michael W.; Ruckle, Herbert C.; Stewart, Steven C.; Weil, Dane

    1998-07-01

    While the role of endoscopy was initially diagnostic, the advent of improved endoscopes and working instruments have increased its therapeutic applications. One of the most recent advances is the holmium laser. It has a broad range of urological applications due to its ability to fragment all urinary calculi and its soft tissue effects. This laser is based on laser energy delivered in a pulsatile fashion at 2100 nm. The purpose of this study is to report our experience with the holmium laser. A retrospective study of patients undergoing endourological procedures with the holmium laser was performed. One hundred and forty patients underwent 157 procedures. The holmium laser was used for the treatment of urinary calculi in 122 patients. Stone location included 61 renal, 64 ureteral, and 17 bladder stones. Renal stone burden was 17 mm (range 3-50), ureteral stone size averaged 10 mm (range 3 - 35), and mean bladder stone size was 31 mm (range 10 - 60). Other uses included treatment of transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis, ureter, and bladder, incision of ureteral strictures, ureterocele, and prostate, and ablation of renal hemangiomas. Intraoperative and post operative complications were noted. Follow-up for calculi consisted of a plain film of the abdomen at one week and an ultrasound or intravenous pyelogram at six to eight weeks post procedure. No ureteral perforations or strictures occurred. The Holmium laser was capable of fragmenting all urinary calculi in this study. No complications were directly attributable to the Holmium laser. In our initial experience, the Holmium laser is safe and effective in the treatment of urinary pathology. It is the most effective lithotrite available and is able to incise and coagulate soft tissue as well. This combination allows the urologist to treat a variety of urinary pathology using a single modality. Its main limitation is the ability to access lower pole lesions in the upper urinary tract due to the fiber

  18. THE CORE OF THE PSEUDOSTEM OF MUSA IN THE TREATMENT OF URINARY STONES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, R. Gopakumara

    1995-01-01

    Ayurveda recommends many simple herbs in the treatment of urological afflictions like urolithiasis. Seventyone patients diagnosed to be suffering from urolithiasis were treated with juice of the core of the pseudostem of Musa Paradisiaca and Musa sapientum. A significant segment of them passed out calculi of varying size after consuming the drug for two weeks. Recurrence of stone formation was also prevented by the treatment, The author concludes that the plant material is quite effective in curing urolithiasis, especially of the calcium oxalate variety. PMID:22556713

  19. Sonography of gangrenous cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Corr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gangrenous cholecystitis is an acute surgical emergency, which requires early cholecystectomy. Differentiation of patients with gangrenous cholecystitis from those with non-gangrenous cholecystitis can be difficult, both clinically and with imaging. Careful attention to the following sonographic signs suggests the presence of gangrenous cholecystitis decreased focal wall perfusion on Color Doppler, irregular gall bladder mucosal outline, gall bladder wall thickening with signs of de-lamination, gas within the gall bladder, absence of calculi, and large peri-cholecystic collections. Both sonogram with color flow imaging and contrast-enhanced Computed tomography are complementary investigations to establish this important diagnosis in critically ill patients.

  20. Logic and truth: Some logics without theorems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanta Sen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Two types of logical consequence are compared: one, with respect to matrix and designated elements and the other with respect to ordering in a suitable algebraic structure. Particular emphasis is laid on algebraic structures in which there is no top-element relative to the ordering. The significance of this special condition is discussed. Sequent calculi for a number of such structures are developed. As a consequence it is re-established that the notion of truth as such, not to speak of tautologies, is inessential in order to define validity of an argument.

  1. Differential geometry on Hopf algebras and quantum groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, Paul [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-12-15

    The differential geometry on a Hopf algebra is constructed, by using the basic axioms of Hopf algebras and noncommutative differential geometry. The space of generalized derivations on a Hopf algebra of functions is presented via the smash product, and used to define and discuss quantum Lie algebras and their properties. The Cartan calculus of the exterior derivative, Lie derivative, and inner derivation is found for both the universal and general differential calculi of an arbitrary Hopf algebra, and, by restricting to the quasitriangular case and using the numerical R-matrix formalism, the aforementioned structures for quantum groups are determined.

  2. Retrograde intrarenal stone surgery for extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy-resistant kidney stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene; Nørby, Bettina; Osther, Palle Jörn

    2006-01-01

    in an overall success rate of 76%. There were no major complications. CONCLUSIONS: RIRS is a safe procedure with a high success rate and a low complication rate for ESWL-resistant renal stones. Patients with larger stones (> 10 mm), those with stones in the lower pole and those with an abnormal renal anatomy...... ranged in size from 3 to 20 mm (mean 9 mm). In 32 cases the stones were fragmented using a holmium YAG laser and in six the stones could be extracted using zero-tip Dormia baskets without fragmentation. Sixteen patients had lower calyceal calculi and eight had an abnormal anatomy of the upper urinary...

  3. [Appendiceal lithiasis: case report and review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, L; Riccardi, S; Marini, M; Caputo, M; Lo Mele, L; Costi, U; Pulcinelli, V; Kharrub, Z; Luppi, G; Guerrisi, A; Del Monte, S; Casullo, A

    2004-01-01

    Appendiceal calculi are found in a limited percentage of patients. They are in association to an elevated prevalence of necrotic appendicitis and perforation of the appendix. The Authors report a case of acute appendicitis associated to appendiceal lithiasis with perforation of the organ. They emphasize the possibility to perform a preventive appendectomy in case of incidental appendiceal lithiasis. Besides they consider the differential diagnosis of the calcified images located in the lower abdominal quadrants with the aid of the various imaging methods available today, particularity sonography and computerized tomography.

  4. Clinical Space Medicine A Prospective Look at Medical Problems From Hazards of Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-07-01

    A. J. , Role of the Protective Urinary Colloids in the Prevention of Renal Lithiasis . J. Urol. , 67:450-459, 1952. 22. Carr, R. J., A New Theory on...of Urinary Lithiasis . Med. Clin. N. Amer., 38:1461-1474, 1954. 24. Clark, I., Bassett, C. A. L., The Amelioration of Hypervitaminosis D in Rats with...Urolithiasis. Urol. Int., 19:372-389, 1965. 223 40. Flocks, R. H., Bush, J., Recumbency Calculi, in Treatment of Urinary Lithiasis , A. J. Butt, (ed

  5. [The lithiasis in the upper urinary tract in children: endourological treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Otero, J; Gómez Fraile, A; Feltes Ochoa, J A; Fernández, I; López Vázquez, F; Aransay Bramtot, A

    2007-05-01

    Urolithiasis in the pediatric age is a growing problem. In the developed world they are of calcium oxalate and in the upper urinary tract. It is very similar to the presentation of lithiasis in adults, so we have to make an effort to apply the experience in this age to the children. The shock wave lithotripsy is admitted as the first treatment for this pathology in the pediatric population already. The endourological approach must be use as a common approach in this group. We present our technique and experience. A retrospective, descriptive study of the children diagnosed of lithiasis in the upper urinary tract that were treated by an endourological technique in our centre between January 1992 and January 2005. We gathered data on: 1.) Preoperative: age, sex, clinical manifestations, size (mm) and position of the lithiasis (we divided the upper urinary tract in: renal, proximal third, medial third and distal third) 2.) Operative variable: endourological technique: percutaneus neprolithotomy or ureteroscopy. Reconversion to open surgery. 3.) Postoperative variables: time since surgery, complications and the current state of the patient (ultrasonography and renal function). Seven children, 4 boys and 2 girls with an age range of 2,5 to 14 years, underwent operation using an endourological technique. Lumboabdominal pain was the main clinical manifestation (4/7). The lithiasis size was 4-7mm, with the exception of a staghorn calculis. The calculis were: 5 ureteral proximal, 1 ureteral distal and one in the kidney (staghound stone). We performed one percutaneus neprolithotomy for the staghorn calculi. We removed completly the stone and had no complications. The 6 other procedures were ureteroscopies. In 3 of them we removed the calculi (4/7 success rate of 57%). The rest procedures we needed to transform in open surgery. With a following time of 1-13 years all of them are asymptomatic, and with ultrasonography and renal function in the normal limits. We did see no

  6. Experiences in enhancing existing BPM Tools with BPEL Import and Export

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendling, Jan; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; Zdun, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    utilize graph-based BPM languages such as EPCs, Workflow Nets, UML Activity Diagrams, and BPMN in their modeling component while BPEL is rather a block-oriented language inspired by process calculi. In this paper we identify transformation strategies as reusable solutions for mapping control flow between...... graph-based BPM tools and BPEL. Furthermore, we present a case study in which we have applied these strategies in an industry project. This case study shows that transformation strategies are helpful for implementing import and export interfaces in a systematic way, and that they can easily be extended...... to address vendor-specific aspects of a graph-based BPM tool....

  7. Mitochondrial fusion through membrane automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakis, Konstantinos; Andronikos, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that malfunctions in mitochondrial processes can be blamed for diseases. However, the mechanism behind these operations is yet not sufficiently clear. In this work we present a novel approach to describe a biomolecular model for mitochondrial fusion using notions from the membrane computing. We use a case study defined in BioAmbient calculus and we show how to translate it in terms of a P automata variant. We combine brane calculi with (mem)brane automata to produce a new scheme capable of describing simple, realistic models. We propose the further use of similar methods and the test of other biomolecular models with the same behaviour.

  8. Very first tests on SOLEIL regarding the Zn environment in pathological calcifications made of apatite determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazin, D.; Carpentier, X.; Traxer, O.; Thiaudiere, D.; Somogyi, A.; Reguer, S.; Waychunas, G.; Daudon, M.

    2008-10-01

    This very first report of a X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiment on Soleil is part of a more large long term study dedicated to ectopic calcifications. Such biological entities composed of various inorganic and/or organic compounds contain also trace elements. In the case of urinary calculi, different papers already published point out that these oligo elements may promote or inhibit crystal nucleation or growth of mineral or organic species involved. By using such tool specific to synchrotron radiation i.e. determine the local environment of oligoelements and thus their occupation site, we contribute to our understanding of the role of trace elements in ectopic calcifications.

  9. Studies on the prevalence of renal disease and hypertension in relation to schistosomiasis. V. Radiological findings: plain X-ray abdomen and intravenous pyelogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyannwo, M A; Lagundoye, S B; Lucas, A O

    1978-11-01

    After studying two rural communities with varing endemicity of urinary schistosomiasis by total cross-sectional population survey, a stratified sample was obtained using defined criteria. Plain X-ray abdomen and intravenous pyelogram were carried out on the sample. Findings on plain X-ray of the abdomen, using the usual parameters of psoas and kidney shadows in the Nigerian, indicate that the two communities studied are similar but urinary calculi and urinary tract distortion are significantly more prominent in the community with the higher endemicity of urinary schistosomiasis.

  10. Frontiers in Computer Education

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Egui; 2011 International Conference on Frontiers in Computer Education (ICFCE 2011)

    2012-01-01

    This book is the proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Frontiers in Computer Education (ICFCE 2011) in Sanya, China, December 1-2, 2011. The contributions can be useful for researchers, software engineers, and programmers, all interested in promoting the computer and education development. Topics covered are computing and communication technology, network management, wireless networks, telecommunication, Signal and Image Processing, Machine Learning, educational management, educational psychology, educational system, education engineering, education technology and training.  The emphasis is on methods and calculi for computer science and education technology development, verification and verification tools support, experiences from doing developments, and the associated theoretical problems.

  11. [Does carbonate originate from carbonate-calcium crystal component of the human urinary calculus?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzawa, Masayuki; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Kumamaru, Takatoshi; Nukui, Akinori; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Kazumi; Kobayashi, Minoru; Sugaya, Yasuhiro; Morita, Tatsuo

    2008-09-01

    It gives important information in selecting the appropriate treatment for urolithiasis to confirm the component of urinary calculus. Presently component analysis of the urinary calculus is generally performed by infrared spectroscopy which is employed by companies providing laboratory testing services in Japan. The infrared spectroscopy determines the molecular components from the absorption spectra in consequence of atomic vibrations. It has the drawback that an accurate crystal structure cannot be analyzed compared with the X-ray diffraction method which analyzes the crystal constituent based on the diffraction of X-rays on crystal lattice. The components of the urinary calculus including carbonate are carbonate apatite and calcium carbonate such as calcite. Although the latter is reported to be very rare component in human urinary calculus, the results by infrared spectroscopy often show that calcium carbonate is included in calculus. The infrared spectroscopy can confirm the existence of carbonate but cannot determine whether carbonate is originated from carbonate apatite or calcium carbonate. Thus, it is not clear whether calcium carbonate is included in human urinary calculus component in Japan. In this study, we examined human urinary calculus including carbonate by use of X-ray structural analysis in order to elucidate the origin of carbonate in human urinary calculus. We examined 17 human calculi which were reported to contain calcium carbonate by infrared spectroscopy performed in the clinical laboratory. Fifteen calculi were obtained from urinary tract, and two were from gall bladder. The stones were analyzed by X-ray powder method after crushed finely. The reports from the clinical laboratory showed that all urinary culculi consisted of calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate, while the gallstones consisted of calcium carbonate. But the components of all urinary calculi were revealed to be carbonate apatite by X-ray diffraction. The components of

  12. The lambda sigma calculus and strong normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Explicit substitution calculi can be classified into several dis- tinct categories depending on whether they are confluent, meta-confluent, strong normalization preserving, strongly normalizing, simulating, fully compositional, and/or local. In this paper we present a variant of the λσ-calculus......, which satisfies all seven conditions. In particular, we show how to circumvent Mellies counter-example to strong normalization by a slight restriction of the congruence rules. The calculus is implemented as the core data structure of the Celf logical framework. All meta-theoretic aspects of this work...

  13. Primary vaginal calculus secondary to urethrovaginal fistula with imperforate hymen in a 6-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguzkurt, Pelin; Ince, Emine; Ezer, Semire Serin; Temiz, Abdülkerim; Demir, Senay; Hicsonmez, Akgun

    2009-07-01

    Primary vaginal stones are extremely rare in children and may be mistaken for bladder calculi on plain radiography. We present a case of a large vaginal calculus in a 6-year-old girl who had an imperforate hymen and urethrovaginal fistula. Hymenotomy and urethrovaginal fistula repair were performed, and the vaginal stone was extracted. It was postulated that the vaginal calculus originated from stasis of urine through the urethrovaginal fistula in the obstructed vagina. This is a unique case of a vaginal calculus with a congenital urethrovaginal fistula associated with an imperforate hymen.

  14. [Dissolution of pancreatic calcifications with oral citrates in a woman with chronic idiopathic pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uscanga, L; Galván Guerra, E; Robles-Díaz, G; Campuzano Fernández, M

    1992-01-01

    Pain control is one of the most important objectives in the medical treatment of patients with chronic calcifying pancreatitis (CCP). It is generally accepted that pain in CCP is secondary to the obstruction of the pancreatic duct by calcifications, protein plugs and stenotic areas. Experimental studies have shown that calculi and protein plugs are soluble in citrates. We report here the case of a young non alcoholic woman with idiopathic CCP who after a pancreatojejunostomy developed again pain and pancreatic calcifications which were dissolved with oral citrates. The case confirms previous observations and illustrates the potential use of citrates in subjects with CCP.

  15. Retractable Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Barbanera

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In calculi for modelling communication protocols, internal and external choices play dual roles. Two external choices can be viewed naturally as dual too, as they represent an agreement between the communicating parties. If the interaction fails, the past agreements are good candidates as points where to roll back, in order to take a different agreement. We propose a variant of contracts with synchronous rollbacks to agreement points in case of deadlock. The new calculus is equipped with a compliance relation which is shown to be decidable.

  16. Treatment of ureteric lithiasis with retrograde ureteroscopy and holmium: YAG laser lithotripsy vs extracorporeal lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrabal-Polo, Miguel A; Arrabal-Martín, Miguel; Miján-Ortiz, José L; Valle-Díaz, Francisco; López-León, Víctor; Merino-Salas, Sergio; Zuluaga-Gómez, Armando

    2009-10-01

    To analyse the efficiency of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) vs retrograde ureteroscopy and holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy, as ESWL is successful in 67-90% of cases but endoscopic lithotripsy with pneumatic lithotrites or lasers is successful in 90-96% of distal ureteric calculi, and holmium:YAG lithotripsy is effective in proximal ureteric calculi. From April 2006 to April 2008 we assessed 164 patients undergoing ureteric lithiasis in two homogeneous groups: group A included 83 treated with retrograde ureteroscopy and holmium:YAG endoscopic lithotripsy, and group B, 81 treated by ESWL. For laser lithotripsy we used 2071 mJ pulses at 3-6 Hz, with a mean of 1105 pulses and 2.5 kJ of total energy. ESWL was carried out using 37.5-87.5 mJ shock waves, a mean of 3650 shock waves and 187.6 J, with a radioscopy time of 1-4 min. The results were assessed after 3 weeks with plain films and ultrasonography, or urography. The efficiency of each procedure was assessed by calculating the relative risk, and results compared using the chi-square or Student's t-test. The efficiency quotient (EQ) was determined for both procedures, and the focal applied energy quotient (FAEQ) used to assess ESWL. The overall success rate for retrograde ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy was 96.4% (80/83 patients), with an EQ of 0.52; a JJ catheter was placed in 67 patients. The success rate for the first ESWL session was 48%, and after repeat ESWL was 64% (52/81 patients), giving an EQ of 0.39. For successful treatments the FAEQ was 9.22, vs 6.47 for the failures (P laser lithotripsy, with an absolute benefit of 46% (95% confidence interval 33.8-57.9%), and number needed to treat of 2 (2-3), but no significant differences for lumbar ureteric calculi. Endoscopic lithotripsy with the holmium laser is more effective than ESWL, but for lumbar ureteric calculi ESWL is therapeutically recommended as it is less invasive.

  17. A synthetic operational account of call-by-need evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zerny, Ian; Danvy, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    We present the first operational account of call by need that connects syntactic theory and implementation practice. Syntactic theory: the storeless operational semantics using syntax rewriting to account for demand-driven computation and for caching intermediate results. Implementational practice...... is that the theory of call by need agrees with the theory of call by name, and that the practice of call by need optimizes the practice of call by name. Our operational account takes the form of three new calculi for lazy evaluation of lambda-terms and our synthesis takes the form of three lock-step equivalences...

  18. Calculating the number of shock waves, expulsion time, and optimum stone parameters based on noncontrast computerized tomography characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Khaled; Abdeldaeim, Hussein; Youssif, Mohamed; Assem, Akram

    2013-11-01

    To define the parameters that accompanied a successful extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), namely the number of shock waves (SWs), expulsion time (ET), mean stone density (MSD), and the skin-to-stone distance (SSD). A total of 368 patients diagnosed with renal calculi using noncontrast computerized tomography had their MSD, diameter, and SSD recorded. All patients were treated using a Siemens lithotripter. ESWL success meant a stone-free status or presence of residual fragments 934 HUs and SSD >99 mm. The required number of SWs and the expected ET can be anticipated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. What is a "good" encoding of guarded choice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nestmann, Uwe

    2000-01-01

    into the latter that preserves divergence-freedom and symmetries. This paper argues that there are nevertheless "good" encodings between these calculi. In detail, we present a series of encodings for languages with (1) input-guarded choice, (2) both input and output-guarded choice, and (3) mixed-guarded choice......, and investigate them with respect to compositionality and divergence-freedom. The first and second encoding satisfy all of the above criteria, but various "good" candidates for the third encoding-inspired by an existing distributed implementation-invalidate one or the other criterion, While essentially confirming...

  20. Experience with endoscopic holmium laser in the pediatric population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merguerian, Paul A.; Reddy, Pramod P.; Barrieras, Diego; Bagli, Darius J.; McLorie, Gordon A.; Khoury, Antoine E.

    1999-06-01

    Introduction: Due to the unavailability of suitable endoscopic instruments, pediatric patients have not benefited fully from the technological advances in the endoscopic management of the upper urinary tract. This limitation may be overcome with the Holmuim:Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet(Ho:YAG) laser delivered via small instruments. To date, there is no published report on the use of this modality in children. Purpose: We evaluated the indications, efficacy, and complications of endourological Ho:YAG laser surgery in the treatment of pediatric urolithiasis, posterior urethral valves, ureterocele and ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Methods: The patient population included 10 children with renal, ureteral and bladder calculi, 2 children with posterior urethral valves, 2 children with obstructing ureteroceles, 2 children with ureteropelvic junction obstruction and 1 child with a urethral stricture. Access to the lesions was either antegrade via a percutaneous nephrostomy tract or retrograde via the urethra. A solid state Ho:YAG laser with maximum output of 30 watts (New Star lasers, Auburn, CA) was utilized as the energy source. Results: A total of 10 patients underwent laser lithotripsy. The means age of the patients was 9 yrs (5-13 yrs). The average surface area of the calculi as 425.2 mm2 (92-1645 mm2). 8 of the patients required one procedure to render them stone free, one patient had a staghorn calculus filling every calyx of a solitary kidney requiring multiple treatments and one other patient with a staghorn calculus required 2 treatments. There were no complications related to the laser lithotripsy. Two newborn underwent successful ablation of po sterious urethral valves. Two infants underwent incision of obstructing ureteroceles with decompression of the ureterocele on postoperative ultrasound. Two children underwent endypyelotomy for ureteropelvic junction obstruction. One was successful an done required an open procedure to correct the obstruction. One child