Flatland a journey of many dimensions
2007-01-01
"Flatland" is based on Edwin A. Abbott's classic novel : Flatland : a romance of many dimensions. Flatland is a world that exists entirely on a two-dimensional plane. All different kinds of shapes live, work and play in this world. The story follows Arthur Square (Martin Sheen) and his curious granddaughter Hex (Kristen Bell). When a mysterious visitor (Michael York) arrives from Spaceland, Arthur and Hex must come to terms with the truth of the third dimension, risking dire consequences from the evil Circles that have ruled Flatland for thousands of years. "Flatland" is an animated story that includes action, drama, and geometry lessons. This heartfelt movie challenges audiences to grasp the limitations of our own assumptions about reality, and to think about the idea of higher dimensions.
Flatland a romance of many dimensions
Abbott, Edwin Abbott
2015-01-01
In 1884, Edwin Abbott Abbott wrote a mathematical adventure set in a two-dimensional plane world, populated by a hierarchical society of regular geometrical figures-who think and speak and have all too human emotions. Since then Flatland has fascinated generations of readers, becoming a perennial science-fiction favorite. By imagining the contact of beings from different dimensions, the author fully exploited the power of the analogy between the limitations of humans and those of his two-dimensional characters. A first-rate fictional guide to the concept of multiple dimensions of space, the book will also appeal to those who are interested in computer graphics. This field, which literally makes higher dimensions seeable, has aroused a new interest in visualization. We can now manipulate objects in four dimensions and observe their three-dimensional slices tumbling on the computer screen. But how do we interpret these images? In his introduction, Thomas Banchoff points out that there is no better way to begin ...
Fermions in Two Dimensions: Scattering and Many-Body Properties
Galea, Alexander; Zielinski, Tash; Gandolfi, Stefano; Gezerlis, Alexandros
2017-12-01
Ultracold atomic Fermi gases in two dimensions (2D) are an increasingly popular topic of research. The interaction strength between spin-up and spin-down particles in two-component Fermi gases can be tuned in experiments, allowing for a strongly interacting regime where the gas properties are yet to be fully understood. We have probed this regime for 2D Fermi gases by performing T = 0 ab initio diffusion Monte Carlo calculations. The many-body dynamics are largely dependent on the two-body interactions; therefore, we start with an in-depth look at scattering theory in 2D. We show the partial-wave expansion and its relation to the scattering length and effective range. Then, we discuss our numerical methods for determining these scattering parameters. We close out this discussion by illustrating the details of bound states in 2D. Transitioning to the many-body system, we use variationally optimized wave functions to calculate ground-state properties of the gas over a range of interaction strengths. We show results for the energy per particle and parametrize an equation of state. We then proceed to determine the chemical potential for the strongly interacting gas.
Many-body theory of magnetoelasticity in one dimension
Tsyplyatyev, O.; Kopietz, P.; Tsui, Y.; Wolf, B.; Cong, P. T.; van Well, N.; Ritter, F.; Krellner, C.; Aßmus, W.; Lang, M.
2017-01-01
We construct a many-body theory of magnetoelasticity in one dimension and show that the dynamical correlation functions of the quantum magnet, connecting the spins with phonons, involve all energy scales. Accounting for all magnetic states nonperturbatively via the exact diagonalization techniques of Bethe ansatz, we find that the renormalization of the phonon velocity is a nonmonotonous function of the external magnetic field and identify a new mechanism for attenuation of phonons—via hybridization with the continuum of excitations at high energy. We conduct ultrasonic measurements on a high-quality single crystal of the frustrated spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet Cs2CuCl4 in its nearly one-dimensional regime and confirm the theoretical predictions, demonstrating that ultrasound can be used as a powerful probe of strong correlations in one dimension.
From few to many. Ultracold atoms in reduced dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wenz, Andre Niklas
2013-12-19
This thesis reports on experimental studies exploring few and many-body physics of ultracold Bose and Fermi gases with reduced dimensionality. These experiments illustrate the versatility and great amount of control over the particle number, the interaction and other degrees of freedom, like the spin, that these generic quantum systems offer. In the first part of this thesis, we use quasi one-dimensional few-particle systems of one to ten fermionic atoms to investigate the crossover from few to many-body physics. This is achieved by measuring the interaction energy between a single impurity atom in a state vertical stroke ↓ right angle which repulsively interacts with an increasing number of majority atoms in a state vertical stroke ↑ right angle. We find that the system quickly approaches the results from the many-body theory, which describes the behavior of a single impurity immersed in a Fermi sea of an infinite number of majority particles. The second part of this thesis presents studies of the time evolution of a bosonic F=1 spinor BEC of {sup 87}Rb atoms. In this system, we investigate the emergence and coarsening of ferromagnetic spin textures from initially unmagnetized samples. While the ferromagnetic domains grow, we observe the development of a spin space anisotropy which is in agreement with the predicted phase-diagram. The last part of this thesis presents our first steps towards the investigation of phase coherence of quasi two-dimensional quantum gases in the crossover from bosonic molecules to fermionic atoms.
Initial four-body forces in many-body calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schulz, Stefan; Roth, Robert [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany)
2016-07-01
For the ab-initio description of light and medium-mass nuclei, chiral effective field theory is used successfully. Improving the precision and uncertainty estimation of chiral forces, especially an improved description of medium-mass nuclei, requires consistent order-by-order calculations. Starting at N{sup 3}LO, chiral four-body forces play a role and their impact on nuclei beyond few-body systems is currently unknown. Even without initial four-body forces, transformations such as the similarity renormalization group induce many-body forces. We model the four-body forces using a simple contact interaction and investigate its effect on nuclear many-body observables, especially ground-state energies and radii, as well as correlations between them. The four-body forces are evaluated in a Jacobi harmonic oscillator (HO) basis and subsequently used in no-core shell model and Hartree-Fock calculations for light- and medium mass nuclei. Handling of chiral forces is identical to a contact interaction, once they are evaluated in a HO basis.
Many-particle Systems in One Dimension in the Harmonic Approximation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
R. Armstrong, J.; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; V. Fedorov, D.
2012-01-01
We consider energetics and structural properties of a many particle system in one dimension with pairwise contact interactions confined in a parabolic external potential. To render the problem analytically solvable, we use the harmonic approximation scheme at the level of the Hamiltonian. We...... consider the thermodynamics of the harmonic model which turns out to be similar for bosons and fermions due to the lack of degeneracy in one dimension....
Toward large-scale many-fermion calculations on Graphics Processing Units
Wendt, Kyle; Drut, Joaquin; Lahde, Timo
2010-11-01
We apply Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) to simulations of quantum many-body systems. Specifically, we study the performance of sparse matrix-vector multiplication and preconditioned conjugate gradient iteration on the NVIDIA Tesla c1060 GPU card. These operations are of direct relevance to Hybrid Monte Carlo calculations at finite temperature and density. We report a CPU-GPU performance comparison for the Fermi Hubbard model in d+1 space-time dimensions, where we find speedup factors in excess of 40. We present an overview of our algorithm, possible optimization strategies and projected performance on the recently released NVIDIA Fermi architecture.
Determinants of Individual Academic Achievement - Group Selectivity Effects Have Many Dimensions
Zwick, Th.
2013-01-01
This paper measures determinants of individual academic achievements. In addition to an extensive list of individual characteristics, skills obtained during study and socio-economic background factors, many dimensions of selectivity into academic study subjects are shown to drive individual academic
Determinants of individual academic achievement - Group selectivity effects have many dimensions
Zwick, Th.
2013-01-01
This paper measures determinants of individual academic achievements. In addition to an extensive list of individual characteristics, skills obtained during study and socio-economic background factors, many dimensions of selectivity into academic study subjects are shown to drive individual academic
Black holes in many dimensions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider: testing critical string theory.
Hewett, JoAnne L; Lillie, Ben; Rizzo, Thomas G
2005-12-31
We consider black hole production at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in a generic scenario with many extra dimensions where the standard model fields are confined to a brane. With approximately 20 dimensions the hierarchy problem is shown to be naturally solved without the need for large compactification radii. We find that in such a scenario the properties of black holes can be used to determine the number of extra dimensions, . In particular, we demonstrate that measurements of the decay distributions of such black holes at the LHC can determine if is significantly larger than 6 or 7 with high confidence and thus can probe one of the critical properties of string theory compactifications.
Black holes in many dimensions at the CERN large Hadron collider testing critical string theory
Hewett, J L; Rizzo, T G; Hewett, JoAnne L.; Lillie, Ben; Rizzo, Thomas G.
2005-01-01
We consider black hole production at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in a generic scenario with many extra dimensions where the standard model fields are confined to a brane. With ~20 dimensions the hierarchy problem is shown to be naturally solved without the need for large compactification radii. We find that in such a scenario the properties of black holes can be used to determine the number of extra dimensions, n. In particular, we demonstrate that measurements of the decay distributions of such black holes at the LHC can determine if n is significantly larger than 6 or 7 with high confidence and thus can probe one of the critical properties of string theory compactifications.
Determinants of individual academic achievement - Group selectivity effects have many dimensions
Zwick, Th.
2013-01-01
This paper measures determinants of individual academic achievements. In addition to an extensive list of individual characteristics, skills obtained during study and socio-economic background factors, many dimensions of selectivity into academic study subjects are shown to drive individual academic achievement, such as differences between average student grades during tertiary education or cognitive skills. This paper is based on a large and representative graduate survey of g...
The many-body problem an encyclopedia of exactly solved models in one dimension
1993-01-01
This book differs from its predecessor, Lieb & Mattis Mathematical Physics in One Dimension, in a number of important ways. Classic discoveries which once had to be omitted owing to lack of space - such as the seminal paper by Fermi, Pasta and Ulam on lack of ergodicity of the linear chain, or Bethe's original paper on the Bethe ansatz - can now be incorporated. Many applications which did not even exist in 1966 (some of which were originally spawned by the publication of Lieb & Mattis) are newly included. Among these, this new book contains critical surveys of a number of important developmen
Many-body localization in one dimension as a dynamical renormalization group fixed poin
Vosk, Ronen; Altman, Ehud
2013-03-01
We formulate a dynamical real space renormalization group approach to describe the time evolution of a random spin-1/2 chain, or interacting fermions, initialized in a state with fixed particle positions. Within this approach we identify a many-body localized state of the chain as a dynamical infinite randomness fixed point. Near this fixed point our method becomes asymptotically exact, allowing analytic calculation of time dependent quantities. In particular we explain the striking universal features in the growth of the entanglement seen in recent numerical simulations: unbounded logarithmic growth delayed by a time inversely proportional to the interaction strength. Lack of true thermalization in the long time limit is attributed to an infinite set of approximate integrals of motion revealed in the course of the RG flow, which become asymptotically exact conservation laws at the fixed point. Hence we identify the many-body localized state with an emergent generalized Gibbs ensemble. Within the RG framework we show that long range resonances are irrelevant at strong randomness, and formulate a criterion for when they do become relevant and may cause a delocalization transition.
Many-Body Localization in One Dimension as a Dynamical Renormalization Group Fixed Point
Vosk, Ronen; Altman, Ehud
2013-02-01
We formulate a dynamical real space renormalization group (RG) approach to describe the time evolution of a random spin-1/2 chain, or interacting fermions, initialized in a state with fixed particle positions. Within this approach we identify a many-body localized state of the chain as a dynamical infinite randomness fixed point. Near this fixed point our method becomes asymptotically exact, allowing analytic calculation of time dependent quantities. In particular, we explain the striking universal features in the growth of the entanglement seen in recent numerical simulations: unbounded logarithmic growth delayed by a time inversely proportional to the interaction strength. This is in striking contrast to the much slower entropy growth as loglogt found for noninteracting fermions with bond disorder. Nonetheless, even the interacting system does not thermalize in the long time limit. We attribute this to an infinite set of approximate integrals of motion revealed in the course of the RG flow, which become asymptotically exact conservation laws at the fixed point. Hence we identify the many-body localized state with an emergent generalized Gibbs ensemble.
Relativistic multireference many-body perturbation theory calculations on Au64+ - Au69+ ions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vilkas, M J; Ishikawa, Y; Trabert, E
2006-03-31
Many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) calculations are an adequate tool for the description of the structure of highly charged multi-electron ions and for the analysis of their spectra. They demonstrate this by way of a re-investigation of n=3, {Delta}n=0 transitions in the EUV spectra of Na-, Mg-, Al-like, and Si-like ions of Au that have been obtained previously by heavy-ion accelerator based beam-foil spectroscopy. They discuss the evidence and propose several revisions on the basis of the multi-reference many-body perturbation theory calculations of Ne- through P-like ions of Au.
Calculating nasoseptal flap dimensions : a cadaveric study using cone beam computed tomography
ten Dam, Ellen; Korsten-Meijer, Astrid G. W.; Schepers, Rutger H.; van der Meer, Wicher J.; Gerrits, Peter O.; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Feijen, Robert A.
We hypothesize that three-dimensional imaging using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is suitable for calculating nasoseptal flap (NSF) dimensions. To evaluate our hypothesis, we compared CBCT NSF dimensions with anatomical dissections. The NSF reach and vascularity were studied. In an anatomical
Physics in one dimension: theoretical concepts for quantum many-body systems.
Schönhammer, K
2013-01-09
Various sophisticated approximation methods exist for the description of quantum many-body systems. It was realized early on that the theoretical description can simplify considerably in one-dimensional systems and various exact solutions exist. The focus in this introductory paper is on fermionic systems and the emergence of the Luttinger liquid concept.
A note on many-loop calculations for superstrings in the NSR formalism
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morozov, A.; Perelomov, A
1989-01-01
A rather simple and attractive prescription for many-loop calculations is discussed. It consists of specification of metric, super-Beltrami differentials and the sum over spin structures in terms of the same odd characteristic e. At the end of the calculations, summation over e is performed in order to restore modular invariance. The authors note that this prescription should include specification of the limiting procedure involved. For a special choice of regularization the contributions of matter supercurrents to cosmological constant vanish at least for rho /le/ 5.
Solvable Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev Models in Higher Dimensions: From Diffusion to Many-Body Localization.
Jian, Shao-Kai; Yao, Hong
2017-11-17
Many aspects of many-body localization (MBL) transitions remain elusive so far. Here, we propose a higher-dimensional generalization of the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) model and show that it exhibits a MBL transition. The model on a bipartite lattice has N Majorana fermions with SYK interactions on each site of the A sublattice and M free Majorana fermions on each site of the B sublattice, where N and M are large and finite. For r≡M/Nr_{c}) distributions. Note that no subdiffusive phase intervenes between diffusive and MBL phases. Moreover, the critical exponent ν=0, violating the Harris criterion. Our higher-dimensional SYK model may provide a promising arena to explore exotic MBL transitions.
Van Kleek, Max; Smith, Daniel A.; Shadbolt, Nigel R; Murray-Rust, Dave; Guy, Amy
2015-01-01
Portraying matters as other than they truly are is an important part of everyday human communication. In this paper, we use a survey to examine ways in which people fabricate, omit or alter the truth online. Many reasons are found, including creative expression, hiding sensitive information, role-playing, and avoiding harassment or discrimination. The results suggest lying is often used for benign purposes, and we conclude that its use may be essential to maintaining a humane online society.
Exploring the few- to many-body crossover using cold atoms in one dimension
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas
2016-01-01
Cold atomic gases have provided us with a great number of opportunities for studying various physical systems under controlled conditions that are seldom offered in other fields. We are thus at the point where one can truly do quantum simulation of models that are relevant for instance in condensed......-matter or high-energy physics, i.e. we are on the verge of a 'cool' quantum simulator as envisioned by Feynman. One of the avenues under exploration is the physics of one-dimensional systems. Until recently this was mostly in the many-body limit but now experiments can be performed with controllable particle...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Villela, Anderson Goncalves; Carvalho, Valdivino Alves de [AES Eletropaulo, SP (Brazil)
2010-10-15
The calculation algorithm adopted by the AES Eletropaulo, Brazil, for the dimensioning of LV transformers did not represent the real grid conditions, being necessary the development of a new method. This paper presents the new procedure, based on the application of typical load curves and the consumption of energy calculation based on the load information supplied by clients and designers. (author)
Many-pole model of inelastic losses applied to calculations of XANES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kas, J J; Vinson, J; Rehr, J J [University of Washington, Department of Physics, Box 351560, Seattle, WA 98195-1560 (United States); Trcera, N [Synchrotron Soleil, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin - BP 48, 91192 GIF-SUR-YVETTE Cedex (France); Cabaret, D [Institut de Mineralogie et Physique des Milieux Condenses, UMR 7590 CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Universite Paris Diderot, IPGP, IRD, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France); Shirley, E L, E-mail: hebhop@u.washington.ed [NIST, Optical Technology Division, 100 Bureau Drive, Mail Stop 8441, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8441 (United States)
2009-11-15
Conventional Kohn-Sham band-structure methods for calculating deep-core x-ray spectra typically neglect photoelectron self-energy effects, which give rise to an energy-dependent shift and broadening of the spectra. Here an a posteriori procedure is introduced to correct for these effects. The method is based on ab initio calculations of the GW self-energy using a many-pole model and a calculation of the dielectric function in the long wavelength limit using either the FEFF8 real-space Green's function code, or the AI2NBSE interface between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Bethe-Salpeter equation solver (NBSE) and the ABINIT pseudopotential code. As an example the method is applied to core level x-ray spectra of LiF and MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} calculated using (respectively) OCEAN, an extension of the AI2NBSE code for core level excitations, and the PARATEC pseudopotential code with the core-hole treated using a super-cell. The method satisfactorily explains the discrepancy between experiment and calculations.
The Three-Point Sinuosity Method for Calculating the Fractal Dimension of Machined Surface Profile
Zhou, Yuankai; Li, Yan; Zhu, Hua; Zuo, Xue; Yang, Jianhua
2015-04-01
The three-point sinuosity (TPS) method is proposed to calculate the fractal dimension of surface profile accurately. In this method, a new measure, TPS is defined to present the structural complexity of fractal curves, and has been proved to follow the power law. Thus, the fractal dimension can be calculated through the slope of the fitted line in the log-log plot. The Weierstrass-Mandelbrot (W-M) fractal curves, as well as the real surface profiles obtained by grinding, sand blasting and turning, are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The calculation values are compared to those obtained from root-mean-square (RMS) method, box-counting (BC) method and variation method. The results show that the TPS method has the widest scaling region, the least fit error and the highest accuracy among the methods examined, which demonstrates that the fractal characteristics of the fractal curves can be well revealed by the proposed method.
Zn-VI quasiparticle gaps and optical spectra from many-body calculations
Riefer, A.; Weber, N.; Mund, J.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Bayer, M.; Schindlmayr, Arno; Meier, C.; Schmidt, W. G.
2017-06-01
The electronic band structures of hexagonal ZnO and cubic ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe compounds are determined within hybrid-density-functional theory and quasiparticle calculations. It is found that the band-edge energies calculated on the {{G}0}{{W}0} (Zn chalcogenides) or GW (ZnO) level of theory agree well with experiment, while fully self-consistent QSGW calculations are required for the correct description of the Zn 3d bands. The quasiparticle band structures are used to calculate the linear response and second-harmonic-generation (SHG) spectra of the Zn-VI compounds. Excitonic effects in the optical absorption are accounted for within the Bethe-Salpeter approach. The calculated spectra are discussed in the context of previous experimental data and present SHG measurements for ZnO.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amir Lashgari
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Bimetallic materials, which have the ability to convert heat change into mechanical movement, normally consist of two bonded strips of dissimilar metals that expand at different rates. We describe how we made a manganese-chromium (Mn-Cr bimetallic nanocomposite using the centrifuge method and a low-to-high approach. We conducted scanning electron microscope (SEM imaging, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX analysis, and X-ray diffraction spectra of the nanocomposite to prove its identity. We examined how centrifuge speed, process time, and the use of an “intruder agent” affected the properties of the material. The fractal dimension is a significant factor that can be used to approximate the surface roughness, the texture segmentation, and an image of the studied compounds. We calculated the technique of fractal dimensions using image-processing values on a computer and histogram plot with the SEM image of the Mn-Cr bimetallic nanocomposite using MATLAB software. We applied the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software for statistics data extracted from the SEM image of the nanocomposite and obtained the following results: mean = 1.778, median = 1.770, max = 1.98, min = 1.60, skewness = 0.177, range = 0.38, and harmonic mean = 1.771 for fractal dimension of the SEM image.
Systematic reduction of sign errors in many-body calculations of atoms and molecules
Kent, P. R. C.; Bajdich, M.; Tiago, M. L.; Hood, R. Q.; Reboredo, F. A.
2010-03-01
We apply the self-healing diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm (SHDMC) [Phys. Rev. B 79 195117 (2009), ibid. 80 125110 (2009)] to the calculation of ground states of atoms and molecules. By comparing with configuration interaction results we show the method yields systematic convergence towards the exact ground state wave function and reduction of the fixed-node DMC sign error. We present results for atoms and light molecules, obtaining, e.g. the binding of N2 to chemical accuracy. Moreover, we demonstrate that the algorithm is robust enough to be used for the systems as large as the fullerene C20 starting from a set of random coefficients. SHDMC thus constitutes a practical method for systematically reducing the Fermion sign problem in electronic structure calculations. Research sponsored by the ORNL LDRD program (MB), U.S. DOE BES Divisions of Materials Sciences & Engineering (FAR, MLT) and Scientific User Facilities (PRCK). LLNL research was performed under U.S. DOE contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 (RQH).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Erhart, Paul [Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States); Aaberg, Daniel; Sadigh, Babak [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States)
2012-07-01
Rare-earth based scintillators represent a challenging class of scintillator materials due to pronounced spin-orbit coupling and subtle interactions between d and f states that cannot be reproduced by standard electronic structure methods such as density functional theory. In this contribution we present a detailed investigation of the electronic band structure of LaBr{sub 3} using the quasi-p article self-consistent GW (scGW) method. This parameter-free approach is shown to yield an excellent description of the electronic structure of LaBr{sub 3}. Specifically we reproduce the correct level ordering and spacing of the 4f and 5d states, which are inverted with respect to the free La atom, the band gap as well as the spin-orbit splitting of La-derived states. We furthermore present electronic structure calculations using G{sub 0}W{sub 0} for the important scintillator material SrI{sub 2}. We explicitly take into account spin-orbit coupling at all levels of the theory. Our results demonstrate the applicability and reliability of the scGW approach for rare-earth halides. They furthermore provide an excellent starting point for investigating the electronic structure of rare-earth dopants such as Ce and Er.
Reduced Dimension Rovibrational Variational Calculations of the S_1 State of C_2H_2
Changala, P. B.; Baraban, J. H.; Field, R. W.; Stanton, J. F.; Merer, A. J.
2013-06-01
The bending and torsional degrees of freedom in S_1 acetylene, C_2H_2, are subject to severe vibrational resonances and rovibrational interactions, which result in the low-energy vibrational polyad structure of these modes. As the internal energy approaches that of the barrier to cis-trans isomerization, these energy level patterns undergo further large-scale reorganization that cannot be satisfactorily treated by traditional models tied to local equilibrium geometries. Experimental spectra in the region near the cis-trans transition state exhibit these complicated new patterns. In order to rationalize our near-barrier observations and predict the detailed effects of cis-trans isomerization on the rovibrational energy structure, we have performed reduced dimension rovibrational variational calculations of the S_1 state. Our calculation uses a high accuracy ab initio potential surface and a fully symmetrized extended-CNPI group theoretical treatment of a multivalued internal coordinate system that is appropriate for bending and torsional large amplitude motions. We will discuss these results and the insights they offer on understanding both large-scale features and spectroscopic details, such as tunneling staggerings, of barrier-proximal rovibrational levels of the S_1 state. We will also discuss spectral features by which barriers can be located and characterized in general polyatomic systems.
Nucleation of squat cracks in rail, calculation of crack initiation angles in three dimensions
Naeimi, Meysam; Li, Zili; Dollevoet, Rolf
2015-07-01
A numerical model of wheel-track system is developed for nucleation of squat-type fatigue cracks in rail material. The model is used for estimating the angles of squat cracks in three dimensions. Contact mechanics and multi-axial fatigue analysis are combined to study the crack initiation mechanism in rails. Nonlinear material properties, actual wheel-rail geometries and realistic loading conditions are considered in the modelling process. Using a 3D explicit finite element analysis the transient rolling contact behaviour of wheel on rail is simulated. Employing the critical plane concept, the material points with the largest possibility of crack initiation are determined; based on which, the 3D orientations/angles of the possible squat cracks are estimated. Numerical estimations are compared with sample results of experimental observations on a rail specimen with squat from the site. The findings suggest a proper agreement between results of modelling and experiment. It is observed that squat cracks initiate at an in-plane angle around 13°-22° relative to the rail surface. The initiation angle seen on surface plane is calculated around 29°-48°, while the crack tend to initiate in angles around 25°-31° in the rail cross-section.
Janson, Lucas; Schmerling, Edward; Clark, Ashley; Pavone, Marco
2015-06-01
In this paper we present a novel probabilistic sampling-based motion planning algorithm called the Fast Marching Tree algorithm (FMT*). The algorithm is specifically aimed at solving complex motion planning problems in high-dimensional configuration spaces. This algorithm is proven to be asymptotically optimal and is shown to converge to an optimal solution faster than its state-of-the-art counterparts, chiefly PRM* and RRT*. The FMT* algorithm performs a "lazy" dynamic programming recursion on a predetermined number of probabilistically-drawn samples to grow a tree of paths, which moves steadily outward in cost-to-arrive space. As such, this algorithm combines features of both single-query algorithms (chiefly RRT) and multiple-query algorithms (chiefly PRM), and is reminiscent of the Fast Marching Method for the solution of Eikonal equations. As a departure from previous analysis approaches that are based on the notion of almost sure convergence, the FMT* algorithm is analyzed under the notion of convergence in probability: the extra mathematical flexibility of this approach allows for convergence rate bounds-the first in the field of optimal sampling-based motion planning. Specifically, for a certain selection of tuning parameters and configuration spaces, we obtain a convergence rate bound of order O(n-1/d+ρ), where n is the number of sampled points, d is the dimension of the configuration space, and ρ is an arbitrarily small constant. We go on to demonstrate asymptotic optimality for a number of variations on FMT*, namely when the configuration space is sampled non-uniformly, when the cost is not arc length, and when connections are made based on the number of nearest neighbors instead of a fixed connection radius. Numerical experiments over a range of dimensions and obstacle configurations confirm our the-oretical and heuristic arguments by showing that FMT*, for a given execution time, returns substantially better solutions than either PRM* or RRT
Janson, Lucas; Schmerling, Edward; Clark, Ashley; Pavone, Marco
2015-01-01
In this paper we present a novel probabilistic sampling-based motion planning algorithm called the Fast Marching Tree algorithm (FMT*). The algorithm is specifically aimed at solving complex motion planning problems in high-dimensional configuration spaces. This algorithm is proven to be asymptotically optimal and is shown to converge to an optimal solution faster than its state-of-the-art counterparts, chiefly PRM* and RRT*. The FMT* algorithm performs a “lazy” dynamic programming recursion on a predetermined number of probabilistically-drawn samples to grow a tree of paths, which moves steadily outward in cost-to-arrive space. As such, this algorithm combines features of both single-query algorithms (chiefly RRT) and multiple-query algorithms (chiefly PRM), and is reminiscent of the Fast Marching Method for the solution of Eikonal equations. As a departure from previous analysis approaches that are based on the notion of almost sure convergence, the FMT* algorithm is analyzed under the notion of convergence in probability: the extra mathematical flexibility of this approach allows for convergence rate bounds—the first in the field of optimal sampling-based motion planning. Specifically, for a certain selection of tuning parameters and configuration spaces, we obtain a convergence rate bound of order O(n−1/d+ρ), where n is the number of sampled points, d is the dimension of the configuration space, and ρ is an arbitrarily small constant. We go on to demonstrate asymptotic optimality for a number of variations on FMT*, namely when the configuration space is sampled non-uniformly, when the cost is not arc length, and when connections are made based on the number of nearest neighbors instead of a fixed connection radius. Numerical experiments over a range of dimensions and obstacle configurations confirm our the-oretical and heuristic arguments by showing that FMT*, for a given execution time, returns substantially better solutions than either PRM* or RRT
Coccia, Emanuele; Varsano, Daniele; Guidoni, Leonardo
2014-02-11
In this letter, we report the singlet ground state structure of the full carotenoid peridinin by means of variational Monte Carlo (VMC) calculations. The VMC relaxed geometry has an average bond length alternation of 0.1165(10) Å, larger than the values obtained by DFT (PBE, B3LYP, and CAM-B3LYP) and shorter than that calculated at the Hartree-Fock (HF) level. TDDFT and EOM-CCSD calculations on a reduced peridinin model confirm the HOMO-LUMO major contribution of the Bu(+)-like (S2) bright excited state. Many Body Green's Function Theory (MBGFT) calculations of the vertical excitation energy of the Bu(+)-like state for the VMC structure (VMC/MBGFT) provide an excitation energy of 2.62 eV, in agreement with experimental results in n-hexane (2.72 eV). The dependence of the excitation energy on the bond length alternation in the MBGFT and TDDFT calculations with different functionals is discussed.
Koo, Imhoi; Zhao, Yaping; Zhang, Jun; Kim, Seongho; Zhang, Xiang
2012-10-19
A method of calculating the second dimension hold-up time for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatographic (GC×GC) data was developed by incorporating the temperature information of the second dimension column into the calculation model. The model was developed by investigating the relationship between the coefficients in each of six literature reported nonlinear models and the relationship between each coefficient and the second dimension column temperature. The most robust nonlinear function was selected and further used to construct the new model for calculation of the second dimension retention time, in which the coefficients that have significant correlation with the column temperature are replaced with expressions of column temperature. An advantage of the proposed equation is that eight parameters could explain the second dimension hold-up time as well as retention time corresponding to n-alkanes and column temperature in the entire chromatographic region, including the chromatographic region not bounded by the retention times of n-alkanes. To optimize the experimental design for collecting the isothermal data of n-alkanes to create the second dimension hold-up time model, the column temperature difference and the number of isothermal experiments should be considered simultaneously. It was concluded that a total of 5 or 6 isothermal experiments with temperature difference of 40 or 50 °C are enough to generate an accurate model. The test mean squared error (MSE) of those conditions ranges from 0.0428 to 0.0532 for calculation of the second dimension hold-up time for GC×GC data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kong, Bo; Zhang, Yachao
2016-07-01
The electronic structures of the cubic GdH3 are extensively investigated using the ab initio many-body GW calculations treating the Gd 4f electrons either in the core (4f-core) or in the valence states (4f-val). Different degrees of quasiparticle (QP) self-consistent calculations with the different starting points are used to correct the failures of the GGA/GGA + U/HSE03 calculations. In the 4f-core case, GGA + G0W0 calculations give a fundamental band gap of 1.72 eV, while GGA+ GW0 or GGA + GW calculations present a larger band gap. In the 4f-val case, the nonlocal exchange-correlation (xc) functional HSE03 can account much better for the strong localization of the 4f states than the semilocal or Hubbard U corrected xc functional in the Kohn-Sham equation. We show that the fundamental gap of the antiferromagnetic (AFM) or ferromagnetic (FM) GdH3 can be opened up by solving the QP equation with improved starting point of eigenvalues and wave functions given by HSE03. The HSE03 + G0W0 calculations present a fundamental band gap of 2.73 eV in the AFM configuration, and the results of the corresponding GW0 and GW calculations are 2.89 and 3.03 eV, respectively. In general, for the cubic structure, the fundamental gap from G0W0 calculations in the 4f-core case is the closest to the real result. By G0W0 calculations in the 4f-core case, we find that H or Gd defects can strongly affect the band structure, especially the H defects. We explain the mechanism in terms of the possible electron correlation on the hydrogen site. Under compression, the insulator-to-metal transition in the cubic GdH3 occurs around 40 GPa, which might be a satisfied prediction.
Calculation of Electronic and Optical Properties of AgGaO2 Polymorphs Using Many-Body Approaches
Dadsetani, Mehrdad; Nejatipour, Reihan
2018-02-01
Ab initio calculations based on many-body perturbation theory have been used to study the electronic and optical properties of AgGaO2 in rhombohedral, hexagonal, and orthorhombic phases. GW calculations showed that AgGaO2 is an indirect-bandgap semiconductor in all three phases with energy bandgap of 2.35 eV, 2.23 eV, and 2.07 eV, in good agreement with available experimental values. By solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave basis, optical properties of the AgGaO2 polymorphs were calculated and compared with those obtained using the GW-corrected random phase approximation (RPA) and with existing experimental data. Strong anisotropy in the optical absorption spectra was observed, and the excitonic structures which were absent in the RPA calculations were reproduced in GWBSE calculations, in good agreement with the optical absorption spectrum of the rhombohedral phase. While modifying peak positions and intensities of the absorption spectra, the GWBSE gave rise to the redistribution of oscillator strengths. In comparison with the z-polarized response, excitonic effects in the x-polarized response were dominant. In the x- (and y-) polarized responses of r- and h-AgGaO2, spectral features and excitonic effects occur at the lower energies, but in the case of o-AgGaO2, the spectral structures of the z-polarized response occur at lower energies. In addition, the low-energy loss functions of AgGaO2 were calculated and compared using the GWBSE approach. Spectral features in the energy loss function components near the bandgap region were attributed to corresponding excitonic structures in the imaginary part of the dielectric function.
Villa, Francesco; Mignon, David; Polydorides, Savvas; Simonson, Thomas
2017-10-30
Generalized Born (GB) solvent models are common in acid/base calculations and protein design. With GB, the interaction between a pair of solute atoms depends on the shape of the protein/solvent boundary and, therefore, the positions of all solute atoms, so that GB is a many-body potential. For compute-intensive applications, the model is often simplified further, by introducing a mean, native-like protein/solvent boundary, which removes the many-body property. We investigate a method for both acid/base calculations and protein design that uses Monte Carlo simulations in which side chains can explore rotamers, bind/release protons, or mutate. The fluctuating protein/solvent dielectric boundary is treated in a way that is numerically exact (within the GB framework), in contrast to a mean boundary. Its originality is that it captures the many-body character while retaining the residue-pairwise complexity given by a fixed boundary. The method is implemented in the Proteus protein design software. It yields a slight but systematic improvement for acid/base constants in nine proteins and a significant improvement for the computational design of three PDZ domains. It eliminates a source of model uncertainty, which will facilitate the analysis of other model limitations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gao, Shiyuan; Yang, Li
2017-10-01
Doped free carriers can substantially renormalize electronic self-energy and quasiparticle band gaps of two-dimensional (2D) materials. However, it is still challenging to quantitatively calculate this many-electron effect, particularly at the low doping density that is most relevant to realistic experiments and devices. Here we develop a first-principles-based effective-mass model within the G W approximation and show a dramatic band-gap renormalization of a few hundred meV for typical 2D semiconductors. Moreover, we reveal the roles of different many-electron interactions: The Coulomb-hole contribution is dominant for low doping densities while the screened-exchange contribution is dominant for high doping densities. Three prototypical 2D materials are studied by this method: h -BN , Mo S2 , and black phosphorus, covering insulators to semiconductors. Especially, anisotropic black phosphorus exhibits a surprisingly large band-gap renormalization because of its smaller density-of-state that enhances the screened-exchange interactions. Our work demonstrates an efficient way to accurately calculate band-gap renormalization and provides quantitative understanding of doping-dependent many-electron physics of general 2D semiconductors.
Genovese, Luigi; Ospici, Matthieu; Deutsch, Thierry; Méhaut, Jean-François; Neelov, Alexey; Goedecker, Stefan
2009-07-21
We present the implementation of a full electronic structure calculation code on a hybrid parallel architecture with graphic processing units (GPUs). This implementation is performed on a free software code based on Daubechies wavelets. Such code shows very good performances, systematic convergence properties, and an excellent efficiency on parallel computers. Our GPU-based acceleration fully preserves all these properties. In particular, the code is able to run on many cores which may or may not have a GPU associated, and thus on parallel and massive parallel hybrid machines. With double precision calculations, we may achieve considerable speedup, between a factor of 20 for some operations and a factor of 6 for the whole density functional theory code.
Umari, P; Petrenko, O; Taioli, S; De Souza, M M
2012-05-14
Electronic band gaps for optically allowed transitions are calculated for a series of semiconducting single-walled zig-zag carbon nanotubes of increasing diameter within the many-body perturbation theory GW method. The dependence of the evaluated gaps with respect to tube diameters is then compared with those found from previous experimental data for optical gaps combined with theoretical estimations of exciton binding energies. We find that our GW gaps confirm the behavior inferred from experiment. The relationship between the electronic gap and the diameter extrapolated from the GW values is also in excellent agreement with a direct measurement recently performed through scanning tunneling spectroscopy.
Three dimensions transport calculations for PWR core; Calcul de coeur R.E.P. en transport 3D
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Richebois, E
2000-07-01
The objective of this work is to define improved 3-D core calculation methods based on the transport theory. These methods can be particularly useful and lead to more precise computations in areas of the core where anisotropy and steep flux gradients occur, especially near interface and boundary conditions and in regions of high heterogeneity (bundle with absorbent rods). In order to apply the transport theory a new method for calculating reflector constants has been developed, since traditional methods were only suited for 2-group diffusion core calculations and could not be extrapolated to transport calculations. In this thesis work, the new method for obtaining reflector constants is derived regardless of the number of energy groups and of the operator used. The core calculations results using the reflector constants thereof obtained have been validated on the EDF's power reactor Saint Laurent B1 with MOX loading. The advantages of a 3-D core transport calculation scheme have been highlighted as opposed to diffusion methods; there are a considerable number of significant effects and potential advantages to be gained in rod worth calculations for instance. These preliminary results obtained with on particular cycle will have to be confirmed by more systematic analysis. Accidents like MSLB (main steam line break) and LOCA (loss of coolant accident) should also be investigated and constitute challenging situations where anisotropy is high and/or flux gradients are steep. This method is now being validated for others EDF's PWRs' reactors, as well as for experimental reactors and other types of commercial reactors. (author)
Fröhlich, Jürg; Knowles, Antti; Schlein, Benjamin; Sohinger, Vedran
2017-12-01
We prove that Gibbs measures of nonlinear Schrödinger equations arise as high-temperature limits of thermal states in many-body quantum mechanics. Our results hold for defocusing interactions in dimensions {d =1,2,3}. The many-body quantum thermal states that we consider are the grand canonical ensemble for d = 1 and an appropriate modification of the grand canonical ensemble for {d =2,3}. In dimensions d = 2, 3, the Gibbs measures are supported on singular distributions, and a renormalization of the chemical potential is necessary. On the many-body quantum side, the need for renormalization is manifested by a rapid growth of the number of particles. We relate the original many-body quantum problem to a renormalized version obtained by solving a counterterm problem. Our proof is based on ideas from field theory, using a perturbative expansion in the interaction, organized by using a diagrammatic representation, and on Borel resummation of the resulting series.
The Many Dimensions of Homework.
Salend, Spencer J.; Schliff, Janet
1988-01-01
Guidelines are presented to assist special educators in implementing homework practices. They include determining the amount of homework, deciding on the content of homework, selecting the type of homework, explaining homework to students, assisting students with their homework, motivating students to complete homework, evaluating homework, and…
Katouda, Michio; Naruse, Akira; Hirano, Yukihiko; Nakajima, Takahito
2016-11-15
A new parallel algorithm and its implementation for the RI-MP2 energy calculation utilizing peta-flop-class many-core supercomputers are presented. Some improvements from the previous algorithm (J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2013, 9, 5373) have been performed: (1) a dual-level hierarchical parallelization scheme that enables the use of more than 10,000 Message Passing Interface (MPI) processes and (2) a new data communication scheme that reduces network communication overhead. A multi-node and multi-GPU implementation of the present algorithm is presented for calculations on a central processing unit (CPU)/graphics processing unit (GPU) hybrid supercomputer. Benchmark results of the new algorithm and its implementation using the K computer (CPU clustering system) and TSUBAME 2.5 (CPU/GPU hybrid system) demonstrate high efficiency. The peak performance of 3.1 PFLOPS is attained using 80,199 nodes of the K computer. The peak performance of the multi-node and multi-GPU implementation is 514 TFLOPS using 1349 nodes and 4047 GPUs of TSUBAME 2.5. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nucleation of squat cracks in rail, calculation of crack initiation angles in three dimensions
Naeimi, M.; Li, Z.; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.
2015-01-01
A numerical model of wheel-track system is developed for nucleation of squat-type fatigue cracks in rail material. The model is used for estimating the angles of squat cracks in three dimensions. Contact mechanics and multi-axial fatigue analysis are combined to study the crack initiation mechanism
Calculation methods for SPF for heat pump systems for comparison, system choice and dimensioning
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nordman, Roger; Andersson, Kajsa; Axell, Monica; Lindahl, Markus
2010-09-15
In this project, results from field measurements of heat pumps have been collected and summarised. Also existing calculation methods have been compared and summarised. Analyses have been made on how the field measurements compare to existing calculation models for heat pumps Seasonal Performance Factor (SPF), and what deviations may depend on. Recommendations for new calculation models are proposed, which include combined systems (e.g. solar - HP), capacity controlled heat pumps and combined DHW and heating operation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vilkas, M J; Ishikawa, Y; Trabert, E
2007-03-27
Relativistic multireference many-body perturbation theory calculations have been performed on Xe{sup 43+}-Xe{sup 39+} ions, resulting in energy levels, electric dipole transition probabilities, and level lifetimes. The second-order many-body perturbation theory calculation of energy levels included mass shifts, frequency-dependent Breit correction and Lamb shifts. The calculated transition energies and E1 transition rates are used to present synthetic spectra in the extreme ultraviolet range for some of the Xe ions.
Boyd, O.S.
2006-01-01
We have created a second-order finite-difference solution to the anisotropic elastic wave equation in three dimensions and implemented the solution as an efficient Matlab script. This program allows the user to generate synthetic seismograms for three-dimensional anisotropic earth structure. The code was written for teleseismic wave propagation in the 1-0.1 Hz frequency range but is of general utility and can be used at all scales of space and time. This program was created to help distinguish among various types of lithospheric structure given the uneven distribution of sources and receivers commonly utilized in passive source seismology. Several successful implementations have resulted in a better appreciation for subduction zone structure, the fate of a transform fault with depth, lithospheric delamination, and the effects of wavefield focusing and defocusing on attenuation. Companion scripts are provided which help the user prepare input to the finite-difference solution. Boundary conditions including specification of the initial wavefield, absorption and two types of reflection are available. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Method of Calculating the Correction Factors for Cable Dimensioning in Smart Grids
Simutkin, M.; Tuzikova, V.; Tlusty, J.; Tulsky, V.; Muller, Z.
2017-04-01
One of the main causes of overloading electrical equipment by currents of higher harmonics is the great increasing of a number of non-linear electricity power consumers. Non-sinusoidal voltages and currents affect the operation of electrical equipment, reducing its lifetime, increases the voltage and power losses in the network, reducing its capacity. There are standards that respects emissions amount of higher harmonics current that cannot provide interference limit for a safe level in power grid. The article presents a method for determining a correction factor to the long-term allowable current of the cable, which allows for this influence. Using mathematical models in the software Elcut, it was described thermal processes in the cable in case the flow of non-sinusoidal current. Developed in the article theoretical principles, methods, mathematical models allow us to calculate the correction factor to account for the effect of higher harmonics in the current spectrum for network equipment in any type of non-linear load.
FORTRAN programs for calculating nonlinear seismic ground response in two dimensions
Joyner, W.B.
1978-01-01
The programs described here were designed for calculating the nonlinear seismic response of a two-dimensional configuration of soil underlain by a semi-infinite elastic medium representing bedrock. There are two programs. One is for plane strain motions, that is, motions in the plane perpendicular to the long axis of the structure, and the other is for antiplane strain motions, that is motions parallel to the axis. The seismic input is provided by specifying what the motion of the rock-soil boundary would be if the soil were absent and the boundary were a free surface. This may be done by supplying a magnetic tape containing the values of particle velocity for every boundary point at every instant of time. Alternatively, a punch card deck may be supplied giving acceleration values at every instant of time. In the plane strain program it is assumed that the acceleration values apply simultaneously to every point on the boundary; in the antiplane strain program it is assumed that the acceleration values characterize a plane shear wave propagating upward in the underlying elastic medium at a specified angle with the vertical. The nonlinear hysteretic behavior of the soil is represented by a three-dimensional rheological model. A boundary condition is used which takes account of finite rigidity in the elastic substratum. The computations are performed by an explicit finite-difference scheme that proceeds step by step in space and time. Computations are done in terms of stress departures from an unspecified initial state. Source listings are provided here along with instructions for preparing the input. A more detailed discussion of the method is presented elsewhere.
Safronova, U. I.; Safronova, M. S.
2014-05-01
Excitation energies of the [Xe]nd (n =5-9), [Xe]ns (n =6-10), [Xe]np (n =6-9), [Xe]nf (n =4-8), and [Xe]ng (n =5-8) states in La iii, where [Xe] = 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s25p6, are evaluated. Electric dipole matrix elements for the allowed transitions between the low-lying [Xe]nd, [Xe]ns, [Xe]np, [Xe]nf, and [Xe]ng states in the La iii ion are calculated using the high-precision relativistic all-order method where all single, double, and partial triple excitations of the Dirac-Fock wave functions are included to all orders of perturbation theory. Recommended values are provided for a large number of electric dipole matrix elements, oscillator strengths, transition rates, and lifetimes. Scalar and tensor polarizabilities of the states listed above are evaluated. The uncertainties of the recommended values are estimated. Electric quadrupole and magnetic dipole matrix elements are calculated to determine lifetimes of the 5d5/2 and 6s metastable levels. The ground-state E1, E2, and E3 static polarizabilities are calculated. This work provides recommended values critically evaluated for their accuracy for a number of La iii atomic properties for use in planning and analysis of various experiments as well as theoretical modeling.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jin, Chengjun; Markussen, Troels; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer
2014-01-01
We investigate the electronic conductance and thermopower of a single-molecule junction consisting of bis-(4-aminophenyl) acetylene (B4APA) connected to gold electrodes. We use nonequilibrium Green's function methods in combination with density-functional theory (DFT) and the many-body GW...
Lapelosa, Mauro; Abrams, Cameron F
2013-10-01
Rare events between states in complex systems are fundamental in many scientific fields and can be studied by building reaction pathways. A theoretical framework to analyze reaction pathways is provided by transition-path theory (TPT). The central object in TPT is the committor function, which is found by solution of the backward-Kolmogorov equation on a given potential. Once determined, the committor can be used to calculate reactive fluxes and rates, among other important quantities. We demonstrate here that the committor can be calculated using the method of finite elements on non-uniform meshes. We show that this approach makes it feasible to perform TPT calculations on 3D potentials because it requires many fewer degrees of freedom than a regular-mesh finite-difference approach. In various illustrative 2D and 3D problems, we calculate the committor function and reaction rates at different temperatures, and we discuss effects of temperatures and simple entropic barriers on the structure of the committor and the reaction rate constants.
Watanabe, Shinta; Sawada, Yuki; Nakaya, Masato; Yoshino, Masahito; Nagasaki, Takanori; Kameyama, Tatsuya; Torimoto, Tsukasa; Inaba, Yusuke; Takahashi, Hideharu; Takeshita, Kenji; Onoe, Jun
2016-06-01
We have investigated the electronic structures and optical properties of Fe, Co, and Ni ferrocyanide nanoparticles using first-principles relativistic many-electron calculations. The overall features of the theoretical absorption spectra for Fe, Ni, and Co ferrocyanides calculated using a first-principles many-electron method well reproduced the experimental one. The origins of the experimental absorption spectra were clarified by performing a configuration analysis based on the many-electron wave functions. For Fe ferrocyanide, the experimental absorption peaks originated from not only the charge-transfer transitions from Fe2+ to Fe3+ but also the 3d-3d intra-transitions of Fe3+ ions. In addition, the spin crossover transition of Fe3+ predicted by the many-electron calculations was about 0.24 eV. For Co ferrocyanide, the experimental absorption peaks were mainly attributed to the 3d-3d intra-transitions of Fe2+ ions. In contrast to the Fe and Co ferrocyanides, Ni ferrocyanide showed that the absorption peaks originated from the 3d-3d intra-transitions of Ni3+ ions in a low-energy region, while from both the 3d-3d intra-transitions of Fe2+ ions and the charge-transfer transitions from Fe2+ to Ni3+ in a high-energy region. These results were quite different from those of density-functional theory (DFT) calculations. The discrepancy between the results of DFT calculations and those of many-electron calculations suggested that the intra- and inter-atomic transitions of transition metal ions are significantly affected by the many-body effects of strongly correlated 3d electrons.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Watanabe, Shinta, E-mail: s-watanabe@nucl.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: j-onoe@nucl.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Sawada, Yuki; Nakaya, Masato; Yoshino, Masahito; Nagasaki, Takanori; Onoe, Jun, E-mail: s-watanabe@nucl.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: j-onoe@nucl.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Graduated School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Kameyama, Tatsuya; Torimoto, Tsukasa [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Graduated School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Inaba, Yusuke; Takahashi, Hideharu; Takeshita, Kenji [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-N1-16 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)
2016-06-21
We have investigated the electronic structures and optical properties of Fe, Co, and Ni ferrocyanide nanoparticles using first-principles relativistic many-electron calculations. The overall features of the theoretical absorption spectra for Fe, Ni, and Co ferrocyanides calculated using a first-principles many-electron method well reproduced the experimental one. The origins of the experimental absorption spectra were clarified by performing a configuration analysis based on the many-electron wave functions. For Fe ferrocyanide, the experimental absorption peaks originated from not only the charge-transfer transitions from Fe{sup 2+} to Fe{sup 3+} but also the 3d-3d intra-transitions of Fe{sup 3+} ions. In addition, the spin crossover transition of Fe{sup 3+} predicted by the many-electron calculations was about 0.24 eV. For Co ferrocyanide, the experimental absorption peaks were mainly attributed to the 3d-3d intra-transitions of Fe{sup 2+} ions. In contrast to the Fe and Co ferrocyanides, Ni ferrocyanide showed that the absorption peaks originated from the 3d-3d intra-transitions of Ni{sup 3+} ions in a low-energy region, while from both the 3d-3d intra-transitions of Fe{sup 2+} ions and the charge-transfer transitions from Fe{sup 2+} to Ni{sup 3+} in a high-energy region. These results were quite different from those of density-functional theory (DFT) calculations. The discrepancy between the results of DFT calculations and those of many-electron calculations suggested that the intra- and inter-atomic transitions of transition metal ions are significantly affected by the many-body effects of strongly correlated 3d electrons.
Ahlstrom, D
2002-01-01
Prof Werner Nahm, of the School of Theoretical Physics, last night delivered talk at the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies entitled, 'Hidden Dimensions'. It was one of a series offered by the Institute as part of Science Week Ireland (1 page).
Cohen, Adam B.
2009-01-01
Psychologists interested in culture have focused primarily on East-West differences in individualism-collectivism, or independent-interdependent self-construal. As important as this dimension is, there are many other forms of culture with many dimensions of cultural variability. Selecting from among the many understudied cultures in psychology,…
Zhao, Yaping; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Bing; Kim, Seong Ho; Fang, Aiqin; Bogdanov, Bogdan; Zhou, Zhanxiang; McClain, Craig; Zhang, Xiang
2011-05-06
A method was developed to calculate the second dimension retention index of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC/TOF-MS) data using n-alkanes as reference compounds. The retention times of the C(7)-C(31) alkanes acquired during 24 isothermal experiments cover the 0-6s retention time area in the second dimension retention time space, which makes it possible to calculate the retention indices of target compounds from the corresponding retention time values without the extension of the retention space of the reference compounds. An empirical function was proposed to show the relationship among the second dimension retention time, the temperature of the second dimension column, and the carbon number of the n-alkanes. The proposed function is able to extend the second dimension retention time beyond the reference n-alkanes by increasing the carbon number. The extension of carbon numbers in reference n-alkanes up to two more carbon atoms introduces <10 retention index units (iu) of deviation. The effectiveness of using the proposed method was demonstrated by analyzing a mixture of compound standards in temperature programmed experiments using 6 different initial column temperatures. The standard deviation of the calculated retention index values of the compound standards fluctuated from 1 to 12 iu with a mean standard deviation of 5 iu. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhao, Yaping; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Bing; Ho Kim, Seong; Fang, Aiqin; Bogdanov, Bogdan; Zhou, Zhanxiang; McClain, Craig; Zhang, Xiang
2011-01-01
A method was developed to calculate the second dimension retention index of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC/TOF-MS) data using n-alkanes as reference compounds. The retention times of the C7-C31 alkanes acquired during 24 isothermal experiments cover the 0 – 6 s retention time area in the second dimension retention time space, which makes it possible to calculate the retention indices of target compounds from the corresponding retention time values without the extension of the retention space of the reference compounds. An empirical function was proposed to show the relationship among the second dimension retention time, the temperature of the second dimension column, and the carbon number of the n-alkanes. The proposed function is able to extend the second dimension retention time beyond the reference n-alkanes by increasing the carbon number. The extension of carbon numbers in reference n-alkanes up to two more carbon atoms introduces less than 10 retention index units (iu) of deviation. The effectiveness of using the proposed method was demonstrated by analyzing a mixture of compound standards in temperature programmed experiments using 6 different initial column temperatures. The standard deviation of the calculated retention index values of the compound standards fluctuated from 1 to 12 iu with a mean standard deviation of 5 iu. PMID:21429495
Flambaum, V. V.; Ginges, J. S. M.
2005-01-01
We derive an approximate expression for a "radiative potential" which can be used to calculate QED strong Coulomb field radiative corrections to energies and electric dipole (E1) transition amplitudes in many-electron atoms with an accuracy of a few percent. The expectation value of the radiative potential gives radiative corrections to the energies. Radiative corrections to E1 amplitudes can be expressed in terms of the radiative potential and its energy derivative (the low-energy theorem): ...
Bajaj, Pushp; Wang, Xiao-Gang; Carrington, Tucker; Paesani, Francesco
2018-03-01
Full-dimensional vibrational spectra are calculated for both X-(H2O) and X-(D2O) dimers (X = F, Cl, Br, I) at the quantum-mechanical level. The calculations are carried out on two sets of recently developed potential energy functions (PEFs), namely, Thole-type model energy (TTM-nrg) and many-body energy (MB-nrg), using the symmetry-adapted Lanczos algorithm with a product basis set including all six vibrational coordinates. Although both TTM-nrg and MB-nrg PEFs are derived from coupled-cluster single double triple-F12 data obtained in the complete basis set limit, they differ in how many-body effects are represented at short range. Specifically, while both models describe long-range interactions through the combination of two-body dispersion and many-body classical electrostatics, the relatively simple Born-Mayer functions employed in the TTM-nrg PEFs to represent short-range interactions are replaced in the MB-nrg PEFs by permutationally invariant polynomials to achieve chemical accuracy. For all dimers, the MB-nrg vibrational spectra are in close agreement with the available experimental data, correctly reproducing anharmonic and nuclear quantum effects. In contrast, the vibrational frequencies calculated with the TTM-nrg PEFs exhibit significant deviations from the experimental values. The comparison between the TTM-nrg and MB-nrg results thus reinforces the notion that an accurate representation of both short-range interactions associated with electron density overlap and long-range many-body electrostatic interactions is necessary for a correct description of hydration phenomena at the molecular level.
Spectroscopy of La0.5Sr1.5MnO4 orbital ordering: a cluster many-body calculation
Mirone, A.; Dhesi, S. S.; van der Laan, G.
2006-09-01
Orbital ordering (OO) in La0.5Sr1.5MnO4 has been studied using soft X-ray resonant diffraction (SXRD) at the Mn L2,3 edges in combination with many-body cluster calculations. The SXRD intensity is modelled in second quantization using a small planar cluster consisting of a central active Mn site with first-neighbour shells comprising O and Mn sites. The effective Hamiltonian includes Slater-Koster parameters and charge transfer and electron correlation energies obtained from previous measurements on manganites. The energy dependence of the SXRD OO peak is calculated using the Jahn-Teller distortions of the oxygen octahedra and in-plane spin correlations as adjustable parameters. These contributions are clearly distinguished above the Néel temperature with a good spectroscopic agreement. The results also suggest a significant charge separation between the Mn sites.
Li, Yongqing; Yuan, Jiuchuang; Chen, Maodu; Ma, Fengcai; Sun, Mengtao
2013-07-15
An accurate single-sheeted double many-body expansion potential energy surface is reported for the title system. A switching function formalism has been used to warrant the correct behavior at the H2(X1Σg+)+N(2D) and NH (X3Σ-)+H(2S) dissociation channels involving nitrogen in the ground N(4S) and first excited N(2D) states. The topographical features of the novel global potential energy surface are examined in detail, and found to be in good agreement with those calculated directly from the raw ab initio energies, as well as previous calculations available in the literature. The novel surface can be using to treat well the Renner-Teller degeneracy of the 12A″ and 12A' states of NH 2. Such a work can both be recommended for dynamics studies of the N(2D)+H2 reaction and as building blocks for constructing the double many-body expansion potential energy surface of larger nitrogen/hydrogen-containing systems. In turn, a test theoretical study of the reaction N(2D)+H2(X1Σg+)(ν=0,j=0)→NH (X3Σ-)+H(2S) has been carried out with the method of quantum wave packet on the new potential energy surface. Reaction probabilities, integral cross sections, and differential cross sections have been calculated. Threshold exists because of the energy barrier (68.5 meV) along the minimum energy path. On the curve of reaction probability for total angular momentum J = 0, there are two sharp peaks just above threshold. The value of integral cross section increases quickly from zero to maximum with the increase of collision energy, and then stays stable with small oscillations. The differential cross section result shows that the reaction is a typical forward and backward scatter in agreement with experimental measurement result. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc..
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehrtash Babadi
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We study theoretically the far-from-equilibrium relaxation dynamics of spin spiral states in the three-dimensional isotropic Heisenberg model. The investigated problem serves as an archetype for understanding quantum dynamics of isolated many-body systems in the vicinity of a spontaneously broken continuous symmetry. We present a field-theoretical formalism that systematically improves on the mean field for describing the real-time quantum dynamics of generic spin-1/2 systems. This is achieved by mapping spins to Majorana fermions followed by a 1/N expansion of the resulting two-particle-irreducible effective action. Our analysis reveals rich fluctuation-induced relaxation dynamics in the unitary evolution of spin spiral states. In particular, we find the sudden appearance of long-lived prethermalized plateaus with diverging lifetimes as the spiral winding is tuned toward the thermodynamically stable ferro- or antiferromagnetic phases. The emerging prethermalized states are characterized by different bosonic modes being thermally populated at different effective temperatures and by a hierarchical relaxation process reminiscent of glassy systems. Spin-spin correlators found by solving the nonequilibrium Bethe-Salpeter equation provide further insight into the dynamic formation of correlations, the fate of unstable collective modes, and the emergence of fluctuation-dissipation relations. Our predictions can be verified experimentally using recent realizations of spin spiral states with ultracold atoms in a quantum gas microscope [S. Hild et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 147205 (2014PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.113.147205].
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zapukhlyak, Myroslav
2008-12-05
The present thesis gives a theoretical contribution to the understanding of the many-particle dynamics in inelastic ion-atom collisions. Many-electron dynamics in ion-helium collisions and proton-sodium collisions was theoretically studied. The description is based on the semiclassical approximation with the straight orbit for the projectile motion. The ion-atom collision problem is by this reduced to a time-dependent many-electron problem and in the non-relativistic approximation described by the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The solution of the many-electron problem pursues in the framework of the time-dependent density functional theory. The time-dependent Schroedinger equation for the interacting many-electron problem is transformed to the system of the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations and solved by the two-center-basis generator method. The unknown time-dependent exchange-correlation one-particle potential forces different approximation in the time-dependent Kohn-Shan scheme. In this thesis the model of the independent electrons was applied as basis model, in which the electron-electron correlation is consistently neglected in all parts and in all steps. Differential cross sections for different one- and two-electron processes were calculated in the so-called eikonal approximation for the collisional systems p-He, He{sup 2+}-He, and Ar{sup q+}-He (q=15-18). [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit leistet einen theoretischen Beitrag zum Verstaendnis der Vielteilchendynamik in inelastischen Ion-Atom-Stoessen. Vielelektronendynamik in Ion-Helium-Stoessen und Proton-Natrium-Stoessen wurde theoretisch untersucht. Die Beschreibung basiert auf der semiklassischen Naeherung mit der geraden Bahn fuer die Projektilbewegung. Das Ion-Atom- Stossproblem wird damit auf ein zeitabhaengiges Vielelektronenproblem reduziert und in der nichtrelativistischen Naeherung mit der zeitabhaengigen Schroedinger-Gleichung beschrieben. Die Loesung des Vielelektronenproblems erfolgt im
Many faces, many opinions, many views
Klaas Molenaar; Margot Lobbezoo
2016-01-01
Introduction by Klaas Molenaar and Margot Lobbezoo about the diversity of entrepeneurs. Every day we meet entrepreneurs; when we visit the deli at the corner, order a taxi, have a cup of tea in the bar on the other side of the street or go to a hairdresser. They are everywhere and they have many
Wang, Bing; Shen, Hao; Fang, Aiqin; Huang, De-Shuang; Jiang, Changjun; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Peng
2016-06-17
Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC/TOF-MS) system has become a key analytical technology in high-throughput analysis. Retention index has been approved to be helpful for compound identification in one-dimensional gas chromatography, which is also true for two-dimensional gas chromatography. In this work, a novel regression model was proposed for calculating the second dimension retention index of target components where n-alkanes were used as reference compounds. This model was developed to depict the relationship among adjusted second dimension retention time, temperature of the second dimension column and carbon number of n-alkanes by an exponential nonlinear function with only five parameters. Three different criteria were introduced to find the optimal values of parameters. The performance of this model was evaluated using experimental data of n-alkanes (C7-C31) at 24 temperatures which can cover all 0-6s adjusted retention time area. The experimental results show that the mean relative error between predicted adjusted retention time and experimental data of n-alkanes was only 2%. Furthermore, our proposed model demonstrates a good extrapolation capability for predicting adjusted retention time of target compounds which located out of the range of the reference compounds in the second dimension adjusted retention time space. Our work shows the deviation was less than 9 retention index units (iu) while the number of alkanes were added up to 5. The performance of our proposed model has also been demonstrated by analyzing a mixture of compounds in temperature programmed experiments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Manic, Vesna; Manic, Goran; Nikezic, Dragoslav; Krstic, Dragana
2012-12-01
The absorbed gamma dose rate in indoor air due to natural radionuclides in concrete as a building material was determined in this work. The dose rate conversion factors for (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K, for standard rooms as well as rooms with different sets of dimensions, were evaluated by the point kernel technique, using Harima (geometric progression) build-up factors. The values of the conversion factors, in units (nGy h(-1) (Bq kg(-1))(-1)) calculated for the standard room are: 0.76, 0.91 and 0.070, respectively for (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K. The fitting formula was obtained for dose rate conversion factors, enabling them to be conveniently calculated for a room with arbitrary dimensions. For concrete block samples collected in the area of Niš, Serbia, the measurement of the radionuclide activity concentrations was also carried out. The evaluated absorbed dose rate conversion factors were then applied in the assessment of corresponding indoor gamma dose rates, finding that all the concrete samples fulfilled the usage requirement.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martinez, Jose Ignacio; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Lopez, M. J.
2010-01-01
The optical spectra of sandwich clusters formed by transition metal atoms (titanium, vanadium, and chromium) intercalated between parallel benzene molecules have been studied by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and many-body perturbation theory. Sandwiches with different number...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 11. Anna Mani. Abha Sur. Article-in-a-Box Volume 13 Issue 11 November 2008 pp 993-995 ... Author Affiliations. Abha Sur1. Program In Women's and Gender Studies, 14E-316, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA ...
Changala, P Bryan; Baraban, Joshua H; Stanton, John F; Merer, Anthony J; Field, Robert W
2014-01-14
Reduced dimension variational calculations have been performed for the rovibrational level structure of the S1 state of acetylene. The state exhibits an unusually complicated level structure, for various reasons. First, the potential energy surface has two accessible conformers, trans and cis. The cis conformer lies about 2700 cm(-1) above the trans, and the barrier to cis-trans isomerization lies about 5000 cm(-1) above the trans minimum. The trans vibrations ν4 (torsion) and ν6 (asym. bend) interact very strongly by Darling-Dennison and Coriolis resonances, such that their combination levels and overtones form polyads with unexpected structures. Both conformers exhibit very large x36 cross-anharmonicity since the pathway to isomerization is a combination of ν6 and ν3 (sym. bend). Near the isomerization barrier, the vibrational levels show an even-odd K-staggering of their rotational levels as a result of quantum mechanical tunneling through the barrier. The present calculations address all of these complications, and reproduce the observed K-structures of the bending and C-C stretching levels with good qualitative accuracy. It is expected that they will assist with the assignment of the irregular patterns near the isomerization barrier.
Demerdash, Omar; Mao, Yuezhi; Liu, Tianyi; Head-Gordon, Martin; Head-Gordon, Teresa
2017-10-28
In this work, we evaluate the accuracy of the classical AMOEBA model for representing many-body interactions, such as polarization, charge transfer, and Pauli repulsion and dispersion, through comparison against an energy decomposition method based on absolutely localized molecular orbitals (ALMO-EDA) for the water trimer and a variety of ion-water systems. When the 2- and 3-body contributions according to the many-body expansion are analyzed for the ion-water trimer systems examined here, the 3-body contributions to Pauli repulsion and dispersion are found to be negligible under ALMO-EDA, thereby supporting the validity of the pairwise-additive approximation in AMOEBA's 14-7 van der Waals term. However AMOEBA shows imperfect cancellation of errors for the missing effects of charge transfer and incorrectness in the distance dependence for polarization when compared with the corresponding ALMO-EDA terms. We trace the larger 2-body followed by 3-body polarization errors to the Thole damping scheme used in AMOEBA, and although the width parameter in Thole damping can be changed to improve agreement with the ALMO-EDA polarization for points about equilibrium, the correct profile of polarization as a function of intermolecular distance cannot be reproduced. The results suggest that there is a need for re-examining the damping and polarization model used in the AMOEBA force field and provide further insights into the formulations of polarizable force fields in general.
Cygorek, M.; Barth, A. M.; Ungar, F.; Vagov, A.; Axt, V. M.
2017-11-01
The generation of photons in a microcavity coupled to a laser-driven quantum dot interacting with longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonons is studied in the regime of simultaneously strong driving and strong dot-cavity coupling. The stationary cavity photon number is found to depend in a nontrivial way on the detuning between the laser and the exciton transition in the dot. In particular, the maximal efficiency of the cavity feeding is obtained for detunings corresponding to transition energies between cavity-dressed states with excitation numbers larger than one. Phonons significantly enhance the cavity feeding at large detunings. In the strong-driving, strong-coupling limit, the photon statistics is highly non-Poissonian. While without phonons a double-peaked structure in the photon distribution is predicted, phonons make the photon statistics thermal-like with very high effective temperatures ˜105 K, even for low phonon temperatures ˜4 K. These results were obtained by numerical calculations where the driving, the dot-cavity coupling, and the dot-phonon interactions are taken into account without approximations. This is achieved by a reformulation of an exact iterative path-integral scheme which is applicable to a large class of quantum-dissipative systems and which in our case reduces the numerical demands by 15 orders of magnitude.
Wang, Kai; Si, Ran; Jönsson, Per; Ekman, Jörgen; Guo, Xue Lin; Li, Shuang; Long, Fei Yun; Dang, Wei; Zhao, Xiao Hui; Hutton, Roger; Chen, Chong Yang; Yan, Jan; Yang, Xu
2016-01-01
Level energies, wavelengths, electric dipole, magnetic dipole, electric quadrupole, and magnetic quadrupole transition rates, oscillator strengths, and line strengths from combined relativistic configuration interaction and many-body perturbation calculations are reported for the 201 fine-structure states of the $2s^2 2p^6$, $2s^2 2p^5 3l$, $2s 2p^6 3l$, $2s^2 2p^5 4l$, $2s 2p^6 4l$, $2s^2 2p^5 5l$, and $2s^2 2p^5 6l$ configurations in all Ne-like ions between Cr XV and Kr XXVII. Calculated level energies and transition data are compared with experiments from the NIST and CHIANTI databases, and other recent benchmark calculations. The mean energy difference with the NIST experiments is only 0.05%. The present calculations significantly increase the amount of accurate spectroscopic data for the $n >3$ states in a number of Ne-like ions of astrophysics interest. A complete dataset should be helpful in analyzing new observations from the solar and other astrophysical sources, and is also likely to be useful for ...
Navigating between the Dimensions
Fleron, Julian F.; Ecke, Volker
2011-01-01
Generations have been inspired by Edwin A. Abbott's profound tour of the dimensions in his novella "Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions" (1884). This well-known satire is the story of a flat land inhabited by geometric shapes trying to navigate the subtleties of their geometric, social, and political positions. In this article, the authors…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L Otero Pereiro
1998-01-01
.____________________________________________________________________AbstractThe Finite Elements Method (FEM developed until the present time is a powerful computerized calculation system applied inthe tensions and deformations analysis of solids and structures and much literature has been published on FEM as calculationmethod,The need of solving the problems of passengers transportation, mainly in Havana City, in the difficult conditions of Cubanspecial period, conducted to the development of a semi - trailer with the necessary characteristics to fulfil this function , whichby their attributes constitutes the only one in his gender for this purpose.It is, the first time that in our country is executed the calculation of a self - potable reticulated structure of similar magnitude,with satisfactory concrete results.It is approached the creation of a physic - mathematical model that simulates the real structure, conditioned to the limitations ofthe calculation program, offering a similar behavior in the efforts and deformations that are produced, with a study of thedifferent variants of results.In the work are obtained some results on the possible consequences the calculation of the complete structure or separating it bysections, being necessary the establishment of a methodical for the definition of those sections that they can be analyzedseparately, as well as the order of importance of this analysis.It was accomplished the experimental determination of the dynamic load coefficient, as well as the establishment of the physic- mathematical model adapted for the calculation of the structure of a semi - trailer for passengers transportation applying theFinite Elements Method.It was effected a test to statics load del frame to corroborate the validity of the physic - mathematical model of the structure.Additionally, It is proposed a technical solution within the technological possibilities of the constructing company to avoid thestructure breakage of the equipment.
Quantum many-body systems in one dimension
Ha, N C Zachary
1996-01-01
The main theme of the book focuses on the intimate connection between the two families of exactly solvable models: the inverse-square exchange (ISE) and the nearest-neighbour exchange (NNE) models. Topics discussed include the Luttinger liquid concept and fractional statistics.
Graphene and the Immune System: A Romance of Many Dimensions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sourav P. Mukherjee
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Graphene-based materials (GBMs are emerging as attractive materials for biomedical applications. Understanding how these materials are perceived by and interact with the immune system is of fundamental importance. Phagocytosis is a major mechanism deployed by the immune system to remove pathogens, particles, and cellular debris. Here, we discuss recent studies on the interactions of GBMs with different phagocytic cells, including macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells. The importance of assessing GBMs for endotoxin contamination is discussed as this may skew results. We also explore the role of the bio-corona for interactions of GBMs with immune cells. Finally, we highlight recent evidence for direct plasma membrane interactions of GBMs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Changala, P. Bryan, E-mail: bryan.changala@colorado.edu; Baraban, Joshua H.; Field, Robert W. [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Stanton, John F. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute for Theoretical Chemistry, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Merer, Anthony J. [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan and Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada)
2014-01-14
Reduced dimension variational calculations have been performed for the rovibrational level structure of the S{sub 1} state of acetylene. The state exhibits an unusually complicated level structure, for various reasons. First, the potential energy surface has two accessible conformers, trans and cis. The cis conformer lies about 2700 cm{sup −1} above the trans, and the barrier to cis-trans isomerization lies about 5000 cm{sup −1} above the trans minimum. The trans vibrations ν{sub 4} (torsion) and ν{sub 6} (asym. bend) interact very strongly by Darling-Dennison and Coriolis resonances, such that their combination levels and overtones form polyads with unexpected structures. Both conformers exhibit very large x{sub 36} cross-anharmonicity since the pathway to isomerization is a combination of ν{sub 6} and ν{sub 3} (sym. bend). Near the isomerization barrier, the vibrational levels show an even-odd K-staggering of their rotational levels as a result of quantum mechanical tunneling through the barrier. The present calculations address all of these complications, and reproduce the observed K-structures of the bending and C–C stretching levels with good qualitative accuracy. It is expected that they will assist with the assignment of the irregular patterns near the isomerization barrier.
Dolley, T.P.
2003-01-01
Dimension stone can be defined as natural rock material quarried to obtain blocks or slabs that meet specifications as to size (width, length and thickness) and shape for architectural or engineering purposes. Color, grain texture and pattern, and surface finish of the stone are also normal requirements. Other important selection criteria are durability (based on mineral composition, hardness and past performance), strength and the ability of the stone to take a polish.
Fractal Dimension in Epileptic EEG Signal Analysis
Uthayakumar, R.
Fractal Analysis is the well developed theory in the data analysis of non-linear time series. Especially Fractal Dimension is a powerful mathematical tool for modeling many physical and biological time signals with high complexity and irregularity. Fractal dimension is a suitable tool for analyzing the nonlinear behaviour and state of the many chaotic systems. Particularly in analysis of chaotic time series such as electroencephalograms (EEG), this feature has been used to identify and distinguish specific states of physiological function.Epilepsy is the main fatal neurological disorder in our brain, which is analyzed by the biomedical signal called Electroencephalogram (EEG). The detection of Epileptic seizures in the EEG Signals is an important tool in the diagnosis of epilepsy. So we made an attempt to analyze the EEG in depth for knowing the mystery of human consciousness. EEG has more fluctuations recorded from the human brain due to the spontaneous electrical activity. Hence EEG Signals are represented as Fractal Time Series.The algorithms of fractal dimension methods have weak ability to the estimation of complexity in the irregular graphs. Divider method is widely used to obtain the fractal dimension of curves embedded into a 2-dimensional space. The major problem is choosing initial and final step length of dividers. We propose a new algorithm based on the size measure relationship (SMR) method, quantifying the dimensional behaviour of irregular rectifiable graphs with minimum time complexity. The evidence for the suitability (equality with the nature of dimension) of the algorithm is illustrated graphically.We would like to demonstrate the criterion for the selection of dividers (minimum and maximum value) in the calculation of fractal dimension of the irregular curves with minimum time complexity. For that we design a new method of computing fractal dimension (FD) of biomedical waveforms. Compared to Higuchi's algorithm, advantages of this method include
Vanishing Dimensions: a Review
Stojkovic, Dejan
2013-11-01
We review a growing theoretical motivation and evidence that the number of dimensions actually reduces at high energies. This reduction can happen near the Planck scale, or much before, the dimensions that are reduced can be effective, spectral, topological or the usual dimensions, but many things point toward the fact that the high energy theories appear to propagate in a lower-dimensional space, rather than a higher-dimensional one. We will concentrate on a particular scenario of "vanishing" or "evolving dimensions" where the dimensions open up as we increase the length scale that we are probing, but will also mention related models that point to the same direction, i.e. the causal dynamical triangulation, asymptotic safety, as well as evidence coming from a noncommutative quantum theories, the Wheeler-DeWitt equation and phenomenon of "asymptotic silence". It is intriguing that experimental evidence for the high energy dimensional reduction may already exist — a statistically significant planar alignment of events with energies higher than TeV has been observed in high altitude cosmic ray experiments. A convincing evidence for dimensional reduction may be found in future in collider experiments and gravity waves observatories.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Filip Anselm; Schmidt, Per Simmendefeldt; Winther, Kirsten Trøstrup
2016-01-01
Calculating the quasiparticle (QP) band structure of two-dimensional (2D) materials within the GW self-energy approximation has proven to be a rather demanding computational task. The main reason is the strong q dependence of the 2D dielectric function around q = 0 that calls for a much denser sa...... gap of the three prototypical 2D semiconductors, MoS2, h-BN, and phosphorene, including the effect of self-consistency at the GW0 level. The method is implemented in the open source code GPAW....
2013-01-01
A few weeks ago, I had a vague notion of what TED was, and how it worked, but now I’m a confirmed fan. It was my privilege to host CERN’s first TEDx event last Friday, and I can honestly say that I can’t remember a time when I was exposed to so much brilliance in such a short time. TEDxCERN was designed to give a platform to science. That’s why we called it Multiplying Dimensions – a nod towards the work we do here, while pointing to the broader importance of science in society. We had talks ranging from the most subtle pondering on the nature of consciousness to an eighteen year old researcher urging us to be patient, and to learn from our mistakes. We had musical interludes that included encounters between the choirs of local schools and will.i.am, between an Israeli pianist and an Iranian percussionist, and between Grand Opera and high humour. And although I opened the event by announcing it as a day off from physics, we had a quite brill...
Higuchi Dimension of Digital Images
Ahammer, Helmut
2011-01-01
There exist several methods for calculating the fractal dimension of objects represented as 2D digital images. For example, Box counting, Minkowski dilation or Fourier analysis can be employed. However, there appear to be some limitations. It is not possible to calculate only the fractal dimension of an irregular region of interest in an image or to perform the calculations in a particular direction along a line on an arbitrary angle through the image. The calculations must be made for the whole image. In this paper, a new method to overcome these limitations is proposed. 2D images are appropriately prepared in order to apply 1D signal analyses, originally developed to investigate nonlinear time series. The Higuchi dimension of these 1D signals is calculated using Higuchi's algorithm, and it is shown that both regions of interests and directional dependencies can be evaluated independently of the whole picture. A thorough validation of the proposed technique and a comparison of the new method to the Fourier dimension, a common two dimensional method for digital images, are given. The main result is that Higuchi's algorithm allows a direction dependent as well as direction independent analysis. Actual values for the fractal dimensions are reliable and an effective treatment of regions of interests is possible. Moreover, the proposed method is not restricted to Higuchi's algorithm, as any 1D method of analysis, can be applied. PMID:21931854
Higuchi dimension of digital images.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Helmut Ahammer
Full Text Available There exist several methods for calculating the fractal dimension of objects represented as 2D digital images. For example, Box counting, Minkowski dilation or Fourier analysis can be employed. However, there appear to be some limitations. It is not possible to calculate only the fractal dimension of an irregular region of interest in an image or to perform the calculations in a particular direction along a line on an arbitrary angle through the image. The calculations must be made for the whole image. In this paper, a new method to overcome these limitations is proposed. 2D images are appropriately prepared in order to apply 1D signal analyses, originally developed to investigate nonlinear time series. The Higuchi dimension of these 1D signals is calculated using Higuchi's algorithm, and it is shown that both regions of interests and directional dependencies can be evaluated independently of the whole picture. A thorough validation of the proposed technique and a comparison of the new method to the Fourier dimension, a common two dimensional method for digital images, are given. The main result is that Higuchi's algorithm allows a direction dependent as well as direction independent analysis. Actual values for the fractal dimensions are reliable and an effective treatment of regions of interests is possible. Moreover, the proposed method is not restricted to Higuchi's algorithm, as any 1D method of analysis, can be applied.
Assouad type dimensions for partially affine sponges
Howroyd, Douglas
2016-01-01
Recently self-affine sponges have been shown to be interesting examples and counter-examples to several previously open problems. One class of recently discovered sponges are partially affine Bedford-McMullen sponges whose Assouad type dimensions cannot be calculated like the dimensions of regular Bedford-McMullen sponges are. We calculate the Assouad type dimensions for such partially affine sponges and discuss some of their more subtle details.
Measuring border irregularities of skin lesions using fractal dimensions
Ng, Vincent T. Y.; Lee, Tim K.
1996-09-01
Malignant melanoma is the most common cancer in people less than 35 years of age and incident rates are increasing by approximately 5 percent per annum in many white populations, including British Columbia, Canada. In 1994, a clinical study has been established to digitize melanocytic lesions under a controlled environment. Lesions are digitized from patients who are referred to the Colored Pigment Lesion Clinic in the University of British Columbia. In this paper, we investigate how to use fractal dimensions (FDs) in measuring the irregularity of a skin lesion. In a previous project, we have experimented with 6 different methods to calculate fractal dimensions on a small number of images of skin lesions, and the simple box-counting method performed the best. However, the method did not exploit the intensity information of the images. With the new set of images which are digitized under the controlled environment, we utilize the differential box counting method to exploit such information. Four FD measures, including the direct FD, the horizontal and the vertical smoothing FDs, and the multi- fractal dimension of order two, are calculated based on the original color images. In addition, these 4 FD features are repeatedly calculate for the blue band of the images. This paper reports the different features through the calculations of the fractal dimensions and compares their differentiation power in the use of diagnosis of images of skin lesions.
Bolc, Leonard
1992-01-01
Many-valued logics were developed as an attempt to handle philosophical doubts about the "law of excluded middle" in classical logic. The first many-valued formal systems were developed by J. Lukasiewicz in Poland and E.Post in the U.S.A. in the 1920s, and since then the field has expanded dramatically as the applicability of the systems to other philosophical and semantic problems was recognized. Intuitionisticlogic, for example, arose from deep problems in the foundations of mathematics. Fuzzy logics, approximation logics, and probability logics all address questions that classical logic alone cannot answer. All these interpretations of many-valued calculi motivate specific formal systems thatallow detailed mathematical treatment. In this volume, the authors are concerned with finite-valued logics, and especially with three-valued logical calculi. Matrix constructions, axiomatizations of propositional and predicate calculi, syntax, semantic structures, and methodology are discussed. Separate chapters deal w...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Lars Juhl
2016-01-01
Automatic annotation of text is an important complement to manual annotation, because the latter is highly labour intensive. We have developed a fast dictionary-based named entity recognition (NER) system and addressed a wide variety of biomedical problems by applied it to text from many differen....... Despite the simplicity of the approach, it typically achieves 80-90% precision and 70-80% recall. Many of the underlying dictionaries were built from open biomedical ontologies, which further facilitate integration of the text-mining results with evidence from other sources.......Automatic annotation of text is an important complement to manual annotation, because the latter is highly labour intensive. We have developed a fast dictionary-based named entity recognition (NER) system and addressed a wide variety of biomedical problems by applied it to text from many different...
Rip, Arie; Groen, Arend J.; Coombs, R.; Green, K.; Richards, A.; Walsh, V.
2001-01-01
Compared with the ‘careless technology’ of the 1960s (to quote the title of a book at the time (Farvar and Milton, 1972)), the present safety, reliability and environmental friendliness of many products and technologies, at least in the richer countries, is striking. Salmon are swimming in the
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 12. Many Phases of Carbon. B Gopalakrishnan S V Subramanyam. General Article Volume 7 Issue 12 December 2002 pp 10-19. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/12/0010-0019 ...
Mamber, Stephen W.; Gantenbein, Alice
2017-01-01
Tootsie Pops, manufactured by Tootsie Roll Industries of Chicago, Illinois, are spherical hard-candy lollipops with a chocolate-flavoured, chewy center. While Tootsie Pops have been around since 1931, it was a television commercial made in 1969 that captured the attention of many. The commercial, an amusing animated cartoon, posed the following…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Lars Juhl
2016-01-01
Automatic annotation of text is an important complement to manual annotation, because the latter is highly labour intensive. We have developed a fast dictionary-based named entity recognition (NER) system and addressed a wide variety of biomedical problems by applied it to text from many differen...
Epidemiology of Chagas disease in Europe: many calculations, little knowledge.
Strasen, Jörn; Williams, Tatjana; Ertl, Georg; Zoller, Thomas; Stich, August; Ritter, Oliver
2014-01-01
Chagas disease and its causative agent Trypanosoma cruzi are endemic in almost all countries in South and Middle America. Currently, there are more than 10 million affected people. It is the most common reason for heart failure and a frequent cause of intestinal problems in Latin America. The phenotype of the Chagas cardiomyopathy is varying. Dilative cardiomyopathy, often accompanied by an apical aneurysm is the most common finding in the end stage heart failure, but rhythm disorders like conduction blocks, ventricular or supraventricular forms of tachycardia or repolarization changes occur as well, mainly in the early stages. Migration of infected people leads to a distribution from the endemic countries to North America and Europe. Although more than 500,000 people of Latin American origin are currently living in Europe, Chagas disease is not considered as a public health problem, yet. Cases of transmission via blood donation, organ transplantation or from mother-to-child are reported for several European countries but there is no database for Germany. Current epidemiological data are mostly available from regional surveys from other countries or are extrapolated. Hence, there is a large variation in the estimated numbers on the incidence of Chagas. Robust and reliable data are lacking. This review gives an overview on the currently available data and calls for a German Chagas surveillance.
Trimble, Virginia L.
2016-06-01
For most of our early ancestors, the earth was the universe, with a blue bowl over it, good things above and evil things below, and exoplanets would have been multiverses. The steps beyond that included (1) many planets orbiting the sun, (2) the stars are suns, (3) most probably with their own planets, (4) the solar system is not central to the Milky Way, (5) other galaxies exist, and (6) many groups, clusters and superclusters (on a cosmic web). Famous names associated with these steps include Copernicus, Digges, Galileo, Newton, Shapley, Hubble, Sandage, and Peebles (plus many other less famous contributors). At every stage there have been mavens who said “one” and supermavens who have said “many”. So far, the latter have always won. I see no reason why this should not continue to be the case onward to one or more of the concepts now subsumed under the name multiverse. If we cannot think of a way to falsify the concepts, does this mean that they are not science? Or does it just mean that we have not yet thought of the right observations, in the way the lagging 17th century geocentrists did not anticipate Bradley’s aberration of starlight and Kapteyn did not have the chance to incorporate Shapley’s globular clusters in his universe? Some of the images shown will be more realistic than others.
Päs, Heinrich
2017-08-01
A minimal approach to the measurement problem and the quantum-to-classical transition assumes a universally valid quantum formalism, i.e. unitary time evolution governed by a Schrödinger-type equation. As had been pointed out long ago, in this view the measurement process can be described by decoherence which results in a ”Many-Worlds” or ”Many-Minds” scenario according to Everett and Zeh. A silent assumption for decoherence to proceed is however, that there exists incomplete information about the environment our object system gets entangled with in the measurement process. This paper addresses the question where this information is traced out and - by adopting recent approaches to model consciousness in neuroscience - argues that a rigorous interpretation results in a perspectival notion of the quantum-to-classical transition. The information that is or is not available in the consciousness of the observer is crucial for the definition of the environment (i.e. the unknown degrees of freedom in the remainder of the Universe). As such the Many-Worlds-Interpretation, while being difficult or impossible to probe in physics, may become testable in psychology.
Hilbert space renormalization for the many-electron problem.
Li, Zhendong; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic
2016-02-28
Renormalization is a powerful concept in the many-body problem. Inspired by the highly successful density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm, and the quantum chemical graphical representation of configuration space, we introduce a new theoretical tool: Hilbert space renormalization, to describe many-electron correlations. While in DMRG, the many-body states in nested Fock subspaces are successively renormalized, in Hilbert space renormalization, many-body states in nested Hilbert subspaces undergo renormalization. This provides a new way to classify and combine configurations. The underlying wavefunction Ansatz, namely, the Hilbert space matrix product state (HS-MPS), has a very rich and flexible mathematical structure. It provides low-rank tensor approximations to any configuration interaction (CI) space through restricting either the "physical indices" or the coupling rules in the HS-MPS. Alternatively, simply truncating the "virtual dimension" of the HS-MPS leads to a family of size-extensive wave function Ansätze that can be used efficiently in variational calculations. We make formal and numerical comparisons between the HS-MPS, the traditional Fock-space MPS used in DMRG, and traditional CI approximations. The analysis and results shed light on fundamental aspects of the efficient representation of many-electron wavefunctions through the renormalization of many-body states.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Milica Antić Gaber
2013-12-01
We believe that in the present thematic issue we have succeeded in capturing an important part of the modern European research dynamic in the field of migration. In addition to well-known scholars in this field several young authors at the beginning their research careers have been shortlisted for the publication. We are glad of their success as it bodes a vibrancy of this research area in the future. At the same time, we were pleased to receive responses to the invitation from representatives of so many disciplines, and that the number of papers received significantly exceeded the maximum volume of the journal. Recognising and understanding of the many faces of migration are important steps towards the comprehensive knowledge needed to successfully meet the challenges of migration issues today and even more so in the future. It is therefore of utmost importance that researchers find ways of transferring their academic knowledge into practice – to all levels of education, the media, the wider public and, of course, the decision makers in local, national and international institutions. The call also applies to all authors in this issue of the journal.
Zhou, Yuqian; Cai, Yu; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gao, Fei; Scarani, Valerio
2017-11-01
There is an ongoing search for a physical or operational definition for quantum mechanics. Several informational principles have been proposed which are satisfied by a theory less restrictive than quantum mechanics. Here, we introduce the principle of "many-box locality," which is a refined version of the previously proposed "macroscopic locality." These principles are based on coarse graining the statistics of several copies of a given box. The set of behaviors satisfying many-box locality for N boxes is denoted LNM B. We study these sets in the bipartite scenario with two binary measurements, in relation with the sets Q and Q1 +A B of quantum and "almost quantum" correlations, respectively. We find that the LNM B sets are, in general, not convex. For unbiased marginals, by working in the Fourier space we can prove analytically that LNM B⊈Q for any finite N , while L∞M B=Q . Then, with suitably developed numerical tools, we find an example of a point that belongs to L16M B but not to Q1 +A B. Among the problems that remain open is whether Q ⊂L∞M B .
On the selection of dimension reduction techniques for scientific applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fan, Y J; Kamath, C
2012-02-17
Many dimension reduction methods have been proposed to discover the intrinsic, lower dimensional structure of a high-dimensional dataset. However, determining critical features in datasets that consist of a large number of features is still a challenge. In this paper, through a series of carefully designed experiments on real-world datasets, we investigate the performance of different dimension reduction techniques, ranging from feature subset selection to methods that transform the features into a lower dimensional space. We also discuss methods that calculate the intrinsic dimensionality of a dataset in order to understand the reduced dimension. Using several evaluation strategies, we show how these different methods can provide useful insights into the data. These comparisons enable us to provide guidance to a user on the selection of a technique for their dataset.
Antonella Del Rosso
2013-01-01
How many Higgs bosons are out there? Several theoretical models foresee the existence of more than one such boson but the current data cannot confirm any of these scenarios. What should we expect from the future data and the results of the current analysis? Image: Xavier Cortada (with the participation of physicist Pete Markowitz), "In search of the Higgs boson: H -> ZZ", digital art, 2013. Please note that this image is a detail from Xavier Cortada's art work installed at LHC P5 CMS. According to some theories, the mechanism that requires the existence of the Higgs boson (known by physicists as “electroweak symmetry breaking”) could also imply the involvement of other spin-zero – “boson” – particles. How would these relate to the newly-discovered particle? “The properties that the other Higgs bosons would have vary a lot depending on the theoretical model you consider,” explain...
A Review on Dimension Reduction.
Ma, Yanyuan; Zhu, Liping
2013-04-01
Summarizing the effect of many covariates through a few linear combinations is an effective way of reducing covariate dimension and is the backbone of (sufficient) dimension reduction. Because the replacement of high-dimensional covariates by low-dimensional linear combinations is performed with a minimum assumption on the specific regression form, it enjoys attractive advantages as well as encounters unique challenges in comparison with the variable selection approach. We review the current literature of dimension reduction with an emphasis on the two most popular models, where the dimension reduction affects the conditional distribution and the conditional mean, respectively. We discuss various estimation and inference procedures in different levels of detail, with the intention of focusing on their underneath idea instead of technicalities. We also discuss some unsolved problems in this area for potential future research.
Mbachu, D
1987-04-01
Nigeria's underdevelopment and economic stagnation has been linked by many to its rapid rate of population growth and high birth rate (6.34 children/family). The World Bank, a leading force in the birth control for development campaign, maintains that rapidly growing populations increase the proportion of dependent and economically inactive people in society, thereby impeding capital accumulation needed for development. However, this approach ignores the inequitable structures for the distribution of wealth in developing countries that depend on poverty for their existence. A more sensible approach to population growth in Nigeria would include increased incomes, free education, improved public health and nutrition programs, and a changed social role for women. In fact, rather than being a barrier to development, Nigeria's growing population offers a rich labor reserve for the development of the country's vast resources. The anti-birth propaganda that has pressured the Nigeria Government to adopt a population policy has served to obscure and conceal the real causes of poverty and underdevelopment--the exploitation of the country by multinational corporations. If the income gap in Nigeria is reduced and the living standards of the majority rise, people will voluntarily lower their fertility without coercive family planning programs.
Segmentation of magnetic resonance image using fractal dimension
Yau, Joseph K. K.; Wong, Sau-hoi; Chan, Kwok-Leung
1997-04-01
In recent years, much research has been conducted in the three-dimensional visualization of medical image. This requires a good segmentation technique. Many early works use first-order and second-order statistics. First-order statistical parameters can be calculated quickly but their effectiveness is influenced by many factors such as illumination, contrast and random noise of the image. Second-order statistical parameters, such as spatial gray level co-occurrence matrices statistics, take longer time to compute but can extract the textural information. In this investigating, two different parameters, namely the entropy and the fractal dimension, are employed to perform segmentation of the magnetic resonance images of the head of a male cadaver. The entropy is calculated from the spatial gray level co-occurrence matrices. The fractal dimension is calculated by the reticular cell counting method. Several regions of the human head are chosen for analysis. They are the bone, gyrus and lobe. Results show that the parameters are able to segment different types of tissue. The entropy gives very good result but it requires very long computation time and large amount of memory. The performance of the fractal dimension is comparable with the entropy. It is simple to estimate and demands lesser memory space.
Witnessing Irreducible Dimension.
Cong, Wan; Cai, Yu; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Scarani, Valerio
2017-08-25
The Hilbert space dimension of a quantum system is the most basic quantifier of its information content. Lower bounds on the dimension can be certified in a device-independent way, based only on observed statistics. We highlight that some such "dimension witnesses" capture only the presence of systems of some dimension, which in a sense is trivial, not the capacity of performing information processing on them, which is the point of experimental efforts to control high-dimensional systems. In order to capture this aspect, we introduce the notion of irreducible dimension of a quantum behavior. This dimension can be certified, and we provide a witness for irreducible dimension four.
VC-dimension of univariate decision trees.
Yildiz, Olcay Taner
2015-02-01
In this paper, we give and prove the lower bounds of the Vapnik-Chervonenkis (VC)-dimension of the univariate decision tree hypothesis class. The VC-dimension of the univariate decision tree depends on the VC-dimension values of its subtrees and the number of inputs. Via a search algorithm that calculates the VC-dimension of univariate decision trees exhaustively, we show that our VC-dimension bounds are tight for simple trees. To verify that the VC-dimension bounds are useful, we also use them to get VC-generalization bounds for complexity control using structural risk minimization in decision trees, i.e., pruning. Our simulation results show that structural risk minimization pruning using the VC-dimension bounds finds trees that are more accurate as those pruned using cross validation.
On the Hausdorff dimension faithfulness connected with Q_{\\infty} -expansion
Liu, Jia; Zhang, Zhenliang
2017-06-01
In this paper, we show that, the family of all possible unions of finitely many consecutive cylinders of the same rank of a Q∞ -expansion is faithful for the Hausdorff dimension calculations. Applying this result, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for the family of all cylinders of the Q∞ -expansion to be faithful for Hausdorff dimension calculation on the unit interval. This answers an open problem mentioned in Albeverio et al (2016 Math. Nachr. at press (https//:doi.org/10.1002/mana.201500471)).
Maximal cuts in arbitrary dimension
Bosma, Jorrit; Sogaard, Mads; Zhang, Yang
2017-08-01
We develop a systematic procedure for computing maximal unitarity cuts of multiloop Feynman integrals in arbitrary dimension. Our approach is based on the Baikov representation in which the structure of the cuts is particularly simple. We examine several planar and nonplanar integral topologies and demonstrate that the maximal cut inherits IBPs and dimension shift identities satisfied by the uncut integral. Furthermore, for the examples we calculated, we find that the maximal cut functions from different allowed regions, form the Wronskian matrix of the differential equations on the maximal cut.
Impact of Packet Sampling on Link Dimensioning
Schmidt, R.D.O.; Sadre, R.; Sperotto, A.; Berg, H. van den; Pras, A.
2015-01-01
Link dimensioning is used by network operators to properly provision the capacity of their network links. Proposed methods for link dimensioning often require statistics, such as traffic variance, that need to be calculated from packet-level measurements. In practice, due to increasing traffic
Collective dimensions in animal ethics
Bovenkerk, B.; Verweij, M.F.
2015-01-01
Due to its emphasis on experiential interests, animal ethics tends to focus on individuals as the sole unit of moral concern. Many issues in animal ethics can be fruitfully analysed in terms of obligations towards individual animals, but some problems require reflection about collective dimensions
Unexploited Dimensions of Virtual Humans
Ruttkay, Z.M.; Reidsma, Dennis; Huang, Thomas; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja; Pentlant, Alex
Virtual Humans are on the border of fiction and realism: while it is obvious that they do not exist in reality and function on different principles than real people, they have been endowed with human features such as being emotionally sensitive. In this article we argue that many dimensions, both
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wölfel, Christiane; Merritt, T.
2013-01-01
There are many examples of cards used to assist or provide structure to the design process, yet there has not been a thorough articulation of the strengths and weaknesses of the various examples. We review eighteen card-based design tools in order to understand how they might benefit designers....... The card-based tools are explained in terms of five design dimensions including the intended purpose and scope of use, duration of use, methodology, customization, and formal/material qualities. Our analysis suggests three design patterns or archetypes for existing card-based design method tools...... and highlights unexplored areas in the design space. The paper concludes with recommendations for the future development of card-based methods for the field of interaction design....
Kwak, Dai Soon; Tao, Quang Bang; Todo, Mitsugu; Jeon, Insu
2012-05-01
Knee joint implants developed by western companies have been imported to Korea and used for Korean patients. However, many clinical problems occur in knee joints of Korean patients after total knee joint replacement owing to the geometric mismatch between the western implants and Korean knee joint structures. To solve these problems, a method to determine the representative dimension parameter values of Korean knee joints is introduced to aid in the design of knee joint implants appropriate for Korean patients. Measurements of the dimension parameters of 88 male Korean knee joint subjects were carried out. The distribution of the subjects versus each measured parameter value was investigated. The measured dimension parameter values of each parameter were grouped by suitable intervals called the "size group," and average values of the size groups were calculated. The knee joint subjects were grouped as the "patient group" based on "size group numbers" of each parameter. From the iterative calculations to decrease the errors between the average dimension parameter values of each "patient group" and the dimension parameter values of the subjects, the average dimension parameter values that give less than the error criterion were determined to be the representative dimension parameter values for designing knee joint implants for Korean patients.
Goparaju Purna SUDHAKAR
2013-01-01
Popularity of teams is growing in 21st Century. Organizations are getting their work done through different types of teams. Teams have proved that the collective performance is more than the sum of the individual performances. Thus, the teams have got different dimensions such as quantitative dimensions and qualitative dimensions. The Quantitative dimensions of teams such as team performance, team productivity, team innovation, team effectiveness, team efficiency, team decision making and tea...
Quantum Field Theory in (0 + 1) Dimensions
Boozer, A. D.
2007-01-01
We show that many of the key ideas of quantum field theory can be illustrated simply and straightforwardly by using toy models in (0 + 1) dimensions. Because quantum field theory in (0 + 1) dimensions is equivalent to quantum mechanics, these models allow us to use techniques from quantum mechanics to gain insight into quantum field theory. In…
Classical many-particle systems with unique disordered ground states.
Zhang, G; Stillinger, F H; Torquato, S
2017-10-01
Classical ground states (global energy-minimizing configurations) of many-particle systems are typically unique crystalline structures, implying zero enumeration entropy of distinct patterns (aside from trivial symmetry operations). By contrast, the few previously known disordered classical ground states of many-particle systems are all high-entropy (highly degenerate) states. Here we show computationally that our recently proposed "perfect-glass" many-particle model [Sci. Rep. 6, 36963 (2016)10.1038/srep36963] possesses disordered classical ground states with a zero entropy: a highly counterintuitive situation . For all of the system sizes, parameters, and space dimensions that we have numerically investigated, the disordered ground states are unique such that they can always be superposed onto each other or their mirror image. At low energies, the density of states obtained from simulations matches those calculated from the harmonic approximation near a single ground state, further confirming ground-state uniqueness. Our discovery provides singular examples in which entropy and disorder are at odds with one another. The zero-entropy ground states provide a unique perspective on the celebrated Kauzmann-entropy crisis in which the extrapolated entropy of a supercooled liquid drops below that of the crystal. We expect that our disordered unique patterns to be of value in fields beyond glass physics, including applications in cryptography as pseudorandom functions with tunable computational complexity.
Numerical identification of bacteria with a hand-held calculator as an alternative to code books.
Schindler, J.; Schindler, Z
1982-01-01
The Hewlett-Packard HP 41C hand-held calculator can be used for the numerical identification of bacteria. The dimensions of the identification matrix are limited to about 30 by 22; however, many groups of clinically important bacteria can be numerically identified by this method. Hand-held calculators can be used as an alternative to code books. At present, these calculators and additional tests can help solve identification problems in profiles not contained in code books.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lykke, Marianne; Jantzen, Christian
2016-01-01
-alongs were carried out with 58 museums visitors. Our analysis showed that it was possible to identify the 10 experience dimensions in the study material. Some dimensions were expressed more frequently than others. The distribution of expressed dimensions and the content of the user comments provided a clear......The present study develops a set of 10 dimensions based on a systematic understanding of the concept of experience as a holistic psychological. Seven of these are derived from a psychological conception of what experiencing and experiences are. Three supplementary dimensions spring from...... the observation that experiences apparently have become especially valuable phenomena in Western societies. The 10 dimensions are tried out in a field study at the Center for Art and Media (ZKM) in Germany with the purpose to study their applicability in the evaluation of interactive sound archives. 29 walk...
Dimensions of Creative Evaluation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Bo; Ball, Linden J.
2016-01-01
continue. Each dimension was associated with a specific underpinning ‘logic’ determining how these dimensions were evaluated in practice. Our analysis clarified how these dimensions triggered reasoning strategies such as running mental simulations or making design suggestions, ranging from ‘go....../kill’ decisions to loose recommendations to continue without directional steer. The findings advance our theoretical understanding of evaluation behaviour in design and alert practicing design evaluators to the nature and consequences of their critical appraisals....
CERN. Geneva
2006-01-01
Extra dimensions of space might be present in our universe. If so, we want to know 'How do dimensions hide?' and 'Why are three dimensions special?' I'll give potential answers to both these questions in the context of localized gravity. Organiser(s): L. Alvarez-Gaume / PH-THNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00. Talk is broadcasted in Council Chamber
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høskuldsson, Agnar
1996-01-01
Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four...... the basic problems in determining the dimension of linear models. Then each of the eight measures are treated. The results are illustrated by examples....
Rosiyadi, Didi; Suryana, Nana; Cahyana, Ade; Nuryani, Nuryani
2007-01-01
Makalah ini mengemukakan E-Government Dimension yang merupakan salah satu hasil TahapanPengumpulan Data, dimana tahapan ini adalah bagian dari penelitian kompetitif di Lembaga Ilmu PengetahuanIndonesia 2007 yang sekarang sedang dilakukan. Data E-Government Dimension ini didapatkan dari berbagaisumber yang meliputi E-Government beberapa Negara di dunia, E-Government yang dibangun oleh beberapapenyedia aplikasi E-Government. E-Government Dimension terdiri dari tiga dimensi yaitu DemocraticDimen...
Palatal dimension correlation in malocclusions for mixed Indian population
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ashish Bhalla
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Aims: To determine and compare the palatal dimensions in mixed Indian population with different malocclusions and to find correlation among them. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 152 study models of children aged 13-16 years consisting of 76 males and 76 females obtained from Govt. teaching institution divided into Angle′s Class I (40, Class II (80 and Class III (32 based on molar relationship and cephalometric evaluation. Ten palatal parameters were measured using Korkhaus gauge, which included arch width at the canine, 1 st premolar, 2 nd premolar and 1 st molar, arch length, palatal depth at canine, 1 st premolar, 2 nd premolar, and 1 st molar and arch perimeter. The mean and standard deviation were calculated, analysis of variance (ANOVA, independent student t test and Pearson′s correlation coefficient were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Angle′s Class I occlusion group showed widest intercanine width. Palatal depth was shallowest in Class II Div 2 malocclusion and Class III malocclusion group showed shortest arch length and arch perimeter. There was no difference in palatal dimensions in between gender. Various palatal parameters were co related to each other. Conclusions: Significant differences existed in most of palatal dimensions among different types of Angle′s occlusal relationships but no significant changes were observed among two genders. Many palatal dimension parameters were correlated to each other.
Many-to-Many Eigenvoice Conversion with Reference Voice
Yamato Ohtani; Tomoki Toda; Hiroshi Saruwatari; Kiyohiro Shikano
2009-01-01
In this paper, we propose many-to-many voice conversion (VC) techniques to convert an arbitrary source speaker's voice into an arbitrary target speaker's voice. We have proposed one-to-many eigenvoice conversion (EVC) and many-to-one EVC. In the EVC, an eigenvoice Gaussian mixture model (EV-GMM) is trained in advance using multiple parallel data sets of a reference speaker and many pre-stored speakers. The EV-GMM is flexibly adapted to an arbitrary speaker using a small amount of adaptation d...
Dimension of Fractal Basin Boundaries.
Park, Bae-Sig
In many dynamical systems, multiple attractors coexist for certain parameter ranges. The set of initial conditions that asymptotically approach each attractor is its basin of attraction. These basins can be intertwined on arbitrary small scales. Basin boundary can be either smooth or fractal. Dynamical systems that have fractal basin boundary show "final state sensitivity" of the initial conditions. A measure of this sensitivity (uncertainty exponent alpha) is related to the dimension of the basin boundary d = D - alpha , where D is the dimension of the phase space and d is the dimension of the basin boundary. At metamorphosis values of the parameter, there might happen a conversion from smooth to fractal basin boundary (smooth-fractal metamorphosis) or a conversion from fractal to another fractal basin boundary characteristically different from the previous fractal one (fractal-fractal metamorphosis). The dimension changes continuously with the parameter except at the metamorphosis values where the dimension of the basin boundary jumps discontinuously. We chose the Henon map and the forced damped pendulum to investigate this. Scaling of the basin volumes near the metamorphosis values of the parameter is also being studied for the Henon map. Observations are explained analytically by using low dimensional model map. We look for universal scalings of the dimension of fractal basin boundaries near type I and type III intermittency transitions to chaos. Type I intermittency can occur as the system experiences a saddle-node (tangent) bifurcation and type III intermittency can occur as the system experiences an inverted period doubling bifurcation. At these bifurcations, multiple attractors with fractal basin boundaries can be created. It is found the dimension scales, with the parameter, according to the power law d = d_{o } - k| p - p_{c}| ^{beta} with beta = 1/2, where p is the system parameter, p _{c} is the bifurcation value, k is a scaling constant, and d_{o} is
Preuss, Lucien
2008-11-01
To implement Jaynes' vision [1] of applications of Shannon's ideas outside Communication Theory proper, the dimension of information must be clarified, mainly because general applications provide no ready-made set of discrete, mutually exclusive and exhaustive "events" which could play a rôle similar to that of the alphabet which communication theory implicitely supposes known from the outset. For instance, a doctor's "alphabet" may be said to consist of readily distinguishable bundles of symptoms, cures, etc., each of which he considers specific enough to describe an illness of interest. Setting up an appropriate alphabet requires learning, in the same way as a child painfully learns to read letters, and a quantitative assessment of this task depends crucially on the dimension of information. Information is an extensive property, as explicited by the standard equation I = N.H for the amount of information delivered by a succession of N events. All other things remaining equal, doubling the length of a message doubles the amount of information. But by definition, Shannon's uncertainty H on the right-hand side of the equation is a rate, i.e. an intensive property, as illustrated by the fact that the simultaneous throw of two true and identical dice removes less than twice the uncertainty removed by the throw of a single die, as is well-known to poker-players. If the above equation is to be dimensionally consistent, N can not be a pure number, but must have an extensive dimension of its own. The obvious question "which?" was swept under the rug by von Neumann's famous quip [3], which advised to call H an entropy, thereby suggesting improperly that H by itself-without the factor N-is an extensive property like physical entropy. But H only evaluates an amount of information when multiplied by N, which measures an amount of order akin to the chronological order without which any message becomes garbage. In analogy with the decomposition E S.T of energy E into the pair
Many electron effects in semiconductor quantum dots
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 26; Issue 1. Many electron effects in ... Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) exhibit shell structures, very similar to atoms. Termed as 'artificial atoms' by some, ... Our calculations have been performed in a three-dimensional quantum dot. We have carried out a study of ...
Dimensions of Occupational Prestige
Haug, Marie R.; Widdison, Harold A.
1975-01-01
Eight dimensions of occupational prestige are examined for their effect on the general prestige ratings accorded various occupations within the medical profession. Stepwise multiple regression analyzes the relative weight of these dimension among 410 persons. The findings suggested that public stereotypes exert a normative pressure on individual…
Gorenstein homological dimensions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holm, Henrik Granau
2004-01-01
In basic homological algebra, the projective, injective and 2at dimensions of modules play an important and fundamental role. In this paper, the closely related Gorenstein projective, Gorenstein injective and Gorenstein 2at dimensions are studied. There is a variety of nice results about Gorenstein...
On the partition dimension of two-component graphs
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
D O Haryeni
2017-11-17
Nov 17, 2017 ... Partition dimension; disconnected graph; component. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. 05C12, 05C15. 1. Introduction. The study of the partition dimension for graphs was initiated by Chartrand et al. [2] aimed at finding a new way to solve the problem in metric dimensions of graphs. Many results.
Socio-cultural dimensions to sharpen designer's cultural eyeglasses
Van Boeijen, A.G.C.
2013-01-01
This paper answers the question, how the dimensions that have been developed by anthropologists to typify cultures, can support designers in user-centred design processes. An analysis and evaluation of the use of cultural dimensions in design projects was performed. Although many of the dimensions
Extra dimensions round the corner?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abel, S. [Theory Division, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)
1999-06-01
How many dimensions are we living in? This question is fundamental and yet, astonishingly, it remains unresolved. Of course, on the everyday level it appears that we are living in four dimensions three space plus one time dimension. But in recent months theoretical physicists have discovered that collisions between high-energy particles at accelerators may reveal the presence of extra space-time dimensions. On scales where we can measure the acceleration of falling objects due to gravity or study the orbital motion of planets or satellites, the gravitational force seems to be described by a 1/r{sup 2} law. The most sensitive direct tests of the gravitational law are based on torsion-balance experiments that were first performed by Henry Cavendish in 1798. However, the smallest scales on which this type of experiment can be performed are roughly 1 mm (see J C Long, H W Chan and J C Price 1999 Nucl. Phys. B 539 23). At smaller distances, objects could be gravitating in five or more dimensions that are rolled up or ''compactified'' - an idea that is bread-and-butter to string theorists. Most string theorists however believe that the gravitational effects of compact extra dimensions are too small to be observed. Now Nima Arkani-Hamed from the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in the US, Savas Dimopoulos at Stanford University and Gia Dvali, who is now at New York University, suggest differently (Phys. Lett. B 1998 429 263). They advanced earlier ideas from string theory in which the strong, weak and electromagnetic forces are confined to membranes, like dirt particles trapped in soap bubbles, while the gravitational force operates in the entire higher-dimensional volume. In their theory extra dimensions should have observable effects inside particle colliders such as the Tevatron accelerator at Fermilab in the US or at the future Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The effect will show up as an excess of events in which a single jet of particles
WEAK GORENSTEIN GLOBAL DIMENSION
Bennis, Driss
2010-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the weak Gorenstein global dimensions. We are mainly interested in studying the problem when the left and right weak Gorenstein global dimensions coincide. We first show, for GF-closed rings, that the left and right weak Gorenstein global dimensions are equal when they are finite. Then, we prove that the same equality holds for any two-sided coherent ring. We conclude the paper with some examples and a brief discussion of the scope and limits of our results.
On universal quantum dimensions
Mkrtchyan, R. L.
2017-08-01
We represent in the universal form restricted one-instanton partition function of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. It is based on the derivation of universal expressions for quantum dimensions (universal characters) of Cartan powers of adjoint and some other series of irreps of simple Lie algebras. These formulae also provide a proof of formulae for universal quantum dimensions for low-dimensional representations, needed in derivation of universal knot polynomials (i.e. colored Wilson averages of Chern-Simons theory on 3d sphere). As a check of the (complicated) formulae for universal quantum dimensions we prove numerically Deligne's hypothesis on universal characters for symmetric cube of adjoint representation.
Rucker, Rudy
2014-01-01
""This is an invigorating book, a short but spirited slalom for the mind."" - Timothy Ferris, The New York Times Book Review ""Highly readable. One is reminded of the breadth and depth of Hofstadter's Gödel, Escher, Bach."" - Science""Anyone with even a minimal interest in mathematics and fantasy will find The Fourth Dimension informative and mind-dazzling... [Rucker] plunges into spaces above three with a zest and energy that is breathtaking."" - Martin Gardner ""Those who think the fourth dimension is nothing but time should be encouraged to read The Fourth Dimension, along with anyone else
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Goparaju Purna SUDHAKAR
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Popularity ofteams is growing in 21st Century. Organizations are getting theirwork done through different types of teams. Teams have proved that thecollective performance is more than the sum of the individual performances.Thus, the teams have got different dimensions such as quantitative dimensionsand qualitative dimensions. The Quantitative dimensions of teams such as teamperformance, team productivity, team innovation, team effectiveness, teamefficiency, team decision making and team conflicts and Qualitative dimensionsof teams such as team communication, team coordination, team cooperation, teamcohesion, team climate, team creativity, team leadership and team conflictshave been discussed in this article.
Epistemic Sensibility: Third Dimension of Virtue Epistemology
Belbase, Shashidhar
2012-01-01
The author tries to argue how epistemic sensibility as virtue sensibility can complement virtue epistemology. Many philosophers interrelated virtue reliabilism (e.g., Brogaard, 2006) and virtue responsibilism (e.g., Code, 1987) to virtue epistemology as two dimensions with many diverging and a few converging characters. The possible new dimension…
Berliner, David C.
2015-01-01
Trying to understand PISA is analogous to the parable of the blind men and the elephant. There are many facets of the PISA program, and thus many ways to both applaud and critique this ambitious international program of assessment that has gained enormous importance in the crafting of contemporary educational policy. One of the facets discussed in…
CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit
2002-01-01
Recent progress in the formulation of fundamental theories for a Universe with more than 4 dimensions will be reviewed. Particular emphasis will be given to theories predicting the existence of extra dimensions at distance scales within the reach of current or forthcoming experiments. The phenomenological implications of these theories, ranging from detectable deviations from Newton's law at sub-millimeter scales, to phenomena of cosmological and astrophysical interest, as well as to high-energy laboratory experiments, will be discussed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Due, Jesper Jørgen; Madsen, Jørgen Steen; Jensen, Carsten Strøby
En analyse af EU's institutioner og udviklingen af den sociale dimension i forbindelse med etbaleringen af det indre marked med særlig henblik på effekterne på det danske aftalesystem.......En analyse af EU's institutioner og udviklingen af den sociale dimension i forbindelse med etbaleringen af det indre marked med særlig henblik på effekterne på det danske aftalesystem....
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Declination is calculated using the current International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model. Declination is calculated using the current World Magnetic Model...
Alternating dimension plasma transport in three dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grad, H.
1979-12-01
The alternating dimension (1 1/2 D) method of solving macroscopic adiabatic and transport problems is here generalized to arbitrary 3-D toroidal plasma confinement systems. The principal new result is the derivation of an evolution equation for the poloidal and toroidal fluxes in which second derivatives can be explicitly exhibited to show that the system is diffusive. This extends previous results in 2-D, axial symmetry and helical symmetry, where the flux functions for the magnetic field are explicit consequences of an ignorable coordinate, and the EBT closed magnetic line configuration. The eigenvalues (diffusion coefficients) are evaluated and are shown to represent one-dimensional relative diffusion among the adiabatic variables, independent of the representation (e.g. whether diffusion is measured relative to mass, or toroidal flux, or poloidal flux). The skin effect diffusion coefficient decouples from the other coefficients and represents diffusion of one magnetic field component relative to the other. Other transport coefficients such as those for mass and energy flow are intrinsically coupled. As in previously implemented alternating dimension codes, a 3-D code built to these specifications should be expected to be extremely accurate and efficient.
A variational principle for the Hausdorff dimension of fractal sets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Lars; Cutler, Colleen D.
1994-01-01
Matematik, fraktal (fractal), Hausdorff dimension, Renyi dimension, pakke dimension (packing dimension)......Matematik, fraktal (fractal), Hausdorff dimension, Renyi dimension, pakke dimension (packing dimension)...
Generalized dimension of the intersection between EEGs.
Meng, X; Xu, J; Gu, F
2001-10-01
The generalized dimension defined by [Mandelbrot (1995) J Fourier Anal Appl special J.P. Kahane issue: 409-432] was applied to studying the interrelationship between various parts of human cerebral cortex in different functional conditions. Taking EEG signals from different brain areas as different sets, the generalized dimensions of their intersections were calculated to describe the interrelationship between them. The results showed that the generalized dimensions of intersections in different brain states decreased according to the following order: rest with eyes open, closed, light sleep, and deep sleep. The generalized dimensions of intersections related to the left or right temporal lobe were higher than the others when the subjects was doing mental arithmetic, and there was a decrease when the subjects listened to soft classical music. In addition, it was found that there was a noticeable difference in singular spectra between epileptic patients and normal subjects, irrespective of whether the epileptic patient was experiencing a seizure or not.
Quantum Computation and Many Worlds
Hewitt-Horsman, Clare
2002-01-01
An Everett (`Many Worlds') interpretation of quantum mechanics due to Saunders and Zurek is presented in detail. This is used to give a physical description of the process of a quantum computation. Objections to such an understanding are discussed.
On universal quantum dimensions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R.L. Mkrtchyan
2017-08-01
Full Text Available We represent in the universal form restricted one-instanton partition function of supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory. It is based on the derivation of universal expressions for quantum dimensions (universal characters of Cartan powers of adjoint and some other series of irreps of simple Lie algebras. These formulae also provide a proof of formulae for universal quantum dimensions for low-dimensional representations, needed in derivation of universal knot polynomials (i.e. colored Wilson averages of Chern–Simons theory on 3d sphere. As a check of the (complicated formulae for universal quantum dimensions we prove numerically Deligne's hypothesis on universal characters for symmetric cube of adjoint representation.
Many Worlds, Many Theories, Many Rules: Formulating an Ethical System for the World to Come
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicholas Onuf
Full Text Available Abstract There are many ways to speak about the modern world, and many theories setting it apart. I focus on a world facing economic decline and a return to the status-ordering of traditional societies. With republican theory as a backdrop, I show that an updated virtue ethics constitutes an ethical system uniquely suiting any society that is significantly status-ordered.
Karch, A; Karch, Andreas; Randall, Lisa
2005-01-01
We propose a new selection principle for distinguishing among possible vacua that we call the "relaxation principle". The idea is that the universe will naturally select among possible vacua through its cosmological evolution, and the configuration with the biggest filling fraction is the likeliest. We apply this idea to the question of the number of dimensions of space. We show that under conventional (but higher-dimensional) FRW evolution, a universe filled with equal numbers of branes and antibranes will naturally come to be dominated by 3-branes and 7-branes. We show why this might help explain the number of dimensions that are experienced in our visible universe.
Gold, Paul E.
2006-01-01
Results from studies of retrograde amnesia provide much of the evidence for theories of memory consolidation. Retrograde amnesia gradients are often interpreted as revealing the time needed for the formation of long-term memories. The rapid forgetting observed after many amnestic treatments, including protein synthesis inhibitors, and the parallel…
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Lawrence
riage. But Anna Mani would have none of it. Her formative years were spent engrossed in books. By the age of eight, she had read almost all the books in Malayalam at her public library and, by the time she was twelve, all the books in English. On her eighth birthday she declined to accept her family's customary gift of a set.
Earthquakes Threaten Many American Schools
Bailey, Nancy E.
2010-01-01
Millions of U.S. children attend schools that are not safe from earthquakes, even though they are in earthquake-prone zones. Several cities and states have worked to identify and repair unsafe buildings, but many others have done little or nothing to fix the problem. The reasons for ignoring the problem include political and financial ones, but…
Electroweak sphaleron with dimension-six operators
Gan, Xucheng; Long, Andrew J.; Wang, Lian-Tao
2017-12-01
New physics at the TeV scale can affect the dynamics of the electroweak phase transition in many ways. In this paper, we evaluate its impact on the rate of baryon-number violation via sphaleron transitions. We parametrize the effect of new physics with dimension-six operators, and we use the Newton-Kantorovich method to numerically solve the resulting equations of motion. Depending on the sign of the coefficient of the dimension-six operators, their presence can either increase or decrease the sphaleron energy at the level of a few percent, parametrically of order mW2/Λ2 where Λ is the scale suppressing the dimension-six operator. The baryon-number washout condition, typically written as vc/Tc>1 , is directly proportional to the sphaleron energy, and we discuss how the presence of dimension-six operators can affect electroweak baryogenesis.
Fermi–Bose mixture in mixed dimensions
Caracanhas, M. A.; Schreck, F.; Morais Smith, C.
2017-11-01
One of the challenging goals in the studies of many-body physics with ultracold atoms is the creation of a topological {p}x+{{{i}}{p}}y superfluid for identical fermions in two dimensions (2D). The expectations of reaching the critical temperature T c through p-wave Feshbach resonance in spin-polarized fermionic gases have soon faded away because on approaching the resonance, the system becomes unstable due to inelastic-collision processes. Here, we consider an alternative scenario in which a single-component degenerate gas of fermions in 2D is paired via phonon-mediated interactions provided by a 3D BEC background. Within the weak-coupling regime, we calculate the critical temperature T c for the fermionic pair formation using the Bethe–Salpeter formalism, and show that it is significantly boosted by higher-order diagrammatic terms, such as phonon dressing and vertex corrections. We describe in detail an experimental scheme to implement our proposal, and show that the long-sought p-wave superfluid is at reach with state-of-the-art experiments.
Dimensions of Educational Worldview.
Miller, A. H.; Thompson, B.
The study was conducted to gain insight into the nature and structure of educators' education-related attitudes and beliefs. Subjects included both education students and teachers. The subjects completed two instruments (Kerlinger's Educational Scale VII and the Educational Philosophy Index). Results suggest that more than two dimensions are…
Dimensions of Oral Assessment.
Joughin, Gordon
1998-01-01
Analysis of literature on oral assessment in college instruction identified six dimensions: primary content type; interaction between examiner and learner; authenticity of assessment task; structure of assessment task; examiner; and orality (extent to which knowledge is tested orally). These help in understanding the nature of oral assessment and…
Bertel, Erminald
2013-01-01
Due to progress in nanotechnology high-quality quantum wires can nowadays be fabricated. The behavior of particles in one dimension differs significantly from that in three-dimensional (3D) systems, yet the physics of such low-dimensional systems is generally not very well represented in standard undergraduate or graduate curricula. For instance,…
moral and religious dimensions
African Journals Online (AJOL)
words. Language is the soul of every culture and occupies a Very prominent place in the people's worldview. The giving of these titles to the peo~ ple concerned is a dimension of their worldview. Thus in the process of communicating the gospel to the people, the missionary becomes aware of how the worldview o fthe local ...
Dimensions of Nonverbal Communication.
Overmier, Mary; And Others
After a brief description of the dimensions of nonverbal communication, this booklet presents 21 activities that deal with nonverbal communication. Activities in the booklet involve body movements (kinesics), facial expressions, eye movements, perception and use of space (proxemics), haptics (touch), paralinguistics (vocal elements that accompany…
A Many Particle Adiabatic Invariant
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjorth, Poul G.
1999-01-01
For a system of N charged particles moving in a homogeneous, sufficiently strong magnetic field, a many-particle adiabatic invariant constrains the collisional exchange of energy between the degrees of freedom perpendicular to and parallel to the magnetic field. A description of the phenomenon in...... in terms of Hamiltonian dynamics is given. The relation to the Equipartition Theorem of statistical Mechanics is briefly discussed....
Many-particle interference beyond many-boson and many-fermion statistics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tichy, Malte C.; Tiersch, Markus; Mintert, Florian
2012-01-01
that the collective interference of three or more particles leads to much more diverse behavior than expected from the boson–fermion dichotomy known from quantum statistical mechanics. The emerging complexity of many-particle interference is tamed by a simple law for the strict suppression of events in the Bell...... multiport beam splitter. The law shows that counting events are governed by widely species-independent interference, such that bosons and fermions can even exhibit identical interference signatures, while their statistical character remains subordinate. Recent progress in the preparation of tailored many...
Nef dimension of minimal models
Ambro, Florin
2003-01-01
We reduce the Abundance Conjecture in dimension 4 to the following numerical statement: if the canonical divisor K is nef and has maximal nef dimension, then K is big. From this point of view, we ``classify'' in dimension 2 nef divisors which have maximal nef dimension, but which are not big.
Polydactyly: how many disorders and how many genes? 2010 update.
Biesecker, Leslie G
2011-05-01
Limb development is clinically and biologically important. Polydactyly is common and caused by aberrant anterior-posterior patterning. Human disorders that include polydactyly are diverse. To facilitate an understanding of the biology of limb development, cataloging the genes that are mutated in patients with polydactyly would be useful. In 2002, I characterized human phenotypes that included polydactyly. Subsequently, many advances have occurred with refinement of clinical entities and identification of numerous genes. Here, I update human polydactyly entities by phenotype and mutated gene. This survey demonstrates phenotypes with overlapping manifestations, genetic heterogeneity, and distinct phenotypes generated from mutations in single genes. Among 310 clinical entities, 80 are associated with mutations in 99 genes. These results show that knowledge of limb patterning genetics is improving rapidly. Soon, we will have a comprehensive toolkit of genes important for limb development, which will lead to regenerative therapies for limb anomalies. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Polydactyly: How many disorders and how many genes: 2010 update
Biesecker, Leslie G.
2011-01-01
Limb development is clinically and biologically important. Polydactyly is common and caused by aberrant anterior-posterior patterning. Human disorders that include polydactyly are diverse. To facilitate an understanding of the biology of limb development, cataloging the genes that are mutated in patients with polydactyly would be useful. In 2002, I characterized human phenotypes that included polydactyly. Subsequently, many advances have occurred with refinement of clinical entities and identification of numerous genes. Here, I update human polydactyly entities by phenotype and mutated gene. This survey demonstrates phenotypes with overlapping manifestations, genetic heterogeneity, and distinct phenotypes generated from mutations in single genes. Among 310 clinical entities, 80 are associated with mutations in 99 genes. These results show that knowledge of limb patterning genetics is improving rapidly. Soon, we will have a comprehensive toolkit of genes important for limb development, which will lead to regenerative therapies for limb anomalies. PMID:21445961
SRD 166 MEMS Calculator (Web, free access) This MEMS Calculator determines the following thin film properties from data taken with an optical interferometer or comparable instrument: a) residual strain from fixed-fixed beams, b) strain gradient from cantilevers, c) step heights or thicknesses from step-height test structures, and d) in-plane lengths or deflections. Then, residual stress and stress gradient calculations can be made after an optical vibrometer or comparable instrument is used to obtain Young's modulus from resonating cantilevers or fixed-fixed beams. In addition, wafer bond strength is determined from micro-chevron test structures using a material test machine.
Exploring the few- to many-body crossover using cold atoms in one dimension
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas
2016-01-01
Cold atomic gases have provided us with a great number of opportunities for studying various physical systems under controlled conditions that are seldom offered in other fields. We are thus at the point where one can truly do quantum simulation of models that are relevant for instance in condensed...... numbers all the way down to the few-body regime. After a brief introduction to some of the relevant experiments, I will review recent theoretical work on one-dimensional quantum systems containing bosons, fermions, or mixtures of the two, with a particular emphasis on the case where the particles are held...
THE STRUCTURE OF COMMON PSYCHIATRIC-SYMPTOMS - HOW MANY DIMENSIONS OF NEUROSIS
ORMEL, J; OLDEHINKEL, AJ; GOLDBERG, DP; HODIAMONT, PPG; WILMINK, FW; BRIDGES, K
In order to replicate and elaborate the two-dimensional model of depression and anxiety underlying the structure of common psychiatric symptoms proposed by Goldberg et al. (1987), we carried out latent trait analyses on PSE symptom data of the original Manchester study and two recent Dutch studies.
Extended Symmetries at Black Hole Horizons in Generic Dimensions
Shi, Changfu
2016-01-01
We show that there exist infinite-dimensional BMS-like symmetries near the horizons of black holes in generic dimensions. In D dimensions, these symmetries contain D-2 pieces of superrotations and 2 pieces of supertranslations. We calculate the zero-mode charges by using the example of stationary black holes.
The Dimension of the Pore Space in Sponges
Silva, L. H. F.; Yamashita, M. T.
2009-01-01
A simple experiment to reveal the dimension of the pore space in sponges is proposed. This experiment is suitable for the first year of a physics or engineering course. The calculated dimension of the void space in a sponge of density 16 mg cm[superscript -3] was 2.948 [plus or minus] 0.008. (Contains 2 figures.)
New Dimensions for the Multicultural Education Course
Gay, Richard
2011-01-01
For the past sixteen years, the Five Dimensions of Multicultural Education, as proposed by James A. Banks (1995), have been accepted in many circles as the primary conceptual framework used in teaching multicultural education courses: content integration, the knowledge construction process, prejudice reduction, an equity pedagogy and an empowering…
Cultural dimensions of learning
Eyford, Glen A.
1990-06-01
How, what, when and where we learn is frequently discussed, as are content versus process, or right brain versus left brain learning. What is usually missing is the cultural dimension. This is not an easy concept to define, but various aspects can be identified. The World Decade for Cultural Development emphasizes the need for a counterbalance to a quantitative, economic approach. In the last century poets also warned against brutalizing materialism, and Sorokin and others have described culture more recently in terms of cohesive basic values expressed through aesthetics and institutions. Bloom's taxonomy incorporates the category of affective learning, which internalizes values. If cultural learning goes beyond knowledge acquisition, perhaps the surest way of understanding the cultural dimension of learning is to examine the aesthetic experience. This can use myths, metaphors and symbols, and to teach and learn by using these can help to unlock the human potential for vision and creativity.
Introduction to Extra Dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC
2010-04-29
Extra dimensions provide a very useful tool in addressing a number of the fundamental problems faced by the Standard Model. The following provides a very basic introduction to this very broad subject area as given at the VIII School of the Gravitational and Mathematical Physics Division of the Mexican Physical Society in December 2009. Some prospects for extra dimensional searches at the 7 TeV LHC with {approx}1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity are provided.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Emery, V.J.
1981-03-01
This article is a qualitative account of some aspects of physics in few dimensions, and its relationship to nonlinear field theories. After a survey of materials and some of the models that have been used to describe them, the various methods of solution are compared and contrasted. The roles of exact results, operator representations and the renormalization group transformation are described, and a uniform picture of the behavior of low-dimensional systems is presented.
How many dark energy parameters?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Linder, Eric V.; Huterer, Dragan
2005-05-16
For exploring the physics behind the accelerating universe a crucial question is how much we can learn about the dynamics through next generation cosmological experiments. For example, in defining the dark energy behavior through an effective equation of state, how many parameters can we realistically expect to tightly constrain? Through both general and specific examples (including new parametrizations and principal component analysis) we argue that the answer is 42 - no, wait, two. Cosmological parameter analyses involving a measure of the equation of state value at some epoch (e.g., w_0) and a measure of the change in equation of state (e.g., w') are therefore realistic in projecting dark energy parameter constraints. More elaborate parametrizations could have some uses (e.g., testing for bias or comparison with model features), but do not lead to accurately measured dark energy parameters.
A Two-Dimension Process in Explaining Learners' Collaborative Behaviors in CSCL
Hsu, Jung-Lung; Chou, Huey-Wen; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Chou, Shyan-Bin
2008-01-01
Computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) has captured many educators and researchers to contribute their efforts on this domain. This study proposed a two-dimension concept to explain learners' collaboration behaviors in a CSCL laboratory setting. A two-dimension process, namely perceptual dimensions and supportive dimensions, is useful to…
Low Bias Local Intrinsic Dimension Estimation from Expected Simplex Skewness.
Johnsson, Kerstin; Soneson, Charlotte; Fontes, Magnus
2015-01-01
In exploratory high-dimensional data analysis, local intrinsic dimension estimation can sometimes be used in order to discriminate between data sets sampled from different low-dimensional structures. Global intrinsic dimension estimators can in many cases be adapted to local estimation, but this leads to problems with high negative bias or high variance. We introduce a method that exploits the curse/blessing of dimensionality and produces local intrinsic dimension estimators that have very low bias, even in cases where the intrinsic dimension is higher than the number of data points, in combination with relatively low variance. We show that our estimators have a very good ability to classify local data sets by their dimension compared to other local intrinsic dimension estimators; furthermore we provide examples showing the usefulness of local intrinsic dimension estimation in general and our method in particular for stratification of real data sets.
Identity crisis of Th17 cells: many forms, many functions, many questions.
Sundrud, Mark S; Trivigno, Catherine
2013-11-15
Th17 cells are a subset of CD4(+) effector T cells characterized by expression of the IL-17-family cytokines, IL-17A and IL-17F. Since their discovery nearly a decade ago, Th17 cells have been implicated in the regulation of dozens of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases and cancer. However, attempts to clarify the development and function of Th17 cells in human health and disease have generated as many questions as answers. On one hand, cytokine expression in Th17 cells appears to be remarkably dynamic and is subject to extensive regulation (both positive and negative) in tissue microenvironments. On the other hand, accumulating evidence suggests that the human Th17 subset is a heterogeneous population composed of several distinct pro- and anti-inflammatory subsets. Clearly, Th17 cells as originally conceived no longer neatly fit the long-standing paradigm of stable and irrepressible effector T cell function. Here we review current concepts surrounding human Th17 cells, with an emphasis on their plasticity, heterogeneity, and their many, tissue-specific functions. In spite of the challenges ahead, a comprehensive understanding of Th17 cells and their relationship to human disease is key to ongoing efforts to develop safer and more selective anti-inflammatory medicines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Transfer Area Mechanical Handling Calculation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
B. Dianda
2004-06-23
This calculation is intended to support the License Application (LA) submittal of December 2004, in accordance with the directive given by DOE correspondence received on the 27th of January 2004 entitled: ''Authorization for Bechtel SAX Company L.L. C. to Include a Bare Fuel Handling Facility and Increased Aging Capacity in the License Application, Contract Number DE-AC28-01R W12101'' (Arthur, W.J., I11 2004). This correspondence was appended by further Correspondence received on the 19th of February 2004 entitled: ''Technical Direction to Bechtel SAIC Company L.L. C. for Surface Facility Improvements, Contract Number DE-AC28-OIRW12101; TDL No. 04-024'' (BSC 2004a). These documents give the authorization for a Fuel Handling Facility to be included in the baseline. The purpose of this calculation is to establish preliminary bounding equipment envelopes and weights for the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) transfer areas equipment. This calculation provides preliminary information only to support development of facility layouts and preliminary load calculations. The limitations of this preliminary calculation lie within the assumptions of section 5 , as this calculation is part of an evolutionary design process. It is intended that this calculation is superseded as the design advances to reflect information necessary to support License Application. The design choices outlined within this calculation represent a demonstration of feasibility and may or may not be included in the completed design. This calculation provides preliminary weight, dimensional envelope, and equipment position in building for the purposes of defining interface variables. This calculation identifies and sizes major equipment and assemblies that dictate overall equipment dimensions and facility interfaces. Sizing of components is based on the selection of commercially available products, where applicable. This is not a specific recommendation for the future use
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chaitanya S. Mudgal
2014-03-01
greater knowledge, better skills and disseminate this knowledge through this journal to influence as many physicians and their patients as possible. They have taken the knowledge of their teachers, recognized their giants and are now poised to see further than ever before. My grandmother often used to quote to me a proverb from India, which when translated literally means “Many drops make a lake”. I cannot help but be amazed by the striking similarities between the words of Newton and this Indian saying. Therefore, while it may seem intuitive, I think it must be stated that it is vital for the betterment of all our patients that we recognize our own personal lakes to put our drops of knowledge into. More important is that we recognize that it is incumbent upon each and every one of us to contribute to our collective lakes of knowledge such as ABJS. And finally and perhaps most importantly we need to be utterly cognizant of never letting such lakes of knowledge run dry.... ever.
The many faces of testosterone
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jerald Bain
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Jerald BainDepartment of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Testosterone is more than a “male sex hormone”. It is an important contributor to the robust metabolic functioning of multiple bodily systems. The abuse of anabolic steroids by athletes over the years has been one of the major detractors from the investigation and treatment of clinical states that could be caused by or related to male hypogonadism. The unwarranted fear that testosterone therapy would induce prostate cancer has also deterred physicians form pursuing more aggressively the possibility of hypogonadism in symptomatic male patients. In addition to these two mythologies, many physicians believe that testosterone is bad for the male heart. The classical anabolic agents, 17-alkylated steroids, are, indeed, potentially harmful to the liver, to insulin action to lipid metabolism. These substances, however, are not testosterone, which has none of these adverse effects. The current evidence, in fact, strongly suggests that testosterone may be cardioprotective. There is virtually no evidence to implicate testosterone as a cause of prostate cancer. It may exacerbate an existing prostate cancer, although the evidence is flimsy, but it does not likely cause the cancer in the first place. Testosterone has stimulatory effects on bones, muscles, erythropoietin, libido, mood and cognition centres in the brain, penile erection. It is reduced in metabolic syndrome and diabetes and therapy with testosterone in these conditions may provide amelioration by lowering LDL cholesterol, blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin and insulin resistance. The best measure is bio-available testosterone which is the fraction of testosterone not bound to sex hormone binding globulin. Several forms of testosterone administration are available making compliance
Aspects of grand unification in higher dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wingerter, A.
2005-07-01
We consider various aspects of string phenomenology in the context of heterotic orbifold constructions, where special emphasis is laid on the connection between GUT models in extra dimensions and their relation to string theory. We investigate orbifold models with more general structure than the Z{sub 3} orbifold, on which most of the past research had focused. The picture of the heterotic brane world which naturally emerges allows us to make contact to field theoretic orbifold constructions in five and six dimensions, which have recently attracted much attention. We present a classification scheme for inequivalent orbifold models and apply the results to the case of Z{sub 6}-II point group. We develop the mathematical background for a stringy Higgs mechanism which allows us to lower the rank of the gauge group in the higher dimensions, which cannot be achieved by contemporary orbifold constructions. We provide all the calculational methods needed to unambiguously identify the gauge symmetry and to construct the matter representations. For specific model constructions, we focus on two promising gauge groups, namely on SO(10) and E{sub 6}. In the latter case, we derive a GUT model in six dimensions which has a standard model like gauge symmetry SU(3) x SU (2) x U(1) x U(1)' in four dimensions, and discuss its embedding into string theory. (orig.)
On mammalian sperm dimensions.
Cummins, J M; Woodall, P F
1985-09-01
Data on linear sperm dimensions in mammals are presented. There is information on a total of 284 species, representing 6.2% of all species; 17.2% of all genera and 49.2% of all families have some representation, with quantitative information missing only from the orders Dermoptera, Pholidota, Sirenia and Tubulidentata. In general, sperm size is inverse to body mass (except for the Chiroptera), so that the smallest known spermatozoa are amongst those of artiodactyls and the largest are amongst those of marsupials. Most variations are due to differences in the lengths of midpiece and principal piece, with head lengths relatively uniform throughout the mammals.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frederiksen, Morten
2012-01-01
limited sets of exchange or work relations. This article revisits Simmel’s concept of trust as social form in order to investigate this differentiation. From an interview study, the differentiation and limits of trust are analysed within different types of social relations. Trust is found to vary greatly...... in scope and mode influenced by the intersecting dimensions of relations, objects and situations. Furthermore, trust exists between an outer threshold of expected deceit and an inner threshold of confident reliance. The findings from the qualitative study contribute new knowledge on the diversity of trust...
Bilingual Education's Needed Third Dimension.
Vasquez, James A.
1979-01-01
Besides linguistic and cultural components, bilingual education should include the "psychoinstructional dimension," that is, the dimension that includes a child's intellectual and personality traits derived from cultural and social class uniqueness. (Author/JM)
Huang, Nanmu; Zhang, Yu; Calawerts, William; Jiang, Jack J
2017-03-01
The present study aims to compare the correlation dimension and second-order entropy at the minimum embedding dimension with the correlation dimension (D2) and second-order entropy (K2) based on their efficiency and accuracy in differentiating between normal and pathologic voices. The minimum embedding dimension was estimated with the Cao method. Nonlinear dynamic parameters, such as correlation dimension and second-order entropy, were used to quantitatively analyze the normal and pathologic voice samples. The computing time of the correlation dimension and second-order entropy at the minimum embedding dimension was reduced to approximately one third of that of traditional D2 and K2 calculations, reflecting higher efficiency. The statistical results of linear fitting suggested that the correlation dimension was highly correlated to the correlation dimension at the minimum embedding dimension, and second-order entropy calculation was highly correlated to the second-order entropy at the minimum embedding dimension. Lastly, the results of statistical comparison proved that the correlation dimension at the minimum embedding dimension and second-order entropy at the minimum embedding dimension were able to significantly differentiate between normal and disordered voices (P dimension and second-order entropy at the minimum embedding dimension are valid analysis tools for the diagnosis of voice disorders. Additionally, the efficiency and accuracy of these parameters yield potential for clinical usage because of lower computation time than current methods. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Linear dimension reduction and Bayes classification
Decell, H. P., Jr.; Odell, P. L.; Coberly, W. A.
1978-01-01
An explicit expression for a compression matrix T of smallest possible left dimension K consistent with preserving the n variate normal Bayes assignment of X to a given one of a finite number of populations and the K variate Bayes assignment of TX to that population was developed. The Bayes population assignment of X and TX were shown to be equivalent for a compression matrix T explicitly calculated as a function of the means and covariances of the given populations.
A NOTE ON GORENSTEIN GLOBAL DIMENSION OF PULLBACK RINGS
Bennis, Driss
2010-01-01
The study of global dimension of pullback rings has been subject of several interesting works and has been served to solve many open problems. In this paper, we attempt to extend some results on the global dimension of pullback rings to the Gorenstein setting. As a particular case we discuss the transfer of the notion of Gorenstein rings in some particular pullback constructions.
1994-01-01
MathSoft Plus 5.0 is a calculation software package for electrical engineers and computer scientists who need advanced math functionality. It incorporates SmartMath, an expert system that determines a strategy for solving difficult mathematical problems. SmartMath was the result of the integration into Mathcad of CLIPS, a NASA-developed shell for creating expert systems. By using CLIPS, MathSoft, Inc. was able to save the time and money involved in writing the original program.
The Cultural Dimensions of Language Teaching and Learning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Risager, Karen
2011-01-01
Language teaching and learning has many different cultural dimensions, and over the years more and more of these have been the subject of research. The first dimension to be explored was that of content: the images of target language countries and the world that were offered in textbooks and pres...... and presented in class. The next dimension was that of the learner: the (inter)cultural learning, competence and identity of the learner or subject. The next dimension was context: the situation and role of language teaching and learning in society and in the world....
Molecular interactions with many-body methods
Bartlett, R. J.
1982-12-01
Modern military technology has become highly dependent on a detailed knowledge of atom-molecule and molecule-molecule interactions. This type of information is required in diverse defense applications including chemical laser development, in the detection and modeling of plumes, and in the decomposition of energetic materials. The description of forces governing molecular reactions is provided by potential energy surfaces. These surfaces are the crucial first step in dynamics calculations that provide required information about state-to-state cross-sections and rate constants. Since potential energy surfaces are not generally available from experiment, the most reliable approach to their determination lies in the development and application of predictive ab initio quantum mechanical methods. The following annual report describes our research on the development of many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) and related infinite-order coupled-cluster (CC) methods for potential energy surfaces.
Phenomenology of Extra Dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hewett, J.L.; /SLAC
2006-11-07
If the structure of spacetime is different than that readily observed, gravitational physics, particle physics and cosmology are all immediately affected. The physics of extra dimensions offers new insights and solutions to fundamental questions arising in these fields. Novel ideas and frameworks are continuously born and evolved. They make use of string theoretical features and tools and they may reveal if and how the 11-dimensional string theory is relevant to our four-dimensional world. We have outlined some of the experimental observations in particle and gravitational physics as well as astrophysical and cosmological considerations that can constrain or confirm these scenarios. These developing ideas and the wide interdisciplinary experimental program that is charted out to investigate them mark a renewed effort to describe the dynamics behind spacetime. We look forward to the discovery of a higher dimensional spacetime.
Dudas, E; Rubakov, V A
2006-01-01
We analyze the properties of a model with four-dimensional brane-localized Higgs type potential of a six dimensional scalar field satisfying the Dirichlet boundary condition on the boundary of a transverse two-dimensional compact space. The regularization of the localized couplings generates classical renormalization group running. A tachyonic mass parameter grows in the infrared, in analogy with the QCD gauge coupling in four dimensions. We find a phase transition at a critical value of the bare mass parameter such that the running mass parameter becomes large in the infrared precisely at the compactification scale. Below the critical coupling, the theory is in symmetric phase, whereas above it spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs. Close to the phase transition point there is a very light mode in the spectrum. The massive Kaluza-Klein spectrum at the critical coupling becomes independent of the UV cutoff.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl
2013-01-01
is largely dependent on regional media systems, yet the role this regional dimension plays has been largely overlooked. This article presents a comparative study of climate-change coverage in three geo-cultural regions, The Middle East, Scandinavia, and North America, and explores the link between global......Global perspectives and national approaches have dominated studies of climate-change communication, reflecting the global nature of climate change as well as the traditional research focus on national media systems. In the absence of a global public sphere, however, transnational issue attention...... climate-change communication and regional media systems. It finds that regional variations in climate-change communication carry important communicative implications concerning perceptions of climate change's relevance and urgency...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Uzelac Nikola
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Time dimension of marketing has got its place in literature. For example, the time is basic independent variable in widely accepted concepts of product life cycle and diffusion of innovation. In addition, efforts have been made to bring this issue to the theoretic basis of the discipline. But, some important areas are still under researched, or even disregarded. Moreover, projects directed at investigation of the real behavior of marketing managers are rare, and in normative sense very few options have been advocated. This particularly pertains to the issues of time horizon, durability of relations with customers, timeliness of decision-making, and time allocation by managers and customers. In this regard, the literature of strategic management contains solutions which might be useful, and the ideas of some authors from marketing deserve support.
Component analysis with different sets of constraints on different dimensions
Takane, Yoshio; Kiers, Henk A.L.; de Leeuw, J.
Many of the ''classical'' multivariate data analysis and multidimensional scaling techniques call far approximations by lower dimensional configurations. A model is proposed, in which different sets of linear constraints are imposed on different dimensions in component analysis and ''classical''
McCarty, George
1982-01-01
How THIS BOOK DIFFERS This book is about the calculus. What distinguishes it, however, from other books is that it uses the pocket calculator to illustrate the theory. A computation that requires hours of labor when done by hand with tables is quite inappropriate as an example or exercise in a beginning calculus course. But that same computation can become a delicate illustration of the theory when the student does it in seconds on his calculator. t Furthermore, the student's own personal involvement and easy accomplishment give hi~ reassurance and en couragement. The machine is like a microscope, and its magnification is a hundred millionfold. We shall be interested in limits, and no stage of numerical approximation proves anything about the limit. However, the derivative of fex) = 67.SgX, for instance, acquires real meaning when a student first appreciates its values as numbers, as limits of 10 100 1000 t A quick example is 1.1 , 1.01 , 1.001 , •••• Another example is t = 0.1, 0.01, in the functio...
Interactive Dimensioning of Parametric Models
Kelly, T.
2015-05-01
We propose a solution for the dimensioning of parametric and procedural models. Dimensioning has long been a staple of technical drawings, and we present the first solution for interactive dimensioning: A dimension line positioning system that adapts to the view direction, given behavioral properties. After proposing a set of design principles for interactive dimensioning, we describe our solution consisting of the following major components. First, we describe how an author can specify the desired interactive behavior of a dimension line. Second, we propose a novel algorithm to place dimension lines at interactive speeds. Third, we introduce multiple extensions, including chained dimension lines, controls for different parameter types (e.g. discrete choices, angles), and the use of dimension lines for interactive editing. Our results show the use of dimension lines in an interactive parametric modeling environment for architectural, botanical, and mechanical models. © 2015 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Kurt Erling
1986-01-01
Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety...... and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic...... approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very...
Topological magnetoelectric pump in three dimensions
Fukui, Takahiro; Fujiwara, Takanori
2017-11-01
We study the topological pump for a lattice fermion model mainly in three spatial dimensions. We first calculate the U(1) current density for the Dirac model defined in continuous space-time to review the known results as well as to introduce some technical details convenient for the calculations of the lattice model. We next investigate the U(1) current density for a lattice fermion model, a variant of the Wilson-Dirac model. The model we introduce is defined on a lattice in space but in continuous time, which is suited for the study of the topological pump. For such a model, we derive the conserved U(1) current density and calculate it directly for the (1 +1 )-dimensional system as well as (3 +1 )-dimensional system in the limit of the small lattice constant. We find that the current includes a nontrivial lattice effect characterized by the Chern number, and therefore the pumped particle number is quantized by the topological reason. Finally, we study the topological temporal pump in 3 +1 dimensions by numerical calculations. We discuss the relationship between the second Chern number and the first Chern number, the bulk-edge correspondence, and the generalized Streda formula which enables us to compute the second Chern number using the spectral asymmetry.
Simulation of Quantum Many-Body Dynamics for Generic Strongly-Interacting Systems
Meyer, Gregory; Machado, Francisco; Yao, Norman
2017-04-01
Recent experimental advances have enabled the bottom-up assembly of complex, strongly interacting quantum many-body systems from individual atoms, ions, molecules and photons. These advances open the door to studying dynamics in isolated quantum systems as well as the possibility of realizing novel out-of-equilibrium phases of matter. Numerical studies provide insight into these systems; however, computational time and memory usage limit common numerical methods such as exact diagonalization to relatively small Hilbert spaces of dimension 215 . Here we present progress toward a new software package for dynamical time evolution of large generic quantum systems on massively parallel computing architectures. By projecting large sparse Hamiltonians into a much smaller Krylov subspace, we are able to compute the evolution of strongly interacting systems with Hilbert space dimension nearing 230. We discuss and benchmark different design implementations, such as matrix-free methods and GPU based calculations, using both pre-thermal time crystals and the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model as examples. We also include a simple symbolic language to describe generic Hamiltonians, allowing simulation of diverse quantum systems without any modification of the underlying C and Fortran code.
A Survey of Dimension Reduction Techniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fodor, I K
2002-05-09
Advances in data collection and storage capabilities during the past decades have led to an information overload in most sciences. Researchers working in domains as diverse as engineering, astronomy, biology, remote sensing, economics, and consumer transactions, face larger and larger observations and simulations on a daily basis. Such datasets, in contrast with smaller, more traditional datasets that have been studied extensively in the past, present new challenges in data analysis. Traditional statistical methods break down partly because of the increase in the number of observations, but mostly because of the increase in the number of variables associated with each observation. The dimension of the data, is the number of variables that are measured on each observation. High-dimensional datasets present many mathematical challenges as well as some opportunities, and are bound to give rise to new theoretical developments. One of the problems with high-dimensional datasets is that, in many cases, not all the measured variables are ''important'' for understanding the underlying phenomena of interest. While certain computationally expensive novel methods can construct predictive models with high accuracy from high-dimensional data, it is still of interest in many applications to reduce the dimension of the original data prior to any modeling of the data. In this paper, we described several dimension reduction methods.
Collider Implications Of Extra Dimensions At Lhc
Reema
2005-01-01
Scope and method of study. The intent of this research is to consider multiple TeV-1-size extra compact dimensions in an asymmetric string compactification scenario in which the SM gauge bosons can propagate into the TeV-1-size extra dimensions while the SM fermions are confined to the usual SM D3-brane. The contributions that the KK excitations of the gluons, g*'s, make to the multijet cross sections in proton- proton collisions at the LHC energy are calculated. Fortran was used to do the calculations. Findings and conclusions. At very high pT, the dijet signal will either be enhanced significantly due to virtual g* exchanges or place a lower bound on the compactification scale of about 8 TeV. It is found that the dijet signal is very sensitive to three parameters—the compactification scale, the string scale, and the number of extra dimensions. Thus, although the dijet signal is much more sensitive to KK effects, the dijet signal alone does not provide sufficient information to deduce the number of...
Prakash, Manu
2011-01-01
Diversity and specialization of behavior in insects is unmatched. Insects hop, walk, run, jump, row, swim, glide and fly to propel themselves in a variety of environments. We have uncovered an unusual mode of propulsion of aerodynamic flight in two dimensions in Waterlilly Beetles \\emph{(Galerucella)}. The adult beetles, often found in water lilly ponds, propel themselves strictly in a two-dimensional plane on the surface of water via flapping wing flight. Here we analyze the aerodynamics of this peculiar flight mode with respect to forces exerted on the organism during flight. The complexity of 2-D flight is captured by accounting for additional forces beyond gravitational, thrust, lift and drag, exerted on the insect body in 3D flight. Understanding this constrained propulsion mode requires accounting for viscous drag, surface tension, buoyancy force, and capillary-wave drag. Moreover, dramatic differences exist in the magnitude of the resultant forces in 2D vs. 3D flight. Here, in this fluid dynamics video...
Hidden Photons in Extra Dimensions
Wallace, Chris J.; Jaeckel, Joerg; Roy, Sabyasachi
2013-01-01
Additional U(1) gauge symmetries and corresponding vector bosons, called hidden photons, interacting with the regular photon via kinetic mixing are well motivated in extensions of the Standard Model. Such extensions often exhibit extra spatial dimensions. In this note we investigate the effects of hidden photons living in extra dimensions. In four dimensions such a hidden photon is only detectable if it has a mass or if there exists additional matter charged under it. We note that in extra di...
DIMENSION STONE DEPOSITS IN CROATIA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Branko Crnković
1993-12-01
Full Text Available The geology, petrographycal composition and properties of dimension stone deposits in Croatia are described. Dimension stone deposits in the conception of mobilistic view of the genesis and structure of Dinarides, as well as after stratigraphic units, are considered. Valuation of the dimension stones of the active quarries is exposed. The marketable categories of dimension stone in Croatia are different varietes of limestones and calcareous clastites, primarly of Cretaceous age, and to lesser degree of Jurassic and Paleogene. The greatest part of deposits is concentrated in the Adriatic carbonate platform or Adriaticum.
Analytical estimation of the correlation dimension of integer lattices.
Lacasa, Lucas; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús
2014-12-01
Recently [L. Lacasa and J. Gómez-Gardeñes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 168703 (2013)], a fractal dimension has been proposed to characterize the geometric structure of networks. This measure is an extension to graphs of the so called correlation dimension, originally proposed by Grassberger and Procaccia to describe the geometry of strange attractors in dissipative chaotic systems. The calculation of the correlation dimension of a graph is based on the local information retrieved from a random walker navigating the network. In this contribution, we study such quantity for some limiting synthetic spatial networks and obtain analytical results on agreement with the previously reported numerics. In particular, we show that up to first order, the correlation dimension β of integer lattices ℤ(d) coincides with the Haussdorf dimension of their coarsely equivalent Euclidean spaces, β = d.
Causal Dynamical Triangulations in Four Dimensions
Görlich, Andrzej
2011-11-01
Recent results obtained within a non-perturbative approach to quantum gravity based on the method of four-dimensional Causal Dynamical Triangulations are described. The phase diagram of the model consists of three phases. In the physically most interesting phase, the time-translational symmetry is spontaneously broken. Calculations of expectation values required introducing procedures taking into account the inhomogeneity of configurations. It was shown that the dynamically emerged four-dimensional background geometry corresponds to a Euclidean de Sitter space and reveals no fractality at large distances. Measurements of the covariance matrix of scale factor fluctuations allowed to reconstruct the effective action, which remained in agreement with the discrete minisuperspace action. Values of the Hausdorff dimension and spectral dimension of three-dimensional spatial slices suggest their fractal nature, which was confirmed by a direct analysis of triangulation structure. The Monte Carlo algorithm used to obtain presented results is described.
Fractal dimension crossovers in turbulent passive scalar signals
Grossmann, S; Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef
1993-01-01
Abstract: The fractal dimension $\\delta_g^{(1)}$ of turbulent passive scalar signals is calculated from the fluid dynamical equation. $\\delta_g^{(1)}$ depends on the scale. For small Prandtl (or Schmidt) number $Pr 1$ one gets a third, intermediate range in which the signal is extremely wrinkled and has $D_\\theta(r)$ has a plateau. We calculate the $Pr$-dependence of the crossovers. Comparison with a numerical reduced wave vector set calculation gives good agreement with our predictions.
Beta Function and Anomalous Dimensions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco
2011-01-01
We demonstrate that it is possible to determine the coefficients of an all-order beta function linear in the anomalous dimensions using as data the two-loop coefficients together with the first one of the anomalous dimensions which are universal. The beta function allows to determine the anomalous...
Mathematics Teachers' Criteria of Dimension
Ural, Alattin
2014-01-01
The aim of the study is to determine mathematics teachers' decisions about dimensions of the geometric figures, criteria of dimension and consistency of decision-criteria. The research is a qualitative research and the model applied in the study is descriptive method on the basis of general scanning model. 15 mathematics teachers attended the…
Quantum scattering in one dimension
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barlette, Vania E. [Centro Universitario Franciscano, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Leite, Marcelo M. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Adhikari, Sadhan K. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2000-09-01
A self-contained discussion of non-relativistic quantum scattering is presented in the case of central potentials in one space dimension, which will facilitate the understanding of the more complex scattering theory in two and three dimensions. The present discussion illustrates in a simple way the concepts of partial-wave decomposition, phase shift, optical theorem and effective-range expansion. (author)
Anomalous Dimensions of Conformal Baryons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco
2016-01-01
We determine the anomalous dimensions of baryon operators for the three color theory as function of the number of massless flavours within the conformal window to the maximum known order in perturbation theory. We show that the anomalous dimension of the baryon is controllably small, within...
Point Pollution Sources Dimensioning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Georgeta CUCULEANU
2011-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper a method for determining the main physical characteristics of the point pollution sources is presented. It can be used to find the main physical characteristics of them. The main physical characteristics of these sources are top inside source diameter and physical height. The top inside source diameter is calculated from gas flow-rate. For reckoning the physical height of the source one takes into account the relation given by the proportionality factor, defined as ratio between the plume rise and physical height of the source. The plume rise depends on the gas exit velocity and gas temperature. That relation is necessary for diminishing the environmental pollution when the production capacity of the plant varies, in comparison with the nominal one.
Groupwise Dimension Reduction via Envelope Method.
Guo, Zifang; Li, Lexin; Lu, Wenbin; Li, Bing
2015-12-01
The family of sufficient dimension reduction (SDR) methods that produce informative combinations of predictors, or indices, are particularly useful for high dimensional regression analysis. In many such analyses, it becomes increasingly common that there is available a priori subject knowledge of the predictors; e.g., they belong to different groups. While many recent SDR proposals have greatly expanded the scope of the methods' applicability, how to effectively incorporate the prior predictor structure information remains a challenge. In this article, we aim at dimension reduction that recovers full regression information while preserving the predictor group structure. Built upon a new concept of the direct sum envelope, we introduce a systematic way to incorporate the group information in most existing SDR estimators. As a result, the reduction outcomes are much easier to interpret. Moreover, the envelope method provides a principled way to build a variety of prior structures into dimension reduction analysis. Both simulations and real data analysis demonstrate the competent numerical performance of the new method.
Box ladders in a noninteger dimension
Gonzalez, I.; Kondrashuk, I. N.
2013-11-01
We construct a family of triangle-ladder diagrams that can be calculated using the Belokurov-Usyukina loop reduction technique in d= 4-2ɛ dimensions. The main idea of the approach we propose is to generalize this loop reduction technique existing in d= 4 dimensions. We derive a recurrence relation between the result for an L-loop triangle-ladder diagram of this family and the result for an (L- 1)-loop triangleladder diagram of the same family. Because the proposed method combines analytic and dimensional regularizations, we must remove the analytic regularization at the end of the calculation by taking the double uniform limit in which the parameters of the analytic regularization vanish. In the position space, we obtain a diagram in the left-hand side of the recurrence relations in which the rung indices are 1 and all other indices are 1 - ɛ in this limit. Fourier transforms of diagrams of this type give momentum space diagrams with rung indices 1 - ɛ and all other indices 1. By a conformal transformation of the dual space image of this momentum space representation, we relate such a family of triangle-ladder momentum diagrams to a family of box-ladder momentum diagrams with rung indices 1 - ɛ and all other indices 1. Because any diagram from this family is reducible to a one-loop diagram, the proposed generalization of the Belokurov-Usyukina loop reduction technique to a noninteger number of dimensions allows calculating this family of box-ladder diagrams in the momentum space explicitly in terms of Appell's hypergeometric function F 4 without expanding in powers of the parameter ɛ in an arbitrary kinematic region in the momentum space.
Mani, Augustine and the vision of God
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2013-04-10
Apr 10, 2013 ... gaze through an open space in the material heaven of this world into that other realm. One is reminded of meditation techniques where one focuses on a disk, if that is not too fanciful an analogy. So, we can unpack various dimensions to the promise that the pure of heart shall see God. In directing one's ...
Fractal dimension metric for quantifying noise texture of computed tomography images
Khobragade, P.; Fan, Jiahua; Rupcich, Franco; Crotty, Dominic J.; Gilat Schmidt, Taly
2017-03-01
This study investigated a fractal dimension algorithm for noise texture quantification in CT images. Quantifying noise in CT images is important for assessing image quality. Noise is typically quantified by calculating noise standard deviation and noise power spectrum (NPS). Different reconstruction kernels and iterative reconstruction approaches affect both the noise magnitude and noise texture. The shape of the NPS can be used as a noise texture descriptor. However, the NPS requires numerous images for calculation and is a vector quantity. This study proposes the metric of fractal dimension to quantify noise texture, because fractal dimension is a single scalar metric calculated from a small number of images. Fractal dimension measures the complexity of a pattern. In this study, the ACR CT phantom was scanned and images were reconstructed using filtered back-projection with three reconstruction kernels: bone, soft and standard. Regions of interest were extracted from the uniform section of the phantom for NPS and fractal dimension calculation. The results demonstrated a mean fractal dimension of 1.86 for soft kernel, 1.92 for standard kernel, and 2.16 for bone kernel. Increasing fractal dimension corresponded to shift in the NPS towards higher spatial frequencies and grainier noise appearance. Stable fractal dimension was calculated from two ROI's compared to more than 250 ROI's used for NPS calculation. The scalar fractal dimension metric may be a useful noise texture descriptor for evaluating or optimizing reconstruction algorithms.
Supersymmetric R4-actions in ten dimensions
de Roo, M.; Suelmann, H.; Wiedemann, A.
1992-01-01
We construct supersymmetric R+R4-actions in ten dimensions. Two invariants, of which the bosonic parts are known from string amplitude and sigma model calculations, are obtained. One of these invariants can be generalized to an R+F2+F4-invariant for supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory coupled to supergravity. Supersymmetry requires the presence of B ^ R ^ R ^ R ^ R-terms, (B ^ F ^ F ^ F ^ F for Yang-Mills) which correspond to counterterms in the Green-Schwarz anomaly cancellation.
Fractal Dimension versus Process Complexity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joost J. Joosten
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We look at small Turing machines (TMs that work with just two colors (alphabet symbols and either two or three states. For any particular such machine τ and any particular input x, we consider what we call the space-time diagram which is basically the collection of consecutive tape configurations of the computation τ(x. In our setting, it makes sense to define a fractal dimension for a Turing machine as the limiting fractal dimension for the corresponding space-time diagrams. It turns out that there is a very strong relation between the fractal dimension of a Turing machine of the above-specified type and its runtime complexity. In particular, a TM with three states and two colors runs in at most linear time, if and only if its dimension is 2, and its dimension is 1, if and only if it runs in superpolynomial time and it uses polynomial space. If a TM runs in time O(xn, we have empirically verified that the corresponding dimension is (n+1/n, a result that we can only partially prove. We find the results presented here remarkable because they relate two completely different complexity measures: the geometrical fractal dimension on one side versus the time complexity of a computation on the other side.
Thermal dimension of quantum spacetime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni, E-mail: amelino@roma1.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università “La Sapienza” and Sez. Roma1 INFN, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Brighenti, Francesco [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Università di Bologna and Sez. Bologna INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Gubitosi, Giulia [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Santos, Grasiele [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università “La Sapienza” and Sez. Roma1 INFN, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)
2017-04-10
Recent results suggest that a crucial crossroad for quantum gravity is the characterization of the effective dimension of spacetime at short distances, where quantum properties of spacetime become significant. This is relevant in particular for various scenarios of “dynamical dimensional reduction” which have been discussed in the literature. We are here concerned with the fact that the related research effort has been based mostly on analyses of the “spectral dimension”, which involves an unphysical Euclideanization of spacetime and is highly sensitive to the off-shell properties of a theory. As here shown, different formulations of the same physical theory can have wildly different spectral dimension. We propose that dynamical dimensional reduction should be described in terms of the “thermal dimension” which we here introduce, a notion that only depends on the physical content of the theory. We analyze a few models with dynamical reduction both of the spectral dimension and of our thermal dimension, finding in particular some cases where thermal and spectral dimension agree, but also some cases where the spectral dimension has puzzling properties while the thermal dimension gives a different and meaningful picture.
Thermal dimension of quantum spacetime
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giovanni Amelino-Camelia
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Recent results suggest that a crucial crossroad for quantum gravity is the characterization of the effective dimension of spacetime at short distances, where quantum properties of spacetime become significant. This is relevant in particular for various scenarios of “dynamical dimensional reduction” which have been discussed in the literature. We are here concerned with the fact that the related research effort has been based mostly on analyses of the “spectral dimension”, which involves an unphysical Euclideanization of spacetime and is highly sensitive to the off-shell properties of a theory. As here shown, different formulations of the same physical theory can have wildly different spectral dimension. We propose that dynamical dimensional reduction should be described in terms of the “thermal dimension” which we here introduce, a notion that only depends on the physical content of the theory. We analyze a few models with dynamical reduction both of the spectral dimension and of our thermal dimension, finding in particular some cases where thermal and spectral dimension agree, but also some cases where the spectral dimension has puzzling properties while the thermal dimension gives a different and meaningful picture.
Block, Louis Stuart
1992-01-01
The behaviour under iteration of unimodal maps of an interval, such as the logistic map, has recently attracted considerable attention. It is not so widely known that a substantial theory has by now been built up for arbitrary continuous maps of an interval. The purpose of the book is to give a clear account of this subject, with complete proofs of many strong, general properties. In a number of cases these have previously been difficult of access. The analogous theory for maps of a circle is also surveyed. Although most of the results were unknown thirty years ago, the book will be intelligible to anyone who has mastered a first course in real analysis. Thus the book will be of use not only to students and researchers, but will also provide mathematicians generally with an understanding of how simple systems can exhibit chaotic behaviour.
The Ethical Dimension of Innovation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nogueira, Leticia Antunes; Nogueira, Tadeu Fernando
2014-01-01
The view of innovation as a positive concept has been deeply rooted in business and academic cultures ever since Schumpeter coined the concept of creative destruction. Even though there is a large body of literature on innovation studies, limited attention has been given to its ethical dimension....... In this chapter, the ethical implications of innovations are illustrated with a case study of “destructive creation” in the food industry, and upon which an argumentative analysis is conducted. The main message of this chapter is that innovations have inherent ethical dimensions and that quality innovations...... depend on systematic consideration of these dimensions in the innovation process....
Preimage entropy dimension of topological dynamical systems
Liu, Lei; Zhou, Xiaomin; Zhou, Xiaoyao
2014-01-01
We propose a new definition of preimage entropy dimension for continuous maps on compact metric spaces, investigate fundamental properties of the preimage entropy dimension, and compare the preimage entropy dimension with the topological entropy dimension. The defined preimage entropy dimension holds various basic properties of topological entropy dimension, for example, the preimage entropy dimension of a subsystem is bounded by that of the original system and topologically conjugated system...
Modified dispersion relations in extra dimensions
Sefiedgar, A S; Sepangi, H R
2010-01-01
It has recently been shown that the thermodynamics of a FRW universe can be fully derived using the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) in extra dimensions as a primary input. There is a phenomenologically close relation between the GUP and Modified Dispersion Relations (MDR). However, the form of the MDR in theories with extra dimensions is as yet not known. The purpose of this letter is to derive the MDR in extra dimensional scenarios. To achieve this goal, we focus our attention on the thermodynamics of a FRW universe within a proposed MDR in an extra dimensional model universe. We then compare our results with the well-known results for the thermodynamics of a FRW universe in an extra dimensional GUP setup. The result shows that the entropy functionals calculated in these two approaches are the same, pointing to a possible conclusion that these approaches are equivalent. In this way, we derive the MDR form in a model universe with extra dimensions that would have interesting implications on the constr...
Jin, Shi; Bulgac, Aurel; Roche, Kenneth; Wlazłowski, Gabriel
2017-04-01
Self-consistent approaches to superfluid many-fermion systems in three dimensions (and their subsequent use in time-dependent studies) require a large number of diagonalizations of very large dimension Hermitian matrices, which results in enormous computational costs. We present an approach based on the shifted conjugate-orthogonal conjugate-gradient (COCG) Krylov method for the evaluation of the Green's function, from which we subsequently extract various densities (particle number, spin, current, kinetic energy, anomalous, etc.) of a nuclear system. The approach eschews the determination of the quasiparticle wave functions and their corresponding quasiparticle energies, which never explicitly appear in the construction of a single-particle Hamiltonian or needed for the calculation of various static nuclear properties, which depend only on densities. As benchmarks we present calculations for nuclei with axial symmetry, including the ground state of spherical (magic or semimagic) and axially deformed nuclei, the saddle point in the 240Pu constrained fission path, and a vortex in the neutron star crust, and demonstrate the superior efficiency of the shifted COCG Krylov method over traditional approaches.
Wavelet dimensions and time evolution
Guérin, Charles-Antoine; Holschneider, Matthias
1999-01-01
International audience; In this chapter, we study some aspects of the chaotic behaviour of the time evolution generated by Hamiltonian systems, or more generally dynamical systems. We introduce a characteristic quantity, namely the lacunarity dimension, to quantify the intermittency phenomena that can arise in the time evolution. We then focus on the time evolution of wave packets according to the Schrödinger equation with time independent Hamiltonian. We introduce a set of fractal dimensions...
Timbre Dimensions for Musical Control
Giese, Gregory Roy
This dissertation addresses the folowing question: Given the technologies to develop and implement any kind of sound generating and controlling device, what will the instrument designer, the composer, and the performer need to know in order to more fully utilize the dimensions of timbre in music and musical performance? This question is approached from the standpoint of music theory. Definitions of timbre and a few examples of related physical and perceptual research are reviewed. Included is a discussion of the essential elements of musical control and of intelligent organization of sound in music. This discussion raises more questions than can be answered simply. It is an attempt to unravel the nature of sound clues and sound qualities as they convey sound identities and musical gesture. A theoretical simplification of sound dimensions for musical use is proposed. Sounds which can be sustained indefinitely consist of steady-state acoustical dimensions. These dimensions rely upon the perceptual phenomenon of simultaneous fusion (synance). Sounds which can not be sustained indefinitely consist of transitions. Transitions may cause successive fusion (sonance). The discussion of steady-state and transition dimensions includes a review of a few informal experiments. This work reveals problems that will influence the musical use of timbre dimensions. It also leads to a theory for the organization and control of timbre dimensions in music. Among the timbre dimensions discussed are: spectral envelope, harmonic content, brightness, phase, inharmonicity, aperiodicity, and temporal transitions. Questions are raised regarding the perception of harmonic content. The effect of register on perception of tones consisting of from two to nine partials is explored and discussed. The size of interval between partials determines a unique quality. This is most apparent with tones consisting of only two or three partials (dions or trions).
Kong, Kyoungchul; Servant, Geraldine
2010-01-01
We discuss the motivation and the phenomenology of models with either flat or warped extra dimensions. We describe the typical mass spectrum and discovery signatures of such models at the LHC. We also review several proposed methods for discriminating the usual low-energy supersymmetry from a model with flat (universal) extra dimensions. (For the official website of the book, see http://cambridge.org/us/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521763684 .)
The Sirens of Eleven Dimensions
Ramond, Pierre
While most theorists are tied to the mast of four dimensions, some have found it irresistible to speculate about eleven dimensions, the domain of M-theory. We outline a program which starts from the light-cone description of supergravity, and tracks its divergences to suggest the existence of an infinite component theory which in the lightcone relies on the coset F4/SO(9), long known to be linked to the Exceptional Jordan Algebra
Treatment Effects with Many Covariates and Heteroskedasticity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cattaneo, Matias D.; Jansson, Michael; Newey, Whitney K.
The linear regression model is widely used in empirical work in Economics. Researchers often include many covariates in their linear model specification in an attempt to control for confounders. We give inference methods that allow for many covariates and heteroskedasticity. Our results...... then propose a new heteroskedasticity consistent standard error formula that is fully automatic and robust to both (conditional) heteroskedasticity of unknown form and the inclusion of possibly many covariates. We apply our findings to three settings: (i) parametric linear models with many covariates, (ii......) semiparametric semi-linear models with many technical regressors, and (iii) linear panel models with many fixed effects...
Space - the essential dimension of sustainable development
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buch-Hansen, Mogens
be accumulated as waste being an obstacle for new development. If this circular process can be repeated indefinitely, the development is truly sustainable. However, sustainability involves many aspects, and most importantly the aims of development. That includes the meaning of value and hereby the moral/ethical...... their needs. The articles tries to illustrate how space, as the combination of natural resources, environments and man-made capital, is the basic and most important dimension of sustainability. The article aims at giving an overview of the basic interdependence of natural resource endowment, technological...
Geometry, relativity and the fourth dimension
Rucker, Rudolf
1977-01-01
This is a highly readable, popular exposition of the fourth dimension and the structure of the universe. A remarkable pictorial discussion of the curved space-time we call home, it achieves even greater impact through the use of 141 excellent illustrations. This is the first sustained visual account of many important topics in relativity theory that up till now have only been treated separately.Finding a perfect analogy in the situation of the geometrical characters in Flatland, Professor Rucker continues the adventures of the two-dimensional world visited by a three-dimensional being to expl
Dimension-Independent Likelihood-Informed MCMC
Cui, Tiangang
2015-01-07
Many Bayesian inference problems require exploring the posterior distribution of high-dimensional parameters, which in principle can be described as functions. By exploiting low-dimensional structure in the change from prior to posterior [distributions], we introduce a suite of MCMC samplers that can adapt to the complex structure of the posterior distribution, yet are well-defined on function space. Posterior sampling in nonlinear inverse problems arising from various partial di erential equations and also a stochastic differential equation are used to demonstrate the e ciency of these dimension-independent likelihood-informed samplers.
Strongly Interacting Fermi Gases in Two Dimensions
2012-07-17
provide a benchmark for many-body theories on strongly Figure 1 Figure 1 Evolution of Fermion Pairing from Three to Two Dimensions. Radio -Frequency...form: H = ~ 2k2 2m − gµB ~ S · (B(D) + B(R) + B(Z)), (1) where g is the electron g-factor, µB is the Bohr magneton and S is the electron spin. The...in spin distributions between AXMSPs and radio MSPs, because radio MSPs, which have weak surface magnetic field strengths, could not spin down by the
Phase structure of a surface model with many fine holes.
Koibuchi, H
2008-07-01
We study the phase structure of a surface model by using the canonical Monte Carlo simulation technique on triangulated, fixed connectivity, and spherical surfaces with many fine holes. The size of a hole is assumed to be of the order of lattice spacing (or bond length) and hence can be negligible compared to the surface size in the thermodynamic limit. We observe in the numerical data that the model undergoes a first-order collapsing transition between the smooth phase and the collapsed phase. Moreover the Hasudorff dimension H remains in the physical bound, i.e., H model in this paper and the previous one with many holes, whose size is of the order of the surface size, because the previous surface model with large-sized holes has only the collapsing transition and no transition of surface fluctuations.
Extra dimensions in space and time
Bars, Itzhak
2010-01-01
Covers topics such as Einstein and the Fourth Dimension; Waves in a Fifth Dimension; and String Theory and Branes Experimental Tests of Extra Dimensions. This book offers a discussion on Two-Time Physics
A Note on Gorenstein Flat Dimension
Bennis, D.
2008-01-01
Unlike the Gorenstein projective and injective dimensions, the majority of results on the Gorenstein flat dimension have been established only over Noetherian (or coherent) rings. Naturally, one would like to generalize these results to any associative ring. In this direction, we show that the Gorenstein flat dimension is a refinement of the classical flat dimension over any ring; and we investigate the relations between the Gorenstein projective dimension and the Gorenstein flat dimension.
Formation energies of silicon nanocrystals: role of dimension and passivation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Degoli, Elena; Ossicini, Stefano; Bisi, O. [INFM-S' ' 3 and Dipartimento di Scienze e Metodi dell' Ingegneria, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via Allegri 13, 42100, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Cantele, G.; Ninno, D. [INFM and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , via Cintia, 80126, Napoli (Italy); Luppi, Eleonora; Magri, Rita [INFM-S' ' 3 and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via Campi 213/A, 41100, Modena (Italy)
2005-06-01
The structural properties of small silicon nanoclusters as a function of dimension and surface passivation are studied from ab initio technique. The formation energies are calculated and the relative stability of the considered clusters is predicted and discussed. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
LEGO Dimensions meets Doctor Who: Transbranding and New Dimensions of Transmedia Storytelling?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matt Hills
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This article explores how the ‘toys-to-life’ videogame LEGO Dimensions (WarnerBros. Interactive Entertainment/Traveller’s Tales/The LEGO Group, 2015 mashes upmany different franchise storyworlds and brands. Specifically, I focus on how DoctorWho (BBC, 1963—, the British TV science fiction series, is licensed and transmediallyengaged with in Dimensions. I consider how the transbranding of LEGO Dimensionsappears to co-opt children’s “transgressive play” (Nørgård and Toft-Nielsen, 2014by combining intellectual properties, but actually continues to operate according tologics of shared corporate ownership where many of the combined storyworlds areultimately owned by Time Warner (placing Dimensions in competition with Disney’sown ‘toys-to-life’ game. Considering what value might accrue to the brand of DoctorWho by participating in LEGO Dimensions, I identify this as a particular example of“What If?” transmedia (Mittell, 2015, arguing that LEGO Dimensions’ Doctor Whonevertheless fluctuates in terms of its brand (inauthenticity. The Starter Pack remainscloser to LEGO Games’/Traveller’s Tales’ established format, subordinating Who, whilstthe separate Level Pack engages more precisely with Doctor Who’s history, albeit stilldisplaying some notable divergences from the TV series (Booth, 2015. Although LEGODimensions challenges influential theories of transmedia storytelling (Jenkins, 2006;Aldred, 2014, its transbranding and child/adult targeting accord with established approachesto transmedia licensing (Santo 2015 and fan-consumer socialization (Kinder1991.
The Existential Dimension of Right
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hartz, Emily
2017-01-01
The following article paves out the theoretical ground for a phenomenological discussion of the existential dimension of right. This refers to a dimension of right that is not captured in standard treatments of right, namely the question of whether – or how the concept of rights relates...... for discussing the existential dimension of right by bringing central parts of Fichte’s and Arendt’s work into dialogue. By facilitating this – admittedly unusual – dialogue between Fichte and Arendt the author explicates how, for both Fichte and Arendt, the concept of right can only be adequately understood...... as referring to the existential condition of plurality and uses this insight to draw up a theoretical ground for further phenomenological analysis of right....
Fractal dimensions of solar activity
Watari, Shinichi
1995-05-01
Solar activity changes in amplitude and long-term behavior irregularly. Fractal theory is used to examine the variation of solar activity, using daily solar indices (i.e., sunspot number, 10.7 cm radio flux, the SME L alpha, Fe XIV coronal emission, and the total solar irradiance measured by the Earth Radiation Budget (ERG) on the NIMBUS-7. It can handle irregular variations quantitatively. The fractal dimension of 10.7 cm radio fluxes in cycle 21 for periods of approximately 7 days or less was 1.28, 1.3 for periods longer than approximately 272 days, and 1.86 for periods between them, for example. Fractal dimensions for other solar indices show similar tendencies. These results suggest that solar activity varies more irregularly for time scales that are longer than several days and shorter than several months. Yearly values of fractal dimensions and bending points do not change in concert with the solar cycle.
Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonesteel, Nicholas E [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)
2015-01-31
This report summarizes the work accomplished under the support of US DOE grant # DE-FG02-97ER45639, "Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions." The underlying hypothesis of the research supported by this grant has been that studying the unique behavior of correlated electrons in reduced dimensions can lead to new ways of understanding how matter can order and how it can potentially be used. The systems under study have included i) fractional quantum Hall matter, which is realized when electrons are confined to two-dimensions and placed in a strong magnetic field at low temperature, ii) one-dimensional chains of spins and exotic quasiparticle excitations of topologically ordered matter, and iii) electrons confined in effectively ``zero-dimensional" semiconductor quantum dots.
The Existential Dimension of Right
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hartz, Emily
2017-01-01
for discussing the existential dimension of right by bringing central parts of Fichte’s and Arendt’s work into dialogue. By facilitating this – admittedly unusual – dialogue between Fichte and Arendt the author explicates how, for both Fichte and Arendt, the concept of right can only be adequately understood......The following article paves out the theoretical ground for a phenomenological discussion of the existential dimension of right. This refers to a dimension of right that is not captured in standard treatments of right, namely the question of whether – or how the concept of rights relates...... to the ontological and existential question of how we come to express ourselves as individuals in a plural world. While this question is phenomenological in nature, it is not treated within the otherwise diverse field of phenomenology of law. The author therefore looks outside this tradition and develops a framework...
Physics with large extra dimensions
Antoniadis, Ignatios
2004-01-01
The recent understanding of string theory opens the possibility that the string scale can be as low as a few TeV. The apparent weakness of gravitational interactions can then be accounted by the existence of large internal dimensions, in the submillimeter region. Furthermore, our world must be confined to live on a brane transverse to these large dimensions, with which it interacts only gravitationally. In my lecture, I describe briefly this scenario which gives a new theoretical framework for solving the gauge hierarchy problem and the unification of all interactions. I also discuss its main properties and implications for observations at both future particle colliders, and in non-accelerator gravity experiments. Such e®ects are for instance the production of Kaluza-Klein resonances, graviton emission in the bulk of extra dimensions, and a radical change of gravitational forces in the submillimeter range.
Physics with large extra dimensions
Antoniadis, Ignatios
2004-01-01
The recent understanding of string theory opens the possibility that the string scale can be as low as a few TeV. The apparent weakness of gravitational interactions can then be accounted by the existence of large internal dimensions, in the submillimeter region. Furthermore, our world must be confined to live on a brane transverse to these large dimensions, with which it interacts only gravitationally. In my lecture, I describe briefly this scenario which gives a new theoretical framework for solving the gauge hierarchy problem and the unification of all interactions. I also discuss its main properties and implications for observations at both future particle colliders, and in non-accelerator gravity experiments. Such effects are for instance the production of Kaluza-Klein resonances, graviton emission in the bulk of extra dimensions, and a radical change of gravitational forces in the submillimeter range.
Critical dimension: MEMS road map
Poulingue, Marc; Knutrud, Paul
2007-03-01
The use of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology in mechanical, biotechnology, optical, communications, and ink jet is growing. Critical dimensions in MEMS devices are getting smaller and processes are constantly facing new metrology challenges. This paper will examine some critical dimension metrology needs and challenges for MEMS using resist-on-silicon structures. It is shown that the use of automated optical CD metrology can meet emerging measurement requirements while bringing the advantages of a non-destructive, high throughput and precise methodology.
The Creative Dimension of Visuality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Michelsen, Anders Ib
2013-01-01
own appearance. It will indicate an alternative conceptual framework based on Johann P. Arnason’s draft of tripartite culturalization which focuses on a shift from essences to dimensions of culture. This will be further developed by relating Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s idea of ‘chiasm’ of ‘the visible...... and the invisible’ to the notion of collective creativity and ‘the imaginary institution of society’ of Cornelius Castoriadis. In the theoretical relationship between Merleau-Ponty and Castoriadis it is possible to indicate a notion of visuality as a creative dimension....
40 Years of Calculus in 4 + epsilon Dimensions
Bietenholz, Wolfgang
2012-01-01
Modern physics describes elementary particles by a formalism known as Quantum Field Theory. However, straight calculations with this formalism lead to numerous divergences, hence one needs a suitable regularization scheme. 40 years ago a surprising scheme was established for this purpose: Dimensional Regularization. One computes in "4 + epsilon space-time dimensions", and takes the limit to our 4 dimensional space-time at the end. This method caused a revolution in particle physics, which led to the Standard Model. Many people refer to its results, and even apply it, without being aware that its history actually started in Latin America, more precisely in La Plata, Argentina. ----- La f\\'isica moderna describe a las part\\'iculas elementales por medio del formalismo conocido como Teor\\'ia Cu\\'antica de Campos. Sin embargo, los c\\'alculos directos realizados con este formalismo llevan a una gran cantidad de divergencias, por lo que es necesario un m\\'etodo para regularizarlos. Hace 40 a\\~nos se estableci\\'o un ...
Multilayer optical calculations
Byrnes, Steven J
2016-01-01
When light hits a multilayer planar stack, it is reflected, refracted, and absorbed in a way that can be derived from the Fresnel equations. The analysis is treated in many textbooks, and implemented in many software programs, but certain aspects of it are difficult to find explicitly and consistently worked out in the literature. Here, we derive the formulas underlying the transfer-matrix method of calculating the optical properties of these stacks, including oblique-angle incidence, absorption-vs-position profiles, and ellipsometry parameters. We discuss and explain some strange consequences of the formulas in the situation where the incident and/or final (semi-infinite) medium are absorptive, such as calculating $T>1$ in the absence of gain. We also discuss some implementation details like complex-plane branch cuts. Finally, we derive modified formulas for including one or more "incoherent" layers, i.e. very thick layers in which interference can be neglected. This document was written in conjunction with ...
Against ``Against Many-Worlds Interpretations''
Sakaguchi, Toshifumi
1997-01-01
The paper entitled ``Against Many-Worlds Interpretations'' by A. Kent, which has recently been submitted to the e-Print archive (gr-qc/9703089) contained some misconceptions. The claims on Everett's many-worlds interpretation are quoted and answered.
Dimensions of Public Library Effectiveness.
Childers, Thomas; Van House, Nancy A.
1989-01-01
Describes a national survey in which 7 public library constituent groups rated the degree to which 61 indicators helped describe a library. Dimensions of effectiveness were then developed through factor analysis on the indicator choices. A full list of indicators, a list of collapsed indicators, and the results of the factor analysis are appended.…
Massive Gravity in Three Dimensions
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Townsend, Paul K.
2009-01-01
A particular higher-derivative extension of the Einstein-Hilbert action in three spacetime dimensions is shown to be equivalent at the linearized level to the (unitary) Pauli-Fierz action for a massive spin-2 field. A more general model, which also includes "topologically-massive" gravity as a
Nonlinear Filtering in High Dimension
2014-06-02
Dan Crisan , Ajay Jasra, and Nick Whiteley. Error bounds and normalizing constants for sequential Monte Carlo in high dimensions, 2012. Preprint arxiv... Crisan and Boris Rozovskĭı, editors. The Oxford handbook of nonlinear filtering. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011. [14] T. de la Rue, R
supersymmetry breaking with extra dimensions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
physics pp. 497-511 supersymmetry breaking with extra dimensions. FABIO ZWIRNER. Theory Division, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland. On leave from: Physics ... theory which accounts for all the observed interactions at the presently available ... For some standard reviews of sUsY and of the MssM, with lists.
Heat conduction in three dimensions
Danza, T. M.; Fesler, L. W.; Mongan, R. D.
1980-01-01
Multidimensional heat conduction program computes transient temperature history and steady state temperatures of complex body geometries in three dimensions. Emphasis is placed on type of problems associated with Space Shuttle thermal protection system, but program could be used in thermal analysis of most three dimensional systems.
The Feeling Dimension in Reading.
Ediger, Marlow
The feeling dimension of students cannot be ignored in teaching and learning situations. Feelings are there and must not be ignored. Reading stresses word recognition, comprehension of subject matter at diverse levels of complexity, and application of what has been learned. A major ingredient so frequently left out is student appreciation of the…
Physics with large extra dimensions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Early motivation for large extra dimensions. Attempts to construct a consistent theory for quantum gravity have led only to one candidate: the string theory. The only vacuum of string theory free of any pathologies are supersymmetric. Not being observed in nature, supersymmetry should be broken. In contrast to ordinary ...
Quantum Gravity in Two Dimensions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ipsen, Asger Cronberg
The topic of this thesis is quantum gravity in 1 + 1 dimensions. We will focus on two formalisms, namely Causal Dynamical Triangulations (CDT) and Dy- namical Triangulations (DT). Both theories regularize the gravity path integral as a sum over triangulations. The difference lies in the class...
Manual tracking in three dimensions.
Mrotek, L.A.; Gielen, C.C.A.M.; Flanders, M.
2006-01-01
Little is known about the manual tracking of targets that move in three dimensions. In the present study, human subjects followed, with the tip of a hand-held pen, a virtual target moving four times (period 5 s) around a novel, unseen path. Two basic types of target paths were used: a peanut-shaped
Physics with large extra dimensions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The recent understanding of string theory opens the possibility that the string scale can be as low as a few TeV. The apparent weakness of gravitational interactions can then be accounted by the existence of large internal dimensions, in the sub-millimeter region. Furthermore, our world must be confined to live on a brane ...
Cosmology With Dynamical Extra Dimensions
Erickson, J K
2005-01-01
Nearly every attempt to unify the fundamental forces incorporates the idea of compact extra dimensions. The notion was introduced by Kaluza and Klein in the 1920s and is an essential part of contemporary string theory and M-theory. In most treatments the extra dimensions are static. We consider the consequences of extra dimensions with time-varying radii. The radii are modeled by light scalar fields. These may have unusual properties which produce observable effects, such as non-canonical kinetic energies, couplings to matter and radiation, and non- minimal coupling to gravity. Extra dimensions may be responsible for dark energy in the late universe. The simplest model of dark energy is characterized by its equation of state. We show that constraints placed on realistic models by the universality of free fall, variation of fundamental constants and metric tests of gravity are often stricter than bounds on the equation of state. Testing the equivalence principle maybe an effective way of distinguishing some qu...
Dimensions of Temperament: An Analysis
Lorr, Maurice; Stefic, Edward C.
1976-01-01
The objectives of this study were (a) to examine the dimensionality of the Thorndike Dimensions of Temperament (TDOT) when administered in a single stimulus form; and (b) to test a set of hypotheses relative to the constructs measured in the TDOT. (Author/RK)
THE DIMENSIONS OF COMPOSITION ANNOTATION.
MCCOLLY, WILLIAM
ENGLISH TEACHER ANNOTATIONS WERE STUDIED TO DETERMINE THE DIMENSIONS AND PROPERTIES OF THE ENTIRE SYSTEM FOR WRITING CORRECTIONS AND CRITICISMS ON COMPOSITIONS. FOUR SETS OF COMPOSITIONS WERE WRITTEN BY STUDENTS IN GRADES 9 THROUGH 13. TYPESCRIPTS OF THE COMPOSITIONS WERE ANNOTATED BY CLASSROOM ENGLISH TEACHERS. THEN, 32 ENGLISH TEACHERS JUDGED…
The Subjective Dimension of Nazism
Föllmer, M.
2013-01-01
The present historiographical review discusses the subjective dimension of Nazism, an ideology and regime that needed translation into self-definitions, gender roles, and bodily practices to implant itself in German society and mobilize it for racial war. These studies include biographies of some of
Pedagogical Introduction to Extra Dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rizzo, T
2004-09-27
Extra dimensions provide a new window on a number of problems faced by the Standard Model. The following provides an introduction to this very broad subject aimed at experimental graduate students and post-docs based on a lecture given at the 2004 SLAC Summer Institute.
The inner dimension of sustainability
Horlings, L.G.
2015-01-01
Transformation to sustainability has been defined as the fundamental alteration of the nature of a system, once the current conditions become untenable or undesirable. Transformation requires a shift in people's values, referred to as the inner dimension of sustainability, or change from the
Emergent fuzzy geometry and fuzzy physics in four dimensions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Badis Ydri
2017-03-01
Full Text Available A detailed Monte Carlo calculation of the phase diagram of bosonic mass-deformed IKKT Yang–Mills matrix models in three and six dimensions with quartic mass deformations is given. Background emergent fuzzy geometries in two and four dimensions are observed with a fluctuation given by a noncommutative U(1 gauge theory very weakly coupled to normal scalar fields. The geometry, which is determined dynamically, is given by the fuzzy spheres SN2 and SN2×SN2 respectively. The three and six matrix models are effectively in the same universality class. For example, in two dimensions the geometry is completely stable, whereas in four dimensions the geometry is stable only in the limit M⟶∞, where M is the mass of the normal fluctuations. The behaviors of the eigenvalue distribution in the two theories are also different. We also sketch how we can obtain a stable fuzzy four-sphere SN2×SN2 in the large N limit for all values of M as well as models of topology change in which the transition between spheres of different dimensions is observed. The stable fuzzy spheres in two and four dimensions act precisely as regulators which is the original goal of fuzzy geometry and fuzzy physics. Fuzzy physics and fuzzy field theory on these spaces are briefly discussed.
Design and application of quick computation program on fractal dimension of land-use types
Mei, Xin; Wang, Quanfang; Wang, Qian; Liu, Junyi
2009-07-01
Now the fractal dimension of Land Use Types is often calculated by using raster data as the raw data, but quite a number of spatial data is stored as vector data in fact. If these data are converted to images to calculate fractal dimension, perhaps some pixels with inaccurate grey value will result from the "GRID" structure of raster data. And the precision of fractal dimension calculated on raster Data is closely related to the size of pixel and Grid image.In view of this, In this paper, a computation program of the fractal dimension for 2D vector data based on Windows platform has been designed by using Visual Csharp. This program has been successfully applied to land-use data of the middle Qinling Mountains and the southeast of Hubei Province in China.in the 1990s. The results show that the program is a convenient, reliable and precise method of fractal dimension for 2D Vector Data.
Doll, Hannah M; Armitage, David W; Daly, Rebecca A; Emerson, Joanne B; Goltsman, Daniela S Aliaga; Yelton, Alexis P; Kerekes, Jennifer; Firestone, Mary K; Potts, Matthew D
2013-11-15
Microbial ecologists often employ methods from classical community ecology to analyze microbial community diversity. However, these methods have limitations because microbial communities differ from macro-organismal communities in key ways. This study sought to quantify microbial diversity using methods that are better suited for data spanning multiple domains of life and dimensions of diversity. Diversity profiles are one novel, promising way to analyze microbial datasets. Diversity profiles encompass many other indices, provide effective numbers of diversity (mathematical generalizations of previous indices that better convey the magnitude of differences in diversity), and can incorporate taxa similarity information. To explore whether these profiles change interpretations of microbial datasets, diversity profiles were calculated for four microbial datasets from different environments spanning all domains of life as well as viruses. Both similarity-based profiles that incorporated phylogenetic relatedness and naïve (not similarity-based) profiles were calculated. Simulated datasets were used to examine the robustness of diversity profiles to varying phylogenetic topology and community composition. Diversity profiles provided insights into microbial datasets that were not detectable with classical univariate diversity metrics. For all datasets analyzed, there were key distinctions between calculations that incorporated phylogenetic diversity as a measure of taxa similarity and naïve calculations. The profiles also provided information about the effects of rare species on diversity calculations. Additionally, diversity profiles were used to examine thousands of simulated microbial communities, showing that similarity-based and naïve diversity profiles only agreed approximately 50% of the time in their classification of which sample was most diverse. This is a strong argument for incorporating similarity information and calculating diversity with a range of
Discontinuous attractor dimension at the synchronization transition of time-delayed chaotic systems.
Zeeb, Steffen; Dahms, Thomas; Flunkert, Valentin; Schöll, Eckehard; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang
2013-04-01
The attractor dimension at the transition to complete synchronization in a network of chaotic units with time-delayed couplings is investigated. In particular, we determine the Kaplan-Yorke dimension from the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents for iterated maps and for two coupled semiconductor lasers. We argue that the Kaplan-Yorke dimension must be discontinuous at the transition and compare it to the correlation dimension. For a system of Bernoulli maps, we indeed find a jump in the correlation dimension. The magnitude of the discontinuity in the Kaplan-Yorke dimension is calculated for networks of Bernoulli units as a function of the network size. Furthermore, the scaling of the Kaplan-Yorke dimension as well as of the Kolmogorov entropy with system size and time delay is investigated.
Study of dose calculation on breast brachytherapy using prism TPS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fendriani, Yoza; Haryanto, Freddy [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, FMIPA Institut Teknologi Bandung, Physics Buildings, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)
2015-09-30
PRISM is one of non-commercial Treatment Planning System (TPS) and is developed at the University of Washington. In Indonesia, many cancer hospitals use expensive commercial TPS. This study aims to investigate Prism TPS which been applied to the dose distribution of brachytherapy by taking into account the effect of source position and inhomogeneities. The results will be applicable for clinical Treatment Planning System. Dose calculation has been implemented for water phantom and CT scan images of breast cancer using point source and line source. This study used point source and line source and divided into two cases. On the first case, Ir-192 seed source is located at the center of treatment volume. On the second case, the source position is gradually changed. The dose calculation of every case performed on a homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantom with dimension 20 × 20 × 20 cm{sup 3}. The inhomogeneous phantom has inhomogeneities volume 2 × 2 × 2 cm{sup 3}. The results of dose calculations using PRISM TPS were compared to literature data. From the calculation of PRISM TPS, dose rates show good agreement with Plato TPS and other study as published by Ramdhani. No deviations greater than ±4% for all case. Dose calculation in inhomogeneous and homogenous cases show similar result. This results indicate that Prism TPS is good in dose calculation of brachytherapy but not sensitive for inhomogeneities. Thus, the dose calculation parameters developed in this study were found to be applicable for clinical treatment planning of brachytherapy.
Applying EFT to Higgs pair production in universal extra dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Edelhäuser, Lisa; Knochel, Alexander; Steeger, Thomas [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen, Sommerfeldstr. 16, Aachen, 52074 (Germany)
2015-11-09
We investigate single Higgs and Higgs pair production at the LHC in models of Universal Extra Dimensions. After calculating the relevant cross sections, we use the UED model as a testing ground for the Effective Field Theory approach to physics beyond the Standard Model. We show how the UED contributions to Higgs production can be matched to a dimension-6 operator. We then discuss the range of validity of this approach, in particular for Higgs pair production, and determine the sensitivity to the number of KK modes in the loop.
Lower Back Injuries Plague Many Athletes
... fullstory_167201.html Lower Back Injuries Plague Many Athletes Surgery should be a last resort for 3 ... News) -- Back injuries are common, especially among competitive athletes. Nearly 1 in 3 athletes playing professional or ...
Many Primary Care Docs May Miss Prediabetes
... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167370.html Many Primary Care Docs May Miss Prediabetes Fewer than 1 in ... 2017 MONDAY, July 24, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Most primary care doctors can't identify all 11 risk factors ...
The Many Worlds of Hugh Everett III
,
2011-01-01
A review of Peter Byrne's biography of Hugh Everett III, "The Many Worlds of Hugh Everett III: Multiple Universes, Mutual Assured Destruction, and the Meltdown of a Nuclear Family", (Oxford University Press, 2010).
Comparative dimension of the anthropology of law
Ledvinka, Tomáš
2011-01-01
This article examines three comparative dimensions which need to be examined by anthropology of law with due prudence: the dimension of jurisprudence and anthropology, the dimension of legal systems and their structure, and the dimension of justice. These dimensions are confronted with recent diversion from comparison within anthropology and the validity of critiques of the comparison is demonstrated with respect to the development of the anthropology of law.
Formalization of Many-Valued Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villadsen, Jørgen; Schlichtkrull, Anders
2017-01-01
Partiality is a key challenge for computational approaches to artificial intelligence in general and natural language in particular. Various extensions of classical two-valued logic to many-valued logics have been investigated in order to meet this challenge. We use the proof assistant Isabelle...... to formalize the syntax and semantics of many-valued logics with determinate as well as indeterminate truth values. The formalization allows for a concise presentation and makes automated verification possible....
Distributed Memory Programming on Many-Cores
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berthold, Jost; Dieterle, Mischa; Lobachev, Oleg
2009-01-01
is tailored to networks of workstations. Recent work has shown that this implementation shows surprisingly competitive performance on many-core machines, compared to dedicated shared-memory implementations of parallel Haskell. In the paper we describe a case study with different Eden divide......-and-conquer skeletons. We analyse their performance comparing example applications implemented using these Eden skeletons against parallel Haskell implementations using shared memory on many-core machines...
Resonating-group method for nuclear many-body problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tang, Y.C.; LeMere, M.; Thompson, D.R.
1977-01-01
The resonating-group method is a microscopic method which uses fully antisymmetric wave functions, treats correctly the motion of the total center of mass, and takes cluster correlation into consideration. In this review, the formulation of this method is discussed for various nuclear many-body problems, and a complex-generator-coordinate technique which has been employed to evaluate matrix elements required in resonating-group calculations is described. Several illustrative examples of bound-state, scattering, and reaction calculations, which serve to demonstrate the usefulness of this method, are presented. Finally, by utilization of the results of these calculations, the role played by the Pauli principle in nuclear scattering and reaction processes is discussed. 21 figures, 2 tables, 185 references.
Many electron effects in semiconductor quantum dots
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
model the QD by a square well potential with finite/ infinite barrier while studying band gap enhancement and excitonic effect (Singh et al 2000). On the other hand, researchers performing Coulomb blockade calculations routinely choose parabolic confinement (Macucci et al. 1995, 1997). There is no a priori justification for ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhengyong Zhou
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The aggregate constraint homotopy method uses a single smoothing constraint instead of m-constraints to reduce the dimension of its homotopy map, and hence it is expected to be more efficient than the combined homotopy interior point method when the number of constraints is very large. However, the gradient and Hessian of the aggregate constraint function are complicated combinations of gradients and Hessians of all constraint functions, and hence they are expensive to calculate when the number of constraint functions is very large. In order to improve the performance of the aggregate constraint homotopy method for solving nonlinear programming problems, with few variables and many nonlinear constraints, a flattened aggregate constraint homotopy method, that can save much computation of gradients and Hessians of constraint functions, is presented. Under some similar conditions for other homotopy methods, existence and convergence of a smooth homotopy path are proven. A numerical procedure is given to implement the proposed homotopy method, preliminary computational results show its performance, and it is also competitive with the state-of-the-art solver KNITRO for solving large-scale nonlinear optimization.
Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.
2004-10-01
As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.
Calculated neutron intensities for SINQ
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Atchison, F
1998-03-01
A fully detailed calculation of the performance of the SINQ neutron source, using the PSI version of the HETC code package, was made in 1996 to provide information useful for source commissioning. Relevant information about the formulation of the problem, cascade analysis and some of the results are presented. Aspects of the techniques used to verify the results are described and discussed together with a limited comparison with earlier results obtained from neutron source design calculations. A favourable comparison between the measured and calculated differential neutron flux in one of the guides gives further indirect evidence that such calculations can give answers close to reality in absolute terms. Due to the complex interaction between the many nuclear (and other) models involved, no quantitative evaluation of the accuracy of the calculational method in general terms can be given. (author) refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.
Variations in Dimensions and Shape of Thoracic Cage with Aging ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We had systematically reviewed, compared and analysed many original and review articles related to aging changes in chest wall images and with the aid of radiological findings recorded in a span of four years. We have concluded that alterations in the geometric dimensions of thoracic wall, change in the pattern and ...
Spirituality and Early Childhood Special Education: Exploring a "Forgotten" Dimension
Zhang, Kaili
2012-01-01
Spirituality is recognised by many to be an inherent property of the human being. Empirical studies and theoretical literature both suggest that spirituality affects one's quality of life in terms of emotional and physical well-being, relationships, and social inclusion. However, the importance of the spiritual dimension of life is rarely…
New Dimensions to Psychosocial Development in Traditionally Aged College Students
Blimling, Gregory S.
2013-01-01
Why do so many traditionally aged college students engage in inappropriate behaviors, even when they are smart enough to know better? To answer this question, Gregory S. Blimling looks at some of the latest neuroscience research and, in doing so, introduces a new dimension to understanding psychosocial development in college…
Identifying surfaces of low dimensions in high dimensional data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høskuldsson, Agnar
1996-01-01
Methods are presented that find a nonlinear subspace in low dimensions that describe data given by many variables. The methods include nonlinear extensions of Principal Component Analysis and extensions of linear regression analysis. It is shown by examples that these methods give more reliable...
Unraveling Dimensions : Commodity futures curves and equity liquidity
D. Karstanje (Dennis)
2015-01-01
markdownabstract__Abstract__ An inspiring and intriguing book on dimensions is “Flatland - A Romancy of Many Dimensions” by Edwin A. Abbott. In this satirical novel, Abbott describes different dimensional worlds from the point of view of A. Square, who is living in the
Au coated Ni nanowires with tuneable dimensions for biomedical applications
Pondman, K.M.; Maijenburg, A.W.; Celikkol, Burcu; Pathan, A.A.; Kishore, U.D.; ten Haken, Bernard; ten Elshof, Johan E.
2013-01-01
Due to their shape anisotropy, high aspect ratio magnetic nanoparticles offer many advantages in biomedical applications. For biocompatibility, it is essential to have full control over the dimensions and surface chemistry of the particles. The aim of this study was to synthesize biocompatible
Diagnostic Errors in Ambulatory Care: Dimensions and Preventive Strategies
Singh, Hardeep; Weingart, Saul N.
2009-01-01
Despite an increasing focus on patient safety in ambulatory care, progress in understanding and reducing diagnostic errors in this setting lag behind many other safety concerns such as medication errors. To explore the extent and nature of diagnostic errors in ambulatory care, we identified five dimensions of ambulatory care from which errors may…
Flavour physics from extra dimensions
Martinelli, G; Scrucca, C A; Silvestrini, L
2004-01-01
We discuss the possibility of introducing an SU(2) global flavour symmetry in the context of flat extra dimensions. In particular we concentrate on the 5-dimensional case and we study how to obtain the flavour structure of the Standard Model quark sector compacti(ying the fifth dimension on the orbifold St/Z2 a la Scberk-Scbwarz (SS). We show that in this case it is possible to justify the five orders of magnitude among the values of the quark masses with only one parameter: the SS flavour parameter. The non-local nature of the SS symmetry breaking mechanism allows to realize this without introducing new instabilities in the theory.
Universal spacetimes in four dimensions
Hervik, S.; Pravda, V.; Pravdová, A.
2017-10-01
Universal spacetimes are exact solutions to all higher-order theories of gravity. We study these spacetimes in four dimensions and provide necessary and sufficient conditions for universality for all Petrov types except of type II. We show that all universal spacetimes in four dimensions are algebraically special and Kundt. Petrov type D universal spacetimes are necessarily direct products of two 2-spaces of constant and equal curvature. Furthermore, type II universal spacetimes necessarily possess a null recurrent direction and they admit the above type D direct product metrics as a limit. Such spacetimes represent gravitational waves propagating on these backgrounds. Type III universal spacetimes are also investigated. We determine necessary and sufficient conditions for universality and present an explicit example of a type III universal Kundt non-recurrent metric.
INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN RELATIONSHIP QUALITY DIMENSIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mario Pepur
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Tourism-dependent economy, unfavourable structure of accommodation and hotel capacity, seasonality of business and liquidity problems indicate importance of the relationships between hotels and banks in Croatia. Since the capital investments in new and modern capacities are necessity, the quality of their relationship would determine the future of Croatian economy as a whole in the long run. Regarding the capital investments, it is crucially important that cooperation between the employees in both business entities is based on the satisfaction, trust and commitment. In this way, every potential uncertainty as a consequence of the entity’s actions could be minimized. In this paper, 356 tourist objects are hierarchically clustered according to the relationship quality dimensions for the purpose of testing the characteristics according to which the clusters significantly differentiate. Consequently, the interdependence between the observed relationship quality dimensions is examined.
Dimensions of problem based learning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Andreasen, Lars Birch
2013-01-01
The article contributes to the literature on problem based learning and problem-oriented project work, building on and reflecting the experiences of the authors through decades of work with problem-oriented project pedagogy. The article explores different dimensions of problem based learning such...... and Learning (MIL). We discuss changes in the roles of the teachers as supervisors within this learning environment, and we explore the involvement of students as active participants and co-designers of how course and project activities unfold.......The article contributes to the literature on problem based learning and problem-oriented project work, building on and reflecting the experiences of the authors through decades of work with problem-oriented project pedagogy. The article explores different dimensions of problem based learning...
Rammelmüller, Lukas; Porter, William J.; Braun, Jens; Drut, Joaquín E.
2017-09-01
We study the evolution from few- to many-body physics of fermionic systems in one spatial dimension with attractive pairwise interactions. We determine the detailed form of the momentum distribution, the structure of the one-body density matrix, and the pairing properties encoded in the two-body density matrix. From the low- and high-momentum scaling behavior of the single-particle momentum distribution we estimate the speed of sound and Tan's contact, respectively. Both quantities are found to be in agreement with previous calculations. Based on our calculations of the one-body density matrices, we also present results for the particle-partition entanglement entropy, for which we find a logarithmic dependence on the total particle number.
Assessing mental disorder causal beliefs: a latent dimension identification.
Mannarini, Stefania; Boffo, Marilisa
2013-12-01
A Many-Facet Rasch analysis was carried out with the intent of identifying a latent trait dimension characterized by mental disorders causal beliefs variables. The present research consists of two studies. In Study 1, the responses of 443 Italian university students to a 40-item scale were analyzed by means of Rasch models. In Study 2, the responses of two new groups of subjects, of 300 and 135 people respectively, were examined to further validate the mental disorders causal beliefs dimension obtained in Study 1. Specific bias/interactions between the MDCB dimension and other variables, such as gender and university faculties, were detected. Correlation analyses between the MDCB dimension and attribution theory and social desirability variables were also carried out. The results showed that a 30-item Mental Disorder Causal Beliefs (MDCB) latent dimension exists, characterized by contents representative of biological-genetic and psycho-social causes. Males and females did not differ on their causal beliefs, whereas Psychology students presented more psycho-social etiology beliefs. The MDCB dimension was correlated neither to a general locus of control scale nor to the social desirability measure, whereas it was significantly correlated to the psychotherapeutic attribution measure. The results evidenced a well devised measure which can be potentially useful in the research and clinical practice for the assessment of people's etiology beliefs about mental illness, focusing on the development of personalized interventions to reduce or modify eventual negative attitudes and misconceptions.
Dirac semimetal in three dimensions
Young, S. M.; Zaheer, S.; Teo, J. C. Y.; Kane, C. L.; Mele, E. J.; Rappe, A. M.
2011-01-01
In a Dirac semimetal, the conduction and valence bands contact only at discrete (Dirac) points in the Brillouin zone (BZ) and disperse linearly in all directions around these critical points. Including spin, the low energy effective theory around each critical point is a four band Dirac Hamiltonian. In two dimensions (2D), this situation is realized in graphene without spin-orbit coupling. 3D Dirac points are predicted to exist at the phase transition between a topological and a normal insula...
The social dimension of entrepreneurship
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ulhøi, John Parm
2005-01-01
This paper proposes an integrative framework to conceptualize important social dimensions of entrepreneurship. The paper reviews and evaluates the current status of research dealing with entrepreneurship, social capital and trust. The proposed framework rests on the recognition that entrepreneurial...... activities are results of social interactions and mechanisms. In consequence, entrepreneurship cannot merely be understood in terms of 'personality characteristics' or in sterile economic terms. The paper addresses by concluding implications for practitioners and for research....
The social dimensions of entrepreneurship
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ulhøi, John Parm
2005-01-01
This paper proposes an integrative framework to conceptualize important social dimensions of entrepreneurship. The paper reviews and evaluates the current status of research dealing with entrepreneurship, social capital and trust. The proposed framework rests on the recognition that entrepreneurial...... activities are results of social interactions and mechanisms. In consequence, entrepreneurship cannot merely be understood in terms of "personality characteristics" or in sterile economic terms. In closing, the paper addresses implications for practitioners and for research. Udgivelsesdato: AUG...
Læsningens sproglige dimension
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mulvad, Ruth; Kabel, Kristine
2007-01-01
Flere af projekterne i Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning arbejder for at styrke læsning gennem et kombineret fokus på teksters sproglige dimension og på den pædagogiske kontekst, som teksterne indgår i. To af dem har som mål at designe et kompetenceløft for seminarieundervisere og at udvikle...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kleihaus, Burkhard, E-mail: b.kleihaus@uni-oldenburg.de [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Kunz, Jutta; Radu, Eugen [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)
2013-01-08
We propose a general framework for the numerical study of balanced black rings for any spacetime dimensions d Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 5. Numerical solutions are constructed in a systematic way for d=6, by solving the Einstein field equations with suitable boundary conditions. These black rings have a regular event horizon with S{sup 1} Multiplication-Sign S{sup 3} topology, and they approach the Minkowski background asymptotically. We analyze their global and horizon properties.
RELIGIOUS DIMENSION OF COMPUTER GAMES
Sukhov, Anton
2017-01-01
Modern computer games are huge virtual worlds that raisesophisticated social and even religious issues. The “external” aspect of thereligious dimension of computer games focuses on the problem of the polysemanticrelation of world religions (Judaism,Christianity, Islam, Buddhism) to computer games. The“inner” aspect represents transformation of monotheistic and polytheisticreligions within the virtual worlds in the view of heterogeneity and genredifferentiation of computer games (arcades, acti...
Serre dimension of monoid algebras
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Let R be a commutative Noetherian ring of dimension d , M a commutative cancellative torsion-free monoid of rank r and P a finitely generated projective R [ M ] -module of rank t . Assume M is Φ -simplicial seminormal. If M ∈ C ( Φ ) , then Serre dim R [ M ] ≤ d . If r ≤ 3 , then Serre dim R [ i n t ( M ) ] ≤ d . If M ⊂ Z + 2.
Moral asymmetries and the semantics of many
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul Egré
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We present the results of four experiments concerning the evaluations people make of sentences involving many, showing that two sentences of the form many As are Bs and many As are Cs need not be equivalent when evaluated relative to a background in which B and C have the same cardinality and proportion to A, but in which B and C are predicates with opposite semantic and affective values. The data provide evidence that subjects lower the standard relevant to ascribe many for the more negatively valued predicate, and that judgments involving many are sensitive to moral considerations in a broad sense, namely to expectations involving a representation of the desirability as opposed to the mere probability of an outcome. We relate the results to similar semantic asymmetries discussed in the psychological literature, in particular to the Knobe effect and to framing effects. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.8.13 Supplementary materials, BibTeX info
Wormholes leading to extra dimensions
Bronnikov, K A
2016-01-01
In 6D general relativity with a scalar field as a source of gravity, a new type of static wormhole solutions is presented: such wormholes connect our universe with a small 2D extra subspace with a universe where this extra subspace is large, and the whole space-time is effectively 6-dimensional. We consider manifolds with the structure M0 x M1 x M2 , where M0 is 2D Lorentzian space-time while each of M1 an M2 can be a 2-sphere or a 2-torus. After selecting possible asymptotic behaviors of the metric functions compatible with the field equations, we give two explicit examples of wormhole solutions with spherical symmetry in our space-time and toroidal extra dimensions. In one example, with a massless scalar field (it is a special case of a well-known more general solution), the extra dimensions have a large constant size at the "far end"; the other example contains a nonzero potential $V(\\phi)$ which provides a 6D anti-de Sitter asymptotic, where all spatial dimensions are infinite.
Wave equations in higher dimensions
Dong, Shi-Hai
2011-01-01
Higher dimensional theories have attracted much attention because they make it possible to reduce much of physics in a concise, elegant fashion that unifies the two great theories of the 20th century: Quantum Theory and Relativity. This book provides an elementary description of quantum wave equations in higher dimensions at an advanced level so as to put all current mathematical and physical concepts and techniques at the reader’s disposal. A comprehensive description of quantum wave equations in higher dimensions and their broad range of applications in quantum mechanics is provided, which complements the traditional coverage found in the existing quantum mechanics textbooks and gives scientists a fresh outlook on quantum systems in all branches of physics. In Parts I and II the basic properties of the SO(n) group are reviewed and basic theories and techniques related to wave equations in higher dimensions are introduced. Parts III and IV cover important quantum systems in the framework of non-relativisti...
Introduction to many-body physics
Coleman, Piers
2015-01-01
A modern, graduate-level introduction to many-body physics in condensed matter, this textbook explains the tools and concepts needed for a research-level understanding of the correlated behavior of quantum fluids. Starting with an operator-based introduction to the quantum field theory of many-body physics, this textbook presents the Feynman diagram approach, Green's functions and finite-temperature many body physics before developing the path integral approach to interacting systems. Special chapters are devoted to the concepts of Fermi liquid theory, broken symmetry, conduction in disordered systems, superconductivity and the physics of local-moment metals. A strong emphasis on concepts and numerous exercises make this an invaluable course book for graduate students in condensed matter physics. It will also interest students in nuclear, atomic and particle physics.
Quantum scaling in many-body systems
Continentino, Mucio A
2001-01-01
This book on quantum phase transitions has been written by one of the pioneers in the application of scaling ideas to many-body systems - a new and exciting subject that has relevance to many areas of condensed matter and theoretical physics. One of the few books on the subject, it emphasizes strongly correlated electronic systems. Although dealing with complex problems in statistical mechanics, it does not lose sight of the experiments and the actual physical systems which motivate the theoretical work. The book starts by presenting the scaling theory of quantum critical phenomena. Critical e
Quantum theory of many-particle systems
Fetter, Alexander L
2003-01-01
""Singlemindedly devoted to its job of educating potential many-particle theorists…deserves to become the standard text in the field."" - Physics Today""The most comprehensive textbook yet published in its field and every postgraduate student or teacher in this field should own or have access to a copy."" - EndeavorA self-contained, unified treatment of nonrelativistic many-particle systems, this text offers a solid introduction to procedures in a manner that enables students to adopt techniques for their own use. Its discussions of formalism and applications move easily between general theo
Viroid Pathogenicity: One Process, Many Faces
Owens, Robert A.; Hammond, Rosemarie W.
2009-01-01
Despite the non-coding nature of their small RNA genomes, the visible symptoms of viroid infection resemble those associated with many plant virus diseases. Recent evidence indicates that viroid-derived small RNAs acting through host RNA silencing pathways play a key role in viroid pathogenicity. Host responses to viroid infection are complex, involving signaling cascades containing host-encoded protein kinases and crosstalk between hormonal and defense-signaling pathways. Studies of viroid-host interaction in the context of entire biochemical or developmental pathways are just beginning, and many working hypotheses have yet to be critically tested. PMID:21994551
Extended symmetries at black hole horizons in generic dimensions
Shi, Changfu; Mei, Jianwei
2017-05-01
Recently it has been shown that there is asymptotic BMS-like symmetry associated with the near-horizon geometry of black holes in three and four dimensions. In this paper, we show that the presence of such BMS-like symmetry is a ubiquitous feature for black holes in generic dimensions. For black holes in D dimensions, the symmetry contains 2 supertranslations and D -2 generalized superrotations. The superrotations are found to generate a generalized Witt-like algebra that was previously noticed in a rather different construction. In the case of stationary and axisymmetric black holes, we calculate the surface charges and show that the zero-mode charges are intimately related to the entropy and angular momenta of the black hole.
Many-valued Logic and Fuzzy Logic
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hájek, Petr
2011-01-01
Roč. 27, č. 2 (2011), s. 315-324 ISSN 0970-7794 R&D Projects: GA ČR GEICC/08/E018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : many valued logic * fuzzy logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
On How to Arrange Infinitely many Marriages!
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. On How to Arrange Infinitely many Marriages! B Sury. Classroom Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 71-73. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/02/0071-0073. Author Affiliations.
Many general language dictionaries contain specialized terms
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
Abstract: Many general language dictionaries contain specialized terms, including legal terms relating to civil lawsuits. The existing literature provides general discussions of scientific and tech- nical terms in ordinary dictionaries but does not specifically address the inclusion of legal terms. This study examines four general ...
Many diseases, one model of care?
Albreht, T.; Dyakova, M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Broucke, S. van den
2016-01-01
Patients with multiple chronic conditions (multimorbidity) have complex and extensive health and social care needs that are not well served by current silo-based models of care. A lack of integration between care providers often leads to fragmented, incomplete, and ineffective care, leaving many
Framing the Human Dimension in Cybersecurity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Nixon
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The advent of technologies that can seamlessly operate in different environments with differing levels of security present new challenges to the cybersecurity specialist seeking to ensure the safety of data, process or output of a complex system. This paper reviews the human dimension of cybersecurity. The Human Factors Integration (HFI framework is employed as a structure with which to consider the many ways in which the human can differentially affect the security of a system both positively and negatively. We conclude that when the human factors element is analysed when specifying and designing secure and safe systems, it is far more likely that the human can assist and increase the overall level of security. As in other high technology sectors such as aviation or petrochemical, if not considered, the human can often ‘bulldoze’ through the most carefully considered and designed security or safety barriers
Tuning Interactions in Two and Three Dimensions
Fletcher, Richard; Navon, Nir; Robert-de-Saint-Vincent, Martin; Gaunt, Alexander; Smith, Robert; Hadzibabic, Zoran
2014-05-01
We present recent work on a Bose gas with tuneable interactions in two very different geometries. In three dimensions, we study the stability of a thermal 39K Bose gas across a broad Feshbach resonance, focusing on the unitary regime. We measure the general scaling laws relating the particle-loss and heating rates to the temperature, scattering length, and atom number. As a consequence of species-specific Efimov physics, we find 39K to be particularly promising for studies of many-body physics in a unitary Bose gas. We also present more recent work on a two-dimensional trapping configuration. Such a setup permits investigation of the subtle interplay between interactions and condensation in this regime, in particular the crossover between BEC and BKT physics.
Monte Carlo calculations of nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pieper, S.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Physics Div.
1997-10-01
Nuclear many-body calculations have the complication of strong spin- and isospin-dependent potentials. In these lectures the author discusses the variational and Green`s function Monte Carlo techniques that have been developed to address this complication, and presents a few results.
Efficient certification and simulation of local quantum many-body Hamiltonians
Holzäpfel, Milan; Plenio, Martin B.
2017-01-01
We discuss efficient simulation and certification of the dynamics induced by a quantum many-body Hamiltonian with short-ranged interactions, extending prior results for one-dimensional systems [Osborne, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 157202 (2006) and Lanyon, Maier et al, Nat. Phys. 13, 1158 (2017)] to lattices in arbitrary spatial dimensions.
Schilling, Rhiannon K.
2016-12-16
Constitutive expression of the Arabidopsis vacuolar proton-pumping pyrophosphatase (H+-PPase) gene (AVP1) increases plant growth under various abiotic stress conditions and, importantly, under nonstressed conditions. Many interpretations have been proposed to explain these phenotypes, including greater vacuolar ion sequestration, increased auxin transport, enhanced heterotrophic growth, and increased transport of sucrose from source to sink tissues. In this review, we evaluate all the roles proposed for AVP1, using findings published to date from mutant plants lacking functional AVP1 and transgenic plants expressing AVP1. It is clear that AVP1 is one protein with many roles, and that one or more of these roles act to enhance plant growth. The complexity suggests that a systems biology approach to evaluate biological networks is required to investigate these intertwined roles.
Critical Properties of the Many-Body Localization Transition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vedika Khemani
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The transition from a many-body localized phase to a thermalizing one is a dynamical quantum phase transition that lies outside the framework of equilibrium statistical mechanics. We provide a detailed study of the critical properties of this transition at finite sizes in one dimension. We find that the entanglement entropy of small subsystems looks strongly subthermal in the quantum critical regime, which indicates that it varies discontinuously across the transition as the system size is taken to infinity, even though many other aspects of the transition look continuous. We also study the variance of the half-chain entanglement entropy, which shows a peak near the transition, and find substantial variation in the entropy across eigenstates of the same sample. Furthermore, the sample-to-sample variations in this quantity are strongly growing and are larger than the intrasample variations. We posit that these results are consistent with a picture in which the transition to the thermal phase is driven by an eigenstate-dependent sparse resonant “backbone” of long-range entanglement, which just barely gains enough strength to thermalize the system on the thermal side of the transition as the system size is taken to infinity. This discontinuity in a global quantity—the presence of a fully functional bath—in turn implies a discontinuity even for local properties. We discuss how this picture compares with existing renormalization group treatments of the transition.
Base excision repair: a critical player in many games.
Wallace, Susan S
2014-07-01
This perspective reviews the many dimensions of base excision repair from a 10,000 foot vantage point and provides one person's view on where the field is headed. Enzyme function is considered under the lens of X-ray diffraction and single molecule studies. Base excision repair in chromatin and telomeres, regulation of expression and the role of posttranslational modifications are also discussed in the context of enzyme activities, cellular localization and interacting partners. The specialized roles that base excision repair play in transcriptional activation by active demethylation and targeted oxidation as well as how base excision repair functions in the immune processes of somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination and its possible involvement in retroviral infection are also discussed. Finally the complexities of oxidative damage and its repair and its link to neurodegenerative disorders, as well as the role of base excision repair as a tumor suppressor are examined in the context of damage, repair and aging. By outlining the many base excision repair-related mysteries that have yet to be unraveled, hopefully this perspective will stimulate further interest in the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yamaguchi Toshiko
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Using the Manyōshū corpus, the paper argues that conceptual metaphor theory imposes limitations on the diversity of linguistic facts, particularly those concerning the speaker or the poet who is communicating. The paper offers explanations of the nature of time by drawing upon the inference operating within “basic sign structure”, specifically, indexicality and iconicity, both of which are at the heart of human semiotic activity.
Ising formulations of many NP problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrew eLucas
2014-02-01
Full Text Available We provide Ising formulations for many NP-complete and NP-hard problems, including all of Karp's 21 NP-complete problems. This collects and extends mappings to the Ising model from partitioning, covering and satisfiability. In each case, the required number of spins is at most cubic in the size of the problem. This work may be useful in designing adiabatic quantum optimization algorithms.
Ising formulations of many NP problems
Lucas, Andrew
2014-02-01
We provide Ising formulations for many NP-complete and NP-hard problems, including all of Karp's 21 NP-complete problems. This collects and extends mappings to the Ising model from partitioning, covering and satisfiability. In each case, the required number of spins is at most cubic in the size of the problem. This work may be useful in designing adiabatic quantum optimization algorithms.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Calculator will calculate the total magnetic field, including components (declination, inclination, horizontal intensity, northerly intensity,...
... NIAAA College Materials Supporting Research Special Features CollegeAIM College Administrators Parents & Students Home > Special Features > Calculators > Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie ...
Decoherence and the many worlds interpretation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weigelt, Carsten Thomas [University Bonn (Germany)
2014-07-01
The theory of decoherence gives us a good account (at least for open systems) of how classical properties emerge from the quantum world. Recent experiments based on decoherence offers strong arguments against the quantum-classical division proposed by the early Copenhagen Interpretation. But even if decoherence may support the view that quantum mechanics can be considered as fundamental theory the question remains if this sheds new light to the question of how a realistic interpretation of quantum theory can be achieved? In the last years proponents of decoherence pointed out that the theory fits perfectly into the framework of many worlds interpretations. The question that I address is, in what sense these interpretations can be considered as realistic interpretations? To answer this question I argue that in the context of decoherence we have strong reasons to interpret quantum states in a realistic sense. A problem for many worlds interpretations arises when the meaning of Everett's relative states is considered since these interpretations strongly dependent on the interpretation of relative states. I show that einselection proposed by the decoherence theory will determine Everett's relative states in an objective sense but these states must be interpreted as epistemic states. I conclude that this ambiguity between realistic interpreted quantum states and epistemic relative states limits the strict realistic character of many worlds interpretation.
Information entropies of many-electron systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yanez, R.J.; Angulo, J.C.; Dehesa, J.S. [Universidad de Granada (Spain)
1995-12-05
The Boltzmann-Shannon (BS) information entropy S{sub {rho}} = - {integral} {rho}(r)log {rho}(r) dr measures the spread or extent of the one-electron density {rho}(r), which is the basic variable of the density function theory of the many electron systems. This quantity cannot be analytically computed, not even for simple quantum mechanical systems such as, e.g., the harmonic oscillator (HO) and the hydrogen atom (HA) in arbitrary excited states. Here, we first review (i) the present knowledge and open problems in the analytical determination of the BS entropies for the HO and HA systems in both position and momentum spaces and (ii) the known rigorous lower and upper bounds to the position and momentum BS entropies of many-electron systems in terms of the radial expectation values in the corresponding space. Then, we find general inequalities which relate the BS entropies and various density functionals. Particular cases of these results are rigorous relationships of the BS entropies and some relevant density functionals (e.g., the Thomas-Fermi kinetic energy, the Dirac-Slater exchange energy, the average electron density) for finite many-electron systems. 28 refs.
Non-equilibrium many body dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Creutz, M.; Gyulassy, M.
1997-09-22
This Riken BNL Research Center Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Many Body Physics was held on September 23-25, 1997 as part of the official opening ceremony of the Center at Brookhaven National Lab. A major objective of theoretical work at the center is to elaborate on the full spectrum of strong interaction physics based on QCD, including the physics of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, the parton structure of hadrons and nuclei, and the phenomenology of ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions related to the up-coming experiments at RHIC. The opportunities and challenges of nuclear and particle physics in this area naturally involve aspects of the many body problem common to many other fields. The aim of this symposium was to find common theoretical threads in the area of non-equilibrium physics and modern transport theories. The program consisted of invited talks on a variety topics from the fields of atomic, condensed matter, plasma, astrophysics, cosmology, and chemistry, in addition to nuclear and particle physics. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for contributions to this workshop.
Strings, branes and extra dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quevedo, Fernando
2004-12-01
In an attempt to gain a better understanding of our world, various philosophers, mathematicians and physicists have, over the last few centuries, proposed that we might live in a world with more than four space-time dimensions. In the 17th century, for example, Emmanuel Kant tried to figure out what is special about a three spatial-dimensional world. He concluded that there could be other universes hidden from our senses - an idea that Democritus among others had also entertained. (U.K.)
Geometric Langlands From Six Dimensions
Witten, Edward
2010-01-01
Geometric Langlands duality is usually formulated as a statement about Riemann surfaces, but it can be naturally understood as a consequence of electric-magnetic duality of four-dimensional gauge theory. This duality in turn is naturally understood as a consequence of the existence of a certain exotic supersymmetric conformal field theory in six dimensions. The same six-dimensional theory also gives a useful framework for understanding some recent mathematical results involving a counterpart of geometric Langlands duality for complex surfaces. (This article is based on a lecture at the Raoul Bott celebration, Montreal, June 2008.)
Flavor Models In Extra Dimensions
Valadez, J
2005-01-01
This thesis consists of implementing flavor symmetries in the context of extra dimensions. To the particle content of the Standard Model we add an additional scalar (flavon) field and we assume that all the fields propagate in the extra-dimensional space-time. When the flavon field acquires a vacuum expectation value the flavor symmetry is effectively broken thus generating the Yukawa textures associated with the particles. An specific model in 5D that reproduces all fermion masses, mixing angles and ratios is presented.
Cultural Dimensions Of Legal Discourse
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sierocka Halina
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Despite the intention for precision and accuracy, legal discourse is oftentimes complex, archaic and ambiguous - which gives rise to contentious interpretation. Moreover, little or no attention is paid to the cultural dimension of legal discourse, which plays a critical role in the translation and interpretation of legal texts, as well as in the application of law. This paper endeavours to illustrate the impact the culture, or, more precisely, legal culture has on the way legal texts are construed or translated and to present problems which arise in the interpretation, translation and application of law as a result of cultural diversities
The fourth dimension simply explained
Manning, Henry P
2005-01-01
To remove the contents of an egg without puncturing its shell or to drink the liquor in a bottle without removing the cork is clearly unthinkable - or is it? Understanding the world of Einstein and curved space requires a logical conception of the fourth dimension.This readable, informative volume provides an excellent introduction to that world, with 22 essays that employ a minimum of mathematics. Originally written for a contest sponsored by Scientific American, these essays are so well reasoned and lucidly written that they were judged to merit publication in book form. Their easily unders
search of extra space dimensions with ATLAs
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. If extra spatial dimensions were to exist, they could provide a solution to the hierarchy problem. The studies done by the ATLAS Collaboration on the sensitivity of the detector to various extra dimension models are reported in this document.
Personality dimensions and disorders in pathological gambling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E
2013-01-01
This review presents the most current research in personality dimensions and disorders with respect to pathological gambling.......This review presents the most current research in personality dimensions and disorders with respect to pathological gambling....
Consumer Decision Making--The Social Dimension.
Leming, James S.
1983-01-01
Two interpretations are presented of the social dimensions of consumer education: the social/political interpretation and the personal/moral interpretation. Both contain a moral dimension involving questions of obligations and responsibilities to others. (MD)
Search for Extra Dimensions at CDF
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wynne, Sara-Madge; /Liverpool U.
2007-08-01
This poster, presented at the 2006 Duke Hadron Collider Symposium, presents the results from searches for large extra dimensions, as proposed by Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos and Dvali (ADD), and Randall-Sundrum (RS) model warped extra dimensions, at CDF.
Testing the dimension of Hilbert spaces.
Brunner, Nicolas; Pironio, Stefano; Acin, Antonio; Gisin, Nicolas; Méthot, André Allan; Scarani, Valerio
2008-05-30
Given a set of correlations originating from measurements on a quantum state of unknown Hilbert space dimension, what is the minimal dimension d necessary to describe such correlations? We introduce the concept of dimension witness to put lower bounds on d. This work represents a first step in a broader research program aiming to characterize Hilbert space dimension in various contexts related to fundamental questions and quantum information applications.
CREDIBILITY OF WEBSITES THROUGH FACETS AND DIMENSIONS
Oana ȚUGULEA; Claudia STOIAN (BOBÂLCĂ
2017-01-01
This study aims to investigate important aspects to concern on when building a commercial presentation website, in order to increase the credibility of the certain categories of a presentation website. Factor analysis was used in order to identify the dimensions of each category. The categories and resulted dimensions discussed were: “image” – with the following dimensions: Projected image, Specialist, Advert and Coherence, “relationship” – with the following dimensions: Bi-directional commun...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jose Wicto Pereira Borges
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to validate the content of the dimensions that constituted nonadherence to treatment of arterial systemic hypertension. It was a methodological study of content validation. Initially an integrative review was conducted that demonstrated four dimensions of nonadherence: person, disease/treatment, health service, and environment. Definitions of these dimensions were evaluated by 17 professionals, who were specialists in the area, including: nurses, pharmacists and physicians. The Content Validity Index was calculated for each dimension (IVCi and the set of the dimensions (IVCt, and the binomial test was conducted. The results permitted the validation of the dimensions with an IVCt of 0.88, demonstrating reasonable systematic comprehension of the phenomena of nonadherence.
Dimensions of Attention Associated With the Microstructure of Corona Radiata White Matter.
Stave, Elise A; De Bellis, Michael D; Hooper, Steven R; Woolley, Donald P; Chang, Suk Ki; Chen, Steven D
2017-04-01
Mirsky proposed a model of attention that included these dimensions: focus/execute, sustain, stabilize, encode, and shift. The neural correlates of these dimensions were investigated within corona radiata subregions in healthy youth. Diffusion tensor imaging and neuropsychological assessments were conducted in 79 healthy, right-handed youth aged 4-17 years. Diffusion tensor imaging maps were analyzed using standardized parcellation methods. Partial Pearson correlations between neuropsychological standardized scores, representing these attention dimensions, and diffusion tensor imaging measures of corona radiata subregions were calculated after adjusting for gender and IQ. Significant correlations were found between the focus/execute, sustain, stabilize, and shift dimensions and imaging metrics in hypothesized corona radiata subregions. Results suggest that greater microstructural white matter integrity of the corona radiata is partly associated with attention across 4 attention dimensions. Findings suggest that white matter microstructure of the corona radiata is a neural correlate of several, but not all, attention dimensions.
Rings with finite Gorenstein injective dimension
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holm, Henrik Granau
2004-01-01
In this paper we prove that for any associative ring R, and for any left R-module M with nite projective dimension, the Gorenstein injective dimension GidRM equals the usual injective dimension idRM. In particular, if GidRR is nite, then also idRR is nite, and thus R is Gorenstein (provided that ...
HOFSTEDE’S CULTURAL DIMENSIONS AND MANAGEMENT IN CORPORATIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexandrina Cristina VASILE
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In many cases the success or failure in management is caused by the way leaders understand the cultural environment the companies develop. The leadership approach and rules applied increase or decrease performance in economies and companies. The paper describes the relation between management failure or success and the management adjustment to the cultural dimensions. People build organizations and rule them according to their values, but in the corporation field specific values might be successfully applied or implying the whole company failure. The analysis is made based on Hofstede research and having in mind his dimensions on a dynamic hypothetical case where there are taken into account cultural dimensions for Romania, Germany, Kazakhstan and United States of America.
BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Physics in One Dimension
Logan, David
2004-05-01
To a casual ostrich the world of quantum physics in one dimension may sound a little one-dimensional, suitable perhaps for those with an unhealthy obsession for the esoteric. Nothing of course could be further from the truth. The field is remarkably rich and broad, and for more than fifty years has thrown up innumerable challenges. Theorists, realising that the role of interactions in 1D is special and that well known paradigms of higher dimensions (Fermi liquid theory for example) no longer apply, took up the challenge of developing new concepts and techniques to understand the undoubted pecularities of one-dimensional systems. And experimentalists have succeeded in turning pipe dreams into reality, producing an impressive and ever increasing array of experimental realizations of 1D systems, from the molecular to the mesoscopic---spin and ladder compounds, organic superconductors, carbon nanotubes, quantum wires, Josephson junction arrays and so on. Many books on the theory of one-dimensional systems are however written by experts for experts, and tend as such to leave the non-specialist a touch bewildered. This is understandable on both fronts, for the underlying theoretical techniques are unquestionably sophisticated and not usually part of standard courses in many-body theory. A brave author it is then who aims to produce a well rounded, if necessarily partial, overview of quantum physics in one dimension, accessible to a beginner yet taking them to the edge of current research, and providing en route a thorough grounding in the fundamental ideas, basic methods and essential phenomenology of the field. It is of course the brave who succeed in this world, and Thierry Giamarchi does just that with this excellent book, written by an expert for the uninitiated. Aimed in particular at graduate students in theoretical condensed matter physics, and assumimg little theoretical background on the part of the reader (well just a little), Giamarchi writes in a refreshingly
Honey: Single food stuff comprises many drugs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shahid Ullah Khan
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Honey is a natural food item produced by honey bees. Ancient civilizations considered honey as a God gifted prestigious product. Therefore, a huge literature is available regarding honey importance in almost all religions. Physically, honey is a viscous and jelly material having no specific color. Chemically, honey is a complex blend of many organic and inorganic compounds such as sugars, proteins, organic acids, pigments, minerals, and many other elements. Honey use as a therapeutic agent is as old as human civilization itself. Prior to the appearance of present day drugs, honey was conventionally used for treating many diseases. At this instant, the modern research has proven the medicinal importance of honey. It has broad spectrum anti-biotic, anti-viral and anti-fungal activities. Honey prevents and kills microbes through different mechanism such as elevated pH and enzyme activities. Till now, no synthetic compound that works as anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-fungal drugs has been reported in honey yet it works against bacteria, viruses and fungi while no anti-protozoal activity has been reported. Potent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancerous activities of honey have been reported. Honey is not only significant as anti-inflammatory drug that relieve inflammation but also protect liver by degenerative effects of synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs. This article reviews physico-chemical properties, traditional use of honey as medicine and mechanism of action of honey in the light of modern scientific medicinal knowledge.
Using "Flatland 2: Sphereland" to Help Teach Motion and Multiple Dimensions
Caplan, Seth; Johnson, Dano; Vondracek, Mark
2015-01-01
The 1884 book "Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions," written by Edwin Abbott, has captured the interest of numerous generations, and has also been used in schools to help students learn and think about the concept of dimension in a creative, fun way. In 2007, a film was released called "Flatland: The Movie," and over one…
Negative ion formation in lanthanide atoms: Many-body effects
Felfli, Z; Sokolovski, D
2016-01-01
Investigations of low-energy electron-scattering of the lanthanide atoms Eu, Nd, Tb, Tm demonstrate that electron-correlation effects and core polarization are the dominant fundamental many-body effects responsible for the formation of metastable states of negative ions. Ramsauer Townsend minima, shape resonances and binding energies of the resultant anions are identified and extracted from the elastic total cross sections calculated using the complex angular momentum method. The large discrepancy between the recently measured electron affinity of 0.116 and the previously measured value of 1.053 eV for Eu is resolved. Also, the previously measured electron affinities for Nd, Tb and Tm are reconciled and new values are extracted from the calculated total cross sections. The large electron affinities found here for these atoms, should be useful in negative ion nanocatalysis, including methane conversion to methanol without CO2 emission, with significant environmental impact.. The powerful complex angular moment...
Lampart, Jonas; Lewin, Mathieu
2015-12-01
We prove a generalized version of the RAGE theorem for N-body quantum systems. The result states that only bound states of systems with {0 ≤slant n ≤slant N} particles persist in the long time average. The limit is formulated by means of an appropriate weak topology for many-body systems, which was introduced by the second author in a previous work, and is based on reduced density matrices. This topology is connected to the weak-* topology of states on the algebras of canonical commutation or anti-commutation relations, and we give a formulation of our main result in this setting.
The Many Faces of School Library Leadership
COATNEY, SHARON
2010-01-01
More than ever, it is vital that librarians demonstrate leadership skills that will reinforce their own value and that of their institutions. The Many Faces of School Library Leadership offers insights and practical suggestions for such leadership through 10 essays contributed by outstanding leaders in the field of school librarianship. ||The book covers leadership in curriculum and instruction, literacy, technology, intellectual freedom, staff development, and other equally critical areas. It discusses the breadth and depth of the leadership school librarians must provide to move the school l
The many facets of auditory display
Blattner, Meera M.
1995-01-01
In this presentation we will examine some of the ways sound can be used in a virtual world. We make the case that many different types of audio experience are available to us. A full range of audio experiences include: music, speech, real-world sounds, auditory displays, and auditory cues or messages. The technology of recreating real-world sounds through physical modeling has advanced in the past few years allowing better simulation of virtual worlds. Three-dimensional audio has further enriched our sensory experiences.
Many Putative Endocrine Disruptors Inhibit Prostaglandin Synthesis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, David M.; Skalkam, Maria L.; Audouze, Karine Marie Laure
2011-01-01
Background: Prostaglandins (PGs) play key roles in development and maintenance of homeostasis of the adult body. Despite these important roles, it remains unclear whether the PG pathway is a target for endocrine disruption. However, several known endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) share a high...... of endocrine disruption. Results: We found that many known EDCs inhibit the PG pathway in a mouse Sertoli cell line and in human primary mast cells. The EDCs also reduced PG synthesis in ex vivo rat testis and it was correlated with a reduced testosterone production. The inhibition of PG synthesis occurs...
Concurrent projects: how many can you handle?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steyn, Herman
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The number of projects a person can handle simultaneously is a relevant factor in strategic planning and in project portfolio management. Internationally the de facto standard seems to be that a person should not work on more than two or three projects simultaneously; but several factors could influence this figure. Empirical evidence indicates that, in some South African sectors, people tend to work on many more than two or three projects simultaneously. In this paper, factors that influence the number of projects a person can work on are identified so that they can be investigated in further studies. Some ideas about using key resources optimally are also presented.
Nuclear, particle and many body physics
Morse, Philip M; Feshbach, Herman
2013-01-01
Nuclear, Particle and Many Body Physics, Volume II, is the second of two volumes dedicated to the memory of physicist Amos de-Shalit. The contributions in this volume are a testament to the respect he earned as a physicist and of the warm and rich affection he commanded as a personal friend. The book contains 41 chapters and begins with a study on the renormalization of rational Lagrangians. Separate chapters cover the scattering of high energy protons by light nuclei; approximation of the dynamics of proton-neutron systems; the scattering amplitude for the Gaussian potential; Coulomb excitati
Foam: a multiphase system with many facets.
Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Arif, Shehla; Tsai, Jih-Chiang
2008-06-28
Liquid foams are an extreme case of multiphase flow systems: capable of flow despite a very high dispersed phase volume fraction, yet exhibiting many characteristics of not only viscoelastic materials but also elastic solids. The non-trivial, well-defined geometry of foam bubbles is at the heart of a plethora of dynamical processes on widely varying length and time scales. We highlight recent developments in foam drainage (liquid dynamics) and foam rheology (flow of the entire gas-liquid system), emphasizing that many poorly understood features of other materials have precisely defined and quantifiable analogues in aqueous foams, where the only ingredients are well-known material parameters of Newtonian fluids and bubble geometry, together with subtle but important information on the surface mobility of the foam. Not only does this make foams an ideal model system for the theorist, but also an exciting object for experimental studies, in which dynamical processes span length scales from nanometres (thin films) to metres (foam continuum flows) and time scales from microseconds (film rupture) to minutes (foam rheology).
Many diseases, one model of care?
Albreht, Tit; Dyakova, Mariana; Schellevis, François G; Van den Broucke, Stephan
2016-01-01
Patients with multiple chronic conditions (multimorbidity) have complex and extensive health and social care needs that are not well served by current silo-based models of care. A lack of integration between care providers often leads to fragmented, incomplete, and ineffective care, leaving many patients overwhelmed and unable to navigate their way towards better health outcomes. In planning for the future, healthcare policies and models of care are required that cater for the complex needs of patients with multimorbidity and that deliver coordinated care that is patient-centred and focused on disease prevention, multidisciplinary teamwork and shared decision-making, and on empowering patients to self-manage. Salient lessons can be learnt from the work undertaken at a European and national level to develop care models in cancer and diabetes - two complex and often co-occurring conditions requiring coordinated long-term care. Innovative work is also underway in many European countries aimed at improving the integration of care for people with multimorbidity, resulting in more efficient and cost-effective health outcomes. This article reviews some of the most innovative programmes that have been initiated across and within Europe with the aim of improving the way care is delivered to people with complex and multiple long-term conditions. This work provides a foundation upon which to build better, more effective models of care for people with multimorbidity.
Simple Models of Many-Fermion Systems
Maruhn, Joachim Alexander; Suraud, Eric
2010-01-01
The purpose of this book is to provide a pedestrians route to the physics of many-particle systems. The material is developed along simple and generic models which allow to illuminate the basic mechanisms beyond each approach and which apply to broad variety of systems in different areas of physics and chemistry. The book is sorted in steps of slowly increasing complexity of the models. Complementing numerical tools help to carry on where analytical methods reach their limits. They provide at the same time a useful training for the typical numerical methods in many-body physics. In order to confine the huge field, we shall focus the discussions on finite systems wherefrom we take the examples of applications. This covers nuclei, atoms, molecules and clusters. The idea of this book is to concentrate first on the generic, robust and simple, approaches and show how they apply to several domains across the specific disciplines. On the other hand, we aim to establish contact with actual research by carrying forth ...
BOOK REVIEW: Black Holes, Cosmology and Extra Dimensions Black Holes, Cosmology and Extra Dimensions
Frolov, Valeri P.
2013-10-01
The book Black holes, Cosmology and Extra Dimensions written by Kirill A Bronnikov and Sergey G Rubin has been published recently by World Scientific Publishing Company. The authors are well known experts in gravity and cosmology. The book is a monograph, a considerable part of which is based on the original work of the authors. Their original point of view on some of the problems makes the book quite interesting, covering a variety of important topics of the modern theory of gravity, astrophysics and cosmology. It consists of 11 chapters which are organized in three parts. The book starts with an introduction, where the authors briefly discuss the main ideas of General Relativity, giving some historical remarks on its development and application to cosmology, and mentioning some more recent subjects such as brane worlds, f(R)-theories and gravity in higher dimensions. Part I of the book is called 'Gravity'. Chapters two and three are devoted to the Einstein equations and their spherical symmetric black hole solutions. This material is quite standard and can be found in practically any book on General Relativity. A brief summary of the Kerr metric and black hole thermodynamics are given in chapter four. The main part of this chapter is devoted to spherically symmetric black holes in non-Einstein gravity (with scalar and phantom fields), black holes with regular interior, and black holes in brane worlds. Chapters five and six are mainly dedicated to wormholes and the problem of their stability. Part II (Cosmology) starts with discussion of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker and de Sitter solutions of the Einstein equations and their properties. It follows by describing a `big picture' of the modern cosmology (inflation, post-inflationary reheating, the radiation-dominated and matter-dominated states, and modern stage of the (secondary) inflation). The authors explain how the inflation models allow one to solve many of the long-standing problems of cosmology, such as
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fung, Jimmy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schofield, Sam [LLNL; Shashkov, Mikhail J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-06-25
We did not run with a 'cylindrically painted region'. However, we did compute two general variants of the original problem. Refinement studies where a single zone at each level of refinement contains the entire internal energy at t=0 or A 'finite' energy source which has the same physical dimensions as that for the 91 x 46 mesh, but consisting of increasing numbers of zones with refinement. Nominal mesh resolution: 91 x 46. Other mesh resolutions: 181 x 92 and 361 x 184. Note, not identical to the original specification. To maintain symmetry for the 'fixed' energy source, the mesh resolution was adjusted slightly. FLAG Lagrange or full (Eulerian) ALE was used with various options for each simulation. Observation - for either Lagrange or ALE, point or 'fixed' source, calculations converge on density and pressure with mesh resolution, but not energy, (not vorticity either).
How many subjects do I need to power my study?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergio R. Muñoz Navarro
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The article presents a tool that helps answer the question “How many subjects do I need to power my study? We show how to determine sample size in observational epidemiological studies and provide examples of application using the statistical package Epidat, which is a shareware program developed under the auspices of the Pan American Health Organization, the Galician Board of Health and the University CES of Colombia. Examples of calculation of sample size for prevalence studies (cross-sectional, case-control studies and cohort studies are given.
Probing quantum many-body dynamics in nuclear systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simenel C.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Quantum many-body nuclear dynamics is treated at the mean-field level with the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF theory. Low-lying and high-lying nuclear vibrations are studied using the linear response theory. The fusion mechanism is also described for light and heavy systems. The latter exhibit fusion hindrance due to quasi-fission. Typical characteristics of quasi-fission, such as contact time and partial symmetrisation of the fragments mass in the exit channel, are reproduced by TDHF calculations. The (multi-nucleon transfer at sub-barrier energies is also discussed.
Publication Ethics: Many Facets, Collaboration Required
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Viroj Wiwanitkit
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Sir, the recent publication on “Publication Ethics” is very interesting (1. The article by Fazly Bazzaz and Sadeghi demonstrated many interesting cases of misconducts. Indeed, the misconducts can be seen in many ways. As mentioned in the present publication, both author and editor can perform publication misconducts. Nevertheless, the problem has many more facets. Sometimes, the misconducts are generated by the third parties. For example, the publisher can perform publication misconduct. In fact, the editor takes the role in control of the materials to be published in the journal. However, the publisher sometimes interferes with the process. Some unethical publication can be seen in some “predator” online publisher. “Pay then publish” without control of its quality can be seen (see also http://www.nature.com/news/predatory-publishers-are-corrupting-open-access-1.11385 and scholarlyoa.com/2012/12/06/bealls-list-of-edatory-publishers-2013. In the present era of rapidly increased number of open access journal, this problem is expected to increase. Another example is the criminal case of “one disguising to be the other person” to perform misconduct aiming at discrediting or destroying others. An interesting case was previously published in Hepatitis Monthly; an author performed plagiarized articles behind the name of another person and finally was charged by the IT investigation (2. Finally, the institute sometimes also performs misconduct. This can be supporting of their members who perform scientific misconduct by acts which do not correspond to the problem (this problem is usually seen in the problematic case generated by senior faculties or administrators, dealing with publisher to “buy” supplementary volume for publication of the works
Trabecular Bone Mechanical Properties and Fractal Dimension
Hogan, Harry A.
1996-01-01
Countermeasures for reducing bone loss and muscle atrophy due to extended exposure to the microgravity environment of space are continuing to be developed and improved. An important component of this effort is finite element modeling of the lower extremity and spinal column. These models will permit analysis and evaluation specific to each individual and thereby provide more efficient and effective exercise protocols. Inflight countermeasures and post-flight rehabilitation can then be customized and targeted on a case-by-case basis. Recent Summer Faculty Fellowship participants have focused upon finite element mesh generation, muscle force estimation, and fractal calculations of trabecular bone microstructure. Methods have been developed for generating the three-dimensional geometry of the femur from serial section magnetic resonance images (MRI). The use of MRI as an imaging modality avoids excessive exposure to radiation associated with X-ray based methods. These images can also detect trabecular bone microstructure and architecture. The goal of the current research is to determine the degree to which the fractal dimension of trabecular architecture can be used to predict the mechanical properties of trabecular bone tissue. The elastic modulus and the ultimate strength (or strain) can then be estimated from non-invasive, non-radiating imaging and incorporated into the finite element models to more accurately represent the bone tissue of each individual of interest. Trabecular bone specimens from the proximal tibia are being studied in this first phase of the work. Detailed protocols and procedures have been developed for carrying test specimens through all of the steps of a multi-faceted test program. The test program begins with MRI and X-ray imaging of the whole bones before excising a smaller workpiece from the proximal tibia region. High resolution MRI scans are then made and the piece further cut into slabs (roughly 1 cm thick). The slabs are X-rayed again
Particle diagrams and embedded many-body random matrix theory
Small, R. A.; Müller, S.
2014-07-01
We present a method which uses Feynman-like diagrams to calculate the statistical quantities of embedded many-body random matrix problems. The method provides a promising alternative to existing techniques and offers many important simplifications. We use it here to find the fourth, sixth, and eighth moments of the level density of an m-body system with k fermions or bosons interacting through a random Hermitian potential (k ≤m) in the limit where the number of possible single-particle states is taken to infinity. All share the same transition, starting immediately after 2k=m, from moments arising from a semicircular level density to Gaussian moments. The results also reveal a striking feature; the domain of the 2nth moment is naturally divided into n subdomains specified by the points 2k=m,3k=m,...,nk=m.
Many-body approach to electronic excitations concepts and applications
Bechstedt, Friedhelm
2015-01-01
The many-body-theoretical basis and applications of theoretical spectroscopy of condensed matter, e.g. crystals, nanosystems, and molecules are unified in one advanced text for readers from graduate students to active researchers in the field. The theory is developed from first principles including fully the electron-electron interaction and spin interactions. It is based on the many-body perturbation theory, a quantum-field-theoretical description, and Green's functions. The important expressions for ground states as well as electronic single-particle and pair excitations are explained. Based on single-particle and two-particle Green's functions, the Dyson and Bethe-Salpeter equations are derived. They are applied to calculate spectral and response functions. Important spectra are those which can be measured using photoemission/inverse photoemission, optical spectroscopy, and electron energy loss/inelastic X-ray spectroscopy. Important approximations are derived and discussed in the light of selected computa...
Many-body Green functions in nuclear physics
Speth, J.; Lyutorovich, N.
Many-body Green functions are a very efficient formulation of the many-body problem. We review the application of this method to nuclear physics problems. The formulas which can be derived are of general applicability, e.g., in self-consistent as well as in nonself-consistent calculations. With the help of the Landau renormalization, one obtains relations without any approximations. This allows to apply conservation laws which lead to important general relations. We investigate the one-body and two-body Green functions as well as the three-body Green function and discuss their connection to nuclear observables. The generalization to systems with pair correlations are also presented. Numerical examples are compared with experimental data.
The Telephone: An Invention with Many Fathers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brenni, Paolo (CNR-FST-IMSS, Florence, Italy)
2008-10-01
The names of A.G. Bell, A. Meucci, P.Reis, E. Gray, just to mention the most important ones, are all connected with the invention of the telephone. Today, the Italian inventor A. Meucci is recognized as being the first to propose a working prototype of the electric telephone. However, for a series of reasons his strenuous efforts were not rewarded. I will not repeat here the endless and complex disputes about the 'real father' of the telephone. From an historical point of view it is more interesting to understand why so many individuals from different backgrounds conceived of a similar apparatus and why most of these devices were simply forgotten or just remained laboratory curiosities. The case of the development of the telephone is an emblematic and useful example for better understanding the intricate factors which are involved in the birth of an invention and reasons for its success and failure.
CIME School on Quantum Many Body Systems
Rivasseau, Vincent; Solovej, Jan Philip; Spencer, Thomas
2012-01-01
The book is based on the lectures given at the CIME school "Quantum many body systems" held in the summer of 2010. It provides a tutorial introduction to recent advances in the mathematics of interacting systems, written by four leading experts in the field: V. Rivasseau illustrates the applications of constructive Quantum Field Theory to 2D interacting electrons and their relation to quantum gravity; R. Seiringer describes a proof of Bose-Einstein condensation in the Gross-Pitaevski limit and explains the effects of rotating traps and the emergence of lattices of quantized vortices; J.-P. Solovej gives an introduction to the theory of quantum Coulomb systems and to the functional analytic methods used to prove their thermodynamic stability; finally, T. Spencer explains the supersymmetric approach to Anderson localization and its relation to the theory of random matrices. All the lectures are characterized by their mathematical rigor combined with physical insights.
Auxin Transporters—Why So Many?
Zažímalová, Eva; Murphy, Angus S.; Yang, Haibing; Hoyerová, Klára; Hošek, Petr
2010-01-01
Interacting and coordinated auxin transporter actions in plants underlie a flexible network that mobilizes auxin in response to many developmental and environmental changes encountered by these sessile organisms. The independent but synergistic activity of individual transporters can be differentially regulated at various levels. This invests auxin transport mechanisms with robust functional redundancy and added auxin flow capacity when needed. An evolutionary perspective clarifies the roles of the different transporter groups in plant development. Mathematical and functional analysis of elements of auxin transport makes it possible to rationalize the relative contributions of members of the respective transporter classes to the localized auxin transport streams that then underlie both preprogrammed developmental changes and reactions to environmental stimuli. PMID:20300209
The many faces of graph dynamics
Pignolet, Yvonne Anne; Roy, Matthieu; Schmid, Stefan; Tredan, Gilles
2017-06-01
The topological structure of complex networks has fascinated researchers for several decades, resulting in the discovery of many universal properties and reoccurring characteristics of different kinds of networks. However, much less is known today about the network dynamics: indeed, complex networks in reality are not static, but rather dynamically evolve over time. Our paper is motivated by the empirical observation that network evolution patterns seem far from random, but exhibit structure. Moreover, the specific patterns appear to depend on the network type, contradicting the existence of a ‘one fits it all’ model. However, we still lack observables to quantify these intuitions, as well as metrics to compare graph evolutions. Such observables and metrics are needed for extrapolating or predicting evolutions, as well as for interpolating graph evolutions. To explore the many faces of graph dynamics and to quantify temporal changes, this paper suggests to build upon the concept of centrality, a measure of node importance in a network. In particular, we introduce the notion of centrality distance, a natural similarity measure for two graphs which depends on a given centrality, characterizing the graph type. Intuitively, centrality distances reflect the extent to which (non-anonymous) node roles are different or, in case of dynamic graphs, have changed over time, between two graphs. We evaluate the centrality distance approach for five evolutionary models and seven real-world social and physical networks. Our results empirically show the usefulness of centrality distances for characterizing graph dynamics compared to a null-model of random evolution, and highlight the differences between the considered scenarios. Interestingly, our approach allows us to compare the dynamics of very different networks, in terms of scale and evolution speed.
Many diseases, one model of care?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tit Albreht
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract This article has been corrected. See J Comorbidity 2016;6(1:33. http://dx.doi.org/joc.2016.6.78. Patients with multiple chronic conditions (multimorbidity have complex and extensive health and social care needs that are not well served by current silo-based models of care. A lack of integration between care providers often leads to fragmented, incomplete, and ineffective care, leaving many patients overwhelmed and unable to navigate their way towards better health outcomes. In planning for the future, healthcare policies and models of care are required that cater for the complex needs of patients with multimorbidity and that deliver coordinated care that is patient-centred and focused on disease prevention, multidisciplinary teamwork and shared decision-making, and on empowering patients to self-manage. Salient lessons can be learnt from the work undertaken at a European and national level to develop care models in cancer and diabetes – two complex and often co-occurring conditions requiring coordinated long-term care. Innovative work is also underway in many European countries aimed at improving the integration of care for people with multimorbidity, resulting in more efficient and cost-effective health outcomes. This article reviews some of the most innovative programmes that have been initiated across and within Europe with the aim of improving the way care is delivered to people with complex and multiple long-term conditions. This work provides a foundation upon which to build better, more effective models of care for people with multimorbidity. Journal of Comorbidity 2016;6(1:12–20
Many-core algorithms for statistical phylogenetics.
Suchard, Marc A; Rambaut, Andrew
2009-06-01
Statistical phylogenetics is computationally intensive, resulting in considerable attention meted on techniques for parallelization. Codon-based models allow for independent rates of synonymous and replacement substitutions and have the potential to more adequately model the process of protein-coding sequence evolution with a resulting increase in phylogenetic accuracy. Unfortunately, due to the high number of codon states, computational burden has largely thwarted phylogenetic reconstruction under codon models, particularly at the genomic-scale. Here, we describe novel algorithms and methods for evaluating phylogenies under arbitrary molecular evolutionary models on graphics processing units (GPUs), making use of the large number of processing cores to efficiently parallelize calculations even for large state-size models. We implement the approach in an existing Bayesian framework and apply the algorithms to estimating the phylogeny of 62 complete mitochondrial genomes of carnivores under a 60-state codon model. We see a near 90-fold speed increase over an optimized CPU-based computation and a >140-fold increase over the currently available implementation, making this the first practical use of codon models for phylogenetic inference over whole mitochondrial or microorganism genomes. Source code provided in BEAGLE: Broad-platform Evolutionary Analysis General Likelihood Evaluator, a cross-platform/processor library for phylogenetic likelihood computation (http://beagle-lib.googlecode.com/). We employ a BEAGLE-implementation using the Bayesian phylogenetics framework BEAST (http://beast.bio.ed.ac.uk/).
Encoding the structure of many-body localization with matrix product operators
Pekker, David; Clark, Bryan K.
2017-01-01
Anderson insulators are noninteracting disordered systems which have localized single-particle eigenstates. The interacting analog of Anderson insulators are the many-body localized (MBL) phases. The spectrum of the many-body eigenstates of an Anderson insulator is efficiently represented as a set of product states over the single-particle modes. We show that product states over matrix product operators of small bond dimension is the corresponding efficient description of the spectrum of an MBL insulator. In this language all of the many-body eigenstates are encoded by matrix product states (i.e., density matrix renormalization group wave functions) consisting of only two sets of low bond dimension matrices per site: the Gi matrices corresponding to the local ground state on site i and the Ei matrices corresponding to the local excited state. All 2n eigenstates can be generated from all possible combinations of these sets of matrices.
Vanishing dimensions: theory and phenomenology
Stojkovic, Dejan; Landsberg, Greg; Anchordoqui, Luis; Fairbrain, Malcolm; Dai, De Chang
2012-03-01
Lower-dimensionality at higher energies has manifold theoretical advantages as recently pointed out in our work. Moreover, it appears that experimental evidence may already exists for it - a statistically significant planar alignment of events with energies higher than TeV has been observed in some earlier cosmic ray experiments. If this alignment is not a fluke, then the LHC should be able to see effects associated with the dimensional crossover. Further, (2+1)-dimensional spacetimes have no gravitational degrees of freedom, and gravity waves cannot be produced in that epoch in the early universe. This places a universal maximum frequency at which primordial gravity waves can propagate, which may be accessible to future gravitational wave detectors such as LISA. In this talk, the theoretical motivation for ``vanishing dimensions'' as well as generic experimental and observational signature will be discussed.
Keynote speech: Dimensions of Change
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg
2004-01-01
The presentation seeks to construct a framework for understanding knowledge and knowledge work. I argue that knowledge may be understood as a social construction of reality. I argue that people construct their reality by integrating four dimensions of reality: Facts, logic, values and communicati....... I argue that this framework leads to a new and critical understanding of the disciplines organizational learning and knowledge management. In particular I argue that these disciplines often contain their own image of work and identity, which may be a sharp contrast to extant work forms...... and identities. As such the work of these disciplines is often rather misplaced and it tends to be rather unsuccessful. I argue that we need to adjust knowledge and learning strategies to local circumstances in order to be more successful in creating new knowledge. The presentation has three parts. First I...
Psychological dimensions of Energy Conservation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tonello, Graciela
2012-12-01
Full Text Available One of the most serious current environmental problems is the depletion of non renewable natural resources. The vast majority of our daily actions involve the consumption of energy and they increase the problem. Environmental psychology studies the psychological motivations that determine pro-ecological behaviour. In this context the aim of this review was to determine which psychological models and variables are better descriptors of residential energy conservation, comparing the predictive power of different models related to behaviour, residential consumption as well as to the acceptability of energy policies. Results suggest that energy saving is mainly linked to altruistic motivations, followed by egoistic reasons and in a minor way to environmental concerns. People would act according to these dimensions when contextual conditions are perceived as appropriate.
Dirac Semimetals in Two Dimensions.
Young, Steve M; Kane, Charles L
2015-09-18
Graphene is famous for being a host of 2D Dirac fermions. However, spin-orbit coupling introduces a small gap, so that graphene is formally a quantum spin Hall insulator. Here we present symmetry-protected 2D Dirac semimetals, which feature Dirac cones at high-symmetry points that are not gapped by spin-orbit interactions and exhibit behavior distinct from both graphene and 3D Dirac semimetals. Using a two-site tight-binding model, we construct representatives of three possible distinct Dirac semimetal phases and show that single symmetry-protected Dirac points are impossible in two dimensions. An essential role is played by the presence of nonsymmorphic space group symmetries. We argue that these symmetries tune the system to the boundary between a 2D topological and trivial insulator. By breaking the symmetries we are able to access trivial and topological insulators as well as Weyl semimetal phases.
Human dimension of strategic partnerships
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petković Mirjana M.
2004-01-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to point to the widespread practice of neglecting behavioral aspects of different forms of fusions and integrations of enterprises that have emerged in the process of privatization through strategic partnerships with foreign companies among Serbian enterprises. The initial hypothesis in this paper is that the process of privatization, restructuring and transformation in Serbian enterprises cannot be completely successful and equally advantageous for all the subjects involved if there is no concern for human dimension of these processes. Without this concern there is a possibility for behavioral problems to arise, and the only way to resolve them is through post festum respecting and introducing elements that should never have been neglected in the first place. This paper refers to the phenomenon of collision of cultures and the ways of resolving it while forming strategic partnerships.
Extended Supersymmetries in One Dimension
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Toppan
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This work covers part of the material presented at the Advanced Summer School in Prague. It is mostly devoted to the structural properties of Extended Supersymmetries in One Dimension. Several results are presented on the classification of linear, irreducible representations realized on a finite number of time-dependent fields. The connections between supersymmetry transformations, Clifford algebras and division algebras are discussed. A manifestly supersymmetric framework for constructing invariants without using the notion of superfields is presented. A few examples of one-dimensional, N-extended, off-shell invariant sigma models are computed. The relation between supersymmetry transformations and graph theory is outlined. The notion of the fusion algebra of irreps tensor products is presented. The relevance of one-dimensional Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics as a way to extract information on higher dimensional supersymmetric field theories is discussed.
Wald, Robert M.
2011-04-01
Few, if any, issues in physics have engendered as much discussion as the measurement problem in quantum mechanics. It is generally agreed that the `normal' dynamical evolution of the state vector in quantum mechanics is given by a unitary map. The linearity of this map implies that the state vector will, in general, be found in a superposition of eigenstates of a given observable (or, similarly, that the density matrix describing a subsystem will not correspond to a definite value of this observable). However, when we make a measurement of an observable, we always obtain a define value—although it is impossible to predict with certainty which value will be obtained. The traditional response to this issue is to postulate that when a measurement is made, the wavefunction `collapses' to an eigenstate of the observable being measured, perhaps due to the inherent classicality of the measuring apparatus (Bohr), or to the consciousness of the observer (Wigner), or possibly to some modification of quantum dynamics that occurs even when observations are not being made. The main motivation for the Everett (`many worlds') interpretation is to avoid introducing any such collapse postulate. This volume commemorates the 50th anniversary of the publication of Everett's paper in 1957 and contains 20 original articles as well as the transcripts of several discussions that took place at meetings devoted to the Everett interpretation at Oxford University and the Perimeter Institute. The attractiveness of the Everett interpretation is very succinctly summarized by a sentence from Vaidman's contribution (p 582): `The collapse, with its randomness, non-locality and the lack of a well-defined moment of occurrence, is such an ugly scar on quantum theory, that I, along with many others, am ready to follow Everett and deny its existence.' But the main drawback of the interpretation is then equally succinctly stated in the next sentence: `The price is the many worlds interpretation, i
Genomic evaluations with many more genotypes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wiggans George R
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic evaluations in Holstein dairy cattle have quickly become more reliable over the last two years in many countries as more animals have been genotyped for 50,000 markers. Evaluations can also include animals genotyped with more or fewer markers using new tools such as the 777,000 or 2,900 marker chips recently introduced for cattle. Gains from more markers can be predicted using simulation, whereas strategies to use fewer markers have been compared using subsets of actual genotypes. The overall cost of selection is reduced by genotyping most animals at less than the highest density and imputing their missing genotypes using haplotypes. Algorithms to combine different densities need to be efficient because numbers of genotyped animals and markers may continue to grow quickly. Methods Genotypes for 500,000 markers were simulated for the 33,414 Holsteins that had 50,000 marker genotypes in the North American database. Another 86,465 non-genotyped ancestors were included in the pedigree file, and linkage disequilibrium was generated directly in the base population. Mixed density datasets were created by keeping 50,000 (every tenth of the markers for most animals. Missing genotypes were imputed using a combination of population haplotyping and pedigree haplotyping. Reliabilities of genomic evaluations using linear and nonlinear methods were compared. Results Differing marker sets for a large population were combined with just a few hours of computation. About 95% of paternal alleles were determined correctly, and > 95% of missing genotypes were called correctly. Reliability of breeding values was already high (84.4% with 50,000 simulated markers. The gain in reliability from increasing the number of markers to 500,000 was only 1.6%, but more than half of that gain resulted from genotyping just 1,406 young bulls at higher density. Linear genomic evaluations had reliabilities 1.5% lower than the nonlinear evaluations with 50
Exploring many body interactions with Raman spectroscopy
Tian, Yao
Many-body interactions are cornerstones of contemporary solid state physics research. Especially, phonon related interactions such as phonon-phonon coupling, spin-phonon coupling and electron-phonon coupling constantly present new challenges. To study phonon related many-body interactions, temperature dependent Raman spectroscopy is employed. Firstly, a new design and construction of a Raman microscope aimed at high collection eciency, positional and thermal stability is discussed. The application of the home-built Raman microscope is shown in the context of two types of novel materials; Cr2Ge2Te6 (spin-phonon coupling) and Bi2Te3-xSex (phonon-phonon coupling). Cr2Ge2Te6 is one of the rare class of ferromagnetic semiconductors and recent thermal transport studies suggest the spin and lattice are strongly coupled in its cousin compound Cr2Si2Te6. In this work, the spin-phonon coupling in Cr2Ge2Te6 has been revealed in multiple ways: we observed a split of two phonon modes due to the breaking of time reversal symmetry; the anomalous hardening of an additional three modes; and a dramatic enhancement of the phonon lifetimes. It is well-known that the phonon-phonon interaction plays a signicant role in determining the thermal transport properties of thermoelectrics. A comprehensive study of the phonon dynamics of Bi2Te3-xSex has been performed. We found that the unusual temperature dependence of dierent phonon modes originates from both cubic and quartic anharmonicity. These results are consistent with the resonance bonding mechanism, suggesting that the resonance bonding may be a common feature for conventional thermoelectrics. In the Raman spectra of Bi2Te2Se, the origin of the extra Raman feature has been debated for decades. Through a temperature dependent Raman study, we were able to prove the feature is generated by a Te-Se antisite induced local mode. The anomalous linewidth of the local mode as well as the anharmonic behavior were explained through a statistical
Emerging dimensions of technology management
Akhilesh, K B
2013-01-01
Technology is the key driver of business, may it be airports, ICT , smart governance, manufacturing or plantations. This book examines technology management across many different sectors, highlighting complexities, uncertainties and risks.
Randall, Lisa
2007-01-01
"Spaces with more than three dimensins are consistent with known physics, can help solve a vexing problem in the standard model, and many soon be indirectly observed at the Large Hadron Collider." (2 pages)
Model Microvascular Networks Can Have Many Equilibria.
Karst, Nathaniel J; Geddes, John B; Carr, Russell T
2017-03-01
We show that large microvascular networks with realistic topologies, geometries, boundary conditions, and constitutive laws can exhibit many steady-state flow configurations. This is in direct contrast to most previous studies which have assumed, implicitly or explicitly, that a given network can only possess one equilibrium state. While our techniques are general and can be applied to any network, we focus on two distinct network types that model human tissues: perturbed honeycomb networks and random networks generated from Voronoi diagrams. We demonstrate that the disparity between observed and predicted flow directions reported in previous studies might be attributable to the presence of multiple equilibria. We show that the pathway effect, in which hematocrit is steadily increased along a series of diverging junctions, has important implications for equilibrium discovery, and that our estimates of the number of equilibria supported by these networks are conservative. If a more complete description of the plasma skimming effect that captures red blood cell allocation at junctions with high feed hematocrit were to be obtained empirically, then the number of equilibria found by our approach would at worst remain the same and would in all likelihood increase significantly.
The Many Roads toward Achieving Health Equity.
Cohen, Alan B; Grogan, Colleen M; Horwitt, Jedediah N
2017-10-01
This special issue of the Journal is devoted to understanding the many roads that lead toward achieving health equity. The eleven articles in the issue portray an America that is struggling with the clash between its historical ideal of pursuing equality for all and its ambivalence toward achieving equity in all social domains, especially health. Organized in five sections, the issue contains articles that examine and analyze: the role of civil rights law and the courts in shaping health equity; the political discourse that has framed our understanding of health equity; health policies that affect health equity, such as the Medicaid program, as well as related strategies that might help to improve equity, such as the use of mobile technologies to empower individuals; immigration policies and practices that impact health equity in marginalized populations; and commentaries in the final section that explore how the Affordable Care Act has addressed health equity, how repeal of the law would jeopardize equity gains, and how the political discourse and culture of the Trump administration could adversely affect health equity. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.
An integrable many-body problem
Calogero, F.
2011-10-01
Some years ago, Mikhailov and Sokolov identified as integrable the neat system of two evolution equations dot{U}=V2, dot{V}=U2, where U ≡ U(t) and V ≡ V(t) are two N × N matrices, N is an arbitrary positive integer, t ("time") is the independent variable, and superimposed dots indicate the time derivatives. This entails, rather trivially, that the generic solution of the modified version of this model reading dot{U}=V2+i ω U, dot{V}=U2+i ω V, with ω an arbitrary positive constant, is completely periodic with period T = 2π/ω (or possibly a period which is an integer multiple of T): "isochrony." Another, less trivial, consequence of their finding is the observation that the solution of the many-body problem characterized by the Hamiltonian system of N Newtonian evolution equations, ddot{x}n=-a2 xn5+g2/2sum _{m=1, mne n}N[ ( xn-xm) ^{-3}+( xn+xm) ^{-3}], n=1,ldots,N, where xn ≡ xn(t) are N scalar dependent variables and a, g are two arbitrary constants, is simply related to the evolution of the (appropriately rescaled) eigenvalues of a matrix simply related to an appropriate solution of the original Mikhailov-Sokolov integrable matrix evolution system, hence is itself integrable.
Labelling of food: A challenge for many
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Henderikx Frans
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Background: In food marketing, there is a trend towards artisanal, traditional “honest” food, and simultaneously to good looking, long lasting, multi-purpose food with a clean label. In addition, marketeers like to upgrade the image of the food, including the label, using various digital techniques. This can produce (unintended non-conformities with the current food law on labelling, which in this review, refers to Regulation (EU No 1169/2011 (European Union, 2011. Food and meat labelling have been subjected to increased regulation in the recent years, sometimes after scandals (horse-gate, food fraud, sometimes due to wishes of consumer organisations (nutritional information and sometimes after the introduction of new types of ingredients (sweeteners, phytosterols, nanomaterials. Scope and approach: This review provides information about food labelling. Some experiences gathered by food inspectorate personnel in practice, with reference to the literature data, positive aspects, main problems and trends are discussed. Key findings and conclusion: Food labelling is a complex requirement, with the general demands written down in the harmonized regulation (European Union, 2011. Foods sold by e-commerce must also follow these same regulations. However, many food labels on the market show smaller and/or bigger deviations from the legal requirements, which should be appropriately addressed by the food manufacturers or packers, but also by the competent authorities. Even training of consumers seems to be needed, since all this information is, in the end, intended for consumers to aptly utilise.
Percolation transitions in two dimensions
Feng, X.; Deng, Y.; Blöte, H.W.J.
2008-01-01
We investigate bond- and site-percolation models on several two-dimensional lattices numerically, by means of transfer-matrix calculations and Monte Carlo simulations. The lattices include the square, triangular, honeycomb kagome, and diced lattices with nearest-neighbor bonds, and the square
Vahedi, Arman; Gorczyca, Beata
2012-09-01
Here we introduce a distribution of floc fractal dimensions as opposed to a single fractal dimension value into the floc settling velocity model developed in earlier studies. The distribution of fractal dimensions for a single floc size was assumed to cover a range from 1.9 to 3.0. This range was selected based on the theoretically determined fractal dimensions for diffusion-limited and cluster-cluster aggregation. These two aggregation mechanisms are involved in the formation of the lime softening flocs analyzed in this study. Fractal dimensions were generated under the assumption that a floc can have any value of normally distributed fractal dimensions ranging from 1.9-3.0. A range of settling velocities for a single floc size was calculated based on the distribution of fractal dimensions. The assumption of multiple fractal dimensions for a single floc size resulted in a non-unique relationship between the floc size and the floc settling velocity, i.e., several different settling velocities were calculated for one floc size. The settling velocities calculated according to the model ranged from 0 to 10 mm/s (average 2.22 mm/s) for the majority of flocs in the size range of 1-250 μm (average 125 μm). The experimentally measured settling velocities of flocs ranged from 0.1 to 7.1 mm/s (average 2.37 mm/s) for the flocs with equivalent diameters from 10 μm to 260 μm (average 124 μm). Experimentally determined floc settling velocities were predicted well by the floc settling model incorporating distributions of floc fractal dimensions calculated based on the knowledge of the mechanisms of aggregation, i.e., cluster-cluster aggregation and diffusion-limited aggregation. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Williams, David E.
1981-01-01
This short quiz for teachers is intended to help them to brush up on their calculator operating skills and to prepare for the types of questions their students will ask about calculator idiosyncracies. (SJL)
The external dimension of the Spanish transition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charles T. Powell
1993-07-01
Full Text Available The author intends to go beyond the unanimous opinion that the processes of political transition must be explained, almost exclusively, in terms of national forces and calculations. In the case of the Spanish transition he intends to demonstrate how thestrategies of the national actors (crown, government and parties were moulded largely by the pressure of regulations and structures drawn up outside its frontiers. Firstly, by the United States’ discreet support (always putting forward first her strategic interests of the political evolution whilst it did not put in danger the Spanish contribution to the western defensive system (while the USSR hardly played any role. The Spanish transition did not offer a threat to the alliance system from the beginning and with which the result was practically guaranteed. The European governments for their part, worried least about security and more about the political dimension pressurizing the regime and supporting the leaders of the democratic opposition more and more. The European institutions, withtheir veto, ended up legitimizing the Spanish process of democratization while the different Internationals came together and helped their coreligionists in Spain. Their political and diplomatic pressure were complemented, with the paradigm in the case of PSOE, with the contribution of means and resources by the political foundations, largely German, whose highly visible participation did not lessen the credibiity of those it protected.
Anomalous dimensions and non-gaussianity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Green, Daniel; Lewandowski, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo; Silverstein, Eva; Zaldarriaga, Matias
2013-10-01
We analyze the signatures of inflationary models that are coupled to interacting field theories, a basic class of multifield models also motivated by their role in providing dynamically small scales. Near the squeezed limit of the bispectrum, we find a simple scaling behavior determined by operator dimensions, which are constrained by the appropriate unitarity bounds. Specifically, we analyze two simple and calculable classes of examples: conformal field theories (CFTs), and large-N CFTs deformed by relevant time-dependent double-trace operators. Together these two classes of examples exhibit a wide range of scalings and shapes of the bispectrum, including nearly equilateral, orthogonal and local non-Gaussianity in different regimes. Along the way, we compare and contrast the shape and amplitude with previous results on weakly coupled fields coupled to inflation. This signature provides a precision test for strongly coupled sectors coupled to inflation via irrelevant operators suppressed by a high mass scale up to ~ 103 times the inflationary Hubble scale.
Bahr, Patrick; Hutton, Graham
2015-01-01
In this article we present a new approach to the problem of calculating compilers. In particular, we develop a simple but general technique that allows us to derive correct compilers from high- level semantics by systematic calculation, with all details of the implementation of the compilers falling naturally out of the calculation process. Our approach is based upon the use of standard equational reasoning techniques, and has been applied to calculate compilers for a wide range of language f...
Autistic Savant Calendar Calculators.
Patti, Paul J.
This study identified 10 savants with developmental disabilities and an exceptional ability to calculate calendar dates. These "calendar calculators" were asked to demonstrate their abilities, and their strategies were analyzed. The study found that the ability to calculate dates into the past or future varied widely among these…
Threlfall, John
2002-01-01
Suggests that strategy choice is a misleading characterization of efficient mental calculation and that teaching mental calculation methods as a whole is not conducive to flexibility. Proposes an alternative in which calculation is thought of as an interaction between noticing and knowledge. Presents an associated teaching approach to promote…
Canine fetal echocardiography: correlations for the analysis of cardiac dimensions.
Giannico, Amália Turner; Gil, Elaine Mayumi Ueno; Garcia, Daniela Aparecida Ayres; Sousa, Marlos Gonçalves; Froes, Tilde Rodrigues
2016-03-01
The aim of this study was to develop regression models for correlation of canine fetal heart development with body size to characterize normal development or suggest cardiac anomalies. Twenty clinically healthy pregnant bitches, either brachycephalic and non-brachycephalic, were examined ultrasonographically. Transabdominal fetal echocardiography was conducted every 4 days from the beginning of cardiac chambers differentiation until parturition. Ten cardiac parameters were measured: length, width and diameter of the heart; heart area; left and right ventricular dimensions; left and right atrial dimensions; and aortic and pulmonary artery diameter. Femoral length, biparietal diameter and abdominal cross-sectional area were also recorded. Regression equations were developed for each parameter of fetal body size, and linear and logarithmic models were compared. The model with the highest correlation coefficient was chosen to produce equations to calculate relative dimensions based on the correlations. Only the left-ventricular chamber differed between the two racial groups. Biparietal diameter was the independent parameter that produced the highest correlation coefficient for the most fetal cardiac dimensions, although good correlations were also observed using femoral length and abdominal cross-sectional area. Heart width and heart diameter were used as surrogates of cardiac development, as these measurements showed the best statistical correlation. Quantitative evaluation of fetal cardiac structures can be used to monitor normal and abnormal cardiac development.
A Theory of Stability in Many-to-many Matching Markets
Echenique, Federico; Oviedo, Jorge
2003-01-01
We develop a theory of stability in many-to-many matching markets. We give conditions under which the setwise-stable set, a core-like concept, is nonempty and can be approached through an algorithm. The usual core may be empty. The setwise-stable set coincides with the pairwise-stable set, and with the predictions of a non-cooperative bargaining model. The set-wise stable set possesses the canonical conflict/coincidence of interest properties from many-to-one, and one-to-one models. The theor...
Finite field theories in three dimensions with and without supersymmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barfoot, D.T.; Broadhurst, D.J.
1987-01-01
Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for the finiteness of the S-matrix and vacuum stress of theories with Yukawa, phi/sup 3/, and phi/sup 4/ couplings in three spacetime dimensions, and general supersymmetric solutions to these conditions are given. The requirement of a finite S-matrix allows many non-supersymmetric solutions, but with two bosons and two fermions the additional constraint of a finite vacuum stress allows only one simple alternative to supersymmetry.
HOFSTEDE’S CULTURAL DIMENSIONS AND MANAGEMENT IN CORPORATIONS
Alexandrina Cristina VASILE; Luminița NICOLESCU
2016-01-01
In many cases the success or failure in management is caused by the way leaders understand the cultural environment the companies develop. The leadership approach and rules applied increase or decrease performance in economies and companies. The paper describes the relation between management failure or success and the management adjustment to the cultural dimensions. People build organizations and rule them according to their values, but in the corporation field specific values might be succ...
Many trained at E1 Salvador center.
1970-02-01
The Family Planning Association of E1 Salvador is conducting regular week-long courses in family planning for doctors, nurses, social workers and other interested people in El Salvador and the surrounding countries of Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Twelve regional courses on population dynamics, the physiology of reproduction and family planning were held in the academic year 1968-69 at the Faculty of Medicine at the University of El Salvador. Because the demand for places far exceeds the capacity of the Association's training unit, careful selection of candidates is made through consultation with the national family planning associations. Most of those trained are doctors who are being specially equipped to carry out family planning work either as part of government maternal and child health centres or in Association clinics. Many places are also found for nurses and some social workers also attend in order to build up teams for effective clinic management. A few journalists and teachers have been among the trainees as well as groups of religious leaders including Roman Catholics. Lecturers are mainly university personnel drawn from a wide range of disciplines in order to relate family planning not only to health and medicine but also to socio-economic aspects and community welfare. The El Salvador Association, an IPPF member, gets financial support from the Population Council for the training programme but hopes eventually that responsibility for continuing the courses will be taken over by the Government, probably through the Ministry of Education. Another pace-setting activity of the Association has been its close contacts with industry, particulary through the efforts of its President, Mr. Lucio Burgos, General Manager of the El Salvador Power Company, who has gained the interest and support of business and union leaders. Not only do these groups help the work of the Association through fund-raising and public relations activities, but
Simposium 19: Teaching Offers Many Possibilities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Denise Vaz Macedo
2014-08-01
Full Text Available K-Education(PortugueseChair: V. TrindadeBayardo Torres; Clovis Wannmacher; Denise Macedo Teaching Offers Many Possibilities Denise Vaz Macedo Biochemistry Department, Biology Institute, Unicamp, Campinas, Brazil. In the last years my research lines are maintained exclusively through my biochemistry teaching activities at graduation and specialization course (360h. The teaching methodology used was developed over these 20 years into the classroom research. It is based on five practical activities carried out at the initial moment by the students themselves, who monitor the effects of different physical activity situations through the measurement of some plasma metabolites on point of care devices. After instructions the students perform the exercises collects and tabulate the data generated and document all the doubts arising. The educational goal right now is to show that the theory related to muscle contraction, the ATP-producing metabolic pathways is linked to their profession. At adequate moments each group presents to the whole class the practical activity carried out, the data and the doubts produced. After a fully discussion the students are able to relate the data to the studied theory. Also the initial doubts are clarified. A questionnaire applied before and after the discipline indicates the learning effectiveness of this method. Some other results: the students who have demonstrated special interest in the classroom normally join into de lab. Simultaneously they are also prepared for the teaching activity. The demand of specialization course is greater than the supply. The financial resources generated are expressive and administered by the University Foundation. They are fully applied to purchase permanent and consumption materials and for the payment of eventual scholarships for lab researchers. The publication in indexed journals has been constant and regular, and the obtained experimental results always return to the
Choi, Hwan Bin; Lee, Ji-Woo
2017-09-01
We study quantum phase transitions of a XXZ spin model with spin S = 1/2 and 1 in one dimension. The XXZ spin chain is one of basic models in understanding various one-dimensional magnetic materials. To study this model, we construct infinite-lattice matrix product state (iMPS), which is a tensor product form for a one-dimensional many-body quantum wave function. By using timeevolution- block-decimation method (TEBD) on iMPS, we obtain the ground states of the XXZ model at zero temperature. This method is very delicate in calculating ground states so that we developed a reliable method of finding the ground state with the dimension of entanglement coefficients up to 300, which is beyond the previous works. By analyzing ground-state energies, half-chain entanglement entropies, and entanglement spectrum, we found the signatures of quantum phase transitions between ferromagnetic phase, XY phase, Haldane phase, and antiferromagnetic phase.
Many risks, many models: addressing the variety of problems that pollution can cause
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Silvert, W
1992-01-01
.... Instead it is important to construct as many models as are required to address all possible major impacts and to integrate these models in a context which can be understood and used by managers...
The Hausdorff and dynamical dimensions of self-affine sponges: a dimension gap result
Das, Tushar; Simmons, David
2017-10-01
We construct a self-affine sponge in $\\mathbb R^3$ whose dynamical dimension, i.e. the supremum of the Hausdorff dimensions of its invariant measures, is strictly less than its Hausdorff dimension. This resolves a long-standing open problem in the dimension theory of dynamical systems, namely whether every expanding repeller has an ergodic invariant measure of full Hausdorff dimension. More generally we compute the Hausdorff and dynamical dimensions of a large class of self-affine sponges, a problem that previous techniques could only solve in two dimensions. The Hausdorff and dynamical dimensions depend continuously on the iterated function system defining the sponge, implying that sponges with a dimension gap represent a nonempty open subset of the parameter space.
Many worlds, many nature(s, one planet: indigenous knowledge in the Anthropocene
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cristina Yumie Aoki Inoue
Full Text Available Abstract This article explores the idea of many nature(s and its implication for the studies of global environmental politics. It discusses the inadequacy of the nature-society dichotomy and argues for epistemological parity, as well as for the recovery of indigenous knowledge systems. Looking at indigenous knowledge uncovers many ways to consider nature and contributes to recast global environmental studies in the Anthropocene.
Moving into the third dimension
Alizée Dauvergne
2010-01-01
One detail at a time, digital 3-D models of CERN’s various machines are being created by the Integration Section in the Machines & Experimental Facilities Group (EN/MEF) . The work, which requires painstaking attention to detail on a colossal scale, facilitates improvements to existing accelerators and the design of new machines in the future. Virtual representation of the LHC A complete digital mockup of the LHC in three dimensions already exists, including of course the tunnel, the machine systems including magnets and vacuum chambers, but also all of the various services such as cable ladders, piping systems and access control and so on. Only the colour and the texture of the surfaces betray that it is a mockup and not the real thing! The mockup of LINAC4 is finished too. The mockups for the SPS, ISOLDE and the entire PS complex, including transfer lines, are still being created. “Creating these 3-D mockups will allow us to work on forthcoming machine improvements, esp...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cornelia Marcela Danu
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The present work presents the concept approach and the types of the market risks, considering the representatives of the two correlative dimensions of the market: the supply and the demand. This approach dissociates from the other ways to define and to manage the market risks by the message that it communicates: all the types of risk caused by the market activities are market risks. These are anthropic risks, based on information and decision. From the point of view of source, the market risks or the decisional risks have the actions of the deciders (natural person or legal person to achieving the personal goals or mission or the objectives of the firm which they represent. The market risks are those which pose a threat to the attainment of the major objectives or purposes and to maximizing of advantages: the utility for the consumer and profit for the enterprise. The results of the dynamic interdependences are determined by the optimal management of each type of risk, taking into account the system of risks and the potential for transformation of the risk-cause in risk-effect and vice versa.
Higgs Bosons in Extra Dimensions
Quiros, Mariano
2015-01-01
In this paper, motivated by the recent discovery of a Higgs-like boson at the LHC with a mass m_H\\simeq 126 GeV, we review different models where the hierarchy problem is solved by means of a warped extra dimension. In the Randall-Sundrum model electroweak observables provide very strong bounds on the mass of KK modes which motivates extensions to overcome this problem. Two extensions are briefly discussed. One particular extension is based on the deformation of the metric such that it strongly departs from the AdS_5 structure in the IR region while it goes asymptotically to AdS_5 in the UV brane. This model has the IR brane close to a naked metric singularity (which is outside the physical interval) characteristic of soft-walls constructions. The proximity of the singularity provides a strong wave-function renormalization for the Higgs field which suppresses the T and S parameters. The second class of considered extensions are based on the introduction of an extra gauge group in the bulk such that the custod...
Dimensions of vehicle sounds perception.
Wagner, Verena; Kallus, K Wolfgang; Foehl, Ulrich
2017-10-01
Vehicle sounds play an important role concerning customer satisfaction and can show another differentiating factor of brands. With an online survey of 1762 German and American customers, the requirement characteristics of high-quality vehicle sounds were determined. On the basis of these characteristics, a requirement profile was generated for every analyzed sound. These profiles were investigated in a second study with 78 customers using real vehicles. The assessment results of the vehicle sounds can be represented using the dimensions "timbre", "loudness", and "roughness/sharpness". The comparison of the requirement profiles and the assessment results show that the sounds which are perceived as pleasant and high-quality, more often correspond to the requirement profile. High-quality sounds are characterized by the fact that they are rather gentle, soft and reserved, rich, a bit dark and not too rough. For those sounds which are assessed worse by the customers, recommendations for improvements can be derived. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Optoacoustic imaging in five dimensions
Deán-Ben, X. L.; Gottschalk, Sven; Fehm, Thomas F.; Razansky, Daniel
2015-03-01
We report on an optoacoustic imaging system capable of acquiring volumetric multispectral optoacoustic data in real time. The system is based on simultaneous acquisition of optoacoustic signals from 256 different tomographic projections by means of a spherical matrix array. Thereby, volumetric reconstructions can be done at high frame rate, only limited by the pulse repetition rate of the laser. The developed tomographic approach presents important advantages over previously reported systems that use scanning for attaining volumetric optoacoustic data. First, dynamic processes, such as the biodistribution of optical biomarkers, can be monitored in the entire volume of interest. Second, out-of-plane and motion artifacts that could degrade the image quality when imaging living specimens can be avoided. Finally, real-time 3D performance can obviously save time required for experimental and clinical observations. The feasibility of optoacoustic imaging in five dimensions, i.e. real time acquisition of volumetric datasets at multiple wavelengths, is reported. In this way, volumetric images of spectrally resolved chromophores are rendered in real time, thus offering an unparallel imaging performance among the current bio-imaging modalities. This performance is subsequently showcased by video-rate visualization of in vivo hemodynamic changes in mouse brain and handheld visualization of blood oxygenation in deep human vessels. The newly discovered capacities open new prospects for translating the optoacoustic technology into highly performing imaging modality for biomedical research and clinical practice with multiple applications envisioned, from cardiovascular and cancer diagnostics to neuroimaging and ophthalmology.
Extra dimensions at particle colliders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dvergsnes, Erik Wolden
2004-08-01
This thesis consists of an introduction where we consider different aspects of theories involving extra dimensions, together with four research publications (Papers I-IV) attached at the end. The introductional chapters should serve as background material for better understanding the models on which the articles are based. In Chap. 4 we also present some plots not included in the papers. The topic of Papers I-III is graviton induced Bremsstrahlung. In Paper I we consider the contribution to this process from graviton exchange through gluon-gluon fusion at the LHC, compared to the QED background. Only final-state radiation is considered in Paper I, whereas in Paper II we extend this work to include also the quark-antiquark annihilation with graviton exchange, as well as initial-state radiation for both graviton and Standard Model exchange. Paper III is a study of graviton-induced Bremsstrahlung at e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders, including both initial- and final-state radiation. Paper IV is devoted to a study of the center-edge asymmetry at hadron colliders, an asymmetry which previously had been studied for e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders. The center-edge asymmetry can be used as a method of distinguishing between spin-1 and spin-2 exchange, something which will be of major importance if a signal is observed.
Contagion Shocks in One Dimension
Bertozzi, Andrea L.; Rosado, Jesus; Short, Martin B.; Wang, Li
2015-02-01
We consider an agent-based model of emotional contagion coupled with motion in one dimension that has recently been studied in the computer science community. The model involves movement with a speed proportional to a "fear" variable that undergoes a temporal consensus averaging based on distance to other agents. We study the effect of Riemann initial data for this problem, leading to shock dynamics that are studied both within the agent-based model as well as in a continuum limit. We examine the behavior of the model under distinguished limits as the characteristic contagion interaction distance and the interaction timescale both approach zero. The limiting behavior is related to a classical model for pressureless gas dynamics with "sticky" particles. In comparison, we observe a threshold for the interaction distance vs. interaction timescale that produce qualitatively different behavior for the system - in one case particle paths do not cross and there is a natural Eulerian limit involving nonlocal interactions and in the other case particle paths can cross and one may consider only a kinetic model in the continuum limit.
New universality class in three dimensions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Codello, A.; Safari, M.; Vacca, G. P.
2017-01-01
We study the Blume-Capel universality class in d=103-ϵ dimensions. The renormalization group flow is extracted by looking at poles in fractional dimension of three loop diagrams using MS. The theory is the only nontrivial universality class which admits an expansion to three dimensions with ϵ=13......theory results. Finally we discuss a family of nonunitary multicritical models which includes the Lee-Yang and Blume...
Green Lifestyle Dimensions : An Empirical Study
Arfida Handoyo; Popy
2012-01-01
Exploring green lifestyles is an interesting subject. Given the increase of awareness among global customers worldwide, investigating green lifestyle dimensions is a challenging task, particularly in a developing country like Indonesia. The purpose of this paper is to identify the green lifestyle among Indonesians by using lifestyle patterns. The dimensions applied for this study use the nine-dimension green lifestyle from Arminda do Pac¸o & Ma´rio Raposo (2008:371). These are environmentally...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walters, Jerri [Duke Energy, York, SC (United States); Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Ryan, Stewart [Animal Cancer Center, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Harmon, Joseph F., E-mail: joseph_harmon@bshsi.org [Bon Secours Cancer Institute, Henrico, VA (United States)
2012-07-01
Accurate calculation of absorbed dose to the skin, especially the superficial and radiosensitive basal cell layer, is difficult for many reasons including, but not limited to, the build-up effect of megavoltage photons, tangential beam effects, mixed energy scatter from support devices, and dose interpolation caused by a finite resolution calculation matrix. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has been developed as an alternative limb salvage treatment option at Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for dogs with extremity bone tumors. Optimal dose delivery to the tumor during SBRT treatment can be limited by uncertainty in skin dose calculation. The aim of this study was to characterize the difference between measured and calculated radiation dose by the Varian Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) AAA treatment planning algorithm (for 1-mm, 2-mm, and 5-mm calculation voxel dimensions) as a function of distance from the skin surface. The study used Gafchromic EBT film (International Specialty Products, Wayne, NJ), FilmQA analysis software, a limb phantom constructed from plastic water Trade-Mark-Sign (fluke Biomedical, Everett, WA) and a canine cadaver forelimb. The limb phantom was exposed to 6-MV treatments consisting of a single-beam, a pair of parallel opposed beams, and a 7-beam coplanar treatment plan. The canine forelimb was exposed to the 7-beam coplanar plan. Radiation dose to the forelimb skin at the surface and at depths of 1.65 mm and 1.35 mm below the skin surface were also measured with the Gafchromic film. The calculation algorithm estimated the dose well at depths beyond buildup for all calculation voxel sizes. The calculation algorithm underestimated the dose in portions of the buildup region of tissue for all comparisons, with the most significant differences observed in the 5-mm calculation voxel and the least difference in the 1-mm voxel. Results indicate a significant difference between measured and calculated data
Ising spin glasses in dimension five.
Lundow, P H; Campbell, I A
2017-01-01
Ising spin-glass models with bimodal, Gaussian, uniform, and Laplacian interaction distributions in dimension five are studied through detailed numerical simulations. The data are analyzed in both the finite-size scaling regime and the thermodynamic limit regime. It is shown that the values of critical exponents and of dimensionless observables at criticality are model dependent. Models in a single universality class have identical values for each of these critical parameters, so Ising spin-glass models in dimension five with different interaction distributions each lie in different universality classes. This result confirms conclusions drawn from measurements in dimension four and dimension two.
Quantum many-body dynamics of ultracold atoms in optical lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kessler, Stefan
2014-04-15
number basis realized by a single-site detection. The analysis of the resulting quantum Zeno physics shows regimes for which the initial many-particle configurations are stabilized or destabilized, depending on the observation time interval and the interaction strength. In the second part, the measurement of the local current operator in an optical lattice is discussed. We propose a measurement protocol that combines single-site detection with already existing optical superlattices. The measurement outcomes can even be used to calculate spatial current-current correlations since the local currents are simultaneously measured at various positions. We illustrate the prospects of this new sensing method by a numerical study of the current statistics for interacting bosons in one and two dimensions. In the latter case, we discuss how the on-site interactions affect the equilibrium currents of bosons in an artificial magnetic field. We substantiate the feasibility of the protocol by considering possible error sources, restrictions in currently used single-site detection, and its applicability in experimental setups used to create artificial gauge fields.
IPC - Isoelectric Point Calculator.
Kozlowski, Lukasz P
2016-10-21
Accurate estimation of the isoelectric point (pI) based on the amino acid sequence is useful for many analytical biochemistry and proteomics techniques such as 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, or capillary isoelectric focusing used in combination with high-throughput mass spectrometry. Additionally, pI estimation can be helpful during protein crystallization trials. Here, I present the Isoelectric Point Calculator (IPC), a web service and a standalone program for the accurate estimation of protein and peptide pI using different sets of dissociation constant (pKa) values, including two new computationally optimized pKa sets. According to the presented benchmarks, the newly developed IPC pKa sets outperform previous algorithms by at least 14.9 % for proteins and 0.9 % for peptides (on average, 22.1 % and 59.6 %, respectively), which corresponds to an average error of the pI estimation equal to 0.87 and 0.25 pH units for proteins and peptides, respectively. Moreover, the prediction of pI using the IPC pKa's leads to fewer outliers, i.e., predictions affected by errors greater than a given threshold. The IPC service is freely available at http://isoelectric.ovh.org Peptide and protein datasets used in the study and the precalculated pI for the PDB and some of the most frequently used proteomes are available for large-scale analysis and future development. This article was reviewed by Frank Eisenhaber and Zoltán Gáspári.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagao, Yoshiharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment
1998-03-01
In material testing reactors like the JMTR (Japan Material Testing Reactor) of 50 MW in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of irradiated samples show complex distributions. It is necessary to assess the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of an irradiation field by carrying out the nuclear calculation of the core for every operation cycle. In order to advance core calculation, in the JMTR, the application of MCNP to the assessment of core reactivity and neutron flux and spectra has been investigated. In this study, in order to reduce the time for calculation and variance, the comparison of the results of the calculations by the use of K code and fixed source and the use of Weight Window were investigated. As to the calculation method, the modeling of the total JMTR core, the conditions for calculation and the adopted variance reduction technique are explained. The results of calculation are shown. Significant difference was not observed in the results of neutron flux calculations according to the difference of the modeling of fuel region in the calculations by K code and fixed source. The method of assessing the results of neutron flux calculation is described. (K.I.)
A Low Energy Algorithm of Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Fractal Dimension
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ting Dong
2014-05-01
Full Text Available For the energy limitation of nodes and imbalance energy consuming among nodes, this paper proposes an optimization algorithm --Low Energy Algorithm-- of wireless sensor networks based on fractal dimension algorithm for the purpose of reduction of the energy consumption. The nodes in WSN cannot be located evenly, and cannot move with the monitoring environment changed once be located. Considering the characteristics of WSN, the paper designs an optimized clustering method accompany with dimension by calculating the dimension of each cluster to determine the cluster which needs to be adjusted dynamically. If the cluster with high value of dimension, increasing more nodes in this cluster. If the cluster with low value of dimension, reducing more nodes in the cluster. The simulation results show that the LEA algorithm improves energy efficiency, prolongs the network lifetime, and balances energy consumption in the sensor network.
Dimension-independent likelihood-informed MCMC
Cui, Tiangang
2015-10-08
Many Bayesian inference problems require exploring the posterior distribution of high-dimensional parameters that represent the discretization of an underlying function. This work introduces a family of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) samplers that can adapt to the particular structure of a posterior distribution over functions. Two distinct lines of research intersect in the methods developed here. First, we introduce a general class of operator-weighted proposal distributions that are well defined on function space, such that the performance of the resulting MCMC samplers is independent of the discretization of the function. Second, by exploiting local Hessian information and any associated low-dimensional structure in the change from prior to posterior distributions, we develop an inhomogeneous discretization scheme for the Langevin stochastic differential equation that yields operator-weighted proposals adapted to the non-Gaussian structure of the posterior. The resulting dimension-independent and likelihood-informed (DILI) MCMC samplers may be useful for a large class of high-dimensional problems where the target probability measure has a density with respect to a Gaussian reference measure. Two nonlinear inverse problems are used to demonstrate the efficiency of these DILI samplers: an elliptic PDE coefficient inverse problem and path reconstruction in a conditioned diffusion.
Personality dimensions in schizophrenia: A family study.
Goghari, Vina M
2017-05-01
Studies have demonstrated that personality traits differ in schizophrenia patients and family members compared to controls, suggesting familial risk. This study evaluated personality traits in a family study of schizophrenia, as well as the relationship between personality traits and symptoms and social functioning in schizophrenia patients. Thirty-two schizophrenia patients, 28 adult non-psychotic relatives, and 27 community controls completed the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ). Schizophrenia patients differed on many dimensions of the DAPP-BQ compared to controls and/or relatives: affective lability, anxiousness, callousness, conduct problems, cognitive dysregulation, identity problem, intimacy, insecure attachment, low affiliation, narcissism, oppositionality, restricted expression, self-harm, submissiveness, and suspiciousness. No differences were found between relatives and controls. Furthermore, in schizophrenia patients, associations were found between personality and particularly general symptoms, as well as social functioning. Personality traits can be conceptualized as an extended phenotype in schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Many shades of gray-The context-dependent performance of organic agriculture.
Seufert, Verena; Ramankutty, Navin
2017-03-01
Organic agriculture is often proposed as a more sustainable alternative to current conventional agriculture. We assess the current understanding of the costs and benefits of organic agriculture across multiple production, environmental, producer, and consumer dimensions. Organic agriculture shows many potential benefits (including higher biodiversity and improved soil and water quality per unit area, enhanced profitability, and higher nutritional value) as well as many potential costs including lower yields and higher consumer prices. However, numerous important dimensions have high uncertainty, particularly the environmental performance when controlling for lower organic yields, but also yield stability, soil erosion, water use, and labor conditions. We identify conditions that influence the relative performance of organic systems, highlighting areas for increased research and policy support.
Many shades of gray—The context-dependent performance of organic agriculture
Seufert, Verena; Ramankutty, Navin
2017-01-01
Organic agriculture is often proposed as a more sustainable alternative to current conventional agriculture. We assess the current understanding of the costs and benefits of organic agriculture across multiple production, environmental, producer, and consumer dimensions. Organic agriculture shows many potential benefits (including higher biodiversity and improved soil and water quality per unit area, enhanced profitability, and higher nutritional value) as well as many potential costs including lower yields and higher consumer prices. However, numerous important dimensions have high uncertainty, particularly the environmental performance when controlling for lower organic yields, but also yield stability, soil erosion, water use, and labor conditions. We identify conditions that influence the relative performance of organic systems, highlighting areas for increased research and policy support. PMID:28345054
Finite entanglement entropy and spectral dimension in quantum gravity
Arzano, Michele; Calcagni, Gianluca
2017-12-01
What are the conditions on a field theoretic model leading to a finite entanglement entropy density? We prove two very general results: (1) Ultraviolet finiteness of a theory does not guarantee finiteness of the entropy density; (2) If the spectral dimension of the spatial boundary across which the entropy is calculated is non-negative at all scales, then the entanglement entropy cannot be finite. These conclusions, which we verify in several examples, negatively affect all quantum-gravity models, since their spectral dimension is always positive. Possible ways out are considered, including abandoning the definition of the entanglement entropy in terms of the boundary return probability or admitting an analytic continuation (not a regularization) of the usual definition. In the second case, one can get a finite entanglement entropy density in multi-fractional theories and causal dynamical triangulations.
Asymptotically Lifshitz spacetimes with universal horizons in (1 +2 ) dimensions
Basu, Sayandeb; Bhattacharyya, Jishnu; Mattingly, David; Roberson, Matthew
2016-03-01
Hořava gravity theory possesses global Lifshitz space as a solution and has been conjectured to provide a natural framework for Lifshitz holography. We derive the conditions on the two-derivative Hořava gravity Lagrangian that are necessary for static, asymptotically Lifshitz spacetimes with flat transverse dimensions to contain a universal horizon, which plays a similar thermodynamic role as the Killing horizon in general relativity. Specializing to z =2 in 1 +2 dimensions, we then numerically construct such regular solutions over the whole spacetime. We calculate the mass for these solutions and show that, unlike the asymptotically anti-de Sitter case, the first law applied to the universal horizon is straightforwardly compatible with a thermodynamic interpretation.
Dimensional discontinuity in quantum communication complexity at dimension seven
Tavakoli, Armin; Pawłowski, Marcin; Żukowski, Marek; Bourennane, Mohamed
2017-02-01
Entanglement-assisted classical communication and transmission of a quantum system are the two quantum resources for information processing. Many information tasks can be performed using either quantum resource. However, this equivalence is not always present since entanglement-assisted classical communication is sometimes known to be the better performing resource. Here, we show not only the opposite phenomenon, that there exist tasks for which transmission of a quantum system is a more powerful resource than entanglement-assisted classical communication, but also that such phenomena can have a surprisingly strong dependence on the dimension of Hilbert space. We introduce a family of communication complexity problems parametrized by the dimension of Hilbert space and study the performance of each quantum resource. Under an additional assumption of a linear strategy for the receiving party, we find that for low dimensions the two resources perform equally well, whereas for dimension seven and above the equivalence is suddenly broken and transmission of a quantum system becomes more powerful than entanglement-assisted classical communication. Moreover, we find that transmission of a quantum system may even outperform classical communication assisted by the stronger-than-quantum correlations obtained from the principle of macroscopic locality.
Rotating charged hairy black hole in (2+1) dimensions and particle acceleration
Sadeghi, J.; Pourhassan, B.; H Farahani
2013-01-01
In this paper we construct rotating charged hairy black hole in (2+1) dimensions for infinitesimal black hole charge and rotation parameters. Then we consider this black hole as particle accelerator and calculate the center-of-mass energy of two colliding test particles near the rotating charged hairy black hole in (2+1) dimensions. As we expected, the center-of-mass energy has infinite value.
The McMillan Theorem for Colored Branching Processes and Dimensions of Random Fractals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Victor Bakhtin
2014-12-01
Full Text Available For the simplest colored branching process, we prove an analog to the McMillan theorem and calculate the Hausdorff dimensions of random fractals defined in terms of the limit behavior of empirical measures generated by finite genetic lines. In this setting, the role of Shannon’s entropy is played by the Kullback–Leibler divergence, and the Hausdorff dimensions are computed by means of the so-called Billingsley–Kullback entropy, defined in the paper.
Dynamical stability of a many-body Kapitza pendulum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Citro, Roberta, E-mail: citro@sa.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica “E. R. Caianiello” and Spin-CNR, Universita’ degli Studi di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Dalla Torre, Emanuele G., E-mail: emanuele.dalla-torre@biu.ac.il [Department of Physics, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan 5290002 (Israel); Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); D’Alessio, Luca [Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Polkovnikov, Anatoli [Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Babadi, Mehrtash [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Oka, Takashi [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan); Demler, Eugene [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2015-09-15
We consider a many-body generalization of the Kapitza pendulum: the periodically-driven sine–Gordon model. We show that this interacting system is dynamically stable to periodic drives with finite frequency and amplitude. This finding is in contrast to the common belief that periodically-driven unbounded interacting systems should always tend to an absorbing infinite-temperature state. The transition to an unstable absorbing state is described by a change in the sign of the kinetic term in the Floquet Hamiltonian and controlled by the short-wavelength degrees of freedom. We investigate the stability phase diagram through an analytic high-frequency expansion, a self-consistent variational approach, and a numeric semiclassical calculation. Classical and quantum experiments are proposed to verify the validity of our results.
Wax Precipitation Modeled with Many Mixed Solid Phases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heidemann, Robert A.; Madsen, Jesper; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
2005-01-01
The behavior of the Coutinho UNIQUAC model for solid wax phases has been examined. The model can produce as many mixed solid phases as the number of waxy components. In binary mixtures, the solid rich in the lighter component contains little of the heavier component but the second phase shows...... substantial amounts of the lighter component dissolved in the heavier solid. Calculations have been performed taking into account the recrystallization of the solid alkanes into a second solid form. The Coutinho UNIQUAC model has been used to describe the lower-temperature solid phases. The higher......-temperature mixed solid phase has been assumed to be either an ideal solution or to be described by Coutinho's Wilson activity coefficient model. This procedure accounts for more of the known behavior of mixed n-alkane solids. Comparison is also made with results assuming that all of the solid phases, both high...
Multiphase flow calculation software
Fincke, James R.
2003-04-15
Multiphase flow calculation software and computer-readable media carrying computer executable instructions for calculating liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of high void fraction multiphase flows. The multiphase flow calculation software employs various given, or experimentally determined, parameters in conjunction with a plurality of pressure differentials of a multiphase flow, preferably supplied by a differential pressure flowmeter or the like, to determine liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flows. Embodiments of the multiphase flow calculation software are suitable for use in a variety of applications, including real-time management and control of an object system.
Radar Signature Calculation Facility
Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The calculation, analysis, and visualization of the spatially extended radar signatures of complex objects such as ships in a sea multipath environment and...
Waste Package Lifting Calculation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
H. Marr
2000-05-11
The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation.
Electrical installation calculations advanced
Kitcher, Christopher
2013-01-01
All the essential calculations required for advanced electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practiceA step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3For apprentices and electrical installatio
Evapotranspiration Calculator Desktop Tool
The Evapotranspiration Calculator estimates evapotranspiration time series data for hydrological and water quality models for the Hydrologic Simulation Program - Fortran (HSPF) and the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM).
Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...
Electrical installation calculations basic
Kitcher, Christopher
2013-01-01
All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3Fo
A Method for Identification of Transformer Inrush Current Based on Box Dimension
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maofa Gong
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Magnetizing inrush current can lead to the maloperation of transformer differential protection. To overcome such an issue, a method is proposed to distinguish inrush current from inner fault current based on box dimension. According to the fundamental difference in waveform between the two, the algorithm can extract the three-phase current and calculate its box dimensions. If the box dimension value is smaller than the setting value, it is the inrush current; otherwise, it is inner fault current. Using PSACD and MATLAB, the simulation has been performed to prove the efficiency reliability of the presented algorithm in distinguishing inrush current and fault current.
On the Casimir scaling violation in the cusp anomalous dimension at small angle
Grozin, Andrey; Henn, Johannes; Stahlhofen, Maximilian
2017-10-01
We compute the four-loop n f contribution proportional to the quartic Casimir of the QCD cusp anomalous dimension as an expansion for small cusp angle ϕ. This piece is gauge invariant, violates Casimir scaling, and first appears at four loops. It requires the evaluation of genuine non-planar four-loop Feynman integrals. We present results up to O({φ}^4) . One motivation for our calculation is to probe a recent conjecture on the all-order structure of the cusp anomalous dimension. As a byproduct we obtain the four-loop HQET wave function anomalous dimension for this color structure.
Jenkins, Elizabeth E; Trott, Michael
2013-01-01
We calculate the order \\lambda, \\lambda^2 and \\lambda y^2 terms of the 59 x 59 one-loop anomalous dimension matrix of dimension-six operators, where \\lambda and y are the Standard Model Higgs self-coupling and a generic Yukawa coupling, respectively. The dimension-six operators modify the running of the Standard Model parameters themselves, and we compute the complete one-loop result for this. We discuss how there is mixing between operators for which no direct one-particle-irreducible diagram exists, due to operator replacements by the equations of motion.
Potential Dimension Yields From Direct Processing
Wenjie Lin; D. Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman
1994-01-01
As the price of timber increases and environmental leigslation limits harvestable log volumes, the process of converting logs directly into dimension parts needs further exploration. Direct processing converts logs directly into rough green dimension parts without the intermediate steps of lumber manufacturing, grading, trading, shipping and drying. A major attraction...
Relationship Between Adult Renal Dimensions and Biometric ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We measured renal dimensions sonographically and correlated the values obtained with some anthropometric parameters in order to identify the best estimate of renal size in a clinical setting. The renal dimensions of 200 adult subjects referred for abdomino-pelvic scan at University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu ...
Quality Dimensions of Internet Search Engines.
Xie, M.; Wang, H.; Goh, T. N.
1998-01-01
Reviews commonly used search engines (AltaVista, Excite, infoseek, Lycos, HotBot, WebCrawler), focusing on existing comparative studies; considers quality dimensions from the customer's point of view based on a SERVQUAL framework; and groups these quality expectations in five dimensions: tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and…
Large compact dimensions and high energy experiments
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Keywords. Extra dimensions; Kaluza–Klein; graviton. Abstract. Models of spacetime with extra compact dimensions and having the Standard Model ﬁelds conﬁned to a narrow slice of 4-dimensional spacetime can have strong gravitational effects at the TeV scale as well as electroweak-strength interactions at present-day ...
Asymptotic dimension of relatively hyperbolic groups
Osin, D. V.
2004-01-01
Suppose that a finitely generated group $G$ is hyperbolic relative to a collection of subgroups $\\{H_1, ..., H_m\\} $. We prove that if each of the subgroups $H_1, ..., H_m$ has finite asymptotic dimension, then asymptotic dimension of $G$ is also finite.
Four Essential Dimensions of Workplace Learning
Hopwood, Nick
2014-01-01
Purpose: This conceptual paper aims to argue that times, spaces, bodies and things constitute four essential dimensions of workplace learning. It examines how practices relate or hang together, taking Gherardi's texture of practices or connectedness in action as the foundation for making visible essential but often overlooked dimensions of…
search of extra space dimensions with ATLAs
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
search of extra space dimensions with ATLAs. AMBREEsH GUPTA (for the ATLAs Collaboration). 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago,. IL 60637, USA. Abstract. If extra spatial dimensions were to exist, they could provide a solution to the hierarchy problem. The studies done by the ...
Many-to-Many Multicast Routing Schemes under a Fixed Topology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Ding
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Many-to-many multicast routing can be extensively applied in computer or communication networks supporting various continuous multimedia applications. The paper focuses on the case where all users share a common communication channel while each user is both a sender and a receiver of messages in multicasting as well as an end user. In this case, the multicast tree appears as a terminal Steiner tree (TeST. The problem of finding a TeST with a quality-of-service (QoS optimization is frequently NP-hard. However, we discover that it is a good idea to find a many-to-many multicast tree with QoS optimization under a fixed topology. In this paper, we are concerned with three kinds of QoS optimization objectives of multicast tree, that is, the minimum cost, minimum diameter, and maximum reliability. All of three optimization problems are distributed into two types, the centralized and decentralized version. This paper uses the dynamic programming method to devise an exact algorithm, respectively, for the centralized and decentralized versions of each optimization problem.
Mukherjee, Anika; Chan, Adrian D C; Keating, Sarah; Redline, Raymond W; Fritsch, Michael K; Machin, Geoffrey A; Cornejo-Palma, Daniel; de Nanassy, Joseph; El-Demellawy, Dina; von Dadelszen, Peter; Benton, Samantha J; Grynspan, David
2016-01-01
The distal villous hypoplasia (DVH) pattern is a placental correlate of fetal growth restriction. Because the pattern seems to involve less complexity than do appropriately developed placental villi, we postulated that it may be associated with lower fractal dimension-a mathematical measure of complexity. Our study objectives were to evaluate interobserver agreement related to the DVH pattern among expert pathologists and to determine whether pathologist classification of DVH correlates with fractal dimension. A study set of 30 images of placental parenchyma at ×4 magnification was created by a single pathologist from a digital slide archive. The images were graded for the DVH pattern according to pre-specified definitions and included 10 images graded as "no DVH" (grade = 0), 10 with mild to moderate DVH (grade = 1), and 10 with severe DVH (grade = 2). The images were randomly sorted and shown to a panel of 4 international experts who similarly graded the images for DVH. Weighted kappas were calculated. For each image, fractal dimension was calculated by the Box Counting method. The correlation coefficient between (1) the averaged DVH scores obtained by the 5 pathologists and (2) fractal dimension was calculated. The mean weighted kappa score among the observers was 0.59 (range: 0.42-0.70). The correlation coefficient between fractal dimension and the averaged DVH score was -0.915 (P dimension and represents an objective measure for DVH.
Chemical calculations and chemicals that might calculate
Barnett, Michael P.
I summarize some applications of symbolic calculation to the evaluation of molecular integrals over Slater orbitals, and discuss some spin-offs of this work that have wider potential. These include the exploration of the mechanized use of analogy. I explain the methods that I use to do this, in relation to mathematical proofs and to modeling step by step processes such as organic syntheses and NMR pulse sequences. Another spin-off relates to biological information processing. Some challenges and opportunities in the information infrastructure of interdisciplinary research are discussed.
THE EQUALITY OF FRACTAL DIMENSION AND UNCERTAINTY DIMENSION FOR CERTAIN DYNAMIC-SYSTEMS
NUSSE, HE; YORKE, JA
1992-01-01
[MGOY] introduced the uncertainty dimension as a quantative measure for final state sensitivity in a system. In [MGOY] and [P] it was conjectured that the box-counting dimension equals the uncertainty dimension for basin boundaries in typical dynamical systems. In this paper our main result is that
[Understanding dosage calculations].
Benlahouès, Daniel
2016-01-01
The calculation of dosages in paediatrics is the concern of the whole medical and paramedical team. This activity must generate a minimum of risks in order to prevent care-related adverse events. In this context, the calculation of dosages is a practice which must be understood by everyone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Many-body physics of optically excited, frozen Rydberg gases
Muth, Dominik; Lauer, Achim; Otterbach, Johannes; Fleischhauer, Michael
2012-02-01
We discuss the many-body physics of an ensemble of optically excited Rydberg atoms with van der Waals dipole-dipole interactions [1]. Starting from a fully quantized model of the optical excitation we show that Rydberg excitations always possess a finite kinetic energy mediated by photon exchange even if the motion of the atoms can be disregarded. The kinetic energy competes with the repulsive vdW interactions. Using discretization and DMRG, we calculate the many-body ground state in the one-dimensional case. It is correlated much more strongly than possible for any local interaction, i.e., with a Luttinger parameter K 1. In the presence of an additional lattice, a fractal phase diagram [2] emerges with Mott-insulating phases at any rational filling fraction. [1] see e.g. H. Weimer, R. L"ow, T. Pfau, and H. P. B"uchler; Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 250601 (2008) [2] F. J. Burnell, M. M. Parish, N. R. Cooper, and S. L. Sondhi; Phys. Rev. B 80, 174519 (2009)
Quantum phenomena modelled by interactions between many classical worlds
Wiseman, Howard; Hall, Michael; Deckert, Dirk-Andre
2015-03-01
We investigate how quantum theory can be understood as the continuum limit of a mechanical theory, in which there is a huge, but countable, number of classical ``worlds,'' and quantum effects arise solely from a universal interaction between these worlds, without reference to any wave function. Here a ``world'' means an entire universe with well-defined properties, determined by the classical configuration of its particles and fields. In our approach each world evolves deterministically; probabilities arise due to ignorance as to which world a given observer occupies; and we argue that in the limit of infinitely many worlds the wave function can be recovered (as a secondary object) from the motion of these worlds. We introduce a simple model of such a ``many interacting worlds'' approach and show that it can reproduce some generic quantum phenomena-such as Ehrenfest's theorem, wavepacket spreading, barrier tunneling and zero point energy-as a direct consequence of mutual repulsion between worlds. Finally, we perform numerical simulations using our approach. We demonstrate, first, that it can be used to calculate quantum ground states, and second, that it is capable of reproducing, at least qualitatively, the double-slit interference phenomenon.
Quantum Phenomena Modeled by Interactions between Many Classical Worlds
Hall, Michael J. W.; Deckert, Dirk-André; Wiseman, Howard M.
2014-10-01
We investigate whether quantum theory can be understood as the continuum limit of a mechanical theory, in which there is a huge, but finite, number of classical "worlds," and quantum effects arise solely from a universal interaction between these worlds, without reference to any wave function. Here, a "world" means an entire universe with well-defined properties, determined by the classical configuration of its particles and fields. In our approach, each world evolves deterministically, probabilities arise due to ignorance as to which world a given observer occupies, and we argue that in the limit of infinitely many worlds the wave function can be recovered (as a secondary object) from the motion of these worlds. We introduce a simple model of such a "many interacting worlds" approach and show that it can reproduce some generic quantum phenomena—such as Ehrenfest's theorem, wave packet spreading, barrier tunneling, and zero-point energy—as a direct consequence of mutual repulsion between worlds. Finally, we perform numerical simulations using our approach. We demonstrate, first, that it can be used to calculate quantum ground states, and second, that it is capable of reproducing, at least qualitatively, the double-slit interference phenomenon.
Many-to-Many Geographically-Embedded Flow Visualisation: An Evaluation.
Yang, Yalong; Dwyer, Tim; Goodwin, Sarah; Marriott, Kim
2017-01-01
Showing flows of people and resources between multiple geographic locations is a challenging visualisation problem. We conducted two quantitative user studies to evaluate different visual representations for such dense many-to-many flows. In our first study we compared a bundled node-link flow map representation and OD Maps [37] with a new visualisation we call MapTrix. Like OD Maps, MapTrix overcomes the clutter associated with a traditional flow map while providing geographic embedding that is missing in standard OD matrix representations. We found that OD Maps and MapTrix had similar performance while bundled node-link flow map representations did not scale at all well. Our second study compared participant performance with OD Maps and MapTrix on larger data sets. Again performance was remarkably similar.
McMahon, Christopher J; Toomey, Joshua P; Kane, Deb M
2017-01-01
We have analysed large data sets consisting of tens of thousands of time series from three Type B laser systems: a semiconductor laser in a photonic integrated chip, a semiconductor laser subject to optical feedback from a long free-space-external-cavity, and a solid-state laser subject to optical injection from a master laser. The lasers can deliver either constant, periodic, pulsed, or chaotic outputs when parameters such as the injection current and the level of external perturbation are varied. The systems represent examples of experimental nonlinear systems more generally and cover a broad range of complexity including systematically varying complexity in some regions. In this work we have introduced a new procedure for semi-automatically interrogating experimental laser system output power time series to calculate the correlation dimension (CD) using the commonly adopted Grassberger-Proccacia algorithm. The new CD procedure is called the 'minimum gradient detection algorithm'. A value of minimum gradient is returned for all time series in a data set. In some cases this can be identified as a CD, with uncertainty. Applying the new 'minimum gradient detection algorithm' CD procedure, we obtained robust measurements of the correlation dimension for many of the time series measured from each laser system. By mapping the results across an extended parameter space for operation of each laser system, we were able to confidently identify regions of low CD (CD laser systems, we were not able to measure the correlation dimension at all parts of the parameter space. Nevertheless, by mapping the staged progress of the algorithm, we were able to broadly classify the dynamical output of the lasers at all parts of their respective parameter spaces. For two of the laser systems this included displaying regions of high-complexity chaos and dynamic noise. These high-complexity regions are differentiated from regions where the time series are dominated by technical noise. This
CPMC-Lab: A MATLAB package for Constrained Path Monte Carlo calculations
Nguyen, Huy; Shi, Hao; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Shiwei
2014-12-01
We describe CPMC-Lab, a MATLAB program for the constrained-path and phaseless auxiliary-field Monte Carlo methods. These methods have allowed applications ranging from the study of strongly correlated models, such as the Hubbard model, to ab initio calculations in molecules and solids. The present package implements the full ground-state constrained-path Monte Carlo (CPMC) method in MATLAB with a graphical interface, using the Hubbard model as an example. The package can perform calculations in finite supercells in any dimensions, under periodic or twist boundary conditions. Importance sampling and all other algorithmic details of a total energy calculation are included and illustrated. This open-source tool allows users to experiment with various model and run parameters and visualize the results. It provides a direct and interactive environment to learn the method and study the code with minimal overhead for setup. Furthermore, the package can be easily generalized for auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo (AFQMC) calculations in many other models for correlated electron systems, and can serve as a template for developing a production code for AFQMC total energy calculations in real materials. Several illustrative studies are carried out in one- and two-dimensional lattices on total energy, kinetic energy, potential energy, and charge- and spin-gaps.
Cephalometric analysis for accurately determining the vertical dimension (case report
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wahipa Wiro
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Objective : Determination of the vertical dimension of occlusion (DVO tends to changes throughout the human life. The vertical dimension is determined by the interocclusal point of the upper and lower teeth contact so the application is limited when the natural teeth was missing. As the result, many functional and aesthetic changes are occurred in the whole orofacial region and stomatognathic system. DVO is one of the difficult stages in prosthodontic treatment. Most of the techniques to determine DVO in edentulous patients are based on the soft tissue references, which can cause the different measurements. Cephalometric analysis allows the evaluation of bone growth changes and can be used as a diagnostic tool in prosthodontics to evaluate the results of prosthodontic rehabilitation. Methods : The purpose of this case report was to find out the results of the vertical dimension of occlusion measurements in maxillomandibular relation by using cephalometric photo in patients who have been long lost their teeth and have never been using denture. Results : A 50 year old female patient, partially edentulous on the upper and lower jaw with the remaining teeth were 12 (residual root, 11,21,23,33 and 43. The remaining teeth were endodontically treated prior the complete denture procedure. Cephalometric photo was done in patients after making bite rim, upper and lower bite rim were given metal marker, the image was traced, then measured between metal to get the vertical dimension of occlusion. Conclusion : The measurement results of the vertical dimension of occlusion by using cephalometric photo on making full denture were more accurate, so it could improve and restore the masticatory function, aesthetic function and phonetics.
Note on soft theorems and memories in even dimensions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pujian Mao
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Recently, it has been shown that the Weinberg's formula for soft graviton production is essentially a Fourier transformation of the formula for gravitational memory which provides an effective way to understand how the classical calculation arises as a limiting case of the quantum result. In this note, we propose a general framework that connects the soft theorems to the radiation fields obtained from classical computation for different theories in even dimensions. We show that the latter is nothing but Fourier transformation of the former. The memory formulas can be derived from radiation fields explicitly.
Anomalous dimensions in deformed WZW models on supergroups
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Candu, Constantin [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Zuerich (Switzerland); Mitev, Vladimir [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Mathematik; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Gruppe Theorie
2012-11-15
We investigate a class of current-current, Gross-Neveu like, perturbations of WZW models in which the full left-right affine symmetry is broken to the diagonal global algebra only. Our analysis focuses on those supergroups for which such a perturbation preserves conformal invariance. A detailed calculation of the 2-point functions of affine primary operators to 3-loops is presented. Furthermore, we derive an exact formula for the anomalous dimensions of a large subset of fields to all orders in perturbation theory. Possible applications of our results, including the study of non-perturbative dualities, are outlined.
Many-body formalism for fermions: The partition function
Watson, D. K.
2017-09-01
The partition function, a fundamental tenet in statistical thermodynamics, contains in principle all thermodynamic information about a system. It encapsulates both microscopic information through the quantum energy levels and statistical information from the partitioning of the particles among the available energy levels. For identical particles, this statistical accounting is complicated by the symmetry requirements of the allowed quantum states. In particular, for Fermi systems, the enforcement of the Pauli principle is typically a numerically demanding task, responsible for much of the cost of the calculations. The interplay of these three elements—the structure of the many-body spectrum, the statistical partitioning of the N particles among the available levels, and the enforcement of the Pauli principle—drives the behavior of mesoscopic and macroscopic Fermi systems. In this paper, we develop an approach for the determination of the partition function, a numerically difficult task, for systems of strongly interacting identical fermions and apply it to a model system of harmonically confined, harmonically interacting fermions. This approach uses a recently introduced many-body method that is an extension of the symmetry-invariant perturbation method (SPT) originally developed for bosons. It uses group theory and graphical techniques to avoid the heavy computational demands of conventional many-body methods which typically scale exponentially with the number of particles. The SPT application of the Pauli principle is trivial to implement since it is done "on paper" by imposing restrictions on the normal-mode quantum numbers at first order in the perturbation. The method is applied through first order and represents an extension of the SPT method to excited states. Our method of determining the partition function and various thermodynamic quantities is accurate and efficient and has the potential to yield interesting insight into the role played by the Pauli
Assessing the functions and dimensions of visualizations in foresight
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Müller, Adrian W.; Schwarz, Jan Oliver
practice, it appears that in the realm of foresight little is known about what we call the functions and dimensions of visualization. The function of visualizations in foresight speaks from a constructive perspective to the influence visual images have on human perception. Cognitive scientist have argued...... deliberately be addressed with a product or service offering, relating to such a visualization of the future. This speaks in particular to the influence these visualizations can have. With the dimension of visualizations we refer to a wide range of options how visualizations can be used in the realm......Visualizations have become a vital part of many foresight activities. In the realm of creating scenarios it is stressed to visualize the different scenario as alternative pictures of the future. Corporation such as Siemens for example have developed an own approach called “pictures of the future...
Berscheid, Ellen
2010-01-01
Psychologists' efforts to understand love began in the mid-twentieth century. The fact that they continue apace in the twenty-first century reflects increased awareness of the importance of love to understanding relationship phenomena and acknowledgment that an understanding of love has yet to be achieved. This article (a) describes one source of increased recognition that the present confusions surrounding love must be transcended if progress is to be made in understanding many relationship phenomena; (b) discusses the failure to explicate the love construct, which constitutes the major obstacle to the study of love phenomena; (c) discusses the need for a temporal model of love in relationships; and (d) suggests that it is important to consider the presence or absence of four types of love, each of which appears to be associated with different causal conditions and thus is likely to have a different temporal course as an adult relationship moves through time.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Eichler
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Improving the understanding of strongly correlated quantum many-body systems such as gases of interacting atoms or electrons is one of the most important challenges in modern condensed matter physics, materials research, and chemistry. Enormous progress has been made in the past decades in developing both classical and quantum approaches to calculate, simulate, and experimentally probe the properties of such systems. In this work, we use a combination of classical and quantum methods to experimentally explore the properties of an interacting quantum gas by creating experimental realizations of continuous matrix product states—a class of states that has proven extremely powerful as a variational ansatz for numerical simulations. By systematically preparing and probing these states using a circuit quantum electrodynamics system, we experimentally determine a good approximation to the ground-state wave function of the Lieb-Liniger Hamiltonian, which describes an interacting Bose gas in one dimension. Since the simulated Hamiltonian is encoded in the measurement observable rather than the controlled quantum system, this approach has the potential to apply to a variety of models including those involving multicomponent interacting fields. Our findings also hint at the possibility of experimentally exploring general properties of matrix product states and entanglement theory. The scheme presented here is applicable to a broad range of systems exploiting strong and tunable light-matter interactions.
Holomorphic blocks in three dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beem, Christopher [Simons Center for Geometry and Physics, Stony Brook University,Stony Brook, NY 11794-3636 (United States); Dimofte, Tudor [Institute for Advanced Study,Einstein Dr., Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Trinity College,Cambridge CB2 1TQ (United Kingdom); Pasquetti, Sara [Department of Mathematics, University of Surrey,Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)
2014-12-30
We decompose sphere partition functions and indices of three-dimensional N=2 gauge theories into a sum of products involving a universal set of “holomorphic blocks”. The blocks count BPS states and are in one-to-one correspondence with the theory’s massive vacua. We also propose a new, effective technique for calculating the holomorphic blocks, inspired by a reduction to supersymmetric quantum mechanics. The blocks turn out to possess a wealth of surprising properties, such as a Stokes phenomenon that integrates nicely with actions of three-dimensional mirror symmetry. The blocks also have interesting dual interpretations. For theories arising from the compactification of the six-dimensional (2,0) theory on a three-manifold M, the blocks belong to a basis of wavefunctions in analytically continued Chern-Simons theory on M. For theories engineered on branes in Calabi-Yau geometries, the blocks offer a non-perturbative perspective on open topological string partition functions.
Balankin, Alexander S.; Mena, Baltasar; Martínez Cruz, M. A.
2017-09-01
In this work, we prove that the topological Hausdorff dimension of critical percolation cluster (CPC) in two dimensions is equal to DtH =Drb + 1 = 7 / 4, where Drb is the Hausdorff dimension of the set of red bonds. Hence, the CPC is infinitely ramified. We also argue that the mapping from the Euclidean metric to the geodesic metric on the CPC is governed by the Hausdorff dimension of the cluster skeleton Dsc =DH /dℓ >dmin, where DH, dℓ, and dmin are the Hausdorff and the connectivity (chemical) dimensions of the CPC and the fractal dimension of the minimum path, respectively. Then we introduce the notion of the topological connectivity dimension dtℓ. This allows us to establish the exact upper and lower bounds for the connectivity dimension dℓ of the CPC in d = 2. The upper and lower bounds for some other dimension numbers were established using the relations between dimension numbers. Narrow ranges defined by these bounds are much smaller than the error bars of numerical estimates reported in literature. Accordingly, the exact values of some dimension numbers are conjectured.
Comparison of calculation methods of fractal dimension on agricultural soil surface roughness
Chunxia, J.; Zhixiong, L.; Hao, X.; Jing, Z.; Hoogmoed, W.B.
2014-01-01
[Objectives]How the fractal theory as an efficient tool to describe rough and irregular geometrical feature in nonlinear system and nature is applied into agricultural soil research is hot issue at present. [Methods]The roughness data of agricultural soil surface after sowed(perpendicular to the
Social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grunwald, Armin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis
2015-07-01
Nuclear waste disposal is a two-faceted challenge: a scientific and technological endeavour, on the one hand, and confronted with social dimensions, on the other. In this paper I will sketch the respective social dimensions and will give a plea for interdisciplinary research approaches. Relevant social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal are concerning safety standards, the disposal 'philosophy', the process of determining the disposal site, and the operation of a waste disposal facility. Overall, cross-cutting issues of justice, responsibility, and fairness are of major importance in all of these fields.
2000-01-01
software [6] to transform and analyse these sounds into 16 bit "wav" format . Using both methods we measured each of these 24 D values and calculated the... parole . Mdmoire d’ingdnieur de 2ie&n annde r6alis6 au Laboratoire de Recherche ORL du CHU St Antoine. 1998. Ecole Frangaise d’Electronique et...dimensions, lacunarity and multifractals. J Neurosci Methods 1996 Nov: 69(2): 123-136. 9. Pickover CA, Khorasani A. Fractal characterization of speech waveform
2-Dimensional graphene as a route for emergence of additional dimension nanomaterials.
Patra, Santanu; Roy, Ekta; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Madhuri, Rashmi; Sharma, Prashant K
2017-03-15
Dimension has a different and impactful significance in the field of innovation, research and technologies. Starting from one-dimension, now, we all are moving towards 3-D visuals and try to do the things in this dimension. However, we still have some very innovative and widely applicable nanomaterials, which have tremendous potential in the form of 2-D only i.e. graphene. In this review, we have tried to incorporate the reported pathways used so far for modification of 2-D graphene sheets to make is three-dimensional. The modified graphene been applied in many fields like supercapacitors, sensors, catalysis, energy storage devices and many more. In addition, we have also incorporated the conversion of 2-D graphene to their various other dimensions like zero-, one- or three-dimensional nanostructures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Some remarks on relativistic diffusion and the spectral dimension criterion
Muniz, C. R.; Cunha, M. S.; Filho, R. N. Costa; Bezerra, V. B.
2015-01-01
The spectral dimension ds for high energies is calculated using the Relativistic Schrödinger Equation Analytically Continued (RSEAC) instead of the so-called Telegraph's equation (TE), in both ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) regimens. Regarding the TE, the recent literature presents difficulties related to its stochastic derivation and interpretation, advocating the use of the RSEAC to properly describe the relativistic diffusion phenomena. Taking into account that the Lorentz symmetry is broken in UV regime at Lifshitz point, we show that there exists a degeneracy in very high energies, meaning that both the RSEAC and TE correctly describe the diffusion processes at these energy scales, at least under the spectral dimension criterion. In fact, both the equations yield the same result, namely, ds=2 , a dimensional reduction that is compatible with several theories of quantum gravity. This result is reached even when one takes into account a cosmological model, as for example, the de Sitter universe. On the other hand, in the IR regimen, such degeneracy is lifted in favor of the approach via TE, due to the fact that only this equation provides the correct value for ds, which is equal to the actual number of spacetime dimensions, i.e., ds=4 , while RSEAC yields ds=3 , so that a diffusing particle described by this method experiences a three-dimensional spacetime.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frederiksen, Morten
2014-01-01
Williamson’s characterisation of calculativeness as inimical to trust contradicts most sociological trust research. However, a similar argument is found within trust phenomenology. This paper re-investigates Williamson’s argument from the perspective of Løgstrup’s phenomenological theory of trust....... Contrary to Williamson, however, Løgstrup’s contention is that trust, not calculativeness, is the default attitude and only when suspicion is awoken does trust falter. The paper argues that while Williamson’s distinction between calculativeness and trust is supported by phenomenology, the analysis needs...... to take actual subjective experience into consideration. It points out that, first, Løgstrup places trust alongside calculativeness as a different mode of engaging in social interaction, rather conceiving of trust as a state or the outcome of a decision-making process. Secondly, the analysis must take...
Unit Cost Compendium Calculations
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA...
Magnetic Field Grid Calculator
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Properties Calculator will computes the estimated values of Earth's magnetic field(declination, inclination, vertical component, northerly...
National Stormwater Calculator
EPA’s National Stormwater Calculator (SWC) is a desktop application that estimates the annual amount of rainwater and frequency of runoff from a specific site anywhere in the United States (including Puerto Rico).
Calculation Tool for Engineering
Lampinen, Samuli
2016-01-01
The Study was conducted as qualitative research for K-S Konesuunnittelu Oy. The company provides mechanical engineering for technology suppliers in the Finnish export industries. The main objective was to study if the competitiveness of the case company could be improved using a self-made Calculation Tool (Excel Tool). The mission was to clarify processes in the case company to see the possibilities of Excel Tool and to compare it with other potential calculation applications. In addition,...
Current interruption transients calculation
Peelo, David F
2014-01-01
Provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins, and the circuits involved, and how they can be calculated Current Interruption Transients Calculationis a comprehensive resource for the understanding, calculation and analysis of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) and related re-ignition or re-striking transients associated with fault current interruption and the switching of inductive and capacitive load currents in circuits. This book provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins,
Are We Ready for a True Biopsychosocial-Spiritual Model? The Many Meanings of "Spiritual".
Saad, Marcelo; de Medeiros, Roberta; Mosini, Amanda Cristina
2017-10-31
The biopsychosocial model is a modern humanistic and holistic view of the human being in health sciences. Currently, many researchers think the biopsychosocial model should be expanded to include the spiritual dimension as well. However, "spiritual" is an open and fluid concept, and it can refer to many different things. This paper intends to explore the spiritual dimension in all its meanings: the spirituality-and-health relationship; spiritual-religious coping; the spirituality of the physician affecting his/her practice; spiritual support for inpatients; spiritual complementary therapies; and spiritual anomalous phenomena. In order to ascertain whether physicians would be willing to embrace them all in practice, each phrase from the Physician's Pledge on the Declaration of Geneva (World Medical Association) was "translated" in this paper to its spiritual equivalent. Medical practice involves a continuous process of revisions of applied concepts, but a true paradigm shift will occur only when the human spiritual dimension is fully understood and incorporated into health care. Then, one will be able to cut stereotypes and use the term "biopsychosocial-spiritual model" correctly. A sincere and profound application of this new view of the human being would bring remarkable transformations to the concepts of health, disease, treatments, and cure.
Troubling dimensions of heart transplantation.
Shildrick, M; McKeever, P; Abbey, S; Poole, J; Ross, H
2009-06-01
Heart transplantation is now the accepted therapy for end-stage heart failure that is resistant to medical treatment. Families of deceased donors routinely are urged to view the heart as a "gift of life" that will enable the donor to live on by extending and sustaining the life of a stranger. In contrast, heart recipients are encouraged to view the organ mechanistically-as a new pump that was rendered a spare, reusable part when a generous stranger died. Psychosocial and psychoanalytic research, anecdotal evidence and first-person accounts indicate that after transplant, many recipients experience unexpected changes or distress that cannot be understood adequately using biomedical explanatory models alone. In this paper it is argued that phenomenological philosophy offers a promising way to frame an ongoing empirical study that asks recipients to reflect on what it is like to incorporate the heart of another person. Merleau-Ponty and others have posited that any change to the body inevitably transforms the self. Hence, it is argued in this paper that replacing failing hearts with functioning hearts from deceased persons must be considered much more than a complex technical procedure. Acknowledging the disturbances to embodiment and personal identity associated with transplantation may explain adverse outcomes that heretofore have been inexplicable. Ultimately, a phenomenological understanding could lead to improvements in the consent process, preoperative teaching and follow-up care.
Behavioral dimensions of food security.
Timmer, C Peter
2012-07-31
The empirical regularities of behavioral economics, especially loss aversion, time inconsistency, other-regarding preferences, herd behavior, and framing of decisions, present significant challenges to traditional approaches to food security. The formation of price expectations, hoarding behavior, and welfare losses from highly unstable food prices all depends on these behavioral regularities. At least when they are driven by speculative bubbles, market prices for food staples (and especially for rice, the staple food of over 2 billion people) often lose their efficiency properties and the normative implications assigned by trade theory. Theoretical objections to government efforts to stabilize food prices, thus, have reduced saliency, although operational, financing, and implementation problems remain important, even critical. The experience of many Asian governments in stabilizing their rice prices over the past half century is drawn on in this paper to illuminate both the political mandates stemming from behavioral responses of citizens and operational problems facing efforts to stabilize food prices. Despite the theoretical problems with free markets, the institutional role of markets in economic development remains. All policy instruments must operate compatibly with prices in markets. During policy design, especially for policies designed to alter market prices, incentive structures need to be compatible with respect to both government capacity (bureaucratic and budgetary) and empirical behavior on the part of market participants who will respond to planned policy changes. A new theoretical underpinning to political economy analysis is needed that incorporates this behavioral perspective, with psychology, sociology, and anthropology all likely to make significant contributions.
Exact dimension estimation of interacting qubit systems assisted by a single quantum probe
Sone, Akira; Cappellaro, Paola
2017-12-01
Estimating the dimension of an Hilbert space is an important component of quantum system identification. In quantum technologies, the dimension of a quantum system (or its corresponding accessible Hilbert space) is an important resource, as larger dimensions determine, e.g., the performance of quantum computation protocols or the sensitivity of quantum sensors. Despite being a critical task in quantum system identification, estimating the Hilbert space dimension is experimentally challenging. While there have been proposals for various dimension witnesses capable of putting a lower bound on the dimension from measuring collective observables that encode correlations, in many practical scenarios, especially for multiqubit systems, the experimental control might not be able to engineer the required initialization, dynamics, and observables. Here we propose a more practical strategy that relies not on directly measuring an unknown multiqubit target system, but on the indirect interaction with a local quantum probe under the experimenter's control. Assuming only that the interaction model is given and the evolution correlates all the qubits with the probe, we combine a graph-theoretical approach and realization theory to demonstrate that the system dimension can be exactly estimated from the model order of the system. We further analyze the robustness in the presence of background noise of the proposed estimation method based on realization theory, finding that despite stringent constrains on the allowed noise level, exact dimension estimation can still be achieved.
Sparse Grid Quadrature in High Dimensions with Applications in Finance and Insurance
Holtz, Markus
2011-01-01
This book deals with the numerical analysis and efficient numerical treatment of high-dimensional integrals using sparse grids and other dimension-wise integration techniques with applications to finance and insurance. The book focuses on providing insights into the interplay between coordinate transformations, effective dimensions and the convergence behaviour of sparse grid methods. The techniques, derivations and algorithms are illustrated by many examples, figures and code segments. Numerical experiments with applications from finance and insurance show that the approaches presented in thi
Casimir Energy, Extra Dimensions and Exotic Propulsion
Obousy, R.; Saharian, A.
It is well known that the Casimir effect is an excellent candidate for the stabilization of the extra dimensions. It has also been suggested that the Casimir effect in higher dimensions may be the underlying phenomenon that is responsible for the dark energy which is currently driving the accelerated expansion of the universe. In this paper we suggest that, in principle, it may be possible to directly manipulate the size of an extra dimension locally using Standard Model fields in the next generation of particle accelerators. This adjustment of the size of the higher dimension could serve as a technological mechanism to locally adjust the dark energy density and change the local expansion of spacetime. This idea holds tantalizing possibilities in the context of exotic spacecraft propulsion.
The existential dimension in general practice
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Assing Hvidt, Elisabeth; Søndergaard, Jens; Ammentorp, Jette
2016-01-01
Objective: The objective of this study is to identify points of agreement and disagreements among general practitioners (GPs) in Denmark concerning how the existential dimension is understood, and when and how it is integrated in the GP–patient encounter. Design: A qualitative methodology with semi...... and identity, connectedness to a society and to other people, the existential dimension was primarily reported integrated in connection with life-threatening diseases and death. Furthermore, integration of the existential dimension was characterized as unsystematic and intuitive. Communication about religious...... or spiritual questions was mostly avoided by GPs due to shyness and perceived lack of expertise. GPs also reported infrequent referrals of patients to chaplains. Conclusion: GPs integrate issues related to the existential dimension in implicit and non-standardized ways and are hindered by cultural barriers...
OPTIMAL PARTITIONS OF DATA IN HIGHER DIMENSIONS
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — OPTIMAL PARTITIONS OF DATA IN HIGHER DIMENSIONS BRADLEY W. JACKSON*, JEFFREY D. SCARGLE, AND CHRIS CUSANZA, DAVID BARNES, DENNIS KANYGIN, RUSSELL SARMIENTO, SOWMYA...
Introducing the competitive dimension to corporate foresight
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schwartz, Jan Oliver; Rohrbeck, René
While the competitive dimension plays an important role in strategy, the aspect of competitors seems to be rather neglected in corporate foresight. In this paper we want to shed some more light on this underexplored field of corporate foresight. The literature review discusses approaches in corpo......While the competitive dimension plays an important role in strategy, the aspect of competitors seems to be rather neglected in corporate foresight. In this paper we want to shed some more light on this underexplored field of corporate foresight. The literature review discusses approaches...... or frameworks towards the competitive dimension in corporate foresight. In the paper an illustrative case study is discussed, with a first attempt to provide a framework for structuring the competitive dimension in corporate foresight....
A dimension map for molecular aggregates.
Jian, Cuiying; Tang, Tian; Bhattacharjee, Subir
2015-05-01
A pair of gyradius ratios, defined from the principal radii of gyration, are used to generate a dimension map that describes the geometry of molecular aggregates in water and in organic solvents. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed on the aggregation of representative biomolecules and polyaromatic compounds to demonstrate application of the dimension map. It was shown that molecular aggregate data on the dimension map were bounded by two boundary curves, and that the map could be separated into three regions representing three groups of structures: one-dimensional rod-like structures; two-dimensional planar structures or short-cylinder-like structures; and three-dimensional sphere-like structures. Examining the location of the aggregates on the dimension map and how the location changes with solvent type and solute material parameter provides a simple yet effective way to infer the aggregation manner and to study solubility and mechanism of aggregation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Determinant factors of Yemeni maxillary arch dimensions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nabil Muhsen Al-Zubair
2015-01-01
Conclusion: Measurements of palatal depth and relationships of the canines to one another and to other teeth thus had the widest ranges, implying that these dimensions are the strongest determinants of maxillary arch size.
academic dimension of classroom learning environment and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
261 ... disciplinary measures and finally, healthy academic learning environment such that will help the students develop the right attitude ... KEYWORDS: Academic Dimension, classroom learning environment, students' nurses and attitude.
Galilean invariance in 2+1 dimensions
Brihaye, Y.; Gonera, C.; Giller, S; Kosinski, P.
1995-01-01
The Galilean invariance in three dimensional space-time is considered. It appears that the Galilei group in 2+1 dimensions posses a three-parameter family of projective representations. Their physical interpretation is discussed in some detail.
Numerical methods and applications in many fermion systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luitz, David J.
2013-02-07
This thesis presents results covering several topics in correlated many fermion systems. A Monte Carlo technique (CT-INT) that has been implemented, used and extended by the author is discussed in great detail in chapter 3. The following chapter discusses how CT-INT can be used to calculate the two particle Green's function and explains how exact frequency summations can be obtained. A benchmark against exact diagonalization is presented. The link to the dynamical cluster approximation is made in the end of chapter 4, where these techniques are of immense importance. In chapter 5 an extensive CT-INT study of a strongly correlated Josephson junction is shown. In particular, the signature of the first order quantum phase transition between a Kondo and a local moment regime in the Josephson current is discussed. The connection to an experimental system is made with great care by developing a parameter extraction strategy. As a final result, we show that it is possible to reproduce experimental data from a numerically exact CT-INT model-calculation. The last topic is a study of graphene edge magnetism. We introduce a general effective model for the edge states, incorporating a complicated interaction Hamiltonian and perform an exact diagonalization study for different parameter regimes. This yields a strong argument for the importance of forbidden umklapp processes and of the strongly momentum dependent interaction vertex for the formation of edge magnetism. Additional fragments concerning the use of a Legendre polynomial basis for the representation of the two particle Green's function, the analytic continuation of the self energy for the Anderson Kane Mele Model as well as the generation of test data with a given covariance matrix are documented in the appendix. A final appendix provides some very important matrix identities that are used for the discussion of technical details of CT-INT.
Antecedents and Dimensions of Supply Chain Robustness
Durach, Christian F.; Wieland, Andreas; Machuca, Jose A.D.
2015-01-01
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide groundwork for an emerging theory of supply chain robustness – which has been conceptualized as a dimension of supply chain resilience – through reviewing and synthesizing related yet disconnected studies. The paper develops a formal definition of supply chain robustness to build a framework that captures the dimensions, antecedents and moderators of the construct as discussed in the literature. Design/methodology/approach – The...
The a-function in six dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gracey, J.A.; Jack, I.; Poole, C. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Liverpool,Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom)
2016-01-28
The a-function is a proposed quantity defined in even dimensions which has a monotonic behaviour along RG flows, related to the β-functions via a gradient flow equation. We study the a-function for a general scalar theory in six dimensions, using the β-functions up to three-loop order for both the (MS)-bar and MOM schemes (the latter presented here for the first time at three loops).