Sample records for calculations 4-dimensional

  1. Computation of focal values and stability analysis of 4-dimensional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Sang


    Full Text Available This article presents a recursive formula for computing the n-th singular point values of a class of 4-dimensional autonomous systems, and establishes the algebraic equivalence between focal values and singular point values. The formula is linear and then avoids complicated integrating operations, therefore the calculation can be carried out by computer algebra system such as Maple. As an application of the formula, bifurcation analysis is made for a quadratic system with a Hopf equilibrium, which can have three small limit cycles around an equilibrium point. The theory and methodology developed in this paper can be used for higher-dimensional systems.

  2. Clinical Validation of 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography Ventilation With Pulmonary Function Test Data

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    Brennan, Douglas [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Schubert, Leah; Diot, Quentin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Castillo, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas (United States); Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Martel, Mary K. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Linderman, Derek; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Miften, Moyed; Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)


    Purpose: A new form of functional imaging has been proposed in the form of 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation. Because 4DCTs are acquired as part of routine care for lung cancer patients, calculating ventilation maps from 4DCTs provides spatial lung function information without added dosimetric or monetary cost to the patient. Before 4DCT-ventilation is implemented it needs to be clinically validated. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) provide a clinically established way of evaluating lung function. The purpose of our work was to perform a clinical validation by comparing 4DCT-ventilation metrics with PFT data. Methods and Materials: Ninety-eight lung cancer patients with pretreatment 4DCT and PFT data were included in the study. Pulmonary function test metrics used to diagnose obstructive lung disease were recorded: forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity. Four-dimensional CT data sets and spatial registration were used to compute 4DCT-ventilation images using a density change–based and a Jacobian-based model. The ventilation maps were reduced to single metrics intended to reflect the degree of ventilation obstruction. Specifically, we computed the coefficient of variation (SD/mean), ventilation V20 (volume of lung ≤20% ventilation), and correlated the ventilation metrics with PFT data. Regression analysis was used to determine whether 4DCT ventilation data could predict for normal versus abnormal lung function using PFT thresholds. Results: Correlation coefficients comparing 4DCT-ventilation with PFT data ranged from 0.63 to 0.72, with the best agreement between FEV1 and coefficient of variation. Four-dimensional CT ventilation metrics were able to significantly delineate between clinically normal versus abnormal PFT results. Conclusions: Validation of 4DCT ventilation with clinically relevant metrics is essential. We demonstrate good global agreement between PFTs and 4DCT-ventilation, indicating that 4DCT

  3. Planning 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography (4DCT) Cannot Adequately Represent Daily Intrafractional Motion of Abdominal Tumors

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    Ge, Jiajia; Santanam, Lakshmi; Noel, Camille [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Parikh, Parag J., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States)


    Purpose: To evaluate whether planning 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) can adequately represent daily motion of abdominal tumors in regularly fractionated and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) patients. Methods and Materials: Intrafractional tumor motion of 10 patients with abdominal tumors (4 pancreas-fractionated and 6 liver-stereotactic patients) with implanted fiducials was measured based on daily orthogonal fluoroscopic movies over 38 treatment fractions. The needed internal margin for at least 90% of tumor coverage was calculated based on a 95th and fifth percentile of daily 3-dimensional tumor motion. The planning internal margin was generated by fusing 4DCT motion from all phase bins. The disagreement between needed and planning internal margin was analyzed fraction by fraction in 3 motion axes (superior-inferior [SI], anterior-posterior [AP], and left-right [LR]). The 4DCT margin was considered as an overestimation/underestimation of daily motion when disagreement exceeded at least 3 mm in the SI axis and/or 1.2 mm in the AP and LR axes (4DCT image resolution). The underlying reasons for this disagreement were evaluated based on interfractional and intrafractional breathing variation. Results: The 4DCT overestimated daily 3-dimensional motion in 39% of the fractions in 7 of 10 patients and underestimated it in 53% of the fractions in 8 of 10 patients. Median underestimation was 3.9 mm, 3.0 mm, and 1.7 mm in the SI axis, AP axis, and LR axis, respectively. The 4DCT was found to capture irregular deep breaths in 3 of 10 patients, with 4DCT motion larger than mean daily amplitude by 18 to 21 mm. The breathing pattern varied from breath to breath and day to day. The intrafractional variation of amplitude was significantly larger than intrafractional variation (2.7 mm vs 1.3 mm) in the primary motion axis (ie, SI axis). The SBRT patients showed significantly larger intrafractional amplitude variation than fractionated patients (3.0 mm vs 2

  4. Electroweak phase transition in the minimal supersymmetric standard model: 4-dimensional lattice simulations (United States)

    Csikor; Fodor; Hegedus; Jakovac; Katz; Piroth


    Lattice results show no standard model (SM) electroweak phase transition (EWPT) for Higgs masses approximately 72 GeV, which is below the present experimental limit. Perturbation theory and 3-dimensional simulations indicate an EWPT in the minimal supersymmetric SM (MSSM) that is strong enough for baryogenesis up to m(h) approximately 105 GeV. In this Letter we present the results of our large scale 4-dimensional MSSM EWPT simulations. We carried out infinite volume and continuum limits and found a transition whose strength agrees well with perturbation theory, allowing MSSM electroweak baryogenesis at least up to m(h) = 103+/-4 GeV. We determined the properties of the bubble wall.

  5. Towards 4-dimensional atomic force spectroscopy using the spectral inversion method. (United States)

    Williams, Jeffrey C; Solares, Santiago D


    We introduce a novel and potentially powerful, yet relatively simple extension of the spectral inversion method, which offers the possibility of carrying out 4-dimensional (4D) atomic force spectroscopy. With the extended spectral inversion method it is theoretically possible to measure the tip-sample forces as a function of the three Cartesian coordinates in the scanning volume (x, y and z) and the vertical velocity of the tip, through a single 2-dimensional (2D) surface scan. Although signal-to-noise ratio limitations can currently prevent the accurate experimental implementation of the 4D method, and the extraction of rate-dependent material properties from the force maps is a formidable challenge, the spectral inversion method is a promising approach due to its dynamic nature, robustness, relative simplicity and previous successes.

  6. Towards 4-dimensional atomic force spectroscopy using the spectral inversion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. Williams


    Full Text Available We introduce a novel and potentially powerful, yet relatively simple extension of the spectral inversion method, which offers the possibility of carrying out 4-dimensional (4D atomic force spectroscopy. With the extended spectral inversion method it is theoretically possible to measure the tip–sample forces as a function of the three Cartesian coordinates in the scanning volume (x, y and z and the vertical velocity of the tip, through a single 2-dimensional (2D surface scan. Although signal-to-noise ratio limitations can currently prevent the accurate experimental implementation of the 4D method, and the extraction of rate-dependent material properties from the force maps is a formidable challenge, the spectral inversion method is a promising approach due to its dynamic nature, robustness, relative simplicity and previous successes.

  7. Prenatal 3- and 4-dimensional Ultrasonographic Findings of Giant Fetal Nuchal Hemangioma

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    Jenn-Jhy Tseng


    Full Text Available A precise prenatal diagnosis of hemangioma may be uncertain although a variety of the antenatal appearances on 2-dimensional sonography have been reported. A 27-year-old primigravida was referred at 32 weeks of gestation for evaluation of a fetal nuchal mass. Two-dimensional sonography showed an extracranial mixed echogenic mass (65 × 54 × 59 mm occupying the posterior neck. Color Doppler imaging revealed intense hypervascularization. Three-dimensional (3D and 4-dimensional (4D sonography showed that the mass was lobulated, with a lumpy internal structure. Nuchal hemangioma was further confirmed by clinical examination and postnatal magnetic resonance imaging. The tumor began to regress in size when the infant was 7 months old. Prenatal 3D/4D ultrasound techniques could be considered as complementary diagnostic tools for such a tumor. They have the advantages of providing accurate and inexpensive virtual reality images through more realistic interactions with the virtualized in utero condition.

  8. 4-dimensional model of carbon dioxide seasonal deposition on Mars based on HEND/Odyssey data (United States)

    Litvak, M. L.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Sanin, A. B.; Tretyakov, V. I.

    The carbon dioxide seasonal cycle has been studied on Mars using data from High Energy Neutron Detector (HEND) onboard mission Mars Odyssey. The primary task of the HEND experiment is measuring of martian neutron albedo from orbit around Mars. The neutron spectroscopy can be easily used not only for detection of subsurface water bearing layers but also for following up time history of CO2 deposit seasonally condensed from atmosphere down to martian surface. Condensation and sublimation of atmospheric CO2 is happened in vicinity of Mars near polar regions (>60N and >60S) which are characterized by presence of enormous amount of subsurface water ice (20-80% by mass). Atmospheric CO2 deposit covered the surface by relative thick layer with thickness 30-100cm. It effectively hides underlying water ice layers from orbit observations causing significant changes of neutron leakage flux. Detection of these changes allows to deconvolve CO2 cycle time history and estimate column density (g/cm2) and mass (kg) of CO2 deposit. Observations of particular regions on south and north may be combined in 4-dimensional model of CO2 deposit showing how its thickness/mass changes at different regions with time. The primary goal of this study is to present our estimations of CO2 condensed mass on north and south as function of martian seasons during entire martian year. We also add comparison between estimation from HEND data and predictions of AMES climate models.

  9. Quantification of Pediatric Abdominal Organ Motion With a 4-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Method. (United States)

    Uh, Jinsoo; Krasin, Matthew J; Li, Yimei; Li, Xingyu; Tinkle, Christopher; Lucas, John T; Merchant, Thomas E; Hua, Chiaho


    To characterize respiration-induced abdominal organ motion in children receiving radiation treatment with a 4-dimensional (4D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method. We analyzed free-breathing coronal 4D MRI datasets acquired from 35 patients (aged 1-20 years) with abdominal tumors. A deformable image registration of the 4D MRI datasets was performed to derive motion trajectories of selected anatomic landmarks, from which organ motions were quantified. The association between organ motion and patient characteristics was investigated and compared with previous studies. The relation between patient height and organ motion was further investigated to predict organ motion in prospective patients. Organ motion and its individual variation were reduced in younger patients (eg, kidney peak-to-peak motion motion management may be warranted in some adolescents. The liver and spleen exhibited greater motion than did the kidneys, while intraorgan variation was present. The motions in the liver and kidneys agreed with those reported by the previous 4D computed tomography studies. Individual variations of organ motion in younger patients were due, in part, to changes in respiration rate, which ostensibly reflected the effect of anesthesia. The prediction of organ motion was limited by large individual variations, particularly for older patients. The 4D MRI acquisition method and motion analysis described in this study provide a nonionizing approach to understand age-associated organ motion, which aids in the planning of abdominal radiation therapy for pediatric patients. Use of 4D MRI facilitates monitoring of changes in target motion patterns during treatment courses and in various studies of the effect of organ motion on radiation treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. On Darboux's approach to R-separability of variables. Classification of conformally flat 4-dimensional binary metrics (United States)

    Szereszewski, A.; Sym, A.


    are binary metrics. In this paper we solve the following problem: to classify all conformally flat (of arbitrary signature) 4-dimensional binary metrics. Among them there are 1) those that are separable in the sense of SRE metrics Kalnins-Miller (1978 Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 244 241-61 1982 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 15 2699-709 1984 Adv. Math. 51 91-106 1983 SIAM J. Math. Anal. 14 126-37) and 2) new examples of non-Stäckel R-separability in 4 dimensions.

  11. GeoGML - a Mark-up Language for 4-dimensional geomorphic objects and processes (United States)

    Löwner, M.-O.


    We developed an use-oriented GML3 based data model that enables researchers to share 4-dimensional information about landforms and their process related interaction. Using the Unified Modelling Language it is implemented as a GML3-based application schema available on the Internet. As the science of the land's surface Geomorphology investigates landforms, their change, and the processes causing this change. The main problem of comparing research results in geomorphology is that the objects under investigation are composed of 3-dimensional geometries that change in time due to processes of material fluxes, e. g. soil erosion or mass movements. They have internal properties, e. g. soil texture or bulk density, that determine the effectiveness of these processes but are under change as well. Worldwide geographical data can be shared over the Internet using Web Feature Services. The precondition is the development of a semantic model or ontology based on international standards like GML3 as an implementation of the ISO 109107 and others. Here we present a GML3-based Mark-up Language or application schema for geomorphic purposes that fulfils the following requirements: First, an object-oriented view of landforms with a true 3-dimensional geometric data format was established. Second, the internal structure and attributes of landforms can be stored. Third, the interaction of processes and landforms is represented. Fourth, the change of all these mentioned attributes over time was considered. The presented application schema is available on the Internet and therefore a first step to enable researchers to share information using an OGC's Web feature service. In this vein comparing modelling results of landscape evolution with results of other scientist's observations is possible. Compared to prevalent data concepts the model presented makes it possible to store information about landforms, their geometry and the characteristics in more detail. It allows to represent the 3D

  12. The 4-dimensional plant: effects of wind- induced canopy movement on light fluctuations and photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Jacquelyn Burgess


    required for accurate modelling of mechanical canopy excitation (here coined the 4-dimensional plant and some associated biological and applied implications of such techniques. We hypothesise that biomechanical plant properties are a specific adaptation to achieve wind-induced photosynthetic enhancement and we outline how traits facilitating canopy excitation could be used as a route for improving crop yield.

  13. Pulmonary Ventilation Imaging Based on 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography: Comparison With Pulmonary Function Tests and SPECT Ventilation Images

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    Yamamoto, Tokihiro, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States); Kabus, Sven; Lorenz, Cristian [Department of Digital Imaging, Philips Research Europe, Hamburg (Germany); Mittra, Erik [Departments of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Hong, Julian C.; Chung, Melody; Eclov, Neville; To, Jacqueline; Diehn, Maximilian; Loo, Billy W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Keall, Paul J. [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)


    Purpose: 4-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT)-based pulmonary ventilation imaging is an emerging functional imaging modality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological significance of 4D-CT ventilation imaging by comparison with pulmonary function test (PFT) measurements and single-photon emission CT (SPECT) ventilation images, which are the clinical references for global and regional lung function, respectively. Methods and Materials: In an institutional review board–approved prospective clinical trial, 4D-CT imaging and PFT and/or SPECT ventilation imaging were performed in thoracic cancer patients. Regional ventilation (V{sub 4DCT}) was calculated by deformable image registration of 4D-CT images and quantitative analysis for regional volume change. V{sub 4DCT} defect parameters were compared with the PFT measurements (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV{sub 1}; % predicted) and FEV{sub 1}/forced vital capacity (FVC; %). V{sub 4DCT} was also compared with SPECT ventilation (V{sub SPECT}) to (1) test whether V{sub 4DCT} in V{sub SPECT} defect regions is significantly lower than in nondefect regions by using the 2-tailed t test; (2) to quantify the spatial overlap between V{sub 4DCT} and V{sub SPECT} defect regions with Dice similarity coefficient (DSC); and (3) to test ventral-to-dorsal gradients by using the 2-tailed t test. Results: Of 21 patients enrolled in the study, 18 patients for whom 4D-CT and either PFT or SPECT were acquired were included in the analysis. V{sub 4DCT} defect parameters were found to have significant, moderate correlations with PFT measurements. For example, V{sub 4DCT}{sup HU} defect volume increased significantly with decreasing FEV{sub 1}/FVC (R=−0.65, P<.01). V{sub 4DCT} in V{sub SPECT} defect regions was significantly lower than in nondefect regions (mean V{sub 4DCT}{sup HU} 0.049 vs 0.076, P<.01). The average DSCs for the spatial overlap with SPECT ventilation defect regions were only moderate (V

  14. All ASD complex and real 4-dimensional Einstein spaces with Λ≠0 admitting a nonnull Killing vector (United States)

    Chudecki, Adam


    Anti-self-dual (ASD) 4-dimensional complex Einstein spaces with nonzero cosmological constant Λ equipped with a nonnull Killing vector are considered. It is shown that any conformally nonflat metric of such spaces can be always brought to a special form and the Einstein field equations can be reduced to the Boyer-Finley-Plebański equation (Toda field equation). Some alternative forms of the metric are discussed. All possible real slices (neutral, Euclidean and Lorentzian) of ASD complex Einstein spaces with Λ≠0 admitting a nonnull Killing vector are found.

  15. Acute Cerebral Venous Thrombosis: Three-Dimensional Visualization and Quantification of Hemodynamic Alterations Using 4-Dimensional Flow Magnetic Resonance Imaging. (United States)

    Schuchardt, Florian; Hennemuth, Anja; Schroeder, Laure; Meckel, Stephan; Markl, Michael; Wehrum, Thomas; Harloff, Andreas


    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) affects venous hemodynamics and can provoke severe stroke and chronic intracranial hypertension. We sought to comprehensively analyze 3-dimensional blood flow and hemodynamic alterations during acute CVT including collateral recruitment and at follow-up. Twenty-two consecutive patients with acute CVT were prospectively included and underwent routine brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 4-dimensional flow MRI at 3 T for the in vivo assessment of cerebral blood flow. Neurological and MRI follow-up at 6 months was performed in 18 patients. Three-dimensional blood flow visualization and quantification of large dural venous sinuses and deep cerebral veins was successfully performed in all patients. During acute CVT, we observed abnormal flow patterns including stagnant flow, flow acceleration in stenoses, and change of flow directions. In patients with complete recanalization, flow trajectories resembled those known from previously published 4-dimensional flow MRI data in healthy adults. There was a trend toward a relationship between occluded segments and cerebral lesions (not significant). Furthermore, patients with versus without cerebral lesions showed increased mean (0.08±0.09 versus 0.005±0.014 m/s) and peak velocities (0.18±0.21 versus 0.006±0.02 m/s) within partially thrombosed left and right transverse sinuses (PMRI was successfully applied for the 3-dimensional visualization and quantification of venous hemodynamics in patients with CVT and provided new dynamic information regarding vessel recanalization. This technique seems promising to investigate the contribution of hemodynamic parameters and collaterals in a larger cohort to identify those at risk of stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Effects of individualized electrical impedance tomography and image reconstruction settings upon the assessment of regional ventilation distribution: Comparison to 4-dimensional computed tomography in a porcine model. (United States)

    Thürk, Florian; Boehme, Stefan; Mudrak, Daniel; Kampusch, Stefan; Wielandner, Alice; Prosch, Helmut; Braun, Christina; Toemboel, Frédéric P R; Hofmanninger, Johannes; Kaniusas, Eugenijus


    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a promising imaging technique for bedside monitoring of lung function. It is easily applicable, cheap and requires no ionizing radiation, but clinical interpretation of EIT-images is still not standardized. One of the reasons for this is the ill-posed nature of EIT, allowing a range of possible images to be produced-rather than a single explicit solution. Thus, to further advance the EIT technology for clinical application, thorough examinations of EIT-image reconstruction settings-i.e., mathematical parameters and addition of a priori (e.g., anatomical) information-is essential. In the present work, regional ventilation distribution profiles derived from different EIT finite-element reconstruction models and settings (for GREIT and Gauss Newton) were compared to regional aeration profiles assessed by the gold-standard of 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) by calculating the root mean squared error (RMSE). Specifically, non-individualized reconstruction models (based on circular and averaged thoracic contours) and individualized reconstruction models (based on true thoracic contours) were compared. Our results suggest that GREIT with noise figure of 0.15 and non-uniform background works best for the assessment of regional ventilation distribution by EIT, as verified versus 4DCT. Furthermore, the RMSE of anteroposterior ventilation profiles decreased from 2.53±0.62% to 1.67±0.49% while correlation increased from 0.77 to 0.89 after embedding anatomical information into the reconstruction models. In conclusion, the present work reveals that anatomically enhanced EIT-image reconstruction is superior to non-individualized reconstruction models, but further investigations in humans, so as to standardize reconstruction settings, is warranted.

  17. Effects of individualized electrical impedance tomography and image reconstruction settings upon the assessment of regional ventilation distribution: Comparison to 4-dimensional computed tomography in a porcine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Thürk

    Full Text Available Electrical impedance tomography (EIT is a promising imaging technique for bedside monitoring of lung function. It is easily applicable, cheap and requires no ionizing radiation, but clinical interpretation of EIT-images is still not standardized. One of the reasons for this is the ill-posed nature of EIT, allowing a range of possible images to be produced-rather than a single explicit solution. Thus, to further advance the EIT technology for clinical application, thorough examinations of EIT-image reconstruction settings-i.e., mathematical parameters and addition of a priori (e.g., anatomical information-is essential. In the present work, regional ventilation distribution profiles derived from different EIT finite-element reconstruction models and settings (for GREIT and Gauss Newton were compared to regional aeration profiles assessed by the gold-standard of 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT by calculating the root mean squared error (RMSE. Specifically, non-individualized reconstruction models (based on circular and averaged thoracic contours and individualized reconstruction models (based on true thoracic contours were compared. Our results suggest that GREIT with noise figure of 0.15 and non-uniform background works best for the assessment of regional ventilation distribution by EIT, as verified versus 4DCT. Furthermore, the RMSE of anteroposterior ventilation profiles decreased from 2.53±0.62% to 1.67±0.49% while correlation increased from 0.77 to 0.89 after embedding anatomical information into the reconstruction models. In conclusion, the present work reveals that anatomically enhanced EIT-image reconstruction is superior to non-individualized reconstruction models, but further investigations in humans, so as to standardize reconstruction settings, is warranted.

  18. Declination Calculator (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Declination is calculated using the current International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model. Declination is calculated using the current World Magnetic Model...

  19. Comparative assessment of liver tumor motion using cine-magnetic resonance imaging versus 4-dimensional computed tomography. (United States)

    Fernandes, Annemarie T; Apisarnthanarax, Smith; Yin, Lingshu; Zou, Wei; Rosen, Mark; Plastaras, John P; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Metz, James M; Teo, Boon-Keng


    To compare the extent of tumor motion between 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) and cine-MRI in patients with hepatic tumors treated with radiation therapy. Patients with liver tumors who underwent 4DCT and 2-dimensional biplanar cine-MRI scans during simulation were retrospectively reviewed to determine the extent of target motion in the superior-inferior, anterior-posterior, and lateral directions. Cine-MRI was performed over 5 minutes. Tumor motion from MRI was determined by tracking the centroid of the gross tumor volume using deformable image registration. Motion estimates from 4DCT were performed by evaluation of the fiducial, residual contrast (or liver contour) positions in each CT phase. Sixteen patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (n=11), cholangiocarcinoma (n=3), and liver metastasis (n=2) were reviewed. Cine-MRI motion was larger than 4DCT for the superior-inferior direction in 50% of patients by a median of 3.0 mm (range, 1.5-7 mm), the anterior-posterior direction in 44% of patients by a median of 2.5 mm (range, 1-5.5 mm), and laterally in 63% of patients by a median of 1.1 mm (range, 0.2-4.5 mm). Cine-MRI frequently detects larger differences in hepatic intrafraction tumor motion when compared with 4DCT most notably in the superior-inferior direction, and may be useful when assessing the need for or treating without respiratory management, particularly in patients with unreliable 4DCT imaging. Margins wider than the internal target volume as defined by 4DCT were required to encompass nearly all the motion detected by cine-MRI for some of the patients in this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cone-beam computed tomography internal motion tracking should be used to validate 4-dimensional computed tomography for abdominal radiation therapy patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rankine, Leith; Wan, Hanlin; Parikh, Parag


    Purpose To demonstrate that fiducial tracking during pretreatment Cone-Beam CT (CBCT) can accurately measure tumor motion and that this method should be used to validate 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) margins before each treatment fraction. Methods and Materials For 31 patients with abdominal tumors and...

  1. MEMS Calculator (United States)

    SRD 166 MEMS Calculator (Web, free access)   This MEMS Calculator determines the following thin film properties from data taken with an optical interferometer or comparable instrument: a) residual strain from fixed-fixed beams, b) strain gradient from cantilevers, c) step heights or thicknesses from step-height test structures, and d) in-plane lengths or deflections. Then, residual stress and stress gradient calculations can be made after an optical vibrometer or comparable instrument is used to obtain Young's modulus from resonating cantilevers or fixed-fixed beams. In addition, wafer bond strength is determined from micro-chevron test structures using a material test machine.

  2. Calculation Software (United States)


    MathSoft Plus 5.0 is a calculation software package for electrical engineers and computer scientists who need advanced math functionality. It incorporates SmartMath, an expert system that determines a strategy for solving difficult mathematical problems. SmartMath was the result of the integration into Mathcad of CLIPS, a NASA-developed shell for creating expert systems. By using CLIPS, MathSoft, Inc. was able to save the time and money involved in writing the original program.

  3. Calculator calculus

    CERN Document Server

    McCarty, George


    How THIS BOOK DIFFERS This book is about the calculus. What distinguishes it, however, from other books is that it uses the pocket calculator to illustrate the theory. A computation that requires hours of labor when done by hand with tables is quite inappropriate as an example or exercise in a beginning calculus course. But that same computation can become a delicate illustration of the theory when the student does it in seconds on his calculator. t Furthermore, the student's own personal involvement and easy accomplishment give hi~ reassurance and en­ couragement. The machine is like a microscope, and its magnification is a hundred millionfold. We shall be interested in limits, and no stage of numerical approximation proves anything about the limit. However, the derivative of fex) = 67.SgX, for instance, acquires real meaning when a student first appreciates its values as numbers, as limits of 10 100 1000 t A quick example is 1.1 , 1.01 , 1.001 , •••• Another example is t = 0.1, 0.01, in the functio...

  4. Reliability Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kurt Erling


    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety...... and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic...... approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very...

  5. Non-linear spatio-temporal filtering of dynamic PET data using a 4-dimensional Gaussian filter and expectation-maximization deconvolution (United States)

    Holden, J E


    We introduce a method for denoising dynamic PET data, spatio-temporal expectation-maximization (STEM) filtering, that combines 4-dimensional Gaussian filtering with EM deconvolution. The initial Gaussian filter suppresses noise at a broad range of spatial and temporal frequencies and EM deconvolution quickly restores the frequencies most important to the signal. We aim to demonstrate that STEM filtering can improve variance in both individual time frames and in parametric images without introducing significant bias. We evaluate STEM filtering with a dynamic phantom study, and with simulated and human dynamic PET studies of a tracer with reversible binding behaviour, [C-11]raclopride, and a tracer with irreversible binding behaviour, [F-18]FDOPA. STEM filtering is compared to a number of established 3 and 4-dimensional denoising methods. STEM filtering provides substantial improvements in variance in both individual time frames and in parametric images generated with a number of kinetic analysis techniques while introducing little bias. STEM filtering does bias early frames, but this does not affect quantitative parameter estimates. STEM filtering is shown to be superior to the other simple denoising methods studied. STEM filtering is a simple and effective denoising method that could be valuable for a wide range of dynamic PET applications. PMID:23370699

  6. Altered left ventricular vortex ring formation by 4-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging after repair of atrioventricular septal defects. (United States)

    Calkoen, Emmeline E; Elbaz, Mohammed S M; Westenberg, Jos J M; Kroft, Lucia J M; Hazekamp, Mark G; Roest, Arno A W; van der Geest, Rob J


    During normal left ventricular (LV) filling, a vortex ring structure is formed distal to the left atrioventricular valve (LAVV). Vortex structures contribute to efficient flow organization. We aimed to investigate whether LAVV abnormality in patients with a corrected atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) has an impact on vortex ring formation. Whole-heart 4D flow MRI was performed in 32 patients (age: 26 ± 12 years), and 30 healthy subjects (age: 25 ± 14 years). Vortex ring cores were detected at peak early (E-peak) and peak late filling (A-peak). When present, the 3-dimensional position and orientation of the vortex ring was defined, and the circularity index was calculated. Through-plane flow over the LAVV, and the vortex formation time (VFT), were quantified to analyze the relationship of vortex flow with the inflow jet. Absence of a vortex ring during E-peak (healthy subjects 0%, vs patients 19%; P = .015), and A-peak (healthy subjects 10% vs patients 44%; P = .008) was more frequent in patients. In 4 patients, this was accompanied by a high VFT (5.1-7.8 vs 2.4 ± 0.6 in healthy subjects), and in another 2 patients with abnormal valve anatomy. In patients compared with controls, the vortex cores had a more-anterior and apical position, closer to the ventricular wall, with a more-elliptical shape and oblique orientation. The shape of the vortex core closely resembled the valve shape, and its orientation was related to the LV inflow direction. This study quantitatively shows the influence of abnormal LAVV and LV inflow on 3D vortex ring formation during LV inflow in patients with corrected AVSD, compared with healthy subjects. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 4-dimensional variational data assimilation systems . Part II - Performance and application to the California Current System (United States)

    Moore, Andrew M.; Arango, Hernan G.; Broquet, Gregoire; Edwards, Chris; Veneziani, Milena; Powell, Brian; Foley, Dave; Doyle, James D.; Costa, Dan; Robinson, Patrick


    The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 4-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation systems have been systematically applied to the mesoscale circulation environment of the California Current to demonstrate the performance and practical utility of the various components of ROMS 4D-Var. In particular, we present a comparison of three approaches to 4D-Var, namely: the primal formulation of the incremental strong constraint approach; the dual formulation “physical-space statistical analysis system”; and the dual formulation indirect representer approach. In agreement with theoretical considerations all three approaches converge to the same ocean circulation estimate when using the same observations and prior information. However, the rate of convergence of the dual formulation was found to be inferior to that of the primal formulation. Other aspects of the 4D-Var performance that relate to the use of multiple outer-loops, preconditioning, and the weak constraint are also explored. A systematic evaluation of the impact of the various components of the 4D-Var control vector (i.e. the initial conditions, surface forcing and open boundary conditions) is also presented. It is shown that correcting for uncertainties in the model initial conditions exerts the largest influence on the ability of the model to fit the available observations. Various important diagnostics of 4D-Var are also examined, including estimates of the posterior error, the information content of the observation array, and innovation-based consistency checks on the prior error assumptions. Using these diagnostic tools, we find that more than 90% of the observations assimilated into the model provide redundant information. This is a symptom of the large percentage of satellite data that are used and to some extent the nature of the data processing employed. This is the second in a series of three papers describing the ROMS 4D-Var systems.

  8. Four-band Hamiltonian for fast calculations in intermediate-band solar cells (United States)

    Luque, Antonio; Panchak, Aleksandr; Vlasov, Alexey; Martí, Antonio; Andreev, Viacheslav


    The 8-dimensional Luttinger-Kohn-Pikus-Bir Hamiltonian matrix may be made up of four 4-dimensional blocks. A 4-band Hamiltonian is presented, obtained from making the non-diagonal blocks zero. The parameters of the new Hamiltonian are adjusted to fit the calculated effective masses and strained QD bandgap with the measured ones. The 4-dimensional Hamiltonian thus obtained agrees well with measured quantum efficiency of a quantum dot intermediate band solar cell and the full absorption spectrum can be calculated in about two hours using Mathematica© and a notebook. This is a hundred times faster than with the commonly-used 8-band Hamiltonian and is considered suitable for helping design engineers in the development of nanostructured solar cells.

  9. Investigation of hemodynamics in an in vitro system simulating left ventricular support through the right subclavian artery using 4-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging. (United States)

    Jung, Bernd; Müller, Christoph; Buchenberg, Waltraud; Ith, Michael; Reineke, David; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Benk, Christoph


    Left ventricular assist devices are an important treatment option for patients with heart failure alter the hemodynamics in the heart and great vessels. Because in vivo magnetic resonance studies of patients with ventricular assist devices are not possible, in vitro models represent an important tool to investigate flow alterations caused by these systems. By using an in vitro magnetic resonance-compatible model that mimics physiologic conditions as close as possible, this work investigated the flow characteristics using 4-dimensional flow-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging of a left ventricular assist device with outflow via the right subclavian artery as commonly used in cardiothoracic surgery in the recent past. An in vitro model was developed consisting of an aorta with its supra-aortic branches connected to a left ventricular assist device simulating the pulsatile flow of the native failing heart. A second left ventricular assist device supplied the aorta with continuous flow via the right subclavian artery. Four-dimensional flow-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging was performed for different flow rates of the left ventricular assist device simulating the native heart and the left ventricular assist device providing the continuous flow. Flow characteristics were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated in the entire vessel system. Flow characteristics inside the aorta and its upper branching vessels revealed that the right subclavian artery and the right carotid artery were solely supported by the continuous-flow left ventricular assist device for all flow rates. The flow rates in the brain-supplying arteries are only marginally affected by different operating conditions. The qualitative analysis revealed only minor effects on the flow characteristics, such as weakly pronounced vortex flow caused by the retrograde flow via the brachiocephalic artery. The results indicate that, despite the massive alterations in natural hemodynamics due to the

  10. Audio-Visual Biofeedback Does Not Improve the Reliability of Target Delineation Using Maximum Intensity Projection in 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography Radiation Therapy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Neuner, Geoffrey A.; George, Rohini; Wang, Zhendong; Sasor, Sarah [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Huang, Xuan [Research and Development, Care Management Department, Johns Hopkins HealthCare LLC, Glen Burnie, Maryland (United States); Regine, William F.; Feigenberg, Steven J.; D' Souza, Warren D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)


    Purpose: To investigate whether coaching patients' breathing would improve the match between ITV{sub MIP} (internal target volume generated by contouring in the maximum intensity projection scan) and ITV{sub 10} (generated by combining the gross tumor volumes contoured in 10 phases of a 4-dimensional CT [4DCT] scan). Methods and Materials: Eight patients with a thoracic tumor and 5 patients with an abdominal tumor were included in an institutional review board-approved prospective study. Patients underwent 3 4DCT scans with: (1) free breathing (FB); (2) coaching using audio-visual (AV) biofeedback via the Real-Time Position Management system; and (3) coaching via a spirometer system (Active Breathing Coordinator or ABC). One physician contoured all scans to generate the ITV{sub 10} and ITV{sub MIP}. The match between ITV{sub MIP} and ITV{sub 10} was quantitatively assessed with volume ratio, centroid distance, root mean squared distance, and overlap/Dice coefficient. We investigated whether coaching (AV or ABC) or uniform expansions (1, 2, 3, or 5 mm) of ITV{sub MIP} improved the match. Results: Although both AV and ABC coaching techniques improved frequency reproducibility and ABC improved displacement regularity, neither improved the match between ITV{sub MIP} and ITV{sub 10} over FB. On average, ITV{sub MIP} underestimated ITV{sub 10} by 19%, 19%, and 21%, with centroid distance of 1.9, 2.3, and 1.7 mm and Dice coefficient of 0.87, 0.86, and 0.88 for FB, AV, and ABC, respectively. Separate analyses indicated a better match for lung cancers or tumors not adjacent to high-intensity tissues. Uniform expansions of ITV{sub MIP} did not correct for the mismatch between ITV{sub MIP} and ITV{sub 10}. Conclusions: In this pilot study, audio-visual biofeedback did not improve the match between ITV{sub MIP} and ITV{sub 10}. In general, ITV{sub MIP} should be limited to lung cancers, and modification of ITV{sub MIP} in each phase of the 4DCT data set is recommended.

  11. TH-E-17A-06: Anatomical-Adaptive Compressed Sensing (AACS) Reconstruction for Thoracic 4-Dimensional Cone-Beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shieh, C; Kipritidis, J; OBrien, R; Cooper, B; Kuncic, Z; Keall, P [The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)


    Purpose: The Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) algorithm currently used for clinical thoracic 4-dimensional (4D) cone-beam CT (CBCT) reconstruction suffers from noise and streaking artifacts due to projection under-sampling. Compressed sensing theory enables reconstruction of under-sampled datasets via total-variation (TV) minimization, but TV-minimization algorithms such as adaptive-steepest-descent-projection-onto-convex-sets (ASD-POCS) often converge slowly and are prone to over-smoothing anatomical details. These disadvantages can be overcome by incorporating general anatomical knowledge via anatomy segmentation. Based on this concept, we have developed an anatomical-adaptive compressed sensing (AACS) algorithm for thoracic 4D-CBCT reconstruction. Methods: AACS is based on the ASD-POCS framework, where each iteration consists of a TV-minimization step and a data fidelity constraint step. Prior to every AACS iteration, four major thoracic anatomical structures - soft tissue, lungs, bony anatomy, and pulmonary details - were segmented from the updated solution image. Based on the segmentation, an anatomical-adaptive weighting was applied to the TV-minimization step, so that TV-minimization was enhanced at noisy/streaky regions and suppressed at anatomical structures of interest. The image quality and convergence speed of AACS was compared to conventional ASD-POCS using an XCAT digital phantom and a patient scan. Results: For the XCAT phantom, the AACS image represented the ground truth better than the ASD-POCS image, giving a higher structural similarity index (0.93 vs. 0.84) and lower absolute difference (1.1*10{sup 4} vs. 1.4*10{sup 4}). For the patient case, while both algorithms resulted in much less noise and streaking than FDK, the AACS image showed considerably better contrast and sharpness of the vessels, tumor, and fiducial marker than the ASD-POCS image. In addition, AACS converged over 50% faster than ASD-POCS in both cases. Conclusions: The proposed AACS

  12. Magnetic Field Calculator (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Calculator will calculate the total magnetic field, including components (declination, inclination, horizontal intensity, northerly intensity,...

  13. Alcohol Calorie Calculator (United States)

    ... NIAAA College Materials Supporting Research Special Features CollegeAIM College Administrators Parents & Students Home > Special Features > Calculators > Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie ...

  14. Intraindividual quantitative and qualitative comparison of gadopentetate dimeglumine and gadobutrol in time-resolved contrast-enhanced 4-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography in minipigs. (United States)

    Hadizadeh, Dariusch Reza; Jost, Gregor; Pietsch, Hubertus; Weibrecht, Martin; Perkuhn, Michael; Boschewitz, Jack Maria; Keil, Vera Catharina; Träber, Frank; Kukuk, Guido Matthias; Schild, Hans Heinz; Willinek, Winfried Albert


    The concentration and relaxivities of contrast agents affect quantitative and qualitative image quality in contrast-enhanced time-resolved 4-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography (4D-MRA). Gadobutrol has a high relaxivity and is the only gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agent approved for clinical use at a 1 M concentration. This promises to confer superior bolus characteristics by generating a steeper and shorter bolus with a higher peak Gd concentration. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively examine bolus characteristics of 1 M gadobutrol compared with 0.5 M gadopentetate dimeglumine and to evaluate image quality in thoracoabdominal 4D-MRA. A total of 7 Goettingen minipigs received dynamic computed tomography (CT) on a clinical 64-slice CT (transverse slices, 80 kV, 20 seconds, 0.3 s/dynamic frame) and 4D-MRA (time-resolved imaging with stochastic trajectories; 1. transverse slices, 30 seconds, 0.49 s/frame; 2. coronal slices, 70 seconds, 1.3 s/frame) on a 1.5-T clinical whole-body magnetic resonance imaging under general anesthesia using gadopentetate dimeglumine and gadobutrol in an intraindividual comparative study. Computed tomography attenuations were converted into Gd concentrations on the basis of previous phantom experiments. Quantitative analysis included measurements of the full width at half maximum, time-to-peak intervals, and peak of each bolus in dynamic CT and transverse 4D-MRA. These studies were carried out at equivalent contrast agent flow rates of 1 mL/s. Quantitative analysis (7 arteries and veins) and qualitative image analysis were performed on coronal thoracoabdominal 4D-MRA studies carried out at flow rates of 1 mL/s and, in the case of gadopentetate dimeglumine, also at molarity-adjusted flow rates of 2 mL/s. The bolus in both transverse 4D-MRA and dynamic CT was significantly narrower (full width at half maximum), earlier (time to peak), and higher (signal intensity enhancement in 4D-MRA, Gd concentration in dynamic CT) when

  15. Novel Super-Resolution Approach to Time-Resolved Volumetric 4-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging With High Spatiotemporal Resolution for Multi-Breathing Cycle Motion Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guang, E-mail: [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wei, Jie [Department of Computer Science, City College of New York, New York, New York (United States); Kadbi, Mo [Philips Healthcare, MR Therapy Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Moody, Jason; Sun, August; Zhang, Shirong; Markova, Svetlana; Zakian, Kristen; Hunt, Margie; Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)


    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a super-resolution approach to reconstruct time-resolved 4-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (TR-4DMRI) with a high spatiotemporal resolution for multi-breathing cycle motion assessment. Methods and Materials: A super-resolution approach was developed to combine fast 3-dimensional (3D) cine MRI with low resolution during free breathing (FB) and high-resolution 3D static MRI during breath hold (BH) using deformable image registration. A T1-weighted, turbo field echo sequence, coronal 3D cine acquisition, partial Fourier approximation, and SENSitivity Encoding parallel acceleration were used. The same MRI pulse sequence, field of view, and acceleration techniques were applied in both FB and BH acquisitions; the intensity-based Demons deformable image registration method was used. Under an institutional review board–approved protocol, 7 volunteers were studied with 3D cine FB scan (voxel size: 5 × 5 × 5 mm{sup 3}) at 2 Hz for 40 seconds and a 3D static BH scan (2 × 2 × 2 mm{sup 3}). To examine the image fidelity of 3D cine and super-resolution TR-4DMRI, a mobile gel phantom with multi-internal targets was scanned at 3 speeds and compared with the 3D static image. Image similarity among 3D cine, 4DMRI, and 3D static was evaluated visually using difference image and quantitatively using voxel intensity correlation and Dice index (phantom only). Multi-breathing-cycle waveforms were extracted and compared in both phantom and volunteer images using the 3D cine as the references. Results: Mild imaging artifacts were found in the 3D cine and TR-4DMRI of the mobile gel phantom with a Dice index of >0.95. Among 7 volunteers, the super-resolution TR-4DMRI yielded high voxel-intensity correlation (0.92 ± 0.05) and low voxel-intensity difference (<0.05). The detected motion differences between TR-4DMRI and 3D cine were −0.2 ± 0.5 mm (phantom) and −0.2 ± 1.9 mm (diaphragms). Conclusion: Super-resolution TR-4

  16. Test Your Calculator IQ. (United States)

    Williams, David E.


    This short quiz for teachers is intended to help them to brush up on their calculator operating skills and to prepare for the types of questions their students will ask about calculator idiosyncracies. (SJL)

  17. Calculating correct compilers


    Bahr, Patrick; Hutton, Graham


    In this article we present a new approach to the problem of calculating compilers. In particular, we develop a simple but general technique that allows us to derive correct compilers from high- level semantics by systematic calculation, with all details of the implementation of the compilers falling naturally out of the calculation process. Our approach is based upon the use of standard equational reasoning techniques, and has been applied to calculate compilers for a wide range of language f...

  18. Does Motion Assessment With 4-Dimensional Computed Tomographic Imaging for Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer Radiotherapy Improve Target Volume Coverage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseer Ahmed


    Full Text Available Introduction: Modern radiotherapy with 4-dimensional computed tomographic (4D-CT image acquisition for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC captures respiratory-mediated tumor motion to provide more accurate target delineation. This study compares conventional 3-dimensional (3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT plans generated with standard helical free-breathing CT (FBCT with plans generated on 4D-CT contoured volumes to determine whether target volume coverage is affected. Materials and methods: Fifteen patients with stage I to IV NSCLC were enrolled in the study. Free-breathing CT and 4D-CT data sets were acquired at the same simulation session and with the same immobilization. Gross tumor volume (GTV for primary and/or nodal disease was contoured on FBCT (GTV_3D. The 3DCRT plans were obtained, and the patients were treated according to our institution’s standard protocol using FBCT imaging. Gross tumor volume was contoured on 4D-CT for primary and/or nodal disease on all 10 respiratory phases and merged to create internal gross tumor volume (IGTV_4D. Clinical target volume margin was 5 mm in both plans, whereas planning tumor volume (PTV expansion was 1 cm axially and 1.5 cm superior/inferior for FBCT-based plans to incorporate setup errors and an estimate of respiratory-mediated tumor motion vs 8 mm isotropic margin for setup error only in all 4D-CT plans. The 3DCRT plans generated from the FBCT scan were copied on the 4D-CT data set with the same beam parameters. GTV_3D, IGTV_4D, PTV, and dose volume histogram from both data sets were analyzed and compared. Dice coefficient evaluated PTV similarity between FBCT and 4D-CT data sets. Results: In total, 14 of the 15 patients were analyzed. One patient was excluded as there was no measurable GTV. Mean GTV_3D was 115.3 cm 3 and mean IGTV_4D was 152.5 cm 3 ( P = .001. Mean PTV_3D was 530.0 cm 3 and PTV_4D was 499.8 cm 3 ( P = .40. Both gross primary and nodal disease analyzed separately were larger

  19. Autistic Savant Calendar Calculators. (United States)

    Patti, Paul J.

    This study identified 10 savants with developmental disabilities and an exceptional ability to calculate calendar dates. These "calendar calculators" were asked to demonstrate their abilities, and their strategies were analyzed. The study found that the ability to calculate dates into the past or future varied widely among these…

  20. Flexible Mental Calculation. (United States)

    Threlfall, John


    Suggests that strategy choice is a misleading characterization of efficient mental calculation and that teaching mental calculation methods as a whole is not conducive to flexibility. Proposes an alternative in which calculation is thought of as an interaction between noticing and knowledge. Presents an associated teaching approach to promote…

  1. Core calculations of JMTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Yoshiharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment


    In material testing reactors like the JMTR (Japan Material Testing Reactor) of 50 MW in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of irradiated samples show complex distributions. It is necessary to assess the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of an irradiation field by carrying out the nuclear calculation of the core for every operation cycle. In order to advance core calculation, in the JMTR, the application of MCNP to the assessment of core reactivity and neutron flux and spectra has been investigated. In this study, in order to reduce the time for calculation and variance, the comparison of the results of the calculations by the use of K code and fixed source and the use of Weight Window were investigated. As to the calculation method, the modeling of the total JMTR core, the conditions for calculation and the adopted variance reduction technique are explained. The results of calculation are shown. Significant difference was not observed in the results of neutron flux calculations according to the difference of the modeling of fuel region in the calculations by K code and fixed source. The method of assessing the results of neutron flux calculation is described. (K.I.)

  2. Multiphase flow calculation software (United States)

    Fincke, James R.


    Multiphase flow calculation software and computer-readable media carrying computer executable instructions for calculating liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of high void fraction multiphase flows. The multiphase flow calculation software employs various given, or experimentally determined, parameters in conjunction with a plurality of pressure differentials of a multiphase flow, preferably supplied by a differential pressure flowmeter or the like, to determine liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flows. Embodiments of the multiphase flow calculation software are suitable for use in a variety of applications, including real-time management and control of an object system.

  3. Radar Signature Calculation Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The calculation, analysis, and visualization of the spatially extended radar signatures of complex objects such as ships in a sea multipath environment and...

  4. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Marr


    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation.

  5. Electrical installation calculations advanced

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher


    All the essential calculations required for advanced electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practiceA step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3For apprentices and electrical installatio

  6. Evapotranspiration Calculator Desktop Tool (United States)

    The Evapotranspiration Calculator estimates evapotranspiration time series data for hydrological and water quality models for the Hydrologic Simulation Program - Fortran (HSPF) and the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM).

  7. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  8. Electrical installation calculations basic

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher


    All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3Fo

  9. Chemical calculations and chemicals that might calculate (United States)

    Barnett, Michael P.

    I summarize some applications of symbolic calculation to the evaluation of molecular integrals over Slater orbitals, and discuss some spin-offs of this work that have wider potential. These include the exploration of the mechanized use of analogy. I explain the methods that I use to do this, in relation to mathematical proofs and to modeling step by step processes such as organic syntheses and NMR pulse sequences. Another spin-off relates to biological information processing. Some challenges and opportunities in the information infrastructure of interdisciplinary research are discussed.

  10. [Understanding dosage calculations]. (United States)

    Benlahouès, Daniel


    The calculation of dosages in paediatrics is the concern of the whole medical and paramedical team. This activity must generate a minimum of risks in order to prevent care-related adverse events. In this context, the calculation of dosages is a practice which must be understood by everyone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantitative 4-dimensional volumetric analysis of left ventricle in ischemic heart disease by 64-slice computed tomography: a comparative study with invasive left ventriculogram. (United States)

    Nakamura, Koki; Funabashi, Nobusada; Uehara, Masae; Suzuki, Kazushi; Terao, Makoto; Okubo, Kenji; Mita, Yuzuru; Maeda, Fumiaki; Komuro, Issei


    To elucidate the usefulness of CT in evaluating left ventricular (LV) volumes and ejection fraction (EF) in ischemic heart disease (IHD), we compared 64-slice CT with conventional left ventriculography (CLVG). 71 subjects with suspected or confirmed IHD underwent ECG-gated enhanced CT before or after cardiac catheterization. End-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) of LV were selected in 20 phases of R-R interval of ECG, and data sets were reconstructed to determine EDV, ESV, SV, and EF of LV using a multislice area summation method; in CLVG these parameters were calculated from the right anterior oblique 30-degree projection. Correlation coefficients between CT and CLVG for EDV, ESV, SV, and EF were 0.759, 0.895, 0.550, and 0.836, respectively (P<0.01). In 35 subjects without apical asynergy of LV wall motion, correlation coefficients between CT and CLVG were 0.77, 0.91, 0.63, and 0.87 respectively (P<0.01); in 36 subjects, with apical asynergy, the correlation coefficients were 0.751, 0.875, 0.503, and 0.738, respectively (P<0.01). The limits of agreement of all parameters were wider in the subjects with apical asynergy of LV wall motion than the subjects without. There was good correlation between EDV, ESV, SV, and EF estimated by CT and those by CLVG, but CT tended to overestimate EDV and ESV and underestimate EF. In subjects with apical asynergy of LV wall motion, estimates of EF were less correlated between CT and CLVG and the limits of agreement of all parameters were wider than in those without. These discrepancies may come from the capability of CT to estimate LV wall asynergy 3-dimensionally and more accurately.

  12. Calculativeness and trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten


    Williamson’s characterisation of calculativeness as inimical to trust contradicts most sociological trust research. However, a similar argument is found within trust phenomenology. This paper re-investigates Williamson’s argument from the perspective of Løgstrup’s phenomenological theory of trust....... Contrary to Williamson, however, Løgstrup’s contention is that trust, not calculativeness, is the default attitude and only when suspicion is awoken does trust falter. The paper argues that while Williamson’s distinction between calculativeness and trust is supported by phenomenology, the analysis needs...... to take actual subjective experience into consideration. It points out that, first, Løgstrup places trust alongside calculativeness as a different mode of engaging in social interaction, rather conceiving of trust as a state or the outcome of a decision-making process. Secondly, the analysis must take...

  13. Unit Cost Compendium Calculations (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA...

  14. Magnetic Field Grid Calculator (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Properties Calculator will computes the estimated values of Earth's magnetic field(declination, inclination, vertical component, northerly...

  15. National Stormwater Calculator (United States)

    EPA’s National Stormwater Calculator (SWC) is a desktop application that estimates the annual amount of rainwater and frequency of runoff from a specific site anywhere in the United States (including Puerto Rico).

  16. Calculation Tool for Engineering


    Lampinen, Samuli


    The Study was conducted as qualitative research for K-S Konesuunnittelu Oy. The company provides mechanical engineering for technology suppliers in the Finnish export industries. The main objective was to study if the competitiveness of the case company could be improved using a self-made Calculation Tool (Excel Tool). The mission was to clarify processes in the case company to see the possibilities of Excel Tool and to compare it with other potential calculation applications. In addition,...

  17. Current interruption transients calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Peelo, David F


    Provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins, and the circuits involved, and how they can be calculated Current Interruption Transients Calculationis a comprehensive resource for the understanding, calculation and analysis of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) and related re-ignition or re-striking transients associated with fault current interruption and the switching of inductive and capacitive load currents in circuits. This book provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins,

  18. TH-E-17A-08: Estimation of Image Quality of 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography (4DCT) Via Fourier Analysis of Corresponding 1D Breathing Surrogate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caraveo, M; McNamara, J; Rimner, A; Yorke, E; Li, G [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Wei, J [City College of New York, New York, NY (United States)


    Purpose: Motion artifacts are common in patient 4DCT, leading to an illdefined tumor volume with variation up to 110% or setting up a poor foundation with low imaging fidelity for tumor motion study. We developed a method to estimate 4DCT image quality by establishing a correlation between the severity of motion artifacts in 4DCT images and the periodicity of corresponding 1D respiratory wave-function (1DRW) surrogate used for 4DCT reconstruction. Methods: Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) was applied to analyze 1DRW periodicity, defined as the sum of the 5 largest Fourier coefficients, ranging in 0–1. Distortional motion artifacts of cine-scan 4DCT at the junctions of adjacent couchposition scans around the diaphragm were identified in 3 categories: incomplete, overlapping and duplicate. To quantify these artifacts, the discontinuity of the diaphragm at the junctions was measured in distance and averaged along 6 directions in 3 orthogonal views. Mean and sum artifacts per junction (APJ) across the entire diaphragm were calculated in each breathing phase. To make the APJ inter-patient comparable, patientspecific motion was removed from APJ by dividing patient-specific diaphragmatic velocity (displacement divided by the mean period, from FFT analysis of the 1DRW) and the normalized APJ was defined as motion artifact severity (MAS). Twenty-five patients with free-breathing 10-phase 4DCT and corresponding 1DRW surrogate datasets were studied. Results: A mild correlation of 0.56 was found between 1DRW periodicity and 4DCT artifact severity. Higher MAS tends to appear around mid inhalation and mid exhalation and the lowest MAS tends to be around full exhalation. The breathing periodicity of >0.8 possesses minimal motion artifacts. Conclusion: The 1D-4D correlation provides a fast means to estimate 4DCT image quality. Using 1DRW signal, we can retrospectively screen out high-quality 4DCT images for clinical research (periodicity>0.8) and prospectively identify poor

  19. Online plasma calculator (United States)

    Wisniewski, H.; Gourdain, P.-A.


    APOLLO is an online, Linux based plasma calculator. Users can input variables that correspond to their specific plasma, such as ion and electron densities, temperatures, and external magnetic fields. The system is based on a webserver where a FastCGI protocol computes key plasma parameters including frequencies, lengths, velocities, and dimensionless numbers. FastCGI was chosen to overcome security problems caused by JAVA-based plugins. The FastCGI also speeds up calculations over PHP based systems. APOLLO is built upon the WT library, which turns any web browser into a versatile, fast graphic user interface. All values with units are expressed in SI units except temperature, which is in electron-volts. SI units were chosen over cgs units because of the gradual shift to using SI units within the plasma community. APOLLO is intended to be a fast calculator that also provides the user with the proper equations used to calculate the plasma parameters. This system is intended to be used by undergraduates taking plasma courses as well as graduate students and researchers who need a quick reference calculation.

  20. LHC Bellows Impedance Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Dyachkov, M


    To compensate for thermal expansion the LHC ring has to accommodate about 2500 bellows which, together with beam position monitors, are the main contributors to the LHC broad-band impedance budget. In order to reduce this impedance to an acceptable value the bellows have to be shielded. In this paper we compare different designs proposed for the bellows and calculate their transverse and longitudinal wakefields and impedances. Owing to the 3D geometry of the bellows, the code MAFIA was used for the wakefield calculations; when possible the MAFIA results were compared to those obtained with ABCI. The results presented in this paper indicate that the latest bellows design, in which shielding is provided by sprung fingers which can slide along the beam screen, has impedances smaller tha those previously estimated according to a rather conservative scaling of SSC calculations and LEP measurements. Several failure modes, such as missing fingers and imperfect RF contact, have also been studied.

  1. INVAP's Nuclear Calculation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Mochi


    Full Text Available Since its origins in 1976, INVAP has been on continuous development of the calculation system used for design and optimization of nuclear reactors. The calculation codes have been polished and enhanced with new capabilities as they were needed or useful for the new challenges that the market imposed. The actual state of the code packages enables INVAP to design nuclear installations with complex geometries using a set of easy-to-use input files that minimize user errors due to confusion or misinterpretation. A set of intuitive graphic postprocessors have also been developed providing a fast and complete visualization tool for the parameters obtained in the calculations. The capabilities and general characteristics of this deterministic software package are presented throughout the paper including several examples of its recent application.

  2. Calculating Quenching Weights

    CERN Document Server

    Salgado, C A; Salgado, Carlos A.; Wiedemann, Urs Achim


    We calculate the probability (``quenching weight'') that a hard parton radiates an additional energy fraction due to scattering in spatially extended QCD matter. This study is based on an exact treatment of finite in-medium path length, it includes the case of a dynamically expanding medium, and it extends to the angular dependence of the medium-induced gluon radiation pattern. All calculations are done in the multiple soft scattering approximation (Baier-Dokshitzer-Mueller-Peign\\'e-Schiff--Zakharov ``BDMPS-Z''-formalism) and in the single hard scattering approximation (N=1 opacity approximation). By comparison, we establish a simple relation between transport coefficient, Debye screening mass and opacity, for which both approximations lead to comparable results. Together with this paper, a CPU-inexpensive numerical subroutine for calculating quenching weights is provided electronically. To illustrate its applications, we discuss the suppression of hadronic transverse momentum spectra in nucleus-nucleus colli...

  3. Graphing Calculator Mini Course (United States)

    Karnawat, Sunil R.


    The "Graphing Calculator Mini Course" project provided a mathematically-intensive technologically-based summer enrichment workshop for teachers of American Indian students on the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation. Eleven such teachers participated in the six-day workshop in summer of 1996 and three Sunday workshops in the academic year. The project aimed to improve science and mathematics education on the reservation by showing teachers effective ways to use high-end graphing calculators as teaching and learning tools in science and mathematics courses at all levels. In particular, the workshop concentrated on applying TI-82's user-friendly features to understand the various mathematical and scientific concepts.

  4. Gravitational constant calculation methodologies


    Shakhparonov, V. M.; Karagioz, O. V.; Izmailov, V. P.


    We consider the gravitational constant calculation methodologies for a rectangular block of the torsion balance body presented in the papers Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 240801 (2009) and Phys.Rev. D. 82, 022001 (2010). We have established the influence of non-equilibrium gas flows on the obtained values of G.

  5. Calculation of collisional mixing (United States)

    Koponen, I.; Hautala, M.


    Collisional mixing of markers is calculated by splitting the calculation into two parts. Relocation cross sections have been calculated using a realistic potential in a Monte Carlo simulation. The cross sections are used in the computation of marker relocation. The cumulative effect of successive relocations is assumed to be an uncorrelated transport process and it is treated as a weighted random walk. Matrix relocation was not included in the calculations. The results from this two-step simulation model are compared with analytical models. A fit to the simulated differential relocation cross sections has been found which makes the numerical integration of the Bothe formula feasible. The influence of primaries has been treated in this way. When all the recoils are included the relocation profiles are nearly Gaussian and the Pearson IV distributions yield acceptable profiles in the studied cases. The approximations and cut-off procedures which cause the major uncertainties in calculations are pointed out. The choice of the cut-off energy is shown to be the source of the largest uncertainty whereas the mathematical approximations can be used with good accuracy. The methods are used to study the broadening of a Pt marker in Si mixed by 300 keV Xe ions, broadening of a Ti marker in Al mixed by 300 keV Xe ions and broadening of a Ti marker in Hf mixed by 750 keV Kr ions. The fluence in each case is 2 × 10 16{ions}/{cm 2}. The calculated averages of half widths at half maximum vary between 11-18, 9-12 and 10-15 nm, respectively, depending on the cut-off energy and the mixing efficiencies vary between 11-29, 6-11 and 6-14 {Å5}/{eV}, respectively. The broadenings of Pt in Si and Ti in Al are about two times smaller than the measured values and the broadening of Ti in Hf is in agreement with the measured values.

  6. Microcomputer calculations in physics (United States)

    Killingbeck, J. P.


    The use of microcomputers to carry out computations in an interactive manner allows the judgement of the operator to be allied with the calculating power of the machine in a synthesis which speeds up the creation and testing of mathematical techniques for physical problems. This advantage is accompanied by a disadvantage, in that microcomputers are limited in capacity and power, and special analysis is needed to compensate for this. These two features together mean that there is a fairly recognisable body of methods which are particularly appropriate for interactive microcomputing. This article surveys a wide range of mathematical methods used in physics, indicating how they can be applied using microcomputers and giving several original calculations which illustrate the value of the microcomputer in stimulating the exploration of new methods. Particular emphasis is given to methods which use iteration, recurrence relation or extrapolation procedures which are well adapted to the capabilities of modern microcomputers.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Romanos


    The purpose of these calculations is to design foundations for all conveyor supports for the surface conveyors that transport the muck resulting from the TBM operation, from the belt storage to the muck stockpile. These conveyors consist of: (1) Conveyor W-TO3, from the belt storage, at the starter tunnel, to the transfer tower. (2) Conveyor W-SO1, from the transfer tower to the material stacker, at the muck stockpile.

  8. Calculations in furnace technology

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Clive; Hopkins, DW; Owen, WS


    Calculations in Furnace Technology presents the theoretical and practical aspects of furnace technology. This book provides information pertinent to the development, application, and efficiency of furnace technology. Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the exothermic reactions that occur when carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur are burned to release the energy available in the fuel. This text then evaluates the efficiencies to measure the quantity of fuel used, of flue gases leaving the plant, of air entering, and the heat lost to the surroundings. Other chapters consi

  9. Calculating Speed of Sound (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Shalabh


    Sound is an emerging source of renewable energy but it has some limitations. The main limitation is, the amount of energy that can be extracted from sound is very less and that is because of the velocity of the sound. The velocity of sound changes as per medium. If we could increase the velocity of the sound in a medium we would be probably able to extract more amount of energy from sound and will be able to transfer it at a higher rate. To increase the velocity of sound we should know the speed of sound. If we go by the theory of classic mechanics speed is the distance travelled by a particle divided by time whereas velocity is the displacement of particle divided by time. The speed of sound in dry air at 20 °C (68 °F) is considered to be 343.2 meters per second and it won't be wrong in saying that 342.2 meters is the velocity of sound not the speed as it's the displacement of the sound not the total distance sound wave covered. Sound travels in the form of mechanical wave, so while calculating the speed of sound the whole path of wave should be considered not just the distance traveled by sound. In this paper I would like to focus on calculating the actual speed of sound wave which can help us to extract more energy and make sound travel with faster velocity.

  10. Multilayer optical calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Byrnes, Steven J


    When light hits a multilayer planar stack, it is reflected, refracted, and absorbed in a way that can be derived from the Fresnel equations. The analysis is treated in many textbooks, and implemented in many software programs, but certain aspects of it are difficult to find explicitly and consistently worked out in the literature. Here, we derive the formulas underlying the transfer-matrix method of calculating the optical properties of these stacks, including oblique-angle incidence, absorption-vs-position profiles, and ellipsometry parameters. We discuss and explain some strange consequences of the formulas in the situation where the incident and/or final (semi-infinite) medium are absorptive, such as calculating $T>1$ in the absence of gain. We also discuss some implementation details like complex-plane branch cuts. Finally, we derive modified formulas for including one or more "incoherent" layers, i.e. very thick layers in which interference can be neglected. This document was written in conjunction with ...

  11. IPC - Isoelectric Point Calculator. (United States)

    Kozlowski, Lukasz P


    Accurate estimation of the isoelectric point (pI) based on the amino acid sequence is useful for many analytical biochemistry and proteomics techniques such as 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, or capillary isoelectric focusing used in combination with high-throughput mass spectrometry. Additionally, pI estimation can be helpful during protein crystallization trials. Here, I present the Isoelectric Point Calculator (IPC), a web service and a standalone program for the accurate estimation of protein and peptide pI using different sets of dissociation constant (pKa) values, including two new computationally optimized pKa sets. According to the presented benchmarks, the newly developed IPC pKa sets outperform previous algorithms by at least 14.9 % for proteins and 0.9 % for peptides (on average, 22.1 % and 59.6 %, respectively), which corresponds to an average error of the pI estimation equal to 0.87 and 0.25 pH units for proteins and peptides, respectively. Moreover, the prediction of pI using the IPC pKa's leads to fewer outliers, i.e., predictions affected by errors greater than a given threshold. The IPC service is freely available at Peptide and protein datasets used in the study and the precalculated pI for the PDB and some of the most frequently used proteomes are available for large-scale analysis and future development. This article was reviewed by Frank Eisenhaber and Zoltán Gáspári.

  12. The rating reliability calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon David J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program.

  13. Point Defect Calculations in Tungsten

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Danilowicz, Ronald


    .... The vacancy migration energy for tungsten was calculated. The calculated value of 1.73 electron volts, together with experimental data, suggests that vacancies migrate in stage III recovery in tungsten...

  14. Nonlocal Means Denoising of Self-Gated and k-Space Sorted 4-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Block-Matching and 3-Dimensional Filtering: Implications for Pancreatic Tumor Registration and Segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Jun [Department of Computer Science, Xidian University, Xi' An (China); McKenzie, Elizabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Fan, Zhaoyang [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Tuli, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Deng, Zixin; Pang, Jianing [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Fraass, Benedick [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Li, Debiao [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Sandler, Howard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Yang, Guang [Department of Computer Science, Xidian University, Xi' An (China); Sheng, Ke [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Gou, Shuiping [Department of Computer Science, Xidian University, Xi' An (China); Yang, Wensha, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States)


    Purpose: To denoise self-gated k-space sorted 4-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (SG-KS-4D-MRI) by applying a nonlocal means denoising filter, block-matching and 3-dimensional filtering (BM3D), to test its impact on the accuracy of 4D image deformable registration and automated tumor segmentation for pancreatic cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Nine patients with pancreatic cancer and abdominal SG-KS-4D-MRI were included in the study. Block-matching and 3D filtering was adapted to search in the axial slices/frames adjacent to the reference image patch in the spatial and temporal domains. The patches with high similarity to the reference patch were used to collectively denoise the 4D-MRI image. The pancreas tumor was manually contoured on the first end-of-exhalation phase for both the raw and the denoised 4D-MRI. B-spline deformable registration was applied to the subsequent phases for contour propagation. The consistency of tumor volume defined by the standard deviation of gross tumor volumes from 10 breathing phases (σ-GTV), tumor motion trajectories in 3 cardinal motion planes, 4D-MRI imaging noise, and image contrast-to-noise ratio were compared between the raw and denoised groups. Results: Block-matching and 3D filtering visually and quantitatively reduced image noise by 52% and improved image contrast-to-noise ratio by 56%, without compromising soft tissue edge definitions. Automatic tumor segmentation is statistically more consistent on the denoised 4D-MRI (σ-GTV = 0.6 cm{sup 3}) than on the raw 4D-MRI (σ-GTV = 0.8 cm{sup 3}). Tumor end-of-exhalation location is also more reproducible on the denoised 4D-MRI than on the raw 4D-MRI in all 3 cardinal motion planes. Conclusions: Block-matching and 3D filtering can significantly reduce random image noise while maintaining structural features in the SG-KS-4D-MRI datasets. In this study of pancreatic tumor segmentation, automatic segmentation of GTV in the registered image sets is shown to be

  15. relline: Relativistic line profiles calculation (United States)

    Dauser, Thomas


    relline calculates relativistic line profiles; it is compatible with the common X-ray data analysis software XSPEC (ascl:9910.005) and ISIS (ascl:1302.002). The two basic forms are an additive line model (RELLINE) and a convolution model to calculate relativistic smearing (RELCONV).

  16. Calculated neutron intensities for SINQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atchison, F


    A fully detailed calculation of the performance of the SINQ neutron source, using the PSI version of the HETC code package, was made in 1996 to provide information useful for source commissioning. Relevant information about the formulation of the problem, cascade analysis and some of the results are presented. Aspects of the techniques used to verify the results are described and discussed together with a limited comparison with earlier results obtained from neutron source design calculations. A favourable comparison between the measured and calculated differential neutron flux in one of the guides gives further indirect evidence that such calculations can give answers close to reality in absolute terms. Due to the complex interaction between the many nuclear (and other) models involved, no quantitative evaluation of the accuracy of the calculational method in general terms can be given. (author) refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.


    As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

  18. Practical astronomy with your calculator

    CERN Document Server

    Duffett-Smith, Peter


    Practical Astronomy with your Calculator, first published in 1979, has enjoyed immense success. The author's clear and easy to follow routines enable you to solve a variety of practical and recreational problems in astronomy using a scientific calculator. Mathematical complexity is kept firmly in the background, leaving just the elements necessary for swiftly making calculations. The major topics are: time, coordinate systems, the Sun, the planetary system, binary stars, the Moon, and eclipses. In the third edition there are entirely new sections on generalised coordinate transformations, nutr

  19. Calculate Your Body Mass Index (United States)

    ... Institutes of Health Contact Us Get Email Alerts Font Size Accessible Search Form Search the NHLBI, use ... Be Physically Active Healthy Weight Tools BMI Calculator Menu Plans Portion Distortion Key Recommendations Healthy Weight Resources ...

  20. Computer Calculation of Fire Danger (United States)

    William A. Main


    This paper describes a computer program that calculates National Fire Danger Rating Indexes. fuel moisture, buildup index, and drying factor are also available. The program is written in FORTRAN and is usable on even the smallest compiler.

  1. Landfill Gas Energy Benefits Calculator (United States)

    This page contains the LFG Energy Benefits Calculator to estimate direct, avoided, and total greenhouse gas reductions, as well as environmental and energy benefits, for a landfill gas energy project.

  2. Nursing students' mathematic calculation skills. (United States)

    Rainboth, Lynde; DeMasi, Chris


    This mixed method study used a pre-test/post-test design to evaluate the efficacy of a teaching strategy in improving beginning nursing student learning outcomes. During a 4-week student teaching period, a convenience sample of 54 sophomore level nursing students were required to complete calculation assignments, taught one calculation method, and mandated to attend medication calculation classes. These students completed pre- and post-math tests and a major medication mathematic exam. Scores from the intervention student group were compared to those achieved by the previous sophomore class. Results demonstrated a statistically significant improvement from pre- to post-test and the students who received the intervention had statistically significantly higher scores on the major medication calculation exam than did the students in the control group. The evaluation completed by the intervention group showed that the students were satisfied with the method and outcome.

  3. Transfer Area Mechanical Handling Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Dianda


    This calculation is intended to support the License Application (LA) submittal of December 2004, in accordance with the directive given by DOE correspondence received on the 27th of January 2004 entitled: ''Authorization for Bechtel SAX Company L.L. C. to Include a Bare Fuel Handling Facility and Increased Aging Capacity in the License Application, Contract Number DE-AC28-01R W12101'' (Arthur, W.J., I11 2004). This correspondence was appended by further Correspondence received on the 19th of February 2004 entitled: ''Technical Direction to Bechtel SAIC Company L.L. C. for Surface Facility Improvements, Contract Number DE-AC28-OIRW12101; TDL No. 04-024'' (BSC 2004a). These documents give the authorization for a Fuel Handling Facility to be included in the baseline. The purpose of this calculation is to establish preliminary bounding equipment envelopes and weights for the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) transfer areas equipment. This calculation provides preliminary information only to support development of facility layouts and preliminary load calculations. The limitations of this preliminary calculation lie within the assumptions of section 5 , as this calculation is part of an evolutionary design process. It is intended that this calculation is superseded as the design advances to reflect information necessary to support License Application. The design choices outlined within this calculation represent a demonstration of feasibility and may or may not be included in the completed design. This calculation provides preliminary weight, dimensional envelope, and equipment position in building for the purposes of defining interface variables. This calculation identifies and sizes major equipment and assemblies that dictate overall equipment dimensions and facility interfaces. Sizing of components is based on the selection of commercially available products, where applicable. This is not a specific recommendation for the future use

  4. Calculation of Rydberg interaction potentials (United States)

    Weber, Sebastian; Tresp, Christoph; Menke, Henri; Urvoy, Alban; Firstenberg, Ofer; Büchler, Hans Peter; Hofferberth, Sebastian


    The strong interaction between individual Rydberg atoms provides a powerful tool exploited in an ever-growing range of applications in quantum information science, quantum simulation and ultracold chemistry. One hallmark of the Rydberg interaction is that both its strength and angular dependence can be fine-tuned with great flexibility by choosing appropriate Rydberg states and applying external electric and magnetic fields. More and more experiments are probing this interaction at short atomic distances or with such high precision that perturbative calculations as well as restrictions to the leading dipole-dipole interaction term are no longer sufficient. In this tutorial, we review all relevant aspects of the full calculation of Rydberg interaction potentials. We discuss the derivation of the interaction Hamiltonian from the electrostatic multipole expansion, numerical and analytical methods for calculating the required electric multipole moments and the inclusion of electromagnetic fields with arbitrary direction. We focus specifically on symmetry arguments and selection rules, which greatly reduce the size of the Hamiltonian matrix, enabling the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian up to higher multipole orders on a desktop computer. Finally, we present example calculations showing the relevance of the full interaction calculation to current experiments. Our software for calculating Rydberg potentials including all features discussed in this tutorial is available as open source.

  5. A Romberg Integral Spreadsheet Calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Gaik Tay


    Full Text Available Motivated by the work of Richardson’s extrapolation spreadsheet calculator up to level 4 to approximate definite differentiation, we have developed a Romberg integral spreadsheet calculator to approximate definite integral. The main feature of this version of spreadsheet calculator is a friendly graphical user interface developed to capture the needed information to solve the integral by Romberg method. Users simply need to enter the variable in the integral, function to be integrated, lower and upper limits of the integral, select the desired accuracy of computation, select the exact function if it exists and lastly click the Compute button which is associated with VBA programming written to compute Romberg integral table. The full solution of the Romberg integral table up to any level can be obtained quickly and easily using this method. The attached spreadsheet calculator together with this paper helps educators to prepare their marking scheme easily and assist students in checking their answers instead of reconstructing the answers from scratch. A summative evaluation of this Romberg Spreadsheet Calculator has been conducted by involving 36 students as sample. The data was collected using questionnaire. The findings showed that the majority of the students agreed that the Romberg Spreadsheet Calculator provides a structured learning environment that allows learners to be guided through a step-by-step solution.

  6. Recursive calculation of Hansen coefficients (United States)

    Branham, Richard L., Jr.


    Hansen coefficients are used in expansions of the elliptic motion. Three methods for calculating the coefficients are studied: Tisserand's method, the Von Zeipel-Andoyer (VZA) method with explicit representation of the polynomials required to compute the Hansen coefficients, and the VZA method with the values of the polynomials calculated recursively. The VZA method with explicit polynomials is by far the most rapid, but the tabulation of the polynomials only extends to 12th order in powers of the eccentricity, and unless one has access to the polynomials in machine-readable form their entry is laborious and error-prone. The recursive calculation of the VZA polynomials, needed to compute the Hansen coefficients, while slower, is faster than the calculation of the Hansen coefficients by Tisserand's method, up to 10th order in the eccentricity and is still relatively efficient for higher orders. The main advantages of the recursive calculation are the simplicity of the program and one's being able to extend the expansions to any order of eccentricity with ease. Because FORTRAN does not implement recursive procedures, this paper used C for all of the calculations. The most important conclusion is recursion's genuine usefulness in scientific computing.

  7. Mordred: a molecular descriptor calculator. (United States)

    Moriwaki, Hirotomo; Tian, Yu-Shi; Kawashita, Norihito; Takagi, Tatsuya


    Molecular descriptors are widely employed to present molecular characteristics in cheminformatics. Various molecular-descriptor-calculation software programs have been developed. However, users of those programs must contend with several issues, including software bugs, insufficient update frequencies, and software licensing constraints. To address these issues, we propose Mordred, a developed descriptor-calculation software application that can calculate more than 1800 two- and three-dimensional descriptors. It is freely available via GitHub. Mordred can be easily installed and used in the command line interface, as a web application, or as a high-flexibility Python package on all major platforms (Windows, Linux, and macOS). Performance benchmark results show that Mordred is at least twice as fast as the well-known PaDEL-Descriptor and it can calculate descriptors for large molecules, which cannot be accomplished by other software. Owing to its good performance, convenience, number of descriptors, and a lax licensing constraint, Mordred is a promising choice of molecular descriptor calculation software that can be utilized for cheminformatics studies, such as those on quantitative structure-property relationships.

  8. Precision Calculations in Supersymmetric Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mihaila


    Full Text Available In this paper we report on the newest developments in precision calculations in supersymmetric theories. An important issue related to this topic is the construction of a regularization scheme preserving simultaneously gauge invariance and supersymmetry. In this context, we discuss in detail dimensional reduction in component field formalism as it is currently the preferred framework employed in the literature. Furthermore, we set special emphasis on the application of multi-loop calculations to the analysis of gauge coupling unification, the prediction of the lightest Higgs boson mass, and the computation of the hadronic Higgs production and decay rates in supersymmetric models. Such precise theoretical calculations up to the fourth order in perturbation theory are required in order to cope with the expected experimental accuracy on the one hand and to enable us to distinguish between the predictions of the Standard Model and those of supersymmetric theories on the other hand.

  9. Monte Carlo calculations for HTRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogenbirk, A. [ECN Nuclear Research, Petten (Netherlands)


    From a neutronics point of view pebble-bed HTRs are completely different from standard LWRs. The most important differences are to be found in the reactor geometry, the properties of the moderator (graphite instead of water) and the self-shielding of the fuel regions. Therefore, computer packages normally used for core analyses should be validated with experimental data before they can be used for HTR analyses. This especially holds for deterministic computer codes, in which approximations are made which may not be valid in pebble-bed HTRs. Monte Carlo codes more based on first principles suffer much less from this problem. In order to study small- and medium-sized LEU-HTR systems in the late 1980s an IAEA Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) was started. This CRP was mainly directed to the effects of water ingress and neutron streaming. The PROTEUS facility at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Villigen, Switzerland, played a central role in this CRP. Benchmark quality measurements were provided in clean, easy-to-interpret critical configurations, using pebble-type fuel. ECN in Petten, Netherlands, contributed to the CRP by performing reactor calculations using the WIMS code system with deterministic calculations. However, a need was felt for reference calculations, in which as few approximations as possible were made. These analyses were performed with the Monte Carlo code MCNP-4A. In this contribution the results are given of the main MCNP-calculations. In these analyses a detailed model of the PROTEUS experimental set-up was used, whereas in the calculations use was made of high-quality continuous-energy cross-section data. The attention was focused on the calculation of the value of k{sub eff} and of streaming effects in the pebble-bed core. 15 refs.

  10. Friction and wear calculation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Kragelsky, I V; Kombalov, V S


    Friction and Wear: Calculation Methods provides an introduction to the main theories of a new branch of mechanics known as """"contact interaction of solids in relative motion."""" This branch is closely bound up with other sciences, especially physics and chemistry. The book analyzes the nature of friction and wear, and some theoretical relationships that link the characteristics of the processes and the properties of the contacting bodies essential for practical application of the theories in calculating friction forces and wear values. The effect of the environment on friction and wear is a

  11. Algorithmes Efficaces en Calcul Formel


    Bostan, Alin; Chyzak, Frédéric; Giusti, Marc; Lebreton, Romain; Lecerf, Grégoire; Salvy, Bruno; Schost, Eric


    Voir la page du livre à l’adresse \\url{}; International audience; Le calcul formel traite des objets mathématiques exacts d’un point de vue informatique. Cet ouvrage « Algorithmes efficaces en calcul formel » explore deux directions : la calculabilité et la complexité. La calculabilité étudie les classes d’objets mathématiques sur lesquelles des réponses peuvent être obtenues algorithmiquement. La complexité donne ensuite des outils pour comparer des algo...

  12. Methods for Melting Temperature Calculation (United States)

    Hong, Qi-Jun

    Melting temperature calculation has important applications in the theoretical study of phase diagrams and computational materials screenings. In this thesis, we present two new methods, i.e., the improved Widom's particle insertion method and the small-cell coexistence method, which we developed in order to capture melting temperatures both accurately and quickly. We propose a scheme that drastically improves the efficiency of Widom's particle insertion method by efficiently sampling cavities while calculating the integrals providing the chemical potentials of a physical system. This idea enables us to calculate chemical potentials of liquids directly from first-principles without the help of any reference system, which is necessary in the commonly used thermodynamic integration method. As an example, we apply our scheme, combined with the density functional formalism, to the calculation of the chemical potential of liquid copper. The calculated chemical potential is further used to locate the melting temperature. The calculated results closely agree with experiments. We propose the small-cell coexistence method based on the statistical analysis of small-size coexistence MD simulations. It eliminates the risk of a metastable superheated solid in the fast-heating method, while also significantly reducing the computer cost relative to the traditional large-scale coexistence method. Using empirical potentials, we validate the method and systematically study the finite-size effect on the calculated melting points. The method converges to the exact result in the limit of a large system size. An accuracy within 100 K in melting temperature is usually achieved when the simulation contains more than 100 atoms. DFT examples of Tantalum, high-pressure Sodium, and ionic material NaCl are shown to demonstrate the accuracy and flexibility of the method in its practical applications. The method serves as a promising approach for large-scale automated material screening in which

  13. Ab initio calculations of biomolecules (United States)

    Leś, Andrzej; Adamowicz, Ludwik


    Ab initio quantum mechanical calculations are valuable tools for interpretation and elucidation of elemental processes in biochemical systems. With the ab initio approach one can calculate data that sometimes are difficult to obtain by experimental techniques. The most popular computational theoretical methods include the Hartree-Fock method as well as some lower-level variational and perturbational post-Hartree Fock approaches which allow to predict molecular structures and to calculate spectral properties. We have been involved in a number of joined theoretical and experimental studies in the past and some examples of these studies are given in this presentation. The systems chosen cover a wide variety of simple biomolecules, such as precursors of nucleic acids, double-proton transferring molecules, and simple systems involved in processes related to first stages of substrate-enzyme interactions. In particular, examples of some ab initio calculations used in the assignment of IR spectra of matrix isolated pyrimidine nucleic bases are shown. Some radiation-induced transformations in model chromophores are also presented. Lastly, we demonstrate how the ab-initio approach can be used to determine the initial several steps of the molecular mechanism of thymidylate synthase inhibition by dUMP analogues.

  14. Dead reckoning calculating without instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Doerfler, Ronald W


    No author has gone as far as Doerfler in covering methods of mental calculation beyond simple arithmetic. Even if you have no interest in competing with computers you'll learn a great deal about number theory and the art of efficient computer programming. -Martin Gardner


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    o-Fe:Os (I) SURFACE USING A CRYSTAL FIELD CLUSTER MODEL. A. Uzairu' ... is of considerable interest in industry and theoretial calculations of ... This choice of cluster naturally assumes an oxygen vacancy at the physisorption site and the adoption of at least three top Llli planes of atomic layers as the surface region.

  16. QCD calculations for jet substructure

    CERN Document Server

    Dasgupta, Mrinal; Salam, Gavin P.


    We present results on novel analytic calculations to describe invariant mass distributions of QCD jets with three substructure algorithms: trimming, pruning and the mass-drop taggers. These results not only lead to considerable insight into the behaviour of these tools, but also show how they can be improved. As an example, we discuss the remarkable properties of the modified mass-drop tagger.

  17. Affect and Graphing Calculator Use (United States)

    McCulloch, Allison W.


    This article reports on a qualitative study of six high school calculus students designed to build an understanding about the affect associated with graphing calculator use in independent situations. DeBellis and Goldin's (2006) framework for affect as a representational system was used as a lens through which to understand the ways in which…

  18. Algorithm Calculates Cumulative Poisson Distribution (United States)

    Bowerman, Paul N.; Nolty, Robert C.; Scheuer, Ernest M.


    Algorithm calculates accurate values of cumulative Poisson distribution under conditions where other algorithms fail because numbers are so small (underflow) or so large (overflow) that computer cannot process them. Factors inserted temporarily to prevent underflow and overflow. Implemented in CUMPOIS computer program described in "Cumulative Poisson Distribution Program" (NPO-17714).

  19. Heat transfer, insulation calculations simplified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V.


    Determination of heat transfer coefficients for air, water, and steam flowing in tubes and calculation of heat loss through multilayered insulated surfaces have been simplified by two computer programs. The programs, written in BASIC, have been developed for the IBM and equivalent personal computers.

  20. Calculating the Number of Tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Fajie; Klette, Reinhard; RuizShulcloper, J; Kropatsch, WG


    This paper considers 2-regions of grid cubes and proposes an algorithm for calculating the number of tunnels of such a. region. The graph-theoretical algorithm proceeds layer by layer; a proof of its correctness is provided, and its time complexity is also given.

  1. Monte Carlo calculations of nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieper, S.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Physics Div.


    Nuclear many-body calculations have the complication of strong spin- and isospin-dependent potentials. In these lectures the author discusses the variational and Green`s function Monte Carlo techniques that have been developed to address this complication, and presents a few results.

  2. The "Intelligence" of Calendrical Calculators. (United States)

    Young, R. L.; Nettelbeck, T.


    The strategies of four men with mild mental retardation when performing calendar calculations were investigated. Results suggested that subjects were aware of calendar rules and regularities, including knowledge of the 14 different calendar templates. Their strategies were rigidly applied and relied heavily on memory, with little manipulation of…

  3. Ab Initio Calculations of Oxosulfatovanadates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøberg, Torben; Johansen, Helge


    Restricted Hartree-Fock and multi-configurational self-consistent-field calculations together with secondorder perturbation theory have been used to study the geometry, the electron density, and the electronicspectrum of (VO2SO4)-. A bidentate sulphate attachment to vanadium was found to be stabl...

  4. Distorted Wave Calculations and Applications (United States)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)


    Physical properties such as temperature and electron density of solar plasma and other astrophysical objects can be inferred from EUV and X-ray emission lines observed from space. These lines are emitted when the higher states of an ion are excited by electron impact and then decay by photon emission. Excitation cross sections are required for the spectroscopic analyses of the observations and various approximations have been used to calculate the scattering functions. One of them which has been widely used is a distorted wave approximation. This approximation, along with its applications to solar observations, is discussed. The Bowen fluorescence mechanism and optical depth effects are also discussed. It is concluded that such calculations are reliable for highly charged ions and for high electron temperatures.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franica Trojanović


    Full Text Available Humid air is an unavoidable feature of mining atmosphere, which plays a significant role in defining the climate conditions as well as permitted circumstances for normal mining work. Saturated humid air prevents heat conduction from the human body by means of evaporation. Consequently, it is of primary interest in the mining practice to establish the relative air humidity either by means of direct or indirect methods. Percentage of water in the surrounding air may be determined in various procedures including tables, diagrams or particular calculations, where each technique has its specific advantages and disadvantages. Classical calculation is done according to Sprung's formula, in which case partial steam pressure should also be taken from the steam table. The new method without the use of diagram or tables, established on the functional relation of pressure and temperature on saturated line, is presented here for the first time (the paper is published in Croatian.

  6. Algorithm project weight calculation aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г. В. Абрамова


    Full Text Available The paper describes the process of a complex technical object design on the example of the aircraft, using information technology such as CAD/CAM/CAE-systems, presents the basic models of aircraft which are developed in the process of designing and reflect the different aspects of its structure and function. The idea of control parametric model at complex technical object design is entered, which is a set of initial data for the development of design stations and enables the optimal complex technical object control at all stages of design using modern computer technology. The paper discloses a process of weight design, which is associated with all stages of development aircraft and its production. Usage of a scheduling algorithm that allows to organize weight calculations are carried out at various stages of planning and weighing options to optimize the use of available database of formulas and methods of calculation



    DECEWICZ, Anna


    The  paper  presents  a  me hod  of  calculating  customer  lifetime  value and  finding optimal remarketing  strategy  basing on Markov model  with  short-term memory of  client's activity. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis of optimal strategy is conducted for two ty pes of retention rate functional form defining transitin probabilities

  8. Parallel plasma fluid turbulence calculations (United States)

    Leboeuf, J. N.; Carreras, B. A.; Charlton, L. A.; Drake, J. B.; Lynch, V. E.; Newman, D. E.; Sidikman, K. L.; Spong, D. A.

    The study of plasma turbulence and transport is a complex problem of critical importance for fusion-relevant plasmas. To this day, the fluid treatment of plasma dynamics is the best approach to realistic physics at the high resolution required for certain experimentally relevant calculations. Core and edge turbulence in a magnetic fusion device have been modeled using state-of-the-art, nonlinear, three-dimensional, initial-value fluid and gyrofluid codes. Parallel implementation of these models on diverse platforms--vector parallel (National Energy Research Supercomputer Center's CRAY Y-MP C90), massively parallel (Intel Paragon XP/S 35), and serial parallel (clusters of high-performance workstations using the Parallel Virtual Machine protocol)--offers a variety of paths to high resolution and significant improvements in real-time efficiency, each with its own advantages. The largest and most efficient calculations have been performed at the 200 Mword memory limit on the C90 in dedicated mode, where an overlap of 12 to 13 out of a maximum of 16 processors has been achieved with a gyrofluid model of core fluctuations. The richness of the physics captured by these calculations is commensurate with the increased resolution and efficiency and is limited only by the ingenuity brought to the analysis of the massive amounts of data generated.

  9. Calculation of minimum miscibility pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Orr, F.M. [Department of Petroleum Engineering, Stanford University, Mitchell Bldg., Room 360, 94305-2220 Stanford, CA (United States)


    A method is described and tested for calculation of minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) that makes use of an analytical theory for one-dimensional, dispersion-free flow of multicomponent mixtures. The theory shows that in a displacement of an oil by a gas with n{sub c} components, the behavior of the displacement is controlled by a sequence of n{sub c}-1 key tie lines. Besides, the tie lines that extend through the initial oil and injection gas compositions, there are n{sub c}-3 tie lines, known as crossover tie lines, that can be found from a set of conditions that require the extensions of the appropriate tie lines to intersect each other. The MMP is calculated as the pressure at which one of the key tie lines becomes a tie line of zero length that is tangent to the critical locus. The numerical approach for solving the tie line intersection equations is described; slim tube test and compositional simulation data reported in the literature are used to show that the proposed approach can be used to calculate MMP accurately for displacements with an arbitrary number of components present.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.E. Sanders


    The purpose of this design calculation is to revise and update the previous criticality calculation for the Aging Facility (documented in BSC 2004a). This design calculation will also demonstrate and ensure that the storage and aging operations to be performed in the Aging Facility meet the criticality safety design criteria in the ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (Doraswamy 2004, Section, and the functional nuclear criticality safety requirement described in the ''SNF Aging System Description Document'' (BSC [Bechtel SAIC Company] 2004f, p. 3-12). The scope of this design calculation covers the systems and processes for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and staging Department of Energy (DOE) SNF/High-Level Waste (HLW) prior to its placement in the final waste package (WP) (BSC 2004f, p. 1-1). Aging commercial SNF is a thermal management strategy, while staging DOE SNF/HLW will make loading of WPs more efficient (note that aging DOE SNF/HLW is not needed since these wastes are not expected to exceed the thermal limits form emplacement) (BSC 2004f, p. 1-2). The description of the changes in this revised document is as follows: (1) Include DOE SNF/HLW in addition to commercial SNF per the current ''SNF Aging System Description Document'' (BSC 2004f). (2) Update the evaluation of Category 1 and 2 event sequences for the Aging Facility as identified in the ''Categorization of Event Sequences for License Application'' (BSC 2004c, Section 7). (3) Further evaluate the design and criticality controls required for a storage/aging cask, referred to as MGR Site-specific Cask (MSC), to accommodate commercial fuel outside the content specification in the Certificate of Compliance for the existing NRC-certified storage casks. In addition, evaluate the design required for the MSC that will accommodate DOE SNF/HLW. This design calculation will achieve the objective of providing the

  11. Band calculation of lonsdaleite Ge (United States)

    Chen, Pin-Shiang; Fan, Sheng-Ting; Lan, Huang-Siang; Liu, Chee Wee


    The band structure of Ge in the lonsdaleite phase is calculated using first principles. Lonsdaleite Ge has a direct band gap at the Γ point. For the conduction band, the Γ valley is anisotropic with the low transverse effective mass on the hexagonal plane and the large longitudinal effective mass along the c axis. For the valence band, both heavy-hole and light-hole effective masses are anisotropic at the Γ point. The in-plane electron effective mass also becomes anisotropic under uniaxial tensile strain. The strain response of the heavy-hole mass is opposite to the light hole.

  12. Yet another partial wave calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwald, Daniel; Rauch, Johannes [TUM, Munich (Germany)


    We will present a new C++ library for partial wave analysis: YAP - yet another partial wave calculator. YAP is intended for amplitude analyses of the decays of spin-0 heavy mesons (principally B and D) to multiple (3, 4, etc.) pseudoscalar mesons but is not hard coded for such situations and is flexible enough to handle other decay scenarios. The library allows for both model dependent and model independent analysis methods. We introduce the software, and demonstrate examples for generating Monte Carlo data efficiently, and for analyzing data (both with the aid of the Bayesian Analysis Toolkit).

  13. Entanglement entropy: a perturbative calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenhaus, Vladimir; Smolkin, Michael [Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics,University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)


    We provide a framework for a perturbative evaluation of the reduced density matrix. The method is based on a path integral in the analytically continued spacetime. It suggests an alternative to the holographic and ‘standard’ replica trick calculations of entanglement entropy. We implement this method within solvable field theory examples to evaluate leading order corrections induced by small perturbations in the geometry of the background and entangling surface. Our findings are in accord with Solodukhin’s formula for the universal term of entanglement entropy for four dimensional CFTs.

  14. The Dental Trauma Internet Calculator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Lauridsen, Eva Fejerskov; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg


    Background/Aim Prediction tools are increasingly used to inform patients about the future dental health outcome. Advanced statistical methods are required to arrive at unbiased predictions based on follow-up studies. Material and Methods The Internet risk calculator at the Dental Trauma Guide...... provides prognoses for teeth with traumatic injuries based on the Copenhagen trauma database: The database includes 2191 traumatized permanent teeth from 1282 patients that were treated at the dental trauma unit at the University Hospital in Copenhagen (Denmark...

  15. Calculation of confined swirling jets (United States)

    Chen, C. P.


    Computations of a confined coaxial swirling jet are carried out using a standard two-equation (k-epsilon) model and two modifications of this model based on Richardson-number corrections of the length-scale (epsilon) governing equation. To avoid any uncertainty involved in the setting up of inlet boundary conditions, actual measurements are used at the inlet plane of this calculation domain. The results of the numerical investigation indicate that the k-epsilon model is inadequate for the predictions of confined swirling flows. Although marginal improvement of the flow predictions can be achieved by these two corrections, neither can be judged satisfactory.

  16. Calculation of Rydberg interaction potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Sebastian; Tresp, Christoph; Menke, Henri


    The strong interaction between individual Rydberg atoms provides a powerful tool exploited in an ever-growing range of applications in quantum information science, quantum simulation and ultracold chemistry. One hallmark of the Rydberg interaction is that both its strength and angular dependence...... for calculating the required electric multipole moments and the inclusion of electromagnetic fields with arbitrary direction. We focus specifically on symmetry arguments and selection rules, which greatly reduce the size of the Hamiltonian matrix, enabling the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian up...

  17. Electronics reliability calculation and design

    CERN Document Server

    Dummer, Geoffrey W A; Hiller, N


    Electronics Reliability-Calculation and Design provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts of reliability. The increasing complexity of electronic equipment has made problems in designing and manufacturing a reliable product more and more difficult. Specific techniques have been developed that enable designers to integrate reliability into their products, and reliability has become a science in its own right. The book begins with a discussion of basic mathematical and statistical concepts, including arithmetic mean, frequency distribution, median and mode, scatter or dispersion of mea

  18. Digital calculations of engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Starkman, E S; Taylor, C Fayette


    Digital Calculations of Engine Cycles is a collection of seven papers which were presented before technical meetings of the Society of Automotive Engineers during 1962 and 1963. The papers cover the spectrum of the subject of engine cycle events, ranging from an examination of composition and properties of the working fluid to simulation of the pressure-time events in the combustion chamber. The volume has been organized to present the material in a logical sequence. The first two chapters are concerned with the equilibrium states of the working fluid. These include the concentrations of var

  19. Calculational Tool for Skin Contamination Dose Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, R L


    Spreadsheet calculational tool was developed to automate the calculations preformed for dose assessment of skin contamination. This document reports on the design and testing of the spreadsheet calculational tool.

  20. Dissecting Reactor Antineutrino Flux Calculations (United States)

    Sonzogni, A. A.; McCutchan, E. A.; Hayes, A. C.


    Current predictions for the antineutrino yield and spectra from a nuclear reactor rely on the experimental electron spectra from 235U, 239Pu, 241Pu and a numerical method to convert these aggregate electron spectra into their corresponding antineutrino ones. In the present work we investigate quantitatively some of the basic assumptions and approximations used in the conversion method, studying first the compatibility between two recent approaches for calculating electron and antineutrino spectra. We then explore different possibilities for the disagreement between the measured Daya Bay and the Huber-Mueller antineutrino spectra, including the 238U contribution as well as the effective charge and the allowed shape assumption used in the conversion method. We observe that including a shape correction of about +6 % MeV-1 in conversion calculations can better describe the Daya Bay spectrum. Because of a lack of experimental data, this correction cannot be ruled out, concluding that in order to confirm the existence of the reactor neutrino anomaly, or even quantify it, precisely measured electron spectra for about 50 relevant fission products are needed. With the advent of new rare ion facilities, the measurement of shape factors for these nuclides, for many of which precise beta intensity data from TAGS experiments already exist, would be highly desirable.

  1. Calculation of sound propagation in fibrous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Viggo


    Calculations of attenuation and velocity of audible sound waves in glass wools are presented. The calculations use only the diameters of fibres and the mass density of glass wools as parameters. The calculations are compared with measurements.......Calculations of attenuation and velocity of audible sound waves in glass wools are presented. The calculations use only the diameters of fibres and the mass density of glass wools as parameters. The calculations are compared with measurements....

  2. FLAG-SGH Sedov calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, Jimmy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schofield, Sam [LLNL; Shashkov, Mikhail J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    We did not run with a 'cylindrically painted region'. However, we did compute two general variants of the original problem. Refinement studies where a single zone at each level of refinement contains the entire internal energy at t=0 or A 'finite' energy source which has the same physical dimensions as that for the 91 x 46 mesh, but consisting of increasing numbers of zones with refinement. Nominal mesh resolution: 91 x 46. Other mesh resolutions: 181 x 92 and 361 x 184. Note, not identical to the original specification. To maintain symmetry for the 'fixed' energy source, the mesh resolution was adjusted slightly. FLAG Lagrange or full (Eulerian) ALE was used with various options for each simulation. Observation - for either Lagrange or ALE, point or 'fixed' source, calculations converge on density and pressure with mesh resolution, but not energy, (not vorticity either).

  3. Dyscalculia and the Calculating Brain. (United States)

    Rapin, Isabelle


    Dyscalculia, like dyslexia, affects some 5% of school-age children but has received much less investigative attention. In two thirds of affected children, dyscalculia is associated with another developmental disorder like dyslexia, attention-deficit disorder, anxiety disorder, visual and spatial disorder, or cultural deprivation. Infants, primates, some birds, and other animals are born with the innate ability, called subitizing, to tell at a glance whether small sets of scattered dots or other items differ by one or more item. This nonverbal approximate number system extends mostly to single digit sets as visual discrimination drops logarithmically to "many" with increasing numerosity (size effect) and crowding (distance effect). Preschoolers need several years and specific teaching to learn verbal names and visual symbols for numbers and school agers to understand their cardinality and ordinality and the invariance of their sequence (arithmetic number line) that enables calculation. This arithmetic linear line differs drastically from the nonlinear approximate number system mental number line that parallels the individual number-tuned neurons in the intraparietal sulcus in monkeys and overlying scalp distribution of discrete functional magnetic resonance imaging activations by number tasks in man. Calculation is a complex skill that activates both visual and spatial and visual and verbal networks. It is less strongly left lateralized than language, with approximate number system activation somewhat more right sided and exact number and arithmetic activation more left sided. Maturation and increasing number skill decrease associated widespread non-numerical brain activations that persist in some individuals with dyscalculia, which has no single, universal neurological cause or underlying mechanism in all affected individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. RTU Comparison Calculator Enhancement Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James D.; Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas


    Over the past two years, Department of Energy’s Building Technologies Office (BTO) has been investigating ways to increase the operating efficiency of the packaged rooftop units (RTUs) in the field. First, by issuing a challenge to the RTU manufactures to increase the integrated energy efficiency ratio (IEER) by 60% over the existing ASHRAE 90.1-2010 standard. Second, by evaluating the performance of an advanced RTU controller that reduces the energy consumption by over 40%. BTO has previously also funded development of a RTU comparison calculator (RTUCC). RTUCC is a web-based tool that provides the user a way to compare energy and cost savings for two units with different efficiencies. However, the RTUCC currently cannot compare savings associated with either the RTU Challenge unit or the advanced RTU controls retrofit. Therefore, BTO has asked PNNL to enhance the tool so building owners can compare energy and savings associated with this new class of products. This document provides the details of the enhancements that are required to support estimating energy savings from use of RTU challenge units or advanced controls on existing RTUs.

  5. RTU Comparison Calculator Enhancement Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Over the past two years, Department of Energy’s Building Technologies Office (BTO) has been investigating ways to increase the operating efficiency of the packaged rooftop units (RTUs) in the field. First, by issuing a challenge to the RTU manufactures to increase the integrated energy efficiency ratio (IEER) by 60% over the existing ASHRAE 90.1-2010 standard. Second, by evaluating the performance of an advanced RTU controller that reduces the energy consumption by over 40%. BTO has previously also funded development of a RTU comparison calculator (RTUCC). RTUCC is a web-based tool that provides the user a way to compare energy and cost savings for two units with different efficiencies. However, the RTUCC currently cannot compare savings associated with either the RTU Challenge unit or the advanced RTU controls retrofit. Therefore, BTO has asked PNNL to enhance the tool so building owners can compare energy and savings associated with this new class of products. This document provides the details of the enhancements that are required to support estimating energy savings from use of RTU challenge units or advanced controls on existing RTUs.

  6. Selfconsistent calculations for hyperdeformed nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molique, H.; Dobaczewski, J.; Dudek, J.; Luo, W.D. [Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France)


    Properties of the hyperdeformed nuclei in the A {approximately} 170 mass range are re-examined using the self-consistent Hartree-Fock method with the SOP parametrization. A comparison with the previous predictions that were based on a non-selfconsistent approach is made. The existence of the {open_quotes}hyper-deformed shell closures{close_quotes} at the proton and neutron numbers Z=70 and N=100 and their very weak dependence on the rotational frequency is suggested; the corresponding single-particle energy gaps are predicted to play a role similar to that of the Z=66 and N=86 gaps in the super-deformed nuclei of the A {approximately} 150 mass range. Selfconsistent calculations suggest also that the A {approximately} 170 hyperdeformed structures have neglegible mass asymmetry in their shapes. Very importantly for the experimental studies, both the fission barriers and the {open_quotes}inner{close_quotes} barriers (that separate the hyperdeformed structures from those with smaller deformations) are predicted to be relatively high, up to the factor of {approximately}2 higher than the corresponding ones in the {sup 152}Dy superdeformed nucleus used as a reference.

  7. McEliece PKC Calculator (United States)

    Marek, Repka


    The original McEliece PKC proposal is interesting thanks to its resistance against all known attacks, even using quantum cryptanalysis, in an IND-CCA2 secure conversion. Here we present a generic implementation of the original McEliece PKC proposal, which provides test vectors (for all important intermediate results), and also in which a measurement tool for side-channel analysis is employed. To our best knowledge, this is the first such an implementation. This Calculator is valuable in implementation optimization, in further McEliece/Niederreiter like PKCs properties investigations, and also in teaching. Thanks to that, one can, for example, examine side-channel vulnerability of a certain implementation, or one can find out and test particular parameters of the cryptosystem in order to make them appropriate for an efficient hardware implementation. This implementation is available [1] in executable binary format, and as a static C++ library, as well as in form of source codes, for Linux and Windows operating systems.

  8. 76 FR 71431 - Civil Penalty Calculation Methodology (United States)


    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Civil Penalty Calculation Methodology AGENCY: Federal... its civil penalty methodology. Part of this evaluation includes a forthcoming explanation of the... methodology for calculation of certain civil penalties. To induce compliance with federal regulations, FMCSA...

  9. Dissociated brain potentials for two calculation strategies. (United States)

    Luo, Wenbo; Liu, Dianzhi; He, Weiqi; Tao, Weidong; Luo, Yuejia


    Event-related brain potentials were used to investigate the shortcut calculation strategy and nonshortcut calculation strategy in performing addition using mental arithmetic. Results showed that the shortcut calculation strategy elicited a larger P220 than the nonshortcut calculation strategy in the 180-280 ms. Dipole source analysis of the difference wave (shortcut calculation minus nonshortcut calculation) indicated that a generator was localized in the posterior cingulate cortex, which reflected the evaluation effect of number in the use of the shortcut strategy. In the 320-500 ms time window, a greater N400 was found in the nonshortcut calculation as compared with the shortcut calculation. Dipole source analysis of the difference wave indicated that a generator was localized in the anterior cingulate cortex. The N400 might reflect the greater working memory load.

  10. Pressure Vessel Calculations for VVER-440 Reactors (United States)

    Hordósy, G.; Hegyi, Gy.; Keresztúri, A.; Maráczy, Cs.; Temesvári, E.; Vértes, P.; Zsolnay, É.


    Monte Carlo calculations were performed for a selected cycle of the Paks NPP Unit II to test a computational model. In the model the source term was calculated by the core design code KARATE and the neutron transport calculations were performed by the MCNP. Different forms of the source specification were examined. The calculated results were compared with measurements and in most cases fairly good agreement was found.

  11. 46 CFR 154.429 - Calculations. (United States)


    ... § 154.429 Calculations. The tank design load calculations for a membrane tank must include the following... submitted to meet this paragraph. (c) The combined strains from static, dynamic, and thermal loads. ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculations. 154.429 Section 154.429 Shipping COAST...

  12. 47 CFR 1.1623 - Probability calculation. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Probability calculation. 1.1623 Section 1.1623... Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1623 Probability calculation. (a) All calculations shall be computed to no less than three significant digits. Probabilities will be truncated to the number of...

  13. Mathematical Creative Activity and the Graphic Calculator (United States)

    Duda, Janina


    Teaching mathematics using graphic calculators has been an issue of didactic discussions for years. Finding ways in which graphic calculators can enrich the development process of creative activity in mathematically gifted students between the ages of 16-17 is the focus of this article. Research was conducted using graphic calculators with…

  14. Recursive Delay Calculation Unit for Parametric Beamformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev


    This paper presents a recursive approach for parametric delay calculations for a beamformer. The suggested calculation procedure is capable of calculating the delays for any image line defined by an origin and arbitrary direction. It involves only add and shift operations making it suitable...

  15. How to calculate sample size and why. (United States)

    Kim, Jeehyoung; Seo, Bong Soo


    Calculating the sample size is essential to reduce the cost of a study and to prove the hypothesis effectively. Referring to pilot studies and previous research studies, we can choose a proper hypothesis and simplify the studies by using a website or Microsoft Excel sheet that contains formulas for calculating sample size in the beginning stage of the study. There are numerous formulas for calculating the sample size for complicated statistics and studies, but most studies can use basic calculating methods for sample size calculation.

  16. Dirac quasinormal modes for a 4-dimensional Lifshitz black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalan, Marcela; Cisternas, Eduardo [Universidad de La Frontera, Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias, Temuco (Chile); Gonzalez, P.A. [Universidad Diego Portales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Santiago (Chile); Vasquez, Yerko [Universidad de La Serena, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, La Serena (Chile)


    We study the quasinormal modes of fermionic perturbations for an asymptotically Lifshitz black hole in four dimensions with dynamical exponent z and plane topology for the transverse section, and we find analytically and numerically the quasinormal modes for massless fermionic fields by using the improved asymptotic iteration method and the Horowitz-Hubeny method. The quasinormal frequencies are purely imaginary and negative, which guarantees the stability of these black holes under massless fermionic field perturbations. Remarkably, both numerical methods yield consistent results; i.e., both methods converge to the exact quasinormal frequencies; however, the improved asymptotic iteration method converges in a less number of iterations. Also, we find analytically the quasinormal modes for massive fermionic fields for the mode with lowest angular momentum. In this case, the quasinormal frequencies are purely imaginary and negative, which guarantees the stability of these black holes under fermionic field perturbations. Moreover, we show that the lowest quasinormal frequencies have real and imaginary parts for the mode with higher angular momentum by using the improved asymptotic iteration method. (orig.)

  17. The Band Structure of Polymers: Its Calculation and Interpretation. Part 2. Calculation. (United States)

    Duke, B. J.; O'Leary, Brian


    Details ab initio crystal orbital calculations using all-trans-polyethylene as a model. Describes calculations based on various forms of translational symmetry. Compares these calculations with ab initio molecular orbital calculations discussed in a preceding article. Discusses three major approximations made in the crystal case. (CW)

  18. MATNORM: Calculating NORM using composition matrices (United States)

    Pruseth, Kamal L.


    This paper discusses the implementation of an entirely new set of formulas to calculate the CIPW norm. MATNORM does not involve any sophisticated programming skill and has been developed using Microsoft Excel spreadsheet formulas. These formulas are easy to understand and a mere knowledge of the if-then-else construct in MS-Excel is sufficient to implement the whole calculation scheme outlined below. The sequence of calculation used here differs from that of the standard CIPW norm calculation, but the results are very similar. The use of MS-Excel macro programming and other high-level programming languages has been deliberately avoided for simplicity.

  19. The conundrum of calculating carbon footprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strobel, Bjarne W.; Erichsen, Anders Christian; Gausset, Quentin


    A pre-condition for reducing global warming is to minimise the emission of greenhouse gasses (GHGs). A common approach to informing people about the link between behaviour and climate change rests on developing GHG calculators that quantify the ‘carbon footprint’ of a product, a sector or an actor....... There is, however, an abundance of GHG calculators that rely on very different premises and give very different estimates of carbon footprints. In this chapter, we compare and analyse the main principles of calculating carbon footprints, and discuss how calculators can inform (or misinform) people who wish...

  20. Methodology for embedded transport core calculation (United States)

    Ivanov, Boyan D.

    The progress in the Nuclear Engineering field leads to developing new generations of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) with complex rector core designs, such as cores loaded partially with mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, high burn-up loadings, and cores with advanced designs of fuel assemblies and control rods. Such heterogeneous cores introduce challenges for the diffusion theory that has been used for several decades for calculations of the current Pressurized Water Rector (PWR) cores. To address the difficulties the diffusion approximation encounters new core calculation methodologies need to be developed by improving accuracy, while preserving efficiency of the current reactor core calculations. In this thesis, an advanced core calculation methodology is introduced, based on embedded transport calculations. Two different approaches are investigated. The first approach is based on embedded finite element (FEM), simplified P3 approximation (SP3), fuel assembly (FA) homogenization calculation within the framework of the diffusion core calculation with NEM code (Nodal Expansion Method). The second approach involves embedded FA lattice physics eigenvalue calculation based on collision probability method (CPM) again within the framework of the NEM diffusion core calculation. The second approach is superior to the first because most of the uncertainties introduced by the off-line cross-section generation are eliminated.

  1. Pile Load Capacity – Calculation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrana Bogumił


    Full Text Available The article is a review of the current problems of the foundation pile capacity calculations. The article considers the main principles of pile capacity calculations presented in Eurocode 7 and other methods with adequate explanations. Two main methods are presented: α – method used to calculate the short-term load capacity of piles in cohesive soils and β – method used to calculate the long-term load capacity of piles in both cohesive and cohesionless soils. Moreover, methods based on cone CPTu result are presented as well as the pile capacity problem based on static tests.

  2. Calculation reliability in vehicle accident reconstruction. (United States)

    Wach, Wojciech


    The reconstruction of vehicle accidents is subject to assessment in terms of the reliability of a specific system of engineering and technical operations. In the article [26] a formalized concept of the reliability of vehicle accident reconstruction, defined using Bayesian networks, was proposed. The current article is focused on the calculation reliability since that is the most objective section of this model. It is shown that calculation reliability in accident reconstruction is not another form of calculation uncertainty. The calculation reliability is made dependent on modeling reliability, adequacy of the model and relative uncertainty of calculation. All the terms are defined. An example is presented concerning the analytical determination of the collision location of two vehicles on the road in the absence of evidential traces. It has been proved that the reliability of this kind of calculations generally does not exceed 0.65, despite the fact that the calculation uncertainty itself can reach only 0.05. In this example special attention is paid to the analysis of modeling reliability and calculation uncertainty using sensitivity coefficients and weighted relative uncertainty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Calculated optical absorption of different perovskite phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel


    We present calculations of the optical properties of a set of around 80 oxides, oxynitrides, and organometal halide cubic and layered perovskites (Ruddlesden-Popper and Dion-Jacobson phases) with a bandgap in the visible part of the solar spectrum. The calculations show that for different classes...

  4. Impedance Calculations of Induction Machine Rotor Conductors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The exact calculation of the impedance of induction machine rotor conductors at several operating frequencies are necessary if the dynamic behaviour of the machine is to give a good correlation between the simulated starting torque and current and the experimental results. This paper describes a method of' calculating ...

  5. 46 CFR 154.520 - Piping calculations. (United States)


    ...: (a) Pipe weight loads; (b) Acceleration loads; (c) Internal pressure loads; (d) Thermal loads; and (e... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping calculations. 154.520 Section 154.520 Shipping... Process Piping Systems § 154.520 Piping calculations. A piping system must be designed to meet the...

  6. Calculated Atomic Volumes of the Actinide Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, H.; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.


    The equilibrium atomic volume is calculated for the actinide metals. It is possible to account for the localization of the 5f electrons taking place in americium.......The equilibrium atomic volume is calculated for the actinide metals. It is possible to account for the localization of the 5f electrons taking place in americium....

  7. Numerical calculations of turbulent swirling flow (United States)

    Kubo, I.; Gouldin, F. C.


    Description of a numerical technique for solving axisymmetric, incompressible, turbulent swirling flow problems. Isothermal flow calculations are presented for a coaxial flow configuration of special interest. The calculation results are discussed in regard to their implications for the design of gas turbine combustors.

  8. 47 CFR 54.609 - Calculating support. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculating support. 54.609 Section 54.609... SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers § 54.609 Calculating support. (a) Except with... amount of universal service support for an eligible service provided to a public or non-profit rural...

  9. Calculation of the Poisson cumulative distribution function (United States)

    Bowerman, Paul N.; Nolty, Robert G.; Scheuer, Ernest M.


    A method for calculating the Poisson cdf (cumulative distribution function) is presented. The method avoids computer underflow and overflow during the process. The computer program uses this technique to calculate the Poisson cdf for arbitrary inputs. An algorithm that determines the Poisson parameter required to yield a specified value of the cdf is presented.

  10. Data base to compare calculations and observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tichler, J.L.


    Meteorological and climatological data bases were compared with known tritium release points and diffusion calculations to determine if calculated concentrations could replace measure concentrations at the monitoring stations. Daily tritium concentrations were monitored at 8 stations and 16 possible receptors. Automated data retrieval strategies are listed. (PSB)

  11. Lewis Carroll's Formula for Calendar Calculating. (United States)

    Spitz, Herman H.


    This paper presents Lewis Carroll's formula for mentally calculating the day of the week of a given date. The paper concludes that such formulas are too complex for individuals of low intelligence to learn by themselves, and thus "idiots savants" who perform such calendar calculations must be using other systems. (JDD)


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    individual's relatives and the society can channel such resources and energy to other uses that would ..... European countries. Useful Steps in BoD Calculation and CoI Analysis. The first useful step in the calculation is the outcome tree. Others are perspective of evaluation ... illustrating their conditional dependency. The first ...

  13. 10 CFR 766.102 - Calculation methodology. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calculation methodology. 766.102 Section 766.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY URANIUM ENRICHMENT DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING FUND; PROCEDURES FOR SPECIAL ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES Procedures for Special Assessment § 766.102 Calculation methodology. (a...

  14. Calculation of LDL apoB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sniderman, A.D.; Tremblay, A.J.; Graaf, J. de; Couture, P.


    OBJECTIVES: This study tests the validity of the Hattori formula to calculate LDL apoB based on plasma lipids and total apoB. METHODS: In 2178 patients in a tertiary care lipid clinic, LDL apoB calculated as suggested by Hattori et al. was compared to directly measured LDL apoB isolated by

  15. 5 CFR 1653.4 - Calculating entitlements. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calculating entitlements. 1653.4 Section 1653.4 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD COURT ORDERS AND LEGAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Retirement Benefits Court Orders § 1653.4 Calculating...

  16. Calculation of Temperature Rise in Calorimetry. (United States)

    Canagaratna, Sebastian G.; Witt, Jerry


    Gives a simple but fuller account of the basis for accurately calculating temperature rise in calorimetry. Points out some misconceptions regarding these calculations. Describes two basic methods, the extrapolation to zero time and the equal area method. Discusses the theoretical basis of each and their underlying assumptions. (CW)

  17. Direct calculation of wind turbine tip loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, D.H.; Okulov, Valery; Bhattacharjee, D.


    The usual method to account for a finite number of blades in blade element calculations of wind turbine performance is through a tip loss factor. Most analyses use the tip loss approximation due to Prandtl which is easily and cheaply calculated but is known to be inaccurate at low tip speed ratio...

  18. HP-67 calculator programs for thermodynamic data and phase diagram calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, L.


    This report is a supplement to a tabulation of the thermodynamic and phase data for the 100 binary systems of Mo with the elements from H to Lr. The calculations of thermodynamic data and phase equilibria were carried out from 5000/sup 0/K to low temperatures. This report presents the methods of calculation used. The thermodynamics involved is rather straightforward and the reader is referred to any advanced thermodynamic text. The calculations were largely carried out using an HP-65 programmable calculator. In this report, those programs are reformulated for use with the HP-67 calculator; great reduction in the number of programs required to carry out the calculation results.

  19. Normal mode calculations of trigonal selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; McMurry, H. L.


    . With such coordinates a potential energy, calculated with only a diagonal force matrix, is equivalent to one calculated with both off diagonal and diagonal elements when conventional coordinates are used. Another advantage is that often some force constants may be determined directly from frequencies at points of high....... In this way we have eliminated the ambiguity in the choice of valence coordinates, which has been a problem in previous models which used valence type interactions. Calculated sound velocities and elastic moduli are also given. The Journal of Chemical Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute...

  20. Spreadsheet Based Scaling Calculations and Membrane Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, T D; Bourcier, W L; Speth, T F


    Many membrane element manufacturers provide a computer program to aid buyers in the use of their elements. However, to date there are few examples of fully integrated public domain software available for calculating reverse osmosis and nanofiltration system performance. The Total Flux and Scaling Program (TFSP), written for Excel 97 and above, provides designers and operators new tools to predict membrane system performance, including scaling and fouling parameters, for a wide variety of membrane system configurations and feedwaters. The TFSP development was funded under EPA contract 9C-R193-NTSX. It is freely downloadable at TFSP includes detailed calculations of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration system performance. Of special significance, the program provides scaling calculations for mineral species not normally addressed in commercial programs, including aluminum, iron, and phosphate species. In addition, ASTM calculations for common species such as calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}{times}2H{sub 2}O), BaSO{sub 4}, SrSO{sub 4}, SiO{sub 2}, and LSI are also provided. Scaling calculations in commercial membrane design programs are normally limited to the common minerals and typically follow basic ASTM methods, which are for the most part graphical approaches adapted to curves. In TFSP, the scaling calculations for the less common minerals use subsets of the USGS PHREEQE and WATEQ4F databases and use the same general calculational approach as PHREEQE and WATEQ4F. The activities of ion complexes are calculated iteratively. Complexes that are unlikely to form in significant concentration were eliminated to simplify the calculations. The calculation provides the distribution of ions and ion complexes that is used to calculate an effective ion product ''Q.'' The effective ion product is then compared to temperature adjusted solubility products (Ksp's) of solids in order to calculate a Saturation Index (SI

  1. Ti-84 Plus graphing calculator for dummies

    CERN Document Server



    Get up-to-speed on the functionality of your TI-84 Plus calculator Completely revised to cover the latest updates to the TI-84 Plus calculators, this bestselling guide will help you become the most savvy TI-84 Plus user in the classroom! Exploring the standard device, the updated device with USB plug and upgraded memory (the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition), and the upcoming color screen device, this book provides you with clear, understandable coverage of the TI-84's updated operating system. Details the new apps that are available for download to the calculator via the USB cabl

  2. Hamming generalized corrector for reactivity calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suescun-Diaz, Daniel; Ibarguen-Gonzalez, Maria C.; Figueroa-Jimenez, Jorge H. [Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali, Cali (Colombia). Dept. de Ciencias Naturales y Matematicas


    This work presents the Hamming method generalized corrector for numerically resolving the differential equation of delayed neutron precursor concentration from the point kinetics equations for reactivity calculation, without using the nuclear power history or the Laplace transform. A study was carried out of several correctors with their respective modifiers with different time step calculations, to offer stability and greater precision. Better results are obtained for some correctors than with other existing methods. Reactivity can be calculated with precision of the order h{sup 5}, where h is the time step. (orig.)

  3. NASCAP/LEO calculations of current collection (United States)

    Mandell, Myron J.; Katz, Ira; Davis, Victoria A.; Kuharski, Robert A.


    NASCAP/LEO is a 3-dimensional computer code for calculating the interaction of a high-voltage spacecraft with the cold dense plasma found in Low Earth Orbit. Although based on a cubic grid structure, NASCAP/LEO accepts object definition input from standard computer aided design (CAD) programs so that a model may be correctly proportioned and important features resolved. The potential around the model is calculated by solving the finite element formulation of Poisson's equation with an analytic space charge function. Five previously published NASCAP/LEO calculations for three ground test experiments and two space flight experiments are presented. The three ground test experiments are a large simulated panel, a simulated pinhole, and a 2-slit experiment with overlapping sheaths. The two space flight experiments are a solar panel biased up to 1000 volts, and a rocket-mounted sphere biased up to 46 kilovolts. In all cases, the authors find good agreement between calculation and measurement.

  4. Carbon Footprint Calculator | Climate Change | US EPA (United States)


    An interactive calculator to estimate your household's carbon footprint. This tool will estimate carbon pollution emissions from your daily activities and show how to reduce your emissions and save money through simple steps.

  5. Calculated Leaf Carbon and Nitrogen, 1992 (ACCP) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Study plot canopy chemistry values were calculated from leaf chemistry and litterfall weight values. Average leaf concentrations of nitrogen and carbon were used to...

  6. Calculating Employee Compensation Using An Economic Principle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Puneet Jaiprakash


    .... This paper develops an intuitive method for calculating the minimum amount by which an employee's compensation must be adjusted taking into account changes in economic conditions since the start of employment...

  7. Teaching Graphing Concepts with Graphing Calculators. (United States)

    Mercer, Joseph


    Presents five lessons to demonstrate how graphing calculators can be used to teach the slope-intercept concept of linear equations and to establish more general principles about two-dimensional graphs. Contains a reproducible student quiz. (MKR)

  8. Numerical calculations in quantum field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebbi, C.


    Four lecture notes are included: (1) motivation for numerical calculations in Quantum Field Theory; (2) numerical simulation methods; (3) Monte Carlo studies of Quantum Chromo Dynamics; and (4) systems with fermions. 23 references. (WHK)


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Correspondence Author ... of Moving Bodies”, the following postulates were introduced:- .... 110. Table1: calculated values of the ratio of coordinate time to proper time for both general relativity and dynamical theory of gravitation. Body. Mass (M) Kg.

  10. Fair and Reasonable Rate Calculation Data - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This dataset provides guidelines for calculating the fair and reasonable rates for U.S. flag vessels carrying preference cargoes subject to regulations contained at...

  11. Temperature calculation in fire safety engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Wickström, Ulf


    This book provides a consistent scientific background to engineering calculation methods applicable to analyses of materials reaction-to-fire, as well as fire resistance of structures. Several new and unique formulas and diagrams which facilitate calculations are presented. It focuses on problems involving high temperature conditions and, in particular, defines boundary conditions in a suitable way for calculations. A large portion of the book is devoted to boundary conditions and measurements of thermal exposure by radiation and convection. The concepts and theories of adiabatic surface temperature and measurements of temperature with plate thermometers are thoroughly explained. Also presented is a renewed method for modeling compartment fires, with the resulting simple and accurate prediction tools for both pre- and post-flashover fires. The final chapters deal with temperature calculations in steel, concrete and timber structures exposed to standard time-temperature fire curves. Useful temperature calculat...

  12. IOL Power Calculation after Corneal Refractive Surgery


    Maddalena De Bernardo; Luigi Capasso; Luisa Caliendo; Francesco Paolercio; Nicola Rosa


    Purpose. To describe the different formulas that try to overcome the problem of calculating the intraocular lens (IOL) power in patients that underwent corneal refractive surgery (CRS). Methods. A Pubmed literature search review of all published articles, on keyword associated with IOL power calculation and corneal refractive surgery, as well as the reference lists of retrieved articles, was performed. Results. A total of 33 peer reviewed articles dealing with methods that try to overcome the...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian ŢAICU


    Full Text Available Progress in improving production technology requires appropriate measures to achieve an efficient management of costs. This raises the need for continuous improvement of management accounting and cost calculation. Accounting information in general, and management accounting information in particular, have gained importance in the current economic conditions, which are characterized by risk and uncertainty. The future development of management accounting and cost calculation is essential to meet the information needs of management.

  14. Flow calculation of a bulb turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goede, E.; Pestalozzi, J.


    In recent years remarkable progress has been made in the field of theoretical flow calculation. Studying the relevant literature one might receive the impression that most problems have been solved. But probing more deeply into details one becomes aware that by no means all questions are answered. The report tries to point out what may be expected of the quasi-three-dimensional flow calculation method employed and - much more important - what it must not be expected to accomplish. (orig.)

  15. Providing driving rain data for hygrothermal calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Mikkel Kristian


    Due to a wish for driving rain data as input for hygrothermal calculations, this report deals with utilizing commonly applied empirical relations and standard meteorological data, in an attempt to provide realistic estimates rather than exact correlations.......Due to a wish for driving rain data as input for hygrothermal calculations, this report deals with utilizing commonly applied empirical relations and standard meteorological data, in an attempt to provide realistic estimates rather than exact correlations....



    Zelený, Zbynĕk; Hrdlička, Jan


    Commonly used thermal calculation methods are intended primarily for large scale boilers. Hot water small scale boilers, which are commonly used for home heating have many specifics, that distinguish them from large scale boilers especially steam boilers. This paper is focused on application of thermal calculation procedure that is designed for large scale boilers, on a small scale boiler for biomass combustion of load capacity 25 kW. Special issue solved here is influence of formation of dep...

  17. A revised calculational model for fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atchison, F.


    A semi-empirical parametrization has been developed to calculate the fission contribution to evaporative de-excitation of nuclei with a very wide range of charge, mass and excitation-energy and also the nuclear states of the scission products. The calculational model reproduces measured values (cross-sections, mass distributions, etc.) for a wide range of fissioning systems: Nuclei from Ta to Cf, interactions involving nucleons up to medium energy and light ions. (author)

  18. Efficient Finite Element Calculation of Nγ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars; Krabbenhøft, K.


    This paper deals with the computational aspects of the Mohr-Coulomb material model, in particular the calculation of the bearing capacity factor Nγfor a strip and a circular footing.......This paper deals with the computational aspects of the Mohr-Coulomb material model, in particular the calculation of the bearing capacity factor Nγfor a strip and a circular footing....

  19. Internal Mechanism of a Schoonschip Calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Strubbe, H


    Schoonschip is a general purpose "Algebraic Manipulation" program. It is designed to do long - but in principle straightforward - analytic calculations. It can be used interactively. It is very fast in execution and very economical in storage (25K). This is achieved by writing the program almost entirely in (CDC 6000) machine code. Therefore, the representation of the algebraic formulae (list structure) and the calculation mechanism can be set up very efficiently. Input, Output and a few numerical tasks are done in Fortran.

  20. Environmental flow allocation and statistics calculator (United States)

    Konrad, Christopher P.


    The Environmental Flow Allocation and Statistics Calculator (EFASC) is a computer program that calculates hydrologic statistics based on a time series of daily streamflow values. EFASC will calculate statistics for daily streamflow in an input file or will generate synthetic daily flow series from an input file based on rules for allocating and protecting streamflow and then calculate statistics for the synthetic time series. The program reads dates and daily streamflow values from input files. The program writes statistics out to a series of worksheets and text files. Multiple sites can be processed in series as one run. EFASC is written in MicrosoftRegistered Visual BasicCopyright for Applications and implemented as a macro in MicrosoftOffice Excel 2007Registered. EFASC is intended as a research tool for users familiar with computer programming. The code for EFASC is provided so that it can be modified for specific applications. All users should review how output statistics are calculated and recognize that the algorithms may not comply with conventions used to calculate streamflow statistics published by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  1. Biases for current FFTF calculational methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ombrellaro, P.A.; Bennett, R.A.; Daughtry, J.W.; Dobbin, K.D.; Harris, R.A.; Nelson, J.V.; Peterson, R.E.; Rothrock, R.B.


    Uncertainties in nuclear data and approximate calculational methods used in safety design, and operational support of a reactor yield biased as well as uncertain results. Experimentally based biases for use in Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) core calculations have been evaluated and are presented together with a description of calculational methods. Experimental data for these evaluations were obtained from an Engineering Mockup Critical (EMC) of the FFTF core built at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The experiments were conceived and planned by the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in cooperation with the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division (WARD) and ANL personnel, and carried out by the ANL staff. All experiments were designed specifically to provide data for evaluation of current FFTF core calculational methods. These comprehensive experiments were designed to allow simultaneous evaluations of biases and uncertainties in calculated reactivities, fuel sub-assembly and material reactivity worths, small sample worths, absorber rod worths, spatial fission rate distributions, power tilting effects and spatial neutron spectra. Modified source multiplication and reactivity anomaly methods have also been evaluated. Uncertainties in the biases have been established and are sufficiently small to attain a high degree of confidence in the design, safety and operational aspects of the FFTF core.

  2. Good Practices in Free-energy Calculations (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Jarzynski, Christopher; Chipot, Christopher


    As access to computational resources continues to increase, free-energy calculations have emerged as a powerful tool that can play a predictive role in drug design. Yet, in a number of instances, the reliability of these calculations can be improved significantly if a number of precepts, or good practices are followed. For the most part, the theory upon which these good practices rely has been known for many years, but often overlooked, or simply ignored. In other cases, the theoretical developments are too recent for their potential to be fully grasped and merged into popular platforms for the computation of free-energy differences. The current best practices for carrying out free-energy calculations will be reviewed demonstrating that, at little to no additional cost, free-energy estimates could be markedly improved and bounded by meaningful error estimates. In energy perturbation and nonequilibrium work methods, monitoring the probability distributions that underlie the transformation between the states of interest, performing the calculation bidirectionally, stratifying the reaction pathway and choosing the most appropriate paradigms and algorithms for transforming between states offer significant gains in both accuracy and precision. In thermodynamic integration and probability distribution (histogramming) methods, properly designed adaptive techniques yield nearly uniform sampling of the relevant degrees of freedom and, by doing so, could markedly improve efficiency and accuracy of free energy calculations without incurring any additional computational expense.

  3. Paramedics’ Ability to Perform Drug Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eastwood, Kathyrn J


    Full Text Available Background: The ability to perform drug calculations accurately is imperative to patient safety. Research into paramedics’ drug calculation abilities was first published in 2000 and for nurses’ abilities the research dates back to the late 1930s. Yet, there have been no studies investigating an undergraduate paramedic student’s ability to perform drug or basic mathematical calculations. The objective of this study was to review the literature and determine the ability of undergraduate and qualified paramedics to perform drug calculations.Methods: A search of the prehospital-related electronic databases was undertaken using the Ovid and EMBASE systems available through the Monash University Library. Databases searched included the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, CINAHL, JSTOR, EMBASE and Google Scholar, from their beginning until the end of August 2009. We reviewed references from articles retrieved.Results: The electronic database search located 1,154 articles for review. Six additional articles were identified from reference lists of retrieved articles. Of these, 59 were considered relevant. After reviewing the 59 articles only three met the inclusion criteria. All articles noted some level of mathematical deficiencies amongst their subjects.Conclusions: This study identified only three articles. Results from these limited studies indicate a significant lack of mathematical proficiency amongst the paramedics sampled. A need exists to identify if undergraduate paramedic students are capable of performing the required drug calculations in a non-clinical setting.[WestJEM. 2009;10:240-243.

  4. Paramedics’ Ability to Perform Drug Calculations (United States)

    Eastwood, Kathryn J; Boyle, Malcolm J; Williams, Brett


    Background: The ability to perform drug calculations accurately is imperative to patient safety. Research into paramedics’ drug calculation abilities was first published in 2000 and for nurses’ abilities the research dates back to the late 1930s. Yet, there have been no studies investigating an undergraduate paramedic student’s ability to perform drug or basic mathematical calculations. The objective of this study was to review the literature and determine the ability of undergraduate and qualified paramedics to perform drug calculations. Methods: A search of the prehospital-related electronic databases was undertaken using the Ovid and EMBASE systems available through the Monash University Library. Databases searched included the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, CINAHL, JSTOR, EMBASE and Google Scholar, from their beginning until the end of August 2009. We reviewed references from articles retrieved. Results: The electronic database search located 1,154 articles for review. Six additional articles were identified from reference lists of retrieved articles. Of these, 59 were considered relevant. After reviewing the 59 articles only three met the inclusion criteria. All articles noted some level of mathematical deficiencies amongst their subjects. Conclusions: This study identified only three articles. Results from these limited studies indicate a significant lack of mathematical proficiency amongst the paramedics sampled. A need exists to identify if undergraduate paramedic students are capable of performing the required drug calculations in a non-clinical setting. PMID:20046240

  5. Paramedics' ability to perform drug calculations. (United States)

    Eastwood, Kathryn J; Boyle, Malcolm J; Williams, Brett


    The ability to perform drug calculations accurately is imperative to patient safety. Research into paramedics' drug calculation abilities was first published in 2000 and for nurses' abilities the research dates back to the late 1930s. Yet, there have been no studies investigating an undergraduate paramedic student's ability to perform drug or basic mathematical calculations. The objective of this study was to review the literature and determine the ability of undergraduate and qualified paramedics to perform drug calculations. A search of the prehospital-related electronic databases was undertaken using the Ovid and EMBASE systems available through the Monash University Library. Databases searched included the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, CINAHL, JSTOR, EMBASE and Google Scholar, from their beginning until the end of August 2009. We reviewed references from articles retrieved. The electronic database search located 1,154 articles for review. Six additional articles were identified from reference lists of retrieved articles. Of these, 59 were considered relevant. After reviewing the 59 articles only three met the inclusion criteria. All articles noted some level of mathematical deficiencies amongst their subjects. This study identified only three articles. Results from these limited studies indicate a significant lack of mathematical proficiency amongst the paramedics sampled. A need exists to identify if undergraduate paramedic students are capable of performing the required drug calculations in a non-clinical setting.

  6. Automated one-loop calculations with GOSAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, Gavin [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Greiner, Nicolas [Illinois Univ., Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Heinrich, Gudrun; Reiter, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Luisoni, Gionata [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Mastrolia, Pierpaolo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Padua Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Ossola, Giovanni [New York City Univ., NY (United States). New York City College of Technology; New York City Univ., NY (United States). The Graduate School and University Center; Tramontano, Francesco [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)


    We present the program package GoSam which is designed for the automated calculation of one-loop amplitudes for multi-particle processes in renormalisable quantum field theories. The amplitudes, which are generated in terms of Feynman diagrams, can be reduced using either D-dimensional integrand-level decomposition or tensor reduction. GoSam can be used to calculate one-loop QCD and/or electroweak corrections to Standard Model processes and offers the flexibility to link model files for theories Beyond the Standard Model. A standard interface to programs calculating real radiation is also implemented. We demonstrate the flexibility of the program by presenting examples of processes with up to six external legs attached to the loop. (orig.)

  7. Resolving resonances in R-matrix calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, J.M.; Bautista, Manuel A. [Centro de Fisica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas (Venezuela)


    We present a technique to obtain detailed resonance structures from R-matrix calculations of atomic cross sections for both collisional and radiative processes. The resolving resonances (RR) method relies on the QB method of Quigley-Berrington (Quigley L, Berrington K A and Pelan J 1998 Comput. Phys. Commun. 114 225) to find the position and width of resonances directly from the reactance matrix. Then one determines the symmetry parameters of these features and generates an energy mesh whereby fully resolved cross sections are calculated with minimum computational cost. The RR method is illustrated with the calculation of the photoionization cross sections and the unified recombination rate coefficients of Fe XXIV, O VI, and Fe XVII. The RR method reduces numerical errors arising from unresolved R-matrix cross sections in the computation of synthetic bound-free opacities, thermally averaged collision strengths and recombination rate coefficients. (author)

  8. Green's function calculation from equipartition theorem. (United States)

    Perton, Mathieu; Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco José


    A method is presented to calculate the elastodynamic Green's functions by using the equipartition principle. The imaginary parts are calculated as the average cross correlations of the displacement fields generated by the incidence of body and surface waves with amplitudes weighted by partition factors. The real part is retrieved using the Hilbert transform. The calculation of the partition factors is discussed for several geometrical configurations in two dimensional space: the full-space, a basin in a half-space and for layered media. For the last case, it results in a fast computation of the full Green's functions. Additionally, if the contribution of only selected states is desired, as for instance the surface wave part, the computation is even faster. Its use for full waveform inversion may then be advantageous.

  9. Daylight calculations using constant luminance curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betman, E. [CRICYT, Mendoza (Argentina). Laboratorio de Ambiente Humano y Vivienda


    This paper presents a simple method to manually estimate daylight availability and to make daylight calculations using constant luminance curves calculated with local illuminance and irradiance data and the all-weather model for sky luminance distribution developed in the Atmospheric Science Research Center of the University of New York (ARSC) by Richard Perez et al. Work with constant luminance curves has the advantage that daylight calculations include the problem's directionality and preserve the information of the luminous climate of the place. This permits accurate knowledge of the resource and a strong basis to establish conclusions concerning topics related to the energy efficiency and comfort in buildings. The characteristics of the proposed method are compared with the method that uses the daylight factor. (author)

  10. Using inverted indices for accelerating LINGO calculations. (United States)

    Kristensen, Thomas G; Nielsen, Jesper; Pedersen, Christian N S


    The ever growing size of chemical databases calls for the development of novel methods for representing and comparing molecules. One such method called LINGO is based on fragmenting the SMILES string representation of molecules. Comparison of molecules can then be performed by calculating the Tanimoto coefficient, which is called LINGOsim when used on LINGO multisets. This paper introduces a verbose representation for storing LINGO multisets, which makes it possible to transform them into sparse fingerprints such that fingerprint data structures and algorithms can be used to accelerate queries. The previous best method for rapidly calculating the LINGOsim similarity matrix required specialized hardware to yield a significant speedup over existing methods. By representing LINGO multisets in the verbose representation and using inverted indices, it is possible to calculate LINGOsim similarity matrices roughly 2.6 times faster than existing methods without relying on specialized hardware.

  11. Note about socio-economic calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Salling, Kim Bang


    This note gives a short introduction of how to make socio-economic evaluations in connection with the teaching at the Centre for Traffic and Transport (CTT). It is not a manual for making socio-economic calculations in transport infrastructure projects – in this context we refer to the guidelines...... for socio-economic calculations within the transportation area (Ministry of Traffic, 2003). The note also explains the theory of socio-economic calculations – reference is here made to ”Road Infrastructure Planning – a Decision-oriented approach” (Leleur, 2000). Socio-economic evaluations of infrastructure...... projects are common and can be made at different levels of detail depending on the type of project and the decision making phase. A common feature of the different levels of detail of the socio-economic analysis is that the planned project(s) is compared with a basic; the basic alternative or a null...

  12. eQuilibrator—the biochemical thermodynamics calculator (United States)

    Flamholz, Avi; Noor, Elad; Bar-Even, Arren; Milo, Ron


    The laws of thermodynamics constrain the action of biochemical systems. However, thermodynamic data on biochemical compounds can be difficult to find and is cumbersome to perform calculations with manually. Even simple thermodynamic questions like ‘how much Gibbs energy is released by ATP hydrolysis at pH 5?’ are complicated excessively by the search for accurate data. To address this problem, eQuilibrator couples a comprehensive and accurate database of thermodynamic properties of biochemical compounds and reactions with a simple and powerful online search and calculation interface. The web interface to eQuilibrator ( enables easy calculation of Gibbs energies of compounds and reactions given arbitrary pH, ionic strength and metabolite concentrations. The eQuilibrator code is open-source and all thermodynamic source data are freely downloadable in standard formats. Here we describe the database characteristics and implementation and demonstrate its use. PMID:22064852

  13. Undergraduate paramedic students cannot do drug calculations (United States)

    Eastwood, Kathryn; Boyle, Malcolm J; Williams, Brett


    BACKGROUND: Previous investigation of drug calculation skills of qualified paramedics has highlighted poor mathematical ability with no published studies having been undertaken on undergraduate paramedics. There are three major error classifications. Conceptual errors involve an inability to formulate an equation from information given, arithmetical errors involve an inability to operate a given equation, and finally computation errors are simple errors of addition, subtraction, division and multiplication. The objective of this study was to determine if undergraduate paramedics at a large Australia university could accurately perform common drug calculations and basic mathematical equations normally required in the workplace. METHODS: A cross-sectional study methodology using a paper-based questionnaire was administered to undergraduate paramedic students to collect demographical data, student attitudes regarding their drug calculation performance, and answers to a series of basic mathematical and drug calculation questions. Ethics approval was granted. RESULTS: The mean score of correct answers was 39.5% with one student scoring 100%, 3.3% of students (n=3) scoring greater than 90%, and 63% (n=58) scoring 50% or less, despite 62% (n=57) of the students stating they ‘did not have any drug calculations issues’. On average those who completed a minimum of year 12 Specialist Maths achieved scores over 50%. Conceptual errors made up 48.5%, arithmetical 31.1% and computational 17.4%. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests undergraduate paramedics have deficiencies in performing accurate calculations, with conceptual errors indicating a fundamental lack of mathematical understanding. The results suggest an unacceptable level of mathematical competence to practice safely in the unpredictable prehospital environment. PMID:25215067

  14. Calculation of water activation for the LHC (United States)

    Vollaire, Joachim; Brugger, Markus; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Roesler, Stefan; Vojtyla, Pavol


    The management of activated water in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is a key concern for radiation protection. For this reason, the induced radioactivity of the different water circuits is calculated using the Monte-Carlo (MC) code FLUKA. The results lead to the definition of procedures to be taken into account during the repair and maintenance of the machine, as well as to measures being necessary for a release of water into the environment. In order to assess the validity of the applied methods, a benchmark experiment was carried out at the CERN-EU High Energy Reference Field (CERF) facility, where a hadron beam (120 GeV) is impinging on a copper target. Four samples of water, as used at the LHC, and different in their chemical compositions, were irradiated near the copper target. In addition to the tritium activity measured with a liquid scintillation counter, the samples were also analyzed using gamma spectroscopy in order to determine the activity of the gamma emitting isotopes such as Be7 and Na24. While for the latter an excellent agreement between simulation and measurement was found, for the calculation of tritium a correction factor is derived to be applied for future LHC calculations in which the activity is calculated by direct scoring of produced nuclei. A simplified geometry representing the LHC Arc sections is then used to evaluate the different calculation methods with FLUKA. By comparing these methods and by taking into account the benchmark results, a strategy for the environmental calculations can be defined.

  15. First principles calculations for litiated manganese oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedek, R; Prasad, R; Thackeray, M; Wills, J M; Yang, L H


    First principles calculations using the local-spin-density-functional theory are presented of densities of electronic states for MnO, LiMnO{sub 2} in the monoclinic and orthorhombic structures, cubic LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel, and {lambda}-MnO{sub 2} (delithiated spinel), all in antiferromagnetic spin configurations. The changes in energy spectra as the Mn oxidation state varies between 2+ and 4+ are illustrated. Preliminary calculations for Co-doped LiMnO{sub 2} are presented, and the destabilization of a monoclinic relative to a rhombohedral structure is discussed.

  16. Transmission pipeline calculations and simulations manual

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, E Shashi


    Transmission Pipeline Calculations and Simulations Manual is a valuable time- and money-saving tool to quickly pinpoint the essential formulae, equations, and calculations needed for transmission pipeline routing and construction decisions. The manual's three-part treatment starts with gas and petroleum data tables, followed by self-contained chapters concerning applications. Case studies at the end of each chapter provide practical experience for problem solving. Topics in this book include pressure and temperature profile of natural gas pipelines, how to size pipelines for specified f

  17. Calculation of a Shock Response Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Tuma


    Full Text Available As it is stated in the ISO 18431-4 Standard, a Shock Response Spectrum is defined as the response to a given accelerationacting at a set of mass-damper-spring oscillators, which are adjusted to the different resonance frequencies while their resonancegains (Q-factor are equal to the same value. The maximum of the absolute value of the calculated responses as a function of theresonance frequencies compose the shock response spectrum (SRS. The paper will deal with employing Signal Analyzer, the softwarefor signal processing, for calculation of the SRS. The theory is illustrated by examples.

  18. Histidine in Continuum Electrostatics Protonation State Calculations (United States)

    Couch, Vernon; Stuchebruckhov, Alexei


    A modification to the standard continuum electrostatics approach to calculate protein pKas which allows for the decoupling of histidine tautomers within a two state model is presented. Histidine with four intrinsically coupled protonation states cannot be easily incorporated into a two state formalism because the interaction between the two protonatable sites of the imidazole ring is not purely electrostatic. The presented treatment, based on a single approximation of the interrelation between histidine’s charge states, allows for a natural separation of the two protonatable sites associated with the imidazole ring as well as the inclusion of all protonation states within the calculation. PMID:22072521

  19. The new pooled cohort equations risk calculator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preiss, David; Kristensen, Søren L


    total cardiovascular risk score. During development of joint guidelines released in 2013 by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA), the decision was taken to develop a new risk score. This resulted in the ACC/AHA Pooled Cohort Equations Risk Calculator. This risk...... disease and any measure of social deprivation. An early criticism of the Pooled Cohort Equations Risk Calculator has been its alleged overestimation of ASCVD risk which, if confirmed in the general population, is likely to result in statin therapy being prescribed to many individuals at lower risk than...

  20. Ab initio valence calculations in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, D B


    Ab Initio Valence Calculations in Chemistry describes the theory and practice of ab initio valence calculations in chemistry and applies the ideas to a specific example, linear BeH2. Topics covered include the Schrödinger equation and the orbital approximation to atomic orbitals; molecular orbital and valence bond methods; practical molecular wave functions; and molecular integrals. Open shell systems, molecular symmetry, and localized descriptions of electronic structure are also discussed. This book is comprised of 13 chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the use of the Schrödinge

  1. BASIC program calculates flue gas energy balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V. (ABCO Industries, Inc., Abilene, TX (United States))


    Engineers always seek cost-cutting, energy-efficient ways to operate boilers and waste-heat recovery systems. The starting point in the design or performance evaluation of any heat transfer equipment is an energy balance calculation. This easy-to-use BASIC program tackles this problem. Using the gas stream analysis as percent weight or volume, the program calculates inlet and exit temperatures, heat duty, the gas stream's molecular weight, etc. This program is a definite must for the plant engineering notebook.

  2. Criticality calculation of non-ordinary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalugin, A. V., E-mail:; Tebin, V. V. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)


    The specific features of calculation of the effective multiplication factor using the Monte Carlo method for weakly coupled and non-asymptotic multiplying systems are discussed. Particular examples are considered and practical recommendations on detection and Monte Carlo calculation of systems typical in numerical substantiation of nuclear safety for VVER fuel management problems are given. In particular, the problems of the choice of parameters for the batch mode and the method for normalization of the neutron batch, as well as finding and interpretation of the eigenvalue spectrum for the integral fission matrix, are discussed.

  3. Engineering calculations in radiative heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, W A; Hopkins, D W


    Engineering Calculations in Radiative Heat Transfer is a six-chapter book that first explains the basic principles of thermal radiation and direct radiative transfer. Total exchange of radiation within an enclosure containing an absorbing or non-absorbing medium is then described. Subsequent chapters detail the radiative heat transfer applications and measurement of radiation and temperature.

  4. Calculators and the SAT: A Status Report. (United States)

    Rigol, Gretchen W.


    The College Entrance Examination Board has not permitted calculator use on the Scholastic Aptitude Test because of unresolved concerns about equity, implications for test content, and logistical and security issues. Those issues no longer seem insurmountable, and significant changes are being introduced on many tests. (MSE)

  5. Cubic scaling GW: Towards fast quasiparticle calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liu, P.; Kaltak, M.; Klimeš, Jiří; Kresse, G.


    Roč. 94, č. 16 (2016), s. 165109 ISSN 2469-9950 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : MEAN-FIELD THEORY * ELECTRONIC-STRUCTURE CALCULATIONS * AUGMENTED-WAVE METHOD Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016

  6. IOL Power Calculation after Corneal Refractive Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddalena De Bernardo


    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe the different formulas that try to overcome the problem of calculating the intraocular lens (IOL power in patients that underwent corneal refractive surgery (CRS. Methods. A Pubmed literature search review of all published articles, on keyword associated with IOL power calculation and corneal refractive surgery, as well as the reference lists of retrieved articles, was performed. Results. A total of 33 peer reviewed articles dealing with methods that try to overcome the problem of calculating the IOL power in patients that underwent CRS were found. According to the information needed to try to overcome this problem, the methods were divided in two main categories: 18 methods were based on the knowledge of the patient clinical history and 15 methods that do not require such knowledge. The first group was further divided into five subgroups based on the parameters needed to make such calculation. Conclusion. In the light of our findings, to avoid postoperative nasty surprises, we suggest using only those methods that have shown good results in a large number of patients, possibly by averaging the results obtained with these methods.

  7. IOL power calculation after corneal refractive surgery. (United States)

    De Bernardo, Maddalena; Capasso, Luigi; Caliendo, Luisa; Paolercio, Francesco; Rosa, Nicola


    To describe the different formulas that try to overcome the problem of calculating the intraocular lens (IOL) power in patients that underwent corneal refractive surgery (CRS). A Pubmed literature search review of all published articles, on keyword associated with IOL power calculation and corneal refractive surgery, as well as the reference lists of retrieved articles, was performed. A total of 33 peer reviewed articles dealing with methods that try to overcome the problem of calculating the IOL power in patients that underwent CRS were found. According to the information needed to try to overcome this problem, the methods were divided in two main categories: 18 methods were based on the knowledge of the patient clinical history and 15 methods that do not require such knowledge. The first group was further divided into five subgroups based on the parameters needed to make such calculation. In the light of our findings, to avoid postoperative nasty surprises, we suggest using only those methods that have shown good results in a large number of patients, possibly by averaging the results obtained with these methods.

  8. {ital Ab} {ital initio} calculations of biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Les, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)]|[Department of Chemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Adamowicz, L. [Department of Theoretical Chemistry, University of Lund, Lund, S-22100 (Sweden)]|[Department of Chemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)


    {ital Ab} {ital initio} quantum mechanical calculations are valuable tools for interpretation and elucidation of elemental processes in biochemical systems. With the {ital ab} {ital initio} approach one can calculate data that sometimes are difficult to obtain by experimental techniques. The most popular computational theoretical methods include the Hartree-Fock method as well as some lower-level variational and perturbational post-Hartree Fock approaches which allow to predict molecular structures and to calculate spectral properties. We have been involved in a number of joined theoretical and experimental studies in the past and some examples of these studies are given in this presentation. The systems chosen cover a wide variety of simple biomolecules, such as precursors of nucleic acids, double-proton transferring molecules, and simple systems involved in processes related to first stages of substrate-enzyme interactions. In particular, examples of some {ital ab} {ital initio} calculations used in the assignment of IR spectra of matrix isolated pyrimidine nucleic bases are shown. Some radiation-induced transformations in model chromophores are also presented. Lastly, we demonstrate how the {ital ab}-{ital initio} approach can be used to determine the initial several steps of the molecular mechanism of thymidylate synthase inhibition by dUMP analogues.

  9. 24 CFR 3280.811 - Calculations. (United States)


    ... neutral load determined by Article 220.61 of the National Electrical Code, NFPA No. 70-2005. The loads... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Electrical Systems § 3280.811 Calculations. (a... motors and heater loads (exhaust fans, air conditioners, electric, gas, or oil heating). Omit smaller of...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 3, 2004 ... linear regression analyses using SPSS (VER 10.0). To assess the degree of agreement ... Summary of Cholesterol, TG's, HDL-C and LDL-C; and correlation between calculated and direct. LDC-C among the groups(a) .... associated with hyperlipidaemia, including diabetes mellitus, nephrotic syndrome and ...

  11. Work Function Calculation For Hafnium- Barium System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Tursunmetov


    Full Text Available The adsorption process of barium atoms on hafnium is considered. A structural model of the system is presented and on the basis of calculation of interaction between ions dipole system the dependence of the work function on the coating.

  12. molecular dynamics simulations and quantum chemical calculations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEYWORDS: Molecular dynamic simulation; iron surface; adsorption; imidazoline derivatives; quantum chemical calculations ..... break any bond. This means that the closer the nuclei of the bonding atoms are a greater supply of energy is needed to separate the atoms due to large force of attraction between the atoms.

  13. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Other Methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Other Methods. Hemolytic potency of drugs. Raghava et al., (1994) Biotechniques 17: 1148. FPMAP: methods for classification and identification of microorganisms 16SrRNA. graphical display of restriction and fragment map of ...

  14. Molecular transport calculations with Wannier Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel


    We present a scheme for calculating coherent electron transport in atomic-scale contacts. The method combines a formally exact Green's function formalism with a mean-field description of the electronic structure based on the Kohn-Sham scheme of density functional theory. We use an accurate plane-wave...

  15. Unified approach to alpha decay calculations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    May 2, 2014 ... a small error in E can cause a much bigger error in τ. Due to this reason, in many analyses of α decay one uses experimentally measured E rather than the theoretically calculated one, even though a more satisfactory theoretical approach should generate both E and τ within a unified framework. Further ...

  16. A New Iterative Method to Calculate [pi (United States)

    Dion, Peter; Ho, Anthony


    For at least 2000 years people have been trying to calculate the value of [pi], the ratio of the circumference to the diameter of a circle. People know that [pi] is an irrational number; its decimal representation goes on forever. Early methods were geometric, involving the use of inscribed and circumscribed polygons of a circle. However, real…

  17. Auger yield calculations for medical radioisotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Boon Q.


    Full Text Available Auger yields from the decays of 71Ge, 99mTc, 111In and 123–125I have been calculated using a Monte Carlo model of the Auger cascade that has been developed at the ANU. In addition, progress to improve the input data of the model has been made with the Multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock method.

  18. Attitudes towards Graphing Calculators in Developmental Mathematics (United States)

    Rajan, Shaun Thomas


    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine instructor and student attitudes towards the use of the graphing calculator in the developmental mathematics classroom. A focus of the study was to see if instructors or students believed there were changes in the conceptual understanding of mathematics as a result of graphing calculator…

  19. Calculation of the CIPW norm: New formulas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A completely new set of formulas,based on matrix algebra,has been suggested for the calculation of the CIPW norm for igneous rocks to achieve highly consistent and accurate norms.The suggested sequence of derivation of the normative minerals greatly deviates from the sequence followed in the classical scheme.

  20. 7 CFR 1416.704 - Payment calculation. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment calculation. 1416.704 Section 1416.704 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... necessary to ensure successful plant survival; (3) Chemicals and nutrients necessary for successful...

  1. Conductance calculations with a wavelet basis set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Bollinger, Mikkel; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel


    . The linear-response conductance is calculated from the Green's function which is represented in terms of a system-independent basis set containing wavelets with compact support. This allows us to rigorously separate the central region from the contacts and to test for convergence in a systematic way...

  2. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Immunological Methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Immunological Methods. Computation of Ab/Ag Concentration from EISA data. Graphical Method; Raghava et al., 1992, J. Immuno. Methods 153: 263. Determination of affinity of Monoclonal Antibody. Using non-competitive ...

  3. Gaseous Nitrogen Orifice Mass Flow Calculator (United States)

    Ritrivi, Charles


    The Gaseous Nitrogen (GN2) Orifice Mass Flow Calculator was used to determine Space Shuttle Orbiter Water Spray Boiler (WSB) GN2 high-pressure tank source depletion rates for various leak scenarios, and the ability of the GN2 consumables to support cooling of Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) lubrication during entry. The data was used to support flight rationale concerning loss of an orbiter APU/hydraulic system and mission work-arounds. The GN2 mass flow-rate calculator standardizes a method for rapid assessment of GN2 mass flow through various orifice sizes for various discharge coefficients, delta pressures, and temperatures. The calculator utilizes a 0.9-lb (0.4 kg) GN2 source regulated to 40 psia (.276 kPa). These parameters correspond to the Space Shuttle WSB GN2 Source and Water Tank Bellows, but can be changed in the spreadsheet to accommodate any system parameters. The calculator can be used to analyze a leak source, leak rate, gas consumables depletion time, and puncture diameter that simulates the measured GN2 system pressure drop.

  4. Bullet Design of MEMS Cantilever - Hand Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet V. KSHIRSAGAR


    Full Text Available The present article describes the basic hand calculations for design of MEMS cantilever for beginners. The MATLAB software code was written to analysis the all formulae. Further the article gives insight of important parameters, its dependence and consideration for a good design.

  5. Model calculations in correlated finite nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guardiola, R.; Ros, J. (Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Nuclear); Polls, A. (Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik)


    In order to study the convergence condition of the FAHT cluster expansion several model calculations are described and numerically tested. It is concluded that this cluster expansion deals properly with the central part of the two-body distribution function, but presents some difficulties for the exchange part.

  6. Total energy calculations and bonding at interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, S.G.


    Some of the concepts and theoretical techniques employed in recent ab initio studies of the electronic and structural properties of surfaces and interfaces are discussed. Results of total energy calculations for the 2 x 1 reconstructed diamond (111) surface and for stacking faults in Si are reviewed. 30 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Calculating Free Energies Using Average Force (United States)

    Darve, Eric; Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)


    A new, general formula that connects the derivatives of the free energy along the selected, generalized coordinates of the system with the instantaneous force acting on these coordinates is derived. The instantaneous force is defined as the force acting on the coordinate of interest so that when it is subtracted from the equations of motion the acceleration along this coordinate is zero. The formula applies to simulations in which the selected coordinates are either unconstrained or constrained to fixed values. It is shown that in the latter case the formula reduces to the expression previously derived by den Otter and Briels. If simulations are carried out without constraining the coordinates of interest, the formula leads to a new method for calculating the free energy changes along these coordinates. This method is tested in two examples - rotation around the C-C bond of 1,2-dichloroethane immersed in water and transfer of fluoromethane across the water-hexane interface. The calculated free energies are compared with those obtained by two commonly used methods. One of them relies on determining the probability density function of finding the system at different values of the selected coordinate and the other requires calculating the average force at discrete locations along this coordinate in a series of constrained simulations. The free energies calculated by these three methods are in excellent agreement. The relative advantages of each method are discussed.

  8. Block Tridiagonal Matrices in Electronic Structure Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Dan Erik

    This thesis focuses on some of the numerical aspects of the treatment of the electronic structure problem, in particular that of determining the ground state electronic density for the non–equilibrium Green’s function formulation of two–probe systems and the calculation of transmission...

  9. Deconstructing Calculation Methods, Part 3: Multiplication (United States)

    Thompson, Ian


    In this third of a series of four articles, the author deconstructs the primary national strategy's approach to written multiplication. The approach to multiplication, as set out on pages 12 to 15 of the primary national strategy's "Guidance paper" "Calculation" (DfES, 2007), is divided into six stages: (1) mental…

  10. Calculated Bulk Properties of the Actinide Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.


    Self-consistent relativistic calculations of the electronic properties for seven actinides (Ac-Am) have been performed using the linear muffin-tin orbitals method within the atomic-sphere approximation. Exchange and correlation were included in the local spin-density scheme. The theory explains t...

  11. Unified approach to alpha decay calculations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    May 2, 2014 ... We describe the analytic -matrix (SM) method which gives a procedure for the calculation of decay energy and mean life in an integrated way by evaluating the resonance pole of the -matrix in the complex momentum or energy plane. We make an illustrative comparative study of WKB and -matrix ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin


    Full Text Available The original method of calculation of duration of burden heating till predetermined temperature is stated. The results of numerical modeling of nonstationary heating of fixed bed are given. Experimental check of the received results is carried out at full-scale plants.

  13. 5 CFR 1653.14 - Calculating entitlements. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calculating entitlements. 1653.14 Section 1653.14 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD COURT ORDERS AND LEGAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Legal Process for the Enforcement of a Participant's Legal...

  14. 30 CFR 5.30 - Fee calculation. (United States)


    ... MINING PRODUCTS FEES FOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS § 5.30 Fee calculation. (a) MSHA bases fees under this subchapter on the direct and indirect costs of the services provided, except... product. (d) If the actual cost of processing the application is less than MSHA's maximum fee estimate...

  15. Calculating track thrust with track functions (United States)

    Chang, Hsi-Ming; Procura, Massimiliano; Thaler, Jesse; Waalewijn, Wouter J.


    In e+e- event shapes studies at LEP, two different measurements were sometimes performed: a “calorimetric” measurement using both charged and neutral particles and a “track-based” measurement using just charged particles. Whereas calorimetric measurements are infrared and collinear safe, and therefore calculable in perturbative QCD, track-based measurements necessarily depend on nonperturbative hadronization effects. On the other hand, track-based measurements typically have smaller experimental uncertainties. In this paper, we present the first calculation of the event shape “track thrust” and compare to measurements performed at ALEPH and DELPHI. This calculation is made possible through the recently developed formalism of track functions, which are nonperturbative objects describing how energetic partons fragment into charged hadrons. By incorporating track functions into soft-collinear effective theory, we calculate the distribution for track thrust with next-to-leading logarithmic resummation. Due to a partial cancellation between nonperturbative parameters, the distributions for calorimeter thrust and track thrust are remarkably similar, a feature also seen in LEP data.

  16. Relativistic calculations of coalescing binary neutron stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have designed and tested a new relativistic Lagrangian hydrodynamics code, which treats gravity in the conformally flat approximation to general relativity. We have tested the resulting code extensively, finding that it performs well for calculations of equilibrium single-star models, collapsing relativistic dust clouds, and ...

  17. Relativistic calculations of coalescing binary neutron stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Relativistic calculations of coalescing binary neutron stars. JOSHUA FABER, PHILIPPE GRANDCLÉMENT and FREDERIC RASIO. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston,. IL 60208-0834, USA. E-mail: Abstract. We have designed and tested a new relativistic Lagrangian ...

  18. Fast calculation of best focus position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezzubik, V.; Belashenkov, N.; Vdovin, G.V.


    New computational technique based on linear-scale differential analysis (LSDA) of digital image is proposed to find the best focus position in digital microscopy by means of defocus estimation in two near-focal positions only. The method is based on the calculation of local gradients of the image on

  19. Synthesis, characterization, ab initio calculations, thermal behaviour ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    through titration of the ligands with the metal ions at constant ionic strength (0⋅1 M NaClO4) and at 25°C. According to the thermodynamic studies, as the steric character of the ligand increases, the complexation tendency to VO(IV) center decreases. Also, the ab initio calculations were carried out to determine the structural ...

  20. A Tabular Approach to Titration Calculations (United States)

    Lim, Kieran F.


    Titrations are common laboratory exercises in high school and university chemistry courses, because they are easy, relatively inexpensive, and they illustrate a number of fundamental chemical principles. While students have little difficulty with calculations involving a single titration step, there is a significant leap in conceptual difficulty…

  1. Ammonia synthesis from first principles calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honkala, Johanna Karoliina; Hellman, Anders; Remediakis, Ioannis


    The rate of ammonia synthesis over a nanoparticle ruthenium catalyst can be calculated directly on the basis of a quantum chemical treatment of the problem using density functional theory. We compared the results to measured rates over a ruthenium catalyst supported on magnesium aluminum spinet...

  2. Why Do Calculators Have Rubber Feet? (United States)

    Heavers, Richard M.


    Our students like using the covers of their TI graphing calculators in an inquiry-based extension of a traditional exercise that challenges their preconceived ideas about friction. Biology major Fiona McGraw (Fig. 1) is obviously excited about the large coefficient of static friction ([mu][subscript s] = 1.3) for the four little rubber feet on her…

  3. Calculation of U-value for Concrete Element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen


    This report is a U-value calculation of a typical concrete element used in industrial buildings.The calculations are performed using a 2-dimensional finite difference calculation programme.......This report is a U-value calculation of a typical concrete element used in industrial buildings.The calculations are performed using a 2-dimensional finite difference calculation programme....

  4. Procedures for Calculating Residential Dehumidification Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Residential building codes and voluntary labeling programs are continually increasing the energy efficiency requirements of residential buildings. Improving a building's thermal enclosure and installing energy-efficient appliances and lighting can result in significant reductions in sensible cooling loads leading to smaller air conditioners and shorter cooling seasons. However due to fresh air ventilation requirements and internal gains, latent cooling loads are not reduced by the same proportion. Thus, it's becoming more challenging for conventional cooling equipment to control indoor humidity at part-load cooling conditions and using conventional cooling equipment in a non-conventional building poses the potential risk of high indoor humidity. The objective of this project was to investigate the impact the chosen design condition has on the calculated part-load cooling moisture load, and compare calculated moisture loads and the required dehumidification capacity to whole-building simulations. Procedures for sizing whole-house supplemental dehumidification equipment have yet to be formalized; however minor modifications to current Air-Conditioner Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual J load calculation procedures are appropriate for calculating residential part-load cooling moisture loads. Though ASHRAE 1% DP design conditions are commonly used to determine the dehumidification requirements for commercial buildings, an appropriate DP design condition for residential buildings has not been investigated. Two methods for sizing supplemental dehumidification equipment were developed and tested. The first method closely followed Manual J cooling load calculations; whereas the second method made more conservative assumptions impacting both sensible and latent loads.

  5. Radionuclide release calculations for SAR-08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, Gavin; Miller, Alex; Smith, Graham; Jackson, Duncan (Enviros Consulting Ltd, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom))


    Following a review by the Swedish regulatory authorities of the post-closure safety assessment of the SFR 1 disposal facility for low and intermediate waste (L/ILW), SAFE, the SKB has prepared an updated assessment called SAR-08. This report describes the radionuclide release calculations that have been undertaken as part of SAR-08. The information, assumptions and data used in the calculations are reported and the results are presented. The calculations address issues raised in the regulatory review, but also take account of new information including revised inventory data. The scenarios considered include the main case of expected behaviour of the system, with variants; low probability releases, and so-called residual scenarios. Apart from these scenario uncertainties, data uncertainties have been examined using a probabilistic approach. Calculations have been made using the AMBER software. This allows all the component features of the assessment model to be included in one place. AMBER has been previously used to reproduce results the corresponding calculations in the SAFE assessment. It is also used in demonstration of the IAEA's near surface disposal assessment methodology ISAM and has been subject to very substantial verification tests and has been used in verifying other assessment codes. Results are presented as a function of time for the release of radionuclides from the near field, and then from the far field into the biosphere. Radiological impacts of the releases are reported elsewhere. Consideration is given to each radionuclide and to each component part of the repository. The releases from the entire repository are also presented. The peak releases rates are, for most scenarios, due to organic C-14. Other radionuclides which contribute to peak release rates include inorganic C-14, Ni-59 and Ni-63. (author)

  6. Coupled-cluster calculations of nucleonic matter (United States)

    Hagen, G.; Papenbrock, T.; Ekström, A.; Wendt, K. A.; Baardsen, G.; Gandolfi, S.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Horowitz, C. J.


    Background: The equation of state (EoS) of nucleonic matter is central for the understanding of bulk nuclear properties, the physics of neutron star crusts, and the energy release in supernova explosions. Because nuclear matter exhibits a finely tuned saturation point, its EoS also constrains nuclear interactions. Purpose: This work presents coupled-cluster calculations of infinite nucleonic matter using modern interactions from chiral effective field theory (EFT). It assesses the role of correlations beyond particle-particle and hole-hole ladders, and the role of three-nucleon forces (3NFs) in nuclear matter calculations with chiral interactions. Methods: This work employs the optimized nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential NNLOopt at next-to-next-to leading order, and presents coupled-cluster computations of the EoS for symmetric nuclear matter and neutron matter. The coupled-cluster method employs up to selected triples clusters and the single-particle space consists of a momentum-space lattice. We compare our results with benchmark calculations and control finite-size effects and shell oscillations via twist-averaged boundary conditions. Results: We provide several benchmarks to validate the formalism and show that our results exhibit a good convergence toward the thermodynamic limit. Our calculations agree well with recent coupled-cluster results based on a partial wave expansion and particle-particle and hole-hole ladders. For neutron matter at low densities, and for simple potential models, our calculations agree with results from quantum Monte Carlo computations. While neutron matter with interactions from chiral EFT is perturbative, symmetric nuclear matter requires nonperturbative approaches. Correlations beyond the standard particle-particle ladder approximation yield non-negligible contributions. The saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter is sensitive to the employed 3NFs and the employed regularization scheme. 3NFs with nonlocal cutoffs exhibit a

  7. Black hole entropy calculations based on symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Dreyer, O; Wísniewski, J A; Dreyer, Olaf; Ghosh, Amit; Wisniewski, Jacek


    Symmetry based approaches to the black hole entropy problem have a number of attractive features; in particular they are very general and do not depend on the details of the quantization method. However we point out that, of the two available approaches, one faces conceptual problems (also emphasized by others), while the second contains certain technical flaws. We correct these errors and, within the new, improved scheme, calculate the entropy of 3-dimensional black holes. We find that, while the new symmetry vector fields are well-defined on the ``stretched horizon,'' and lead to well-defined Hamiltonians satisfying the expected Lie algebra, they fail to admit a well-defined limit to the horizon. This suggests that, although the formal calculation can be carried out at the classical level, its real, conceptual origin probably lies in the quantum theory.

  8. On the Origins of Calculation Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ardila


    Full Text Available A historical review of calculation abilities is presented. Counting, starting with finger sequencing, has been observed in different ancient and contemporary cultures, whereas number representation and arithmetic abilities are found only during the last 5000–6000 years. The rationale for selecting a base of ten in most numerical systems and the clinical association between acalculia and finger agnosia are analyzed. Finger agnosia (as a restricted form of autotopagnosia, right–left discrimination disturbances, semantic aphasia, and acalculia are proposed to comprise a single neuropsychological syndrome associated with left angular gyrus damage. A classification of calculation disturbances resulting from brain damage is presented. It is emphasized that using historical/anthropological analysis, it becomes evident that acalculia, finger agnosia, and disorders in right–left discrimination (as in general, in the use of spatial concepts must constitute a single clinical syndrome, resulting from the disruption of some common brain activity and the impairment of common cognitive mechanisms.

  9. Labview virtual instruments for calcium buffer calculations. (United States)

    Reitz, Frederick B; Pollack, Gerald H


    Labview VIs based upon the calculator programs of Fabiato and Fabiato (J. Physiol. Paris 75 (1979) 463) are presented. The VIs comprise the necessary computations for the accurate preparation of multiple-metal buffers, for the back-calculation of buffer composition given known free metal concentrations and stability constants used, for the determination of free concentrations from a given buffer composition, and for the determination of apparent stability constants from absolute constants. As implemented, the VIs can concurrently account for up to three divalent metals, two monovalent metals and four ligands thereof, and the modular design of the VIs facilitates further extension of their capacity. As Labview VIs are inherently graphical, these VIs may serve as useful templates for those wishing to adapt this software to other platforms.

  10. A priori calculations for the rotational stabilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwata Yoritaka


    Full Text Available The synthesis of chemical elements are mostly realised by low-energy heavy-ion reactions. Synthesis of exotic and heavy nuclei as well as that of superheavy nuclei is essential not only to find out the origin and the limit of the chemical elements but also to clarify the historical/chemical evolution of our universe. Despite the life time of exotic nuclei is not so long, those indispensable roles in chemical evolution has been pointed out. Here we are interested in examining the rotational stabilisation. In this paper a priori calculation (before microscopic density functional calculations is carried out for the rotational stabilisation effect in which the balance between the nuclear force, the Coulomb force and the centrifugal force is taken into account.

  11. A corrector for spacecraft calculated electron moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Geach


    Full Text Available We present the application of a numerical method to correct electron moments calculated on-board spacecraft from the effects of potential broadening and energy range truncation. Assuming a shape for the natural distribution of the ambient plasma and employing the scalar approximation, the on-board moments can be represented as non-linear integral functions of the underlying distribution. We have implemented an algorithm which inverts this system successfully over a wide range of parameters for an assumed underlying drifting Maxwellian distribution. The outputs of the solver are the corrected electron plasma temperature Te, density Ne and velocity vector Ve. We also make an estimation of the temperature anisotropy A of the distribution. We present corrected moment data from Cluster's PEACE experiment for a range of plasma environments and make comparisons with electron and ion data from other Cluster instruments, as well as the equivalent ground-based calculations using full 3-D distribution PEACE telemetry.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Akaev1


    Full Text Available Aim.The task of reducing the deflection and increase the rigidity of single-span beams are made. In the article the calculation algorithm for truss crane girders is determined.Methods. To identify the internal effort required for the selection of cross section elements the design uses the Green's function.Results. It was found that the simplest truss system reduces deflection and increases the strength of design. The upper crossbar is subjected not only to bending and shear and compression work due to tightening tension. Preliminary determination of the geometrical characteristics of the crane farms elements are offered to make a comparison with previous similar configuration of his farms, using a simple approximate calculation methods.Conclusion.The method of sequential movements (incrementally the two bridge cranes along the length of the upper crossbar truss beams is suggested. We give the corresponding formulas and conditions of safety.

  13. Fastlim: a fast LHC limit calculator

    CERN Document Server

    Papucci, Michele; Weiler, Andreas; Zeune, Lisa


    Fastlim is a tool to calculate conservative limits on extensions of the Standard Model from direct LHC searches without performing any Monte Carlo event generation. The program reconstructs the visible cross sections from pre-calculated efficiency tables and cross section tables for simplified event topologies. As a proof of concept of the approach, we have implemented searches relevant for supersymmetric models with R-parity conservation. Fastlim takes the spectrum and coupling information of a given model point and provides, for each signal region of the implemented analyses, the visible cross sections normalised to the corresponding upper limit, reported by the experiments, as well as the exclusion $p$-value. To demonstrate the utility of the program we study the sensitivity of the recent ATLAS missing energy searches to the parameter space of natural SUSY models. The program structure allows the straight-forward inclusion of external efficiency tables and can be generalised to R-parity violating scenarios...

  14. Calculation of coherent synchrotron radiation using mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Agoh


    Full Text Available We develop a new method to simulate coherent synchrotron radiation numerically. It is based on the mesh calculation of the electromagnetic field in the frequency domain. We make an approximation in the Maxwell equation which allows a mesh size much larger than the relevant wavelength so that the computing time is tolerable. Using the equation, we can perform a mesh calculation of coherent synchrotron radiation in transient states with shielding effects by the vacuum chamber. The simulation results obtained by this method are compared with analytic solutions. Though, for the comparison with theories, we adopt simplifications such as longitudinal Gaussian distribution, zero-width transverse distribution, horizontal uniform bend, and a vacuum chamber with rectangular cross section, the method is applicable to general cases.

  15. Comparative Study of Daylighting Calculation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandala Ariani


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess five daylighting calculation method commonly used in architectural study. The methods used include hand calculation methods (SNI/DPMB method and BRE Daylighting Protractors, scale models studied in an artificial sky simulator and computer programs using Dialux and Velux lighting software. The test room is conditioned by the uniform sky conditions, simple room geometry with variations of the room reflectance (black, grey, and white color. The analyses compared the result (including daylight factor, illumination, and coefficient of uniformity value and examines the similarity and contrast the result different. The color variations trial is used to analyses the internally reflection factor contribution to the result.

  16. Low-energy calculations for nuclear photodisintegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deflorian S.


    Full Text Available In the Standard Solar Model a central role in the nucleosynthesis is played by reactions of the kind XZ1A11+XZ2A22→YZ1+Z2A1+A2+γ${}_{{Z_1}}^{{A_1}}{X_1} + {}_{{Z_2}}^{{A_2}}{X_2} \\to {}_{{Z_1} + {Z_2}}^{{A_1} + {A_2}}Y + \\gamma $, which enter the proton-proton chains. These reactions can also be studied through the inverse photodisintegration reaction. One option is to use the Lorentz Integral Transform approach, which transforms the continuum problem into a bound state-like one. A way to check the reliability of such methods is a direct calculation, for example using the Kohn Variational Principle to obtain the scattering wave function and then directly calculate the response function of the reaction.

  17. Integral dependent spin couplings in CI calculations (United States)

    Iberle, K.; Davidson, E. R.


    Although the number of ways to combine Slater determinants to form spin eigenfunctions increases rapidly with the number of open shells, most of these spin couplings will make only a small contribution to a given state, provided the spin coupling is chosen judiciously. The technique of limiting calculations to the interacting subspace pioneered by Bunge (1970) was employed by Munch and Davidson (1975) to the vanadium atom. The use of an interacting space looses its advantage in more complex cases. However, the problem can always be reduced to only one interacting spin coupling by making the coefficients integral dependent. The present investigation is concerned with the performance of integral dependent interacting couplings, taking into account the results of three test calculations.

  18. A Methodology for Calculating Radiation Signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasky, Marc Louis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilcox, Trevor [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bathke, Charles G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); James, Michael R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    A rigorous formalism is presented for calculating radiation signatures from both Special Nuclear Material (SNM) as well as radiological sources. The use of MCNP6 in conjunction with CINDER/ORIGEN is described to allow for the determination of both neutron and photon leakages from objects of interest. In addition, a description of the use of MCNP6 to properly model the background neutron and photon sources is also presented. Examinations of the physics issues encountered in the modeling are investigated so as to allow for guidance in the user discerning the relevant physics to incorporate into general radiation signature calculations. Furthermore, examples are provided to assist in delineating the pertinent physics that must be accounted for. Finally, examples of detector modeling utilizing MCNP are provided along with a discussion on the generation of Receiver Operating Curves, which are the suggested means by which to determine detectability radiation signatures emanating from objects.

  19. Reading and Calculating Billing Through Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Alexandra Moreno


    Full Text Available This article broadly describes the analysis, design and development of the system utilitarian, called “Reading and billing calculation site through mobile devices.” The application is oriented Public Services Companies, first water services, to perform part of the billing process “in place” through phones or any mobile devices compatible with Android. Will enable you to take readings of service consumption, recording new gauging, online update and control the information for users and turnover. This technology is considered as such one site billing method as through Internet is connected with the database of the company, sending and receiving date information, which makes the calculation of the billing for the reading period, bringing benefits to the client and the service generating company.

  20. Improving the calculation of interdiffusion coefficients (United States)

    Kapoor, Rakesh R.; Eagar, Thomas W.


    Least-squares spline interpolation techniques are reviewed and presented as a mathematical tool for noise reduction and interpolation of diffusion profiles. Numerically simulated diffusion profiles were interpolated using a sixth-order spline. The spline fit data were successfully used in conjunction with the Boltzmann-Matano treatment to compute the interdiffusion coefficient, demonstrating the usefulness of splines as a numerical tool for such calculations. Simulations conducted on noisy data indicate that the technique can extract the correct diffusivity data given compositional data that contain only three digits of information and are contaminated with a noise level of 0.001. Splines offer a reproducible and reliable alternative to graphical evaluation of the slope of a diffusion profile, which is used in the Boltzmann-Matano treatment. Hence, use of splines reduces the numerical errors associated with calculation of interdiffusion coefficients from raw diffusion profile data.

  1. Tearing mode stability calculations with pressure flattening

    CERN Document Server

    Ham, C J; Cowley, S C; Hastie, R J; Hender, T C; Liu, Y Q


    Calculations of tearing mode stability in tokamaks split conveniently into an external region, where marginally stable ideal MHD is applicable, and a resonant layer around the rational surface where sophisticated kinetic physics is needed. These two regions are coupled by the stability parameter. Pressure and current perturbations localized around the rational surface alter the stability of tearing modes. Equations governing the changes in the external solution and - are derived for arbitrary perturbations in axisymmetric toroidal geometry. The relationship of - with and without pressure flattening is obtained analytically for four pressure flattening functions. Resistive MHD codes do not contain the appropriate layer physics and therefore cannot predict stability directly. They can, however, be used to calculate -. Existing methods (Ham et al. 2012 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 54 025009) for extracting - from resistive codes are unsatisfactory when there is a finite pressure gradient at the rational surface ...

  2. Through-Flow Calculations in Axial Turbomachinery (United States)


    Glassman , Lewis Research Center, NASA SP-290, 1973. 3. Dzung, L.S.: Schaufelgitter mit dicker Hinterkante, Technical Note BBC, (unpublished) 4...of peak efficiency was taken from - Warner L.S. : ASME Paper 61-WA-37 - Glassman A.J. : NASA TN-D-6702 The method for computing incidence losses is...devise more intelligent ý , flow models whicn will enable us to do semi-empirical simpler calculations. One of the things that I have in mind and has not

  3. Continuum RPA calculation of escape widths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vertse, T. (Inst. of Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary)); Curutchet, P.; Liotta, R.J. (Manne Siegbahn Inst. of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)); Bang, J. (Niels Bohr Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)); Giai, N. van (Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France))


    Particle-hole partial decay widths are calculated within the continuum RPA exactly, i.e. without any further approximation, in a square well plus Coulomb potential and using a separable residual interaction. The results are compared with the ones obtained by making pole expansions of the single-particle Green functions (Berggren and Mittag-Leffler). It is found that the Berggren and Mittag-Leffler expansions give results in good agreement with the 'exact' ones. (orig.).

  4. Temperature Calculations in the Coastal Modeling System (United States)


    System by Honghai Li and Mitchell E. Brown PURPOSE: This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) describes procedures to calculate...strong tidal signals and sufficient wind energy to provide the vertical mixing. Also, the assumption of sufficient energy to mix over the water...of the Corrotoman River is predominated by tidal process with occasional passages of meteorological events. Tide and wind provide sufficient energy

  5. Toward a nitrogen footprint calculator for Tanzania (United States)

    Hutton, Mary Olivia; Leach, Allison M.; Leip, Adrian; Galloway, James N.; Bekunda, Mateete; Sullivan, Clare; Lesschen, Jan Peter


    We present the first nitrogen footprint model for a developing country: Tanzania. Nitrogen (N) is a crucial element for agriculture and human nutrition, but in excess it can cause serious environmental damage. The Sub-Saharan African nation of Tanzania faces a two-sided nitrogen problem: while there is not enough soil nitrogen to produce adequate food, excess nitrogen that escapes into the environment causes a cascade of ecological and human health problems. To identify, quantify, and contribute to solving these problems, this paper presents a nitrogen footprint tool for Tanzania. This nitrogen footprint tool is a concept originally designed for the United States of America (USA) and other developed countries. It uses personal resource consumption data to calculate a per-capita nitrogen footprint. The Tanzania N footprint tool is a version adapted to reflect the low-input, integrated agricultural system of Tanzania. This is reflected by calculating two sets of virtual N factors to describe N losses during food production: one for fertilized farms and one for unfertilized farms. Soil mining factors are also calculated for the first time to address the amount of N removed from the soil to produce food. The average per-capita nitrogen footprint of Tanzania is 10 kg N yr-1. 88% of this footprint is due to food consumption and production, while only 12% of the footprint is due to energy use. Although 91% of farms in Tanzania are unfertilized, the large contribution of fertilized farms to N losses causes unfertilized farms to make up just 83% of the food production N footprint. In a developing country like Tanzania, the main audiences for the N footprint tool are community leaders, planners, and developers who can impact decision-making and use the calculator to plan positive changes for nitrogen sustainability in the developing world.

  6. On the Origins of Calculation Abilities


    Ardila, A.


    A historical review of calculation abilities is presented. Counting, starting with finger sequencing, has been observed in different ancient and contemporary cultures, whereas number representation and arithmetic abilities are found only during the last 5000–6000 years. The rationale for selecting a base of ten in most numerical systems and the clinical association between acalculia and finger agnosia are analyzed. Finger agnosia (as a restricted form of autotopagnosia), right–left discrimina...

  7. Thermal Load Calculations of Multilayered Walls


    Bashir M. Suleiman


    Thermal load calculations have been performed for multi-layered walls that are composed of three different parts; a common (sand and cement) plaster, and two types of locally produced soft and hard bricks. The masonry construction of these layered walls was based on concrete-backed stone masonry made of limestone bricks joined by mortar. These multilayered walls are forming the outer walls of the building envelope of a typical Libyan house. Based on the periodic seasonal ...

  8. Flow calculation in a bulb turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goede, E.; Pestalozzi, J.


    In recent years remarkable progress has been made in the field of computational fluid dynamics. Sometimes the impression may arise when reading the relevant literature that most of the problems in this field have already been solved. Upon studying the matter more deeply, however, it is apparent that some questions still remain unanswered. The use of the quasi-3D (Q3D) computational method for calculating the flow in a fuel hydraulic turbine is described.

  9. Calculation methods of the nuclear characteristics


    Dubovichenko, S. B.


    In the book the mathematical methods of nuclear cross sections and phases of elastic scattering, energy and characteristics of bound states in two- and three-particle nuclear systems, when the potentials of interaction contain not only central, but also tensor component, are presented. Are given the descriptions of the mathematical numerical calculation methods and computer programs in the algorithmic language "BASIC" for "Turbo Basic" of firm "Borland" for the computers of the type IBM PC AT...

  10. Calculation Of Residual Volume By Spirometric Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hashemi


    Full Text Available Background: The current practice to measure RV is either by BPG or helium dilution methods which may not be available in all clinics due to their cost. Methods: This paper outlines a method for both direct and indirect calculation of RV via PFT with acceptable sensitivity (81 %, 60% , specificity (71 %, 94% and validity (76%, 78% for obstructive and restrictive lung disease respectively at a much lower cost.

  11. Calculation of Weighted Geometric Dilution of Precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Sheng Chen


    Full Text Available To achieve high accuracy in wireless positioning systems, both accurate measurements and good geometric relationship between the mobile device and the measurement units are required. Geometric dilution of precision (GDOP is widely used as a criterion for selecting measurement units, since it represents the geometric effect on the relationship between measurement error and positioning determination error. In the calculation of GDOP value, the maximum volume method does not necessarily guarantee the selection of the optimal four measurement units with minimum GDOP. The conventional matrix inversion method for GDOP calculation demands a large amount of operation and causes high power consumption. To select the subset of the most appropriate location measurement units which give the minimum positioning error, we need to consider not only the GDOP effect but also the error statistics property. In this paper, we employ the weighted GDOP (WGDOP, instead of GDOP, to select measurement units so as to improve the accuracy of location. The handheld global positioning system (GPS devices and mobile phones with GPS chips can merely provide limited calculation ability and power capacity. Therefore, it is very imperative to obtain WGDOP accurately and efficiently. This paper proposed two formations of WGDOP with less computation when four measurements are available for location purposes. The proposed formulae can reduce the computational complexity required for computing the matrix inversion. The simpler WGDOP formulae for both the 2D and the 3D location estimation, without inverting a matrix, can be applied not only to GPS but also to wireless sensor networks (WSN and cellular communication systems. Furthermore, the proposed formulae are able to provide precise solution of WGDOP calculation without incurring any approximation error.

  12. 40 CFR 91.1307 - Credit calculation. (United States)


    ...) are to be calculated according to the following equation and rounded, in accordance with ASTM E29-93a, to the nearest gram. ASTM E29-93a has been incorporated by reference. See § 91.6. Consistent units... family in grams per kilowatt hour. CL = compliance level of the in-use testing in g/kW-hr. μuse = mean...

  13. Theoretical Calculations of Atomic Data for Spectroscopy (United States)

    Bautista, Manuel A.


    Several different approximations and techniques have been developed for the calculation of atomic structure, ionization, and excitation of atoms and ions. These techniques have been used to compute large amounts of spectroscopic data of various levels of accuracy. This paper presents a review of these theoretical methods to help non-experts in atomic physics to better understand the qualities and limitations of various data sources and assess how reliable are spectral models based on those data.

  14. Bias in Dynamic Monte Carlo Alpha Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweezy, Jeremy Ed [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nolen, Steven Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Adams, Terry R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Trahan, Travis John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    A 1/N bias in the estimate of the neutron time-constant (commonly denoted as α) has been seen in dynamic neutronic calculations performed with MCATK. In this paper we show that the bias is most likely caused by taking the logarithm of a stochastic quantity. We also investigate the known bias due to the particle population control method used in MCATK. We conclude that this bias due to the particle population control method is negligible compared to other sources of bias.

  15. Characteristic features of calculations of hydrogen generators (United States)

    Troshen'kin, V. B.


    Among the methods of hydrogen generation that are economically sound for autonomous customers is the silikol method. The technique of calculation of the cylinder gas generator circuit is given. The restrictions imposed on the flow velocity in a three-phase reacting system are considered. It is established that the reaction rate in the circuit as a dissipative structure is in direct correlation with the change in the Gibbs energy.

  16. Calculation of reactor antineutrino spectra in TEXONO

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Dong Liang; Mao Ze Pu; Wong, T H


    In the low energy reactor antineutrino physics experiments, either for the researches of antineutrino oscillation and antineutrino reactions, or for the measurement of abnormal magnetic moment of antineutrino, the flux and the spectra of reactor antineutrino must be described accurately. The method of calculation of reactor antineutrino spectra was discussed in detail. Furthermore, based on the actual circumstances of NP2 reactors and the arrangement of detectors, the flux and the spectra of reactor antineutrino in TEXONO were worked out

  17. Activation Product Inverse Calculations with NDI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Mark Girard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    NDI based forward calculations of activation product concentrations can be systematically used to infer structural element concentrations from measured activation product concentrations with an iterative algorithm. The algorithm converges exactly for the basic production-depletion chain with explicit activation product production and approximately, in the least-squares sense, for the full production-depletion chain with explicit activation product production and nosub production-depletion chain. The algorithm is suitable for automation.

  18. TINTE. Nuclear calculation theory description report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerwin, H.; Scherer, W.; Lauer, A. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (DE). Institut fuer Energieforschung (IEF), Sicherheitsforschung und Reaktortechnik (IEF-6); Clifford, I. [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (Pty) Ltd. (South Africa)


    The Time Dependent Neutronics and Temperatures (TINTE) code system deals with the nuclear and the thermal transient behaviour of the primary circuit of the High-temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR), taking into consideration the mutual feedback effects in twodimensional axisymmetric geometry. This document contains a complete description of the theoretical basis of the TINTE nuclear calculation, including the equations solved, solution methods and the nuclear data used in the solution. (orig.)

  19. In situ magnetotail magnetic flux calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Shukhtina


    Full Text Available We explore two new modifications of the magnetotail magnetic flux (F calculation algorithm based on the Petrinec and Russell (1996 (PR96 approach of the tail radius determination. Unlike in the PR96 model, the tail radius value is calculated at each time step based on simultaneous magnetotail and solar wind observations. Our former algorithm, described in Shukhtina et al. (2009, required that the "tail approximation" requirement were fulfilled, i.e., it could be applied only tailward x ∼ −15 RE. The new modifications take into account the approximate uniformity of the magnetic field of external sources in the near and middle tail. Tests, based on magnetohydrodynamics (MHD simulations, show that this approach may be applied at smaller distances, up to x ∼ −3 RE. The tests also show that the algorithm fails during long periods of strong positive interplanetary magnetic field (IMF Bz. A new empirical formula has also been obtained for the tail radius at the terminator (at x = 0 which improves the calculations.

  20. Accurate Calculation of Electric Fields Inside Enzymes. (United States)

    Wang, X; He, X; Zhang, J Z H


    The specific electric field generated by a protease at its active site is considered as an important source of the catalytic power. Accurate calculation of electric field at the active site of an enzyme has both fundamental and practical importance. Measuring site-specific changes of electric field at internal sites of proteins due to, eg, mutation, has been realized by using molecular probes with CO or CN groups in the context of vibrational Stark effect. However, theoretical prediction of change in electric field inside a protein based on a conventional force field, such as AMBER or OPLS, is often inadequate. For such calculation, quantum chemical approach or quantum-based polarizable or polarized force field is highly preferable. Compared with the result from conventional force field, significant improvement is found in predicting experimentally measured mutation-induced electric field change using quantum-based methods, indicating that quantum effect such as polarization plays an important role in accurate description of electric field inside proteins. In comparison, the best theoretical prediction comes from fully quantum mechanical calculation in which both polarization and inter-residue charge transfer effects are included for accurate prediction of electrostatics in proteins. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Excited state electron affinity calculations for aluminum (United States)

    Hussein, Adnan Yousif


    Excited states of negative aluminum ion are reviewed, and calculations of electron affinities of the states (3s^23p^2)^1D and (3s3p^3){^5}{S}° relative to the (3s^23p)^2P° and (3s3p^2)^4P respectively of the neutral aluminum atom are reported in the framework of nonrelativistic configuration interaction (CI) method. A priori selected CI (SCI) with truncation energy error (Bunge in J Chem Phys 125:014107, 2006) and CI by parts (Bunge and Carbó-Dorca in J Chem Phys 125:014108, 2006) are used to approximate the valence nonrelativistic energy. Systematic studies of convergence of electron affinity with respect to the CI excitation level are reported. The calculated value of the electron affinity for ^1D state is 78.675(3) meV. Detailed Calculations on the ^5S°c state reveals that is 1216.8166(3) meV below the ^4P state.

  2. Agriculture-related radiation dose calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furr, J.M.; Mayberry, J.J.; Waite, D.A.


    Estimates of radiation dose to the public must be made at each stage in the identification and qualification process leading to siting a high-level nuclear waste repository. Specifically considering the ingestion pathway, this paper examines questions of reliability and adequacy of dose calculations in relation to five stages of data availability (geologic province, region, area, location, and mass balance) and three methods of calculation (population, population/food production, and food production driven). Calculations were done using the model PABLM with data for the Permian and Palo Duro Basins and the Deaf Smith County area. Extra effort expended in gathering agricultural data at succeeding environmental characterization levels does not appear justified, since dose estimates do not differ greatly; that effort would be better spent determining usage of food types that contribute most to the total dose; and that consumption rate and the air dispersion factor are critical to assessment of radiation dose via the ingestion pathway. 17 refs., 9 figs., 32 tabs.

  3. Sample size calculations for skewed distributions. (United States)

    Cundill, Bonnie; Alexander, Neal D E


    Sample size calculations should correspond to the intended method of analysis. Nevertheless, for non-normal distributions, they are often done on the basis of normal approximations, even when the data are to be analysed using generalized linear models (GLMs). For the case of comparison of two means, we use GLM theory to derive sample size formulae, with particular cases being the negative binomial, Poisson, binomial, and gamma families. By simulation we estimate the performance of normal approximations, which, via the identity link, are special cases of our approach, and for common link functions such as the log. The negative binomial and gamma scenarios are motivated by examples in hookworm vaccine trials and insecticide-treated materials, respectively. Calculations on the link function (log) scale work well for the negative binomial and gamma scenarios examined and are often superior to the normal approximations. However, they have little advantage for the Poisson and binomial distributions. The proposed method is suitable for sample size calculations for comparisons of means of highly skewed outcome variables.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver, E-mail: [Planetary Sciences Group, Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States)


    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature–pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows and Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows and Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via

  5. SEECAL: Program to calculate age-dependent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, M.; Eckerman, K.F.


    This report describes the computer program SEECAL, which calculates specific effective energies (SEE) to specified target regions for ages newborn, 1 y, 5 y, 10 y, 15 y, a 70-kg adult male, and a 58-kg adult female. The dosimetric methodology is that of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and is generally consistent with the schema of the Medical Internal Radiation Dose committee of the US Society of Nuclear Medicine. Computation of SEEs is necessary in the computation of equivalent dose rate in a target region, for occupational or public exposure to radionuclides taken into the body. Program SEECAL replaces the program SEE that was previously used by the Dosimetry Research Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The program SEE was used in the dosimetric calculations for occupational exposures for ICRP Publication 30 and is limited to adults. SEECAL was used to generate age-dependent SEEs for ICRP Publication 56, Part 1. SEECAL is also incorporated into DCAL, a radiation dose and risk calculational system being developed for the Environmental Protection Agency. Electronic copies of the program and data files and this report are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  6. Cost Calculation Model for Logistics Service Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Bokor


    Full Text Available The exact calculation of logistics costs has become a real challenge in logistics and supply chain management. It is essential to gain reliable and accurate costing information to attain efficient resource allocation within the logistics service provider companies. Traditional costing approaches, however, may not be sufficient to reach this aim in case of complex and heterogeneous logistics service structures. So this paper intends to explore the ways of improving the cost calculation regimes of logistics service providers and show how to adopt the multi-level full cost allocation technique in logistics practice. After determining the methodological framework, a sample cost calculation scheme is developed and tested by using estimated input data. Based on the theoretical findings and the experiences of the pilot project it can be concluded that the improved costing model contributes to making logistics costing more accurate and transparent. Moreover, the relations between costs and performances also become more visible, which enhances the effectiveness of logistics planning and controlling significantly

  7. Neural correlates of arithmetic calculation strategies. (United States)

    Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Lovett, Marsha C; Anderson, John R


    Recent research into math cognition has identified areas of the brain that are involved in number processing (Dehaene, Piazza, Pinel, & Cohen, 2003) and complex problem solving (Anderson, 2007). Much of this research assumes that participants use a single strategy; yet, behavioral research finds that people use a variety of strategies (LeFevre et al., 1996; Siegler, 1987; Siegler & Lemaire, 1997). In the present study, we examined cortical activation as a function of two different calculation strategies for mentally solving multidigit multiplication problems. The school strategy, equivalent to long multiplication, involves working from right to left. The expert strategy, used by "lightning" mental calculators (Staszewski, 1988), proceeds from left to right. The two strategies require essentially the same calculations, but have different working memory demands (the school strategy incurs greater demands). The school strategy produced significantly greater early activity in areas involved in attentional aspects of number processing (posterior superior parietal lobule, PSPL) and mental representation (posterior parietal cortex, PPC), but not in a numerical magnitude area (horizontal intraparietal sulcus, HIPS) or a semantic memory retrieval area (lateral inferior prefrontal cortex, LIPFC). An ACT-R model of the task successfully predicted BOLD responses in PPC and LIPFC, as well as in PSPL and HIPS.

  8. Lattice QCD Calculation of Nucleon Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Keh-Fei [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Draper, Terrence [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy


    It is emphasized in the 2015 NSAC Long Range Plan that "understanding the structure of hadrons in terms of QCD's quarks and gluons is one of the central goals of modern nuclear physics." Over the last three decades, lattice QCD has developed into a powerful tool for ab initio calculations of strong-interaction physics. Up until now, it is the only theoretical approach to solving QCD with controlled statistical and systematic errors. Since 1985, we have proposed and carried out first-principles calculations of nucleon structure and hadron spectroscopy using lattice QCD which entails both algorithmic development and large-scale computer simulation. We started out by calculating the nucleon form factors -- electromagnetic, axial-vector, πNN, and scalar form factors, the quark spin contribution to the proton spin, the strangeness magnetic moment, the quark orbital angular momentum, the quark momentum fraction, and the quark and glue decomposition of the proton momentum and angular momentum. The first round of calculations were done with Wilson fermions in the `quenched' approximation where the dynamical effects of the quarks in the sea are not taken into account in the Monte Carlo simulation to generate the background gauge configurations. Beginning in 2000, we have started implementing the overlap fermion formulation into the spectroscopy and structure calculations. This is mainly because the overlap fermion honors chiral symmetry as in the continuum. It is going to be more and more important to take the symmetry into account as the simulations move closer to the physical point where the u and d quark masses are as light as a few MeV only. We began with lattices which have quark masses in the sea corresponding to a pion mass at ~ 300 MeV and obtained the strange form factors, charm and strange quark masses, the charmonium spectrum and the Ds meson decay constant fDs, the strangeness and charmness, the meson mass

  9. Numerical precision calculations for LHC physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuschle, Christian Andreas


    In this thesis I present aspects of QCD calculations, which are related to the fully numerical evaluation of next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD amplitudes, especially of the one-loop contributions, and the efficient computation of associated collider observables. Two interrelated topics have thereby been of concern to the thesis at hand, which give rise to two major parts. One large part is focused on the general group-theoretical behavior of one-loop QCD amplitudes, with respect to the underlying SU(N{sub c}) theory, in order to correctly and efficiently handle the color degrees of freedom in QCD one-loop amplitudes. To this end a new method is introduced that can be used in order to express color-ordered partial one-loop amplitudes with multiple quark-antiquark pairs as shuffle sums over cyclically ordered primitive one-loop amplitudes. The other large part is focused on the local subtraction of divergences off the one-loop integrands of primitive one-loop amplitudes. A method for local UV renormalization has thereby been developed, which uses local UV counterterms and efficient recursive routines. Together with suitable virtual soft and collinear subtraction terms, the subtraction method is extended to the virtual contributions in the calculations of NLO observables, which enables the fully numerical evaluation of the one-loop integrals in the virtual contributions. The method has been successfully applied to the calculation of jet rates in electron-positron annihilation to NLO accuracy in the large-N{sub c} limit.

  10. Rooftop Unit Comparison Calculator User Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This document serves as a user manual for the Packaged rooftop air conditioners and heat pump units comparison calculator (RTUCC) and is an aggregation of the calculator’s website documentation. Content ranges from new-user guide material like the “Quick Start” to the more technical/algorithmic descriptions of the “Methods Pages.” There is also a section listing all the context-help topics that support the features on the “Controls” page. The appendix has a discussion of the EnergyPlus runs that supported the development of the building-response models.

  11. Calculating the cost of a healthcare project. (United States)

    Stichler, Jaynelle F


    Nearly $200 billion of healthcare construction is expected by the year 2015, and nurse leaders must expand their knowledge and capabilities in healthcare design. This bimonthly department prepares nurse leaders to use the evidence-based design process to ensure that new, expanded, and renovated hospitals facilitate optimal patient outcomes, enhance the work environment for healthcare providers, and improve organizational performance. In this article, the author introduces important project budget terms and a method of calculating an estimation of probable cost for a building project.

  12. Calculations in bridge aeroelasticity via CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brar, P.S.; Raul, R.; Scanlan, R.H. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)


    The central focus of the present study is the numerical calculation of flutter derivatives. These aeroelastic coefficients play an important role in determining the stability or instability of long, flexible structures under ambient wind loading. A class of Civil Engineering structures most susceptible to such an instability are long-span bridges of the cable-stayed or suspended-span variety. The disastrous collapse of the Tacoma Narrows suspension bridge in the recent past, due to a flutter instability, has been a big impetus in motivating studies in flutter of bridge decks.

  13. Exact and approximate calculation of giant resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vertse, T. [Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Debrecen (Hungary). Atommag Kutato Intezete; Liotta, R.J. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden); Maglione, E. [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica


    Energies, sum rules and partial decay widths of giant resonances in {sup 208}Pb are calculated solving exactly the continuum RPA equations corresponding to a central Woods-Saxon potential. For comparison an approximate treatment of those quantities in terms of pole expansions of the Green function (Berggren and Mittag-Leffler) is also performed. It is found that the approximated results agree well with the exact ones. Comparison with experimental data is made and a search for physically meaningful resonances is carried out. ((orig.))

  14. Calculation of persistent currents in superconducting magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Völlinger


    Full Text Available This paper describes a semianalytical hysteresis model for hard superconductors. The model is based on the critical state model considering the dependency of the critical current density on the varying local field in the superconducting filaments. By combining this hysteresis model with numerical field computation methods, it is possible to calculate the persistent current multipole errors in the magnet taking local saturation effects in the magnetic iron parts into consideration. As an application of the method, the use of soft magnetic iron sheets (coil protection sheets mounted between the coils and the collars for partial compensation of the multipole errors during the ramping of the magnets is investigated.

  15. Electrical Conductivity Calculations from the Purgatorio Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, S B; Isaacs, W A; Sterne, P A; Wilson, B G; Sonnad, V; Young, D A


    The Purgatorio code [Wilson et al., JQSRT 99, 658-679 (2006)] is a new implementation of the Inferno model describing a spherically symmetric average atom embedded in a uniform plasma. Bound and continuum electrons are treated using a fully relativistic quantum mechanical description, giving the electron-thermal contribution to the equation of state (EOS). The free-electron density of states can also be used to calculate scattering cross sections for electron transport. Using the extended Ziman formulation, electrical conductivities are then obtained by convolving these transport cross sections with externally-imposed ion-ion structure factors.

  16. ICBM vulnerability: Calculations, predictions, and error bars (United States)

    Hobson, Art


    The theory of intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) silo vulnerability is reviewed, and the present and probable future (mid-1990s) vulnerability of US silos is analyzed. The analysis emphasizes methodology, sources of information, and uncertainties. US ICBMs might still be survivable today but they will certainly be vulnerable to ICBM attack, and perhaps even to submarine-launched ballistic missile attack, by the mid-1990s. These calculations are presented not only for their immediate importance but also to introduce other physicists to some of the quantitative methods that can be used to analyze international security topics.

  17. Drift Mode Calculations in Nonaxisymmetric Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Rewoldt; L.-P. Ku; W.A. Cooper; W.M. Tang


    A fully kinetic assessment of the stability properties of toroidal drift modes has been obtained for nonaxisymmetric (stellarator) geometry, in the electrostatic limit. This calculation is a comprehensive solution of the linearized gyrokinetic equation, using the lowest-order ''ballooning representation'' for high toroidal mode number instabilities, with a model collision operator. Results for toroidal drift waves destabilized by temperature gradients and/or trapped particle dynamics are presented, using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equilibria generated as part of a design effort for a quasiaxisymmetric stellarator. Comparisons of these results with those obtained for typical tokamak cases indicate that the basic trends are similar.

  18. Calculations in fundamental physics mechanics and heat

    CERN Document Server

    Heddle, T


    Calculations in Fundamental Physics, Volume I: Mechanics and Heat focuses on the mechanisms of heat. The manuscript first discusses motion, including parabolic, angular, and rectilinear motions, relative velocity, acceleration of gravity, and non-uniform acceleration. The book then discusses combinations of forces, such as polygons and resolution, friction, center of gravity, shearing force, and bending moment. The text looks at force and acceleration, energy and power, and machines. Considerations include momentum, horizontal or vertical motion, work and energy, pulley systems, gears and chai

  19. Speed mathematics secrets skills for quick calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Handley, Bill


    Using this book will improve your understanding of math and haveyou performing like a genius!People who excel at mathematics use better strategies than the restof us; they are not necessarily more intelligent.Speed Mathematics teaches simple methods that will enable you tomake lightning calculations in your head-including multiplication,division, addition, and subtraction, as well as working withfractions, squaring numbers, and extracting square and cube roots.Here's just one example of this revolutionary approach to basicmathematics:96 x 97 =Subtract each number from 100.96 x 97 =4 3Subtract

  20. PyTransport: Calculate inflationary correlation functions (United States)

    Mulryne, David J.; Ronayne, John W.


    PyTransport calculates the 2-point and 3-point function of inflationary perturbations produced during multi-field inflation. The core of PyTransport is C++ code which is automatically edited and compiled into a Python module once an inflationary potential is specified. This module can then be called to solve the background inflationary cosmology as well as the evolution of correlations of inflationary perturbations. PyTransport includes two additional modules written in Python, one to perform the editing and compilation, and one containing a suite of functions for common tasks such as looping over the core module to construct spectra and bispectra.

  1. Enthalpy Calculation for Pressurized Oxy- coal Combustion


    Weihong Wu; Jingli Huang


    Oxy-fuel combustion is recognizing one of the most promising available technologies that zero emission accomplishment may be in the offing. With coal burned under the pressure of 6MPa and oxygen-enriched conditions, the high temperature and high pressure gaseous combustion product is composed of 95% CO2 and water-vapor, with the rest of O2, N2 and so on. However, once lauded as classic approach of resolving fuel gas enthalpy calculation pertaining to ideal gas at atmospheric pressure was rest...

  2. Representation and calculation of economic uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans


    the economic uncertainties involved, different procedures have been suggested. This paper discusses the representation of economic uncertainties by intervals,fuzzy numbers and probabilities, including double, triple and quadruple estimates and the problems of applying the four basic arithmetical operations...... additional uncertainties not present in the original economic problem. The paper will finally discuss the applicability and limitations of a few computational procedures based on available computer programs used for practical economic calculations with uncertain values. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All...

  3. Cobalamins uncovered by modern electronic structure calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta; Ryde, Ulf


    This review describes how computational methods have contributed to the held of cobalamin chemistry since the start of the new millennium. Cobalamins are cobalt-dependent cofactors that are used for alkyl transfer and radical initiation by several classes of enzymes. Since the entry of modern...... electronic-structure calculations, in particular density functional methods, the understanding of the molecular mechanism of cobalamins has changed dramatically, going from a dominating view of trans-steric strain effects to a much more complex view involving an arsenal of catalytic strategies. Among...

  4. Calculate the moisture content of steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V. (ABCO Industries, Inc., Abilene, TX (United States))


    Water droplets in steam can create serious problems. For example, if the steam is being used to drive turbines, droplets can damage the turbine blades. It is important, therefore, for an engineer to know if steam contains moisture, especially if the steam is generated in low-pressure boilers (under 500 psia). Unlike larger boilers, these units don't have internal separation devices such as cyclones. Calculating the steam's moisture content, or quality, can be complicated procedure. Now, a simple chart can be used to get the data from one temperature reading. The paper explains the procedure.

  5. Motor Torque Calculations For Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Chauhan


    Full Text Available Abstract It is estimated that 25 of the total cars across the world will run on electricity by 2025. An important component that is an integral part of all electric vehicles is the motor. The amount of torque that the driving motor delivers is what plays a decisive role in determining the speed acceleration and performance of an electric vehicle. The following work aims at simplifying the calculations required to decide the capacity of the motor that should be used to drive a vehicle of particular specifications.

  6. Atomic Reference Data for Electronic Structure Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Kotochigova, S; Shirley, E L

    We have generated data for atomic electronic structure calculations, to provide a standard reference for results of specified accuracy under commonly used approximations. Results are presented here for total energies and orbital energy eigenvalues for all atoms from H to U, at microHartree accuracy in the total energy, as computed in the local-density approximation (LDA) the local-spin-density approximation (LSD); the relativistic local-density approximation (RLDA); and scalar-relativistic local-density approximation (ScRLDA).

  7. Calcul mathématique avec Sage


    Casamayou, Alexandre; Cohen, Nathann; Connan, Guillaume; Dumont, Thierry; Fousse, Laurent; Maltey, Francois; Meulien, Matthias; Mezzarobba, Marc; Pernet, Clément; Thiéry, Nicolas M.; Zimmermann, Paul


    electronic version available under Creative Commons license; Sage est un logiciel libre de calcul mathématique s'appuyant sur le langage de programmation Python. Ses auteurs, une communauté internationale de centaines d'enseignants et de chercheurs, se sont donné pour mission de fournir une alternative viable aux logiciels Magma, Maple, Mathematica et Matlab. Sage fait appel pour cela à de multiples logiciels libres existants, comme GAP, Maxima, PARI et diverses bibliothèques scientifiques po...

  8. Using reciprocity in Boundary Element Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter Møller; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente


    as the reciprocal radiation problem. The present paper concerns the situation of having a point source (which is reciprocal to a point receiver) at or near a discretized boundary element surface. The accuracy of the original and the reciprocal problem is compared in a test case for which an analytical solution......The concept of reciprocity is widely used in both theoretical and experimental work. In Boundary Element calculations reciprocity is sometimes employed in the solution of computationally expensive scattering problems, which sometimes can be more efficiently dealt with when formulated...

  9. Chinese books on Western calendrical calculations and Japanese calendrical calculators in Edo era (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuhiko


    From the end of Ming to the beginning of Qing China many Western scientific books were translated into Chinese by Jesuit missionaries with cooperation of Chinese intellectuals. The Tokugawa government began to permit the importation of them as an exception to the Shogunate's seclusion policy in 1720. In this paper the author discussed the acceptances of them, especially Chinese books on Western calendrical calculations by Japanese calendrical calculators in 18th-19th centuries.

  10. The calculation of information and organismal complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Cunshuan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is difficult to measure precisely the phenotypic complexity of living organisms. Here we propose a method to calculate the minimal amount of genomic information needed to construct organism (effective information as a measure of organismal complexity, by using permutation and combination formulas and Shannon's information concept. Results The results demonstrate that the calculated information correlates quite well with the intuitive organismal phenotypic complexity defined by traditional taxonomy and evolutionary theory. From viruses to human beings, the effective information gradually increases, from thousands of bits to hundreds of millions of bits. The simpler the organism is, the less the information; the more complex the organism, the more the information. About 13% of human genome is estimated as effective information or functional sequence. Conclusions The effective information can be used as a quantitative measure of phenotypic complexity of living organisms and also as an estimate of functional fraction of genome. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr. Lavanya Kannan (nominated by Dr. Arcady Mushegian, Dr. Chao Chen, and Dr. ED Rietman (nominated by Dr. Marc Vidal.

  11. ARTc: Anisotropic reflectivity and transmissivity calculator (United States)

    Malehmir, Reza; Schmitt, Douglas R.


    While seismic anisotropy is known to exist within the Earth's crust and even deeper, isotropic or even highly symmetric elastic anisotropic assumptions for seismic imaging is an over-simplification which may create artifacts in the image, target mis-positioning and hence flawed interpretation. In this paper, we have developed the ARTc algorithm to solve reflectivity, transmissivity as well as velocity and particle polarization in the most general case of elastic anisotropy. This algorithm is able to provide reflectivity solution from the boundary between two anisotropic slabs with arbitrary symmetry and orientation up to triclinic. To achieve this, the algorithm solves full elastic wave equation to find polarization, slowness and amplitude of all six wave-modes generated from the incident plane-wave and welded interface. In the first step to calculate the reflectivity, the algorithm solves properties of the incident wave such as particle polarization and slowness. After calculation of the direction of generated waves, the algorithm solves their respective slowness and particle polarization. With this information, the algorithm then solves a system of equations incorporating the imposed boundary conditions to arrive at the scattered wave amplitudes, and thus reflectivity and transmissivity. Reflectivity results as well as slowness and polarization are then tested in complex computational anisotropic models to ensure their accuracy and reliability. ARTc is coded in MATLAB ® and bundled with an interactive GUI and bash script to run on single or multi-processor computers.

  12. Calculating scattering matrices by wave function matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwierzycki, M. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznan (Poland); Khomyakov, P.A.; Starikov, A.A.; Talanana, M.; Xu, P.X.; Karpan, V.M.; Marushchenko, I.; Brocks, G.; Kelly, P.J. [Faculty of Science and Technology and MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Xia, K. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Turek, I. [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic); Bauer, G.E.W. [Kavli Institute of NanoScience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands)


    The conductance of nanoscale structures can be conveniently related to their scattering properties expressed in terms of transmission and reflection coefficients. Wave function matching (WFM) is a transparent technique for calculating transmission and reflection matrices for any Hamiltonian that can be represented in tight-binding form. A first-principles Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian represented on a localized orbital basis or on a real space grid has such a form. WFM is based upon direct matching of the scattering-region wave function to the Bloch modes of ideal leads used to probe the scattering region. The purpose of this paper is to give a pedagogical introduction to WFM and present some illustrative examples of its use in practice. We briefly discuss WFM for calculating the conductance of atomic wires, using a real space grid implementation. A tight-binding muffin-tin orbital implementation very suitable for studying spin-dependent transport in layered magnetic materials is illustrated by looking at spin-dependent transmission through ideal and disordered interfaces. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Group Contribution Methods for Phase Equilibrium Calculations. (United States)

    Gmehling, Jürgen; Constantinescu, Dana; Schmid, Bastian


    The development and design of chemical processes are carried out by solving the balance equations of a mathematical model for sections of or the whole chemical plant with the help of process simulators. For process simulation, besides kinetic data for the chemical reaction, various pure component and mixture properties are required. Because of the great importance of separation processes for a chemical plant in particular, a reliable knowledge of the phase equilibrium behavior is required. The phase equilibrium behavior can be calculated with the help of modern equations of state or g(E)-models using only binary parameters. But unfortunately, only a very small part of the experimental data for fitting the required binary model parameters is available, so very often these models cannot be applied directly. To solve this problem, powerful predictive thermodynamic models have been developed. Group contribution methods allow the prediction of the required phase equilibrium data using only a limited number of group interaction parameters. A prerequisite for fitting the required group interaction parameters is a comprehensive database. That is why for the development of powerful group contribution methods almost all published pure component properties, phase equilibrium data, excess properties, etc., were stored in computerized form in the Dortmund Data Bank. In this review, the present status, weaknesses, advantages and disadvantages, possible applications, and typical results of the different group contribution methods for the calculation of phase equilibria are presented.

  14. Calculation of aberration coefficients by ray tracing. (United States)

    Oral, M; Lencová, B


    In this paper we present an approach for the calculation of aberration coefficients using accurate ray tracing. For a given optical system, intersections of a large number of trajectories with a given plane are computed. In the Gaussian image plane the imaging with the selected optical system can be described by paraxial and aberration coefficients (geometric and chromatic) that can be calculated by least-squares fitting of the analytical model on the computed trajectory positions. An advantage of such a way of computing the aberration coefficients is that, in comparison with the aberration integrals and the differential algebra method, it is relatively easy to use and its complexity stays almost constant with the growing complexity of the optical system. This paper shows a tested procedure for choosing proper initial conditions and computing the coefficients of the fifth-order geometrical and third-order, first-degree chromatic aberrations by ray tracing on an example of a weak electrostatic lens. The results are compared with the values for the same lens from a paper Liu [Ultramicroscopy 106 (2006) 220-232].

  15. Radioprotection calculations for the TRADE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Zanini, L; Herrera-Martínez, A; Kadi, Y; Rubbia, Carlo; Burgio, N; Carta, M; Santagata, A; Cinotti, L


    The TRADE project is based on the coupling of, in a sub-critical configuration, of a 115 MeV, 2 mA proton cyclotron with a TRIGA research reactor at the ENEA Casaccia centre (Rome). Detailed radioprotection calculations using the FLUKA and EA-MC Monte Carlo codes were performed during the feasibility study. The study concentrated on dose rates due to beam losses in normal operating conditions and in the calculation of activation in the most sensitive components of the experiment. Results show that a shielding of 1.4 m of barytes concrete around the beam line will be sufficient to maintain the effective doses below the level of 10 Mu Sv/h, provided that the beam losses are at the level of 10 nA/m. The activation level around the beam line and in the water will be negligible, while the spallation target will reach an activation level comparable to the one of a fuel element at maximum burnup.

  16. Criticality Calculations with MCNP6 - Practical Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Monte Carlo Methods, Codes, and Applications (XCP-3); Rising, Michael Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Monte Carlo Methods, Codes, and Applications (XCP-3); Alwin, Jennifer Louise [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Monte Carlo Methods, Codes, and Applications (XCP-3)


    These slides are used to teach MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle) usage to nuclear criticality safety analysts. The following are the lecture topics: course information, introduction, MCNP basics, criticality calculations, advanced geometry, tallies, adjoint-weighted tallies and sensitivities, physics and nuclear data, parameter studies, NCS validation I, NCS validation II, NCS validation III, case study 1 - solution tanks, case study 2 - fuel vault, case study 3 - B&W core, case study 4 - simple TRIGA, case study 5 - fissile mat. vault, criticality accident alarm systems. After completion of this course, you should be able to: Develop an input model for MCNP; Describe how cross section data impact Monte Carlo and deterministic codes; Describe the importance of validation of computer codes and how it is accomplished; Describe the methodology supporting Monte Carlo codes and deterministic codes; Describe pitfalls of Monte Carlo calculations; Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of Monte Carlo and Discrete Ordinants codes; The diffusion theory model is not strictly valid for treating fissile systems in which neutron absorption, voids, and/or material boundaries are present. In the context of these limitations, identify a fissile system for which a diffusion theory solution would be adequate.

  17. A new calculation of LAMOST optical vignetting (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Luo, Ali; Chen, Jianjun; Liu, Genrong; Comte, Georges


    A new method to calculate the optical vignetting of LAMOST (Large Sky Area Muti-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope) is presented. With the pilot survey of LAMOST, it is necessary to have thorough and quantitative estimation and analysis on the observing efficiency which is affected by various factors: the optical system of the telescope and the spectrograph that is vignetting, the focal instrument, and the site condition. The wide field and large pupil of LAMOST fed by a Schmidt reflecting mirror, with a fixed optical axis coinciding with the local polar axis, lead to significant telescope vignetting, caused by the effective light-collecting area of the corrector, the light obstruction of the focal-plate, and the size of the primary mirror. A calculation of the vignetting has been presented by Xue et al. (2007), which considered 4 meter circle limitation and based on ray-tracking. In fact, there is no effect of the 4 meter circle limitation, so that we compute the vignetting again by means of obtaining the ratio of effective projected area of the corrector. All the results are derived by AUTOCAD. Moreover, the vignetting functions and vignetting variations with declination at which the telescope is pointed and the position considered in the focal surface are presented and analysed. Finally, compared with the ray-tracing method to obtain the vignetting before, the validity and availability of the proposed method are illustrated.

  18. Electronic Structure Calculations and the Ising Hamiltonian. (United States)

    Xia, Rongxin; Bian, Teng; Kais, Sabre


    Obtaining exact solutions to the Schrödinger equation for atoms, molecules, and extended systems continues to be a "Holy Grail" problem which the fields of theoretical chemistry and physics have been striving to solve since inception. Recent breakthroughs have been made in the development of hardware-efficient quantum optimizers and coherent Ising machines capable of simulating hundreds of interacting spins with an Ising-type Hamiltonian. One of the most vital questions pertaining to these new devices is, "Can these machines be used to perform electronic structure calculations?" Within this work, we review the general procedure used by these devices and prove that there is an exact mapping between the electronic structure Hamiltonian and the Ising Hamiltonian. Additionally, we provide simulation results of the transformed Ising Hamiltonian for H2 , He2 , HeH+, and LiH molecules, which match the exact numerical calculations. This demonstrates that one can map the molecular Hamiltonian to an Ising-type Hamiltonian which could easily be implemented on currently available quantum hardware. This is an early step in developing generalized methods on such devices for chemical physics.

  19. Cognitive Reflection Versus Calculation in Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr eSinayev


    Full Text Available Scores on the three-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT have been linked with dual-system theory and normative decision making (Frederick, 2005. In particular, the CRT is thought to measure monitoring of System 1 intuitions such that, if cognitive reflection is high enough, intuitive errors will be detected and the problem will be solved. However, CRT items also require numeric ability to be answered correctly and it is unclear how much numeric ability vs. cognitive reflection contributes to better decision making. In two studies, CRT responses were used to calculate Cognitive Reflection and numeric ability; a numeracy scale was also administered. Numeric ability, measured on the CRT or the numeracy scale, accounted for the CRT’s ability to predict more normative decisions (a subscale of decision-making competence, incentivized measures of impatient and risk-averse choice, and self-reported financial outcomes; Cognitive Reflection contributed no independent predictive power. Results were similar whether the two abilities were modeled (Study 1 or calculated using proportions (Studies 1 and 2. These findings demonstrate numeric ability as a robust predictor of superior decision making across multiple tasks and outcomes. They also indicate that correlations of decision performance with the CRT are insufficient evidence to implicate overriding intuitions in the decision-making biases and outcomes we examined. Numeric ability appears to be the key mechanism instead.

  20. Fastlim: a fast LHC limit calculator. (United States)

    Papucci, Michele; Sakurai, Kazuki; Weiler, Andreas; Zeune, Lisa

    Fastlim is a tool to calculate conservative limits on extensions of the Standard Model from direct LHC searches without performing any Monte Carlo event generation. The program reconstructs the visible cross sections (cross sections after event selection cuts) from pre-calculated efficiency tables and cross section tables for simplified event topologies. As a proof of concept of the approach, we have implemented searches relevant for supersymmetric models with R-parity conservation. Fastlim takes the spectrum and coupling information of a given model point and provides, for each signal region of the implemented analyses, the visible cross sections normalised to the corresponding upper limit, reported by the experiments, as well as the [Formula: see text] value. To demonstrate the utility of the program we study the sensitivity of the recent ATLAS missing energy searches to the parameter space of natural SUSY models. The program structure allows the straightforward inclusion of external efficiency tables and can be generalised to R-parity violating scenarios and non-SUSY models. This paper serves as a self-contained user guide and indicates the conventions and approximations used.

  1. Direct search algorithms for optimization calculations (United States)

    Powell, M. J. D.

    Many different procedures have been proposed for optimization calculations when first derivatives are not available. Further, several researchers have contributed to the subject, including some who wish to prove convergence theorems, and some who wish to make any reduction in the least calculated value of the objective function. There is not even a key idea that can be used as a foundation of a review, except for the problem itself, which is the adjustment of variables so that a function becomes least, where each value of the function is returned by a subroutine for each trial vector of variables. Therefore the paper is a collection of essays on particular strategies and algorithms, in order to consider the advantages, limitations and theory of several techniques. The subjects addressed are line search methods, the restriction of vectors of variables to discrete grids, the use of geometric simplices, conjugate direction procedures, trust region algorithms that form linear or quadratic approximations to the objective function, and simulated annealing. We study the main features of the methods themselves, instead of providing a catalogue of references to published work, because an understanding of these features may be very helpful to future research.

  2. Electron mobility calculation for graphene on substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, Hideki; Ogawa, Matsuto [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1, Rokko-dai, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Hideaki, E-mail: [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1, Rokko-dai, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Kamakura, Yoshinari; Mori, Nobuya [Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)


    By a semiclassical Monte Carlo method, the electron mobility in graphene is calculated for three different substrates: SiO{sub 2}, HfO{sub 2}, and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). The calculations account for polar and non-polar surface optical phonon (OP) scatterings induced by the substrates and charged impurity (CI) scattering, in addition to intrinsic phonon scattering in pristine graphene. It is found that HfO{sub 2} is unsuitable as a substrate, because the surface OP scattering of the substrate significantly degrades the electron mobility. The mobility on the SiO{sub 2} and h-BN substrates decreases due to CI scattering. However, the mobility on the h-BN substrate exhibits a high electron mobility of 170 000 cm{sup 2}/(V·s) for electron densities less than 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2}. Therefore, h-BN should be an appealing substrate for graphene devices, as confirmed experimentally.

  3. Calculation of fractional electron capture probabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Schoenfeld, E


    A 'Table of Radionuclides' is being prepared which will supersede the 'Table de Radionucleides' formerly issued by the LMRI/LPRI (France). In this effort it is desirable to have a uniform basis for calculating theoretical values of fractional electron capture probabilities. A table has been compiled which allows one to calculate conveniently and quickly the fractional probabilities P sub K , P sub L , P sub M , P sub N and P sub O , their ratios and the assigned uncertainties for allowed and non-unique first forbidden electron capture transitions of known transition energy for radionuclides with atomic numbers from Z=3 to 102. These results have been applied to a total of 28 transitions of 14 radionuclides ( sup 7 Be, sup 2 sup 2 Na, sup 5 sup 1 Cr, sup 5 sup 4 Mn, sup 5 sup 5 Fe, sup 6 sup 8 Ge , sup 6 sup 8 Ga, sup 7 sup 5 Se, sup 1 sup 0 sup 9 Cd, sup 1 sup 2 sup 5 I, sup 1 sup 3 sup 9 Ce, sup 1 sup 6 sup 9 Yb, sup 1 sup 9 sup 7 Hg, sup 2 sup 0 sup 2 Tl). The values are in reasonable agreement with measure...

  4. Calculations of neoclassical impurity transport in stellarators (United States)

    Mollén, Albert; Smith, Håkan M.; Langenberg, Andreas; Turkin, Yuriy; Beidler, Craig D.; Helander, Per; Landreman, Matt; Newton, Sarah L.; García-Regaña, José M.; Nunami, Masanori


    The new stellarator Wendelstein 7-X has finished the first operational campaign and is restarting operation in the summer 2017. To demonstrate that the stellarator concept is a viable candidate for a fusion reactor and to allow for long pulse lengths of 30 min, i.e. ``quasi-stationary'' operation, it will be important to avoid central impurity accumulation typically governed by the radial neoclassical transport. The SFINCS code has been developed to calculate neoclassical quantities such as the radial collisional transport and the ambipolar radial electric field in 3D magnetic configurations. SFINCS is a cutting-edge numerical tool which combines several important features: the ability to model an arbitrary number of kinetic plasma species, the full linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator for all species, and the ability to calculate and account for the variation of the electrostatic potential on flux surfaces. In the present work we use SFINCS to study neoclassical impurity transport in stellarators. We explore how flux-surface potential variations affect the radial particle transport, and how the radial electric field is modified by non-trace impurities and flux-surface potential variations.

  5. Free-Energy Calculations. A Mathematical Perspective (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrzej


    Ion channels are pore-forming assemblies of transmembrane proteins that mediate and regulate ion transport through cell walls. They are ubiquitous to all life forms. In humans and other higher organisms they play the central role in conducting nerve impulses. They are also essential to cardiac processes, muscle contraction and epithelial transport. Ion channels from lower organisms can act as toxins or antimicrobial agents, and in a number of cases are involved in infectious diseases. Because of their important and diverse biological functions they are frequent targets of drug action. Also, simple natural or synthetic channels find numerous applications in biotechnology. For these reasons, studies of ion channels are at the forefront of biophysics, structural biology and cellular biology. In the last decade, the increased availability of X-ray structures has greatly advanced our understanding of ion channels. However, their mechanism of action remains elusive. This is because, in order to assist controlled ion transport, ion channels are dynamic by nature, but X-ray crystallography captures the channel in a single, sometimes non-native state. To explain how ion channels work, X-ray structures have to be supplemented with dynamic information. In principle, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can aid in providing this information, as this is precisely what MD has been designed to do. However, MD simulations suffer from their own problems, such as inability to access sufficiently long time scales or limited accuracy of force fields. To assess the reliability of MD simulations it is only natural to turn to the main function of channels - conducting ions - and compare calculated ionic conductance with electrophysiological data, mainly single channel recordings, obtained under similar conditions. If this comparison is satisfactory it would greatly increase our confidence that both the structures and our computational methodologies are sufficiently accurate. Channel

  6. Development of thermodynamic databases for geochemical calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, R.C. [Monitor Scientific, L.L.C., Denver, Colorado (United States); Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Shibata, Masahiro; Yui, Mikazu [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Neyama, Atsushi [Computer Software Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Two thermodynamic databases for geochemical calculations supporting research and development on geological disposal concepts for high level radioactive waste are described in this report. One, SPRONS.JNC, is compatible with thermodynamic relations comprising the SUPCRT model and software, which permits calculation of the standard molal and partial molal thermodynamic properties of minerals, gases, aqueous species and reactions from 1 to 5000 bars and 0 to 1000degC. This database includes standard molal Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of formation, standard molal entropies and volumes, and Maier-Kelly heat capacity coefficients at the reference pressure (1 bar) and temperature (25degC) for 195 minerals and 16 gases. It also includes standard partial molal Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of formation, standard partial molal entropies, and Helgeson, Kirkham and Flowers (HKF) equation-of-state coefficients at the reference pressure and temperature for 1147 inorganic and organic aqueous ions and complexes. SPRONS.JNC extends similar databases described elsewhere by incorporating new and revised data published in the peer-reviewed literature since 1991. The other database, PHREEQE.JNC, is compatible with the PHREEQE series of geochemical modeling codes. It includes equilibrium constants at 25degC and l bar for mineral-dissolution, gas-solubility, aqueous-association and oxidation-reduction reactions. Reaction enthalpies, or coefficients in an empirical log K(T) function, are also included in this database, which permits calculation of equilibrium constants between 0 and 100degC at 1 bar. All equilibrium constants, reaction enthalpies, and log K(T) coefficients in PHREEQE.JNC are calculated using SUPCRT and SPRONS.JNC, which ensures that these two databases are mutually consistent. They are also internally consistent insofar as all the data are compatible with basic thermodynamic definitions and functional relations in the SUPCRT model, and because primary

  7. Corrugated Membrane Nonlinear Deformation Process Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Nikolaeva


    Full Text Available Elastic elements are widely used in instrumentation. They are used to create a particular interference between the parts, for accumulating mechanical energy, as the motion transmission elements, elastic supports, and sensing elements of measuring devices. Device reliability and quality depend on the calculation accuracy of the elastic elements. A corrugated membrane is rather common embodiment of the elastic element.The corrugated membrane properties depend largely on its profile i.e. a generatrix of the meridian surface.Unlike other types of pressure elastic members (bellows, tube spring, the elastic characteristics of which are close to linear, an elastic characteristic of the corrugated membrane (typical movement versus external load is nonlinear. Therefore, the corrugated membranes can be used to measure quantities, nonlinearly related to the pressure (e.g., aircraft air speed, its altitude, pipeline fluid or gas flow rate. Another feature of the corrugated membrane is that significant movements are possible within the elastic material state. However, a significant non-linearity of membrane characteristics leads to severe complicated calculation.This article is aimed at calculating the corrugated membrane to obtain the elastic characteristics and the deformed shape of the membrane meridian, as well as at investigating the processes of buckling. As the calculation model, a thin-walled axisymmetric shell rotation is assumed. The material properties are linearly elastic. We consider a corrugated membrane of sinusoidal profile. The membrane load is a uniform pressure.The algorithm for calculating the mathematical model of an axisymmetric corrugated membrane of constant thickness, based on the Reissner’s theory of elastic thin shells, was realized as the author's program in C language. To solve the nonlinear problem were used a method of changing the subspace of control parameters, developed by S.S., Gavriushin, and a parameter marching method

  8. Clinical calculators in hospital medicine: Availability, classification, and needs. (United States)

    Dziadzko, Mikhail A; Gajic, Ognjen; Pickering, Brian W; Herasevich, Vitaly


    Clinical calculators are widely used in modern clinical practice, but are not generally applied to electronic health record (EHR) systems. Important barriers to the application of these clinical calculators into existing EHR systems include the need for real-time calculation, human-calculator interaction, and data source requirements. The objective of this study was to identify, classify, and evaluate the use of available clinical calculators for clinicians in the hospital setting. Dedicated online resources with medical calculators and providers of aggregated medical information were queried for readily available clinical calculators. Calculators were mapped by clinical categories, mechanism of calculation, and the goal of calculation. Online statistics from selected Internet resources and clinician opinion were used to assess the use of clinical calculators. One hundred seventy-six readily available calculators in 4 categories, 6 primary specialties, and 40 subspecialties were identified. The goals of calculation included prediction, severity, risk estimation, diagnostic, and decision-making aid. A combination of summation logic with cutoffs or rules was the most frequent mechanism of computation. Combined results, online resources, statistics, and clinician opinion identified 13 most utilized calculators. Although not an exhaustive list, a total of 176 validated calculators were identified, classified, and evaluated for usefulness. Most of these calculators are used for adult patients in the critical care or internal medicine settings. Thirteen of 176 clinical calculators were determined to be useful in our institution. All of these calculators have an interface for manual input. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Void growth in metals: Atomistic calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traiviratana, Sirirat [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Bringa, Eduardo M. [Materials Science Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Benson, David J. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Meyers, Marc A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); NanoEngineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)], E-mail:


    Molecular dynamics simulations in monocrystalline and bicrystalline copper were carried out with LAMMPS (Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator) to reveal void growth mechanisms. The specimens were subjected to tensile uniaxial strains; the results confirm that the emission of (shear) loops is the primary mechanism of void growth. It is observed that many of these shear loops develop along two slip planes (and not one, as previously thought), in a heretofore unidentified mechanism of cooperative growth. The emission of dislocations from voids is the first stage, and their reaction and interaction is the second stage. These loops, forming initially on different {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} planes, join at the intersection, if the Burgers vector of the dislocations is parallel to the intersection of two {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} planes: a <1 1 0> direction. Thus, the two dislocations cancel at the intersection and a biplanar shear loop is formed. The expansion of the loops and their cross slip leads to the severely work-hardened region surrounding a growing void. Calculations were carried out on voids with different sizes, and a size dependence of the stress threshold to emit dislocations was obtained by MD, in disagreement with the Gurson model which is scale independent. This disagreement is most marked for the nanometer sized voids. The scale dependence of the stress required to grow voids is interpreted in terms of the decreasing availability of optimally oriented shear planes and increased stress required to nucleate shear loops as the void size is reduced. The growth of voids simulated by MD is compared with the Cocks-Ashby constitutive model and significant agreement is found. The density of geometrically necessary dislocations as a function of void size is calculated based on the emission of shear loops and their outward propagation. Calculations are also carried out for a void at the interface between two grains to simulate polycrystalline

  10. Parameterization Impacts on Linear Uncertainty Calculation (United States)

    Fienen, M. N.; Doherty, J.; Reeves, H. W.; Hunt, R. J.


    Efficient linear calculation of model prediction uncertainty can be an insightful diagnostic metric for decision-making. Specifically, the contributions of parameter uncertainty or the location and type of data to prediction uncertainty can be used to evaluate which types of information are most valuable. Information that most significantly reduces prediction uncertainty can be considered to have greater worth. Prediction uncertainty is commonly calculated including or excluding specific information and compared to a base scenario. The quantitative difference in uncertainty with or without the information is indicative of that information's worth in the decision-making process. These results can be calculated at many hypothetical locations to guide network design (i.e., where to install new wells/stream gages/etc.) or used to indicate which parameters are the most important to understand thus likely candidates for future characterization work. We examine a hypothetical case in which an inset model is created from a large regional model in order to better represent a surface stream network and make predictions of head near and flux in a stream due to installation and pumping of a large well near a stream headwater. Parameterization and edge boundary conditions are inherited from the regional model, the simple act of refining discretization and stream geometry shows improvement in the representation of the streams. Even visual inspection of the simulated head field highlights the need to recalibrate and potentially re-parametrize the inset model. A network of potential head observations is evaluated and contoured in the shallowest two layers of the six-layer model to assess their worth in both predicting flux at a specific gage, and head at a specific location near the stream. Three hydraulic conductivity parameterization scenarios are evaluated: using a single multiplier on hydraulic conductivity acting on the inherited hydraulic conductivity zonation using; the

  11. Relativistic Few-Body Hadronic Physics Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyzou, Wayne [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)


    The goal of this research proposal was to use ``few-body'' methods to understand the structure and reactions of systems of interacting hadrons (neutrons, protons, mesons, quarks) over a broad range of energy scales. Realistic mathematical models of few-hadron systems have the advantage that they are sufficiently simple that they can be solved with mathematically controlled errors. These systems are also simple enough that it is possible to perform complete accurate experimental measurements on these systems. Comparison between theory and experiment puts strong constraints on the structure of the models. Even though these systems are ``simple'', both the experiments and computations push the limits of technology. The important property of ``few-body'' systems is that the ``cluster property'' implies that the interactions that appear in few-body systems are identical to the interactions that appear in complicated many-body systems. Of particular interest are models that correctly describe physics at distance scales that are sensitive to the internal structure of the individual nucleons. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle implies that in order to be sensitive to physics on distance scales that are a fraction of the proton or neutron radius, a relativistic treatment of quantum mechanics is necessary. The research supported by this grant involved 30 years of effort devoted to studying all aspects of interacting two and three-body systems. Realistic interactions were used to compute bound states of two- and three-nucleon, and two- and three-quark systems. Scattering observables for these systems were computed for a broad range of energies - from zero energy scattering to few GeV scattering, where experimental evidence of sub-nucleon degrees of freedom is beginning to appear. Benchmark calculations were produced, which when compared with calculations of other groups provided an essential check on these complicated calculations. In

  12. Using Angle calculations to demonstrate vowel shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Anne


    This paper gives an overview of the long-term trends of diachronic changes evident within the short vowel system of RP during the 20th century. more specifically, it focusses on changing juxtapositions of the TRAP, STRUT and LOT, FOOT vowel centroid positions. The paper uses geometric calculations...... to give precise and replicable representations of the vowel system and the generational changes apparent in the data. While FOOT-fronting is well known in British English (Torgersen 1997), less is known about the historical trajectory of the STRUT vowel in response to the encroachment of the TRAP vowel...... whose lowering and backing are also well-documented (Wells 1982). The discussion draws out differences between 'phonetic' and 'sociolinguistic' stances on the interpretation of acoustic vowel data in formant plots...

  13. Distributed Function Calculation over Noisy Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhidun Zeng


    Full Text Available Considering any connected network with unknown initial states for all nodes, the nearest-neighbor rule is utilized for each node to update its own state at every discrete-time step. Distributed function calculation problem is defined for one node to compute some function of the initial values of all the nodes based on its own observations. In this paper, taking into account uncertainties in the network and observations, an algorithm is proposed to compute and explicitly characterize the value of the function in question when the number of successive observations is large enough. While the number of successive observations is not large enough, we provide an approach to obtain the tightest possible bounds on such function by using linear programing optimization techniques. Simulations are provided to demonstrate the theoretical results.

  14. Molecular orbital calculations using chemical graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, Jerry Ray


    Professor John D. Roberts published a highly readable book on Molecular Orbital Calculations directed toward chemists in 1962. That timely book is the model for this book. The audience this book is directed toward are senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students as well as practicing bench chemists who have a desire to develop conceptual tools for understanding chemical phenomena. Although, ab initio and more advanced semi-empirical MO methods are regarded as being more reliable than HMO in an absolute sense, there is good evidence that HMO provides reliable relative answers particularly when comparing related molecular species. Thus, HMO can be used to rationalize electronic structure in 1t-systems, aromaticity, and the shape use HMO to gain insight of simple molecular orbitals. Experimentalists still into subtle electronic interactions for interpretation of UV and photoelectron spectra. Herein, it will be shown that one can use graph theory to streamline their HMO computational efforts and to arrive...

  15. Improving calorimeter resolution using temperature compensation calculations (United States)

    Smiga, Joseph; Purschke, Martin


    The sPHENIX experiment is an upgrade of the existing PHENIX apparatus at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC). The new detector improves upon measurements of various physical processes, such as jets of particles created during heavy-ion collisions. Prototypes of various calorimeter components were tested at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FTBF). This analysis tries to compensate the effects of temperature drifts in the silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). Temperature data were used to calculate an appropriate compensation factor. This analysis will improve the achievable resolution and will also determine how accurately the temperature must be controlled in the final experiment. This will improve the performance of the calorimeters in the sPHENIX experiment. This project was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists (WDTS) under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships Program (SULI).

  16. Thermal calculations of underground oil pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseev Boris


    Full Text Available Operation of oil pipelines in the frozen soil causes heat exchange between the pipeline and the soil and formation of a melt zone which leads to deformation of pipelines. Terms of construction and operation of oil pipelines are greatly related to their temperature conditions. In this regard it is necessary to know the laws of formation of thawing halos around oil pipelines. Thus, elucidation of laws of formation of thawing halos around oil pipelines and determination of optimal conditions for their installation during construction in areas of permafrost in the north of Tyumen region is a very urgent task. The authors developed an algorithm and a computer program for construction of the temperature field of the frozen soil. Some problems have been solved basing on the obtained dependences and graphs of the dependence were constructed. Research and calculations made on the underground oil pipeline construction allowed the authors to give recommendations aimed at increasing the reliability of oil pipelines.

  17. Angular size-redshift: Experiment and calculation (United States)

    Amirkhanyan, V. R.


    In this paper the next attempt is made to clarify the nature of the Euclidean behavior of the boundary in the angular size-redshift cosmological test. It is shown experimentally that this can be explained by the selection determined by anisotropic morphology and anisotropic radiation of extended radio sources. A catalogue of extended radio sources with minimal flux densities of about 0.01 Jy at 1.4 GHz was compiled for conducting the test. Without the assumption of their size evolution, the agreement between the experiment and calculation was obtained both in the ΛCDM model (Ω m = 0.27, Ω v = 0.73) and the Friedman model (Ω = 0.1).

  18. Modulated structure calculated for superconducting hydrogen sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, Arnab; Tse, John S.; Yao, Yansun [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)


    Compression of hydrogen sulfide using first principles metadynamics and molecular dynamics calculations revealed a modulated structure with high proton mobility which exhibits a diffraction pattern matching well with experiment. The structure consists of a sublattice of rectangular meandering SH{sup -} chains and molecular-like H{sub 3}S{sup +} stacked alternately in tetragonal and cubic slabs forming a long-period modulation. The novel structure offers a new perspective on the possible origin of the superconductivity at very high temperatures in which the conducting electrons in the SH chains are perturbed by the fluxional motions of the H{sub 3}S resulting in strong electron-phonon coupling. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Spontaneous Radiation Background Calculation for LCLS

    CERN Document Server

    Reiche, Sven


    The intensity of undulator radiation, not amplified by the FEL interaction, can be larger than the maximum FEL signal in the case of an X-ray FEL. In the commissioning of a SASE FEL it is essential to extract an amplified signal early to diagnose eventual misalignment of undulator modules or errors in the undulator field strength. We developed a numerical code to calculate the radiation pattern at any position behind a multi-segmented undulator with arbitrary spacing and field profiles. The output can be run through numerical spatial and frequency filters to model the radiation beam transport and diagnostic. In this presentation we estimate the expected background signal for the FEL diagnostic and at what point along the undulator the FEL signal can be separated from the background. We also discusses how much information on the undulator field and alignment can be obtained from the incoherent radiation signal itself.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian UNGUREANU


    Full Text Available Cost information system plays an important role in every organization in the decision making process. An important task of management is ensuring control of the operations, processes, sectors, and not ultimately on costs. Although in achieving the objectives of an organization compete more control systems (production control, quality control, etc., the cost information system is important because monitors results of the other. Detailed analysis of costs, production cost calculation, quantification of losses, estimate the work efficiency provides a solid basis for financial control. Knowledge of the costs is a decisive factor in taking decisions and planning future activities. Managers are concerned about the costs that will appear in the future, their level underpinning the supply and production decisions as well as price policy. An important factor is the efficiency of cost information system in such a way that the information provided by it may be useful for decisions and planning of the work.

  1. Parallelizing Gaussian Process Calculations in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Paciorek


    Full Text Available We consider parallel computation for Gaussian process calculations to overcome computational and memory constraints on the size of datasets that can be analyzed. Using a hybrid parallelization approach that uses both threading (shared memory and message-passing (distributed memory, we implement the core linear algebra operations used in spatial statistics and Gaussian process regression in an R package called bigGP that relies on C and MPI. The approach divides the covariance matrix into blocks such that the computational load is balanced across processes while communication between processes is limited. The package provides an API enabling R programmers to implement Gaussian process-based methods by using the distributed linear algebra operations without any C or MPI coding. We illustrate the approach and software by analyzing an astrophysics dataset with n = 67, 275 observations.

  2. Shell model calculations for exotic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B.A. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (USA)); Warburton, E.K. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Wildenthal, B.H. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (USA). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)


    In this paper we review the progress of the shell-model approach to understanding the properties of light exotic nuclei (A < 40). By shell-model'' we mean the consistent and large-scale application of the classic methods discussed, for example, in the book of de-Shalit and Talmi. Modern calculations incorporate as many of the important configurations as possible and make use of realistic effective interactions for the valence nucleons. Properties such as the nuclear densities depend on the mean-field potential, which is usually separately from the valence interaction. We will discuss results for radii which are based on a standard Hartree-Fock approach with Skyrme-type interactions.

  3. Calculating Outsourcing Strategies and Trials of Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark; Skærbæk, Peter; Tryggestad, Kjell

    . The alternative option was an immediate outsourcing strategy with facility services being the object of large cross-functional contracts for all Danish military establishments. By succeeding in presenting ‘internal optimization’ as an outsourcing option (as opposed to the usual ‘make’ option) this case...... demonstrates the power of projects and their use of accounting calculation. We study how the two options emerged and were valued differently by the supra-national outsourcing program and the local Defense projects over 22 years and how that valuation process involved accounting. Drawing on Actor-Network Theory...... outsourcing strategies during a series of trials of strength, 2. develops the concept of ‘trial of strength’ for accounting and organization research by showing how ‘the rules of the game’ for the trials of strength can become challenged and controversial, 3. shows that, in addition to the pervasive role...

  4. Marginal Loss Calculations for the DCOPF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldridge, Brent [Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); O' Neill, Richard P. [Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Castillo, Andrea R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The purpose of this paper is to explain some aspects of including a marginal line loss approximation in the DCOPF. The DCOPF optimizes electric generator dispatch using simplified power flow physics. Since the standard assumptions in the DCOPF include a lossless network, a number of modifications have to be added to the model. Calculating marginal losses allows the DCOPF to optimize the location of power generation, so that generators that are closer to demand centers are relatively cheaper than remote generation. The problem formulations discussed in this paper will simplify many aspects of practical electric dispatch implementations in use today, but will include sufficient detail to demonstrate a few points with regard to the handling of losses.

  5. Improving the accuracy of dynamic mass calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr F. Dashchenko


    Full Text Available With the acceleration of goods transporting, cargo accounting plays an important role in today's global and complex environment. Weight is the most reliable indicator of the materials control. Unlike many other variables that can be measured indirectly, the weight can be measured directly and accurately. Using strain-gauge transducers, weight value can be obtained within a few milliseconds; such values correspond to the momentary load, which acts on the sensor. Determination of the weight of moving transport is only possible by appropriate processing of the sensor signal. The aim of the research is to develop a methodology for weighing freight rolling stock, which increases the accuracy of the measurement of dynamic mass, in particular wagon that moves. Apart from time-series methods, preliminary filtration for improving the accuracy of calculation is used. The results of the simulation are presented.

  6. Massively parallel self-consistent-field calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilson, J.L.


    The advent of supercomputers with many computational nodes each with its own independent memory makes possible extremely fast computations. The author`s work, as part of the US High Performance Computing and Communications Program (HPCCP), is focused on the development of electronic structure techniques for the solution of Grand Challenge-size molecules containing hundreds of atoms. Their efforts have resulted in a fully scalable Direct-SCF program that is portable and efficient. This code, named NWCHEM, is built around a distributed-data model. This distributed data is managed by a software package called Global Arrays developed within the HPCCP. They present performance results for Direct-SCF calculations of interest to the consortium.

  7. Calculations of superconducting parametric amplifiers performances (United States)

    Goto, T.; Takeda, M.; Saito, S.; Shimakage, H.


    A superconducting parametric amplifier is an electromagnetic wave amplifier with high-quality characteristics such as a wide bandwidth, an extremely low noise, and a high dynamic range. In this paper, we report on the estimations of a YBCO superconducting parametric amplifier characteristic. The YBCO thin films were deposited on an MgO substrate by a pulsed laser deposition method. Based on the measured YBCO thin film parameters, theoretical calculations were implemented for evaluations of kinetic inductance nonlinearities and parametric gains. The nonlinearity of the YBCO thin film was estimated to be stronger than a single crystal NbTiN thin film. It is indicated that the YBCO parametric amplifier has a potential to be realized the amplifier with the high parametric gain. It is also expected that it could be operated in the range of the high frequency band, at the high temperature, and low applied current.

  8. Zero energy scattering calculation in Euclidean space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonell, J. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Université Paris-Sud, IN2P3-CNRS, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Karmanov, V.A., E-mail: [Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky Prospekt 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)


    We show that the Bethe–Salpeter equation for the scattering amplitude in the limit of zero incident energy can be transformed into a purely Euclidean form, as it is the case for the bound states. The decoupling between Euclidean and Minkowski amplitudes is only possible for zero energy scattering observables and allows determining the scattering length from the Euclidean Bethe–Salpeter amplitude. Such a possibility strongly simplifies the numerical solution of the Bethe–Salpeter equation and suggests an alternative way to compute the scattering length in Lattice Euclidean calculations without using the Luscher formalism. The derivations contained in this work were performed for scalar particles and one-boson exchange kernel. They can be generalized to the fermion case and more involved interactions.

  9. Improved algorithm for calculating the Chandrasekhar function (United States)

    Jablonski, A.


    Theoretical models of electron transport in condensed matter require an effective source of the Chandrasekhar H(x,omega) function. A code providing the H(x,omega) function has to be both accurate and very fast. The current revision of the code published earlier [A. Jablonski, Comput. Phys. Commun. 183 (2012) 1773] decreased the running time, averaged over different pairs of arguments x and omega, by a factor of more than 20. The decrease of the running time in the range of small values of the argument x, less than 0.05, is even more pronounced, reaching a factor of 30. The accuracy of the current code is not affected, and is typically better than 12 decimal places. New version program summaryProgram title: CHANDRAS_v2 Catalogue identifier: AEMC_v2_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC license, No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 976 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 11416 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90 Computer: Any computer with a Fortran 90 compiler Operating system: Windows 7, Windows XP, Unix/Linux RAM: 0.7 MB Classification: 2.4, 7.2 Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEMC_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Commun. 183 (2012) 1773 Does the new version supersede the old program: Yes Nature of problem: An attempt has been made to develop a subroutine that calculates the Chandrasekhar function with high accuracy, of at least 10 decimal places. Simultaneously, this subroutine should be very fast. Both requirements stem from the theory of electron transport in condensed matter. Solution method: Two algorithms were developed, each based on a different integral representation of the Chandrasekhar function. The final algorithm is edited by mixing these two

  10. [IOL power calculation after refractive surgery]. (United States)

    Rabsilber, T M; Auffarth, G U


    Cataract surgery is evolving more and more into a refractive procedure with high expectations in terms of visual rehabilitation. Especially patients presenting after previous Excimer laser corneal surgery are used to being independent from glasses. Unfortunately, some of these patients showed unexpected hyperopic surprises after cataract surgery in the past. The changes of corneal radii and keratometer index as well as the inaccurate prediction of the postoperative intraocular lens (IOL) position using different formulas were determined as error sources which led to a reduced IOL power calculation in dioptres. Several methods have been proposed to solve this problem which can be divided in two groups. On the one hand, there are methods that depend on refraction and biometry values before the initial treatment (e. g., clinical history, Feiz-Mannis, double-K, adjusted effective refractive power [EffRadj]-, cornea bypass/Wake Forest methods as well as correction factors to adjust K-values) and on the other hand procedures that only need current pre-cataract surgery measurements (e. g., contact lens method, corneal topography systems, ray tracing, aphakic refraction technique, correction factors to adjust K-values and new formulas including Haigis-L or BESSt and recently a novel pachymetry method). This review describes these procedures and analyses their strengths and weaknesses. The number of presented methods emphasises already that no perfect solution has been determined so far that would be valid for every patient. Some methods do provide a good predictability; however, individual deviations can occur. In general, it is advisable to inform the patient about the higher risk for an inaccurate IOL power calculation. It can be helpful to compare the results of different methods indicating the importance to provide all required individual data by the refractive surgeon already. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  11. Calculating polaron mobility in halide perovskites (United States)

    Frost, Jarvist Moore


    Lead halide perovskite semiconductors are soft, polar materials. The strong driving force for polaron formation (the dielectric electron-phonon coupling) is balanced by the light band effective masses, leading to a strongly-interacting large polaron. A first-principles prediction of mobility would help understand the fundamental mobility limits. Theories of mobility need to consider the polaron (rather than free-carrier) state due to the strong interactions. In this material we expect that at room temperature polar-optical phonon mode scattering will dominate and so limit mobility. We calculate the temperature-dependent polaron mobility of hybrid halide perovskites by variationally solving the Feynman polaron model with the finite-temperature free energies of Ōsaka. This model considers a simplified effective-mass band structure interacting with a continuum dielectric of characteristic response frequency. We parametrize the model fully from electronic-structure calculations. In methylammonium lead iodide at 300 K we predict electron and hole mobilities of 133 and 94 cm2V-1s-1 , respectively. These are in acceptable agreement with single-crystal measurements, suggesting that the intrinsic limit of the polaron charge carrier state has been reached. Repercussions for hot-electron photoexcited states are discussed. As well as mobility, the model also exposes the dynamic structure of the polaron. This can be used to interpret impedance measurements of the charge-carrier state. We provide the phonon-drag mass renormalization and scattering time constants. These could be used as parameters for larger-scale device models and band-structure dependent mobility simulations.

  12. Data calculation program for RELAP 5 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, Larissa J.B.; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    As the criteria and requirements for a nuclear power plant are extremely rigid, computer programs for simulation and safety analysis are required for certifying and licensing a plant. Based on this scenario, some sophisticated computational tools have been used such as the Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program (RELAP5), which is the most used code for the thermo-hydraulic analysis of accidents and transients in nuclear reactors. A major difficulty in the simulation using RELAP5 code is the amount of information required for the simulation of thermal-hydraulic accidents or transients. The preparation of the input data leads to a very large number of mathematical operations for calculating the geometry of the components. Therefore, a mathematical friendly preprocessor was developed in order to perform these calculations and prepare RELAP5 input data. The Visual Basic for Application (VBA) combined with Microsoft EXCEL demonstrated to be an efficient tool to perform a number of tasks in the development of the program. Due to the absence of necessary information about some RELAP5 components, this work aims to make improvements to the Mathematic Preprocessor for RELAP5 code (PREREL5). For the new version of the preprocessor, new screens of some components that were not programmed in the original version were designed; moreover, screens of pre-existing components were redesigned to improve the program. In addition, an English version was provided for the new version of the PREREL5. The new design of PREREL5 contributes for saving time and minimizing mistakes made by users of the RELAP5 code. The final version of this preprocessor will be applied to Angra 2. (author)

  13. An integrated tool for loop calculations: AITALC (United States)

    Lorca, Alejandro; Riemann, Tord


    AITALC, a new tool for automating loop calculations in high energy physics, is described. The package creates Fortran code for two-fermion scattering processes automatically, starting from the generation and analysis of the Feynman graphs. We describe the modules of the tool, the intercommunication between them and illustrate its use with three examples. Program summaryTitle of the program:AITALC version 1.2.1 (9 August 2005) Catalogue identifier:ADWO Program summary URL: Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer:PC i386 Operating system:GNU/ LINUX, tested on different distributions SuSE 8.2 to 9.3, Red Hat 7.2, Debian 3.0, Ubuntu 5.04. Also on SOLARIS Programming language used:GNU MAKE, DIANA, FORM, FORTRAN77 Additional programs/libraries used:DIANA 2.35 ( QGRAF 2.0), FORM 3.1, LOOPTOOLS 2.1 ( FF) Memory required to execute with typical data:Up to about 10 MB No. of processors used:1 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:40 926 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:371 424 Distribution format:tar gzip file High-speed storage required:from 1.5 to 30 MB, depending on modules present and unfolding of examples Nature of the physical problem:Calculation of differential cross sections for ee annihilation in one-loop approximation. Method of solution:Generation and perturbative analysis of Feynman diagrams with later evaluation of matrix elements and form factors. Restriction of the complexity of the problem:The limit of application is, for the moment, the 2→2 particle reactions in the electro-weak standard model. Typical running time:Few minutes, being highly depending on the complexity of the process and the FORTRAN compiler.

  14. Calculation methodology of reinforced concrete elements based on calculated resistance of reinforced concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochkarev Dmitriy


    Full Text Available Calculation methodology of reinforced concrete elements based on the calculated resistance of reinforced concrete is presented. The basic dependence which allows setting the strength of bending sections and non-central compressed elements is obtained. The proposed method for calculating reinforced concrete elements is based on the use of nonlinear diagrams of material deformation, the hypothesis of flat sections and deformation criteria for the destruction of materials. The basic equations of strength are reduced to dimensionless quantities and are tabulated. When compiling the tables, the formula proposed in Euroсode 2 was adopted as the diagram of concrete deformation, and for the reinforcement two linear Prandtl diagram was used. The calculated formulas of the proposed method fully correspond to the formulas of the classical resistance of materials, and make it possible to solve the most frequently encountered problems in the practice of modern construction. The reliability of the dependencies is experimentally confirmed. There are calculation examples of bending and non-central compressed elements by the developed methodology.

  15. 21 CFR 868.1880 - Pulmonary-function data calculator. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pulmonary-function data calculator. 868.1880... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1880 Pulmonary-function data calculator. (a) Identification. A pulmonary-function data calculator is a device used to calculate pulmonary...

  16. [Calculation of workers' health care costs]. (United States)

    Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela


    In different health care systems, there are different schemes of organization and principles of financing activities aimed at ensuring the working population health and safety. Regardless of the scheme and the range of health care provided, economists strive for rationalization of costs (including their reduction). This applies to both employers who include workers' health care costs into indirect costs of the market product manufacture and health care institutions, which provide health care services. In practice, new methods of setting costs of workers' health care facilitate regular cost control, acquisition of detailed information about costs, and better adjustment of information to planning and control needs in individual health care institutions. For economic institutions and institutions specialized in workers' health care, a traditional cost-effect calculation focused on setting costs of individual products (services) is useful only if costs are relatively low and the output of simple products is not very high. But when products form aggregates of numerous actions like those involved in occupational medicine services, the method of activity based costing (ABC), representing the process approach, is much more useful. According to this approach costs are attributed to the product according to resources used during different activities involved in its production. The calculation of costs proceeds through allocation of all direct costs for specific processes in a given institution. Indirect costs are settled on the basis of resources used during the implementation of individual tasks involved in the process of making a new product. In this method, so called map of processes/actions consisted in the manufactured product and their interrelations are of particular importance. Advancements in the cost-effect for the management of health care institutions depend on their managerial needs. Current trends in this regard primarily depend on treating all cost reference

  17. Iron diffusion from first principles calculations (United States)

    Wann, E.; Ammann, M. W.; Vocadlo, L.; Wood, I. G.; Lord, O. T.; Brodholt, J. P.; Dobson, D. P.


    The cores of Earth and other terrestrial planets are made up largely of iron1 and it is therefore very important to understand iron's physical properties. Chemical diffusion is one such property and is central to many processes, such as crystal growth, and viscosity. Debate still surrounds the explanation for the seismologically observed anisotropy of the inner core2, and hypotheses include convection3, anisotropic growth4 and dendritic growth5, all of which depend on diffusion. In addition to this, the main deformation mechanism at the inner-outer core boundary is believed to be diffusion creep6. It is clear, therefore, that to gain a comprehensive understanding of the core, a thorough understanding of diffusion is necessary. The extremely high pressures and temperatures of the Earth's core make experiments at these conditions a challenge. Low-temperature and low-pressure experimental data must be extrapolated across a very wide gap to reach the relevant conditions, resulting in very poorly constrained values for diffusivity and viscosity. In addition to these dangers of extrapolation, preliminary results show that magnetisation plays a major role in the activation energies for diffusion at low pressures therefore creating a break down in homologous scaling to high pressures. First principles calculations provide a means of investigating diffusivity at core conditions, have already been shown to be in very good agreement with experiments7, and will certainly provide a better estimate for diffusivity than extrapolation. Here, we present first principles simulations of self-diffusion in solid iron for the FCC, BCC and HCP structures at core conditions in addition to low-temperature and low-pressure calculations relevant to experimental data. 1. Birch, F. Density and composition of mantle and core. Journal of Geophysical Research 69, 4377-4388 (1964). 2. Irving, J. C. E. & Deuss, A. Hemispherical structure in inner core velocity anisotropy. Journal of Geophysical


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin-Constantin DIMA


    Full Text Available The cost of production has as its starting point the purchase cost of raw materials and consumables, as well as their processing cost and the calculation of the production cost involves complex aspects. This article is based on the two major concepts of costs calculation, namely the concept of full costs and the concept of partial costs, and it analyses the direct-costing calculation method. Necessity of the Development of calculation methods to ensure rapid determination of the cost of production, and the establishment of indicators broad spectrum of information necessary for making decisions to streamline a business activity conducted by direct-costing method. Direct-costing method appeared in the U.S. for the first time in 1934 (applied by Jonathan Harris and G. Charter Harrison. Subsequently, this method was applied to European countries (England, France, Germany etc.. We stopped on this method because it is considered a modern method of costing. Therefore, we analyzed both advantages and limitations of the method in question

  19. Learning Intermediate Algebra with Graphing Calculator in Community College: A Study of Graphing Calculator Implementation (United States)

    Reznichenko, Nataliya


    Since technology has taken its place in almost all classrooms in schools and colleges across the country, there is a need to know how technology influences the mathematics that is taught and how students learn. In this study, the graphing calculator (GC) (namely the Texas Instruments TI-83) was implemented as a tool to enhance learning of function…

  20. Alpha decay calculations with a new formula (United States)

    Akrawy, D. T.; Poenaru, D. N.


    A new semi-empirical formula for calculations of α decay half-lives is presented. It was derived from the Royer relationship by introducing new parameters which are fixed by fit to a set of experimental data. We are using three sets: set A with 130 e-e (even-even), 119 e-o (even-odd), 109 o-e, and 96 o-o, set B with 188 e-e, 147 e-o, 131 o-e and 114 o-o, and set C with 136 e-e, 84 e-o, 76 o-e and 48 o-o alpha emitters. A comparison of results obtained with the new formula (newF) and the following well known relationships: semiempirical relationship based on fission theory (semFIS), analytical superasymmetric fission (ASAF) model and universal formula (UNIV) made in terms of rms standard deviation. We also introduced a weighted mean value of this quantity, allowing us to compare the global properties of a given model. For set B the order of the four models is the following: semFIS, UNIV, newF and ASAF. Nevertheless for even-even alpha emitters, UNIV gives the second best result after semFIS, and for odd-even parents the second is newF. Despite its simplicity in comparison with semFIS, newF, presented in this article, behaves quite well, competing with the other well known relationships.

  1. Detailed Opacity Calculations for Astrophysical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Pain


    Full Text Available Nowadays, several opacity codes are able to provide data for stellar structure models, but the computed opacities may show significant differences. In this work, we present state-of-the-art precise spectral opacity calculations, illustrated by stellar applications. The essential role of laboratory experiments to check the quality of the computed data is underlined. We review some X-ray and XUV laser and Z-pinch photo-absorption measurements as well as X-ray emission spectroscopy experiments involving hot dense plasmas produced by ultra-high-intensity laser irradiation. The measured spectra are systematically compared with the fine-structure opacity code SCO-RCG. The focus is on iron, due to its crucial role in understanding asteroseismic observations of β Cephei-type and Slowly Pulsating B stars, as well as of the Sun. For instance, in β Cephei-type stars, the iron-group opacity peak excites acoustic modes through the “kappa-mechanism”. Particular attention is paid to the higher-than-predicted iron opacity measured at the Sandia Z-machine at solar interior conditions. We discuss some theoretical aspects such as density effects, photo-ionization, autoionization or the “filling-the-gap” effect of highly excited states.

  2. Methods for Calculating Empires in Quasicrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the empire problem for quasiperiodic tilings and the existing methods for generating the empires of the vertex configurations in quasicrystals, while introducing a new and more efficient method based on the cut-and-project technique. Using Penrose tiling as an example, this method finds the forced tiles with the restrictions in the high dimensional lattice (the mother lattice that can be cut-and-projected into the lower dimensional quasicrystal. We compare our method to the two existing methods, namely one method that uses the algorithm of the Fibonacci chain to force the Ammann bars in order to find the forced tiles of an empire and the method that follows the work of N.G. de Bruijn on constructing a Penrose tiling as the dual to a pentagrid. This new method is not only conceptually simple and clear, but it also allows us to calculate the empires of the vertex configurations in a defected quasicrystal by reversing the configuration of the quasicrystal to its higher dimensional lattice, where we then apply the restrictions. These advantages may provide a key guiding principle for phason dynamics and an important tool for self error-correction in quasicrystal growth.

  3. The first calculation of fractional jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, Daniele [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Center for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Thaler, Jesse [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Walsh, Jonathan R. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Center for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)


    In collider physics, jet algorithms are a ubiquitous tool for clustering particles into discrete jet objects. Event shapes offer an alternative way to characterize jets, and one can define a jet multiplicity event shape, which can take on fractional values, using the framework of “jets without jets”. In this paper, we perform the first analytic studies of fractional jet multiplicity N-tilde{sub jet} in the context of e{sup +}e{sup −} collisions. We use fixed-order QCD to understand the N-tilde{sub jet} cross section at order α{sub s}{sup 2}, and we introduce a candidate factorization theorem to capture certain higher-order effects. The resulting distributions have a hybrid jet algorithm/event shape behavior which agrees with parton shower Monte Carlo generators. The N-tilde{sub jet} observable does not satisfy ordinary soft-collinear factorization, and the N-tilde{sub jet} cross section exhibits a number of unique features, including the absence of collinear logarithms and the presence of soft logarithms that are purely non-global. Additionally, we find novel divergences connected to the energy sharing between emissions, which are reminiscent of rapidity divergences encountered in other applications. Given these interesting properties of fractional jet multiplicity, we advocate for future measurements and calculations of N-tilde{sub jet} at hadron colliders like the LHC.

  4. Constructivist philosophy and nursing student medication calculations. (United States)

    Newton, Sarah E; Harris, Margaret; Pittiglio, Laura


    Prelicensure nursing students often have difficulty performing medication calculations (MCs). Faculty at one baccalaureate nursing program wanted to use nursing theory to guide the development of a teaching-learning approach related to MC's. Finding little theory related to the topic of MCs, a constructivist-based teaching-learning approach was used instead. The purpose of the study was to assess whether nursing students who received an MC review class that used a teaching-learning approach based on constructivist philosophy had better results on an MC examination than students who received their review via traditional teaching-learning methods. The study participants consisted of two cohorts of first-semester junior-level nursing students from one university-based school of nursing in the Midwestern United States. The results indicated that students in the simulation review class had higher mean scores on an MC examination than students who received their review via more traditional means. Teaching-learning strategies related to MCs based on constructivist philosophy have the potential to improve student learning outcomes, but more research is needed before middle-range theory related to this critically important area of nursing education can be developed.

  5. Stress Intensity Factor calculation from displacement fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Beretta


    Full Text Available In the last two decades, visual image techniques such as Digital Image Correlation (DIC enabled to experimentally determine the crack tip displacement and strain fields at small scales. The displacements are tracked during loading, and parameters as the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF, opening and closing loads, T-stress can be readily measured. In particular, the SIFs and the T-stress can be obtained by fitting the analytical equation of the Williamstype expansion with the experimentally-determined displacement fields. The results in terms of fracture mechanics parameters strictly depend on the dimension of the area considered around the crack tip in conjunction with the crack length, the maximum SIF (and thus the plastic tip radius, and the number of terms to be considered in the Williams-type expansion. This work focuses in understanding the accuracy of the SIF calculation based on these factors. The study is based on Finite Element Analysis simulations where purely elastic material behavior is considered. The accuracy of the estimation of the SIF is investigated and a guide-line is provided to properly set the DIC measurements. The analysis is then experimentally validated for crack closure measurements adopting the SENT specimen geometry.

  6. National Stormwater Calculator: Low Impact Development ... (United States)

    Stormwater discharges continue to cause impairment of our Nation’s waterbodies. EPA has developed the National Stormwater Calculator (SWC) to help support local, state, and national stormwater management objectives to reduce runoff through infiltration and retention using green infrastructure practices as low impact development (LID) controls. The primary focus of the SWC is to inform site developers on how well they can meet a desired stormwater retention target with and without the use of green infrastructure. It can also be used by landscapers and homeowners. Platform. The SWC is a Windows-based desktop program that requires an internet connection. A mobile web application version that will be compatible with all operating systems is currently being developed and is expected to be released in the fall of 2017.Cost Module. An LID cost estimation module within the application allows planners and managers to evaluate LID controls based on comparison of regional and national project planning level cost estimates (capital and average annual maintenance) and predicted LID control performance. Cost estimation is accomplished based on user-identified size configuration of the LID control infrastructure and other key project and site-specific variables. This includes whether the project is being applied as part of new development or redevelopment and if there are existing site constraints.Climate Scenarios. The SWC allows users to consider how runoff may vary based

  7. Calculation of the energetics of chemical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, T.H. Jr.; Harding, L.B.; Shepard, R.L.; Harrison, R.J.


    To calculate the energetics of chemical reactions we must solve the electronic Schroedinger equation for the molecular conformations of importance for the reactive encounter. Substantial changes occur in the electronic structure of a molecular system as the reaction progresses from reactants through the transition state to products. To describe these changes, our approach includes the following three elements: the use of multiconfiguration self-consistent field wave functions to provide a consistent zero-order description of the electronic structure of the reactants, transition state, and products; the use of configuration interaction techniques to describe electron correlation effects needed to provide quantitative predictions of the reaction energetics; and the use of large, optimized basis sets to provide the flexibility needed to describe the variations in the electronic distributions. With this approach we are able to study reactions involving as many as 5--6 atoms with errors of just a few kcal/mol in the predicted reaction energetics. Predictions to chemical accuracy, i.e., to 1 kcal/mol or less, are not yet feasible, although continuing improvements in both the theoretical methodology and computer technology suggest that this will soon be possible, at least for reactions involving small polyatomic species. 4 figs.

  8. Fast Electron Beam Simulation and Dose Calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Trindade, A; Peralta, L; Lopes, M C; Alves, C; Chaves, A


    A flexible multiple source model capable of fast reconstruction of clinical electron beams is presented in this paper. A source model considers multiple virtual sources emulating the effect of accelerator head components. A reference configuration (10 MeV and 10x10 cm2 field size) for a Siemens KD2 linear accelerator was simulated in full detail using GEANT3 Monte Carlo code. Our model allows the reconstruction of other beam energies and field sizes as well as other beam configurations for similar accelerators using only the reference beam data. Electron dose calculations were performed with the reconstructed beams in a water phantom and compared with experimental data. An agreement of 1-2% / 1-2 mm was obtained, equivalent to the accuracy of full Monte Carlo accelerator simulation. The source model reduces accelerator simulation CPU time by a factor of 7500 relative to full Monte Carlo approaches. The developed model was then interfaced with DPM, a fast radiation transport Monte Carlo code for dose calculati...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available On sait qu’une courbe algébrique standard  d'équation f(x, y =0 admet un nombre fini de branches (nombre inférieur à l'ordre de f , dont les paramètrages peuvent être obtenus en particulier à partir de la décomposition de Goze itérée. On aimerait calculer  leur courbure généralisée sans les déterminer explicitement, la notion de courbure généralisée ayant fait l’objet d’un travail, publié dans les comptes rendus de l’Université de Cagliari (Italie [12]. Dans cet article, on se propose d'établir à cet effet un algorithme qui donnera à partir seulement des coefficients de f, la liste exhaustive des courbures généralisées de toutes les branches réelles. L’article se termine par la donnée d’un exemple pour montrer l’efficacité de l’algorithme proposé.

  10. Comparisons of Yield Calculations with Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugan, G.


    Given what is claimed to a reasonably accurate technique for calculating the pbar yield, it is useful to ask for comparisons with the data available from the recent commissioning run. The simplest comparison to make is that of the yield. The number of pbars circulating in the Debuncher was measured many times; the total number of secondaries at IC728 in AP-2 was also measured many times. The ratio of pbars to total flux at IC728 was measured once (Bk. I, p 166); this number was {bar P}/total = 0.032. Typically, the ratio of secondaries at IC728 to protons on target was about 0.0012 (this was about the same number, independent of whether the lens was operated at 600 or 1000 T/m.). Thus, at IC728 we have N{sub P}/N{sub {bar P}} {approx} 1.2 x 10{sup -3} x 3.2 x 10{sup -2} = 3.8 x 10{sup -5} = 38 ppm.

  11. Use of JANAF Tables in Equilibrium Calculations and Partition Function Calculations for an Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Course (United States)

    Cleary, David A.


    The usefulness of the JANAF tables is demonstrated with specific equilibrium calculations. An emphasis is placed on the nature of standard chemical potential calculations. Also, the use of the JANAF tables for calculating partition functions is examined. In the partition function calculations, the importance of the zero of energy is highlighted.

  12. Real time UAV autonomy through offline calculations (United States)

    Jung, Sunghun

    Two or three dimensional mission plans for a single or a group of hover or fixed wing UAVs are generated. The mission plans can largely be separated into seven main parts. Firstly, the Region Growing algorithm is used to generate a map from 2D or 3D images. Secondly, the map is analyzed to separate each blocks using vertices of blocks and seven filtering steps. Thirdly, the Trapezoidal map algorithm is used to convert the map into a traversability graph. Fourthly, this process also filters out paths that are not traversable. That is, nodes located inside the blocks and too closely located nodes are filtered out. Fifthly, the Dijkstra algorithm is used to calculate the shortest path from a starting point to a goal point. Sixthly, the 1D Optimal Control algorithm is applied to manipulate the velocity and acceleration of the UAVs efficiently. Basically, the UAVs accelerates at one graph node and maintains a constant velocity and decelerates before reaching the next graph node. Lastly, Traveling Salesman Problem Method (TSP) algorithm is used to calculate the shortest path to search the whole region. After this discretization of space and time, it becomes possible to solve several autonomous mission planning problems. We focus on one of the most difficult problems: coordinated search. This is a multiple Traveling Salesman Problem (mTSP). We solve it by decomposing the search region and solving TSPs for each vehicle searching a sub-region. The mTSP is generally used when there are more than one salesman is used. In addition to the four main parts, there are three minor parts which support the main parts. Firstly, Target Detection algorithm is generated to detect a target located near the UAVs' path. A picture of the desired target is inserted into the algorithm before UAVs launch. Using the Scale-Invariant Transform Feature (SIFT) algorithm, a target with a specific shape can be detected. Secondly, Tracking algorithm is generated to manipulate UAVs to follow targets

  13. The experience of GPU calculations at Lunarc (United States)

    Sjöström, Anders; Lindemann, Jonas; Church, Ross


    To meet the ever increasing demand for computational speed and use of ever larger datasets, multi GPU instal- lations look very tempting. Lunarc and the Theoretical Astrophysics group at Lund Observatory collaborate on a pilot project to evaluate and utilize multi-GPU architectures for scientific calculations. Starting with a small workshop in 2009, continued investigations eventually lead to the procurement of the GPU-resource Timaeus, which is a four-node eight-GPU cluster with two Nvidia m2050 GPU-cards per node. The resource is housed within the larger cluster Platon and share disk-, network- and system resources with that cluster. The inaugu- ration of Timaeus coincided with the meeting "Computational Physics with GPUs" in November 2010, hosted by the Theoretical Astrophysics group at Lund Observatory. The meeting comprised of a two-day workshop on GPU-computing and a two-day science meeting on using GPUs as a tool for computational physics research, with a particular focus on astrophysics and computational biology. Today Timaeus is used by research groups from Lund, Stockholm and Lule in fields ranging from Astrophysics to Molecular Chemistry. We are investigating the use of GPUs with commercial software packages and user supplied MPI-enabled codes. Looking ahead, Lunarc will be installing a new cluster during the summer of 2011 which will have a small number of GPU-enabled nodes that will enable us to continue working with the combination of parallel codes and GPU-computing. It is clear that the combination of GPUs/CPUs is becoming an important part of high performance computing and here we will describe what has been done at Lunarc regarding GPU-computations and how we will continue to investigate the new and coming multi-GPU servers and how they can be utilized in our environment.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.


    Since late 1997, researchers at the Hanford Site have been engaged in the Groundwater Protection Project (formerly, the Groundwater/Vadose Zone Project), developing a suite of integrated physical and environmental models and supporting data to trace the complex path of Hanford legacy contaminants through the environment for the next thousand years, and to estimate corresponding environmental, human health, economic, and cultural risks. The linked set of models and data is called the System Assessment Capability (SAC). The risk mechanism for economics consists of ''impact triggers'' (sequences of physical and human behavior changes in response to, or resulting from, human health or ecological risks), and processes by which particular trigger mechanisms induce impacts. Economic impacts stimulated by the trigger mechanisms may take a variety of forms, including changes in either costs or revenues for economic sectors associated with the affected resource or activity. An existing local economic impact model was adapted to calculate the resulting impacts on output, employment, and labor income in the local economy (the Tri-Cities Economic Risk Model or TCERM). The SAC researchers ran a test suite of 25 realization scenarios for future contamination of the Columbia River after site closure for a small subset of the radionuclides and hazardous chemicals known to be present in the environment at the Hanford Site. These scenarios of potential future river contamination were analyzed in TCERM. Although the TCERM model is sensitive to river contamination under a reasonable set of assumptions concerning reactions of the authorities and the public, the scenarios show low enough future contamination that the impacts on the local economy are small.

  15. A Radiative Transfer Model for Climate Calculations (United States)

    Bergstrom, Robert W.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Sokolik, Irina N.; Clough, Shepard A.; Toon, Owen B.


    This paper describes a radiative transfer model developed to accurately predict the atmospheric radiant flux in both the infrared and the solar spectrum with a minimum of computational effort. We use a newly developed k-distribution model for both the thermal and solar parts of the spectrum. We employ a generalized two-stream approximation for the scattering by aerosol and clouds. To assess the accuracy of the model, the results are compared to other more detailed models for several standard cases in the solar and thermal spectrum. We perform several calculations focussing primarily on the question of absorption of solar radiation by gases and aerosols. We estimate the accuracy of the k-distribution to be approx. 1 W/sq m for the gaseous absorption in the solar spectrum. We estimate the accuracy of the two-stream method to be 3-12 W/sq m for the downward solar flux and 1-5 W/sq m for the upward solar flux at the top of atmosphere depending on the optical depth of the aerosol layer. We also show that the effect of ignoring aerosol absorption on the downward solar flux at the surface is 50 W/sq m for the TARFOX aerosol for an optical depth of 0.5 and 150 W/sq m for a highly absorbing mineral aerosol. Thus, we conclude that the uncertainty introduced by the aerosol solar radiative properties (and merely assuming some "representative" model) can be considerably larger than the error introduced by the use of a two-stream method.

  16. Parallel computer calculation of quantum spin lattices; Calcul de chaines de spins quantiques sur ordinateur parallele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamarcq, J. [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    Numerical simulation allows the theorists to convince themselves about the validity of the models they use. Particularly by simulating the spin lattices one can judge about the validity of a conjecture. Simulating a system defined by a large number of degrees of freedom requires highly sophisticated machines. This study deals with modelling the magnetic interactions between the ions of a crystal. Many exact results have been found for spin 1/2 systems but not for systems of other spins for which many simulation have been carried out. The interest for simulations has been renewed by the Haldane`s conjecture stipulating the existence of a energy gap between the ground state and the first excited states of a spin 1 lattice. The existence of this gap has been experimentally demonstrated. This report contains the following four chapters: 1. Spin systems; 2. Calculation of eigenvalues; 3. Programming; 4. Parallel calculation 14 refs., 6 figs.

  17. A new Calculation Procedure for Spatial Impulse Responses in Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    A new procedure for the calculation of spatial impulse responses for linear sound fields is introduced. This calculation procedure uses the well known technique of calculating the spatial impulse response from the intersection of a circle emanating from the projected spherical wave with the bound......A new procedure for the calculation of spatial impulse responses for linear sound fields is introduced. This calculation procedure uses the well known technique of calculating the spatial impulse response from the intersection of a circle emanating from the projected spherical wave...

  18. Soil structure interaction calculations: a comparison of methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wight, L.; Zaslawsky, M.


    Two approaches for calculating soil structure interaction (SSI) are compared: finite element and lumped mass. Results indicate that the calculations with the lumped mass method are generally conservative compared to those obtained by the finite element method. They also suggest that a closer agreement between the two sets of calculations is possible, depending on the use of frequency-dependent soil springs and dashpots in the lumped mass calculations. There is a total lack of suitable guidelines for implementing the lumped mass method of calculating SSI, which leads to the conclusion that the finite element method is generally superior for calculative purposes.

  19. Rovibrational analysis of the ν calculations (United States)

    Albert, Sieghard; Hollenstein, Hans; Quack, Martin; Willeke, Martin

    High resolution FTIR spectra of the ν4/2ν6 band system in the region 750-850 cm-1 were measured with our Bruker IFS 125 HR Zürich prototype (ZP2001) spectrometer using an instrumental resolution of better than 0.001 cm-1 (FWHM, unapodized or 1/MOPD =0.001 cm-1 with the maximum optical path difference MOPD). The spectra were analysed by means of a polyad Hamiltonian built up from the ν4/2ν6 Fermi dyad and the 2ν6,ν6+ν9,2ν9 Coriolis triad which share the level 2ν6. The levels ν6+ν9 and 2ν9 are not directly observed but are included as dark states. Spectroscopic parameters for ν6+ν9 and 2ν9 as well as the Coriolis coupling constants for the Coriolis triad were transferred from the Coriolis dyad ν6,ν9 using previously reported values. The analysis included both isotopomers CH35ClF2, and CH37ClF2. The deperturbed band centres of ν4 and 2ν6 obtained from the fit are ILM0001 cm-1 and ILM0002 cm-1 for CH35ClF2, and ILM0003 cm-1 and ILM0004 cm-1 for CH37ClF2. The Fermi resonance coupling matrix element obtained for CH35ClF2 is F = -7.6839 cm-1. In the corresponding analysis of the isotopomer CH37ClF2, we employed also this value without further adjustment. A comparison with results obtained in the framework of simpler models shows that the inclusion of the full Coriolis triad is essential. We also report ab initio calculations on the MP2 level of theory with aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets pertaining to (q4), (q6) and (q4, q6) subspaces. These results agree well with the empirical findings and allow us to assign a sign to certain coupling constants which cannot be obtained from the analysis of the experimental spectra.

  20. Glass dissolution rate measurement and calculation revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Maxime, E-mail: [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Ull, Aurélien; Nicoleau, Elodie [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Inagaki, Yaohiro [Department of Applied Quantum Physics & Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 819-0395 (Japan); Odorico, Michaël [ICSM-UMR5257 CEA/CNRS/UM2/ENSCM, Site de Marcoule, BP17171, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Frugier, Pierre; Gin, Stéphane [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France)


    Aqueous dissolution rate measurements of nuclear glasses are a key step in the long-term behavior study of such waste forms. These rates are routinely normalized to the glass surface area in contact with solution, and experiments are very often carried out using crushed materials. Various methods have been implemented to determine the surface area of such glass powders, leading to differing values, with the notion of the reactive surface area of crushed glass remaining vague. In this study, around forty initial dissolution rate measurements were conducted following static and flow rate (SPFT, MCFT) measurement protocols at 90 °C, pH 10. The international reference glass (ISG), in the forms of powders with different particle sizes and polished monoliths, and soda-lime glass beads were examined. Although crushed glass grains clearly cannot be assimilated with spheres, it is when using the samples geometric surface (S{sub geo}) that the rates measured on powders are closest to those found for monoliths. Overestimation of the reactive surface when using the BET model (S{sub BET}) may be due to small physical features at the atomic scale—contributing to BET surface area but not to AFM surface area. Such features are very small compared with the thickness of water ingress in glass (a few hundred nanometers) and should not be considered in rate calculations. With a S{sub BET}/S{sub geo} ratio of 2.5 ± 0.2 for ISG powders, it is shown here that rates measured on powders and normalized to S{sub geo} should be divided by 1.3 and rates normalized to S{sub BET} should be multiplied by 1.9 in order to be compared with rates measured on a monolith. The use of glass beads indicates that the geometric surface gives a good estimation of glass reactive surface if sample geometry can be precisely described. Although data clearly shows the repeatability of measurements, results must be given with a high uncertainty of approximately ±25%. - Highlights: • Initial dissolution

  1. A finite element calculation of flux pumping (United States)

    Campbell, A. M.


    A flux pump is not only a fascinating example of the power of Faraday’s concept of flux lines, but also an attractive way of powering superconducting magnets without large electronic power supplies. However it is not possible to do this in HTS by driving a part of the superconductor normal, it must be done by exceeding the local critical density. The picture of a magnet pulling flux lines through the material is attractive, but as there is no direct contact between flux lines in the magnet and vortices, unless the gap between them is comparable to the coherence length, the process must be explicable in terms of classical electromagnetism and a nonlinear V–I characteristic. In this paper a simple 2D model of a flux pump is used to determine the pumping behaviour from first principles and the geometry. It is analysed with finite element software using the A formulation and FlexPDE. A thin magnet is passed across one or more superconductors connected to a load, which is a large rectangular loop. This means that the self and mutual inductances can be calculated explicitly. A wide strip, a narrow strip and two conductors are considered. Also an analytic circuit model is analysed. In all cases the critical state model is used, so the flux flow resistivity and dynamic resistivity are not directly involved, although an effective resistivity appears when J c is exceeded. In most of the cases considered here is a large gap between the theory and the experiments. In particular the maximum flux transferred to the load area is always less than the flux of the magnet. Also once the threshold needed for pumping is exceeded the flux in the load saturates within a few cycles. However the analytic circuit model allows a simple modification to allow for the large reduction in I c when the magnet is over a conductor. This not only changes the direction of the pumped flux but leads to much more effective pumping.

  2. Performance assessment calculational exercises; PACE [Performance Assessment Calculational Exercises]-90: Overview and summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, R.W.; Dockery, H.A.


    The Performance Assessment Calculational Exercises (PACE) are an ongoing effort coordinated by Yucca Mountain Project Office. The objectives of fiscal year 1990 work, termed PACE-90, as outlined in the Department of Energy Performance Assessment (PA) Implementation Plan were to develop PA capabilities among Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) participants by calculating performance of a Yucca Mountain (YM) repository under ``expected`` and also ``disturbed`` conditions, to identify critical elements and processes necessary to assess the performance of YM, and to perform sensitivity studies on key parameters. It was expected that the PACE problems would aid in development of conceptual models and eventual evaluation of site data. The PACE-90 participants calculated transport of a selected set of radionuclides through a portion of Yucca Mountain for a period of 100,000 years. Results include analyses of fluid-flow profiles, development of a source term for radionuclide release, and simulations of contaminant transport in the fluid-flow field. Later work included development of a problem definition for perturbations to the originally modeled conditions and for some parametric sensitivity studies. 3 refs.

  3. Compilation of kinetic data for geochemical calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, R.C. [Monitor Scientific, LLC., Denver, Colorado (United States); Savage, D. [Quintessa, Ltd., Nottingham (United Kingdom); Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Shibata, Masahiro; Yui, Mikazu [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works


    mineralogical and physical properties of the fracture must be homogeneous over a characteristic length that is greater than or equal to the equilibration length. If these conditions are met, calculations suggest local equilibrium would be a valid assumption in groundwater evolution models applied to the Kamaishi site if: it applies to reactions involving calcite, stilbite (assuming its dissolution / precipitation behavior is similar to that of heulandite), laumontite, albite and prehnite, but not quartz; Darcy flow velocities are relatively low (e.g., less than about 0.1 m yr-1), and it is based on the assumption that equilibrium corresponds to an uncertainty in the saturation index of 0.0{+-}0.4. If, however, actual reaction rates in the field are lower than expected, possibly because reactive surface areas are overestimated, the modeling approach may be inappropriate because it is probably unrealistic to assume that fracture mineralogy is homogeneous over fracture lengths exceeding a few meters or tens of meters. An analytical model of redox-front migration behavior based on the stationary-state approximation, and JNC's conceptual model of a natural events scenario involving the migration of oxidizing surface waters in fractures, suggests that oxidizing solutions could travel from the surface to the depth of a repository in crystalline rock within 400 to 50,000 years. These estimates are relatively short compared with time periods considered in safety assessments of repository performance, which suggests that time-dependent variations in the redox environment of both the near field and geosphere may need to be accounted for in these assessments. The flow velocities and concentrations of reducing minerals assumed in JNC's conceptual model may be overly conservative, however. (author)

  4. Standard Guide for Benchmark Testing of Light Water Reactor Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This guide covers general approaches for benchmarking neutron transport calculations in light water reactor systems. A companion guide (Guide E2005) covers use of benchmark fields for testing neutron transport calculations and cross sections in well controlled environments. This guide covers experimental benchmarking of neutron fluence calculations (or calculations of other exposure parameters such as dpa) in more complex geometries relevant to reactor surveillance. Particular sections of the guide discuss: the use of well-characterized benchmark neutron fields to provide an indication of the accuracy of the calculational methods and nuclear data when applied to typical cases; and the use of plant specific measurements to indicate bias in individual plant calculations. Use of these two benchmark techniques will serve to limit plant-specific calculational uncertainty, and, when combined with analytical uncertainty estimates for the calculations, will provide uncertainty estimates for reactor fluences with ...

  5. Calculations of optical rotation: Influence of molecular structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jia


    Full Text Available Ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF method and Density Functional Theory (DFT were used to calculate the optical rotation of 26 chiral compounds. The effects of theory and basis sets used for calculation, solvents influence on the geometry and values of calculated optical rotation were all discussed. The polarizable continuum model, included in the calculation, did not improve the accuracy effectively, but it was superior to γs. Optical rotation of five or sixmembered of cyclic compound has been calculated and 17 pyrrolidine or piperidine derivatives which were calculated by HF and DFT methods gave acceptable predictions. The nitrogen atom affects the calculation results dramatically, and it is necessary in the molecular structure in order to get an accurate computation result. Namely, when the nitrogen atom was substituted by oxygen atom in the ring, the calculation result deteriorated.

  6. Equivalence of Stress and Energy Calculations of Mean Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Bøcker; Brown, L. M.


    Calculations of the mean stress in a plastically deformed matrix containing randomly distributed elastic inclusions are considered. The mean stress for an elastically homogeneous material is calculated on the basis of an energy consideration which completely accounts for elastic interactions...

  7. Dipole Approximation in the Calculation of the Perturbed Velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solovyov Oleg


    Full Text Available In this article we consider one of the approaches aimed at reducing time of calculation of aerodynamic characteristics of the studied objects using discrete vortex method. Also, accuracy assessment of calculation of aerodynamic characteristics was performed.

  8. Supporting Calculations For Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajunen, A. J.; Tedeschi, A. R.


    This document provides supporting calculations for the preparation of the Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study report The supporting calculations include equipment sizing, Hazard Category determination, and LAW Melter Decontamination Factor Adjustments.

  9. On the calculation of soft phase space integral


    Zhu, Hua


    The recent discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC attracts much attention to the precise calculation of its production cross section in quantum chromodynamics. In this work, we discuss the calculation of soft triple-emission phase space integral, which is an essential ingredient in the recently calculated soft-virtual corrections to Higgs boson production at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order. The main techniques used this calculation are method of differential equation for Feynman integr...

  10. Parametric Criticality Safety Calculations for Arrays of TRU Waste Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gough, Sean T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Division (NCSD) has performed criticality safety calculations for finite and infinite arrays of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. The results of these analyses may be applied in any technical area onsite (e.g., TA-54, TA-55, etc.), as long as the assumptions herein are met. These calculations are designed to update the existing reference calculations for waste arrays documented in Reference 1, in order to meet current guidance on calculational methodology.

  11. Field-theoretic calculation of kinetic helicity flux

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bulence and compute the fluxes of energy and kinetic helicity. The renormalized viscosity computed using RG procedure is used in the calculation. Contrast this with the arbitrary constant used in EDQNM calculation. In addition, the EDQNM calculations require numerical integration of energy equation, which is not required.

  12. Body Mass Index: Calculator for Child and Teen (United States)

    ... age percentile on a CDC BMI-for-age growth chart. Use this calculator for children and teens, aged 2 through 19 years old. For adults, 20 years old and older, use the Adult BMI Calculator . Measuring Height and Weight Accurately At Home BMI Calculator for ...

  13. 21 CFR 211.103 - Calculation of yield. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of yield. 211.103 Section 211.103 Food... § 211.103 Calculation of yield. Actual yields and percentages of theoretical yield shall be determined... by a second person, or, if the yield is calculated by automated equipment under § 211.68, be...

  14. Intrinsic Hysteresis Loops Calculation of BZT Thin Films (United States)

    Hikam, M.; Adnan, S. R.


    The Landau Devonshire (LK) simulation is utilized to calculate the intrinsic hysteresis properties of Barium Zirconium Titanate (BZT) doped by Indium and Lanthanum. A Delphi program run on Windows platform is used to facilitate the calculation. The simulation is very useful to calculate and understand the Gibbs free energy and the relationship between spontaneous polarization and electric field.

  15. The Graphics Calculator: A Tool for Critical Thinking. (United States)

    Dion, Gloria


    Appropriate uses for graphics calculators in precalculus and calculus are discussed. The functions of Casio, Sharp, and Hewlett-Packard brand calculators are stressed. A "Stress Test" for graphics calculators designed to illustrate common errors and to furnish examples of tasks which cannot be completed on these instruments is provided.…

  16. 49 CFR 1141.1 - Procedures to calculate interest rates. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures to calculate interest rates. 1141.1... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES TO CALCULATE INTEREST RATES § 1141.1 Procedures to calculate interest rates. (a) For purposes of complying with a Board decision in a...

  17. Can medical students calculate drug doses? | Harries | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with calculations when the drug concentration was expressed either as a ratio or a percentage. Conclusion: Our findings support calls for the standardised labelling of drugs in solution and for dosage calculation training in the medical curriculum. Keywords: drug dosage calculations, clinical competence, medication errors

  18. [Development of a risk calculator for drug compliance in treated hypertensives: The FLAHS Compliance Calculator]. (United States)

    Girerd, X; Hanon, O; Pannier, B; Vaïsse, B


    To investigate the determinants of non-compliance with antihypertensive treatments among participants in the FLAHS 2015 survey and to develop a risk calculator for drug compliance in a hypertensive population. The FLAHS surveys are carried out by self-questionnaire sent by mail to individuals from the TNS SOFRES (representative panel of the population living in metropolitan France) sampling frame. In 2015, FLAHS was performed in subjects aged 55years and older. Using the Girerd questionnaire, the "perfect observance" was determined for a score of 0 and "nonobservance" for a score of 1 or higher. A Poisson regression was conducted in univariate and multivariate to estimate risk ratios for each determinant. A non-compliance risk calculator is constructed from multivariate analysis. A Poisson regression was performed in univariate and multivariate to estimate risk ratios. For each sex, a probability table is produced from the equation of the multivariate analysis and then the calculation of a nonobservance probability ratio (PR) using the profile with the best probability as a reference. Each subject is then classified into one of the three classes of risk of non-compliance: low (PR =2) and intermediate (PR>=1.5 and non-compliance are: male sex, young age, number of antihypertensive tablet, treatment for a metabolic disease (diabetes, dyslipidemia), presence of other chronic illness, secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. To get the risk class of nonobservance a web page is available at The development of the FLAHS Compliance Test is a tool whose use is possible during an office visit. Its free availability for French doctor will be one of the actions undertaken as part of the "call for action for adherence in hypertension" proposed by the French League Against Hypertension in 2017. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Two level calculation of assembly neutronic data libraries; Schema de calcul de bibliotheques a deux niveaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benomar, M


    The neutronic modeling of a nuclear reactor core requires 2 steps. The first step that is called transport calculation, is an accurate modeling of each type of assemblies put in a simple configuration. APOLLO2, a French neutronic code is used. This step allows the constitution of assembly data libraries. The second step represents the computing of the whole core by the diffusion theory and by using the data libraries defined in the first step. This work is dedicated to the improvement of the first step by allowing both a 172 group energy meshing and a two-dimension spatial processing. (A.C.) 7 refs.

  20. Thermal Bridges in Building Construction - Measurements and Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    The thesis investigates detailed calculation methods for evaluating heat loss through building envelope constructions, or more specific, thermal bridges. First a detailed description of the calculation methods, i.e. both calculation programs and guidelines, for calculating typical thermal bridges...... in building envelope constructions is given. After this a validation of both programs and guidelines is presented. The validation is performed by comparing calculated U-values with Guarded Hot Box measurements. The last part of the thesis discusses the possibilities of utilising the results of detailed...

  1. Danish Sector Guide for Calculation of the Actual Energy Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard


    , the innovation network for sustainable construction, InnoBYG started work on a Danish sector guide for the calculation of actual energy consumption in relation to upgrading of buildings. The focus was to make a common guide for energy calculations that can be used by consultants performing calculations...... consumption compared with the estimated energy demand by calculation. The paper concludes that the result of an energy calculation should not be given as a single figure but rather as a spread between the best and worst case for the assumed conditions. Finally, a brief update on current actions is given...... related to the sector guide for calculation of actual energy consumption. Keywords – Energy calculations, actual energy consumption, energy perfomance...

  2. Approximate design calculation methods for radiation streaming in shield irregularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Toshimasa; Hirao, Yoshihiro [Ship Research Inst., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan); Yoritsune, Tsutomu


    Investigation and assessment are made for approximate design calculation methods of radiation streaming in shield irregularities. Investigation is made for (1) source, (2) definition of streaming radiation components, (3) calculation methods of streaming radiation, (4) streaming formulas for each irregularity, (5) difficulties in application of streaming formulas, etc. Furthermore, investigation is made for simple calculation codes and albedo data. As a result, it is clarified that streaming calculation formulas are not enough to cover various irregularities and their accuracy or application limit is not sufficiently clear. Accurate treatment is not made in the formulas with respect to the radiation behavior for slant incidence, bend part, offset etc., that results in too much safety factors in the design calculation and distrust of the streaming calculation. To overcome the state and improve the accuracy of the design calculation for shield irregularities, it is emphasized to assess existing formulas and develop better formulas based on systematic experimental studies. (author)

  3. Superelevation Calculation of Debris Flow Climbing Ascending Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HaiXin Zhao


    Full Text Available We present a new method for calculating the superelevation of debris flow when it encounters obstacles in the process of flowing. Our calculation method is based on the Bingham Model for debris flow determination and considers the vertical difference of debris flow velocity and characteristic parameters of debris flow on a hypothetical basis. Moreover, we conducted an indoor flume experiment to verify the accuracy and reasonability of our calculation method. The experimental results showed that our method is able to accurately calculate the superelevation of debris flow with a root-mean-square error (16%. Furthermore, we provide an in-depth example of how our calculation method can be employed. Ultimately, we conclusively prove that our calculation method can be used for the superelevation calculation of debris flow climbing ascending slopes. Finally, we provide more exact parameters for debris flow protection engineering.

  4. Probability calculations for three-part mineral resource assessments (United States)

    Ellefsen, Karl J.


    Three-part mineral resource assessment is a methodology for predicting, in a specified geographic region, both the number of undiscovered mineral deposits and the amount of mineral resources in those deposits. These predictions are based on probability calculations that are performed with computer software that is newly implemented. Compared to the previous implementation, the new implementation includes new features for the probability calculations themselves and for checks of those calculations. The development of the new implementation lead to a new understanding of the probability calculations, namely the assumptions inherent in the probability calculations. Several assumptions strongly affect the mineral resource predictions, so it is crucial that they are checked during an assessment. The evaluation of the new implementation leads to new findings about the probability calculations,namely findings regarding the precision of the computations,the computation time, and the sensitivity of the calculation results to the input.

  5. Numeric calculation of celestial bodies with spreadsheet analysis (United States)

    Koch, Alexander


    The motion of the planets and moons in our solar system can easily be calculated for any time by the Kepler laws of planetary motion. The Kepler laws are a special case of the gravitational law of Newton, especially if you consider more than two celestial bodies. Therefore it is more basic to calculate the motion by using the gravitational law. But the problem is, that by gravitational law it is not possible to calculate the state of motion with only one step of calculation. The motion has to be numerical calculated for many time intervalls. For this reason, spreadsheet analysis is helpful for students. Skills in programmes like Excel, Calc or Gnumeric are important in professional life and can easily be learnt by students. These programmes can help to calculate the complex motions with many intervalls. The more intervalls are used, the more exact are the calculated orbits. The sutdents will first get a quick course in Excel. After that they calculate with instructions the 2-D-coordinates of the orbits of Moon and Mars. Step by step the students are coding the formulae for calculating physical parameters like coordinates, force, acceleration and velocity. The project is limited to 4 weeks or 8 lessons. So the calcualtion will only include the calculation of one body around the central mass like Earth or Sun. The three-body problem can only be shortly discussed at the end of the project.

  6. Propellant Mass Fraction Calculation Methodology for Launch Vehicles (United States)

    Holt, James B.; Monk, Timothy S.


    Propellant Mass Fraction (pmf) calculation methods vary throughout the aerospace industry. While typically used as a means of comparison between competing launch vehicle designs, the actual pmf calculation method varies slightly from one entity to another. It is the purpose of this paper to present various methods used to calculate the pmf of a generic launch vehicle. This includes fundamental methods of pmf calculation which consider only the loaded propellant and the inert mass of the vehicle, more involved methods which consider the residuals and any other unusable propellant remaining in the vehicle, and other calculations which exclude large mass quantities such as the installed engine mass. Finally, a historic comparison is made between launch vehicles on the basis of the differing calculation methodologies.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgaker, T.; Ruud, K.; Bak, Keld L.


    Ab initio calculations of Raman differential intensities are presented at the self-consistent field (SCF) level of theory. The electric dipole-electric dipole, electric dipole-magnetic dipole and electric dipole-electric quadrupole polarizability tensors are calculated at the frequency of the inc...... of the incident light, using SCF linear response theory. London atomic orbitals are employed, imposing gauge origin invariance on the calculations. Calculations have been carried out in the harmonic approximation for CFHDT and methyloxirane.......Ab initio calculations of Raman differential intensities are presented at the self-consistent field (SCF) level of theory. The electric dipole-electric dipole, electric dipole-magnetic dipole and electric dipole-electric quadrupole polarizability tensors are calculated at the frequency...

  8. Coil current and vacuum magnetic flux calculation for axisymmetric equilibria (United States)

    Guazzotto, L.


    In fixed-boundary axisymmetric equilibrium calculations the plasma shape is assigned from input. In several circumstances, the plasma shape may not be known a priori, or one may desire to also compute the magnetic field in the volume surrounding the plasma through the calculation of a free-boundary equilibrium. This requires either the coil currents or the magnetic poloidal flux on a curve in the vacuum region to be assigned as input for the free-boundary equilibrium calculation. The FREE-FIX code presented in this article is a general tool for calculating coil currents being given a fixed-boundary calculation. A new formulation is presented, which considerably reduces the computational cost of the calculation. FREE-FIX performs well for different geometries and experiments.

  9. Methodological studies on the VVER-440 control assembly calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hordosy, G.; Kereszturi, A.; Maraczy, C. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary)


    The control assembly regions of VVER-440 reactors are represented by 2-group albedo matrices in the global calculations of the KARATE code system. Some methodological aspects of calculating albedo matrices with the COLA transport code are presented. Illustrations are given how these matrices depend on the relevant parameters describing the boron steel and steel regions of the control assemblies. The calculation of the response matrix for a node consisting of two parts filled with different materials is discussed.

  10. Accuracy Improvement of Magnetic Hysteresis Calculated by LLG Equation (United States)

    Tanaka, H.; Nakamura, K.; Ichinokura, O.


    Quantitative estimation of iron loss including magnetic hysteresis behavior is essential to the development of high-efficient electrical machines. A simplified micromagnetic model using Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation is one of the useful models for calculating the hysteresis behavior. However, further improvement of the calculation accuracy under magnetic saturation is required. This paper presents the accuracy improvement of the magnetic hysteresis calculated by the LLG equation.

  11. Electric field calculations in brain stimulation based on finite elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windhoff, Mirko; Opitz, Alexander; Thielscher, Axel


    The need for realistic electric field calculations in human noninvasive brain stimulation is undisputed to more accurately determine the affected brain areas. However, using numerical techniques such as the finite element method (FEM) is methodologically complex, starting with the creation...... elements. The latter is crucial to guarantee the numerical robustness of the FEM calculations. The pipeline will be released as open-source, allowing for the first time to perform realistic field calculations at an acceptable methodological complexity and moderate costs....

  12. An atlas of functions: with equator, the atlas function calculator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oldham, Keith


    ... of arguments. The first edition of An Atlas of Functions, the product of collaboration between a mathematician and a chemist, appeared during an era when the programmable calculator was the workhorse for the numerical evaluation of functions. That role has now been taken over by the omnipresent computer, and therefore the second edition delegates this duty to Equator, the Atlas function calculator. This is a software program that, as well as carrying out other tasks, will calculate va...

  13. 38 CFR 8.6 - Calculation of time period. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of time period. 8.6 Section 8.6 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Calculation of Time Period § 8.6 Calculation of time period. If the last day of a time period specified in §§ 8.2 or 8.3 or...

  14. Calculation of the spectrum of the superheavy element Z=120


    Dinh, T. H.; Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.; Ginges, J. S. M.


    High-precision calculations of the energy levels of the superheavy element Z=120 are presented. The relativistic Hartree-Fock and configuration interaction techniques are employed. The correlations between core and valence electrons are treated by means of the correlation potential method and many-body perturbation theory. Similar calculations for barium and radium are used to gauge the accuracy of the calculations and to improve the ab initio results.

  15. New method for calculation of integral characteristics of thermal plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A method for calculation of integral characteristics of thermal plumes is proposed. The method allows for determination of the integral parameters of plumes based on speed measurements performed with omnidirectional low velocity thermoanemometers. The method includes a procedure for calculation...... occupant. The improvement in calculation of the characteristics of the thermal plume achieved with the developed method, in comparison with methods used and reported in the literature, is demonstrated....





    The accounting post-employment benefits, based on actuarial calculations, at present remains a subject studied in Moldova only theoretically. Applying actuarial calculations of accounting in fact denotes its character of evolving. Because national accounting standards have been adapted to international, which, in turn, require the valuation of assets and debts at fair value, there is a need to draw up exact calculations on which stands the theory of probability and ...

  17. Newnes circuit calculations pocket book with computer programs

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Thomas J


    Newnes Circuit Calculations Pocket Book: With Computer Programs presents equations, examples, and problems in circuit calculations. The text includes 300 computer programs that help solve the problems presented. The book is comprised of 20 chapters that tackle different aspects of circuit calculation. The coverage of the text includes dc voltage, dc circuits, and network theorems. The book also covers oscillators, phasors, and transformers. The text will be useful to electrical engineers and other professionals whose work involves electronic circuitry.

  18. Spin resonance strength calculation through single particle tracking for RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Dutheil, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ranjbar, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    The strengths of spin resonances for the polarized-proton operation in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider are currently calculated with the code DEPOL, which numerically integrates through the ring based on an analytical approximate formula. In this article, we test a new way to calculate the spin resonance strengths by performing Fourier transformation to the actual transverse magnetic fields seen by a single particle traveling through the ring. Comparison of calculated spin resonance strengths is made between this method and DEPOL.

  19. Gas flow calculation method of a ramjet engine (United States)

    Kostyushin, Kirill; Kagenov, Anuar; Eremin, Ivan; Zhiltsov, Konstantin; Shuvarikov, Vladimir


    At the present study calculation methodology of gas dynamics equations in ramjet engine is presented. The algorithm is based on Godunov`s scheme. For realization of calculation algorithm, the system of data storage is offered, the system does not depend on mesh topology, and it allows using the computational meshes with arbitrary number of cell faces. The algorithm of building a block-structured grid is given. Calculation algorithm in the software package "FlashFlow" is implemented. Software package is verified on the calculations of simple configurations of air intakes and scramjet models.

  20. An expert system for the calculation of sample size. (United States)

    Ebell, M H; Neale, A V; Hodgkins, B J


    Calculation of sample size is a useful technique for researchers who are designing a study, and for clinicians who wish to interpret research findings. The elements that must be specified to calculate the sample size include alpha, beta, Type I and Type II errors, 1- and 2-tail tests, confidence intervals, and confidence levels. A computer software program written by one of the authors (MHE), Sample Size Expert, facilitates sample size calculations. The program uses an expert system to help inexperienced users calculate sample sizes for analytic and descriptive studies. The software is available at no cost from the author or electronically via several on-line information services.

  1. The number processing and calculation system: evidence from cognitive neuropsychology. (United States)

    Salguero-Alcañiz, M P; Alameda-Bailén, J R


    Cognitive neuropsychology focuses on the concepts of dissociation and double dissociation. The performance of number processing and calculation tasks by patients with acquired brain injury can be used to characterise the way in which the healthy cognitive system manipulates number symbols and quantities. The objective of this study is to determine the components of the numerical processing and calculation system. Participants consisted of 6 patients with acquired brain injuries in different cerebral localisations. We used Batería de evaluación del procesamiento numérico y el cálculo, a battery assessing number processing and calculation. Data was analysed using the difference in proportions test. Quantitative numerical knowledge is independent from number transcoding, qualitative numerical knowledge, and calculation. Recodification is independent from qualitative numerical knowledge and calculation. Quantitative numerical knowledge and calculation are also independent functions. The number processing and calculation system comprises at least 4 components that operate independently: quantitative numerical knowledge, number transcoding, qualitative numerical knowledge, and calculation. Therefore, each one may be damaged selectively without affecting the functioning of another. According to the main models of number processing and calculation, each component has different characteristics and cerebral localisations. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. MF Calculator: A Web-Based Application for Analyzing Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Maria Dias Sales


    Full Text Available This paper presents the metric-frequency calculator (MF Calculator, an online application to analyze similarity. The MF Calculator implements a metric-frequency similarity algorithm for the quantitative assessment of similarity in ill-structured data sets. It is widely applicable as it can be used with nominal, ordinal, or interval data when there is little prior control over the variables to be observed regarding number or content. The MF Calculator generates a proximity matrix in CSV, XML or DOC format that can be used as input to traditional statistical techniques such as hierarchical clustering, additive trees, or multidimensional scaling. The MF Calculator also displays a graphical representation of outputs using additive similarity trees. A simulated example illustrates the implementation of the MF calculator. An additional example with real data is presented, in order to illustrate the potential of combining the MF Calculator with cluster analysis. The MF Calculator is a user-friendly tool available free of charge. It can be accessed from, and it can be used by non-experts from a wide range of social sciences.

  3. The Graphic Calculator Is Dead, Long Live Hand Held Technology. (United States)

    Oldknow, Adrian


    Explores the broader potential of hand held technology. Presents web resources with descriptions of new technologies and applications that include graphing calculators and classroom communication systems. (MM)

  4. Comparison of calculated and measured helicopter rotor lateral flapping angles (United States)

    Johnson, W.


    Calculated and measured values of helicopter rotor flapping angles in forward flight are compared for a model rotor in a wind tunnel and an autogiro in gliding flight. The lateral flapping angles can be accurately predicted when a calculation of the nonuniform wake-induced velocity is used. At low advance ratios, it is also necessary to use a free wake geometry calculation. For the cases considered, the tip vortices in the rotor wake remain very close to the tip-path plane, so the calculated values of the flapping motion are sensitive to the fine details of the wake structure, specifically the viscous core radius of the tip vortices.

  5. Transition Zone Structure and Dynamics in Mantle Convection Calculations with Self-Consistently Calculated Mineralogy (United States)

    Tackley, P. J.; Nakagawa, T.; Deschamps, F.; Connolly, J.


    Phase diagrams of materials in Earth's transition zone (TZ) are complex and composition-dependent and phase transitions have a first-order influence on mantle dynamics, yet simulations of mantle convection typically include only one or two major phase transitions in the olivine system. In our recent work [1,2], phase assemblages of mantle rocks calculated by free energy minimization for MORB and harzburgite compositions expressed as the ratios of 5 or 6 oxides (CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3- SiO2-Na2O) are used to calculate the material properties density, thermal expansivity, specific heat capacity, and seismic velocity as a function of temperature and pressure, which are then incorporated into a numerical thermo-chemical mantle convection model in a 2-D spherical annulus or 3-D spherical shell. The advantage of using such an approach is that thermodynamic parameters affecting dynamics and seismic velocities are included implicitly and self-consistently, obviating the need for ad hoc parameterizations. Here we focus on the resulting thermo-chemical structures in the transition zone and their seismic signature. A robust result is some compositional stratification around 660 km depth caused by the inversion of the MORB-harzburgite density difference between ~660-740 km depth [3], with MORB enrichment in the lower TZ and depletion just below the TZ. The extent of this is quite sensitive to variations in MORB composition of the order 1-2% oxide fraction, particularly FeO and Al2O3, which influence the magnitude and depth of this effect and the density difference. The detailed structure also has a strong lateral variation. We plot radial profiles from different parts of our models, characterizing typical structures and the range of structures, and compare to local seismological profiles as well as profiles from regional inversions [4]. [1] Nakagawa, T., P.J. Tackley, F. Deschamps & J.A.D. Connolly (2009) Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 10, doi:10.1029/2008GC002280. [2] Nakagawa, T., P

  6. Calculation of reactivity by digital processing; Calcul de la reactivite par traitement numerique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedde, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    With a view to exploring the new possibilities offered by digital techniques, a description is given of the optimum theoretical conditions of a computation of the realtime reactivity using counting samples (obtained from a nuclear reactor). The degree to which these optimum conditions can be attained depends on the complexity of the processing which can be accepted. A compromise thus has to be made between the accuracy required and the simplicity of the equipment carrying out the processing. An example is given, using a relatively simple structure, which gives an idea of the accuracy of the results obtained over a wide range of reactor power. (author) [French] Dans le but d'explorer les possibilites nouvelles des techniques numeriques, on decrit les conditions theoriques optimales d'un calcul de la reactivite en temps reel a partir d'echantillons de comptage (en provenance d'un reacteur nucleaire). Ces conditions optimales peuvent etre approchees d'autant mieux que l'on accepte un traitement plus complexe. Un compromis est donc a faire entre la precision desiree et la simplicite du materiel assurant le traitement. Un exemple adoptant une structure de complexite reduite permet de juger de la precision des resultats obtenus sur une importante plage d'evolution de la puissance. (auteur)

  7. Evaluation of students' knowledge about paediatric dosage calculations. (United States)

    Özyazıcıoğlu, Nurcan; Aydın, Ayla İrem; Sürenler, Semra; Çinar, Hava Gökdere; Yılmaz, Dilek; Arkan, Burcu; Tunç, Gülseren Çıtak


    Medication errors are common and may jeopardize the patient safety. As paediatric dosages are calculated based on the child's age and weight, risk of error in dosage calculations is increasing. In paediatric patients, overdose drug prescribed regardless of the child's weight, age and clinical picture may lead to excessive toxicity and mortalities while low doses may delay the treatment. This study was carried out to evaluate the knowledge of nursing students about paediatric dosage calculations. This research, which is of retrospective type, covers a population consisting of all the 3rd grade students at the bachelor's degree in May, 2015 (148 students). Drug dose calculation questions in exam papers including 3 open ended questions on dosage calculation problems, addressing 5 variables were distributed to the students and their responses were evaluated by the researchers. In the evaluation of the data, figures and percentage distribution were calculated and Spearman correlation analysis was applied. Exam question on the dosage calculation based on child's age, which is the most common method in paediatrics, and which ensures right dosages and drug dilution was answered correctly by 87.1% of the students while 9.5% answered it wrong and 3.4% left it blank. 69.6% of the students was successful in finding the safe dose range, and 79.1% in finding the right ratio/proportion. 65.5% of the answers with regard to Ml/dzy calculation were correct. Moreover, student's four operation skills were assessed and 68.2% of the students were determined to have found the correct answer. When the relation among the questions on medication was examined, a significant relation (correlation) was determined between them. It is seen that in dosage calculations, the students failed mostly in calculating ml/dzy (decimal). This result means that as dosage calculations are based on decimal values, calculations may be ten times erroneous when the decimal point is placed wrongly. Moreover, it

  8. Calculations of skyshine from an intense portable electron linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, G.P.; Hughes, H.G.; Fry, D.A.; Haynie, J.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Shaughnessy, C.H.


    The MCNP Monte carlo code has been used at Los Alamos to calculate skyshine and terrain albedo efects from an intense portable electron linear accelerator that is to be used by the Russian Federation to radiograph nuclear weapons that may have been damaged by accidents. Relative dose rate profiles have been calculated. The design of the accelerator, along with a diagram, is presented.

  9. Environmental economic calculation prices for emissions; Miljoeoekonomiske beregningspriser for emissioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skou Andersen, M.


    The project's aim has been to present updated environmental-economic calculation prices which make it possible to differentiate between traffic sources and stationary sources of air pollution. Furthermore, for the first time calculation prices for emissions to the aquatic environment and for the heavy metal lead are included. (ln)

  10. 40 CFR 600.113-88 - Fuel economy calculations. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-88... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-88 Fuel economy calculations. The...

  11. 40 CFR 600.113-78 - Fuel economy calculations. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-78... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-78 Fuel economy calculations. The...

  12. Development of the multistep compound process calculation code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)


    A program `cmc` has been developed to calculate the multistep compound (MSC) process by Feshback-Kerman-Koonin. A radial overlap integral in the transition matrix element is calculated microscopically, and comparisons are made for neutron induced {sup 93}Nb reactions. Strengths of the two-body interaction V{sub 0} are estimated from the total MSC cross sections. (author)

  13. Carbon Footprint Calculations: An Application of Chemical Principles (United States)

    Treptow, Richard S.


    Topics commonly taught in a general chemistry course can be used to calculate the quantity of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere by various human activities. Each calculation begins with the balanced chemical equation for the reaction that produces the CO[subscript 2] gas. Stoichiometry, thermochemistry, the ideal gas law, and dimensional…

  14. 40 CFR 98.193 - Calculating GHG emissions. (United States)


    ... month n, determined according to § 98.194(c) (metric tons MgO/metric ton lime). 2000/2205 = Conversion...). 2000/2205 = Conversion factor for metric tons to tons. (iii) You must calculate the annual CO2.../2205 = Conversion factor for metric tons to tons. (iv) You must calculate annual CO2 process emissions...

  15. Tutorial: Calculating Percentile Rank and Percentile Norms Using SPSS (United States)

    Baumgartner, Ted A.


    Practitioners can benefit from using norms, but they often have to develop their own percentile rank and percentile norms. This article is a tutorial on how to quickly and easily calculate percentile rank and percentile norms using SPSS, and this information is presented for a data set. Some issues in calculating percentile rank and percentile…

  16. Numerical calculation of the ground state of Helium atom using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hylleraas did the calculation of the ground state in 1926 using the variational parameter a. In this paper we trace Hylleraas historic calculation, the use of computer enables us to improve the approximation found by Hylleraas . The program was written in FORTRAN language, designed in such away that for a particular value ...

  17. How to be Brilliant at Using a Calculator

    CERN Document Server

    Webber, Beryl


    Contains 40 worksheets designed to improve pupils' understanding of numbers, fractions, percentages, algebra and data handling. They will learn about: the keys of a calculator; how to do addition, subtraction, multiplication and division; how to check their answer approximately in their head; the game of secret numbers; calculator logic; square numbers and number patterns; money.

  18. Calculation of CWKB envelope in boson and fermion productions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present the calculation of envelope of boson and of both low- and high- mass fermion production at the end of inflation when the coherently oscillating inflatons decay into bosons and fermions. We consider three different models of inflation and use CWKB technique to calculate the envelope to understand the structure ...

  19. Calculation of CWKB envelope in boson and fermion productions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We present the calculation of envelope of boson and of both low- and high- mass fermion production at the end of inflation when the coherently oscillating inflatons decay into bosons and fermions. We consider three different models of inflation and use. CWKB technique to calculate the envelope to understand the ...

  20. KARATE - a code for VVER-440 core calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gado, J.; Hegedus, Cs.J.; Hegyi, Gy.; Kereszturi, A.; Makai, M.; Maraczi, Cs.; Telbisz, M.


    A modular calculation system has been elaborated at the KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute for VVER-440 cores. The purpose of KARATE is the calculation of neutron physical and thermal-hydraulic processes in the core at normal, startup, and slow transient conditions. KARATE is under validation and verification (V&V) against mathematical, experimental, and operational data.

  1. 40 CFR 91.419 - Raw emission sampling calculations. (United States)


    ... following equations are used to determine the weighted emission values for the test engine: ER04oc96.015...) Pi = Average power measured during mode i, , calculated according to the formula given in § 91.423(b....410(a) Pi = Average power measured during mode i, , calculated according to the formula given in § 91...

  2. RESEARCH Challenges with using estimates when calculating ART ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based on the total ART need among adults aged ≥15 years in SA. The latter, reported in the Statistics South Africa (SSA) mid-year population estimates, was calculated using Spectrum Software.2 To calculate the need for ART initiation among adults in the CTMM, the number already receiving ART was required. This was ...

  3. A Note for Graphing Calculators in the Fundamental Finance Course (United States)

    Chen, Jeng-Hong


    The financial calculator is incorporated in finance education. In class, the instructor shows students how to use the financial calculator's function keys to solve time value of money (TVM) related problems efficiently. The fundamental finance course is required for all majors in the business school. Some students, especially…

  4. The Place of Calculators in Mathematics Education in Developing Countries (United States)

    Kissane, Barry; Kemp, Marian


    Technology has become a major force in developing curricula and educational practice in mathematics education internationally. While many technologies are important in affluent developed countries, the hand-held calculator continues to be the technology most likely to be available to students when and where they need it. Modern calculators have…

  5. 9 CFR 124.20 - Patent term extension calculation. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent term extension calculation. 124... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PATENT TERM RESTORATION Regulatory Review Period § 124.20 Patent term extension calculation. (a) As provided in 37 CFR 1...

  6. The Effect of Using Graphing Calculators in Complex Function Graphs (United States)

    Ocak, Mehmet Akif


    This study investigates the role of graphing calculators in multiple representations for knowledge transfer and the omission of oversimplification in complex function graphs. The main aim is to examine whether graphing calculators were used efficiently to see different cases and multiple perspectives among complex function graphs, or whether…

  7. Research in Graphing Calculator Use: A Preliminary Report | Dontwi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses attention on some results obtained over the years with the introduction of Graphing Calculators into the Tutorial/Mainstream Class. Findings on Group Learning have been successfully applied. It was observed that Graphing Calculators have the potential of changing the classroom atmosphere and might ...

  8. 40 CFR 80.66 - Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of reformulated gasoline... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.66 Calculation of reformulated gasoline properties. (a) All volume measurements required by these regulations shall be...

  9. 48 CFR 1830.7002-3 - Representative investment calculations. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Representative investment... Representative investment calculations. (a) The calculation of the representative investment requires... accounting period, the contractor shall either: (1) Determine a representative investment for the cost...

  10. 24 CFR 35.915 - Calculating Federal rehabilitation assistance. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculating Federal rehabilitation... Rehabilitation § 35.915 Calculating Federal rehabilitation assistance. (a) Applicability. This section applies to recipients of Federal rehabilitation assistance. (b) Rehabilitation assistance. (1) Lead-based paint...

  11. Early Predictors of Calculation Fluency in Second Grade (United States)

    Locuniak, Maria N.


    Calculation fluency weaknesses are a key characteristic of children with mathematics difficulties. The major aim of this dissertation was to uncover early predictors of calculation fluency weaknesses in second graders. Children's performance on number sense tasks in kindergarten along with general cognitive abilities, early literacy skills, and…

  12. Calculation methodology of fast fission factor in a thermal reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishko Denis V.


    Full Text Available This article describes the coefficient of the fast fission, which is part of the formula of «four factors». Considered, to exist at the moment, two methods for calculation of the coefficient of the fast fission in uranium-water tight lattices. Also presents the results of calculations and comparative analysis of the data obtained by two techniques.

  13. Calculating pure rotational transitions of water molecule with a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We have calculated pure rotational transitions of water molecule from a kinetic energy operator (KEO) with the z-axis perpendicular to the molecular plane. We have used rotational basis functions which are linear combinations of symmetric top functions so that all matrix elements are real. The calculated spectra ...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1243-96 - Calculations; evaporative emissions. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculations; evaporative emissions... Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1243-96 Calculations; evaporative... equations can be used in integral form. (i) Methanol emissions: ER06OC93.133 Where, (A) MCH 3 OH=methanol...

  15. 40 CFR 86.143-96 - Calculations; evaporative emissions. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculations; evaporative emissions... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.143-96 Calculations; evaporative emissions. (a) The... can be used in integral form. (i) Methanol emissions: MCH 3 OH=ρCH 3 OH Vmix× (CCH 3 OH, rl−CCH 3 OH...

  16. 40 CFR 86.344-79 - Humidity calculations. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Humidity calculations. 86.344-79... Humidity calculations. (a) The following abbreviations (and units) are used in this section: BARO = barometric pressure (Pa) H = specific humidity, (gm H2O/gm of dry air) K = 0.6220 gm H2O/gm dry air M air...

  17. Calculation of energy spectrum of C isotope with modified Yukawa ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Sep 12, 2016 ... Abstract. In this paper, we have calculated the energy spectrum of 12C isotope in two-cluster models, 3α cluster model and 8Be + α cluster model. We use the modified Yukawa potential for interaction between the clusters and solve the Schrödinger equation using Nikiforov–Uvarov method to calculate the ...

  18. Burden of disease calculation, cost of illness analysis and demand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Burden of disease calculation, cost of illness analysis and demand for death: a theoretical review. ... International Journal of Development and Management Review ... The works of Murray and co-workers on calculating Burden of Disease (BoD), and even the analysis of Cost of Illness (CoI), to fully understand the priority ...

  19. Calculating Cutting Thermal Physics Parameters of Plastic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Grubyi


    Full Text Available The thermal physics parameters and a cutting temperature belong to the output performances to characterise a process and allow a rational selection of machining modes and conditions. In machining hard-to-cut materials the utmost cutting temperature is a technological restriction and defines tool wear rate and intensity. The cutting temperature also has impact on the heat extension of tool and the finished machining.The subject is to study thermal physics parameters and cutting temperature when machining the plastic materials by a hard-alloy tool. The objective is to develop a technique to calculate these parameters. A calculation method for the analysis of process parameters is used.Calculation results for the cutting temperature were compared with experimental ones published in the literature sources. A novelty of the technique is that there is no need in conducting the experimental studies to calculate the thermal physics parameters. Calculation is based on using known mechanical and thermal physics characteristics of machined and tool materials. The calculation results are parameters, namely heat flow intensities in the conditional shear plane, on the contact surfaces of tool, temperatures of theses surfaces, averaged cutting temperature - depending on the cutting speed, thickness of cutting layer, tool wear value.A sequence of calculations is implemented in the developed software in the programming algorithmic language with results in graphic and tabular representations. The calculation technique is designed for conducting research activities and engineering designs in the field of machining.

  20. Quark number density and susceptibility calculation under one loop ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Somorendro Singh


    May 30, 2017 ... Abstract. We calculate quark number density and susceptibility under one-loop correction in the mean- field potential. The calculation shows continuous increase in the number density and susceptibility up to the temperature T = 0.4 GeV. Then the values of number density and susceptibility approach the ...

  1. Calculated scan characteristics of a large spherical reflector antenna (United States)

    Agrawal, P. K.; Croswell, W. F.; Kauffman, J. F.


    A previously published numerical method to calculate the radiation properties of parabolic reflectors has been modified to also include very large spherical reflectors. The method has been verified by comparing the calculated and the measured results for a 120-wavelength spherical reflector.

  2. Mental Calculation: Why Don't They Get It? (United States)

    Thompson, Ian


    Ever since "mental arithmetic" was updated to "mental calculation," official documents have succeeded in perpetuating several basic misconceptions and misunderstandings about this topic. This situation does not augur well for the successful teaching of mental calculation strategies to young children. In this article, the author…

  3. Quantum Monte Carlo diagonalization method as a variational calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizusaki, Takahiro; Otsuka, Takaharu [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Honma, Michio


    A stochastic method for performing large-scale shell model calculations is presented, which utilizes the auxiliary field Monte Carlo technique and diagonalization method. This method overcomes the limitation of the conventional shell model diagonalization and can extremely widen the feasibility of shell model calculations with realistic interactions for spectroscopic study of nuclear structure. (author)

  4. 40 CFR 98.253 - Calculating GHG emissions. (United States)


    ... coking unit burner prior to the combustion of other fossil fuels and calculate the CO2 emissions... to the combustion of other fossil fuels (dry standard cubic feet per hour, dscfh). %CO2 = Hourly... burner prior to the combustion of other fossil fuels or calculate the volumetric flow rate of this...

  5. 40 CFR 98.273 - Calculating GHG emissions. (United States)


    ... fossil fuels and combustion of biomass in spent liquor solids. (1) Calculate fossil fuel-based CO2 emissions from direct measurement of fossil fuels consumed and default emissions factors according to the Tier 1 methodology for stationary combustion sources in § 98.33(a)(1). (2) Calculate fossil fuel-based...

  6. Electronic band-structure calculations of some magnetic chromium compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    In this paper band-structure calculations of CrS, CrSe, Cr3Se4 and CrSb are presented. Together with our accompanying results for the chromium tellurides, these calculations give a coherent picture of the changes in the electronic structure caused by anion substitution and by introduction of cation

  7. Certainty Power Flow Calculation for Distribution Network with Distributed Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FU Min


    Full Text Available System nodes need to be renumbered manually when upgrading and reforming distribution network makes network topology change. Because optimization method is inapplicable to the network change,an improved forward and backward sweep algorithm is proposed which is unrelated to node label. In this paper,node type of sorts of distributed generation ( DG in power flow calculation are induced and part of new node type of DG under improved control strategy are provided. The basis of DG as active constant node in certainty power flow calculation is analyzed. Based on improved back - forward sweep algorithm,general programs of power flow calculation in power distribution network of DG are programmed by MATLAB and the impact of DG on flow calculation to distribution network is analyzed quantitatively by plenty of simulation calculation of IEEE33 test system.

  8. Calculation of holograms from elemental images captured by integral photography. (United States)

    Mishina, Tomoyuki; Okui, Makoto; Okano, Fumio


    We describe a method in which holograms can be produced by calculation from images captured by integral photography (IP). We present a basic algorithm obtained by simulating IP reconstruction, in which conditions are set so as not to cause aliasing in the holograms after the calculations. To reduce the calculation load, we also propose a way to limit the range of calculation considering the distribution of light and a way to shift the optical field on the exit plane of microlenses in a lens array. Finally, by optical experiments, we confirm that three-dimensional images can be reconstructed from holograms calculated from an integral photograph of a real object captured with an IP camera.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Ivankov


    Full Text Available Based on the example of the reactor without steel, type ROM-510/26 with electromagnetic shields, verification of analytical and numeral finite-element methods is carried out by the calculation results comparison. For the purpose of corrected analytical calculation, horizontal and vertical shields of the reactor are represented by the system of shortcircuited elements to consider their final dimensions. Calculation is performed as to their inductances, distribution of currents and losses in the shields, magnetic-field and losses in winding, calculation of winding heating by means of the «overheating» empirical method. It is illustrated that analytical calculations correspond to the researches using numeral methods of the electromagnetic and thermal CFD-analysis with sufficient accuracy. For the purpose of practical application in industrial designing of the equipment, the methods with approved and checked measurement results are recommended

  10. Perceived and calculated health risks: do the impacts differ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, B.A.; Williams, R.G.


    In many cases of radioactive and hazardous waste management, some members of the general public perceive that human health risks associated with the wastes are higher than the calculated risks. Calculated risks are projections that have been derived from models, and it is these risks that are usually used as the basis for waste management. However, for various reasons, the calculated risks are often considered by the public as too low or inappropriate. The reasons that calculated risks are not perceived as accurate and the factors that affect these perceptions are explored in this paper. Also discussed are the impacts related to the perceived and calculated health risks: what they are, and if and how they differ. The kinds of potential impacts examined are health effects, land value changes, and social, transportation, and economic effects. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of incorporating these different risk perspectives in decisions on waste management.

  11. “DRYPACK” - a calculation and analysis tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, M.B.; Toftegaard, R.; Schneider, P.


    energy consumption reductions by using “DryPack” are calculated. With the “DryPack” calculation tool, it is possible to calculate four different unit operations with moist air (dehumidification of air, humidification of air, mixing of two air streams, and heating of air). In addition, a Mollier diagram......“DryPack” is a calculation tool that visualises the energy consumption of airbased and superheated steam drying processes. With “DryPack”, it is possible to add different components to a simple drying process, and thereby increase the flexibility, which makes it possible to analyse the most common...... drying processes. Moreover, it is possible to change the configuration of the dryer by including/changing energy saving components to illustrate the potential of the new configuration. The calculation tool is demonstrated in four different case studies, where the actual energy consumption and possible...

  12. Assessing the reliability of calculated catalytic ammonia synthesis rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medford, Andrew James; Wellendorff, Jess; Vojvodic, Aleksandra


    between errors in density functional theory calculations is shown to play an important role in reducing the predicted error on calculated rates. Uncertainties depend strongly on reaction conditions and catalyst material, and the relative rates between different catalysts are considerably better described......We introduce a general method for estimating the uncertainty in calculated materials properties based on density functional theory calculations. We illustrate the approach for a calculation of the catalytic rate of ammonia synthesis over a range of transition-metal catalysts. The correlation...... than the absolute rates. We introduce an approach for incorporating uncertainty when searching for improved catalysts by evaluating the probability that a given catalyst is better than a known standard....

  13. Ab initio MCDHF calculations of electron-nucleus interactions (United States)

    Bieroń, Jacek; Froese Fischer, Charlotte; Fritzsche, Stephan; Gaigalas, Gediminas; Grant, Ian P.; Indelicato, Paul; Jönsson, Per; Pyykkö, Pekka


    We present recent advances in the development of atomic ab initio multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock theory, implemented in the GRASP relativistic atomic structure code. For neutral atoms, the deviations of properties calculated within the Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) method (based on independent particle model of an atomic cloud) are usually dominated by electron correlation effects, i.e. the non-central interactions of individual electrons. We present the recent advances in accurate calculations of electron correlation effects in small, medium, and heavy neutral atoms. We describe methods of systematic development of multiconfiguration expansions leading to systematic, controlled improvement of the accuracy of the ab initio calculations. These methods originate from the concept of the complete active space (CAS) model within the DHF theory, which, at least in principle, permits fully relativistic calculations with full account of electron correlation effects. The calculations within the CAS model on currently available computer systems are feasible only for very light systems. For heavier atoms or ions with more than a few electrons, restrictions have to be imposed on the multiconfiguration expansions. We present methods and tools, which are designed to extend the numerical calculations in a controlled manner, where multiconfiguration expansions account for all leading electron correlation effects. We show examples of applications of the GRASP code to calculations of hyperfine structure constants, but the code may be used for calculations of arbitrary bound-state atomic properties. In recent years it has been applied to calculations of atomic and ionic spectra (transition energies and rates), to determinations of nuclear electromagnetic moments, as well as to calculations related to interactions of bound electrons with nuclear electromagnetic moments leading to violations of discrete symmetries.

  14. The influence of the dose calculation resolution of VMAT plans on the calculated dose for eye lens and optic apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Min; Park, So Yeon; Kim, Jung In; Kim, Jin Ho [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Wu, Hong Gyun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Since those organs are small in volume, dose calculation for those organs seems to be more susceptible to the calculation grid size in the treatment planning system (TPS). Moreover, since they are highly radio-sensitive organs, especially eye lens, they should be considered carefully for radiotherapy. On the other hand, in the treatment of head and neck (H and N) cancer or brain tumor that generally involves radiation exposure to eye lens and optic apparatus, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) techniques are frequently used because of the proximity of various radio-sensitive normal organs to the target volumes. Since IMRT and VMAT can deliver prescription dose to target volumes while minimizing dose to nearby organs at risk (OARs) by generating steep dose gradients near the target volumes, high dose gradient sometimes occurs near or at the eye lenses and optic apparatus. In this case, the effect of dose calculation resolution on the accuracy of calculated dose to eye lens and optic apparatus might be significant. Therefore, the effect of dose calculation grid size on the accuracy of calculated doses for each eye lens and optic apparatus was investigated in this study. If an inappropriate calculation resolution was applied for dose calculation of eye lens and optic apparatus, considerable errors can be occurred due to the volume averaging effect in high dose gradient region.

  15. Development of Calculation Algorithm for ECCS Kinematic Shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Chan; Yoon, Duk-Joo; Ha, Sang-Jun [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The void fraction of inverted U-pipes in front of SI(Safety Injection) pumps impact on the pipe system of ECCS(Emergency Core Cooling Systems). This phenomena is called as 'Kinematic Shock'. The purpose of this paper is to achieve the more exactly calculation when the kinematic shock is calculated by simplified equation. The behavior of the void packet of the ECCS pipes is illustrated by the simplified (other name is kinematic shock equation).. The kinematic shock is defined as the depth of total length of void clusters in the pipes of ECCS when the void cluster is continually reached along the part of pipes in vertical direction. In this paper, the simplified equation is evaluated by comparing calculation error each other.]. The more exact methods of calculating the depth of the kinematic shock in ECCS is achieved. The error of kinematic shock calculation is strongly depended on the calculation search gap and the order of Taylor's expansion. From this study, to select the suitable search gap and the suitable calculation order, differential root method, secant method, and Taylor's expansion form are compared one another.

  16. Calculation of plantar pressure time integral, an alternative approach. (United States)

    Melai, Tom; IJzerman, T Herman; Schaper, Nicolaas C; de Lange, Ton L H; Willems, Paul J B; Meijer, Kenneth; Lieverse, Aloysius G; Savelberg, Hans H C M


    In plantar pressure measurement, both peak pressure and pressure time integral are used as variables to assess plantar loading. However, pressure time integral shows a high concordance with peak pressure. Many researchers and clinicians use Novel software (Novel GmbH Inc., Munich, Germany) that calculates this variable as the summation of the products of peak pressure and duration per time sample, which is not a genuine integral of pressure over time. Therefore, an alternative calculation method was introduced. The aim of this study was to explore the relevance of this alternative method, in different populations. Plantar pressure variables were measured in 76 people with diabetic polyneuropathy, 33 diabetic controls without polyneuropathy and 19 healthy subjects. Peak pressure and pressure time integral were obtained using Novel software. The quotient of the genuine force time integral over contact area was obtained as the alternative pressure time integral calculation. This new alternative method correlated less with peak pressure than the pressure time integral as calculated by Novel. The two methods differed significantly and these differences varied between the foot sole areas and between groups. The largest differences were found under the metatarsal heads in the group with diabetic polyneuropathy. From a theoretical perspective, the alternative approach provides a more valid calculation of the pressure time integral. In addition, this study showed that the alternative calculation is of added value, along peak pressure calculation, to interpret adapted plantar pressures patterns in particular in patients at risk for foot ulceration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Methane on Mars: Thermodynamic Equilibrium and Photochemical Calculations (United States)

    Levine, J. S.; Summers, M. E.; Ewell, M.


    The detection of methane (CH4) in the atmosphere of Mars by Mars Express and Earth-based spectroscopy is very surprising, very puzzling, and very intriguing. On Earth, about 90% of atmospheric ozone is produced by living systems. A major question concerning methane on Mars is its origin - biological or geological. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations indicated that methane cannot be produced by atmospheric chemical/photochemical reactions. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations for three gases, methane, ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in the Earth s atmosphere are summarized in Table 1. The calculations indicate that these three gases should not exist in the Earth s atmosphere. Yet they do, with methane, ammonia and nitrous oxide enhanced 139, 50 and 12 orders of magnitude above their calculated thermodynamic equilibrium concentration due to the impact of life! Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations have been performed for the same three gases in the atmosphere of Mars based on the assumed composition of the Mars atmosphere shown in Table 2. The calculated thermodynamic equilibrium concentrations of the same three gases in the atmosphere of Mars is shown in Table 3. Clearly, based on thermodynamic equilibrium calculations, methane should not be present in the atmosphere of Mars, but it is in concentrations approaching 30 ppbv from three distinct regions on Mars.

  18. Unleashing Empirical Equations with "Nonlinear Fitting" and "GUM Tree Calculator" (United States)

    Lovell-Smith, J. W.; Saunders, P.; Feistel, R.


    Empirical equations having large numbers of fitted parameters, such as the international standard reference equations published by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS), which form the basis of the "Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater—2010" (TEOS-10), provide the means to calculate many quantities very accurately. The parameters of these equations are found by least-squares fitting to large bodies of measurement data. However, the usefulness of these equations is limited since uncertainties are not readily available for most of the quantities able to be calculated, the covariance of the measurement data is not considered, and further propagation of the uncertainty in the calculated result is restricted since the covariance of calculated quantities is unknown. In this paper, we present two tools developed at MSL that are particularly useful in unleashing the full power of such empirical equations. "Nonlinear Fitting" enables propagation of the covariance of the measurement data into the parameters using generalized least-squares methods. The parameter covariance then may be published along with the equations. Then, when using these large, complex equations, "GUM Tree Calculator" enables the simultaneous calculation of any derived quantity and its uncertainty, by automatic propagation of the parameter covariance into the calculated quantity. We demonstrate these tools in exploratory work to determine and propagate uncertainties associated with the IAPWS-95 parameters.

  19. Guidelines for the analysis of free energy calculations. (United States)

    Klimovich, Pavel V; Shirts, Michael R; Mobley, David L


    Free energy calculations based on molecular dynamics simulations show considerable promise for applications ranging from drug discovery to prediction of physical properties and structure-function studies. But these calculations are still difficult and tedious to analyze, and best practices for analysis are not well defined or propagated. Essentially, each group analyzing these calculations needs to decide how to conduct the analysis and, usually, develop its own analysis tools. Here, we review and recommend best practices for analysis yielding reliable free energies from molecular simulations. Additionally, we provide a Python tool,, freely available on GitHub as part of the pymbar package (located at, that implements the analysis practices reviewed here for several reference simulation packages, which can be adapted to handle data from other packages. Both this review and the tool covers analysis of alchemical calculations generally, including free energy estimates via both thermodynamic integration and free energy perturbation-based estimators. Our Python tool also handles output from multiple types of free energy calculations, including expanded ensemble and Hamiltonian replica exchange, as well as standard fixed ensemble calculations. We also survey a range of statistical and graphical ways of assessing the quality of the data and free energy estimates, and provide prototypes of these in our tool. We hope this tool and discussion will serve as a foundation for more standardization of and agreement on best practices for analysis of free energy calculations.

  20. An Accurate Technique for Calculation of Radiation From Printed Reflectarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Min; Sorensen, Stig B.; Jorgensen, Erik


    The accuracy of various techniques for calculating the radiation from printed reflectarrays is examined, and an improved technique based on the equivalent currents approach is proposed. The equivalent currents are found from a continuous plane wave spectrum calculated by use of the spectral dyadic...... Green's function. This ensures a correct relation between the equivalent electric and magnetic currents and thus allows an accurate calculation of the radiation over the entire far-field sphere. A comparison to DTU-ESA Facility measurements of a reference offset reflectarray designed and manufactured...

  1. Thermodynamic calculation of phase equilibria in stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klančnik G.


    Full Text Available In this paper two examples of thermodynamic investigation of stainless steels using both, experimental and modeling approach are described. The ferritic-austenitic duplex stainless steel and austenitic stainless steel were investigated using thermal analysis. The complex melting behavior was evident for both alloy systems. Experimentally obtained data were compared with the results of the thermodynamic calculations using the CALPHAD method. The equilibrium thermal events were also described by the calculated heat capacity. In spite of the complexity of both selected real alloy systems a relative good agreement was obtained between the thermodynamic calculations and experimental results.

  2. Antibiotic Therapy for Acute Infiltrate-Complicated Calculous Cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Nesterenko


    Full Text Available Objective: to summarize the results of treatment in 442 patients of various ages with acute calculous cholecystitis complicated by a compact perivesical infiltrate.Materials and methods. Bile from all the patients was bacteriologically studied. The implication of various antibiotics in limiting perivesical fat inflammation was determined.Results. The importance of decompressive treatments for complicated calculous cholecystitis has been ascertained. The advantages of microcholecystostomy have been revealed. There is evidence that it is expedient to use third-forth-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and dioxidine in the combined treatment of destructive calculous cholecystitis complicated by an infiltrate. 

  3. CSRtrack Faster Calculation of 3-D CSR Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Dohlus, Martin


    CSRtrack is a new code for the simulation of Coherent Synchrotron radiation effects on the beam dynamics of linear accelerators. It incorporates the physics of our previous code, TraFiC4, and adds new algorithms for the calculation of the CSR fields. A one-dimensional projected method allows quick estimates and a greens function method allows 3D calculations about ten times faster than with the `direct' method. The tracking code is written in standard FORTRAN77 and has its own parser for comfortable input of calculation parameters and geometry. Phase space input and the analysis of the traced particle distribution is done with MATLAB interface programs.

  4. Wind turbine sound pressure level calculations at dwellings. (United States)

    Keith, Stephen E; Feder, Katya; Voicescu, Sonia A; Soukhovtsev, Victor; Denning, Allison; Tsang, Jason; Broner, Norm; Leroux, Tony; Richarz, Werner; van den Berg, Frits


    This paper provides calculations of outdoor sound pressure levels (SPLs) at dwellings for 10 wind turbine models, to support Health Canada's Community Noise and Health Study. Manufacturer supplied and measured wind turbine sound power levels were used to calculate outdoor SPL at 1238 dwellings using ISO [(1996). ISO 9613-2-Acoustics] and a Swedish noise propagation method. Both methods yielded statistically equivalent results. The A- and C-weighted results were highly correlated over the 1238 dwellings (Pearson's linear correlation coefficient r > 0.8). Calculated wind turbine SPLs were compared to ambient SPLs from other sources, estimated using guidance documents from the United States and Alberta, Canada.

  5. Calculation of Industrial Enterprise Ventilation System by Network Integral Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihienkova Evgeniya I.


    Full Text Available This paper describe a ventilation system calculation of the technology building industrial enterprise. On the basis of the calculation model for the enterprise offered technical decision of ventilation systems, subject to a compliance exchange multiplicity, purification efficiency, decontamination from the work area; provided the required volume of gas extraction from process equipment according to the sanitary standards and environmental requirements. Produced selection of ventilation equipment parameters, solved the problem of the air exchange balancing between ventilation systems to prevent the emergence of parasitic flows between the rooms building. SigmaNet software package was used for the implement the calculation.

  6. Preeminence and prerequisites of sample size calculations in clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Singhal


    Full Text Available The key components while planning a clinical study are the study design, study duration, and sample size. These features are an integral part of planning a clinical trial efficiently, ethically, and cost-effectively. This article describes some of the prerequisites for sample size calculation. It also explains that sample size calculation is different for different study designs. The article in detail describes the sample size calculation for a randomized controlled trial when the primary outcome is a continuous variable and when it is a proportion or a qualitative variable.

  7. Influence of fission spectra uncertainties on calculated fast reactor parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucius, J.L.; Marable, J.H.


    The effect of fission spectra uncertainties on calculated fast reactor parameters is studied by (1) considering the sensitivities to fission spectrum parameters of four performance parameters in the fast reactor benchmark ZPR-6/7, (2) estimating the uncertainties in these calculated performance parameters due to uncertainties in the fission spectra, (3) reporting the change in ZPR-6/7 calculated performance parameters due to fission spectra changes going from ENDF/B-IV to proposed ENDF/B-VP, and (4) determining what fast benchmark integral experiments are trying to tell us about ENDF/B-IV fission spectrum parameters as variables in a least squares adjustment procedure.

  8. Entropy in spin foam models: the statistical calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Islas, J Manuel, E-mail: jmgislas@leibniz.iimas.unam.m [Instituto de Investigaciones en Matematicas Aplicadas y en Sistemas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM, A. Postal 20-726, 01000, Mexico DF (Mexico)


    Recently an idea for computing the entropy of black holes in the spin foam formalism has been introduced. Particularly complete calculations for the three-dimensional Euclidean BTZ black hole were performed. The whole calculation is based on observables living at the horizon of the black hole universe. Departing from this idea of observables living at the horizon, we now go further and compute the entropy of the BTZ black hole in the spirit of statistical mechanics. We compare both calculations and show that they are very interrelated and equally valid. This latter behaviour is certainly due to the importance of the observables.

  9. Improved perturbative calculations in field theory; Calculation of the mass spectrum and constraints on the supersymmetric standard model; Calculs perturbatifs variationnellement ameliores en theorie des champs; Calcul du spectre et contraintes sur le modele supersymetrique standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneur, J.L


    This document is divided into 2 parts. The first part describes a particular re-summation technique of perturbative series that can give a non-perturbative results in some cases. We detail some applications in field theory and in condensed matter like the calculation of the effective temperature of Bose-Einstein condensates. The second part deals with the minimal supersymmetric standard model. We present an accurate calculation of the mass spectrum of supersymmetric particles, a calculation of the relic density of supersymmetric black matter, and the constraints that we can infer from models.

  10. Software Tools for Measuring and Calculating Electromagnetic Shielding Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tesny, Neal


    The evaluation and the analysis of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse response of shielded enclosures require the availability of software tools able to acquire data and calculate shielding effectiveness...

  11. Earthquake Hazards Program: Risk-Targeted Ground Motion Calculator (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tool is used to calculate risk-targeted ground motion values from probabilistic seismic hazard curves in accordance with the site-specific ground motion...

  12. Calculation of electromagnetic parameter based on interpolation algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenqiang, E-mail: [College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Yuan, Liming; Zhang, Deyuan [Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)


    Wave-absorbing material is an important functional material of electromagnetic protection. The wave-absorbing characteristics depend on the electromagnetic parameter of mixed media. In order to accurately predict the electromagnetic parameter of mixed media and facilitate the design of wave-absorbing material, based on the electromagnetic parameters of spherical and flaky carbonyl iron mixture of paraffin base, this paper studied two different interpolation methods: Lagrange interpolation and Hermite interpolation of electromagnetic parameters. The results showed that Hermite interpolation is more accurate than the Lagrange interpolation, and the reflectance calculated with the electromagnetic parameter obtained by interpolation is consistent with that obtained through experiment on the whole. - Highlights: • We use interpolation algorithm on calculation of EM-parameter with limited samples. • Interpolation method can predict EM-parameter well with different particles added. • Hermite interpolation is more accurate than Lagrange interpolation. • Calculating RL based on interpolation is consistent with calculating RL from experiment.

  13. Theoretical Calculations of The Magnetic Susceptibility in Some Organic Molecules


    Sadykova, A. Yu.


    Magnetic susceptibility of a number of sizeable organic molecules is calculated by using the model of additivity of localized molecular fragments. The results are in a good agreement with available experimental data.

  14. Disk calculator indicates legible lettering size for slide projection (United States)

    Hultberg, R. R.


    Hand-operated disk calculator indicates the minimum size of letters and numbers in relation to the width and height of a working drawing. The lettering is legible when a slide of the drawing is projected.

  15. Free energy calculations of glycosaminoglycan-protein interactions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gandhi, Neha S; Mancera, Ricardo L


    .... We report the first use of molecular dynamics (MD) free energy calculations using the MM PBSA method to investigate the binding of GAGs to protein molecules, namely the platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1) and annexin A2...

  16. A Review of Pentaquark Calculations on the Lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keh-Fei Liu; Nilmani Mathur


    We review lattice calculations of pentaquarks and discuss issues pertaining to interpolation fields, distinguishing the signal of pentaquarks from those of the KN scattering states, chiral symmetry, and ghost state contaminations.

  17. Synthesis, Spectroscopic Properties and DFT Calculation of Novel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L1) identifies its molecular structure and reveals π-π stacking. The synthetic mechanisms for L2, L3 were studied by density functional theory calculations. And a comprehensive study of spectroscopic properties involving experimental data and ...

  18. Medicare Data to Calculate Your Primary Service Areas (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The following data is being made available to applicants to the Medicare Shared Savings Program (Shared Savings Program), in order to allow them to calculate their...

  19. Can multiparticle correlations be described by present analytical QCD calculations?

    CERN Document Server

    Buschbeck, Brigitte


    Previous experimental studies of various correlation functions in angular intervals and their comparison with QCD calculations are summarized. A good description is only obtained for a globally normalized function (r). The hypothesis of local parton hadron duality (LPHD) seems to be well fulfilled in this case. For all differentially normalized functions, however, several disagreements are observed and the validity of LPHD is in question. It is argued (using Monte Carlo calculations) that LPHD could still be valid also in this case - after improving the perturbative QCD calculations. Only after the inclusion of full energy-momentum conservation in the calculations one will have a better handle to estimate, how far non- perturbative effects are spoiling the agreement with the data. (14 refs).

  20. Positron lifetime calculation for the elements of the periodic table. (United States)

    Campillo Robles, J M; Ogando, E; Plazaola, F


    Theoretical positron lifetime values have been calculated systematically for most of the elements of the periodic table. Self-consistent and non-self-consistent schemes have been used for the calculation of the electronic structure in the solid, as well as different parametrizations for the positron enhancement factor and correlation energy. The results obtained have been studied and compared with experimental data, confirming the theoretical trends. As is known, positron lifetimes in bulk show a periodic behaviour with atomic number. These calculations also confirm that monovacancy lifetimes follow the same behaviour. The effects of enhancement factors used in calculations have been commented upon. Finally, we have analysed the effects that f and d electrons have on positron lifetimes.