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Sample records for calculations 3-dimensional

  1. Calculation Of Correction Angles Of 3-Dimensional Vertebral Rotations Based On Bi-Plane X-Ray Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Tamotsu; Umezaki, Eisaku; Yamagata, Masatsune; Inoue, Shun-ichi

    1984-10-01

    For the therapy of diseases of spinal deformity such as scoliosis, the data of 3-dimensional and correct spinal configuration are needed. Authors developed the system of spinal configuration analysis using bi-plane X-ray photogrammetry which is strong aid for this subject. The idea of correction angle of rotation of vertebra is introduced for this system. Calculated result under this idea has the clinical meaning because the correction angle is the angle which should be corrected on the treatment such as operation or wearing the equipment. Method of 30° oblique projection which gives the apparent X-ray image and eases the measurement of the anatomically characteristic points is presented. The anatomically characteristic bony points whose images should be measured on a- or b-film are of four points. These are centers of upper and lower end plates of each vertebra the center is calculated from two points which are most distant each other on the contour of vertebral end plate ), the lower end points of root of right and left pedicles. Some clinical applications and the effectiveness of this system are presented.

  2. Finite element calculations for aerodynamic coefficients of a 3-dimensional body in subsonic flow using Green's function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagizawa, Mitsunori; Kikuchi, Kazuo

    1988-01-01

    An accurate method for evaluating the derivatives along circular paths on the surface is proposed. Calculations are made on various practical configurations such as wing-body combinations, tandem wings, wings with dihedral angles at sideslip, ground effects, interference between a sphere and wind tunnel, etc. Comparisons with experiment show good agreement.

  3. Surround 3-Dimensional Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karbowski Krzysztof

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes original 3-dimensional structured light scanner used for medical application. Scanner kinematics is similar to the gantry mechanism of computed tomography apparatus. The unique feature of the presented scanner is a glass table for capturing image of a human body part. The scanner can acquire an object through the table. It gives the chance for surround scanning of the human body, using only one scanning head, without changing the body position. It is more cost effective scanner solution than multihead scanner configuration.

  4. Ultrahigh Resolution 3-Dimensional Imaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposes to develop innovative instrumentation for the rapid, 3-dimensional imaging of biological tissues with cellular resolution. Our approach...

  5. Properties of 3-dimensional line location models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik; Schöbel, Anita

    2002-01-01

    We consider the problem of locating a line with respect to some existing facilities in 3-dimensional space, such that the sum of weighted distances between the line and the facilities is minimized. Measuring distance using the l\\_p norm is discussed, along with the special cases of Euclidean...

  6. On AGV's navigation in 3-dimensional space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusche, Jürgen

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with position estimation and path control for Autonomous Guided Vehicles (AGV). To enable a vehicle or a mobile robot in following a continuous “virtual” path without human control, these techniques play an important role. The relationship between the vehicle's motion in 3-dimensional space and the shape of a curved surface is described. In particular, the introduction of a digital terrain model in dead reckoning is considered. Moreover, a possible nonlinear control is developed based on curvilinear path coordinates, and the proof for global stability is given. To achieve general validity, these topics are treated here independently of the cart's special mechanization (the configuration of steered wheels and driven wheels). Simulation studies are presented to illustrate the investigations.

  7. Measuring 3-dimensional tooth movement with a 3-dimensional surface laser scanner

    OpenAIRE

    Thiruvenkatachari, Badri; Al-Abdallah, Mariam; Akram, Noreen C.; Sandler, Jonathan; O'Brien, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Our aims in this study were to (1) develop a method of measuring 3-dimensional (3D) tooth movement using a 3D surface laser scanner, (2) test the accuracy of this method, and (3) compare the measurements with those from cephalometric radiographs. Methods: A method of superimposing pretreatment and posttreatment models on the palatal rugae was developed, and an experimental model was prepared to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the laser scanner. Records were obtained fro...

  8. The 3-Dimensional Structure of Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lindsay

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope Multi-Cycle Treasury Program CLASH (PI Postman) has provided the community with the most detailed views ever of the central regions of massive galaxy clusters. These galaxy clusters have also been observed with NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory, with the ground-based Subaru telescope, and with other ground- and space-based facilities, resulting in unprecedented multi-wavelength data sets of the most massive bound structures in the universe. Fitting 3-Dimensional mass models is crucial to understanding how mass is distributed in individual clusters, investigating the properties of dark matter, and testing our cosmological model. With the exquisite data available, the time is now ideal to undertake this analysis. We propose to use algorithms that we have developed and obtain mass models for the clusters from the CLASH sample. The project would use archival gravitational lensing data, X-ray data of the cluster's hot gas and additional constraints from Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) data. Specifically, we would model the 23 clusters for which both HST and Subaru data (or in one case WFI data) are publicly available, since the exquisite imaging of HST in the clusters' central regions is beautifully augmented by the wide field coverage of Subaru imaging. If the true 3-D shapes of clusters are not properly accounted for when analysing data, this can lead to inaccuracies in the mass density profiles of individual clusters - up to 50% bias in mass for the most highly triaxial systems. Our proposed project represents an independent analysis of the CLASH sample, complementary to that of the CLASH team, probing the triaxial shapes and orientations of the cluster dark matter halos and hot gas. Our findings will be relevant to the analysis of data from future missions such as JWST and Euclid, and also to ground-based surveys to be made with telescopes such as LSST.

  9. 3-Dimensional wireless sensor network localization: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Yasmeen Nadhirah Ahmad; Daud, Hanita; Aziz, Azrina Abd; Razali, Radzuan

    2016-11-01

    The proliferation of wireless sensor network (WSN) has shifted the focus to 3-Dimensional geometry rather than 2-Dimensional geometry. Since exact location of sensors has been the fundamental issue in wireless sensor network, node localization is essential for any wireless sensor network applications. Most algorithms mainly focus on 2-Dimensional geometry, where the application of this algorithm will decrease the accuracy on 3-Dimensional geometry. The low rank attribute in WSN's node estimation makes the application of nuclear norm minimization as a viable solution for dimensionality reduction problems. This research proposes a novel localization algorithm for 3-Dimensional WSN which is nuclear norm minimization. The node localization is formulated via Euclidean Distance Matrix (EDM) and is then optimized using Nuclear-Norm Minimization (NNM).

  10. Materials applications of an advanced 3-dimensional atom probe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerezo, A; Gibuoin, D; Sijbrandij, SJ; Venker, FM; Warren, PJ; Wilde, J; Smith, GDW

    An advanced 3-dimensional atom probe system has been constructed, based on an optical position-sensitive atom probe (OPoSAP) detector with energy compensation using a reflectron lens. The multi-hit detection capability of the OPoSAP lends to significant improvements in the efficiency of the

  11. Registration of 3-dimensional facial photographs for clinical use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maal, T.J.J.; Loon, B. van; Plooij, J.M.; Rangel, F.A.; Ettema, A.M.; Borstlap, W.A.; Berge, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To objectively evaluate treatment outcomes in oral and maxillofacial surgery, pre- and post-treatment 3-dimensional (3D) photographs of the patient's face can be registered. For clinical use, it is of great importance that this registration process is accurate (< 1 mm). The purpose of

  12. Integration of digital dental casts in 3-dimensional facial photographs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rangel, F.A.; Maal, T.J.J.; Berge, S.J.; Vlijmen, O.J.C. van; Plooij, J.M.; Schutyser, F.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Since 1915, various researchers have tried to make a 3-dimensional (3D) model of the complete face, with the dentition in the anatomically correct position. This was a difficult and time-consuming process. With the introduction of 3D digital imaging of the face and dental casts,

  13. Controlled teleportation of a 3-dimensional bipartite quantum state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Haijing; Chen Zhonghua [Physics Department, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 201300 (China); Song Heshan [Physics Department, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)], E-mail: 2007000084@shiep.edu.cn

    2008-07-15

    A controlled teleportation scheme of an unknown 3-dimensional (3D) two-particle quantum state is proposed, where a 3D Bell state and 3D GHZ state function as the quantum channel. This teleportation scheme can be directly generalized to teleport an unknown d-dimensional bipartite quantum state.

  14. 3-Dimensional reconstruction of fluorescent structures in tardigrades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz BRÜMMER

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Tardigrades are microscopic animals, thus brightfield microscopy is a well established method for tardigrade observation. Modern techniques in functional genetics like fluorescence in situ hybridisation or fluorescently labelled expression markers demand high resolution fluorescence microscopy. Nevertheless tardigrades are still considered to be difficult objects for fluorescence techniques as they are covered by an opaque and diffracting cuticle. We show a modern technique of structured light illumination that enables us to acquire thin optical sections and consequently to reconstruct 3-dimensional structures in tardigrades with a high spatial resolution in all 3 dimensions. This technique is evaluated on taxonomically valuable internal as well as external structures of eutardigrades: the bucco-pharyngeal apparatus and the claws. The 3-dimensional reconstructions allow the measurement of distances in all 3 dimensions.

  15. Method for generating realistic 3-dimensional models of neuronal cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mata Fernández, Susana; Brito Menéndez, Juan Pedro; Bayona Beriso, Sofía; Pastor Pérez, Luis; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Felipe, Javier de

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The present invention relates to a method for the generation of 3-dimensional models of neuronal cells based on incomplete morphological information extracted by means of standard sampling methods. The models generated include a realistic soma, dendritic and axonal trees and dendritic spines, which may be generated at different resolution levels. The invention proposes an innovative technique that makes it possible to obtain a realistic soma form based on a simple definition thereof (suc...

  16. Cellular Changes of Stem Cells in 3-Dimensional Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Matthew P; Hou, Bo

    2017-11-01

    During various operations and procedures, such as distraction osteogenesis and orthodontics, skeletal tissues use mechanotransduction. Mechanotransduction is important for maintaining bone health and converting mechanical forces into biochemical signals. We hypothesized that cells put under mechanical stress would adapt and change morphologically and respond with a decrease in cellular proliferation to accommodate the stress differences. These differences will be measured at the molecular and genetic level. We also wanted to test the practicality of an in vitro 3-dimensional gel model system. We implemented a 3-dimensional cell culture model. The sample was composed of isolated mouse mesenchymal prefibroblast bone marrow cells from the femurs and tibias of 6- to 8-week-old wild-type C57BL6 mice. The cells were seeded on fibronectin-coated hydrogels along with fibrin and nodulin growth factors. The variables tested were a no-force model (control) and a force model. The force model required two 0.1-mm suture pins put through one 0.25-cm length of cell-gel matrix. After the experiments were run to completion, the samples were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde and embedded in paraffin. Serial sections were cut at a thickness of 5 μm along the long axis for the force construct and encompassing the entire circular area of the control construct. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were computed, and the P value was set at 5%. There was a statistically significant difference between the 2 models. The force model had longer and straighter primary cilia, less apoptosis, and an increase in cell proliferation. In addition, the shape of the cells was markedly different after the experiment. The results of the study suggest cells put under tensile stress have the ability to mechanically sense the environment to provide improved adaptation. Our work also confirms the usefulness of the in vitro 3-dimensional gel model system to mimic in vivo applications. Published by Elsevier

  17. Effects of 3-dimensional video games on visual nervous function

    OpenAIRE

    西村, 雄宏; 岩田, 豊人; 村田, 勝敬

    2010-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of 3-dimensional(3D)video games on human visual nervous function, near-point distance, visual evoked potentials and critical flicker fusion, along with subjective symptoms on visual fatigue, were measured before and after playing 3D-or 2D-video game for two hours. The subjects were 10 healthy male students aged 20-23 years. The subjective symptoms of fatigue related to"drowsiness and dullness"and"projection of physical impairment"significantly increased after pl...

  18. Wetting characteristics of 3-dimensional nanostructured fractal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ethan, E-mail: ethan.davis4@huskers.unl.edu [Nano & Microsystems Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, W342 Nebraska Hall, Lincoln, NE 68588-0526 (United States); Liu, Ying; Jiang, Lijia; Lu, Yongfeng [Laser Assisted Nano Engineering Lab, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 209N Scott Engineering Center, Lincoln, NE 68588-0511 (United States); Ndao, Sidy, E-mail: sndao2@unl.edu [Nano & Microsystems Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, W342 Nebraska Hall, Lincoln, NE 68588-0526 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Hierarchically structured surfaces were fabricated on the micro/nano-scale. • These structures reduced the contact angle of the inherently hydrophilic material. • Similar surfaces have applications in two-phase heat transfer and microfluidics. - Abstract: This article reports the fabrication and wetting characteristics of 3-dimensional nanostructured fractal surfaces (3DNFS). Three distinct 3DNFS surfaces, namely cubic, Romanesco broccoli, and sphereflake were fabricated using two-photon direct laser writing. Contact angle measurements were performed on the multiscale fractal surfaces to characterize their wetting properties. Average contact angles ranged from 66.8° for the smooth control surface to 0° for one of the fractal surfaces. The change in wetting behavior was attributed to modification of the interfacial surface properties due to the inclusion of 3-dimensional hierarchical fractal nanostructures. However, this behavior does not exactly obey existing surface wetting models in the literature. Potential applications for these types of surfaces in physical and biological sciences are also discussed.

  19. 3-Dimensional Agent Representations Increase Generosity in a Naturalistic Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krátký, Jan; McGraw, John J.; Xygalatas, Dimitris

    Decisions made in everyday situations are carried out in complex environments rich in socially salient cues that influence the individual's decisions. A wide range of experimental work coming from social psychology and behavioral economics shows that, contrary to the standard economic model, people...... do not always act as deliberative, rational actors. Various studies have investigated the effects of both material cues and complex environmental settings on behavioral choices. One particularly common and salient aspect of the environment involves cues related to intentional agents, whether...... to previous studies utilizing 2-dimensional images, 3-dimensional representations share morphological elements with real life agents which may enhance the salience of the cues. Higher activation of agency detection, in turn, ought to trigger stronger reputational concerns and thus further amplify prosocial...

  20. Mandibular reconstruction using stereolithographic 3-dimensional printing modeling technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adir; Laviv, Amir; Berman, Phillip; Nashef, Rizan; Abu-Tair, Jawad

    2009-11-01

    Mandibular reconstruction can be challenging for the surgeon wishing to restore its unique geometry. Reconstruction can be achieved with titanium bone plates followed by autogenous bone grafting. Incorporation of the bone graft into the mandible provides continuity and strength required for proper esthetics and function and permitting dental implant rehabilitation at a later stage. Precious time in the operating room is invested in plate contouring to reconstruct the mandible. Rapid prototyping technologies can construct physical models from computer-aided design via 3-dimensional (3D) printers. A prefabricated 3D model is achieved, which assists in accurate contouring of plates and/or planning of bone graft harvest geometry before surgery. The 2 most commonly used rapid prototyping technologies are stereolithography and 3D printing (3DP). Three-dimensional printing is advantageous to stereolithography for better accuracy, quicker printing time, and lower cost. We present 3 clinical cases based on 3DP modeling technology. Models were fabricated before the resection of mandibular ameloblastoma and were used to prepare bridging plates before the first stage of reconstruction. In 1 case, another model was fabricated and used as a template for iliac crest bone graft in the second stage of reconstruction. The 3DP technology provided a precise, fast, and cheap mandibular reconstruction, which aids in shortened operation time (and therefore decreased exposure time to general anesthesia, decreased blood loss, and shorter wound exposure time) and easier surgical procedure.

  1. Correlation between 3-dimensional facial morphology and mandibular movement during maximum mouth opening and closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Seung; Choi, Soon-Chul; Lee, Sam-Sun; Heo, Min-Suk; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Hwang, Soon-Jung; Yi, Won-Jin

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between mandibular movement and facial morphology parameters measured using 3-dimensional CT data. We have developed a mandibular movement tracking and simulation system. The mandibular movement data were acquired from 22 subjects (6 males and 16 females), 3 who had no clinical facial deformities and 19 who had orthofacial deformities. The subjects voluntarily performed maximum mouth opening and closing movements. Three-dimensional maximum linear movements of selected points (bilateral condylions, infradentale, and pogonion) were calculated to represent mandibular movement. Facial morphology values were measured 3-dimensionally from CT data and bilateral morphological values were divided into 2 groups according to the mandibular deviation, the deviated side, and counter-deviated side groups. Correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate the relationship between mandibular movements and facial morphology. Maximum linear movements of all selected points on the mandible were positively correlated with sella-nasion-point A (SNA) and sella-nasion-point B (SNB). Movements of the infradentale and pogonion were significantly correlated with ramus inclination, lateral mandibular body angle, ramus length, and mandibular body length. Condylar movement was positively correlated with lateral mandibular body angle and mandibular body length. Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the model predicting the effect of morphological values on mandibular movement. Condylar movement was associated with the SNA (R(2) value = 0.32 for the deviated side, R(2) value = 0.26 for the counter-deviated side), and movement of the infradentale was associated with both SNA and ramus length (R(2) value = 0.57). Movement of the pogonion could be predicted by SNA, mandibular length, and condylar head length (R(2) value = 0.65). The 3D facial morphology values were associated with variations in mandibular

  2. Agent-Based Target Detection in 3-Dimensional Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Correia, Joaquin S

    2005-01-01

    .... The results are, under certain conditions, unrealistic behaviors that negatively effect user immersion in games and call into question the validity of calculations in fine resolution military simulations...

  3. Individualized Physical 3-dimensional Kidney Tumor Models Constructed From 3-dimensional Printers Result in Improved Trainee Anatomic Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoedler, Margaret; Feibus, Allison H; Lange, Andrew; Maddox, Michael M; Ledet, Elisa; Thomas, Raju; Silberstein, Jonathan L

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of 3-dimensionally (3D) printed physical renal models with enhancing masses on medical trainee characterization, localization, and understanding of renal malignancy. Proprietary software was used to import standard computed tomography (CT) cross-sectional imaging into 3D printers to create physical models of renal units with enhancing renal lesions in situ. Six different models were printed from a transparent plastic resin; the normal parenchyma was printed in a clear, translucent plastic, with a red hue delineating the suspicious renal lesion. Medical students, who had completed their first year of training, were given an overview and tasked with completion of RENAL nephrometry scores, separately using CT imaging and 3D models. Trainees were also asked to complete a questionnaire about their experience. Variability between trainees was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and kappa statistics were used to compare the trainee to experts. Overall trainee nephrometry score accuracy was significantly improved with the 3D model vs CT scan (P 3D models compared with CT scans to assess the nephrometry score (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.28 for CT scan vs 0.72 for 3D models). Qualitative evaluation with questionnaires filled out by the trainees further confirmed that the 3D models improved their ability to understand and conceptualize the renal mass. Physical 3D models using readily available printing techniques improve trainees' understanding and characterization of individual patients' enhancing renal lesions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Improved Temporomandibular Joint Position After 3-Dimensional Planned Mandibular Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawh-Martinez, Rajendra; Parsaei, Yassmin; Wu, Robin; Lin, Alexander; Metzler, Philipp; DeSesa, Christopher; Steinbacher, Derek M

    2017-01-01

    Virtual surgical planning (VSP) using computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD-CAM) has been reported to aid in craniofacial reconstruction. The reported improvements have been related mainly to operative performance, with limited evaluations of the position and function of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). This study analyzed the radiographic detail of postoperative outcomes related to the TMJ. Patients who underwent mandibular reconstruction with and without VSP were analyzed. All patients underwent preoperative computed tomography (CT) of their mandible. In the VSP group, CAD-CAM planning was performed preoperatively using CT Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data. Postoperative CT images from the 2 groups were quantitatively compared to evaluate the TMJ. CT images were digitized for 2- and 3-dimensional analysis using surgical planning software (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). Anatomic landmarks and cephalometric relations were analyzed. Sixteen patients who underwent traditional planning or VSP for mandibular reconstruction were compared. Two groups (n = 8 each) were compared for positioning of the mandibular condyle in the glenoid fossa. Measurements of superior, anterior, and lateral movements were comparable in the pre- and postoperative groups for the traditional and VSP groups (P mandibular condyle position for traditional planning versus VSP noted decreased percentages of change in superior (22 vs 10%; P mandibular reconstructions (n = 8). Ipsilateral right mandibular reconstructions (n = 6) showed changes in superior (62 vs 15%; P mandibular reconstructions. Evaluation of condyle movements showed differences in the ipsilateral position in the pre- and postoperative groups. VSP resulted in decreased superior and lateral shifts of the ipsilateral condyle and decreased changes in the condylar and condylar neck angles. This work shows that VSP can lead to increased precision in reconstruction leading to preserved normative

  5. Common 3-dimensional coordinate system for assessment of directional changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Ruellas, Antonio Carlos; Tonello, Cristiano; Gomes, Liliane Rosas; Yatabe, Marilia Sayako; Macron, Lucie; Lopinto, Julia; Goncalves, Joao Roberto; Garib Carreira, Daniela Gamba; Alonso, Nivaldo; Souki, Bernardo Quiroga; da Silva Coqueiro, Raildo; Soares Cevidanes, Lucia Helena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this study were to evaluate how head orientation interferes with the amounts of directional change in 3-dimensional (3D) space and to propose a method to obtain a common coordinate system using 3D surface models. Methods Three-dimensional volumetric label maps were built for pretreatment (T1) and posttreatment (T2) from cone-beam computed tomography images of 30 growing subjects. Seven landmarks were labeled in all T1 and T2 volumetric label maps. Registrations of T1 and T2 images relative to the cranial base were performed, and 3D surface models were generated. All T1 surface models were moved by orienting the Frankfort horizontal, midsagittal, and transporionic planes to match the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes, respectively, at a common coordinate system in the Slicer software (open-source, version 4.3.1; http://www.slicer.org). The matrix generated for each T1 model was applied to each corresponding registered T2 surface model, obtaining a common head orientation. The 3D differences between the T1 and registered T2 models, and the amounts of directional change in each plane of the 3D space, were quantified for before and after head orientation. Two assessments were performed: (1) at 1 time point (mandibular width and length), and (2) for longitudinal changes (maxillary and mandibular differences). The differences between measurements before and after head orientation were quantified. Statistical analysis was performed by evaluating the means and standard deviations with paired t tests (mandibular width and length) and Wilcoxon tests (longitudinal changes). For 16 subjects, 2 observers working independently performed the head orientations twice with a 1-week interval between them. Intraclass correlation coefficients and the Bland-Altman method tested intraobserver and interobserver agreements of the x, y, and z coordinates for 7 landmarks. Results The 3D differences were not affected by the head orientation. The amounts of

  6. Registration of 3-dimensional facial photographs for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maal, Thomas J J; van Loon, Bram; Plooij, Joanneke M; Rangel, Frits; Ettema, Anke M; Borstlap, Wilfred A; Bergé, Stefaan J

    2010-10-01

    To objectively evaluate treatment outcomes in oral and maxillofacial surgery, pre- and post-treatment 3-dimensional (3D) photographs of the patient's face can be registered. For clinical use, it is of great importance that this registration process is accurate (registration procedures. Fifteen volunteers (7 males, 8 females; mean age, 23.6 years; range, 21 to 26 years) were invited to participate in this study. Three-dimensional photographs were captured at 3 different times: baseline (T(0)), after 1 minute (T(1)), and 3 weeks later (T(2)). Furthermore, a 3D photograph of the volunteer laughing (T(L)) was acquired to investigate the effect of facial expression. Two different registration methods were used to register the photographs acquired at all different times: surface-based registration and reference-based registration. Within the surface-based registration, 2 different software packages (Maxilim [Medicim NV, Mechelen, Belgium] and 3dMD Patient [3dMD LLC, Atlanta, GA]) were used to register the 3D photographs acquired at the various times. The surface-based registration process was repeated with the preprocessed photographs. Reference-based registration (Maxilim) was performed twice by 2 observers investigating the inter- and intraobserver error. The mean registration errors are small for the 3D photographs at rest (0.39 mm for T(0)-T(1) and 0.52 mm for T(0)-T(2)). The mean registration error increased to 1.2 mm for the registration between the 3D photographs acquired at T(0) and T(L). The mean registration error for the reference-based method was 1.0 mm for T(0)-T(1), 1.1 mm for T(0)-T(2), and 1.5 mm for T(0) and T(L). The mean registration errors for the preprocessed photographs were even smaller (0.30 mm for T(0)-T(1), 0.42 mm for T(0)-T(2), and 1.2 mm for T(0) and T(L)). Furthermore, a strong correlation between the results of both software packages used for surface-based registration was found. The intra- and interobserver error for the reference

  7. Morphometric analysis of the femur in cerebral palsy: 3-dimensional CT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gose, Shinichi; Sakai, Takashi; Shibata, Toru; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Sugamoto, Kazuomi

    2010-09-01

    The cause of hip disorder in cerebral palsy (CP) has been thought to involve muscle imbalance, flexion, and adduction contracture of the hip joint, acetabular dysplasia, and femoral growth abnormalities. The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the 3-dimensional femoral geometry and subluxation/dislocation of the hip in spastic CP using 3D-CT reconstructed images of the pelvis and the femur, focusing on the femoral growth abnormalities in CP. Between June 2006 and September 2009, 186 hips in 93 bilateral spastic CP patients, including spastic diplegia (SD) in 73 patients and spastic quadriplegia (SQ) in 20 patients, who had not received any surgical treatment, were investigated using 3D-CT at our hospital. There were 59 boys and 34 girls with an average age of 5.3 years (range: 2.6 to 6.8 y). As an index for the femoral geometry, the neck-shaft angle, the femoral anteversion, and the femoral offset were 3-dimensionally measured. The center of the acetabulum and the femoral head were determined to calculate the CT migration percentage as the distance between these centers divided by the femoral head diameter. To elucidate the factors related to hip subluxation/dislocation, the relationships between the neck-shaft angle, the femoral anteversion, the femoral offset, and the CT migration percentage were investigated. The mean neck-shaft angle was 150.4+/-9.4 degrees (range: 129.4 to 173.2 degrees). The mean femoral anteversion was 44.4+/-13.6 degrees (range: 5.8 to 84.0 degrees). The mean CT migration percentage was 22.4+/-22.7% (range: 3 to 129%). There was positive correlation between the CT migration percentage and the neck-shaft angle (r=0.49). Hips with large CT migration percentage tended to show coxa valga. There was an inverse correlation between the neck-shaft angle and the femoral offset (r=-0.90), but no correlation between the CT migration percentage and the femoral anteversion (r=0.26), between the femoral offset and the femoral anteversion (r

  8. Reliability and measurement error of 3-dimensional regional lumbar motion measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Rune M; Bronfort, Gert; Kawchuk, Greg

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature on reproducibility (reliability and/or measurement error) of 3-dimensional (3D) regional lumbar motion measurement systems.......The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature on reproducibility (reliability and/or measurement error) of 3-dimensional (3D) regional lumbar motion measurement systems....

  9. Tunneling currents between carbon nanotubes inside the 3-dimensional potential of a dielectric matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Tsagarakis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We have examined the tunneling currents between CNTs dispersed in a dielectric matrix as is normally the case in a tensile stress or toxic gas sensors. Due to the randomness of the immersion process the CNTs are at random angles and configurations between them, thus producing a 3-dimensional potential (3-D. We have produced a method that solves the Laplace equation for this type of problem and uses the WKB formulation to calculate the transmission coefficient between CNTs. We have then shown that the tunneling currents between a pair of CNTs depend critically on their relative angle and configuration. In particular we have shown that the tunneling currents do not occur only along a CNT tip to CNT tip configuration but other more efficient paths exist which give a current higher by two orders of magnitude from what a simple 1D theory would give. On the other hand the tunneling current between non-coplanar CNTs is negligible. We conclude that such phenomena cannot be analyzed by a simple 1-dimensional WKB theory and the percolation threshold necessary for conduction may be lower than the one such a theory would predict.

  10. Application of a parallel 3-dimensional hydrogeochemistry HPF code to a proposed waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwo, Jin-Ping [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yeh, Gour-Tsyh [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1997-02-01

    The objectives of this study are (1) to parallelize a 3-dimensional hydrogeochemistry code and (2) to apply the parallel code to a proposed waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The 2-dimensional hydrogeochemistry code HYDROGEOCHEM, developed at the Pennsylvania State University for coupled subsurface solute transport and chemical equilibrium processes, was first modified to accommodate 3-dimensional problem domains. A bi-conjugate gradient stabilized linear matrix solver was then incorporated to solve the matrix equation. We chose to parallelize the 3-dimensional code on the Intel Paragons at ORNL by using an HPF (high performance FORTRAN) compiler developed at PGI. The data- and task-parallel algorithms available in the HPF compiler proved to be highly efficient for the geochemistry calculation. This calculation can be easily implemented in HPF formats and is perfectly parallel because the chemical speciation on one finite-element node is virtually independent of those on the others. The parallel code was applied to a subwatershed of the Melton Branch at ORNL. Chemical heterogeneity, in addition to physical heterogeneities of the geological formations, has been identified as one of the major factors that affect the fate and transport of contaminants at ORNL. This study demonstrated an application of the 3-dimensional hydrogeochemistry code on the Melton Branch site. A uranium tailing problem that involved in aqueous complexation and precipitation-dissolution was tested. Performance statistics was collected on the Intel Paragons at ORNL. Implications of these results on the further optimization of the code were discussed.

  11. 3-dimensional modeling of transcranial magnetic stimulation: Design and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Felipe Santiago

    Over the past three decades, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has emerged as an effective tool for many research, diagnostic and therapeutic applications in humans. TMS delivers highly localized brain stimulations via non-invasive externally applied magnetic fields. This non-invasive, painless technique provides researchers and clinicians a unique tool capable of stimulating both the central and peripheral nervous systems. However, a complete analysis of the macroscopic electric fields produced by TMS has not yet been performed. In this dissertation, we present a thorough examination of the total electric field induced by TMS in air and a realistic head model with clinically relevant coil poses. In the first chapter, a detailed account of TMS coil wiring geometry was shown to provide significant improvements in the accuracy of primary E-field calculations. Three-dimensional models which accounted for the TMS coil's wire width, height, shape and number of turns clearly improved the fit of calculated-to-measured E-fields near the coil body. Detailed primary E-field models were accurate up to the surface of the coil body (within 0.5% of measured values) whereas simple models were often inadequate (up to 32% different from measured). In the second chapter, we addressed the importance of the secondary E-field created by surface charge accumulation during TMS using the boundary element method (BEM). 3-D models were developed using simple head geometries in order to test the model and compare it with measured values. The effects of tissue geometry, size and conductivity were also investigated. Finally, a realistic head model was used to assess the effect of multiple surfaces on the total E-field. We found that secondary E-fields have the greatest impact at areas in close proximity to each tissue layer. Throughout the head, the secondary E-field magnitudes were predominantly between 25% and 45% of the primary E-fields magnitude. The direction of the secondary E

  12. Various approaches to the modelling of large scale 3-dimensional circulation in the Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shaji, C.; Bahulayan, N.; Rao, A.D.; Dube, S.K.

    In this paper, the three different approaches to the modelling of large scale 3-dimensional flow in the ocean such as the diagnostic, semi-diagnostic (adaptation) and the prognostic are discussed in detail. Three-dimensional solutions are obtained...

  13. On 3-Dimensional Contact Metric Generalized (k,μ-Space Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Prakasha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with a study of 3-dimensional contact metric generalized (k,μ-space forms. We obtained necessary and sufficient condition for a 3-dimensional contact metric generalized (k,μ-space form with Qϕ=ϕQ to be of constant curvature. We also obtained some conditions of such space forms to be pseudosymmetric and ξ-projectively flat, respectively.

  14. A Systematic Review to Uncover a Universal Protocol for Accuracy Assessment of 3-Dimensional Virtually Planned Orthognathic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Ramy M; Shaheen, Eman; Falter, Bart; Araya, Sebastian; Politis, Constantinus; Swennen, Gwen R J; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review methods used for assessing the accuracy of 3-dimensional virtually planned orthognathic surgery in an attempt to reach an objective assessment protocol that could be universally used. A systematic review of the currently available literature, published until September 12, 2016, was conducted using PubMed as the primary search engine. We performed secondary searches using the Cochrane Database, clinical trial registries, Google Scholar, and Embase, as well as a bibliography search. Included articles were required to have stated clearly that 3-dimensional virtual planning was used and accuracy assessment performed, along with validation of the planning and/or assessment method. Descriptive statistics and quality assessment of included articles were performed. The initial search yielded 1,461 studies. Only 7 studies were included in our review. An important variability was found regarding methods used for 1) accuracy assessment of virtually planned orthognathic surgery or 2) validation of the tools used. Included studies were of moderate quality; reviewers' agreement regarding quality was calculated to be 0.5 using the Cohen κ test. On the basis of the findings of this review, it is evident that the literature lacks consensus regarding accuracy assessment. Hence, a protocol is suggested for accuracy assessment of virtually planned orthognathic surgery with the lowest margin of error. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Accuracy of 3-Dimensional Virtual Surgical Simulation Combined With Digital Teeth Alignment: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Park, Young-Chel; Yu, Hyung-Seog; Kim, Moon-Key; Kang, Sang-Hoon; Choi, Yoon Jeong

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of virtual surgical simulation combined with digital teeth alignment and the applicability of this technique to the diagnosis and establishment of a 3-dimensional (3D) visualized treatment objective for orthognathic surgery by comparing virtual simulation images with actual post-treatment images. This retrospective study included patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) before and after treatment. The 3D digital images were constructed from the initial CT images and dental cast scan data, and virtual surgical simulation combined with digital teeth alignment was performed. Accuracy of the virtual simulation was analyzed by comparing the distances of skeletal and dental landmarks in the horizontal, sagittal, and coronal reference planes with those on post-treatment images using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate the degree of concordance between the 2 images. The study sample included 11 patients (mean age, 18.8 yr). Most landmarks had differences smaller than 2 mm in the 3 reference planes between virtual simulation and post-treatment images; these differences were not statistically significant (P > .05). Most skeletal landmarks, except the A point, B point, and gonion, showed normal to high concordance between the virtual simulation and post-treatment images in the 3 reference planes (P 3D virtual surgical simulation combined with digital teeth alignment using pretreatment CT images yielded results sufficiently accurate to be used for the diagnosis and establishment of visualized treatment objectives for orthognathic surgery. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of 3-Dimensional Printing Technology to Kirschner Wire Fixation of Adolescent Condyle Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhiwei; Li, Qihong; Bai, Shizhu; Zhang, Li

    2015-10-01

    Condyle fractures are common in children and are increasingly treated with open reduction. Three-dimensional printing has developed into an important method of assisting surgical treatment. This report describes the case of a 14-year-old patient treated for a right condyle fracture at the authors' hospital. Preoperatively, the authors designed a surgical guide using 3-dimensional printing and virtual surgery. The 3-dimensional surgical guide allowed accurate alignment of the fracture using Kirschner wire without additional dissection and tissue injury. Kirschner wire fixation augmented by 3-dimensional printing technology produced a good outcome in this adolescent condyle fracture. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 3-Dimensional Terraced NAND (3D TNAND) Flash Memory-Stacked Version of Folded NAND Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon; Cho, Seongjae; Lee, Gil Sung; Park, Il Han; Lee, Jong Duk; Shin, Hyungcheol; Park, Byung-Gook

    We propose a 3-dimensional terraced NAND flash memory. It has a vertical channel so it is possible to make a long enough channel in 1F2 size. And it has 3-dimensional structure whose channel is connected vertically along with two stairs. So we can obtain high density as in the stacked array structure, without silicon stacking process. We can make NAND flash memory with 3F2 cell size. Using SILVACO ATLAS simulation, we study terraced NAND flash memory characteristics such as program, erase, and read. Also, its fabrication method is proposed.

  18. Dosimetric Comparison Between 3-Dimensional Conformal and Robotic SBRT Treatment Plans for Accelerated Partial Breast Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggin, L M; Descovich, M; McGuinness, C; Shiao, S; Pouliot, J; Park, C

    2016-06-01

    Accelerated partial breast irradiation is an attractive alternative to conventional whole breast radiotherapy for selected patients. Recently, CyberKnife has emerged as a possible alternative to conventional techniques for accelerated partial breast irradiation. In this retrospective study, we present a dosimetric comparison between 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans and CyberKnife plans using circular (Iris) and multi-leaf collimators. Nine patients who had undergone breast-conserving surgery followed by whole breast radiation were included in this retrospective study. The CyberKnife planning target volume (PTV) was defined as the lumpectomy cavity + 10 mm + 2 mm with prescription dose of 30 Gy in 5 fractions. Two sets of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans were created, one used the same definitions as described for CyberKnife and the second used the RTOG-0413 definition of the PTV: lumpectomy cavity + 15 mm + 10 mm with prescription dose of 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions. Using both PTV definitions allowed us to compare the dose delivery capabilities of each technology and to evaluate the advantage of CyberKnife tracking. For the dosimetric comparison using the same PTV margins, CyberKnife and 3-dimensional plans resulted in similar tumor coverage and dose to critical structures, with the exception of the lung V5%, which was significantly smaller for 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, 6.2% when compared to 39.4% for CyberKnife-Iris and 17.9% for CyberKnife-multi-leaf collimator. When the inability of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy to track motion is considered, the result increased to 25.6%. Both CyberKnife-Iris and CyberKnife-multi-leaf collimator plans demonstrated significantly lower average ipsilateral breast V50% (25.5% and 24.2%, respectively) than 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (56.2%). The CyberKnife plans were more conformal but less homogeneous than the 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans. Approximately 50% shorter

  19. Real-Time 3-Dimensional Echocardiographic Assessment of Effective Regurgitant Orifice Area in Dogs With Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidholm, A; Bodegård-Westling, A; Höglund, K; Häggström, J; Ljungvall, I

    2017-03-01

    Effective regurgitant orifice area (EROA), calculated from the vena contracta width (VCW) as the narrowest portion of the proximal regurgitant jet, might be used to estimate severity of mitral regurgitation. However, this simplified assumption only holds when the EROA is circular, which might not be true in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). Effective regurgitant orifice area in dogs with MMVD is noncircular, and using color Doppler real-time 3-dimensional (RT3D) echocardiography, measured EROA in the en face view will be significantly different from calculated EROA. Hundred and fifty-eight privately owned dogs with naturally occurring MMVD. Prospective observational study comparing en face view of EROA with calculated EROA using VCW in 4-chamber (4Ch) and 2-chamber (2Ch) view only or combined 4Ch and 2Ch views using RT3D echocardiography. The calculated EROA using the 2Ch view showed a systematic underestimation of 17% compared with the measured en face EROA corrected for body surface area. The calculated EROA using 4Ch and 4Ch + 2Ch views showed less agreement with the en face EROA, and the difference between methods increased with increasing EROA. The difference between calculated and measured EROA showed a systematic underestimation of the calculated EROA by 36% (4Ch) and 33% (4Ch + 2Ch), respectively, compared to measured en face EROA. When replacing measured EROA with calculated EROA using VCW measurements, the 2Ch view is preferred in dogs with MMVD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  20. Reproducibility of a 3-dimensional gyroscope in measuring shoulder anteflexion and abduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning, L.I.F.; Guldemond, N.A.; De Bie, R.A.; Walenkamp, G.H.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated the use of a 3-dimensional gyroscope for measuring the range of motion (ROM) in the impaired shoulder. Reproducibility of digital inclinometer and visual estimation is poor. This study aims to investigate the reproducibility of a tri axial gyroscope in

  1. 3-Dimensional and Interactive Istanbul University Virtual Laboratory Based on Active Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Elif; Kirbaslar, Fatma Gulay; Yolcu, Ergun; Aslan, Ayse Esra; Kayacan, Zeynep Cigdem; Alkan Olsson, Johanna; Akbasli, Ayse Ceylan; Aytekin, Mesut; Bauer, Thomas; Charalambis, Dimitris; Gunes, Zeliha Ozsoy; Kandemir, Ceyhan; Sari, Umit; Turkoglu, Suleyman; Yaman, Yavuz; Yolcu, Ozgu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a 3-dimensional interactive multi-user and multi-admin IUVIRLAB featuring active learning methods and techniques for university students and to introduce the Virtual Laboratory of Istanbul University and to show effects of IUVIRLAB on students' attitudes on communication skills and IUVIRLAB. Although there…

  2. 3-dimensional orthodontics visualization system with dental study models and orthopantomograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Ong, S. H.; Foong, K. W. C.; Dhar, T.

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a system that provides 3-dimensional visualization of orthodontic treatments. Dental plaster models and corresponding orthopantomogram (dental panoramic tomogram) are first digitized and fed into the system. A semi-auto segmentation technique is applied to the plaster models to detect the dental arches, tooth interstices and gum margins, which are used to extract individual crown models. 3-dimensional representation of roots, generated by deforming generic tooth models with orthopantomogram using radial basis functions, is attached to corresponding crowns to enable visualization of complete teeth. An optional algorithm to close the gaps between deformed roots and actual crowns by using multi-quadratic radial basis functions is also presented, which is capable of generating smooth mesh representation of complete 3-dimensional teeth. User interface is carefully designed to achieve a flexible system with as much user friendliness as possible. Manual calibration and correction is possible throughout the data processing steps to compensate occasional misbehaviors of automatic procedures. By allowing the users to move and re-arrange individual teeth (with their roots) on a full dentition, this orthodontic visualization system provides an easy and accurate way of simulation and planning of orthodontic treatment. Its capability of presenting 3-dimensional root information with only study models and orthopantomogram is especially useful for patients who do not undergo CT scanning, which is not a routine procedure in most orthodontic cases.

  3. Full 3-dimensional digital workflow for multicomponent dental appliances A proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der Joerd; Vissink, Arjan; Ren, Yijin

    Background. The authors used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer and a bending robot to produce a multicomponent dental appliance to assess whether 3D digital models of the dentition are applicable for a full digital workflow. Methods. The authors scanned a volunteer's dentition with an intraoral scanner

  4. Continuity properties of the stress tensor in the 3-dimensional Ramberg/Osgood model

    OpenAIRE

    Bildhauer, Michael; Fuchs, Martin

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the weak form of the Ramberg/Osgood equations for nonlinear elastic materials on a 3-dimensional domain and show that the stress tensor is Hölder continuous on an open subset whose complement is of Lebesgue-measure zero. We also give an estimate for the Hausdorff-dimension of the singular set.

  5. On Maximal Surfaces in Certain Non-Flat 3-Dimensional Robertson-Walker Spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Alfonso, E-mail: aromero@ugr.es [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Geometria y Topologia (Spain); Rubio, Rafael M., E-mail: rmrubio@uco.es [Universidad de Cordoba, Departamento de Matematicas, Campus de Rabanales (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    An upper bound for the integral, on a geodesic disc, of the squared length of the gradient of a distinguished function on any maximal surface in certain non-flat 3-dimensional Robertson-Walker spacetimes is obtained. As an application, a new proof of a known Calabi-Bernstein's theorem is given.

  6. Numerical Integration and Synchronization for the 3-Dimensional Metriplectic Volterra System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to study the metriplectic system associated to 3-dimensional Volterra model. For this system we investigate the stability problem and numerical integration via Kahan's integrator. Finally, the synchronization problem for two coupled metriplectic Volterra systems is discussed.

  7. Estimating 3-Dimensional Structure of Tropical Forests from Radar Interferometry / Estimativa da Estrutura 3-Dimensional das Florestas Tropicais Através de Interferometria de Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Treuhaft

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the retrieval of 3-dimensional vegetation density profiles from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR using physical models. InSAR’s sensitivity to vertical structure is generally regarded as less direct and more difficult to understand than that of lidar. But InSAR’s coverage is superior to that of lidar, suggesting InSAR is more promising as an important component of a global 3-dimensional forest monitoring technique. The goal of this paper is to introduce, simplify and demystify the use of simple physical models to understand InSAR. A general equation expressing the InSAR observation in terms of density is described heuristically, along with the approximations in its development. The information content of the equation leads to the estimation of density parameters. Preliminary results are shown from a multibaseline C-band (wavelength=0.056 m vertical-polarization interferometer, realized with AirSAR flown at multiple altitudes over primary, secondary, and selectively logged tropical forests, as well as abandoned pastures at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica.

  8. Born-Infeld determinantal gravity and the taming of the conical singularity in 3-dimensional spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraro, Rafael, E-mail: ferraro@iafe.uba.a [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fiorini, Franco, E-mail: franco@iafe.uba.a [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-08-30

    In the context of Born-Infeld determinantal gravity formulated in an n-dimensional spacetime with absolute parallelism, we found an exact 3-dimensional vacuum circular symmetric solution without cosmological constant consisting in a rotating spacetime with non-singular behavior. The space behaves at infinity as the conical geometry typical of 3-dimensional General Relativity without cosmological constant. However, the solution has no conical singularity because the space ends at a minimal circle that no freely falling particle can ever reach in a finite proper time. The space is curved, but no divergences happen since the curvature invariants vanish at both asymptotic limits. Remarkably, this very mechanism also forbids the existence of closed timelike curves in such a spacetime.

  9. Dynamics of large scale 3-dimensional circulation of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swapna, P.

    other members of POD, NIO, Goa, for their kind help and co-operation during the entire course of my work. iv I greatly acknowledge the assistance rendered by Dr. Diansky, Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russia, who... provided me the sigma coordinate ocean model which has been used for all the numerical experiments. The sigma co- ordinate 3-dimensional circulation model has been provided to NIO, Goa, as part of the Indo-Russian bilateral program...

  10. Carbohydrate Cluster Microarrays Fabricated on 3-Dimensional Dendrimeric Platforms for Functional Glycomics Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xichun; Turchi, Craig; Wang, Denong

    2009-01-01

    We reported here a novel, ready-to-use bioarray platform and methodology for construction of sensitive carbohydrate cluster microarrays. This technology utilizes a 3-dimensional (3-D) poly(amidoamine) starburst dendrimer monolayer assembled on glass surface, which is functionalized with terminal aminooxy and hydrazide groups for site-specific coupling of carbohydrates. A wide range of saccharides, including monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides of diverse structures, are appli...

  11. Energy Sources of the Dominant Frequency Dependent 3-dimensional Atmospheric Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, S.

    1985-01-01

    The energy sources and sinks associated with the zonally asymmetric winter mean flow are investigated as part of an on-going study of atmospheric variability. Distinctly different horizontal structures for the long, intermediate and short time scale atmospheric variations were noted. In previous observations, the 3-dimensional structure of the fluctuations is investigated and the relative roles of barotropic and baroclinic terms are assessed.

  12. On the structure of 3-dimensional 2-body problem solutions in Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimenko, S. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation); Nikitin, I. [National Research Center for Information Technology, St. Augustin (Germany)

    2001-09-01

    The problem of the relativistic 3-dimensional motion of 2 oppositely charged equally massive particles in classical electrodynamics with half-retarded/half-advanced interactions is investigated. It is shown that at a certain critical energy value the topological structure of phase space is changed, leading to bifurcation (splitting) of solutions, appearance of extra non-Newtonian degrees of freedom and break of reflectional symmetries.

  13. Surgeon assessment of renal preservation with partial nephrectomy provides information comparable to measurement of volume preservation with 3-dimensional image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobert, Conrad M; Boelkins, Bradley; Culver, Shannon; Mammen, Leena; Kahnoski, Richard J; Lane, Brian R

    2014-05-01

    The strongest predictors of renal function after partial nephrectomy are the preoperative glomerular filtration rate and the amount of preserved parenchyma. Measuring volume preservation by 3-dimensional imaging is accurate but time-consuming. Percent functional volume preservation was designed to replace surgeon assessment of volume preservation with a less labor intensive, objective assessment. We compared volume preservation with 3-dimensional imaging, percent functional volume preservation and surgeon assessment of volume preservation as predictors of renal function after partial nephrectomy. We calculated volume preservation with 3-dimensional imaging, percent functional volume preservation and surgeon assessment of volume preservation in 41 patients with preoperative and postoperative cross-sectional imaging available. Surgeon assessment was validated internally in another 75 patients. Short-term and long-term renal function was assessed with univariate and multivariate linear regression models. Median parenchymal preservation was 85% (range 37% to 105%) by 3-dimensional imaging, 91% (range 51% to 114%) by percent functional preservation and 88% (range 45% to 99%) by surgeon assessment. Each method strongly correlated with nadir glomerular filtration rate (r(2) = 0.75, 0.65 and 0.78) and latest glomerular filtration rate (r(2) = 0.65, 0.66 and 0.67, respectively, each p analysis revealed that age, preoperative glomerular filtration rate, renal nephrometry score and each assessment were significant predictors of renal function (p analysis parenchymal preservation was the strongest predictor (p comparable to those of more time intensive alternatives. We propose that surgeon assessment of volume preservation should be routinely reported to facilitate analysis of partial nephrectomy outcomes. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. LWR core safety analysis with Areva's 3-dimensional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gensler, Albin; Schmidt, Andreas; Kuehnel, Klaus; Wehle, Franz [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany). PWR and BWR Thermohydraulics and Core Transients

    2013-02-15

    The quality of the safety analysis strongly affects the confidence in the operational safety of a reactor. To ensure the highest quality, it is essential that the methodology consists of appropriate analysis tools and an extensive validation base. Sophisticated 3-dimensional core models ensure that all physical effects relevant for safety are treated and the results are reliable and conservative. The validation base includes measurement campaigns in test facilities and comparisons of the predictions of steady state and transient measured data gathered from plants during many years of operation. Thus, the core models achieve reliable and comprehensive results for a wide range of applications. As an example an overview of the application experience as well as the validation base of AREVA's 3-dimensional codes is given. The importance and necessity of the comprehensive 3-dimensional methodology is illustrated with examples of a BWR and PWR safety analysis. For BWR transient application the analysis of regional power oscillations is considered and regarding the PWR safety analysis an example referring to fast enthalpy rise and the maximum fuel temperature caused by a rod ejection accident is shown. (orig.)

  15. The Origin of Chern-Simons Modified Gravity from an 11 + 3-Dimensional Manifold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Helayël-Neto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is our aim to show that the Chern-Simons terms of modified gravity can be understood as generated by the addition of a 3-dimensional algebraic manifold to an initial 11-dimensional space-time manifold; this builds up an 11+3-dimensional space-time. In this system, firstly, some fields living in the bulk join the fields that live on the 11-dimensional manifold, so that the rank of the gauge fields exceeds the dimension of the algebra; consequently, there emerges an anomaly. To solve this problem, another 11-dimensional manifold is included in the 11+3-dimensional space-time, and it interacts with the initial manifold by exchanging Chern-Simon fields. This mechanism is able to remove the anomaly. Chern-Simons terms actually produce an extra manifold in the pair of 11-dimensional manifolds of the 11+3-space-time. Summing up the topology of both the 11-dimensional manifolds and the topology of the exchanged Chern-Simons manifold in the bulk, we conclude that the total topology shrinks to one, which is in agreement with the main idea of the Big Bang theory.

  16. Comparison of 2 root surface area measurement methods: 3-dimensional laser scanning and cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasanapanont, Jintana; Apisariyakul, Janya; Wattanachai, Tanapan; Jotikasthira, Dhirawat [Dept. of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand); Sriwilas, Patiyut [Dept. of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Midtboe, Marit [Dept. of Clinical Dentistry - Orthodontics, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway)

    2017-06-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the use of 3-dimensional (3D) laser scanning and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) as methods of root surface measurement. Thirty teeth (15 maxillary first premolars and 15 mandibular first premolars) from 8 patients who required extractions for orthodontic treatment were selected. Before extraction, pre-treatment CBCT images of all the patients were recorded. First, a CBCT image was imported into simulation software (Mimics version 15.01; Materialise, Leuven, Belgium) and the root surface area of each tooth was calculated using 3-Matic (version 7.01, Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). After extraction, all the teeth were scanned and the root surface area of each extracted tooth was calculated. The root surface areas calculated using these 2 measurement methods were analyzed using the paired t-test (P<.05). Correlations between the 2 methods were determined by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess intraobserver reliability. The root surface area measurements (230.11±41.97 mm{sup 2}) obtained using CBCT were slightly greater than those (229.31±42.46 mm2) obtained using 3D laser scanning, but not significantly (P=.425). A high Pearson correlation coefficient was found between the CBCT and the 3D laser scanner measurements. The intraobserver ICC was 1.000 for 3D laser scanning and 0.990 for CBCT. This study presents a novel CBCT approach for measuring the root surface area; this technique can be used for estimating the root surface area of non-extracted teeth.

  17. Laparoscopic Total Extraperitoneal (TEP) Inguinal Hernia Repair Using 3-dimensional Mesh Without Mesh Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyazicioglu, Tolga; Yalti, Tunc; Kabaoglu, Burcak

    2017-08-01

    Approximately one fifth of patients suffer from inguinal pain after laparoscopic total extraperitoneal (TEP) inguinal hernia repair. There is existing literature suggesting that the staples used to fix the mesh can cause postoperative inguinal pain. In this study, we describe our experience with laparoscopic TEP inguinal hernia surgery using 3-dimensional mesh without mesh fixation, in our institution. A total of 300 patients who had undergone laparoscopic TEP inguinal hernia repair with 3-dimensional mesh in VKV American Hospital, Istanbul from November 2006 to November 2015 were studied retrospectively. Using the hospital's electronic archive, we studied patients' selected parameters, which are demographic features (age, sex), body mass index, hernia locations and types, duration of operations, preoperative and postoperative complications, duration of hospital stays, cost of surgery, need for analgesics, time elapsed until returning to daily activities and work. A total of 300 patients underwent laparoscopic TEP hernia repair of 437 inguinal hernias from November 2006 to November 2015. Of the 185 patients, 140 were symptomatic. Mean duration of follow-up was 48 months (range, 6 to 104 mo). The mean duration of surgery was 55 minutes for bilateral hernia repair, and 38 minutes for unilateral hernia repair. The mean duration of hospital stay was 0.9 day. There was no conversion to open surgery. In none of the cases the mesh was fixated with either staples or fibrin glue. Six patients (2%) developed seroma that were treated conservatively. One patient had inguinal hernia recurrence. One patient had preperitoneal hematoma. One patient operated due to indirect right-sided hernia developed right-sided hydrocele. One patient had wound dehiscence at the umbilical port entry site. Chronic pain developed postoperatively in 1 patient. Ileus developed in 1 patient. Laparoscopic TEP inguinal repair with 3-dimensional mesh without mesh fixation can be performed as safe as

  18. Clinical application of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells in progressive hemifacial atrophy (Parry-Romberg disease) with microfat grafting techniques using 3-dimensional computed tomography and 3-dimensional camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyung Suk; Oh, Tae Suk; Kim, Hoon; Chung, In Wook; Lee, Kang Woo; Lee, Hyo Bo; Park, Eun Jung; Jung, Jae Seob; Shin, Il Seob; Ra, Jeong Chan; Choi, Jong Woo

    2012-09-01

    Parry-Romberg disease is a rare condition that results in progressive hemifacial atrophy, involving the skin, dermis, subcutaneous fat, muscle, and, finally, cartilage and bone. Patients have been treated with dermofat or fat grafts or by microvascular free flap transfer. We hypothesized that adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) may improve the results of microfat grafting through enhancing angiogenesis. We evaluated the utility of ASC in microfat grafting of patients with Parry-Romberg disease by measuring the change in the hemifacial volumes after injection of ASCs with microfat grafts or microfat grafts alone. In April 2008, this investigation was approved by the Korean Food and Drug Administration and the institutional review board of the Asan Medical Center (Seoul, Korea) that monitor investigator-initiated trials. Between May 2008 and January 2009, 10 volunteers with Parry-Romberg disease (5 men and 5 women; mean age, 28 y) were recruited; 5 received ASC and microfat grafts and 5 received microfat grafts only. The mean follow-up period was 15 months. Adipose-derived stem cells were obtained from abdominal fat by liposuction and were cultured for 2 weeks. On day 14, patients were injected with fat grafts alone or plus (in the test group) 1 × 10 ASCs. Patients were evaluated postoperatively using a 3-dimensional camera and 3-dimensional CT scans, and grafted fat volumes were objectively calculated. Successful outcomes were evident in all 5 patients receiving microfat grafts and ASCs, and the survival of grafted fat was better than in patients receiving microfat grafts alone. Before surgery, the mean difference between ipsilateral and contralateral hemiface volume in patients receiving microfat grafts and ASCs was 21.71 mL decreasing to 4.47 mL after surgery. Overall resorption in this ASC group was 20.59%. The mean preoperative difference in hemiface volume in those receiving microfat grafts alone was 8.32 mL decreasing to 3.89 mL after surgery. Overall

  19. 3-dimensional numerical modelling of rolling of superconducting Ag/BSCCO tape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Morten; Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Seifi, Behrouz

    2000-01-01

    Numerical simulation of the deformation process during flat rolling of multifilament HTS tapes has been investigated using a commercial FEM program, ELFEN. The numerical models were built up in 2D and 3D using a Drucker-Prager/Cap model for the powder. Three different roll diameters (Ø24 mm, Ø85 mm...... in the 3D rolling. The 3D models have the advantage compared to 2D pressing that they can predict the 3 dimensional flow in the flat rolling, which has been showed to be very imported for the super conduction properties...

  20. Indentation in the Right Ventricle by an Incomplete Pericardium on 3-Dimensional Reconstructed Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hak Ju Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 17-year-old girl who presented with an indentation in the right ventricle caused by an incomplete pericardium on preoperative 3-dimensional reconstructed computed tomography. She was to undergo surgery for a partial atrioventricular septal defect and secundum atrial septal defect. Preoperative electrocardiography revealed occasional premature ventricular beats. We found the absence of the left side of the pericardium intraoperatively, and this absence caused strangulation of the diaphragmatic surface of the right ventricle. After correcting the lesion, the patient’s rhythm disturbances improved.

  1. A customizable 3-dimensional digital atlas of the canary brain in multiple modalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vellema, Michiel; Verschueren, Jacob; Van Meir, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    throughout their lives. This trait makes this bird species particularly valuable to study the functional relationship between the continued plasticity in the singing behavior and alterations in the anatomy and physiology of the brain. In order to optimally interpret these types of studies, a detailed...... understanding of the brain anatomy is essential. Because traditional 2-dimensional brain atlases are limited in the information they can provide about the anatomy of the brain, here we present a 3-dimensional MRI-based atlas of the canary brain. Using multiple imaging protocols we were able to maximize......, histological, explant, and tracer studies....

  2. Spinorial Characterizations of Surfaces into 3-dimensional Pseudo-Riemannian Space Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawn, Marie-Amelie, E-mail: marie-amelie.lawn@unine.ch [Universite de Neuchatel, Institut de Mathematiques (Switzerland); Roth, Julien, E-mail: julien.roth@univ-mlv.fr [Universite Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallee, Laboratoire d' Analyse et de Mathematiques Appliquees (UMR 8050) (France)

    2011-09-15

    We give a spinorial characterization of isometrically immersed surfaces of arbitrary signature into 3-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian space forms. This generalizes a recent work of the first author for spacelike immersed Lorentzian surfaces in Double-Struck-Capital-R {sup 2,1} to other Lorentzian space forms. We also characterize immersions of Riemannian surfaces in these spaces. From this we can deduce analogous results for timelike immersions of Lorentzian surfaces in space forms of corresponding signature, as well as for spacelike and timelike immersions of surfaces of signature (0, 2), hence achieving a complete spinorial description for this class of pseudo-Riemannian immersions.

  3. Intervillous and uteroplacental circulation in normal early pregnancy and early pregnancy loss assessed by 3-dimensional power Doppler angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercé, Luis T; Barco, María J; Alcázar, Juan L; Sabatel, Rosa; Troyano, Juan

    2009-03-01

    To assess intervillous and uteroplacental circulation in early normal pregnancies and miscarriages. One hundred normal pregnancies and 46 delayed miscarriages were evaluated by 3-dimensional vaginal ultrasound and power Doppler angiography. Volumes of the early placenta and the subplacental area were obtained between 5 and 12.6 weeks' gestation. The placental volume, vascularization index, flow index, and vascularization flow index was calculated. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.961 for placental volume to 0.885 for intervillous flow index. Intervillous power Doppler signals were not detected before the sixth week. Placental volume (R(2) = 0.68), intervillous vascularization index (R(2) = 0.30), flow index (R(2) = 0.33) and vascularization flow index (R(2) = 0.35), uteroplacental flow index (R(2) = 0.34), and vascularization flow index (R(2) = 0.17) increase significantly (P < .001) throughout the first trimester of normal pregnancies. Uteroplacental vascularization index was not significantly related to gestational age. Intervillous vasculariztion index, flow index, and vascularization flow index were significantly raised in miscarriages, but there were no significant differences for uteroplacental vascularization index, flow index, or vascularization flow index. Intervillous and uteroplacental blood flow increases throughout the first trimester of normal pregnancies. Intervillous circulation is abnormally increased when a miscarriage is diagnosed.

  4. Computerized tomography with 3-dimensional reconstruction for the evaluation of renal size and arterial anatomy in the living kidney donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoff, Daniel M; Davol, Patrick; Hazzard, James; Lemmers, Michael J; Paduch, Darius A; Barry, John M

    2004-01-01

    Computerized tomography (CT) with 3-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction has gained acceptance as an imaging study to evaluate living renal donors. We report our experience with this technique in 199 consecutive patients to validate its predictions of arterial anatomy and kidney volumes. Between January 1997 and March 2002, 199 living donor nephrectomies were performed at our institution using an open technique. During the operation arterial anatomy was recorded as well as kidney weight in 98 patients and displacement volume in 27. Each donor had been evaluated preoperatively by CT angiography with 3-D reconstruction. Arterial anatomy described by a staff radiologist was compared with intraoperative findings. CT estimated volumes were reported. Linear correlation graphs were generated to assess the reliability of CT volume predictions. The accuracy of CT angiography for predicting arterial anatomy was 90.5%. However, as the number of renal arteries increased, predictive accuracy decreased. The ability of CT to predict multiple arteries remained high with a positive predictive value of 95.2%. Calculated CT volume and kidney weight significantly correlated (0.654). However, the coefficient of variation index (how much average CT volume differed from measured intraoperative volume) was 17.8%. CT angiography with 3-D reconstruction accurately predicts arterial vasculature in more than 90% of patients and it can be used to compare renal volumes. However, accuracy decreases with multiple renal arteries and volume comparisons may be inaccurate when the difference in kidney volumes is within 17.8%.

  5. Epicardial-endocardial breakthrough during stable atrial macroreentry: Evidence from ultra-high-resolution 3-dimensional mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathik, Bhupesh; Lee, Geoffrey; Sacher, Frédéric; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Jaïs, Pierre; Massoullié, Grégoire; Derval, Nicolas; Sanders, Prashanthan; Kistler, Peter; Kalman, Jonathan M

    2017-08-01

    Evidence for epicardial-endocardial breakthrough (EEB) is derived from mapping inferences in patients with atrial fibrillation who may also have focal activations. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether EEB could be discerned during stable right atrial (RA) macroreentry using high-density high-spatial resolution 3-dimensional mapping. Macroreentry was diagnosed using 3-dimensional mapping and entrainment. Bipolar maps were reviewed for EEB defined as (1) presence of focal endocardial activation with radial spread unaccounted for by an endocardial wavefront and (2) present with the same timing on every tachycardia cycle. The EEB site was always in proximity to a line of endocardial conduction slowing or block. Distance and conduction velocity from the line of block to the EEB site was calculated. Electrograms at EEB sites were individually analyzed for morphology and to confirm direction of activation. Entrainment was performed at EEB sites. Twenty-six patients were studied. Fourteen examples of EEB were seen: 11 at the posterior RA (4 at the superior portion of the posterior wall and 7 at the inferior section) and 1 each at the cavotricuspid isthmus postablation, RA septum, and inferolateral RA. The mean area of the EEB site was 0.6 ± 0.2 cm2. A mean of 79.5% ± 18.6% of unipolar electrograms at the EEB site demonstrated an rS morphology. The mean distance and conduction velocity from the line of endocardial block to the EEB site at the posterior RA was 13.6 ± 2.3 mm and 59.3 ± 12.3 cm/s, respectively. In 4 patients, entrainment demonstrated that EEB sites were within the circuit and in 1 of these patients critical to arrhythmia maintenance. Activation maps during tachycardia and coronary sinus pacing demonstrated EEB at the same anatomic site. EEB sites were demonstrated in stable atrial macroreentry supported by systematic entrainment confirmation and demonstration of the same phenomenon during pacing. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society

  6. Femtosecond laser assisted 3-dimensional freeform fabrication of metal microstructures in fused silica (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Fatmah; Charvet, Raphaël.; Dénéréaz, Cyril; Mortensen, Andreas; Bellouard, Yves

    2017-03-01

    Femtosecond laser exposure of fused silica combined with chemical etching has opened up new opportunities for three-dimensional freeform processing of micro-structures that can form complex micro-devices of silica, integrating optical, mechanical and/or fluidic functionalities. Here, we demontrate an expansion of this process with an additional fabrication step that enables the integration of three-dimensional embedded metallic structures out of useful engineering metals such as silver, gold, copper as well as some of their alloys. This additional step is an adaptation of the pressure infiltration for the insertion of high conductivity, high melting point metals and alloys into topologically complex, femtosecond laser-machined cavities in fused silica. This produces truly 3-dimensional microstructures, including microcoils and needles, within the bulk of glass substrates. Combining this added capability with the existing possibilities of femtosecond laser micromachining (i.e. direct written waveguides, microchannels, resonators, etc.) opens up a host of potential applications for the contactless fabrication of highly integrated monolithic devices that include conductive element of all kind. We present preliminary results from this new fabrication process, including prototype devices that incorporate 3D electrodes with aspect ratios of 1:100 and a feature size resolution down to 2μm. We demonstrate the generation of high electric field gradients (of the order of 1013 Vm-2) in these devices due to the 3-dimensional topology of fabricated microstructures.

  7. A customizable 3-dimensional digital atlas of the canary brain in multiple modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellema, Michiel; Verschueren, Jacob; Van Meir, Vincent; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2011-07-15

    Songbirds are well known for their ability to learn their vocalizations by imitating conspecific adults. This uncommon skill has led to many studies examining the behavioral and neurobiological processes involved in vocal learning. Canaries display a variable, seasonally dependent, vocal behavior throughout their lives. This trait makes this bird species particularly valuable to study the functional relationship between the continued plasticity in the singing behavior and alterations in the anatomy and physiology of the brain. In order to optimally interpret these types of studies, a detailed understanding of the brain anatomy is essential. Because traditional 2-dimensional brain atlases are limited in the information they can provide about the anatomy of the brain, here we present a 3-dimensional MRI-based atlas of the canary brain. Using multiple imaging protocols we were able to maximize the number of detectable brain regions, including most of the areas involved in song perception, learning, and production. The brain atlas can readily be used to determine the stereotactic location of delineated brain areas at any desirable head angle. Alternatively the brain data can be used to determine the ideal orientation of the brain for stereotactic injections, electrophysiological recordings, and brain sectioning. The 3-dimensional canary brain atlas presented here is freely available and is easily adaptable to support many types of neurobiological studies, including anatomical, electrophysiological, histological, explant, and tracer studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Contemporary technique of intraoperative 3-dimensional ultrasonography–guided transperineal prostate cryotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalasani, Venu; Gardi, Lori; Martinez, Carlos H.; Downey, Donal B.; Fenster, Aaron; Chin, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Successful cryotherapy of the prostate for neoplasms relies on imaging to achieve good oncological outcomes with minimal complications. Traditional prostatic cryotherapy relies on 2-dimensional ultrasonography (2DUS) guidance, which often makes it difficult to track the passage of needles in an oblique plane. We describe our initial 3-dimensional ultrasonography (3DUS) system, and the subsequent improvements that have been made during the last 10 years. Our imaging system uses a Philips HDI 5000 ultrasonography unit, a standard PC, a Matrox Meteor II video frame grabber and 3DUS developed at Robarts Research Institute. For the cryotherapy we use ultrathin (17-gauge) IceRod needles. After image acquisition, preplanning is performed using the 3-dimensional (3D) software, and then the IceRod needles are inserted into the prostate. As the freezing process commences, continuous 3DUS images are taken and analyzed during the double freeze–thaw cycles to monitor the progress of the ice ball formation. Real-time intraoperative 3D imaging of the prostate during cryotherapy has allowed us to accurately preplan and then monitor the progression of ice ball formation, which represents a significant advantage over conventional 2DUS. PMID:19424468

  9. Comparison of nonnavigated and 3-dimensional image-based computer navigated balloon kyphoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembrano, Jonathan N; Yson, Sharon C; Polly, David W; Ledonio, Charles Gerald T; Nuckley, David J; Santos, Edward R G

    2015-01-01

    Balloon kyphoplasty is a common treatment for osteoporotic and pathologic compression fractures. Advantages include minimal tissue disruption, quick recovery, pain relief, and in some cases prevention of progressive sagittal deformity. The benefit of image-based navigation in kyphoplasty has not been established. The goal of this study was to determine whether there is a difference between fluoroscopy-guided balloon kyphoplasty and 3-dimensional image-based navigation in terms of needle malposition rate, cement leakage rate, and radiation exposure time. The authors compared navigated and nonnavigated needle placement in 30 balloon kyphoplasty procedures (47 levels). Intraoperative 3-dimensional image-based navigation was used for needle placement in 21 cases (36 levels); conventional 2-dimensional fluoroscopy was used in the other 9 cases (11 levels). The 2 groups were compared for rates of needle malposition and cement leakage as well as radiation exposure time. Three of 11 (27%) nonnavigated cases were complicated by a malpositioned needle, and 2 of these had to be repositioned. The navigated group had a significantly lower malposition rate (1 of 36; 3%; P=.04). The overall rate of cement leakage was also similar in both groups (P=.29). Radiation exposure time was similar in both groups (navigated, 98 s/level; nonnavigated, 125 s/level; P=.10). Navigated kyphoplasty procedures did not differ significantly from nonnavigated procedures except in terms of needle malposition rate, where navigation may have decreased the need for needle repositioning. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Myocardial Deformation Measured by 3-Dimensional Speckle Tracking in Children and Adolescents With Systemic Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarini, Susanne; Bellsham-Revell, Hannah; Chubb, Henry; Gu, Haotian; Sinha, Manish D; Simpson, John M

    2017-12-01

    Systemic arterial hypertension predisposes children to cardiovascular risk in childhood and adult life. Despite extensive study of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, detailed 3-dimensional strain analysis of cardiac function in hypertensive children has not been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate LV mechanics (strain, twist, and torsion) in young patients with hypertension compared with a healthy control group and assess factors associated with functional measurements. Sixty-three patients (26 hypertension and 37 normotensive) were enrolled (mean age, 14.3 and 11.4 years; 54% men and 41% men, respectively). All children underwent clinical evaluation and echocardiographic examination, including 3-dimensional strain. There was no difference in LV volumes and ejection fraction between the groups. Myocardial deformation was significantly reduced in those with hypertension compared with controls. For hypertensive and normotensive groups, respectively, global longitudinal strain was -15.1±2.3 versus -18.5±1.9 ( P hypertensive and normotensive children, but children with hypertension had significantly lower strain indices. Whether reduced strain might predict future cardiovascular risk merits further longitudinal study. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Using 3-dimensional printing to create presurgical models for endodontic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahcall, James K

    2014-09-01

    Advances in endodontic surgery--from both a technological and procedural perspective-have been significant over the last 18 years. Although these technologies and procedural enhancements have significantly improved endodontic surgical treatment outcomes, there is still an ongoing challenge of overcoming the limitations of interpreting preoperative 2-dimensional (2-D) radiographic representation of a 3-dimensional (3-D) in vivo surgical field. Cone-beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) has helped to address this issue by providing a 3-D enhancement of the 2-D radiograph. The next logical step to further improve a presurgical case 3-D assessment is to create a surgical model from the CBCT scan. The purpose of this article is to introduce 3-D printing of CBCT scans for creating presurgical models for endodontic surgery.

  12. Applications and perspectives in anatomical 3-dimensional modelling of the visible human with VOXEL-MAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, R; Schiemann, T; Tiede, U; Höhne, K H

    1997-01-01

    Up to now computerized interactive 3-dimensional (3D) atlases of human anatomy have been based on radiological data or artificial geometric models as spatial descriptions of morphological structures. Besides the obvious advantages of this data (e.g. already in digital format, geometrical correctness) the lack of high resolution anatomical slices of larger regions of the human body has prevented the use of more realistic anatomical data so far. Now, the Visible Human Project offers high quality anatomical slices of complete cadavers. Therefore, on the one hand, new opportunities for realistic virtual 3D models of anatomy are open. On the other hand, just the major advantages of the visible human data (e.g. realistic colors and textures, high resolution) result in new demands on the image processing and visualization techniques. This paper describes experience, solutions and results with a volume-based approach for building realistic anatomical 3D models.

  13. Carbohydrate Cluster Microarrays Fabricated on 3-Dimensional Dendrimeric Platforms for Functional Glycomics Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xichun; Turchi, Craig; Wang, Denong

    2009-01-01

    We reported here a novel, ready-to-use bioarray platform and methodology for construction of sensitive carbohydrate cluster microarrays. This technology utilizes a 3-dimensional (3-D) poly(amidoamine) starburst dendrimer monolayer assembled on glass surface, which is functionalized with terminal aminooxy and hydrazide groups for site-specific coupling of carbohydrates. A wide range of saccharides, including monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides of diverse structures, are applicable for the 3-D bioarray platform without prior chemical derivatization. The process of carbohydrate coupling is effectively accelerated by microwave radiation energy. The carbohydrate concentration required for microarray fabrication is substantially reduced using this technology. Importantly, this bioarray platform presents sugar chains in defined orientation and cluster configurations. It is, thus, uniquely useful for exploration of the structural and conformational diversities of glyco-epitope and their functional properties. PMID:19791771

  14. Design of a 3-dimensional visual illusion speed reduction marking scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guohua; Qian, Guomin; Wang, Ye; Yi, Zige; Ru, Xiaolei; Ye, Wei

    2017-03-01

    To determine which graphic and color combination for a 3-dimensional visual illusion speed reduction marking scheme presents the best visual stimulus, five parameters were designed. According to the Balanced Incomplete Blocks-Law of Comparative Judgment, three schemes, which produce strong stereoscopic impressions, were screened from the 25 initial design schemes of different combinations of graphics and colors. Three-dimensional experimental simulation scenes of the three screened schemes were created to evaluate four different effects according to a semantic analysis. The following conclusions were drawn: schemes with a red color are more effective than those without; the combination of red, yellow and blue produces the best visual stimulus; a larger area from the top surface and the front surface should be colored red; and a triangular prism should be painted as the graphic of the marking according to the stereoscopic impression and the coordination of graphics with the road.

  15. Photoprotection by pistachio bioactives in a 3-dimensional human skin equivalent tissue model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-Y Oliver; Smith, Avi; Liu, Yuntao; Du, Peng; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Garlick, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during ultraviolet (UV) light exposure can induce skin damage and aging. Antioxidants can provide protection against oxidative injury to skin via "quenching" ROS. Using a validated 3-dimensional (3D) human skin equivalent (HSE) tissue model that closely mimics human skin, we examined whether pistachio antioxidants could protect HSE against UVA-induced damage. Lutein and γ-tocopherol are the predominant lipophilic antioxidants in pistachios; treatment with these compounds prior to UVA exposure protected against morphological changes to the epithelial and connective tissue compartments of HSE. Pistachio antioxidants preserved overall skin thickness and organization, as well as fibroblast morphology, in HSE exposed to UVA irradiation. However, this protection was not substantiated by the analysis of the proliferation of keratinocytes and apoptosis of fibroblasts. Additional studies are warranted to elucidate the basis of these discordant results and extend research into the potential role of pistachio bioactives promoting skin health.

  16. The distribution of particles in the plane dispersed by a simple 3-dimensional diffusion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockmarr, Anders

    2002-01-01

    Populations of particles dispersed in the 2-dimensional plane from a single pointsource may be grouped as focus expansion patterns, with an exponentially decreasing density, and more diffuse patterns with thicker tails. Exponentially decreasing distributions are often modelled as the result of 2......-dimensional diffusion processes acting to disperse the particles, while thick-tailed distributions tend to be modelled by purely descriptive distributions. Models based on the Cauchy distribution have been suggested, but these have not been related to diffusion modelling. However, the distribution...... of particles dispersed from a point source by a 3-dimensional Brownian motion that incorporates a constant drift, under the condition that the particle starts at a given height and is stopped when it reaches the xy plane (zero height) may be shown to result in both slim-tailed exponentially decreasing...

  17. DIEP Flap Breast Reconstruction Using 3-dimensional Surface Imaging and a Printed Mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Tomita, MD, PhD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Recent advances in 3-dimensional (3D surface imaging technologies allow for digital quantification of complex breast tissue. We performed 11 unilateral breast reconstructions with deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP flaps (5 immediate, 6 delayed using 3D surface imaging for easier surgery planning and 3D-printed molds for shaping the breast neoparenchyma. A single- or double-pedicle flap was preoperatively planned according to the estimated tissue volume required and estimated total flap volume. The DIEP flap was then intraoperatively shaped with a 3D-printed mold that was based on a horizontally inverted shape of the contralateral breast. Cosmetic outcomes were assessed as satisfactory, as confirmed by the postoperative 3D measurements of bilateral breasts. We believe that DIEP flap reconstruction assisted with 3D surface imaging and a 3D-printed mold is a simple and quick method for rebuilding a symmetric breast.

  18. Efficacy of 3-Dimensional plates over Champys miniplates in mandibular anterior fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barde, Dhananjay H; Mudhol, Anupama; Ali, Fareedi Mukram; Madan, R S; Kar, Sanjay; Ustaad, Farheen

    2014-02-01

    Mandibular fractures are treated surgically by either rigid or semi-rigid fixation, two techniques that reflect almost opposite concept of craniomaxillofacial osteosynthesis. The shortcomings of these fixations led to the development of 3 dimensional (3D) miniplates. This study was designed with the aim of evaluating the efficiency of 3D miniplate over Champys miniplate in anterior mandibular fractures. This study was done in 40 patients with anterior mandibular fractures. Group I consisting of 20 patients in whom 3D plates were used for fixation while in Group II consisting of other 20 patients, 4 holes straight plates were used. The efficacy of 3D miniplate over Champy's miniplate was evaluated in terms of operating time, average pain, post operative infection, occlusion, wound dehiscence, post operative mobility and neurological deficit. The mean operation time for Group II was more compared to Group I (statistically significant).There was significantly greater pain on day of surgery and at 2nd week for Group II patients but there was no significant difference between the two groups at 4th week. The post operative infection, occlusal disturbance, wound dehiscence, post operative mobility at facture site, neurological deficit was statistically insignificant (chi square test). The results of this study suggest that fixation of anterior mandibular fractures with 3D plates provides three dimensional stability and carries low morbidity and infection rates. The only probable limitation of these 3D plates may be excessive implant material, but they seem to be easy alternative to champys miniplate. How to cite the article: Barde DH, Mudhol A, Ali FM, Madan RS, Kar S, Ustaad F. Efficacy of 3-Dimensional plates over Champys miniplates in mandibular anterior fractures. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):20-6.

  19. The effectiveness of an interactive 3-dimensional computer graphics model for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battulga, Bayanmunkh; Konishi, Takeshi; Tamura, Yoko; Moriguchi, Hiroki

    2012-07-09

    Medical students often have difficulty achieving a conceptual understanding of 3-dimensional (3D) anatomy, such as bone alignment, muscles, and complex movements, from 2-dimensional (2D) images. To this end, animated and interactive 3-dimensional computer graphics (3DCG) can provide better visual information to users. In medical fields, research on the advantages of 3DCG in medical education is relatively new. To determine the educational effectiveness of interactive 3DCG. We divided 100 participants (27 men, mean (SD) age 17.9 (0.6) years, and 73 women, mean (SD) age 18.1 (1.1) years) from the Health Sciences University of Mongolia (HSUM) into 3DCG (n = 50) and textbook-only (control) (n = 50) groups. The control group used a textbook and 2D images, while the 3DCG group was trained to use the interactive 3DCG shoulder model in addition to a textbook. We conducted a questionnaire survey via an encrypted satellite network between HSUM and Tokushima University. The questionnaire was scored on a 5-point Likert scale from strongly disagree (score 1) to strongly agree (score 5). Interactive 3DCG was effective in undergraduate medical education. Specifically, there was a significant difference in mean (SD) scores between the 3DCG and control groups in their response to questionnaire items regarding content (4.26 (0.69) vs 3.85 (0.68), P = .001) and teaching methods (4.33 (0.65) vs 3.74 (0.79), P < .001), but no significant difference in the Web category. Participants also provided meaningful comments on the advantages of interactive 3DCG. Interactive 3DCG materials have positive effects on medical education when properly integrated into conventional education. In particular, our results suggest that interactive 3DCG is more efficient than textbooks alone in medical education and can motivate students to understand complex anatomical structures.

  20. Virtual electrophysiological study in a 3-dimensional cardiac magnetic resonance imaging model of porcine myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jason; Jacobson, Jason T; Ng, Justin K; Gordon, David; Lee, Daniel C; Carr, James C; Goldberger, Jeffrey J

    2012-07-31

    This study sought to test the hypothesis that "virtual" electrophysiological studies (EPS) on an anatomic platform generated by 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging reconstruction of the left ventricle can reproduce the reentrant circuits of induced ventricular tachycardia (VT) in a porcine model of myocardial infarction. Delayed-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging has been used to characterize myocardial infarction and "gray zones," which are thought to reflect heterogeneous regions of viable and nonviable myocytes. Myocardial infarction by coronary artery occlusion was induced in 8 pigs. After a recovery period, 3-dimensional cardiac magnetic resonance images were obtained from each pig in vivo. Normal areas, gray zones, and infarct cores were classified based on voxel intensity. In the computer model, gray zones were assigned slower conduction and longer action potential durations than those for normal myocardium. Virtual EPS was performed and compared with results of actual in vivo programmed stimulation and noncontact mapping. The left ventricular volumes ranged from 97.8 to 166.2 cm(3), with 4.9% to 17.5% of voxels classified as infarct zones. Six of the 7 pigs in which VT developed during actual EPS were also inducible with virtual EPS. Four of the 6 pigs that had simulated VT had reentrant circuits that approximated the circuits seen with noncontact mapping, whereas the remaining 2 had similar circuits but propagating in opposite directions. This initial study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a mathematical model to magnetic resonance imaging reconstructions of the left ventricle to predict VT circuits. Virtual EPS may be helpful to plan catheter ablation strategies or to identify patients who are at risk of future episodes of VT. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. In-Field, In Situ, and In Vivo 3-Dimensional Elemental Mapping for Plant Tissue and Soil Analysis Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjiang Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sensing and mapping element distributions in plant tissues and its growth environment has great significance for understanding the uptake, transport, and accumulation of nutrients and harmful elements in plants, as well as for understanding interactions between plants and the environment. In this study, we developed a 3-dimensional elemental mapping system based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy that can be deployed in- field to directly measure the distribution of multiple elements in living plants as well as in the soil. Mapping is performed by a fast scanning laser, which ablates a micro volume of a sample to form a plasma. The presence and concentration of specific elements are calculated using the atomic, ionic, and molecular spectral characteristics of the plasma emission spectra. Furthermore, we mapped the pesticide residues in maize leaves after spraying to demonstrate the capacity of this method for trace elemental mapping. We also used the system to quantitatively detect the element concentrations in soil, which can be used to further understand the element transport between plants and soil. We demonstrate that this method has great potential for elemental mapping in plant tissues and soil with the advantages of 3-dimensional and multi-elemental mapping, in situ and in vivo measurement, flexible use, and low cost.

  2. Usefulness of real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography to identify and quantify left ventricular dyssynchrony in patients with Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Sun, Kun; Xue, Haihong; Chen, Sun; Yang, Jianping

    2013-06-01

    The role of left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony in Kawasaki disease is unknown. This study sought to establish values for real-time 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiographically derived LV dyssynchrony parameters and identify and quantify LV dyssynchrony in patients with Kawasaki disease. Forty patients hospitalized for Kawasaki disease were analyzed retrospectively, and 40 sex- and age-matched healthy control volunteers were also enrolled. The systolic dyssynchrony index (percentage of the cardiac cycle) from 16 and 12 LV segments on real-time 3D echocardiography was analyzed to calculate LV dyssynchrony (defined as the standard deviation of the time to reach the minimum systolic volume for 16 LV segments) according to a 17-segment model. We analyzed the 3D LV ejection fraction (LVEF), end-diastolic volume, and end-systolic volume in the patients with Kawasaki disease compared to the controls. The 16-segment systolic dyssynchrony index ± SD was significantly higher in the patients with Kawasaki disease: 2.73% ± 0.96% compared to 2.01% ± 0.85% in the controls (P Kawasaki disease was 2.65% ± 0.93% compared to 1.98% ± 0.81% in the controls (PKawasaki disease and an LVEF of less than 50% had a significantly higher systolic dyssynchrony index compared to patients with an LVEF of 50% or greater (2.89% ± 0.79% versus 2.26% ± 0.73%; P Kawasaki disease, and global systolic function was impaired. The LVEF measured by a biplane method was sufficiently related to the LVEF measured by echocardiography. Real-time 3D echocardiography is a noninvasive and feasible method for identifying and evaluating LV dyssynchrony in children with Kawasaki disease. Left ventricular dyssynchrony is significantly impaired and related to LV systolic function in patients with Kawasaki disease.

  3. Accuracy Evaluation of a 3-Dimensional Surface Imaging System for Guidance in Deep-Inspiration Breath-Hold Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alderliesten, Tanja; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Betgen, Anja; Honnef, Joeri; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Remeijer, Peter, E-mail: p.remeijer@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the applicability of 3-dimensional (3D) surface imaging for image guidance in deep-inspiration breath-hold radiation therapy (DIBH-RT) for patients with left-sided breast cancer. For this purpose, setup data based on captured 3D surfaces was compared with setup data based on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods and Materials: Twenty patients treated with DIBH-RT after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) were included. Before the start of treatment, each patient underwent a breath-hold CT scan for planning purposes. During treatment, dose delivery was preceded by setup verification using CBCT of the left breast. 3D surfaces were captured by a surface imaging system concurrently with the CBCT scan. Retrospectively, surface registrations were performed for CBCT to CT and for a captured 3D surface to CT. The resulting setup errors were compared with linear regression analysis. For the differences between setup errors, group mean, systematic error, random error, and 95% limits of agreement were calculated. Furthermore, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. Results: Good correlation between setup errors was found: R{sup 2}=0.70, 0.90, 0.82 in left-right, craniocaudal, and anterior-posterior directions, respectively. Systematic errors were {<=}0.17 cm in all directions. Random errors were {<=}0.15 cm. The limits of agreement were -0.34-0.48, -0.42-0.39, and -0.52-0.23 cm in left-right, craniocaudal, and anterior-posterior directions, respectively. ROC analysis showed that a threshold between 0.4 and 0.8 cm corresponds to promising true positive rates (0.78-0.95) and false positive rates (0.12-0.28). Conclusions: The results support the application of 3D surface imaging for image guidance in DIBH-RT after BCS.

  4. Embedding and publishing interactive, 3-dimensional, scientific figures in Portable Document Format (PDF) files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, David G; Vidiassov, Michail; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Fluke, Christopher J; Quayle, Michelle R; McHenry, Colin R

    2013-01-01

    With the latest release of the S2PLOT graphics library, embedding interactive, 3-dimensional (3-d) scientific figures in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files is simple, and can be accomplished without commercial software. In this paper, we motivate the need for embedding 3-d figures in scholarly articles. We explain how 3-d figures can be created using the S2PLOT graphics library, exported to Product Representation Compact (PRC) format, and included as fully interactive, 3-d figures in PDF files using the movie15 LaTeX package. We present new examples of 3-d PDF figures, explain how they have been made, validate them, and comment on their advantages over traditional, static 2-dimensional (2-d) figures. With the judicious use of 3-d rather than 2-d figures, scientists can now publish, share and archive more useful, flexible and faithful representations of their study outcomes. The article you are reading does not have embedded 3-d figures. The full paper, with embedded 3-d figures, is recommended and is available as a supplementary download from PLoS ONE (File S2).

  5. The 3-Dimensional Fermi Liquid Description for the Iron-Based Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Setsuo

    2018-01-01

    The quasiparticles in the normal state of iron-based superconductors have been shown to behave universally as a 3-dimensional Fermi liquid. Because of interactions and the presence of sharp Fermi surfaces, the quasiparticle energy contains, as a function of the momentum \\varvec{p}, a term of the form ( p - p_0)^3 ln {( |p-p_0|/p_0)} , where p = | \\varvec{p} | and p_0 is the Fermi momentum. The electronic specific heat coefficient, magnetic susceptibility (Knight shift), electrical resistivity, Hall coefficient and thermoelectric power divided by temperature follow, as functions of temperature T, the logarithmic formula a-b T^2 ln {(T/T^*)}, a, b and T^* being constant; these formulae have been shown to explain the observed data for all iron-based superconductors. It is shown that the concept of non-Fermi liquids or anomalous metals which appears in the literature is not needed for descriptions of the present systems. When the superconducting transition temperature TC and the b / a value for the resistivity are plotted as functions of the doping content x, there appear various characteristic diagrams in which regions of positive correlation and those of negative correlation between TC and b / a are interconnected; from these diagrams, we may make speculations about the types of superconductivity and the crossover between them.

  6. Morphologic changes of the palate after rapid maxillary expansion: a 3-dimensional computed tomography evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatouros, Andriana; Goonewardene, Mithran S

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to estimate the area change of the palate after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in the early mixed dentition stage by using a 3-dimensional (3D) helical computed tomography (CT) scanning technique. In addition, linear changes in the maxillary arch were evaluated. The treated sample consisted of 43 children (mean age, 9 years 1 month) treated with a bonded RME appliance. The untreated control group consisted of 7 children (mean age, 9 years 3 months). Pretreatment and posttreatment dental casts were evaluated by using 3D helical CT scanning procedures. The Student t test was used to compare the linear, area, and angular differences between the treatment times. RME produced clinically significant increases in interdental widths across the canines, the deciduous first molars, and the permanent first molars in the maxillary arch. Significant increases in cross-sectional area were observed across the permanent first molars (15.3 mm(2)). There was marked variability in the buccal tipping of the permanent first molars. Three-dimensional helical CT scanning is an accurate and cost-effective method of assessing dental cast morphologic changes. It can also provide fast and accurate data acquisition and subsequent analysis.

  7. Characterization of 3-dimensional superconductive thin film components for gravitational experiments in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hechler, S.; Nawrodt, R.; Nietzsche, S.; Vodel, W.; Seidel, P. [Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena (Germany). Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik; Dittus, H. [ZARM, Univ. Bremen (Germany); Loeffler, F. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) are used for high precise gravitational experiments. One of the most impressive experiments is the satellite test of the equivalence principle (STEP) of NASA/ESA. The STEP mission aims to prove a possible violation of Einstein's equivalence principle at an extreme level of accuracy of 1 part in 10{sup 18} in space. In this contribution we present an automatically working measurement equipment to characterize 3-dimensional superconducting thin film components like i.e. pick-up coils and test masses for STEP. The characterization is done by measurements of the transition temperature between the normal and the superconducting state using a special built anti-cryostat. Above all the setup was designed for use in normal LHe transport Dewars. The sample chamber has a volume of 150 cm{sup 3} and can be fully temperature controlled over a range from 4.2 K to 300 K with a resolution of better then 100 mK. (orig.)

  8. Casting of 3-dimensional footwear prints in snow with foam blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraco, Nicholas; Sherman, Hal; Dumitra, Aurora; Roberts, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    Commercially available foam blocks are presented as an alternative material for the casting and preservation of 3-dimensional footwear impressions located in snow. The method generates highly detailed foam casts of questioned footwear impressions. These casts can be compared to the known outsole standards made from the suspects' footwear. Modification of the commercially available foam casting blocks is simple and fast. The foam block is removed and a piece of cardboard is secured to one side of the block with painter's masking tape. The prepared foam block is then placed back into its original box, marked appropriately, closed and stored until needed. When required the foam block is carefully removed from its storage box and gently placed, foam side down, over the questioned footwear impression. Next, the crime scene technician's hands are placed on top of the cardboard and pressure is gently applied by firmly pressing down onto the impression. The foam cast is removed, dried and placed back into its original container and sealed. The resulting 3D impressions can be directly compared to the outsole of known suspected item(s) of footwear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cerebral degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis revealed by 3-dimensional texture analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouzbeh eMaani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Routine MR images do not consistently reveal pathological changes in the brain in ALS. Texture analysis, a method to quantitate voxel intensities and their patterns and interrelationships, can detect changes in images not apparent to the naked eye. Our objective was to evaluate cerebral degeneration in ALS using 3-dimensional texture analysis of MR images of the brain. Methods: In a case-control design, voxel-based texture analysis was performed on T1-weighted MR images of 20 healthy subjects and 19 patients with ALS. Four texture features, namely, autocorrelation, sum of squares variance, sum average, and sum variance were computed. Texture features were compared between the groups by statistical parametric mapping and correlated with clinical measures of disability and upper motor neuron dysfunction.Results: Texture features were different in ALS in motor regions including the precentral gyrus and corticospinal tracts. To a lesser extent, changes were also found in the thalamus, cingulate gyrus, and temporal lobe. Texture features in the precentral gyrus correlated with disease duration, and in the corticospinal tract they correlated with finger tapping speed. Conclusions: Changes in MR image textures are present in motor and non-motor regions in ALS and correlate with clinical features. Whole brain texture analysis has potential in providing biomarkers of cerebral degeneration in ALS.

  10. Effect of Stereoscopic Anaglyphic 3-Dimensional Video Didactics on Learning Neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Amir; Monti, Sara; Lee, Darrin; Girgis, Fady

    2017-11-01

    The teaching of neuroanatomy in medical education has historically been based on didactic instruction, cadaveric dissections, and intraoperative experience for students. Multiple novel 3-dimensional (3D) modalities have recently emerged. Among these, stereoscopic anaglyphic video is easily accessible and affordable, however, its effects have not yet formally been investigated. This study aimed to investigate if 3D stereoscopic anaglyphic video instruction in neuroanatomy could improve learning for content-naive students, as compared with 2-dimensional (2D) video instruction. A single-site controlled prospective case control study was conducted at the School of Education. Content knowledge was assessed at baseline, followed by the presentation of an instructional neuroanatomy video. Participants viewed the video in either 2D or 3D format and then completed a written test of skull base neuroanatomy. Pretest and post-test performances were analyzed with independent Student's t-tests and analysis of covariance. Our study was completed by 249 subjects. At baseline, the 2D (n = 124, F = 97) and 3D groups (n = 125, F = 96) were similar, although the 3D group was older by 1.7 years (P = 0.0355) and the curricula of participating classes differed (P video instruction into curricula without careful integration is insufficient to promote learning over 2D video. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Development of a 3-Dimensional Dosimetry System for Leksell Gamma Knife-Perfexion

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, KyoungJun; Lee, DoHeui; Cho, ByungChul; Lee, SangWook; Ahn, SeungDo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to develop a new, 3-dimensional dosimetry system to verify the accuracy of dose deliveries in Leksell Gamma Knife-Perfexion TM (LGKP) (Elekta, Norcross, GA, USA). The instrument consists of a moving head phantom, an embedded thin active layer and a CCD camera system and was designed to be mounted to LGKP. As an active material concentrically located in the hemispheric head phantom, we choose Gafchromic EBT3 films and Gd2O2S;Tb phosphor sheets for dosimetric measurements. Also, to compensate the lack of backscatter, we located a 1 cm thick PMMA plate downstream of the active layer. The PMMA plate was transparent for scintillation lights to reach the CCD with 1200x1200 pixels by a 5.2 um pitch. Using this system, three hundred images by a 0.2 mm slice gap were acquired under each of three collimator setups, i.e. 4 mm, 8 mm, and 16 mm, respectively. The 2D projected images taken by CCD camera were compared with the dose distributions measured by EBT3 films in the same conditions. All ...

  12. Accurate registration of cone-beam computed tomography scans to 3-dimensional facial photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Kyung-Yen; Kim, Yong; Choi, Yong-Suk; Lee, Jeongjin; Kim, Seong-Hun; Nelson, Gerald

    2014-02-01

    Registering a 3-dimensional (3D) facial surface scan to a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan has various advantages. One major advantage is to compensate for the inaccuracy of the CBCT surface data. However, when registering CBCT and 3D facial scans, changes in facial expression, spatial soft-tissue changes, and differences in the patient's positioning can decrease the accuracy of the registration. In this study, we introduce a new 3D facial scanner that is combined with a CBCT apparatus. Our goal was to evaluate the registration accuracy of CBCT and 3D facial scans, which were taken with the shortest possible time between them. The experiment was performed with 4 subjects. Each patient was instructed to hold as still as possible while the CBCT scan was taken, followed immediately by the 3D facial surface scan. The images were automatically registered with software. The accuracy was measured by determining the degree of agreement between the soft-tissue surfaces of the CBCT and the 3D facial images. The average surface discrepancy between the CBCT facial surface and 3D facial surface was 0.60 mm (SD, 0.12 mm). Registration accuracy was also visually verified by toggling between the images of the CBCT and 3D facial surface scans while rotating the registered images. Registration of consecutively taken CBCT and 3D facial images resulted in reliable accuracy. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Versus 3-Dimensional Laser Scanning for Breast Volume Assessment After Breast Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Benjamin H L; Watson, David I; Fosh, Beverley; Yip, Jia Miin; Kleinig, Pakan; Dean, Nicola Ruth

    2017-04-01

    There are several methods available for measuring breast volume in the clinical setting, but the comparability and accuracy of different methods is not well described. The ideal breast volume measurement technique should be low cost, comfortable for the patient, have no ionizing radiation and be non-invasive. Prospective cohort study comparing a 3-dimensional (3D) laser scanner versus noncontrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for breast volume assessment. Subjects were women undergoing breast reconstruction with autologous fat graft. Both types of scan were performed the day before fat grafting and at 6 months postoperatively. Pearson correlations and Bland-Altman tests were performed to compare the assessment methods. Eighteen patients underwent preoperative breast MRI and 3D laser scanning. Eighteen patients also underwent assessment 6 months after surgery. The total number of breasts scanned for comparison was 36, with a total of 72 comparisons for analysis. There was a strong linear association between the 2 methods using a Pearson correlation (r = 0.79; P breast volume. Given the convenience of laser scanning and potential for lower cost compared with MRI, this technique should be considered for quantifying outcomes after complex breast reconstruction when the equipment is available.

  14. Hamiltonian Analysis of 3-Dimensional Connection Dynamics in Bondi-like Coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao-Guang; Kong, Shi-Bei

    2017-08-01

    The Hamiltonian analysis for a 3-dimensional connection dynamics of {s}{o}(1,2), spanned by {L-+, L-2, L+2 } instead of {L01, L02, L12 }, is first conducted in a Bondi-like coordinate system. The symmetry of the system is clearly presented. A null coframe with 3 independent variables and 9 connection coefficients are treated as basic configuration variables. All constraints and their consistency conditions, the solutions of Lagrange multipliers as well as the equations of motion are presented. There is no physical degree of freedom in the system. The Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) spacetime is discussed as an example to check the analysis. Unlike the ADM formalism, where only non-degenerate geometries on slices are dealt with and the Ashtekar formalism, where non-degenerate geometries on slices are mainly concerned though the degenerate geometries may be studied as well, in the present formalism the geometries on the slices are always degenerate though the geometries for the spacetime are not degenerate. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11275207 and 11690022

  15. Analysis of Different Impression Techniques and Materials on Multiple Implants Through 3-Dimensional Laser Scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera, Francesco; Pesce, Paolo; Bevilacqua, Marco; Setti, Paolo; Menini, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of 7 different implant impression techniques for full-arch prostheses. A master cast simulating an edentulous arch with 4 implants was used. Seven impression techniques were tested: open tray with polyether Impregum (OTI); open tray with splint-polyether Impregum (OTSI); closed tray with polyether Impregum; open tray with polyether Ramitec; open tray with splint-polyether Ramitec; closed tray with polyether Ramitec (CTR); open tray with impression plaster (OTP). Five impressions of the master cast were taken for each technique using an impression simulator device. Casts were realized based on those impressions (n = 35). Median values of deviation from the master cast were recorded for each cast through a 3-dimensional laser scanner. Only OTI (P = 0.028) and OTSI (P < 0.001) presented a statistically significant difference compared to the master cast. OTP (P = 0.99) and CTR (P = 0.10) showed median values of deviation close to zero (-0.001 and -0.003 mm, respectively). Stiff impression materials (such as plaster or rigid polyether) guarantee greater accuracy in cases of multiple implant impressions of patients with full-arch rehabilitations. Splinting of impression copings with acrylic resin did not improve accuracy.

  16. Structured illumination for stress reduction gloss reduction and 3 dimensional patterning of photopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coretsopoulos, Chris; Ganahl, Peter; Scranton, Alec

    2009-11-01

    ``Structured illumination'' method is based upon a two-stage illumination process in which a photoactive polymer is first illuminated in a pattern of light and dark regions. During this structured illumination stage, unreacted monomer from the dark region will migrate in response to the polymerization and the resulting shrinkage thereby preventing the development of stress. At the end of the structured illumination stage, the system contains patterned regions of stress-free polymer among pools of unreacted monomer. After a specified duration of structured illumination, the second, flood cure, stage begins. Here the entire system is illuminated to achieve a consistently high conversion throughout the coating. Experimental results confirm that over 90% of the polymerization shrinkage stress can be eliminated using this approach. A further benefit of this method is the production of 3 dimensional curved objects that can be photo-patterned with simple mask structures. This is in contrast to steep walled structures produced by conventional photolithography. The resulting polymer has been used to reduce gloss in surface coatings without the need of using additives, and to make micro scale 3D features and optical elements and microstructures.

  17. Automated image analysis reveals the dynamic 3-dimensional organization of multi-ciliary arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico F. Galati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-ciliated cells (MCCs use polarized fields of undulating cilia (ciliary array to produce fluid flow that is essential for many biological processes. Cilia are positioned by microtubule scaffolds called basal bodies (BBs that are arranged within a spatially complex 3-dimensional geometry (3D. Here, we develop a robust and automated computational image analysis routine to quantify 3D BB organization in the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Using this routine, we generate the first morphologically constrained 3D reconstructions of Tetrahymena cells and elucidate rules that govern the kinetics of MCC organization. We demonstrate the interplay between BB duplication and cell size expansion through the cell cycle. In mutant cells, we identify a potential BB surveillance mechanism that balances large gaps in BB spacing by increasing the frequency of closely spaced BBs in other regions of the cell. Finally, by taking advantage of a mutant predisposed to BB disorganization, we locate the spatial domains that are most prone to disorganization by environmental stimuli. Collectively, our analyses reveal the importance of quantitative image analysis to understand the principles that guide the 3D organization of MCCs.

  18. Dynamic phenotypes of degenerative myxomatous mitral valve disease: quantitative 3-dimensional echocardiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Marie-Annick; Mantovani, Francesca; Malouf, Joseph; Michelena, Hector I; Vatury, Ori; Jain, Mothilal Sonia; Mankad, Sunil V; Suri, Rakesh M; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice

    2015-05-01

    Fibro-elastic deficiency (FED) and diffuse myxomatous degeneration (DMD) are phenotypes of degenerative mitral valve disease defined morphologically. Whether physiological differences in annular and valvular dynamics exist between these phenotypes remains unknown. We performed triple quantitation of cardiac remodeling and of mitral regurgitation severity and of annular and valvular dimensions by real-time 3-dimensional-transesophageal-echocardiography. Forty-nine patients with degenerative mitral valve disease classified as FED (n=31) and DMD (n=18) by surgical observation showed no difference in age (65±10 versus 59±13; P=0.5), body surface area (2.0±0.2 versus 2.0±0.2 m(2); P=0.5), left ventricular and atrial dimensions (all P>0.55), and mitral regurgitation regurgitant orifice (P=0.62). On average, annular dimensions were larger in DMD versus FED, but height was similar resulting in lower saddle shape. Dynamically, annular DMD versus FED display poorer contraction and saddle-shape accentuation in early systole and abnormal enlargement, particularly intercommissural, in late-systole (all Pmitral regurgitation, despite larger prolapse and valve redundancy, underscoring potential compensatory role of tissue redundancy of DMD (or aggravating role of tissue paucity of FED) on mitral regurgitation severity. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. A customized bolus produced using a 3-dimensional printer for radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Wook; Shin, Hun-Joo; Kay, Chul Seung; Son, Seok Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Boluses are used in high-energy radiotherapy in order to overcome the skin sparing effect. In practice though, commonly used flat boluses fail to make a perfect contact with the irregular surface of the patient's skin, resulting in air gaps. Hence, we fabricated a customized bolus using a 3-dimensional (3D) printer and evaluated its feasibility for radiotherapy. We designed two kinds of bolus for production on a 3D printer, one of which was the 3D printed flat bolus for the Blue water phantom and the other was a 3D printed customized bolus for the RANDO phantom. The 3D printed flat bolus was fabricated to verify its physical quality. The resulting 3D printed flat bolus was evaluated by assessing dosimetric parameters such as D1.5 cm, D5 cm, and D10 cm. The 3D printed customized bolus was then fabricated, and its quality and clinical feasibility were evaluated by visual inspection and by assessing dosimetric parameters such as Dmax, Dmin, Dmean, D90%, and V90%. The dosimetric parameters of the resulting 3D printed flat bolus showed that it was a useful dose escalating material, equivalent to a commercially available flat bolus. Analysis of the dosimetric parameters of the 3D printed customized bolus demonstrated that it is provided good dose escalation and good contact with the irregular surface of the RANDO phantom. A customized bolus produced using a 3D printer could potentially replace commercially available flat boluses.

  20. Vaginal High Pressure Zone Assessed by Dynamic 3-Dimensional Ultrasound Images of the Pelvic Floor

    Science.gov (United States)

    JUNG, Sung-Ae; PRETORIUS, Dolores H.; PADDA, Bikram S.; WEINSTEIN, Milena M.; NAGER, Charles W.; den BOER, Derkina J.; MITTAL, Ravinder K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the shape and characteristics of the vaginal high pressure zone (HPZ) by imaging a compliant fluid-filled bag placed in the vaginal HPZ with the 3-dimensional ultrasound (3D US) system. Study Design Nine nulliparous asymptomatic women underwent 3D US imaging and vaginal pressure measurements. A compliant bag was placed in the vagina and filled with various volumes of water. 3D US volumes of the pelvic floor were obtained at each bag volume while the subjects were at rest and during pelvic floor contraction. Results At low volumes, the bag was collapsed for a longitudinal extent of approximately 3.3 ± 0.2 cm (length of vaginal HPZ). With increasing bag volume, there was opening of the vaginal HPZ in the lateral dimension before the anterior-posterior (AP) dimension. Pelvic floor contraction produced a decrease in the AP dimension but not the lateral dimension of the bag in the region of the vaginal HPZ. Conclusion We propose that the shape and characteristics of the vaginal HPZ are consistent with the hypothesis that the puborectalis muscle is responsible for the genesis of the vaginal HPZ. PMID:17618755

  1. Pilot study of endoscopic retrograde 3-dimensional - computed tomography enteroclysis for the assessment of Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Hiroki; Ito, Takahiro; Inaba, Yuhei; Ando, Katsuyoshi; Nomura, Yoshiki; Ueno, Nobuhiro; Kashima, Shin; Moriichi, Kentaro; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Okumura, Toshikatsu

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde ileography (ERIG) is developed in our institute and applied clinically for the diagnosis and assessment of the Crohn's disease activity. We have further improved the technique using 3-dimensional - computed tomography enteroclysis (3D-CTE) and conducted a retrospective study to determine the feasibility and the diagnostic value of endoscopic retrograde 3D-CTE (ER 3D-CTE) in Crohn's disease patients in a state of remission. Thirteen Crohn's patients were included in this pilot study. CTE was performed after the infusion of air or CO2 through the balloon tube following conventional colonoscopy. The primary endpoint of this study was to assess the safety of this method. Secondarily, the specific findings of Crohn's disease and length of the visualized small intestine were assessed. The procedures were completed without any adverse events. Gas passed through the small intestine and enterographic images were obtained in 10 out of 13 cases, but, in the remaining patients, insertion of the balloon tubes into the terminal ileum failed. Various features specific to Crohn's disease were visualized using ER 3D-CTE. A cobble stone appearance or hammock-like malformation was specific and effective for diagnosing Crohn's disease and the features of anastomosis after the surgical operations were also well described. Therefore, this technique may be useful after surgery. In this study, ER 3D-CTE was performed safely in Crohn's disease patients and may be used for the diagnosis and follow-up of this disease.

  2. Development and validation of a septoplasty training model using 3-dimensional printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlReefi, Mahmoud A; Nguyen, Lily H P; Mongeau, Luc G; Haq, Bassam Ul; Boyanapalli, Siddharth; Hafeez, Nauman; Cegarra-Escolano, Francois; Tewfik, Marc A

    2017-04-01

    Providing alternative training modalities may improve trainees' ability to perform septoplasty. Three-dimensional printing has been shown to be a powerful tool in surgical training. The objectives of this study were to explain the development of our 3-dimensional (3D) printed septoplasty training model, to assess its face and content validity, and to present evidence supporting its ability to distinguish between levels of surgical proficiency. Imaging data of a patient with a nasal septal deviation was selected for printing. Printing materials reproducing the mechanical properties of human tissues were selected based on literature review and prototype testing. Eight expert rhinologists, 6 senior residents, and 6 junior residents performed endoscopic septoplasties on the model and completed a postsimulation survey. Performance metrics in quality (final product analysis), efficiency (time), and safety (eg, perforation length, nares damage) were recorded and analyzed in a study-blind manner. The model was judged to be anatomically correct and the steps performed realistic, with scores of 4.05 ± 0.82 and 4.2 ± 1, respectively, on a 5-point Likert scale. Ninety-two percent of residents desired the simulator to be integrated into their teaching curriculum. There was a significant difference (p validity of the model. © 2016 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  3. Interactive 3-dimensional virtual reality rehabilitation for patients with chronic imbalance and vestibular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shih-Ching; Chen, Shuya; Wang, Pa-Chun; Su, Mu-Chun; Chang, Chia-Huang; Tsai, Po-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Chronic imbalance is common in patients with vestibular dysfunction. Vestibular rehabilitation is effective in improving upright balance control. Vestibular rehabilitation exercises, such as Cawthorne-Cooksey exercises, include simple repetitive movements and have limited feedback and adaptive training protocols. Interactive systems based on virtual reality (VR) technology may improve vestibular rehabilitation. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an interactive 3-dimensional VR system for vestibular rehabilitation. In 49 subjects with vestibular dysfunction, VR rehabilitation exercises were performed in 6 sessions. Before and after rehabilitation, subjects were evaluated for performance of the training exercises; the center of pressure was measured for 20 seconds and balance indices were determined. Five training scores (total 6) showed a significant improvement. For balance indices in condition of non-stimulation, all of them (total 5) showed a trend of improvement, in which there was a significant improvement in mean mediolateral. For balance indices in condition of post-stimulation, there was a significant improvement in statokinesigram and maximum mediolateral. The VR rehabilitation exercises were effective in improving upright balance control in patients with vestibular dysfunction.

  4. Guided Autotransplantation of Teeth: A Novel Method Using Virtually Planned 3-dimensional Templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strbac, Georg D; Schnappauf, Albrecht; Giannis, Katharina; Bertl, Michael H; Moritz, Andreas; Ulm, Christian

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce an innovative method for autotransplantation of teeth using 3-dimensional (3D) surgical templates for guided osteotomy preparation and donor tooth placement. This report describes autotransplantation of immature premolars as treatment of an 11-year-old boy having suffered severe trauma with avulsion of permanent maxillary incisors. This approach uses modified methods from guided implant surgery by superimposition of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine files and 3D data sets of the jaws in order to predesign 3D printed templates with the aid of a fully digital workflow. The intervention in this complex case could successfully be accomplished by performing preplanned virtual transplantations with guided osteotomies to prevent bone loss and ensure accurate donor teeth placement in new recipient sites. Functional and esthetic restoration could be achieved by modifying methods used in guided implant surgery and prosthodontic rehabilitation. The 1-year follow-up showed vital natural teeth with physiological clinical and radiologic parameters. This innovative approach uses the latest diagnostic methods and techniques of guided implant surgery, enabling the planning and production of 3D printed surgical templates. These accurate virtually predesigned surgical templates could facilitate autotransplantation in the future by full implementation of recommended guidelines, ensuring an atraumatic surgical protocol. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Objective 3-Dimensional Measures of Facial Shape and Symmetry on Perceptions of Facial Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Cory D; Wehby, George L; Nidey, Nichole L; Moreno Uribe, Lina M

    2017-09-01

    Meeting patient desires for enhanced facial esthetics requires that providers have standardized and objective methods to measure esthetics. The authors evaluated the effects of objective 3-dimensional (3D) facial shape and asymmetry measurements derived from 3D facial images on perceptions of facial attractiveness. The 3D facial images of 313 adults in Iowa were digitized with 32 landmarks, and objective 3D facial measurements capturing symmetric and asymmetric components of shape variation, centroid size, and fluctuating asymmetry were obtained from the 3D coordinate data using geo-morphometric analyses. Frontal and profile images of study participants were rated for facial attractiveness by 10 volunteers (5 women and 5 men) on a 5-point Likert scale and a visual analog scale. Multivariate regression was used to identify the effects of the objective 3D facial measurements on attractiveness ratings. Several objective 3D facial measurements had marked effects on attractiveness ratings. Shorter facial heights with protrusive chins, midface retrusion, faces with protrusive noses and thin lips, flat mandibular planes with deep labiomental folds, any cants of the lip commissures and floor of the nose, larger faces overall, and increased fluctuating asymmetry were rated as significantly (P attractive. Perceptions of facial attractiveness can be explained by specific 3D measurements of facial shapes and fluctuating asymmetry, which have important implications for clinical practice and research. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of watching 3-dimensional television on refractive error in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Suh, Young-Woo; Choi, Yong-Min; Han, Ji-Yoon; Nam, Gi-Tae; You, Eun-Joo; Cho, Yoonae A

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effect of watching 3-dimensional (3D) television (TV) on refractive error in children. Sixty healthy volunteers, aged 6 to 12 years, without any ocular abnormalities other than refractive error were recruited for this study. They watched 3D TV for 50 minutes at a viewing distance of 2.8 meters. The image disparity of the 3D contents was from -1 to 1 degree. Refractive errors were measured both before and immediately after watching TV and were rechecked after a 10-minute rest period. The refractive errors before and after watching TV were compared. The amount of refractive change was also compared between myopes and controls. The refractive error of the participants who showed a myopic shift immediately after watching TV were compared across each time point to assure that the myopic shift persisted after a 10-minute rest. The mean age of the participants was 9.23 ± 1.75 years. The baseline manifest refractive error was -1.70 ± 1.79 (-5.50 to +1.25) diopters. The refractive errors immediately after watching and after a 10-minute rest were -1.75 ± 1.85 and -1.69 ± 1.80 diopters, respectively, which were not different from the baseline values. Myopic participants (34 participants), whose spherical equivalent was worse than -0.75 diopters, also did not show any significant refractive change after watching 3D TV. A myopic shift was observed in 31 participants with a mean score of 0.29 ± 0.23 diopters, which resolved after a 10-minute rest. Watching properly made 3D content on a 3D TV for 50 minutes with a 10-minute intermission at more than 2.8 meters of viewing distance did not affect the refractive error of children.

  7. Choroidal thinning in diabetes type 1 detected by 3-dimensional 1060 nm optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeelpour, Marieh; Brunner, Simon; Ansari-Shahrezaei, Siamak; Shahrezaei, Siamak Ansari; Nemetz, Susanne; Povazay, Boris; Kajic, Vedran; Drexler, Wolfgang; Binder, Susanne

    2012-10-03

    To map choroidal (ChT) and retinal thickness (RT) in patients with diabetes type 1 with and without maculopathy and retinopathy in order to compare them with healthy subjects using high speed 3-dimensional (3D) 1060 nm optical coherence tomography (OCT). Thirty-three eyes from 33 diabetes type 1 subjects (23-57 years, 15 male) divided into groups of without pathology (NDR) and with pathology (DR; including microaneurysms, exudates, clinically significant macular-oedema and proliferative retinopathy) were compared with 20 healthy axial eye length and age-matched subjects (24-57 years, 9 male), imaged by high speed (60.000 A-scans/s) 3D 1060 nm OCT performed over 36° × 36° field of view. Ocular health status, disease duration, body mass index, haemoglobin-A1c, and blood pressure (bp) measurements were recorded. Subfoveal ChT, and 2D topographic maps between retinal pigment epithelium and the choroidal/scleral-interface, were automatically generated and statistically analyzed. Subfoveal ChT (mean ± SD, μm) for healthy eyes was 388 ± 109; significantly thicker than all diabetic groups, 291 ± 64 for NDR, and 303 ± 82 for DR (ANOVA P 0.05). Compared with healthy eyes and the NDR, the averaged DR ChT-map demonstrated temporal thinning that extended superiorly and temporal-inferiorly (unpaired t-test, P 0.05). ChT is decreased in diabetes type 1, independent of the absence of pathology and of diabetic disease duration. In eyes with pathology, 3D 1060 nm OCT averaged maps showed an extension of the thinning area matching retinal lesions and suggesting its involvement on onset or progression of disease.

  8. Reproducibility of a 3-dimensional gyroscope in measuring shoulder anteflexion and abduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, Ludo I F; Guldemond, Nick A; de Bie, Rob A; Walenkamp, Geert H I M

    2012-07-30

    Few studies have investigated the use of a 3-dimensional gyroscope for measuring the range of motion (ROM) in the impaired shoulder. Reproducibility of digital inclinometer and visual estimation is poor. This study aims to investigate the reproducibility of a tri axial gyroscope in measurement of anteflexion, abduction and related rotations in the impaired shoulder. Fifty-eight patients with either subacromial impingement (27) or osteoarthritis of the shoulder (31) participated. Active anteflexion, abduction and related rotations were measured with a tri axial gyroscope according to a test retest protocol. Severity of shoulder impairment and patient perceived pain were assessed by the Disability of Arm Shoulder and Hand score (DASH) and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). VAS scores were recorded before and after testing. In two out of three hospitals patients with osteoarthritis (n = 31) were measured, in the third hospital patients with subacromial impingement (n = 27).There were significant differences among hospitals for the VAS and DASH scores measured before and after testing. The mean differences between the test and retest means for anteflexion were -6 degrees (affected side), 9 (contralateral side) and for abduction 15 degrees (affected side) and 10 degrees (contralateral side).Bland & Altman plots showed that the confidence intervals for the mean differences fall within -6 up to 15 degrees, individual test - retest differences could exceed these limits.A simulation according to 'Generalizability Theory' produces very good coefficients for anteflexion and related rotation as a comprehensive measure of reproducibility. Optimal reproducibility is achieved with 2 repetitions for anteflexion. Measurements were influenced by patient perceived pain. Differences in VAS and DASH might be explained by different underlying pathology. These differences in shoulder pathology however did not alter the reproducibility of testing. The use of a tri axial gyroscope is a

  9. Renal calyceal anatomy characterization with 3-dimensional in vivo computerized tomography imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joe; Durack, Jeremy C; Sorensen, Mathew D; Wang, James H; Stoller, Marshall L

    2013-02-01

    Calyceal selection for percutaneous renal access is critical for safe, effective performance of percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Available anatomical evidence is contradictory and incomplete. We present detailed renal calyceal anatomy obtained from in vivo 3-dimentional computerized tomography renderings. A total of 60 computerized tomography urograms were randomly selected. The renal collecting system was isolated and 3-dimensional renderings were constructed. The primary plane of each calyceal group of 100 kidneys was determined. A coronal maximum intensity projection was used for simulated percutaneous access. The most inferior calyx was designated calyx 1. Moving superiorly, the subsequent calyces were designated calyx 2 and, when present, calyx 3. The surface rendering was rotated to assess the primary plane of the calyceal group and the orientation of the select calyx. The primary plane of the upper pole calyceal group was mediolateral in 95% of kidneys and the primary plane of the lower pole calyceal group was anteroposterior in 95%. Calyx 2 was chosen in 90 of 97 simulations and it was appropriate in 92%. Calyx 3 was chosen in 7 simulations but it was appropriate in only 57%. Calyx 1 was not selected in any simulation and it was anteriorly oriented in 75% of kidneys. Appropriate lower pole calyceal access can be reliably accomplished with an understanding of the anatomical relationship between individual calyceal orientation and the primary plane of the calyceal group. Calyx 2 is most often appropriate for accessing the anteroposterior primary plane of the lower pole. Calyx 1 is most commonly oriented anterior. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. On-Demand Intraoperative 3-Dimensional Printing of Custom Cranioplastic Prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evins, Alexander I; Dutton, John; Imam, Sayem S; Dadi, Amal O; Xu, Tao; Cheng, Du; Stieg, Philip E; Bernardo, Antonio

    2018-01-13

    Currently, implantation of patient-specific cranial prostheses requires reoperation after a period for design and formulation by a third-party manufacturer. Recently, 3-dimensional (3D) printing via fused deposition modeling has demonstrated increased ease of use, rapid production time, and significantly reduced costs, enabling expanded potential for surgical application. Three-dimensional printing may allow neurosurgeons to remove bone, perform a rapid intraoperative scan of the opening, and 3D print custom cranioplastic prostheses during the remainder of the procedure. To evaluate the feasibility of using a commercially available 3D printer to develop and produce on-demand intraoperative patient-specific cranioplastic prostheses in real time and assess the associated costs, fabrication time, and technical difficulty. Five different craniectomies were each fashioned on 3 cadaveric specimens (6 sides) to sample regions with varying topography, size, thickness, curvature, and complexity. Computed tomography-based cranioplastic implants were designed, formulated, and implanted. Accuracy of development and fabrication, as well as implantation ability and fit, integration with exiting fixation devices, and incorporation of integrated seamless fixation plates were qualitatively evaluated. All cranioprostheses were successfully designed and printed. Average time for design, from importation of scan data to initiation of printing, was 14.6 min and average print time for all cranioprostheses was 108.6 min. On-demand 3D printing of cranial prostheses is a simple, feasible, inexpensive, and rapid solution that may help improve cosmetic outcomes; significantly reduce production time and cost-expanding availability; eliminate the need for reoperation in select cases, reducing morbidity; and has the potential to decrease perioperative complications including infection and resorption.

  11. Diagnosis and treatment planning of orthodontic patients with 3-dimensional dentofacial records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosudprasit, Amornrut; Haghi, Arshan; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Masoud, Mohamed I

    2017-06-01

    Cephalometrics has been the foundation of orthodontic diagnosis for many years. However, for many orthodontic patients, a lateral cephalogram might not be necessary. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnosis and treatment planning agreement between standard records and nonradiographic 3-dimensional (3D) dentofacial photogrammetry records. Twenty patients had standard orthodontic records taken for their treatment as well as extraoral and intraoral 3D images. Twelve evaluators examined the standard records and then completed diagnosis and treatment planning questionnaires. They repeated the process 4 to 6 weeks later by using 3D photographic images along with the panoramic radiographs. Each evaluator also evaluated 2 random orthodontic cases twice with each method to evaluate consistency within each method. At the end of study, each evaluator was asked to complete a survey to document his or her experiences with the 3D photogrammetry method. Descriptive and kappa statistics were used to determine the agreement. Most diagnosis parameters had fair agreement between the methods and within each method. Skeletal and dental relationships had excellent agreement between and within the methods as well as most treatment decisions such as the need for extractions and surgery. Most evaluators (91.7%) thought that cephalometric x-rays would be needed only some of the time in diagnosis and treatment planning. Most evaluators (83.33%) thought that cephalometric radiographs are not needed in patients with a Class I ± a quarter cusp with crowding or spacing. Most diagnostic decisions had fair agreement within and between the 2 methods. The decision to extract and the need for orthognathic surgery had excellent agreement between the cephalometric and photogrammetric methods. The majority of examiners agreed that patients with Class I malocclusions ± a quarter cusp with no obvious skeletal discrepancy can be diagnosed and planned without a cephalometric radiograph

  12. Treatment of severe porcine tracheomalacia with a 3-dimensionally printed, bioresorbable, external airway splint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zopf, David A.; Flanagan, Colleen L.; Wheeler, Matthew; Hollister, Scott J.; Green, Glenn E.

    2015-01-01

    Importance The study demonstrates an application for 3-dimensional (3D) printing that may serve as an effective intervention for severe tracheobronchomalacia. Objective A novel 3D printed, bioresorbable airway splint is tested for efficacy in extending survival in an animal model of severe, life-threatening tracheobronchomalacia. Participants Evaluation of an external airway splint for severe, life-threatening tracheobronchomalacia in a porcine animal model. Setting Multi-institutional and multidisciplinary collaboration between biomedical engineering laboratories and an academic animal surgery center. Interventions Experimental analysis of a 3D printed, bioresorbable airway splint is assessed in a porcine animal model of life-threatening tracheobronchomalacia. The open-cylindrical, bellow shaped porous polycaprolactone splint is placed externally and designed to suspend the underlying collapsed airway. Control animals (n=3) undergoing tracheal cartilage division and inner tracheal lumen dissociation and experimental animals (n=3) receiving the same model with overlying placement of the newly developed airway splint were evaluated. Main Outcomes and Measures An animal model for severe, life-threatening tracheobronchomalacia is proposed. Complete or near complete tracheal lumen collapse was observed in each animal with resolution of symptoms in all of the experimental animals after splint placement. Using our severe tracheobronchomalacia animal model, survival was significantly longer in duration in the experimental group receiving the airway splint after model creation when compared to model creation alone (p = 0.0495). Mortality in the experimental group was related to infection. Conclusions A multidisciplinary effort producing a CAD/CAM, bioresorbable tracheobronchial splint was tested in a porcine model of severe tracheomalacia and was found to extend survival. PMID:24232078

  13. Growth and development in higher plants under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, T.; Yuda, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Yamashita, M.; Ueda, J.

    Growth and development of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Golden Cross Bantam) seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions were intensively studied using a 3-dimensional clinostat as a simulator of weightlessness. Epicotyls of etiolated pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were the most oriented toward the direction far from cotyledons. Mesocotyls of etiolated maize seedlings grew at random and coleoptiles curved slightly during clinostat rotation. Clinostat rotation promoted the emergence of the 3rd internodes in etiolated pea seedlings, while it significantly inhibited the growth of the 1st internodes. In maize seedlings, the growth of coleoptiles was little affected by clinostat rotation, but that of mesocotyls was suppressed, and therefore, the emergence of the leaf out of coleoptile was promoted. Clinostat rotation reduced the osmotic concentration in the 1st internodes of pea seedlings, although it has little effect on the 2nd and the 3rd internodes. Clinostat rotation also reduced the osmotic concentrations in both coleoptiles and mesocotyls of maize seedlings. Cell-wall extensibilities of the 1st and the 3rd internodes of pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were significantly lower and higher as compared with those on 1 g conditions, respectively. Cell-wall extensibility of mesocotyls in seedlings grown on the clinostat also decreased. Changes in cell wall properties seem to be well correlated to the growth of each organ in pea and maize seedlings. These results suggest that the growth and development of plants is controlled under gravity on earth, and that the growth responses of higher plants to microgravity conditions are regulated by both cell-wall mechanical properties and osmotic properties of stem cells.

  14. A 3-dimensional rigid cluster thorax model for kinematic measurements during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, D; Malone, A; O'Brien, T; Simms, C K

    2014-04-11

    The trunk has been shown to work as an active segment rather than a passenger unit during gait and it is felt that trunk kinematics should be given more consideration during gait assessment. While 3-dimensional assessment of the thorax with respect to the pelvis and laboratory can provide a comprehensive description of trunk movement, the majority of existing 3-D thorax models demonstrate shortcomings such as the need for multiple skin marker configurations, difficult landmark identification and practical issues for assessment on female subjects. A small number of studies have used rigid cluster models to quantify thorax movement, however the models and points of attachment are not well described and validation rarely considered. The aim of this study was to propose an alternative rigid cluster 3-D thorax model to quantify movement during gait and provide validation of this model. A rigid mount utilising active markers was developed and applied over the 3rd thoracic vertebra, previously reported as an area of least skin movement artefact on the trunk. The model was compared to two reference thorax models through simultaneous recording during gait on 15 healthy subjects. Excellent waveform similarity was demonstrated between the proposed model and the two reference models (CMC range 0.962-0.997). Agreement of discrete parameters was very-good to excellent. In addition, ensemble average graphs demonstrated almost identical curve displacement between models. The results suggest that the proposed model can be confidently used as an alternative to other thorax models in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Idiopathic condylar resorptions: 3-dimensional condylar bony deformation, signs and symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Kasper Dahl; Schmidt, Bjarke; Stoustrup, Peter; Pedersen, Thomas Klit

    2017-08-01

    Our aim was to describe 3-dimensional condylar deformation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and symptoms and signs of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) in patients with idiopathic condylar resorption (ICR). We included 25 patients with ICR and 25 controls. We performed cone-beam computed tomographic scans and analyzed condylar width, length, and height as well as the condylar axial angle and the condylar neck angle. TMJ cross sections were evaluated for degenerative characteristics and location of bony deformations. Furthermore, symptoms and signs of TMD were described in the ICR group. In the ICR group, we found statistically significantly reduced condylar width (mean difference, 2.0 mm), height (mean difference, 4.9 mm), and condylar axial angle (mean difference, 10.6°); 84% of the TMJs had a posterior condylar neck angle (control group, 22%). The most common degenerative changes were noncongruent shape of the condyle-fossa relationship (72%), condylar resorption (56%), and nonintact cortex (40%). More than 70% of the joints with bony deformations showed changes along the entire condylar head. Most patients with ICR showed symptoms and signs of TMD; nevertheless, 12% had no signs or symptoms of TMD. ICR in the TMJ changes the shape and reduces the size of the condyle. Deformity locations are unspecified, and the entire condyle is often affected. Most patients with ICR have signs or symptoms of TMD; however, a small group was asymptomatic and without clinical signs. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Repositioning the scapula with taping following distal radius fracture: Kinematic analysis using 3-dimensional motion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Elif; Ayhan, Cigdem; Baltaci, Gul

    2017-08-08

    Cross-sectional and controlled laboratory study using pretest-posttest design. Patients with distal radius fracture (DRfx) report proximal segment problems. Taping is commonly recommended because it provides improved posture and function. This study aimed to investigate the 3-dimensional scapular kinematics and the effect of taping on the kinematics in participants with DRfx. Twenty participants with a unilateral history of DRfx and 20 healthy controls participated. Scapular kinematics was assessed using an electromagnetic system. Three separate strips of elastic taping were applied for participants with DRfx over the arm, scapula, and middle and lower trapezius muscles through the paravertebral muscles. Afterward, the scapular kinematics was reassessed in taped condition. When participants with DRfx and healthy controls compared, the scapula was more downwardly rotated at 120° of humerothoracic elevation (mean difference [MD], 9.06°) and at 120° (MD, 9.04°), 90° (MD, 5.6°) of humerothoracic lowering, more upwardly rotated at 30° of humerothoracic lowering (MD, 5.1°). Taping showed a significant effect on kinematics; specifically, the scapula was more externally rotated (38.9° untaped vs 31.1° taped) and posteriorly tilted (-9.2° untaped vs -4.8° taped) during humerothoracic elevation and lowering for participants with DRfx. Participants with DRfx showed different scapular kinematics and taping resulted in changes on tested kinematic parameters during humeral movements. Differences in scapular motion during elevation with taping showed a specific pattern. Overall, taping maintained a position likely to produce optimal rotator cuff function during early rehabilitation of patients with DRfx. N/A. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A customized bolus produced using a 3-dimensional printer for radiotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Wook Kim

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Boluses are used in high-energy radiotherapy in order to overcome the skin sparing effect. In practice though, commonly used flat boluses fail to make a perfect contact with the irregular surface of the patient's skin, resulting in air gaps. Hence, we fabricated a customized bolus using a 3-dimensional (3D printer and evaluated its feasibility for radiotherapy. METHODS: We designed two kinds of bolus for production on a 3D printer, one of which was the 3D printed flat bolus for the Blue water phantom and the other was a 3D printed customized bolus for the RANDO phantom. The 3D printed flat bolus was fabricated to verify its physical quality. The resulting 3D printed flat bolus was evaluated by assessing dosimetric parameters such as D1.5 cm, D5 cm, and D10 cm. The 3D printed customized bolus was then fabricated, and its quality and clinical feasibility were evaluated by visual inspection and by assessing dosimetric parameters such as Dmax, Dmin, Dmean, D90%, and V90%. RESULTS: The dosimetric parameters of the resulting 3D printed flat bolus showed that it was a useful dose escalating material, equivalent to a commercially available flat bolus. Analysis of the dosimetric parameters of the 3D printed customized bolus demonstrated that it is provided good dose escalation and good contact with the irregular surface of the RANDO phantom. CONCLUSIONS: A customized bolus produced using a 3D printer could potentially replace commercially available flat boluses.

  18. Precision and trueness of dental models manufactured with different 3-dimensional printing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Yeon; Shin, Yoo-Seok; Jung, Hwi-Dong; Hwang, Chung-Ju; Baik, Hyoung-Seon; Cha, Jung-Yul

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the precision and trueness of dental models printed with 3-dimensional (3D) printers via different printing techniques. Digital reference models were printed 5 times using stereolithography apparatus (SLA), digital light processing (DLP), fused filament fabrication (FFF), and the PolyJet technique. The 3D printed models were scanned and evaluated for tooth, arch, and occlusion measurements. Precision and trueness were analyzed with root mean squares (RMS) for the differences in each measurement. Differences in measurement variables among the 3D printing techniques were analyzed by 1-way analysis of variance (α = 0.05). Except in trueness of occlusion measurements, there were significant differences in all measurements among the 4 techniques (P techniques exhibited significantly different mean RMS values of precision than the SLA (88 ± 14 μm) and FFF (99 ± 14 μm) techniques (P techniques (P techniques (P techniques: SLA (107 ± 11 μm), DLP (143 ± 8 μm), FFF (188 ± 14 μm), and PolyJet (78 ± 9 μm) (P techniques exhibited significantly different mean RMS values of trueness than DLP (469 ± 49 μm) and FFF (409 ± 36 μm) (P techniques showed significant differences in precision of all measurements and in trueness of tooth and arch measurements. The PolyJet and DLP techniques were more precise than the FFF and SLA techniques, with the PolyJet technique having the highest accuracy. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An integrated 3-Dimensional Genome Modeling Engine for data-driven simulation of spatial genome organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szałaj, Przemysław; Tang, Zhonghui; Michalski, Paul; Pietal, Michal J; Luo, Oscar J; Sadowski, Michał; Li, Xingwang; Radew, Kamen; Ruan, Yijun; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2016-12-01

    ChIA-PET is a high-throughput mapping technology that reveals long-range chromatin interactions and provides insights into the basic principles of spatial genome organization and gene regulation mediated by specific protein factors. Recently, we showed that a single ChIA-PET experiment provides information at all genomic scales of interest, from the high-resolution locations of binding sites and enriched chromatin interactions mediated by specific protein factors, to the low resolution of nonenriched interactions that reflect topological neighborhoods of higher-order chromosome folding. This multilevel nature of ChIA-PET data offers an opportunity to use multiscale 3D models to study structural-functional relationships at multiple length scales, but doing so requires a structural modeling platform. Here, we report the development of 3D-GNOME (3-Dimensional Genome Modeling Engine), a complete computational pipeline for 3D simulation using ChIA-PET data. 3D-GNOME consists of three integrated components: a graph-distance-based heat map normalization tool, a 3D modeling platform, and an interactive 3D visualization tool. Using ChIA-PET and Hi-C data derived from human B-lymphocytes, we demonstrate the effectiveness of 3D-GNOME in building 3D genome models at multiple levels, including the entire genome, individual chromosomes, and specific segments at megabase (Mb) and kilobase (kb) resolutions of single average and ensemble structures. Further incorporation of CTCF-motif orientation and high-resolution looping patterns in 3D simulation provided additional reliability of potential biologically plausible topological structures. © 2016 Szałaj et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  20. Using a clinical protocol for orthognathic surgery and assessing a 3-dimensional virtual approach: current therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Luis A; Ruiz, Jessica V; Quevedo, Cristobal A

    2011-03-01

    Oral and maxillofacial surgeons who perform orthognathic surgery face major changes in their practices, and these challenges will increase in the near future, because the extraordinary advances in technology applied to our profession are not only amazing but are becoming the standard of care as they promote improved outcomes for our patients. Orthognathic surgery is one of the favorite areas of practicing within the scope of practice of an oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Our own practice in orthognathic surgery has completed over 1,000 surgeries of this type. Success is directly related to the consistency and capability of the surgical-orthodontic team to achieve predictable, stable results, and our hypothesis is that a successful result is directly related to the way we take our records and perform diagnosis and treatment planning following basic general principles. Now that we have the opportunity to plan and treat 3-dimensional (3D) problems with 3D technology, we should enter into this new era with appropriate standards to ensure better results, instead of simply enjoying these new tools, which will clearly show not only us but everyone what we do when we perform orthognathic surgery. Appropriate principles need to be taken into account when implementing this new technology. In other words, new technology is welcome, but we do not have to reinvent the wheel. The purpose of this article is to review the current protocol that we use for orthognathic surgery and compare it with published protocols that incorporate new 3D and virtual technology. This report also describes our approach to this new technology. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cochlear coordinates in regard to cochlear implantation: a clinically individually applicable 3 dimensional CT-based method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbist, B.M.; Joemai, R.M.; Briaire, J.J.; Teeuwisse, W.M.; Veldkamp, W.J.H.; Frijns, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    SETTING: Cochlear implant (CI)/tertiary referral center. SUBJECTS: Twenty-five patients implanted with an Advanced Bionics HiRes90K HiFocus1J CI. STUDY DESIGN/MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A 3-dimensional cylindrical coordinate system is introduced using the basal turn of the cochlea as the x and y planes

  2. Overview of 3-year experience with large-scale electronic portal imaging device-based 3-dimensional transit dosimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mijnheer, Ben J.; González, Patrick; Olaciregui-Ruiz, Igor; Rozendaal, Roel A.; van Herk, Marcel; Mans, Anton

    2015-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of electronic portal imaging device (EPID)-based 3-dimensional (3D) transit dosimetry in a radiation therapy department by analyzing a large set of dose verification results. In our institution, routine in vivo dose verification of all treatments is performed by means of 3D

  3. Characterization of the 3-dimensional microstructure of a graphite negative electrode from a Li-ion battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shearing, P.R.; Howard, L.E.; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    2010-01-01

    The 3-dimensional microstructure of a porous electrode from a lithium-ion battery has been characterized for the first time. We use X-ray tomography to reconstruct a 43 × 348 × 478 μm sample volume with voxel dimensions of 480 nm, subsequent division of the reconstructed volumes into sub-volumes ...

  4. SCEC-VDO: A New 3-Dimensional Visualization and Movie Making Software for Earth Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, K. R.; Sanskriti, F.; Yu, J.; Callaghan, S.; Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.

    2016-12-01

    Researchers and undergraduate interns at the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) have created a new 3-dimensional (3D) visualization software tool called SCEC Virtual Display of Objects (SCEC-VDO). SCEC-VDO is written in Java and uses the Visualization Toolkit (VTK) backend to render 3D content. SCEC-VDO offers advantages over existing 3D visualization software for viewing georeferenced data beneath the Earth's surface. Many popular visualization packages, such as Google Earth, restrict the user to views of the Earth from above, obstructing views of geological features such as faults and earthquake hypocenters at depth. SCEC-VDO allows the user to view data both above and below the Earth's surface at any angle. It includes tools for viewing global earthquakes from the U.S. Geological Survey, faults from the SCEC Community Fault Model, and results from the latest SCEC models of earthquake hazards in California including UCERF3 and RSQSim. Its object-oriented plugin architecture allows for the easy integration of new regional and global datasets, regardless of the science domain. SCEC-VDO also features rich animation capabilities, allowing users to build a timeline with keyframes of camera position and displayed data. The software is built with the concept of statefulness, allowing for reproducibility and collaboration using an xml file. A prior version of SCEC-VDO, which began development in 2005 under the SCEC Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology internship, used the now unsupported Java3D library. Replacing Java3D with the widely supported and actively developed VTK libraries not only ensures that SCEC-VDO can continue to function for years to come, but allows for the export of 3D scenes to web viewers and popular software such as Paraview. SCEC-VDO runs on all recent 64-bit Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux systems with Java 8 or later. More information, including downloads, tutorials, and example movies created fully within SCEC-VDO is

  5. Role of 3-Dimensional Sonography in the Assessment of Submucous Fibroids: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keizer, Alieke L; Nieuwenhuis, Lotte L; Twisk, Jos W R; Huirne, Judith A F; Hehenkamp, Wouter J K; Brölmann, Hans A M

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the accuracy and reliability of 3-dimensional (3D) transvaginal sonography in classifying submucous fibroids using the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics PALM-COEIN (polyp, adenomyosis, leiomyoma, malignancy and hyperplasia, coagulopathy, ovulatory dysfunction, endometrial, iatrogenic, and not yet classified) classification and protrusion (percent) compared to 2-dimensional (2D) transvaginal sonography, 2D saline infusion sonography, and 3D saline infusion sonography, using hysteroscopy as a reference test. A prospective cohort pilot study was performed among 14 consecutive patients undergoing hysteroscopic surgery, preceded by routine sonography (2D transvaginal sonography, 2D saline infusion sonography, 3D transvaginal sonography, and 3D saline infusion sonography). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for 2D transvaginal sonography versus hysteroscopy was 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06, 0.90) compared to 0.94 (95% CI, 0.83, 0.98) for 2D saline infusion sonography. The ICCs for 3D transvaginal sonography versus hysteroscopy were 0.69 (95% CI, 0.03, 0.90 [investigator A]) and 0.55 (95% CI, -0.48, 0.86 [investigator B]). The ICCs for 3D saline infusion sonography versus hysteroscopy were 0.94 (95% CI, 0.81, 0.98 [investigator A]) and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.60, 0.96 [investigator B]). Interobserver agreement of 3D transvaginal sonography was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.43, 0.94) compared to 0.86 (95% CI, 0.56, 0.96) for 3D saline infusion sonography. In these preliminary data, 3D transvaginal sonography was not as accurate as 2D or 3D saline infusion sonography and was not more accurate than 2D transvaginal sonography. There was moderate interobserver agreement for 3D transvaginal sonography. There might be room for improvement, as 3D transvaginal sonography is more accurate when endometrial thickness increases. Further study is warranted to evaluate in which patients saline infusion sonography eventually can be obviated. © 2017 by

  6. Development of automatic body condition scoring using a low-cost 3-dimensional Kinect camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoliansky, Roii; Edan, Yael; Parmet, Yisrael; Halachmi, Ilan

    2016-09-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) is a farm-management tool for estimating dairy cows' energy reserves. Today, BCS is performed manually by experts. This paper presents a 3-dimensional algorithm that provides a topographical understanding of the cow's body to estimate BCS. An automatic BCS system consisting of a Kinect camera (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) triggered by a passive infrared motion detector was designed and implemented. Image processing and regression algorithms were developed and included the following steps: (1) image restoration, the removal of noise; (2) object recognition and separation, identification and separation of the cows; (3) movie and image selection, selection of movies and frames that include the relevant data; (4) image rotation, alignment of the cow parallel to the x-axis; and (5) image cropping and normalization, removal of irrelevant data, setting the image size to 150×200 pixels, and normalizing image values. All steps were performed automatically, including image selection and classification. Fourteen individual features per cow, derived from the cows' topography, were automatically extracted from the movies and from the farm's herd-management records. These features appear to be measurable in a commercial farm. Manual BCS was performed by a trained expert and compared with the output of the training set. A regression model was developed, correlating the features with the manual BCS references. Data were acquired for 4 d, resulting in a database of 422 movies of 101 cows. Movies containing cows' back ends were automatically selected (389 movies). The data were divided into a training set of 81 cows and a test set of 20 cows; both sets included the identical full range of BCS classes. Accuracy tests gave a mean absolute error of 0.26, median absolute error of 0.19, and coefficient of determination of 0.75, with 100% correct classification within 1 step and 91% correct classification within a half step for BCS classes. Results indicated

  7. Human embryonic growth and development of the cerebellum using 3-dimensional ultrasound and virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousian, M; Groenenberg, I A L; Hop, W C; Koning, A H J; van der Spek, P J; Exalto, N; Steegers, E A P

    2013-08-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the first trimester cerebellar growth and development using 2 different measuring techniques: 3-dimensional (3D) and virtual reality (VR) ultrasound visualization. The cerebellum measurements were related to gestational age (GA) and crown-rump length (CRL). Finally, the reproducibility of both the methods was tested. In a prospective cohort study, we collected 630 first trimester, serially obtained, 3D ultrasound scans of 112 uncomplicated pregnancies between 7 + 0 and 12 + 6 weeks of GA. Only scans with high-quality images of the fossa posterior were selected for the analysis. Measurements were performed offline in the coronal plane using 3D (4D view) and VR (V-Scope) software. The VR enables the observer to use all available dimensions in a data set by visualizing the volume as a "hologram." Total cerebellar diameter, left, and right hemispheric diameter, and thickness were measured using both the techniques. All measurements were performed 3 times and means were used in repeated measurements analysis. After exclusion criteria were applied 177 (28%) 3D data sets were available for further analysis. The median GA was 10 + 0 weeks and the median CRL was 31.4 mm (range: 5.2-79.0 mm). The cerebellar parameters could be measured from 7 gestational weeks onward. The total cerebellar diameter increased from 2.2 mm at 7 weeks of GA to 13.9 mm at 12 weeks of GA using VR and from 2.2 to 13.8 mm using 3D ultrasound. The reproducibility, established in a subset of 35 data sets, resulted in intraclass correlation coefficient values ≥0.98. It can be concluded that cerebellar measurements performed by the 2 methods proved to be reproducible and comparable with each other. However, VR-using all three dimensions-provides a superior method for the visualization of the cerebellum. The constructed reference values can be used to study normal and abnormal cerebellar growth and development.

  8. 3-Dimensional imaging for lower third molars: is there an implication for surgical removal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyrich, Gerold; Seifert, Burkhardt; Matthews, Felix; Matthiessen, Urs; Heusser, Cyrill K; Kruse, Astrid L; Obwegeser, Joachim A; Lübbers, Heinz-Theo

    2011-07-01

    Surgical removal of impacted third molars may be the most frequent procedure in oral surgery. Damage to the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) is a typical complication of the procedure, with incidence rates reported at 1% to 22%. The aim of this study was to identify factors that lead to a higher risk of IAN impairment after surgery. In total 515 surgical third molar removals with 3-dimensional (3D) imaging before surgical removal were retrospectively evaluated for IAN impairment, in addition to 3D imaging signs that were supposed predictors for postoperative IAN disturbance. Influence of each predictor was evaluated in univariate and multivariate analyses and reported as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). The overall IAN impairment rate in this study was 9.4%. Univariate analysis showed narrowing of the IAN canal (OR, 4.95; P < .0001), direct contact between the IAN and the root (OR, 5.05; P = .0008), fully formed roots (OR, 4.36; P = .045), an IAN lingual course with (OR, 6.64; P = .0013) and without (OR, 2.72; P = .007) perforation of the cortical plate, and an intraroot (OR, 9.96; P = .003) position of the IAN as predictors of postoperative IAN impairment. Multivariate analysis showed narrowing of the IAN canal (adjusted OR, 3.69; 95% CI, 1.88 to 7.22; P = .0001) and direct contact (adjusted OR, 3.10; 95% CI, 1.15 to 8.33; P = .025) to be the strongest independent predictors. Three-dimensional imaging is useful for predicting the risk of postoperative IAN impairment before surgical removal of impacted lower third molars. The low IAN impairment rate seen in this study-compared with similar selected study groups in the literature of the era before 3D imaging-indicates that the availability of 3D information is actually decreasing the risk for IAN impairment after lower third molar removal. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Constructing 3-dimensional colorized digital dental model assisted by digital photography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hong-qiang; Liu, Yu-shu; Liu, Yun-song; Ning, Jing; Zhao, Yi-jiao; Zhou, Yong-sheng

    2016-02-18

    To explore a method of constructing universal 3-dimensional (3D) colorized digital dental model which can be displayed and edited in common 3D software (such as Geomagic series), in order to improve the visual effect of digital dental model in 3D software. The morphological data of teeth and gingivae were obtained by intra-oral scanning system (3Shape TRIOS), constructing 3D digital dental models. The 3D digital dental models were exported as STL files. Meanwhile, referring to the accredited photography guide of American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry (AACD), five selected digital photographs of patients'teeth and gingivae were taken by digital single lens reflex camera (DSLR) with the same exposure parameters (except occlusal views) to capture the color data. In Geomagic Studio 2013, after STL file of 3D digital dental model being imported, digital photographs were projected on 3D digital dental model with corresponding position and angle. The junctions of different photos were carefully trimmed to get continuous and natural color transitions. Then the 3D colorized digital dental model was constructed, which was exported as OBJ file or WRP file which was a special file for software of Geomagic series. For the purpose of evaluating the visual effect of the 3D colorized digital model, a rating scale on color simulation effect in views of patients'evaluation was used. Sixteen patients were recruited and their scores on colored and non-colored digital dental models were recorded. The data were analyzed using McNemar-Bowker test in SPSS 20. Universal 3D colorized digital dental model with better color simulation was constructed based on intra-oral scanning and digital photography. For clinical application, the 3D colorized digital dental models, combined with 3D face images, were introduced into 3D smile design of aesthetic rehabilitation, which could improve the patients' cognition for the esthetic digital design and virtual prosthetic effect. Universal 3D colorized

  10. Integration of GPS and InSAR Data for Optimal 3-Dimensional Crustal Deformation Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Z.; Liu, Z.

    2016-12-01

    GPS and InSAR are complementary to each other for crustal deformation monitoring, We develop an algorithm to integrate the two data sets for the production of 3-dimensional crustal motion map. In the algorithm point-based discrete GPS measurements are first interpolated to produce continuous 3-D vector map at chosen grids covered by the InSAR data. The interpolation is based on an algorithm of Shen et al. [2015], which takes into account of GPS station distance, network density and configuration for data weighting. A Gaussian distance weighting function and a Voronoi cell spatial weighting function are used in the interpolation. The amount of weighting and degree of smoothing can be spatially variable and optimally determined based on in situ data strength. This approach can effectively smooth out the incoherencies in discretized GPS velocity data. At the locations where both InSAR and interpolated GPS data are available, optimal 3-D components are solved for using a weighted least square method. The InSAR data are weighted by their LOS uncertainties. The GPS interpolated data are weighted by their re-estimated uncertainties assuming a uniform smoothing instead of variable smoothing used for data interpolation as mentioned above, to ensure that the uncertainty estimates reflect the in situ data strength consistently and not biased by uneven degree of smoothing. Including InSAR data from both ascending and descending viewing geometry, if available, provides improved constraint on the 3-D deformation when integrating with GPS data. We apply this algorithm to a test region in southern California covering most of the active faults in the region such as the San Andreas, San Jacinto, and Garlock. We use LOS rate data derived from 18 years of ERS-Envisat InSAR data, and a combination of continuous and campaign GPS data of more than two decades of time span. Our preliminary result shows that the GPS and InSAR data are generally consistent for the horizontal velocities at

  11. Improving Range Estimation of a 3-Dimensional Flash Ladar via Blind Deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    scannerless Multiple-Slit Streak Tube Imaging LiDAR (MS- STIL ), [22] reports on LiDAR tests that demonstrate target imaging through foliage and other...calculated and then compared to produce a range so that each image frame within the data cube corresponds to the same distance. In the spatial domain...transverse 50 shifts between cubes are accomplished by the vector projection method by calculating the global shifts between corresponding frames in each

  12. Declination Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Declination is calculated using the current International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model. Declination is calculated using the current World Magnetic Model...

  13. A study of the reconstruction of pectus excavatum using 3-dimensional CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akahane, Genichirou; Maruyama, Kiyoji; Iwahara, Susumu; Nakazawa, Toshitaka; Maezumi, Kazuo; Aoki, Hiroshi; Kondou, Yoshiaki; Noguchi, Akihiko [Nagano Children`s Hospital, Toyoshina (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    The rate of excavation of sternum was calculated from 3-D CT images of patients with pectus excavatum for reconstruction surgery. Subjects were 45 children of ages of 1-11 (mean 5) year. CT was performed with Toshiba TCT-900S (HELIX V9.1) with the procedure of: 120 kV, 50-100 mA, bed speed 5-7.5 mm/sec, image reconstruction interval 2-2.5 mm, slice thickness 5 mm, scanning rate 1 sec/round, 30 sec at longest scanning, Boxel reconstruction method for 3-D and Macintosh image analyzer. The rate of excavation was calculated using the reported index. Reconstruction was evaluated by the rate before and after surgery. The calculation based on the 3-D CT was found useful for the surgery. (K.H.)

  14. Perfusion estimation using contrast-enhanced 3-dimensional subharmonic ultrasound imaging: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Anush; Eisenbrey, John R; Liu, Ji-Bin; Machado, Priscilla; Halldorsdottir, Valgerdur G; Dave, Jaydev K; Zhao, Hongjia; He, Yu; Park, Suhyun; Dianis, Scott; Wallace, Kirk; Thomenius, Kai E; Forsberg, Flemming

    2013-09-01

    The ability to estimate tissue perfusion (in milliliter per minute per gram) in vivo using contrast-enhanced 3-dimensional (3D) harmonic and subharmonic ultrasound imaging was investigated. A LOGIQ™ 9 scanner (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI) equipped with a 4D10L probe was modified to perform 3D harmonic imaging (HI; f(transmit), 5 MHz and f(receive), 10 MHz) and subharmonic imaging (SHI; f(transmit), 5.8 MHz and f(receive), 2.9 MHz). In vivo imaging was performed in the lower pole of both kidneys in 5 open-abdomen canines after injection of the ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) Definity (Lantheus Medical Imaging, N Billerica, MA). The canines received a 5-μL/kg bolus injection of Definity for HI and a 20-μL/kg bolus for SHI in triplicate for each kidney. Ultrasound data acquisition was started just before the injection of UCA (to capture the wash-in) and continued until washout. A microvascular staining technique based on stable (nonradioactive) isotope-labeled microspheres (Biophysics Assay Laboratory, Inc, Worcester, MA) was used to quantify the degree of perfusion in each kidney (the reference standard). Ligating a surgically exposed branch of the renal arteries induced lower perfusion rates. This was followed by additional contrast-enhanced imaging and microsphere injections to measure post-ligation perfusion. Slice data were extracted from the 3D ultrasound volumes and used to generate time-intensity curves offline in the regions corresponding to the tissue samples used for microvascular staining. The midline plane was also selected from the 3D volume (as a quasi-2-dimensional [2D] image) and compared with the 3D imaging modes. Perfusion was estimated from the initial slope of the fractional blood volume uptake (for both HI and SHI) and compared with the reference standard using linear regression analysis. Both 3D HI and SHI were able to provide visualization of flow and, thus, perfusion in the kidneys. However, SHI provided near-complete tissue suppression

  15. Cultivation of human neural progenitor cells in a 3-dimensional self-assembling peptide hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedmann, Andrea; Rolfs, Arndt; Frech, Moritz J

    2012-01-11

    The influence of 3-dimensional (3D) scaffolds on growth, proliferation and finally neuronal differentiation is of great interest in order to find new methods for cell-based and standardised therapies in neurological disorders or neurodegenerative diseases. 3D structures are expected to provide an environment much closer to the in vivo situation than 2D cultures. In the context of regenerative medicine, the combination of biomaterial scaffolds with neural stem and progenitor cells holds great promise as a therapeutic tool. Culture systems emulating a three dimensional environment have been shown to influence proliferation and differentiation in different types of stem and progenitor cells. Herein, the formation and functionalisation of the 3D-microenviroment is important to determine the survival and fate of the embedded cells. Here we used PuraMatrix (RADA16, PM), a peptide based hydrogel scaffold, which is well described and used to study the influence of a 3D-environment on different cell types. PuraMatrix can be customised easily and the synthetic fabrication of the nano-fibers provides a 3D-culture system of high reliability, which is in addition xeno-free. Recently we have studied the influence of the PM-concentration on the formation of the scaffold. In this study the used concentrations of PM had a direct impact on the formation of the 3D-structure, which was demonstrated by atomic force microscopy. A subsequent analysis of the survival and differentiation of the hNPCs revealed an influence of the used concentrations of PM on the fate of the embedded cells. However, the analysis of survival or neuronal differentiation by means of immunofluorescence techniques posses some hurdles. To gain reliable data, one has to determine the total number of cells within a matrix to obtain the relative number of e.g. neuronal cells marked by βIII-tubulin. This prerequisites a technique to analyse the scaffolds in all 3-dimensions by a confocal microscope or a comparable

  16. Targeting FAK Radiosensitizes 3-Dimensional Grown Human HNSCC Cells Through Reduced Akt1 and MEK1/2 Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hehlgans, Stephanie [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany); Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institute of Radiopharmacy, Helmholtz Center Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Eke, Iris [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany); Cordes, Nils, E-mail: Nils.Cordes@OncoRay.de [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany); Institute of Radiopharmacy, Helmholtz Center Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital and Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a main regulator of integrin signaling and cell migration, is frequently overexpressed and hyperphosphorylated in human head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We have previously shown that pharmacologic FAK inhibition leads to radiosensitization of 3-dimensionally grown HNSCC cell lines. To further evaluate the role of FAK in radioresistance and as a potential cancer target, we examined FAK and FAK downstream signaling in HNSCC cell lines grown in more physiologic extracellular matrix-based 3-dimensional cell cultures. Methods and Materials: Seven HNSCC cell lines were grown in 3-dimensional extracellular matrix and the clonogenic radiation survival, expression, and phosphorylation of FAK, paxillin, Akt1, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, and MEK1/2 were analyzed after siRNA-mediated knockdown of FAK, Akt1, MEK1, FAK+Akt1, or FAK+MEK1 compared with controls or stable overexpression of FAK. The role of MEK1/2 for clonogenic survival and signaling was investigated using the MEK inhibitor U0126 with or without irradiation. Results: FAK knockdown moderately or significantly enhanced the cellular radiosensitivity of 3-dimensionally grown HNSCC cells. The FAK downstream targets paxillin, Akt1, and ERK1/2 were substantially dephosphorylated under FAK depletion. FAK overexpression, in contrast, increased radiation survival and paxillin, Akt1, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The degree of radiosensitization upon Akt1, ERK1/2, or MEK1 depletion or U0126 was superimposable to FAK knockdown. Combination knockdown conditions (ie, Akt1/FAK, MEK1/FAK, or U0126/FAK) failed to provide additional radiosensitization. Conclusions: Our data provide further evidence for FAK as important determinant of radiation survival, which acts in the same signaling axis as Akt1 and ERK1/2. These data strongly support our hypothesis that FAK is a relevant molecular target for HNSCC radiotherapy.

  17. Comparison of 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography-Based Measurement of Glenoid Bone Loss With Arthroscopic Defect Size Estimation in Patients With Anterior Shoulder Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Neil K; Patel, Ishan; Jacobson, Jon A; Debski, Richard E; Sekiya, Jon K

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare four 3-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) methods of measuring glenoid bone loss with the arthroscopic estimation of glenoid bone loss. Twenty patients with recurrent anterior shoulder instability underwent bilateral shoulder CT scans and were found to have glenoid bone loss. Arthroscopic estimation of glenoid bone loss was performed in all patients. Three-dimensional CT reconstruction was performed on the CT scans of each patient. The glenoid bone loss of each patient was measured using the surface area, Pico, ratio, and anteroposterior distance-from-bare area methods. The mean percent loss calculated with each method was compared with arthroscopy to determine the reliability of arthroscopy in the measurement of glenoid bone loss. The mean percent bone loss calculated with arthroscopic estimation, surface area, Pico, ratio, and anteroposterior distance-from-bare area methods was 18.13% ± 11.81%, 12.15% ± 8.50% (P = .005), 12.77% ± 8.17% (P = .002), 9.50% ± 8.74% (P shoulder instability. Level IV, case series. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. MEMS Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 166 MEMS Calculator (Web, free access)   This MEMS Calculator determines the following thin film properties from data taken with an optical interferometer or comparable instrument: a) residual strain from fixed-fixed beams, b) strain gradient from cantilevers, c) step heights or thicknesses from step-height test structures, and d) in-plane lengths or deflections. Then, residual stress and stress gradient calculations can be made after an optical vibrometer or comparable instrument is used to obtain Young's modulus from resonating cantilevers or fixed-fixed beams. In addition, wafer bond strength is determined from micro-chevron test structures using a material test machine.

  19. Dynamic simulation of the self-tapping insertion process of orthodontic microimplants into cortical bone with a 3-dimensional finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wonjae; Park, Hyo-Sang; Kyung, Hee-Moon; Kwon, Oh-Won

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress state in the cortical bone around an orthodontic microimplant during and after the insertion surgery. The self-tapping insertion of an orthodontic microimplant into 1-mm-thick cortical bone containing a predrilled hole was simulated by using a 3-dimensional finite element method. The entire insertion surgery was replicated by a total of 3601 calculation steps: ie, the first 3600 dynamic steps analyzing the insertion process and an additional static step for analyzing the residual stress state after insertion. Four microimplants were experimentally inserted into rabbit tibiae to measure the insertion torques and compare them with the finite element analysis results. Reasonable agreement was observed between the experimentally measured and the finite element calculated torques, confirming the validity of our finite element simulation, which showed that high stresses can develop in the interfacial bone during microimplant insertion. Hoop stresses above the ultimate tensile strength and radial stresses above the ultimate compressive strength of cortical bone developed in the bone. Furthermore, residual radial stresses higher than the critical threshold stress to trigger pathologic bone resorption were observed after insertion. These high insertion-related stresses implied that it is not the orthodontic force or the timing of its application, but the insertion conditions that can determine the bone's response to the microimplant and its clinical prognosis. This in-vitro finite element analysis showed that, during the self-tapping insertion of orthodontic microimplants, stresses high enough to fracture cortical bone can develop. After the self-tapping insertion, the radial stresses calculated at the interfacial bone were higher than the threshold value to trigger pathologic bone resorption. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Computation of transonic potential flow about 3 dimensional inlets, ducts, and bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyhner, T. A.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis was developed and a computer code, P465 Version A, written for the prediction of transonic potential flow about three dimensional objects including inlet, duct, and body geometries. Finite differences and line relaxation are used to solve the complete potential flow equation. The coordinate system used for the calculations is independent of body geometry. Cylindrical coordinates are used for the computer code. The analysis is programmed in extended FORTRAN 4 for the CYBER 203 vector computer. The programming of the analysis is oriented toward taking advantage of the vector processing capabilities of this computer. Comparisons of computed results with experimental measurements are presented to verify the analysis. Descriptions of program input and output formats are also presented.

  1. Broad-band near-field ground motion simulations in 3-dimensional scattering media

    KAUST Repository

    Imperatori, W.

    2012-12-06

    The heterogeneous nature of Earth\\'s crust is manifested in the scattering of propagating seismic waves. In recent years, different techniques have been developed to include such phenomenon in broad-band ground-motion calculations, either considering scattering as a semi-stochastic or purely stochastic process. In this study, we simulate broad-band (0–10 Hz) ground motions with a 3-D finite-difference wave propagation solver using several 3-D media characterized by von Karman correlation functions with different correlation lengths and standard deviation values. Our goal is to investigate scattering characteristics and its influence on the seismic wavefield at short and intermediate distances from the source in terms of ground motion parameters. We also examine scattering phenomena, related to the loss of radiation pattern and the directivity breakdown. We first simulate broad-band ground motions for a point-source characterized by a classic ω2 spectrum model. Fault finiteness is then introduced by means of a Haskell-type source model presenting both subshear and super-shear rupture speed. Results indicate that scattering plays an important role in ground motion even at short distances from the source, where source effects are thought to be dominating. In particular, peak ground motion parameters can be affected even at relatively low frequencies, implying that earthquake ground-motion simulations should include scattering also for peak ground velocity (PGV) calculations. At the same time, we find a gradual loss of the source signature in the 2–5 Hz frequency range, together with a distortion of the Mach cones in case of super-shear rupture. For more complex source models and truly heterogeneous Earth, these effects may occur even at lower frequencies. Our simulations suggests that von Karman correlation functions with correlation length between several hundred metres and few kilometres, Hurst exponent around 0.3 and standard deviation in the 5–10 per cent

  2. MT3D: a 3 dimensional magnetotelluric modeling program (user's guide and documentation for Rev. 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nutter, C.; Wannamaker, P.E.

    1980-11-01

    MT3D.REV1 is a non-interactive computer program written in FORTRAN to do 3-dimensional magnetotelluric modeling. A 3-D volume integral equation has been adapted to simulate the MT response of a 3D body in the earth. An integro-difference scheme has been incorporated to increase the accuracy. This is a user's guide for MT3D.REV1 on the University of Utah Research Institute's (UURI) PRIME 400 computer operating under PRIMOS IV, Rev. 17.

  3. Microwave-assisted method for fabrication of carbohydrate cluster microarrays on 3-dimensional hydrazide-dendrimer substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xichun; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Denong

    2012-01-01

    We present here a method for construction of carbohydrate cluster microarrays. This technology utilizes a 3-dimensional poly(amidoamine) starburst dendrimer monolayer assembled on glass surface, which is functionalized with terminal hydrazide groups for site-specific coupling of carbohydrates without prior chemical derivatization. Microwave radiation energy is applied to accelerate carbohydrate coupling on chips. Since this bioarray platform is designed to present sugar chains in defined orientation and cluster configurations, it is particularly suitable for exploration of the structural and conformational diversities of glycoepitopes and their functional properties.

  4. Quantitative analysis of aortic regurgitation: real-time 3-dimensional and 2-dimensional color Doppler echocardiographic method--a clinical and a chronic animal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Takahiro; Jones, Michael; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Qin, Jian Xin; Zetts, Arthur D.; Greenberg, Neil L.; Cardon, Lisa A.; Panza, Julio A.; Thomas, James D.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For evaluating patients with aortic regurgitation (AR), regurgitant volumes, left ventricular (LV) stroke volumes (SV), and absolute LV volumes are valuable indices. AIM: The aim of this study was to validate the combination of real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and semiautomated digital color Doppler cardiac flow measurement (ACM) for quantifying absolute LV volumes, LVSV, and AR volumes using an animal model of chronic AR and to investigate its clinical applicability. METHODS: In 8 sheep, a total of 26 hemodynamic states were obtained pharmacologically 20 weeks after the aortic valve noncoronary (n = 4) or right coronary (n = 4) leaflet was incised to produce AR. Reference standard LVSV and AR volume were determined using the electromagnetic flow method (EM). Simultaneous epicardial real-time 3DE studies were performed to obtain LV end-diastolic volumes (LVEDV), end-systolic volumes (LVESV), and LVSV by subtracting LVESV from LVEDV. Simultaneous ACM was performed to obtain LVSV and transmitral flows; AR volume was calculated by subtracting transmitral flow volume from LVSV. In a total of 19 patients with AR, real-time 3DE and ACM were used to obtain LVSVs and these were compared with each other. RESULTS: A strong relationship was found between LVSV derived from EM and those from the real-time 3DE (r = 0.93, P clinically applicable.

  5. Geometry of the proximal isovelocity surface area in mitral regurgitation by 3-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography: difference between functional mitral regurgitation and prolapse regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Yoshiki; Fukuda, Shota; Tran, Hung; Greenberg, Neil L; Agler, Deborah A; Wada, Nozomi; Toyono, Manatomo; Thomas, James D; Shiota, Takahiro

    2008-02-01

    The geometry of the proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) of functional mitral regurgitation (MR), which is conventionally assumed to be a hemisphere, remains to be clarified. We investigated the 3-dimensional (3D) geometry of PISA of functional MR as opposed to that of MR due to mitral valve prolapse (MVP) by real-time 3D echocardiography with color Doppler capability. Twenty-seven patients with functional MR and 27 patients with MVP were examined. The horizontal PISA length in the commissure-commissure plane and each PISA radius in 3 anteroposterior planes (medial, central, and lateral) were measured by real-time 3D echocardiography with 3D software. The effective regurgitant orifice (ERO) area was calculated with the maximum PISA radius and compared to that by 2D quantitative Doppler method. En-face 3D color Doppler images showed an elongated and slightly curved PISA geometry along the leaflet coaptation in functional MR, whereas the geometry was rounder in MVP. The PISA horizontal length in functional MR was longer than that in MVP (2.3 +/- 0.4 vs 1.2 +/- 0.2 cm, P PISA method with the maximum radius underestimated the ERO area by 2D quantitative Doppler method (by 24%) in functional MR, but not in MVP. The geometry of PISA in functional MR was elongated, distinctly different from the more focal pathology of MVP, leading to underestimation of the ERO area by PISA method.

  6. Salivary calculus diagnosis with 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiseidler, Timo; Ritter, Lutz; Rothamel, Daniel; Neugebauer, Jörg; Scheer, Martin; Mischkowski, Robert A

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cone-beam CT (CBCT) diagnoses of sialoliths in the major salivary glands. Twenty-nine CBCT images containing salivary calculi were retrospectively evaluated for image quality and artifact influence. Additionally, the reproducibility of calculus measurement and the differences between CBCT measurements and ultrasonography (US) and histomorphometry (HM) measurements were determined. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity calculations were based on the observations of 3 masked clinicians, who reviewed a total of 58 CBCT volumes. Salivary calculi were sufficiently visualized in all patients. Metal artifacts were detected in images of 7 patients, and movement artifacts in 2. CBCT calculi measurements were highly reproducible, with mean differences of less than 350 microm. Mean CBCT measurements of calculi diameters differed from mean US measurements by approximately 500 microm and differed from mean HM measurements by approximately 1 mm. For calculus diagnoses, the mean sensitivity and specificity were both 98.85%. Although poor image qualities and artifacts can reduce diagnostic information, salivary calculi can be evaluated adequately with CBCT. CBCT measurements of calculi are highly reproducible and differ little from measurements made with US and HM. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity levels with CBCT are as high as or higher than those obtained with other diagnostic methods. Because of its high diagnostic-information-to-radiation-dose ratio, CBCT is the preferable imaging modality for salivary calculus diagnosis. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An active 3-dimensional localization scheme for femtocell subscribers using E-UTRAN

    KAUST Repository

    Mohammed, Aquil Mirza

    2012-05-01

    Femtocells provide an efficient solution to overcome the indoor coverage problems and also to deal with the traffic within Macro cells. The possibility of localizing femtocell subscriber stations based on the timing ranging advance parameter (TRAP), obtained from E-UTRAN (Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network), within the network signal internals is challenging and is studied throughout in this paper. The principle approach to localization based on Euclidean distances from multiple base stations is outlined.We investigate the specifications of the timing parameters or TRAP used for air interface of 4G network as they relate to calculating the subscriber distances. Computer simulation is used to demonstrate the localization accuracy using multiple base station networks when estimating likely locations of femtocell subscribers stations on a twodimensional coordinate mapping system. However, we further extend our simulations to demonstrate expected location accuracy of subscriber stations, for multiple base station networks, on a three dimensional coordinate mapping scheme. The possibility of of error-fixes shows eight times greater accuracy than in previous results is expected to achieve by applying timing advance techniques to Global System for Mobile communications networks, by using a two-dimensional coordinate mapping scheme. We later compare our study with the effect of global positioning system (GPS) by using a three-dimensional coordinate mapping scheme, which is predicted to give an 72.4 cms accuracy of subscriber station location. © 2012 IEEE.

  8. Deviation between navigated and final 3-dimensional implant position in mini-invasive unicompartmental knee arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is an established method of treating isolated gonartrosis. Modern techniques such as computer-assisted surgery (CAS) and minimally invasive surgery (MIS) are attractive complementary methods to UKA. However, the positioning of the components remains a concern. Thus, we performed a prospective study to assess whether there was deviation between the navigated implant position and the final implant position. Patients and methods We performed UKA with MIS and CAS in 13 patients. By comparing intraoperative navigation data with postoperative computed tomography (CT) measurements, we calculated the deviation between the computer-assisted implant position and the final 3-D implant position of the femoral and tibial components. Results The computer-assisted placement of the femoral and tibial component showed adequate position and consistent results regarding flexion-extension and varus-valgus. However, regarding rotation there was a large variation and 6 of 10 patients were outside the target range for both the femoral component and the tibial component. Interpretation Difficulties in assessing anatomical landmarks with the CAS in combination with MIS might be a reason for the poor rotational alignment of the components. PMID:23043273

  9. A comparison of the effects of 2 mandibular anchorage systems used with a 3-dimensional bimetric maxillary distalizing arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okay, Candan; Gülsen, Ayşe; Keykubat, Alaaddin; Ucem, Tuba Tortop; Yüksel, Sema

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 2 mandibular anchorage systems used with a 3-dimensional bimetric maxillary distalizing arch. The Wilson rapid molar distalization appliance for Class II molar correction was used with 26 patients; two groups of 13 patients each were formed. In the first group (9 girls, 4 boys with a mean age 11 years 5 months), mandibular anchorage was gained by a modified lip bumper with a standard lingual arch of 0.9-mm stainless steel. The second group (7 girls, 6 boys, with a mean age of 13 years) had a 0.016 x 0.016-inch utility arch, with a 3-dimensional lingual arch for anchorage. Cephalometric radiographs were taken before and after maxillary first molar distalization. The treatment results showed that the extrusion of the mandibular first molar was statistically significant in both the modified lip bumper and utility arch groups (P lip bumper and utility arch groups (P lip bumper group (P lip bumper group (P < .05). Both anchor units similarly enhanced the mandibular first molar anchorage. However, particularly in the utility group, mandibular incisor anchorage control seemed to be inadequate.

  10. The design of two color interferometer system for the 3-dimensional analysis of plasma density evolution on KSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.C., E-mail: kclee@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of); Juhn, J.-W.; Nam, Y.U.; Kim, Y.S.; Wi, H.M. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S.W.; Ghim, Y.-C. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A Two Color Interferometer (TCI) system is designed for 3-D measurement of KSTAR. • TCI is consists of 10.6 μm CO2 laser and 0.63 μm HeNe laser with tangential 5 channels. • 2 channels are installed in 2016 and 5 channel operation is planned in 2017. - Abstract: A 5-channel two color interferometer (TCI) system has been designed on KSTAR. TCI system is designed for tangential beam paths, which will combine with two existing interferometer systems of vertical and radial beam paths, so that it will provide 3-dimensional measurement of electron density evolution. TCI system uses wavelengths of 10.6 μm by a CO{sub 2} laser and 0.633 μm by a HeNe laser. The system compensates the vibrational noise by using two colors and avoids refraction by short wavelengths. The main purpose of the TCI is to generate routine measurement of the line integrated plasma density for the real time density control on KSTAR. The 5-channels will provide profile data for the density. Time resolution of the system is expected to be 500 kHz or higher in order to measure 3-dimensional density fluctuations for ELMs and other MHD activities including TAE modes. The system is planned to be working on KSTAR 2016 campaign with 1–2 channels.

  11. Biomechanical 3-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Obturator Protheses Retained with Zygomatic and Dental Implants in Maxillary Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, Canan; Yaluğ, Suat

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the stress distribution in the bone around zygomatic and dental implants for 3 different implant-retained obturator prostheses designs in a Aramany class IV maxillary defect using 3-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA). Material\\Methods A 3-dimensional finite element model of an Aramany class IV defect was created. Three different implant-retained obturator prostheses were modeled: model 1 with 1 zygomatic implant and 1 dental implant, model 2 with 1 zygomatic implant and 2 dental implants, and model 3 with 2 zygomatic implants. Locator attachments were used as a superstructure. A 150-N load was applied 3 different ways. Qualitative analysis was based on the scale of maximum principal stress; values obtained through quantitative analysis are expressed in MPa. Results In all loading conditions, model 3 (when compared models 1 and 2) showed the lowest maximum principal stress value. Model 3 is the most appropirate reconstruction in Aramany class IV maxillary defects. Two zygomatic implants can reduce the stresses in model 3. The distribution of stresses on prostheses were more rational with the help of zygoma implants, which can distribute the stresses on each part of the maxilla. Conclusions Aramany class IV obturator prosthesis placement of 2 zygomatic implants in each side of the maxilla is more advantageous than placement of dental implants. In the non-defective side, increasing the number of dental implants is not as suitable as zygomatic implants. PMID:25714086

  12. A Proposal of 3-dimensional Self-organizing Memory and Its Application to Knowledge Extraction from Natural Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Kai; Hagiwara, Masafumi

    In this paper, we propose a 3-dimensional self-organizing memory and describe its application to knowledge extraction from natural language. First, the proposed system extracts a relation between words by JUMAN (morpheme analysis system) and KNP (syntax analysis system), and stores it in short-term memory. In the short-term memory, the relations are attenuated with the passage of processing. However, the relations with high frequency of appearance are stored in the long-term memory without attenuation. The relations in the long-term memory are placed to the proposed 3-dimensional self-organizing memory. We used a new learning algorithm called ``Potential Firing'' in the learning phase. In the recall phase, the proposed system recalls relational knowledge from the learned knowledge based on the input sentence. We used a new recall algorithm called ``Waterfall Recall'' in the recall phase. We added a function to respond to questions in natural language with ``yes/no'' in order to confirm the validity of proposed system by evaluating the quantity of correct answers.

  13. Biomechanical 3-dimensional finite element analysis of obturator protheses retained with zygomatic and dental implants in maxillary defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, Canan; Yaluğ, Suat

    2015-02-25

    The objective of this study was to investigate the stress distribution in the bone around zygomatic and dental implants for 3 different implant-retained obturator prostheses designs in a Aramany class IV maxillary defect using 3-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA). A 3-dimensional finite element model of an Aramany class IV defect was created. Three different implant-retained obturator prostheses were modeled: model 1 with 1 zygomatic implant and 1 dental implant, model 2 with 1 zygomatic implant and 2 dental implants, and model 3 with 2 zygomatic implants. Locator attachments were used as a superstructure. A 150-N load was applied 3 different ways. Qualitative analysis was based on the scale of maximum principal stress; values obtained through quantitative analysis are expressed in MPa. In all loading conditions, model 3 (when compared models 1 and 2) showed the lowest maximum principal stress value. Model 3 is the most appropirate reconstruction in Aramany class IV maxillary defects. Two zygomatic implants can reduce the stresses in model 3. The distribution of stresses on prostheses were more rational with the help of zygoma implants, which can distribute the stresses on each part of the maxilla. Aramany class IV obturator prosthesis placement of 2 zygomatic implants in each side of the maxilla is more advantageous than placement of dental implants. In the non-defective side, increasing the number of dental implants is not as suitable as zygomatic implants.

  14. Fully automated software for mitral annulus evaluation in chronic mitral regurgitation by 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, Iolanda; Fernández-Golfín, Covadonga; Rincon, Luis Miguel; González, Ariana; García Martín, Ana; Hinojar, Rocio; Jimenez Nacher, Jose Julio; Indolfi, Ciro; Zamorano, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is the gold standard for mitral valve (MV) anatomic and functional evaluation. Currently, dedicated MV analysis software has limitations for its use in clinical practice. Thus, we tested here a complete and reproducible evaluation of a new fully automatic software to characterize MV anatomy in different forms of mitral regurgitation (MR) by 3D TEE. Sixty patients were included: 45 with more than moderate MR (28 organic MR [OMR] and 17 functional MR [FMR]) and 15 controls. All patients underwent TEE. 3D MV images obtained using 3D zoom were imported into the new software for automatic analysis. Different MV parameters were obtained and compared. Anatomic and dynamic differences between FMR and OMR were detected. A significant increase in systolic (859.75 vs 801.83 vs 607.78 mm2; P = 0.002) and diastolic (1040.60 vs. 1217.83 and 859.74 mm2; P < 0.001) annular sizes was observed in both OMR and FMR compared to that in controls. FMR had a reduced mitral annular contraction compared to degenerative cases of OMR and to controls (17.14% vs 32.78% and 29.89%; P = 0.007). Good reproducibility was demonstrated along with a short analysis time (mean 4.30 minutes). Annular characteristics and dynamics are abnormal in both FMR and OMR. Full 3D software analysis automatically calculates several significant parameters that provide a correct and complete assessment of anatomy and dynamic mitral annulus geometry and displacement in the 3D space. This analysis allows a better characterization of MR pathophysiology and could be useful in designing new devices for MR repair or replacement. PMID:27930514

  15. 3-Dimensional CBCT analysis of mandibular asymmetry in unilateral condylar hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Jitske Willemijn; Verhoeven, Tim Jan; Schreurs, Ruud; Bergé, Stefaan Jozef; Karssemakers, Luc Hendrikus Elisabeth; Becking, Alfred Gustaaf; Maal, Thomas Jan Jaap

    2016-12-01

    Three-dimensional quantification of asymmetry in UCH has not been reported yet, but would be useful for diagnosing and evaluating the degree of deformity in this disease. It enables profound decision-making and timing of surgery. Unilateral condylar hyperplasia (UCH) can subjectively be classified in hemimandibular elongation (HE), hemimandibular hyperplasia (HH) and a combination of these two (hybrid form). The main purpose of this study was to quantify mandibular asymmetry in UCH patients with a reliable and reproducible method. Secondly, it was evaluated whether the existing classification can be confirmed. 37 UCH-patients with progressive mandibular asymmetry, supported by a positive bone scan and/or such clinical progression that condylectomy was performed, were included in this retrospective study. A group of healthy subjects, matched for age and gender, was used as the control group. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were imported in Maxilim(®) software. Each mandibular half was divided into three skeletal segments (condyle, ramus, and body). Linear and volumetric measurements were calculated for these skeletal units on the affected and unaffected side, for both patients and controls. Significant differences between affected and unaffected sides in the patient group were found in condylar, ramus, and body segments for linear (p < 0.01) as well as for volumetric quantitative measurements (p < 0.0040). A mean linear difference between affected and unaffected sides in the condylar region of the UCH patient group was found of 3.6 mm (sd 2.9) versus 0.2 mm (sd 1.5) in controls. For volumetric measurements there was a mean difference between the left and right condyle of 718 mm(3) (sd 638) in the patient group versus 8 mm(3) (sd 225) difference in the control group. The condyle was the most affected segment. Differences between sides were significantly larger in the patient group than in the control group (p < 0.001). It was not possible to

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Versus 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy for Preoperative Treatment of Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, Patrick, E-mail: patrjr@uw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Phillips, Mark; Smith, Wade [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Davidson, Darin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Kim, Edward; Kane, Gabrielle [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: Create a cost-effectiveness model comparing preoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) versus 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) for extremity soft tissue sarcomas. Methods and Materials: Input parameters included 5-year local recurrence rates, rates of acute wound adverse events, and chronic toxicities (edema, fracture, joint stiffness, and fibrosis). Health-state utilities were used to calculate quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Overall treatment costs per QALY or incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) were calculated. Roll-back analysis was performed using average costs and utilities to determine the baseline preferred radiation technique. One-way, 2-way, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSA) were performed for input parameters with the largest impact on the ICER. Results: Overall treatment costs were $17,515.58 for 3DCRT compared with $22,920.51 for IMRT. The effectiveness was higher for IMRT (3.68 QALYs) than for 3DCRT (3.35 QALYs). The baseline ICER for IMRT was $16,842.75/QALY, making it the preferable treatment. The ICER was most sensitive to the probability of local recurrence, upfront radiation costs, local recurrence costs, certain utilities (no toxicity/no recurrence, grade 1 toxicity/no local recurrence, grade 4 toxicity/no local recurrence), and life expectancy. Dominance patterns emerged when the cost of 3DCRT exceeded $15,532.05 (IMRT dominates) or the life expectancy was under 1.68 years (3DCRT dominates). Furthermore, preference patterns changed based on the rate of local recurrence (threshold: 13%). The PSA results demonstrated that IMRT was the preferred cost-effective technique for 64% of trials compared with 36% for 3DCRT. Conclusions: Based on our model, IMRT is the preferred technique by lowering rates of local recurrence, severe toxicities, and improving QALYs. From a third-party payer perspective, IMRT should be a supported approach for extremity soft tissue sarcomas.

  17. Calculation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    MathSoft Plus 5.0 is a calculation software package for electrical engineers and computer scientists who need advanced math functionality. It incorporates SmartMath, an expert system that determines a strategy for solving difficult mathematical problems. SmartMath was the result of the integration into Mathcad of CLIPS, a NASA-developed shell for creating expert systems. By using CLIPS, MathSoft, Inc. was able to save the time and money involved in writing the original program.

  18. NASCAP/LEO calculations of current collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Myron J.; Katz, Ira; Davis, Victoria A.; Kuharski, Robert A.

    1990-12-01

    NASCAP/LEO is a 3-dimensional computer code for calculating the interaction of a high-voltage spacecraft with the cold dense plasma found in Low Earth Orbit. Although based on a cubic grid structure, NASCAP/LEO accepts object definition input from standard computer aided design (CAD) programs so that a model may be correctly proportioned and important features resolved. The potential around the model is calculated by solving the finite element formulation of Poisson's equation with an analytic space charge function. Five previously published NASCAP/LEO calculations for three ground test experiments and two space flight experiments are presented. The three ground test experiments are a large simulated panel, a simulated pinhole, and a 2-slit experiment with overlapping sheaths. The two space flight experiments are a solar panel biased up to 1000 volts, and a rocket-mounted sphere biased up to 46 kilovolts. In all cases, the authors find good agreement between calculation and measurement.

  19. In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using 3-dimensional swept source optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiechen; Liu, Gangjun; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Lingfeng; Mahon, Sari; Mukai, David; Brenner, Matthew; Chen, Zhongping

    2010-02-01

    We report on the feasibility of rapid, high resolution, 3-dimensional swept source optical coherence tomography (3D SSOCT) to detect early airway injury changes following smoke inhalation exposure in a rabbit model. The SSOCT system obtains 3-D helical scanning using a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) motor based endoscope. Real-time 2-D data processing and image display at the speed of 20 frames per second are achieved by adopting the technique of shared-memory parallel computing. Longitudinal images are reconstructed via an image processing algorithm to remove motion artifacts caused by ventilation and pulse. We demonstrate the ability of the SSOCT system to detect increases in tracheal and bronchial airway thickness that occurs shortly after smoke exposure.

  20. Confinement-Optimized 3-Dimensional T cell Amoeboid Motility is Modulated via Myosin IIA-Regulated Adhesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobelli, Jordan; Friedman, Rachel S.; Conti, Mary Anne; Lennon-Dumenil, Ana-Maria; Piel, Matthieu; Sorensen, Caitlin M.; Adelstein, Robert S.; Krummel, Matthew F.

    2010-01-01

    During trafficking through tissues, T cells fine-tune their motility to balance the extent and duration of cell-surface contacts with the need to traverse an entire organ. In vivo, Myosin-IIA-deficient T cells exhibited a triad of defects including over-adherence to high-endothelial venules, reduced interstitial migration, and inefficient completion of recirculation through lymph nodes. Spatiotemporal analysis of 3-dimensional motility in microchannels revealed that the degree of confinement and Myosin-IIA function, rather than integrin adhesion as proposed by the haptokinetic model, optimize motility rate. This occurs via a Myosin-IIA-dependent rapid ‘walking’ motility mode using multiple small and simultaneous adhesions to the substrate, which prevent spurious and prolonged adhesions. Adhesion discrimination provided by Myosin-IIA is thus necessary for optimizing motility through complex tissues. PMID:20835229

  1. Accurate particle speed prediction by improved particle speed measurement and 3-dimensional particle size and shape characterization technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cernuschi, Federico; Rothleitner, Christian; Clausen, Sønnik

    2017-01-01

    methods, e.g. laser light scattering, and velocity by the double disk (DD) method. In this article we present two novel techniques, which allow a more accurate measurement of mass, velocity and shape, and we later compare the experimentally obtained flow velocities of particles with a simulation that also...... includes the particle's shape parameter, known as sphericity. Mass and sphericity are obtained from 3-dimensional data with an industrial X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner. CT data can be used to accurately determine the volume-basis median of the particles (using the volume-equivalent particle......Accurate particle mass and velocity measurement is needed for interpreting test results in erosion tests of materials and coatings. The impact and damage of a surface is influenced by the kinetic energy of a particle, i.e. particle mass and velocity. Particle mass is usually determined with optical...

  2. 3-Dimensional Physiologic Postural Range of the Mandible: A Computerized-Assisted Technique—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Shewman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies demonstrated that while the mandible assumes its resting position in space, antagonistic muscles should assume minimal muscle activity within a spatial range. This zone of mandibular rest has been mapped using physiologic parameters of muscle activity and incisal spatial kinematics. This case study expands on previous research by monitoring incisal and posterior jaw position and includes lateral pterygoid muscle activity, thus allowing for determining the spatial range including additional relevant coordinates and muscle activity. Four positions were evaluated: a maximum physiologic open position, a maximum physiologic closed position, physiologic rest position, and maximum physiologic protrusion position. Within the physiologic zone of rest formed by these 4 positions, the vertical and anterior borders of the envelope of function may be documented for the incisal and posterior mandible in true 3-dimensional fashion to assist the clinician in determining a physiologic interocclusal freeway space and vertical dimension of occlusion. Advantages and limitations are discussed.

  3. 3-Dimensional Physiologic Postural Range of the Mandible: A Computerized-Assisted Technique—A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that while the mandible assumes its resting position in space, antagonistic muscles should assume minimal muscle activity within a spatial range. This zone of mandibular rest has been mapped using physiologic parameters of muscle activity and incisal spatial kinematics. This case study expands on previous research by monitoring incisal and posterior jaw position and includes lateral pterygoid muscle activity, thus allowing for determining the spatial range including additional relevant coordinates and muscle activity. Four positions were evaluated: a maximum physiologic open position, a maximum physiologic closed position, physiologic rest position, and maximum physiologic protrusion position. Within the physiologic zone of rest formed by these 4 positions, the vertical and anterior borders of the envelope of function may be documented for the incisal and posterior mandible in true 3-dimensional fashion to assist the clinician in determining a physiologic interocclusal freeway space and vertical dimension of occlusion. Advantages and limitations are discussed. PMID:24194764

  4. Uterine volume and endometrial thickness in healthy girls evaluated by ultrasound (3-dimensional) and magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Casper P; Mouritsen, Annette; Mieritz, Mikkel G

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report normative data on uterine volume and endometrial thickness in girls, according to pubertal stages; to evaluate factors that affect uterine volume; and to compare transabdominal ultrasound (TAUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of a nested......). Uterine volume: ellipsoid TAUS (n = 112) and 3-dimensional TAUS (n = 111); ellipsoid MRI (n = 61). Endometrial thickness: TAUS (n = 110) and MRI (n = 60). RESULT(S): Uterine volume and endometrial thickness were positively correlated with pubertal stages; e.g., ellipsoid TAUS: r = 0.753, and endometrium......: ellipsoid volume (r = 0.891) and endometrial thickness (r = 0.540). Uterine volume was larger in TAUS compared with MRI; mean difference across the measured range: 7.7 (5.2-10.2) cm(3). Agreement was best for small uteri. CONCLUSION(S): Uterine volume and endometrial thickness increased as puberty...

  5. Open reduction and internal fixation aided by intraoperative 3-dimensional imaging improved the articular reduction in 72 displaced acetabular fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckardt, Henrik; Lind, Dennis; Toendevold, Erik

    2015-01-01

    was evaluated on reconstructed coronal and sagittal images of the acetabulum. Results - The fracture severity and patient characteristics were similar in the 2 groups. In the 3D group, 46 of 72 patients (0.6) had a perfect result after open reduction and internal fixation, and in the control group, 17 of 42 (0......Background and purpose - During acetabular fracture surgery, the acetabular roof is difficult to visualize with 2-dimensional fluoroscopic views. We assessed whether intraoperative 3-dimensional (3D) imaging can aid the surgeon to achieve better articular reduction and improve implant fixation....... Patients and methods - We operated on 72 acetabular fractures using intraoperative 3D imaging and compared the operative results, duration of surgery, and complications with those for 42 consecutive acetabular fracture operations conducted using conventional fluoroscopic imaging. Postoperative reduction...

  6. Evaluation of pelvic floor muscular redistribution after primary closure of classic bladder exstrophy by 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stec, Andrew A; Tekes, Aylin; Ertan, Gulhan; Phillips, Timothy M; Novak, Tom E; Solaiyappan, Meiyappan; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Sponseller, Paul D; Gearhart, John P

    2012-10-01

    We used 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging reconstruction to generate models of the pelvic floor musculature in classic bladder exstrophy, allowing for statistical analysis of changes seen in the anatomy after primary closure. Patients with classic bladder exstrophy underwent pelvic magnetic resonance imaging before and after primary closure. Contours of the levator ani were mapped and measured in 3-dimensional space. In addition, 2-dimensional angles and measurements were used to make a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the pelvic floor before and after closure. A total of 19 cases of classic bladder exstrophy were included in the study, with 12 closed as newborns without osteotomy and 7 closed later with osteotomy. In both groups the pre-closure exstrophy pelvic floor in the axial plane was box-like and after closure it had a more inward rotation. The steepness and angulation of the levator ani muscle remained relatively unchanged in both groups. The levator ani muscle group, with and without osteotomy, was redistributed into the anterior compartment of the pelvis after closure. Postoperatively a successfully closed exstrophy had the bladder positioned deeply within the pelvis. After closure the levator ani muscle regained the expected smooth contoured shape. Primary closure of bladder exstrophy 1) reshapes the pelvis from a box-like configuration to a more inwardly rotated hammock, 2) redistributes a significant portion of the levator ani muscle into the anterior compartment and 3) facilitates a smooth uniform contouring to the pelvic floor. Closing the bony pelvic ring by pubic reapproximation in the newborn or by osteotomy in an infant produces similar changes in the pelvic floor. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Bilateral flight muscle activity predicts wing kinematics and 3-dimensional body orientation of locusts responding to looming objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Glyn A; Loessin, Vicky; Gray, John R

    2013-09-01

    We placed locusts in a wind tunnel using a loose tether design that allowed for motion in all three rotational degrees of freedom during presentation of a computer-generated looming disc. High-speed video allowed us to extract wing kinematics, abdomen position and 3-dimensional body orientation. Concurrent electromyographic (EMG) recordings monitored bilateral activity from the first basalar depressor muscles (m97) of the forewings, which are implicated in flight steering. Behavioural responses to a looming disc included cessation of flight (wings folded over the body), glides and active steering during sustained flight in addition to a decrease and increase in wingbeat frequency prior to and during, respectively, an evasive turn. Active steering involved shifts in bilateral m97 timing, wing asymmetries and whole-body rotations in the yaw (ψ), pitch (χ) and roll (η) planes. Changes in abdomen position and hindwing asymmetries occurred after turns were initiated. Forewing asymmetry and changes in η were most highly correlated with m97 spike latency. Correlations also increased as the disc approached, peaking prior to collision. On the inside of a turn, m97 spikes occurred earlier relative to forewing stroke reversal and bilateral timing corresponded to forewing asymmetry as well as changes in whole-body rotation. Double spikes in each m97 occurred most frequently at or immediately prior to the time the locusts turned, suggesting a behavioural significance. These data provide information on mechanisms underlying 3-dimensional flight manoeuvres and will be used to drive a closed loop flight simulator to study responses of motion-sensitive visual neurons during production of realistic behaviours.

  8. Calculator calculus

    CERN Document Server

    McCarty, George

    1982-01-01

    How THIS BOOK DIFFERS This book is about the calculus. What distinguishes it, however, from other books is that it uses the pocket calculator to illustrate the theory. A computation that requires hours of labor when done by hand with tables is quite inappropriate as an example or exercise in a beginning calculus course. But that same computation can become a delicate illustration of the theory when the student does it in seconds on his calculator. t Furthermore, the student's own personal involvement and easy accomplishment give hi~ reassurance and en­ couragement. The machine is like a microscope, and its magnification is a hundred millionfold. We shall be interested in limits, and no stage of numerical approximation proves anything about the limit. However, the derivative of fex) = 67.SgX, for instance, acquires real meaning when a student first appreciates its values as numbers, as limits of 10 100 1000 t A quick example is 1.1 , 1.01 , 1.001 , •••• Another example is t = 0.1, 0.01, in the functio...

  9. Reliability Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kurt Erling

    1986-01-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety...... and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic...... approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very...

  10. 3-DIMENSIONAL Optoelectronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Ashok Venketaraman

    This thesis covers the design, analysis, optimization, and implementation of optoelectronic (N,M,F) networks. (N,M,F) networks are generic space-division networks that are well suited to implementation using optoelectronic integrated circuits and free-space optical interconnects. An (N,M,F) networks consists of N input channels each having a fanout F_{rm o}, M output channels each having a fanin F_{rm i}, and Log_{rm K}(N/F) stages of K x K switches. The functionality of the fanout, switching, and fanin stages depends on the specific application. Three applications of optoelectronic (N,M,F) networks are considered. The first is an optoelectronic (N,1,1) content -addressable memory system that achieves associative recall on two-dimensional images retrieved from a parallel-access optical memory. The design and simulation of the associative memory are discussed, and an experimental emulation of a prototype system using images from a parallel-readout optical disk is presented. The system design provides superior performance to existing electronic content-addressable memory chips in terms of capacity and search rate, and uses readily available optical disk and VLSI technologies. Next, a scalable optoelectronic (N,M,F) neural network that uses free-space holographic optical interconnects is presented. The neural architecture minimizes the number of optical transmitters needed, and provides accurate electronic fanin with low signal skew, and dendritic-type fan-in processing capability in a compact layout. Optimal data-encoding methods and circuit techniques are discussed. The implementation of an prototype optoelectronic neural system, and its application to a simple recognition task is demonstrated. Finally, the design, analysis, and optimization of a (N,N,F) self-routing, packet-switched multistage interconnection network is described. The network is suitable for parallel computing and broadband switching applications. The tradeoff between optical and electronic interconnects is examined quantitatively by varying the electronic switch size K. The performance of the (N,N,F) network versus the fanning parameter F, is also analyzed. It is shown that the optoelectronic (N,N,F) networks provide a range of performance-cost alternatives, and offer superior performance-per-cost to fully electronic switching networks and to previous networks designs.

  11. Low-dose computed tomographic urography using adaptive iterative dose reduction 3-dimensional: comparison with routine-dose computed tomography with filtered back projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juri, Hiroshi; Matsuki, Mitsuru; Inada, Yuki; Tsuboyama, Takahiro; Kumano, Seishi; Azuma, Haruhito; Narumi, Yoshifumi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the image quality of low-dose computed tomographic (CT) urography using adaptive iterative dose reduction 3-dimensional (AIDR 3D) compared with routine-dose CT using filtered back projection (FBP). Thirty patients underwent low- and routine-dose CT scans in the nephrographic and excretory phases of CT urography. Low-dose CT was reconstructed with AIDR 3D, and routine-dose CT was reconstructed with FBP. In quantitative analyses, image noises were measured on the renal cortex, aorta, retroperitoneal fat, and psoas muscle in both CT scans and compared. Qualitative analyses of the urinary system were performed in both CT scans and compared. These results were compared on the basis of the body mass index (BMI) of the patients. The CT dose index (CTDIvol) was measured, and the dose reduction was calculated. In quantitative analyses, image noises in all organs on low-dose CT were less than those on routine-dose CT in both phases independently of the patient's BMI. There were no statistical differences between low- and routine-dose CT for diagnostic acceptability on all urinary systems in both phases independently of the patient's BMI. The average CTDIvol on routine-dose CT was 14.5 mGy in the nephrographic phase and 9.2 mGy in the excretory phase. The average CTDIvol on low-dose CT was 4.2 mGy in the nephrographic phase and 2.7 mGy in the excretory phase. Low-dose CT urography using AIDR 3D can offer diagnostic acceptability comparable with routine-dose CT urography with FBP with approximately 70% dose reduction.

  12. Two-Year and Lifetime Cost-Effectiveness of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Versus 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Racquel E. [Department of Health Policy and Management, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Sheets, Nathan C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina Hospitals, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Wheeler, Stephanie B. [Department of Health Policy and Management, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Nutting, Chris [Royal Marsden Hospital, London, United Kindom (United Kingdom); Hall, Emma [Clinical Trials and Statistics Unit, Division of Clinical Studies, Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Chera, Bhishamjit S., E-mail: bchera@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina Hospitals, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the cost-effectiveness of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) versus 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) in the treatment of head-and neck-cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: We used a Markov model to simulate radiation therapy-induced xerostomia and dysphagia in a hypothetical cohort of 65-year-old HNC patients. Model input parameters were derived from PARSPORT (CRUK/03/005) patient-level trial data and quality-of-life and Medicare cost data from published literature. We calculated average incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) from the US health care perspective as cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained and compared our ICERs with current cost-effectiveness standards whereby treatment comparators less than $50,000 per QALY gained are considered cost-effective. Results: In the first 2 years after initial treatment, IMRT is not cost-effective compared with 3D-CRT, given an average ICER of $101,100 per QALY gained. However, over 15 years (remaining lifetime on the basis of average life expectancy of a 65-year-old), IMRT is more cost-effective at $34,523 per QALY gained. Conclusion: Although HNC patients receiving IMRT will likely experience reduced xerostomia and dysphagia symptoms, the small quality-of-life benefit associated with IMRT is not cost-effective in the short term but may be cost-effective over a patient's lifetime, assuming benefits persist over time and patients are healthy and likely to live for a sustained period. Additional data quantifying the long-term benefits of IMRT, however, are needed.

  13. Relationship between Lung Volume and Pulmonary Function in Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Computed Tomographic-based 3-Dimensional Volumetric Reconstruction of Lung Parenchyma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yu; Kai, Song; Yong-Gang, Zhang; Guo-Quan, Zheng; Tian-Xiang, Dong

    2016-10-01

    Retrospective. We determined values for the volume of right lung (Vr), left lung (Vl), total lung volume (Vt), and left/right lung volume ratio (Vl/Vr), allowing comparison between those data measured and those of age-matched controls. To find whether lung volume correlates with preoperative pulmonary function. To our knowledge, no study on relationship between computed tomographic (CT) scans determined lung volume and pulmonary function test (PFT) in scoliosis have been published. All examinations with PFT (31 cases) were identified. Three-dimensional volumetric reconstruction of lung parenchyma was performed on existing preoperative CT scans for 26 idiopathic scoliosis patients. Vl, Vr, Vt, Vl/Vr, and absolute value of right volume minus left volume (|Vr-Vl|) were calculated and correlated with PFTs. To determine if significant difference of preoperative lung volume exists between idiopathic scoliosis patients and controls. Linear regression models, using 3-dimensional lung volume parameters as predictors for vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), and total lung capacity (TLC), were created. Vt was positively correlated with VC, FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), TLC, predicted value for FVC (FVC%), predicted value for FEV1 (FEV1%), predicted value for TLC (TLC%), and predicted value for maximal ventilator volume (MVV%) (P0.05); Diffusion parameters were not correlated with CT-reconstructed lung volume parameters (P>0.05); male and female adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients had less Vt, Vr, and Vl compared with those of age-matched controls (P<0.05). Vt was positively correlated with VC, FVC, FEV1, TLC, FVC%, FEV1%, TLC%, and MVV%. Vt, Vr, and Vl of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients were less than those of age-matched controls.

  14. The role of computer-aided 3-dimensional analytic tools and virtual microscopy in the investigation of radiologic-pathologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Keizo; Maeda, Toshiharu; Nakanura, Seiji; Kikuchi, Takanori

    2009-06-01

    To cope with recent advances in radiologic imaging technology, a corresponding method for pathomorphologic demonstration should be developed to promote better understanding of radiologic-pathologic correlation. We attempted to obtain gross and microscopic images by using a 3-dimensional analytic tool and virtual microscopy and to link these images with multidetector computed tomography images. Surgically resected specimens were sliced to a thickness of 3 mm, and the digital images of each slice were 3-dimensionally reconstructed with RATOC TRI/3D SRF II software. Histology slides were digitized by using virtual microscopy with an Olympus VS-100. We obtained clear gross pathologic images in arbitrary cut sections of organs, and it was possible to rotate these 3-dimensional images at any angle. Furthermore, we created synchronous cut-section movies of computed tomography and gross pathologic images. Subsequently, we switched from these cut-section movies to virtual microscopy images by clicking on the hyperlink button to observe radiologic-pathologic correlation.

  15. Validity of palatal superimposition of 3-dimensional digital models in cases treated with rapid maxillary expansion and maxillary protraction headgear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Il; Cha, Bong-Kuen; Jost-Brinkmann, Paul-Georg; Choi, Dong-Soon; Jang, In-San

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of the 3-dimensional (3D) superimposition method of digital models in patients who received treatment with rapid maxillary expansion (RME) and maxillary protraction headgear. The material consisted of pre- and post-treatment maxillary dental casts and lateral cephalograms of 30 patients, who underwent RME and maxillary protraction headgear treatment. Digital models were superimposed using the palate as a reference area. The movement of the maxillary central incisor and the first molar was measured on superimposed cephalograms and 3D digital models. To determine whether any difference existed between the 2 measuring techniques, intra-class correlation (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots were analyzed. The measurements on the 3D digital models and cephalograms showed a very high correlation in the antero-posterior direction (ICC, 0.956 for central incisor and 0.941 for first molar) and a moderate correlation in the vertical direction (ICC, 0.748 for central incisor and 0.717 for first molar). The 3D model superimposition method using the palate as a reference area is as clinically reliable for assessing antero-posterior tooth movement as cephalometric superimposition, even in cases treated with orthopedic appliances, such as RME and maxillary protraction headgear.

  16. The Accuracy of Prostate Cancer Localization Diagnosed on Transrectal Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy Compared to 3-Dimensional Transperineal Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Krughoff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prostate cancer is often understaged following 12-core transrectal ultrasound- (TRUS- guided biopsies. Our goal is to understand where cancers are typically missed by this method. Methods. Transperineal 3-dimensional mapping biopsy (3DMB provides a more accurate depiction of disease status than transrectal ultrasound- (TRUS- guided biopsy. We compared 3DMB findings in men with prior TRUS-guided biopsies to determine grade and location of missed cancer. Results were evaluated for 161 men with low-risk organ confined prostate cancer. Results. The number of cancer-positive biopsy zones per patient with TRUS was 1.38 ± 1.21 compared to 3.33 ± 4.06 with 3DMB, with most newly discovered cancers originating from the middle lobe and apex. Approximately half of all newly discovered cancerous zones resulted from anterior 3DMB sampling. Gleason upgrade was recognized in 56 patients using 3DMB. When both biopsy methods found positive cores in a given zone, Gleason upgrades occurred most frequently in the middle left and right zones. TRUS cancer-positive zones not confirmed by 3DMB were most often the basal zones. Conclusion. Most cancer upgrades and cancers missed from TRUS biopsy originated in the middle left zone of the prostate, specifically in anterior regions. Anterior sampling may lead to more accurate diagnosis and appropriate followup.

  17. Al-doped ZnO/Ag-nanowire Composite Electrodes for Flexible 3-Dimensional Nanowire Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathirane, Minoli K; Hosseinzadeh Khaligh, Hadi; Goldthorpe, Irene A; Wong, William S

    2017-08-21

    Silver nanowires in conjunction with sputter-coated Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were used as a composite transparent top electrode for hybrid radial-junction ZnO nanowire/a-Si:H p-i-n thin-film solar cells. Solar cells with the composite nanowire top contacts attained a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 13.9 mA/cm2 and a fill factor (FF) of 62% on glass substrates while a Jsc of 13.0 mA/cm2 and FF of 62% was achieved on plastic substrates. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the 3-dimensional solar cells improved by up to 60% compared to using AZO electrodes alone due to enhanced coverage of the top electrode over the 3-D structures, decreasing the series resistance of the device by 5×. The composite layer also showed a 10× reduction in sheet resistance compared to the AZO thin-film contact under applied mechanical strain.

  18. Preparation and Metabolic Assay of 3-dimensional Spheroid Co-cultures of Pancreatic Cancer Cells and Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Pawan; Muñoz, Ruben; Rogers, George W; Neilson, Andrew; Von Hoff, Daniel D; Han, Haiyong

    2017-08-23

    Many cancer types, including pancreatic cancer, have a dense fibrotic stroma that plays an important role in tumor progression and invasion. Activated cancer associated fibroblasts are a key component of the tumor stroma that interact with cancer cells and support their growth and survival. Models that recapitulate the interaction of cancer cells and activated fibroblasts are important tools for studying the stromal biology and for development of antitumor agents. Here, a method is described for the rapid generation of robust 3-dimensional (3D) spheroid co-culture of pancreatic cancer cells and activated pancreatic fibroblasts that can be used for subsequent biological studies. Additionally, described is the use of 3D spheroids in carrying out functional metabolic assays to probe cellular bioenergetics pathways using an extracellular flux analyzer paired with a spheroid microplate. Pancreatic cancer cells (Patu8902) and activated pancreatic fibroblast cells (PS1) were co-cultured and magnetized using a biocompatible nanoparticle assembly. Magnetized cells were rapidly bioprinted using magnetic drives in a 96 well format, in growth media to generate spheroids with a diameter ranging between 400-600 µm within 5-7 days of culture. Functional metabolic assays using Patu8902-PS1 spheroids were then carried out using the extracellular flux technology to probe cellular energetic pathways. The method herein is simple, allows consistent generation of cancer cell-fibroblast spheroid co-cultures and can be potentially adapted to other cancer cell types upon optimization of the current described methodology.

  19. Cognitive functions and stereopsis in patients with Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease using 3-dimensional television: a case controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Nyoung Lee

    Full Text Available Stereopsis or depth perception is an awareness of the distances of objects from the observer, and binocular disparity is a necessary component of recognizing objects through stereopsis. In the past studies, patients with neurodegenerative disease (Alzheimer dementia, AD; Parkinson's disease IPD have problems of stereopsis but they did not have actual stimulation of stereopsis. Therefore in this study, we used a 3-dimensional (3D movie on 3D television (TV for actual stereopsis stimulation. We propose research through analyzing differences between the three groups (AD, IPD, and Controls, and identified relations between the results from the Titmus Stereo Fly Test, and the 3D TV test. The study also looked into factors that affect the 3D TV test. Before allowing the patients to watch TV, we examined Titmus stereo Fly Test and cognitive test. We used the 3D version of a movie, of 17 minutes 1 second duration, and carried out a questionnaire about stereopsis. The scores of the stereopsis questionnaire were decreased in AD patients, compared with in IPD and controls, although they did not have any difference of Titmus Stereo Fly Test scores. In IPD patients, cognitive function (Montreal cognitive assessment, MoCA scores were correlated with the scores of the stereopsis questionnaire. We could conclude that Titmus fly test could not distinguish between the three groups and cognitive dysfunction contributes to actual stereopsis perception in IPD patients. Therefore the 3D TV test of AD and IPD patients was more effective than Titmus fly test.

  20. Cognitive functions and stereopsis in patients with Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease using 3-dimensional television: a case controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan-Nyoung; Ko, Deokwon; Suh, Young-Woo; Park, Kun-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Stereopsis or depth perception is an awareness of the distances of objects from the observer, and binocular disparity is a necessary component of recognizing objects through stereopsis. In the past studies, patients with neurodegenerative disease (Alzheimer dementia, AD; Parkinson's disease IPD) have problems of stereopsis but they did not have actual stimulation of stereopsis. Therefore in this study, we used a 3-dimensional (3D) movie on 3D television (TV) for actual stereopsis stimulation. We propose research through analyzing differences between the three groups (AD, IPD, and Controls), and identified relations between the results from the Titmus Stereo Fly Test, and the 3D TV test. The study also looked into factors that affect the 3D TV test. Before allowing the patients to watch TV, we examined Titmus stereo Fly Test and cognitive test. We used the 3D version of a movie, of 17 minutes 1 second duration, and carried out a questionnaire about stereopsis. The scores of the stereopsis questionnaire were decreased in AD patients, compared with in IPD and controls, although they did not have any difference of Titmus Stereo Fly Test scores. In IPD patients, cognitive function (Montreal cognitive assessment, MoCA) scores were correlated with the scores of the stereopsis questionnaire. We could conclude that Titmus fly test could not distinguish between the three groups and cognitive dysfunction contributes to actual stereopsis perception in IPD patients. Therefore the 3D TV test of AD and IPD patients was more effective than Titmus fly test.

  1. Heating-Rate-Triggered Carbon-Nanotube-based 3-Dimensional Conducting Networks for a Highly Sensitive Noncontact Sensing Device

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong

    2016-01-28

    Recently, flexible and transparent conductive films (TCFs) are drawing more attention for their central role in future applications of flexible electronics. Here, we report the controllable fabrication of TCFs for moisture-sensing applications based on heating-rate-triggered, 3-dimensional porous conducting networks through drop casting lithography of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) ink. How ink formula and baking conditions influence the self-assembled microstructure of the TCFs is discussed. The sensor presents high-performance properties, including a reasonable sheet resistance (2.1 kohm/sq), a high visible-range transmittance (>69%, PET = 90%), and good stability when subjected to cyclic loading (>1000 cycles, better than indium tin oxide film) during processing, when formulation parameters are well optimized (weight ratio of SWCNT to PEDOT:PSS: 1:0.5, SWCNT concentration: 0.3 mg/ml, and heating rate: 36 °C/minute). Moreover, the benefits of these kinds of TCFs were verified through a fully transparent, highly sensitive, rapid response, noncontact moisture-sensing device (5 × 5 sensing pixels).

  2. Image guidance for all--TilePro display of 3-dimensionally reconstructed images in robotic partial nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Pratt, Philip; Mayer, Erik; Martin, Shirley; Darzi, Ara; Vale, Justin

    2014-07-01

    To determine the feasibility of a novel low-barrier-to-entry image guidance system. Initially a randomized crossover study was performed to establish the interface (iPad or 3-dimensional mouse) that minimized both the amount of time required to perform a manual image registration and the error of that registration. A subsequent clinical feasibility study was undertaken on 5 patients undergoing robot-assisted partial nephrectomy. Randomized crossover study primary outcomes were time to task completion, NASA-Task Load Index score, and alignment error (translational and rotational). The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare groups. Surgeon feedback was sought when assessing the system in a clinical setting. In the initial randomized crossover study, the iPad-based system was able to achieve adequate alignment accuracy (Frobenius norm of 0.3; total error of 20.8 mm) in significantly less time (33 seconds; Plow-barrier-to-entry" image guidance system in a clinical setting. The system was able to achieve swift and sufficiently accurate alignment, with little impact on the surgical workflow. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A 3-Dimensional Numerical Modelling Study on the Effects of Different Stress Regimes on the Magnitude of Induced Seismic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, A.; Eberhardt, E.

    2016-12-01

    Producing oil and gas from shale reservoirs requires permeability enhancement treatments. This is achieved by injecting fluid under pressure to either propagate cracks through the rock (hydraulic fracture) or to stimulate slip across pre-existing fractures (hydroshear), which allows gas or oil to flow more readily into the well bore. After treatment is performed, the fluid is disposed of by injecting it back into the ground. The injection of these fluids, whether related to permeability enhancement or waste water disposal , into deep formations serves to create localized increases in pore pressures and reductions in the effective normal stresses acting on critically stressed faults, resulting in induced earthquakes. There have been numerous reports of anomalous seismic events with high magnitudes felt on surface that have given rise to public concerns. However, it must be recognized that different producing fields in Canada and the U.S. are situated in different tectonic regimes that favour different fault slip mechanisms. This study will explore the importance of stress regime, comparing the generation of induced seismicity under thrust versus strike slip conditions, with focus on their respective magnitudes distributions. To do so, we will first study empirical data pertaining to recorded seismicity related to hydraulic fracture operations with respect to source mechanisms and magnitude distributions. These will be analyzed in parallel with a series of advanced 3-dimensional numerical models using the distinct element code 3DEC to simulate fault slip under different stress regimes.

  4. Incorporation of multilayered silver nanoparticles into polymer brushes as 3-dimensional SERS substrates and their application for bacteria detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Xiang-Dong; Tian, Ting; Chu, Li-Qiang

    2017-06-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors have been extensively studied for ultrasensitive detection of diverse chemical or biological analytes. Facile fabrication of highly sensitive SERS substrates is believed to be of crucial importance in these analytical applications. In this regard, the preparation of 3-dimensional (3D) SERS substrates are explored via the incorporation of multilayered silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into poly (oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) (POEGMA) brushes by repeating the immersion-rinsing-drying steps for different lengths of time (i.e., the so-called in-stacking method). The POEGMA brushes of different chain lengths are synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with various reaction time. The resulting POEGMA/AgNP nanocomposites are characterized by FE-SEM, UV-vis and Raman spectroscopy. FE-SEM and UV-vis results indicate that the AgNPs are successfully incorporated into the POEGMA brushes with a 3D configuration. The nanocomposite films are employed as SERS substrates for the detection of a Raman reporter molecule (i.e., 4-aminothiophenol), giving rise to an enhancement factor of up to 1.29 × 107 and also having relatively good uniformity and reproducibility. The obtained 3D SERS substrates are also used for the detection of a typical gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus. The limit of detection is found to be as low as ca. 8 CFU/mL.

  5. Echocardiographic anatomy of the mitral valve: a critical appraisal of 2-dimensional imaging protocols with a 3-dimensional perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Feroze; Hess, Philip E; Matyal, Robina; Mackensen, G Burkhard; Wang, Angela; Qazi, Aisha; Panzica, Peter J; Lerner, Adam B; Maslow, Andrew

    2012-10-01

    To highlight the limitations of traditional 2-dimensional (2D) echocardiographic mitral valve (MV) examination methodologies, which do not account for patient-specific transesophageal echocardiographic (TEE) probe adjustments made during an actual clinical perioperative TEE examination. Institutional quality-improvement project. Tertiary care hospital. Attending anesthesiologists certified by the National Board of Echocardiography. Using the technique of multiplanar reformatting with 3-dimensional (3D) data, ambiguous 2D images of the MV were generated, which resembled standard midesophageal 2D views. Based on the 3D image, the MV scallops visualized in each 2D image were recognized exactly by the position of the scan plane. Twenty-three such 2D MV images were created in a presentation from the 3D datasets. Anesthesia staff members (n = 13) were invited to view the presentation based on the 2D images only and asked to identify the MV scallops. Their responses were scored as correct or incorrect based on the 3D image. The overall accuracy was 30.4% in identifying the MV scallops. The transcommissural view was identified correctly >90% of the time. The accuracy of the identification of A1, A3, P1, and P3 scallops was <50%. The accuracy of the identification of A2P2 scallops was ≥50%. In the absence of information on TEE probe adjustments performed to acquire a specific MV image, it is possible to misidentify the scallops. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of laparoscopic ovarian drilling on vascular endothelial growth factor and ovarian stromal blood flow using 3-dimensional power Doppler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Behery, Manal M; Diab, Abdalla E; Mowafy, Hala; Ebrahiem, Moustafa A; Shehata, Amal E

    2011-02-01

    To determine, by using 3-dimensional power Doppler ultrasonography, the effect of laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) on the serum level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and ovarian stromal blood flow changes in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A prospective controlled clinical study was conducted on 26 clomiphene-resistant women with PCOS who were scheduled for LOD and a control group of 22 fertile regularly menstruating women. VEGF and 3 ovarian Doppler indices-vascularization index, flow index, and vascularization flow index-were measured and compared between the 2 groups, and before and after LOD in the PCOS group. Serum VEGF and the Doppler indices of ovarian stromal blood flow were significantly higher in the PCOS group than in the control group. Serum VEGF and the ovarian stromal blood flow Doppler indices were significantly reduced in the PCOS group after LOD. Increased vascularity in PCOS demonstrated by Doppler blood flow measurements might be explained by the high level of VEGF. LOD reduced ovarian vascularization and serum VEGF. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A simple and efficient quasi 3-dimensional viscoelastic model and software for simulation of tapping-mode atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solares, Santiago D

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a quasi-3-dimensional (Q3D) viscoelastic model and software tool for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) simulations. The model is based on a 2-dimensional array of standard linear solid (SLS) model elements. The well-known 1-dimensional SLS model is a textbook example in viscoelastic theory but is relatively new in AFM simulation. It is the simplest model that offers a qualitatively correct description of the most fundamental viscoelastic behaviors, namely stress relaxation and creep. However, this simple model does not reflect the correct curvature in the repulsive portion of the force curve, so its application in the quantitative interpretation of AFM experiments is relatively limited. In the proposed Q3D model the use of an array of SLS elements leads to force curves that have the typical upward curvature in the repulsive region, while still offering a very low computational cost. Furthermore, the use of a multidimensional model allows for the study of AFM tips having non-ideal geometries, which can be extremely useful in practice. Examples of typical force curves are provided for single- and multifrequency tapping-mode imaging, for both of which the force curves exhibit the expected features. Finally, a software tool to simulate amplitude and phase spectroscopy curves is provided, which can be easily modified to implement other controls schemes in order to aid in the interpretation of AFM experiments.

  8. The Characteristics of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate/Polycaprolactone 3-dimensional Scaffold with Osteogenesis Properties for Tissue Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yung-Cheng; Fang, Hsin-Yuan; Hsu, Tuan-Ti; Lin, Cheng-Yao; Shie, Ming-You

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the mineral trioxide aggregate/polycaprolactone (MTA/PCL) hybrid 3-dimensional (3D) scaffold supplies a suitable microenvironment for the osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) and to further consider the effect of the MTA/PCL composite on the biological performance of hybrid scaffolds. MTA was suspended in absolute alcohol and dropped slowly into PCL that was generated with the printable MTA-matrix. Then, the MTA/PCL composite was prepared into highly uniform scaffolds with controlled macropore sizes and structure using a 3D printing technique. Mechanical properties and the apatite precipitation of the scaffolds were evaluated as well as the cell response to the scaffolds by culturing hDPCs. The results showed that the MTA/PCL 3D scaffold had uniform, 450-μm, high-porosity (70%) macropores and a compressive strength of 4.5 MPa. In addition, the MTA/PCL scaffold could effectively promote the adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of hDPCs. The 3D-printed MTA/PCL scaffolds not only exhibited excellent physical and chemical properties but also enhanced osteogenesis differentiation. All of the results support the premise that this MTA/PCL porous scaffold would be a useful biomaterial for application in bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A (3 + 3)-dimensional "hypercubic" oxide-ionic conductor: type II Bi2O3-Nb2O5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Chris D; Schmid, Siegbert; Blanchard, Peter E R; Petříček, Vaclav; McIntyre, Garry J; Sharma, Neeraj; Maljuk, Andrey; Yaremchenko, Aleksey A; Kharton, Vladislav V; Gutmann, Matthias; Withers, Ray L

    2013-05-01

    The high-temperature cubic form of bismuth oxide, δ-Bi2O3, is the best intermediate-temperature oxide-ionic conductor known. The most elegant way of stabilizing δ-Bi2O3 to room temperature, while preserving a large part of its conductivity, is by doping with higher valent transition metals to create wide solid-solutions fields with exceedingly rare and complex (3 + 3)-dimensional incommensurately modulated "hypercubic" structures. These materials remain poorly understood because no such structure has ever been quantitatively solved and refined, due to both the complexity of the problem and a lack of adequate experimental data. We have addressed this by growing a large (centimeter scale) crystal using a novel refluxing floating-zone method, collecting high-quality single-crystal neutron diffraction data, and treating its structure together with X-ray diffraction data within the superspace symmetry formalism. The structure can be understood as an "inflated" pyrochlore, in which corner-connected NbO6 octahedral chains move smoothly apart to accommodate the solid solution. While some oxide vacancies are ordered into these chains, the rest are distributed throughout a continuous three-dimensional network of wide δ-Bi2O3-like channels, explaining the high oxide-ionic conductivity compared to commensurately modulated phases in the same pseudobinary system.

  10. Evaluation of mandibular anatomy related to sagittal split ramus osteotomy using 3-dimensional computed tomography scan images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, I H; Wong, Y K

    2008-06-01

    Sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) of the mandible is one of the most common surgical techniques to correct mandibular deformities. Measurement of nerve position using conventional methods has been reported in the literature, but surgeons have found that further investigation of the anatomical relationship is needed. The aim of this study was to attempt to increase the accuracy of treatment by using 3-dimensional computed tomography scan measurements. From the normal population, 20 females and 20 males were enrolled during planning of denture implants in Taiwan. The mean age was 28+/-6, ranging from 20 to 39 years old. Using 3D tomography data, nerve position at osteotomy sites was measured and the geometric relationship examined between the antilingula and mandibular foramen. The results gave the mean distance from buccal plate to mandibular canal at the second molar, from mandibular canal to inferior border of the mandibular body, from the mandibular foramen to the highest tip of the lingula, and from the mandibular foramen to the anterior margin of the oblique ridge. When applied to SSRO operations, the anatomic data provided by this study may help surgeons gain more understanding of nerve position during surgery.

  11. Evaluation of the Zone of Influence and Entrainment Impacts for an Intake Using a 3-Dimensional Hydrodynamic and Transport Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shwet Prakash

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ballast water systems in large LNG carriers are essential for proper operations and stability. Water withdrawn from the surrounding environment to supply to the ballast can pose entrainment and impingement risk to the resident fish population. Quantification of these risks and the net effect on population is usually quite challenging and complex. Various methods over the last several decades have been developed and are available in the literature for quantification of entrainment of mobile and immobile lifestages of resident fish. In this study, a detailed 3-dimensional model was developed to estimate the entrainment of ichthyoplankton (fish eggs and larvae and fish from an estuarine environment during the repeated short-term operation of a ballast water intake for an LNG carrier. It was also used to develop a zone of influence to determine the ability of mobile life stages to avoid impingement. The ichthyoplankton model is an Equivalent Adult Model (EAM and assesses the number of breeding adults lost to the population. The EAM incorporates four different methods developed between 1978 and 2005. The study also considers the uncertainty in estimates for the lifestage data and, as such, performs sensitivity analyses to evaluate the confidence level achievable in such quantitative estimates for entrainment.

  12. Open reduction and internal fixation aided by intraoperative 3-dimensional imaging improved the articular reduction in 72 displaced acetabular fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, Henrik; Lind, Dennis; Toendevold, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose — During acetabular fracture surgery, the acetabular roof is difficult to visualize with 2-dimensional fluoroscopic views. We assessed whether intraoperative 3-dimensional (3D) imaging can aid the surgeon to achieve better articular reduction and improve implant fixation. Patients and methods — We operated on 72 acetabular fractures using intraoperative 3D imaging and compared the operative results, duration of surgery, and complications with those for 42 consecutive acetabular fracture operations conducted using conventional fluoroscopic imaging. Postoperative reduction was evaluated on reconstructed coronal and sagittal images of the acetabulum. Results — The fracture severity and patient characteristics were similar in the 2 groups. In the 3D group, 46 of 72 patients (0.6) had a perfect result after open reduction and internal fixation, and in the control group, 17 of 42 (0.4) had a perfect result. The mean difference in postoperative articular incongruity was 0.5 mm (95% CI: 0.4–0.7). In 29 of 72 operations, the intraoperative 3D scans led to intraoperative correction of the reduction and an improved result. The duration of surgery and infection rate were similar in the 2 groups. Interpretation — Intraoperative 3D imaging, which is not time-consuming, allowed the surgeon to correct malreductions and screw placement in 29 of 72 operations, leading to better articular reduction and more precise screw placement than in operations where conventional fluoroscopic imaging was used to control the reduction. PMID:26012545

  13. Preliminary clinical outcomes of image-guided 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for limited brain metastases instead of stereotactic irradiation referral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtakara, Kazuhiro; Hoshi, Hiroaki

    2014-06-01

    To determine the preliminary clinical outcomes of image-guided 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (IG-3DCRT) for limited but variably-sized brain metastases (BM). Sixty-two lesions in 24 patients were retrospectively evaluated; out of these patients 75% were ≥ 65 years of age, and 37.5% were categorized into recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class 3. The median value for the maximum diameter of the lesions was 19 mm (range=4-72 mm). The median sole treatment dose was 36 Gy in 10 fractions. The median survival durations after IG-3DCRT were 12.0 months and 3.2 months for patients categorized into RPA classes ≤ 2 and 3, respectively. Local recurrences occurred in two lesions with a 6-month local control probability of 93.0%. Major toxicities included radiation necrosis in two patients. IG-3DCRT is feasible even for patients with limited BM who are categorized into RPA class 3, and confers clinical outcomes comparable to those of stereotactic radiosurgery, including excellent local control and minimal toxicity even for large tumors. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of sitting posture on 3-dimensional scapular kinematics measured by skin-mounted electromagnetic tracking sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Margaret A; Lee, Raymond Y

    2003-04-01

    To determine the effect of trunk sitting posture on scapular kinematics during humeral elevation by using skin-mounted electromagnetic tracking sensors. Repeated-measures design contrasting scapular kinematics in 2 different sitting postures. A biomechanics laboratory in Hong Kong with a real-time, 3-dimensional electromagnetic tracking device for measuring movements of the scapula. A sample of 16 healthy adults (12 women, 4 men; age, 21.6+/-3.92y) with full, pain-free shoulder range of motion and no history of shoulder pathology. Not applicable. Movements of the scapula were measured while each subject performed humeral elevation in an upright seated position and a slouched seated position. In both postures, posterior tip, lateral and upward rotation of the scapula, and lateral rotation of the humerus were observed during humeral elevation. When the slouched posture was adopted, there were significant decreases in the posterior tip and lateral rotation of the scapula, but there was no significant change in the magnitude of the upward rotation of the scapula. Increased thoracic kyphosis significantly alters the kinematics of the scapula during humeral elevation.

  15. Metal organic framework derived magnetically separable 3-dimensional hierarchical Ni@C nanocomposites: Synthesis and adsorption properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yixuan; Qiang, Tingting; Ye, Ming; Ma, Qiuyang; Fang, Zhen

    2015-12-01

    Design an effective absorbent that has high surface area, and perfect recyclable is imperative for pollution elimination. Herein, we report a facile two-step strategy to fabricate magnetically separable 3-dimensional (3D) hierarchical carbon-coated nickel (Ni@C) nanocomposites by calcinating nickel based metal organic framework (Ni3(OH)2(C8H4O4)2(H2O)4). SEM and TEM images illuminate that the nanocomposites were constructed by 8 nm nickel nanoparticle encapsulated in 3D flake like carbon. The specific surface area of the obtained nanocomposites is up to 120.38 m2 g-1. Room temperature magnetic measurement indicates the nanocomposites show soft magnetism property, which endows the nanocomposites with an ideal fast magnetic separable property. The maximum adsorption capacity of the nanocomposites for rhodamine B is 84.5 mg g-1. Furthermore, the nanocomposites also exhibit a high adsorption capacity for heavy metal ions. The adsorbent can be very easily separated from the solution by using a common magnet without exterior energy. The as-prepared Ni@C nanocomposites can apply in waste water treatment on a large-scale as a new adsorbent with high efficiency and excellent recyclability.

  16. The Diagnostic Value of 3-Dimensional Sampling Perfection With Application Optimized Contrasts Using Different Flip Angle Evolutions (SPACE) MRI in Evaluating Lower Extremity Deep Venous Thrombus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Xie, Ruyi; Zhang, Xiaoli; Morelli, John; Yan, Xu; Zhu, Xiaolei; Li, Xiaoming

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of noncontrast magnetic resonance imaging utilizing sampling perfection with application optimized contrasts using different flip angle evolutions (SPACE) in detecting deep venous thrombus (DVT) of the lower extremity and evaluating clot burden. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board. Ninety-four consecutive patients (42 men, 52 women; age range, 14-87 years; average age, 52.7 years) suspected of lower extremity DVT underwent ultrasound (US) and SPACE. The venous visualization score for SPACE was determined by 2 radiologists independently according to a 4-point scale (1-4, poor to excellent). The sensitivity and specificity of SPACE in detecting DVT were calculated based on segment, limb, and patient, with US serving as the reference standard. The clot burden for each segment was scored (0-3, patent to entire segment occlusion). The clot burden score obtained with SPACE was compared with US using a Wilcoxon test based on region, limb, and patient. Interobserver agreement in assessing DVT (absent, nonocclusive, or occlusive) with SPACE was determined by calculating Cohen kappa coefficients. The mean venous visualization score for SPACE was 3.82 ± 0.50 for reader 1 and 3.81 ± 0.50 for reader 2. For reader 1, sensitivity/specificity values of SPACE in detecting DVT were 96.53%/99.90% (segment), 95.24%/99.04% (limb), and 95.89%/95.24% (patient). For reader 2, corresponding values were 97.20%/99.90%, 96.39%/99.05%, and 97.22%/95.45%. The clot burden assessed with SPACE was not significantly different from US (P > 0.05 for region, limb, patient). Interobserver agreement of SPACE in assessing thrombosis was excellent (kappa = 0.894 ± 0.014). Non-contrast-enhanced 3-dimensional SPACE magnetic resonance imaging is highly accurate in detecting lower extremity DVT and reliable in the evaluation of clot burden. SPACE could serve as an important alternative for patients in whom US

  17. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a 3-dimensional imaging technique for non-destructive testing of roll-to-roll coated polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated the first application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a 3-dimensional (3D) imaging technique to visualize the internal structure of complete multilayered polymer solar cell modules (Thrane et al., Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 97, 181-185 (2012)). The 3......D imaging of complete polymer solar cells prepared by roll-to-roll coating was carried out using a high-resolution 1322nm OCT system having a 4.5 microns axial resolution and a 12 microns lateral resolution. It was possible to image the 3-dimensional structure of the entire solar cell that comprise...

  18. Application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a 3-dimensional imaging technique for roll-to-roll coated polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    The 3-dimensional imaging of complete polymer solar cells prepared by roll-to-roll coating was carried out using high-resolution 1322 nm optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. We found it possible to image the 3-dimensional structure of the entire solar cell that comprises UV-barrier, barrier...... material, adhesive, substrate and active solar cell multilayer structure. The achievable resolution was 12 μm in the lateral plane and 4.5 μm in the depth. We found that the OCT technique could be readily employed to identify coating defects in the functional layers. We finally identify the limitations...

  19. Quantification of chronic functional mitral regurgitation by automated 3-dimensional peak and integrated proximal isovelocity surface area and stroke volume techniques using real-time 3-dimensional volume color Doppler echocardiography: in vitro and clinical validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavendiranathan, Paaladinesh; Liu, Shizhen; Datta, Saurabh; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Ryan, Thomas; Igo, Stephen R; Jackson, Matthew S; Little, Stephen H; De Michelis, Nathalie; Vannan, Mani A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of an automated 3-dimensional (3D) proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) (in vitro and patients) and stroke volume technique (patients) to assess mitral regurgitation (MR) severity using real-time volume color flow Doppler transthoracic echocardiography. Using an in vitro model of MR, the effective regurgitant orifice area and regurgitant volume (RVol) were measured by the PISA technique using 2-dimensional (2D) and 3D (automated true 3D PISA) transthoracic echocardiography. The mean anatomic regurgitant orifice area (0.35±0.10 cm(2)) was underestimated to a greater degree by the 2D (0.12±0.05 cm(2)) than the 3D method (0.25±0.10 cm(2); PPISA (20±19 mL) was underestimated (PPISA-based (38±14 mL) RVol were comparable (P>0.05 for both). In patients (n=30, functional MR), 3D effective regurgitant orifice area correlated well with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging RVol r=0.84 and regurgitant fraction r=0.80. Compared with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging RVol (33±22 mL), the integrated PISA RVol (34±26 mL; P=0.42) was not significantly different; however, the peak PISA RVol was higher (48±27 mL; Pechocardiography was not significantly different from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (34±21 versus 33±22 mL; P=0.33). Automated real-time 3D volume color flow Doppler based 3D PISA is more accurate than the 2D PISA method to quantify MR. In patients with functional MR, the 3D RVol by integrated PISA is more accurate than a peak PISA technique. Automated 3D stroke volume measurement can also be used as an adjunctive method to quantify MR severity.

  20. Three-Dimensional Hysterosalpingo Contrast Sonography with Gel Foam: Methodology and Feasibility to Obtain 3-Dimensional Volumes of Tubal Shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exacoustos, Caterina; Pizzo, Alessandra; Lazzeri, Lucia; Pietropolli, Adalgisa; Piccione, Emilio; Zupi, Errico

    To investigate the feasibility of hysterosalpingo foam sonography (HyFoSy) with automated 3-dimensional (3D) software in the evaluation of tubal patency and visualization of the tubal course by obtaining a 3D volume acquisition of tubes. Prospective observational study (Canadian Task Force classification III). University hospital. A total of 132 infertile females evaluated between October 2013 and February 2015. All patients underwent HyFoSy with the new automated 3D coded contrast imaging (CCI) followed by 2-dimensional (2D) real-time HyFoSy. To evaluate the feasibility of 3D visualization of the tubal course, consecutive volume acquisitions were performed during gel foam contrast agent injection. Conventional 2D real-time hysterosalpingo contrast sonography (HyCoSy) by detection of gel foam moving through the tubes and around the ovaries was finally performed and considered to indicate the final results of tubal status. All the patients underwent 3D CCI HyFoSy, followed by 2D real-time HyFoSy. After both procedures, we observed 108 patients (81.8%) with bilateral tubal patency, 22 patients (16.6%) with unilateral tubal patency, and 2 patients (1.5%) with bilateral tubal occlusion. The concordance rate for tubal status between the first and second 3D volume acquisitions and the final 2D real-time evaluation was 84.8% and 97.0%, respectively. Transvaginal ultrasound HyFoSy with 3D volume reconstruction of the uterus and tubes is an accurate and safe technique that allows complete visualization of tubal shape and patency with high patient compliance. Copyright © 2017 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of poly(propylene fumarate) scaffolds with controlled pore structures using 3-dimensional printing and injection molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kee-Won; Wang, Shanfeng; Lu, Lichun; Jabbari, Esmaiel; Currier, Bradford L; Yaszemski, Michael J

    2006-10-01

    Poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) is an injectable, biodegradable polymer that has been used for fabricating preformed scaffolds in tissue engineering applications because of in situ crosslinking characteristics. Aiming for understanding the effects of pore structure parameters on bone tissue ingrowth, 3-dimensional (3D) PPF scaffolds with controlled pore architecture have been produced in this study from computer-aided design (CAD) models. We have created original scaffold models with 3 pore sizes (300, 600, and 900 microm) and randomly closed 0%, 10%, 20%, or 30% of total pores from the original models in 3 planes. PPF scaffolds were fabricated by a series steps involving 3D printing of support/build constructs, dissolving build materials, injecting PPF, and dissolving support materials. To investigate the effects of controlled pore size and interconnectivity on scaffolds, we compared the porosities between the models and PPF scaffolds fabricated thereby, examined pore morphologies in surface and cross-section using scanning electron microscopy, and measured permeability using the falling head conductivity test. The thermal properties of the resulting scaffolds as well as uncrosslinked PPF were determined by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. Average pore sizes and pore shapes of PPF scaffolds with 600- and 900-microm pores were similar to those of CAD models, but they depended on directions in those with 300-microm pores. Porosity and permeability of PPF scaffolds decreased as the number of closed pores in original models increased, particularly when the pore size was 300 microm as the result of low porosity and pore occlusion. These results show that 3D printing and injection molding technique can be applied to crosslinkable polymers to fabricate 3D porous scaffolds with controlled pore structures, porosity, and permeability using their CAD models.

  2. The Mechanical Functionality of the EXO-L Ankle Brace: Assessment With a 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleipool, Roeland P; Natenstedt, Jerry J; Streekstra, Geert J; Dobbe, Johannes G G; Gerards, Rogier M; Blankevoort, Leendert; Tuijthof, Gabriëlle J M

    2016-01-01

    A new type of ankle brace (EXO-L) has recently been introduced. It is designed to limit the motion of most sprains without limiting other motions and to overcome problems such as skin irritation associated with taping or poor fit in the sports shoe. To evaluate the claimed functionality of the new ankle brace in limiting only the motion of combined inversion and plantar flexion. Controlled laboratory study. In 12 patients who received and used the new ankle brace, the mobility of the joints was measured with a highly accurate and objective in vivo 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) stress test. Primary outcomes were the ranges of motion as expressed by helical axis rotations without and with the ankle brace between the following extreme positions: dorsiflexion to plantar flexion, and combined eversion and dorsiflexion to combined inversion and plantar flexion. Rotations were acquired for both talocrural and subtalar joints. A paired Student t test was performed to test the significance of the differences between the 2 conditions (P ≤ .05). The use of the ankle brace significantly restricted the rotation of motion from combined eversion and dorsiflexion to combined inversion and plantar flexion in both the talocrural (P = .004) and subtalar joints (P < .001). No significant differences were found in both joints for the motion from dorsiflexion to plantar flexion. The 3D CT stress test confirmed that under static and passive testing conditions, the new ankle brace limits the inversion-plantar flexion motion that is responsible for most ankle sprains without limiting plantar flexion or dorsiflexion. This test demonstrated its use in the objective evaluation of braces. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. The use of a single inertial sensor to estimate 3-dimensional ground reaction force during accelerative running tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurchiek, Reed D; McGinnis, Ryan S; Needle, Alan R; McBride, Jeffrey M; van Werkhoven, Herman

    2017-08-16

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the feasibility of using a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) placed on the sacrum to estimate 3-dimensional ground reaction force (F) during linear acceleration and change of direction tasks. Force plate measurements of F and estimates from the proposed IMU method were collected while subjects (n=15) performed a standing sprint start (SS) and a 45° change of direction task (COD). Error in the IMU estimate of step-averaged component and resultant F was quantified by comparison to estimates from the force plate using Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement (LOA), root mean square error (RMSE), Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient (r), and the effect size (ES) of the differences between the two systems. RMSE of the IMU estimate of step-average F ranged from 37.70 N to 77.05 N with ES between 0.04 and 0.47 for SS while for COD, RMSE was between 54.19 N to 182.92 N with ES between 0.08 and 1.69. Correlation coefficients between the IMU and force plate measurements were significant (p≤0.05) for all values (r=0.53 to 0.95) except the medio-lateral component of step-average F. The average angular error in the IMU estimate of the orientation of step-average F was ≤10° for all tasks. The results of this study suggest the proposed IMU method may be used to estimate sagittal plane components and magnitude of step-average F during a linear standing sprint start as well as the vertical component and magnitude of step-average F during a 45° change of direction task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A geometric modelling approach to determining the best sensing coverage for 3-dimensional acoustic target tracking in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashazadeh, Saeid; Sharifi, Mohsen

    2009-01-01

    Existing 3-dimensional acoustic target tracking methods that use wired/wireless networked sensor nodes to track targets based on four sensing coverage do not always compute the feasible spatio-temporal information of target objects. To investigate this discrepancy in a formal setting, we propose a geometric model of the target tracking problem alongside its equivalent geometric dual model that is easier to solve. We then study and prove some properties of dual model by exploiting its relationship with algebra. Based on these properties, we propose a four coverage axis line method based on four sensing coverage and prove that four sensing coverage always yields two dual correct answers; usually one of them is infeasible. By showing that the feasible answer can be only sometimes identified by using a simple time test method such as the one proposed by ourselves, we prove that four sensing coverage fails to always yield the feasible spatio-temporal information of a target object. We further prove that five sensing coverage always gives the feasible position of a target object under certain conditions that are discussed in this paper. We propose three extensions to four coverage axis line method, namely, five coverage extent point method, five coverage extended axis lines method, and five coverage redundant axis lines method. Computation and time complexities of all four proposed methods are equal in the worst cases as well as on average being equal to Θ(1) each. Proposed methods and proved facts about capabilities of sensing coverage degree in this paper can be used in all other methods of acoustic target tracking like Bayesian filtering methods.

  5. A Geometric Modelling Approach to Determining the Best Sensing Coverage for 3-Dimensional Acoustic Target Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Sharifi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Existing 3-dimensional acoustic target tracking methods that use wired/wireless networked sensor nodes to track targets based on four sensing coverage do not always compute the feasible spatio-temporal information of target objects. To investigate this discrepancy in a formal setting, we propose a geometric model of the target tracking problem alongside its equivalent geometric dual model that is easier to solve. We then study and prove some properties of dual model by exploiting its relationship with algebra. Based on these properties, we propose a four coverage axis line method based on four sensing coverage and prove that four sensing coverage always yields two dual correct answers; usually one of them is infeasible. By showing that the feasible answer can be only sometimes identified by using a simple time test method such as the one proposed by ourselves, we prove that four sensing coverage fails to always yield the feasible spatiotemporal information of a target object. We further prove that five sensing coverage always gives the feasible position of a target object under certain conditions that are discussed in this paper. We propose three extensions to four coverage axis line method, namely, five coverage extent point method, five coverage extended axis lines method, and five coverage redundant axis lines method. Computation and time complexities of all four proposed methods are equal in the worst cases as well as on average being equal to Θ(1 each. Proposed methods and proved facts about capabilities of sensing coverage degree in this paper can be used in all other methods of acoustic target tracking like Bayesian filtering methods.

  6. Assessing the impact of twin pregnancies on the pelvic floor using 3-dimensional sonography: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubotani, Juliana Sayuri; Araujo Júnior, E; Zanetti, Miriam Raquel Diniz; Passos, Jurandir Piassi; de Jármy Di Bella, Zsuzsanna Ilona Katalin; Júnior, Julio Elito

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the morphologic characteristics of the pelvic floor musculature between women with twin and singleton pregnancies. We conducted a cross-sectional case-control study of 40 nulliparous women aged 20 to 38 years to compare women with singleton pregnancies (n = 23) to women with twin pregnancies (n = 17). Biometric measurements of the levator hiatus and the sagittal and coronal diameters were made by transperineal 3-dimensional sonography between the 28th and 38th gestational weeks. Comparisons were statistically assessed by the unpaired Student t test and Mann-Whitney U test. For the women with singleton pregnancies, the mean sagittal diameters at rest, during the Valsalva maneuver, and during pelvic floor contraction were 5.3, 5.7, and 4.5 cm, respectively, and the mean coronal diameters under these conditions were 3.8, 4.1, and 3.6 cm. For the women with twin pregnancies, the corresponding values were as follows: mean sagittal diameters, 5.3, 5.8, and 4.6 cm; and mean coronal diameters, 4.3, 4.3, and 3.8 cm. The differences in coronal diameters were statistically significant at rest (P pregnancies were 14.6, 16.9, and 11.7 cm(2) at rest, during Valsalva, and during contraction, respectively; for the women with twin pregnancies, these values were 16.0, 18.6, and 12.6 cm(2). Hiatal measurements were higher in twin than in singleton pregnancies, with coronal diameters reaching significance at rest and during contraction, suggesting that pelvic support undergoes greater changes during twin pregnancy. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  7. Endodontic Treatment of an Anomalous Anterior Tooth with the Aid of a 3-dimensional Printed Physical Tooth Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Chanhee; Kim, Changhwan; Cho, Seungryong; Baek, Seung Hoon; Kim, Gyutae; Kim, Sahng G; Kim, Sun-Young

    2015-06-01

    Endodontic treatment of tooth formation anomalies is a challenge to clinicians and as such requires a complete understanding of the aberrant root canal anatomy followed by careful root canal disinfection and obturation. Here, we report the use of a 3-dimensional (3D) printed physical tooth model including internal root canal structures for the endodontic treatment of a challenging tooth anomaly. A 12-year-old boy was referred for endodontic treatment of tooth #8. The tooth showed class II mobility with swelling and a sinus tract in the buccal mucosa and periapical radiolucency. The tooth presented a very narrow structure between the crown and root by distal concavity and a severely dilacerated root. Moreover, a perforation site with bleeding and another ditching site were identified around the cervical area in the access cavity. A translucent physical tooth model carrying the information on internal root canal structures was built through a 3-step process: data acquisition by cone-beam computed tomographic scanning, virtual modeling by image processing, and manufacturing by 3D printing. A custom-made guide jig was then fabricated to achieve a safe and precise working path to the root canal. Endodontic procedures including access cavity preparation were performed using the physical tooth model and the guide jig. At the 7-month follow-up, the endodontically treated tooth showed complete periapical healing with no clinical signs and symptoms. This case report describes a novel method of endodontic treatment of an anomalous maxillary central incisor with the aid of a physical tooth model and a custom-made guide jig via 3D printing technique. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Customized Polymethylmethacrylate Cranioplasty Implants Using 3-Dimensional Printed Polylactic Acid Molds: Technical Note with 2 Illustrative Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Hay, Joe; Smayra, Tarek; Moussa, Ronald

    2017-09-01

    Prefabricated customized cranioplasty implants are anatomically more accurate than manually shaped acrylic implants but remain costly. The authors describe a new cost-effective technique of producing customized polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cranioplasty implants with the use of prefabricated 3-dimensional (3D) printed molds. The first patient had a left frontal cranial defect after a craniotomy for a glial tumor. A 3D image of his skull was obtained from axial 0.6-mm computed tomography (CT) scan images. The image of the implant was generated by a digital subtraction mirror-imaging process using the normal side of his cranium as a model. The second patient had a bifrontal defect after the resection of an infected customized polyetheretherketone implant. A 3D image of the infected implant was directly obtained from an axial 0.6-mm CT scan before discarding it. The images were then used to produce for each patient a mold of the external surface of the cranium using a low-cost polylactic acid 3D printer. Intraoperatively, each mold was put in a sterile bag and then used to cast a customized PMMA implant subsequently trimmed before fixation. Both patients had excellent cosmetic results and underwent postoperative CT scans that showed excellent restoration of the symmetrical contours of the cranium. No neurologic or infectious complications occurred over a 6-month follow-up for either patient. Making customized PMMA cranioplasty implants via 3D printed polylactic acid molds is a cost-effective technique for delayed reconstruction of various cranial defects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiosensitivity of Patient-Derived Glioma Stem Cell 3-Dimensional Cultures to Photon, Proton, and Carbon Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiblak, Sara; Tang, Zili [German Cancer Consortium, Heidelberg (Germany); Molecular and Translational Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center, Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg Medical School and National Center for Tumor Diseases, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Campos, Benito; Gal, Zoltan; Unterberg, Andreas [Division of Neurological Research, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Heidelberg Medical School, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Jürgen [German Cancer Consortium, Heidelberg (Germany); Molecular and Translational Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center, Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg Medical School and National Center for Tumor Diseases, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Herold-Mende, Christel [Division of Neurological Research, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Heidelberg Medical School, Heidelberg (Germany); Abdollahi, Amir, E-mail: a.amir@dkfz.de [German Cancer Consortium, Heidelberg (Germany); Molecular and Translational Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center, Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg Medical School and National Center for Tumor Diseases, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the radiosensitivity of primary glioma stem cell (GSC) cultures with different CD133 status in a 3-dimensional (3D) model after photon versus proton versus carbon irradiation. Methods and Materials: Human primary GSC spheroid cultures were established from tumor specimens of six consented glioblastoma patients. Human U87MG was used as a classical glioblastoma radioresistant cell line. Cell suspensions were generated by mechanical dissociation of GSC spheroids and embedded in a semi-solid 3D matrix before irradiation. Spheroid-like colonies were manually counted by microscopy. Cells were also recovered and quantified by fluorescence. CD133 expression and DNA damage were evaluated by flow cytometry. Results: The fraction of CD133{sup +} cells varied between 0.014% and 96% in the six GSC cultures and showed a nonsignificant correlation with plating efficiency and survival fractions. The 4 most photon-radioresistant GSC cultures were NCH644, NCH421k, NCH441, and NCH636. Clonogenic survival for proton irradiation revealed relative biologic effectiveness (RBE) in the range of 0.7-1.20. However, carbon irradiation rendered the photon-resistant GSC cultures sensitive, with average RBE of 1.87-3.44. This effect was partly attributed to impaired capability of GSC to repair carbon ion–induced DNA double-strand breaks as determined by residual DNA repair foci. Interestingly, radiosensitivity of U87 cells was comparable to GSC cultures using clonogenic survival as the standard readout. Conclusions: Carbon irradiation is effective in GSC eradication with similar RBE ranges approximately 2-3 as compared with non-stem GSC cultures (U87). Our data strongly suggest further exploration of GSC using classic radiobiology endpoints such as the here-used 3D clonogenic survival assay and integration of additional GSC-specific markers.

  10. Differential effect of 3-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography for the quantification of mitral regurgitation according to the severity and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaehuk; Heo, Ran; Hong, Geu-Ru; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Sung, Ji Min; Shin, Sang Hoon; Cho, In Jeong; Shim, Chi-Young; Chung, Namsik

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the differential effect of 3-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography for the quantification of mitral regurgitation (MR). Two-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography-based MR quantification has well-documented limitations. We consecutively enrolled 221 patients with MR. Adequate image quality was obtained by 2D- and 3D-color Doppler echocardiography in 211 (95.5%) patients. The quantitative differences between the MR volumes obtained by 2D- and 3D-proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) were analyzed in various MR subgroups. In the validation cohort (n=52), MR volume obtained by 3D-PISA showed a better agreement with phase-contrast cardiac MRI than 2D-PISA (r=0.97 versus 0.84). In all 211 patients, 2D-PISA underestimated the MR volume when compared with 3D-PISA (52.4±19.6 versus 59.5±25.6 mL; P=0.005). A total of 33.3% with severe MR based on 3D-PISA were incorrectly assessed by 2D-PISA as having nonsevere MR. In the subgroup analysis, the MR severity (odds ratio, 6.96; 95% confidence interval, 3.04-15.94; P15 mL) between 2D- and 3D-PISA methods. Quantification of MR by 3D-PISA method is clinically feasible and more accurate than the current 2D-PISA method. MR quantification by 2D-PISA significantly underestimated MR volume with severe, eccentric MR with an asymmetrical orifice. This article demonstrates that 3D-color Doppler echocardiography could be used as a valuable tool to confirm treatment strategy in patients with significant MR. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. A comparative molecular and 3-dimensional structural investigation into cross-continental and novel avian Trypanosoma spp. in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Crystal; Thompson, R C Andrew; Botero, Adriana; Kristancic, Amanda; Peacock, Christopher; Kirilak, Yaowanuj; Clode, Peta L

    2017-05-12

    Molecular and structural information on avian Trypanosoma spp. throughout Australia is limited despite their intrinsic value in understanding trypanosomatid evolution, diversity, and structural biology. In Western Australia tissue samples (n = 429) extracted from 93 birds in 25 bird species were screened using generic PCR primers to investigate the diversity of Trypanosoma spp. To investigate avian trypanosome structural biology the first 3-dimensional ultrastructural models of a Trypanosoma spp. (Trypanosoma sp. AAT) isolated from a bird (currawong, Strepera spp.) were generated using focussed ion beam milling combined with scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM). Here, we confirm four intercontinental species of avian trypanosomes in native Australian birds, and identify a new avian Trypanosoma. Trypanosome infection was identified in 18 birds from 13 different bird species (19%). A single new genotype was isolated and found to be closely related to T. culicavium (Trypanosoma sp. CC2016 B002). Other Trypanosoma spp. identified include T. avium, T. culicavium, T. thomasbancrofti, Trypanosoma sp. TL.AQ.22, Trypanosoma sp. AAT, and an uncharacterised Trypanosoma sp. (group C-III sensu Zidková et al. (Infect Genet Evol 12:102-112, 2012)), all previously identified in Australia or other continents. Serially-sectioning Trypanosoma sp. AAT epimastigotes using FIB-SEM revealed the disc-shaped kinetoplast pocket attached perpendicular to the branching mitochondrion. Additionally, the universal minicircle sequence within the kinetoplast DNA and the associated binding protein were determined in Trypanosoma sp. AAT. These results indicate that bird trypanosomes are relatively conserved across continents, while being locally diverse, which supports the hypothesis that bird trypanosomes exist as fewer species than described in the literature. Evidence exists that avian Trypanosoma spp. are infecting mammals and could be transmitted by haemadipsid leeches. Trypanosoma sp

  12. Chondroregulatory action of prolactin on proliferation and differentiation of mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells in 3-dimensional micromass cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seriwatanachai, Dutmanee [Center of Calcium and Bone Research (COCAB), Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Krishnamra, Nateetip [Center of Calcium and Bone Research (COCAB), Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol, E-mail: naratt@narattsys.com [Center of Calcium and Bone Research (COCAB), Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells expressed PRL receptor mRNAs and proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low PRL concentration (10 ng/mL) increased chondrocyte viability and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher PRL concentrations ( Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 100 ng/mL) decreased viability and increased apoptosis. -- Abstract: A recent investigation in lactating rats has provided evidence that the lactogenic hormone prolactin (PRL) increases endochondral bone growth and bone elongation, presumably by accelerating apoptosis of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plate and/or subsequent chondrogenic matrix mineralization. Herein, we demonstrated the direct chondroregulatory action of PRL on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of chondrocytes in 3-dimensional micromass culture of mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cell line. The results showed that ATDC5 cells expressed PRL receptor (PRLR) transcripts, and responded typically to PRL by downregulating PRLR expression. Exposure to a low PRL concentration of 10 ng/mL, comparable to the normal levels in male and non-pregnant female rats, increased chondrocyte viability, differentiation, proteoglycan accumulation, and mRNA expression of several chondrogenic differentiation markers, such as Sox9, ALP and Hspg2. In contrast, high PRL concentrations of Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 100 ng/mL, comparable to the levels in pregnancy or lactation, decreased chondrocyte viability by inducing apoptosis, with no effect on chondrogenic marker expression. It could be concluded that chondrocytes directly but differentially responded to non-pregnant and pregnant/lactating levels of PRL, thus suggesting the stimulatory effect of PRL on chondrogenesis in young growing individuals, and supporting the hypothesis of hypertrophic chondrocyte apoptosis in the growth plate of lactating rats.

  13. Incorporation of multilayered silver nanoparticles into polymer brushes as 3-dimensional SERS substrates and their application for bacteria detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Xiang-Dong; Tian, Ting; Chu, Li-Qiang, E-mail: chuliqiang@tust.edu.cn

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • POEGMA/AgNPs composite film prepared via the in-stacking method is employed as 3D SERS substrate. • Control over POEGMA chain length is achieved via SI-ATRP method. • Influence of POEGMA chain length and in-stacking process on SERS performance is investigated. • The 3D SERS substrate is used for the ultrasensitive detection of ATP and S. aureus. - Abstract: Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors have been extensively studied for ultrasensitive detection of diverse chemical or biological analytes. Facile fabrication of highly sensitive SERS substrates is believed to be of crucial importance in these analytical applications. In this regard, the preparation of 3-dimensional (3D) SERS substrates are explored via the incorporation of multilayered silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into poly (oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) (POEGMA) brushes by repeating the immersion-rinsing-drying steps for different lengths of time (i.e., the so-called in-stacking method). The POEGMA brushes of different chain lengths are synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with various reaction time. The resulting POEGMA/AgNP nanocomposites are characterized by FE-SEM, UV–vis and Raman spectroscopy. FE-SEM and UV–vis results indicate that the AgNPs are successfully incorporated into the POEGMA brushes with a 3D configuration. The nanocomposite films are employed as SERS substrates for the detection of a Raman reporter molecule (i.e., 4-aminothiophenol), giving rise to an enhancement factor of up to 1.29 × 10{sup 7} and also having relatively good uniformity and reproducibility. The obtained 3D SERS substrates are also used for the detection of a typical gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus. The limit of detection is found to be as low as ca. 8 CFU/mL.

  14. V-stand--a versatile surgical platform for oromandibular reconstruction using a 3-dimensional virtual modeling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Vadim; Alterman, Michael; Shuster, Amir; Kleinman, Shlomi; Shlomi, Benjamin; Yanko-Arzi, Ravit; Zaretski, Arik; Amir, Aharon; Fliss, Dan M

    2015-06-01

    The challenge of oromandibular reconstruction (OMR) after oncologic resections has been repeatedly addressed in the literature. Although final oncologic margins can be decided only during surgery, various attempts have been made to create an ideal and accurate platform for OMR. The purpose of this article is to present the V-stand, a versatile surgical platform for OMR using a 3-dimensional (3D) virtual modeling system. Seventeen patients requiring an OMR were included in the study. A presurgical computed tomogram was obtained and virtual resection and reconstruction with a free fibular flap were planned using 3D virtual surgery software. The mandible was reconstructed intraoperatively using the V-stand, which served as a template for the lower border of the mandible and the lateral aspects of the stand were fixed to the proximal mandibular segments using 2-mm titanium screws. Patients' average age was 53 years (5 to 72 yr). Median follow-up was 19 months (2 to 35 months). All reconstructed mandibles resulted in good function and esthetics. The V-stand offers a safe and time-efficient method for OMR. It provides an excellent means for accurate spatial positioning of a fibular free flap. The V-stand preserves the original dimensions of the reconstructed mandible and can overcome surgical ablation modifications because it is not dependent on the precision of the resection, but rather provides a mold for the entire mandible. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Joint environmental assessment for western NPR-1 3-dimensional seismic project at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), has prepared an Environmental Assessment (DOE/EA-1124) to identify and evaluate the potential environmental impacts of the proposed geophysical seismic survey on and adjacent to the Naval Petroleum Reserve No.1 (NPR-1), located approximately 35 miles west of Bakersfield, California. NPR-1 is jointly owned and operated by the federal government and Chevron U.S.A. Production Company. The federal government owns about 78 percent of NPR-1, while Chevron owns the remaining 22 percent. The government`s interest is under the jurisdiction of DOE, which has contracted with Bechtel Petroleum Operations, Inc. (BPOI) for the operation and management of the reserve. The 3-dimensional seismic survey would take place on NPR-1 lands and on public and private lands adjacent to NPR-1. This project would involve lands owned by BLM, California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), California Energy Commission (CEC), The Nature Conservancy, the Center for Natural Lands Management, oil companies (Chevron, Texaco, and Mobil), and several private individuals. The proposed action is designed to provide seismic data for the analysis of the subsurface geology extant in western NPR-1 with the goal of better defining the commercial limits of a currently producing reservoir (Northwest Stevens) and three prospective hydrocarbon bearing zones: the {open_quotes}A Fan{close_quotes} in Section 7R, the 19R Structure in Section 19R, and the 13Z Structure in Section 13Z. Interpreting the data is expected to provide NPR-1 owners with more accurate locations of structural highs, faults, and pinchouts to maximize the recovery of the available hydrocarbon resources in western NPR-1. Completion of this project is expected to increase NPR-1 recoverable reserves, and reduce the risks and costs associated with further exploration and development in the area.

  16. [Radiofrequency catheter ablation for ventricular premature beats of left coronary cusp under the guidance of 3-dimensional mapping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Hong, Lang; Zhou, Yuan-feng; Lai, Heng-li; Chen, Zai-hua; Qiu, Yun

    2012-04-10

    To explore the efficacy and safety of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RCA) for ventricular premature beats originating from left coronary sinus under the guidance of 3-dimensional mapping system (CARTO). A total of 15 patients with premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) originating from left coronary sinus underwent CARTO-guided RCA. Anatomical structures were constructed and three-dimension (3D) electrical activation sequence was plotted for left ventricle and aortic sinus. The distance of earliest activation point of PVCs and origin of left coronary artery were surveyed after left coronary arteriography. The electrocardiogram (ECG) results showed that R-wave was upward in leads II, III and avF, QRS waves in lead I was mainly of rS, rs and rsr types, QS type in lead avL, RS, Rs and rS type in lead V(1), RS type in lead V(3) and absence of S wave in lead V(5)/V(6). Intraoperative mapping detected the earliest activation point on the posterior-inferior origin of left coronary artery (LMCA) ostium (n = 7), on the anterio-inferior of LMCA ostium (n = 3) and on the inferior of LMCA ostium (n = 5). The earliest activation point (local activation time) was shorter 86 - 120 ms than surface electrocardiogram QRS wave, discharge melting on the earliest activation point and nearby succeeded. PVCs disappeared, PVCs failed to be induced under similar preoperative conditions (aleudrin intravenous) and no complication occurred intraoperatively and postoperatively. The CARTO-guided RCA is a safe and effective in the treatment of PVCs originating from left coronary sinus.

  17. Effect of print layer height and printer type on the accuracy of 3-dimensional printed orthodontic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favero, Christian S; English, Jeryl D; Cozad, Benjamin E; Wirthlin, John O; Short, Megan M; Kasper, F Kurtis

    2017-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies enable production of orthodontic models from digital files; yet a range of variables associated with the process could impact the accuracy and clinical utility of the models. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of print layer height on the accuracy of orthodontic models printed 3 dimensionally using a stereolithography format printer and to compare the accuracy of orthodontic models fabricated with several commercially available 3D printers. Thirty-six identical models were produced with a stereolithography-based 3D printer using 3 layer heights (n = 12 per group): 25, 50, and 100 μm. Forty-eight additional models were printed using 4 commercially available 3D printers (n = 12 per group). Each printed model was digitally scanned and compared with the input file via superimposition analysis using a best-fit algorithm to assess accuracy. Statistically significant differences were found in the average overall deviations of models printed at each layer height, with the 25-μm and 100-μm layer height groups having the greatest and least deviations, respectively. Statistically significant differences were also found in the average overall deviations of models produced using the various 3D printer models, but all values fell within clinically acceptable limits. The print layer height and printer model can affect the accuracy of a 3D printed orthodontic model, but the impact should be considered with respect to the clinical tolerances associated with the envisioned application. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Physical models of renal malignancies using standard cross-sectional imaging and 3-dimensional printers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Jonathan L; Maddox, Michael M; Dorsey, Phillip; Feibus, Allison; Thomas, Raju; Lee, Benjamin R

    2014-08-01

    To construct high-fidelity, patient customized, physical, 3-dimensional (3D) models of renal units with enhancing renal lesions identified on cross-sectional imaging, which may aid patients, trainees, and clinicians in their comprehension, characterization, localization, and extirpation of suspicious renal masses. Specialized software was used to import patient's diagnostic computerized tomography cross-sectional imaging into 3D printers and create physical 3D models of renal units with enhancing in situ lesions. Patients and trainees had the opportunity to manipulate the individualized model before surgical resection. Sterolithography additive manufacturing, a technique in which an ultraviolet laser is used to cure a photosensitive resin in sequential horizontally oriented layers, was used to build the models (Medical Modeling Inc., Golden, CO). Normal renal parenchyma was printed with a clear translucent resin, and red translucent resin delineated suspicious lesions. Renal vasculature and the proximal collecting system were printed in some models. We constructed 5 physical models of renal units with suspected malignancies before surgery. All patients successfully underwent partial nephrectomy (4 robotic and 1 open). Average ischemia time was 21 minutes, nephrometry score was 6.8, and all margins were negative. Anecdotally, patients, their families, and trainees consistently stated that the models enhanced their comprehension of the renal tumor in relation to surrounding normal renal parenchyma and hilar structures and improved understanding of the goals of the surgery. Preoperative physical 3D models using available printing techniques can be constructed and may potentially influence both patients' and trainees' understanding of renal malignancies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Two-dimensional vs 3-dimensional comparison of alveolar bone over maxillary incisors with A-point as a reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Theodore J; Ghoneima, Ahmed; Eckert, George; Parks, Edwin T; Utreja, Achint; Kula, Katherine

    2017-12-01

    Our objectives were to compare, relative to A-point, (1) bone thickness over the most forward maxillary incisor (MFMI) in 2 dimensions vs 3 dimensions, and (2) bone thickness and inclination of each maxillary incisor in 3 dimensions. Thirty-four cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were coded, and 2-dimensional (2D) cephalograms were derived from each image using Dolphin software (Dolphin Imaging and Management Solutions, Chatsworth, Calif). A-point and the MFMI crown were located. After reliability tests, alveolar bone buccal to 3 points on the MFMI root, bone to reference line Frankfort horizontal (FH)-A-point, and incisor inclination were measured. This procedure was repeated on the 3-dimensional (3D) CBCT images comparing MFMI with all maxillary incisors. The 2D and 3D measurements were compared using paired t tests, and 3D measurements were compared with analysis of variance. A 5% significance level was used for all tests. The MFMI's buccal bone thickness at the root apices and the distance between buccal bone and FH-A-point line at 2 root points were significantly greater in 2 dimensions than in 3 dimensions. In 3 dimensions, bone thickness at MFMI's root apex and the distance from FH-A-point line at all root points were significantly greater than those of the lateral incisors. Bone buccal to MFMI was significantly smaller than at the lateral incisors 3 mm from the cementoenamel junction. Evaluation of 2D CBCT derivations can result in overestimation of alveolar bone buccal to the maxillary incisor root apices compared with 3D evaluations. The anterior nasal spine obscures bone measurements over the maxillary incisors in 2 dimensions. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Validation of a 3-dimensional photonic scanner for the measurement of body volumes, dimensions, and percentage body fat123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jack; Gallagher, Dympna; Thornton, John C; Yu, Wen; Horlick, Mary; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Background The 3-dimensional photonic scan (3DPS) technique has been used during the past decade in the fashion industry and for epidemiologic surveys to estimate human body sizes. Objective The objective of the study was to validate the accuracy of a recently developed 3DPS (C9036-02; Hamamatsu Photonics KK, Hamamatsu, Japan) for the measurement of body volume, circumferences, lengths, and percentage body fat with the use of underwater weighing (UWW) and tape measures as criterion methods. Design Ninety-two subjects (44 females and 48 males) aged 6–83 y and weighing 23–182 kg (52–400 lbs) participated in the study. The subjects were measured while they wore minimal clothing and a head cap. Similar measurements were performed on a mannequin with and without clothing Results All subjects were measured with 3DPS and a tape measure; 63 subjects underwent UWW and residual lung volume measurements. The values obtained with 3DPS were slightly but significantly greater than those obtained with UWW for body volume (81.9 ± 4.0 L compared with 81.5 ± 4.0 L, P body fat were not significantly different between 3DPS and UWW (P = 0.648). The values obtained with 3DPS were significantly greater than those obtained by UWW and a tape measure for the clothed mannequin, but the values were not uniformly significantly different for the mannequin without clothing. Conclusions The 3DPS measures body volume, circumferences, and length rapidly and accurately. However, to generate an accurate total-body volume measurement with 3DPS to estimate percentage body fat, the subjects must wear close-fitting minimal clothing and be able to stand motionless for 10 s (normal scan mode) while holding their breath, which is done immediately after a maximum expiration. PMID:16600932

  1. Absence of toxicity with hypofractionated 3-dimensional radiation therapy for inoperable, early stage non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuong Te

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Hypofractionated radiotherapy may overcome repopulation in rapidly proliferating tumors such as lung cancer. It is more convenient for the patients and reduces health care costs. This study reports our results on patients with medically inoperable, early stage, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC treated with hypofractionation. Materials and methods Stage T1-2N0 NSCLC patients were treated with hypofractionation alone, 52.5 Gy/15 fractions, in 3 weeks, with 3-dimensional conformal planning. T1-2N1 patients with the hilar lymphnode close to the primary tumor were also eligible for this treatment. We did not use any approach to reduce respiratory motion, but it was monitored in all patients. Elective nodal radiotherapy was not performed. Routine follow up included assessment for acute and late toxicity and radiological tumor response. Median follow up time was 29 months for the surviving patients. Results Thirty-two patients with a median age of 76 years, T1 = 15 and T2 = 17, were treated. Median planning target volume (PTV volume was 150cc and median V16 of both lungs was 13%. The most important finding of this study is that toxicity was minimal. Two patients had grade ≤ 2 acute pneumonitis and 3 had mild (grade 1 acute esophagitis. There was no late toxicity. Actuarial 1 and 2-year overall survival rates are 78% and 56%, cancer specific survival rates (CSS are 90% and 74%, and local relapse free survival rates are 93% and 76% respectively. Conclusion 3-D planning, involved field hypofractionation at a dose of 52.5 Gy in 15 daily fractions is safe, well tolerated and easy radiation treatment for medically inoperable lung cancer patients. It shortens by half the traditional treatment. Results compare favorably with previously published studies. Further studies are needed to compare similar technique with other treatments such as surgery and stereotactic radiotherapy.

  2. Standardized Protocol for Virtual Surgical Plan and 3-Dimensional Surgical Template-Assisted Single-Stage Mandible Contour Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xi; Qiao, Jia; Girod, Sabine; Niu, Feng; Liu, Jian Feng; Lee, Gordon K; Gui, Lai

    2017-09-01

    Mandible contour surgery, including reduction gonioplasty and genioplasty, has become increasingly popular in East Asia. However, it is technically challenging and, hence, leads to a long learning curve and high complication rates and often needs secondary revisions. The increasing use of 3-dimensional (3D) technology makes accurate single-stage mandible contour surgery with minimum complication rates possible with a virtual surgical plan (VSP) and 3-D surgical templates. This study is to establish a standardized protocol for VSP and 3-D surgical templates-assisted mandible contour surgery and evaluate the accuracy of the protocol. In this study, we enrolled 20 patients for mandible contour surgery. Our protocol is to perform VSP based on 3-D computed tomography data. Then, design and 3-D print surgical templates based on preoperative VSP. The accuracy of the method was analyzed by 3-D comparison of VSP and postoperative results using detailed computer analysis. All patients had symmetric, natural osteotomy lines and satisfactory facial ratios in a single-stage operation. The average relative error of VSP and postoperative result on the entire skull was 0.41 ± 0.13 mm. The average new left gonial error was 0.43 ± 0.77 mm. The average new right gonial error was 0.45 ± 0.69 mm. The average pognion error was 0.79 ± 1.21 mm. Patients were very satisfied with the aesthetic results. Surgeons were very satisfied with the performance of surgical templates to facilitate the operation. Our standardized protocol of VSP and 3-D printed surgical templates-assisted single-stage mandible contour surgery results in accurate, safe, and predictable outcome in a single stage.

  3. Virtual surgical planning, flow simulation, and 3-dimensional electrospinning of patient-specific grafts to optimize Fontan hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siallagan, Dominik; Loke, Yue-Hin; Olivieri, Laura; Opfermann, Justin; Ong, Chin Siang; de Zélicourt, Diane; Petrou, Anastasios; Daners, Marianne Schmid; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan; Meboldt, Mirko; Nelson, Kevin; Vricella, Luca; Johnson, Jed; Hibino, Narutoshi; Krieger, Axel

    2017-12-05

    Despite advances in the Fontan procedure, there is an unmet clinical need for patient-specific graft designs that are optimized for variations in patient anatomy. The objective of this study is to design and produce patient-specific Fontan geometries, with the goal of improving hepatic flow distribution (HFD) and reducing power loss (Ploss), and manufacturing these designs by electrospinning. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging data from patients who previously underwent a Fontan procedure (n = 2) was used to create 3-dimensional models of their native Fontan geometry using standard image segmentation and geometry reconstruction software. For each patient, alternative designs were explored in silico, including tube-shaped and bifurcated conduits, and their performance in terms of Ploss and HFD probed by computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations. The best-performing options were then fabricated using electrospinning. CFD simulations showed that the bifurcated conduit improved HFD between the left and right pulmonary arteries, whereas both types of conduits reduced Ploss. In vitro testing with a flow-loop chamber supported the CFD results. The proposed designs were then successfully electrospun into tissue-engineered vascular grafts. Our unique virtual cardiac surgery approach has the potential to improve the quality of surgery by manufacturing patient-specific designs before surgery, that are also optimized with balanced HFD and minimal Ploss, based on refinement of commercially available options for image segmentation, computer-aided design, and flow simulations. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fully 3-dimensional digitally planned reconstruction of a mandible with a free vascularized fibula and immediate placement of an implant-supported prosthetic construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Rutger H.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Vissink, Arjan; Lahoda, Lars U.; Van der Meer, W. Joerd; Roodenburg, Jan L.; Reintsema, Harry; Witjes, Max J.

    Background Reconstruction of craniofacial defects becomes complex when dental implants are included for functional rehabilitation. We describe a fully 3-dimensional (3D) digitally planned reconstruction of a mandible and immediate prosthetic loading with a fibula graft in a 2-step surgical approach.

  5. Nanostructural evolution of Cr-rich precipitates in a Cu-Cr-Zr alloy during heat treatment studied by 3 dimensional atom probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatakeyama, Masahiko; Toyama, Takeshi; Nagai, Yasuyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Nanostructural evolution of Cr (Cr-rich) precipitates in a Cu-0.78%Cr-0.13%Zr alloy has been studied after aging and overaging (reaging) by laser assisted local electrode 3 dimensional atom probe (Laser-LEAP). This material is a candidate for the first wall and divertor components of future fusion...

  6. Comparative Analysis of Visitors' Experiences and Knowledge Acquisition between a 3Dimensional Online and a Real-World Art Museum Tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    D' Alba, Adriana; Jones, Greg; Wright, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a study conducted in the fall of 2011 and the spring of 2012 which explored the use of existing 3D virtual environment technologies by bringing a selected permanent museum exhibit displayed at a museum located in central Mexico into an online 3Dimensional experience. Using mixed methods, the research study analyzed knowledge…

  7. Autotransplantation of premolars with a 3-dimensional printed titanium replica of the donor tooth functioning as a surgical guide: proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.P.; Moin, D.A.; Mensink, G.; Nijkamp, P.; Wismeijer, D.; van Merkesteyn, J.P.R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Autotransplantation of premolars is a good treatment option for young patients who have missing teeth. This study evaluated the use of a preoperatively 3-dimensional (3D)-printed replica of the donor tooth that functions as a surgical guide during autotransplantation. Materials and Methods:

  8. Quantification of mitral regurgitation orifice area by 3-dimensional echocardiography: comparison with effective regurgitant orifice area by PISA method and proximal regurgitant jet diameter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lange, Aleksandra; Palka, Przemysław; Donnelly, J.Elisabeth; Burstow, Darryl J

    2002-01-01

    ... [5–7,10] . Geometric assumptions in quantitation of area, volume or spatial distribution of MR jets assessed by 2D echocardiography can be avoided with the use of 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiography. For this reason this technique is developing a role in the assessment of mitral valve morphology and function [12–17] . The evaluation of MR by...

  9. Initial results of 3-dimensional 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in the localization of prostate cancer at 3 Tesla: should we use an endorectal coil?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakar, D.; Heijmink, S.W.T.P.J.; Hulsbergen- van de Kaa, C.A.; Huisman, H.J.; Barentsz, J.O.; Futterer, J.J.; Scheenen, T.W.J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of 3 Tesla, 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) in the localization of prostate cancer (PCa) with and without the use of an endorectal coil (ERC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our prospective study

  10. Black hole entropy calculations based on symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Dreyer, O; Wísniewski, J A; Dreyer, Olaf; Ghosh, Amit; Wisniewski, Jacek

    2001-01-01

    Symmetry based approaches to the black hole entropy problem have a number of attractive features; in particular they are very general and do not depend on the details of the quantization method. However we point out that, of the two available approaches, one faces conceptual problems (also emphasized by others), while the second contains certain technical flaws. We correct these errors and, within the new, improved scheme, calculate the entropy of 3-dimensional black holes. We find that, while the new symmetry vector fields are well-defined on the ``stretched horizon,'' and lead to well-defined Hamiltonians satisfying the expected Lie algebra, they fail to admit a well-defined limit to the horizon. This suggests that, although the formal calculation can be carried out at the classical level, its real, conceptual origin probably lies in the quantum theory.

  11. Quantitative analysis of aortic regurgitation: real-time 3-dimensional and 2-dimensional color Doppler echocardiographic method--a clinical and a chronic animal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Takahiro; Jones, Michael; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Qin, Jian Xin; Zetts, Arthur D.; Greenberg, Neil L.; Cardon, Lisa A.; Panza, Julio A.; Thomas, James D.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For evaluating patients with aortic regurgitation (AR), regurgitant volumes, left ventricular (LV) stroke volumes (SV), and absolute LV volumes are valuable indices. AIM: The aim of this study was to validate the combination of real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and semiautomated digital color Doppler cardiac flow measurement (ACM) for quantifying absolute LV volumes, LVSV, and AR volumes using an animal model of chronic AR and to investigate its clinical applicability. METHODS: In 8 sheep, a total of 26 hemodynamic states were obtained pharmacologically 20 weeks after the aortic valve noncoronary (n = 4) or right coronary (n = 4) leaflet was incised to produce AR. Reference standard LVSV and AR volume were determined using the electromagnetic flow method (EM). Simultaneous epicardial real-time 3DE studies were performed to obtain LV end-diastolic volumes (LVEDV), end-systolic volumes (LVESV), and LVSV by subtracting LVESV from LVEDV. Simultaneous ACM was performed to obtain LVSV and transmitral flows; AR volume was calculated by subtracting transmitral flow volume from LVSV. In a total of 19 patients with AR, real-time 3DE and ACM were used to obtain LVSVs and these were compared with each other. RESULTS: A strong relationship was found between LVSV derived from EM and those from the real-time 3DE (r = 0.93, P <.001, mean difference (3D - EM) = -1.0 +/- 9.8 mL). A good relationship between LVSV and AR volumes derived from EM and those by ACM was found (r = 0.88, P <.001). A good relationship between LVSV derived from real-time 3DE and that from ACM was observed (r = 0.73, P <.01, mean difference = 2.5 +/- 7.9 mL). In patients, a good relationship between LVSV obtained by real-time 3DE and ACM was found (r = 0.90, P <.001, mean difference = 0.6 +/- 9.8 mL). CONCLUSION: The combination of ACM and real-time 3DE for quantifying LV volumes, LVSV, and AR volumes was validated by the chronic animal study and was shown to be clinically applicable.

  12. On the need for comprehensive validation of deformable image registration, investigated with a novel 3-dimensional deformable dosimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Titania; Das, Shiva; Adamovics, John; Benning, Ron; Oldham, Mark

    2013-10-01

    To introduce and evaluate a novel deformable 3-dimensional (3D) dosimetry system (Presage-Def/Optical-CT) and its application toward investigating the accuracy of dose deformation in a commercial deformable image registration (DIR) package. Presage-Def is a new dosimetry material consisting of an elastic polyurethane matrix doped with radiochromic leuco dye. Radiologic and mechanical properties were characterized using standard techniques. Dose-tracking feasibility was evaluated by comparing dose distributions between dosimeters irradiated with and without 27% lateral compression. A checkerboard plan of 5-mm square fields enabled precise measurement of true deformation using 3D dosimetry. Predicted deformation was determined from a commercial DIR algorithm. Presage-Def exhibited a linear dose response with sensitivity of 0.0032 ΔOD/(Gy∙cm). Mass density is 1.02 g/cm(3), and effective atomic number is within 1.5% of water over a broad (0.03-10 MeV) energy range, indicating good water-equivalence. Elastic characteristics were close to that of liver tissue, with Young's modulus of 13.5-887 kPa over a stress range of 0.233-303 kPa, and Poisson's ratio of 0.475 (SE, 0.036). The Presage-Def/Optical-CT system successfully imaged the nondeformed and deformed dose distributions, with isotropic resolution of 1 mm. Comparison with the predicted deformed 3D dose distribution identified inaccuracies in the commercial DIR algorithm. Although external contours were accurately deformed (submillimeter accuracy), volumetric dose deformation was poor. Checkerboard field positioning and dimension errors of up to 9 and 14 mm, respectively, were identified, and the 3D DIR-deformed dose γ passing rate was only γ(3%/3 mm) = 60.0%. The Presage-Def/Optical-CT system shows strong potential for comprehensive investigation of DIR algorithm accuracy. Substantial errors in a commercial DIR were found in the conditions evaluated. This work highlights the critical importance of careful

  13. The effectiveness and user perception of 3-dimensional digital human anatomy in an online undergraduate anatomy laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbelink, Amy Joanne

    2007-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of implementing desktop 3-dimensional (3D) stereo images of human anatomy into an undergraduate human anatomy distance laboratory. User perceptions of 2D and 3D images were gathered via questionnaire in order to determine ease of use and level of satisfaction associated with the 3D software in the online learning environment. Mayer's (2001, p. 184) principles of design were used to develop the study materials that consisted of PowerPoint presentations and AVI files accessed via Blackboard. The research design employed a mixed-methods approach. Volunteers each were administered a demographic survey and were then stratified into groups based upon pre-test scores. A total sample size of 62 pairs was available for combined data analysis. Quantitative research questions regarding the effectiveness of 2D versus the 3D treatment were analyzed using a doubly-multivariate repeated measures (Doubly-MANOVA) design. Paired test scores achieved by undergraduates on a laboratory practical of identification and spatial relationships of the bones and features of a human skull were used in the analysis. The questionnaire designed to gather user perceptions consisted of quantitative and qualitative questions. Response frequencies were analyzed for the two groups and common themes were noted. Results revealed a statistically significant difference in group means for the main effect of the treatment groups 2D and 3D and for the variables of identification and relationship with the 3D group outperforming the 2D group on both dependent variables. Effect sizes were determined to be small, 0.215 for the identification variable and 0.359 for the relationship variable. Overall, all students liked the convenience of using PowerPoint and AVI files online. The 3D group felt their PowerPoint was more realistic than did the 2D group and both groups appreciated the detailed labeling of the online images. One third of the

  14. Use of 3-dimensional printing technology and silicone modeling in surgical simulation: development and face validation in pediatric laparoscopic pyeloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Carling L; Looi, Thomas; Lendvay, Thomas S; Drake, James M; Farhat, Walid A

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric laparoscopy poses unique training challenges owing to smaller workspaces, finer sutures used, and potentially more delicate tissues that require increased surgical dexterity when compared with adult analogs. We describe the development and face validation of a pediatric pyeloplasty simulator using a low-cost laparoscopic dry-laboratory model developed with 3-dimensional (3D) printing and silicone modeling. The organs (the kidney, renal pelvis, and ureter) were created in a 3-step process where molds were created with 3D modeling software, printed with a Spectrum Z510 3D printer, and cast with Dragon Skin 30 silicone rubber. The model was secured in a laparoscopy box trainer. A pilot study was conducted at a Canadian Urological Association meeting. A total of 24 pediatric urology fellows and 3 experienced faculty members then assessed our skills module during a minimally invasive surgery training course. Participants had 60 minutes to perform a right-side pyeloplasty using laparoscopic tools and 5-0 VICRYL suture. Face validity was demonstrated on a 5-point Likert scale. The dry-laboratory model consists of a kidney, a replaceable dilated renal pelvis and ureter with an obstructed ureteropelvic junction, and an overlying peritoneum with an inscribed fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery pattern-cutting exercise. During initial validation at the Canadian Urological Association, participants rated (out of 5) 4.75 ± 0.29 for overall impression, 4.50 ± 0.41 for realism, and 4.38 ± 0.48 for handling. During the minimally invasive surgery course, 22 of 24 fellows and all the faculty members completed the scoring. Usability was rated 4 or 5 by 14 participants (overall, 3.6 ± 1.22 by novices and 3.7 ± 0.58 by experts), indicating that they would use the model in their own training and teaching. Esthetically, the model was rated 3.5 ± 0.74 (novices) and 3.3 ± 0.58 (experts). We developed a pediatric pyeloplasty simulator by applying a low-cost reusable model

  15. Feasibility of 3-dimensional sonographic examination of the fetal secondary palate during the second-trimester anatomy scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Waldo; Wong, Amy E; Castro, Francella; Adiego, Begoña; Martinez-Ten, Pilar

    2011-12-01

    To determine the feasibility of obtaining adequate 3-dimensional (3D) data sets to examine the fetal secondary palate during the second-trimester anatomy scan. During a 3-month period, 3D data sets of the fetal secondary palate were obtained from consecutive women undergoing routine second-trimester scans. Only structurally normal singleton fetuses with a normal upper lip on 2-dimensional (2D) sonography were included. Three-dimensional data sets were obtained using a mechanical transducer with a 45° sweep and the same settings as for the standard 2D scan, ideally when the fetus was facing the transducer, with mild extension of the head, and the ultrasound beams projecting caudally to cranially to avoid shadowing from the primary palate or mandible. No additional scanning time was allocated for examination of the palate. Acquired 3D data sets were analyzed offline using dedicated software, and the secondary palate was assessed using the "flipped face" technique. Ninety-seven women met entry criteria and underwent second-trimester scans at a median gestational age of 22 completed weeks (range, 18-23 weeks). In 13 (13.4%) cases, it was not possible to obtain a midsagittal view of the face for capturing 3D volume data sets due to fetal position. Additional factors limiting visualization were shadowing from the primary palate in fetuses with flexion of the head in 30 (30.9%) cases, interposition of, or shadowing from, fetal arms or legs in 11 (11.3%), inability to reproduce a true midsagittal plane in 8 (8.2%), and poor image quality in 1 (1%). Therefore, it was only possible to assess the secondary palate in 34 (35.1%) cases. It is not feasible to obtain adequate 3D data sets for offline analysis of the fetal secondary palate in almost two-thirds of second-trimester fetuses during the routine scan. However, suboptimal visualization is primarily due to factors related to fetal position rather than equipment or image quality. This finding suggests that a dedicated scan

  16. Hydrogel Based 3-Dimensional (3D System for Toxicity and High-Throughput (HTP Analysis for Cultured Murine Ovarian Follicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhou

    Full Text Available Various toxicants, drugs and their metabolites carry potential ovarian toxicity. Ovarian follicles, the functional unit of the ovary, are susceptible to this type of damage at all stages of their development. However, despite of the large scale of potential negative impacts, assays that study ovarian toxicity are limited. Exposure of cultured ovarian follicles to toxicants of interest served as an important tool for evaluation of toxic effects for decades. Mouse follicles cultured on the bottom of a culture dish continue to serve an important approach for mechanistic studies. In this paper, we demonstrated the usefulness of a hydrogel based 3-dimensional (3D mouse ovarian follicle culture as a tool to study ovarian toxicity in a different setup. The 3D in vitro culture, based on fibrin alginate interpenetrating network (FA-IPN, preserves the architecture of the ovarian follicle and physiological structure-function relationship. We applied the novel 3D high-throughput (HTP in vitro ovarian follicle culture system to study the ovotoxic effects of an anti-cancer drug, Doxorobucin (DXR. The fibrin component in the system is degraded by plasmin and appears as a clear circle around the encapsulated follicle. The degradation area of the follicle is strongly correlated with follicle survival and growth. To analyze fibrin degradation in a high throughput manner, we created a custom MATLAB® code that converts brightfield micrographs of follicles encapsulated in FA-IPN to binary images, followed by image analysis. We did not observe any significant difference between manually processed images to the automated MATLAB® method, thereby confirming that the automated program is suitable to measure fibrin degradation to evaluate follicle health. The cultured follicles were treated with DXR at concentrations ranging from 0.005 nM to 200 nM, corresponding to the therapeutic plasma levels of DXR in patients. Follicles treated with DXR demonstrated decreased

  17. Anatomical region-dependent enhancement of 3-dimensional chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells by soluble meniscus extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrauff, Benjamin B; Shimomura, Kazunori; Gottardi, Riccardo; Alexander, Peter G; Tuan, Rocky S

    2017-02-01

    decellularized meniscus tissue may promote homologous differentiation of progenitor cells, thereby enhancing fibrocartilage formation within a meniscal lesion. However, the meniscus possesses regional variation in ultrastructure, biochemical composition, and cell phenotype, which may affect the bioactivity of soluble ECM derived from different regions of decellularized menisci. In this study, we demonstrate that urea-extracted fractions of ECM derived from the inner and outer regions of menisci enhance chondrogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells seeded in 3-dimensional photocrosslinkable hydrogels and that this effect is more strongly mediated by inner meniscal ECM. These findings suggest region-specific bioactivity of decellularized meniscal ECM. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 3-D Visualisation: Using Internet-based Activities to Enhance Student Understanding of 3-dimensional Spatial Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, A. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, P.

    2011-12-01

    Spatial ability forms its own category separate from verbal ability. Various spatial abilities have been identified over the last three decades and classified into three types: mental rotation, spatial rotation and spatial visualization, which have been linked to high performance in STEM subjects. Geoscience demands spatial thinking from learners and practitioners, and spatial literacy has been seen as a fundamental skill in Geography, Earth & Environmental Sciences (GEES disciplines) essential for progression. First year GEES students not only have to cope with new learning and teaching environments (Maguire et al., 2008), but, arriving with different science backgrounds, are faced with the challenge of developing essential skills that may be novel for them. These essential skills are subject-specific, as well as transferable, and require an understanding of 3-dimensional spatial relationships. However, spatial skills can be troublesome for some students to master. Not only do many students find difficulty in acquiring spatial skills, facing a succession of hurdles that need to be overcome in developing their understanding, but also educators, often strong spatial thinkers themselves and unaware of the degree to which some students are spatially-challenged, may find it difficult to help. Recent studies have suggested that performance on abstract and applied spatial tasks may be enhanced through instruction and practice and spatially-intensive geoscience courses may strengthen performance on spatial tasks. At Liverpool, many first year geoscience modules require understanding of 3-D spatial relationships, often from initial 2-D observations (e.g. mineralogy, petrography, vulcanology, sedimentology, palaeontology, geological map work, structural geology and fieldwork). In this paper we outline work, supported by the UK Subject Centre for Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences (GEES), involving first year geosciences students at Liverpool, in which we explored

  19. The Evaluation of 3-Dimensional Polymerization Changes of a Denture Resin Utilizing Injection Molding with Water Bath Polymerization and Microwave Polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The Evaluation of 3-Dimensional Polymerization Changes of a Denture Resin Utilizing Injection Molding with Water Bath Polymerization and Microwave...to the patient.[4] Since 1937, advances in PMMA technology such as injection molding of denture resin rather than compression molding and...denture acrylic will be mixed and injected by the Success® machine through the sprue space into each mold .  The flasks were polymerized by water

  20. Reconstruction 3-dimensional image from 2-dimensional image of status optical coherence tomography (OCT) for analysis of changes in retinal thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arinilhaq,; Widita, Rena [Department of Physics, Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Group, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-09-30

    Optical Coherence Tomography is often used in medical image acquisition to diagnose that change due easy to use and low price. Unfortunately, this type of examination produces a two-dimensional retinal image of the point of acquisition. Therefore, this study developed a method that combines and reconstruct 2-dimensional retinal images into three-dimensional images to display volumetric macular accurately. The system is built with three main stages: data acquisition, data extraction and 3-dimensional reconstruction. At data acquisition step, Optical Coherence Tomography produced six *.jpg images of each patient were further extracted with MATLAB 2010a software into six one-dimensional arrays. The six arrays are combined into a 3-dimensional matrix using a kriging interpolation method with SURFER9 resulting 3-dimensional graphics of macula. Finally, system provides three-dimensional color graphs based on the data distribution normal macula. The reconstruction system which has been designed produces three-dimensional images with size of 481 × 481 × h (retinal thickness) pixels.

  1. Surgical orthodontic treatment for a patient with advanced periodontal disease: evaluation with electromyography and 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kan; Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Maki, Koutaro

    2009-09-01

    We report here the case of a woman with Class III malocclusion and advanced periodontal disease who was treated with surgical orthodontic correction. Functional recovery after orthodontic treatment is often monitored by serial electromyography of the masticatory muscles, whereas 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography can provide detailed structural information about, for example, periodontal bone defects. However, it is unclear whether the information obtained via these methods is sufficient to determine the treatment goal. It might be useful to address this issue for patients with advanced periodontal disease because of much variability between patients in the determination of treatment goals. We used detailed information obtained by 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography to identify periodontal bone defects and set appropriate treatment goals for inclination of the incisors and mandibular surgery. Results for this patient included stable occlusion and improved facial esthetics. This case report illustrates the benefits of establishing treatment goals acceptable to the patient, based on precise 3-dimensional assessment of dentoalveolar bone, and by using masticatory muscle activity to monitor the stability of occlusion.

  2. 3-dimensional shielding design for a spallation neutron source facility in the high-intensity proton accelerator project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Masaya; Maekawa, Fujio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    Evaluation of shielding performance for a 1 MW spallation neutron source facility in the Materials and Life Science Facility being constructed in the High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Project (J-PARC) is important from a viewpoint of radiation safety and optimization of arrangement of components. This report describes evaluated results for the shielding performance with modeling three-dimensionally whole structural components including gaps between them in detail. A Monte Carlo calculation method with MCNPX2.2.6 code and LA-150 library was adopted. Streaming and void effects, optimization of shield for cost reduction and optimization of arrangement of structures such as shutters were investigated. The streaming effects were investigated quantitatively by changing the detailed structure of components and gap widths built into the calculation model. Horizontal required shield thicknesses were ranged from about 6.5 m to 7.5 m as a function of neutron beam line angles. A shutter mechanism for a horizontal neutron reflectometer that was directed downward was devised, and it was shown that the shielding performance of the shutter was acceptable. An optimal biological shield configuration was finally determined according to the calculated results. (author)

  3. Dispersion of sulphur in the northern hemisphere. A study with a 3-dimensional time-resolved model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrason, L.

    1995-12-31

    This thesis on atmospheric dispersion of sulphur presents a calculation of intercontinental transport of oxidized sulphur and allocates different contributions to sulphur background levels over Europe. It is found that a significant fraction of anthropogenic sulphur (AS) is transported out of continental boundaries thus affecting the background levels over major parts of the northern hemisphere. Over Europe, the contribution of AS from North America is similar in amount to that of Asian AS and natural sources from the North Atlantic Ocean. Although the yearly contribution of intercontinental transport to deposition of sulphur over Europe is quite small, it can be much more important over certain areas and seasons and is comparable to the contributions from individual European countries. The calculations are based on a three-dimensional Eulerian time-resolved model that describes sulphur dispersion in the atmosphere in connection with large-scale synoptic flows and agree well with observations. The thesis emphasizes the role of synoptic scale atmospheric motions in determining intercontinental transport of sulphur. It indicates the need to resolve individual cyclones and anticyclones in order to describe the dispersion and distribution of atmospheric sulphur in the northern hemisphere and stresses the value of comparing model calculations with observations, both in atmospheric chemistry studies and in climate applications. 260 refs., 50 figs., 17 tabs.

  4. Hybrid advection scheme for 3-dimensional atmospheric models. Testing and application for a study of NO{sub x} transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubov, V.A.; Rozanov, E.V. [Main Geophysical Observatory, St.Petersburg (Russian Federation); Schlesinger, M.E.; Andronova, N.G. [Illinois Univ., Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences

    1997-12-31

    The problems of ozone depletion, climate change and atmospheric pollution strongly depend on the processes of production, destruction and transport of chemical species. A hybrid transport scheme was developed, consisting of the semi-Lagrangian scheme for horizontal advection and the Prather scheme for vertical transport, which have been used for the Atmospheric Chemical Transport model to calculate the distributions of different chemical species. The performance of the new hybrid scheme has been evaluated in comparison with other transport schemes on the basis of specially designed tests. The seasonal cycle of the distribution of N{sub 2}O simulated by the model, as well as the dispersion of NO{sub x} exhausted from subsonic aircraft, are in a good agreement with published data. (author) 8 refs.

  5. On the instability of a 3-dimensional attachment line boundary layer: Weakly nonlinear theory and a numerical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, P.; Malik, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    The instability of a three dimensional attachment line boundary layer is considered in the nonlinear regime. Using weakly nonlinear theory, it is found that, apart from a small interval near the (linear) critical Reynolds number, finite amplitude solutions bifurcate subcritically from the upper branch of the neutral curve. The time dependent Navier-Stokes equations for the attachment line flow have been solved using a Fourier-Chebyshev spectral method and the subcritical instability is found at wavenumbers that correspond to the upper branch. Both the theory and the numerical calculations show the existence of supercritical finite amplitude (equilibrium) states near the lower branch which explains why the observed flow exhibits a preference for the lower branch modes. The effect of blowing and suction on nonlinear stability of the attachment line boundary layer is also investigated.

  6. Impact of cavity and infiltration on pulmonary function and health-related quality of life in pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease: A 3-dimensional computed tomographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Takanori; Yamada, Yoshitake; Namkoong, Ho; Suzuki, Shoji; Niijima, Yuki; Kamata, Hirofumi; Funatsu, Yohei; Yagi, Kazuma; Okamori, Satoshi; Sugiura, Hiroaki; Ishii, Makoto; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Hasegawa, Naoki

    2017-05-01

    Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (pMAC) disease manifests as various types of lesions, such as infiltrates, nodules, cavities, and bronchiectasis. However, the important determinants for clinical parameters in lung involvement are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to obtain quantitative parameters by 3-dimensional CT, and investigate the relationship between these parameters and the pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and health-related quality of life. Quantitative analysis using CT was performed in 67 pMAC patients. The relationship between new quantitative parameters for evaluating lung involvement using 3-dimensional CT and PFTs or St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) was evaluated. The ratio of infiltration to total lung volume showed significant correlation with the PFT results, especially the percent-predicted forced vital capacity (%FVC; ρ = -0.52), residual volume (ρ = -0.51), and total lung capacity (ρ = -0.59). The cavity volume was strongly correlated with the %FVC (ρ = -0.78) in the cavity group, while the ratio of infiltration to total lung volume was strongly correlated with the %FVC (ρ = -0.53) in the non-cavity group. The ratio of infiltration to total lung volume was significantly correlated with all SGRQ parameters (ρ = 0.41-0.52) in the non-cavity group. Infiltration was an important parameter for the PFTs and SGRQ in pMAC patients according to the 3-dimensional CT analysis. Moreover, cavity volume was an important parameter of the PFTs in the cavity group. Therefore, infiltration and cavity volume are key features for the management of pMAC disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A 3-Dimensional Approach for Analysis in Orthognathic Surgery-Using Free Software for Voxel-Based Alignment and Semiautomatic Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokbro, Kasper; Thygesen, Torben

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: In orthognathic surgery, the repeatability of 3-dimensional (3D) measurements is limited by the need for manual reidentification of reference points, which can incorporate errors greater than 1 mm for every 4 repeated measurements. This report describes a semiautomatic approach to decrease...... the manual reidentification error. This study evaluated the repeatability of surgical outcome measurements using the semiautomatic approach. Furthermore, a step-by-step guide is provided to enable researchers and clinicians to perform the 3D analysis by themselves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Evaluating surgical......: The semiautomatic approach showed excellent linear and angular repeatability. The algorithm can be implemented in the clinical evaluation of orthognathic surgical outcome and postoperative relapse....

  8. Magnetic Field Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Calculator will calculate the total magnetic field, including components (declination, inclination, horizontal intensity, northerly intensity,...

  9. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIAAA College Materials Supporting Research Special Features CollegeAIM College Administrators Parents & Students Home > Special Features > Calculators > Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie ...

  10. Comparison of 3-Dimensional Shoulder Complex Kinematics in Individuals With and Without Shoulder Pain, Part 2: Glenohumeral Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    LAWRENCE, REBEKAH L.; BRAMAN, JONATHAN P.; STAKER, JUSTIN L.; LAPRADE, ROBERT F.; LUDEWIG, PAULA M.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional. OBJECTIVES To compare differences in glenohumeral joint angular motion and linear translations between symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals during shoulder motion performed in 3 planes of humerothoracic elevation. BACKGROUND Numerous clinical theories have linked abnormal glenohumeral kinematics, including decreased glenohumeral external rotation and increased superior translation, to individuals with shoulder pain and impingement diagnoses. However, relatively few studies have investigated glenohumeral joint angular motion and linear translations in this population. METHODS Transcortical bone pins were inserted into the scapula and humerus of 12 a symptomatic and 10 symptomatic participants for direct bone-fixed tracking using electromagnetic sensors. Glenohumeral joint angular positions and linear translations were calculated during active shoulder flexion, abduction, and scapular plane abduction. RESULTS Differences between groups in angular positions were limited to glenohumeral elevation, coinciding with a reduction in scapulothoracic upward rotation. Symptomatic participants demonstrated 1.4 mm more anterior glenohumeral translation between 90° and 120° of shoulder flexion and an average of 1 mm more inferior glenohumeral translation throughout shoulder abduction. CONCLUSION Differences in glenohumeral kinematics exist between symptomatic and a symptomatic individuals. The clinical implications of these differences are not yet understood, and more research is needed to understand the relationship between abnormal kinematics, shoulder pain, and pathoanatomy. PMID:25103132

  11. Scatter Correction with Combined Single-Scatter Simulation and Monte Carlo Simulation Scaling Improved the Visual Artifacts and Quantification in 3-Dimensional Brain PET/CT Imaging with 15O-Gas Inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magota, Keiichi; Shiga, Tohru; Asano, Yukari; Shinyama, Daiki; Ye, Jinghan; Perkins, Amy E; Maniawski, Piotr J; Toyonaga, Takuya; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Hirata, Kenji; Katoh, Chietsugu; Hattori, Naoya; Tamaki, Nagara

    2017-12-01

    In 3-dimensional PET/CT imaging of the brain with 15O-gas inhalation, high radioactivity in the face mask creates cold artifacts and affects the quantitative accuracy when scatter is corrected by conventional methods (e.g., single-scatter simulation [SSS] with tail-fitting scaling [TFS-SSS]). Here we examined the validity of a newly developed scatter-correction method that combines SSS with a scaling factor calculated by Monte Carlo simulation (MCS-SSS). Methods: We performed phantom experiments and patient studies. In the phantom experiments, a plastic bottle simulating a face mask was attached to a cylindric phantom simulating the brain. The cylindric phantom was filled with 18F-FDG solution (3.8-7.0 kBq/mL). The bottle was filled with nonradioactive air or various levels of 18F-FDG (0-170 kBq/mL). Images were corrected either by TFS-SSS or MCS-SSS using the CT data of the bottle filled with nonradioactive air. We compared the image activity concentration in the cylindric phantom with the true activity concentration. We also performed 15O-gas brain PET based on the steady-state method on patients with cerebrovascular disease to obtain quantitative images of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism. Results: In the phantom experiments, a cold artifact was observed immediately next to the bottle on TFS-SSS images, where the image activity concentrations in the cylindric phantom were underestimated by 18%, 36%, and 70% at the bottle radioactivity levels of 2.4, 5.1, and 9.7 kBq/mL, respectively. At higher bottle radioactivity, the image activity concentrations in the cylindric phantom were greater than 98% underestimated. For the MCS-SSS, in contrast, the error was within 5% at each bottle radioactivity level, although the image generated slight high-activity artifacts around the bottle when the bottle contained significantly high radioactivity. In the patient imaging with 15O2 and C15O2 inhalation, cold artifacts were observed on TFS-SSS images, whereas no

  12. Alignment of 3-dimensional cardiac structures in O-15-labeled water PET emission images with mutual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juslin, Anu; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Nesterov, Sergey V; Kalliokoski, Kari; Knuuti, Juhani; Ruotsalainen, Ulla

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method to correct the heart position between two oxygen 15-labeled water cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) image sets to be able to use the equivalent regions of interest for the quantification of the perfusion values in the same myocardial segments. Independent component analysis was applied to the dynamic image sets (simulated phantom and 6 rest-pharmacologic stress and 10 rest-rest image sets of healthy female volunteers) acquired at different time points to separate the cardiac structures (ventricles and myocardium). The separated component images from independent component analysis from the 2 studies of the same individual were aligned with a normalized mutual information-based registration method. The alignment parameters were applied to position the regions of interest in the floating image sets for calculation of the myocardial blood flow values. In the rest case the mean myocardial blood flow value was 0.76 +/- 0.12 mL x g(-1) x min(-1) for the manual method and 0.79 +/- 0.10 mL x g(-1) x min(-1) for the proposed method (by use of the right ventricle component in the alignment), and in the stress case these values were 3.39 +/- 0.70 mL x g(-1) x min(-1) and 4.01 +/- 0.71 mL x g(-1) x min(-1), respectively. No statistically significant difference was found between the methods. In the tests with the phantom and patient images the alignment of cardiac structures was shown to be successful. The alignment could be done without the use of information from the myocardial compartment.

  13. Validity and reliability of total body volume and relative body fat mass from a 3-dimensional photonic body surface scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Carolin; Steinbrecher, Astrid; Jaeschke, Lina; Mähler, Anja; Boschmann, Michael; Jeran, Stephanie; Pischon, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional photonic body surface scanners (3DPS) feature a tool to estimate total body volume (BV) from 3D images of the human body, from which the relative body fat mass (%BF) can be calculated. However, information on validity and reliability of these measurements for application in epidemiological studies is limited. Validity was assessed among 32 participants (men, 50%) aged 20-58 years. BV and %BF were assessed using a 3DPS (VitusSmart XXL) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) with a BOD POD® device using equations by Siri and Brozek. Three scans were obtained per participant (standard, relaxed, exhaled scan). Validity was evaluated based on the agreement of 3DPS with ADP using Bland Altman plots, correlation analysis and Wilcoxon signed ranks test for paired samples. Reliability was investigated in a separate sample of 18 participants (men, 67%) aged 25-66 years using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) based on two repeated 3DPS measurements four weeks apart. Mean BV and %BF were higher using 3DPS compared to ADP, (3DPS-ADP BV difference 1.1 ± 0.9 L, p<0.01; %BF difference 7.0 ± 5.6, p<0.01), yet the disagreement was not associated with gender, age or body mass index (BMI). Reliability was excellent for 3DPS BV (ICC, 0.998) and good for 3DPS %BF (ICC, 0.982). Results were similar for the standard scan and the relaxed scan but somewhat weaker for the exhaled scan. Although BV and %BF are higher than ADP measurements, our data indicate good validity and reliability for an application of 3DPS in epidemiological studies.

  14. Three-dimensional whole-core transport calculation of the OECD benchmark problem C5G7 MOX by the CRX code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Soo Lee; Nam, Zin Cho [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Yusong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The OECD 3-dimensional benchmark problem C5G7 MOX was calculated by the CRX code. For 3-dimensional heterogeneous calculation, the CRX code uses a fusion technique of 2-dimensional/1-dimensional methods: the method of characteristics for radial 2-dimensional calculation and diamond difference scheme (DD) that is an S{sub N}-like method for axial 1-dimensional calculation. We improve the fusion method by using a linear characteristics (LC) solver in the 1-dimensional calculation. Here, we present brief structure of 2-dimensional/1-dimensional fusion method and the results of 3 configurations of benchmark problem. We also present results of several different 1-dimensional calculation options. Numerical results show that the LC scheme presents better performance than DD. In the results of the benchmark problem, k(eff) errors are less than 0.05% and the averages of pin power errors are less than 1% for all calculations.

  15. The Anterior Intrapelvic Approach for Acetabular Fractures Using Approach-Specific Instruments and an Anatomical-Preshaped 3-Dimensional Suprapectineal Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, Florian; Marintschev, Ivan; Grossterlinden, Lars; Rossmann, Markus; Graul, Isabel; Hofmann, Gunther O; Rueger, Johannes M; Lehmann, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    Anatomical acetabular plates the anterior intrapelvic approach (AIP) were recently introduced to fix acetabular fractures through the intrapelvic approach. Therefore, we asked the following: (1) Does the preshaped 3-dimensional suprapectineal plate interfere with or even impair the fracture reduction quality? (2) How often does the AIP approach need to be extended by the first (lateral) window of the ilioinguinal approach? Observational case series. Two Level 1 trauma centers. Patients with unstable acetabular fractures in 2014. Fracture fixation with anatomical-preshaped, 3-dimensional suprapectineal plates through the AIP approach ± the first window of the ilioinguinal approach. Fracture reduction results were measured in computed tomography scans and graded according to the Matta quality of reduction. Intraoperative parameters and perioperative complications were recorded. Radiological results (according to Matta) and functional outcome (modified Merle d'Aubigné score) were evaluated at 1-year follow-up. Thirty patients (9 women + 21 men; mean age ± SE: 64 ± 8 years) were included. The intrapelvic approach was solely used in 19 cases, and in 11 cases, an additional extension with the first window of the ilioinguinal approach (preferential for 2-column fractures) was performed. The mean operating time was 202 ± 59 minutes; the fluoroscopic time was 66 ± 48 seconds. Fracture gaps and steps in preoperative versus postoperative computed tomography scans were 12.4 ± 9.8 versus 2.0 ± 1.5 and 6.0 ± 5.5 versus 1.3 ± 1.7 mm, respectively. At 13.4 ± 2.9 months follow-up, the Matta grading was excellent in 50%, good in 25%, fair in 11%, and poor in 14% of cases. The modified Merle d'Aubigné score was excellent in 17%, good in 37%, fair in 33%, and poor in 13% of cases. The AIP approach using approach-specific instruments and an anatomical-preshaped, 3-dimensional suprapectineal plate became the standard procedure in our departments. Radiological and functional

  16. Preparation and properties of PMMA nanoparticles as 3 dimensional photonic crystals and its thin film via surfactant-free emulsion polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahrin, Rabiatul Addawiyah Azwa; Azma, Nur Syafiqa; Kassim, Syara; Harun, Noor Aniza

    2017-09-01

    3-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals have been extended use in wide research and application from material to sensor. Nanoparticles of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) latex beads have been successfully prepared by green-chemistry approach where no surfactant, linking agent and solvent were involved. Regardless of the effect of initiator in polymerization reaction, this study presents the effect of temperature, monomer concentration, stirring speed and reaction period in order to tune the particle size. Its morphology of uniformity sized-tuned was confirming by using particle size analyzer (PSA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fabrication of 3D photonic crystals film by using self-assembly method to pattern the desired PMMA layers which is the most feasible, low cost method are also presented. The detailed properties of PMMA nanoparticles from this experimental study will be discussed and its potential used in photonic application will be explained.

  17. Transcriptional profiling of radiation damage and preventive treatments in a 3-dimensional (3D human cell culture model of oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria P. Lambros

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer patients who receive radiation are often afflicted by oral mucositis, a debilitating disease, characterized by mouth sores and difficulty in swallowing. Oftentimes, cancer patients afflicted with mucositis must stop life-saving therapies. Thus it is very important to prevent mucositis before it develops. Using a validated organotypic model of human oral mucosa, a 3-dimensional cell culture model of human oral keratinocytes, it has been shown that a mixture (NAC–QYD of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC and a traditional Chinese medicine, Qingre Liyan decoction (QYD, prevented radiation damage (Lambros et al., 2014. Here we provide detailed methods and analysis of microarray data for non-irradiated and irradiated human oral mucosal tissue with and without pretreatment with NAC, QYD and NAC-QYD. The microarray data been deposited in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO: GSE62397. These data can be used to further elucidate the mechanisms of irradiation damage in oral mucosa and its prevention.

  18. Transcriptional profiling of radiation damage and preventive treatments in a 3-dimensional (3D) human cell culture model of oral mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambros, Maria P; DeSalvo, Michael K; Moreno, Jonathan; Mulamalla, Hari Chandana; Kondapalli, Lavanya

    2015-12-01

    Cancer patients who receive radiation are often afflicted by oral mucositis, a debilitating disease, characterized by mouth sores and difficulty in swallowing. Oftentimes, cancer patients afflicted with mucositis must stop life-saving therapies. Thus it is very important to prevent mucositis before it develops. Using a validated organotypic model of human oral mucosa, a 3-dimensional cell culture model of human oral keratinocytes, it has been shown that a mixture (NAC-QYD) of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and a traditional Chinese medicine, Qingre Liyan decoction (QYD), prevented radiation damage (Lambros et al., 2014). Here we provide detailed methods and analysis of microarray data for non-irradiated and irradiated human oral mucosal tissue with and without pretreatment with NAC, QYD and NAC-QYD. The microarray data been deposited in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO): GSE62397. These data can be used to further elucidate the mechanisms of irradiation damage in oral mucosa and its prevention.

  19. Initial results of 3-dimensional 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in the localization of prostate cancer at 3 Tesla: should we use an endorectal coil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakar, Derya; Heijmink, Stijn W T P J; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A; Huisman, Henkjan; Barentsz, Jelle O; Fütterer, Jurgen J; Scheenen, Tom W J

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of 3 Tesla, 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) in the localization of prostate cancer (PCa) with and without the use of an endorectal coil (ERC). Our prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Between October 2004 and January 2006, 18 patients with histologically proven PCa on biopsy and scheduled for radical prostatectomy were included and underwent 3D-MRSI with and without an ERC. The prostate was divided into 14 regions of interest (ROIs). Four readers independently rated (on a 5-point scale) their confidence that cancer was present in each of these ROIs. These findings were correlated with whole-mount prostatectomy specimens. Areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve were determined. A difference with a P Tesla slightly but significantly increased the localization performance compared with not using an ERC.

  20. Motor-assisted chip-in-a-tube (MACT): a new 2- and 3-dimensional centrifugal microfluidic platform for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Minghui; Loo, Jacky Fong-Chuen; Wang, Yuye; Zhang, Xuping; Kwok, Ho-Chin; Hui, Mamie; Leung, Czarina Chi-Hung; Kong, Siu-Kai; Wang, Guanghui; Ho, Ho-Pui

    2017-01-31

    Currently, centrifuge apparatus is primarily an end-point sample processing piece of equipment. The lack of real-time active control has imposed an inherent limitation such that many delicate sample processing steps requiring immediate and accurate intervention have never been possible. We report herein a motor-assisted chip-in-a-tube (MACT) platform in which a microfluidic chip placed inside a common centrifuge canister can be rotated through wireless control in order to manipulate the centrifugal force vector in a 3-dimensional (3D) manner. As a demonstration experiment, we have used our MACT prototype to perform the operation for two common biomedical procedures, namely human blood plasma separation and E. coli plasmid DNA extraction. This simple, yet highly effective and versatile approach may serve as a generic one-for-all platform for a wide range of common laboratory experiments and bioassay applications.

  1. Massive facial teratoma managed with the ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT procedure and use of a 3-dimensional printed model for planning of staged debulking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie M. Hodges

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Teratomas are the most frequent solid tumor found in neonates. However, only 1.5% of neonatal teratomas originate from facial structures. Neonatal facial teratomas are associated with polyhydramnios, preterm birth, pulmonary hypoplasia, cleft palate, cleft lip, and life-threatening airway compromise. The overall survival reported with these lesions has been between 17 and 87.5%; however survival in the setting of antenatally diagnosed facial teratomas has only been described anecdotally. We present a case of an antenatally diagnosed massive facial teratoma originating from the pterygomaxillary fossa, which was associated with polyhydramnios and pre-term birth. We managed this complex tumor with an ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT procedure, multidisciplinary medical and surgical team, and staged excision and reconstruction aided by use of a 3-dimensional printed model. Here we review the surgical management of this rare and complex tumor.

  2. A comparison of cytokine production in 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional cultures of bone marrow stromal cells of multiple myeloma patients in response to RPMI8226 myeloma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Roliński

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available We examined cytokine production by bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs of patients with multiple myeloma (MM in response to contact with myeloma RPMI8226 cells in standard 2-dimensional (2D cultures and in 3-dimensional (3D cultures on a gelatine sponge scaffold. It was detected that BMSCs in the 3D cultures produced more IL-11 and HGF and less IL-10 than in the 2D cultures. Moreover, RPMI8226 cells after contact with BMSCs in 3D cultures produced more sIL-6R than in the classic 2D cultures. We concluded that 3D cultures of BMSCs with myeloma cells offered a promising model for in vitro examination of interactions between myeloma cells and the bone marrow stroma and for examination of potent antimyeloma agents.

  3. Test Your Calculator IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    1981-01-01

    This short quiz for teachers is intended to help them to brush up on their calculator operating skills and to prepare for the types of questions their students will ask about calculator idiosyncracies. (SJL)

  4. Comparison of the Osteogenic Potential of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Endosequence Root Repair Material in a 3-dimensional Culture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifaey, Hisham S; Villa, Max; Zhu, Qiang; Wang, Yu-Hsiung; Safavi, Kamran; Chen, I-Ping

    2016-05-01

    The ability to promote osteoblast differentiation is a desirable property of root-end filling materials. Several in vitro studies compare the cytotoxicity and physical properties between mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Endosequence root repair material (ERRM), but not their osteogenic potential. Three-dimensional cultures allow cells to better maintain their physiological morphology and better resemble in vivo cellular response than 2-dimensional cultures. Here we examined the osteogenic potential of MTA and ERRM by using a commercially available 3-dimensional Alvetex scaffold. Mandibular osteoblasts were derived from 3-week-old male transgenic reporter mice where mature osteoblasts express green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by a 2.3-kilobase type I collagen promoter (Col(I)-2.3). Mandibular osteoblasts were grown on Alvetex in direct contact with MTA, ERRM, or no material (negative control) for 14 days. Osteoblast differentiation was evaluated by expression levels of osteogenic genes by using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and by the spatial dynamics of Col(I)-2.3 GFP-positive mature osteoblasts within the Alvetex scaffolds by using 2-photon microscopy. ERRM significantly increased alkaline phosphatase (Alp) and bone sialoprotein (Bsp) expression compared with MTA and negative control groups. Both MTA and ERRM increased osterix (Osx) mRNA significantly compared with the negative control group. The percentage of Col(I)-2.3 GFP-positive cells over total cells within Alvetex was the highest in the ERRM group, followed by MTA and by negative controls. ERRM promotes osteoblast differentiation better than MTA and controls with no material in a 3-dimensional culture system. Alvetex scaffolds can be used to test endodontic materials. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of an Electrophysiology (EP)-Enabled Intracardiac Ultrasound Catheter Integrated With NavX 3-Dimensional Electrofield Mapping for Guiding Cardiac EP Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao Kui; Pemberton, James; Thomenius, Kai; Dentinger, Aaron; Lowe, Robert I.; Ashraf, Muhammad; Shung, K. Kirk; Chia, Raymond; Stephens, Douglas N.; O'Donnell, Matthew; Mahajan, Aman; Balaji, Seshadri; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Sahn, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We have developed an integrated high-resolution intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) catheter for electrophysiology (EP) testing, which can be coregistered in 3-dimensional space with EP testing and ablation catheters using electrofield sensing. Methods Twelve open-chest pigs (34–55 kg) and 3 closed-chest pigs were studied. After introduction from the jugular or femoral venous locations, the 9F side-looking, highly steerable (0°–180°), 64-element array catheters could be manipulated easily throughout the right side of the heart. Multisite cardiac pacing was performed for assessing left ventricular (LV) synchrony using tissue Doppler methods. Also, in the open-chest pigs, right atrial (RA) and right ventricular (RV) ablations were performed with a separate radio frequency catheter under fluoroscopic guidance and visualized with ICE to characterize the changes. In the 3 closed-chest pigs, electrofield NavX 3-dimensional coregistration (St Jude Medical Corp, Minneapolis, MN) allowed us to test whether this additional feature could shorten the time necessary to perform 4 targeted ablations in each animal while imaging the ablation catheter and the adjacent region by ICE. Results Intracardiac anatomy, tricuspid, aortic, pulmonary, and mitral valve function, and pulmonary vein flow were all imaged reproducibly from scanning locations in the RA or RV in all animals, along with assessment of cardiac motion and the effects of multisite pacing. Three-dimensional electrofield displays detailed the spatial relationship between the ICE catheter and ablation catheters such that the time to visualize and ablate 4 sites in each of the 3 closed-chest animals was reduced. Conclusions This new technology is a first step in the integration of ICE with EP procedures. PMID:17957051

  6. Comparison of fixation properties between coil-type and screw-type anchors for rotator cuff repair: A virtual pullout testing using 3-dimensional finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Hirotaka; Tokunaga, Masako; Noguchi, Moriyuki; Inawashiro, Takashi; Irie, Taichi; Abe, Hiroo; Abrassart, Sophie; Itoi, Eiji

    2016-07-01

    Pullout of inserted anchor constitutes one of the pathomechanisms of re-tearing after rotator cuff repair. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the fixation properties of suture anchors using 3-dimensional finite element method. The computer models of three types of anchors (TwinFix Ti, HEALICOIL PK and HEALICOIL RG) were inserted into the isotropic cube model that simulated cancellous bone. In the virtual pullout testing, a tensile load (500 N) along the long axis of the inserted anchor was applied to the site of suture thread attachment to simulate a traction force. The distribution of von Mises equivalent stress, the failure patterns of elements inside the cube and the anchor displacement were compared among the three anchors. In TwinFix Ti, the highest stress concentration was seen around the anchor threads close to the surface of the cube, which caused element failure at this site. On the other hand, both HEALICOIL PK and HEALICOIL RG demonstrated a high stress concentration as well as element failure around the anchor tip. Comparing the anchor displacement, HEALICOIL RG showed the smallest displacement among the three anchors. The tensile loads that required a 0.1-mm displacement for TwinFix Ti, HEALICOIL PK and HEALICOIL RG were 400 N, 370 N, and greater than 500 N, respectively. The bony structures close to the footprint surface may be damaged during surgery due to preparation for the bony bed as well as the insertion of anchors. Thus, we assumed that HEALICOIL RG represented the best initial fixation properties among the three anchors tested. Virtual pullout testing using 3-dimensional finite element method could reveal the detailed biomechanical characteristics of each suture anchor, which would be important for shoulder surgeons to improve the clinical outcomes of rotator cuff repair. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of gain adjustment on 3-dimensional power Doppler indices and on spatiotemporal image correlation volumetric pulsatility indices using a flow phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyague, Andre H; Raine-Fenning, Nicholas J; Pavan, Theo Z; Polanski, Lukasz T; Baumgarten, Miriam N; Nastri, Carolina O; Martins, Wellington P

    2013-10-01

    Spatiotemporal image correlation can be used to acquire 3-dimensional power Doppler information across a single cardiac cycle. Assessment and comparison of the systolic and diastolic components of the data sets allow measurement of the recently introduced "volumetric pulsatility index" (vPI) through algorithms comparable with those used in 2-dimensional Doppler waveform analysis. The vPI could potentially overcome the dependency on certain machine settings, such as power, color gain, pulse repetition frequency, and attenuation, since these factors would affect the power Doppler signal equally throughout the cardiac cycle. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of color gain on the vascularization index (VI), vascularization-flow index (VFI), and vPI using an in vitro flow phantom model. We separated gains into 3 bands: -8 to -1 (no noise), -1 to +5 (low noise), and +5 to +8 (obvious noise). The vPI was determined from the 3-dimensional VI or VFI using the formula vPI = (maximum - minimum)/mean. Using no-noise gains, we observed that although the VI and VFI increased linearly with gain, the vPI was substantially less dependent on this adjustment. The VI and VFI continued to increase linearly with gain, whereas the vPI decreased slightly using low-noise gains. When gain was increased above the lower limit of obvious noise (+5), the VI and VFI increased noticeably, and there were marked reductions in both vPI values. We conclude that the vPI is less affected by changes in color gain than the VI and VFI at no-noise gains.

  8. Complications after liver transplantation: evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance cholangiography, and 3-dimensional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in a single session

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boraschi, P.; Donati, F.; Gigoni, R. [Pisa Univ. Hospital, Second Dept. of Radiology, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: p.boraschi@do.med.unipi.it; Salemi, S. [Univ. of Pisa, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Pisa (Italy); Urbani, L.; Filipponi, F. [Univ. of Pisa, Liver Transplant Unit of the Dept. of Oncology, Transplants and Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Falaschi, F. [Pisa Univ. Hospital, Second Dept. of Radiology, Pisa (Italy); Bartolozzi, C. [Univ. of Pisa, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Pisa (Italy)

    2008-12-15

    To evaluate a comprehensive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol as noninvasive diagnostic modality for simultaneous detection of parenchymal, biliary, and vascular complications after liver transplantation. Fifty-two liver transplant recipients suspected to have parenchymal, biliary, and (or) vascular complications underwent our MRI protocol at 1.5T unit using a phased array coil. After preliminary acquisition of axial T{sub 1}w and T{sub 2}w sequences, magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) was performed through a breath-hold, thin- and thick-slab, single-shot T{sub 2}w sequence in the coronal plane. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA) was obtained using a 3-dimensional coronal spoiled gradient-echo sequence, which enabled acquisition of 32 partitions 2.0 mm thick. A fixed dose of 20 ml gadobenate dimeglumine was administered at 2 mL/s. A post-contrast T{sub 1}w sequence was also performed. Two observers in conference reviewed source images and 3-dimensional reconstructions to determine the presence of parenchymal, biliary, and vascular complications. MRI findings were correlated with surgery, endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC), biopsy, digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and imaging follow-up. MRI revealed abnormal findings in 32 out of 52 patients (61%), including biliary complications (anastomotic and nonanastomotic strictures, and lithiasis) in 31, vascular disease (hepatic artery stenosis and thrombosis) in 9, and evidence of hepatic abscess and hematoma in 2. ERC confirmed findings of MRC in 30 cases, but suggested disease underestimation in 2. DSA confirmed 7 magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) findings, but suggested disease overestimation in 2. MRI combined with MRC and CEMRA can provide a comprehensive assessment of parenchymal, biliary, and vascular complications in most recipients of liver transplantation. (author)

  9. Long-term Cosmetic Outcomes and Toxicities of Proton Beam Therapy Compared With Photon-Based 3-Dimensional Conformal Accelerated Partial-Breast Irradiation: A Phase 1 Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galland-Girodet, Sigolène; Pashtan, Itai; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Ancukiewicz, Marek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hirsch, Ariel E.; Kachnic, Lisa A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Specht, Michelle; Gadd, Michele; Smith, Barbara L. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Powell, Simon N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Recht, Abram [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Taghian, Alphonse G., E-mail: ataghian@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To present long-term outcomes of a prospective feasibility trial using either protons or 3-dimensional conformal photon-based (accelerated partial-breast irradiation [APBI]) techniques. Methods and Materials: From October 2003 to April 2006, 98 evaluable patients with stage I breast cancer were treated with APBI (32 Gy in 8 fractions given twice daily) on a prospective clinical trial: 19 with proton beam therapy (PBT) and 79 with photons or mixed photons/electrons. Median follow-up was 82.5 months (range, 2-104 months). Toxicity and patient satisfaction evaluations were performed at each visit. Results: At 7 years, the physician rating of overall cosmesis was good or excellent for 62% of PBT patients, compared with 94% for photon patients (P=.03). Skin toxicities were more common for the PBT group: telangiectasia, 69% and 16% (P=.0013); pigmentation changes, 54% and 22% (P=.02); and other late skin toxicities, 62% and 18% (P=.029) for PBT and photons, respectively. There were no significant differences between the groups in the incidences of breast pain, edema, fibrosis, fat necrosis, skin desquamation, and rib pain or fracture. Patient-reported cosmetic outcomes at 7 years were good or excellent for 92% and 96% of PBT and photon patients, respectively (P=.95). Overall patient satisfaction was 93% for the entire cohort. The 7-year local failure rate for all patients was 6%, with 3 local recurrences in the PBT group (7-year rate, 11%) and 2 in photon-treated patients (4%) (P=.22). Conclusions: Local failure rates of 3-dimensional APBI and PBT were similar in this study. However, PBT, as delivered in this study, led to higher rates of long-term telangiectasia, skin color changes, and skin toxicities. We recommend the use of multiple fields and treatment of all fields per treatment session or the use of scanning techniques to minimize skin toxicity.

  10. Modified flapless dental implant surgery for planning treatment in a maxilla including sinus lift augmentation through use of virtual surgical planning and a 3-dimensional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikzad, Sakineh; Azari, Abbas; Ghassemzadeh, Amanollah

    2010-09-01

    The concept of "prosthetic-driven implantology" may be considered a turning point in the history of modern dental implantology. On the basis of this sophisticated approach, the available bone and the optimal prosthetic position of the future restoration are checked before surgical intervention. However, the major drawback of today's prosthodontic discipline is that it is inherently 2-dimensional in nature, which may prevent the appropriate treatment; this problem can be overcome by the 3-dimensional capability of a computer-assisted approach when performed judiciously. It was proposed that this technique has the potential to provide a high level of safety and accuracy in comparison to traditional surgical procedures. Using a novel approach, we performed modified flapless implant surgery accompanied by a simultaneous sinus-lifting procedure. The technique used a 3-dimensional life-sized computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) model prepared from the computed tomography images for prosthetic/surgical diagnosis and treatment planning. The procedure of implant planning, model surgery, and sinus floor augmentation in this sophisticated flapless surgical approach has the potential to provide substantial benefits for both patients and practitioners. The versatility of the described technique not only allows more accurate implementation of the treatment plan to the patient's mouth but also may offer many additional significant benefits, including the use of custom surgical guides, life-sized bone model manipulation, and surgical rehearsal, all of which are very difficult to achieve with current traditional procedures. Copyright 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Calculating correct compilers

    OpenAIRE

    Bahr, Patrick; Hutton, Graham

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present a new approach to the problem of calculating compilers. In particular, we develop a simple but general technique that allows us to derive correct compilers from high- level semantics by systematic calculation, with all details of the implementation of the compilers falling naturally out of the calculation process. Our approach is based upon the use of standard equational reasoning techniques, and has been applied to calculate compilers for a wide range of language f...

  12. Autistic Savant Calendar Calculators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, Paul J.

    This study identified 10 savants with developmental disabilities and an exceptional ability to calculate calendar dates. These "calendar calculators" were asked to demonstrate their abilities, and their strategies were analyzed. The study found that the ability to calculate dates into the past or future varied widely among these…

  13. Flexible Mental Calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threlfall, John

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that strategy choice is a misleading characterization of efficient mental calculation and that teaching mental calculation methods as a whole is not conducive to flexibility. Proposes an alternative in which calculation is thought of as an interaction between noticing and knowledge. Presents an associated teaching approach to promote…

  14. 3-Dimensional Necklace Flower Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnas, David; Casanova, Daniel; Tresaco, Eva; Mortari, Daniele

    2017-09-01

    A new approach in satellite constellation design is presented in this paper, taking as a base the 3D Lattice Flower Constellation Theory and introducing the necklace problem in its formulation. This creates a further generalization of the Flower Constellation Theory, increasing the possibilities of constellation distribution while maintaining the characteristic symmetries of the original theory in the design.

  15. Core calculations of JMTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Yoshiharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In material testing reactors like the JMTR (Japan Material Testing Reactor) of 50 MW in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of irradiated samples show complex distributions. It is necessary to assess the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of an irradiation field by carrying out the nuclear calculation of the core for every operation cycle. In order to advance core calculation, in the JMTR, the application of MCNP to the assessment of core reactivity and neutron flux and spectra has been investigated. In this study, in order to reduce the time for calculation and variance, the comparison of the results of the calculations by the use of K code and fixed source and the use of Weight Window were investigated. As to the calculation method, the modeling of the total JMTR core, the conditions for calculation and the adopted variance reduction technique are explained. The results of calculation are shown. Significant difference was not observed in the results of neutron flux calculations according to the difference of the modeling of fuel region in the calculations by K code and fixed source. The method of assessing the results of neutron flux calculation is described. (K.I.)

  16. Leading research report for fiscal 1998. Research and study of 3-dimensional cell structure module engineering; 1998 nendo sendo chosa kenkyu hokokusho. Sanjigen saibo soshiki module kogaku chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For the formation of cellular tissues to replace bionic tissues, researches were conducted about technologies of forming bionic tissue modules by culturing various kinds of cells. As for the materials and methods for constructing cellular tissues, researches were conducted about the trends of research and development of 3-dimensional tissue culturing matrices and materials for micromanipulation. As for the development of technologies for the functionalization of 3-dimensionally structured cells, research and study were conducted about the technology of 3-dimensional cell structure organization through application of physical stimulation, the biochemical technology of differentiation inducing, and the differentiation inducing technology for hetero tissue culturing. As for the development of technologies for evaluation using 3-dimensionally structured cells, light CT (computer tomography), analysis and evaluation using spectroscopy and the like, feasibility of the biochemical analysis of the cell state using biosensors, technologies for measuring the secretion of carcinogenic and toxic substances, etc., were studied. In addition, the development of organic models to replace test animals, industrial evolution of 3-dimensional tissue module engineering, etc., were investigated. (NEDO)

  17. Multiphase flow calculation software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-04-15

    Multiphase flow calculation software and computer-readable media carrying computer executable instructions for calculating liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of high void fraction multiphase flows. The multiphase flow calculation software employs various given, or experimentally determined, parameters in conjunction with a plurality of pressure differentials of a multiphase flow, preferably supplied by a differential pressure flowmeter or the like, to determine liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flows. Embodiments of the multiphase flow calculation software are suitable for use in a variety of applications, including real-time management and control of an object system.

  18. Radar Signature Calculation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The calculation, analysis, and visualization of the spatially extended radar signatures of complex objects such as ships in a sea multipath environment and...

  19. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Marr

    2000-05-11

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation.

  20. Electrical installation calculations advanced

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for advanced electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practiceA step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3For apprentices and electrical installatio

  1. Evapotranspiration Calculator Desktop Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Evapotranspiration Calculator estimates evapotranspiration time series data for hydrological and water quality models for the Hydrologic Simulation Program - Fortran (HSPF) and the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM).

  2. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  3. Electrical installation calculations basic

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3Fo

  4. Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiation Therapy for Primary Kidney Cancer: A 3-Dimensional Conformal Technique Associated With Low Rates of Early Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.pham@petermac.org [Department of Radiotherapy Services, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Thompson, Ann [Department of Radiotherapy Services, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Kron, Tomas [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Melbourne University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Foroudi, Farshad [Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Melbourne University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Kolsky, Michal Schneider [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Devereux, Thomas; Lim, Andrew [Department of Radiotherapy Services, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Siva, Shankar [Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Melbourne University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To describe our 3-dimensional conformal planning approaches and report early toxicities with stereotactic body radiation therapy for the management of primary renal cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: This is an analysis of a phase 1 trial of stereotactic body radiation therapy for primary inoperable renal cell carcinoma. A dose of 42 Gy/3 fractions was prescribed to targets ≥5 cm, whereas for <5 cm 26 Gy/1 fraction was used. All patients underwent a planning 4-dimensional CT to generate a planning target volume (PTV) from a 5-mm isotropic expansion of the internal target volume. Planning required a minimum of 8 fields prescribing to the minimum isodose surrounding the PTV. Intermediate dose spillage at 50% of the prescription dose (R50%) was measured to describe the dose gradient. Early toxicity (<6 months) was scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (v4.0). Results: From July 2012 to August 2013 a total of 20 patients (median age, 77 years) were recruited into a prospective clinical trial. Eleven patients underwent fractionated treatment and 9 patients a single fraction. For PTV targets <100 cm{sup 3} the median number of beams used was 8 (2 noncoplanar) to achieve an average R50% of 3.7. For PTV targets >100 cm{sup 3} the median beam number used was 10 (4 noncoplanar) for an average R50% value of 4.3. The R50% was inversely proportional to decreasing PTV volume (r=−0.62, P=.003) and increasing total beams used (r=−0.51, P=.022). Twelve of 20 patients (60%) suffered grade ≤2 early toxicity, whereas 8 of 20 patients (40%) were asymptomatic. Nausea, chest wall pain, and fatigue were the most common toxicities reported. Conclusion: A 3-dimensional conformal planning technique of 8-10 beams can be used to deliver highly tolerable stereotactic ablation to primary kidney targets with minimal early toxicities. Ongoing follow-up is currently in place to assess long-term toxicities and cancer control.

  5. The use of a 3-dimensional computed tomography bone database to evaluate the risk of distal contact between the rasp tip and the endosteal cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Emmalynn; Cowie, Jonathan G; Wuestemann, Thies; Howell, Jonathan R; Whitehouse, Sarah L; Crawford, Ross W

    2016-12-01

    To use a 3-dimensional computed tomography (CT) bone database to evaluate the risk of distal contact between the rasp tip and the endosteal cortical bone. Using a 3-dimensional CT bone database, the rasps for Exeter stems of 125 mm in length and body size 1, with a femoral offset of 37.5, 44, or 50 mm were compared with those for Exeter stems of 150 mm in length and same body size with the corresponding femoral offset. Rasp geometry was determined using an engineering drawing software. Of the 631 femurs in the database, 238 (187 Caucasian and 51 Asian) were of appropriate femoral offset and proximal body size to receive a stem with an offset of 37.5, 44, or 50 mm. Of these, 145 (115 Caucasian and 30 Asian) femurs were of champagne-flute type; the prevalence was comparable between the 2 populations (61% vs. 59%, p=0.729). When using the 150-mm rasp, 70 (55 Caucasian and 15 Asian) of the 238 femurs had distal contact between the rasp and femoral cortex; the prevalence was comparable between the 2 populations (29% vs. 29%, relative risk=1.0, p=1.0). Distal contact between the rasp and femoral cortex occurred more commonly in champagne-flute-type femurs than other femurs in the anteroposterior plane (28% [41/145] vs. 2% [2/93], relative risk=13.1, p<0.001) and in the mediolateral plane (27% [39/145] vs. 14% [13/93], relative risk=1.92, p=0.019). When using the 125-mm rasp, only one femur (with a canal flare index of 4.52) had distal contact in the mediolateral plane with an offset of 37.5 mm. Distal contact between the rasp and femoral cortex occurred more often with the 150-mm rasp than the 125-mm rasp in both planes (p<0.001). The use of a shorter stem may enhance anatomic fit in patients with a narrow femoral canal and prevent distal contact between the rasp and femoral cortex.

  6. Chemical calculations and chemicals that might calculate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael P.

    I summarize some applications of symbolic calculation to the evaluation of molecular integrals over Slater orbitals, and discuss some spin-offs of this work that have wider potential. These include the exploration of the mechanized use of analogy. I explain the methods that I use to do this, in relation to mathematical proofs and to modeling step by step processes such as organic syntheses and NMR pulse sequences. Another spin-off relates to biological information processing. Some challenges and opportunities in the information infrastructure of interdisciplinary research are discussed.

  7. [Understanding dosage calculations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlahouès, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The calculation of dosages in paediatrics is the concern of the whole medical and paramedical team. This activity must generate a minimum of risks in order to prevent care-related adverse events. In this context, the calculation of dosages is a practice which must be understood by everyone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. 3D Monte-Carlo transport calculations of whole slab reactor cores: validation of deterministic neutronic calculation routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palau, J.M. [CEA Cadarache, Service de Physique des Reacteurs et du Cycle, Lab. de Projets Nucleaires, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents how Monte-Carlo calculations (French TRIPOLI4 poly-kinetic code with an appropriate pre-processing and post-processing software called OVNI) are used in the case of 3-dimensional heterogeneous benchmarks (slab reactor cores) to reduce model biases and enable a thorough and detailed analysis of the performances of deterministic methods and their associated data libraries with respect to key neutron parameters (reactivity, local power). Outstanding examples of application of these tools are presented regarding the new numerical methods implemented in the French lattice code APOLLO2 (advanced self-shielding models, new IDT characteristics method implemented within the discrete-ordinates flux solver model) and the JEFF3.1 nuclear data library (checked against JEF2.2 previous file). In particular we have pointed out, by performing multigroup/point-wise TRIPOLI4 (assembly and core) calculations, the efficiency (in terms of accuracy and computation time) of the new IDT method developed in APOLLO2. In addition, by performing 3-dimensional TRIPOLI4 calculations of the whole slab core (few millions of elementary volumes), the high quality of the new JEFF3.1 nuclear data files and revised evaluations (U{sup 235}, U{sup 238}, Hf) for reactivity prediction of slab cores critical experiments has been stressed. As a feedback of the whole validation process, improvements in terms of nuclear data (mainly Hf capture cross-sections) and numerical methods (advanced quadrature formulas accounting validation results, validation of new self-shielding models, parallelization) are suggested to improve even more the APOLLO2-CRONOS2 standard calculation route. (author)

  9. Effects of Class II activator and Class II activator high-pull headgear combination on the mandible: a 3-dimensional finite element stress analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Cağri; Darendeliler, Nilüfer

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the Class II activator and the Class II activator high-pull headgear (HG) combination on the mandible with 3-dimensional (3D) finite element stress analysis. A 3D finite element model of the mandible was constructed from a dry human mandible. To investigate the effects of the Class II activator, a 3D model of the lower part of this appliance was constructed and fixed on the mandibular model. The Class II activator high-pull headgear model was established as described, and an extraoral traction force of 350 g was directed from the middle of the Class II activator to the top of the mandibular condyle. The stress regions were studied with the finite element method. The regions near the muscle attachment areas were affected the most. The inner part of the coronoid process and the gonial area had the maximum stress values. Both functional appliances can cause morphologic changes on the mandible by activating the masticatory muscles to change the growth direction.

  10. New 3-dimensional CFD modeling of CO2 and H2S simultaneous stripping from water within PVDF hollow fiber membrane contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlake, Ahmad; Farivar, Foad; Dabir, Bahram

    2016-07-01

    In this paper a 3-dimensional modeling of simultaneous stripping of carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from water using hollow fiber membrane made of polyvinylidene fluoride is developed. The water, containing CO2 and H2S enters to the membrane as feed. At the same time, pure nitrogen flow in the shell side of a shell and tube hollow fiber as the solvent. In the previous methods of modeling hollow fiber membranes just one of the membranes was modeled and the results expand to whole shell and tube system. In this research the whole hollow fiber shell and tube module is modeled to reduce the errors. Simulation results showed that increasing the velocity of solvent flow and decreasing the velocity of the feed are leads to increase in the system yield. However the effect of the feed velocity on the process is likely more than the influence of changing the velocity of the gaseous solvent. In addition H2S stripping has higher yield in comparison with CO2 stripping. This model is compared to the previous modeling methods and shows that the new model is more accurate. Finally, the effect of feed temperature is studied using response surface method and the operating conditions of feed temperature, feed velocity, and solvent velocity is optimized according to synergistic effects. Simulation results show that, in the optimum operating conditions the removal percentage of H2S and CO2 are 27 and 21 % respectively.

  11. Development of monograph titled "augmented chemistry aldehida & keton" with 3 dimensional (3D) illustration as a supplement book on chemistry learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damayanti, Latifah Adelina; Ikhsan, Jaslin

    2017-05-01

    Integration of information technology in education more rapidly performed in a medium of learning. Three-dimensional (3D) molecular modeling was performed in Augmented Reality as a tangible manifestation of increasingly modern technology utilization. Based on augmented reality, three-dimensional virtual object is projected in real time and the exact environment. This paper reviewed the uses of chemical learning supplement book of aldehydes and ketones which are equipped with three-dimensional molecular modeling by which students can inspect molecules from various viewpoints. To plays the 3D illustration printed on the book, smartphones with the open-source software of the technology based integrated Augmented Reality can be used. The aims of this research were to develop the monograph of aldehydes and ketones with 3 dimensional (3D) illustrations, to determine the specification of the monograph, and to determine the quality of the monograph. The quality of the monograph is evaluated by experiencing chemistry teachers on the five aspects of contents/materials, presentations, language and images, graphs, and software engineering, resulted in the result that the book has a very good quality to be used as a chemistry learning supplement book.

  12. Reappraisal of Neonatal Greenstick Skull Fractures Caused by Birth Injuries: Comparison of 3-Dimensional Reconstructed Computed Tomography and Simple Skull Radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung Min; Kim, Hyun Gi; Yoon, Soo Han; Chang, Ki Hong; Park, Moon Sung; Park, Yul-Hyun; Choi, Mi Sun

    2018-01-01

    The most common birth-associated head injuries during vaginal delivery are cephalhematomas and subgaleal hematomas. Cranial injuries are rarely encountered. The neonate cranium is soft and pliable, and greenstick skull fractures (GSFs) are expected to be more frequent than linear or depressed fractures, but they are extremely difficult to detect with simple skull radiography. As a result, no reports have been issued on this topic to date. Recent reports suggest that technological advances in 3-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) have successfully enhanced the diagnostic accuracy for cranial fractures. The authors researched the types and characteristics of GSFs and the diagnostic accuracy of 3D CT for cranial fractures in neonates. The simple skull radiographs and 3D CT images of 101 neonates were retrospectively evaluated and compared with respect to diagnosis of cranial fractures, and skull GSFs were classified on the basis of 3D CT findings into 5 types depending on multiplicity and location. 3D CT detected 88 cases of cranial fractures, that is, 89 GSFs, 4 combined GSFs and linear fractures, and 3 combined GSFs and depressed fractures. The diagnostic rate of 3DCT was 91% and this was significantly higher than the 13% rate of simple skull radiographs (P injuries among neonates. The diagnostic accuracy of 3D CT was considerably superior than simple skull radiography, but the high radiation exposure levels of 3D CT warrant the need for development of a modality with lower radiation exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of a 3-dimensional tissue lung phantom of a preterm infant for optical measurements of oxygen-Laser-detector position considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Jim; Liao, Peilang; Lundin, Patrik; Krite Svanberg, Emilie; Swartling, Johannes; Lewander Xu, Märta; Bood, Joakim; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

    2017-08-16

    There is a need to further improve the clinical care of our most vulnerable patients-preterm infants. Novel diagnostic and treatment tools facilitate such advances. Here, we evaluate a potential percutaneous optical monitoring tool to assess the oxygen and water vapor content in the lungs of preterm babies. The aim is to prepare for further clinical studies by gaining a detailed understanding of how the measured light intensity and gas absorption signal behave for different possible geometries of light delivery and receiver. Such an experimental evaluation is conducted for the first time utilizing a specially developed 3-dimensional-printed optical phantom based on a geometry model obtained from computer tomography images of the thorax (chest) of a 1700-g premature infant. The measurements yield reliable signals for source-detector distances up to about 50 mm, with stronger gas absorption signals at long separations and positions related to the lower part of the lung, consistent with a larger relative volume of this. The limitations of this study include the omission of scattering tissue within the lungs and that similar optical properties are used for the wavelengths employed for the 2 gases, yielding no indication on the optimal wavelength pair to use. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Cognitive Functions and Stereopsis in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease Using 3-Dimensional Television: A Case Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan-Nyoung; Ko, Deokwon; Suh, Young-Woo; Park, Kun-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Stereopsis or depth perception is an awareness of the distances of objects from the observer, and binocular disparity is a necessary component of recognizing objects through stereopsis. In the past studies, patients with neurodegenerative disease (Alzheimer dementia, AD; Parkinson’s disease IPD) have problems of stereopsis but they did not have actual stimulation of stereopsis. Therefore in this study, we used a 3-dimensional (3D) movie on 3D television (TV) for actual stereopsis stimulation. We propose research through analyzing differences between the three groups (AD, IPD, and Controls), and identified relations between the results from the Titmus Stereo Fly Test, and the 3D TV test. The study also looked into factors that affect the 3D TV test. Before allowing the patients to watch TV, we examined Titmus stereo Fly Test and cognitive test. We used the 3D version of a movie, of 17 minutes 1 second duration, and carried out a questionnaire about stereopsis. The scores of the stereopsis questionnaire were decreased in AD patients, compared with in IPD and controls, although they did not have any difference of Titmus Stereo Fly Test scores. In IPD patients, cognitive function (Montreal cognitive assessment, MoCA) scores were correlated with the scores of the stereopsis questionnaire. We could conclude that Titmus fly test could not distinguish between the three groups and cognitive dysfunction contributes to actual stereopsis perception in IPD patients. Therefore the 3D TV test of AD and IPD patients was more effective than Titmus fly test. PMID:25822839

  15. Correlation Between Arthroscopy Simulator and Video Game Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study of 30 Volunteers Comparing 2- and 3-Dimensional Video Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentzsch, Thorsten; Rahm, Stefan; Seifert, Burkhardt; Farei-Campagna, Jan; Werner, Clément M L; Bouaicha, Samy

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the association between arthroscopy simulator performance and video game skills. This study compared the performances of 30 volunteers without experience performing arthroscopies in 3 different tasks of a validated virtual reality knee arthroscopy simulator with the video game experience using a questionnaire and actual performances in 5 different 2- and 3-dimensional (D) video games of varying genres on 2 different platforms. Positive correlations between knee arthroscopy simulator and video game performances (ρ = 0.63, P game and a first-person shooter game, as well as the meniscus resection and a tile-matching puzzle game (all ρ ≥ 0.60, P game. Although knee arthroscopy performances do not correlate with 2-D strategy video game skills, they show a correlation with 2-D tile-matching puzzle games only for easier tasks with a rather limited focus, and highly correlate with 3-D sports and first-person shooter video games. These findings show that experienced and good 3-D gamers are better arthroscopists than nonexperienced and poor 3-D gamers. Level II, observational cross-sectional study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment and training in a 3-dimensional virtual environment with haptics: a report on 5 cases of motor rehabilitation in the chronic stage after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeren, Jurgen; Rydmark, Martin; Björkdahl, Ann; Sunnerhagen, Katharina Stibrant

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study assessed the possible effectiveness of hemiparetic upper extremity training in subjects with chronic stroke with computer instrumentation (haptic force feedback) and 3-dimensional visualization applied to computer games, as well as to evaluate concurrent computer-assisted assessment of the kinematics of movements and test whether any improvement detected in the computer environment was reflected in activities of daily living (ADLs). A single-subject repeated-measures experimental design (AB) was used. After baseline testing, 5 patients were assigned to the therapy 3 times a week for 45 min for 5 weeks. Velocity, time needed to reach, and hand path ratio (reflecting superfluous movements) were the outcome measures, along with the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills and the Box and Block test. The follow-up phase (C) occurred 12 weeks later. Improvements were noted in velocity, time, and hand path ratio. One patient showed improvement in occupational performance in ADLs. The application of this strategy of using virtual reality (VR) technologies may be useful in assessing and training stroke patients. The results of this study must be reproduced in further studies. The VR systems can be placed in homes or other nonclinical settings.

  17. Fetal head circumference and length of second stage of labor are risk factors for levator ani muscle injury, diagnosed by 3-dimensional transperineal ultrasound in primiparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsky, Dan V; Lipschuetz, Michal; Bord, Angelika; Eldar, Ido; Messing, Baruch; Hochner-Celnikier, Drorith; Lavy, Yuval; Cohen, Sarah M; Yagel, Simcha

    2009-07-01

    We evaluated rate of levator ani muscle (LAM) avulsion among primiparae using 3-dimensional transperineal ultrasound to identify possible risk factors for such trauma. We conducted a prospective observational study. Three-dimensional transperineal ultrasound was performed on all subjects. Primiparae were evaluated 24-72 hours after vaginal delivery. In all, 32 nulliparous gravidae (35-41 weeks) and 15 elective cesarean delivery primiparae were evaluated as methodological controls. We compared newborn head circumference (HC), birthweight, second stage duration, maternal age, baby sex, episiotomy, and instrumental delivery. LAM trauma was observed in 39 of 210 (18.8%) patients and no controls. Odds ratio for LAM trauma when newborn HC >or= 35.5 cm was 3.343 (95% confidence interval, 1.33-8.42); when second stage duration >or= 110 minutes, odds ratio was 2.27 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-4.81). Logistic regression showed that HC >or= 35.5 and second stage duration >or= 110 minutes increased odds of LAM trauma by a factor of 5.32. Large HC and prolonged second stage duration are risk factors in LAM trauma. Elective cesarean delivery may prevent LAM trauma.

  18. Use of Multi-Level Wells in Developing a 3-Dimensional Understanding of Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Migration at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, K M; Nichols, R L; Flach, G P; Sappington, F; Simmons, J L; Betivas, C R; Shoffner, L R; Falise, F R

    2003-02-25

    Understanding the flow of groundwater and contaminants in 3-dimensions, along with hydraulic properties, is instrumental in selection and implementation of successful remediation efforts. Advances in multi-level groundwater monitoring at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are enabling engineers and geologists to collect the needed characterization data in an efficient, cost-effective manner. The SRS has developed a new multi-level groundwater monitoring well, "StrataSampler", which is being deployed for characterization and monitoring at several large groundwater plumes on the SRS. The installation method used allowed collection of data during the drilling process allowing optimization of screen placement within the aquifers and minimization of drilling costs and waste generation. Data generated during the installation of the StrataSamplers along with data collected from the installed wells is being used to understand the 3-dimensional nature of contaminant fate and transport. The L-Area Southern Groundwater Operable Unit is the first full-scale deployment of StrataSampler wells at SRS. Twenty-two StrataSampler wells with a total of 52 sampling zones were installed. The installation, development, hydraulic testing, sampling of the StrataSamplers at this unit and the resulting understanding of the contaminant plumes will be discussed in the paper and presentation.

  19. Fully 3-dimensional digitally planned reconstruction of a mandible with a free vascularized fibula and immediate placement of an implant-supported prosthetic construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, Rutger H; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Vissink, Arjan; Lahoda, Lars U; Van der Meer, W Joerd; Roodenburg, Jan L; Reintsema, Harry; Witjes, Max J

    2013-04-01

    Reconstruction of craniofacial defects becomes complex when dental implants are included for functional rehabilitation. We describe a fully 3-dimensional (3D) digitally planned reconstruction of a mandible and immediate prosthetic loading with a fibula graft in a 2-step surgical approach. A 54-year-old man had development of osteoradionecrosis of the mandible. The resection, cutting and implant placement in the fibula were virtually planned. Cutting/drilling guides were 3D printed, and the suprastructure was computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing milled. For the first operation, the implants were inserted in the fibula, and the position was registered by an optical scanning technique that defined the final planning of the suprastructure. For the second operation, the osteoradionecrosis was resected, the fibula was harvested and, with the denture fixed on the preinserted implants, placed in the mandibula guided by the occlusion. It was possible to plan a mandibular reconstruction with immediate prosthetic loading completely by 3D virtual techniques. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Combined Inkjet Printing and Infrared Sintering of Silver Nanoparticles using a Swathe-by-Swathe and Layer-by-Layer Approach for 3-Dimensional Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithilingam, Jayasheelan; Simonelli, Marco; Saleh, Ehab; Senin, Nicola; Wildman, Ricky D; Hague, Richard J M; Leach, Richard K; Tuck, Christopher J

    2017-02-22

    Despite the advancement of additive manufacturing (AM)/3-dimensional (3D) printing, single-step fabrication of multifunctional parts using AM is limited. With the view of enabling multifunctional AM (MFAM), in this study, sintering of metal nanoparticles was performed to obtain conductivity for continuous line inkjet printing of electronics. This was achieved using a bespoke three-dimensional (3D) inkjet-printing machine, JETx, capable of printing a range of materials and utilizing different post processing procedures to print multilayered 3D structures in a single manufacturing step. Multiple layers of silver were printed from an ink containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and infrared sintered using a swathe-by-swathe (SS) and layer-by-layer sintering (LS) regime. The differences in the heat profile for the SS and LS was observed to influence the coalescence of the AgNPs. Void percentage of both SS and LS samples was higher toward the top layer than the bottom layer due to relatively less IR exposure in the top than the bottom. The results depicted a homogeneous microstructure for LS of AgNPs and showed less deformation compared to the SS. Electrical resistivity of the LS tracks (13.6 ± 1 μΩ cm) was lower than the SS tracks (22.5 ± 1 μΩ cm). This study recommends the use of LS method to sinter the AgNPs to obtain a conductive track in 25% less time than SS method for MFAM.

  1. Bone-anchored maxillary protraction therapy in patients with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate: 3-dimensional assessment of maxillary effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatabe, Marília; Garib, Daniela Gamba; Faco, Renato André de Souza; de Clerck, Hugo; Janson, Guilherme; Nguyen, Tung; Cevidanes, Lucia Helena Soares; Ruellas, Antonio Carlos

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to 3-dimensionally assess the treatment outcomes of bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP) in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate. The cleft group comprised 24 patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate and Class III malocclusion with mean initial and final ages of 11.8 and 13.2 years, respectively. The noncleft group comprised 24 noncleft patients with Class III malocclusion with mean initial and final ages of 11.9 and 12.9 years, respectively. Cone-beam computed tomography examinations were performed before and after BAMP therapy in both groups and superimposed at the cranial base. Three-dimensional displacements of maxillary landmarks were quantified and visualized with color-coded maps and semitransparent superimpositions. The t test corrected for multiple testing (Holm-Bonferroni method), and the paired t test was used for statistical comparison between groups and sides, respectively (P maxillary displacements in the cleft group with no significant differences compared with the noncleft group. The maxillary first molars of the cleft group showed significantly greater medial displacement than did those in the noncleft group. The zygoma showed significantly greater lateral displacement at the cleft side compared with the noncleft side. BAMP caused similar amounts of maxillary protraction in patients with and without unilateral cleft lip and palatem with discrete differences between the cleft side and the noncleft side. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of Isocentric C-Arm 3-Dimensional Navigation and Conventional Fluoroscopy for Percutaneous Retrograde Screwing for Anterior Column Fracture of Acetabulum: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiliang; Tan, Guoqing; Zhou, Dongsheng; Sun, Liang; Li, Qinghu; Yang, Yongliang; Liu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous screw insertion for minimally displaced or reducible acetabular fracture using x-ray fluoroscopy and computer-assisted navigation system has been advocated by some authors. The purpose of this study was to compare intraoperative conditions and clinical results between isocentric C-arm 3-dimensional (Iso-C 3D) fluoroscopy and conventional fluoroscopy for percutaneous retrograde screwing of acetabular anterior column fracture.A prospective cohort study was conducted. A total of 22 patients were assigned to 2 different groups: 10 patients in the Iso-C 3D navigation group and 12 patients in the conventional group. The operative time, fluoroscopic time, time of screw insertion, blood loss, and accuracy were analyzed between the 2 groups.There were significant differences in operative time, screw insertion time, fluoroscopy time, and mean blood loss between the 2 groups. Totally 2 of 12 (16.7%) screws were misplaced in the conventional fluoroscopy group, and all 10 screws were in safe zones in the navigation group. Percutaneous screw fixation using the Iso-C 3D computer-assisted navigation system significantly reduced the intraoperative fluoroscopy time and blood loss in percutaneous screwing for acetabular anterior column fracture.The Iso-C 3D computer-assisted navigation system provided a reliable and effective method for percutaneous screw insertion in acetabular anterior column fractures compared to conventional fluoroscopy.

  3. Application of 3-Dimensional Computerized Tomography Angiography for Defining Cavernous Sinus Aneurysms and Intradural Aneurysms Involving the Internal Carotid Artery Around the Anterior Clinoid Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Quan; Huang, Chun-Bo; Wang, Jun-Yu; Jiang, Bing; Zhang, Long-Bo; Zeng, Ming; Chen, Yuan-Bing; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Chen, Feng-Hua

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the application of 3-dimensional computed tomography angiography (3D-CTA) for defining cavernous sinus aneurysms and intradural aneurysms involving the internal carotid artery around the anterior clinoid process. Results from 42 patients with an aneurysm of the internal carotid artery around the anterior clinoid process who underwent 3D-CTA were reviewed and compared with those of observed clinical operations. Among the 42 patients, there was a total of 45 aneurysms of the internal carotid artery around the anterior clinoid process. After surgery, 33 of the 45 aneurysms were confirmed as intradural aneurysms, and the other 12 were confirmed as aneurysms in the cavernous sinus. 3D-CTA imaging of the medial sagittal plane showed that 31 out of 31 (100%) intradural aneurysms of the internal carotid artery were above the virtual line between the inferior border of the anterior clinoid process and the tuberculum sellae, and 12 out of 14 (86%) cavernous sinus aneurysms were below the virtual line (P cavernous sinus aneurysms from intradural aneurysms involving the internal carotid artery around the anterior clinoid process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of 3-Dimensional Cartilage and Bone Structure with Articular Cartilage Properties in and Adjacent to Autologous Osteochondral Grafts after 6 and 12 Months in a Goat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Elaine F.; Liu, I-Ling; Semler, Eric J.; Aberman, Harold M.; Simon, Timothy M.; Chen, Albert C.; Truncale, Kate G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The articular cartilage of autologous osteochondral grafts is typically different in structure and function from local host cartilage and thereby presents a remodeling challenge. The hypothesis of this study was that properties of the articular cartilage of trochlear autografts and adjacent femoral condyle are associated with the 3-dimensional (3-D) geometrical match between grafted and contralateral joints at 6 and 12 months after surgery. Design: Autografts were transferred unilaterally from the lateral trochlea (LT) to the medial femoral condyle (MFC) in adult Spanish goats. Operated and contralateral nonoperated joints were harvested at 6 and 12 months and analyzed by indentation testing, micro–computed tomography, and histology to compare 1) histological indices of repair, 2) 3-D structure (articular surface deviation, bone-cartilage interface deviation, cartilage thickness), 3) indentation stiffness, and 4) correlations between stiffness and 3-D structure. Results: Cartilage deterioration was present in grafts at 6 months and more severe at 12 months. Cartilage thickness and normalized stiffness of the operated MFC were lower than the nonoperated MFC within the graft and proximal adjacent host regions. Operated MFC articular surfaces were recessed relative to the nonoperated MFC and exhibited lower cartilage stiffness with increasing recession. Sites with large bone-cartilage interface deviations, both proud and recessed, were associated with recessed articular surfaces and low cartilage stiffness. Conclusion: The effectiveness of cartilage repair by osteochondral grafting is associated with the match of 3-D cartilage and bone geometry to the native osteochondral structure. PMID:24224069

  5. Going beyond 2D: following membrane diffusion and topography in the IgE-Fc[epsilon]RI system using 3-dimensional tracking microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Nathan P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lessard, Guillaume A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phipps, Marry E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goodwin, Peter M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Werner, James H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lidke, Diane S [UNM; Wilson, Bridget S [UNM

    2008-01-01

    The ability to follow and observe single molecules as they function in live cells would represent a major milestone for molecular-cellular biology. Here we present a tracking microscope that is able to track quantum dots in 3 dimensions and simultaneously record time-resolved emission statistics from a single dot. This innovative microscopy approach is based on four spatial filters and closed loop feedback to constantly keep a single quantum dot in the focal spot. Using this microscope, we demonstrate the ability to follow quantum dot-labeled IgE antibodies bound to Fc{epsilon}Rl membrane receptors in live RBL-2H3 cells. The results are consistent with prior studies of 2 dimensional membrane diffusion (Andrews et al., Nat. Cell Biol., 10, 955, 2008). In addition, the microscope captures motion in the axial (Z) direction, which permits tracking of diffusing receptors relative the 'hills and valley' of the dynamically changing membrane landscape. Our novel approach is uniquely capable of following single-molecule dynamics on live cells with 3 dimensional spatial resolution.

  6. Use of intraoral scanning and 3-dimensional printing in the fabrication of a removable partial denture for a patient with limited mouth opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang; Li, Yan; Zhang, Yumei

    2017-05-01

    When treating patients with severely limited mouth openings, it is difficult for the dentist to obtain an impression and fabricate a removable partial denture (RPD) by using traditional methods. Intraoral scanning, computer-aided design, and 3-dimensional (3D) printing have provided alternative methods for fabricating dental prostheses. The authors present a case in which they aimed to improve the efficiency and quality of fabricating an RPD framework by integrating the technologies of intraoral scanning, computer-aided design, and 3D printing. Initially, the authors reconstructed the digital cast with multiple intraoral scans. Subsequently, the authors designed the virtual RPD framework. On the basis of the virtual framework, the titanium alloy framework was fabricated by means of a 3D printing process, and the authors fitted the final RPD to the patient. Unlike the traditional method, this integrated system has the potential to design a custom-made dental prosthesis and directly make an RPD framework with complicated patterns. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy versus 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Bong Kyung; Kang, Min Kyul; Kim, Jae Chul [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Young; Choi, Gyu Seog; Kim, Jong Gwang; Kang, Byung Woog; Kim, Hye Jin; Park, Soo Yeun [Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT) for preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (PCRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), by comparing with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Patients who were treated with PCRT for LARC from 2015 January to 2016 December were retrospectively enrolled. Total doses of 45 Gy to 50.4 Gy with 3D-CRT or SIB-IMRT were administered concomitantly with 5-fluorouracil plus leucovorin or capecitabine. Surgery was performed 8 weeks after PCRT. Between PCRT and surgery, one cycle of additional chemotherapy was administered. Pathologic tumor responses were compared between SIB-IMRT and 3D-CRT groups. Acute gastrointestinal, genitourinary, hematologic, and skin toxicities were compared between the two groups based on the RTOG toxicity criteria. SIB-IMRT was used in 53 patients, and 3D-CRT in 41 patients. After PCRT, no significant differences were noted in tumor responses, pathologic complete response (9% vs. 7%; p = 1.000), pathologic tumor regression Grade 3 or higher (85% vs. 71%; p = 0.096), and R0 resection (87% vs. 85%; p = 0.843). Grade 2 genitourinary toxicities were significantly lesser in the SIB-IMRT group (8% vs. 24%; p = 0.023), but gastrointestinal toxicities were not different across the two groups. SIB-IMRT showed lower GU toxicity and similar tumor responses when compared with 3D-CRT in PCRT for LARC.

  8. Quantification of mitral regurgitation orifice area by 3-dimensional echocardiography: comparison with effective regurgitant orifice area by PISA method and proximal regurgitant jet diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Aleksandra; Palka, Przemyslaw; Donnelly, J; Burstow, Darryl

    2002-11-01

    The evaluation of mitral regurgitation (MR) by 3-dimensional (3D) echo has generally been performed by reconstruction of Doppler regurgitant jets but there are little data on measuring anatomic regurgitant orifice area (AROA) directly from 3D mitral valve (MV) reconstructions. Transoesophageal echo (TOE) 3D images were acquired from 38 unselected patients (age 59+/-11 years, ten in atrial fibrillation) with various degrees of MR. In all patients MV was reconstructed en face from the left atrium (LA) and the left ventricle (LV). AROA was measured by planimetry from 3D pictures and compared to the effective regurgitant orifice area (EROA) by proximal isovelocity surface area and proximal MR jet width from 2D echo. AROA was measured in 95% of patients from LA, 89% from LV and in 84% from both LA and LV. Good correlation was found between EROA and AROA measured from both LA (r=0.97, Por=25 mm(2) differentiated mild MR (graded 1-2) from moderately severe (graded 3-4) with 80-90% accuracy. 3D TOE provides important quantitative information on both the mechanism and the severity of MR in an unselected group of patients. AROA enables quantification of MR with excellent agreement with the accepted clinical method of proximal flow convergence.

  9. Calculativeness and trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Williamson’s characterisation of calculativeness as inimical to trust contradicts most sociological trust research. However, a similar argument is found within trust phenomenology. This paper re-investigates Williamson’s argument from the perspective of Løgstrup’s phenomenological theory of trust....... Contrary to Williamson, however, Løgstrup’s contention is that trust, not calculativeness, is the default attitude and only when suspicion is awoken does trust falter. The paper argues that while Williamson’s distinction between calculativeness and trust is supported by phenomenology, the analysis needs...... to take actual subjective experience into consideration. It points out that, first, Løgstrup places trust alongside calculativeness as a different mode of engaging in social interaction, rather conceiving of trust as a state or the outcome of a decision-making process. Secondly, the analysis must take...

  10. Unit Cost Compendium Calculations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA...

  11. Magnetic Field Grid Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Properties Calculator will computes the estimated values of Earth's magnetic field(declination, inclination, vertical component, northerly...

  12. National Stormwater Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s National Stormwater Calculator (SWC) is a desktop application that estimates the annual amount of rainwater and frequency of runoff from a specific site anywhere in the United States (including Puerto Rico).

  13. Calculation Tool for Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Lampinen, Samuli

    2016-01-01

    The Study was conducted as qualitative research for K-S Konesuunnittelu Oy. The company provides mechanical engineering for technology suppliers in the Finnish export industries. The main objective was to study if the competitiveness of the case company could be improved using a self-made Calculation Tool (Excel Tool). The mission was to clarify processes in the case company to see the possibilities of Excel Tool and to compare it with other potential calculation applications. In addition,...

  14. Current interruption transients calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Peelo, David F

    2014-01-01

    Provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins, and the circuits involved, and how they can be calculated Current Interruption Transients Calculationis a comprehensive resource for the understanding, calculation and analysis of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) and related re-ignition or re-striking transients associated with fault current interruption and the switching of inductive and capacitive load currents in circuits. This book provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins,

  15. Total Navigation in Spine Surgery; A Concise Guide to Eliminate Fluoroscopy Using a Portable Intraoperative Computed Tomography 3-Dimensional Navigation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Ramirez, Rodrigo; Lang, Gernot; Lian, Xiaofeng; Berlin, Connor; Janssen, Insa; Jada, Ajit; Alimi, Marjan; Härtl, Roger

    2017-04-01

    Portable intraoperative computed tomography (iCT) with integrated 3-dimensional navigation (NAV) offers new opportunities for more precise navigation in spinal surgery, eliminates radiation exposure for the surgical team, and accelerates surgical workflows. We present the concept of "total navigation" using iCT NAV in spinal surgery. Therefore, we propose a step-by-step guideline demonstrating how total navigation can eliminate fluoroscopy with time-efficient workflows integrating iCT NAV into daily practice. A prospective study was conducted on collected data from patients undergoing iCT NAV-guided spine surgery. Number of scans, radiation exposure, and workflow of iCT NAV (e.g., instrumentation, cage placement, localization) were documented. Finally, the accuracy of pedicle screws and time for instrumentation were determined. iCT NAV was successfully performed in 117 cases for various indications and in all regions of the spine. More than half (61%) of cases were performed in a minimally invasive manner. Navigation was used for skin incision, localization of index level, and verification of implant position. iCT NAV was used to evaluate neural decompression achieved in spinal fusion surgeries. Total navigation eliminates fluoroscopy in 75%, thus reducing staff radiation exposure entirely. The average times for iCT NAV setup and pedicle screw insertion were 12.1 and 3.1 minutes, respectively, achieving a pedicle screw accuracy of 99%. Total navigation makes spine surgery safer and more accurate, and it enhances efficient and reproducible workflows. Fluoroscopy and radiation exposure for the surgical staff can be eliminated in the majority of cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pilot study of endoscopic retrograde 3-dimensional – computed tomography enteroclysis for the assessment of Crohn’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Tanabe

    Full Text Available Purpose: Endoscopic retrograde ileography (ERIG is developed in our institute and applied clinically for the diagnosis and assessment of the Crohn’s disease activity. We have further improved the technique using 3-dimensional – computed tomography enteroclysis (3D-CTE and conducted a retrospective study to determine the feasibility and the diagnostic value of endoscopic retrograde 3D-CTE (ER 3D-CTE in Crohn’s disease patients in a state of remission. Methods: Thirteen Crohn’s patients were included in this pilot study. CTE was performed after the infusion of air or CO2 through the balloon tube following conventional colonoscopy. The primary endpoint of this study was to assess the safety of this method. Secondarily, the specific findings of Crohn’s disease and length of the visualized small intestine were assessed. Results: The procedures were completed without any adverse events. Gas passed through the small intestine and enterographic images were obtained in 10 out of 13 cases, but, in the remaining patients, insertion of the balloon tubes into the terminal ileum failed. Various features specific to Crohn’s disease were visualized using ER 3D-CTE. A cobble stone appearance or hammock-like malformation was specific and effective for diagnosing Crohn’s disease and the features of anastomosis after the surgical operations were also well described. Therefore, this technique may be useful after surgery. Conclusion: In this study, ER 3D-CTE was performed safely in Crohn’s disease patients and may be used for the diagnosis and follow-up of this disease. Keywords: Crohn’s disease, Ileography, Computed tomography, 3-Dimension

  17. Treatment-Related Morbidity in Prostate Cancer: A Comparison of 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy With and Without Image Guidance Using Implanted Fiducial Markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jasmeet, E-mail: drsingh.j@gmail.com [Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle (Australia); Greer, Peter B. [School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle (Australia); White, Martin A. [School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle (Australia); Parker, Joel; Patterson, Jackie [Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle (Australia); Tang, Colin I.; Capp, Anne; Wratten, Christopher; Denham, James W. [Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle (Australia); School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle (Australia)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of rectal and urinary dysfunctional symptoms using image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) with fiducials and magnetic resonance planning for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: During the implementation stages of IGRT between September 2008 and March 2010, 367 consecutive patients were treated with prostatic irradiation using 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy with and without IGRT (non-IGRT). In November 2010, these men were asked to report their bowel and bladder symptoms using a postal questionnaire. The proportions of patients with moderate to severe symptoms in these groups were compared using logistic regression models adjusted for tumor and treatment characteristic variables. Results: Of the 282 respondents, the 154 selected for IGRT had higher stage tumors, received higher prescribed doses, and had larger volumes of rectum receiving high dosage than did the 128 selected for non-IGRT. The follow-up duration was 8 to 26 months. Compared with the non-IGRT group, improvement was noted in all dysfunctional rectal symptoms using IGRT. In multivariable analyses, IGRT improved rectal pain (odds ratio [OR] 0.07 [0.009-0.7], P=.02), urgency (OR 0.27 [0.11-0.63], P=<.01), diarrhea (OR 0.009 [0.02-0.35], P<.01), and change in bowel habits (OR 0.18 [0.06-0.52], P<.010). No correlation was observed between rectal symptom levels and dose-volume histogram data. Urinary dysfunctional symptoms were similar in both treatment groups. Conclusions: In comparison with men selected for non-IGRT, a significant reduction of bowel dysfunctional symptoms was confirmed in men selected for IGRT, even though they had larger volumes of rectum treated to higher doses.

  18. Absence of rotational activity detected using 2-dimensional phase mapping in the corresponding 3-dimensional phase maps in human persistent atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathik, Bhupesh; Kalman, Jonathan M; Walters, Tomos; Kuklik, Pawel; Zhao, Jichao; Madry, Andrew; Sanders, Prashanthan; Kistler, Peter M; Lee, Geoffrey

    2017-09-14

    Current phase mapping systems for atrial fibrillation create 2-dimensional (2D) maps. This process may affect the accurate detection of rotors. We developed a 3-dimensional (3D) phase mapping technique that uses the 3D locations of basket electrodes to project phase onto patient-specific left atrial 3D surface anatomy. We sought to determine whether rotors detected in 2D phase maps were present at the corresponding time segments and anatomical locations in 3D phase maps. One-minute left atrial atrial fibrillation recordings were obtained in 14 patients using the basket catheter and analyzed off-line. Using the same phase values, 2D and 3D phase maps were created. Analysis involved determining the dominant propagation patterns in 2D phase maps and evaluating the presence of rotors detected in 2D phase maps in the corresponding 3D phase maps. Using 2D phase mapping, the dominant propagation pattern was single wavefront (36.6%) followed by focal activation (34.0%), disorganized activity (23.7%), rotors (3.3%), and multiple wavefronts (2.4%). Ten transient rotors were observed in 9 of 14 patients (64%). The mean rotor duration was 1.1 ± 0.7 seconds. None of the 10 rotors observed in 2D phase maps were seen at the corresponding time segments and anatomical locations in 3D phase maps; 4 of 10 corresponded with single wavefronts in 3D phase maps, 2 of 10 with 2 simultaneous wavefronts, 1 of 10 with disorganized activity, and in 3 of 10 there was no coverage by the basket catheter at the corresponding 3D anatomical location. Rotors detected in 2D phase maps were not observed in the corresponding 3D phase maps. These findings may have implications for current systems that use 2D phase mapping. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Customized Knee Prosthesis in Treatment of Giant Cell Tumors of the Proximal Tibia: Application of 3-Dimensional Printing Technology in Surgical Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenbin; Huang, Lanfeng; Liu, He; Qu, Wenrui; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Chenyu; Li, Chen; Yu, Tao; Han, Qing; Wang, Jincheng; Qin, Yanguo

    2017-04-07

    BACKGROUND We explored the application of 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology in treating giant cell tumors (GCT) of the proximal tibia. A tibia block was designed and produced through 3D printing technology. We expected that this 3D-printed block would fill the bone defect after en-bloc resection. Importantly, the block, combined with a standard knee joint prosthesis, provided attachments for collateral ligaments of the knee, which can maintain knee stability. MATERIAL AND METHODS A computed tomography (CT) scan was taken of both knee joints in 4 patients with GCT of the proximal tibia. We developed a novel technique - the real-size 3D-printed proximal tibia model - to design preoperative treatment plans. Hence, with the application of 3D printing technology, a customized proximal tibia block could be designed for each patient individually, which fixed the bone defect, combined with standard knee prosthesis. RESULTS In all 4 cases, the 3D-printed block fitted the bone defect precisely. The motion range of the affected knee was 90 degrees on average, and the soft tissue balance and stability of the knee were good. After an average 7-month follow-up, the MSTS score was 19 on average. No sign of prosthesis fracture, loosening, or other relevant complications were detected. CONCLUSIONS This technique can be used to treat GCT of the proximal tibia when it is hard to achieve soft tissue balance after tumor resection. 3D printing technology simplified the design and manufacturing progress of custom-made orthopedic medical instruments. This new surgical technique could be much more widely applied because of 3D printing technology.

  20. Comparison of Toxicity Between Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy and 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Non-small-cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Diane C; Hess, Clayton B; Chen, Allen M; Daly, Megan E

    2016-01-01

    The role of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in reducing treatment-related toxicity for locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains incompletely defined. We compared acute toxicity and oncologic outcomes in a large cohort of patients treated with IMRT or 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3-DCRT), with or without elective nodal irradiation (ENI). A single-institution retrospective review was performed evaluating 145 consecutive patients with histologically confirmed stage III NSCLC treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy. Sixty-five (44.8%) were treated with 3-DCRT using ENI, 43 (30.0%) with 3-DCRT using involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT), and 37 (25.5%) with IMRT using IFRT. All patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Comparison of acute toxicities by treatment technique (IMRT vs. 3-DCRT) and extent of nodal irradiation (3-DCRT-IFRT vs. 3-DCRT-ENI) was performed for grade 2 or higher esophagitis or pneumonitis, number of acute hospitalizations, incidence of opioid requirement, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy utilization, and percentage weight loss during treatment. Local control and overall survival were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. We identified no significant differences in any measures of acute toxicity by treatment technique or extent of nodal irradiation. There was a trend toward lower rates of grade 2 or higher pneumonitis among IMRT patients compared to 3-DCRT patients (5.4% vs. 23.0%; P = .065). Local control and overall survival were similar between cohorts. Acute and subacute toxicities were similar for patients treated with IMRT and with 3-DCRT with or without ENI, with a nonsignificant trend toward a reduction in pneumonitis with IMRT. Larger studies are needed to better define which patients will benefit from IMRT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitative assessment of fatty infiltration and muscle volume of the rotator cuff muscles using 3-dimensional 2-point Dixon magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Noboru; Oguro, Sota; Okuda, Shigeo; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Morio; Nakamura, Masaya; Nagura, Takeo

    2017-10-01

    In patients with rotator cuff tears, muscle degeneration is known to be a predictor of irreparable tears and poor outcomes after surgical repair. Fatty infiltration and volume of the whole muscles constituting the rotator cuff were quantitatively assessed using 3-dimensional 2-point Dixon magnetic resonance imaging. Ten shoulders with a partial-thickness tear, 10 shoulders with an isolated supraspinatus tear, and 10 shoulders with a massive tear involving supraspinatus and infraspinatus were compared with 10 control shoulders after matching age and sex. With segmentation of muscle boundaries, the fat fraction value and the volume of the whole rotator cuff muscles were computed. After reliabilities were determined, differences in fat fraction, muscle volume, and fat-free muscle volume were evaluated. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities were regarded as excellent for fat fraction and muscle volume. Tendon rupture adversely increased the fat fraction value of the respective rotator cuff muscle (P muscle volume was significantly decreased in the infraspinatus (P = .035) and increased in the teres minor (P = .039). With subtraction of fat volume, a significant decrease of fat-free volume of the supraspinatus muscle became apparent with a massive tear (P = .003). Three-dimensional measurement could evaluate fatty infiltration and muscular volume with excellent reliabilities. The present study showed that chronic rupture of the tendon adversely increases the fat fraction of the respective muscle and indicates that the residual capacity of the rotator cuff muscles might be overestimated in patients with severe fatty infiltration. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative Study of C-arms for Intraoperative 3-dimensional Imaging and Navigation in Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery Part I: Applicability and Image Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingler, Jan-Helge; Sircar, Ronen; Scheiwe, Christian; Kogias, Evangelos; Volz, Florian; Krüger, Marie T; Hubbe, Ulrich

    2017-07-01

    This was a retrospective analysis. This study compares 2 different 3-dimensional (3D) C-arm devices for intraoperative imaging and navigation with regard to clinical applicability and image quality. Minimally invasive spine surgery requires intraoperative imaging techniques to adequately visualize the unexposed spine. For this purpose, mobile 3D C-arms became available along with the evolution of intraoperative navigation techniques. The C-arm devices Siremobil Iso-C 3D (Siemens) and Vision FD Vario 3D (Ziehm) perform an automated orbital rotation around the patient acquiring a 3D image set out of multiple successive fluoroscopic images. We report on technical specifications of the C-arms and our daily experience regarding clinical applicability. Furthermore, 5 spine surgeons evaluated blinded triplanar planes of 40 cervical, thoracic, and lumbar 3D scans that were obtained during routine surgery regarding usability for navigation. We assessed the delineation of cortical bone, artifacts, and overall image quality using a 0-10 numeric rating scale. The Siremobil Iso-C 3D requires 128 seconds for its 190-degree scanning arc with equidistant isocenter. The Vision FD Vario 3D performs an elliptical scanning arc and completes its 135-degree scan in 64 seconds; furthermore, it features a flat panel detector and fully digital imaging. The smaller dimensions of the Vision FD Vario 3D made it easier to maneuver in the operating room compared with the more bulky Siremobil Iso-C 3D. With respect to image quality in cervical 3D scans, the Siremobil Iso-C 3D reached significantly higher scores in all categories. The Vision FD Vario 3D revealed less artifacts in lumbar 3D scans. The Siremobil Iso-C 3D provides high-quality 3D scans in slender spine regions (eg, cervical spine), whereas the Vision FD Vario 3D appears to have advantages in the lumbar spine. Further evolution and novel devices are needed to optimize image quality and handling.

  3. Investigation of global and regional myocardial mechanics with 3-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography and relations to hypertrophy and fibrosis in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano-Moral, Jose Angel; Rowin, Ethan J; Maron, Martin S; Crean, Andrew; Pandian, Natesa G

    2014-01-01

    In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), heterogeneous myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis are responsible for abnormalities of left ventricular (LV) function. We aimed to characterize LV global and regional myocardial mechanics in HCM, according to segmental hypertrophy and fibrosis. Fifty-nine patients with HCM underwent standard echocardiography, 3-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography, and cardiac magnetic resonance with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE); all 3 tests were <24 hours apart. Longitudinal, circumferential, and area strains were investigated according to the extent of LGE (no LGE, LGE<10%, and LGE≥10%), segmental thickness (≥15 versus <15 mm), and segmental LGE (LGE versus non-LGE). Attenuated global longitudinal strain showed association with extent of hypertrophy (indexed LV mass, r=0.32, P=0.01; maximum LV wall thickness, r=0.34, P=0.009; number of segments≥15 mm, r=0.44, P<0.001), whereas enhanced global circumferential strain was correlated to LV global functional parameters (indexed end-systolic volume, r=0.47, P<0.001; ejection fraction, r=-0.75, P<0.001). Parameters of global myocardial mechanics showed no association with the extent of LGE; in contrast, the extent of LGE was associated with the extent of hypertrophy. All 3 deformation parameters were attenuated both in segments≥15 mm in thickness and in those with LGE; adjusted analysis demonstrated that segmental presence of LGE was associated with additional attenuation in myocardial deformation. Both hypertrophy and fibrosis contribute to regional impairment of myocardial shortening in HCM. The extent of hypertrophy is the primary factor altering global myocardial mechanics. Circumferential myocardial shortening seems to be directly involved in preservation of LV systolic performance in HCM.

  4. Impact of Gemcitabine Chemotherapy and 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy/5-Fluorouracil on Quality of Life of Patients Managed for Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, Michala [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Western Australia Centre for Cancer and Palliative Care/Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Goldstein, David [Department of Medical Oncology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Halkett, Georgia [Western Australia Centre for Cancer and Palliative Care/Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Reece, William [Covance Asia Pacific, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Borg, Martin [Adelaide Radiotherapy Centre, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Zissiadis, Yvonne [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Kneebone, Andrew [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Spry, Nigel, E-mail: Nigel.Spry@health.wa.gov.au [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Faculty of Medicine, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report quality of life (QOL) results for patients receiving chemoradiation therapy for pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients (n=41 locally advanced, n=22 postsurgery) entered the B9E-AY-S168 study and received 1 cycle of induction gemcitabine (1000 mg/m{sup 2} weekly Multiplication-Sign 3 with 1-week break) followed by 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (RT) (54 Gy locally advanced and 45 Gy postsurgery) and concomitant continuous-infusion 5-fluorouracil (5FU) (200 mg/m{sup 2}/d throughout RT). After 4 weeks, patients received an additional 3 cycles of consolidation gemcitabine chemotherapy. Patients completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PAN26 questionnaires at baseline, before RT/5FU, at end of RT/5FU, before consolidation gemcitabine, and at treatment completion. Results: The patterns of change in global QOL scores differed between groups. In the locally advanced group global QOL scores were +13, +8, +3, and +1 compared with baseline before RT/5FU (P=.008), at end of RT/5FU, before consolidation gemcitabine, and at treatment completion, respectively. In the postsurgery group, global QOL scores were -3, +4, +15, and +17 compared with baseline at the same time points, with a significant improvement in global QOL before consolidation gemcitabine (P=.03). No significant declines in global QOL were reported by either cohort. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that global QOL and associated function and symptom profiles for pancreatic chemoradiation therapy differ between locally advanced and postsurgery patients, likely owing to differences in underlying disease status. For both groups, the treatment protocol was well tolerated and did not have a negative impact on patients' global QOL.

  5. Application of 3-Dimensional Printing in a Case of Osteogenesis Imperfecta for Patient Education, Anatomic Understanding, Preoperative Planning, and Intraoperative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmenger, Laura B; Wiggins, Richard H; Fults, Daniel W; Huo, Eugene J

    2017-11-01

    The techniques and applications of 3-dimensional (3D) printing have progressed at a fast pace. In the last 10 years, there has been significant progress in applying this technology to medical applications. We present a case of osteogenesis imperfecta in which treatment was aided by prospectively using patient-specific, anatomically accurate 3D prints of the calvaria. The patient-specific, anatomically accurate 3D prints were used in the clinic and in the operating room to augment patient education, improve surgical decision making, and enhance preoperative planning. A 41-year-old woman with osteogenesis imperfecta and an extensive neurosurgical history presented for cranioplasty revision. Computed tomography (CT) data obtained as part of routine preoperative imaging were processed into a 3D model. The 3D patient-specific models were used in the clinic for patient education and in the operating room for preoperative visualization, planning, and intraoperative evaluation of anatomy. The patient reported the 3D models improved her understanding and comfort with the planned surgery when compared with discussing the procedure with the neurosurgeon or viewing the CT images with a neuroradiologist. The neurosurgeon reported an improved understanding of the patient's anatomy and potential cause of patient symptoms as well as improved preoperative planning compared with viewing the CT imaging alone. The neurosurgeon also reported an improvement in the planned surgical approach with a better intraoperative visualization and confirmation of the regions of planned calvarial resection. The use of patient-specific, anatomically accurate 3D prints may improve patient education, surgeon understanding and visualization, preoperative decision making, and intraoperative management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of the 3-Dimensional Mississippi River Plume Using a High Resolution Circulation Model Coupled with Ocean Color Imagery and Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Ramos, I. M.; Arnone, R.; Cambazoglu, M. K.; Jacobs, G. A.; Vandermeulen, R. A.; Howden, S. D.

    2016-02-01

    The Mississippi River Plume (MRP) is responsible for creating a highly dynamic environment in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGoM). It is also responsible for the transport of rich-nutrient waters, physical and biological connectivity between the nGoM coastal waters to the deep ocean and other regions within the Gulf, and in cases of unfortunate events such as the Deep Horizon Oil Spill it may contribute to the transport and fate of hydrocarbons. The main objective of this work is to characterize the 3-Dimensional MRP using modeled salinity data from the 1 km resolution Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) and ocean color data (e.g., Chlorophyll-a) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). Field data from ships and gliders were used to validate the model and satellite data. An initial step for this study was to determine how to define a "river plume". We selected several study cases of 7 to 10 days in which the river plume was visible in the satellite imagery and examined the vertical salinity distribution at selected cross sections along the river plume. Different salinity thresholds were used to define a river plume and characterize the 3-D dilution and dispersion of the MRP during the study cases. The surface response as means of chlorophyll and light availability in relationship to the depth of the river plume was investigated. Our results improved understanding of the formation of the mixed layer depth in the MRP and how we can integrate model and satellite data to delineate the 3D structure of the river plume and better understand the biological surface response observed in the satellite imagery. The output of this study highlights how circulation models and satellite data can be integrated to better understand the connectivity, transport and fate of sediments, nutrients, and pollutants in the Gulf of Mexico.

  7. Evaluation of a 3-dimensional voxel-based neuronavigation system with perspective image rendering for keyhole approaches to the skull base: an anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigl, Guenther C; Krischek, Boris; Ritz, Rainer; Thaher, Firas; Marquardt, Jakob S; Hirt, Bernhard; Korn, Andreas; Schumann, Martin; Tatagiba, Marcos; Ebner, Florian H

    2014-01-01

    Keeping track of the endoscope tip in 3 planes (axial, coronal, and sagittal) while performing skull base surgeries can be difficult because the surgeon is focused most on the live video images of the endoscope. For that reason, it was the aim of this anatomical cadaver study to evaluate the usefulness of a voxel-based neuronavigation system with 3-dimensional (3D) perspective image rendering for endoscopic procedures through keyhole approaches to the skull base. On 5 whole-body fixed cadavers, frontolateral and retrosigmoid approaches were performed bilaterally using a neuronavigation system with 3D perspective image rendering (Cbyon, Med-Surgical Services Inc., Sunnyvale, California). Target points defined on the selected target structures were approached with the navigated ∅ 4-mm 0° endoscope (Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany). Using an Endocameleon 4-mm rigid endoscope capable of changing its angle of view while remaining stationary, the surgical field was checked for injuries before and after insertion of the navigated 0° endoscope. The median neuronavigation registration error was 0.95 mm (range 0.6 to 1.2 mm). Evaluation showed that 100% of the defined targets were reached and visualized. Neither a target structure nor neurovascular structures or surrounding brain tissue were injured by the navigated 0° endoscope. A neuronavigation system with 3D voxel-based perspective image rendering could potentially improve safety during complex skull base surgeries, and possibly also help to improve surgical results. Such a system, however, cannot replace a neurosurgeon's experience nor surgical skill or anatomical knowledge. It is an excellent teaching tool for young neurosurgeons, but it also has some limitations. Therefore, clinical studies will be necessary to further evaluate the benefits of this type of neuronavigation system in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanical and substrate abnormalities of the left atrium assessed by 3-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography and electroanatomic mapping system in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshikazu; Nakano, Yukiko; Hidaka, Takayuki; Oda, Noboru; Kajihara, Kenta; Tokuyama, Takehito; Uchimura, Yuko; Sairaku, Akinori; Motoda, Chikaaki; Fujiwara, Mai; Kawazoe, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Hiroya; Kihara, Yasuki

    2015-03-01

    Left atrial (LA) remodeling progresses to electrical remodeling, contractile remodeling, and subsequently structural remodeling. Little is known about the relationship between LA electrical and anatomical remodeling and LA mechanical function. We aimed to clarify the relationship between LA mechanical function using 3-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (3D-STE) and LA electrical remodeling using an electroanatomic mapping system (CARTO 3) and to estimate atrial fibrillation (AF) substrate in patients with paroxysmal AF (PAF). A total of 52 patients with PAF (41 (79%) men; mean age 61 ± 11 years) undergoing their initial pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) were examined. The standard deviation of the time to peak strain in each LA segment (%SD-TPS) was analyzed as an index of LA dyssynchrony using 3D-STE before PVI. Contact LA bipolar voltage and activation maps were constructed during sinus rhythm before PVI using CARTO 3. The LA total activation time was measured and low-voltage zones (LVZs) were determined with a local bipolar electrogram amplitude of <0.5 mV. The patients were divided into those with an LVZ (LVZ group; n = 23) and those without an LVZ (non-LVZ group; n = 29). The %SD-TPS was significantly higher (14.1 ± 5.7 vs 8.0 ± 5.1; P=.0002) in the LVZ group than in the non-LVZ group and was an independent determinant of the LVZ (odds ratio 1.21; 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.49; P=.01). In addition, the LA total activation time was weakly correlated with the %SD-TPS. LA dyssynchrony and conduction delay exist in patients with PAF. The 3D-STE enabled noninvasive estimation of LA electrical remodeling and AF substrate. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of 2- and 3-Dimensional Sonography for Estimation of Birth Weight and Neonatal Adiposity in the Setting of Suspected Fetal Macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Kelly S; Stetzer, Bradley; Catalano, Patrick M; Myers, Stephen A

    2016-06-01

    To compare the accuracy of 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) fetal measurements for prediction of birth weight Z score and neonatal adiposity (percent body fat) in the setting of suspected fetal macrosomia. We conducted a prospective observational study of term singleton pregnancies with suspected macrosomia. Patients were enrolled on admission to labor and delivery and underwent sonographic examinations. Within 48 hours of delivery, neonatal anthropometric measurements were obtained. Thirty-four neonates were included in the analysis. Mothers were very obese (mean body mass index ± SD, 39.1 ± 7.8 kg/m(2)); 56.5% were white; and 39.1% had diabetes. Neonates were 38% female and had a mean birth weight of 3940.0 ± 496.8 g, percent body fat of 18.5% ± 4.0%, and Ponderal index of 2.8 ± 0.3 g/cm(3). Mean 2D estimated fetal weight was 3973 ± 443 g; mean 3D estimated fetal weight was 3803 ± 528 g; and mean thigh volume was 102.5 ± 19.6 cm(3). Both 2D and 3D measurements accounted for about half the variance in predicted birth weight (R(2) for 2D = 0.53, 71% within 10% of birth weight; R(2) for 3D = 0.47, 65% within 10% of birth weight). Thigh volume Z score was the prenatal parameter most highly correlated with both birth weight Z score (R(2) = 0.52; r = 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.84; P macrosomia, fractional thigh volume was the best sonographic estimate of neonatal percent body fat and birth weight Z score. Future research on prediction of neonatal weight and adiposity in macrosomic fetuses should include an estimate of fetal soft tissue given the generalized increase in body fat of these fetuses. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  10. Epicardial delivery of VEGF and cardiac stem cells guided by 3-dimensional PLLA mat enhancing cardiac regeneration and angiogenesis in acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hye-Jin; Kim, Jong-Tae; Kim, Hee-Jung; Kyung, Hei-Won; Katila, Pramila; Lee, Jeong-Han; Yang, Tae-Hyun; Yang, Young-Il; Lee, Seung-Jin

    2015-05-10

    Congestive heart failure is mostly resulted in a consequence of the limited myocardial regeneration capacity after acute myocardial infarction. Targeted delivery of proangiogenic factors and/or stem cells to the ischemic myocardium is a promising strategy for enhancing their local and sustained therapeutic effects. Herein, we designed an epicardial delivery system of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and cardiac stem cells (CSCs) using poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) mat applied to the acutely infarcted myocardium. The fibrous VEGF-loaded PLLA mat was fabricated by an electrospinning method using PLLA solution emulsified VEGF. This mat not only allowed for sustained release of VEGF for 4weeks but boosted migration and proliferation of both endothelial cells and CSCs in vitro. Furthermore, sustained release of VEGF showed a positive effect on in vitro capillary-like network formation of endothelial cells compared with bolus treatment of VEGF. PLLA mat provided a permissive 3-dimensional (3D) substratum that led to spontaneous cardiomyogenic differentiation of CSCs in vitro. Notably, sustained stimulation by VEGF-loaded PLLA mat resulted in a substantial increase in the expression of proangiogenic mRNAs of CSCs in vitro. The epicardially implanted VEGF-loaded PLLA mat showed modest effects on angiogenesis and cardiomyogenesis in the acutely infarcted hearts. However, co-implantation of VEGF and CSCs using the PLLA mat showed meaningful therapeutic effects on angiogenesis and cardiomyogenesis compared with controls, leading to reduced cardiac remodeling and enhanced global cardiac function. Collectively, the PLLA mat allowed a smart cargo that enabled the sustained release of VEGF and the delivery of CSCs, thereby synergistically inducing angiogenesis and cardiomyogenesis in acute myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Five-year outcomes, cosmesis, and toxicity with 3-dimensional conformal external beam radiation therapy to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Núria; Sanz, Xavier; Dengra, Josefa; Foro, Palmira; Membrive, Ismael; Reig, Anna; Quera, Jaume; Fernández-Velilla, Enric; Pera, Óscar; Lio, Jackson; Lozano, Joan; Algara, Manuel

    2013-12-01

    To report the interim results from a study comparing the efficacy, toxicity, and cosmesis of breast-conserving treatment with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) or whole breast irradiation (WBI) using 3-dimensional conformal external beam radiation therapy (3D-CRT). 102 patients with early-stage breast cancer who underwent breast-conserving surgery were randomized to receive either WBI (n=51) or APBI (n=51). In the WBI arm, 48 Gy was delivered to the whole breast in daily fractions of 2 Gy, with or without additional 10 Gy to the tumor bed. In the APBI arm, patients received 37.5 Gy in 3.75 Gy per fraction delivered twice daily. Toxicity results were scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Common Toxicity Criteria. Skin elasticity was measured using a dedicated device (Multi-Skin-Test-Center MC-750-B2, CKelectronic-GmbH). Cosmetic results were assessed by the physician and the patients as good/excellent, regular, or poor. The median follow-up time was 5 years. No local recurrences were observed. No significant differences in survival rates were found. APBI reduced acute side effects and radiation doses to healthy tissues compared with WBI (Pbreast, the areas that received the highest doses (ie, the boost or quadrant) showed the greatest loss of elasticity. WBI resulted in a greater loss of elasticity in the high-dose area compared with APBI (P75% of patients in the APBI arm had excellent or good cosmesis, and these outcomes appear to be stable over time. The percentage of patients with excellent/good cosmetic results was similar in both groups. APBI delivered by 3D-CRT to the tumor bed for a selected group of early-stage breast cancer patients produces 5-year results similar to those achieved with conventional WBI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Online plasma calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, H.; Gourdain, P.-A.

    2017-10-01

    APOLLO is an online, Linux based plasma calculator. Users can input variables that correspond to their specific plasma, such as ion and electron densities, temperatures, and external magnetic fields. The system is based on a webserver where a FastCGI protocol computes key plasma parameters including frequencies, lengths, velocities, and dimensionless numbers. FastCGI was chosen to overcome security problems caused by JAVA-based plugins. The FastCGI also speeds up calculations over PHP based systems. APOLLO is built upon the WT library, which turns any web browser into a versatile, fast graphic user interface. All values with units are expressed in SI units except temperature, which is in electron-volts. SI units were chosen over cgs units because of the gradual shift to using SI units within the plasma community. APOLLO is intended to be a fast calculator that also provides the user with the proper equations used to calculate the plasma parameters. This system is intended to be used by undergraduates taking plasma courses as well as graduate students and researchers who need a quick reference calculation.

  13. LHC Bellows Impedance Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Dyachkov, M

    1997-01-01

    To compensate for thermal expansion the LHC ring has to accommodate about 2500 bellows which, together with beam position monitors, are the main contributors to the LHC broad-band impedance budget. In order to reduce this impedance to an acceptable value the bellows have to be shielded. In this paper we compare different designs proposed for the bellows and calculate their transverse and longitudinal wakefields and impedances. Owing to the 3D geometry of the bellows, the code MAFIA was used for the wakefield calculations; when possible the MAFIA results were compared to those obtained with ABCI. The results presented in this paper indicate that the latest bellows design, in which shielding is provided by sprung fingers which can slide along the beam screen, has impedances smaller tha those previously estimated according to a rather conservative scaling of SSC calculations and LEP measurements. Several failure modes, such as missing fingers and imperfect RF contact, have also been studied.

  14. INVAP's Nuclear Calculation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Mochi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its origins in 1976, INVAP has been on continuous development of the calculation system used for design and optimization of nuclear reactors. The calculation codes have been polished and enhanced with new capabilities as they were needed or useful for the new challenges that the market imposed. The actual state of the code packages enables INVAP to design nuclear installations with complex geometries using a set of easy-to-use input files that minimize user errors due to confusion or misinterpretation. A set of intuitive graphic postprocessors have also been developed providing a fast and complete visualization tool for the parameters obtained in the calculations. The capabilities and general characteristics of this deterministic software package are presented throughout the paper including several examples of its recent application.

  15. Calculating Quenching Weights

    CERN Document Server

    Salgado, C A; Salgado, Carlos A.; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2003-01-01

    We calculate the probability (``quenching weight'') that a hard parton radiates an additional energy fraction due to scattering in spatially extended QCD matter. This study is based on an exact treatment of finite in-medium path length, it includes the case of a dynamically expanding medium, and it extends to the angular dependence of the medium-induced gluon radiation pattern. All calculations are done in the multiple soft scattering approximation (Baier-Dokshitzer-Mueller-Peign\\'e-Schiff--Zakharov ``BDMPS-Z''-formalism) and in the single hard scattering approximation (N=1 opacity approximation). By comparison, we establish a simple relation between transport coefficient, Debye screening mass and opacity, for which both approximations lead to comparable results. Together with this paper, a CPU-inexpensive numerical subroutine for calculating quenching weights is provided electronically. To illustrate its applications, we discuss the suppression of hadronic transverse momentum spectra in nucleus-nucleus colli...

  16. Graphing Calculator Mini Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnawat, Sunil R.

    1996-01-01

    The "Graphing Calculator Mini Course" project provided a mathematically-intensive technologically-based summer enrichment workshop for teachers of American Indian students on the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation. Eleven such teachers participated in the six-day workshop in summer of 1996 and three Sunday workshops in the academic year. The project aimed to improve science and mathematics education on the reservation by showing teachers effective ways to use high-end graphing calculators as teaching and learning tools in science and mathematics courses at all levels. In particular, the workshop concentrated on applying TI-82's user-friendly features to understand the various mathematical and scientific concepts.

  17. Four-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging With 3-Dimensional Radial Sampling and Self-Gating–Based K-Space Sorting: Early Clinical Experience on Pancreatic Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wensha, E-mail: wensha.yang@cshs.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Fan, Zhaoyang [Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Tuli, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Deng, Zixin; Pang, Jianing [Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Wachsman, Ashley [Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Reznik, Robert; Sandler, Howard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Li, Debiao [Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Fraass, Benedick A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Purpose: To apply a novel self-gating k-space sorted 4-dimensional MRI (SG-KS-4D-MRI) method to overcome limitations due to anisotropic resolution and rebinning artifacts and to monitor pancreatic tumor motion. Methods and Materials: Ten patients were imaged using 4D-CT, cine 2-dimensional MRI (2D-MRI), and the SG-KS-4D-MRI, which is a spoiled gradient recalled echo sequence with 3-dimensional radial-sampling k-space projections and 1-dimensional projection-based self-gating. Tumor volumes were defined on all phases in both 4D-MRI and 4D-CT and then compared. Results: An isotropic resolution of 1.56 mm was achieved in the SG-KS-4D-MRI images, which showed superior soft-tissue contrast to 4D-CT and appeared to be free of stitching artifacts. The tumor motion trajectory cross-correlations (mean ± SD) between SG-KS-4D-MRI and cine 2D-MRI in superior–inferior, anterior–posterior, and medial–lateral directions were 0.93 ± 0.03, 0.83 ± 0.10, and 0.74 ± 0.18, respectively. The tumor motion trajectories cross-correlations between SG-KS-4D-MRI and 4D-CT in superior–inferior, anterior–posterior, and medial–lateral directions were 0.91 ± 0.06, 0.72 ± 0.16, and 0.44 ± 0.24, respectively. The average standard deviation of gross tumor volume calculated from the 10 breathing phases was 0.81 cm{sup 3} and 1.02 cm{sup 3} for SG-KS-4D-MRI and 4D-CT, respectively (P=.012). Conclusions: A novel SG-KS-4D-MRI acquisition method capable of reconstructing rebinning artifact–free, high-resolution 4D-MRI images was used to quantify pancreas tumor motion. The resultant pancreatic tumor motion trajectories agreed well with 2D-cine-MRI and 4D-CT. The pancreatic tumor volumes shown in the different phases for the SG-KS-4D-MRI were statistically significantly more consistent than those in the 4D-CT.

  18. Eigenmodes of superconducting cavities calculated on APE- supercomputers

    CERN Document Server

    Neugebauer, F

    2000-01-01

    The calculation of eigenmodes in superconducting cavities treated fully 3-dimensional is problematic on usual high end workstations due to the large amount of memory needed and the large number of floating point operations to be performed. Therefore the present approach uses a parallel SIMD supercomputer (APE-100) to deal with the task of finding the eigenvalues and associated eigenvectors of a large sparse matrix. The matrix is built up by the commercial software tool MAFIA and then sent to the nodes of the supercomputer where the package MAXQ solves the eigenvalue problem. The result of the diagonalization procedure is then read back to the MAFIA host where further data analysis and visualization can be done. (5 refs).

  19. Quasiparticle GW calculations within the GPAW electronic structure code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüser, Falco

    are explained in detail and many examples are given. This provides a full understanding of how the code works and how the outcome should be interpreted. Secondly, it gives an extensive discussion of calculated results for the electronic structure of 3-dimensional, 2-dimensional and finite systems and comparison......The GPAW electronic structure code, developed at the physics department at the Technical University of Denmark, is used today by researchers all over the world to model the structural, electronic, optical and chemical properties of materials. They address fundamental questions in material science...... and use their knowledge to design new materials for a vast range of applications. Todays hottest topics are, amongst many others, better materials for energy conversion (e.g. solar cells), energy storage (batteries) and catalysts for the removal of environmentally dangerous exhausts. The mentioned...

  20. Gravitational constant calculation methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Shakhparonov, V. M.; Karagioz, O. V.; Izmailov, V. P.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the gravitational constant calculation methodologies for a rectangular block of the torsion balance body presented in the papers Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 240801 (2009) and Phys.Rev. D. 82, 022001 (2010). We have established the influence of non-equilibrium gas flows on the obtained values of G.

  1. Five-Year Outcomes, Cosmesis, and Toxicity With 3-Dimensional Conformal External Beam Radiation Therapy to Deliver Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, Núria, E-mail: nrodriguez@parcdesalutmar.cat [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Sanz, Xavier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Dengra, Josefa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Foro, Palmira [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Membrive, Ismael; Reig, Anna [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Quera, Jaume [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Fernández-Velilla, Enric; Pera, Óscar; Lio, Jackson; Lozano, Joan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Algara, Manuel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To report the interim results from a study comparing the efficacy, toxicity, and cosmesis of breast-conserving treatment with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) or whole breast irradiation (WBI) using 3-dimensional conformal external beam radiation therapy (3D-CRT). Methods and Materials: 102 patients with early-stage breast cancer who underwent breast-conserving surgery were randomized to receive either WBI (n=51) or APBI (n=51). In the WBI arm, 48 Gy was delivered to the whole breast in daily fractions of 2 Gy, with or without additional 10 Gy to the tumor bed. In the APBI arm, patients received 37.5 Gy in 3.75 Gy per fraction delivered twice daily. Toxicity results were scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Common Toxicity Criteria. Skin elasticity was measured using a dedicated device (Multi-Skin-Test-Center MC-750-B2, CKelectronic-GmbH). Cosmetic results were assessed by the physician and the patients as good/excellent, regular, or poor. Results: The median follow-up time was 5 years. No local recurrences were observed. No significant differences in survival rates were found. APBI reduced acute side effects and radiation doses to healthy tissues compared with WBI (P<.01). Late skin toxicity was no worse than grade 2 in either group, without significant differences between the 2 groups. In the ipsilateral breast, the areas that received the highest doses (ie, the boost or quadrant) showed the greatest loss of elasticity. WBI resulted in a greater loss of elasticity in the high-dose area compared with APBI (P<.05). Physician assessment showed that >75% of patients in the APBI arm had excellent or good cosmesis, and these outcomes appear to be stable over time. The percentage of patients with excellent/good cosmetic results was similar in both groups. Conclusions: APBI delivered by 3D-CRT to the tumor bed for a selected group of early-stage breast cancer patients produces 5-year results similar to those achieved with

  2. Prediction of Tubal Ectopic Pregnancy Using Offline Analysis of 3-Dimensional Transvaginal Ultrasonographic Data Sets: An Interobserver and Diagnostic Accuracy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Fernando; Espada Vaquero, Mercedes; Bignardi, Tommaso; Lu, Chuan; Testa, Antonia C; Fauchon, David; Epstein, Elisabeth; Leone, Francesco P G; Van den Bosch, Thierry; Martins, Wellington P; Condous, George

    2017-12-08

    To assess interobserver reproducibility in detecting tubal ectopic pregnancies by reading data sets from 3-dimensional (3D) transvaginal ultrasonography (TVUS) and comparing it with real-time 2-dimensional (2D) TVUS. Images were initially classified as showing pregnancies of unknown location or tubal ectopic pregnancies on real time 2D TVUS by an experienced sonologist, who acquired 5 3D volumes. Data sets were analyzed offline by 5 observers who had to classify each case as ectopic pregnancy or pregnancy of unknown location. The interobserver reproducibility was evaluated by the Fleiss κ statistic. The performance of each observer in predicting ectopic pregnancies was compared to that of the experienced sonologist. Women were followed until they were reclassified as follows: (1) failed pregnancy of unknown location; (2) intrauterine pregnancy; (3) ectopic pregnancy; or (4) persistent pregnancy of unknown location. Sixty-one women were included. The agreement between reading offline 3D data sets and the first real-time 2D TVUS was very good (80%-82%; κ = 0.89). The overall interobserver agreement among observers reading offline 3D data sets was moderate (κ = 0.52). The diagnostic performance of experienced observers reading offline 3D data sets had accuracy of 78.3% to 85.0%, sensitivity of 66.7% to 81.3%, specificity of 79.5% to 88.4%, positive predictive value of 57.1% to 72.2%, and negative predictive value of 87.5% to 91.3%, compared to the experienced sonologist's real-time 2D TVUS: accuracy of 94.5%, sensitivity of 94.4%, specificity of 94.5%, positive predictive value of 85.0%, and negative predictive value of 98.1%. The diagnostic accuracy of 3D TVUS by reading offline data sets for predicting ectopic pregnancies is dependent on experience. Reading only static 3D data sets without clinical information does not match the diagnostic performance of real time 2D TVUS combined with clinical information obtained during the scan. © 2017 by the American

  3. Potential for improved intelligence quotient using volumetric modulated arc therapy compared with conventional 3-dimensional conformal radiation for whole-ventricular radiation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, X Sharon; Stinauer, Michelle; Rogers, Brion; Madden, Jennifer R; Wilkening, Greta N; Liu, Arthur K

    2012-12-01

    To compare volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) in the treatment of localized intracranial germinoma. We modeled the effect of the dosimetric differences on intelligence quotient (IQ). Ten children with intracranial germinomas were used for planning. The prescription doses were 23.4 Gy to the ventricles followed by 21.6 Gy to the tumor located in the pineal region. For each child, a 3D-CRT and full arc VMAT was generated. Coverage of the target was assessed by computing a conformity index and heterogeneity index. We also generated VMAT plans with explicit temporal lobe sparing and with smaller ventricular margin expansions. Mean dose to the temporal lobe was used to estimate IQ 5 years after completion of radiation, using a patient age of 10 years. Compared with the 3D-CRT plan, VMAT improved conformality (conformity index 1.10 vs 1.85), with slightly higher heterogeneity (heterogeneity index 1.09 vs 1.06). The averaged mean doses for left and right temporal lobes were 31.3 and 31.7 Gy, respectively, for VMAT plans and 37.7 and 37.6 Gy for 3D-CRT plans. This difference in mean temporal lobe dose resulted in an estimated IQ difference of 3.1 points at 5 years after radiation therapy. When the temporal lobes were explicitly included in the VMAT optimization, the mean temporal lobe dose was reduced 5.6-5.7 Gy, resulting in an estimated IQ difference of an additional 3 points. Reducing the ventricular margin from 1.5 cm to 0.5 cm decreased mean temporal lobe dose 11.4-13.1 Gy, corresponding to an estimated increase in IQ of 7 points. For treatment of children with intracranial pure germinomas, VMAT compared with 3D-CRT provides increased conformality and reduces doses to normal tissue. This may result in improvements in IQ in these children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 3-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging at 3 Tesla for Early Response Assessment of Glioblastoma Patients During External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muruganandham, Manickam; Clerkin, Patrick P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Smith, Brian J. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Anderson, Carryn M.; Morris, Ann [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Capizzano, Aristides A.; Magnotta, Vincent [Department of Radiology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); McGuire, Sarah M.; Smith, Mark C.; Bayouth, John E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Buatti, John M., E-mail: john-buatti@uiowa.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of 3-dimensional magnetic resonance (3D-MR) proton spectroscopic imaging for treatment planning and its implications for early response assessment in glioblastoma multiforme. Methods and Materials: Eighteen patients with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed glioblastoma had 3D-MR proton spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) along with T2 and T1 gadolinium-enhanced MR images at simulation and at boost treatment planning after 17 to 20 fractions of radiation therapy. All patients received standard radiation therapy (RT) with concurrent temozolomide followed by adjuvant temozolomide. Imaging for response assessment consisted of MR scans every 2 months. Progression-free survival was defined by the criteria of MacDonald et al. MRSI images obtained at initial simulation were analyzed for choline/N-acetylaspartate ratios (Cho/NAA) on a voxel-by-voxel basis with abnormal activity defined as Cho/NAA ≥2. These images were compared on anatomically matched MRSI data collected after 3 weeks of RT. Changes in Cho/NAA between pretherapy and third-week RT scans were tested using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank tests and correlated with progression-free survival, radiation dose and location of recurrence using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: After a median follow-up time of 8.6 months, 50% of patients had experienced progression based on imaging. Patients with a decreased or stable mean or median Cho/NAA values had less risk of progression (P<.01). Patients with an increase in mean or median Cho/NAA values at the third-week RT scan had a significantly greater chance of early progression (P<.01). An increased Cho/NAA at the third-week MRSI scan carried a hazard ratio of 2.72 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-6.71; P=.03). Most patients received the prescription dose of RT to the Cho/NAA ≥2 volume, where recurrence most often occurred. Conclusion: Change in mean and median Cho/NAA detected at 3 weeks was a significant predictor of

  5. [Reliability and validity of the 3 Dimensional Sleep Scale (3DSS)--day workers version--in assessing sleep phase, quality, and quantity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yuuki; Uchimura, Naohisa; Ishida, Tetsuya; Toyomasu, Kouji; Kushino, Nanae; Mori, Mihoko; Morimatsu, Yoshitaka; Hoshiko, Michiko; Ishitake, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    Most sleep scales assess sleep quantity (e.g., sleep duration and daytime sleepiness) or sleep quality (e.g., sleep latency and maintenance); the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is an exceptional example. However, the prevalence of 24-hour operations presents the need for a scale that can also measure sleep phase (e.g., sleep onset and offset). Furthermore, we have to assess the phase, quality and quantity respectively to understand which of them has a problem. Thus, the 3 Dimensional Sleep Scale (3DSS) - day workers version - was developed to assess each of them related to sleep, and this study attempted to verify its reliability and validity. Subjects were 635 day workers (461 men, 174 women; average age = 40.5 years) from the manufacturing and service industries. A scale was created based on a pre-study and discussions with specialists. The scale consisted of 17 sleep-related items. The skew of the data was assessed, and the construct validity and reliability were verified using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha, respectively. The scale was scored and G-P analysis was performed. The items measuring phase, quality, and quantity of sleep were selected from the PSQI and SDS, and their correlation with the three scales of 3DSS were measured to verify the convergent and discriminant validity. In addition, the total scores obtained on the PSQI were compared with each scale of the 3DSS. No skew was found in the data. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure--quality, quantity, and phase. Each factor consisted of five items, therefore two items were excluded. The fitness of the 15-item model was better than that of the 17-item model according to confirmatory factor analysis. Cronbach's alpha for phase, quality and quantity score were 0.685, 0.768 and 0.716, respectively. The hypothesis tests were almost accepted, therefore convergent and discriminant validity were sufficiently established. The present study

  6. Improved Accuracy of Minimally Invasive Transpedicular Screw Placement in the Lumbar Spine With 3-Dimensional Stereotactic Image Guidance: A Comparative Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Austin C; Faulkner, Austin R; Bradley, Yong C; Pasciak, Alexander S; Barlow, Patrick B; Gash, Judson R; Reid, William S

    2015-11-01

    This study compares the accuracy rates of lumbar percutaneous pedicle screw placement (PPSP) using either 2-dimensional (2-D) fluoroscopic guidance or 3-dimensional (3-D) stereotactic navigation in the setting of minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS). This represents the largest single-operator study of its kind and first comprehensive review of 3-D stereotactic navigation in the setting of MISS. To examine differences in accuracy of lumbar pedicle screw placement using 2-D fluoroscopic navigation and 3-D stereotaxis in the setting of MISS. Surgeons increasingly rely upon advanced image guidance systems to guide minimally invasive PPSP. Three-dimensional stereotactic navigation with intraoperative computed tomography offers well-documented benefit in open surgical approaches. However, the utility of 3-D stereotaxis in the setting of MISS remains incompletely explored by few studies with limited patient numbers. A total of 599 consecutive patients underwent minimally invasive lumbar PPSP aided by 3-D stereotactic navigation. Postoperative imaging and medical records were analyzed for patient demographics, incidence and degree of pedicle breach, and other surgical complications. A total of 2132 screw were reviewed and compared with a meta-analysis created from published data regarding the placement of 4248 fluoroscopically navigated pedicle screws in the setting of MISS. In the 3-D navigation group, a total of 7 pedicle breaches occurred in 6 patients, corresponding to a per-person breach rate of 1.15% (6/518) and a per-screw breach rate of 0.33% (7/2132). Meta-analysis comprised of data from 10 independent studies showed overall breach risk of 13.1% when 2-D fluoroscopic navigation was utilized in MISS. This translates to a 99% decrease in odds of breach in the 3-D navigation technique versus the traditional 2-D-guided technique, with an odds ratio of 0.01, (95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.03), P<0.001. Three-dimensional stereotactic navigation based upon

  7. Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Quantification of Glenoid Bone Loss Is Equivalent to 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography Quantification: Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanke, Adam B; Shin, Jason J; Pearson, Ian; Bach, Bernard R; Romeo, Anthony A; Cole, Brian J; Verma, Nikhil N

    2017-04-01

    To assess the ability of 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 1.5 and 3 tesla [T]) to quantify glenoid bone loss in a cadaveric model compared with the current gold standard, 3D computed tomography (CT). Six cadaveric shoulders were used to create a bone loss model, leaving the surrounding soft tissues intact. The anteroposterior (AP) dimension of the glenoid was measured at the glenoid equator and after soft tissue layer closure the specimen underwent scanning (CT, 1.5-T MRI, and 3-T MRI) with the following methods (0%, 10%, and 25% defect by area). Raw axial data from the scans were segmented using manual mask manipulation for bone and reconstructed using Mimics software to obtain a 3D en face glenoid view. Using calibrated Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine images, the diameter of the glenoid at the equator and the area of the glenoid defect was measured on all imaging modalities. In specimens with 10% or 25% defects, no difference was detected between imaging modalities when comparing the measured defect size (10% defect P = .27, 25% defect P = .73). All 3 modalities demonstrated a strong correlation with the actual defect size (CT, ρ = .97; 1.5-T MRI, ρ = .93; 3-T MRI, ρ = .92, P MRI increased with increasing defect size (P = .02). Both 1.5- and 3-T-based 3D MRI reconstructions of glenoid bone loss correlate with measurements from 3D CT scan data and actual defect size in a cadaveric model. Regardless of imaging modality, the error in bone loss measurement tends to increase with increased defect size. Use of 3D MRI in the setting of shoulder instability could obviate the need for CT scans. The goal of our work was to develop a reproducible method of determining glenoid bone loss from 3D MRI data and hence eliminate the need for CT scans in this setting. This will lead to decreased cost of care as well as decreased radiation exposure to patients. The long-term goal is a fully automated system that is as approachable for

  8. Comparative Study of C-Arms for Intraoperative 3-dimensional Imaging and Navigation in Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery Part II: Radiation Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingler, Jan-Helge; Sircar, Ronen; Scheiwe, Christian; Kogias, Evangelos; Krüger, Marie T; Scholz, Christoph; Hubbe, Ulrich

    2017-07-01

    A radiation exposure study in vitro. This study aimed to compare the radiation exposure of 2 different 3-dimensional (3D) C-arm devices on an anthropomorphic phantom. Minimally invasive pedicle screw placement requires intraoperative imaging techniques for visualization of the unexposed spine. Mobile 3D C-arms compose a 3D image data set out of multiple successive fluoroscopic images. We compared the 3D C-arm devices Siremobil Iso-C 3D (Siemens Sector Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) and Vision FD Vario 3D (Ziehm Imaging, Nuremberg, Germany) regarding their radiation exposure. For this purpose, dosimeters were attached on an anthropomorphic phantom at various sites (eye lenses, thyroid gland, female, and male gonads). With each C-arm, 10 automated 3D scans as well as 400 fluoroscopic images were performed on the cervical and lumbar spine, respectively. The Vision FD Vario 3D generally causes higher radiation exposures than the Siremobil Iso-C 3D. Significantly higher radiation exposures were assessed at the eye lenses performing cervical (294.1 vs. 84.6 μSv) and lumbar 3D scans (22.5 vs. 11.2 μSv) as well as at the thyroid gland performing cervical 3D scans (4405.2 vs. 2761.9 μSv). Moreover, the Vision FD Vario 3D caused significantly higher radiation exposure at the eye lenses for standard cervical fluoroscopic images (3.2 vs. 0.4 μSv). 3D C-arms facilitate minimally invasive and accurate pedicle screw placement by providing 3D image datasets for intraoperative 3D imaging and navigation. However, the hereby potentially increased radiation exposure has to be considered. In particular, the Vision FD Vario 3D appears to generally evoke higher radiation exposures than the Siremobil Iso-C 3D. Well-indicated application of ionizing radiation and compliance with radiation protection principles remain mandatory to keep radiation exposure to patient and staff as low as reasonably achievable.

  9. Cephalometric landmark identification consistency between undergraduate dental students and orthodontic residents in 3-dimensional rendered cone-beam computed tomography images: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez-Contreras, Manuel; Jiménez-Trujillo, Isabel; Romero-Maroto, Martin; López-de-Andrés, Ana; Lagravère, Manuel O

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 3-dimensional landmark consistency and precision in skeletal structures in groups with different levels of experience with 2-dimensional cephalometrics. Sixteen observers, all undergraduate or graduate students, were divided into 4 groups with different levels of experience in 2-dimensional landmarking and no previous experience in 3 dimensions. Group 1 consisted of 4 third-year dental students with no experience in cephalometric landmarking. Groups 2, 3, and 4 consisted of first-, second-, and third-year graduate students, with increasing levels of experience. The participants located 18 landmarks in 12 surface models of cone-beam computed tomography scans of patients on 3 separate occasions. The average of all examiners locating each landmark was defined as the centroid. The mean of the distances of each located point to the centroid of that landmark was used as the mean consistency (MC), and the standard deviation (SD) was used as the precision. Analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey comparisons between groups were done. The MC and SD values across landmarks, patients, and examiners were 1.03 ± 1.14 mm. The MC and SD were 0.89 ± 0.83 mm for group 1 with no experience, 1.02 ± 0.95 mm for group 2, 1.17 ± 1.60 mm for group 3, and 1.05 ± 1.00 mm for group 4. Significant differences were found among the groups. Comparing the observer groups studied, the undergraduate dental school students without previous experience in bidimensional cephalometrics obtained the best values in volumetric landmark location. Graduate students with increasing amounts of experience did not perform as well. These results and conclusions should be interpreted with caution because the number of subjects in each group was small. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Potential for Improved Intelligence Quotient Using Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Compared With Conventional 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation for Whole-Ventricular Radiation in Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, X. Sharon, E-mail: xqi@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Stinauer, Michelle; Rogers, Brion [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Madden, Jennifer R. [Department of Neuro-Oncology, The Children' s Hospital, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Wilkening, Greta N. [Department of Pediatrics, The Children' s Hospital, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Liu, Arthur K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To compare volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) in the treatment of localized intracranial germinoma. We modeled the effect of the dosimetric differences on intelligence quotient (IQ). Method and Materials: Ten children with intracranial germinomas were used for planning. The prescription doses were 23.4 Gy to the ventricles followed by 21.6 Gy to the tumor located in the pineal region. For each child, a 3D-CRT and full arc VMAT was generated. Coverage of the target was assessed by computing a conformity index and heterogeneity index. We also generated VMAT plans with explicit temporal lobe sparing and with smaller ventricular margin expansions. Mean dose to the temporal lobe was used to estimate IQ 5 years after completion of radiation, using a patient age of 10 years. Results: Compared with the 3D-CRT plan, VMAT improved conformality (conformity index 1.10 vs 1.85), with slightly higher heterogeneity (heterogeneity index 1.09 vs 1.06). The averaged mean doses for left and right temporal lobes were 31.3 and 31.7 Gy, respectively, for VMAT plans and 37.7 and 37.6 Gy for 3D-CRT plans. This difference in mean temporal lobe dose resulted in an estimated IQ difference of 3.1 points at 5 years after radiation therapy. When the temporal lobes were explicitly included in the VMAT optimization, the mean temporal lobe dose was reduced 5.6-5.7 Gy, resulting in an estimated IQ difference of an additional 3 points. Reducing the ventricular margin from 1.5 cm to 0.5 cm decreased mean temporal lobe dose 11.4-13.1 Gy, corresponding to an estimated increase in IQ of 7 points. Conclusion: For treatment of children with intracranial pure germinomas, VMAT compared with 3D-CRT provides increased conformality and reduces doses to normal tissue. This may result in improvements in IQ in these children.

  11. The Effect of Dose-Volume Parameters and Interfraction Interval on Cosmetic Outcome and Toxicity After 3-Dimensional Conformal Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Kara Lynne, E-mail: karalynne.kerr@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hepel, Jaroslaw T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Warren Alpert School of Medicine of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Hiatt, Jessica R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Warren Alpert School of Medicine of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Dipetrillo, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Warren Alpert School of Medicine of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Price, Lori Lyn [Department of Biostatistics Research Center, Institute of Clinical Research and Health Policy Studies, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wazer, David E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Warren Alpert School of Medicine of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate dose-volume parameters and the interfraction interval (IFI) as they relate to cosmetic outcome and normal tissue effects of 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Methods and Materials: Eighty patients were treated by the use of 3D-CRT to deliver APBI at our institutions from 2003-2010 in strict accordance with the specified dose-volume constraints outlined in the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B39/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0413 (NSABP-B39/RTOG 0413) protocol. The prescribed dose was 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions delivered twice daily. Patients underwent follow-up with assessment for recurrence, late toxicity, and overall cosmetic outcome. Tests for association between toxicity endpoints and dosimetric parameters were performed with the chi-square test. Univariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of interfraction interval (IFI) with these outcomes. Results: At a median follow-up time of 32 months, grade 2-4 and grade 3-4 subcutaneous fibrosis occurred in 31% and 7.5% of patients, respectively. Subcutaneous fibrosis improved in 5 patients (6%) with extended follow-up. Fat necrosis developed in 11% of women, and cosmetic outcome was fair/poor in 19%. The relative volume of breast tissue receiving 5%, 20%, 50%, 80%, and 100% (V5-V100) of the prescribed dose was associated with risk of subcutaneous fibrosis, and the volume receiving 50%, 80%, and 100% (V50-V100) was associated with fair/poor cosmesis. The mean IFI was 6.9 hours, and the minimum IFI was 6.2 hours. The mean and minimum IFI values were not significantly associated with late toxicity. Conclusions: The incidence of moderate to severe late toxicity, particularly subcutaneous fibrosis and fat necrosis and resulting fair/poor cosmesis, remains high with continued follow-up. These toxicity endpoints are associated with several dose-volume parameters. Minimum and mean IFI values were

  12. Validation of 2 noninvasive, markerless reconstruction techniques in biplane high-speed fluoroscopy for 3-dimensional research of bovine distal limb kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, M; Reich, E; Grund, S; Mülling, C K W; Geiger, S M

    2017-10-01

    Lameness severely impairs cattle's locomotion, and it is among the most important threats to animal welfare, performance, and productivity in the modern dairy industry. However, insight into the pathological alterations of claw biomechanics leading to lameness and an understanding of the biomechanics behind development of claw lesions causing lameness are limited. Biplane high-speed fluoroscopic kinematography is a new approach for the analysis of skeletal motion. Biplane high-speed videos in combination with bone scans can be used for 3-dimensional (3D) animations of bones moving in 3D space. The gold standard, marker-based animation, requires implantation of radio-opaque markers into bones, which impairs the practicability for lameness research in live animals. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the comparative accuracy of 2 noninvasive, markerless animation techniques (semi-automatic and manual) in 3D animation of the bovine distal limb. Tantalum markers were implanted into each of the distal, middle, and proximal phalanges of 5 isolated bovine distal forelimbs, and biplane high-speed x-ray videos of each limb were recorded to capture the simulation of one step. The limbs were scanned by computed tomography to create bone models of the 6 digital bones, and 3D animation of the bones' movements were subsequently reconstructed using the marker-based, the semi-automatic, and the manual animation techniques. Manual animation translational bias and precision varied from 0.63 ± 0.26 mm to 0.80 ± 0.49 mm, and rotational bias and precision ranged from 2.41 ± 1.43° to 6.75 ± 4.67°. Semi-automatic translational values for bias and precision ranged from 1.26 ± 1.28 mm to 2.75 ± 2.17 mm, and rotational values varied from 3.81 ± 2.78° to 11.7 ± 8.11°. In our study, we demonstrated the successful application of biplane high-speed fluoroscopic kinematography to gait analysis of bovine distal limb. Using the manual animation technique, kinematics

  13. Calculation of collisional mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koponen, I.; Hautala, M.

    1990-06-01

    Collisional mixing of markers is calculated by splitting the calculation into two parts. Relocation cross sections have been calculated using a realistic potential in a Monte Carlo simulation. The cross sections are used in the computation of marker relocation. The cumulative effect of successive relocations is assumed to be an uncorrelated transport process and it is treated as a weighted random walk. Matrix relocation was not included in the calculations. The results from this two-step simulation model are compared with analytical models. A fit to the simulated differential relocation cross sections has been found which makes the numerical integration of the Bothe formula feasible. The influence of primaries has been treated in this way. When all the recoils are included the relocation profiles are nearly Gaussian and the Pearson IV distributions yield acceptable profiles in the studied cases. The approximations and cut-off procedures which cause the major uncertainties in calculations are pointed out. The choice of the cut-off energy is shown to be the source of the largest uncertainty whereas the mathematical approximations can be used with good accuracy. The methods are used to study the broadening of a Pt marker in Si mixed by 300 keV Xe ions, broadening of a Ti marker in Al mixed by 300 keV Xe ions and broadening of a Ti marker in Hf mixed by 750 keV Kr ions. The fluence in each case is 2 × 10 16{ions}/{cm 2}. The calculated averages of half widths at half maximum vary between 11-18, 9-12 and 10-15 nm, respectively, depending on the cut-off energy and the mixing efficiencies vary between 11-29, 6-11 and 6-14 {Å5}/{eV}, respectively. The broadenings of Pt in Si and Ti in Al are about two times smaller than the measured values and the broadening of Ti in Hf is in agreement with the measured values.

  14. A porosity model for flow resistance calculation of heat exchanger with louvered fins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taek Keun [Halla Visteon Climate Control Corp. Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hie Chan [Kunsan National University, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joon Sik [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    A full 3-dimensional flow simulation of a louvered fin heat exchanger assembly requires a huge number of grid points and enormous computing time. This work proposes a porous media model for the flow resistance calculation of the louvered fin side in order to efficiently simulate a complex 3-dimensional flow over the louvered fins. In the present model, we determine the permeability and Ergun constant in the modified Darcy equation. We first build up a database of the friction factor from the available experimental data and our own CFD data, and then develop the friction factor correlation in the range of the Reynolds number based on the louver pitch from 0.001 to 20000 for 14 different louvered fin types. We use the non-linear and multi-linear regression analyses to obtain the friction factor correlation as a function of louvered fin geometric parameters such as louver pitch, louver angle and fin pitch. The present friction factor correlation shows an excellent agreement with the previous experimental and CFD data. The modified Darcy equation with the proposed permeability and Ergun constant for the louvered fin side can easily be coupled with the 3-dimensional computation of the main tube flow.

  15. Microcomputer calculations in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingbeck, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    The use of microcomputers to carry out computations in an interactive manner allows the judgement of the operator to be allied with the calculating power of the machine in a synthesis which speeds up the creation and testing of mathematical techniques for physical problems. This advantage is accompanied by a disadvantage, in that microcomputers are limited in capacity and power, and special analysis is needed to compensate for this. These two features together mean that there is a fairly recognisable body of methods which are particularly appropriate for interactive microcomputing. This article surveys a wide range of mathematical methods used in physics, indicating how they can be applied using microcomputers and giving several original calculations which illustrate the value of the microcomputer in stimulating the exploration of new methods. Particular emphasis is given to methods which use iteration, recurrence relation or extrapolation procedures which are well adapted to the capabilities of modern microcomputers.

  16. CONVEYOR FOUNDATIONS CALCULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Romanos

    1995-03-10

    The purpose of these calculations is to design foundations for all conveyor supports for the surface conveyors that transport the muck resulting from the TBM operation, from the belt storage to the muck stockpile. These conveyors consist of: (1) Conveyor W-TO3, from the belt storage, at the starter tunnel, to the transfer tower. (2) Conveyor W-SO1, from the transfer tower to the material stacker, at the muck stockpile.

  17. A thermodynamic and mechanical model for formation of the Solar System via 3-dimensional collapse of the dusty pre-solar nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Anne M.; Criss, Robert E.

    2012-03-01

    The fundamental and shared rotational characteristics of the Solar System (nearly circular, co-planar orbits and mostly upright axial spins of the planets) record conditions of origin, yet are not explained by prevailing 2-dimensional disk models. Current planetary spin and orbital rotational energies (R.E.) each nearly equal and linearly depend on gravitational self-potential of formation (Ug), revealing mechanical energy conservation. We derive -ΔUg≅Δ.R.E. and stability criteria from thermodynamic principles, and parlay these relationships into a detailed model of simultaneous accretion of the protoSun and planets from the dust-bearing 3-d pre-solar nebula (PSN). Gravitational heating is insignificant because Ug is negative, the 2nd law of thermodynamics must be fulfilled, and ideal gas conditions pertain to the rarified PSN until the objects were nearly fully formed. Combined conservation of angular momentum and mechanical energy during 3-dimensional collapse of spheroidal dust shells in a contracting nebula provides ΔR.E.≅R.E. for the central body, whereas for formation of orbiting bodies, ΔR.E.≅R.E.f(1-If/Ii), where I is the moment of inertia. Orbital data for the inner planets follow 0.04×R.E.f≅-Ug which confirms conservation of angular momentum. Significant loss of spin, attributed to viscous dissipation during differential rotation, masks the initial spin of the un-ignited protoSun predicted by R.E.=-Ug. Heat production occurs after nearly final sizes are reached via mechanisms such as shear during differential rotation and radioactivity. We focus on the dilute stage, showing that the PSN was compositionally graded due to light molecules diffusing preferentially, providing the observed planetary chemistry, and set limits on PSN mass, density, and temperature. From measured planetary masses and orbital characteristics, accounting for dissipation of spin, we deduce mechanisms and the sequence of converting a 3-d dusty cloud to the present 2-d

  18. Experimental evaluation of 3-dimensional kinematic behavior of the cruciate ligaments Avaliação experimental do comportamento cinemático tridimensional dos ligamentos cruzados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Antonio Garbelotti Júnior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a low-cost and easily reproducible technique for biomechanical studies in cadavers. In this kind of study, the natural effect of loading of the joint and shear forces are not taken into account. The objective is to describe the plastic deformation of the ligaments into 3-dimensional space. METHOD: For 18 intact human cadaver knees, the cruciate ligaments were divided into 3 fiber bundles, the tibial or femoral fixation points were marked, and 2 perpendicular different x-ray exposures were performed, thus obtaining radiographs of spatial projections of the bundle in 3 anatomic planes (frontal, sagittal, and transversal. From the measurements made on the x-ray films, we obtained the average distance between the 2 fixation points of the cruciate ligaments on the tibia and the femur at 4 different flexion angles. RESULTS: The distance between the fixation points of the medial and lateral fiber bundles of the cruciate ligaments did not change significantly during movement. There were, however, significant variations (P OBJETIVO: Este trabalho sugere uma técnica de baixo custo e de fácil reprodutibilidade para o estudo biomecânico em cadáveres. Neste tipo de estudo os efeitos das cargas naturais na articulação não são estudados. O objetivo é descrever a deformação plástica dos ligamentos no espaço tridimensional. MÉTODO: 18 joelhos provenientes de cadáveres humanos tiveram seus ligamentos cruzados divididos em três feixes de fibras cada e suas respectivas fixações tibiais e femorais marcadas, quando foram submetidos a duas exposições radiográficas perpendiculares para podermos obter uma projeção dos ligamentos nos três planos anatômicos (frontal, sagital e transversal. Através das medidas feitas nas radiografias nós obtivemos a média da distância entre os pontos de fixação na tíbia e no fêmur em quatro diferentes graus de flexão. RESULTADOS: Analisando os dados n

  19. Volumetric intensity-modulated arc therapy vs. 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for primary chemoradiotherapy of anal carcinoma. Effects on treatment-related side effects and survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Hanne Elisabeth; Droege, Leif Hendrik; Hennies, Steffen; Herrmann, Markus Karl; Wolff, Hendrik Andreas [University Medical Center Goettingen, Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Goettingen (Germany); Gaedcke, Jochen [University Medical Center Goettingen, Dept. of General Surgery, Goettingen (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Primary chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is the standard treatment for locally advanced anal carcinoma. This study compared volumetric intensity-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) in terms of treatment-related side effects and survival. From 1992-2014, 103 consecutive patients with anal carcinoma UICC stage I-III were treated. Concomitant CRT consisted of whole pelvic irradiation, including the iliac and inguinal lymph nodes, with 50.4 Gy (1.8 Gy per fractions) by VMAT (n = 17) or 3DCRT (n = 86) as well as two cycles of 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C. Acute organ and hematological toxicity were assessed according to the Common Terminology Criteria (CTC) for Adverse Events version 3.0. Side effects ≥ grade 3 were scored as high-grade toxicity. High-grade acute organ toxicity CTC ≥ 3 (P < 0.05), especially proctitis (P = 0.03), was significantly reduced in VMAT patients. The 2-year locoregional control (LRC) and disease-free survival (DFS) were both 100 % for VMAT patients compared with 80 and 73 % for 3DCRT patients. VMAT was shown to be a feasible technique, achieving significantly lower rates of acute organ toxicity and promising results for LRC and DFS. Future investigations will aim at assessing the advantages of VMAT with respect to late toxicity and survival after a prolonged follow-up time. (orig.) [German] Die primaere Radiochemotherapie (RCT) gilt als Standardtherapie fuer lokal fortgeschrittene Analkarzinome. In dieser Studie wurde die volumetrisch modulierte Rotationstherapie (''volumetric intensity-modulated arc therapy'', VMAT) mit der klassischen dreidimensionalen konformalen Radiotherapie (3DCRT) hinsichtlich therapieassoziierter Nebenwirkungen und Ueberleben verglichen. Von 1992-2014 wurden 103 aufeinanderfolgende Patienten mit einem Analkarzinom im UICC-Stadium I-III behandelt. Die kombinierte RCT bestand aus der Bestrahlung des gesamten Beckens inklusive der iliakalen und der inguinalen

  20. Morphological Characteristics and Classification of Mandibular First Molars Having 2 Distal Roots or Canals: 3-Dimensional Biometric Analysis Using Cone-beam Computed Tomography in a Korean Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yemi; Roh, Byoung-Duck; Shin, Yooseok; Kim, Bom Sahn; Choi, Yoo-Lim; Ha, Aena

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the morphologic characteristics of mandibular first molars having 2 canals in distal roots. Interorifice distance, buccal bone thickness, and root curvature were evaluated using cone-beam computed tomography images in a Korean population. In total, 1958 mandibular first molars were evaluated in axial, coronal, sagittal, and paraxial planes. Distal roots having 2 canals were classified according to their root and canal shapes (2 roots, 2 canals [2R2C]; 1 root, 2 canals with 2 apical foramina [1R2C(2-2)]; and 1 root, 2 canals with 1 apical foramen [1R2C(2-1)]). The distances between orifices and the distance from the apex to the buccal bone plate were measured for each root canal shape (2R2C, 1R2C[2-2], and 1R2C[2-1]). The curvature of distolingual (DL) roots was classified according to severity using 3-dimensional reconstructed images, and the direction of curvature was determined. The relationships of these characteristics to sex and side were evaluated. The prevalences of 2R2C, 1R2C(2-2), and 1R2C(2-1) were 25.89%, 10.32%, and 14.15%, respectively. The distances between distobuccal (DB) and DL orifices were 3.77 ± 0.74 mm for 2R2C, 3.02 ± 0.65 mm for 1R2C(2-2), and 2.44 ± 0.64 mm for 1R2C(2-1). The distances from the buccal plate to the DB canal were 3.84 ± 1.35 mm for 2R2C, 5.33 ± 1.41 mm for 1R2C(2-2), and 5.96 ± 1.63 mm for 1R2C(2-1). The distance from the buccal plate to the DL canal was 9.85 ± 1.46 mm for 2R2C, and 8.28 ± 1.50 mm for 1R2C(2-2). All distances differed significantly according to root canal configurations, and all were greater in men than women (P .05). No significant difference between the left and right sides was found (P > .05). The prevalence of most severely curved DL roots (type III) was 62.92%, and the direction was commonly toward the buccal side (69.03%). The prevalence of mandibular first molars having 2 canals in distal roots was more than 50% in a Korean population. Interorifice

  1. Calculations in furnace technology

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Clive; Hopkins, DW; Owen, WS

    2013-01-01

    Calculations in Furnace Technology presents the theoretical and practical aspects of furnace technology. This book provides information pertinent to the development, application, and efficiency of furnace technology. Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the exothermic reactions that occur when carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur are burned to release the energy available in the fuel. This text then evaluates the efficiencies to measure the quantity of fuel used, of flue gases leaving the plant, of air entering, and the heat lost to the surroundings. Other chapters consi

  2. Calculating Speed of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Shalabh

    2017-01-01

    Sound is an emerging source of renewable energy but it has some limitations. The main limitation is, the amount of energy that can be extracted from sound is very less and that is because of the velocity of the sound. The velocity of sound changes as per medium. If we could increase the velocity of the sound in a medium we would be probably able to extract more amount of energy from sound and will be able to transfer it at a higher rate. To increase the velocity of sound we should know the speed of sound. If we go by the theory of classic mechanics speed is the distance travelled by a particle divided by time whereas velocity is the displacement of particle divided by time. The speed of sound in dry air at 20 °C (68 °F) is considered to be 343.2 meters per second and it won't be wrong in saying that 342.2 meters is the velocity of sound not the speed as it's the displacement of the sound not the total distance sound wave covered. Sound travels in the form of mechanical wave, so while calculating the speed of sound the whole path of wave should be considered not just the distance traveled by sound. In this paper I would like to focus on calculating the actual speed of sound wave which can help us to extract more energy and make sound travel with faster velocity.

  3. Multilayer optical calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Byrnes, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    When light hits a multilayer planar stack, it is reflected, refracted, and absorbed in a way that can be derived from the Fresnel equations. The analysis is treated in many textbooks, and implemented in many software programs, but certain aspects of it are difficult to find explicitly and consistently worked out in the literature. Here, we derive the formulas underlying the transfer-matrix method of calculating the optical properties of these stacks, including oblique-angle incidence, absorption-vs-position profiles, and ellipsometry parameters. We discuss and explain some strange consequences of the formulas in the situation where the incident and/or final (semi-infinite) medium are absorptive, such as calculating $T>1$ in the absence of gain. We also discuss some implementation details like complex-plane branch cuts. Finally, we derive modified formulas for including one or more "incoherent" layers, i.e. very thick layers in which interference can be neglected. This document was written in conjunction with ...

  4. IPC - Isoelectric Point Calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Lukasz P

    2016-10-21

    Accurate estimation of the isoelectric point (pI) based on the amino acid sequence is useful for many analytical biochemistry and proteomics techniques such as 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, or capillary isoelectric focusing used in combination with high-throughput mass spectrometry. Additionally, pI estimation can be helpful during protein crystallization trials. Here, I present the Isoelectric Point Calculator (IPC), a web service and a standalone program for the accurate estimation of protein and peptide pI using different sets of dissociation constant (pKa) values, including two new computationally optimized pKa sets. According to the presented benchmarks, the newly developed IPC pKa sets outperform previous algorithms by at least 14.9 % for proteins and 0.9 % for peptides (on average, 22.1 % and 59.6 %, respectively), which corresponds to an average error of the pI estimation equal to 0.87 and 0.25 pH units for proteins and peptides, respectively. Moreover, the prediction of pI using the IPC pKa's leads to fewer outliers, i.e., predictions affected by errors greater than a given threshold. The IPC service is freely available at http://isoelectric.ovh.org Peptide and protein datasets used in the study and the precalculated pI for the PDB and some of the most frequently used proteomes are available for large-scale analysis and future development. This article was reviewed by Frank Eisenhaber and Zoltán Gáspári.

  5. The rating reliability calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon David J

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program.

  6. Comet whole-core solution to a stylized 3-dimensional pressurized water reactor benchmark problem with UO{sub 2}and MOX fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, D.; Rahnema, F. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, 770 State Street, Atlanta, GA 30332-0745 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    A stylized pressurized water reactor (PWR) benchmark problem with UO{sub 2} and MOX fuel was used to test the accuracy and efficiency of the coarse mesh radiation transport (COMET) code. The benchmark problem contains 125 fuel assemblies and 44,000 fuel pins. The COMET code was used to compute the core eigenvalue and assembly and pin power distributions for three core configurations. In these calculations, a set of tensor products of orthogonal polynomials were used to expand the neutron angular phase space distribution on the interfaces between coarse meshes. The COMET calculations were compared with the Monte Carlo code MCNP reference solutions using a recently published an 8-group material cross section library. The comparison showed both the core eigenvalues and assembly and pin power distributions predicated by COMET agree very well with the MCNP reference solution if the orders of the angular flux expansion in the two spatial variables and the polar and azimuth angles on the mesh boundaries are 4, 4, 2 and 2. The mean and maximum differences in the pin fission density distribution ranged from 0.28%-0.44% and 3.0%-5.5%, all within 3-sigma uncertainty of the MCNP solution. These comparisons indicate that COMET can achieve accuracy comparable to Monte Carlo. It was also found that COMET's computational speed is 450 times faster than MCNP. (authors)

  7. Quantitative analysis of 3 dimensional volumetry and histogram of thyroid gland on neck computed tomography for patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, In Chul; Lee, Kwang Hwi; Ryu, Ji Hwa; Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Seung Ho; Baek, Hye Jin; Lee, Ye Daum; Kim, Tae Nyun; Kim, Mi Kyung [Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Mok [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    To analyze three-dimensional (3D) volume and histogram of thyroid gland on neck computed tomography (CT) for patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A total of 121 subjects who underwent neck CT between March 2013 and February 2014 were included in this study. These subjects were divided into the following two groups: 1) control group (n = 76); 2) Hashimoto's thyroiditis group (n = 45). Non-enhanced and contrast-enhanced CT images were obtained. On contrast-enhanced images, the 3D volume of thyroid gland was semi-automatically calculated. On CT histogram, attenuation number, mean, median, standard deviation (SD), and coefficient of variation (CV) of thyroid gland were calculated. These values were compared between the two groups. Total 3D volume of thyroid gland was 14.9 ± 4.8 cm{sup 3} in the control group, which was significantly (p = 0.002) lower than that (19.2 ± 8 cm{sup 3}) in the Hashimoto's thyroiditis group. On CT histogram, the mean, median, SD, and CV of thyroid gland on non-enhanced images were 95.8, 99.3, 21.7, and 0.226, respectively, in the control group and 72.2, 72.6, 19.6, and 0.28 in the Hashimoto's thyroiditis group (p < 0.05). Histogram parameters on contrast-enhanced images were not significantly (p > 0.05) different. Median at cut-off value of 83 revealed the largest Az value (Az: 0.905; 95% confidence interval: 0.837-0.951; sensitivity: 84.4%; specificity: 85.5%). The Hashimoto's thyroiditis group had larger volume but lower CT attenuation number with more prominent parenchymal heterogeneity of thyroid gland than the control group.

  8. INSTRUCTIONAL EFFICIENCY OF THE INTEGRATION OF GRAPHING CALCULATORS IN TEACHING AND LEARNING MATHEMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor’ain Mohd Tajuddin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This quasi-experimental study with non-equivalent control group post-test only design was conducted to investigate the effects of using graphing calculators in mathematics teaching and learning on Form Four Malaysian secondary school students’ performance and their meta-cognitive awareness level. Graphing calculator strategy refers to the use of TI-83 Plus graphing calculator in teaching and learning of Straight Lines topic. The experimental group underwent learning using graphing calculator while the control group underwent learning using conventional instruction. Three instruments were used in this study namely, Straight Lines Achievement Test, Paas Mental Effort Rating Scale and Meta-cognitive Awareness Survey. The data were analysed using independent t-test and planned comparison test. The findings indicated that the graphing calculators’ instruction enhanced students’ performance and induced higher levels of meta-cognitive awareness among students. Less mental effort were invested during the learning and test phases and hence increased 3-dimensional instructional efficiency index in learning of Straight Lines topic. Hence it can be implied that integrating the use of graphing calculators in teaching and learning of mathematics was more efficient than the conventional instruction strategy. Even though some students experience difficulties in using graphing calculators initially during learning, they responded overwhelmingly that graphing calculators improves their understanding of the Straight Lines topic. Hence, the usage of the graphing calculator lends as an effective strategy in teaching and learning of mathematics.

  9. Point Defect Calculations in Tungsten

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Danilowicz, Ronald

    1968-01-01

    .... The vacancy migration energy for tungsten was calculated. The calculated value of 1.73 electron volts, together with experimental data, suggests that vacancies migrate in stage III recovery in tungsten...

  10. Effects of a Herbal Medicine, Yukgunja-Tang, on Functional Dyspepsia Patients Classified by 3-Dimensional Facial Measurement: A Study Protocol for Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juyeon Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Functional dyspepsia (FD, a common upper gastrointestinal disease, is difficult to manage because of the limitations of current conventional treatments. Yukgunja-tang (YGJT is widely used to treat FD in clinical practice in Korea, Japan, and China. However, YGJT significantly improves few symptoms of FD. In Korean medicine, FD is a well-known functional gastric disease that shows difference in the effect of herbal medicine depending on constitution or type of Korean medicine diagnosis. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of YGJT on FD patients classified by 3-dimensional facial measurement using a 3-dimensional facial shape diagnostic system (3-FSDS. Methods. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, two-center trial will be performed to evaluate the efficacy of YGJT on FD patients. Eligible subjects will be initially classified as two types by 3-dimensional facial measurement using the 3-FSDS. Ninety-six subjects (48 subjects per each type will be enrolled. These subjects will be randomly allocated into treatment or control groups in a 2 : 1 ratio. YGJT or placebo will be administered to each group during the 8-week treatment period. The primary outcome is total dyspepsia symptom scale, and the secondary outcomes include single dyspepsia symptom scale, proportion of responders with adequate symptom relief, visual analog scale, Nepean dyspepsia index-Korean version, functional dyspepsia-related quality of life, and spleen qi deficiency questionnaire. Discussion. This is the first randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of the YGJT on FD patients classified by 3-dimensional facial measurement. We will compare the treatment effect of the YGJT on FD patients classified as two types using the 3-FSDS. The results of this trial will help the FD patients improve the symptoms and quality of life effectively and provide objective evidence for prescribing the YGJT to FD patients in clinical practice. Trial

  11. Use of Monte Carlo simulation software for calculating effective dose in cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes B, W. O., E-mail: wilsonottobatista@gmail.com [Instituto Federal da Bahia, Rua Emidio dos Santos s/n, Barbalho 40301-015, Salvador de Bahia (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    This study aimed to develop a geometry of irradiation applicable to the software PCXMC and the consequent calculation of effective dose in applications of the Computed Tomography Cone Beam (CBCT). We evaluated two different CBCT equipment s for dental applications: Care stream Cs 9000 3-dimensional tomograph; i-CAT and GENDEX GXCB-500. Initially characterize each protocol measuring the surface kerma input and the product kerma air-area, P{sub KA}, with solid state detectors RADCAL and PTW transmission chamber. Then we introduce the technical parameters of each preset protocols and geometric conditions in the PCXMC software to obtain the values of effective dose. The calculated effective dose is within the range of 9.0 to 15.7 μSv for 3-dimensional computer 9000 Cs; within the range 44.5 to 89 μSv for GXCB-500 equipment and in the range of 62-111 μSv for equipment Classical i-CAT. These values were compared with results obtained dosimetry using TLD implanted in anthropomorphic phantom and are considered consistent. Os effective dose results are very sensitive to the geometry of radiation (beam position in mathematical phantom). This factor translates to a factor of fragility software usage. But it is very useful to get quick answers to regarding process optimization tool conclusions protocols. We conclude that use software PCXMC Monte Carlo simulation is useful assessment protocols for CBCT tests in dental applications. (Author)

  12. Deviation between navigated and final 3-dimensional implant position in mini-invasive unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: a pilot study in 13 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Carranza, Nicolas; Weidenhielm, Lars; Crafoord, Joakim; Hedström, Margareta

    2012-12-01

    Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is an established method of treating isolated gonartrosis. Modern techniques such as computer-assisted surgery (CAS) and minimally invasive surgery (MIS) are attractive complementary methods to UKA. However, the positioning of the components remains a concern. Thus, we performed a prospective study to assess whether there was deviation between the navigated implant position and the final implant position. We performed UKA with MIS and CAS in 13 patients. By comparing intraoperative navigation data with postoperative computed tomography (CT) measurements, we calculated the deviation between the computer-assisted implant position and the final 3-D implant position of the femoral and tibial components. The computer-assisted placement of the femoral and tibial component showed adequate position and consistent results regarding flexion-extension and varus-valgus. However, regarding rotation there was a large variation and 6 of 10 patients were outside the target range for both the femoral component and the tibial component. Difficulties in assessing anatomical landmarks with the CAS in combination with MIS might be a reason for the poor rotational alignment of the components.

  13. Reliability of 3-Dimensional Measures of Single-Leg Cross Drop Landing Across 3 Different Institutions: Implications for Multicenter Biomechanical and Epidemiological Research on ACL Injury Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCesare, Christopher A; Bates, Nathaniel A; Barber Foss, Kim D; Thomas, Staci M; Wordeman, Samuel C; Sugimoto, Dai; Roewer, Benjamin D; Medina McKeon, Jennifer M; Di Stasi, Stephanie; Noehren, Brian W; Ford, Kevin R; Kiefer, Adam W; Hewett, Timothy E; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-12-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are physically and financially devastating but affect a relatively small percentage of the population. Prospective identification of risk factors for ACL injury necessitates a large sample size; therefore, study of this injury would benefit from a multicenter approach. To determine the reliability of kinematic and kinetic measures of a single-leg cross drop task across 3 institutions. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-five female high school volleyball players participated in this study. Three-dimensional motion data of each participant performing the single-leg cross drop were collected at 3 institutions over a period of 4 weeks. Coefficients of multiple correlation were calculated to assess the reliability of kinematic and kinetic measures during the landing phase of the movement. Between-centers reliability for kinematic waveforms in the frontal and sagittal planes was good, but moderate in the transverse plane. Between-centers reliability for kinetic waveforms was good in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes. Based on these findings, the single-leg cross drop task has moderate to good reliability of kinematic and kinetic measures across institutions after implementation of a standardized testing protocol. Multicenter collaborations can increase study numbers and generalize results, which is beneficial for studies of relatively rare phenomena, such as ACL injury. An important step is to determine the reliability of risk assessments across institutions before a multicenter collaboration can be initiated.

  14. Effects of Impression Coping Design, Impression Technique, and Dental Undercuts on the Accuracy of Implant Impressions Assessed by 3-Dimensional Optical Scanning: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouhi, Mahmoud; Bajoghli, Farshad; Dakhilalian, Mansour; Beygi, Ali; Abolhasani, Majid

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of the type and design of the impression copings on the accuracy of implant impressions in 2 different conditions. A reference model with 2 implants inserted in bilateral mandibular canines was fabricated. The posterior teeth were inserted as tilted to simulate intra-oral undercuts. The teeth were eliminated to create an edentulous condition. Three different impression techniques were performed (open high retentive [OH], open low retentive [OL], closed [C]) for each condition. Total of 48 casts were made. Two scan-bodies were secured on each cast, scanned by an optical scanner. Then, they were compared to the scan of the reference model, and the calculated mean errors were analyzed with a 2-way ANOVA and Tukey test. There was no significant difference between the complete and partially edentulous groups (F = 3.252, P = 0.079). There was significant difference between the different designs of the impression copings (F = 31.789, P impression copings was more important than the undercuts. The accuracy of the closed tray coping was greater than the low retentive coping and equal to the high retentive coping.

  15. Whole core pin-by-pin coupled neutronic-thermal-hydraulic steady state and transient calculations using COBAYA3 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, J.; Herrero, J. J.; Cuervo, D.; Aragones, J. M., E-mail: jimenez@din.upm.e [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Jose Gutierrez Abascal No. 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    Nowadays coupled 3-dimensional neutron kinetics and thermal-hydraulic core calculations are performed by applying a radial average channel approach using a meshing of one quarter of assembly in the best case. This approach does not take into account the subchannels effects due to the averaging of the physical fields and the loose of heterogeneity in the thermal-hydraulic model. Therefore the models do not have enough resolution to predict those subchannels effects which are important for the fuel design safety margins, because it is in the local scale, where we can search the hottest pellet or the maximum heat flux. The Polytechnic University of Madrid advanced multi-scale neutron-kinetics and thermal-hydraulics methodologies being implemented in COBAYA3 include domain decomposition by alternate core dissections for the local 3-dimensional fine-mesh scale problems (pin cells/subchannels) and an analytical nodal diffusion solver for the coarse mesh scale coupled with the thermal-hydraulic using a model of one channel per assembly or per quarter of assembly. In this work, we address the domain decomposition by the alternate core dissections methodology applied to solve coupled 3-dimensional neutronic-thermal-hydraulic problems at the fine-mesh scale. The neutronic-thermal-hydraulic coupling at the cell-subchannel scale allows the treatment of the effects of the detailed thermal-hydraulic feedbacks on cross-sections, thus resulting in better estimates of the local safety margins at the pin level. (Author)

  16. Analysis of stress in bone and microimplants during en-masse retraction of maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth with different insertion angulations: a 3-dimensional finite element analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmine, M Issa Fathima; Yezdani, A Arif; Tajir, Faisal; Venu, R Murali

    2012-01-01

    The proper angle of microimplant insertion is important for cortical anchorage, patient safety, and biomechanical control. However, the actual impact of different insertion angulations on stability is unknown. To perform 3-dimensional finite element analysis, finite element models of a maxilla and a mandible with types D3 and D2 bone quality, and of microimplants with a diameter of 1.3 mm and lengths of 8 and 7 mm were generated. The microimplants were inserted at 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90° to the bone surface. A simulated horizontal orthodontic force of 200 g was applied to the center of the microimplant head, and stress distribution and its magnitude were analyzed with a 3-dimensional finite element analysis program. The maximum von Mises stresses in the microimplant and the cortical bone decreased as the insertion angle increased. Analysis of the stress distribution in the cortical and cancellous bones showed that the stress was absorbed mostly in the cortical bone, and little was transmitted to the cancellous bone. The maximum von Mises stress was higher in type D3 bone quality than type D2 bone quality. Placement of microimplants at a 90° angulation in the bone reduces the stress concentration, thereby increasing the likelihood of implant stabilization. Perpendicular insertion offers more stability to orthodontic loading. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Solvent-Directed Sol-Gel Assembly of 3-Dimensional Graphene-Tented Metal Oxides and Strong Synergistic Disparities in Lithium Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Jianchao; An, Yonghao; Montalvo, Elizabeth; Campbell, Patrick G.; Worsley, Marcus A.; Tran, Ich C.; Liu, Yuanyue; Wood, Brandon C.; Biener, Juergen; Jiang, Hanqing; Tang, Ming; Wang, Y. Morris

    2016-03-21

    Graphene/metal oxide (GMO) nanocomposites promise a broad range of utilities for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), pseudocapacitors, catalysts, and sensors. When applied as anodes for LIBs, GMOs often exhibit high capacity, improved rate capability and cycling performance. Numerous studies have attributed these favorable properties to a passive role played by the exceptional electronic and mechanical properties of graphene in enabling metal oxides (MOs) to achieve near-theoretical capacities. In contrast, the effects of MOs on the active lithium storage mechanisms of graphene remain enigmatic. Via a unique two-step solvent-directed sol-gel process, we have synthesized and directly compared the electrochemical performance of several representative GMOs, namely Fe2O3/graphene, SnO2/graphene, and TiO2/graphene. We observe that MOs can play an equally important role in empowering graphene to achieve large reversible lithium storage capacity. The magnitude of capacity improvement is found to scale roughly with the surface coverage of MOs, and depend sensitively on the type of MOs. We define a synergistic factor based on the capacity contributions. Our quantitative assessments indicate that the synergistic effect is most achievable in conversion-reaction GMOs (Fe2O3/graphene and SnO2/graphene) but not in intercalation-based TiO2/graphene. However, a long cycle stability up to 2000 cycles was observed in TiO2/graphene nanocomposites. We propose a surface coverage model to qualitatively rationalize the beneficial roles of MOs to graphene. Our first-principles calculations further suggest that the extra lithium storage sites could result from the formation of Li2O at the interface with graphene during the conversion-reaction. These results suggest an effective pathway for reversible lithium storage in graphene and shift design paradigms for graphene-based electrodes.

  18. Inter-observer agreement between 2-dimensional CT versus 3-dimensional I-Space model in the Diagnosis of Occult Scaphoid Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drijkoningen, Tessa; Knoter, Robert; Coerkamp, Emile G.; Koning, Anton H.J.; Rhemrev, Steven J.; Beeres, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The I-Space is a radiological imaging system in which Computed Tomography (CT)-scans can be evaluated as a three dimensional hologram. The aim of this study is to analyze the value of virtual reality (I-Space) in diagnosing acute occult scaphoid fractures. Methods: A convenient cohort of 24 patients with a CT-scan from prior studies, without a scaphoid fracture on radiograph, yet high clinical suspicion of a fracture, were included in this study. CT-scans were evaluated in the I-Space by 7 observers of which 3 observers assessed the scans in the I-Space twice. The observers in this study assessed in the I-Space whether the patient had a scaphoid fracture. The kappa value was calculated for inter- and intra-observer agreement. Results: The Kappa value varied from 0.11 to 0.33 for the first assessment. For the three observers who assessed the CT-scans twice; observer 1 improved from a kappa of 0.33 to 0.50 (95% CI 0.26-0.74, P=0.01), observer 2 from 0.17 to 0.78 (95% CI 0.36-1.0, P<0.001), and observer 3 from 0.11 to 0.24 (95% CI 0.0-0.77, P=0.24). Conclusion: Following our findings the I-Space has a fast learning curve and has a potential place in the diagnostic modalities for suspected scaphoid fractures. PMID:27847847

  19. Comparative validity and reproducibility study of various landmark-oriented reference planes in 3-dimensional computed tomographic analysis for patients receiving orthognathic surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Hsia Lin

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional computed tomographic imaging has become popular in clinical evaluation, treatment planning, surgical simulation, and outcome assessment for maxillofacial intervention. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether there is any correlation among landmark-based horizontal reference planes and to validate the reproducibility and reliability of landmark identification.Preoperative and postoperative cone-beam computed tomographic images of patients who had undergone orthognathic surgery were collected. Landmark-oriented reference planes including the Frankfort horizontal plane (FHP and the lateral semicircular canal plane (LSP were established. Four FHPs were defined by selecting 3 points from the orbitale, porion, or midpoint of paired points. The LSP passed through both the lateral semicircular canal points and nasion. The distances between the maxillary or mandibular teeth and the reference planes were measured, and the differences between the 2 sides were calculated and compared. The precision in locating the landmarks was evaluated by performing repeated tests, and the intraobserver reproducibility and interobserver reliability were assessed.A total of 30 patients with facial deformity and malocclusion--10 patients with facial symmetry, 10 patients with facial asymmetry, and 10 patients with cleft lip and palate--were recruited. Comparing the differences among the 5 reference planes showed no statistically significant difference among all patient groups. Regarding intraobserver reproducibility, the mean differences in the 3 coordinates varied from 0 to 0.35 mm, with correlation coefficients between 0.96 and 1.0, showing high correlation between repeated tests. Regarding interobserver reliability, the mean differences among the 3 coordinates varied from 0 to 0.47 mm, with correlation coefficients between 0.88 and 1.0, exhibiting high correlation between the different examiners.The 5 horizontal reference planes were

  20. Scoliosis surgery in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis does not alter lung volume: a 3-dimensional computed tomography-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwahi, Vishal; Sugarman, Etan P; Wollowick, Adam L; Amaral, Terry D; Harmon, Elliot D; Thornhill, Beverly

    2014-03-15

    Retrospective study of surgically treated patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To determine the change in lung volume after the surgical correction of scoliosis using a volumetric reconstruction of lung volume from computed tomographic (CT) scans. Previously published studies have shown that pulmonary function tests improve after scoliosis correction; however, these results are not consistent. CT-based volumetric studies in patients with scoliosis have previously shown differences in lung volume and lung volume ratio when compared with a normal population. To date, no study exists that analyzes changes in these parameters after scoliosis surgery. A total of 29 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who had pre- and postoperative CT scans on file were included in this study. Three-dimensional lung volume reconstruction was performed (TeraRecon software, TeraRecon, Inc., Foster City, CA). Appropriate masking methods were used to isolate the lung tissue. Total lung volumes, left and right lung volumes, and left/right lung volume ratio were obtained from the pre- and postoperative CT scans. Hemithoracic symmetry, pre- and postoperative Cobb angle, and kyphosis were also calculated. Neither total lung volume nor left/right lung volume ratio changed significantly postoperatively. Surgery did not significantly change total lung volume (P = 0.87), right lung volume (P = 0.69), left lung volume (P = 0.70), or the ratio between right and left lung volumes (P = 0.87). Hemithoracic asymmetry was significantly improved (P lung volume or the ratio of right-to-left lung volume. Deformity correction leads to an improvement in the symmetry of the thoracic architecture and costovertebral joint mechanics, as evidenced by the improved hemithoracic asymmetry. Thus, the change in pulmonary function tests, which has been previously documented, may be a dynamic rather than a static phenomenon. 4.

  1. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance of total and atrial pericardial adipose tissue: a validation study and development of a 3 dimensional pericardial adipose tissue model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Rajiv; Kuklik, Pawel; Grover, Suchi; Brooks, Anthony G; Wong, Christopher X; Sanders, Prashanthan; Selvanayagam, Joseph B

    2013-08-29

    Recently pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) has been shown to be an independent predictor of atrial fibrillation (AF). Atrial PAT may influence underlying atrial musculature creating a substrate for AF. This study sought to validate the assessment of total and atrial PAT by standard cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) measures and describe and validate a three dimensional atrial PAT model. 10 merino cross sheep underwent CMR using a 1.5 Tesla system (Siemens, Sonata, Erlangen, Germany). Atrial and ventricular short axis (SA) images were acquired, using ECG -gated steady state free precession sequences. In order to quantify total volume of adipose tissue, a three dimensional model was constructed from consecutive end-diastolic images using semi-automated software. Regions of adipose tissue were marked in each slice followed by linear interpolation of pixel intensities in spaces between consecutive image slices. Total volume of adipose tissue was calculated as a total volume of the three dimensional model and the mass estimated from volume measurements. The sheep were euthanized and pericardial adipose tissue was removed and weighed for comparison to the corresponding CMR measurements. All CMR adipose tissue estimates significantly correlated with autopsy measurements (ICC > 0.80; p < 0.03). Intra- observer reliability in CMR measures was high, with 95% levels of agreement within 5.5% (ICC = 0.995) for total fat mass and its individual atrial (95% CI ± 8.3%, ICC = 0.993) and ventricular components (95% CI ± 6.6%, ICC = 0.989). Inter- observer 95% limits of agreement were within ± 10.7% (ICC = 0.979), 7.4% (ICC = 0.991) and 7.2% (ICC = 0.991) for atrial, ventricular and total pericardial adipose tissue, respectively. This study validates the use of a semi-automated three dimensional atrial PAT model utilizing standard (clinical) CMR sequences for accurate and reproducible assessment of atrial PAT. The measurement of local

  2. relline: Relativistic line profiles calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauser, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    relline calculates relativistic line profiles; it is compatible with the common X-ray data analysis software XSPEC (ascl:9910.005) and ISIS (ascl:1302.002). The two basic forms are an additive line model (RELLINE) and a convolution model to calculate relativistic smearing (RELCONV).

  3. Calculated neutron intensities for SINQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atchison, F

    1998-03-01

    A fully detailed calculation of the performance of the SINQ neutron source, using the PSI version of the HETC code package, was made in 1996 to provide information useful for source commissioning. Relevant information about the formulation of the problem, cascade analysis and some of the results are presented. Aspects of the techniques used to verify the results are described and discussed together with a limited comparison with earlier results obtained from neutron source design calculations. A favourable comparison between the measured and calculated differential neutron flux in one of the guides gives further indirect evidence that such calculations can give answers close to reality in absolute terms. Due to the complex interaction between the many nuclear (and other) models involved, no quantitative evaluation of the accuracy of the calculational method in general terms can be given. (author) refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2004-10-01

    As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

  5. Practical astronomy with your calculator

    CERN Document Server

    Duffett-Smith, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Practical Astronomy with your Calculator, first published in 1979, has enjoyed immense success. The author's clear and easy to follow routines enable you to solve a variety of practical and recreational problems in astronomy using a scientific calculator. Mathematical complexity is kept firmly in the background, leaving just the elements necessary for swiftly making calculations. The major topics are: time, coordinate systems, the Sun, the planetary system, binary stars, the Moon, and eclipses. In the third edition there are entirely new sections on generalised coordinate transformations, nutr

  6. Calculate Your Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institutes of Health Contact Us Get Email Alerts Font Size Accessible Search Form Search the NHLBI, use ... Be Physically Active Healthy Weight Tools BMI Calculator Menu Plans Portion Distortion Key Recommendations Healthy Weight Resources ...

  7. Computer Calculation of Fire Danger

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Main

    1969-01-01

    This paper describes a computer program that calculates National Fire Danger Rating Indexes. fuel moisture, buildup index, and drying factor are also available. The program is written in FORTRAN and is usable on even the smallest compiler.

  8. Landfill Gas Energy Benefits Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the LFG Energy Benefits Calculator to estimate direct, avoided, and total greenhouse gas reductions, as well as environmental and energy benefits, for a landfill gas energy project.

  9. Nursing students' mathematic calculation skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainboth, Lynde; DeMasi, Chris

    2006-12-01

    This mixed method study used a pre-test/post-test design to evaluate the efficacy of a teaching strategy in improving beginning nursing student learning outcomes. During a 4-week student teaching period, a convenience sample of 54 sophomore level nursing students were required to complete calculation assignments, taught one calculation method, and mandated to attend medication calculation classes. These students completed pre- and post-math tests and a major medication mathematic exam. Scores from the intervention student group were compared to those achieved by the previous sophomore class. Results demonstrated a statistically significant improvement from pre- to post-test and the students who received the intervention had statistically significantly higher scores on the major medication calculation exam than did the students in the control group. The evaluation completed by the intervention group showed that the students were satisfied with the method and outcome.

  10. Transfer Area Mechanical Handling Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Dianda

    2004-06-23

    This calculation is intended to support the License Application (LA) submittal of December 2004, in accordance with the directive given by DOE correspondence received on the 27th of January 2004 entitled: ''Authorization for Bechtel SAX Company L.L. C. to Include a Bare Fuel Handling Facility and Increased Aging Capacity in the License Application, Contract Number DE-AC28-01R W12101'' (Arthur, W.J., I11 2004). This correspondence was appended by further Correspondence received on the 19th of February 2004 entitled: ''Technical Direction to Bechtel SAIC Company L.L. C. for Surface Facility Improvements, Contract Number DE-AC28-OIRW12101; TDL No. 04-024'' (BSC 2004a). These documents give the authorization for a Fuel Handling Facility to be included in the baseline. The purpose of this calculation is to establish preliminary bounding equipment envelopes and weights for the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) transfer areas equipment. This calculation provides preliminary information only to support development of facility layouts and preliminary load calculations. The limitations of this preliminary calculation lie within the assumptions of section 5 , as this calculation is part of an evolutionary design process. It is intended that this calculation is superseded as the design advances to reflect information necessary to support License Application. The design choices outlined within this calculation represent a demonstration of feasibility and may or may not be included in the completed design. This calculation provides preliminary weight, dimensional envelope, and equipment position in building for the purposes of defining interface variables. This calculation identifies and sizes major equipment and assemblies that dictate overall equipment dimensions and facility interfaces. Sizing of components is based on the selection of commercially available products, where applicable. This is not a specific recommendation for the future use

  11. Calculation of Rydberg interaction potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Sebastian; Tresp, Christoph; Menke, Henri; Urvoy, Alban; Firstenberg, Ofer; Büchler, Hans Peter; Hofferberth, Sebastian

    2017-07-01

    The strong interaction between individual Rydberg atoms provides a powerful tool exploited in an ever-growing range of applications in quantum information science, quantum simulation and ultracold chemistry. One hallmark of the Rydberg interaction is that both its strength and angular dependence can be fine-tuned with great flexibility by choosing appropriate Rydberg states and applying external electric and magnetic fields. More and more experiments are probing this interaction at short atomic distances or with such high precision that perturbative calculations as well as restrictions to the leading dipole-dipole interaction term are no longer sufficient. In this tutorial, we review all relevant aspects of the full calculation of Rydberg interaction potentials. We discuss the derivation of the interaction Hamiltonian from the electrostatic multipole expansion, numerical and analytical methods for calculating the required electric multipole moments and the inclusion of electromagnetic fields with arbitrary direction. We focus specifically on symmetry arguments and selection rules, which greatly reduce the size of the Hamiltonian matrix, enabling the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian up to higher multipole orders on a desktop computer. Finally, we present example calculations showing the relevance of the full interaction calculation to current experiments. Our software for calculating Rydberg potentials including all features discussed in this tutorial is available as open source.

  12. A Romberg Integral Spreadsheet Calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Gaik Tay

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the work of Richardson’s extrapolation spreadsheet calculator up to level 4 to approximate definite differentiation, we have developed a Romberg integral spreadsheet calculator to approximate definite integral. The main feature of this version of spreadsheet calculator is a friendly graphical user interface developed to capture the needed information to solve the integral by Romberg method. Users simply need to enter the variable in the integral, function to be integrated, lower and upper limits of the integral, select the desired accuracy of computation, select the exact function if it exists and lastly click the Compute button which is associated with VBA programming written to compute Romberg integral table. The full solution of the Romberg integral table up to any level can be obtained quickly and easily using this method. The attached spreadsheet calculator together with this paper helps educators to prepare their marking scheme easily and assist students in checking their answers instead of reconstructing the answers from scratch. A summative evaluation of this Romberg Spreadsheet Calculator has been conducted by involving 36 students as sample. The data was collected using questionnaire. The findings showed that the majority of the students agreed that the Romberg Spreadsheet Calculator provides a structured learning environment that allows learners to be guided through a step-by-step solution.

  13. Recursive calculation of Hansen coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branham, Richard L., Jr.

    1990-06-01

    Hansen coefficients are used in expansions of the elliptic motion. Three methods for calculating the coefficients are studied: Tisserand's method, the Von Zeipel-Andoyer (VZA) method with explicit representation of the polynomials required to compute the Hansen coefficients, and the VZA method with the values of the polynomials calculated recursively. The VZA method with explicit polynomials is by far the most rapid, but the tabulation of the polynomials only extends to 12th order in powers of the eccentricity, and unless one has access to the polynomials in machine-readable form their entry is laborious and error-prone. The recursive calculation of the VZA polynomials, needed to compute the Hansen coefficients, while slower, is faster than the calculation of the Hansen coefficients by Tisserand's method, up to 10th order in the eccentricity and is still relatively efficient for higher orders. The main advantages of the recursive calculation are the simplicity of the program and one's being able to extend the expansions to any order of eccentricity with ease. Because FORTRAN does not implement recursive procedures, this paper used C for all of the calculations. The most important conclusion is recursion's genuine usefulness in scientific computing.

  14. 3DIVS: 3-Dimensional Immersive Virtual Sculpting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuester, F; Duchaineau, M A; Hamann, B; Joy, K I; Uva, A E

    2001-10-03

    Virtual Environments (VEs) have the potential to revolutionize traditional product design by enabling the transition from conventional CAD to fully digital product development. The presented prototype system targets closing the ''digital gap'' as introduced by the need for physical models such as clay models or mockups in the traditional product design and evaluation cycle. We describe a design environment that provides an intuitive human-machine interface for the creation and manipulation of three-dimensional (3D) models in a semi-immersive design space, focusing on ease of use and increased productivity for both designer and CAD engineers.

  15. 3-Dimensional Reproducibility of Natural Head Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    Postgraduate School of Dentistry Of the Uniformed Services University Of the Health Sciences In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements For the Degree...reconstructing the face in art, forensics , orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning for surgical management. In two studies, Cooke and Wei (1988) (1990

  16. 3-Dimensional Protein Structure of Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The loss of productivity due to flu is staggering. Costs range as much as $20 billio a year. High mutation rates of the flu virus have hindered development of new drugs or vaccines. The secret lies in a small molecule which is attached to the host cell's surface. Each flu virus, no matter what strain, must remove this small molecule to escape the host cell to spread infection. Using data from space and earth grown crystals, researchers from the Center of Macromolecular Crystallography (CMC) are desining drugs to bind with this protein's active site. This lock and key fit reduces the spread of flu in the body by blocking its escape route. In collaboration with its corporate partner, the CMC has refined drug structure in preparation for clinical trials. Tested and approved relief is expected to reach drugstores by year 2004.

  17. Visual Form Detection in 3-Dimensional Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    34 ahead of "intellectualism" and "experimentation" was waning. Both Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) and Rene Descartes (1596-1650), enlightened by advances in...from this time -- the seventeenth century - more than any other. Despite the residual theology in Descartes ’ concept of mind, his theories are...essentially naturalistic and biological. Thev invoke supernatural entities only in passing. Though a mind- body dlualist, Descartes (lid accept the notion

  18. Cohomology of 3-dimensional color Lie algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piontkovski, Dmitri; Silvestrov, Sergei D.

    2007-01-01

    We develop the cohomology theory of color Lie algebras due to Scheunert-Zhang in a framework of non-homogeneous quadratic Koszul algebras. In this approach, the Chevalley-Eilenberg complex of a color Lie algebra becomes a standard Koszul complex for its universal enveloping algebra, providing a

  19. Mordred: a molecular descriptor calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, Hirotomo; Tian, Yu-Shi; Kawashita, Norihito; Takagi, Tatsuya

    2018-02-06

    Molecular descriptors are widely employed to present molecular characteristics in cheminformatics. Various molecular-descriptor-calculation software programs have been developed. However, users of those programs must contend with several issues, including software bugs, insufficient update frequencies, and software licensing constraints. To address these issues, we propose Mordred, a developed descriptor-calculation software application that can calculate more than 1800 two- and three-dimensional descriptors. It is freely available via GitHub. Mordred can be easily installed and used in the command line interface, as a web application, or as a high-flexibility Python package on all major platforms (Windows, Linux, and macOS). Performance benchmark results show that Mordred is at least twice as fast as the well-known PaDEL-Descriptor and it can calculate descriptors for large molecules, which cannot be accomplished by other software. Owing to its good performance, convenience, number of descriptors, and a lax licensing constraint, Mordred is a promising choice of molecular descriptor calculation software that can be utilized for cheminformatics studies, such as those on quantitative structure-property relationships.

  20. Precision Calculations in Supersymmetric Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mihaila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report on the newest developments in precision calculations in supersymmetric theories. An important issue related to this topic is the construction of a regularization scheme preserving simultaneously gauge invariance and supersymmetry. In this context, we discuss in detail dimensional reduction in component field formalism as it is currently the preferred framework employed in the literature. Furthermore, we set special emphasis on the application of multi-loop calculations to the analysis of gauge coupling unification, the prediction of the lightest Higgs boson mass, and the computation of the hadronic Higgs production and decay rates in supersymmetric models. Such precise theoretical calculations up to the fourth order in perturbation theory are required in order to cope with the expected experimental accuracy on the one hand and to enable us to distinguish between the predictions of the Standard Model and those of supersymmetric theories on the other hand.

  1. Monte Carlo calculations for HTRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogenbirk, A. [ECN Nuclear Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    1998-09-01

    From a neutronics point of view pebble-bed HTRs are completely different from standard LWRs. The most important differences are to be found in the reactor geometry, the properties of the moderator (graphite instead of water) and the self-shielding of the fuel regions. Therefore, computer packages normally used for core analyses should be validated with experimental data before they can be used for HTR analyses. This especially holds for deterministic computer codes, in which approximations are made which may not be valid in pebble-bed HTRs. Monte Carlo codes more based on first principles suffer much less from this problem. In order to study small- and medium-sized LEU-HTR systems in the late 1980s an IAEA Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) was started. This CRP was mainly directed to the effects of water ingress and neutron streaming. The PROTEUS facility at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Villigen, Switzerland, played a central role in this CRP. Benchmark quality measurements were provided in clean, easy-to-interpret critical configurations, using pebble-type fuel. ECN in Petten, Netherlands, contributed to the CRP by performing reactor calculations using the WIMS code system with deterministic calculations. However, a need was felt for reference calculations, in which as few approximations as possible were made. These analyses were performed with the Monte Carlo code MCNP-4A. In this contribution the results are given of the main MCNP-calculations. In these analyses a detailed model of the PROTEUS experimental set-up was used, whereas in the calculations use was made of high-quality continuous-energy cross-section data. The attention was focused on the calculation of the value of k{sub eff} and of streaming effects in the pebble-bed core. 15 refs.

  2. Friction and wear calculation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Kragelsky, I V; Kombalov, V S

    1981-01-01

    Friction and Wear: Calculation Methods provides an introduction to the main theories of a new branch of mechanics known as """"contact interaction of solids in relative motion."""" This branch is closely bound up with other sciences, especially physics and chemistry. The book analyzes the nature of friction and wear, and some theoretical relationships that link the characteristics of the processes and the properties of the contacting bodies essential for practical application of the theories in calculating friction forces and wear values. The effect of the environment on friction and wear is a

  3. Algorithmes Efficaces en Calcul Formel

    OpenAIRE

    Bostan, Alin; Chyzak, Frédéric; Giusti, Marc; Lebreton, Romain; Lecerf, Grégoire; Salvy, Bruno; Schost, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Voir la page du livre à l’adresse \\url{https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/AECF/}; International audience; Le calcul formel traite des objets mathématiques exacts d’un point de vue informatique. Cet ouvrage « Algorithmes efficaces en calcul formel » explore deux directions : la calculabilité et la complexité. La calculabilité étudie les classes d’objets mathématiques sur lesquelles des réponses peuvent être obtenues algorithmiquement. La complexité donne ensuite des outils pour comparer des algo...

  4. Methods for Melting Temperature Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Qi-Jun

    Melting temperature calculation has important applications in the theoretical study of phase diagrams and computational materials screenings. In this thesis, we present two new methods, i.e., the improved Widom's particle insertion method and the small-cell coexistence method, which we developed in order to capture melting temperatures both accurately and quickly. We propose a scheme that drastically improves the efficiency of Widom's particle insertion method by efficiently sampling cavities while calculating the integrals providing the chemical potentials of a physical system. This idea enables us to calculate chemical potentials of liquids directly from first-principles without the help of any reference system, which is necessary in the commonly used thermodynamic integration method. As an example, we apply our scheme, combined with the density functional formalism, to the calculation of the chemical potential of liquid copper. The calculated chemical potential is further used to locate the melting temperature. The calculated results closely agree with experiments. We propose the small-cell coexistence method based on the statistical analysis of small-size coexistence MD simulations. It eliminates the risk of a metastable superheated solid in the fast-heating method, while also significantly reducing the computer cost relative to the traditional large-scale coexistence method. Using empirical potentials, we validate the method and systematically study the finite-size effect on the calculated melting points. The method converges to the exact result in the limit of a large system size. An accuracy within 100 K in melting temperature is usually achieved when the simulation contains more than 100 atoms. DFT examples of Tantalum, high-pressure Sodium, and ionic material NaCl are shown to demonstrate the accuracy and flexibility of the method in its practical applications. The method serves as a promising approach for large-scale automated material screening in which

  5. Developing a 3D Constrained Variational Analysis Method to Calculate Large Scale Forcing Data and the Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, S.; Zhang, M. H.

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale forcing data (vertical velocities and advective tendencies) are important atmospheric fields to drive single-column models (SCM), cloud-resolving models (CRM) and large-eddy simulations (LES), but they are difficult to calculate accurately. The current 1-dimensional constrained variational analysis (1D CVA) method (Zhang and Lin, 1997) used by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is limited to represent the average of a sounding network domain. We extended the original 1D CVA algorithm into 3-dimensional along with other improvements, calculated gridded large-scale forcing data, apparent heating sources (Q1) and moisture sinks (Q2), and compared with 5 reanalyses: ERA-Interim, NCEP CFSR, MERRA, JRA55 and NARR for a mid-latitude spring cyclone case. The results from a case study for in March 3rd 2000 at the Southern Great Plain (SGP) show that reanalyses generally captured the structure of the mid-latitude cyclone, but they have serious biases in the 2nd order derivative terms (divergences and horizontal derivations) at regional scales of less than a few hundred kilometers. Our algorithm provides a set of atmospheric fields consistent with the observed constraint variables at the surface and top of the atmosphere better than reanalyses. The analyzed atmospheric fields can be used in SCM, CRM and LES to provide 3-dimensional dynamical forcing, or be used to evaluate reanalyses or model simulations.

  6. Ab initio calculations of biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leś, Andrzej; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    1995-08-01

    Ab initio quantum mechanical calculations are valuable tools for interpretation and elucidation of elemental processes in biochemical systems. With the ab initio approach one can calculate data that sometimes are difficult to obtain by experimental techniques. The most popular computational theoretical methods include the Hartree-Fock method as well as some lower-level variational and perturbational post-Hartree Fock approaches which allow to predict molecular structures and to calculate spectral properties. We have been involved in a number of joined theoretical and experimental studies in the past and some examples of these studies are given in this presentation. The systems chosen cover a wide variety of simple biomolecules, such as precursors of nucleic acids, double-proton transferring molecules, and simple systems involved in processes related to first stages of substrate-enzyme interactions. In particular, examples of some ab initio calculations used in the assignment of IR spectra of matrix isolated pyrimidine nucleic bases are shown. Some radiation-induced transformations in model chromophores are also presented. Lastly, we demonstrate how the ab-initio approach can be used to determine the initial several steps of the molecular mechanism of thymidylate synthase inhibition by dUMP analogues.

  7. Dead reckoning calculating without instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Doerfler, Ronald W

    1993-01-01

    No author has gone as far as Doerfler in covering methods of mental calculation beyond simple arithmetic. Even if you have no interest in competing with computers you'll learn a great deal about number theory and the art of efficient computer programming. -Martin Gardner

  8. CALCULATION OF PHYSISORPTION ENERGIES OF

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    o-Fe:Os (I) SURFACE USING A CRYSTAL FIELD CLUSTER MODEL. A. Uzairu' ... is of considerable interest in industry and theoretial calculations of ... This choice of cluster naturally assumes an oxygen vacancy at the physisorption site and the adoption of at least three top Llli planes of atomic layers as the surface region.

  9. QCD calculations for jet substructure

    CERN Document Server

    Dasgupta, Mrinal; Salam, Gavin P.

    2014-01-01

    We present results on novel analytic calculations to describe invariant mass distributions of QCD jets with three substructure algorithms: trimming, pruning and the mass-drop taggers. These results not only lead to considerable insight into the behaviour of these tools, but also show how they can be improved. As an example, we discuss the remarkable properties of the modified mass-drop tagger.

  10. Affect and Graphing Calculator Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Allison W.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study of six high school calculus students designed to build an understanding about the affect associated with graphing calculator use in independent situations. DeBellis and Goldin's (2006) framework for affect as a representational system was used as a lens through which to understand the ways in which…

  11. Algorithm Calculates Cumulative Poisson Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Paul N.; Nolty, Robert C.; Scheuer, Ernest M.

    1992-01-01

    Algorithm calculates accurate values of cumulative Poisson distribution under conditions where other algorithms fail because numbers are so small (underflow) or so large (overflow) that computer cannot process them. Factors inserted temporarily to prevent underflow and overflow. Implemented in CUMPOIS computer program described in "Cumulative Poisson Distribution Program" (NPO-17714).

  12. Heat transfer, insulation calculations simplified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V.

    1985-08-19

    Determination of heat transfer coefficients for air, water, and steam flowing in tubes and calculation of heat loss through multilayered insulated surfaces have been simplified by two computer programs. The programs, written in BASIC, have been developed for the IBM and equivalent personal computers.

  13. Calculating the Number of Tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Fajie; Klette, Reinhard; RuizShulcloper, J; Kropatsch, WG

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers 2-regions of grid cubes and proposes an algorithm for calculating the number of tunnels of such a. region. The graph-theoretical algorithm proceeds layer by layer; a proof of its correctness is provided, and its time complexity is also given.

  14. Monte Carlo calculations of nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieper, S.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Physics Div.

    1997-10-01

    Nuclear many-body calculations have the complication of strong spin- and isospin-dependent potentials. In these lectures the author discusses the variational and Green`s function Monte Carlo techniques that have been developed to address this complication, and presents a few results.

  15. The "Intelligence" of Calendrical Calculators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. L.; Nettelbeck, T.

    1994-01-01

    The strategies of four men with mild mental retardation when performing calendar calculations were investigated. Results suggested that subjects were aware of calendar rules and regularities, including knowledge of the 14 different calendar templates. Their strategies were rigidly applied and relied heavily on memory, with little manipulation of…

  16. Ab Initio Calculations of Oxosulfatovanadates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøberg, Torben; Johansen, Helge

    1996-01-01

    Restricted Hartree-Fock and multi-configurational self-consistent-field calculations together with secondorder perturbation theory have been used to study the geometry, the electron density, and the electronicspectrum of (VO2SO4)-. A bidentate sulphate attachment to vanadium was found to be stabl...

  17. Dosimetric Coverage of the External Anal Sphincter by 3-Dimensional Conformal Fields in Rectal Cancer Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation: Implications for the Concept of Sphincter-Preserving Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We evaluated the anatomic location of the external anal sphincter (EAS to pelvic bony landmarks related to 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DRT and studied the dosimetric coverage of the EAS in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer. Methods. Sixty-four consecutive rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation were included. All patients were treated in a prone position on a bellyboard by 3DRT. The inferior border of the RT fields was at least 3–5 cm inferior to the gross tumorous volume (GTV or at the inferior border of the obturator foramen (IBOF, whichever was more inferior. The EAS was contoured and dose distributions were determined using dose-volume histograms. Results. In 53 out of 64 cases (82.8%, the EAS was completely inferior to the IBOF. In the remaining 11 cases, the EAS was either overlapping the IBOF (10 cases; 15.6% or completely superior to the IBOF (1 case; 1.7%. The average mean dose delivered to the EAS was 2795 cGy. Lower mean doses were delivered to the EAS when the center of the EAS was located more distant from the GTV. Conclusions. Meticulous planning to define the inferior border of the RT field is recommended to avoid irradiating the EAS.

  18. Theoretical Exploration of Exponential Heat Source and Thermal Stratification Effects on The Motion of 3-Dimensional Flow of Casson Fluid Over a Low Heat Energy Surface at Initial Unsteady Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, N.; Animasaun, I. L.

    2017-06-01

    Within the last few decades, experts and scientists dealing with the flow of non-Newtonian fluids (most especially Casson fluid) have confirmed the existence of such flow on a stretchable surface with low heat energy (i.e. absolute zero of temperature). This article presents the motion of a three-dimensional of such fluid. Influence of uniform space dependent internal heat source on the intermolecular forces holding the molecules of Casson fluid is investigated. It is assumed that the stagnation flow was induced by an external force (pressure gradient) together with impulsive. Based on these assumptions, variable thermophysical properties are most suitable; hence modified kinematic viscosity model is presented. The system of governing equations of 3-dimensional unsteady Casson fluid was non-dimensionalized using suitable similarity transformation which unravels the behavior of the flow at full fledge short period. The numerical solution of the corresponding boundary value problem (ODE) was obtained using Runge-Kutta fourth order along with shooting technique. The intermolecular forces holding the molecules of Casson fluid flow in both horizontal directions when magnitude of velocity ratio parameters are greater than unity breaks continuously with an increase in Casson parameter and this leads to an increase in velocity profiles in both directions.

  19. Comparing two strategies of dynamic intensity modulated radiation therapy (dIMRT with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT in the hypofractionated treatment of high-risk prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yartsev Slav

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare two strategies of dynamic intensity modulated radiation therapy (dIMRT with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT in the setting of hypofractionated high-risk prostate cancer treatment. Methods 3DCRT and dIMRT/Helical Tomotherapy(HT planning with 10 CT datasets was undertaken to deliver 68 Gy in 25 fractions (prostate and simultaneously delivering 45 Gy in 25 fractions (pelvic lymph node targets in a single phase. The paradigms of pelvic vessel targeting (iliac vessels with margin are used to target pelvic nodes and conformal normal tissue avoidance (treated soft tissues of the pelvis while limiting dose to identified pelvic critical structures were assessed compared to 3DCRT controls. Both dIMRT/HT and 3DCRT solutions were compared to each other using repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc paired t-tests. Results When compared to conformal pelvic vessel targeting, conformal normal tissue avoidance delivered more homogenous PTV delivery (2/2 t-test comparisons; p dose, 1–3 Gy over 5/10 dose points; p Conclusion dIMRT/HT nodal and pelvic targeting is superior to 3DCRT in dose delivery and critical structure sparing in the setting of hypofractionation for high-risk prostate cancer. The pelvic targeting paradigm is a potential solution to deliver highly conformal pelvic radiation treatment in the setting of nodal location uncertainty in prostate cancer and other pelvic malignancies.

  20. Theoretical Exploration of Exponential Heat Source and Thermal Stratification Effects on The Motion of 3-Dimensional Flow of Casson Fluid Over a Low Heat Energy Surface at Initial Unsteady Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep N.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the last few decades, experts and scientists dealing with the flow of non-Newtonian fluids (most especially Casson fluid have confirmed the existence of such flow on a stretchable surface with low heat energy (i.e. absolute zero of temperature. This article presents the motion of a three-dimensional of such fluid. Influence of uniform space dependent internal heat source on the intermolecular forces holding the molecules of Casson fluid is investigated. It is assumed that the stagnation flow was induced by an external force (pressure gradient together with impulsive. Based on these assumptions, variable thermophysical properties are most suitable; hence modified kinematic viscosity model is presented. The system of governing equations of 3-dimensional unsteady Casson fluid was non-dimensionalized using suitable similarity transformation which unravels the behavior of the flow at full fledge short period. The numerical solution of the corresponding boundary value problem (ODE was obtained using Runge-Kutta fourth order along with shooting technique. The intermolecular forces holding the molecules of Casson fluid flow in both horizontal directions when magnitude of velocity ratio parameters are greater than unity breaks continuously with an increase in Casson parameter and this leads to an increase in velocity profiles in both directions.

  1. Distorted Wave Calculations and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Physical properties such as temperature and electron density of solar plasma and other astrophysical objects can be inferred from EUV and X-ray emission lines observed from space. These lines are emitted when the higher states of an ion are excited by electron impact and then decay by photon emission. Excitation cross sections are required for the spectroscopic analyses of the observations and various approximations have been used to calculate the scattering functions. One of them which has been widely used is a distorted wave approximation. This approximation, along with its applications to solar observations, is discussed. The Bowen fluorescence mechanism and optical depth effects are also discussed. It is concluded that such calculations are reliable for highly charged ions and for high electron temperatures.

  2. CONTRIBUTION FOR MINING ATMOSPHERE CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franica Trojanović

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Humid air is an unavoidable feature of mining atmosphere, which plays a significant role in defining the climate conditions as well as permitted circumstances for normal mining work. Saturated humid air prevents heat conduction from the human body by means of evaporation. Consequently, it is of primary interest in the mining practice to establish the relative air humidity either by means of direct or indirect methods. Percentage of water in the surrounding air may be determined in various procedures including tables, diagrams or particular calculations, where each technique has its specific advantages and disadvantages. Classical calculation is done according to Sprung's formula, in which case partial steam pressure should also be taken from the steam table. The new method without the use of diagram or tables, established on the functional relation of pressure and temperature on saturated line, is presented here for the first time (the paper is published in Croatian.

  3. Algorithm project weight calculation aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г. В. Абрамова

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the process of a complex technical object design on the example of the aircraft, using information technology such as CAD/CAM/CAE-systems, presents the basic models of aircraft which are developed in the process of designing and reflect the different aspects of its structure and function. The idea of control parametric model at complex technical object design is entered, which is a set of initial data for the development of design stations and enables the optimal complex technical object control at all stages of design using modern computer technology. The paper discloses a process of weight design, which is associated with all stages of development aircraft and its production. Usage of a scheduling algorithm that allows to organize weight calculations are carried out at various stages of planning and weighing options to optimize the use of available database of formulas and methods of calculation

  4. MARKOV MODELS IN CALCULATING CLV

    OpenAIRE

    DECEWICZ, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The  paper  presents  a  me hod  of  calculating  customer  lifetime  value and  finding optimal remarketing  strategy  basing on Markov model  with  short-term memory of  client's activity. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis of optimal strategy is conducted for two ty pes of retention rate functional form defining transitin probabilities

  5. Parallel plasma fluid turbulence calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leboeuf, J. N.; Carreras, B. A.; Charlton, L. A.; Drake, J. B.; Lynch, V. E.; Newman, D. E.; Sidikman, K. L.; Spong, D. A.

    The study of plasma turbulence and transport is a complex problem of critical importance for fusion-relevant plasmas. To this day, the fluid treatment of plasma dynamics is the best approach to realistic physics at the high resolution required for certain experimentally relevant calculations. Core and edge turbulence in a magnetic fusion device have been modeled using state-of-the-art, nonlinear, three-dimensional, initial-value fluid and gyrofluid codes. Parallel implementation of these models on diverse platforms--vector parallel (National Energy Research Supercomputer Center's CRAY Y-MP C90), massively parallel (Intel Paragon XP/S 35), and serial parallel (clusters of high-performance workstations using the Parallel Virtual Machine protocol)--offers a variety of paths to high resolution and significant improvements in real-time efficiency, each with its own advantages. The largest and most efficient calculations have been performed at the 200 Mword memory limit on the C90 in dedicated mode, where an overlap of 12 to 13 out of a maximum of 16 processors has been achieved with a gyrofluid model of core fluctuations. The richness of the physics captured by these calculations is commensurate with the increased resolution and efficiency and is limited only by the ingenuity brought to the analysis of the massive amounts of data generated.

  6. Calculation of minimum miscibility pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Orr, F.M. [Department of Petroleum Engineering, Stanford University, Mitchell Bldg., Room 360, 94305-2220 Stanford, CA (United States)

    2000-09-01

    A method is described and tested for calculation of minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) that makes use of an analytical theory for one-dimensional, dispersion-free flow of multicomponent mixtures. The theory shows that in a displacement of an oil by a gas with n{sub c} components, the behavior of the displacement is controlled by a sequence of n{sub c}-1 key tie lines. Besides, the tie lines that extend through the initial oil and injection gas compositions, there are n{sub c}-3 tie lines, known as crossover tie lines, that can be found from a set of conditions that require the extensions of the appropriate tie lines to intersect each other. The MMP is calculated as the pressure at which one of the key tie lines becomes a tie line of zero length that is tangent to the critical locus. The numerical approach for solving the tie line intersection equations is described; slim tube test and compositional simulation data reported in the literature are used to show that the proposed approach can be used to calculate MMP accurately for displacements with an arbitrary number of components present.

  7. AGING FACILITY CRITICALITY SAFETY CALCULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.E. Sanders

    2004-09-10

    The purpose of this design calculation is to revise and update the previous criticality calculation for the Aging Facility (documented in BSC 2004a). This design calculation will also demonstrate and ensure that the storage and aging operations to be performed in the Aging Facility meet the criticality safety design criteria in the ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (Doraswamy 2004, Section 4.9.2.2), and the functional nuclear criticality safety requirement described in the ''SNF Aging System Description Document'' (BSC [Bechtel SAIC Company] 2004f, p. 3-12). The scope of this design calculation covers the systems and processes for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and staging Department of Energy (DOE) SNF/High-Level Waste (HLW) prior to its placement in the final waste package (WP) (BSC 2004f, p. 1-1). Aging commercial SNF is a thermal management strategy, while staging DOE SNF/HLW will make loading of WPs more efficient (note that aging DOE SNF/HLW is not needed since these wastes are not expected to exceed the thermal limits form emplacement) (BSC 2004f, p. 1-2). The description of the changes in this revised document is as follows: (1) Include DOE SNF/HLW in addition to commercial SNF per the current ''SNF Aging System Description Document'' (BSC 2004f). (2) Update the evaluation of Category 1 and 2 event sequences for the Aging Facility as identified in the ''Categorization of Event Sequences for License Application'' (BSC 2004c, Section 7). (3) Further evaluate the design and criticality controls required for a storage/aging cask, referred to as MGR Site-specific Cask (MSC), to accommodate commercial fuel outside the content specification in the Certificate of Compliance for the existing NRC-certified storage casks. In addition, evaluate the design required for the MSC that will accommodate DOE SNF/HLW. This design calculation will achieve the objective of providing the

  8. Band calculation of lonsdaleite Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pin-Shiang; Fan, Sheng-Ting; Lan, Huang-Siang; Liu, Chee Wee

    2017-01-01

    The band structure of Ge in the lonsdaleite phase is calculated using first principles. Lonsdaleite Ge has a direct band gap at the Γ point. For the conduction band, the Γ valley is anisotropic with the low transverse effective mass on the hexagonal plane and the large longitudinal effective mass along the c axis. For the valence band, both heavy-hole and light-hole effective masses are anisotropic at the Γ point. The in-plane electron effective mass also becomes anisotropic under uniaxial tensile strain. The strain response of the heavy-hole mass is opposite to the light hole.

  9. Yet another partial wave calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwald, Daniel; Rauch, Johannes [TUM, Munich (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We will present a new C++ library for partial wave analysis: YAP - yet another partial wave calculator. YAP is intended for amplitude analyses of the decays of spin-0 heavy mesons (principally B and D) to multiple (3, 4, etc.) pseudoscalar mesons but is not hard coded for such situations and is flexible enough to handle other decay scenarios. The library allows for both model dependent and model independent analysis methods. We introduce the software, and demonstrate examples for generating Monte Carlo data efficiently, and for analyzing data (both with the aid of the Bayesian Analysis Toolkit).

  10. Entanglement entropy: a perturbative calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenhaus, Vladimir; Smolkin, Michael [Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics,University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-12-31

    We provide a framework for a perturbative evaluation of the reduced density matrix. The method is based on a path integral in the analytically continued spacetime. It suggests an alternative to the holographic and ‘standard’ replica trick calculations of entanglement entropy. We implement this method within solvable field theory examples to evaluate leading order corrections induced by small perturbations in the geometry of the background and entangling surface. Our findings are in accord with Solodukhin’s formula for the universal term of entanglement entropy for four dimensional CFTs.

  11. The Dental Trauma Internet Calculator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Lauridsen, Eva Fejerskov; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim Prediction tools are increasingly used to inform patients about the future dental health outcome. Advanced statistical methods are required to arrive at unbiased predictions based on follow-up studies. Material and Methods The Internet risk calculator at the Dental Trauma Guide...... provides prognoses for teeth with traumatic injuries based on the Copenhagen trauma database: http://www.dentaltraumaguide.org The database includes 2191 traumatized permanent teeth from 1282 patients that were treated at the dental trauma unit at the University Hospital in Copenhagen (Denmark...

  12. Calculation of confined swirling jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. P.

    1986-01-01

    Computations of a confined coaxial swirling jet are carried out using a standard two-equation (k-epsilon) model and two modifications of this model based on Richardson-number corrections of the length-scale (epsilon) governing equation. To avoid any uncertainty involved in the setting up of inlet boundary conditions, actual measurements are used at the inlet plane of this calculation domain. The results of the numerical investigation indicate that the k-epsilon model is inadequate for the predictions of confined swirling flows. Although marginal improvement of the flow predictions can be achieved by these two corrections, neither can be judged satisfactory.

  13. Calculation of Rydberg interaction potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Sebastian; Tresp, Christoph; Menke, Henri

    2017-01-01

    The strong interaction between individual Rydberg atoms provides a powerful tool exploited in an ever-growing range of applications in quantum information science, quantum simulation and ultracold chemistry. One hallmark of the Rydberg interaction is that both its strength and angular dependence...... for calculating the required electric multipole moments and the inclusion of electromagnetic fields with arbitrary direction. We focus specifically on symmetry arguments and selection rules, which greatly reduce the size of the Hamiltonian matrix, enabling the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian up...

  14. Electronics reliability calculation and design

    CERN Document Server

    Dummer, Geoffrey W A; Hiller, N

    1966-01-01

    Electronics Reliability-Calculation and Design provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts of reliability. The increasing complexity of electronic equipment has made problems in designing and manufacturing a reliable product more and more difficult. Specific techniques have been developed that enable designers to integrate reliability into their products, and reliability has become a science in its own right. The book begins with a discussion of basic mathematical and statistical concepts, including arithmetic mean, frequency distribution, median and mode, scatter or dispersion of mea

  15. Digital calculations of engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Starkman, E S; Taylor, C Fayette

    1964-01-01

    Digital Calculations of Engine Cycles is a collection of seven papers which were presented before technical meetings of the Society of Automotive Engineers during 1962 and 1963. The papers cover the spectrum of the subject of engine cycle events, ranging from an examination of composition and properties of the working fluid to simulation of the pressure-time events in the combustion chamber. The volume has been organized to present the material in a logical sequence. The first two chapters are concerned with the equilibrium states of the working fluid. These include the concentrations of var

  16. Feasibility of Dual Flip Angle-Based Fast 3-Dimensional T1 Mapping for Delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage of the Knee: A Histologically Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Min; Yan, Chao; Lu, Lin; Shi, Hai-Bin; Yu, Rong-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to validate dual-flip angle-based fast 3-dimensional (3D) T1 mapping for delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cartilage (dGEMRIC) by means of histological analyses in the assessment of the cartilage of the knee in a porcine model. A total of 15 mini pigs were included in this study. The left knee anterior cruciate ligaments of all mini pigs were transected. The mini pigs were divided into 3 groups postoperatively, with 5 pigs randomly assigned to 1 group. Dual-flip angle-based fast T1 mapping for dGEMRIC was obtained in the sagittal planes at 0 week (group 1), 3 weeks (group 2), and 6 weeks (group 3) after operation, using an 8-channel knee coil. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at 3T with dual-flip angle-based fast 3D T1 mapping sequence for morphological cartilage assessment of dGEMRIC T1 values. After MRI analysis, histological and biochemical composition (water, collagen, and glycosaminoglycan [GAG]) of the knee cartilage in the medial femoral condyle was quantified ex vivo. The T1 values obtained by the dual-flip angle-based fast 3D T1 mapping were positively correlated with the glycosaminoglycan content (r = 0.85; P T1 values obtained by this method showed the medial femoral condyle cartilage in the anterior cruciate ligament-transected knee after transection decreased with time (P T1 mapping for dGEMRIC for the biochemical assessment of early cartilage degeneration. This technique is a powerful tool for researchers and clinicians to acquire sufficient resolution data within a reasonable scan time.

  17. Dosimetric study of volumetric arc modulation with RapidArc and intensity-modulated radiotherapy in patients with cervical cancer and comparison with 3-dimensional conformal technique for definitive radiotherapy in patients with cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guy, Jean-Baptiste [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut de Cancérologie de la Loire Lucien Neuwirth, Saint-Priest en Jarez (France); Falk, Alexander T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Auberdiac, Pierre [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinique Claude Bernard, Albi (France); Cartier, Lysian; Vallard, Alexis [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut de Cancérologie de la Loire Lucien Neuwirth, Saint-Priest en Jarez (France); Ollier, Edouard [Department of Pharmacology-Toxicology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Saint-Etienne, Saint-Priest en Jarez (France); Trone, Jane-Chloé; Khodri, Moustapha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut de Cancérologie de la Loire Lucien Neuwirth, Saint-Priest en Jarez (France); Chargari, Cyrus [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hôpital d’instruction de Armées du Val-de-Grâce, Paris (France); Magné, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.magne@icloire.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut de Cancérologie de la Loire Lucien Neuwirth, Saint-Priest en Jarez (France)

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: For patients with cervical cancer, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) improves target coverage and allows dose escalation while reducing the radiation dose to organs at risk (OARs). In this study, we compared dosimetric parameters among 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), “step-and-shoot” IMRT, and volumetric intensity-modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) in a series of patients with cervical cancer receiving definitive radiotherapy. Computed tomography (CT) scans of 10 patients with histologically proven cervical cancer treated with definitive radiation therapy (RT) from December 2008 to March 2010 at our department were selected for this study. The gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) were delineated following the guidelines of the Gyn IMRT consortium that included cervix, uterus, parametrial tissues, and the pelvic nodes including presacral. The median age was 57 years (range: 30 to 85 years). All 10 patients had squamous cell carcinoma with Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IB-IIIB. All patients were treated by VMAT. OAR doses were significantly reduced for plans with intensity-modulated technique compared with 3D-CRT except for the dose to the vagina. Between the 2 intensity-modulated techniques, significant difference was observed for the mean dose to the small intestine, to the benefit of VMAT (p < 0.001). There was no improvement in terms of OARs sparing for VMAT although there was a tendency for a slightly decreased average dose to the rectum: − 0.65 Gy but not significant (p = 0.07). The intensity modulation techniques have many advantages in terms of quality indexes, and particularly OAR sparing, compared with 3D-CRT. Following the ongoing technologic developments in modern radiotherapy, it is essential to evaluate the intensity-modulated techniques on prospective studies of a larger scale.

  18. Calculational Tool for Skin Contamination Dose Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, R L

    2002-01-01

    Spreadsheet calculational tool was developed to automate the calculations preformed for dose assessment of skin contamination. This document reports on the design and testing of the spreadsheet calculational tool.

  19. Dissecting Reactor Antineutrino Flux Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonzogni, A. A.; McCutchan, E. A.; Hayes, A. C.

    2017-09-01

    Current predictions for the antineutrino yield and spectra from a nuclear reactor rely on the experimental electron spectra from 235U, 239Pu, 241Pu and a numerical method to convert these aggregate electron spectra into their corresponding antineutrino ones. In the present work we investigate quantitatively some of the basic assumptions and approximations used in the conversion method, studying first the compatibility between two recent approaches for calculating electron and antineutrino spectra. We then explore different possibilities for the disagreement between the measured Daya Bay and the Huber-Mueller antineutrino spectra, including the 238U contribution as well as the effective charge and the allowed shape assumption used in the conversion method. We observe that including a shape correction of about +6 % MeV-1 in conversion calculations can better describe the Daya Bay spectrum. Because of a lack of experimental data, this correction cannot be ruled out, concluding that in order to confirm the existence of the reactor neutrino anomaly, or even quantify it, precisely measured electron spectra for about 50 relevant fission products are needed. With the advent of new rare ion facilities, the measurement of shape factors for these nuclides, for many of which precise beta intensity data from TAGS experiments already exist, would be highly desirable.

  20. Calculation of sound propagation in fibrous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Viggo

    1996-01-01

    Calculations of attenuation and velocity of audible sound waves in glass wools are presented. The calculations use only the diameters of fibres and the mass density of glass wools as parameters. The calculations are compared with measurements.......Calculations of attenuation and velocity of audible sound waves in glass wools are presented. The calculations use only the diameters of fibres and the mass density of glass wools as parameters. The calculations are compared with measurements....

  1. FLAG-SGH Sedov calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, Jimmy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schofield, Sam [LLNL; Shashkov, Mikhail J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-25

    We did not run with a 'cylindrically painted region'. However, we did compute two general variants of the original problem. Refinement studies where a single zone at each level of refinement contains the entire internal energy at t=0 or A 'finite' energy source which has the same physical dimensions as that for the 91 x 46 mesh, but consisting of increasing numbers of zones with refinement. Nominal mesh resolution: 91 x 46. Other mesh resolutions: 181 x 92 and 361 x 184. Note, not identical to the original specification. To maintain symmetry for the 'fixed' energy source, the mesh resolution was adjusted slightly. FLAG Lagrange or full (Eulerian) ALE was used with various options for each simulation. Observation - for either Lagrange or ALE, point or 'fixed' source, calculations converge on density and pressure with mesh resolution, but not energy, (not vorticity either).

  2. Dyscalculia and the Calculating Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapin, Isabelle

    2016-08-01

    Dyscalculia, like dyslexia, affects some 5% of school-age children but has received much less investigative attention. In two thirds of affected children, dyscalculia is associated with another developmental disorder like dyslexia, attention-deficit disorder, anxiety disorder, visual and spatial disorder, or cultural deprivation. Infants, primates, some birds, and other animals are born with the innate ability, called subitizing, to tell at a glance whether small sets of scattered dots or other items differ by one or more item. This nonverbal approximate number system extends mostly to single digit sets as visual discrimination drops logarithmically to "many" with increasing numerosity (size effect) and crowding (distance effect). Preschoolers need several years and specific teaching to learn verbal names and visual symbols for numbers and school agers to understand their cardinality and ordinality and the invariance of their sequence (arithmetic number line) that enables calculation. This arithmetic linear line differs drastically from the nonlinear approximate number system mental number line that parallels the individual number-tuned neurons in the intraparietal sulcus in monkeys and overlying scalp distribution of discrete functional magnetic resonance imaging activations by number tasks in man. Calculation is a complex skill that activates both visual and spatial and visual and verbal networks. It is less strongly left lateralized than language, with approximate number system activation somewhat more right sided and exact number and arithmetic activation more left sided. Maturation and increasing number skill decrease associated widespread non-numerical brain activations that persist in some individuals with dyscalculia, which has no single, universal neurological cause or underlying mechanism in all affected individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. {sup 18}F-Choline Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Detection of Early Local Recurrence of Prostate Cancer Initially Treated by Radiation Therapy: Comparison With Systematic 3-Dimensional Transperineal Mapping Biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanoun, Salim, E-mail: Salim.kanoun@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Centre Georges-François Leclerc, Dijon (France); LE2I UMR6306, Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Arts et Métiers, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Dijon (France); MRI Unit, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire, Hôpital François Mitterrand, Dijon (France); Walker, Paul [LE2I UMR6306, Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Arts et Métiers, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Dijon (France); MRI Unit, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire, Hôpital François Mitterrand, Dijon (France); Vrigneaud, Jean-Marc; Depardon, Edouard [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Centre Georges-François Leclerc, Dijon (France); Barbier, Vincent [Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire, Hôpital François Mitterrand, Dijon (France); Humbert, Olivier [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Centre Georges-François Leclerc, Dijon (France); Moulin, Morgan [Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire, Hôpital François Mitterrand, Dijon (France); and others

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: To compare the diagnostic performance of {sup 18}F-fluorocholine positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FCH-PET/CT), multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI), and a combination of both techniques for the detection of local recurrence of prostate cancer initially treated by radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective, single-institution study of 32 patients with suspected prostate cancer recurrence who underwent both FCH-PET/CT and 3T mpMRI within 3 months of one another for the detection of recurrence. All included patients had to be cleared for metastatic recurrence. The reference procedure was systematic 3-dimensional (3D)-transperineal prostate biopsy for the final assessment of local recurrence. Both imaging modalities were analyzed by 2 experienced readers blinded to clinical data. The analysis was made per-patient and per-segment using a 4-segment model. Results: The median prostate-specific antigen value at the time of imaging was 2.92 ng/mL. The mean prostate-specific antigen doubling time was 14 months. Of the 32 patients, 31 had a positive 3D-transperineal mapping biopsy for a local relapse. On a patient-based analysis, the detection rate was 71% (22 of 31) for mpMRI and 74% (23 of 31) for FCH-PET/CT. On a segment-based analysis, the sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 32% and 87% for mpMRI, 34% and 87% for FCH-PET/CT, and 43% and 83% for the combined analysis of both techniques. Accuracy was 64%, 65%, and 66%, respectively. The interobserver agreement was κ = 0.92 for FCH-PET/CT and κ = 0.74 for mpMRI. Conclusions: Both mpMRI and FCH-PET/CT show limited sensitivity but good specificity for the detection of local cancer recurrence after radiation therapy, when compared with 3D-transperineal mapping biopsy. Prostate biopsy still seems to be mandatory to diagnose local relapse and select patients who could benefit from local salvage therapy.

  4. Correlation of 3D Shift and 3D Tilt of the Patella in Patients With Recurrent Dislocation of the Patella and Healthy Volunteers: An In Vivo Analysis Based on 3-Dimensional Computer Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuzo; Toritsuka, Yukiyoshi; Nakamura, Norimasa; Horibe, Shuji; Sugamoto, Kazuomi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Shino, Konsei

    2017-11-01

    The concepts of lateral deviation and lateral inclination of the patella, characterized as shift and tilt, have been applied in combination to evaluate patellar malalignment in patients with patellar dislocation. It is not reasonable, however, to describe the 3-dimensional (3D) positional relation between the patella and the femur according to measurements made on 2-dimensional (2D) images. The current study sought to clarify the relation between lateral deviation and inclination of the patella in patients with recurrent dislocation of the patella (RDP) by redefining them via 3D computer models as 3D shift and 3D tilt. Descriptive laboratory study. Altogether, 60 knees from 56 patients with RDP and 15 knees from 10 healthy volunteers were evaluated. 3D shift and tilt of the patella were analyzed with 3D computer models created by magnetic resonance imaging scans obtained at 10° intervals of knee flexion (0°-50°). 3D shift was defined as the spatial distance between the patellar reference point and the midsagittal plane of the femur; it is expressed as a percentage of the interepicondylar width. 3D tilt was defined as the spatial angle between the patellar reference plane and the transepicondylar axis. Correlations between the 2 parameters were assessed with the Pearson correlation coefficient. The patients' mean Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.895 ± 0.186 (range, -0.073 to 0.997; median, 0.965). In all, 56 knees (93%) had coefficients >0.7 (strong correlation); 1 knee (2%), >0.4 (moderate correlation); 2 knees (3%), >0.2 (weak correlation); and 1 knee (2%), correlation). The mean correlation coefficient of the healthy volunteers was 0.645 ± 0.448 (range, -0.445 to 0.982; median, 0.834). A statistically significant difference was found in the distribution of the correlation coefficients between the patients and the healthy volunteers ( P = .0034). When distribution of the correlation coefficients obtained by the 3D analyses was compared with that by the 2

  5. Nonlocal Means Denoising of Self-Gated and k-Space Sorted 4-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Block-Matching and 3-Dimensional Filtering: Implications for Pancreatic Tumor Registration and Segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Jun [Department of Computer Science, Xidian University, Xi' An (China); McKenzie, Elizabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Fan, Zhaoyang [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Tuli, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Deng, Zixin; Pang, Jianing [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Fraass, Benedick [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Li, Debiao [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Sandler, Howard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Yang, Guang [Department of Computer Science, Xidian University, Xi' An (China); Sheng, Ke [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Gou, Shuiping [Department of Computer Science, Xidian University, Xi' An (China); Yang, Wensha, E-mail: wensha.yang@cshs.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: To denoise self-gated k-space sorted 4-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (SG-KS-4D-MRI) by applying a nonlocal means denoising filter, block-matching and 3-dimensional filtering (BM3D), to test its impact on the accuracy of 4D image deformable registration and automated tumor segmentation for pancreatic cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Nine patients with pancreatic cancer and abdominal SG-KS-4D-MRI were included in the study. Block-matching and 3D filtering was adapted to search in the axial slices/frames adjacent to the reference image patch in the spatial and temporal domains. The patches with high similarity to the reference patch were used to collectively denoise the 4D-MRI image. The pancreas tumor was manually contoured on the first end-of-exhalation phase for both the raw and the denoised 4D-MRI. B-spline deformable registration was applied to the subsequent phases for contour propagation. The consistency of tumor volume defined by the standard deviation of gross tumor volumes from 10 breathing phases (σ-GTV), tumor motion trajectories in 3 cardinal motion planes, 4D-MRI imaging noise, and image contrast-to-noise ratio were compared between the raw and denoised groups. Results: Block-matching and 3D filtering visually and quantitatively reduced image noise by 52% and improved image contrast-to-noise ratio by 56%, without compromising soft tissue edge definitions. Automatic tumor segmentation is statistically more consistent on the denoised 4D-MRI (σ-GTV = 0.6 cm{sup 3}) than on the raw 4D-MRI (σ-GTV = 0.8 cm{sup 3}). Tumor end-of-exhalation location is also more reproducible on the denoised 4D-MRI than on the raw 4D-MRI in all 3 cardinal motion planes. Conclusions: Block-matching and 3D filtering can significantly reduce random image noise while maintaining structural features in the SG-KS-4D-MRI datasets. In this study of pancreatic tumor segmentation, automatic segmentation of GTV in the registered image sets is shown to be

  6. RTU Comparison Calculator Enhancement Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James D.; Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2014-03-31

    Over the past two years, Department of Energy’s Building Technologies Office (BTO) has been investigating ways to increase the operating efficiency of the packaged rooftop units (RTUs) in the field. First, by issuing a challenge to the RTU manufactures to increase the integrated energy efficiency ratio (IEER) by 60% over the existing ASHRAE 90.1-2010 standard. Second, by evaluating the performance of an advanced RTU controller that reduces the energy consumption by over 40%. BTO has previously also funded development of a RTU comparison calculator (RTUCC). RTUCC is a web-based tool that provides the user a way to compare energy and cost savings for two units with different efficiencies. However, the RTUCC currently cannot compare savings associated with either the RTU Challenge unit or the advanced RTU controls retrofit. Therefore, BTO has asked PNNL to enhance the tool so building owners can compare energy and savings associated with this new class of products. This document provides the details of the enhancements that are required to support estimating energy savings from use of RTU challenge units or advanced controls on existing RTUs.

  7. RTU Comparison Calculator Enhancement Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Over the past two years, Department of Energy’s Building Technologies Office (BTO) has been investigating ways to increase the operating efficiency of the packaged rooftop units (RTUs) in the field. First, by issuing a challenge to the RTU manufactures to increase the integrated energy efficiency ratio (IEER) by 60% over the existing ASHRAE 90.1-2010 standard. Second, by evaluating the performance of an advanced RTU controller that reduces the energy consumption by over 40%. BTO has previously also funded development of a RTU comparison calculator (RTUCC). RTUCC is a web-based tool that provides the user a way to compare energy and cost savings for two units with different efficiencies. However, the RTUCC currently cannot compare savings associated with either the RTU Challenge unit or the advanced RTU controls retrofit. Therefore, BTO has asked PNNL to enhance the tool so building owners can compare energy and savings associated with this new class of products. This document provides the details of the enhancements that are required to support estimating energy savings from use of RTU challenge units or advanced controls on existing RTUs.

  8. Selfconsistent calculations for hyperdeformed nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molique, H.; Dobaczewski, J.; Dudek, J.; Luo, W.D. [Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France)

    1996-12-31

    Properties of the hyperdeformed nuclei in the A {approximately} 170 mass range are re-examined using the self-consistent Hartree-Fock method with the SOP parametrization. A comparison with the previous predictions that were based on a non-selfconsistent approach is made. The existence of the {open_quotes}hyper-deformed shell closures{close_quotes} at the proton and neutron numbers Z=70 and N=100 and their very weak dependence on the rotational frequency is suggested; the corresponding single-particle energy gaps are predicted to play a role similar to that of the Z=66 and N=86 gaps in the super-deformed nuclei of the A {approximately} 150 mass range. Selfconsistent calculations suggest also that the A {approximately} 170 hyperdeformed structures have neglegible mass asymmetry in their shapes. Very importantly for the experimental studies, both the fission barriers and the {open_quotes}inner{close_quotes} barriers (that separate the hyperdeformed structures from those with smaller deformations) are predicted to be relatively high, up to the factor of {approximately}2 higher than the corresponding ones in the {sup 152}Dy superdeformed nucleus used as a reference.

  9. McEliece PKC Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Repka

    2015-01-01

    The original McEliece PKC proposal is interesting thanks to its resistance against all known attacks, even using quantum cryptanalysis, in an IND-CCA2 secure conversion. Here we present a generic implementation of the original McEliece PKC proposal, which provides test vectors (for all important intermediate results), and also in which a measurement tool for side-channel analysis is employed. To our best knowledge, this is the first such an implementation. This Calculator is valuable in implementation optimization, in further McEliece/Niederreiter like PKCs properties investigations, and also in teaching. Thanks to that, one can, for example, examine side-channel vulnerability of a certain implementation, or one can find out and test particular parameters of the cryptosystem in order to make them appropriate for an efficient hardware implementation. This implementation is available [1] in executable binary format, and as a static C++ library, as well as in form of source codes, for Linux and Windows operating systems.

  10. 76 FR 71431 - Civil Penalty Calculation Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Civil Penalty Calculation Methodology AGENCY: Federal... its civil penalty methodology. Part of this evaluation includes a forthcoming explanation of the... methodology for calculation of certain civil penalties. To induce compliance with federal regulations, FMCSA...

  11. Dissociated brain potentials for two calculation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenbo; Liu, Dianzhi; He, Weiqi; Tao, Weidong; Luo, Yuejia

    2009-03-04

    Event-related brain potentials were used to investigate the shortcut calculation strategy and nonshortcut calculation strategy in performing addition using mental arithmetic. Results showed that the shortcut calculation strategy elicited a larger P220 than the nonshortcut calculation strategy in the 180-280 ms. Dipole source analysis of the difference wave (shortcut calculation minus nonshortcut calculation) indicated that a generator was localized in the posterior cingulate cortex, which reflected the evaluation effect of number in the use of the shortcut strategy. In the 320-500 ms time window, a greater N400 was found in the nonshortcut calculation as compared with the shortcut calculation. Dipole source analysis of the difference wave indicated that a generator was localized in the anterior cingulate cortex. The N400 might reflect the greater working memory load.

  12. On the Use of a Direct Radiative Transfer Equation Solver for Path Loss Calculation in Underwater Optical Wireless Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Changping

    2015-07-22

    In this letter, we propose a fast numerical solution for the steady state radiative transfer equation based on the approach in [1] in order to calculate the optical path loss of light propagation suffering from attenuation due to the absorption and scattering in various water types. We apply an optimal non-uniform method to discretize the angular space and an upwind type finite difference method to discretize the spatial space. A Gauss-Seidel iterative method is then applied to solve the fully discretized system of linear equations. Finally, we extend the resulting radiance in 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional by the azimuthal symmetric assumption to compute the received optical power under the given receiver aperture and field of view. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed scheme are validated by uniform RTE solver and Monte Carlo simulations.

  13. Pressure Vessel Calculations for VVER-440 Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordósy, G.; Hegyi, Gy.; Keresztúri, A.; Maráczy, Cs.; Temesvári, E.; Vértes, P.; Zsolnay, É.

    2003-06-01

    Monte Carlo calculations were performed for a selected cycle of the Paks NPP Unit II to test a computational model. In the model the source term was calculated by the core design code KARATE and the neutron transport calculations were performed by the MCNP. Different forms of the source specification were examined. The calculated results were compared with measurements and in most cases fairly good agreement was found.

  14. Dosimetric comparison of peripheral NSCLC SBRT using Acuros XB and AAA calculation algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Chloe C H; Ang, Khong Wei; Soh, Roger C X; Tin, Kah Ming; Yap, Jerome H H; Lee, James C L; Bragg, Christopher M

    2017-01-01

    There is a concern for dose calculation in highly heterogenous environments such as the thorax region. This study compares the quality of treatment plans of peripheral non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) using 2 calculation algorithms, namely, Eclipse Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) and Acuros External Beam (AXB), for 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) data from 20 anonymized patients were studied using Varian Eclipse planning system, AXB, and AAA version 10.0.28. A 3DCRT plan and a VMAT plan were generated using AAA and AXB with constant plan parameters for each patient. The prescription and dose constraints were benchmarked against Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0915 protocol. Planning parameters of the plan were compared statistically using Mann-Whitney U tests. Results showed that 3DCRT and VMAT plans have a lower target coverage up to 8% when calculated using AXB as compared with AAA. The conformity index (CI) for AXB plans was 4.7% lower than AAA plans, but was closer to unity, which indicated better target conformity. AXB produced plans with global maximum doses which were, on average, 2% hotter than AAA plans. Both 3DCRT and VMAT plans were able to achieve D95%. VMAT plans were shown to be more conformal (CI = 1.01) and were at least 3.2% and 1.5% lower in terms of PTV maximum and mean dose, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference for doses received by organs at risk (OARs) regardless of calculation algorithms and treatment techniques. In general, the difference in tissue modeling for AXB and AAA algorithm is responsible for the dose distribution between the AXB and the AAA algorithms. The AXB VMAT plans could be used to benefit patients receiving peripheral NSCLC SBRT. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  15. Differences in glenohumeral translations calculated with three methods: Comparison of relative positions and contact point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuki, Keisuke; Kenmoku, Tomonori; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Sugaya, Hiroyuki; Banks, Scott A

    2016-06-14

    Several published articles have reported 3-dimensional glenohumeral kinematics using model-image registration techniques. However, different methods to compute the translations were used in these articles. The purpose of this study was to compare glenohumeral translations calculated with three different methods. Fifteen healthy males with a mean age of 31 years (range, 27-36 years old) were enrolled in this study. Fluoroscopic images during scapular plane elevation were recorded at 30 frames per second for the right shoulder in each subject, and CT-derived models of the humerus and the scapula were matched with the silhouette of the bones in the fluoroscopic images using model-image registration techniques. Glenohumeral translations were computed with three methods: relative position of the origins of the humeral and scapular models, contact points of the two models, and relative positions based upon the calculated glenohumeral center of rotation (CoR). In the supero-inferior direction, translations calculated with the three methods were roughly parallel, with the maximum difference of 1.6mm (Ptranslations with the origins and CoR were parallel; however, translations computed with the origins and contact point describe arcs that differ by almost 2mm at low humeral elevation angles and converge at higher degrees of humeral elevation (Ptranslations calculated using three methods showed statistically significant differences that may be important when comparing detailed results of different studies. However, these relatively small differences are likely subclinical, so that all three methods can reasonably be used for description of glenohumeral translations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 46 CFR 154.429 - Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 154.429 Calculations. The tank design load calculations for a membrane tank must include the following... submitted to meet this paragraph. (c) The combined strains from static, dynamic, and thermal loads. ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculations. 154.429 Section 154.429 Shipping COAST...

  17. 47 CFR 1.1623 - Probability calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Probability calculation. 1.1623 Section 1.1623... Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1623 Probability calculation. (a) All calculations shall be computed to no less than three significant digits. Probabilities will be truncated to the number of...

  18. Mathematical Creative Activity and the Graphic Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Janina

    2011-01-01

    Teaching mathematics using graphic calculators has been an issue of didactic discussions for years. Finding ways in which graphic calculators can enrich the development process of creative activity in mathematically gifted students between the ages of 16-17 is the focus of this article. Research was conducted using graphic calculators with…

  19. Recursive Delay Calculation Unit for Parametric Beamformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a recursive approach for parametric delay calculations for a beamformer. The suggested calculation procedure is capable of calculating the delays for any image line defined by an origin and arbitrary direction. It involves only add and shift operations making it suitable...

  20. How to calculate sample size and why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeehyoung; Seo, Bong Soo

    2013-09-01

    Calculating the sample size is essential to reduce the cost of a study and to prove the hypothesis effectively. Referring to pilot studies and previous research studies, we can choose a proper hypothesis and simplify the studies by using a website or Microsoft Excel sheet that contains formulas for calculating sample size in the beginning stage of the study. There are numerous formulas for calculating the sample size for complicated statistics and studies, but most studies can use basic calculating methods for sample size calculation.

  1. The Band Structure of Polymers: Its Calculation and Interpretation. Part 2. Calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, B. J.; O'Leary, Brian

    1988-01-01

    Details ab initio crystal orbital calculations using all-trans-polyethylene as a model. Describes calculations based on various forms of translational symmetry. Compares these calculations with ab initio molecular orbital calculations discussed in a preceding article. Discusses three major approximations made in the crystal case. (CW)

  2. MATNORM: Calculating NORM using composition matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruseth, Kamal L.

    2009-09-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of an entirely new set of formulas to calculate the CIPW norm. MATNORM does not involve any sophisticated programming skill and has been developed using Microsoft Excel spreadsheet formulas. These formulas are easy to understand and a mere knowledge of the if-then-else construct in MS-Excel is sufficient to implement the whole calculation scheme outlined below. The sequence of calculation used here differs from that of the standard CIPW norm calculation, but the results are very similar. The use of MS-Excel macro programming and other high-level programming languages has been deliberately avoided for simplicity.

  3. The conundrum of calculating carbon footprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strobel, Bjarne W.; Erichsen, Anders Christian; Gausset, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    A pre-condition for reducing global warming is to minimise the emission of greenhouse gasses (GHGs). A common approach to informing people about the link between behaviour and climate change rests on developing GHG calculators that quantify the ‘carbon footprint’ of a product, a sector or an actor....... There is, however, an abundance of GHG calculators that rely on very different premises and give very different estimates of carbon footprints. In this chapter, we compare and analyse the main principles of calculating carbon footprints, and discuss how calculators can inform (or misinform) people who wish...

  4. Methodology for embedded transport core calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Boyan D.

    The progress in the Nuclear Engineering field leads to developing new generations of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) with complex rector core designs, such as cores loaded partially with mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, high burn-up loadings, and cores with advanced designs of fuel assemblies and control rods. Such heterogeneous cores introduce challenges for the diffusion theory that has been used for several decades for calculations of the current Pressurized Water Rector (PWR) cores. To address the difficulties the diffusion approximation encounters new core calculation methodologies need to be developed by improving accuracy, while preserving efficiency of the current reactor core calculations. In this thesis, an advanced core calculation methodology is introduced, based on embedded transport calculations. Two different approaches are investigated. The first approach is based on embedded finite element (FEM), simplified P3 approximation (SP3), fuel assembly (FA) homogenization calculation within the framework of the diffusion core calculation with NEM code (Nodal Expansion Method). The second approach involves embedded FA lattice physics eigenvalue calculation based on collision probability method (CPM) again within the framework of the NEM diffusion core calculation. The second approach is superior to the first because most of the uncertainties introduced by the off-line cross-section generation are eliminated.

  5. Pile Load Capacity – Calculation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrana Bogumił

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a review of the current problems of the foundation pile capacity calculations. The article considers the main principles of pile capacity calculations presented in Eurocode 7 and other methods with adequate explanations. Two main methods are presented: α – method used to calculate the short-term load capacity of piles in cohesive soils and β – method used to calculate the long-term load capacity of piles in both cohesive and cohesionless soils. Moreover, methods based on cone CPTu result are presented as well as the pile capacity problem based on static tests.

  6. Calculation reliability in vehicle accident reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wach, Wojciech

    2016-06-01

    The reconstruction of vehicle accidents is subject to assessment in terms of the reliability of a specific system of engineering and technical operations. In the article [26] a formalized concept of the reliability of vehicle accident reconstruction, defined using Bayesian networks, was proposed. The current article is focused on the calculation reliability since that is the most objective section of this model. It is shown that calculation reliability in accident reconstruction is not another form of calculation uncertainty. The calculation reliability is made dependent on modeling reliability, adequacy of the model and relative uncertainty of calculation. All the terms are defined. An example is presented concerning the analytical determination of the collision location of two vehicles on the road in the absence of evidential traces. It has been proved that the reliability of this kind of calculations generally does not exceed 0.65, despite the fact that the calculation uncertainty itself can reach only 0.05. In this example special attention is paid to the analysis of modeling reliability and calculation uncertainty using sensitivity coefficients and weighted relative uncertainty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Calculated optical absorption of different perovskite phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2015-01-01

    We present calculations of the optical properties of a set of around 80 oxides, oxynitrides, and organometal halide cubic and layered perovskites (Ruddlesden-Popper and Dion-Jacobson phases) with a bandgap in the visible part of the solar spectrum. The calculations show that for different classes...

  8. Impedance Calculations of Induction Machine Rotor Conductors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The exact calculation of the impedance of induction machine rotor conductors at several operating frequencies are necessary if the dynamic behaviour of the machine is to give a good correlation between the simulated starting torque and current and the experimental results. This paper describes a method of' calculating ...

  9. 46 CFR 154.520 - Piping calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: (a) Pipe weight loads; (b) Acceleration loads; (c) Internal pressure loads; (d) Thermal loads; and (e... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping calculations. 154.520 Section 154.520 Shipping... Process Piping Systems § 154.520 Piping calculations. A piping system must be designed to meet the...

  10. Calculated Atomic Volumes of the Actinide Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, H.; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.

    1979-01-01

    The equilibrium atomic volume is calculated for the actinide metals. It is possible to account for the localization of the 5f electrons taking place in americium.......The equilibrium atomic volume is calculated for the actinide metals. It is possible to account for the localization of the 5f electrons taking place in americium....

  11. Numerical calculations of turbulent swirling flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, I.; Gouldin, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    Description of a numerical technique for solving axisymmetric, incompressible, turbulent swirling flow problems. Isothermal flow calculations are presented for a coaxial flow configuration of special interest. The calculation results are discussed in regard to their implications for the design of gas turbine combustors.

  12. 47 CFR 54.609 - Calculating support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculating support. 54.609 Section 54.609... SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers § 54.609 Calculating support. (a) Except with... amount of universal service support for an eligible service provided to a public or non-profit rural...

  13. Calculation of the Poisson cumulative distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Paul N.; Nolty, Robert G.; Scheuer, Ernest M.

    1990-01-01

    A method for calculating the Poisson cdf (cumulative distribution function) is presented. The method avoids computer underflow and overflow during the process. The computer program uses this technique to calculate the Poisson cdf for arbitrary inputs. An algorithm that determines the Poisson parameter required to yield a specified value of the cdf is presented.

  14. Data base to compare calculations and observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tichler, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    Meteorological and climatological data bases were compared with known tritium release points and diffusion calculations to determine if calculated concentrations could replace measure concentrations at the monitoring stations. Daily tritium concentrations were monitored at 8 stations and 16 possible receptors. Automated data retrieval strategies are listed. (PSB)

  15. Lewis Carroll's Formula for Calendar Calculating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Herman H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents Lewis Carroll's formula for mentally calculating the day of the week of a given date. The paper concludes that such formulas are too complex for individuals of low intelligence to learn by themselves, and thus "idiots savants" who perform such calendar calculations must be using other systems. (JDD)

  16. BURDEN OF DISEASE CALCULATION, COST OF ILLNESS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CIU

    individual's relatives and the society can channel such resources and energy to other uses that would ..... European countries. Useful Steps in BoD Calculation and CoI Analysis. The first useful step in the calculation is the outcome tree. Others are perspective of evaluation ... illustrating their conditional dependency. The first ...

  17. 10 CFR 766.102 - Calculation methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calculation methodology. 766.102 Section 766.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY URANIUM ENRICHMENT DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING FUND; PROCEDURES FOR SPECIAL ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES Procedures for Special Assessment § 766.102 Calculation methodology. (a...

  18. Calculation of LDL apoB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sniderman, A.D.; Tremblay, A.J.; Graaf, J. de; Couture, P.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study tests the validity of the Hattori formula to calculate LDL apoB based on plasma lipids and total apoB. METHODS: In 2178 patients in a tertiary care lipid clinic, LDL apoB calculated as suggested by Hattori et al. was compared to directly measured LDL apoB isolated by

  19. 5 CFR 1653.4 - Calculating entitlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calculating entitlements. 1653.4 Section 1653.4 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD COURT ORDERS AND LEGAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Retirement Benefits Court Orders § 1653.4 Calculating...

  20. Calculation of Temperature Rise in Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canagaratna, Sebastian G.; Witt, Jerry

    1988-01-01

    Gives a simple but fuller account of the basis for accurately calculating temperature rise in calorimetry. Points out some misconceptions regarding these calculations. Describes two basic methods, the extrapolation to zero time and the equal area method. Discusses the theoretical basis of each and their underlying assumptions. (CW)

  1. Direct calculation of wind turbine tip loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, D.H.; Okulov, Valery; Bhattacharjee, D.

    2016-01-01

    The usual method to account for a finite number of blades in blade element calculations of wind turbine performance is through a tip loss factor. Most analyses use the tip loss approximation due to Prandtl which is easily and cheaply calculated but is known to be inaccurate at low tip speed ratio...

  2. Dose distribution calculation for in-vivo X-ray fluorescence scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, R. G. [Universidad de la Frontera, Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Av. Francisco Salazar 1145, Temuco 4811230, Araucania (Chile); Lozano, E. [Instituto Nacional del Cancer, Unidad de Fisica Medica, Av. Profesor Zanartu 1010, Santiago (Chile); Valente, M., E-mail: figueror@ufro.cl [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Av. Ravadavia 1917, C1033AAJ, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-08-01

    In-vivo X-ray fluorescence constitutes a useful and accurate technique, worldwide established for constituent elementary distribution assessment. Actually, concentration distributions of arbitrary user-selected elements can be achieved along sample surface with the aim of identifying and simultaneously quantifying every constituent element. The method is based on the use of a collimated X-ray beam reaching the sample. However, one common drawback for considering the application of this technique for routine clinical examinations was the lack of information about associated dose delivery. This work presents a complete study of the dose distribution resulting from an in-vivo X-ray fluorescence scanning for quantifying biohazard materials on human hands. Absorbed dose has been estimated by means of dosimetric models specifically developed to this aim. In addition, complete dose distributions have been obtained by means of full radiation transport calculations in based on stochastic Monte Carlo techniques. A dedicated subroutine has been developed using the Penelope 2008 main code also integrated with dedicated programs -Mat Lab supported- for 3 dimensional dose distribution visualization. The obtained results show very good agreement between approximate analytical models and full descriptions by means of Monte Carlo simulations. (Author)

  3. HP-67 calculator programs for thermodynamic data and phase diagram calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, L.

    1978-05-25

    This report is a supplement to a tabulation of the thermodynamic and phase data for the 100 binary systems of Mo with the elements from H to Lr. The calculations of thermodynamic data and phase equilibria were carried out from 5000/sup 0/K to low temperatures. This report presents the methods of calculation used. The thermodynamics involved is rather straightforward and the reader is referred to any advanced thermodynamic text. The calculations were largely carried out using an HP-65 programmable calculator. In this report, those programs are reformulated for use with the HP-67 calculator; great reduction in the number of programs required to carry out the calculation results.

  4. Normal mode calculations of trigonal selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; McMurry, H. L.

    1980-01-01

    . With such coordinates a potential energy, calculated with only a diagonal force matrix, is equivalent to one calculated with both off diagonal and diagonal elements when conventional coordinates are used. Another advantage is that often some force constants may be determined directly from frequencies at points of high....... In this way we have eliminated the ambiguity in the choice of valence coordinates, which has been a problem in previous models which used valence type interactions. Calculated sound velocities and elastic moduli are also given. The Journal of Chemical Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute...

  5. Spreadsheet Based Scaling Calculations and Membrane Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, T D; Bourcier, W L; Speth, T F

    2000-12-28

    Many membrane element manufacturers provide a computer program to aid buyers in the use of their elements. However, to date there are few examples of fully integrated public domain software available for calculating reverse osmosis and nanofiltration system performance. The Total Flux and Scaling Program (TFSP), written for Excel 97 and above, provides designers and operators new tools to predict membrane system performance, including scaling and fouling parameters, for a wide variety of membrane system configurations and feedwaters. The TFSP development was funded under EPA contract 9C-R193-NTSX. It is freely downloadable at www.reverseosmosis.com/download/TFSP.zip. TFSP includes detailed calculations of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration system performance. Of special significance, the program provides scaling calculations for mineral species not normally addressed in commercial programs, including aluminum, iron, and phosphate species. In addition, ASTM calculations for common species such as calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}{times}2H{sub 2}O), BaSO{sub 4}, SrSO{sub 4}, SiO{sub 2}, and LSI are also provided. Scaling calculations in commercial membrane design programs are normally limited to the common minerals and typically follow basic ASTM methods, which are for the most part graphical approaches adapted to curves. In TFSP, the scaling calculations for the less common minerals use subsets of the USGS PHREEQE and WATEQ4F databases and use the same general calculational approach as PHREEQE and WATEQ4F. The activities of ion complexes are calculated iteratively. Complexes that are unlikely to form in significant concentration were eliminated to simplify the calculations. The calculation provides the distribution of ions and ion complexes that is used to calculate an effective ion product ''Q.'' The effective ion product is then compared to temperature adjusted solubility products (Ksp's) of solids in order to calculate a Saturation Index (SI

  6. Ti-84 Plus graphing calculator for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    McCalla

    2013-01-01

    Get up-to-speed on the functionality of your TI-84 Plus calculator Completely revised to cover the latest updates to the TI-84 Plus calculators, this bestselling guide will help you become the most savvy TI-84 Plus user in the classroom! Exploring the standard device, the updated device with USB plug and upgraded memory (the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition), and the upcoming color screen device, this book provides you with clear, understandable coverage of the TI-84's updated operating system. Details the new apps that are available for download to the calculator via the USB cabl

  7. Hamming generalized corrector for reactivity calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suescun-Diaz, Daniel; Ibarguen-Gonzalez, Maria C.; Figueroa-Jimenez, Jorge H. [Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali, Cali (Colombia). Dept. de Ciencias Naturales y Matematicas

    2014-06-15

    This work presents the Hamming method generalized corrector for numerically resolving the differential equation of delayed neutron precursor concentration from the point kinetics equations for reactivity calculation, without using the nuclear power history or the Laplace transform. A study was carried out of several correctors with their respective modifiers with different time step calculations, to offer stability and greater precision. Better results are obtained for some correctors than with other existing methods. Reactivity can be calculated with precision of the order h{sup 5}, where h is the time step. (orig.)

  8. Carbon Footprint Calculator | Climate Change | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-12

    An interactive calculator to estimate your household's carbon footprint. This tool will estimate carbon pollution emissions from your daily activities and show how to reduce your emissions and save money through simple steps.

  9. Calculated Leaf Carbon and Nitrogen, 1992 (ACCP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Study plot canopy chemistry values were calculated from leaf chemistry and litterfall weight values. Average leaf concentrations of nitrogen and carbon were used to...

  10. Calculating Employee Compensation Using An Economic Principle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Puneet Jaiprakash

    2015-01-01

    .... This paper develops an intuitive method for calculating the minimum amount by which an employee's compensation must be adjusted taking into account changes in economic conditions since the start of employment...

  11. Teaching Graphing Concepts with Graphing Calculators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Presents five lessons to demonstrate how graphing calculators can be used to teach the slope-intercept concept of linear equations and to establish more general principles about two-dimensional graphs. Contains a reproducible student quiz. (MKR)

  12. Numerical calculations in quantum field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebbi, C.

    1984-01-01

    Four lecture notes are included: (1) motivation for numerical calculations in Quantum Field Theory; (2) numerical simulation methods; (3) Monte Carlo studies of Quantum Chromo Dynamics; and (4) systems with fermions. 23 references. (WHK)

  13. 108 NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS IN THE GENERAL DYNAMICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Correspondence Author ... of Moving Bodies”, the following postulates were introduced:- .... 110. Table1: calculated values of the ratio of coordinate time to proper time for both general relativity and dynamical theory of gravitation. Body. Mass (M) Kg.

  14. Fair and Reasonable Rate Calculation Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This dataset provides guidelines for calculating the fair and reasonable rates for U.S. flag vessels carrying preference cargoes subject to regulations contained at...

  15. Temperature calculation in fire safety engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Wickström, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a consistent scientific background to engineering calculation methods applicable to analyses of materials reaction-to-fire, as well as fire resistance of structures. Several new and unique formulas and diagrams which facilitate calculations are presented. It focuses on problems involving high temperature conditions and, in particular, defines boundary conditions in a suitable way for calculations. A large portion of the book is devoted to boundary conditions and measurements of thermal exposure by radiation and convection. The concepts and theories of adiabatic surface temperature and measurements of temperature with plate thermometers are thoroughly explained. Also presented is a renewed method for modeling compartment fires, with the resulting simple and accurate prediction tools for both pre- and post-flashover fires. The final chapters deal with temperature calculations in steel, concrete and timber structures exposed to standard time-temperature fire curves. Useful temperature calculat...

  16. IOL Power Calculation after Corneal Refractive Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Maddalena De Bernardo; Luigi Capasso; Luisa Caliendo; Francesco Paolercio; Nicola Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the d