Sample records for calculational task group

  1. The work of the ICRP dose calculational task group: Issues in implementation of the ICRP dosimetric methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckerman, K.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has had efforts underway to provide the radiation protection community with age-dependent dose coefficients, i.e.g, the dose per unit intake. The Task Group on Dose Calculations, chaired by the author, is responsible for the computation of these coefficients. The Task Group, formed in 1974 to produce ICRP Publication 30, is now international in its membership and its work load has been distributed among the institutions represented on the task group. This paper discusses: (1) recent advances in biokinetic modeling; (2) the recent changes in the dosimetric methodology; (3) the novel computational problems with some of the ICRP quantities; and (4) quality assurance issues which the Task Group has encountered. Potential future developments of the dosimetric framework which might strengthen the relationships with the emerging understanding of radiation risk will also be discussed.

  2. Monitor unit calculations for external photon and electron beams: Report of the AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group No. 71

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, John P., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70809 (United States); Antolak, John A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Followill, David S. [Department of Radiation Physics, UT M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Huq, M. Saiful [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232 (United States); Klein, Eric E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Lam, Kwok L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Palta, Jatinder R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Roback, Donald M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Centers of North Carolina, Raleigh, North Carolina 27607 (United States); Reid, Mark [Department of Medical Physics, Fletcher-Allen Health Care, Burlington, Vermont 05401 (United States); Khan, Faiz M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)


    A protocol is presented for the calculation of monitor units (MU) for photon and electron beams, delivered with and without beam modifiers, for constant source-surface distance (SSD) and source-axis distance (SAD) setups. This protocol was written by Task Group 71 of the Therapy Physics Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and has been formally approved by the AAPM for clinical use. The protocol defines the nomenclature for the dosimetric quantities used in these calculations, along with instructions for their determination and measurement. Calculations are made using the dose per MU under normalization conditions, D{sub 0}{sup ′}, that is determined for each user's photon and electron beams. For electron beams, the depth of normalization is taken to be the depth of maximum dose along the central axis for the same field incident on a water phantom at the same SSD, where D{sub 0}{sup ′} = 1 cGy/MU. For photon beams, this task group recommends that a normalization depth of 10 cm be selected, where an energy-dependent D{sub 0}{sup ′} ≤ 1 cGy/MU is required. This recommendation differs from the more common approach of a normalization depth of d{sub m}, with D{sub 0}{sup ′} = 1 cGy/MU, although both systems are acceptable within the current protocol. For photon beams, the formalism includes the use of blocked fields, physical or dynamic wedges, and (static) multileaf collimation. No formalism is provided for intensity modulated radiation therapy calculations, although some general considerations and a review of current calculation techniques are included. For electron beams, the formalism provides for calculations at the standard and extended SSDs using either an effective SSD or an air-gap correction factor. Example tables and problems are included to illustrate the basic concepts within the presented formalism.

  3. Monitor unit calculations for external photon and electron beams: Report of the AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group No. 71. (United States)

    Gibbons, John P; Antolak, John A; Followill, David S; Huq, M Saiful; Klein, Eric E; Lam, Kwok L; Palta, Jatinder R; Roback, Donald M; Reid, Mark; Khan, Faiz M


    A protocol is presented for the calculation of monitor units (MU) for photon and electron beams, delivered with and without beam modifiers, for constant source-surface distance (SSD) and source-axis distance (SAD) setups. This protocol was written by Task Group 71 of the Therapy Physics Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and has been formally approved by the AAPM for clinical use. The protocol defines the nomenclature for the dosimetric quantities used in these calculations, along with instructions for their determination and measurement. Calculations are made using the dose per MU under normalization conditions, D'0, that is determined for each user's photon and electron beams. For electron beams, the depth of normalization is taken to be the depth of maximum dose along the central axis for the same field incident on a water phantom at the same SSD, where D'0 = 1 cGy/MU. For photon beams, this task group recommends that a normalization depth of 10 cm be selected, where an energy-dependent D'0 ≤ 1 cGy/MU is required. This recommendation differs from the more common approach of a normalization depth of dm, with D'0 = 1 cGy/MU, although both systems are acceptable within the current protocol. For photon beams, the formalism includes the use of blocked fields, physical or dynamic wedges, and (static) multileaf collimation. No formalism is provided for intensity modulated radiation therapy calculations, although some general considerations and a review of current calculation techniques are included. For electron beams, the formalism provides for calculations at the standard and extended SSDs using either an effective SSD or an air-gap correction factor. Example tables and problems are included to illustrate the basic concepts within the presented formalism.

  4. Monitor unit calculations for external photon and electron beams: Report of the AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group No. 71 (United States)

    Gibbons, John P.; Antolak, John A.; Followill, David S.; Huq, M. Saiful; Klein, Eric E.; Lam, Kwok L.; Palta, Jatinder R.; Roback, Donald M.; Reid, Mark; Khan, Faiz M.


    A protocol is presented for the calculation of monitor units (MU) for photon and electron beams, delivered with and without beam modifiers, for constant source-surface distance (SSD) and source-axis distance (SAD) setups. This protocol was written by Task Group 71 of the Therapy Physics Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and has been formally approved by the AAPM for clinical use. The protocol defines the nomenclature for the dosimetric quantities used in these calculations, along with instructions for their determination and measurement. Calculations are made using the dose per MU under normalization conditions, \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$D_0^\\prime $\\end{document}D0′, that is determined for each user's photon and electron beams. For electron beams, the depth of normalization is taken to be the depth of maximum dose along the central axis for the same field incident on a water phantom at the same SSD, where \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$D_0^\\prime $\\end{document}D0′ = 1 cGy/MU. For photon beams, this task group recommends that a normalization depth of 10 cm be selected, where an energy-dependent \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$D_0^\\prime $\\end{document}D0′ ≤ 1 cGy/MU is required. This recommendation differs from the more common approach of a normalization depth of dm, with

  5. Report of the Task Group 186 on model-based dose calculation methods in brachytherapy beyond the TG-43 formalism: current status and recommendations for clinical implementation. (United States)

    Beaulieu, Luc; Carlsson Tedgren, Asa; Carrier, Jean-Francois; Davis, Stephen D; Mourtada, Firas; Rivard, Mark J; Thomson, Rowan M; Verhaegen, Frank; Wareing, Todd A; Williamson, Jeffrey F


    The charge of Task Group 186 (TG-186) is to provide guidance for early adopters of model-based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs) for brachytherapy (BT) dose calculations to ensure practice uniformity. Contrary to external beam radiotherapy, heterogeneity correction algorithms have only recently been made available to the BT community. Yet, BT dose calculation accuracy is highly dependent on scatter conditions and photoelectric effect cross-sections relative to water. In specific situations, differences between the current water-based BT dose calculation formalism (TG-43) and MBDCAs can lead to differences in calculated doses exceeding a factor of 10. MBDCAs raise three major issues that are not addressed by current guidance documents: (1) MBDCA calculated doses are sensitive to the dose specification medium, resulting in energy-dependent differences between dose calculated to water in a homogeneous water geometry (TG-43), dose calculated to the local medium in the heterogeneous medium, and the intermediate scenario of dose calculated to a small volume of water in the heterogeneous medium. (2) MBDCA doses are sensitive to voxel-by-voxel interaction cross sections. Neither conventional single-energy CT nor ICRU∕ICRP tissue composition compilations provide useful guidance for the task of assigning interaction cross sections to each voxel. (3) Since each patient-source-applicator combination is unique, having reference data for each possible combination to benchmark MBDCAs is an impractical strategy. Hence, a new commissioning process is required. TG-186 addresses in detail the above issues through the literature review and provides explicit recommendations based on the current state of knowledge. TG-43-based dose prescription and dose calculation remain in effect, with MBDCA dose reporting performed in parallel when available. In using MBDCAs, it is recommended that the radiation transport should be performed in the heterogeneous medium and, at minimum, the dose

  6. Vocabulary Maintenance Task Group Report


    Baskauf, Steve


    This was a presentation at the TDWG Annual Meeting in Costa Rica, 2016-12-08 in a Task Group report session.  Abstract: The Vocabulary Maintenance Task Group has completed drafts of a Standards Documentation Specification and a Vocabulary Management Specification ( This session will outline the important aspects of the specifications and answer questions about their content and implementation.

  7. Task Group 9 Update (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosco, N.


    This presentation is a brief update of IEC TC82 QA Task Force, Group 9. Presented is an outline of the recently submitted New Work Item Proposal (NWIP) for a Comparative Thermal Cycling Test for CPV Modules to Differentiate Thermal Fatigue Durability.

  8. Working with Group-Tasks and Group Cohesiveness (United States)

    Anwar, Khoirul


    This study aimed at exploring the connection between the use of group task and group cohesiveness. This study is very important because the nature of the learner's success is largely determined by the values of cooperation, interaction, and understanding of the learning objectives together. Subjects of this study are 28 students on the course…

  9. Teaching and Coaching: Group and Task Differences. (United States)

    Chelladurai, Packianathan; Kuga, Donna J.


    Highlights group and task differences between teaching and coaching which favor coaching, thus making it more amenable to exercise influence by coaches and more motivational than teaching. A model synthesizing antecedents of role preference, influences of organizational and environmental elements, enacted role, role congruence, and resulting job…

  10. Group Contribution Methods for Phase Equilibrium Calculations. (United States)

    Gmehling, Jürgen; Constantinescu, Dana; Schmid, Bastian


    The development and design of chemical processes are carried out by solving the balance equations of a mathematical model for sections of or the whole chemical plant with the help of process simulators. For process simulation, besides kinetic data for the chemical reaction, various pure component and mixture properties are required. Because of the great importance of separation processes for a chemical plant in particular, a reliable knowledge of the phase equilibrium behavior is required. The phase equilibrium behavior can be calculated with the help of modern equations of state or g(E)-models using only binary parameters. But unfortunately, only a very small part of the experimental data for fitting the required binary model parameters is available, so very often these models cannot be applied directly. To solve this problem, powerful predictive thermodynamic models have been developed. Group contribution methods allow the prediction of the required phase equilibrium data using only a limited number of group interaction parameters. A prerequisite for fitting the required group interaction parameters is a comprehensive database. That is why for the development of powerful group contribution methods almost all published pure component properties, phase equilibrium data, excess properties, etc., were stored in computerized form in the Dortmund Data Bank. In this review, the present status, weaknesses, advantages and disadvantages, possible applications, and typical results of the different group contribution methods for the calculation of phase equilibria are presented.

  11. Task complexity and task, goal, and reward interdependence in group performance management : A prescriptive model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vijfeijken, H.; Kleingeld, A.; van Tuijl, H.; Algera, J.A.; Thierry, Hk.


    A prescriptive model on how to design effective combinations of goal setting and contingent rewards for group performance management is presented. The model incorporates the constructs task complexity, task interdependence, goal interdependence, and reward interdependence and specifies optimal fit

  12. Animal behaviour: task differentiation by personality in spider groups. (United States)

    Grinsted, Lena; Bacon, Jonathan P


    In social animals, group efficiency is often assumed to increase with task differentiation, but this requires that individuals are better than generalists at the task they specialize in. A new study finds that individual Anelosimus studiosus spiders do predominantly perform the task they excel at, in line with their individual personality type, when they are placed in groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Designing the Widget: A Group Decision and Negotiation Task (United States)

    Delise, Lisa A.; Mello, Abby L.


    The Widget design task is an in-class, experiential exercise that affords students the opportunity to develop interpersonal skills in group negotiation. Students engage in new product design in committees of two dyads where one dyad represents Consumer Research and the other represents Strategic Management. Task information creates different…

  14. Innovation in Accounting Tasks: Empirical Study in Two Professional Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Cristina da Silva Vicente


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to contribute to the knowledge on innovation in accounting tasks, from the point of view of two professional groups. Its goals are: evaluating the importance given by the professionals to accounting tasks; identifying whether there is convergence between the two professional groups, regarding the importance of the tasks; examining whether there is an association between the professionals’ individual characteristics and the importance they attach to the tasks. Two professional groups were surveyed: 105 financial officers of the top 500 Portuguese companies; and 412 Chartered Accountants. The results obtained allowed us to conclude that the respondents attach more importance to the traditional tasks, linked to the concept of a monetary-oriented accountant, and less importance to the more innovative tasks, related to business strategy; there is no convergence between the two professional groups in terms of the importance of the accountants’ participation in the strategic tasks. Regarding the association between individual characteristics and the level of importance assigned to the accounting tasks, we found an influence of the following characteristics: gender; academic degree of the professionals; and the institution where that degree was obtained.

  15. Sex Role and Interpersonal Behavior in Task-Oriented Groups (United States)

    Meeker, B. F.; Weitzel-O'Neill, P. A.


    The sociological theory that men are instrument or task specialists and that women are expressive or social specialists has been weakened by research on small groups, families and personality. This paper suggests that sex differences in task-oriented situations may be explained by status processes, men having higher status than women. (Author/JM)

  16. Group cohesion, task performance, and the experimenter expectancy effect.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstraten, J.; Vorst, H.C.M.


    Studied the effects of cohesion on task fulfillment and explored the influence of task fulfillment on the initial level of cohesion. Within 4-person groups of undergraduates, cohesion was manipulated successfully by a triple procedure. The level of cohesion was ascertained directly after the

  17. Task Group on Strengthening the DoD Enterprise Governance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... The Task Group was asked to examine the various governance models for overlaps or redundancies and to consider alternative approaches that would better facilitate accomplishment of the Department's goals...

  18. ERP Measures of Math Anxiety: How Math Anxiety Affects Working Memory and Mental Calculation Tasks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manousos A. Klados


    Full Text Available There have been several attempts to account for the impact of Mathematical Anxiety (MA on brain activity with variable results. The present study examines the effects of MA on ERP amplitude during performance of simple arithmetic calculations and working memory tasks. Data were obtained from 32 university students as they solved four types of arithmetic problems (one- and two-digit addition and multiplication and a working memory task comprised of three levels of difficulty (1,2,and 3-back task. Compared to the Low-MA group, High-MA individuals demonstrated reduced ERP amplitude at frontocentral (between 180-320 ms and centroparietal locations (between 380-420 ms. These effects were independent of task difficulty/complexity, individual performance, and general state/trait anxiety levels. Results support the hypothesis that higher levels of self-reported MA are associated with lower cortical activation during the early stages of the processing of numeric stimuli in the context of cognitive tasks.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr O. Petkov


    Full Text Available The article deals with the question of the open calculated tasks test control. These materials are focused on basic algorithmic level of educational activity. A method for estimating the control results based on the implementation of the minimum number of open computational tasks is proposed. The technique allows the possibility of refutation mark, exposed by a computer program. It also describes, the characteristics of the controlling program, realizing the method. There are presented the results of calculated tasks execution using the developed program. Information of the article can be used for control tests developing at any algorithmic level of educational activities and for researching of complexity of open calculated tasks.

  20. Ability of aphasic individuals to perform numerical processing and calculation tasks

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    Gabriela De Luccia


    Full Text Available Objective To compare performance on EC301 battery calculation task between aphasic subjects and normal controls of the same sex, age, and education. Method Thirty-two aphasic patients who had suffered a single left hemisphere stroke were evaluated. Forty-four healthy volunteers were also selected. All subjects underwent a comprehensive arithmetic battery to assess their numerical and calculation skills. Performances on numerical processing and calculation tasks were then analyzed. Results Aphasic individuals showed changes in their ability to perform numerical processing and calculation tasks that were not observed in the healthy population. Conclusion Compared with healthy subjects of the same age and education level, individuals with aphasia had difficulty performing various tasks that involved numerical processing and calculation.

  1. The Emergence of Individual and Collective Leadership in Task Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paunova, Minna


    leader emergence in task groups as influenced by individual traits, states, and behaviors. However, current approaches to leadership in groups rely on functional achievement explanations of how collective leadership emerges, influenced by positive states and behaviors. Attention to ascription......This review synthesizes conceptual and empirical research on the emergence of individual and collective leadership in task groups, and proposes avenues for leadership research. To advance multilevel study of leadership emergence, including emergence of distributed and shared leadership, the paper...... reviews research on individual leader emergence, structured around two identified theoretical mechanisms—one of leadership achievement (i.e., based on functional behaviors) and another of leadership ascription (i.e., based on nominal characteristics). These approaches compete to elucidate individual...

  2. The IUGS/IAGC Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines (United States)

    Smith, David B.; Wang, Xueqiu; Reeder, Shaun; Demetriades, Alecos


    The Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines, operating under the auspices of both the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) and the International Association of Geochemistry (IAGC), has the long-term goal of establishing a global geochemical database to document the concentration and distribution of chemical elements in the Earth’s surface or near-surface environment. The database and accompanying element distribution maps represent a geochemical baseline against which future human-induced or natural changes to the chemistry of the land surface may be recognized and quantified. In order to accomplish this long-term goal, the activities of the Task Group include: (1) developing partnerships with countries conducting broad-scale geochemical mapping studies; (2) providing consultation and training in the form of workshops and short courses; (3) organizing periodic international symposia to foster communication among the geochemical mapping community; (4) developing criteria for certifying those projects whose data are acceptable in a global geochemical database; (5) acting as a repository for data collected by those projects meeting the criteria for standardization; (6) preparing complete metadata for the certified projects; and (7) preparing, ultimately, a global geochemical database. This paper summarizes the history and accomplishments of the Task Group since its first predecessor project was established in 1988.

  3. Blade Group Fatigue Life Calculation under Resonant Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Petreski


    Full Text Available The results of the simulations of the blade group resonant stresses in a FE environment and fatigue life calculation are presented in this paper. Numerical calculation for determination of natural frequencies, mode shapes and dynamic stresses, based on FEM and NISA package is used. Analyses are made on the blade group with three blades with rectangular cross section and typical turbine blades with taper, pretwist and asymmetric airfoil as well. The influence of the position of the lacing wire on the resonant stresses is analyzed. Three-dimensional finite element models of the blade group are made by using twenty node isoparametric solid elements. The number of degrees of freedom is different for each model (more than 30000 DOF. The fatigue life and consequent life prediction according the stress load history of the blades is made. The results of the investigation are given in tables and graphics.

  4. Task factor usability ratings for different age groups writing Chinese. (United States)

    Chan, A H S; So, J C Y


    This study evaluated how different task factors affect performance and user subjective preferences for three different age groups of Chinese subjects (6-11, 20-23, 65-70 years) when hand writing Chinese characters. The subjects copied Chinese character sentences with different settings for the task factors of writing plane angle (horizontal 0 degrees , slanted 15 degrees ), writing direction (horizontal, vertical), and line spacing (5 mm, 7 mm and no lines). Writing speed was measured and subjective preferences (effectiveness and satisfaction) were assessed for each of the task factor settings. The result showed that there was a conflict between writing speed and personal preference for the line spacing factor; 5 mm line spacing increased writing speed but it was the least preferred. It was also found that: vertical and horizontal writing directions and a slanted work surface suited school-aged children; a horizontal work surface and horizontal writing direction suited university students; and a horizontal writing direction with either a horizontal or slanted work surface suited the older adults.

  5. Minimal groups increase young children's motivation and learning on group-relevant tasks. (United States)

    Master, Allison; Walton, Gregory M


    Three experiments (N = 130) used a minimal group manipulation to show that just perceived membership in a social group boosts young children's motivation for and learning from group-relevant tasks. In Experiment 1, 4-year-old children assigned to a minimal "puzzles group" persisted longer on a challenging puzzle than children identified as the "puzzles child" or children in a control condition. Experiment 2 showed that this boost in motivation occurred only when the group was associated with the task. In Experiment 3, children assigned to a minimal group associated with word learning learned more words than children assigned an analogous individual identity. The studies demonstrate that fostering shared motivations may be a powerful means by which to shape young children's academic outcomes. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  6. Automatic calculation of supersymmetric renormalization group equations and loop corrections (United States)

    Staub, Florian


    SARAH is a Mathematica package for studying supersymmetric models. It calculates for a given model the masses, tadpole equations and all vertices at tree-level. This information can be used by SARAH to write model files for CalcHep/ CompHep or FeynArts/ FormCalc. In addition, the second version of SARAH can derive the renormalization group equations for the gauge couplings, parameters of the superpotential and soft-breaking parameters at one- and two-loop level. Furthermore, it calculates the one-loop self-energies and the one-loop corrections to the tadpoles. SARAH can handle all N=1 SUSY models whose gauge sector is a direct product of SU(N) and U(1) gauge groups. The particle content of the model can be an arbitrary number of chiral superfields transforming as any irreducible representation with respect to the gauge groups. To implement a new model, the user has just to define the gauge sector, the particle, the superpotential and the field rotations to mass eigenstates. Program summaryProgram title: SARAH Catalogue identifier: AEIB_v1_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 97 577 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 009 769 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica Computer: All systems that Mathematica is available for Operating system: All systems that Mathematica is available for Classification: 11.1, 11.6 Nature of problem: A supersymmetric model is usually characterized by the particle content, the gauge sector and the superpotential. It is a time consuming process to obtain all necessary information for phenomenological studies from these basic ingredients. Solution method: SARAH calculates the complete Lagrangian for a given model whose

  7. Steam Generator Group Project. Task 6. Channel head decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.P.; Clark, R.L.; Reece, W.D.


    The Steam Generator Group Project utilizes a retired-from-service pressurized-water-reactor steam generator as a test bed and source of specimens for research. An important preparatory step to primary side research activities was reduction of the radiation field in the steam generator channel head. This task report describes the channel head decontamination activities. Though not a programmatic research objective it was judged beneficial to explore the use of dilute reagent chemical decontamination techniques. These techniques presented potential for reduced personnel exposure and reduced secondary radwaste generation, over currently used abrasive blasting techniques. Two techniques with extensive laboratory research and vendors prepared to offer commercial application were tested, one on either side of the channel head. As indicated in the report, both techniques accomplished similar decontamination objectives. Neither technique damaged the generator channel head or tubing materials, as applied. This report provides details of the decontamination operations. Application system and operating conditions are described.

  8. Effects of Training on Computer-Mediated Communication in Single or Mixed Gender Small Task Groups. (United States)

    Savicki, Victor; Kelley, Merle; Ammon, Benjamin


    Investigates group gender composition and communication styles in small task groups involved in computer-mediated communication. Describes a study that tried to train small task groups in the use of one communication style and suggests further research in the area of communication training for online task groups. (Author/LRW)

  9. Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinz, R.M.; Mufson, S.L.; Musser, J.


    The Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C has been actively involved in the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso and the SSC experiment L during the current contract year. MACRO is a large US-Italian Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory being built under the Gran Sasso Mountain outside of Rome. Indiana University is in charge of organizing the United States software effort. We have built a state-of-the-art two-meter spectrophotometer for the MACRO liquid scintillator. We are in charge of ERP, the Event Reconstruction Processor online trigger processor for muons and stellar collapse. We are designing an air Cerenkov array to be placed on top of the Gran Sasso. Our other activity involves participation in the SSC experiment L. As long-standing members of L we have done proposal writing and have worked on important L planning and organization matters. We are now doing development work on the L Central Tracker straw drift tubes, including gas optimization, readout, and Monte Carlos. 12 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Animal Behaviour: Task Differentiation by Personality in Spider Groups


    Grinsted, Lena; Bacon, Jonathan P.


    Dispatch: In social animals, group efficiency is often assumed to increase with task differentiation, but this requires that individuals are better than generalists at the task they specialize in. A new study finds that individual Anelosimus studiosus spiders do predominantly perform the task they excel at, in line with their individual personality type, when they are placed in groups.

  11. Leadership effects on group task satisfaction - an agent-based model


    Prasad, Kaivalya


    Given the prevalence of work groups in today’s organizations, studies on group effectiveness have flourished in the last few decades. It is imperative for groups to maintain a positive attitude in order for them to continually function effectively and efficiently. Group task satisfaction is one such attitudinal outcome which is the group-level counterpart to individual job satisfaction. Although group task satisfaction has been studied in the past, it has mostly been studied as an aggregate o...

  12. Student Perceptions of Social Task Development in Online Group Project Work (United States)

    Morgan, Kari; Cameron, Bruce A.; Williams, Karen C.


    This article explores student perceptions of social task development in an online group project and poses recommendations for implementation of group projects. Qualitative methods were used to analyze student perceptions of social task development in online group project. Respect, "being nice," follow the rules/follow the leader, communication,…

  13. Communication on a problem solving task in cooperative learning groups (United States)

    Sadler, Jo; Fawns, Rod


    There is some evidence from this study that reflectivity within cooperative learning groups develops over time. Preliminary observations suggest that Slavin's third and fourth levels of skills, those of reflection and reasoning and reconception and reformulation and Kempa and Ayob's higher levels of explanation and insight appear more advanced in groups strategically managed by teachers for such outcomes. Later analyses will permit more detailed accounts of the relationships between the teacher's management strategies, and reflection within groups of different gender composition.

  14. Group Projects: Student Perceptions of the Relationship between Social Tasks and a Sense of Community in Online Group Work (United States)

    Cameron, Bruce A.; Morgan, Kari; Williams, Karen C.; Kostelecky, Kyle L.


    This study explored the relationship between specific social tasks and student perceptions of a sense of community during online group work. A survey instrument was developed, piloted, and deployed to 125 students in six different online classes. Results revealed few significant relationships between each of the five social tasks examined and…

  15. Calculations on Lie Algebra of the Group of Affine Symplectomorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhier Altawallbeh


    Full Text Available We find the image of the affine symplectic Lie algebra gn from the Leibniz homology HL⁎(gn to the Lie algebra homology H⁎Lie(gn. The result shows that the image is the exterior algebra ∧⁎(wn generated by the forms wn=∑i=1n(∂/∂xi∧∂/∂yi. Given the relevance of Hochschild homology to string topology and to get more interesting applications, we show that such a map is of potential interest in string topology and homological algebra by taking into account that the Hochschild homology HH⁎-1(U(gn is isomorphic to H⁎-1Lie(gn,U(gnad. Explicitly, we use the alternation of multilinear map, in our elements, to do certain calculations.

  16. Results and conclusions test capabilities task group summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomber, T.; Pierce, K.; Easterling, R.; Rogers, J.


    This annotated briefing documents an economic analysis of Sandia`s system-level test facilities maintained and operated by the Design, Evaluation, and Test Technology Center 9700. The study was divided into four primary sub-tasks: (1) Estimation of the future system-level test workload, (2) Development of a consistent economic model to estimate the cost of maintaining and operating the test facilities, (3) Determination of the availability of viable alternative test sites, and (4) Assessment of the potential savings through reduction of excess capacity under various facility-closure scenarios. The analysis indicated that potential savings from closing all facilities could approach $6 million per year. However, large uncertainties in these savings remove any sound economic arguments for such closure: it is possible that testing at alternative sites could cost more than maintaining the current set of system-level test facilities. Finally, a number of programmatic risks incurred by facility closure were identified. Consideration of facility closure requires a careful weighing of any projected economic benefit against these programmatic risks. This summary report covers the briefing given to upper management. A more detailed discussion of the data and analyses is given in the full report, available for internal use from the technical library.

  17. Group Planning and Task Efficiency with Complex Problems. Final Report. (United States)

    Lawson, E. D.

    One hundred eighty 4-man groups (90 of men and 90 of women) using 3 types of net (All-Channel, Wheel and Circle) under 3 conditions (Planning Period (PP), Rest Period (RP) and Control) were run in a single session with 5 complex problems to determine whether a single 2-minute planning period after solution of the first problem would result in…

  18. Report of the task group on fermentation technology.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Andrews, RJ


    Full Text Available An ad hoc meeting held in Bloemfontein on 29th November, 1976, identified a need for greater contact between South African research groups involved in fermentation technology. The meeting also suggested that the stimulation of research and training...

  19. Calculating the renormalisation group equations of a SUSY model with Susyno (United States)

    Fonseca, Renato M.


    Susyno is a Mathematica package dedicated to the computation of the 2-loop renormalisation group equations of a supersymmetric model based on any gauge group (the only exception being multiple U(1) groups) and for any field content. Program summary Program title: Susyno Catalogue identifier: AEMX_v1_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 30829 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 650170 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica 7 or higher. Computer: All systems that Mathematica 7+ is available for (PC, Mac). Operating system: Any platform supporting Mathematica 7+ (Windows, Linux, Mac OS). Classification: 4.2, 5, 11.1. Nature of problem: Calculating the renormalisation group equations of a supersymmetric model involves using long and complicated general formulae [1, 2]. In addition, to apply them it is necessary to know the Lagrangian in its full form. Building the complete Lagrangian of models with small representations of SU(2) and SU(3) might be easy but in the general case of arbitrary representations of an arbitrary gauge group, this task can be hard, lengthy and error prone. Solution method: The Susyno package uses group theoretical functions to calculate the super-potential and the soft-SUSY-breaking Lagrangian of a supersymmetric model, and calculates the two-loop RGEs of the model using the general equations of [1, 2]. Susyno works for models based on any representation(s) of any gauge group (the only exception being multiple U(1) groups). Restrictions: As the program is based on the formalism of [1, 2], it shares its limitations. Running time can also be a significant restriction, in particular for models with many fields. Unusual features

  20. The pernicious effects of unstable work group membership : How work group changes undermine unique task contributions and newcomer acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rink, Floor; Ellemers, Naomi

    This research demonstrates that group membership instability tends to raise self-related concerns that make it less likely that people value and accept constructive task contributions offered by newcomers. In Study 1 (N = 88), unstable group membership heightened self-related concerns. Participants

  1. Brainstorming Groups: Ambiguity Tolerance, Communication Apprehension, Task Attraction, and Individual Productivity. (United States)

    Comadena, Mark E.


    Examined the performance of individuals (N=76) in brainstorming groups to determine the relationships among communication apprehension, ambiguity tolerance, perceptions of task attraction, and individual ideation output. Results indicated that high producers of ideas perceived the task as more attractive, were low in communication apprehension and…

  2. Individual and group-based learning from complex cognitive tasks: Effects on retention and transfer efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Femke; Paas, Fred; Kirschner, Paul A.


    Kirschner, F., Paas, F., & Kirschner, P. (2009). Individual and group-based learning from complex cognitive tasks: Effects on retention and transfer efficiency. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 306-314.

  3. Scheduling with Group Dynamics: a Multi-Robot Task Allocation Algorithm based on Vacancy Chains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dahl, Torbjorn S; Mataric, Maja J; Sukhatme, Gaurav S


    .... We present a multi-robot task allocation algorithm that is sensitive to group dynamics. Our algorithm is based on vacancy chains, a resource distribution process common in human and animal societies...

  4. Positioning during Group Work on a Novel Task in Algebra II (United States)

    DeJarnette, Anna F.; González, Gloriana


    Given the prominence of group work in mathematics education policy and curricular materials, it is important to understand how students make sense of mathematics during group work. We applied techniques from Systemic Functional Linguistics to examine how students positioned themselves during group work on a novel task in Algebra II classes. We…

  5. The effect of self-serving attribution on attraction in additive- and conjunctive-task groups. (United States)

    Uraz, G; Aydin, O


    The prediction that the effect of self-serving attribution on personal attraction will vary according to task type was tested. Twenty-four groups of Turkish students, each consisting of 1 participant and 3 confederates, received success feedback after having performed either an additive or a conjunctive task. Two of the confederates made either self-serving or group-serving attributions, whereas the 3rd confederate attributed success to the collective efforts of all group members. Following these attributions, the participants filled out a form to indicate the degree to which they preferred each member as a friend and a work mate. Self-serving attributors in the conjunctive-task condition were less preferred as friends than the self-serving attributors in the additive-task condition. Also, the additive-task participants' ratings for other group members were systematically higher than those of the conjunctive-task participants. Thus, there was a main effect of task type for both friends and workmates.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, William A [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL; Huang, Joe [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Erdem, Ender [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Ronnen, Levinson [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)


    California s major energy utilities and the California Energy Commission (CEC) are seeking to allocate capital that yields the greatest return on investment for energy infrastructure that meets any part of the need for reliable supplies of energy. The utilities are keenly interested in knowing the amount of electrical energy savings that would occur if cool roof color materials are adopted in the building market. To meet this need the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have been collaborating on a Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) project to develop an industry-consensus energy-savings calculator. The task was coordinated with an ongoing effort supported by the DOE to develop one calculator to achieve both the DOE and the EPA objectives for deployment of cool roof products. Recent emphasis on domestic building energy use has made the work a top priority by the Department of Energy s (DOE) Building Technologies Program. The Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) tool is designed to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and practitioners easily run complex simulations. The latest web technologies and usability design were employed to provide an easy input interface to an annual simulation of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim. Building defaults were assigned based on the best available statistical evidence and can provide energy and cost savings after the user selects nothing more than the building location. A key goal for the tool is to promote the energy benefits of cool color tile, metal and asphalt shingle roof products and other energy saving systems. The RSC tool focuses on applications for the roof and attic; however, the code conducts a whole building simulation that puts the energy and heat flows of the roof and attic into the perspective of the whole house. An annual simulation runs in about 30 sec. In addition to cool

  7. The Effects of Dual Task on Healthy Adults Balance Index in Age and Gender groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Abedi


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Falls are the leading cause of accidental death among older adults. Recent studies have demonstrated that an impaired ability to maintain balance while simultaneously performing cognitive tasks is associated with increased rates of adverse outcomes, such as falls in elderly people. Because interventions designed to improve dual-task balance performance have the potential to reduce falling rate and functional decline, they are a critical health care need.Material & Methods: 60 healthy adults in four equal groups (mean age in: young men=22.1±1.9, old men =68.3±4.1, young women =22.6±1.8, old women =66.9±2.6 participated in this study. All subjects experienced four test conditions including: single- task with eyes open (O1, single- task with eyes closed (C1, dual-task with eyes open (O2 and dual-task with eyes closed (C2. Postural task in this study included standing on 8 instability level of biodex balance SD machine plate and cognitive task was backward counting by three.Results: balance index mean in older group was significantly higher in comparison with young group in all test conditions (O1 P=.000, C1 P=.003, O2 P=.000, C2 P=.000. There are not any significant differences between gender groups balance index mean, in test conditions. In Young women group O2 overall (OL, antroposterior (AP and mediolateral (ML balance indexes means were significantly higher than corresponding amounts in C2 (OL P=.014, AP P=.030, ML P=.017. In old women group C2 ML balance index mean was significantly higher than O2 ML balance index mean (P=.034. There are not significant differences between single- and dual-task conditions in other within group comparisons.Conclusion: In young men, young women and old women balance index means are different between single and dual eyes closed condition. Older adults balance index in single- and dual-task conditions is higher than young adults balance index. There is not any difference between men and

  8. The central role of entitativity in stereotypes of social categories and task groups. (United States)

    Spencer-Rodgers, Julie; Hamilton, David L; Sherman, Steven J


    Research indicates that people's intuitive beliefs about groups are organized according to a group typology (B. Lickel, D. L. Hamilton, & S. J. Sherman, 2001). In Study 1, the authors compared and contrasted people's spontaneous cognitive representations of two group types, task groups and social categories. Analyses revealed significant differences as well as commonalities in people's beliefs about the group types. Notably, perceivers used more abstract, enduring language and contextually rich descriptors when characterizing social categories than when describing task groups. In Study 2, the authors investigated the differential roles of distinct group perception variables (entitativity, homogeneity, essence, role differentiation, and agency) as predictors of stereotyping for the different group types. Entitativity and all of the group perception variables significantly predicted stereotyping for both social categories and task groups. However, perceptions of entitativity mediated the association between the group perception variables and stereotypic judgments. These findings demonstrate that laypeople hold stereotype-like mental representations of group types other than social categories and that entitativity plays a crucial mediating role in stereotyping across different types of groups. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Summary report for MEGAPIE R+D Task Group X9: Neutronic and nuclear assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanini, L


    The comprehensive work performed by the R+D task group X9 since the beginning of the MEGAPIE initiative is described in this summary report. The list of topics covered by this group is large and covers many of the essential aspects of an innovative system such as the MEGAPIE target. The X9 group worked on the neutronic and nuclear related aspects of the target design, as summarized in the following. The main tool in the neutronic design of a spallation neutron target is a reliable particle transport code, and nowadays the Monte Carlo technique is widely adopted in this field. There are several codes which are more or less extensively used in the nuclear physics community; at the beginning of the project a benchmark exercise was performed among several institutes using different Monte Carlo codes. The aim of the benchmark was to perform a code intercomparison by looking at the different predictions of several important quantities, as described later in the report. The benchmark results were first compiled in two separate reports. The results are critically discussed here. Based on the obtained results, and considering also other factors such as the code maintenance, the codes FLUKA and MCNPX were indicated as the most recommended ones to be used in the continuation of the X9 work. Proton and neutron fluxes in the MEGAPIE target were calculated. Detailed models of he MEGAPIE target and of the surrounding SINQ facility were developed, as well as of the present solid SINQ target. A comparison between the neutron flux with MEGAPIE and the SINQ solid target showed that the MEGAPIE target sill deliver 40% to 50% more thermal neutrons to the instruments served by SINQ as compared to the SINQ Mark 3 target. Calculations of the beam power deposition distributions are essential as input for the thermohydraulics CFD analysis of the lower target. Power deposition was calculated with FLUKA and MCNPX. The results from the two codes agree within 5%. Approximately 85% of the beam

  10. A Partition of Group Performance into Informational and Social Components in a Hypothesis Generation Task. (United States)


    1973, 9, 280-291. Hall, J. H., Mouton , J. S. and Blake , R. R. Group problem solving effectiveness under conditions of pooling vs. interaction. The...the best individual in the group. Campbell (1968) found that group responses were infe- rior to those of a single subject. Other studies (Hall, Mouton ...and Blake , 1967; Gustafson, Shukla, Delbecq and Walster, 1973; Klugman, 1947) have found that, in tasks requiring complex judgments, groups were

  11. EU-US standards harmonization task group report : status of ITS communication standards. (United States)


    Harmonization Task Groups 1 and 3 (HTG1 and 3) were established by the EU-US International Standards Harmonization Working Group to attempt to harmonize standards (including ISO, CEN, ETSI, IEEE) on security (HTG1) and communications protocols (HTG3)...

  12. EU-US standards harmonization task group report : feedback to ITS standards development organizations communications. (United States)


    Harmonization Task Groups 1 and 3 (HTG1 and 3) were established by the EU-US International Standards Harmonization Working Group to attempt to harmonize standards (including ISO, CEN, ETSI, IEEE) on security (HTG1) and communications protocols (HTG3)...

  13. EU-US standards harmonization task group report : testing for ITS communications. (United States)


    Harmonization Task Groups 1 and 3 (HTG1 and 3) were established by the EU-US International Standards Harmonization Working Group to attempt to harmonize standards (including ISO, CEN, ETSI, IEEE) on security (HTG1) and communications protocols (HTG3)...

  14. Collective Validation in Multi-Actor Task Groups: The Effects of Status Differentiation (United States)

    Kalkhoff, Will


    Berger and his colleagues argue that collective validation (i.e., group members' corroboration of deferential behavior) is an important source of legitimacy in informal task groups. This invites the question "What causes collective validation?" Drawing from Simmel and Blau in particular, I develop an explanation of collective validation that…

  15. A review of the work of the Task Group on Behind Armour Blunt Trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, I.B.; Knudsen, P.J.T.; Sarron, J.C.; Bree, J.L.M.J. van; Gotts, P.; Waclawik, S.


    Over the past four years several countries and national laboratories have collaborated within the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s Research and Technology Organization as a Task Group. The purpose was to continue the research of an earlier NATO sponsored group and so explain the pathophysiology

  16. How Knowledge Worker Teams Deal Effectively with Task Uncertainty: The Impact of Transformational Leadership and Group Development


    Jan-Paul Leuteritz; José Navarro; Rita Berger


    The purpose of this paper is to clarify how leadership is able to improve team effectiveness, by means of its influence on group processes (i.e., increasing group development) and on the group task (i.e., decreasing task uncertainty). Four hundred and eight members of 107 teams in a German research and development (R&D) organization completed a web-based survey; they provided measures of transformational leadership, group development, 2 aspects of task uncertainty, task interdependence, a...

  17. How knowledge worker teams deal effectively with task uncertainty: The impact of transformational leadership and group development


    Leuteritz, Jan-Paul; Navarro, José, imp.; Berger, Rita


    The purpose of this paper is to clarify how leadership is able to improve team effectiveness, by means of its influence on group processes (i.e., increasing group development) and on the group task (i.e., decreasing task uncertainty). Four hundred and eight members of 107 teams in a German research and development (R&D) organization completed a web-based survey; they provided measures of transformational leadership, group development, 2 aspects of task uncertainty, task interdependence, and t...

  18. How Knowledge Worker Teams Deal Effectively with Task Uncertainty: The Impact of Transformational Leadership and Group Development


    Leuteritz, J-P.; Navarro Cid, José; Berger, Rita


    The purpose of this paper is to clarify how leadership is able to improve team effectiveness, by means of its influence on group processes (i.e., increasing group development) and on the group task (i.e., decreasing task uncertainty). Four hundred and eight members of 107 teams in a German research and development (R&D) organization completed a web-based survey; they provided measures of transformational leadership, group development, 2 aspects of task uncertainty, task interdependence, and t...

  19. Electromagnetic Effects Harmonization Working Group (EEHWG) - Lightning Task Group : report on aircraft lightning strike data (United States)


    In 1995, in response to the lightning community's desire to revise the zoning criteria on aircraft, the Electromagnetic Effects Harmonization Working Group (EEHWG) decided that lightning attachments to aircraft causing damage should be studied and co...

  20. Gender and Group Composition in Small Task Groups Using Computer-Mediated Communication. (United States)

    Savicki, Victor; And Others


    Gender and group composition variables in a computer-mediated communication context are examined. Subjects were 36 undergraduate male and female psychology students. Findings are analyzed in terms of choice of language; participation; satisfaction; and interpersonal conflict. Ten tables present study results. (Author/AEF)

  1. Task Type and Group Motivation: Implications for a Behavioral Approach to Leadership in Small Groups. (United States)

    Latham, Van M.


    Discusses a theory of leadership effectiveness in small discussion/decision making groups developed to facilitate discussion and goal efficacy. Develops four leadership styles (coordinator, inventor, enthusiast, and director) focusing on two critical questions the leader must address. Discusses implications of the model for leadership training and…

  2. Test tasks for verification of program codes for calculation of neutron-physical characteristics of the BN series reactors (United States)

    Tikhomirov, Georgy; Ternovikh, Mikhail; Smirnov, Anton; Saldikov, Ivan; Bahdanovich, Rynat; Gerasimov, Alexander


    System of test tasks is presented with the fast reactor BN-1200 with nitride fuel as prototype. The system of test tasks includes three test based on different geometric models. Model of fuel element in homogeneous and in heterogeneous form, model of fuel assembly in height-heterogeneous and full heterogeneous form, and modeling of the active core of BN-1200 reactor. Cross-verification of program codes was performed. Transition from simple geometry to more complex one allows to identify the causes of discrepancies in the results during the early stage of cross-verification of codes. This system of tests can be applied for certification of engineering programs based on the method of Monte Carlo to the calculation of full-scale models of the reactor core of the BN series. The developed tasks take into account the basic layout and structural features of the reactor BN-1200. They are intended for study of neutron-physical characteristics, estimation of influence of heterogeneous structure and influence of diffusion approximation. The development of system of test tasks allowed to perform independent testing of programs for calculation of neutron-physical characteristics: engineering programs JARFR and TRIGEX, and codes MCU, TDMCC, and MMK based on the method of Monte Carlo.

  3. A Consensus-Based Grouping Algorithm for Multi-agent Cooperative Task Allocation with Complex Requirements. (United States)

    Hunt, Simon; Meng, Qinggang; Hinde, Chris; Huang, Tingwen


    This paper looks at consensus algorithms for agent cooperation with unmanned aerial vehicles. The foundation is the consensus-based bundle algorithm, which is extended to allow multi-agent tasks requiring agents to cooperate in completing individual tasks. Inspiration is taken from the cognitive behaviours of eusocial animals for cooperation and improved assignments. Using the behaviours observed in bees and ants inspires decentralised algorithms for groups of agents to adapt to changing task demand. Further extensions are provided to improve task complexity handling by the agents with added equipment requirements and task dependencies. We address the problems of handling these challenges and improve the efficiency of the algorithm for these requirements, whilst decreasing the communication cost with a new data structure. The proposed algorithm converges to a conflict-free, feasible solution of which previous algorithms are unable to account for. Furthermore, the algorithm takes into account heterogeneous agents, deadlocking and a method to store assignments for a dynamical environment. Simulation results demonstrate reduced data usage and communication time to come to a consensus on multi-agent tasks.

  4. An Agent-Based Model of Status Construction in Task Focused Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grow, André; Flache, Andreas; Wittek, Rafael


    Status beliefs link social distinctions, such as gender and race, to assumptions about competence and social worth. Recent modeling work in status construction theory suggests that interactions in small, task focused groups can lead to the spontaneous emergence and diffusion of such beliefs in

  5. IEA SHC Task 42 / ECES Annex 29 - Working Group B: Applications of Compact Thermal Energy Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, W. van; Yamaha, M.; Rathgeber, C.; Hauer, A.; Huaylla, F.; Le Pierrès, N.; Stutz, B.; Mette, B.; Dolado, P.; Lazaro, A.; Mazo, J.; Dannemand, M.; Furbo, S.; Campos-Celador, A.; Diarce, G.; Cuypers, R.; König-Haagen, A.; Höhlein, S.; Brüggemann, D.; Fumey, B.; Weber, R.; Köll, R.; Wagner, W.; Daguenet-Frick, X.; Gantenbein, P.; Kuznik, F.


    The IEA joint Task 42 / Annex 29 is aimed at developing compact thermal energy storage materials and systems. In Working Group B, experts are working on the development of compact thermal energy storage applications, in the areas cooling, domestic heating and hot water and industry. The majority of

  6. On the Task of Information Systems Constructed with Use of Technologies of Cloud Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Sergeevna Simonenkova


    Full Text Available The subject of the research is consideration of the information system constructed with use of technologies of cloud calculations, on an example of one of the most popular cloud platforms — Amazon Web Services.

  7. Extraneous bodily movements and irrelevant vocalizations by dyslexic and non-dyslexic boys during calculation tasks. (United States)

    Turner Ellis, S A; Miles, T R; Wheeler, T J


    Thirty dyslexic boys, aged between 9 and 15 years, and 30 age-matched controls were tested on a series of sums involving division, subtraction and addition. During the testing a record was kept of any bodily movements or verbal utterances (vocalizations) irrelevant to the task in hand. It was found that the dyslexics produced many more extraneous bodily movements and many more irrelevant vocalizations than did the controls. Possible reasons for these findings are tentatively suggested.

  8. Does the medium matter? The interaction of task type and technology on group performance and member reactions. (United States)

    Straus, S G; McGrath, J E


    The authors investigated the hypothesis that as group tasks pose greater requirements for member interdependence, communication media that transmit more social context cues will foster group performance and satisfaction. Seventy-two 3-person groups of undergraduate students worked in either computer-mediated or face-to-face meetings on 3 tasks with increasing levels of interdependence: an idea-generation task, an intellective task, and a judgment task. Results showed few differences between computer-mediated and face-to-face groups in the quality of the work completed but large differences in productivity favoring face-to-face groups. Analysis of productivity and of members' reactions supported the predicted interaction of tasks and media, with greater discrepancies between media conditions for tasks requiring higher levels of coordination. Results are discussed in terms of the implications of using computer-mediated communications systems for group work.

  9. Amount of Conflicting Information In a Group Discussion and Tolerance for Ambiguity As Predictors of Task Attractiveness (United States)

    Burgoon, Michael


    The author found through experimentation that a person's tolerance for ambiguity alone is not sufficient to predict his attraction to a group discussion task since the amount of existing conflicting information will mediate evaluation of the task. (Author)

  10. Numerical Calculation of Scaling Exponents of Percolation Process in the Framework of Renormalization Group Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adzhemyan L. Ts.


    Full Text Available The renormalization group theory is used to the study of the directed bond percolation (Gribov process near its second-order phase transition between absorbing and active state. We present a numerical calculation of the renormalization group functions in the ε-expansion where ε is the deviation from the upper critical dimension dc = 4. Within this procedure anomalous dimensions γ are expressed in terms of irreducible renormalized Feynman diagrams and thus the calculation of renormalization constants could be entirely skipped. The renormalization group is included by means of the R operation, and for computational purposes we choose the null momentum subtraction scheme.

  11. Sonar sound groups and increased terminal buzz duration reflect task complexity in hunting bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgard, K.; Ratcliffe, J. M.


    More difficult tasks are generally regarded as such because they demand greater attention. Echolocators provide rare insight into this relationship because biosonar signals can be monitored. Here we show that bats produce longer terminal buzzes and more sonar sound groups during their approach...... to prey under presumably more difficult conditions. Specifically, we found Daubenton's bats, Myotis daubentonii, produced longer buzzes when aerial-hawking versus water-trawling prey, but that bats taking revolving air- and water-borne prey produced more sonar sound groups than did the bats when taking...... stationary prey. Buzz duration and sonar sound groups have been suggested to be independent means by which bats attend to would-be targets and other objects of interest. We suggest that for attacking bats both should be considered as indicators of task difficulty and that the buzz is, essentially...

  12. Theory of mind tasks and executive functions: a systematic review of group studies in neurology. (United States)

    Aboulafia-Brakha, T; Christe, B; Martory, M-D; Annoni, J-M


    A growing number of studies have been addressing the relationship between theory of mind (TOM) and executive functions (EF) in patients with acquired neurological pathology. In order to provide a global overview on the main findings, we conducted a systematic review on group studies where we aimed to (1) evaluate the patterns of impaired and preserved abilities of both TOM and EF in groups of patients with acquired neurological pathology and (2) investigate the existence of particular relations between different EF domains and TOM tasks. The search was conducted in Pubmed/Medline. A total of 24 articles met the inclusion criteria. We considered for analysis classical clinically accepted TOM tasks (first- and second-order false belief stories, the Faux Pas test, Happe's stories, the Mind in the Eyes task, and Cartoon's tasks) and EF domains (updating, shifting, inhibition, and access). The review suggests that (1) EF and TOM appear tightly associated. However, the few dissociations observed suggest they cannot be reduced to a single function; (2) no executive subprocess could be specifically associated with TOM performances; (3) the first-order false belief task and the Happe's story task seem to be less sensitive to neurological pathologies and less associated to EF. Even though the analysis of the reviewed studies demonstrates a close relationship between TOM and EF in patients with acquired neurological pathology, the nature of this relationship must be further investigated. Studies investigating ecological consequences of TOM and EF deficits, and intervention researches may bring further contributions to this question. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Cortisol responses to a group public speaking task for adolescents: variations by age, gender, and race. (United States)

    Hostinar, Camelia E; McQuillan, Mollie T; Mirous, Heather J; Grant, Kathryn E; Adam, Emma K


    Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N=191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M=14.4 years, SD=1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of five adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Report of the Task Group on Electrical Safety of Department of Energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Task Group on Electrical Safety at DOE Facilities (Task Group), which was formally established on October 27, 1992. The Task Group reviewed the electrical safety-related occurrence history of, and conducted field visits to, seven DOE sites chosen to represent a cross section of the Department`s electrical safety activities. The purpose of the field visits was to review, firsthand, electrical safety programs and practices and to gain greater insight to the root causes and corrective actions taken for recently reported incidents. The electrical safety environment of the DOE complex is extremely varied, ranging from common office and industrial electrical systems to large high-voltage power distribution systems (commercial transmission line systems). It includes high-voltage/high-power systems associated with research programs such as linear accelerators and experimental fusion confinement systems. Age, condition, and magnitude of the facilities also varies, with facilities dating from the Manhattan Project, during World War II, to the most modem complexes. The complex is populated by Federal (DOE and other agencies) and contractor employees engaged in a wide variety of occupations and activities in office, research and development, and industrial settings. The sites visited included all of these variations and are considered by the Task Group to offer a valid representation of the Department`s electrical safety issues. The sites visited were Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Savannah River Site (SRS), Hanford Reservation (Hanford), and the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA) located at Grand Junction, Colorado.

  15. IEA SHC Task 42/ECES Annex 29–Working Group B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Helden, Wim; Yamaha, Motoi; Rathgeber, Christoph


    The IEA joint Task 42 / Annex 29 is aimed at developing compact thermal energy storage materials and systems. In Working Group B, experts are working on the development of compact thermal energy storage applications, in the areas cooling, domestic heating and hot water and industry. The majority...... challenges like the occurrence of non-condensable gases and thermo-mechanical effects and that standardized and simplified system approaches are needed....

  16. Collective Efficacy and Group Functioning: The Effect of Performance Feedback on Efficacy Assessments, Goal Setting, Task Persistence and Overall Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meisenhelder, Helen


    .... Specifically, this experiment used performance feedback to manipulate efficacy levels in order to investigate the effect of efficacy on group goal setting, task persistence, and overall performance...

  17. Multi-Group Library Generation with Explicit Resonance Interference Using Continuous Energy Monte Carlo Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ho Jin; Cho, Jin Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kang Seog [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); Hong, Ser Gi [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, multi-group cross section libraries for the DeCART code were generated using a new procedure. The new procedure includes generating the RI tables based on the MC calculations, correcting the effective fission product yield calculations, and considering most of the fission products as resonant nuclides. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed the transport lattice code KARMA (Kernel Analyzer by Ray-tracing Method for fuel Assembly) and DeCART (Deterministic Core Analysis based on Ray Tracing) for a multi-group neutron transport analysis of light water reactors (LWRs). These codes adopt the method of characteristics (MOC) to solve the multi-group transport equation and resonance fixed source problem, the subgroup and the direct iteration method with resonance integral tables for resonance treatment. With the development of the DeCART and KARMA code, KAERI has established its own library generation system for a multi-group transport calculation. In the KAERI library generation system, the multi-group average cross section and resonance integral (RI) table are generated and edited using PENDF (point-wise ENDF) and GENDF (group-wise ENDF) produced by the NJOY code. The new method does not need additional processing because the MC method can handle any geometry information and material composition. In this study, the new method is applied to the dominant resonance nuclide such as U{sup 235} and U{sup 238} and the conventional method is applied to the minor resonance nuclides. To examine the newly generated multi-group cross section libraries, various benchmark calculations such as pin-cell, FA, and core depletion problem are performed and the results are compared with the reference solutions. Overall, the results by the new method agree well with the reference solution. The new procedure based on the MC method were verified and provided the multi-group library that can be used in the SMR nuclear design analysis.

  18. Optimal Group Size for Software Change Tasks: A Social Information Foraging Perspective. (United States)

    Bhowmik, Tanmay; Niu, Nan; Wang, Wentao; Cheng, Jing-Ru C; Li, Ling; Cao, Xiongfei


    Group size is a key factor in collaborative software development and many other cybernetic applications where task assignments are important. While methods exist to estimate its value for proprietary projects, little is known about how group size affects distributed and decentralized cybernetic applications and in particular open source software (OSS) development. This paper presents a novel approach in which we frame developers' collective resolution of OSS change tasks as a social information foraging problem. This new perspective enables us to predict the optimal group size and quantify group size's effect on individual performance. We test the theory with data mined from two projects: 1) Firefox and 2) Mylyn. This paper not only uncovers the mismatch of optimal and actual group sizes, but also reveals the association of optimality with improved productivity. In addition, the social-level productivity gain is observed as project evolves. We show this paper's impact by extending the frontiers of knowledge in two areas: 1) social coding and 2) recommendation systems.

  19. Renormalization-group calculations of ground-state and transport properties of ultrasmall tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frota, H.O.; Flensberg, Karsten


    We have done a numerical renormalization-group calculation for a Hamiltonian modeling charging effect in ultrasmall tunnel junctions. We find that the conductance is enhanced by the quantum charge fluctuations allowing tunneling below the charging energy gap. However, in all cases the conductance...

  20. Irreducible decomposition and calculating of multiplicity of the symmetric and exterior powers representation of finite groups


    Tamura, Tomoyuki


    In this paper we consider symmetric powers representation and exterior powers representation of finite groups, which generated by the representation which has finite dimension over the complex field. We calculate the multiplicity of irreducible component of two representations of some representation by using a character theory of representation and a pre-lambda-ring, for example, the regular representation.

  1. Control system of the inspection robots group applying auctions and multi-criteria analysis for task allocation (United States)

    Panfil, Wawrzyniec; Moczulski, Wojciech


    In the paper presented is a control system of a mobile robots group intended for carrying out inspection missions. The main research problem was to define such a control system in order to facilitate a cooperation of the robots resulting in realization of the committed inspection tasks. Many of the well-known control systems use auctions for tasks allocation, where a subject of an auction is a task to be allocated. It seems that in the case of missions characterized by much larger number of tasks than number of robots it will be better if robots (instead of tasks) are subjects of auctions. The second identified problem concerns the one-sided robot-to-task fitness evaluation. Simultaneous assessment of the robot-to-task fitness and task attractiveness for robot should affect positively for the overall effectiveness of the multi-robot system performance. The elaborated system allows to assign tasks to robots using various methods for evaluation of fitness between robots and tasks, and using some tasks allocation methods. There is proposed the method for multi-criteria analysis, which is composed of two assessments, i.e. robot's concurrency position for task among other robots and task's attractiveness for robot among other tasks. Furthermore, there are proposed methods for tasks allocation applying the mentioned multi-criteria analysis method. The verification of both the elaborated system and the proposed tasks' allocation methods was carried out with the help of simulated experiments. The object under test was a group of inspection mobile robots being a virtual counterpart of the real mobile-robot group.

  2. Small groups, large profits: Calculating interest rates in community-managed microfinance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ole Dahl


    Savings groups are a widely used strategy for women’s economic resilience – over 80% of members worldwide are women, and in the case described here, 72.5%. In these savings groups it is common to see the interest rate on savings reported as "20-30% annually". Using panel data from 204 groups...... in Malawi, I show that the right figure is likely to be at least twice this figure. For these groups, the annual return is 62%. The difference comes from sector-wide application of a non-standard interest rate calculations and unrealistic assumptions about the savings profile in the groups. As a result......, it is impossible to compare returns in savings groups with returns elsewhere. Moreover, the interest on savings is incomparable to the interest rate on loans. I argue for the use of a standardized comparable metric and suggest easy ways to implement it. Developments of new tools and standard along these lines...

  3. Calculation of the Thermal Loading of the Cylinder-Piston Group of the Automobile Engine (United States)

    Barchenko, F. B.; Bakulin, V. N.


    We propose a mathematical model for calculating thermal loods of parts of the cylinder-piston group of the automobile engine operating under unstable conditions in its complete life cycle. Methods have been described for calculating the boundary conditions to determine the thermal state of the parts of the cylinder-piston group of such an engine with the use of theoretical formulas, empirical and semiempirical relations, and tabulated data. In modeling, we calculated the work of all systems of the engine (pumps, pipelines, heat exchangers) influencing directly or indirectly the thermal state of its cylinder-piston group. The nonstationary thermal state was calculated once in the operating cycle of the engine with the use of the cycle-averaged values of the local heat transfer coefficients and the resulting temperature of the medium. The personal computer counting time for one time step of a transport diesel engine of typical design with a number of units of the order of 500 was 5 s.

  4. Seminar Cum Meeting Report: Codata Task Group for Exchangeable Material Data Representation to Support Research and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Ashino


    Full Text Available On March 4-5, 2008, the CODATA Task Group for Exchangeable Material Data Representation to Support Research and Education held a two day seminar cum meeting at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL, New Delhi, India, with NPL materials researchers and task group members representing material activities and databases from seven countries: European Union (The Czech Republic, France, and the Netherlands, India, Korea, Japan, and the United States. The NPL seminar included presentations about the researchers' work. The Task Group meeting included presentations about current data related activities of the members. Joint discussions between NPL researchers and CODATA task group members began an exchange of viewpoints among materials data producers, users, and databases developers. The seminar cum meeting included plans to continue and expand Task Group activities at the 2008 CODATA 21st Meeting in Kyiv, Ukraine.

  5. SU-E-T-273: Do Task Group External Beam QA Recommendations Guarantee Accurate Treatment Plan Dose Delivery?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templeton, A; Liao, Y; Redler, G; Zhen, H [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States)


    Purpose: AAPM task groups 40/142 have provided an invaluable set of goals for physicists designing QA programs, attempting to standardize what would otherwise likely be a highly variable phenomenon across institutions. However, with the complexity of modalities such as VMAT, we hypothesize that following these guidelines to the letter might still allow unacceptable dose discrepancies. To explore this hypothesis we simulated machines bordering on QA acceptability, and calculated the effect on patient plans. Methods: Two errant machines were simulated in Aria/Eclipse, each just within task group criteria for output, percent depth dose, beam profile, gantry and collimator rotations, and jaw and MLC positions. One machine minimized dose to the PTV (machine A) and the other maximized dose to the OARs (machine B). Clinical treatment plans (3-phase prostate, n=3; hypofractionated lung, n=1) were calculated on these machines and the dose distributions compared. A prostate case was examined for contribution of error sources and evaluated using delivery QA data. Results: The prostate plans showed mean decreases in target D95 of 9.9% of prescription dose on machine A. On machine B, The rectal and bladder V70Gy each increased by 7.1 percentage points, while their V45Gy increased by 16.2% and 15.0% respectively. In the lung plan, the target D95 decreased by 12.8% and the bronchial tree Dmax increased by 21% of prescription dose, on machines A and B. One prostate plan showed target dose errors of 3.8% from MLC changes, 2% from output, ∼3% from energy and ∼0.5% from other factors. This plan achieved an 88.4% gamma passing rate using 3%/3mm using ArcCHECK. Conclusion: In the unlikely event that a machine exhibits all maximum errors allowed by TG 40/142, unacceptably large changes in dose delivered are possible especially in highly modulated VMAT plans, despite the machine passing routine QA.

  6. Waste Area Grouping 2 Remedial Investigation Phase 1 Seep Task data report: Contaminant source area assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, D.S.


    This report presents the findings of the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2, Phase 1 Remedial Investigation (RI) Seep Task efforts during 1993 and 1994 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results presented here follow results form the first year of sampling, 1992, which are contained in the Phase 1 RI report for WAG 2 (DOE 1995a). The WAG 2 Seep Task efforts focused on contaminants in seeps, tributaries, and main streams within the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed. This report is designed primarily as a reference for contaminants and a resource for guiding remedial decisions. Additional in-depth assessments of the Seep Task data may provide clearer understandings of contaminant transport from the different source areas in the WOC watershed. WAG 2 consists of WOC and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake, the White Oak Creek Embayment of the Clinch River, and the associated flood plains and subsurface environment. The WOC watershed encompasses ORNL and associated WAGs. WAG 2 acts as an integrator for contaminant releases from the contaminated sites at ORNL and as the conduit transporting contaminants to the Clinch River. The main objectives of the Seep Task were to identify and characterize seeps, tributaries and source areas that are responsible for the contaminant releases to the main streams in WAG 2 and to quantify their input to the total contaminant release from the watershed at White Oak Dam (WOD). Efforts focused on {sup 90}Sr, {sup 3}H, and {sup 137}Cs because these contaminants pose the greatest potential human health risk from water ingestion at WOD. Bimonthly sampling was conducted throughout the WOC watershed beginning in March 1993 and ending in August 1994. Samples were also collected for metals, anions, alkalinity, organics, and other radionuclides.

  7. How Knowledge Worker Teams Deal Effectively with Task Uncertainty: The Impact of Transformational Leadership and Group Development (United States)

    Leuteritz, Jan-Paul; Navarro, José; Berger, Rita


    The purpose of this paper is to clarify how leadership is able to improve team effectiveness, by means of its influence on group processes (i.e., increasing group development) and on the group task (i.e., decreasing task uncertainty). Four hundred and eight members of 107 teams in a German research and development (R&D) organization completed a web-based survey; they provided measures of transformational leadership, group development, 2 aspects of task uncertainty, task interdependence, and team effectiveness. In 54 of these teams, the leaders answered a web-based survey on team effectiveness. We tested the model with the data from team members, using structural equations modeling. Group development and a task uncertainty measurement that refers to unstable demands from outside the team partially mediate the effect of transformational leadership on team effectiveness in R&D organizations (p transformational leaders reduce unclarity of goals (p Limitations include cross-sectional data and a lower than expected variance of task uncertainty across different job types. This paper contributes to understanding how knowledge worker teams deal effectively with task uncertainty and confirms the importance of group development in this context. This is the first study to examine the effects of transformational leadership and team processes on team effectiveness considering the task characteristics uncertainty and interdependence. PMID:28861012

  8. Mindfulness Training Improves Attentional Task Performance in Incarcerated Youth: A Group Randomized Controlled Intervention Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle R Leonard


    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness training (CBT/MT on attentional task performance in incarcerated adolescents. Attention is a cognitive system necessary for managing cognitive demands and regulating emotions. Yet persistent and intensive demands, such as those experienced during high-stress intervals like incarceration and the events leading to incarceration, may deplete attention resulting in cognitive failures, emotional disturbances, and impulsive behavior. We hypothesized that CBT/MT may mitigate these deleterious effects of high stress and protect against degradation in attention over the high-stress interval of incarceration. Using a group randomized controlled trial design, we randomly assigned dormitories of incarcerated youth, ages 16 to 18, to a CBT/MT intervention (youth n = 147 or an active control intervention (youth n = 117. Both arms received approximately 750 minutes of intervention in a small-group setting over a 3-5 week period. Youth in the CBT/MT arm also logged the amount of out-of-session time spent practicing MT exercises. The Attention Network Test was used to index attentional task performance at baseline and 4 months post-baseline. Overall, task performance degraded over time in all participants. The magnitude of performance degradation was significantly less in the CBT/MT vs. control arm. Further, within the CBT/MT arm, performance degraded over time in those with no outside-of-class practice time, but remained stable over time in those who practiced mindfulness exercises outside of the session meetings. Thus, these findings suggest that sufficient CBT/MT practice may protect against functional attentional impairments associated with high-stress intervals. Keywords: adolescent development, incarcerated adolescents, detained adolescents, stress, attention, mindfulness meditation.

  9. Promoting Oral Interaction in Large Groups through Task-Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolima Forero Rocha


    Full Text Available This research project attempts to show the way a group of five teachers used task-based learning with a group of 50 seventh graders to improve oral interaction. The students belonged to Isabel II School. They took an active part in the implementation of tasks and were asked to answer two questionnaires. Some English classes were observed and recorded; finally, an evaluation was taken by students to test their improvement.Este proyecto de investigación trata de mostrar la forma como un grupo de cinco profesoras usaron el método de aprendizaje basado en tareas con un grupo de 50 estudiantes del grado séptimo, con el fin de mejorar la interacción oral. Los estudiantes pertenecían al Colegio Isabel II y fueron parte activa en la implementación de las tareas. Respondieron dos cuestionarios, se les observó y se grabaron en video algunas clases; finalmente, se hizo una evaluación para poner a prueba el avance de los estudiantes.

  10. TU-EF-210-04: AAPM Task Groups in Interventional Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahani, K. [National Cancer Institute (United States)


    The use of therapeutic ultrasound to provide targeted therapy is an active research area that has a broad application scope. The invited talks in this session will address currently implemented strategies and protocols for both hyperthermia and ablation applications using therapeutic ultrasound. The role of both ultrasound and MRI in the monitoring and assessment of these therapies will be explored in both pre-clinical and clinical applications. Katherine Ferrara: High Intensity Focused Ultrasound, Drug Delivery, and Immunotherapy Rajiv Chopra: Translating Localized Doxorubicin Delivery to Pediatric Oncology using MRI-guided HIFU Elisa Konofagou: Real-time Ablation Monitoring and Lesion Quantification using Harmonic Motion Imaging Keyvan Farahani: AAPM Task Groups in Interventional Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy Learning Objectives: Understand the role of ultrasound in localized drug delivery and the effects of immunotherapy when used in conjunction with ultrasound therapy. Understand potential targeted drug delivery clinical applications including pediatric oncology. Understand the technical requirements for performing targeted drug delivery. Understand how radiation-force approaches can be used to both monitor and assess high intensity focused ultrasound ablation therapy. Understand the role of AAPM task groups in ultrasound imaging and therapies. Chopra: Funding from Cancer Prevention and Research Initiative of Texas (CPRIT), Award R1308 Evelyn and M.R. Hudson Foundation; Research Support from Research Contract with Philips Healthcare; COI are Co-founder of FUS Instruments Inc Ferrara: Supported by NIH, UCDavis and California (CIRM and BHCE) Farahani: In-kind research support from Philips Healthcare.

  11. Studies with group treatments required special power calculations, allocation methods, and statistical analyses. (United States)

    Faes, Miriam C; Reelick, Miriam F; Perry, Marieke; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Borm, George F


    In some trials, the intervention is delivered to individuals in groups, for example, groups that exercise together. The group structure of such trials has to be taken into consideration in the analysis and has an impact on the power of the trial. Our aim was to provide optimal methods for the design and analysis of such trials. We described various treatment allocation methods and presented a new allocation algorithm: optimal batchwise minimization (OBM). We carried out a simulation study to evaluate the performance of unrestricted randomization, stratification, permuted block randomization, deterministic minimization, and OBM. Furthermore, we described appropriate analysis methods and derived a formula to calculate the study size. Stratification, deterministic minimization, and OBM had considerably less risk of imbalance than unrestricted randomization and permuted block randomization. Furthermore, OBM led to unpredictable treatment allocation. The sample size calculation and the analysis of the study must be based on a multilevel model that takes the group structure of the trial into account. Trials evaluating interventions that are carried out in subsequent groups require adapted treatment allocation, power calculation, and analysis methods. From the perspective of obtaining overall balance, we conclude that minimization is the method of choice. When the number of prognostic factors is low, stratification is an excellent alternative. OBM leads to better balance within the batches, but it is more complicated. It is probably most worthwhile in trials with many prognostic factors. From the perspective of predictability, a treatment allocation method, such as OBM, that allocates several subjects at the same time, is superior to other methods because it leads to the lowest possible predictability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sample-size calculations for multi-group comparison in population pharmacokinetic experiments. (United States)

    Ogungbenro, Kayode; Aarons, Leon


    This paper describes an approach for calculating sample size for population pharmacokinetic experiments that involve hypothesis testing based on multi-group comparison detecting the difference in parameters between groups under mixed-effects modelling. This approach extends what has been described for generalized linear models and nonlinear population pharmacokinetic models that involve only binary covariates to more complex nonlinear population pharmacokinetic models. The structural nonlinear model is linearized around the random effects to obtain the marginal model and the hypothesis testing involving model parameters is based on Wald's test. This approach provides an efficient and fast method for calculating sample size for hypothesis testing in population pharmacokinetic models. The approach can also handle different design problems such as unequal allocation of subjects to groups and unbalanced sampling times between and within groups. The results obtained following application to a one compartment intravenous bolus dose model that involved three different hypotheses under different scenarios showed good agreement between the power obtained from NONMEM simulations and nominal power. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. A functional renormalization group approach to electronic structure calculations for systems without translational symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Seiler, Christian


    A formalism for electronic-structure calculations is presented that is based on the functional renormalization group (FRG). The traditional FRG has been formulated for systems that exhibit a translational symmetry with an associated Fermi surface, which can provide the organization principle for the renormalization group (RG) procedure. We here advance an alternative formulation, where the RG-flow is organized in the energy-domain rather than in k-space. This has the advantage that it can also be applied to inhomogeneous matter lacking a band-structure, such as disordered metals or molecules. The energy-domain FRG ({\\epsilon}FRG) presented here accounts for Fermi-liquid corrections to quasi-particle energies and particle-hole excitations. It goes beyond the state of the art GW-BSE, because in {\\epsilon}FRG the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) is solved in a self-consistent manner. An efficient implementation of the approach that has been tested against exact diagonalization calculations and calculations based on...

  14. Linear discontinuous finite difference formulation for synthetic coarse-mesh few-group diffusion calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragones, J.M.; Ahnert, C.


    A linear discontinuous finite difference formulation to solve the diffusion equations in coarse mesh and few groups is developed. The correction factors for heterogeneities, coarse mesh, and spectral effects are general interface flux discontinuity factors that can be explicitly calculated (synthetized) from detailed diffusion or transport solutions in fine mesh (heterogeneous) and multigroups, preserving the integrated fluxes and interface net currents. The stability is explicitly established for general synthetizations and for specific fine to coarse mesh and group reductions. Computing methods have been implemented for one-group (grey) synthetic diffusion acceleration, two-dimensional nodal/local solutions, and three-dimensional nodal simulation of pressurized water reactor cores. Results demonstrate the simplicity and stability of the formulation, a regular behaviour of the correction factors, an outstanding acceleration performance, and high potential for parallel and vector computing.

  15. American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 263: Standardizing Nomenclatures in Radiation Oncology. (United States)

    Mayo, Charles S; Moran, Jean M; Bosch, Walter; Xiao, Ying; McNutt, Todd; Popple, Richard; Michalski, Jeff; Feng, Mary; Marks, Lawrence B; Fuller, Clifton D; Yorke, Ellen; Palta, Jatinder; Gabriel, Peter E; Molineu, Andrea; Matuszak, Martha M; Covington, Elizabeth; Masi, Kathryn; Richardson, Susan L; Ritter, Timothy; Morgas, Tomasz; Flampouri, Stella; Santanam, Lakshmi; Moore, Joseph A; Purdie, Thomas G; Miller, Robert C; Hurkmans, Coen; Adams, Judy; Jackie Wu, Qing-Rong; Fox, Colleen J; Siochi, Ramon Alfredo; Brown, Norman L; Verbakel, Wilko; Archambault, Yves; Chmura, Steven J; Dekker, Andre L; Eagle, Don G; Fitzgerald, Thomas J; Hong, Theodore; Kapoor, Rishabh; Lansing, Beth; Jolly, Shruti; Napolitano, Mary E; Percy, James; Rose, Mark S; Siddiqui, Salim; Schadt, Christof; Simon, William E; Straube, William L; St James, Sara T; Ulin, Kenneth; Yom, Sue S; Yock, Torunn I


    A substantial barrier to the single- and multi-institutional aggregation of data to supporting clinical trials, practice quality improvement efforts, and development of big data analytics resource systems is the lack of standardized nomenclatures for expressing dosimetric data. To address this issue, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 263 was charged with providing nomenclature guidelines and values in radiation oncology for use in clinical trials, data-pooling initiatives, population-based studies, and routine clinical care by standardizing: (1) structure names across image processing and treatment planning system platforms; (2) nomenclature for dosimetric data (eg, dose-volume histogram [DVH]-based metrics); (3) templates for clinical trial groups and users of an initial subset of software platforms to facilitate adoption of the standards; (4) formalism for nomenclature schema, which can accommodate the addition of other structures defined in the future. A multisociety, multidisciplinary, multinational group of 57 members representing stake holders ranging from large academic centers to community clinics and vendors was assembled, including physicists, physicians, dosimetrists, and vendors. The stakeholder groups represented in the membership included the AAPM, American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), NRG Oncology, European Society for Radiation Oncology (ESTRO), Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG), Children's Oncology Group (COG), Integrating Healthcare Enterprise in Radiation Oncology (IHE-RO), and Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine working group (DICOM WG); A nomenclature system for target and organ at risk volumes and DVH nomenclature was developed and piloted to demonstrate viability across a range of clinics and within the framework of clinical trials. The final report was approved by AAPM in October 2017. The approval process included review by 8 AAPM committees, with additional review by ASTRO

  16. The birth of NASA the work of the Space Task Group, America's first true space pioneers

    CERN Document Server

    von Ehrenfried, Dutch


    This is the story of the work of the original NASA space pioneers; men and women who were suddenly organized in 1958 from the then National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) into the Space Task Group. A relatively small group, they developed the initial mission concept plans and procedures for the U. S. space program. Then they boldly built hardware and facilities to accomplish those missions. The group existed only three years before they were transferred to the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, in 1962, but their organization left a large mark on what would follow. Von Ehrenfried's personal experience with the STG at Langley uniquely positions him to describe the way the group was structured and how it reacted to the new demands of a post-Sputnik era. He artfully analyzes how the growing space program was managed and what techniques enabled it to develop so quickly from an operations perspective. The result is a fascinating window into history, amply backed up by first person documentation ...

  17. Effects of Communication Apprehension on Perceptions of Leadership and Intragroup Attraction in Small Task-Oriented Groups. (United States)

    Hawkins, Katherine; Stewart, Robert A.


    Examines the impact of communication apprehension (CA) on perceptions of leadership and intragroup attraction in small task-oriented groups, using 68 undergraduates working on a class project. Finds high CA students were rated by themselves (and by others) to be lower in emerged leadership and social and task attraction than those with lower CA.…

  18. Ongoing quality control in digital radiography: Report of AAPM Imaging Physics Committee Task Group 151

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A. Kyle, E-mail:; Geiser, William [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Heintz, Philip [Department of Radiology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87104 (United States); Goldman, Lee [Hartford Hospital, Hartford, Connecticut 06102 (United States); Jerjian, Khachig [Hoag Memorial Hospital, Newport Beach, California 92658 (United States); Martin, Melissa [Therapy Physics, Inc., Gardena, California 90248 (United States); Peck, Donald [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Pfeiffer, Douglas [Boulder Community Foothills Hospital, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Ranger, Nicole [Landauer, Inc., Glenwood, Illinois 60425 (United States); Yorkston, John [Carestream Health, Inc., Rochester, New York 14615 (United States)


    Quality control (QC) in medical imaging is an ongoing process and not just a series of infrequent evaluations of medical imaging equipment. The QC process involves designing and implementing a QC program, collecting and analyzing data, investigating results that are outside the acceptance levels for the QC program, and taking corrective action to bring these results back to an acceptable level. The QC process involves key personnel in the imaging department, including the radiologist, radiologic technologist, and the qualified medical physicist (QMP). The QMP performs detailed equipment evaluations and helps with oversight of the QC program, the radiologic technologist is responsible for the day-to-day operation of the QC program. The continued need for ongoing QC in digital radiography has been highlighted in the scientific literature. The charge of this task group was to recommend consistency tests designed to be performed by a medical physicist or a radiologic technologist under the direction of a medical physicist to identify problems with an imaging system that need further evaluation by a medical physicist, including a fault tree to define actions that need to be taken when certain fault conditions are identified. The focus of this final report is the ongoing QC process, including rejected image analysis, exposure analysis, and artifact identification. These QC tasks are vital for the optimal operation of a department performing digital radiography.

  19. Nomenclature of homodetic cyclic peptides produced from ribosomal precursors: An IUPAC task group interim report. (United States)

    Craik, David J; Young Shim, Youn; Göransson, Ulf; Moss, Gerard P; Tan, Ninghua; Jadhav, Pramodkumar D; Shen, Jianheng; Reaney, Martin J T


    In 2015, an International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Task Group was formed to develop nomenclature recommendations for homodetic cyclic peptides produced from ribosomal precursors. Delegates of the 2015 International Conference on Circular Proteins (ICCP) were presented with the strengths and weaknesses of four published approaches to homodetic cyclic peptide nomenclature, and a summary of the ensuing discussion is presented here. This interim report presents a potentially novel suggestion-the use of Cahn-Ingold-Prelog rules to specify amino acid priority in homodetic peptides for consistent numbering. Indeed, this might be the first extension of the Cahn-Ingold-Prelog rules in five decades. The authors invite interested parties to contact the corresponding author with suggestions for the improvement of the proposed nomenclature; these ideas will be discussed and considered for inclusion in the final report. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. An Agent-Based Simulation for Investigating the Impact of Stereotypes on Task-Oriented Group Formation (United States)

    Maghami, Mahsa; Sukthankar, Gita

    In this paper, we introduce an agent-based simulation for investigating the impact of social factors on the formation and evolution of task-oriented groups. Task-oriented groups are created explicitly to perform a task, and all members derive benefits from task completion. However, even in cases when all group members act in a way that is locally optimal for task completion, social forces that have mild effects on choice of associates can have a measurable impact on task completion performance. In this paper, we show how our simulation can be used to model the impact of stereotypes on group formation. In our simulation, stereotypes are based on observable features, learned from prior experience, and only affect an agent's link formation preferences. Even without assuming stereotypes affect the agents' willingness or ability to complete tasks, the long-term modifications that stereotypes have on the agents' social network impair the agents' ability to form groups with sufficient diversity of skills, as compared to agents who form links randomly. An interesting finding is that this effect holds even in cases where stereotype preference and skill existence are completely uncorrelated.

  1. The Role of Task Meaning on Output in Groups: Experimental Evidence


    Bäker, Agnes; Mechtel, Mario


    This paper analyzes experimentally how the interaction of task meaning and peer presence affects work effort. We build on the experimental designs of Falk and Ichino (2006) and Ariely et al. (2008). Confirming previous results from the literature, we find positive peer effects and negative effects of low task meaning. In addition, we find that peer effects are even stronger if task meaning is low. We conclude that a peer setting is able to overcome the negative effort effect of low task meaning.

  2. Electronic properties of group-IV monochalcogenide nanoribbons: Studied from first-principles calculations (United States)

    Li, Rui; Cao, Hong; Dong, Jinming


    The electronic properties of one-dimensional (1D) group-IV monochalcogenide ribbons, denoted as MXNRs (Mdbnd Ge, Sn; Xdbnd S, Se), are investigated by the density functional theory calculations. It is found from our calculations that all the MXNRs with zigzag edges are metals, because there are two edge bands crossing the Fermi level, which come from the py and pz orbital of edge M atoms and py ones of edge X atoms. In contrast, all the MXNRs with armchair edges (arm-MXNRs) are semiconductors, independent of the ribbon widths. Their band gaps are found to fluctuate, which vary with the ribbon width, finally converging to the values of the corresponding 2D MX compounds. It is important to find that except for the arm-SnSNRs, other three narrow arm-MXNRs exhibit repeatedly band gap transitions between the direct and indirect ones as their widths increase because of the edge symmetry and quantum confinement effect of the 1D ribbons. The calculated binding energies indicate that the arm-MXNRs are generally more stable than the zig-MXNRs. In addition, the hydrogen-terminated GeSNRs are also studied, which exhibit semiconducting properties no matter their edges are zigzag or armchair.

  3. Electronic Structure Calculations of Ammonia Adsorption on Graphene and Graphene Oxide with Epoxide and Hydroxyl Groups (United States)

    Nancy Anna Anasthasiya, A.; Khaneja, Mamta; Jeyaprakash, B. G.


    Ammonia adsorption on graphene (G) and graphene oxide (GO) was investigated through density functional theory calculations. In the GO system, the obtained binding energy, band gap, charge transfer and electronic structure revealed that the epoxide (GO-O) and hydroxyl groups (GO-OH) in GO enhance the NH3 adsorption, which leads to the chemisorption of NH3 on GO. The dissociation of NH3 to NH2 and formation of OH was also observed when the O and H atoms were separated at 0.985 Å, 1.019 Å, 1.035 Å, and 1.044 Å for various GO systems. The maximum charge transfer value was found to be 0.054 |e| with the binding energy of 1.143 eV for GO with a single epoxide (GO-1O) group. The charge transfer from NH3 to G or GO and the bond formation in this study agree with the reported experimental results.

  4. A Feasible Approach for an Early Manned Lunar Landing. Part I: Summary Report of Ad Hoc Task Group Study (United States)

    Fleming, William A.


    This report, in two parts, presents a program development plan for attempting a first manned lunar landing in 1967. The two parts consist of a Summary Report and a Detailed Report representing the coordinated output of the ad hoc task group assigned to the study. The study was started in response to the request for such a study by the Associate Administrator in his memorandum of May 2, 1961 establishing the Ad Hoc Task Group. The purpose of the study was to take a first cut at the tasks associated with the design, development and construction of the equipment and facilities as well as the development of the crews, and to show the time phasing of these tasks. Included are the space science, life science and advanced technology tasks whose data and results are needed for designing and developing the systems required in carrying out the mission.

  5. [Social participation processes, task-oriented participation and learning as antecedents of group cohesion. A longitudinal perspective]. (United States)

    Picazo Lahiguera, Carmen; Zornoza Abad, Ana; Peiró Silla, José M


    The aim of this paper is to analyze the effect of changes in social participation and task- and learning-oriented processes on the development of cohesion (social and task-focused) in new groups. Cohesion has been considered one of the most important constructs in small groups, and its influence on team performance and efficacy has been highlighted. However, there are few papers that analyze the processes and the variables that precede the construct and that affect its evolution. Results of the longitudinal study show the importance of changes in participation processes on the development of task cohesion and social cohesion.

  6. How Knowledge Worker Teams Deal Effectively with Task Uncertainty: The Impact of Transformational Leadership and Group Development. (United States)

    Leuteritz, Jan-Paul; Navarro, José; Berger, Rita


    The purpose of this paper is to clarify how leadership is able to improve team effectiveness, by means of its influence on group processes (i.e., increasing group development) and on the group task (i.e., decreasing task uncertainty). Four hundred and eight members of 107 teams in a German research and development (R&D) organization completed a web-based survey; they provided measures of transformational leadership, group development, 2 aspects of task uncertainty, task interdependence, and team effectiveness. In 54 of these teams, the leaders answered a web-based survey on team effectiveness. We tested the model with the data from team members, using structural equations modeling. Group development and a task uncertainty measurement that refers to unstable demands from outside the team partially mediate the effect of transformational leadership on team effectiveness in R&D organizations ( p transformational leaders reduce unclarity of goals ( p transformational leadership and team processes on team effectiveness considering the task characteristics uncertainty and interdependence.

  7. How Knowledge Worker Teams Deal Effectively with Task Uncertainty: The Impact of Transformational Leadership and Group Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Paul Leuteritz


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to clarify how leadership is able to improve team effectiveness, by means of its influence on group processes (i.e., increasing group development and on the group task (i.e., decreasing task uncertainty. Four hundred and eight members of 107 teams in a German research and development (R&D organization completed a web-based survey; they provided measures of transformational leadership, group development, 2 aspects of task uncertainty, task interdependence, and team effectiveness. In 54 of these teams, the leaders answered a web-based survey on team effectiveness. We tested the model with the data from team members, using structural equations modeling. Group development and a task uncertainty measurement that refers to unstable demands from outside the team partially mediate the effect of transformational leadership on team effectiveness in R&D organizations (p < 0.05. Although transformational leaders reduce unclarity of goals (p < 0.05, this seems not to contribute to team effectiveness. The data provided by the leaders was used to assess common source bias, which did not affect the interpretability of the results. Limitations include cross-sectional data and a lower than expected variance of task uncertainty across different job types. This paper contributes to understanding how knowledge worker teams deal effectively with task uncertainty and confirms the importance of group development in this context. This is the first study to examine the effects of transformational leadership and team processes on team effectiveness considering the task characteristics uncertainty and interdependence.

  8. Recommendations for clinical electron beam dosimetry: supplement to the recommendations of Task Group 25. (United States)

    Gerbi, Bruce J; Antolak, John A; Deibel, F Christopher; Followill, David S; Herman, Michael G; Higgins, Patrick D; Huq, M Saiful; Mihailidis, Dimitris N; Yorke, Ellen D; Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Khan, Faiz M


    The goal of Task Group 25 (TG-25) of the Radiation Therapy Committee of the American Association of.Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) was to provide a methodology and set of procedures for a medical physicist performing clinical electron beam dosimetry in the nominal energy range of 5-25 MeV. Specifically, the task group recommended procedures for acquiring basic information required for acceptance testing and treatment planning of new accelerators with therapeutic electron beams. Since the publication of the TG-25 report, significant advances have taken place in the field of electron beam dosimetry, the most significant being that primary standards laboratories around the world have shifted from calibration standards based on exposure or air kerma to standards based on absorbed dose to water. The AAPM has published a new calibration protocol, TG-51, for the calibration of high-energy photon and electron beams. The formalism and dosimetry procedures recommended in this protocol are based on the absorbed dose to water calibration coefficient of an ionization chamber at 60Co energy, N60Co(D,w), together with the theoretical beam quality conversion coefficient k(Q) for the determination of absorbed dose to water in high-energy photon and electron beams. Task Group 70 was charged to reassess and update the recommendations in TG-25 to bring them into alignment with report TG-51 and to recommend new methodologies and procedures that would allow the practicing medical physicist to initiate and continue a high quality program in clinical electron beam dosimetry. This TG-70 report is a supplement to the TG-25 report and enhances the TG-25 report by including new topics and topics that were not covered in depth in the TG-25 report. These topics include procedures for obtaining data to commission a treatment planning computer, determining dose in irregularly shaped electron fields, and commissioning of sophisticated special procedures using high-energy electron beams. The use of

  9. Covariances of the few-group homogenized cross-sections for diffusion calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Cervera, S.; Castro, S.; García-Herranz, N.


    In the context of the NEA/OECD benchmark for Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling (UAM), Exercise I-3 consists of neutronic calculations to propagate uncertainties to core parameters such as k-effective or power distribution. In core simulators, the input uncertainties arise, among others, from few-group lattice-averaged cross-section uncertainties. In this paper, an analysis of those uncertainties due to nuclear data is performed. The core analyzed in Exercise I-3 is the initial loading of the PWR TMI-1, composed by 11 different types of fuel assemblies. By statistically sampling the nuclear data input, the sequence SAMPLER from SCALE system (using its NEWT lattice code) allows to obtain the few-group homogenized cross-sections and with a statistical analysis generates the covariance matrices. The correlations among different reactions and energy groups of the covariance matrices are analyzed. The impact of burnable poisons, control rods or the environment of the assembly is also assessed. It is shown the importance of the correlation between different assembly types. The global covariance matrix will permit to compute the uncertainties in k-eff in a core simulator, once sensitivity coefficients are known. Only if the complete covariance matrix is considered, similar uncertainties to the ones provided by other methodologies are obtained. (Author)

  10. Critical groups vs. representative person: dose calculations due to predicted releases from USEXA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, N.L.D., E-mail: [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha (CTM/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rochedo, E.R.R., E-mail: [Instituto de Radiprotecao e Dosimetria (lRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mazzilli, B.P., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The critical group cf Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA) site was previously defined based 00 the effluents releases to the environment resulting from the facilities already operational at CEA. In this work, effective doses are calculated to members of the critical group considering the predicted potential uranium releases from the Uranium Hexafluoride Production Plant (USEXA). Basically, this work studies the behavior of the resulting doses related to the type of habit data used in the analysis and two distinct situations are considered: (a) the utilization of average values obtained from official institutions (IBGE, IEA-SP, CNEN, IAEA) and from the literature; and (b) the utilization of the 95{sup tb} percentile of the values derived from distributions fit to the obtained habit data. The first option corresponds to the way that data was used for the definition of the critical group of CEA done in former assessments, while the second one corresponds to the use of data in deterministic assessments, as recommended by ICRP to estimate doses to the so--called 'representative person' . (author)

  11. Towards mainstreaming of biodiversity data publishing: recommendations of the GBIF Data Publishing Framework Task Group (United States)


    can address sociocultural, technical-infrastructural, policy, political and legal constraints, as well as addressing issues of sustainability and financial support. To address these aspects of a data publishing framework - a systematic, standard approach to the formal definition and public disclosure of data - in the context of biodiversity data, the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF, the single inter-governmental body most clearly mandated to undertake such an effort) convened a Data Publishing Framework Task Group. We conceive this data publishing framework as an environment conducive to ensure free and open access to world's biodiversity data. Here, we present the recommendations of that Task Group, which are intended to encourage free and open access to the worlds' biodiversity data. PMID:22373150

  12. Towards mainstreaming of biodiversity data publishing: recommendations of the GBIF Data Publishing Framework Task Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Tom


    'data publishing framework' that can address sociocultural, technical-infrastructural, policy, political and legal constraints, as well as addressing issues of sustainability and financial support. To address these aspects of a data publishing framework - a systematic, standard approach to the formal definition and public disclosure of data - in the context of biodiversity data, the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF, the single inter-governmental body most clearly mandated to undertake such an effort convened a Data Publishing Framework Task Group. We conceive this data publishing framework as an environment conducive to ensure free and open access to world's biodiversity data. Here, we present the recommendations of that Task Group, which are intended to encourage free and open access to the worlds' biodiversity data.

  13. Towards mainstreaming of biodiversity data publishing: recommendations of the GBIF Data Publishing Framework Task Group. (United States)

    Moritz, Tom; Krishnan, S; Roberts, Dave; Ingwersen, Peter; Agosti, Donat; Penev, Lyubomir; Cockerill, Matthew; Chavan, Vishwas


    , technical-infrastructural, policy, political and legal constraints, as well as addressing issues of sustainability and financial support. To address these aspects of a data publishing framework - a systematic, standard approach to the formal definition and public disclosure of data - in the context of biodiversity data, the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF, the single inter-governmental body most clearly mandated to undertake such an effort) convened a Data Publishing Framework Task Group. We conceive this data publishing framework as an environment conducive to ensure free and open access to world's biodiversity data. Here, we present the recommendations of that Task Group, which are intended to encourage free and open access to the worlds' biodiversity data.

  14. Group Constants Generation of the Pseudo Fission Products for Fast Reactor Burnup Calculations (United States)

    Gil, Choong-Sup; Kim, Do Heon; Chang, Jonghwa


    The pseudo fission products for the burnup calculations of the liquid metal fast reactor were generated. The cross-section data and fission product yield data of ENDF/B-VI were used for the pseudo fission product data of U-235, U-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242. The pseudo fission product data can be used with the KAFAX-F22 or -E66, which are the MATXS-format libraries for analyses of the liquid metal fast reactor at KAERI and were distributed through the OECD/NEA. The 80-group MATXS-format libraries of the 172 fission products were generated and the burnup chains for generation of the pseudo fission products were prepared.

  15. Code of Ethics for the American Association of Physicists in Medicine: report of Task Group 109. (United States)

    Serago, Christopher F; Adnani, Nabil; Bank, Morris I; BenComo, Jose A; Duan, Jun; Fairobent, Lynne; Freedman, D Jay; Halvorsen, Per H; Hendee, William R; Herman, Michael G; Morse, Richard K; Mower, Herbert W; Pfeiffer, Douglas E; Root, William J; Sherouse, George W; Vossler, Matthew K; Wallace, Robert E; Walters, Barbara


    A comprehensive Code of Ethics for the members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is presented as the report of Task Group 109 which consolidates previous AAPM ethics policies into a unified document. The membership of the AAPM is increasingly diverse. Prior existing AAPM ethics polices were applicable specifically to medical physicists, and did not encompass other types of members such as health physicists, regulators, corporate affiliates, physicians, scientists, engineers, those in training, or other health care professionals. Prior AAPM ethics policies did not specifically address research, education, or business ethics. The Ethics Guidelines of this new Code of Ethics have four major sections: professional conduct, research ethics, education ethics, and business ethics. Some elements of each major section may be duplicated in other sections, so that readers interested in a particular aspect of the code do not need to read the entire document for all relevant information. The prior Complaint Procedure has also been incorporated into this Code of Ethics. This Code of Ethics (PP 24-A) replaces the following AAPM policies: Ethical Guidelines for Vacating a Position (PP 4-B); Ethical Guidelines for Reviewing the Work of Another Physicist (PP 5-C); Guidelines for Ethical Practice for Medical Physicists (PP 8-D); and Ethics Complaint Procedure (PP 21-A). The AAPM Board of Directors approved this Code or Ethics on July 31, 2008.

  16. Radiation dosimetry in digital breast tomosynthesis: Report of AAPM Tomosynthesis Subcommittee Task Group 223

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis, E-mail: [Departments of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Hematology and Medical Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, 1701 Uppergate Drive Northeast, Suite 5018, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Sabol, John M. [GE Healthcare, Global Diagnostic X-Ray, Mailstop W-701, 3000 North Grandview Boulevard, Waukesha, Wisconsin 53188 (United States); Berglund, Johan [Research and Development, Philips Women' s Healthcare, Solna (Sweden); Bolch, Wesley E. [J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Brateman, Libby [University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Goodsitt, Mitchell [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Flynn, Michael [Department of Radiology, Henry Ford Health System, Radiology Research 2F, 1 Ford Place, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Geiser, William [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States); Kyle Jones, A. [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Lo, Joseph Y.; Paul Segars, W. [Department of Radiology, Medical Physics Graduate Program, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Maidment, Andrew D. A. [Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-4206 (United States); Nishino, Kazuyoshi [R and D X-ray Products Group, Shimadzu Corporation, Tokyo (Japan); Nosratieh, Anita [Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis, California 95817 (United States); and others


    The radiation dose involved in any medical imaging modality that uses ionizing radiation needs to be well understood by the medical physics and clinical community. This is especially true of screening modalities. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has recently been introduced into the clinic and is being used for screening for breast cancer in the general population. Therefore, it is important that the medical physics community have the required information to be able to understand, estimate, and communicate the radiation dose levels involved in breast tomosynthesis imaging. For this purpose, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 223 on Dosimetry in Tomosynthesis Imaging has prepared this report that discusses dosimetry in breast imaging in general, and describes a methodology and provides the data necessary to estimate mean breast glandular dose from a tomosynthesis acquisition. In an effort to maximize familiarity with the procedures and data provided in this Report, the methodology to perform the dose estimation in DBT is based as much as possible on that used in mammography dose estimation.

  17. Teacher management behaviors and pupil task involvement during small group laboratory activities (United States)

    Beasley, Warren

    A major concern of many beginning and experienced teachers is that of classroom management and control. This article describes recent research into defining classroom management procedures that are used by high school science teachers and their relationship to pupil ontaskness. The classroom is conceptualized as a manipulable behavioral system. This construct arises directly from Barker's (1968) ecological psychology, the classroom and its occupants being conceptualized as a behavior setting. The behaviors of the teacher and the pupils are an integral part of the unit (behavior setting), which in turn coerces certain behaviors from its participants. Thus settings, and, in particular, subsettings, are seen as more important determiners of social behavior than the personality of individual teacher or pupil. The methodology employed in this research has involved the extensive use of video in naturalistic science classrooms. Tapes of both teacher and pupil behaviors were continuously and independently recorded. Intensive analysis using electronic recording instruments interfaced with the computer has allowed the collection and sophisticated analysis of the observational data. Data relating to teacher management behavior in small group settings have been analyzed and the relationships to pupil task involvement have been explored.

  18. Report of AAPM Task Group 162: Software for planar image quality metrology. (United States)

    Samei, Ehsan; Ikejimba, Lynda C; Harrawood, Brian P; Rong, John; Cunningham, Ian A; Flynn, Michael J


    The AAPM Task Group 162 aimed to provide a standardized approach for the assessment of image quality in planar imaging systems. This report offers a description of the approach as well as the details of the resultant software bundle to measure detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as well as its basis components and derivatives. The methodology and the associated software include the characterization of the noise power spectrum (NPS) from planar images acquired under specific acquisition conditions, modulation transfer function (MTF) using an edge test object, the DQE, and effective DQE (eDQE). First, a methodological framework is provided to highlight the theoretical basis of the work. Then, a step-by-step guide is included to assist in proper execution of each component of the code. Lastly, an evaluation of the method is included to validate its accuracy against model-based and experimental data. The code was built using a Macintosh OSX operating system. The software package contains all the source codes to permit an experienced user to build the suite on a Linux or other *nix type system. The package further includes manuals and sample images and scripts to demonstrate use of the software for new users. The results of the code are in close alignment with theoretical expectations and published results of experimental data. The methodology and the software package offered in AAPM TG162 can be used as baseline for characterization of inherent image quality attributes of planar imaging systems. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  19. AAPM and GEC-ESTRO guidelines for image-guided robotic brachytherapy: Report of Task Group 192

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podder, Tarun K., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44122 (United States); Beaulieu, Luc [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Univ de Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Caldwell, Barrett [Schools of Industrial Engineering and Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Cormack, Robert A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Crass, Jostin B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Dicker, Adam P.; Yu, Yan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107 (United States); Fenster, Aaron [Department of Imaging Research, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Fichtinger, Gabor [School of Computer Science, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Meltsner, Michael A. [Philips Radiation Oncology Systems, Fitchburg, Wisconsin 53711 (United States); Moerland, Marinus A. [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, 3508 GA (Netherlands); Nath, Ravinder [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Rivard, Mark J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States); Salcudean, Tim [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Song, Danny Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 (United States); Thomadsen, Bruce R. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)


    In the last decade, there have been significant developments into integration of robots and automation tools with brachytherapy delivery systems. These systems aim to improve the current paradigm by executing higher precision and accuracy in seed placement, improving calculation of optimal seed locations, minimizing surgical trauma, and reducing radiation exposure to medical staff. Most of the applications of this technology have been in the implantation of seeds in patients with early-stage prostate cancer. Nevertheless, the techniques apply to any clinical site where interstitial brachytherapy is appropriate. In consideration of the rapid developments in this area, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) commissioned Task Group 192 to review the state-of-the-art in the field of robotic interstitial brachytherapy. This is a joint Task Group with the Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie-European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (GEC-ESTRO). All developed and reported robotic brachytherapy systems were reviewed. Commissioning and quality assurance procedures for the safe and consistent use of these systems are also provided. Manual seed placement techniques with a rigid template have an estimated in vivo accuracy of 3–6 mm. In addition to the placement accuracy, factors such as tissue deformation, needle deviation, and edema may result in a delivered dose distribution that differs from the preimplant or intraoperative plan. However, real-time needle tracking and seed identification for dynamic updating of dosimetry may improve the quality of seed implantation. The AAPM and GEC-ESTRO recommend that robotic systems should demonstrate a spatial accuracy of seed placement ≤1.0 mm in a phantom. This recommendation is based on the current performance of existing robotic brachytherapy systems and propagation of uncertainties. During clinical commissioning, tests should be conducted to ensure that this level of accuracy is achieved. These tests

  20. Social Network Analysis as an Analytic Tool for Task Group Research: A Case Study of an Interdisciplinary Community of Practice (United States)

    Lockhart, Naorah C.


    Group counselors commonly collaborate in interdisciplinary settings in health care, substance abuse, and juvenile justice. Social network analysis is a methodology rarely used in counseling research yet has potential to examine task group dynamics in new ways. This case study explores the scholarly relationships among 36 members of an…

  1. Role of Gestalt grouping in selective attention: Evidence from the Stroop task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, M.J.M.; Roelofs, A.P.A.


    Selective attention has been intensively studied using the Stroop task. Evidence suggests that Stroop interference in a color-naming task arises partly because of visual attention sharing between color and word: Removing the target color after 150 msec reduces interference (Neumann, 1986). Moreover,

  2. Point defects and composition in hexagonal group-III nitride monolayers: A first-principles calculation (United States)

    Gao, Han; Ye, Han; Yu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Yunzhen; Liu, Yumin; Li, Yinfeng


    In this paper, we systematically investigate the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of hexagonal group-III nitride monolayers with point defects and alloying on the basis of first-principles calculations. Six typical point defects including three vacancies and three antisites are modeled in pure AlN, GaN and InN monolayers. The defect-induced modifications of band gaps and magnetic properties are demonstrated. The vacancy of nitrogen, with lowest formation energy, metalizes the semiconducting nitride monolayers. The defects losing single group-III atom introduce net magnetic moment to the systems, while others maintain non-magnetic. For ordered alloy monolayers, the AlGaN and InGaN systems are taken into consideration. The compositional variation is achieved by atomic substitution in supercells with different sizes. We find that the lattice constant and cohesive energy follow good linear relation with concentration while a slight bowing effect is observed for the band gap. These results provide a development in defective and alloy nitride monolayers and extend the potential applications.

  3. First principles calculation of material properties of group IV elements and III-V compounds (United States)

    Malone, Brad Dean

    This thesis presents first principles calculations on the properties of group IV elements and group III-V compounds. It includes investigations into what structure a material is likely to form in, and given that structure, what are its electronic, optical, and lattice dynamical properties as well as what are the properties of defects that might be introduced into the sample. The thesis is divided as follows: • Chapter 1 contains some of the conceptual foundations used in the present work. These involve the major approximations which allow us to approach the problem of systems with huge numbers of interacting electrons and atomic cores. • Then, in Chapter 2, we discuss one of the major limitations to the DFT formalism introduced in Chapter 1, namely its inability to predict the quasiparticle spectra of materials and in particular the band gap of a semiconductor. We introduce a Green's function approach to the electron self-energy Sigma known as the GW approximation and use it to compute the quasiparticle band structures of a number of group IV and III-V semiconductors. • In Chapter 3 we present a first-principles study of a number of high-pressure metastable phases of Si with tetrahedral bonding. The phases studied include all experimentally determined phases that result from decompression from the metallic beta-Sn phase, specifically the BC8 (Si-III), hexagonal diamond (Si-IV), and R8 (Si-XII). In addition to these, we also study the hypothetical ST12 structure found upon decompression from beta-Sn in germanium. • Our attention is then turned to the first principles calculations of optical properties in Chapter 4. The Bethe-Salpeter equation is then solved to obtain the optical spectrum of this material including electron-hole interactions. The calculated optical spectrum is compared with experimental data for other forms of silicon commonly used in photovoltaic devices, namely the cubic, polycrystalline, and amorphous forms. • In Chapter 5 we present

  4. Feel like you belong: on the bidirectional link between emotional fit and group identification in task groups. (United States)

    Delvaux, Ellen; Meeussen, Loes; Mesquita, Batja


    Three studies investigated the association between members' group identification and the emotional fit with their group. In the first study, a cross-sectional study in a large organization, we replicated earlier research by showing that group identification and emotional fit are positively associated, using a broader range of emotions and using profile correlations to measure group members' emotional fit. In addition, in two longitudinal studies, where groups of students were followed at several time points during their collaboration on a project, we tested the directionality of the relationship between group identification and emotional fit. The results showed a bidirectional, positive link between group identification and emotional fit, such that group identification and emotional fit either mutually reinforce or mutually dampen each other over time. We discuss how these findings increase insights in group functioning and how they may be used to change group processes for better or worse.

  5. Calculation and word problem-solving skills in primary grades - Impact of cognitive abilities and longitudinal interrelations with task-persistent behaviour. (United States)

    Jõgi, Anna-Liisa; Kikas, Eve


    Primary school math skills form a basis for academic success down the road. Different math skills have different antecedents and there is a reason to believe that more complex math tasks require better self-regulation. The study aimed to investigate longitudinal interrelations of calculation and problem-solving skills, and task-persistent behaviour in Grade 1 and Grade 3, and the effect of non-verbal intelligence, linguistic abilities, and executive functioning on math skills and task persistence. Participants were 864 students (52.3% boys) from 33 different schools in Estonia. Students were tested twice - at the end of Grade1 and at the end of Grade 3. Calculation and problem-solving skills, and teacher-rated task-persistent behaviour were measured at both time points. Non-verbal intelligence, linguistic abilities, and executive functioning were measured in Grade 1. Cross-lagged structural equation modelling indicated that calculation skills depend on previous math skills and linguistic abilities, while problem-solving skills require also non-verbal intelligence, executive functioning, and task persistence. Task-persistent behaviour in Grade 3 was predicted by previous problem-solving skills, linguistic abilities, and executive functioning. Gender and mother's educational level were added as covariates. The findings indicate that math skills and self-regulation are strongly related in primary grades and that solving complex tasks requires executive functioning and task persistence from children. Findings support the idea that instructional practices might benefit from supporting self-regulation in order to gain domain-specific, complex skill achievement. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Application de la methode des sous-groupes au calcul Monte-Carlo multigroupe (United States)

    Martin, Nicolas

    This thesis is dedicated to the development of a Monte Carlo neutron transport solver based on the subgroup (or multiband) method. In this formalism, cross sections for resonant isotopes are represented in the form of probability tables on the whole energy spectrum. This study is intended in order to test and validate this approach in lattice physics and criticality-safety applications. The probability table method seems promising since it introduces an alternative computational way between the legacy continuous-energy representation and the multigroup method. In the first case, the amount of data invoked in continuous-energy Monte Carlo calculations can be very important and tend to slow down the overall computational time. In addition, this model preserves the quality of the physical laws present in the ENDF format. Due to its cheap computational cost, the multigroup Monte Carlo way is usually at the basis of production codes in criticality-safety studies. However, the use of a multigroup representation of the cross sections implies a preliminary calculation to take into account self-shielding effects for resonant isotopes. This is generally performed by deterministic lattice codes relying on the collision probability method. Using cross-section probability tables on the whole energy range permits to directly take into account self-shielding effects and can be employed in both lattice physics and criticality-safety calculations. Several aspects have been thoroughly studied: (1) The consistent computation of probability tables with a energy grid comprising only 295 or 361 groups. The CALENDF moment approach conducted to probability tables suitable for a Monte Carlo code. (2) The combination of the probability table sampling for the energy variable with the delta-tracking rejection technique for the space variable, and its impact on the overall efficiency of the proposed Monte Carlo algorithm. (3) The derivation of a model for taking into account anisotropic

  7. Activities of the task group 8 on thin film PV module reliability (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.


    Photovoltaic (PV) modules and systems are being used increasingly to provide renewable energy to schools, residences, small businesses and utilities. At this time, the home owners and small businesses have considerable difficulty in detecting module and/or system degradation and especially enforcing warranty. It needs to be noted that IEC 61215-1 (test req.), -2 (test proc.) and -1-1 (c-Si) are forecasted to be circulated end of Feb 2016 and only editorial changes would be possible. 61215 series does include thin film technologies and would be replacing 61646. Moreover, IEC 61215-1, section 7.2 power output and electric circuitry does contain significant changes to acceptance criteria regarding rated label values, particularly rated power. Even though it is believed that consensus could be achieved within IEC TC82 WG2, some of the smaller players that do not participate actively in IEC TC82 - may not be surprised and must be informed. The other tech specific parts 61215-1-2 (CdTe), -1-3 (a-Si, µc-Si) and -1-4 (CIS, CIGS) are out for comments. The IEC closing date was January 29, 2016. The additions alternative damp heat (DH) test proposed Solar Frontier is being reviewed. In the past, only 600 V systems were permitted in the grid-connected residential and commercial systems in the US. The US commercial systems can now use higher voltage (1,000-1500V) in order to reduce BOS component costs. It is believed that there would not be any problems. The Task Group 8 is collecting data on higher voltage systems.

  8. Dosimetric effects caused by couch tops and immobilization devices: Report of AAPM Task Group 176

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olch, Arthur J., E-mail: [Radiation Oncology Department, University of Southern California and Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90027 (United States); Gerig, Lee [Department of Physics, Ottawa Hospital Regional Cancer Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada and Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Li, Heng [Department of Radiation Physics, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Mihaylov, Ivaylo [Department of Radiation Oncology Department, University of Miami, Miami, Florida 33136 (United States); Morgan, Andrew [The Beacon Centre, Musgrove Park Hospital, Taunton TA1 5DA (United Kingdom)


    The dosimetric impact from devices external to the patient is a complex combination of increased skin dose, reduced tumor dose, and altered dose distribution. Although small monitor unit or dose corrections are routinely made for blocking trays, ion chamber correction factors, e.g., accounting for temperature and pressure, or tissue inhomogeneities, the dose perturbation of the treatment couch top or immobilization devices is often overlooked. These devices also increase skin dose, an effect which is also often ignored or underestimated. These concerns have grown recently due to the increased use of monolithic carbon fiber couch tops which are optimal for imaging for patient position verification but cause attenuation and increased skin dose compared to the “tennis racket” style couch top they often replace. Also, arc delivery techniques have replaced stationary gantry techniques which cause a greater fraction of the dose to be delivered from posterior angles. A host of immobilization devices are available and used to increase patient positioning reproducibility, and these also have attenuation and skin dose implications which are often ignored. This report of Task Group 176 serves to present a survey of published data that illustrates the magnitude of the dosimetric effects of a wide range of devices external to the patient. The report also provides methods for modeling couch tops in treatment planning systems so the physicist can accurately compute the dosimetric effects for indexed patient treatments. Both photon and proton beams are considered. A discussion on avoidance of high density structures during beam planning is also provided. An important aspect of this report are the recommendations the authors make to clinical physicists, treatment planning system vendors, and device vendors on how to make measurements of surface dose and attenuation and how to report these values. For the vendors, an appeal is made to work together to provide accurate couch top

  9. The Effects of Dual Task on Healthy Adults Balance Index in Age and Gender groups


    Sona Abedi; Sedighe Sadat Naeimi; Abbas Rahimi; Minoo Khalkhali Zavieh; Azadeh Shadmehr


    Background and Aim: Falls are the leading cause of accidental death among older adults. Recent studies have demonstrated that an impaired ability to maintain balance while simultaneously performing cognitive tasks is associated with increased rates of adverse outcomes, such as falls in elderly people. Because interventions designed to improve dual-task balance performance have the potential to reduce falling rate and functional decline, they are a critical health care need.Material & Methods:...

  10. Algorithm of calculation of energy consumption on the basis of differential model of the production task performed on machines with computer numeric control (CNC) (United States)

    Safarov, D. T.; Kondrashov, A. G.; Glinina, G. F.; Safarova, L. R.


    The calculation algorithm, power consumption of all consumers involved in the operation and production tasks developed by the example of workplaces equipped with CNC machines is developed. The algorithm takes into account the actual status, operating modes and switching sequence of all electricity consumers.

  11. Calculation and Word Problem-Solving Skills in Primary Grades--Impact of Cognitive Abilities and Longitudinal Interrelations with Task-persistent Behaviour (United States)

    Jõgi, Anna-Liisa; Kikas, Eve


    Background: Primary school math skills form a basis for academic success down the road. Different math skills have different antecedents and there is a reason to believe that more complex math tasks require better self-regulation. Aims: The study aimed to investigate longitudinal interrelations of calculation and problem-solving skills, and…

  12. Dynamical mean-field theory and path integral renormalisation group calculations of strongly correlated electronic states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilmann, D.B.


    The two-plane HUBBARD model, which is a model for some electronic properties of undoped YBCO superconductors as well as displays a MOTT metal-to-insulator transition and a metal-to-band insulator transition, is studied within Dynamical Mean-Field Theory using HIRSCH-FYE Monte Carlo. In order to find the different transitions and distinguish the types of insulator, we calculate the single-particle spectral densities, the self-energies and the optical conductivities. We conclude that there is a continuous transition from MOTT to band insulator. In the second part, ground state properties of a diagonally disordered HUBBARD model is studied using a generalisation of Path Integral Renormalisation Group, a variational method which can also determine low-lying excitations. In particular, the distribution of antiferromagnetic properties is investigated. We conclude that antiferromagnetism breaks down in a percolation-type transition at a critical disorder, which is not changed appreciably by the inclusion of correlation effects, when compared to earlier studies. Electronic and excitation properties at the system sizes considered turn out to primarily depend on the geometry. (orig.)

  13. Study on the surface hydroxyl group on solid breeding materials by ab-initio calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Satoru; Taniguchi, Masaki [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    The nature of -OH on the surface of Li{sub 2}O was analyzed with the ab-initio quantum chemical calculation technique. Calculation results showed that the stretching vibration of O-H is affected by the chemical species around the -OH. (author)

  14. 77 FR 14031 - Public Listening Sessions To Obtain Input on the Multi-Stakeholder Group Tasked With the... (United States)


    ... Public Listening Sessions To Obtain Input on the Multi- Stakeholder Group Tasked With the Implementation.... ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of the Interior (Department) announces four public listening... Transparency Initiative (EITI). DATES: The public listening session dates and cities are: Session 1--March 19...

  15. Examining Preschoolers' Nutrition Knowledge Using a Meal Creation and Food Group Classification Task: Age and Gender Differences (United States)

    Holub, Shayla C.; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.


    Eating behaviours begin to develop during early childhood, but relatively little is known about preschoolers' nutrition knowledge. The current study examined age and gender differences in this knowledge using two tasks: food group classification and the creation of unhealthy, healthy and preferred meals. Sixty-nine three- to six-year-old children…

  16. A Feasible Approach for an Early Manned Lunar Landing. Part II: Detailed Report of Ad Hoc Task Group (United States)

    Fleming, William A.


    This report, in two parts, presents a program development plan for attempting a first manned lunar landing in 1967. The two parts consist of a Summary Report and a Detailed Report representing the coordinated output of the Ad Hoc Task Group assigned to the study. The study was started in response to the request for such a study by the Associate Administrator in his memorandum of May 2, 1961 establishing the Ad Hoc Task Group. The purpose of the study was to take a first cut at the tasks associated with the design, development and construction of the equipment and facilities as well as the development of the crews, and to show the time phasing 6f these tasks. Included are the space sciences, life science and advanced technology tasks whose data and results are needed for designing and developing the systems required in carrying out the mission. The plan presented in the two reports does not presume to be a firm plan. Its basic purpose is, by choosing one feasible method, to size up the scope, schedule and cost of the job, discover the main problems, pacing items and major decisions and provide a threshold from which a firm and detailed project development plan can be jointly formulated by the various elements of NASA.

  17. Are Expert Users Always Better Searchers? Interaction of Expertise and Semantic Grouping in Hypertext Search Tasks (United States)

    Salmeron, L.; Canas, J. J.; Fajardo, I.


    The facilitative effect of expertise in hypertext information retrieval (IR) tasks has been widely reported in related literature. However, recent theories of human expertise question the robustness of this result, since previous works have not fully considered the interaction between user and system characteristics. In this study, the constraint…

  18. Contingent Needs Analysis for Task Implementation: An Activity Systems Analysis of Group Writing Conferences (United States)

    Mochizuki, Naoko


    Needs analysis (NA) plays a significant role in developing tasks that create opportunities for natural language use in classrooms. Preemptive NA, however, does not necessarily predict the contingently emerging interpersonal and social variables which influence learners and teachers' behaviours. These unpredictable variables often lead to a gap…

  19. [Qualification concept for delegation of medical tasks to nonmedical professional groups. The "Greifswalder 3-level model"]. (United States)

    Hoffmann, W; van den Berg, N; Dreier, A


    To manage the current demographics and the expected medical, nursing, and social care needs of the population, structural changes are needed in the German health care system. On the regional level, there is a shortage of general practitioners in Germany. In the future, the number of affected regions will likely increase. These trends require new support strategies, which include the delegation of medical tasks to nonphysician professionals of which nurses and medical assistants are the primary profession. Thus, they will expand their traditional scope of work. However, their traditional training does not qualify them to perform medical tasks responsibly and with high quality. Hence, there is a need for further development of advanced training programs. The goal is to tailor modular advanced training to the specific support needs of the patients. A recent law (GKV-Versorgungsstrukturgesetz, GKV-VStG, 1 January 2012) was passed that specifies and extends the delegation options of medical tasks beyond the restrictions defined in previous German legislation (§ 63, SGB V in 2008). In this article, we present a three-stage model for qualifying nonphysician medical professionals for defined ranges of medical tasks.

  20. [Effect of mental fatigue induced by repeated continuous calculation tasks on event-related brain potential (P300)]. (United States)

    Okamura, Noritaka


    It is well known that the amplitude and latency of P300 in event-related brain potentials (ERPs) evoked by performing the oddball paradigm reflect the extent of individuals' selective attention. The purpose of this study was to examine whether P300 is a reliable measure for evaluating mental fatigue. In addition to the measurement of auditory ERPs derived from Fz, Cz and Pz, the concentrations of lactic acid, cortisol in plasma and the reaction time of the oddball paradigm, which are believed to reflect fatigue, were measured. In an attempt to cause mental fatigue, 12 healthy college students (8 males, 4 females; 19.5 +/- 0.5 yr; mean +/- S.D.) were forced to perform a continuous addition task using the Uchida-Kreperin test paper for about 2 h. Before the task, the latencies of P300 in Fz, Cz and Pz were 295.6 +/- 8.7 msec, 298.8 +/- 8.5 msec and 297.5 +/- 7.2 msec (mean +/- S.D.), respectively, and after the task they were 312.6 +/- 11.2 msec, 314.6 +/- 10.1 msec and 315.8 +/- 8.7 msec, respectively. A significant difference in the latency before and after the task was detected (pP300 was prolonged in all recording positions, Fz, Cz and Pz. In a control experiment where the continuous addition task was not loaded, a significant change of the latency was not detected. The amplitude of P300 didn't change significantly in all recording positions after the task. In the control experiment, the amplitude of P300 did not change significantly. On the other hand, the changes in the concentrations of lactic acid and cortisol and the reaction time were not induced by the continuous addition task. The prolongation of the latency of P300 would originate from a decline in brain function. In this study, a prolongation of the latency of P300 after the task was detected in all subjects. It is well known that the value of P300 changes with modification of the recording condition, therefore a recording of P300 under the same conditions is required for qualitative evaluation.

  1. The structure of group task performance-A second look at "collective intelligence": Comment on Woolley et al. (2010). (United States)

    Credé, Marcus; Howardson, Garett


    Collective intelligence has been described as a general factor that "explains a group's performance on a wide variety of tasks" (Woolley, Chabris, Pentland, Hashmi, & Malone, 2010, p. 686), much like the general intelligence factor explains individuals' performance on cognitive ability tasks. This construct has received widespread attention in both the media and academic community. In this article we reexamine the data from 6 previously published samples that have been used to examine the existence of the collective intelligence construct and show that the empirical support for the construct is generally weak. Specifically, we show that the general factor explains only little variance in the performance on many group tasks. We also highlight how 2 statistical artifacts-the apparent presence of low effort responding and the nested nature of the data-may also have inflated the little covariation that exists between group performance on different tasks. These findings suggest that there is insufficient support for the existence of a collective intelligence construct. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. An Exploration of Team Information Processing in a Dynamic Group Choice Task Involving Uncertainty (United States)


    Empirical studies showed that their model more accurately predicted human performance than did modelo , based on task scheduling theory [PATT833...versus Letters Considering only single-featured visual codes, both alphanumerico and color hcve been evaluated au excellent for use in locating...for any one visual code set over the others’ LOHRIS3, p. 83]. Bo,,h color and alphabetic schemes are excellent for locating objects [DAVI83]. TRAP 6

  3. Effects of long-term practice and task complexity on brain activities when performing abacus-based mental calculations: a PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tung-Hsin [Chung Shan Medical University, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taichung (China); National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China); Chen, Chia-Lin [Chung Shan Medical University, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taichung (China); Huang, Yung-Hui [I-Shou University, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung County (China); Liu, Ren-Shyan [National Yang-Ming University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei (China); Hsieh, Jen-Chuen [National Yang-Ming University, Brain Research Center and Institute of Brain Science, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei (China); Lee, Jason J.S. [National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China)


    The aim of this study was to examine the neural bases for the exceptional mental calculation ability possessed by Chinese abacus experts through PET imaging. We compared the different regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns using {sup 15}O-water PET in 10 abacus experts and 12 non-experts while they were performing each of the following three tasks: covert reading, simple addition, and complex contiguous addition. All data collected were analyzed using SPM2 and MNI templates. For non-experts during the tasks of simple addition, the observed activation of brain regions were associated with coordination of language (inferior frontal network) and visuospatial processing (left parietal/frontal network). Similar activation patterns but with a larger visuospatial processing involvement were observed during complex contiguous addition tasks, suggesting the recruitment of more visuospatial memory for solving the complex problems. For abacus experts, however, the brain activation patterns showed slight differences when they were performing simple and complex addition tasks, both of which involve visuospatial processing (bilateral parietal/frontal network). These findings supported the notion that the experts were completing all the calculation process on a virtual mental abacus and relying on this same computational strategy in both simple and complex tasks, which required almost no increasing brain workload for solving the latter. In conclusion, after intensive training and practice, the neural pathways in an abacus expert have been connected more effectively for performing the number encoding and retrieval that are required in abacus tasks, resulting in exceptional mental computational ability. (orig.)

  4. HFM-128 NATO Research Task Group on Representation of Human Behavior in Constructive Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotens, W.A.; Allender, L.; Castor, M.; Lundin, M.; Wallin, N.; Belyavin, A.; Käppler, W.-D.; Cain, B.; Thomas-Meyers, G.


    The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Human Factors group has approved the formation of a study group, HFM-128, on human behavior representation (HBR) in constructive simulation. The differentiating focus of this working group is the translation of HBR concepts into a combined “how-to” and

  5. HFM-128 NATO research task group on representation of human behavior in constructive simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotens, W.; Allender, L.; Castor, M.; Lundin, M.; Wallin, N.; Cain, B.; Käppler, W.-D.; Belyavin, A.; Thomas-Meyers, G.


    The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Human Factors group has approved the formation of a study group, HFM-128, on human behavior representation (HBR) in constructive simulation. The differentiating focus of this working group is the translation of HBR concepts into a combined "how-to" and

  6. Group Communication and Quality of Task Solution in a Media Production Organization. (United States)

    Harper, Nancy L.; Askling, Lawrence R.


    Studies communication techniques of small groups engaged in producing multimedia messages. Indicates that the quality of the product, measured by audience evaluation, is affected by characteristics of the leader's communication, openness of the group's communication system, and member participation in group activities. (JMF)

  7. Perceived Leadership Rankings of Males and Females in Small Task Groups. (United States)

    Tyndall, Jeffry H.; And Others


    Supports the hypothesis that male leaders will receive higher ratings of alpha behavior than female leaders in mixed-sex groups, regardless of the females' ratings in same-sex groups. Points to linear male leadership patterns, while female patterns vary depending on the composition of the group. (RL)

  8. Miniworkshop on Methods of Electronic Structure Calculations and Working Group on Disordered Alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, O K; Mookerjee, A


    Developments in the density functional theory and the methods of electronic structure calculations have made it possible to carry out ab-initio studies of a variety of materials efficiently and at a predictable level. This book covers many of those state-of-the-art developments and their applications to ordered and disordered materials, surfaces and interfaces and clusters, etc.

  9. Propulsion and Energetics Panel Working Group 12 on through Flow Calculations in Axial Turbomachines (United States)


    JI 61 rr 00 cro m mom e r4 -0- ChQ~ 0 00 C4oC m fn oo a\\%n0 -___ __M *~~~ CDr.~~*~ ’ 0 0 0’ - 0 0 00i 1^~t ’. ~4 r A. 4 1.0 N w v 0 OO It.f ~Ŕ 0 0 sucks back the mass flow injected along a sink line, with an arbitrary distribution (79, 80). One starts a new calculation with a perfect fluid...Unterschallstramung durch raumliche Gitter aus Schaufeln auch grosser Dicke und Wolbung. ETH Zurich, Prom 3402, 1964. 4. VAN DEN BRAEMBUSSCHE, R.: Calculation

  10. A metaanalysis of perceptual organization in schizophrenia, schizotypy, and other high-risk groups based on variants of the Embedded Figures Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Rebecca Panton


    Full Text Available Current research on perceptual organization in schizophrenia frequently employs shapes with regularly sampled contours (fragmented stimuli, in noise fields composed of similar elements, to elicit visual abnormalities. However, perceptual organization is multi-factorial and, in earlier studies, continuous contours have also been employed in tasks assessing the ability to extract shapes from a background. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies using closed-contour stimuli, including the Embedded Figures Test (EFT and related tasks, both in people with schizophrenia and in healthy schizotypes and relatives, considered at increased risk for psychosis. Eleven studies met the selection criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis, including six that used a between-groups study design (i.e. perceptual organization abilities of schizophrenia/high-risk groups were compared to healthy or clinical controls, and five that treated schizophrenia symptoms or schizotypy traits and indices of perceptual organization as continuous variables. Effect sizes and heterogeneity statistics were calculated, and the risk of publication bias was explored. A significant, moderate effect for EFT performance was found with studies that compared performance of schizophrenia/high-risk groups to a healthy or patient comparison group (d = -.523, p<.001. However, significant heterogeneity was also found amongst the schizotypy, but not schizophrenia studies, as well as studies using accuracy, but not reaction time as a measure of performance. A non-significant correlation was found for the studies that examined schizophrenia symptoms or schizotypy traits as continuous variables (r = .012, p = .825. These results suggest that deficits in perceptual organization of non-fragmented stimuli are found when differences between schizophrenia/high-risk groups and comparison groups are maximized. These findings should motivate further investigation of perceptual

  11. The Influence of Randomly Allocated Group Membership when Developing Student Task Work and Team Work Capabilities (United States)

    McClelland, Giles Peter


    This study explores whether randomly assigning group membership enhances the student learning experience. The paper starts with a critical analysis of the approaches to student learning within higher education and how these approaches conflict with findings from applied psychology on group behaviour. The study adopts a serendipitous qualitative…

  12. Information Sampling and Group Decision Making: The Effects of an Advocacy Decision Procedure and Task Experience (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Schulz-Hardt, Stefan; Brodbeck, Felix C.; Frey, Dieter


    Group discussions tend to focus on information that was previously known by all members (shared information) rather than information known by only 1 member (unshared information). If the shared information implies a suboptimal alternative, this sampling bias is associated with inaccurate group decisions. The present study examines the impact of 2…

  13. Intergroup Attitudes as a Function of Group Proximity and Task Orientation. (United States)

    Ryen, Allen H.

    Post-experimental seating patterns of two coacting, cooperating, or competing laboratory groups were factorially manipulated such that groups sat near, far, or randomly with respect to each other. A propinquity-attraction model predicted intergroup evaluations only to the extent that previously determined territorial preferences were not violated.…

  14. Group independent component analysis of language fMRI from word generation tasks. (United States)

    Tie, Yanmei; Whalen, Stephen; Suarez, Ralph O; Golby, Alexandra J


    Language fMRI has been used to study brain regions involved in language processing and has been applied to pre-surgical language mapping. However, in order to provide clinicians with optimal information, the sensitivity and specificity of language fMRI needs to be improved. Type II error of failing to reach statistical significance when the language activations are genuinely present may be particularly relevant to pre-surgical planning, by falsely indicating low surgical risk in areas where no activations are shown. Furthermore, since the execution of language paradigms involves cognitive processes other than language function per se, the conventional general linear model (GLM) method may identify non-language-specific activations. In this study, we assessed an exploratory approach, independent component analysis (ICA), as a potential complementary method to the inferential GLM method in language mapping applications. We specifically investigated whether this approach might reduce type II error as well as generate more language-specific maps. Fourteen right-handed healthy subjects were studied with fMRI during two word generation tasks. A similarity analysis across tasks was proposed to select components of interest. Union analysis was performed on the language-specific components to increase sensitivity, and conjunction analysis was performed to identify language areas more likely to be essential. Compared with GLM, ICA identified more activated voxels in the putative language areas, and signals from other sources were isolated into different components. Encouraging results from one brain tumor patient are also presented. ICA may be used as a complementary tool to GLM in improving pre-surgical language mapping.

  15. Group-based task-oriented exercises aimed at managing kinesiophobia improved disability in chronic low back pain. (United States)

    Monticone, M; Ambrosini, E; Rocca, B; Cazzaniga, D; Liquori, V; Foti, C


    There are still doubts concerning the clinical impact of multidisciplinary cognitive behavioural rehabilitation programmes conducted in group-based settings and about their long-term effects on subjects with chronic low back pain (CLBP). This randomized, parallel-group superiority-controlled trial aimed at evaluating the effect of such a programme on disability, kinesiophobia, catastrophizing, pain and quality of life in CLBP. One hundred and fifty patients were randomly assigned to a 5-week group-based multidisciplinary programme of task-oriented exercises integrated with cognitive behavioural therapy mainly aimed at managing kinesiophobia (experimental group, 75 subjects) or group-based traditional exercises (control group, 75 subjects). Before treatment, 5 weeks later (post-treatment), 12 and 24 months after the end of treatment, the Oswestry Disability Index, the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, a pain Numerical Rating Scale and the Short Form Health Survey were assessed. A linear mixed model for repeated measures was used for each outcome measure. Significant group (p kinesiophobia, catastrophizing, pain, and quality of life improved to a significantly greater extent in the experimental group. The improvements of the experimental group were maintained at follow-ups. This light group-based multidisciplinary cognitive behavioural rehabilitation programme was superior to traditional exercises in reducing disability, kinesiophobia, catastrophizing, and enhancing the quality of life of subjects with CLBP. The effects lasted for at least 2 years after the end of the intervention. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  16. Getting behind the Scenes of Fleetwood Mac's "Rumours": Using a Documentary on the Making of a Music Album to Learn about Task Groups (United States)

    Comer, Debra R.; Holbrook, Robert L., Jr.


    The authors present an efficient and easy-to-implement experiential exercise that reinforces for students key concepts about task groups (i.e., group cohesiveness, conflict within groups, group effectiveness, group norms, and group roles). The exercise, which uses a documentary about the making of Fleetwood Mac's "Rumours" album to demonstrate the…

  17. Minimal intervention dentistry for managing dental caries - a review: report of a FDI task group. (United States)

    Frencken, Jo E; Peters, Mathilde C; Manton, David J; Leal, Soraya C; Gordan, Valeria V; Eden, Ece


    This publication describes the history of minimal intervention dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries and presents evidence for various carious lesion detection devices, for preventive measures, for restorative and non-restorative therapies as well as for repairing rather than replacing defective restorations. It is a follow-up to the FDI World Dental Federation publication on MID, of 2000. The dental profession currently is faced with an enormous task of how to manage the high burden of consequences of the caries process amongst the world population. If it is to manage carious lesion development and its progression, it should move away from the 'surgical' care approach and fully embrace the MID approach. The chance for MID to be successful is thought to be increased tremendously if dental caries is not considered an infectious but instead a behavioural disease with a bacterial component. Controlling the two main carious lesion development related behaviours, i.e. intake and frequency of fermentable sugars, to not more than five times daily and removing/disturbing dental plaque from all tooth surfaces using an effective fluoridated toothpaste twice daily, are the ingredients for reducing the burden of dental caries in many communities in the world. FDI's policy of reducing the need for restorative therapy by placing an even greater emphasis on caries prevention than is currently done, is therefore, worth pursuing. © 2012 FDI World Dental Federation.

  18. Density functional theory calculations on azobenzene derivatives: a comparative study of functional group effect. (United States)

    Piyanzina, Irina; Minisini, Benoit; Tayurskii, Dmitrii; Bardeau, Jean-François


    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been used to investigate the structural properties, dipole moments, polarizabilities, Gibbs energies, hardness, electronegativity, HOMO/LUMO energies, and chemical potentials of trans and cis configurations of eight para-substituted azobenzene derivatives. All properties have been obtained using the B3LYP functional and 6-31++G(d,p) basis set. The planar structures have been obtained for all optimized trans configurations. The energy difference between trans and cis configurations for considered derivatives was found to be between 64.2-73.1 kJ/mole. It has been obtained that the p-aminodiazo-benzene (ADAB) has the difference in the dipole moments between trans and cis forms higher than for trans and cis azobenzene.

  19. Extreme group index measured and calculated in 2D SOI-based photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Fage-Pedersen, Jacob


    lattice of air-holes in the 216-nm thick silicon layer in an SOI material. Experimental transmission spectra show a mode cut-off around 1562.5 nm for the fundamental photonic bandgap mode. In order to measure and model the group index of modes in the PCW, a time-of-flight (ToF) method is applied....

  20. Accuracy and calibration of integrated radiation output indicators in diagnostic radiology: A report of the AAPM Imaging Physics Committee Task Group 190

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Pei-Jan P., E-mail: [Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Schueler, Beth A. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Balter, Stephen [Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032 (United States); Strauss, Keith J. [Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229 (United States); Wunderle, Kevin A. [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); LaFrance, M. Terry [Baystate Health Systems, Inc., Springfield, Massachusetts 01199 (United States); Kim, Don-Soo [Children’s Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Behrman, Richard H. [Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02118 (United States); Shepard, S. Jeff [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77096 (United States); Bercha, Ishtiaq H. [Children’s Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States)


    Due to the proliferation of disciplines employing fluoroscopy as their primary imaging tool and the prolonged extensive use of fluoroscopy in interventional and cardiovascular angiography procedures, “dose-area-product” (DAP) meters were installed to monitor and record the radiation dose delivered to patients. In some cases, the radiation dose or the output value is calculated, rather than measured, using the pertinent radiological parameters and geometrical information. The AAPM Task Group 190 (TG-190) was established to evaluate the accuracy of the DAP meter in 2008. Since then, the term “DAP-meter” has been revised to air kerma-area product (KAP) meter. The charge of TG 190 (Accuracy and Calibration of Integrated Radiation Output Indicators in Diagnostic Radiology) has also been realigned to investigate the “Accuracy and Calibration of Integrated Radiation Output Indicators” which is reflected in the title of the task group, to include situations where the KAP may be acquired with or without the presence of a physical “meter.” To accomplish this goal, validation test protocols were developed to compare the displayed radiation output value to an external measurement. These test protocols were applied to a number of clinical systems to collect information on the accuracy of dose display values in the field.

  1. Impact of Group Emotions on Student Collective Action Tendencies, Ties, and Task Performance (United States)

    Sundararajan, Malavika; Sundararajan, Binod; Manderson, Jill


    The authors tested the dynamics of collective action tendencies of student teams when trying to accomplish a shared goal, with a focus on the impact of member ties and team member interaction and emotional responses on team performance. The results show the direct and indirect impacts of both positive and negative group emotions on the student…

  2. Group Tasks, Activities, Dynamics, and Interactions in Collaborative Robotics Projects with Elementary and Middle School Children (United States)

    Yuen, Timothy T.; Boecking, Melanie; Stone, Jennifer; Tiger, Erin Price; Gomez, Alvaro; Guillen, Adrienne; Arreguin, Analisa


    Robotics provide the opportunity for students to bring their individual interests, perspectives and areas of expertise together in order to work collaboratively on real-world science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) problems. This paper examines the nature of collaboration that manifests in groups of elementary and middle school…

  3. IEC Quality Assurance Task Group 5: UV, Temperature, and Humidity (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.; Bath, J.; K& ouml; hl, M.; Shioda, T.


    Taskgroup 5 (TG5) is concerned with a comparative aging standard incorporating factors including ultraviolet radiation and temperature. Separate experiments are being conducted in support of a test standard via the regional sub-groups in Asia, Europe, and the United States. The authors will describe the objectives and timeline for TG5 as well as providing an update on the experiments in progress.

  4. Facilitating Group Analysis of Two Case Studies Utilising Peer Tutoring: Comparison of Tasks and Outcomes (United States)

    Fong, Lin Siew


    Peer-tutoring sessions of two groups of advanced diploma in financial accounting students with mixed proficiency were analysed thoroughly in this study. Numerous studies in peer tutoring have produced favourable results to both tutors and tutees due to the scaffolding process which promotes effective learning. However, there is a lack of studies…

  5. Calculation of the mean differential group delay of periodically spun, randomly birefringent fibers. (United States)

    Galtarossa, Andrea; Griggio, Paola; Pizzinat, Anna; Palmieri, Luca


    Spinning is one of the most effective and well-known ways to reduce polarization mode dispersion of optical fibers. In spite of the popularity of spinning, a detailed theory of spin effects is still lacking. We report an analytical expression for the mean differential group delay of a randomly birefringent spun fiber. The result holds for any periodic spin function with a period shorter than the fiber's beat length.

  6. JMA's regional atmospheric transport model calculations for the WMO technical task team on meteorological analyses for Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. (United States)

    Saito, Kazuo; Shimbori, Toshiki; Draxler, Roland


    The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) convened a small technical task team of experts to produce a set of meteorological analyses to drive atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition models (ATDMs) for the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation's assessment of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (DNPP) accident. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) collaborated with the WMO task team as the regional specialized meteorological center of the country where the accident occurred, and provided its operational 5-km resolution mesoscale (MESO) analysis and its 1-km resolution radar/rain gauge-analyzed precipitation (RAP) data. The JMA's mesoscale tracer transport model was modified to a regional ATDM for radionuclides (RATM), which included newly implemented algorithms for dry deposition, wet scavenging, and gravitational settling of radionuclide aerosol particles. Preliminary and revised calculations of the JMA-RATM were conducted according to the task team's protocol. Verification against Cesium 137 ((137)Cs) deposition measurements and observed air concentration time series showed that the performance of RATM with MESO data was significantly improved by the revisions to the model. The use of RAP data improved the (137)Cs deposition pattern but not the time series of air concentrations at Tokai-mura compared with calculations just using the MESO data. Sensitivity tests of some of the more uncertain parameters were conducted to determine their impacts on ATDM calculations, and the dispersion and deposition of radionuclides on 15 March 2011, the period of some of the largest emissions and deposition to the land areas of Japan. The area with high deposition in the northwest of Fukushima DNPP and the hotspot in the central part of Fukushima prefecture were primarily formed by wet scavenging influenced by the orographic effect of the mountainous area in the west of the Fukushima prefecture. Copyright © 2014 The Authors

  7. The A sub y problem in refined resonating group model calculations for p- sup 3 He scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Reiss, C


    We report on a microscopic Refined Resonating Group Model (RRGM) calculation of scattering of p off sup 3 He employing the Argonne-v sub 1 sub 4 and the Bonn nucleon-nucleon potentials without three-nucleon forces at low energies up to 30 MeV. The calculated phase shifts verify the well-known proton analyzing power A sub y problem. We demonstrate that with corrected sup 3 P sub 2 phase shifts experimental differential cross-section and analyzing power data can be explained.

  8. IEC Quality Assurance Task Group 5: UV, Temperature, and Humidity (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.; Bath, J.; Kohl, M.; Shioda, T.


    Taskgroup 5 (TG5) is concerned with a comparative aging standard incorporating factors including ultraviolet radiation, temperature, and humidity. Separate experiments are being conducted in support of a test standard via the regional sub-groups in Asia, Europe, and the United States. The authors will describe the objectives and timeline for TG5 as well as providing an update on the experiments in progress.

  9. The report of Task Group 100 of the AAPM: Application of risk analysis methods to radiation therapy quality management. (United States)

    Huq, M Saiful; Fraass, Benedick A; Dunscombe, Peter B; Gibbons, John P; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Mundt, Arno J; Mutic, Sasa; Palta, Jatinder R; Rath, Frank; Thomadsen, Bruce R; Williamson, Jeffrey F; Yorke, Ellen D


    The increasing complexity of modern radiation therapy planning and delivery challenges traditional prescriptive quality management (QM) methods, such as many of those included in guidelines published by organizations such as the AAPM, ASTRO, ACR, ESTRO, and IAEA. These prescriptive guidelines have traditionally focused on monitoring all aspects of the functional performance of radiotherapy (RT) equipment by comparing parameters against tolerances set at strict but achievable values. Many errors that occur in radiation oncology are not due to failures in devices and software; rather they are failures in workflow and process. A systematic understanding of the likelihood and clinical impact of possible failures throughout a course of radiotherapy is needed to direct limit QM resources efficiently to produce maximum safety and quality of patient care. Task Group 100 of the AAPM has taken a broad view of these issues and has developed a framework for designing QM activities, based on estimates of the probability of identified failures and their clinical outcome through the RT planning and delivery process. The Task Group has chosen a specific radiotherapy process required for "intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)" as a case study. The goal of this work is to apply modern risk-based analysis techniques to this complex RT process in order to demonstrate to the RT community that such techniques may help identify more effective and efficient ways to enhance the safety and quality of our treatment processes. The task group generated by consensus an example quality management program strategy for the IMRT process performed at the institution of one of the authors. This report describes the methodology and nomenclature developed, presents the process maps, FMEAs, fault trees, and QM programs developed, and makes suggestions on how this information could be used in the clinic. The development and implementation of risk-assessment techniques will make radiation therapy

  10. The report of Task Group 100 of the AAPM: Application of risk analysis methods to radiation therapy quality management (United States)

    Huq, M. Saiful; Fraass, Benedick A.; Dunscombe, Peter B.; Gibbons, John P.; Mundt, Arno J.; Mutic, Sasa; Palta, Jatinder R.; Rath, Frank; Thomadsen, Bruce R.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Yorke, Ellen D.


    The increasing complexity of modern radiation therapy planning and delivery challenges traditional prescriptive quality management (QM) methods, such as many of those included in guidelines published by organizations such as the AAPM, ASTRO, ACR, ESTRO, and IAEA. These prescriptive guidelines have traditionally focused on monitoring all aspects of the functional performance of radiotherapy (RT) equipment by comparing parameters against tolerances set at strict but achievable values. Many errors that occur in radiation oncology are not due to failures in devices and software; rather they are failures in workflow and process. A systematic understanding of the likelihood and clinical impact of possible failures throughout a course of radiotherapy is needed to direct limit QM resources efficiently to produce maximum safety and quality of patient care. Task Group 100 of the AAPM has taken a broad view of these issues and has developed a framework for designing QM activities, based on estimates of the probability of identified failures and their clinical outcome through the RT planning and delivery process. The Task Group has chosen a specific radiotherapy process required for “intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)” as a case study. The goal of this work is to apply modern risk-based analysis techniques to this complex RT process in order to demonstrate to the RT community that such techniques may help identify more effective and efficient ways to enhance the safety and quality of our treatment processes. The task group generated by consensus an example quality management program strategy for the IMRT process performed at the institution of one of the authors. This report describes the methodology and nomenclature developed, presents the process maps, FMEAs, fault trees, and QM programs developed, and makes suggestions on how this information could be used in the clinic. The development and implementation of risk-assessment techniques will make radiation

  11. Intergroup visual perspective-taking: Shared group membership impairs self-perspective inhibition but may facilitate perspective calculation. (United States)

    Simpson, Austin J; Todd, Andrew R


    Reasoning about what other people see, know, and want is essential for navigating social life. Yet, even neurodevelopmentally healthy adults make perspective-taking errors. Here, we examined how the group membership of perspective-taking targets (ingroup vs. outgroup) affects processes underlying visual perspective-taking. In three experiments using two bases of group identity (university affiliation and minimal groups), interference from one's own differing perspective (i.e., egocentric intrusion) was stronger when responding from an ingroup versus an outgroup member's perspective. Spontaneous perspective calculation, as indexed by interference from another's visual perspective when reporting one's own (i.e., altercentric intrusion), did not differ across target group membership in any of our experiments. Process-dissociation analyses, which aim to isolate automatic processes underlying altercentric-intrusion effects, further revealed negligible effects of target group membership on perspective calculation. Meta-analytically, however, there was suggestive evidence that shared group membership facilitates responding from others' perspectives when self and other perspectives are aligned. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cluster-Continuum Calculations of Hydration Free Energies of Anions and Group 12 Divalent Cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hao-Bo [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Riccardi, Demian M [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL


    Understanding aqueous phase processes involving group 12 metal cations is relevant to both environmental and biological sciences. Here, quantum chemical methods and polarizable continuum models are used to compute the hydration free energies of a series of divalent group 12 metal cations (Zn2+, Cd2+, and Hg2+) together with Cu2+ and the anions OH , SH , Cl , and F . A cluster-continuum method is employed, in which gas-phase clusters of the ion and explicit solvent molecules are immersed in a dielectric continuum. Two approaches to define the size of the solute-water cluster are compared, in which the number of explicit waters used is either held constant or determined variationally as that of the most favorable hydration free energy. Results obtained with various polarizable continuum models are also presented. Each leg of the relevant thermodynamic cycle is analyzed in detail to determine how different contributions yield the observed mean signed error (MSE) and the standard deviation of the error (STDEV) between theory and experiment. The use of a constant number of water molecules for each set of ions is found to lead to predicted relative trends that benefit from error cancellation. Overall, the best results are obtained with MP2 and the Solvent Model D polarizable continuum model (SMD), with eight explicit water molecules for anions and ten for the metal cations, yielding a STDEV of 2.3 kcal/mol and MSE of 0.9 kcal/mol between theoretical to experimental hydration free energies, which range from -72.4 kcal/mol for SH to -505.9 kcal/mol for Cu2+. Using B3PW91 with DFT-D3 dispersion corrections (B3PW91-D) and SMD yields a STDEV of 3.3 kcal mol 1 and MSE of 1.6 kcal/mol, to which adding MP2 corrections from smaller divalent metal ion water molecule clusters yields very good agreement with the full MP2 results. Using B3PW91-D and SMD, with two explicit water molecules for anions and six for divalent metal cations also yields reasonable agreement with experiment

  13. Summary report for MEGAPIE R+D Task Group X4: Fluid dynamics and structure mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B. L


    The document chronicles, and draws summary conclusions from, the activities of the X4 R+D Support Group from the start of the project on January 1, 2000 to the time of the Technical Review Meeting in Mol: 27-29 June, 2005. The objectives to be accomplished were set out in a Baseline document. These were: to define the lower target flow configuration, within the geometric constraints imposed by the physical boundary conditions (geometrical confinement, lead- bismuth eutectic (LBE) inventory, pump capacities, target heat exchanger (THX) power, etc.); to identify, and evaluate, optimum target window design to minimise thermal loads and pressure drops, and to avoid hot-spots and flow instabilities; to demonstrate reliable cooling of the lower target enclosure (LTE); to demonstrate the structural integrity of the lower section of the Iiquid-metal container LMC) and its internal components, and that of the LTE; to provide best-estimate safety margins on target coolability and structural integrity under operational flow conditions; to investigate, quantify, and make recommendations regarding, abnormal target operation including possible accident scenarios). The time-scale set for MEGAPIE was always such that much of the design work needed to be carried out at the same time as the R+D support. Often, the target design was changing faster than the time required to perform the detailed computer simulations. As a consequence, many of the simulations reported or referenced in this document do not refer to the very latest target design, and in many respects the results and conclusions must be regarded as generic in nature. Nonetheless, very valuable work has been carried out by the various organisations, and better understanding of the expected temperature distributions and stress levels in the operating MEGAPIE target has been gained, and direct feed-back to the design team on various aspects of the design details has taken place as a consequence of this work. As the design

  14. DECOVALEX-THMC Project. Task A. Influence of near field coupled THM phenomena on the performance of a spent fuel repository. Report of Task A1: Preliminary scoping calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Son (ed.) [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (Canada); Lanru Jing (ed.) [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Boergesson, Lennart [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Chijimatzu, Masakazu [Hazama Corporation (Japan); Jussila, Petri [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Helsinki (Finland); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory CA (United States)


    The DECOVALEX-THMC project is an ongoing international co-operative project that was stared in 2004 to support the development of mathematical models of coupled Thermal (T), Hydrological (H), Mechanical (M) and Chemical (C) processes in geological media for siting potential nuclear fuel waste repositories. The general objective is to characterise and evaluate the coupled THMC processes in the near field and far field of a geological repository and to assess their impact on performance assessment: - during the three phases of repository development: excavation phase, operation phase and post-closure phase; - for three different rocks types: crystalline, argillaceous and tuff; - with specific focus on the issues of: Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ), permanent property changes of rock masses, and glaciation and permafrost phenomena. The project involves a large number of research teams supported by radioactive waste management agencies or governmental regulatory bodies in Canada, China, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Sweden and USA, who conducted advanced studies and numerical modelling of coupled THMC processes under five tasks. This report presents the definition of the first phase, Task A-1, of the Task A of the project. The task is a working example of how interaction between THMC modelling and SA analysis could be performed. Starting with the technical definition of the Task A, the report presents the results of preliminary THM calculations with a purpose of an initial appreciation of the phenomena and material properties that must be better understood in subsequent phases. Many simplifications and assumptions were introduced and the results should be considered under these assumptions. Based on the evaluation of the multiple teams' results, a few points of concern were identified that may guide the successive phases of Task A studies: 1. The predicted maximum total stress in the MX-80 bentonite could slightly exceed the 15 MPa design pressure for the

  15. An unadjusted 25 group neutron cross section set for fast reactor core calculations from JENDL-2 library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devan, K.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Lee, S.M. [Nuclear Data Section Indira Ganhi Centre for Atomic Research, Tamilnadu (India)


    We have created a 25 group neutron cross section set (IGCJENDL) for nuclides of interest to LMFBRs from the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library - Version 2 (JENDL-2) in the format of French adjusted Cadarache Version 2 set (1969). The integral validation of IGCJENDL set was done by analyzing nine fast critical assemblies proposed by Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG). The calculated integral parameters agreed reasonably well with the reported measured values. It is found that this set predicts the integral parameters, k-eff in particular, close to that predicted by adjusted CARNAVAL IV (French) or BNAB-78 (Russian) sets, for a 1200 MWe theoretical benchmark, representing a large power reactor.

  16. Extrapolating Accelerated UV Weathering Data: Perspective From PVQAT Task Group 5 (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.; Annigoni, E.; Ballion, A.; Bokria, J.; Bruckman, L.; Burns, D.; Elliott, L.; French, R.; Fowler, S.; Gu, X.; Honeker, C.; Khonkar, H.; Kohl, M.; Krommenhoek, P.; Peret-Aebi, L.; Phillips, N.; Scott, K.; Sculati-Meillaud, F.; Shioda, T.


    Taskgroup 5 (TG5) is concerned with a accelerated aging standard incorporating factors including ultraviolet radiation, temperature, and moisture. Separate experiments are being conducted in support of a test standard via the regional sub-groups in Asia, Europe, and the United States. The authors will describe the objectives and timeline for the TG5 interlaboratory study being directed out of the USA. Qualitative preliminary data from the experiment is presented. To date, the encapsulation transmittance experiment has: replicated behaviors of fielded materials (including specimen location- and formulation additive-specific discoloration); demonstrated coupling between UV aging and temperature; demonstrated that degradation in EVA results from UV- aging; and obtained good qualitative comparison between Xe and UVA-340 sources for EVA. To date, the encapsulation adhesion experiment (using the compressive shear test to quantify strength of attachment) has demonstrated that attachment strength can decrease drastically (>50%) with age; however, early results suggest significant factor (UV, T, RH) dependence. Much remains to be learned about adhesion.

  17. Two Paths from the Same Place: Task Driven and Human Centered Evolution of a Group Information Surface (United States)

    Russell, Daniel M.; Trimble, Jay; Wales, Roxana; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)


    This is the tale of two different implementations of a collaborative information tool, that started from the same design source. The Blueboard, developed at IBM Research, is a tool for groups to use in exchanging information in a lightweight, informal collaborative way. It began as a large display surface for walk-by use in a corporate setting and has evolved in response to task demands and user needs. At NASA, the MERBoard is being designed to support surface operations for the upcoming Mars Exploration Rover Missions. The MERBoard is a tool that was inspired by the Blueboard design, extending this design to support the collaboration requirements for viewing, annotating, linking and distributing information for the science and engineering teams that will operate two rovers on the surface of Mars. The ways in which each group transformed the system reflects not only technical requirements, but also the needs of users in each setting and embedding of the system within the larger socio-technical environment. Lessons about how task requirements, information flow requirements and work practice drive the evolution of a system are illustrated.

  18. Density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method as a common tool for large active-space CASSCF/CASPT2 calculations (United States)

    Nakatani, Naoki; Guo, Sheng


    This paper describes an interface between the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method and the complete active-space self-consistent field (CASSCF) method and its analytical gradient, as well as an extension to the second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2) method. This interfacing allows large active-space multi-reference computations to be easily performed. The interface and its extension are both implemented in terms of reduced density matrices (RDMs) which can be efficiently computed via the DMRG sweep algorithm. We also present benchmark results showing that, in practice, the DMRG-CASSCF calculations scale with active-space size in a polynomial manner in the case of quasi-1D systems. Geometry optimization of a binuclear iron-sulfur cluster using the DMRG-CASSCF analytical gradient is demonstrated, indicating that the inclusion of the valence p-orbitals of sulfur and double-shell d-orbitals of iron lead to non-negligible changes in the geometry compared to the results of small active-space calculations. With the exception of the selection of M values, many computational settings in these practical DMRG calculations have been tuned and black-boxed in our interface, and so the resulting DMRG-CASSCF and DMRG-CASPT2 calculations are now available to novice users as a common tool to compute strongly correlated electronic wavefunctions.

  19. The influence of carbon surface oxygen groups on Dubinin-Astakhov equation parameters calculated from CO2 adsorption isotherm. (United States)

    Furmaniak, Sylwester; Terzyk, Artur P; Gauden, Piotr A; Harris, Peter J F; Kowalczyk, Piotr


    We present the results of a systematic study of the influence of carbon surface oxidation on Dubinin-Astakhov isotherm parameters obtained from the fitting of CO2 adsorption data. Using GCMC simulations of adsorption on realistic VPC models differing in porosity and containing the most frequently occurring carbon surface functionalities (carboxyls, hydroxyls and carbonyls) and their mixtures, it is concluded that the maximum adsorption calculated from the DA model is not strongly affected by the presence of oxygen groups. Unfortunately, the same cannot be said of the remaining two parameters of this model i.e. the heterogeneity parameter (n) and the characteristic energy of adsorption (E0). Since from the latter the pore diameters of carbons are usually calculated, by inverse-type relationships, it is concluded that they are questionable for carbons containing surface oxides, especially carboxyls.

  20. Electronic structures of platinum group elements silicides calculated by a first-principle pseudopotential method using plane-wave basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, Y. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, AIST Tsukuba Central 5, Higashi 1-1 Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Watanabe, A. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, AIST Tsukuba Central 5, Higashi 1-1 Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)


    The electronic structures of platinum group elements (Ru, Os, Rh, Ir, Pd, and Pt) silicides have been calculated. Ir{sub 3}Si{sub 5} is a semiconductor with the direct gap of 1.14 eV. Among monosilicides, RuSi and OsSi with the FeSi-type structure are semiconductors with the gap values of 0.21 and 0.41 eV but RhSi, IrSi, PdSi, and PtSi with the MnP-type structure are metals. No semiconducting compounds can be found in other platinum group elements silicides other than known Ru{sub 2}Si{sub 3}, Os{sub 2}Si{sub 3}, and OsSi{sub 2}.

  1. Calculation procedure for formulating lauric and palmitic fat blends based on the grouping of triacylglycerol melting points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Nusantoro


    Full Text Available A calculation procedure for formulating lauric and palmitic fat blends has been developed based on grouping TAG melting points. This procedure offered more flexibility in choosing the initial fats and oils and eventually gave deeper insight into the existing chemical compositions and better prediction on the physicochemical properties and microstructure of the fat blends. The amount of high, medium and low melting TAGs could be adjusted using the given calculation procedure to obtain the desired functional properties in the fat blends. Solid fat contents and melting behavior of formulated fat blends showed particular patterns with respect to ratio adjustments of the melting TAG groups. These outcomes also suggested that both TAG species and their quantity had a significant influence on the crystallization behavior of the fat blends. Palmitic fat blends, in general, were found to exhibit higher SFC values than those of Lauric fat blends. Instead of the similarity in crystal microstructure, lauric fat blends were stabilized at β polymorph while palmitic fat blends were stabilized at β’ polymorph.

  2. Group-based exercise combined with dual-task training improves gait but not vascular health in active older adults without dementia. (United States)

    Gregory, Michael A; Gill, Dawn P; Zou, Guangyong; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Shigematsu, Ryosuke; Fitzgerald, Clara; Hachinski, Vladimir; Shoemaker, Kevin; Petrella, Robert J


    Gait abnormalities and vascular disease risk factors are associated with cognitive impairment in aging. To determine the impact of group-based exercise and dual-task training on gait and vascular health, in active community-dwelling older adults without dementia. Participants [n=44, mean (SD) age: 73.5 (7.2) years, 68% female] were randomized to either intervention (exercise+dual-task; EDT) or control (exercise only; EO). Each week, for 26 weeks, both groups accumulated 50 or 75 min of aerobic exercise from group-based classes and 45 min of beginner-level square stepping exercise (SSE). Participants accumulating only 50 min of aerobic exercise were instructed to participate in an additional 25 min each week outside of class. The EDT group also answered cognitively challenging questions while performing SSE (i.e., dual-task training). The effect of the interventions on gait and vascular health was compared between groups using linear mixed effects models. At 26 weeks, the EDT group demonstrated increased dual-task (DT) gait velocity [difference between groups in mean change from baseline (95% CI): 0.29 m/s (0.16-0.43), pexercise combined with dual-task training can improve DT gait characteristics in active older adults without dementia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    a waste group B (or A) tank identifies the potential for an induced flammable gas release hazard, the hazard only exists for specific operations that can release the retained gas in the tank at a rate and quantity that results in reaching 100% of the lower flammability limit in the tank headspace. The identification and evaluation of tank farm operations that could cause an induced flammable gas release hazard in a waste group B (or A) tank are included in other documents. The third criterion is the buoyancy ratio. This criterion addresses tanks that are not waste group C double-shell tanks and have an energy ratio {ge} 3.0. For these double-shell tanks, the buoyancy ratio considers whether the saturated solids can retain sufficient gas to exceed neutral buoyancy relative to the supernatant layer and therefore have buoyant displacement gas release events. If the buoyancy ratio is {ge} 1.0, that double-shell tank is assigned to waste group A. These tanks are considered to have a potential spontaneous buoyant displacement flammable gas release hazard in addition to a potential induced flammable gas release hazard. This document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 8 is the annual update of the calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 7 is the annual update of the calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs. The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient

  5. Three-dimensional, task-specific robot therapy of the arm after stroke: a multicentre, parallel-group randomised trial. (United States)

    Klamroth-Marganska, Verena; Blanco, Javier; Campen, Katrin; Curt, Armin; Dietz, Volker; Ettlin, Thierry; Felder, Morena; Fellinghauer, Bernd; Guidali, Marco; Kollmar, Anja; Luft, Andreas; Nef, Tobias; Schuster-Amft, Corina; Stahel, Werner; Riener, Robert


    Arm hemiparesis secondary to stroke is common and disabling. We aimed to assess whether robotic training of an affected arm with ARMin--an exoskeleton robot that allows task-specific training in three dimensions-reduces motor impairment more effectively than does conventional therapy. In a prospective, multicentre, parallel-group randomised trial, we enrolled patients who had had motor impairment for more than 6 months and moderate-to-severe arm paresis after a cerebrovascular accident who met our eligibility criteria from four centres in Switzerland. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive robotic or conventional therapy using a centre-stratified randomisation procedure. For both groups, therapy was given for at least 45 min three times a week for 8 weeks (total 24 sessions). The primary outcome was change in score on the arm (upper extremity) section of the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA-UE). Assessors tested patients immediately before therapy, after 4 weeks of therapy, at the end of therapy, and 16 weeks and 34 weeks after start of therapy. Assessors were masked to treatment allocation, but patients, therapists, and data analysts were unmasked. Analyses were by modified intention to treat. This study is registered with, number NCT00719433. Between May 4, 2009, and Sept 3, 2012, 143 individuals were tested for eligibility, of whom 77 were eligible and agreed to participate. 38 patients assigned to robotic therapy and 35 assigned to conventional therapy were included in analyses. Patients assigned to robotic therapy had significantly greater improvements in motor function in the affected arm over the course of the study as measured by FMA-UE than did those assigned to conventional therapy (F=4.1, p=0.041; mean difference in score 0.78 points, 95% CI 0.03-1.53). No serious adverse events related to the study occurred. Neurorehabilitation therapy including task-oriented training with an exoskeleton robot can enhance improvement of

  6. Differential activity in the premotor cortex subdivisions in humans during mental calculation and verbal rehearsal tasks: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. (United States)

    Hanakawa, Takashi; Honda, Manabu; Okada, Tomohisa; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Shibasaki, Hiroshi


    To investigate a possible role of the lateral premotor cortex in human cognitive processes, we compared brain activity during mental-operation numeral (MO-numeral) and verbal rehearsal (VR) tasks, using block-design functional MRI. Sixteen healthy subjects serially added a series of single-digit numbers during the MO-numeral task and silently rehearsed a memorized seven-digit number during the VR task. Each task condition was contrasted with a visual fixation task. Both MO-numeral and VR tasks revealed activity within the lateral premotor cortex among others. The rostral and dorsal part of the lateral premotor cortex (PMdr) showed significantly greater activity during the MO-numeral task than the VR task whereas its caudal part (PMdc) was similarly active during the two tasks. The present study suggests that the PMdr and PMdc are involved in different non-motor cognitive processes.

  7. Renormalization group calculations for wetting transitions of infinite order and continuously varying order: local interface Hamiltonian approach. (United States)

    Indekeu, J O; Koga, K; Hooyberghs, H; Parry, A O


    We study the effect of thermal fluctuations on the wetting phase transitions of infinite order and of continuously varying order, recently discovered within a mean-field density-functional model for three-phase equilibria in systems with short-range forces and a two-component order parameter. Using linear functional renormalization group calculations within a local interface Hamiltonian approach, we show that the infinite-order transitions are robust. The exponential singularity (implying 2-α(s)=∞) of the surface free energy excess at infinite-order wetting as well as the precise algebraic divergence (with β(s)=-1) of the wetting layer thickness are not modified as long as ω<2, with ω the dimensionless wetting parameter that measures the strength of thermal fluctuations. The interface width diverges algebraically and universally (with ν([perpendicular])=1/2). In contrast, the nonuniversal critical wetting transitions of finite but continuously varying order are modified when thermal fluctuations are taken into account, in line with predictions from earlier calculations on similar models displaying weak, intermediate, and strong fluctuation regimes.

  8. Status Report on Activities of the Systems Assessment Task Force, OECD-NEA Expert Group on Accident Tolerant Fuels for LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon Michelle [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development /Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) Nuclear Science Committee approved the formation of an Expert Group on Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) for LWRs (EGATFL) in 2014. Chaired by Kemal Pasamehmetoglu, INL Associate Laboratory Director for Nuclear Science and Technology, the mandate for the EGATFL defines work under three task forces: (1) Systems Assessment, (2) Cladding and Core Materials, and (3) Fuel Concepts. Scope for the Systems Assessment task force (TF1) includes definition of evaluation metrics for ATF, technology readiness level definition, definition of illustrative scenarios for ATF evaluation, and identification of fuel performance and system codes applicable to ATF evaluation. The Cladding and Core Materials (TF2) and Fuel Concepts (TF3) task forces will identify gaps and needs for modeling and experimental demonstration; define key properties of interest; identify the data necessary to perform concept evaluation under normal conditions and illustrative scenarios; identify available infrastructure (internationally) to support experimental needs; and make recommendations on priorities. Where possible, considering proprietary and other export restrictions (e.g., International Traffic in Arms Regulations), the Expert Group will facilitate the sharing of data and lessons learned across the international group membership. The Systems Assessment task force is chaired by Shannon Bragg-Sitton (Idaho National Laboratory [INL], U.S.), the Cladding Task Force is chaired by Marie Moatti (Electricite de France [EdF], France), and the Fuels Task Force is chaired by a Masaki Kurata (Japan Atomic Energy Agency [JAEA], Japan). The original Expert Group mandate was established for June 2014 to June 2016. In April 2016 the Expert Group voted to extend the mandate one additional year to June 2017 in order to complete the task force deliverables; this request was subsequently approved by the Nuclear Science Committee. This

  9. Benchmark Calculations of Energetic Properties of Groups 4 and 6 Transition Metal Oxide Nanoclusters Including Comparison to Density Functional Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zongtang; Both, Johan; Li, Shenggang; Yue, Shuwen; Aprà, Edoardo; Keçeli, Murat; Wagner, Albert F.; Dixon, David A.


    The heats of formation and the normalized clustering energies (NCEs) for the group 4 and group 6 transition metal oxide (TMO) trimers and tetramers have been calculated by the Feller-Peterson-Dixon (FPD) method. The heats of formation predicted by the FPD method do not differ much from those previously derived from the NCEs at the CCSD(T)/aT level except for the CrO3 nanoclusters. New and improved heats of formation for Cr3O9 and Cr4O12 were obtained using PW91 orbitals instead of Hartree-Fock (HF) orbitals. Diffuse functions are necessary to predict accurate heats of formation. The fluoride affinities (FAs) are calculated with the CCSD(T) method. The relative energies (REs) of different isomers, NCEs, electron affinities (EAs), and FAs of (MO2)n ( M = Ti, Zr, Hf, n = 1 – 4 ) and (MO3)n ( M = Cr, Mo, W, n = 1 – 3) clusters have been benchmarked with 55 exchange-correlation DFT functionals including both pure and hybrid types. The absolute errors of the DFT results are mostly less than ±10 kcal/mol for the NCEs and the EAs, and less than ±15 kcal/mol for the FAs. Hybrid functionals usually perform better than the pure functionals for the REs and NCEs. The performance of the two types of functionals in predicting EAs and FAs is comparable. The B1B95 and PBE1PBE functionals provide reliable energetic properties for most isomers. Long range corrected pure functionals usually give poor FAs. The standard deviation of the absolute error is always close to the mean errors and the probability distributions of the DFT errors are often not Gaussian (normal). The breadth of the distribution of errors and the maximum probability are dependent on the energy property and the isomer.

  10. Reexamining the validity and reliability of the clinical version of the Iowa gambling task: Evidence from a normal subject group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hung eLin


    Full Text Available Over past decade, the Iowa gambling task (IGT has been utilized to test various decision deficits induced by neurological damage or psychiatric disorders. The IGT has recently been standardized for identifying 13 different neuropsychological disorders. Neuropsychological patients choose bad decks frequently, and normal subjects prefer good EV decks. However, the IGT has several validity and reliability problems. Some research groups have pointed out that the validity of IGT is influenced by the personality and emotional state of subjects. Additionally, several other studies have proposed that the prominent deck B phenomenon (PDB phenomenon – that is, normal subjects preferring bad deck B – may be the most serious problem confronting IGT validity. Specifically, deck B offers a high frequency of gains but negative EV. In the standard IGT administration, choice behavior can be understood with reference to gain-loss frequency (GLF rather than inferred future consequences (EV, the basic assumption of IGT. Furthermore, using two different criteria (basic assumption vs. professional norm results in significantly different classification results. Therefore, we recruited 72 normal subjects to test the validity and reliability of IGT. Each subject performed three runs of the computer-based clinical IGT version. The PDB phenomenon has been observed to a significant degree in the first and second stages of the clinical IGT version. Obviously, validity, reliability and the practice effect were unstable between two given stages. The present form of the clinical IGT version has only one stage, so its use should be reconsidered for examining normal decision makers; results from patient groups must also be interpreted with great care. GLF could be the main factor to be considered in establishing the constructional validity and reliability of the clinical IGT version.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARKER, S.A.


    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 5 is the annual update of the methodology and calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  12. Second mission of North-Cotentin radio-ecology group. The uncertainty calculation; Deuxieme mission du Groupe Radio-ecologie Nord-Cotentin. Le calcul d'incertitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boilley, D


    The present study treats only the collective risk of ex-utero leukaemia associated with the routine releases of the nuclear industrial installations of the North Cotentin (0.0009 cases over the considered period) the uncertainty on the contribution to the collective risk of the incidents and the accidents of the nuclear installations (notably the drilling of the pipe of release in sea arisen in 1979-1980 and the fire of the waste silo on January 6. 1981, for the reprocessing plant of La Hague has not been considered. Only 45% of the risk are taken into account by the study. Every calculated value remains very inferior to the number of leukemia cases observed (4 cases observed for two expected cases) and to the risk of radioinduced leukemia any merged exposure sources, that is to say 0.84 cases. It appears thus not very probable that the nuclear installations of the North - Cotentin can explain the tendency to the excess of observed leukaemia. The limits of the study become attached for the main part to the environmental impact of the routine releases and to the lifestyles and refuses to tackle anything concerning the health radiation effects. The work made by the group does not allow to end in the harmlessness of radioactive waste, nevertheless, it gives an idea of the scale of the impacts onto the environment of the routine releases. (N.C.)

  13. Innovative characteristics of the new dosimetric model for the human respiratory tract studied by the ICRP appointed Task Group of Committee 2

    CERN Document Server

    Melandri, C; Tarroni, G


    In 1984, the ICRP appointed a Task Group of Committee 2 to review and revise, as necessary, the current lung dosimetric model. On the basis of the knowledge acquired during the past 20 years, the Task Group's approach has been to review, in depth, the morphology and physiology of the human respiratory tract, inspirability of aerosols and regional deposition of inhaled particles as functions of aerosol size and breathing parameters, clearance of deposited materials, nature and specific sites of damage to the respiratory system caused by inhaled radioactive substances. In the proposed model, clearance from the three regions of the respiratory tract (extrathoracic ET, fast-clearing thoracic T sub f and slow-clearing thoracic T sub s , comprising lymph nodes) is described in terms of competition between the mechanical processes moving particles, which do not depend on the substances, and those of absorption into the blood, determined solely by the material. A Task Group report will also include models for calcula...

  14. Report of ICRP Task Group 80: 'radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste'. (United States)

    Weiss, W


    The report of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Task Group 80 entitled 'Radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste' updates and consolidates previous ICRP recommendations related to solid waste disposal (ICRP Publications 46, 77, and 81). The recommendations given in this report apply specifically to geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report explains how the 2007 system of radiological protection, described in ICRP Publication 103, can be applied in the context of the geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report is written as a self-standing document. It describes the different stages in the lifetime of a geological disposal facility, and addresses the application of relevant radiological protection principles for each stage depending on the various exposure situations that can be encountered. In particular, the crucial factor that influences application of the protection system over the different phases in the lifetime of a disposal facility is the level of oversight that is present. The level of oversight affects the capability to reduce or avoid exposures. Three main time frames have to be considered for the purpose of radiological protection: time of direct oversight when the disposal facility is being implemented and active oversight is taking place; time of indirect oversight when the disposal facility is sealed and indirect oversight is being exercised to provide additional assurance on behalf of the population; and time of no oversight when oversight is no longer exercised because memory is lost. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The cognitive abilities associated with verbal fluency task performance differ across fluency variants and age groups in healthy young and old adults. (United States)

    Stolwyk, Renerus; Bannirchelvam, Bavani; Kraan, Claudine; Simpson, Katrina


    Despite their widespread use in research and clinical practice, the cognitive abilities purportedly assessed by different verbal fluency task variants remain unclear and may vary across different healthy and clinical populations. The overarching aim of this study was to identify which cognitive abilities contribute to phonemic, semantic, excluded letter, and alternating verbal fluency tasks and whether these contributions differ across younger and older healthy adults. Ninety-six younger (18-36 years) and 83 older (65-87 years) healthy participants completed measures of estimated verbal intelligence, semantic retrieval, processing speed, working memory, and inhibitory control, in addition to phonemic, semantic, excluded letter, and alternating fluency tasks. Eight hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted across the four fluency variants and two age groups to identify which cognitive variables uniquely contributed to these fluency tasks. In the younger group, verbal intelligence and processing speed contributed to phonemic fluency, semantic retrieval to semantic fluency, processing speed and working memory to excluded letter fluency, and semantic retrieval to alternating fluency. In contrast, in the older group, verbal intelligence contributed to phonemic fluency, no cognitive variables contributed to semantic fluency, inhibition to excluded letter fluency, and verbal intelligence to alternating fluency. Our findings highlight that both lower and higher order cognitive skills contribute to verbal fluency tasks; however, these contributions vary considerably across fluency variants and age groups. The heterogeneity of cognitive determinants of verbal fluency, across variants and age, may explain why older people performed less proficiently on semantic and excluded letter fluency tasks while no age effects were found for phonemic and alternating fluency. Interpretation of verbal fluency performances need to be tailored according to which verbal fluency variant

  16. Status Report on Activities of the Systems Assessment Task Force, OECD-NEA Expert Group on Accident Tolerant Fuels for LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon Michelle [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development /Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) Nuclear Science Committee approved the formation of an Expert Group on Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) for LWRs (EGATFL) in 2014. Chaired by Kemal Pasamehmetoglu, INL Associate Laboratory Director for Nuclear Science and Technology, the mandate for the EGATFL defines work under three task forces: (1) Systems Assessment, (2) Cladding and Core Materials, and (3) Fuel Concepts. Scope for the Systems Assessment task force includes definition of evaluation metrics for ATF, technology readiness level definition, definition of illustrative scenarios for ATF evaluation, parametric studies, and selection of system codes. The Cladding and Core Materials and Fuel Concepts task forces will identify gaps and needs for modeling and experimental demonstration; define key properties of interest; identify the data necessary to perform concept evaluation under normal conditions and illustrative scenarios; identify available infrastructure (internationally) to support experimental needs; and make recommendations on priorities. Where possible, considering proprietary and other export restrictions (e.g., International Traffic in Arms Regulations), the Expert Group will facilitate the sharing of data and lessons learned across the international group membership. The Systems Assessment Task Force is chaired by Shannon Bragg-Sitton (INL), while the Cladding Task Force will be chaired by a representative from France (Marie Moatti, Electricite de France [EdF]) and the Fuels Task Force will be chaired by a representative from Japan (Masaki Kurata, Japan Atomic Energy Agency [JAEA]). This report provides an overview of the Systems Assessment Task Force charter and status of work accomplishment.

  17. Quality assurance for computed-tomography simulators and the computed-tomography-simulation process: report of the AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group No. 66. (United States)

    Mutic, Sasa; Palta, Jatinder R; Butker, Elizabeth K; Das, Indra J; Huq, M Saiful; Loo, Leh-Nien Dick; Salter, Bill J; McCollough, Cynthia H; Van Dyk, Jacob


    This document presents recommendations of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) for quality assurance of computed-tomography- (CT) simulators and CT-simulation process. This report was prepared by Task Group No. 66 of the AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee. It was approved by the Radiation Therapy Committee and by the AAPM Science Council.

  18. The sensitivity of a virtual reality task to planning and prospective memory impairments: group differences and the efficacy of periodic alerts on performance. (United States)

    Sweeney, Siobhan; Kersel, Denyse; Morris, Robin G; Manly, Tom; Evans, Jonathan J


    Executive functions have been argued to be the most vulnerable to brain injury. In providing an analogue of everyday situations amenable to control and management virtual reality (VR) may offer better insights into planning deficits consequent upon brain injury. Here 17 participants with a non-progressive brain injury and reported executive difficulties in everyday life were asked to perform a VR task (working in a furniture storage unit) that emphasised planning, rule following and prospective memory tasks. When compared with an age and IQ-matched control group, the patients were significantly poorer in terms of their strategy, their time-based prospective memory, the overall time required and their propensity to break rules. An examination of sensitivity and specificity of the VR task to group membership (brain-injured or control) showed that, with specificity set at maximum, sensitivity was only modest (at just over 50%). A second component to the study investigated whether the patients' performance could be improved by periodic auditory alerts. Previous studies have demonstrated that such cues can improve performance on laboratory tests, executive tests and everyday prospective memory tasks. Here, no significant changes in performance were detected. Potential reasons for this finding are discussed, including symptom severity and differences in the tasks employed in previous studies.

  19. Verification of dosimetric commissioning accuracy of intensity modulated radiation therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy delivery using task Group-119 guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunakaran Kaviarasu


    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study is to verify the accuracy of the commissioning of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT based on the recommendation of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 119 (TG-119. Materials and Methods: TG-119 proposes a set of clinical test cases to verify the accuracy of IMRT planning and delivery system. For these test cases, we generated two sets of treatment plans, the first plan using 7–9 IMRT fields and a second plan utilizing two-arc VMAT technique for both 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams. The template plans of TG-119 were optimized and calculated by Varian Eclipse Treatment Planning System (version 13.5. Dose prescription and planning objectives were set according to the TG-119 goals. The point dose (mean dose to the contoured chamber volume at the specified positions/locations was measured using compact (CC-13 ion chamber. The composite planar dose was measured with IMatriXX Evaluation 2D array with OmniPro IMRT Software (version 1.7b. The per-field relative gamma was measured using electronic portal imaging device in a way similar to the routine pretreatment patient-specific quality assurance. Results: Our planning results are compared with the TG-119 data. Point dose and fluence comparison data where within the acceptable confident limit. Conclusion: From the obtained data in this study, we conclude that the commissioning of IMRT and VMAT delivery were found within the limits of TG-119.

  20. Examining the Impact of Novel Pre-Activity Tasks on Macroskills: The Case of Group Discussion on Writing Ability (United States)

    Khoshsima, Hooshang; Zare-Behtash, Esmail; Khosravani, Mahboobeh


    The main concern of most researchers in the field of second and foreign language teaching is lessening the problems and eliminating the hinders on the way of learning a language. Writing is considered as one of the most challenging and complicated tasks for learners to perform particularly when they have to write in a second or foreign language.…

  1. Classification and evaluation strategies of auto-segmentation approaches for PET: Report of AAPM task group No. 211. (United States)

    Hatt, Mathieu; Lee, John A; Schmidtlein, Charles R; Naqa, Issam El; Caldwell, Curtis; De Bernardi, Elisabetta; Lu, Wei; Das, Shiva; Geets, Xavier; Gregoire, Vincent; Jeraj, Robert; MacManus, Michael P; Mawlawi, Osama R; Nestle, Ursula; Pugachev, Andrei B; Schöder, Heiko; Shepherd, Tony; Spezi, Emiliano; Visvikis, Dimitris; Zaidi, Habib; Kirov, Assen S


    on advanced image analysis paradigms provide generally more accurate segmentation than approaches based on PET activity thresholds, particularly for realistic configurations. However, this may not be the case for simple shape lesions in situations with a narrower range of parameters, where simpler methods may also perform well. Recent algorithms which employ some type of consensus or automatic selection between several PET-AS methods have potential to overcome the limitations of the individual methods when appropriately trained. In either case, accuracy evaluation is required for each different PET scanner and scanning and image reconstruction protocol. For the simpler, less robust approaches, adaptation to scanning conditions, tumor type, and tumor location by optimization of parameters is necessary. The results from the method evaluation stage can be used to estimate the contouring uncertainty. All PET-AS contours should be critically verified by a physician. A standard test, i.e., a benchmark dedicated to evaluating both existing and future PET-AS algorithms needs to be designed, to aid clinicians in evaluating and selecting PET-AS algorithms and to establish performance limits for their acceptance for clinical use. The initial steps toward designing and building such a standard are undertaken by the task group members. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  2. Individualized tracking of self-directed motor learning in group-housed mice performing a skilled lever positioning task in the home cage. (United States)

    Silasi, Gergely; Boyd, Jamie D; Bolanos, Federico; LeDue, Jeff M; Scott, Stephen H; Murphy, Timothy H


    Skilled forelimb function in mice is traditionally studied through behavioral paradigms that require extensive training by investigators and are limited by the number of trials individual animals are able to perform within a supervised session. We developed a skilled lever positioning task that mice can perform within their home cage. The task requires mice to use their forelimb to precisely hold a lever mounted on a rotary encoder within a rewarded position to dispense a water reward. A Raspberry Pi microcomputer is used to record lever position during trials and to control task parameters, thus making this low-footprint apparatus ideal for use within animal housing facilities. Custom Python software automatically increments task difficulty by requiring a longer hold duration, or a more accurate hold position, to dispense a reward. The performance of individual animals within group-housed mice is tracked through radio-frequency identification implants, and data stored on the microcomputer may be accessed remotely through an active internet connection. Mice continuously engage in the task for over 2.5 mo and perform ~500 trials/24 h. Mice required ~15,000 trials to learn to hold the lever within a 10° range for 1.5 s and were able to further refine movement accuracy by limiting their error to a 5° range within each trial. These results demonstrate the feasibility of autonomously training group-housed mice on a forelimb motor task. This paradigm may be used in the future to assess functional recovery after injury or cortical reorganization induced by self-directed motor learning. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We developed a low-cost system for fully autonomous training of group-housed mice on a forelimb motor task. We demonstrate the feasibility of tracking both end-point, as well as kinematic performance of individual mice, with each performing thousands of trials over 2.5 mo. The task is run and controlled by a Raspberry Pi microcomputer, which allows for cages to be


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Repin


    Full Text Available An article describes radiation risk factors for several gender-age population groups according to Russian statistical and medical-demographic data, evaluates the lethality rate for separate nosologic forms of malignant neoplasms based on Russian cancer registries according to the method of the International Agency for Cancer Research. Relative damage factors are calculated for the gender-age groups under consideration. The tissue weighting factors recommended by ICRP to calculate effective doses are compared with relative damage factors calculated by ICRP for the nominal population and with similar factors calculated in this work for separate population cohorts in theRussian Federation. The significance of differences and the feasibility of using tissue weighting factors adapted for the Russian population in assessing population risks in cohorts of different gender-age compositions have been assessed.

  4. Generation of multigroup cross-sections from micro-group ones in code system SUHAM-U used for VVER-1000 reactor core calculations with MOX loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyarinov, V.F.; Davidenko, V.D.; Polismakov, A.A.; Tsybulsky, V.F. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    At the present time, the new code system SUHAM-U for calculation of the neutron-physical processes in nuclear reactor core with triangular and square lattices based both on the modern micro-group (about 7000 groups) cross-sections library of code system UNK and on solving the multigroup (up to 89 groups) neutron transport equation by Surface Harmonics Method is elaborated. In this paper the procedure for generation of multigroup cross-sections from micro-group ones for calculation of VVER-1000 reactor core with MOX loading is described. The validation has consisted in computing VVER-1000 fuel assemblies with uranium and MOX fuel and has shown enough high accuracy under corresponding selection of the number and boundaries of the energy groups. This work has been fulfilled in the frame of ISTC project 'System Analyses of Nuclear Safety for VVER Reactors with MOX Fuels'.

  5. Stereotype-based faultlines and out-group derogation in diverse teams: The moderating roles of task stereotypicality and need for cognition. (United States)

    Stanciu, Adrian


    Alignment of individuals on more than one diversity attribute (i.e., faultlines) may lead to intergroup biases in teams, disrupting the efficiency expectancies. Research has yet to examine if this can be a consequence of a stereotypical consistency between social and information attributes of diversity. The present study tests the hypothesis that, in a team with a stereotype-based faultline (a stereotypical consistency between gender and skills), there is increased out-group derogation compared to a team with a stereotype-inconsistent faultline. Furthermore, the study proposes that tasks can activate stereotypes, and the need for cognition dictates whether stereotypes are applied. The findings confirm the hypothesis and additionally provide evidence that tasks that activate gender stereotypes emphasize out-group derogation, especially for team members with low need for cognition.

  6. Conceptual design study, Phase 1, Task 7.3. Shutdown heat removal system. Working group final report. Volume 2. Overall results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    Task 7.3 of the Conceptual Design Study (CDS) had the objective of choosing an optimal Shutdown Heat Removal System (SHRS) for the CDS plant. A working group was formed with the primary objective of defining a SHRS consensus position. This position could define specific recommended system concepts or it could identify the work and information needed to establish the preferred SHRS for the CDS plant. This report documents the recommended SHRS position for CDS.

  7. Allocation algorithm for athletes group to form tactical tasks in game team sports using the methods of multivariate analysis (illustrated women Ukrainian team basketball with hearing impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L.


    Full Text Available Purpose : develop and prove experimentally allocation algorithm athletes in groups to form a tactical tasks in team sports game using methods of multivariate analysis. Material : The study involved 12 basketball hearing impaired 20-25 years old - female players team of Ukraine on basketball. Analyzed the results of testing and competitive activity 12 basketball players with hearing impairments - Lithuanian team players. Results : An algorithm for distribution by groups of athletes for the formation of tactical tasks. The algorithm consists of the following steps: 1 - testing of athletes; 2 - A hierarchical cluster analysis performance testing; 3 - Distribution of sportsmen groups, analysis of the characteristics of athletes, the formation of tactical tasks. Found higher rates of reaction rate at the offensive players. We pivot revealed a higher level of absolute strength. The defenders found a higher frequency of movement and jumping. Conclusions : The algorithm is the basis for determining the best options mutual combination players in the development and implementation of tactical combinations, the selection of partners when working in pairs and triples in training.

  8. Norwegian 1990 sediment data for the North Sea Task Force (NSTF) and the Joint Monitoring Group (JMG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, N.W.; Klungsoeyr, J.


    This report presents the 1990 sediment data compiled as part of the Norwegian contribution to the North Sea Task Force Monitoring Master Plan and the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP). The JMP is ordered under the Oslo and Paris Commissions, which were established to protect the marine environment against anthropogenic contamination. The stations monitored by Norway are spread over the Kattegat, Skagerrak, North Sea south to the Dogger Bank and the Faeroe Islands. The contaminants investigated are mainly selected metals, organochlorines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and the samples were collected by gravity cores and grab/box samplers. The raw data and the mean and standard deviations of parallel samples (if relevant) are presented. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Cliff´s Delta Calculator: A non-parametric effect size program for two groups of observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Macbeth


    Full Text Available The Cliff´s Delta statistic is an effect size measure that quantifies the amount of difference between two non-parametric variables beyond p-values interpretation. This measure can be understood as a useful complementary analysis for the corresponding hypothesis testing. During the last two decades the use of effect size measures has been strongly encouraged by methodologists and leading institutions of behavioral sciences. The aim of this contribution is to introduce the Cliff´s Delta Calculator software that performs such analysis and offers some interpretation tips. Differences and similarities with the parametric case are analysed and illustrated. The implementation of this free program is fully described and compared with other calculators. Alternative algorithmic approaches are mathematically analysed and a basic linear algebra proof of its equivalence is formally presented. Two worked examples in cognitive psychology are commented. A visual interpretation of Cliff´s Delta is suggested. Availability, installation and applications of the program are presented and discussed.

  10. Sensitivity of physiological measures for detecting systematic variations in cognitive demand from a working memory task: an on-road study across three age groups. (United States)

    Mehler, Bruce; Reimer, Bryan; Coughlin, Joseph F


    To assess the sensitivity of two physiological measures for discriminating between levels of cognitive demand under driving conditions across different age groups. Previous driving research presents a mixed picture concerning the sensitivity of physiological measures for differentiating tasks with presumed differences in mental workload. A total of 108 relatively healthy drivers balanced by gender and across three age groups (20-29, 40-49, 60-69) engaged in three difficulty levels of an auditory presentation-verbal response working memory task. Heart rate and skin conductance level (SCL) both increased in a statistically significant fashion with each incremental increase in cognitive demand, whereas driving performance measures did not provide incremental discrimination. SCL was lower in the 40s and 60s age groups; however, the pattern of incremental increase with higher demand was consistent for heart rate and SCL across all age groups. Although each measure was quite sensitive at the group level, considering both SCL and heart rate improved detection of periods of heightened cognitive demand at the individual level. The data provide clear evidence that two basic physiological measures can be utilized under field conditions to differentiate multiple levels of objectively defined changes in cognitive demand. Methodological considerations, including task engagement, may account for some of the inconsistencies in previous research. These findings increase the confidence with which these measures may be applied to assess relative differences in mental workload when developing and optimizing human machine interface (HMI) designs and in exploring their potential role in advanced workload detection and augmented cognition systems.

  11. Cognitive Therapy and Task Concentration Training Applied as Intensified Group Therapies for Social Anxiety Disorder with Fear of Blushing-A Randomized Controlled Trial. (United States)

    Härtling, Samia; Klotsche, Jens; Heinrich, Anke; Hoyer, Jürgen


    The current study examines the efficacy of intensified group therapy for social anxiety disorder with fear of blushing. Task concentration training (TCT) and cognitive therapy (CT) were applied during one weekend and compared with a waiting list condition in a randomized controlled trial including 82 patients. On a second weekend, another intervention was added (resulting in TCT-CT and CT-TCT sequences) to examine order effects. Task concentration training and CT were both superior to the waiting list and equally effective after the first therapy weekend. Also, no differences were found between the sequences TCT-CT and CT-TCT at post-assessment. At 6- and 12-month follow-up, effects remained stable or further improved. At the 6-month follow-up, remission rates in completers, established by diagnostic status, were between 69% and 73%. Intensified group therapy is highly effective in treating social anxiety disorder with fear of blushing. Group formats for patients sharing a common primary concern may contribute to the dissemination of cognitive-behavioural therapy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message: This study focuses on blushing from fearful individuals within the SAD spectrum to improve evidence for treatment efficacy in those whose social fears are centred around observable bodily sensations. This study integrates task concentration training into the SAD model of Clark and Wells to combine two evidence-based treatments for SAD under one treatment model. This study uses an innovative format of brief, intensified group therapy, conducted on two full-day weekend group sessions delivered over two weekends, with strong observed effect sizes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Resting-state BOLD networks versus task-associated functional MRI for distinguishing Alzheimer's disease risk groups. (United States)

    Fleisher, Adam S; Sherzai, Ayesha; Taylor, Curtis; Langbaum, Jessica B S; Chen, Kewei; Buxton, Richard B


    To assess the ability of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to distinguish known risk factors for AD, we evaluated 17 cognitively normal individuals with a family history of AD and at least one copy of the apolipoprotein e4 allele compared to 12 individuals who were not carriers of the APOE4 gene and did not have a family history of AD. Blood oxygen level dependent fMRI was performed evaluating encoding-associated signal and resting-state default mode network signal differences between the two risk groups. Neurocognitive testing revealed that the high risk group performed worse on category fluency testing, but the groups were equivalent on all other cognitive measures. During encoding of novel face-name pairs, there were no regions of encoding-associated BOLD activations that were different in the high risk group. Encoding-associated deactivations were greater in magnitude in the low risk group in the medial and right lateral parietal cortex, similar to findings in AD studies. The resting-state DMN analysis demonstrated nine regions in the prefrontal, orbital frontal, temporal and parietal lobes that distinguished the two risk groups. Resting-state DMN analysis could distinguish risk groups with an effect size of 3.35, compared to an effect size of 1.39 using encoding-associated fMRI techniques. Imaging of the resting state avoids performance related variability seen in activation fMRI, is less complicated to acquire and standardize, does not require radio-isotopes, and may be more effective at identifying functional pathology associated with AD risk compared to non-resting fMRI techniques.

  13. First principles calculations of phenol adsorption on pristine and group III (B, Al, Ga) doped graphene layers. (United States)

    Avila, Yuliana; Cocoletzi, Gregorio H; Romero, María Teresa


    We studied the doping effects on the electronic and structural properties of graphene upon interaction with phenol. Calculations were performed within the periodic density functional theory as implemented in PWscf code of the Quantum Espresso package. Graphene layers were modeled using 3 × 3 and 4 × 4 periodic supercells. Doping was explored considering boron (B), aluminum (Al) and gallium (Ga) atoms. The results showed that pristine graphene and graphene doped with B atoms interacting with phenol display similar structural and electronic properties, exhibiting weak physical interactions. However, when the doping is with Al or Ga , the results are quite different. Al and Ga doping induces a stronger interaction between the phenol molecule and the doped layer, yielding chemical adsorption. In all cases, the zero gap energy characteristic is unchanged. The Dirac lineal dispersion relation is preserved in both pristine graphene and B-doped graphene.

  14. Using Different Methods to Access the Difficult Task of Delimiting Species in a Complex Neotropical Hyperdiverse Group (United States)

    Costa-Silva, Guilherme J.; Rodriguez, Mónica S.; Roxo, Fábio F.; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio


    The genus Rineloricaria is a Neotropical freshwater fish group with a long and problematic taxonomic history, attributed to the large number of species and the pronounced similarity among them. In the present work, taxonomic information and different molecular approaches were used to identify species boundaries and characterize independent evolutionary units. We analyzed 228 samples assembled in 53 distinct morphospecies. A general mixed yule-coalescent (GMYC) analysis indicated the existence of 70 entities, while BOLD system analyses showed the existence of 56 distinct BINs. When we used a new proposed integrative taxonomy approach, mixing the results obtained by each analysis, we identified 73 OTUs. We suggest that Rineloricaria probably has some complexity in the known species and several species not formally described yet. Our data suggested that other hyperdiverse fish groups with wide distributions can be further split into many new evolutionary taxonomic units. PMID:26332320

  15. Dosing anticancer drugs in infants: Current approach and recommendations from the Children's Oncology Group's Chemotherapy Standardization Task Force. (United States)

    Balis, Frank M; Womer, Richard B; Berg, Stacey; Winick, Naomi; Adamson, Peter C; Fox, Elizabeth


    An analysis of dose modifications for infants in 29 Children's Oncology Group protocols across 10 cancer types revealed 11 sets of criteria defining the infant population using age, weight, body surface area (BSA), or a combination of these parameters and eight dose modification methods. A new method of dosing anticancer drugs in infants was developed based on the rationale that prior modifications were implemented to reduce toxicity, which is not cancer-specific. The new method uses BSA dose banding in dosing tables for infants and children with a BSA <0.6 m 2 and gradually transitions from body weight based to BSA-based dosing. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Comparison of measurements and calculations of fuel for different structures in the libraries of effective sections (44 groups/238 groups); Comparacion de medidas y calculos de combustibles para diversas estructuras en las librerias de secciones eficaces (44 grupos/238 grupos)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Rivada, A.; Tore, C.


    The study was conducted for the use of the sections effective in 44 groups, based on the libraries of effective sections ENDF/b-v, for the calculation of the isotopy of the spent fuel. These effective sections have been developed to be used in the system codes SCALE for the analysis the fresh nuclear fuel as the spent and their radioactive waste.

  17. American Brachytherapy Task Group Report: A pooled analysis of clinical outcomes for high-dose-rate brachytherapy for cervical cancer. (United States)

    Mayadev, Jyoti; Viswanathan, Akila; Liu, Yu; Li, Chin-Shang; Albuquerque, Kevin; Damato, Antonio L; Beriwal, Sushil; Erickson, Beth

    Advanced imaging used in combination with brachytherapy (BT) has revolutionized the treatment of patients with cervical cancer. We present a comprehensive review of the literature for definitive radiation with high-dose-rate (HDR) BT. In addition, we investigate potential outcome improvement with image-based brachytherapy (IBBT) compared to studies using traditional Point A dosing. This review extensively investigates acute and late toxicities. This study reviews the literature from 2000 to 2015 with an emphasis on modern approaches including concurrent chemotherapy (chemoRT), radiation, and HDR BT and IBBT. Descriptive statistics and pelvic control (PC), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) outcomes were calculated using weighted means to report pooled analysis of outcomes. Literature search yielded 16 prospective, 51 retrospective studies that reported survival outcomes, and 13 retrospective studies that focused on acute and late toxicity outcomes regardless of applicator type. There are 57 studies that report Point A dose specification with 33 having chemoRT, and 10 studies that use IBBT, 8 with chemoRT. Patients receiving radiation and chemoRT with HDR BT in the prospective studies, with >24 months followup, rates of PC were: for RT: 73%, SD: 11; CRT: 82%, SD: 8; DFS-RT: 55%, SD: 10; CRT: 65%, SD: 7; OS-RT: 66%, SD: 7; CRT: 70%, SD: 11. In the retrospective studies, the PC rates (weighted means) for the radiation and chemoradiation outcomes are 75% vs. 80%, and for DFS, the values were 55% vs. 63%, respectively. Comparing patients receiving chemoRT and IBBT to traditional Point A dose specification, there is a significant improvement in PC (p Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Does the mask govern the mind?: effects of arbitrary gender representation on quantitative task performance in avatar-represented virtual groups. (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Eun Roselyn; Nass, Clifford I; Bailenson, Jeremy N


    Virtual environments employing avatars for self-representation-including the opportunity to represent or misrepresent social categories-raise interesting and intriguing questions as to how one's avatar-based social category shapes social identity dynamics, particularly when stereotypes prevalent in the offline world apply to the social categories visually represented by avatars. The present experiment investigated how social category representation via avatars (i.e., graphical representations of people in computer-mediated environments) affects stereotype-relevant task performance. In particular, building on and extending the Proteus effect model, we explored whether and how stereotype lift (i.e., a performance boost caused by the awareness of a domain-specific negative stereotype associated with outgroup members) occurred in virtual group settings in which avatar-based gender representation was arbitrary. Female and male participants (N=120) were randomly assigned either a female avatar or a male avatar through a process masked as a random drawing. They were then placed in a numerical minority status with respect to virtual gender-as the only virtual female (male) in a computer-mediated triad with two opposite-gendered avatars-and performed a mental arithmetic task either competitively or cooperatively. The data revealed that participants who were arbitrarily represented by a male avatar and competed against two ostensible female avatars showed strongest performance compared to others on the arithmetic task. This pattern occurred regardless of participants' actual gender, pointing to a virtual stereotype lift effect. Additional mediation tests showed that task motivation partially mediated the effect. Theoretical and practical implications for social identity dynamics in avatar-based virtual environments are discussed.

  19. Steps towards a CSP yield calculation guideline: A first draft for discussion in the SolarPACES working group guiSmo (United States)

    Hirsch, Tobias; Bachelier, Camille; Eck, Markus; Dersch, Jürgen; Fluri, Thomas; Giuliano, Stefano; Goebel, Olaf; Haller, Ursula; Lude, Simon; Meyer, Richard; Rau, Christoph; Schenk, Heiko; Schmidt, Norbert; Seitz, Markus; Westphal, Boris; Yildiz, Enver


    This paper provides an overview on an important step towards a SolarPACES guideline for CSP yield calculation. With the increasing number of CSP installations, standardization becomes more and more important for further reduction of costs and increase in quality. Yield calculation is a key issue throughout all phases of project development and throughout most of the involved players. Due to the need for more complex process models for CSP compared to other renewables like PV or wind, the yield calculation procedure is more demanding. Uncertainties in the process are covered by additional but partially unnecessary risk surcharges since systematic approaches for avoiding expensive redundancies in risk buffers are not available. It is the main motivation of the mentioned CSP yield calculation guideline to overcome this situation by providing a detailed methodology for yield calculation. A first comprehensive draft version has been compiled and will be subject of discussion in the SolarPACES working group guiSmo. The following sections illustrate the motivation for the guideline, the contents at a glance, as well as expected benefits for selected players.

  20. The IUGS Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism - promoting professional skills professionalism in the teaching, research and application of geoscience for the protection and education of the public (United States)

    Allington, Ruth; Fernandez-Fuentes, Isabel


    A new IUGS Task Group entitled the Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism was formed in 2012 and launched at a symposium at the 341GC in Brisbane on strengthening communication between fundamental and applied geosciences and between geoscientists and public. The Task Group aims to ensure that the international geoscience community is engaged in a transformation of its profession so as to embed the need for a professional skills base alongside technical and scientific skills and expertise, within a sound ethical framework in all arenas of geoscience practice. This needs to be established during training and education and reinforced as CPD throughout a career in geoscience as part of ensuring public safety and effective communication of geoscience concepts to the public. The specific objective of the Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism that is relevant to this poster session is: • To facilitate a more 'joined up' geoscience community fostering better appreciation by academics and teachers of the professional skills that geoscientists need in the workplace, and facilitate better communication between academic and applied communities leading to more effective application of research findings and technology to applied practitioners and development of research programmes that truly address urgent issues. Other Task Group objectives are: • To provide a specific international forum for discussion of matters of common concern and interest among geoscientists and geoscientific organizations involved in professional affairs, at the local, national and international level; • To act as a resource to IUGS on professional affairs in the geosciences as they may influence and impact "Earth Science for the Global Community" in general - both now and in the future; • To offer and provide leadership and knowledge transfer services to countries and geoscientist communities around the world seeking to introduce systems of professional governance and self

  1. Hydrogen bonding and vibrational properties of hydroxy groups in the crystal lattice of dioctahedral clay minerals by means of first principles calculations (United States)

    Botella, V.; Timon, V.; Escamilla-Roa, E.; Hernández-Languna, A.; Sainz-Díaz, C. I.


    The hydroxy groups of the crystal lattice of dioctahedral 2:1 phyllosilicates were investigated by means of quantum-mechanical calculation. The standard Kohn-Sham self-consistent density functional theory (DFT) method was applied using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) with numerical atomic orbitals and double-zeta polarized functions as basis set. Isomorphous cation substitution of different cations in the octahedral and tetrahedral sheet was included along with several interlayer cations reproducing experimental crystal lattice parameters. The effect of these substitutions and the interlayer charge on the hydroxyl group properties was also studied. These structures represent different cation pairs among Al3+, Fe3+ and Mg2+ in the octahedral sheet of clays joined to OH groups. The geometrical disposition of the OH bond in the crystal lattice and the hydrogen bonds and other electrostatic interactions of this group were analyzed. The frequencies of different vibrational modes of the OH group [ν(OH), δ(OH) and γ(OH)] were calculated and compared with experimental data, finding a good agreement. These frequencies depend significantly on the nature of cations which are joined with, and the electrostatic interactions with, the interlayer cations. Besides, hydrogen-bonding interactions with tetrahedral oxygens are important for the vibrational properties of the OH groups; however, also the electrostatic interactions of these OH groups with the rest of tetrahedral oxygens within the tetrahedral cavity should be taken into account. The cation substitution effect on the vibration modes of the OH groups was analyzed reproducing the experimental behaviour.

  2. Adequacy of pathology resident training for employment: a survey report from the Future of Pathology Task Group. (United States)

    Kass, Mary E; Crawford, James M; Bennett, Betsy; Cox, Teresa M; Grimes, Margaret M; LiVolsi, Virginia; Fletcher, Christopher D M; Wilkinson, David S


    The recent change in accreditation requirements for anatomic pathology and clinical pathology residency training from 5 to 4 years and the rapid advances in technologies for pathology services have sparked a renewed debate over the adequacy of pathology residency training. In particular, perceived deficiencies in training have been declared from a variety of sources, both in the form of recent editorial opinions and from surveys of community hospital pathologist employers in 1998, 2003, and 2005 by Dr Richard Horowitz. To obtain more comprehensive data on the perceptions of strengths and weaknesses in pathology residency training. The College of American Pathologists conducted a survey of potential pathology employers (senior College of American Pathologists members, members designated as head of group, and members of the Association of Directors of Anatomic and Surgical Pathology). Also surveyed were recent graduates of pathology residency programs, who were identified as being junior members of the College of American Pathologists, were recent recipients of certification from the American Board of Pathology, or were contacted through their directors of pathology residency programs. There were 559 employer respondents, of whom 384 were responsible for hiring and/or supervising new pathologists. There were 247 recent graduates of pathology residency training programs who responded. From the employers' standpoint, the majority expressed overall satisfaction with recent graduates, but almost one third of employers indicated that new hires had a major deficiency in a critical area. Specific areas of deficiency were clinical laboratory management and judgment in ordering special stains and studies. In addition, one half of employers agreed that more guidance and support for newly trained pathologists is needed now than was required 10 years ago. Academic employers generally were more satisfied than private sector employers. Newly trained pathologists did not appear to

  3. Chunking in task sequences modulates task inhibition. (United States)

    Koch, Iring; Philipp, Andrea M; Gade, Miriam


    In a study of the formation of representations of task sequences and its influence on task inhibition, participants first performed tasks in a predictable sequence (e.g., ABACBC) and then performed the tasks in a random sequence. Half of the participants were explicitly instructed about the predictable sequence, whereas the other participants did not receive these instructions. Task-sequence learning was inferred from shorter reaction times (RTs) in predictable relative to random sequences. Persisting inhibition of competing tasks was indicated by increased RTs in n- 2 task repetitions (e.g., ABA) compared with n- 2 nonrepetitions (e.g., CBA). The results show task-sequence learning for both groups. However, task inhibition was reduced in predictable relative to random sequences among instructed-learning participants who formed an explicit representation of the task sequence, whereas sequence learning and task inhibition were independent in the noninstructed group. We hypothesize that the explicit instructions led to chunking of the task sequence, and that n- 2 repetitions served as chunk points (ABA-CBC), so that within-chunk facilitation modulated the inhibition effect.

  4. Calculation of average molecular parameters, functional groups, and a surrogate molecule for heavy fuel oils using 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Abdul Jameel, Abdul Gani


    Heavy fuel oil (HFO) is primarily used as fuel in marine engines and in boilers to generate electricity. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a powerful analytical tool for structure elucidation and in this study, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy were used for the structural characterization of 2 HFO samples. The NMR data was combined with elemental analysis and average molecular weight to quantify average molecular parameters (AMPs), such as the number of paraffinic carbons, naphthenic carbons, aromatic hydrogens, olefinic hydrogens, etc. in the HFO samples. Recent formulae published in the literature were used for calculating various derived AMPs like aromaticity factor 〖(f〗_a), C/H ratio, average paraffinic chain length (¯n), naphthenic ring number 〖(R〗_N), aromatic ring number〖 (R〗_A), total ring number〖 (R〗_T), aromatic condensation index (φ) and aromatic condensation degree (Ω). These derived AMPs help in understanding the overall structure of the fuel. A total of 19 functional groups were defined to represent the HFO samples, and their respective concentrations were calculated by formulating balance equations that equate the concentration of the functional groups with the concentration of the AMPs. Heteroatoms like sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen were also included in the functional groups. Surrogate molecules were finally constructed to represent the average structure of the molecules present in the HFO samples. This surrogate molecule can be used for property estimation of the HFO samples and also serve as a surrogate to represent the molecular structure for use in kinetic studies.

  5. Prediction of local and metastatic recurrence in solitary fibrous tumor: construction of a risk calculator in a multicenter cohort from the French Sarcoma Group (FSG) database. (United States)

    Salas, S; Resseguier, N; Blay, J Y; Le Cesne, A; Italiano, A; Chevreau, C; Rosset, P; Isambert, N; Soulie, P; Cupissol, D; Delcambre, C; Bay, J O; Dubray-Longeras, P; Krengli, M; De Bari, B; Villa, S; Kaanders, J H A M; Torrente, S; Pasquier, D; Thariat, J O; Myroslav, L; Sole, C V; Dincbas, H F; Habboush, J Y; Zilli, T; Dragan, T; Khan R, K; Ugurluer, G; Cena, T; Duffaud, F; Penel, N; Bertucci, F; Ranchere-Vince, D; Terrier, P; Bonvalot, S; Macagno, N; Lemoine, C; Lae, M; Coindre, J M; Bouvier, C


    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFT) are rare unusual ubiquitous soft tissue tumors that are presumed to be of fibroblastic differentiation. At present, the challenge is to establish accurate prognostic factors. A total of 214 consecutive patients with SFT diagnosed in 24 participating cancer centers were entered into the European database ( to perform univariate and multivariate analysis for overall survival (OS), local recurrence incidence (LRI) and metastatic recurrence incidence (MRI) by taking competing risks into account. A prognostic model was constructed for LRI and MRI. Internal and external validations of the prognostic models were carried out. An individual risk calculator was carried out to quantify the risk of both local and metastatic recurrence. We restricted our analysis to 162 patients with local disease. Twenty patients (12.3%) were deceased at the time of analysis and the median OS was not reached. The LRI rates at 10 and 20 years were 19.2% and 38.6%, respectively. The MRI rates at 10 and 20 years were 31.4% and 49.8%, respectively. Multivariate analysis retained age and mitotic count tended to significance for predicting OS. The factors influencing LRI were viscera localization, radiotherapy and age. Mitotic count, tumor localization other than limb and age had independent values for MRI. Three prognostic groups for OS were defined based on the number of unfavorable prognostic factors and calculations were carried out to predict the risk of local and metastatic recurrence for individual patients. LRI and MRI rates increased between 10 and 20 years so relapses were delayed, suggesting that long-term monitoring is useful. This study also shows that different prognostic SFT sub-groups could benefit from different therapeutic strategies and that use of a survival calculator could become standard practice in SFTs to individualize treatment based on the clinical situation.

  6. Defining a roadmap for harmonizing quality indicators in Laboratory Medicine: a consensus statement on behalf of the IFCC Working Group "Laboratory Error and Patient Safety" and EFLM Task and Finish Group "Performance specifications for the extra-analytical phases". (United States)

    Sciacovelli, Laura; Panteghini, Mauro; Lippi, Giuseppe; Sumarac, Zorica; Cadamuro, Janne; Galoro, César Alex De Olivera; Pino Castro, Isabel Garcia Del; Shcolnik, Wilson; Plebani, Mario


    The improving quality of laboratory testing requires a deep understanding of the many vulnerable steps involved in the total examination process (TEP), along with the identification of a hierarchy of risks and challenges that need to be addressed. From this perspective, the Working Group "Laboratory Errors and Patient Safety" (WG-LEPS) of International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) is focusing its activity on implementation of an efficient tool for obtaining meaningful information on the risk of errors developing throughout the TEP, and for establishing reliable information about error frequencies and their distribution. More recently, the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) has created the Task and Finish Group "Performance specifications for the extra-analytical phases" (TFG-PSEP) for defining performance specifications for extra-analytical phases. Both the IFCC and EFLM groups are working to provide laboratories with a system to evaluate their performances and recognize the critical aspects where improvement actions are needed. A Consensus Conference was organized in Padova, Italy, in 2016 in order to bring together all the experts and interested parties to achieve a consensus for effective harmonization of quality indicators (QIs). A general agreement was achieved and the main outcomes have been the release of a new version of model of quality indicators (MQI), the approval of a criterion for establishing performance specifications and the definition of the type of information that should be provided within the report to the clinical laboratories participating to the QIs project.

  7. Can it be better? Review of the Task Group ENINA of the Emission Registration; Kan het beter? Review van de taakgroep ENINA van de Emissieregistratie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkers, C.H.; Smekens, K.E.L. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)


    This report presents the process and conclusions of a review process performed on the ENINA task force within the Dutch Emission Registration (ER). The review consisted of interviews with users of the emission data in the ER and of two sample checks of specific greenhouse gas emission calculation methods (for waste incineration and from other industrial gases). Since the interviews did not give any specific reason for further detailed investigation, the review was focussed on the process within ENINA itself. Although envisaged from the outline of the review, no clear points for improvement or simplification of the current process could be identified. However, some elements in the emission calculation process seemed redundant, like separate t-1 and t-2 emission estimates, determination of complementary emissions to the individual ones as well as total emission level estimates and a double checking of the data in the individual environmental reports. It became clear that for each of these points, valid reasons exist why they occur and hence there is no justification to reduce them. Technically the ENINA process proved to be sound and efficient, but on the communication - both internal as external - and documentation side improvements are certainly possible. For instance, reference documents or calculation factors are not always available and the used Protocols are not always up to date, complete or consistently reported. With small efforts, this could be brought on the same high level as with which the emission calculations take place. [Dutch] Dit rapport beschrijft de bevindingen van de review van de taakgroep ENINA van de Emissie-Registratie (ER). Deze review had tot doel om na te gaan of het proces van ENINA verbeterd vereenvoudigd of verbeterd kon worden. Tevens werd van twee werkvelden een sample check uitgevoerd waarbij werd gekeken of de berekende broeikasgasemissies konden worden nagerekend. Tijdens de analyse van het werkproces van de taakgroep ENINA zijn

  8. An efficient code for calculation of the 6C, 9C and 12C symbols for C3v, T, and O point groups (United States)

    Nikitin, A. V.


    A new code designed to calculate the 6 C, 9 C, and 12 C symbols for C3v, T, and O point groups is presented. The program is based on an algorithm that uses the symmetry property between pair and impair representations. This algorithm allows one to speed up the C-symbols calculation and increase the efficiency of spectroscopic programs based on the irreducible tensorial formalism. Program summaryProgram title: 6912C Catalogue identifier: AEKZ_v1_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1214 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 22 097 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: Any computer with C, C++ compiler Operating system: Linux SUSE, Windows XP64 RAM: 400 Kb Classification: 4.2, 16.2, 16.3 Nature of problem: Spectroscopy of symmetric atmospheric molecules. Solution method: The program is based on an algorithm that uses the symmetry property between pair and impair representations. Running time: The test program provided takes a few seconds for C3v, a few minutes for T and a few days for O.

  9. Calculating and reporting effect sizes on scientific papers (1: p < 0.05 limitations in the analysis of mean differences of two groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Espirito Santo


    Since p-values from the results of the statistical tests do not indicate the magnitude or importance of a difference, then effect sizes (ES should reported. In fact, ES give meaning to statistical tests; emphasize the power of statistical tests; reduce the risk of interpret mere sampling variation as real relationship; can increase the reporting of “non-significant"results, and allow the accumulation of knowledge from several studies using meta-analysis. Thus, the objectives of this paper are to present the limits of the significance level; describe the foundations of presentation of ES of statistical tests to analyze differences between two groups; present the formulas to calculate directly ES, providing examples of our own previous studies; show how to calculate confidence intervals; provide the conversion formulas for the review of the literature; indicate how to interpret the ES; and show that, although interpretable, the meaning (small, medium or large effect for an arbitrary metric could be inaccurate, requiring that interpretation should be made in the context of the research area and in the context of real world variables.

  10. PopAffiliator: online calculator for individual affiliation to a major population group based on 17 autosomal short tandem repeat genotype profile. (United States)

    Pereira, Luísa; Alshamali, Farida; Andreassen, Rune; Ballard, Ruth; Chantratita, Wasun; Cho, Nam Soo; Coudray, Clotilde; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Espinoza, Marta; González-Andrade, Fabricio; Hadi, Sibte; Immel, Uta-Dorothee; Marian, Catalin; Gonzalez-Martin, Antonio; Mertens, Gerhard; Parson, Walther; Perone, Carlos; Prieto, Lourdes; Takeshita, Haruo; Rangel Villalobos, Héctor; Zeng, Zhaoshu; Zhivotovsky, Lev; Camacho, Rui; Fonseca, Nuno A


    Because of their sensitivity and high level of discrimination, short tandem repeat (STR) maker systems are currently the method of choice in routine forensic casework and data banking, usually in multiplexes up to 15-17 loci. Constraints related to sample amount and quality, frequently encountered in forensic casework, will not allow to change this picture in the near future, notwithstanding the technological developments. In this study, we present a free online calculator named PopAffiliator ( ) for individual population affiliation in the three main population groups, Eurasian, East Asian and sub-Saharan African, based on genotype profiles for the common set of STRs used in forensics. This calculator performs affiliation based on a model constructed using machine learning techniques. The model was constructed using a data set of approximately fifteen thousand individuals collected for this work. The accuracy of individual population affiliation is approximately 86%, showing that the common set of STRs routinely used in forensics provide a considerable amount of information for population assignment, in addition to being excellent for individual identification.

  11. A practical simulation method to calculate sample size of group sequential trials for time-to-event data under exponential and Weibull distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Jiang

    Full Text Available Group sequential design has been widely applied in clinical trials in the past few decades. The sample size estimation is a vital concern of sponsors and investigators. Especially in the survival group sequential trials, it is a thorny question because of its ambiguous distributional form, censored data and different definition of information time. A practical and easy-to-use simulation-based method is proposed for multi-stage two-arm survival group sequential design in the article and its SAS program is available. Besides the exponential distribution, which is usually assumed for survival data, the Weibull distribution is considered here. The incorporation of the probability of discontinuation in the simulation leads to the more accurate estimate. The assessment indexes calculated in the simulation are helpful to the determination of number and timing of the interim analysis. The use of the method in the survival group sequential trials is illustrated and the effects of the varied shape parameter on the sample size under the Weibull distribution are explored by employing an example. According to the simulation results, a method to estimate the shape parameter of the Weibull distribution is proposed based on the median survival time of the test drug and the hazard ratio, which are prespecified by the investigators and other participants. 10+ simulations are recommended to achieve the robust estimate of the sample size. Furthermore, the method is still applicable in adaptive design if the strategy of sample size scheme determination is adopted when designing or the minor modifications on the program are made.

  12. A Practical Simulation Method to Calculate Sample Size of Group Sequential Trials for Time-to-Event Data under Exponential and Weibull Distribution (United States)

    Jiang, Zhiwei; Wang, Ling; Li, Chanjuan; Xia, Jielai; Jia, Hongxia


    Group sequential design has been widely applied in clinical trials in the past few decades. The sample size estimation is a vital concern of sponsors and investigators. Especially in the survival group sequential trials, it is a thorny question because of its ambiguous distributional form, censored data and different definition of information time. A practical and easy-to-use simulation-based method is proposed for multi-stage two-arm survival group sequential design in the article and its SAS program is available. Besides the exponential distribution, which is usually assumed for survival data, the Weibull distribution is considered here. The incorporation of the probability of discontinuation in the simulation leads to the more accurate estimate. The assessment indexes calculated in the simulation are helpful to the determination of number and timing of the interim analysis. The use of the method in the survival group sequential trials is illustrated and the effects of the varied shape parameter on the sample size under the Weibull distribution are explored by employing an example. According to the simulation results, a method to estimate the shape parameter of the Weibull distribution is proposed based on the median survival time of the test drug and the hazard ratio, which are prespecified by the investigators and other participants. 10+ simulations are recommended to achieve the robust estimate of the sample size. Furthermore, the method is still applicable in adaptive design if the strategy of sample size scheme determination is adopted when designing or the minor modifications on the program are made. PMID:22957040

  13. Radiation Protection in Brachytherapy. Report of the SEFM Task Group on Brachytherapy; Proteccion radiologica en Braquiterapia. Informe del grupo de trabajo de Braquiterapia de la SEFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Calatayud, J.; Corredoira Silva, E.; Crispin Contreras, V.; Eudaldo Puell, T.; Frutos Baraja, J. de; Pino Sorroche, F.; Pujades Claumarchirant, M. C.; Richart Sancho, J.


    This document presents the report of the Brachytherapy Task Group of the Spanish Society of Medical Physics. It is dedicated to the radiation protection aspects involved in brachytherapy. The aim of this work is to include the more relevant aspects related to radiation protection issues that appear in clinical practice, and for the current equipment in Spain. Basically this report focuses on the typical contents associated with high dose rate brachytherapy with {sup 1}92Ir and {sup 6}0Co sources, and permanent seed implants with {sup 1}25I, {sup 1}03Pd and {sup 1}31Cs, which are the most current and widespread modalities. Ophthalmic brachytherapy (COMS with {sup 1}25I, {sup 1}06Ru, {sup 9}0Sr) is also included due to its availability in a significant number of spanish hospitals. The purpose of this report is to assist to the medical physicist community in establishing a radiation protection program for brachytherapy procedures, trying to solve some ambiguities in the application of legal requirements and recommendations in clinical practice. (Author)

  14. Botulinum toxin therapy for treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: review and recommendations of the IAB-Interdisciplinary Working Group for Movement Disorders task force. (United States)

    Dressler, Dirk; Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Bohlega, Saeed; Chahidi, Abderrahmane; Chung, Tae Mo; Ebke, Markus; Jacinto, L Jorge; Kaji, Ryuji; Koçer, Serdar; Kanovsky, Petr; Micheli, Federico; Orlova, Olga; Paus, Sebastian; Pirtosek, Zvezdan; Relja, Maja; Rosales, Raymond L; Sagástegui-Rodríguez, José Alberto; Schoenle, Paul W; Shahidi, Gholam Ali; Timerbaeva, Sofia; Walter, Uwe; Saberi, Fereshte Adib


    Botulinum toxin (BT) therapy is an established treatment of spasticity due to stroke. For multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity this is not the case. IAB-Interdisciplinary Working Group for Movement Disorders formed a task force to explore the use of BT therapy for treatment of MS spasticity. A formalised PubMed literature search produced 55 publications (3 randomised controlled trials, 3 interventional studies, 11 observational studies, 2 case studies, 35 reviews, 1 guideline) all unanimously favouring the use of BT therapy for MS spasticity. There is no reason to believe that BT should be less effective and safe in MS spasticity than it is in stroke spasticity. Recommendations include an update of the current prevalence of MS spasticity and its clinical features according to classifications used in movement disorders. Immunological data on MS patients already treated should be analysed with respect to frequencies of MS relapses and BT antibody formation. Registration authorities should expand registration of BT therapy for spasticity regardless of its aetiology. MS specialists should consider BT therapy for symptomatic treatment of spasticity.

  15. Hydrogen-bond acidity of OH groups in various molecular environments (phenols, alcohols, steroid derivatives, and amino acids structures): experimental measurements and density functional theory calculations. (United States)

    Graton, Jérôme; Besseau, François; Brossard, Anne-Marie; Charpentier, Eloïse; Deroche, Arnaud; Le Questel, Jean-Yves


    The hydrogen-bond (H-bond) donating strengths of a series of 36 hydroxylic H-bond donors (HBDs) with N-methylpyrrolidinone have been measured in CCl4 solution by FTIR spectrometry. These data allow the definition of a H-bond acidity scale named pKAHY covering almost three pK units, corresponding to 16 kJ mol(-1). These results are supplemented by equilibrium constants determined in CH2Cl2 for one-third of the data set to study compounds showing a poor solubility in CCl4. A systematic comparison of these experimental results with theoretical data computed in the gas phase using DFT (density functional theory) calculations has also been carried out. Quantum electrostatic parameters appear to accurately describe the H-bond acidity of the hydroxyl group, whereas partial atomic charges according to the Merz-Singh-Kollman and CHelpG schemes are not suitable for this purpose. A substantial decrease of the H-bond acidity of the OH group is pointed out when the hydroxyl moiety is involved in intramolecular H-bond interactions. In such situations, the interactions are further characterized through AIM and NBO analyses, which respectively allow localizing the corresponding bond critical point and the quantification of a significant charge transfer from the available lone pair to the σ*OH antibonding orbital. Eventually, the H-bond ability of the hydroxyl groups of steroid derivatives and of lateral chains of amino acids are evaluated on the basis of experimental and/or theoretical data.

  16. Description of Bacillus toyonensis sp. nov., a novel species of the Bacillus cereus group, and pairwise genome comparisons of the species of the group by means of ANI calculations. (United States)

    Jiménez, Guillermo; Urdiain, Mercedes; Cifuentes, Ana; López-López, Aránzazu; Blanch, Anicet R; Tamames, Javier; Kämpfer, Peter; Kolstø, Anne-Brit; Ramón, Daniel; Martínez, Juan F; Codoñer, Francisco M; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon


    Strain BCT-7112(T) was isolated in 1966 in Japan from a survey designed to obtain naturally occurring microorganisms as pure cultures in the laboratory for use as probiotics in animal nutrition. This strain, which was primarily identified as Bacillus cereus var toyoi, has been in use for more than 30 years as the active ingredient of the preparation TOYOCERIN(®), an additive for use in animal nutrition (e.g. swine, poultry, cattle, rabbits and aquaculture). Despite the fact that the strain was initially classified as B. cereus, it showed significant genomic differences from the type strains of the B. cereus group that were large enough (ANI values below 92%) to allow it to be considered as a different species within the group. The polyphasic taxonomic study presented here provides sufficient discriminative parameters to classify BCT-7112(T) as a new species for which the name Bacillus toyonensis sp. nov. is proposed, with BCT-7112(T) (=CECT 876(T); =NCIMB 14858(T)) being designated as the type strain. In addition, a pairwise comparison between the available genomes of the whole B. cereus group by means of average nucleotide identity (ANI) calculations indicated that besides the eight classified species (including B. toyonensis), additional genomospecies could be detected, and most of them also had ANI values below 94%. ANI values were on the borderline of a species definition only in the cases of representatives of B. cereus versus B. thuringiensis, and B. mycoides and B. weihenstephanensis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Titania nanotubes modeled from 3- and 6-layered (1 0 1) anatase sheets: Line group symmetry and comparative ab initio LCAO calculations (United States)

    Evarestov, R. A.; Bandura, A. V.; Losev, M. V.; Piskunov, S.; Zhukovskii, Yu. F.


    The formalism of line groups for one-periodic (1D) nanostructures with rotohelical symmetry has been applied for construction of TiO 2 nanotubes (NTs). They are formed by rolling up the stoichiometric two-periodic (2D) sheets cut from the energetically stable (1 0 1) anatase surface, which contains either six (O-Ti-O_O-Ti-O) or three (O-Ti-O) layers. After optimization of geometry the former keeps the centered rectangular symmetry of initial slab while the latter is spontaneously reconstructed to the hexagonal fluorite-type (1 1 1) sheet. We have considered the four sets of TiO 2 NTs with optimized 6- and 3-layered structures, which possess the two pairs of either anatase (- n, n) and ( n, n) or fluorite ( n, n) and ( n,0) chiralities, respectively. To analyze their structural and electronic properties, we have performed ab initio LCAO calculations on titania slabs and nanotubes using the hybrid Hartree-Fock/Kohn-Sham exchange-correlation functional PBE0. Both band gaps and strain energies of these nanotubes have been computed as functions of NT diameter consequently changed from 0.5 nm to 4.0 nm with number of atoms per nanotube unit cell increased from 30 up to 288. A ratio of the calculated strain energies between the 3- and 6-layered titania NTs achieves 2-3 for nanotubes with diameters ≤1.0 nm and remains noticeable for those with diameters ≤2.0 nm, i.e., the latter are more stable energetically. When diameters of nanotubes increase up to 4.0 nm these strain energies substantially decrease and approach each other. At the same time, the strain energy of 6-layered NTs with (- n, n) chirality is smaller than that for ( n, n) NTs of a similar diameter, while in 3-layered nanotubes of similar diameters, the difference in strain energies for fluorite-type ( n, n) and ( n,0) chiralities is rather negligible. The band gaps of 6-layered titania nanotubes are found to be noticeably larger as compared to 3-layered NTs with the same diameter. When these diameters

  18. TU-D-201-02: Medical Physics Practices for Plan and Chart Review: Results of AAPM Task Group 275 Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fong de los Santos, L [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Dong, L [Scripps Proton Therapy Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Greener, A [VA Medical Center, East Orange, NJ (United States); Johnson, J [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Johnson, P [University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Kim, G [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Mechalakos, J; Yorke, E [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Napolitano, B [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Parker, S [Novant Health, Winston Salem, NC (United States); Schofield, D [Saint Vincent Hospital, Acton, MA (United States); Wells, M [Piedmont Hospital, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ford, E [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Scripps Proton Therapy Center, San Diego, CA (United States)


    Purpose: AAPM Task Group (TG) 275 is charged with developing riskbased guidelines for plan and chart review clinical processes. As part of this work an AAPM-wide survey was conducted to gauge current practices. Methods: The survey consisted of 103 multiple-choice questions covering the following review processes for external beam including protons: 1) Initial Plan Check, 2) On-Treatment and 3) End-of-Treatment Chart Check. The survey was designed and validated by TG members with the goal of providing an efficient and easy response process. The survey, developed and deployed with the support of AAPM headquarters, was released to all AAPM members who have self-reported as working in the radiation oncology field and it was kept open for 7 weeks. Results: There are an estimated 4700 eligible participants. At the time of writing, 962 completed surveys have been collected with an average completion time of 24 minutes. Participants are mainly from community hospitals (40%), academicaffiliated hospitals (31%) and free-standing clinics (18%). Among many other metrics covered on the survey, results so far indicate that manual review is an important component on the plan and chart review process (>90%) and that written procedures and checklists are widely used (>60%). However, the details of what is reviewed or checked are fairly heterogeneous among the sampled medical physics community. Conclusion: The data gathered from the survey gauging current practices will be used by TG 275 to develop benchmarks and recommendations for the type and extent of checks to perform effective physics plan and chart review processes.

  19. Use of image registration and fusion algorithms and techniques in radiotherapy: Report of the AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group No. 132. (United States)

    Brock, Kristy K; Mutic, Sasa; McNutt, Todd R; Li, Hua; Kessler, Marc L


    Image registration and fusion algorithms exist in almost every software system that creates or uses images in radiotherapy. Most treatment planning systems support some form of image registration and fusion to allow the use of multimodality and time-series image data and even anatomical atlases to assist in target volume and normal tissue delineation. Treatment delivery systems perform registration and fusion between the planning images and the in-room images acquired during the treatment to assist patient positioning. Advanced applications are beginning to support daily dose assessment and enable adaptive radiotherapy using image registration and fusion to propagate contours and accumulate dose between image data taken over the course of therapy to provide up-to-date estimates of anatomical changes and delivered dose. This information aids in the detection of anatomical and functional changes that might elicit changes in the treatment plan or prescription. As the output of the image registration process is always used as the input of another process for planning or delivery, it is important to understand and communicate the uncertainty associated with the software in general and the result of a specific registration. Unfortunately, there is no standard mathematical formalism to perform this for real-world situations where noise, distortion, and complex anatomical variations can occur. Validation of the software systems performance is also complicated by the lack of documentation available from commercial systems leading to use of these systems in undesirable 'black-box' fashion. In view of this situation and the central role that image registration and fusion play in treatment planning and delivery, the Therapy Physics Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine commissioned Task Group 132 to review current approaches and solutions for image registration (both rigid and deformable) in radiotherapy and to provide recommendations for quality

  20. Toward a standard for the evaluation of PET-Auto-Segmentation methods following the recommendations of AAPM task group No. 211: Requirements and implementation. (United States)

    Berthon, Beatrice; Spezi, Emiliano; Galavis, Paulina; Shepherd, Tony; Apte, Aditya; Hatt, Mathieu; Fayad, Hadi; De Bernardi, Elisabetta; Soffientini, Chiara D; Ross Schmidtlein, C; El Naqa, Issam; Jeraj, Robert; Lu, Wei; Das, Shiva; Zaidi, Habib; Mawlawi, Osama R; Visvikis, Dimitris; Lee, John A; Kirov, Assen S


    The aim of this paper is to define the requirements and describe the design and implementation of a standard benchmark tool for evaluation and validation of PET-auto-segmentation (PET-AS) algorithms. This work follows the recommendations of Task Group 211 (TG211) appointed by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The recommendations published in the AAPM TG211 report were used to derive a set of required features and to guide the design and structure of a benchmarking software tool. These items included the selection of appropriate representative data and reference contours obtained from established approaches and the description of available metrics. The benchmark was designed in a way that it could be extendable by inclusion of bespoke segmentation methods, while maintaining its main purpose of being a standard testing platform for newly developed PET-AS methods. An example of implementation of the proposed framework, named PETASset, was built. In this work, a selection of PET-AS methods representing common approaches to PET image segmentation was evaluated within PETASset for the purpose of testing and demonstrating the capabilities of the software as a benchmark platform. A selection of clinical, physical, and simulated phantom data, including "best estimates" reference contours from macroscopic specimens, simulation template, and CT scans was built into the PETASset application database. Specific metrics such as Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC), Positive Predictive Value (PPV), and Sensitivity (S), were included to allow the user to compare the results of any given PET-AS algorithm to the reference contours. In addition, a tool to generate structured reports on the evaluation of the performance of PET-AS algorithms against the reference contours was built. The variation of the metric agreement values with the reference contours across the PET-AS methods evaluated for demonstration were between 0.51 and 0.83, 0.44 and 0.86, and 0.61 and 1

  1. Manitoba Task Force on Francophone Schools Governance. Report = Groupe de travail manitobain sur la gestion des ecoles franco-manitobaines. Le rapport. (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    Findings of a task force on introduction of a school governance system for Manitoba's (Canada) francophone minority population are reported. The document outlines the background--i.e., the Canadian context--of this report, principles and procedures, the resulting recommended structure for governance, and suggestions for addressing such issues as…

  2. Task Group 7B: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Biological Aging: The Roles of Nature, Nurture and Chance in the Maintenance of Human Healthspan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weier, Heinz-Ulrich; Arya, Suresh; Grant, Christine; Miller, Linda; Ono, Santa Jeremy; Patil, Chris; Shay, Jerry; Topol, Eric; Torry, Michael; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Tse, Iris; Lin, Su-Ju; Miller, Richard


    The degree to which an individual organism maintains healthspan and lifespan is a function of complex interactions between genetic inheritance ('nature'), environment, including cultural inheritance (nurture) and stochastic events ('luck' or 'chance'). This task group will focus upon the role of chance because it is so poorly understood and because it appears to be of major importance in the determination of individual variations in healthspan and lifespan within species. The major factor determining variations in healthspan and lifespan between species is genetic inheritance. Broader aspects of cellular and molecular mechanisms of biological aging will also be considered, given their importance for understanding the cellular and molecular basis of successful aging. The task force will consider the cellular and molecular basis for nature, nurture and chance in healthspan and life span determination. On the basis of comparisons between identical and non-identical twins, geneticists have estimated that genes control no more than about a quarter of the inter-individual differences in lifespan (Herskind 1996). Twin studies of very old individuals, however, show substantially greater genetic contributions to Healthspan (McClearn 2004; Reed 2003). The environment clearly plays an important role in the length and the quality of life. Tobacco smoke, for example has the potential to impact upon multiple body systems in ways that appear to accelerate the rates at which those systems age (Bernhard 2007). To document the role of chance events on aging, one must rigorously control both the genetic composition of an organism and its environment. This has been done to a remarkable degree in a species of nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans (Vanfleteren 1998). The results confirm hundreds of previous studies with a wide range of species, especially those with inbred rodents housed under apparently identical but less well controlled environments. One


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya ShankerTedla


    Full Text Available Background: In this study, was to evaluated the effectiveness of motor task and cognitive task interference while walking to improve gait parameters of subjects with Parkinson’s disease. Methods: In this Randomized Controlled trial, 30 subjects with Parkinson’s disease of age group between 50and 70 years randomly divided into two groups. The first group had motor task interference, and the second group had calculation task interference while walking along with conventional physical therapy. Gait parameters recorded as outcome measures. Both the groups received 1-hour training for three weeks for one month. Results: As per the paired t-test values, there was significant (p<0.001 improvement in the gait parameters for both the group's pre and post training. Motor task interference showed better improvements than calculation-task interference group among subjects with Parkinson’s disease in all the gait parameters measured with a p-value less than 0.001. Conclusion: To improve the gait parameters for mild to moderately disabled patients with Parkinson’s disease, the dual task training by using motor task while gait training along with conventional Physical Therapy will be more useful than using cognitive task.

  4. Are we on a learning curve or a treadmill? The benefits of participative group goal setting become apparent as tasks become increasingly challenging over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haslam, S.A.; Wegge, J.; Postmes, T.

    A large body of research has pointed to the utility) of individual and group goal setting as a performance enhancement strategy. However, group goal setting is more complex than individual goal setting as the group context often strengthens the desire for voice and the possibility, of resistance. In

  5. Declination Calculator (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Declination is calculated using the current International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model. Declination is calculated using the current World Magnetic Model...

  6. Effects of Polytypism on the Thermoelectric Properties of Group-IV Semiconductor Nanowires: A Combination of Density Functional Theory and Boltzmann Transport Calculations (United States)

    Akiyama, Toru; Komoda, Takato; Nakamura, Kohji; Ito, Tomonori


    The effects of polytypism on thermoelectric properties of Si and Ge nanowires (NWs) are systematically investigated by using a combination of density functional theory and Boltzmann transport calculations. The calculations for NWs with various polytypes demonstrate that the thermoelectric figure of merit Z T of Si and Ge NWs can be tuned by changing different stacking sequences along the growth direction. In particular, the Z T values of n -type Si and Ge NWs with hexagonal (2 H ) structure at 300 K are significantly larger than Z T of Si and Ge NWs with a cubic (3 C ) structure. The underlying mechanism for the enhanced Z T value in Si NWs with a 2 H structure compared with a 3 C structure is attributed by the different Seebeck coefficient depending on the structure, while that in Ge NWs is due to the difference in both the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity. The calculated results offer a way to design high-performance thermoelectric materials by controlling the polytype of NWs.

  7. Do Task Complexity Demands Influence the Learners’ Perception of Task Difficulty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Sanajou


    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of cognitive task complexity on EFL learners’ perception of task difficulty. Learners’ perception of task difficulty is measured by a five-item task difficulty questionnaire (as in Robinson, 2001a. The participants were 76 intermediate learners which were divided into two groups. One group performed a simple task (single task and the other group performed a complex task (dual task. Having performed the tasks, the participants completed the task difficulty questionnaire. In order to see how the participants evaluated task difficulty, their ratings for each question of the questionnaire in the simple and complex tasks was compared using Mann-Whitney U. The results indicate that the complex task significantly affected learners’ perception of task difficulty in three items of difficulty, stress and interest. The results of task difficulty studies can help language educators in designing and employing more effective language teaching materials.

  8. Medical Fitness for Expeditionary Missions: A NATO Guide for Assessing Deployability for Military Personnel with Medical Conditions. Task Group 174, Human Factors and Medicine Panel (United States)


    tract (i.e., the kidneys, bladder, and/or urethra). Predisposing factors include dehydration and high uric acid (increased by some medications...they have either one of the following: • Metabolic syndrome ; AND/OR • Calculated 10-year CHD risk (e.g. Framingham) is 10 to 15% or greater and sub...diagnostic evaluation any of the following: • graded exercise test • myocardial perfusion scintigraphy • stress echocardiography Metabolic Syndrome

  9. Testing Measurement Invariance across Groups of Children with and without Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: Applications for Word Recognition and Spelling Tasks. (United States)

    Lúcio, Patrícia S; Salum, Giovanni; Swardfager, Walter; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Pan, Pedro M; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Gadelha, Ary; Rohde, Luis A; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo


    Although studies have consistently demonstrated that children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) perform significantly lower than controls on word recognition and spelling tests, such studies rely on the assumption that those groups are comparable in these measures. This study investigates comparability of word recognition and spelling tests based on diagnostic status for ADHD through measurement invariance methods. The participants (n = 1,935; 47% female; 11% ADHD) were children aged 6-15 with normal IQ (≥70). Measurement invariance was investigated through Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes models. Measurement invariance was attested in both methods, demonstrating the direct comparability of the groups. Children with ADHD were 0.51 SD lower in word recognition and 0.33 SD lower in spelling tests than controls. Results suggest that differences in performance on word recognition and spelling tests are related to true mean differences based on ADHD diagnostic status. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed.

  10. Report on New Methods for Representing and Interacting with Qualitative Geographic Information, Stage 2: Task Group 3: Social-focused Use Case (United States)


    communication among those organizations. It is also easy to identify some hub organizations within our 194 samples, such as Oxfam and UNICEF ; these are hubs...for vaccines. For UNICEF , an organization that aims to promote the rights and wellbeing of children, the focus is on appeals to protect children in...that a fairly diverse set of our international organization group members mentioned Brazil specifically in tweets; these include USAID, UNICEF

  11. Potential hazard due to induced radioactivity secondary to radiotherapy: the report of task group 136 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. (United States)

    Thomadsen, Bruce; Nath, Ravinder; Bateman, Fred B; Farr, Jonathan; Glisson, Cal; Islam, Mohammad K; LaFrance, Terry; Moore, Mary E; George Xu, X; Yudelev, Mark


    followed only if these actions are considered reasonable and practical in the individual clinics. Therapists working with proton beam and neutron beam units handle treatment devices that do become radioactive, and they should wear extremity monitors and make handling apertures and boluses their last task upon entering the room following treatment. Personnel doses from neutron-beam units can approach regulatory limits depending on the number of patients and beams, and strategies to reduce doses should be followed.

  12. MEMS Calculator (United States)

    SRD 166 MEMS Calculator (Web, free access)   This MEMS Calculator determines the following thin film properties from data taken with an optical interferometer or comparable instrument: a) residual strain from fixed-fixed beams, b) strain gradient from cantilevers, c) step heights or thicknesses from step-height test structures, and d) in-plane lengths or deflections. Then, residual stress and stress gradient calculations can be made after an optical vibrometer or comparable instrument is used to obtain Young's modulus from resonating cantilevers or fixed-fixed beams. In addition, wafer bond strength is determined from micro-chevron test structures using a material test machine.

  13. MINOR PARAMETERS NEEDED FOR INDIVIDUAL-DOSE CALCULATIONS: Final Report for Tasks 7.1, 7.2, 8.1, 8.2, 9.1, 9.2, and 9.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.


    This brief report documents the selection of parameters needed to support individual-dose calculations from 131I released into the environment with gaseous effluents from the Mayak Production Association.

  14. Application of a General Computer Algorithm Based on the Group-Additivity Method for the Calculation of Two Molecular Descriptors at Both Ends of Dilution: Liquid Viscosity and Activity Coefficient in Water at Infinite Dilution. (United States)

    Naef, Rudolf; Acree, William E


    The application of a commonly used computer algorithm based on the group-additivity method for the calculation of the liquid viscosity coefficient at 293.15 K and the activity coefficient at infinite dilution in water at 298.15 K of organic molecules is presented. The method is based on the complete breakdown of the molecules into their constituting atoms, further subdividing them by their immediate neighborhood. A fast Gauss-Seidel fitting method using experimental data from literature is applied for the calculation of the atom groups' contributions. Plausibility tests have been carried out on each of the calculations using a ten-fold cross-validation procedure which confirms the excellent predictive quality of the method. The goodness of fit (Q²) and the standard deviation (σ) of the cross-validation calculations for the viscosity coefficient, expressed as log(η), was 0.9728 and 0.11, respectively, for 413 test molecules, and for the activity coefficient log(γ) ∞ the corresponding values were 0.9736 and 0.31, respectively, for 621 test compounds. The present approach has proven its versatility in that it enabled the simultaneous evaluation of the liquid viscosity of normal organic compounds as well as of ionic liquids.

  15. Interference between postural control and spatial vs. non-spatial auditory reaction time tasks in older adults. (United States)

    Fuhrman, Susan I; Redfern, Mark S; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M


    This study investigated whether spatial aspects of an information processing task influence dual-task interference. Two groups (Older/Young) of healthy adults participated in dual-task experiments. Two auditory information processing tasks included a frequency discrimination choice reaction time task (non-spatial task) and a lateralization choice reaction time task (spatial task). Postural tasks included combinations of standing with eyes open or eyes closed on either a fixed floor or a sway-referenced floor. Reaction times and postural sway via center of pressure were recorded. Baseline measures of reaction time and sway were subtracted from the corresponding dual-task results to calculate reaction time task costs and postural task costs. Reaction time task cost increased with eye closure (p = 0.01), sway-referenced flooring (p < 0.0001), and the spatial task (p = 0.04). Additionally, a significant (p = 0.05) task x vision x age interaction indicated that older subjects had a significant vision X task interaction whereas young subjects did not. However, when analyzed by age group, the young group showed minimal differences in interference for the spatial and non-spatial tasks with eyes open, but showed increased interference on the spatial relative to non-spatial task with eyes closed. On the contrary, older subjects demonstrated increased interference on the spatial relative to the non-spatial task with eyes open, but not with eyes closed. These findings suggest that visual-spatial interference may occur in older subjects when vision is used to maintain posture.

  16. Waste area grouping 2 Phase I task data report: Ecological risk assessment and White Oak Creek watershed screening ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R.A.; Jackson, B.L.; Jones, D.S. [and others


    This report presents an ecological risk assessment for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 based on the data collected in the Phase I remedial investigation (RI). It serves as an update to the WAG 2 screening ecological risk assessment that was performed using historic data. In addition to identifying potential ecological risks in WAG 2 that may require additional data collection, this report serves to determine whether there are ecological risks of sufficient magnitude to require a removal action or some other expedited remedial process. WAG 2 consists of White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) main plant area, White Oak Lake (WOL), the White Oak Creek Embayment of the Clinch River, associated flood plains, and the associated groundwater. The WOC system drains the WOC watershed, an area of approximately 16.8 km{sup 2} that includes ORNL and associated WAGs. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminants released from ORNL and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent WAGs.

  17. Challenging Postural Tasks Increase Asymmetry in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Spiandor Beretta

    Full Text Available The unilateral predominance of Parkinson's disease (PD symptoms suggests that balance control could be asymmetrical during static tasks. Although studies have shown that balance control asymmetries exist in patients with PD, these analyses were performed using only simple bipedal standing tasks. Challenging postural tasks, such as unipedal or tandem standing, could exacerbate balance control asymmetries. To address this, we studied the impact of challenging standing tasks on postural control asymmetry in patients with PD. Twenty patients with PD and twenty neurologically healthy individuals (control group participated in this study. Participants performed three 30s trials for each postural task: bipedal, tandem adapted and unipedal standing. The center of pressure parameter was calculated for both limbs in each of these conditions, and the asymmetry between limbs was assessed using the symmetric index. A significant effect of condition was observed, with unipedal standing and tandem standing showing greater asymmetry than bipedal standing for the mediolateral root mean square (RMS and area of sway parameters, respectively. In addition, a group*condition interaction indicated that, only for patients with PD, the unipedal condition showed greater asymmetry in the mediolateral RMS and area of sway than the bipedal condition and the tandem condition showed greater asymmetry in the area of sway than the bipedal condition. Patients with PD exhibited greater asymmetry while performing tasks requiring postural control when compared to neurologically healthy individuals, especially for challenging tasks such as tandem and unipedal standing.

  18. Report of the results of the fiscal 1997 regional consortium R and D project. Regional consortium energy field / R and D of a task adaptation type group architecture transfer robot system, TRIPTERS (first fiscal year); 1997 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Chiiki consortium energy bun`ya / task tekigogata gun kosei hanso robot system TRIPTERS no kaihatsu kenkyu (daiichi nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The paper stated the fiscal 1997 result of the development of a task adaptation type group architecture transfer robot system (TRIPTERS) which can cope with changes in carrying task rapidly and flexibly. R and D were conducted mainly of various functional modules, the operation management technology which enables group architecture, and the basic design of a standardized transfer robot. As to the positioning, studied were the construction of the basic hardware of laser position measuring device, and the application method. Concerning the cooperative carrying, conducted were securing of positioning accuracy of matters to be carried, high speed heavy transfer control, and design of dead reckoning system. Relating to the operation management, passable areas were divided into more than one zones, and the effective path reservation method was constructed so that one and the same zone is not occupied. As to the environmental recognition/obstacle avoidance, developed were actual hour/distance acquisition equipment, and autonomous cars running according to the directions of the color sign recognition system by stereo CCD camera. Also conducted were the development of methods to recognize the distance to obstacles and to discriminate areas, the development of mobile sensor, and the basic experiment on running of the demonstration machine. 44 refs., 153 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Effects of Tai Chi intervention on dual-task ability in older adults: a pilot study. (United States)

    Hall, Courtney D; Miszko, Tanya; Wolf, Steven L


    To determine if a 12-week program of Tai Chi that has been shown to reduce falls incidence in older adults would improve the ability to allocate attention to balance under dual-task conditions. Pre-/posttest experimental research design. Movement studies research laboratory. Community dwelling older adults (N=15; range, 62-85y) participated in either Tai Chi training or health education classes (controls) for 12 weeks. Participants in the Tai Chi group attended a twice-weekly, 1.5-hour class taught by an experienced instructor. The control group attended a biweekly, 1-hour class for lectures on health-related topics. Two cognitive tasks (responding to auditory or visual stimulus as quickly as possible) were performed concurrently while maintaining static balance during the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) and while avoiding obstacles while walking. The percent change in performance relative to the single-task condition was calculated and defined as the dual-task cost. The dual-task cost was calculated for both the postural and cognitive measures. There was no improvement in the performance of postural stability or cognitive task under dual-task conditions for the SOT for Tai Chi versus controls. There was no improvement in avoiding obstacles under dual-task conditions for Tai Chi versus controls. Contrary to our hypothesis, the findings of this study did not support a benefit of Tai Chi on the ability to allocate attention to balance under dual-task conditions.

  20. Calculation Software (United States)


    MathSoft Plus 5.0 is a calculation software package for electrical engineers and computer scientists who need advanced math functionality. It incorporates SmartMath, an expert system that determines a strategy for solving difficult mathematical problems. SmartMath was the result of the integration into Mathcad of CLIPS, a NASA-developed shell for creating expert systems. By using CLIPS, MathSoft, Inc. was able to save the time and money involved in writing the original program.

  1. Recommendations for the presentation of NMR structures of proteins and nucleic acids--IUPAC-IUBMB-IUPAB Inter-Union Task Group on the standardization of data bases of protein and nucleic acid structures determined by NMR spectroscopy. (United States)

    Markley, J L; Bax, A; Arata, Y; Hilbers, C W; Kaptein, R; Sykes, B D; Wright, P E; Wüthrich, K


    The recommendations presented here are designed to support easier communication of NMR data and NMR structures of proteins and nucleic acids through unified nomenclature and reporting standards. Much of this document pertains to the reporting of data in journal articles; however, in the interest of the future development of structural biology, it is desirable that the bulk of the reported information be stored in computer-accessible form and be freely accessible to the scientific community in standardized formats for data exchange. These recommendations stem from an IUPAC-IUBMB-IUPAB inter-union venture with the direct involvement of ICSU and CODATA. The Task Group has reviewed previous formal recommendations and has extended them in the light of more recent developments in the field of biomolecular NMR spectroscopy. Drafts of the recommendations presented here have been examined critically by more than 50 specialists in the field and have gone through two rounds of extensive modification to incorporate suggestions and criticisms.

  2. Recommendations for the presentation of NMR structures of proteins and nucleic acids. IUPAC-IUBMB-IUPAB Inter-Union Task Group on the Standardization of Data Bases of Protein and Nucleic Acid Structures Determined by NMR Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Markley, J L; Bax, A; Arata, Y; Hilbers, C W; Kaptein, R; Sykes, B D; Wright, P E; Wüthrich, K


    The recommendations presented here are designed to support easier communication of NMR data and NMR structures of proteins and nucleic acids through unified nomenclature and reporting standards. Much of this document pertains to the reporting of data in journal articles; however, in the interest of the future development of structural biology, it is desirable that the bulk of the reported information be stored in computer-accessible form and be freely accessible to the scientific community in standardized formats for data exchange. These recommendations stem from an IUPAC-IUBMB-IUPAB inter-union venture with the direct involvement of ICSU and CODATA. The Task Group has reviewed previous formal recommendations and has extended them in the light of more recent developments in the field of biomolecular NMR spectroscopy. Drafts of the recommendations presented here have been examined critically by more than 50 specialists in the field and have gone through two rounds of extensive modification to incorporate suggestions and criticisms.

  3. Interdependence and Group Effectiveness. (United States)

    Wageman, Ruth


    Investigated the differential effects of task design and reward system design on group functioning in a large U.S. corporation; the effectiveness of "hybrid" groups (having tasks and rewards with both individual and group elements); and how individuals' autonomy preferences moderate their responses to interdependence. Groups performed…

  4. Age-related differences in dual task performance: A cross-sectional study on women. (United States)

    Brustio, Paolo R; Magistro, Daniele; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Liubicich, Monica E


    Simultaneous performances of motor and attention-demanding tasks are common in activities of everyday life. The present cross-sectional study examined the changes and age-related differences on mobility performance with an additional cognitive or motor task, and evaluated the relative dual-task cost (DTC) on the motor performance in young, middle-aged and older women. A total of 30 young (mean age 25.12 ± 3.00 years), 30 middle-aged (mean age 47.82 ± 5.06 years) and 30 older women (mean age 72.74 ± 5.95 years) were recruited. Participants carried out: (i) single task: Timed Up & Go Test; (ii) cognitive dual-task: Timed Up & Go Test while counting backwards by three; (iii) manual dual-task: Timed Up & Go Test while carrying a glass of water. A repeated measures anova with between-factor as age groups and within-factor as tasks was carried out to assess the effect of aging on the performance of mobility tasks. DTC was calculated as ([performance in single-task - performance in dual-task] / performance in single task) × 100%. One-way ancova were carried out to compare the DTC among the three age groups. A significant interaction between age groups and task (F4,172  = 6.716, P performance under dual-task condition compared with young and middle-aged groups. Furthermore, DTC differences in cognitive task were observed in older women compared with younger and middle-aged women (F2,86  = 7.649, P performance differently across the lifespan, and could be particularly challenging in older women. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 315-321. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  5. Calculator calculus

    CERN Document Server

    McCarty, George


    How THIS BOOK DIFFERS This book is about the calculus. What distinguishes it, however, from other books is that it uses the pocket calculator to illustrate the theory. A computation that requires hours of labor when done by hand with tables is quite inappropriate as an example or exercise in a beginning calculus course. But that same computation can become a delicate illustration of the theory when the student does it in seconds on his calculator. t Furthermore, the student's own personal involvement and easy accomplishment give hi~ reassurance and en­ couragement. The machine is like a microscope, and its magnification is a hundred millionfold. We shall be interested in limits, and no stage of numerical approximation proves anything about the limit. However, the derivative of fex) = 67.SgX, for instance, acquires real meaning when a student first appreciates its values as numbers, as limits of 10 100 1000 t A quick example is 1.1 , 1.01 , 1.001 , •••• Another example is t = 0.1, 0.01, in the functio...

  6. Adjustment to change in familiar and unfamiliar task constraints. (United States)

    Sanders, Ross; Li, Shuping; Hamill, Joseph


    The aim of this study was to assess the rate of adjustment to changes in task constraints that are familiar and unfamiliar when a change in the pattern of sequencing of segmental movements is not required. The selected task was underwater flutter kicking with flippers (familiar) and without flippers (unfamiliar). Nine male competitive age-group swimmers were assigned either to an unfamiliar "leg flipper" task, a familiar "foot flipper" task or a "control" group to perform five trials without flippers (all groups), 60 trials with flippers, and a post-test comprising 10 trials without flippers (all groups). Kinematic variables were calculated from digitized video data. Whether the movement pattern was appropriate for the task was indicated by the percent power in the fundamental Fourier frequency harmonic of the vertical oscillations of the hip, knee, and ankle, and by a "velocity index" that was defined as the ratio of the hip-to-knee and knee-to-ankle velocities of the fundamental Fourier waveform. Adjustment to reproduce the appropriate movement pattern occurred within the first block of 10 trials regardless of whether the constraints were familiar or unfamiliar. However, optimal performance in terms of swimming speed was not obtained following change to the unfamiliar constraint until after 10 trials.

  7. Reliability Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kurt Erling


    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety...... and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic...... approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very...

  8. Functionality and operation of fluoroscopic automatic brightness control/automatic dose rate control logic in modern cardiovascular and interventional angiography systems: a report of Task Group 125 Radiography/Fluoroscopy Subcommittee, Imaging Physics Committee, Science Council. (United States)

    Rauch, Phillip; Lin, Pei-Jan Paul; Balter, Stephen; Fukuda, Atsushi; Goode, Allen; Hartwell, Gary; LaFrance, Terry; Nickoloff, Edward; Shepard, Jeff; Strauss, Keith


    Task Group 125 (TG 125) was charged with investigating the functionality of fluoroscopic automatic dose rate and image quality control logic in modern angiographic systems, paying specific attention to the spectral shaping filters and variations in the selected radiologic imaging parameters. The task group was also charged with describing the operational aspects of the imaging equipment for the purpose of assisting the clinical medical physicist with clinical set-up and performance evaluation. Although there are clear distinctions between the fluoroscopic operation of an angiographic system and its acquisition modes (digital cine, digital angiography, digital subtraction angiography, etc.), the scope of this work was limited to the fluoroscopic operation of the systems studied. The use of spectral shaping filters in cardiovascular and interventional angiography equipment has been shown to reduce patient dose. If the imaging control algorithm were programmed to work in conjunction with the selected spectral filter, and if the generator parameters were optimized for the selected filter, then image quality could also be improved. Although assessment of image quality was not included as part of this report, it was recognized that for fluoroscopic imaging the parameters that influence radiation output, differential absorption, and patient dose are also the same parameters that influence image quality. Therefore, this report will utilize the terminology "automatic dose rate and image quality" (ADRIQ) when describing the control logic in modern interventional angiographic systems and, where relevant, will describe the influence of controlled parameters on the subsequent image quality. A total of 22 angiography units were investigated by the task group and of these one each was chosen as representative of the equipment manufactured by GE Healthcare, Philips Medical Systems, Shimadzu Medical USA, and Siemens Medical Systems. All equipment, for which measurement data were

  9. The Effects of EnhanceFitness (EF) training on dual-task walking in older adults. (United States)

    Agmon, Maayan; Kelly, Valerie E; Logsdon, Rebecca G; Nguyen, Huong; Belza, Basia


    Decline in dual-task walking performance is associated with increased risk of falls among older adults. The objective of this study is to determine whether 18 hr of participation in EnhanceFitness (EF), an evidence-based group exercise program, improves dual-task walking performance among community-dwelling older adults. Twenty-eight healthy, community-dwelling older adults were evaluated before participating in EF and after 18 hr of participation. Gait speed was evaluated under single task and dual tasks using the TUG (Timed Up and Go) and 1-min walk tests. Dual-task costs (DTC), the relative cost of dual-task performance compared to single-task performance, were calculated for both cognitive and motor tasks. Postural control and executive functions were evaluated as well. After 18 hr of EF, dual-task walking performance improved. Single-task performance improved as well as postural control and executive function. There was no significant change in DTC across all measurements, except for the cognitive task of the TUG. © The Author(s) 2012.

  10. New and extended parameterization of the thermodynamic model AIOMFAC: calculation of activity coefficients for organic-inorganic mixtures containing carboxyl, hydroxyl, carbonyl, ether, ester, alkenyl, alkyl, and aromatic functional groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zuend


    Full Text Available We present a new and considerably extended parameterization of the thermodynamic activity coefficient model AIOMFAC (Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients at room temperature. AIOMFAC combines a Pitzer-like electrolyte solution model with a UNIFAC-based group-contribution approach and explicitly accounts for interactions between organic functional groups and inorganic ions. Such interactions constitute the salt-effect, may cause liquid-liquid phase separation, and affect the gas-particle partitioning of aerosols. The previous AIOMFAC version was parameterized for alkyl and hydroxyl functional groups of alcohols and polyols. With the goal to describe a wide variety of organic compounds found in atmospheric aerosols, we extend here the parameterization of AIOMFAC to include the functional groups carboxyl, hydroxyl, ketone, aldehyde, ether, ester, alkenyl, alkyl, aromatic carbon-alcohol, and aromatic hydrocarbon. Thermodynamic equilibrium data of organic-inorganic systems from the literature are critically assessed and complemented with new measurements to establish a comprehensive database. The database is used to determine simultaneously the AIOMFAC parameters describing interactions of organic functional groups with the ions H+, Li+, Na+, K+, NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl, Br, NO3, HSO4, and SO42−. Detailed descriptions of different types of thermodynamic data, such as vapor-liquid, solid-liquid, and liquid-liquid equilibria, and their use for the model parameterization are provided. Issues regarding deficiencies of the database, types and uncertainties of experimental data, and limitations of the model, are discussed. The challenging parameter optimization problem is solved with a novel combination of powerful global minimization

  11. Cognitive Complexity of Mathematics Instructional Tasks in a Taiwanese Classroom: An Examination of Task Sources (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Yu; Silver, Edward A.


    We examined geometric calculation with number tasks used within a unit of geometry instruction in a Taiwanese classroom, identifying the source of each task used in classroom instruction and analyzing the cognitive complexity of each task with respect to 2 distinct features: diagram complexity and problem-solving complexity. We found that…

  12. Development of the neutron-transport code TransRay and studies on the two- and three-dimensional calculation of effective group cross sections; Entwicklung des Neutronentransportcodes TransRay und Untersuchungen zur zwei- und dreidimensionalen Berechnung effektiver Gruppenwirkungsquerschnitte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckert, C.


    Conventionally the data preparation of the neutron cross sections for reactor-core calculations pursues with 2D cell codes. Aim of this thesis was, to develop a 3D cell code, to study with this code 3D effects, and to evaluate the necessarity of a 3D data preparation of the neutron cross sections. For the calculation of the neutron transport the method of the first-collision probabilities, which are calculated with the ray-tracing method, was chosen. The mathematical algorithms were implemented in the 2D/3D cell code TransRay. For the geometry part of the program the geometry module of a Monte Carlo code was used.The ray tracing in 3D was parallelized because of the high computational time. The program TransRay was verified on 2D test problems. For a reference pressured-water reactor following 3D problems were studied: A partly immersed control rod and void (vacuum or steam) around a fuel rod as model of a steam void. All problems were for comparison calculated also with the programs HELIOS(2D) and MCNP(3D). The dependence of the multiplication factor and the averaged two-group cross section on the immersion depth of the control rod respectively of the height of the steam void were studied. The 3D-calculated two-group cross sections were compared with three conventional approximations: Linear interpolation, interpolation with flux weighting, and homogenization, At the 3D problem of the control rod it was shown that the interpolation with flux weighting is a good approximation. Therefore here a 3D data preparation is not necessary. At the test case of the single control rod, which is surrounded by the void, the three approximation for the two-group cross sections were proved as unsufficient. Therefore a 3D data preparation is necessary. The single fuel-rod cell with void can be considered as the limiting case of a reactor, in which a phase interface has been formed. [German] Standardmaessig erfolgt die Datenaufbereitung der Neutronenwirkungsquerschnitte fuer

  13. Electrochemical, linear optical, and nonlinear optical properties and interpretation by density functional theory calculations of (4-N,N-dimethylaminostyryl)-pyridinium pendant group associated with polypyridinic ligands and respective multifunctional metal complexes (Ru(II) or Zn(II)). (United States)

    Dumur, Frédéric; Mayer, Cédric R; Hoang-Thi, Khuyen; Ledoux-Rak, Isabelle; Miomandre, Fabien; Clavier, Gilles; Dumas, Eddy; Méallet-Renault, Rachel; Frigoli, Michel; Zyss, Joseph; Sécheresse, Francis


    The synthesis, linear optical and nonlinear optical properties, as well as the electrochemical behavior of a series of pro-ligands containing the 4-(4-N,N-dimethylaminostyryl)-1-methyl pyridinium (DASP(+)) group as a push-pull moiety covalently linked to terpyridine or bipyridine as chelating ligands are reported in this full paper. The corresponding multifunctional Ru(II) and Zn(II) complexes were prepared and investigated. The structural, electronic, and optical properties of the pro-ligands and the ruthenium complexes were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent (TD) DFT calculations. A fairly good agreement was observed between the experimental and the calculated electronic spectra of the pro-ligands and their corresponding ruthenium complexes. A quenching of luminescence was evidenced in all ruthenium complexes compared with the free pro-ligands but even the terpyridine-functionalized metal complexes exhibited detectable luminescence at room temperature. Second order nonlinear optical (NLO) measurements were performed by Harmonic Light Scattering and the contribution of the DASP(+) moieties (and their relative ordering) and the metal-polypyridyl core need to be considered to explain the nonlinear optical properties of the metal complexes.

  14. Task-related functional connectivity in autism spectrum conditions: an EEG study using wavelet transform coherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarino Ana


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC are a set of pervasive neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by a wide range of lifelong signs and symptoms. Recent explanatory models of autism propose abnormal neural connectivity and are supported by studies showing decreased interhemispheric coherence in individuals with ASC. The first aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of reduced interhemispheric coherence in ASC, and secondly to investigate specific effects of task performance on interhemispheric coherence in ASC. Methods We analyzed electroencephalography (EEG data from 15 participants with ASC and 15 typical controls, using Wavelet Transform Coherence (WTC to calculate interhemispheric coherence during face and chair matching tasks, for EEG frequencies from 5 to 40 Hz and during the first 400 ms post-stimulus onset. Results Results demonstrate a reduction of interhemispheric coherence in the ASC group, relative to the control group, in both tasks and for all electrode pairs studied. For both tasks, group differences were generally observed after around 150 ms and at frequencies lower than 13 Hz. Regarding within-group task comparisons, while the control group presented differences in interhemispheric coherence between faces and chairs tasks at various electrode pairs (FT7-FT8, TP7-TP8, P7-P8, such differences were only seen for one electrode pair in the ASC group (T7-T8. No significant differences in EEG power spectra were observed between groups. Conclusions Interhemispheric coherence is reduced in people with ASC, in a time and frequency specific manner, during visual perception and categorization of both social and inanimate stimuli and this reduction in coherence is widely dispersed across the brain. Results of within-group task comparisons may reflect an impairment in task differentiation in people with ASC relative to typically developing individuals. Overall, the results of this research support the value of WTC

  15. Task-related functional connectivity in autism spectrum conditions: an EEG study using wavelet transform coherence (United States)


    Background Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) are a set of pervasive neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by a wide range of lifelong signs and symptoms. Recent explanatory models of autism propose abnormal neural connectivity and are supported by studies showing decreased interhemispheric coherence in individuals with ASC. The first aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of reduced interhemispheric coherence in ASC, and secondly to investigate specific effects of task performance on interhemispheric coherence in ASC. Methods We analyzed electroencephalography (EEG) data from 15 participants with ASC and 15 typical controls, using Wavelet Transform Coherence (WTC) to calculate interhemispheric coherence during face and chair matching tasks, for EEG frequencies from 5 to 40 Hz and during the first 400 ms post-stimulus onset. Results Results demonstrate a reduction of interhemispheric coherence in the ASC group, relative to the control group, in both tasks and for all electrode pairs studied. For both tasks, group differences were generally observed after around 150 ms and at frequencies lower than 13 Hz. Regarding within-group task comparisons, while the control group presented differences in interhemispheric coherence between faces and chairs tasks at various electrode pairs (FT7-FT8, TP7-TP8, P7-P8), such differences were only seen for one electrode pair in the ASC group (T7-T8). No significant differences in EEG power spectra were observed between groups. Conclusions Interhemispheric coherence is reduced in people with ASC, in a time and frequency specific manner, during visual perception and categorization of both social and inanimate stimuli and this reduction in coherence is widely dispersed across the brain. Results of within-group task comparisons may reflect an impairment in task differentiation in people with ASC relative to typically developing individuals. Overall, the results of this research support the value of WTC in examining the time

  16. Mobile Thread Task Manager (United States)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Estlin, Tara A.; Bornstein, Benjamin J.


    The Mobile Thread Task Manager (MTTM) is being applied to parallelizing existing flight software to understand the benefits and to develop new techniques and architectural concepts for adapting software to multicore architectures. It allocates and load-balances tasks for a group of threads that migrate across processors to improve cache performance. In order to balance-load across threads, the MTTM augments a basic map-reduce strategy to draw jobs from a global queue. In a multicore processor, memory may be "homed" to the cache of a specific processor and must be accessed from that processor. The MTTB architecture wraps access to data with thread management to move threads to the home processor for that data so that the computation follows the data in an attempt to avoid L2 cache misses. Cache homing is also handled by a memory manager that translates identifiers to processor IDs where the data will be homed (according to rules defined by the user). The user can also specify the number of threads and processors separately, which is important for tuning performance for different patterns of computation and memory access. MTTM efficiently processes tasks in parallel on a multiprocessor computer. It also provides an interface to make it easier to adapt existing software to a multiprocessor environment.

  17. Effects of disease severity and medication state on postural control asymmetry during challenging postural tasks in individuals with Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Barbieri, Fabio A; Polastri, Paula F; Baptista, André M; Lirani-Silva, Ellen; Simieli, Lucas; Orcioli-Silva, Diego; Beretta, Victor S; Gobbi, Lilian T B


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of disease severity and medication state on postural control asymmetry during challenging tasks in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Nineteen people with PD and 11 neurologically healthy individuals performed three standing task conditions: bipedal standing, tandem and unipedal adapted standing; the individuals with PD performed the tasks in ON and OFF medication state. The participants with PD were distributed into 2 groups according to disease severity: unilateral group (n=8) and bilateral group (n=11). The two PD groups performed the evaluations both under and without the medication. Two force plates were used to analyze the posture. The symmetric index was calculated for various of center of pressure. ANOVA one-way (groups) and two-way (PD groups×medication), with repeated measures for medication, were calculated. For main effects of group, the bilateral group was more asymmetric than CG. For main effects of medication, only unipedal adapted standing presented effects of PD medication. There was PD groups×medication interaction. Under the effects of medication, the unilateral group presented lower asymmetry of RMS in anterior-posterior direction and area than the bilateral group in unipedal adapted standing. In addition, the unilateral group presented lower asymmetry of mean velocity, RMS in anterior-posterior direction and area in unipedal standing and area in tandem adapted standing after a medication dose. Postural control asymmetry during challenging postural tasks was dependent on disease severity and medication state in people with PD. The bilateral group presented higher postural control asymmetry than the control and unilateral groups in challenging postural tasks. Finally, the medication dose was able to reduce postural control asymmetry in the unilateral group during challenging postural tasks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Abacus Training Affects Math and Task Switching Abilities and Modulates Their Relationships in Chinese Children. (United States)

    Wang, Chunjie; Geng, Fengji; Yao, Yuan; Weng, Jian; Hu, Yuzheng; Chen, Feiyan


    Our previous work demonstrated that abacus-based mental calculation (AMC), a traditional Chinese calculation method, could help children improve their math abilities (e.g. basic arithmetical ability) and executive function (e.g. working memory). This study further examined the effects of long-term AMC training on math ability in visual-spatial domain and the task switching component of executive function. More importantly, this study investigated whether AMC training modulated the relationship between math abilities and task switching. The participants were seventy 7-year-old children who were randomly assigned into AMC and control groups at primary school entry. Children in AMC group received 2-hour AMC training every week since primary school entry. On the contrary, children in the control group had never received any AMC training. Math and task switching abilities were measured one year and three years respectively after AMC training began. The results showed that AMC children performed better than their peers on math abilities in arithmetical and visual-spatial domains. In addition, AMC group responded faster than control group in the switching task, while no group difference was found in switch cost. Most interestingly, group difference was present in the relationships between math abilities and switch cost. These results implied the effect of AMC training on math abilities as well as its relationship with executive function.

  19. Orientation Preferences of Backbone Secondary Amide Functional Groups in Peptide Nucleic Acid Complexes: Quantum Chemical Calculations Reveal an Intrinsic Preference of Cationic D-Amino Acid-Based Chiral PNA Analogues for the P-form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Topham, Christopher [University of Heidelberg


    Geometric descriptions of nonideal interresidue hydrogen bonding and backbone-base water bridging in the minor groove are established in terms of polyamide backbone carbonyl group orientation from analyses of residue junction conformers in experimentally determined peptide nucleic acid (PNA) complexes. Two types of interresidue hydrogen bonding are identified in PNA conformers in heteroduplexes with nucleic acids that adopt A-like base pair stacking. Quantum chemical calculations on the binding of a water molecule to an O2 base atom in glycine-based PNA thymine dimers indicate that junctions modeled with P-form backbone conformations are lower in energy than a dimer comprising the predominant conformation observed in A-like helices. It is further shown in model systems that PNA analogs based on D-lysine are better able to preorganize in a conformation exclusive to P-form helices than is glycine-based PNA. An intrinsic preference for this conformation is also exhibited by positively charged chiral PNA dimers carrying 3-amino-D-alanine or 4-aza-D-leucine residue units that provide for additional rigidity by side-chain hydrogen bonding to the backbone carbonyl oxygen. Structural modifications stabilizing P-form helices may obviate the need for large heterocycles to target DNA pyrimidine bases via PNADNA-PNA triplex formation. Quantum chemical modeling methods are used to propose candidate PNA Hoogsteen strand designs.

  20. Effects of Task Complexity, Task Conditions, and Task Difficulty on the Grammatical Accuracy of EFL Learners in Written Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Ahangari


    Full Text Available Different methods of language teaching have tried to help EFL learners to develop good language skills based on their various perspectives. Research findings have underscored the effect of using task types in promoting language skills in terms of accuracy in written discourse. Therefore, this study set out to investigate whether there is an evidence of correct use of simple past tense (Accuracy based on Task Complexity (Task type :Here-and now & There-and-then,Task Conditions (Gender: Male & Female, and Task Difficulty (Proficiency: Lower-intermediate & Intermediate. Sixty Iranian English learners in a language institute participated in the study and were assigned to four groups of lower-intermediate male, lower-intermediate female, intermediate male and intermediate female. Initial homogeneity of the groups was verified using two general proficiency tests; KET for lower-intermediate and PET for intermediate. All groups in here-and-now task type were asked to write a story using simple past based on a picture strip while for there-and-then task type the participants were supposed to write about their last birthday. The results from paired samples t-test, independent samples t-test and two-way ANOVA analysis of the written data revealed significant differences in performing task types, at different proficiency levels and interaction between them. The findings have significant pedagogical implications for EFL learners to understand the relationship among Task Complexity,Task Conditions, Task Difficulty and L2 written production leading to various degrees of Accuracy.

  1. Effect of music tempo on task performance. (United States)

    Mayfield, C; Moss, S


    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of music tempo on task performance. In Study 1, 44 undergraduate business students were asked to be "workers" in a stock market project by collecting closing stock prices and calculating the percentage of change in the price from week to week. Subjects were randomly divided into groups such that they either listened to fast-paced music while they worked, to slow-paced music, or to no music. Analyses of variance and covariance were conducted on both the quantity and quality of the subjects' work, using music listening habits as a covariate. There were no differences in either the quantity or quality of the work produced by the groups. There were some methodological concerns regarding Study 1, so a second study was conducted. The 70 undergraduate business students in Study 2 completed the same task under the same music conditions as in Study 1. Analyses of variance indicated women performed significantly better than men, performance was significantly higher in the rock condition than in the heartbeat condition, and subjects in the rock condition had a significantly higher perceived level of distraction by the music.

  2. Quantifying Human Performanceon a Moving Platform Using the Fitts' Law Task


    Shattuck, Nita Lewis


    Presentation including topics such as: purpose of Fitt's Law Task, NPS experience with sleep and motion studies, isoperformance examples, approach to calculating norms for the task, and Fitts' law task demonstration

  3. Beads task vs. box task: The specificity of the jumping to conclusions bias. (United States)

    Balzan, Ryan P; Ephraums, Rachel; Delfabbro, Paul; Andreou, Christina


    Previous research involving the probabilistic reasoning 'beads task' has consistently demonstrated a jumping-to-conclusions (JTC) bias, where individuals with delusions make decisions based on limited evidence. However, recent studies have suggested that miscomprehension may be confounding the beads task. The current study aimed to test the conventional beads task against a conceptually simpler probabilistic reasoning "box task" METHODS: One hundred non-clinical participants completed both the beads task and the box task, and the Peters et al. Delusions Inventory (PDI) to assess for delusion-proneness. The number of 'draws to decision' was assessed for both tasks. Additionally, the total amount of on-screen evidence was manipulated for the box task, and two new box task measures were assessed (i.e., 'proportion of evidence requested' and 'deviation from optimal solution'). Despite being conceptually similar, the two tasks did not correlate, and participants requested significantly less information on the beads task relative to the box task. High-delusion-prone participants did not demonstrate hastier decisions on either task; in fact, for box task, this group was observed to be significantly more conservative than low-delusion-prone group. Neither task was incentivized; results need replication with a clinical sample. Participants, and particularly those identified as high-delusion-prone, displayed a more conservative style of responding on the novel box task, relative to the beads task. The two tasks, whilst conceptually similar, appear to be tapping different cognitive processes. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to the JTC bias and the theoretical mechanisms thought to underlie it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Guidelines for guidelines: are they up to the task? A comparative assessment of clinical practice guideline development handbooks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Ansari

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We conducted a comparative review of clinical practice guideline development handbooks. We aimed to identify the main guideline development tasks, assign weights to the importance of each task using expert opinions and identify the handbooks that provided a comprehensive coverage of the tasks. METHODS: We systematically searched and included handbooks published (in English language by national, international or professional bodies responsible for evidenced-based guideline development. We reviewed the handbooks to identify the main guideline development tasks and scored each handbook for each task from 0 (the handbook did not mention the task to 2 (the task suitably addressed and explained, and calculated a weighted score for each handbook. The tasks included in over 75% of the handbooks were considered as 'necessary' tasks. RESULT: Nineteen guideline development handbooks and twenty seven main tasks were identified. The guideline handbooks' weighted scores ranged from 100 to 220. Four handbooks scored over 80% of the maximum possible score, developed by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, Swiss Centre for International Health, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and World Health Organization. Necessary tasks were: selecting the guideline topic, determining the guideline scope, identifying relevant existing guidelines, involving the consumers, forming guideline development group,, developing clinical questions, systematic search for evidence, selecting relevant evidence, appraising identifies research evidence, making group decision, grading available evidence, creating recommendations, final stakeholder consultation, guideline implementation strategies, updating recommendations and correcting potential errors. DISCUSSION: Adequate details for evidence based development of guidelines were still lacking from many handbooks. The tasks relevant to ethical issues and piloting were missing in most handbooks

  5. Guidelines for guidelines: are they up to the task? A comparative assessment of clinical practice guideline development handbooks. (United States)

    Ansari, Shabnam; Rashidian, Arash


    We conducted a comparative review of clinical practice guideline development handbooks. We aimed to identify the main guideline development tasks, assign weights to the importance of each task using expert opinions and identify the handbooks that provided a comprehensive coverage of the tasks. We systematically searched and included handbooks published (in English language) by national, international or professional bodies responsible for evidenced-based guideline development. We reviewed the handbooks to identify the main guideline development tasks and scored each handbook for each task from 0 (the handbook did not mention the task) to 2 (the task suitably addressed and explained), and calculated a weighted score for each handbook. The tasks included in over 75% of the handbooks were considered as 'necessary' tasks. Nineteen guideline development handbooks and twenty seven main tasks were identified. The guideline handbooks' weighted scores ranged from 100 to 220. Four handbooks scored over 80% of the maximum possible score, developed by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, Swiss Centre for International Health, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and World Health Organization. Necessary tasks were: selecting the guideline topic, determining the guideline scope, identifying relevant existing guidelines, involving the consumers, forming guideline development group,, developing clinical questions, systematic search for evidence, selecting relevant evidence, appraising identifies research evidence, making group decision, grading available evidence, creating recommendations, final stakeholder consultation, guideline implementation strategies, updating recommendations and correcting potential errors. Adequate details for evidence based development of guidelines were still lacking from many handbooks. The tasks relevant to ethical issues and piloting were missing in most handbooks. The findings help decision makers in identifying the

  6. Control processes in voluntary and explicitly cued task switching. (United States)

    Masson, Michael E J; Carruthers, Sarah


    Explicitly cued task switching slows performance relative to performing the same task on consecutive trials. This effect appears to be due partly to more efficient encoding of the task cue when the same cue is used on consecutive trials and partly to an additional task-switching process. These components were examined by comparing explicitly cued and voluntary task switching groups, with external cues presented to both groups. Cue-switch effects varied in predictable ways to dissociate explicitly cued and voluntary task switching, whereas task-switch effects had similar characteristics for both instructional groups. The data were well fitted by a mathematical model of task switching that included a cue-encoding mechanism (whereby cue repetition improves performance) and an additional process that was invoked on task-switch trials. Analyses of response-time distributions suggest that this additional process involves task-set reconfiguration that may or may not be engaged before the target stimulus is presented.

  7. Nursing students' mathematic calculation skills. (United States)

    Rainboth, Lynde; DeMasi, Chris


    This mixed method study used a pre-test/post-test design to evaluate the efficacy of a teaching strategy in improving beginning nursing student learning outcomes. During a 4-week student teaching period, a convenience sample of 54 sophomore level nursing students were required to complete calculation assignments, taught one calculation method, and mandated to attend medication calculation classes. These students completed pre- and post-math tests and a major medication mathematic exam. Scores from the intervention student group were compared to those achieved by the previous sophomore class. Results demonstrated a statistically significant improvement from pre- to post-test and the students who received the intervention had statistically significantly higher scores on the major medication calculation exam than did the students in the control group. The evaluation completed by the intervention group showed that the students were satisfied with the method and outcome.

  8. Project Tasks in Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben; Hansen, Poul Erik


    Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics......Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics...

  9. Management: tasks, responsibilities, practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drucker, Peter Ferdinand


    Drucker looks at management from a task orientated point of view. In Part I he looks at management first from the outside and studies the dimensions of the tasks and the requirements to each of them...

  10. Task assignment and coaching


    Dominguez-Martinez, S.


    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching from a manager, the junior employee only has information about his past performance. Based on his past performance, a talented junior who has performed a difficult task sometimes decides to leave the...

  11. Task assignment and coaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.


    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching

  12. Flight deck task management (United States)


    This report documents the work undertaken in support of Volpe Task Order No. T0026, Flight Deck Task Management. The objectives of this work effort were to: : 1) Develop a specific and standard definition of task management (TM) : 2) Conduct a ...

  13. Novice supervisors' tasks and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan; Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard; Mathiesen, Birgit Bork


    The debut as a clinical supervisor is still rather unknown. The aim of this study is to explore what kind of tasks novice supervisors undertake and how they are prepared for these. During 2009–2010, 350 Danish clinical psychologists have responded to the Development of Psychotherapists Common Core...... Questionnaire covering a wide range of items on professional development, experience, and practice. In this paper we focus on background data (experience, training and practice), specifically the tasks and training of the respondents as novice supervisors. The results show, that a majority of novice supervisors...... were confronted with complicated jobs, e.g., group, internal and interdisciplinary supervision, but were not prepared, i.e. trained, prior to these tasks. These findings imply that more training is needed for novice supervisors. Preferably, this training should be introduced before, or at least...

  14. Blinking and tear break-up during four visual tasks. (United States)

    Himebaugh, Nikole L; Begley, Carolyn G; Bradley, Arthur; Wilkinson, Jenni A


    This study investigates the relationship between blinking, tear film break-up, and ocular symptoms for normal and dry eye subjects performing four different visual tasks. Sixteen control and sixteen dry eye subjects performed four visual tasks (looking straight ahead, watching a movie, identifying rapidly changing letters, and playing a computer game) while blink patterns and fluorescein images of the tear film were videotaped. Pre and posttesting symptom questionnaires, querying the intensity of nine symptoms of ocular irritation, were completed by all subjects. Blink rate and blink amplitude were computed from digitized videos. The percentage of tear film break-up before the blink was calculated. Dry eye subjects had a significantly higher blink rate (p = 0.017, t-test). Both groups blinked significantly less during the game and letter tasks (p break-up in normal subjects was typically inferior; whereas dry eye subjects showed more tear break-up centrally and superiorly. Real-time video recording of tear break-up and blink behavior pointed to complex interaction between the two. Dry eye subjects shifted more toward intense ocular symptoms at posttesting (p break-up during normal visual tasks may explain the increased level of ocular discomfort symptoms reported at the end of the day, particularly in dry eye patients.

  15. Cooperative network clustering and task allocation for heterogeneous small satellite network (United States)

    Qin, Jing

    The research of small satellite has emerged as a hot topic in recent years because of its economical prospects and convenience in launching and design. Due to the size and energy constraints of small satellites, forming a small satellite network(SSN) in which all the satellites cooperate with each other to finish tasks is an efficient and effective way to utilize them. In this dissertation, I designed and evaluated a weight based dominating set clustering algorithm, which efficiently organizes the satellites into stable clusters. The traditional clustering algorithms of large monolithic satellite networks, such as formation flying and satellite swarm, are often limited on automatic formation of clusters. Therefore, a novel Distributed Weight based Dominating Set(DWDS) clustering algorithm is designed to address the clustering problems in the stochastically deployed SSNs. Considering the unique features of small satellites, this algorithm is able to form the clusters efficiently and stably. In this algorithm, satellites are separated into different groups according to their spatial characteristics. A minimum dominating set is chosen as the candidate cluster head set based on their weights, which is a weighted combination of residual energy and connection degree. Then the cluster heads admit new neighbors that accept their invitations into the cluster, until the maximum cluster size is reached. Evaluated by the simulation results, in a SSN with 200 to 800 nodes, the algorithm is able to efficiently cluster more than 90% of nodes in 3 seconds. The Deadline Based Resource Balancing (DBRB) task allocation algorithm is designed for efficient task allocations in heterogeneous LEO small satellite networks. In the task allocation process, the dispatcher needs to consider the deadlines of the tasks as well as the residue energy of different resources for best energy utilization. We assume the tasks adopt a Map-Reduce framework, in which a task can consist of multiple

  16. Mental engagement during cognitive and psychomotor tasks: Effects of task type, processing demands, and practice. (United States)

    Pendleton, Daniel M; Sakalik, Monica L; Moore, Morgan L; Tomporowski, Phillip D


    Measures of heart rate variability (HRV) are hypothesized to provide indices of mental engagement (ME). HRV and perceived workload were measured to determine whether ME is moderated by task type, processing demands, and practice. Twenty four (22±3yrs.) participants were assigned to groups that performed either two executive-processing (EF) tasks or two non-executive processing (NEF) tasks. Across 3 sessions, participants practiced a cognitive computer-based cognitive task and a psychomotor task. HR was recorded for 5-min epochs before and during each task; workload ratings were recorded following each task. ANOVAs revealed that participants' HRV decreased when performing cognitive and psychomotor tasks; the decline was greater, however, for NEF tasks. Over sessions, HRV increased during EF but not NEF tasks; workload scores lessened during EF but not NEF tasks. ME was intensified when participants learned novel cognitive and psychomotor tasks; however, the intensity level depended on the task, and its maintenance was altered with practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Relationship between Task Cohesion and Competitive State Anxiety. (United States)

    Eys, Mark A.; Hardy, James; Carron, Albert V.; Beauchamp, Mark R.


    Examined the association between athlete perceptions of task cohesiveness (Individual Attractions to the Group-Task and Group Integration-Task) and the degree to which they viewed their perceptions of the presence of pre-competition anxiety symptoms as facilitative or debilitative. Survey data indicated that the more positive their perceptions of…

  18. Magnetic Field Calculator (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Calculator will calculate the total magnetic field, including components (declination, inclination, horizontal intensity, northerly intensity,...

  19. Alcohol Calorie Calculator (United States)

    ... NIAAA College Materials Supporting Research Special Features CollegeAIM College Administrators Parents & Students Home > Special Features > Calculators > Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie ...

  20. Study of Local Inter-Nucleus Potential on the Basis of the Resonating Group Method. IV : Comparison of Various Approaches to Calculate Inter-Nucleus Potential and Study of the Origins of Deep and Shallow Potentials


    Kaoru, AOKI; Hisashi, HORIUCHI; Department of Physics, Kyoto University; Department of Physics, Kyoto University


    Inter-relations are investigated between our theory of the local inter-nucleus potential based on the WKB prescription and other theories represented by the method of energy curve and by the method of moving wave packet. It is clarified that the latter two methods are approximations of the former in the sense that they are obtained by taking the spatial and energy averages of the former. The difference between the calculated local potentials by these different approaches are analysed in detai...

  1. The Effect of Task Type and Pre-task Planning Condition on the Accuracy of Intermediate EFL Learners' Writing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyeed Mohammad Alavi


    Full Text Available Task-based language teaching, which requires learners to transact tasks resembling their real life language needs, demands language learners to perform planning at different stages of their learning. Since various types of tasks can be used in task-based instruction, the present study examined the effect of task types and various participatory structures during pre-task planning on the quality of learners' writing performance, (i.e., accuracy. Towards this end, 120 intermediate EFL students were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups and one control group. While the experimental groups were subjected to different pre-task planning conditions, (i.e., individual, pair, and group, the control group performed tasks without any planning. During the treatment, they experienced task modeling, presentation and completion. A factorial design was followed in the present study, and the collected data were analyzed through ANOVAs that revealed task type and pre-task planning condition influenced the writing accuracy of the participants in a way that resulted in greater accuracy in the decision-making task in the experimental groups, thereby ensuring the effectiveness of the treatment in mitigating the long-standing problem of EFL learners in achieving higher levels of accuracy when a specific task type is concerned.

  2. Conference Proceedings. Defense Modeling and Simulation Office Information/Data Base (I/DB) Task Group Meetings Held February 14-18, 1994, and Notes from the Previous Two I/DB Meetings (United States)


    for Spatial Metada that resulted from the FGDC Standards Working Group Meeting of January 25, 1994. The FGDC Coordination Group has received a copy...Type: date Domain: free date; Metadata Review Date later than Metadata Date 3 8.3 Metada =a Future Review Date - the date by which the metadata entry

  3. Relative contributions of task-relevant and task-irrelevant dimensions in priming of pop-out. (United States)

    Michal, Audrey L; Lleras, Alejandro; Beck, Diane M


    Intertrial effects such as priming of pop-out (PoP) often occur for task-irrelevant dimensions as well as task-relevant dimensions, though to a weaker extent. Here we test the hypothesis that increased priming for task-relevant dimensions is due to greater passive build-up of priming for the task-relevant dimension rather than to an active filtering of task-irrelevant dimensions; if this is the case, then we should observe a positive correlation between the magnitude of task-relevant and task-irrelevant priming. We tested this hypothesis using a pop-out search task in which the task-relevant dimension was orientation and the task-irrelevant dimension was color. We found a strong, positive association between task-relevant and task-irrelevant priming across a large group of participants (N = 100); additionally, we observed increased priming over consecutive repetitions for the task-relevant dimension, whereas task-irrelevant priming was constant across multiple repetitions. As further evidence against an active filtering account, task-irrelevant priming showed no systematic relationship with visual short-term memory capacity, which has been shown to correlate with filtering ability. Together, our results suggest that task-irrelevant dimensions are co-selected rather than filtered out during target search. Further, increased task-relevant priming may reflect an enhanced representation of the task-relevant dimension that is reinforced over consecutive repetitions. © 2014 ARVO.

  4. Error Sonification of a Complex Motor Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riener Robert


    Full Text Available Visual information is mainly used to master complex motor tasks. Thus, additional information providing augmented feedback should be displayed in other modalities than vision, e.g. hearing. The present work evaluated the potential of error sonification to enhance learning of a rowing-type motor task. In contrast to a control group receiving self-controlled terminal feedback, the experimental group could not significantly reduce spatial errors. Thus, motor learning was not enhanced by error sonification, although during the training the participant could benefit from it. It seems that the motor task was too slow, resulting in immediate corrections of the movement rather than in an internal representation of the general characteristics of the motor task. Therefore, further studies should elaborate the impact of error sonification when general characteristics of the motor tasks are already known.

  5. Internal Mechanism of a Schoonschip Calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Strubbe, H


    Schoonschip is a general purpose "Algebraic Manipulation" program. It is designed to do long - but in principle straightforward - analytic calculations. It can be used interactively. It is very fast in execution and very economical in storage (25K). This is achieved by writing the program almost entirely in (CDC 6000) machine code. Therefore, the representation of the algebraic formulae (list structure) and the calculation mechanism can be set up very efficiently. Input, Output and a few numerical tasks are done in Fortran.

  6. No evidence for task automatization after dual-task training in younger and older adults. (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Schubert, Torsten


    The present study investigated the ability of older adults in contrast to younger adults to automatize new choice tasks as a result of simultaneous dual-task practice. Importantly, the study was carried out in conditions optimal for dual-task performance and task automatization. Despite this, the results of detailed analyses were not consistent with the assumption that either older or younger adults are able to automatize new choice tasks; neither group showed evidence of automatization. Even in analyses focusing on high dual-task performers (i.e., individuals who performed equally well in single and dual tasks) the results were not consistent with this assumption. Instead, it seems to be the case that both older and younger adults continue to use capacity-limited processes to process choice tasks after dual-task practice. These conclusions are consistent with findings from studies using single-task practice and tests of task automatization in dual tasks (Maquestiaux, Laguë-Beauvais, Ruthruff, Hartley, & Bherer, 2010; Maquestiaux, Didierjean, Ruthruff, Chauvel, & Hartley, 2013). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Mental subtraction and multiplication recruit both phonological and visuospatial resources: evidence from a symmetric dual-task design. (United States)

    Cavdaroglu, Seda; Knops, A


    Previous studies pointed out a selective interaction between different working memory subsystems (i.e., phonological and visuospatial) and arithmetic operations (i.e., multiplication and subtraction). This was interpreted to support the idea that multiplication and subtraction predominantly rely on a phonologically or spatially organized number code, respectively. Here, we investigated this idea in two groups (multiplication and subtraction group) using a dual-task paradigm. Going beyond previous studies, we carefully controlled and balanced the difficulty of both working memory and calculation tasks within and across participants. This allowed us to test the reciprocal impact of calculations on working memory. We observed no selective interaction between different working memory subsystems and arithmetic operations. Instead, both types of arithmetic operations were impaired by both types of concurrent working memory tasks. Likewise, both types of working memory tasks were impaired by both types of concurrent arithmetic. Our findings suggest that multiplication and subtraction depend on both phonological and visuospatial codes and highlight the importance of balancing task demands within and between participants in the context of dual-task studies.

  8. India's Unfinished Telecom Tasks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India's Unfinished Telecom Tasks · India's Telecom Story is now well known · Indian Operators become an enviable force · At the same time · India Amongst the Leaders · Unfinished Tasks as Operators · LightGSM ON: Innovation for Rural Area from Midas ... The Consortium Approach … What more will it take to obtain Tech ...

  9. Shifting tasks in telecare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt


    with focus on shifting tasks was undertaken. Furthermore, the method of ‘Interview to double’ was used the analytical ambition being to explore the becoming of tasks and relations. Analytically the study draws predominantly on Stars notion of ‘infrastructure’. Infrastructure is seen as human and non...

  10. Energy Efficient Task Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadottir, Asta; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Johnsen, Kjeld


    the light source as far from the bottom edge as possible. The main results of the project show opportunities for energy savings in an office environment by reducing the installed power for the general lighting by applying a task light with a wide light distribution across the desk area , providing high...... illuminance uniformity . There is still work to be done on the prototype to optimize the energy consumption of the task light and measures need to be taken to minimize glare from the task light as well as reflected glare . The lamp head adjustment possibilities regarding tilting and turning result in problems...... to all objects on the desk than the two traditional reference task lights with LED retrofit light bulbs . By utilising this new type of task light, the energy consumption by general lighting can be reduced by approximately 40 % by fully exploiting the lower illuminance levels required by lighting...

  11. Supporting complex search tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo


    There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks......, is fragmented at best. The workshop addressed the many open research questions: What are the obvious use cases and applications of complex search? What are essential features of work tasks and search tasks to take into account? And how do these evolve over time? With a multitude of information, varying from...... introductory to specialized, and from authoritative to speculative or opinionated, when to show what sources of information? How does the information seeking process evolve and what are relevant differences between different stages? With complex task and search process management, blending searching, browsing...

  12. Task Description Language (United States)

    Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David


    Task Description Language (TDL) is an extension of the C++ programming language that enables programmers to quickly and easily write complex, concurrent computer programs for controlling real-time autonomous systems, including robots and spacecraft. TDL is based on earlier work (circa 1984 through 1989) on the Task Control Architecture (TCA). TDL provides syntactic support for hierarchical task-level control functions, including task decomposition, synchronization, execution monitoring, and exception handling. A Java-language-based compiler transforms TDL programs into pure C++ code that includes calls to a platform-independent task-control-management (TCM) library. TDL has been used to control and coordinate multiple heterogeneous robots in projects sponsored by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It has also been used in Brazil to control an autonomous airship and in Canada to control a robotic manipulator.

  13. The Graphics Calculator: A Tool for Critical Thinking. (United States)

    Dion, Gloria


    Appropriate uses for graphics calculators in precalculus and calculus are discussed. The functions of Casio, Sharp, and Hewlett-Packard brand calculators are stressed. A "Stress Test" for graphics calculators designed to illustrate common errors and to furnish examples of tasks which cannot be completed on these instruments is provided.…

  14. Overview of the ID, EPI and REL tasks of BioNLP Shared Task 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyysalo Sampo


    Full Text Available Abstract We present the preparation, resources, results and analysis of three tasks of the BioNLP Shared Task 2011: the main tasks on Infectious Diseases (ID and Epigenetics and Post-translational Modifications (EPI, and the supporting task on Entity Relations (REL. The two main tasks represent extensions of the event extraction model introduced in the BioNLP Shared Task 2009 (ST'09 to two new areas of biomedical scientific literature, each motivated by the needs of specific biocuration tasks. The ID task concerns the molecular mechanisms of infection, virulence and resistance, focusing in particular on the functions of a class of signaling systems that are ubiquitous in bacteria. The EPI task is dedicated to the extraction of statements regarding chemical modifications of DNA and proteins, with particular emphasis on changes relating to the epigenetic control of gene expression. By contrast to these two application-oriented main tasks, the REL task seeks to support extraction in general by separating challenges relating to part-of relations into a subproblem that can be addressed by independent systems. Seven groups participated in each of the two main tasks and four groups in the supporting task. The participating systems indicated advances in the capability of event extraction methods and demonstrated generalization in many aspects: from abstracts to full texts, from previously considered subdomains to new ones, and from the ST'09 extraction targets to other entities and events. The highest performance achieved in the supporting task REL, 58% F-score, is broadly comparable with levels reported for other relation extraction tasks. For the ID task, the highest-performing system achieved 56% F-score, comparable to the state-of-the-art performance at the established ST'09 task. In the EPI task, the best result was 53% F-score for the full set of extraction targets and 69% F-score for a reduced set of core extraction targets, approaching a level

  15. Musical expertise has minimal impact on dual task performance. (United States)

    Cocchini, Gianna; Filardi, Maria Serena; Crhonkova, Marcela; Halpern, Andrea R


    Studies investigating effect of practice on dual task performance have yielded conflicting findings, thus supporting different theoretical accounts about the organisation of attentional resources when tasks are performed simultaneously. Because practice has been proven to reduce the demand of attention for the trained task, the impact of long-lasting training on one task is an ideal way to better understand the mechanisms underlying dual task decline in performance. Our study compared performance during dual task execution in expert musicians compared to controls with little if any musical experience. Participants performed a music recognition task and a visuo-spatial task separately (single task) or simultaneously (dual task). Both groups showed a significant but similar performance decline during dual tasks. In addition, the two groups showed a similar decline of dual task performance during encoding and retrieval of the musical information, mainly attributed to a decline in sensitivity. Our results suggest that attention during dual tasks is similarly distributed by expert and non-experts. These findings are in line with previous studies showing a lack of sensitivity to difficulty and lack of practice effect during dual tasks, supporting the idea that different tasks may rely on different and not-sharable attentional resources.

  16. Guessing versus choosing an upcoming task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eKleinsorge


    Full Text Available We compared the effects of guessing versus choosing an upcoming task. In a task-switching paradigm with four tasks, two groups of participants were asked to either guess or choose which task will be presented next under otherwise identical conditions. The upcoming task corresponded to participants' guesses or choices in 75 % of the trials. However, only participants in the Choosing condition were correctly informed about this, whereas participants in the Guessing condition were told that tasks were determined at random. In the Guessing condition, we replicated previous findings of a pronounced reduction of switch costs in case of incorrect guesses. This switch cost reduction was considerably less pronounced with denied choices in the Choosing condition. We suggest that in the Choosing condition, the signaling of prediction errors associated with denied choices is attenuated because a certain proportion of denied choices is consistent with the overall representation of the situation as conveyed by task instructions. In the Guessing condition, in contrast, the mismatch of guessed and actual task is resolved solely on the level of individual trials by strengthening the representation of the actual task.

  17. Test Your Calculator IQ. (United States)

    Williams, David E.


    This short quiz for teachers is intended to help them to brush up on their calculator operating skills and to prepare for the types of questions their students will ask about calculator idiosyncracies. (SJL)

  18. Adjustable task lighting: Field study assesses the benefits in an office environment. (United States)

    Joines, Sharon; James, Tamara; Liu, Siwen; Wang, Wenjiao; Dunn, Rebecca; Cohen, Shane


    Lighting is a part of every work task in the office environment, yet it is often overlooked. Research links direct and indirect glare to increased risk of visual discomfort among office workers with symptoms ranging from dry eyes to blurry vision or headaches. Researchers have been primarily concerned with those characteristics of task lighting that cause glare including luminance level, position (line of sight), and control. It is unknown what the benefits of adjustable task lights are and whether or not their use has an effect on musculoskeletal comfort or posture. No comprehensive field evaluations of this type were found among peer-reviewed, indexed journals. The purpose of this study was to assess the ergonomic and calculated utility power consumption benefits of adjustable LED task lighting in an office environment using a control/intervention experiment design. One hundred participants were originally recruited and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Self-reported data was collected on level of eye fatigue, perception of job content, intervention usability, and musculoskeletal discomfort. Data was also collected on workspace level of illumination and posture during standardized tasks (assessed using RULA). Comparing baseline data to follow-up data for the intervention group, the use of the adjustable, LED task lights provided statistically significant, positive impacts on users' rating of discomfort, eye fatigue, perception of job content, and posture between baseline and the short-term follow up. Significant benefits to musculoskeletal comfort, posture, and visual comfort were documented when participants used the adjustable task lights. Participants' assessments of the light's usability, usefulness and desirability were positive. There were no negative results found with adjustable task light use.

  19. Calculating correct compilers


    Bahr, Patrick; Hutton, Graham


    In this article we present a new approach to the problem of calculating compilers. In particular, we develop a simple but general technique that allows us to derive correct compilers from high- level semantics by systematic calculation, with all details of the implementation of the compilers falling naturally out of the calculation process. Our approach is based upon the use of standard equational reasoning techniques, and has been applied to calculate compilers for a wide range of language f...

  20. Autistic Savant Calendar Calculators. (United States)

    Patti, Paul J.

    This study identified 10 savants with developmental disabilities and an exceptional ability to calculate calendar dates. These "calendar calculators" were asked to demonstrate their abilities, and their strategies were analyzed. The study found that the ability to calculate dates into the past or future varied widely among these…

  1. Flexible Mental Calculation. (United States)

    Threlfall, John


    Suggests that strategy choice is a misleading characterization of efficient mental calculation and that teaching mental calculation methods as a whole is not conducive to flexibility. Proposes an alternative in which calculation is thought of as an interaction between noticing and knowledge. Presents an associated teaching approach to promote…

  2. Improving multi-tasking ability through action videogames. (United States)

    Chiappe, Dan; Conger, Mark; Liao, Janet; Caldwell, J Lynn; Vu, Kim-Phuong L


    The present study examined whether action videogames can improve multi-tasking in high workload environments. Two groups with no action videogame experience were pre-tested using the Multi-Attribute Task Battery (MATB). It consists of two primary tasks; tracking and fuel management, and two secondary tasks; systems monitoring and communication. One group served as a control group, while a second played action videogames a minimum of 5 h a week for 10 weeks. Both groups returned for a post-assessment on the MATB. We found the videogame treatment enhanced performance on secondary tasks, without interfering with the primary tasks. Our results demonstrate action videogames can increase people's ability to take on additional tasks by increasing attentional capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  3. LWR decay heat calculations using a GRS improved ENDF/B-6 based ORIGEN data library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, U.; Hummelsheim, K.I.; Kilger, R.; Moser, F.E.; Langenbuch, S. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Forschungsinstitute, Garching (Germany)


    The known ORNL ORIGEN code is widely spread over the world for inventory, activity and decay heat tasks and is used stand-alone or implemented in activation, shielding or burn-up systems. More than 1000 isotopes with more than six coupled neutron capture and radioactive decay channels are handled simultaneously by the code. The characteristics of the calculated inventories, e.g., masses, activities, neutron and photon source terms or the decay heat during short or long decay time steps are achieved by summing over all isotopes, characterized in the ORIGEN libraries. An extended nuclear GRS-ORIGENX data library is now developed for practical appliance. The library was checked for activation tasks of structure material isotopes and for actinide and fission product burn-up calculations compared with experiments and standard methods. The paper is directed to the LWR decay heat calculation features of the new library and shows the differences of dynamical and time integrated results of Endf/B-6 based and older Endf/B-5 based libraries for decay heat tasks compared to fission burst experiments, ANS curves and some other published data. A multi-group time exponential evaluation is given for the fission burst power of {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu, to be used in quick LWR reactor accident decay heat calculation tools. (authors)

  4. Reconsideration of the simulated work task situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia; Schneider, Jesper Wiborg


    The present paper reports on the initial study and the preliminary findings of how the concept of simulated work task situation is reported used in the research literature. The overall objective of the study is in a systematic manner to learn how and for what types of evaluations the concept...... is applied. In particular we are interested to learn whether the recommendations for how to apply simulated work task situations are followed. The preliminary findings indicate a need for clarifications of the recommendations of how to use simulated work task situations. Particularly with respect to ‘realism......’ of the simulated work task situations, which is emphasised through the need for tailoring of the simulated work task situations towards the group of study participant to ensure the depicted situations are realistic and interesting from the participants’ point of view. Likewise it seems that the recommendation...

  5. Single-Task and Dual-Task Gait Among Collegiate Athletes of Different Sport Classifications: Implications for Concussion Management. (United States)

    Howell, David R; Oldham, Jessie R; DiFabio, Melissa; Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Hall, Eric E; Ketcham, Caroline J; Meehan, William P; Buckley, Thomas A


    Gait impairments have been documented following sport-related concussion. Whether preexisting gait pattern differences exist among athletes who participate in different sport classifications, however, remains unclear. Dual-task gait examinations probe the simultaneous performance of everyday tasks (ie, walking and thinking), and can quantify gait performance using inertial sensors. The purpose of this study was to compare the single-task and dual-task gait performance of collision/contact and noncontact athletes. A group of collegiate athletes (n = 265) were tested before their season at 3 institutions (mean age= 19.1 ± 1.1 years). All participants stood still (single-task standing) and walked while simultaneously completing a cognitive test (dual-task gait), and completed walking trials without the cognitive test (single-task gait). Spatial-temporal gait parameters were compared between collision/contact and noncontact athletes using MANCOVAs; cognitive task performance was compared using ANCOVAs. No significant single-task or dual-task gait differences were found between collision/contact and noncontact athletes. Noncontact athletes demonstrated higher cognitive task accuracy during single-task standing (P = .001) and dual-task gait conditions (P = .02) than collision/contact athletes. These data demonstrate the utility of a dual-task gait assessment outside of a laboratory and suggest that preinjury cognitive task performance during dual-tasks may differ between athletes of different sport classifications.

  6. Fuel oil quality task force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laisy, J.; Turk, V. [R.W. Beckett Corp., Elyria, OH (United States)


    In April, 1996, the R.W. Beckett Corporation became aware of a series of apparently unrelated symptoms that made the leadership of the company concerned that there could be a fuel oil quality problem. A task force of company employees and industry consultants was convened to address the topic of current No. 2 heating oil quality and its effect on burner performance. The task force studied changes in fuel oil specifications and trends in properties that have occurred over the past few years. Experiments were performed at Beckett and Brookhaven National Laboratory to understand the effect of changes in some fuel oil properties. Studies by other groups were reviewed, and field installations were inspected to gain information about the performance of fuel oil that is currently being used in the U.S. and Canada. There was a special concern about the use of red dye in heating oils and the impact of sulfur levels due to the October, 1993 requirement of low sulfur (<0.05%) for on-highway diesel fuel. The results of the task force`s efforts were published in July, 1996. The primary conclusion of the task force was that there is not a crisis or widespread general problem with fuel oil quality. Localized problems that were seen may have been related to refinery practices and/or non-traditional fuel sources. System cleanliness is very important and the cause of many oil burner system problems. Finally, heating oil quality should get ongoing careful attention by Beckett engineering personnel and heating oil industry groups.

  7. Incorporating the patient's perspective into drug development and communication: an ad hoc task force report of the Patient-Reported Outcomes (PRO) Harmonization Group meeting at the Food and Drug Administration, February 16, 2001. (United States)

    Acquadro, Catherine; Berzon, Rick; Dubois, Dominique; Leidy, Nancy Kline; Marquis, Patrick; Revicki, Dennis; Rothman, Margaret


    The extent to which patient-based outcomes can be used to evaluate and communicate the effect of new drugs and devices is a subject of much debate. Criteria for evaluating the scientific quality of data to support health-related quality of life (HRQL) and other patient-based labeling and promotional claims in the United States and Europe have been proposed by various scientists and organizations. Since March 2000, a working group composed of members of the International Society for Quality of Life Research (ISOQOL), the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR), the Pharmaceutical Manufacturer's Association Health Outcomes Committee (PhRMA-HOC), and the European Regulatory Issues on Quality of Life Assessment (ERIQA) met to discuss and coordinate the various recommendations by their respective groups and address the need to harmonize outcomes review criteria within and across United States and European regulatory agencies. Over time, the discussion expanded from HRQL outcomes to include any outcome based on data provided by the patient or patient proxy, that is, patient-reported outcomes (PROs). The working group therefore became known as the PRO Harmonization Group. Working with a member of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), four key issues requiring clarification were identified: how PROs are defined and put into operation for research purposes; the added value of PROs in the drug review and evaluation process; selected questions related to the PRO measurement and research methodology; and the interest and demand for PRO information by decision makers. On February 15, 2001, all members of the PRO Harmonization Group attended a meeting in Rockville, Maryland, to discuss these four issues further, and on February 16, 2001, a formal presentation was made to representatives from various departments and reviewing divisions of the FDA. These presentations are summarized in this report. All participants agreed that PROs are

  8. Task-Driven Computing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Zhenyu


    .... They will want to use the resources to perform computing tasks. Today's computing infrastructure does not support this model of computing very well because computers interact with users in terms of low level abstractions...

  9. Organizing Core Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    Civil servants conduct the work which makes welfare states functions on an everyday bases: Police men police, school teachers teach, and tax inspectors inspect. Focus in this paper is on the core tasks of tax inspectors. The paper argues that their core task of securing the collection of revenue...... has remained much the same within the last 10 years. However, how the core task has been organized has changed considerable under the influence of various “organizing devices”. The paper focusses on how organizing devices such as risk assessment, output-focus, effect orientation, and treatment...... projects influence the organization of core tasks within the tax administration. The paper shows that the organizational transformations based on the use of these devices have had consequences both for the overall collection of revenue and for the employees’ feeling of “making a difference”. All in all...

  10. VENUS-2 MOX Core Benchmark: Results of ORNL Calculations Using HELIOS-1.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, RJ


    The Task Force on Reactor-Based Plutonium Disposition, now an Expert Group, was set up through the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency to facilitate technical assessments of burning weapons-grade plutonium mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in U.S. pressurized-water reactors and Russian VVER nuclear reactors. More than ten countries participated to advance the work of the Task Force in a major initiative, which was a blind benchmark study to compare code benchmark calculations against experimental data for the VENUS-2 MOX core at SCK-CEN in Mol, Belgium. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the HELIOS-1.4 code was used to perform a comprehensive study of pin-cell and core calculations for the VENUS-2 benchmark.

  11. Hypervigilance or avoidance of trigger related cues in migraineurs? - A case-control study using the emotional stroop task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puschmann Anne-Katrin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background "Negative affect" is one of the major migraine triggers. The aim of the study was to assess attentional biases for negative affective stimuli that might be related to migraine triggers in migraine patients with either few or frequent migraine and healthy controls. Methods Thirty-three subjects with frequent migraine (FM or with less frequent episodic migraine, and 20 healthy controls conducted two emotional Stroop tasks in the interictal period. In task 1, general affective words and in task 2, pictures of affective faces (angry, neutral, happy were used. For each task we calculated two emotional Stroop indices. Groups were compared using one-way ANOVAs. Results The expected attentional bias in migraine patients was not found. However, in task 2 the controls showed a significant attentional bias to negative faces, whereas the FM group showed indices near zero. Thus, the FM group responded faster to negative than to positive stimuli. The difference between the groups was statistically significant. Conclusions The findings in the FM group may reflect a learned avoidance mechanism away from affective migraine triggers.

  12. Quantitative physics tasks


    Snětinová, Marie


    Title: Quantitative Physics Tasks Author: Mgr. Marie Snětinová Department: Department of Physics Education Supervisor of the doctoral thesis: doc. RNDr. Leoš Dvořák, CSc., Department of Physics Education Abstract: The doctoral thesis concerns with problem solving in physics, especially on students' attitudes to solving of quantitative physics tasks, and various methods how to develop students' problem solving skills in physics. It contains brief overview of the theoretical framework of proble...

  13. Performing Task Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjaer, Bente; Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    . Here cross-professional coordination of work was done by scheduled communication twice a day. When we proposed a way for further integration of tasks through an all-inclusive team organization, we were met with resistance. We use the study to discuss whether relational coordination theory is able to do...... away with differences regarding task definitions and working conditions as well as professional knowledge hierarchies and responsibilities for parts and wholes....

  14. Effects of multitasking on operator performance using computational and auditory tasks. (United States)

    Fasanya, Bankole K


    This study investigated the effects of multiple cognitive tasks on human performance. Twenty-four students at North Carolina A&T State University participated in the study. The primary task was auditory signal change perception and the secondary task was a computational task. Results showed that participants' performance in a single task was statistically significantly different from their performance in combined tasks: (a) algebra problems (algebra problem primary and auditory perception secondary); (b) auditory perception tasks (auditory perception primary and algebra problems secondary); and (c) mean false-alarm score in auditory perception (auditory detection primary and algebra problems secondary). Using signal detection theory (SDT), participants' performance measured in terms of sensitivity was calculated as -0.54 for combined tasks (algebra problems the primary task) and -0.53 auditory perceptions the primary task. During auditory perception tasks alone, SDT was found to be 2.51. Performance was 83% in a single task compared to 17% when combined tasks.

  15. Developmental changes in frontal lobe function during a verbal fluency task: a multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy study. (United States)

    Tando, Tomoko; Kaga, Yoshimi; Ishii, Sayaka; Aoyagi, Kakuro; Sano, Fumikazu; Kanemura, Hideaki; Sugita, Kanji; Aihara, Masao


    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is commonly used to investigate continuous changes of brain activation and has excellent time resolution. Verbal fluency task (VFT) is widely used as a neuropsychological test of frontal lobe function. The aim of this study was to investigate normal developmental change in frontal lobe function during VFT performance using multi-channel NIRS, specifically focusing on oxygenation hemoglobin (oxyHb) changes. The subjects were 9 adults and 37 childrens who were all healthy right-handed volunteers. Children were divided into four age groups (group A, 6-8 years; group B, 9-11 years; group C, 12-14 years; group D, 15-18 years). The [oxyHb] changes were measured with 22 channels of NIRS during VFT. We defined the frontopolar region as the region of interest for analysis, and calculated the Z-score to compare the data between groups. The task performance changed with age. There were significant differences between group A and other groups. The Z-score of [oxyHb] also significantly increased with age, when comparing adults to groups A and B. The task performances decreased with time in all groups. In contrast, [oxyHb] only continued to increase in the adult group. The verbal retrieval functions begin to mature in early adolescence and continue to grow up to adulthood. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of achievement goals on performance, enjoyment, and practice of a novel motor task. (United States)

    Kavussanu, Maria; Morris, Rebecca L; Ring, Christopher


    We examined the effects of trichotomous achievement goals on performance, enjoyment, and practice of a golf-putting task. Male (n = 39) and female (n = 63) undergraduate students participated in the experiment in exchange for course credit. Participants were assigned to a mastery, performance-approach, or performance-avoidance goal condition and completed seven blocks of 10 trials (one for baseline, four for the experimental phase, and two for the transfer phase) of a golf-putting task. Distance from the target was measured and performance measures of accuracy and consistency were calculated. Self-reported enjoyment during the baseline and experimental phases and practice during a 5-min period before and following the experimental task were also assessed. Performance accuracy and consistency improved similarly among the three groups. Individuals in all three conditions reported enjoying the task to the same extent. Mastery participants practiced for longer than performance-approach participants during the practice period. Performance-avoidance participants did not differ significantly from the other two groups. The three goals were equally effective in promoting performance and enjoyment of the golf-putting task. The differential practice results for the two performance goals suggest that they should be considered separately.

  17. Effects of task and category membership on representation stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Manetta


    Full Text Available This study examined the within-subject stability of 150 participants who performed both a sorting task and a property-generation task over multiple sessions, focusing on three concrete concept categories (food, animals and bathroom products. We hypothesized that (1 the within-subject stability would be higher in the sorting task than in the property-generation task and (2 the nature of the category would influence both the within-subject stability of the classification groups in the sorting task and the properties generated to define these groups. The results show that the within-subject stability of conceptual representations depends both on the task and on the nature of the category. The stability of the representations was greater in the sorting task than in the property-generation task and in the food category. These results are discussed from a longitudinal perspective.

  18. Testing the Automatization Deficit Hypothesis of Dyslexia via a Dual-Task Paradigm. (United States)

    Yap, Regina L.; van der Leij, Aryan


    Fourteen Dutch children with dyslexia were compared with controls on automatic processing under a dual task (motor balance task and auditory choice task) model. Results indicated the dyslexic group was more impaired in the dual task condition than in the single task condition, compared with controls. Findings support the automatization deficit…

  19. Gender, Legitimation, and Identity Verification in Groups (United States)

    Burke, Peter J.; Stets, Jan E.; Cerven, Christine


    Drawing upon identity theory, expectation states theory, and legitimation theory, we examine how the task leader identity in task-oriented groups is more likely to be verified for persons with high status characteristics. We hypothesize that identity verification will be accomplished more readily for male group members and legitimated task leaders…

  20. Core calculations of JMTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Yoshiharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment


    In material testing reactors like the JMTR (Japan Material Testing Reactor) of 50 MW in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of irradiated samples show complex distributions. It is necessary to assess the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of an irradiation field by carrying out the nuclear calculation of the core for every operation cycle. In order to advance core calculation, in the JMTR, the application of MCNP to the assessment of core reactivity and neutron flux and spectra has been investigated. In this study, in order to reduce the time for calculation and variance, the comparison of the results of the calculations by the use of K code and fixed source and the use of Weight Window were investigated. As to the calculation method, the modeling of the total JMTR core, the conditions for calculation and the adopted variance reduction technique are explained. The results of calculation are shown. Significant difference was not observed in the results of neutron flux calculations according to the difference of the modeling of fuel region in the calculations by K code and fixed source. The method of assessing the results of neutron flux calculation is described. (K.I.)

  1. Working memory training using mental calculation impacts regional gray matter of the frontal and parietal regions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta


    .... We investigated this issue using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), various psychological measures, such as non-trained WM tasks and a creativity task, and intensive adaptive training of WM using mental calculations (IATWMMC...

  2. Dual-task interference with equal task emphasis: graded capacity sharing or central postponement? (United States)

    Ruthruff, Eric; Pashler, Harold E.; Hazeltine, Eliot


    Most studies using the psychological refractory period (PRP) design suggest that dual-task performance is limited by a central bottleneck. Because subjects are usually told to emphasize Task 1, however, the bottleneck might reflect a strategic choice rather than a structural limitation. To evaluate the possibility that central operations can proceed in parallel, albeit with capacity limitations, we conducted two dual-task experiments with equal task emphasis. In both experiments, subjects tended to either group responses together or respond to one task well before the other. In addition, stimulus-response compatibility effects were roughly constant across stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). At the short SOA, compatibility effects also carried over onto response times for the other task. This pattern of results is difficult to reconcile with the possibility that subjects share capacity roughly equally between simultaneous central operations. However, this pattern is consistent with the existence of a structural central bottleneck.

  3. Action control in task switching: do action effects modulate N - 2 repetition costs in task switching? (United States)

    Schuch, Stefanie; Sommer, Angelika; Lukas, Sarah


    Ideomotor theory posits that actions are controlled by the anticipation of their effects. In line with this theoretical framework, response-contingent action effects have been shown to influence performance in choice-reaction time tasks, both in single-task and task-switching context. Using a task-switching paradigm, the present study investigated whether task-contingent action effects influenced N - 2 repetition costs in task switching. N - 2 repetition costs are thought to be related to task-switch costs, and reflect inhibitory control in task switching. It was expected that task-contingent action effects reduce between-task interference, leading to reduced N - 2 repetition costs. An experimental group (N = 24) performed eight blocks of trials with task-contingent action effects, followed by one block with non-contingent action effects; a control group (N = 24) performed nine blocks of trials with non-contingent action effects. In line with our expectations, a three-way interaction of group, block, and task sequence was obtained, indicating differential data patterns for the two groups: In error rates, the group who had received contingent action effects throughout blocks 1-8 showed larger N - 2 repetition costs in the random block 9 than in block 8, whereas the control group showed a reversed data pattern. The RT data pattern was in the same direction, although no significant three-way interaction was obtained. Taken together, we tentatively conclude that task-contingent action effects reduce task inhibition in task switching, and we outline directions for future research on the role of action effects in multitasking performance.

  4. Multiphase flow calculation software (United States)

    Fincke, James R.


    Multiphase flow calculation software and computer-readable media carrying computer executable instructions for calculating liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of high void fraction multiphase flows. The multiphase flow calculation software employs various given, or experimentally determined, parameters in conjunction with a plurality of pressure differentials of a multiphase flow, preferably supplied by a differential pressure flowmeter or the like, to determine liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flows. Embodiments of the multiphase flow calculation software are suitable for use in a variety of applications, including real-time management and control of an object system.

  5. Radar Signature Calculation Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The calculation, analysis, and visualization of the spatially extended radar signatures of complex objects such as ships in a sea multipath environment and...

  6. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Marr


    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation.

  7. Electrical installation calculations advanced

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher


    All the essential calculations required for advanced electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practiceA step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3For apprentices and electrical installatio

  8. Evapotranspiration Calculator Desktop Tool (United States)

    The Evapotranspiration Calculator estimates evapotranspiration time series data for hydrological and water quality models for the Hydrologic Simulation Program - Fortran (HSPF) and the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM).

  9. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  10. Electrical installation calculations basic

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher


    All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3Fo

  11. The current status of diabetes professional educational standards and competencies in the UK--a position statement from the Diabetes UK Healthcare Professional Education Competency Framework Task and Finish Group. (United States)

    Walsh, N; George, S; Priest, L; Deakin, T; Vanterpool, G; Karet, B; Simmons, D


    Diabetes is a significant health concern, both in the UK and globally. Management can be complex, often requiring high levels of knowledge and skills in order to provide high-quality and safe care. The provision of good, safe, quality care lies within the foundations of healthcare education, continuing professional development and evidence-based practice, which are inseparable and part of a continuum during the career of any health professional. Sound education provides the launch pad for effective clinical management and positive patient experiences. This position paper reviews and discusses work undertaken by a Working Group under the auspices of Diabetes UK with the remit of considering all health professional educational issues for people delivering care to people with diabetes. This work has scoped the availability of education for those within the healthcare system who may directly or indirectly encounter people with diabetes and reviews alignment to existing competency frameworks within the UK's National Health Service. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  12. Chemical calculations and chemicals that might calculate (United States)

    Barnett, Michael P.

    I summarize some applications of symbolic calculation to the evaluation of molecular integrals over Slater orbitals, and discuss some spin-offs of this work that have wider potential. These include the exploration of the mechanized use of analogy. I explain the methods that I use to do this, in relation to mathematical proofs and to modeling step by step processes such as organic syntheses and NMR pulse sequences. Another spin-off relates to biological information processing. Some challenges and opportunities in the information infrastructure of interdisciplinary research are discussed.

  13. Dual-task performance involving hand dexterity and cognitive tasks and daily functioning in people with schizophrenia: a pilot study. (United States)

    Lin, Keh-chung; Wu, Yi-fang; Chen, I-chen; Tsai, Pei-luen; Wu, Ching-yi; Chen, Chia-ling


    This study investigated separate and concurrent performance on cognitive and hand dexterity tasks and the relationship to daily functioning in 16 people with schizophrenia and 16 healthy control participants. Participants performed the Purdue Pegboard Test and the Serial Seven Subtraction Test under single- and dual-task conditions and completed two daily functioning evaluations. The hand dexterity of all participants declined in the dual-task condition, but the discrepancy between single-task and dual-task hand dexterity was greater in the schizophrenia group than in the control group (p.70, for all). The extent of discrepancy in hand dexterity was negatively correlated with daily functioning in the schizophrenia group (rs=-.3 to -.5, ps=.04-.26). Ability to perform dual tasks may be an indicator of daily functioning in people with schizophrenia. Use of dual-task training may be considered as a therapeutic activity with these clients. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  14. Board Task Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minichilli, Alessandro; Zattoni, Alessandro; Nielsen, Sabina


    This paper addresses recent calls to narrow the micro–macro gap in management research (Bamberger, 2008), by incorporating a macro-level context variable (country) in exploring micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Following the integrated model proposed by Forbes and Milliken (1999), we...... identify three board processes as micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Specifically, we focus on effort norms, cognitive conflicts and the use of knowledge and skills as determinants of board control and advisory task performance. Further, we consider how two different institutional settings...... influence board tasks, and how the context moderates the relationship between processes and tasks. Our hypotheses are tested on a survey-based dataset of 535 medium-sized and large industrial firms in Italy and Norway, which are considered to substantially differ along legal and cultural dimensions...

  15. [Understanding dosage calculations]. (United States)

    Benlahouès, Daniel


    The calculation of dosages in paediatrics is the concern of the whole medical and paramedical team. This activity must generate a minimum of risks in order to prevent care-related adverse events. In this context, the calculation of dosages is a practice which must be understood by everyone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Algebra task & drill sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat


    For grades 6-8, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are opportunities for problem-solving, patterning, algebraic graphing, equations and determining averages. The combined task & drill sheets

  17. Task Specific Tremors. (United States)

    Friedman, Joseph H


    A patient reported bilateral hand tremors when writing but not with other tasks. These "task specific" tremors are considered subcategories of essential tremor. Primary writing tremor, in which the tremor occurs only with writing, is probably the most common. The important teaching point is that the "standard" tremor assessment, watching the patient holding a sustained posture and touching his finger to the examiner's and then back to the nose is not adequate. Patients should be tested doing the activity that causes them the most difficulty.

  18. Effects of age and auditory and visual dual tasks on closed-road driving performance. (United States)

    Chaparro, Alex; Wood, Joanne M; Carberry, Trent


    This study investigated how driving performance of young and old participants is affected by visual and auditory secondary tasks on a closed driving course. Twenty-eight participants comprising two age groups (younger, mean age = 27.3 years; older, mean age = 69.2 years) drove around a 5.1-km closed-road circuit under both single and dual task conditions. Measures of driving performance included detection and identification of road signs, detection and avoidance of large low-contrast road hazards, gap judgment, lane keeping, and time to complete the course. The dual task required participants to verbally report the sums of pairs of single-digit numbers presented through either a computer speaker (auditorily) or a dashboard-mounted monitor (visually) while driving. Participants also completed a vision and cognitive screening battery, including LogMAR visual acuity, Pelli-Robson letter contrast sensitivity, the Trails test, and the Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) test. Drivers reported significantly fewer signs, hit more road hazards, misjudged more gaps, and increased their time to complete the course under the dual task (visual and auditory) conditions compared with the single task condition. The older participants also reported significantly fewer road signs and drove significantly more slowly than the younger participants, and this was exacerbated for the visual dual task condition. The results of the regression analysis revealed that cognitive aging (measured by the DSS and Trails test) rather than chronologic age was a better predictor of the declines seen in driving performance under dual task conditions. An overall z score was calculated, which took into account both driving and the secondary task (summing) performance under the two dual task conditions. Performance was significantly worse for the auditory dual task compared with the visual dual task, and the older participants performed significantly worse than the young subjects. These findings demonstrate

  19. Plasticity of Executive Control through Task Switching Training in Adolescents. (United States)

    Zinke, Katharina; Einert, Manuela; Pfennig, Lydia; Kliegel, Matthias


    Research has shown that cognitive training can enhance performance in executive control tasks. The current study was designed to explore if executive control, specifically task switching, can be trained in adolescents, what particular aspects of executive control may underlie training and transfer effects, and if acute bouts of exercise directly prior to cognitive training enhance training effects. For that purpose, a task switching training was employed that has been shown to be effective in other age groups. A group of adolescents (10-14 years, n = 20) that received a three-session task switching training was compared to a group (n = 20) that received the same task switching training but who exercised on a stationary bike before each training session. Additionally, a no-contact and an exercise only control group were included (both ns = 20). Analyses indicated that both training groups significantly reduced their switching costs over the course of the training sessions for reaction times and error rates, respectively. Analyses indicated transfer to mixing costs in a task switching task that was similar to the one used in training. Far transfer was limited to a choice reaction time task and a tendency for faster reaction times in an updating task. Analyses revealed no additional effects of the exercise intervention. Findings thus indicate that executive control can be enhanced in adolescents through training and that updating may be of particular relevance for the effects of task switching training.

  20. Motor skill experience modulates executive control for task switching. (United States)

    Yu, Qiuhua; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Chau, Bolton; Fu, Amy S N


    This study aimed to investigate the effect of types of motor skills, including open and closed skills on enhancing proactive and reactive controls for task switching. Thirty-six athletes in open (n=18) or closed (n=18) sports and a control group (n=18) completed the task-switching paradigm and the simple reaction task. The task-switching paradigm drew on the proactive and reactive control of executive functions, whereas the simple reaction task assessed the processing speed. Significant Validity×Group effect revealed that the participants with open skills had a lower switch cost of response time compared to the other two groups when the task cue was 100% valid; whereas the participants regardless of motor skills had a lower switch cost of response time compared to the control group when the task cue was 50% valid. Hierarchical stepwise regression analysis further confirmed these findings. For the simple reaction task, there were no differences found among the three groups. These findings suggest that experience in open skills has benefits of promoting both proactive and reactive controls for task switching, which corresponds to the activity context exposed by the participants. In contrast, experience in closed skills appears to only benefit development of reactive control for task switching. The neural mechanisms for the proactive and reactive controls of executive functions between experts with open and closed skills call for future study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. ACC/AHA Special Report: Clinical Practice Guideline Implementation Strategies: A Summary of Systematic Reviews by the NHLBI Implementation Science Work Group: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. (United States)

    Chan, Wiley V; Pearson, Thomas A; Bennett, Glen C; Cushman, William C; Gaziano, Thomas A; Gorman, Paul N; Handler, Joel; Krumholz, Harlan M; Kushner, Robert F; MacKenzie, Thomas D; Sacco, Ralph L; Smith, Sidney C; Stevens, Victor J; Wells, Barbara L; Castillo, Graciela; Heil, Susan K R; Stephens, Jennifer; Vann, Julie C Jacobson


    In 2008, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened an Implementation Science Work Group to assess evidence-based strategies for effectively implementing clinical practice guidelines. This was part of a larger effort to update existing clinical practice guidelines on cholesterol, blood pressure, and overweight/obesity. Review evidence from the published implementation science literature and identify effective or promising strategies to enhance the adoption and implementation of clinical practice guidelines. This systematic review was conducted on 4 critical questions, each focusing on the adoption and effectiveness of 4 intervention strategies: (1) reminders, (2) educational outreach visits, (3) audit and feedback, and (4) provider incentives. A scoping review of the Rx for Change database of systematic reviews was used to identify promising guideline implementation interventions aimed at providers. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed a priori for each question, and the published literature was initially searched up to 2012, and then updated with a supplemental search to 2015. Two independent reviewers screened the returned citations to identify relevant reviews and rated the quality of each included review. Audit and feedback and educational outreach visits were generally effective in improving both process of care (15 of 21 reviews and 12 of 13 reviews, respectively) and clinical outcomes (7 of 12 reviews and 3 of 5 reviews, respectively). Provider incentives showed mixed effectiveness for improving both process of care (3 of 4 reviews) and clinical outcomes (3 reviews equally distributed between generally effective, mixed, and generally ineffective). Reminders showed mixed effectiveness for improving process of care outcomes (27 reviews with 11 mixed and 3 generally ineffective results) and were generally ineffective for clinical outcomes (18 reviews with 6 mixed and 9 generally ineffective results). Educational outreach visits (2 of 2

  2. Task 1 quarternary tectonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.W.


    Activities on the task of quarternary tectonics for the Yucca Mountain Site investigations are described. Technical topics include: A preliminary reveiw of Bare Mountain Trench; A preliminary detailed lineament map of the Southwestern part of the proposed repository; A discussion on the 1994 Double Spring Flat, Nevada earthquake; and evidence for temporal clustering.

  3. Residual standard deviation: Validation of a new measure of dual-task cost in below-knee prosthesis users. (United States)

    Howard, Charla L; Wallace, Chris; Abbas, James; Stokic, Dobrivoje S


    We developed and evaluated properties of a new measure of variability in stride length and cadence, termed residual standard deviation (RSD). To calculate RSD, stride length and cadence are regressed against velocity to derive the best fit line from which the variability (SD) of the distance between the actual and predicted data points is calculated. We examined construct, concurrent, and discriminative validity of RSD using dual-task paradigm in 14 below-knee prosthesis users and 13 age- and education-matched controls. Subjects walked first over an electronic walkway while performing separately a serial subtraction and backwards spelling task, and then at self-selected slow, normal, and fast speeds used to derive the best fit line for stride length and cadence against velocity. Construct validity was demonstrated by significantly greater increase in RSD during dual-task gait in prosthesis users than controls (group-by-condition interaction, stride length p=0.0006, cadence p=0.009). Concurrent validity was established against coefficient of variation (CV) by moderate-to-high correlations (r=0.50-0.87) between dual-task cost RSD and dual-task cost CV for both stride length and cadence in prosthesis users and controls. Discriminative validity was documented by the ability of dual-task cost calculated from RSD to effectively differentiate prosthesis users from controls (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, stride length 0.863, p=0.001, cadence 0.808, p=0.007), which was better than the ability of dual-task cost CV (0.692, 0.648, respectively, not significant). These results validate RSD as a new measure of variability in below-knee prosthesis users. Future studies should include larger cohorts and other populations to ascertain its generalizability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Disability in late-life major depression: Patterns of self-reported task abilities, task habits, and observed task performance (United States)

    Rogers, Joan C.; Holm, Margo B.; Raina, Ketki D.; Dew, Mary Amanda; Shih, Min-Mei; Begley, Amy; Houck, Patricia R.; Mazumdar, Sati; Reynolds, Charles F.


    This paper describes patterns of concordance/discordance between self-reported abilities (“can do”) and habits (“does do”) and observed task performance of daily living tasks in 3 groups of older adults: late life depression with mild cognitive impairment (n = 53), late life depression without mild cognitive impairment (n = 64), and non-depressed, cognitively normal controls (n = 31). Self-reported data were gathered by interview in participants' homes, followed by observation of task performance. Significant differences in the patterns of response were found between controls and respondents with both late life depression and mild cognitive impairment for the cognitive instrumental activities, and between the two depressed groups and controls for the physical instrumental activities. For both sets of activities, controls exhibited the greatest overestimation of task performance. No differences were found among the groups for the less complex functional mobility and personal care tasks. However, for the more complex instrumental activities, concordance was close to, or less than, chance. The findings led us to conclude that when performance testing is not feasible, self-reports of functional status that focus on habits may be more accurate than those that focus on abilities. PMID:20537712

  5. Intraindividual variability across cognitive tasks as a potential marker for prodromal Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Maria Kälin


    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that increased cognitive intraindividual variability (IIV across accuracy scores from tests representing different cognitive domains (across-domain IIV might indicate prodromal Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Although IIV has been proposed to index cognitive control processes, IIV across accuracy scores from cognitive control tasks (within-domain IIV has not been examined in healthy controls subjects (HCS, mild cognitive impairment (MCI and AD patients in a single comparative study. This study examines the discriminative properties of within-domain IIV, and across-domain IIV in 149 HCS, 31 MCI and 26 AD. Three tasks representing different cognitive domains were identified to calculate across-domain IIV. Three other tasks representing cognitive control were identified to calculate within-domain IIV. The intraindividual standard deviation (ISD was calculated across accuracy scores. To compare IIV between groups, ANCOVAs with the covariates age, gender, education, and mean performance were computed. IIV scores in general were higher in AD vs. HCS (p< 0.01. Only across-domain IIV was higher in AD vs. MCI (p=0.001, and only within-domain IIV was higher in MCI vs. HCS (p=0.05. Within-domain IIV may constitute a cognitive marker for the detection of prodromal AD at the MCI stage, whereas across-domain IIV may detect beginning AD at the MCI stage.

  6. Three-dimensional (3D) simulation versus two-dimensional (2D) enhances surgical skills acquisition in standardised laparoscopic tasks: a before and after study. (United States)

    Ashraf, A; Collins, D; Whelan, M; O'Sullivan, R; Balfe, P


    The aim of this study is to determine if simulated 3D vision improves the speed and accuracy of laparoscopic phantom tasks in laparoscopically naïve subjects. Thirty laparoscopically naïve subjects were divided into matched groups according to age, sex, hand dominance and initial scores on a standardised visio-spatial test. Laprotrain(©) laparoscopic simulators were used, one attached to the standard 2D monitor and the other to a simulated 3D monitor and 3D glasses were worn by the subjects in this group. Five standardised laparoscopic tasks were developed and the subjects underwent testing on four separate occasions with more than 24 h between sessions. The subjects were timed for each task and errors were recorded by two independent observers. In the second part of the study, subjects switched to the opposite group and task times and errors were again recorded. Statistical differences between groups were calculated using student t-test and Fisher's exact test. There were fifteen subjects in each group with no significant difference in demographic or psychometric variables. The mean time to complete the tasks was faster in the 3D group compared with the 2D group. There was a lower rate of errors noted in the 3D group compared with the 2D group but this only reached statistical significance in two of the five laparoscopic tasks. In the crossover study, subjects who had trained on simulated 3D had better task times and fewer errors compared to those who had trained on 2D simulators. Training on a simulated 3D model (compared to standard 2D) allows trainees to reach proficiency sooner. Copyright © 2015 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Commission errors in delay-execute prospective memory tasks. (United States)

    Schaper, Philipp; Grundgeiger, Tobias


    Individuals frequently retrieve an intention, but the execution of the task needs to be delayed due to ongoing task demands - so-called delay-execute prospective memory (PM) tasks. We investigated commission errors in the delay-execute paradigm. Participants were told that a PM task is finished (PM task has been executed and is now finished for a final phase) or cancelled (PM task has been cancelled immediately after introduction). We observed commission errors and ongoing task performance in the final phase which included several irrelevant PM cues. In two experiments, we observed significantly more commission errors for cancelled compared to the finished intentions. In Experiment 2, commission errors were eliminated if the final phase required divided attention, regardless of PM task status. In addition, we observed significantly more PM cue interference on the ongoing task in the cancelled compared to the finished group, indicating that the PM task was retrieved in the cancelled group but not in the finished group. As retrieval and execution of the PM task were separated by a delay, the results indicate that commission errors are not always the result of a quick, spontaneous retrieval-execution sequence and may also occur when retrieval and execution are temporally separated.

  8. Task Engagement and Attentional Resources. (United States)

    Matthews, Gerald; Warm, Joel S; Smith, Andrew P


    Two studies tested multivariate models of relationships between subjective task engagement and vigilance. The second study included a stress factor (cold infection). Modeling tested relationships between latent factors for task engagement and vigilance, and the role of engagement in mediating effects of cold infection. Raja Parasuraman's research on vigilance identified several key issues, including the roles of task factors, arousal processes, and individual differences, within the framework of resource theory. Task engagement is positively correlated with performance on various attentional tasks and may serve as a marker for resource availability. In the first study, 229 participants performed simultaneous and successive vigilance tasks. In the second study, 204 participants performed a vigilance task and a variable-foreperiod simple reaction-time task on two separate days. On the second day, 96 participants performed while infected with a naturally occurring common cold. Task engagement was assessed in both studies. In both studies, vigilance decrement in hit rate was observed, and task performance led to loss of task engagement. Cold infection also depressed both vigilance and engagement. Fitting structural equation models indicated that simultaneous and successive tasks should be represented by separate latent factors (Study 1), and task engagement fully mediated the impact of cold infection on vigilance but not reaction time (Study 2). Modeling individual differences in task engagement elucidates the role of resources in vigilance and underscores the relevance of Parasuraman's vision of the field. Assessment of task engagement may support diagnostic monitoring of operators performing tasks requiring vigilance.

  9. Calculativeness and trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten


    Williamson’s characterisation of calculativeness as inimical to trust contradicts most sociological trust research. However, a similar argument is found within trust phenomenology. This paper re-investigates Williamson’s argument from the perspective of Løgstrup’s phenomenological theory of trust....... Contrary to Williamson, however, Løgstrup’s contention is that trust, not calculativeness, is the default attitude and only when suspicion is awoken does trust falter. The paper argues that while Williamson’s distinction between calculativeness and trust is supported by phenomenology, the analysis needs...... to take actual subjective experience into consideration. It points out that, first, Løgstrup places trust alongside calculativeness as a different mode of engaging in social interaction, rather conceiving of trust as a state or the outcome of a decision-making process. Secondly, the analysis must take...

  10. Unit Cost Compendium Calculations (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA...

  11. Magnetic Field Grid Calculator (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Properties Calculator will computes the estimated values of Earth's magnetic field(declination, inclination, vertical component, northerly...

  12. National Stormwater Calculator (United States)

    EPA’s National Stormwater Calculator (SWC) is a desktop application that estimates the annual amount of rainwater and frequency of runoff from a specific site anywhere in the United States (including Puerto Rico).

  13. Cognitive impairment decreases postural control during dual tasks in geriatric patients with a history of severe falls. (United States)

    Hauer, Klaus; Pfisterer, Mathias; Weber, Christine; Wezler, Nikolai; Kliegel, Mattias; Oster, Peter


    To investigate the influence of dual tasks, cognitive strategies, and fear of falling on postural control in geriatric patients with or without cognitive impairment and with a history of falls resulting in injury. Experimental three-group design. Geriatric hospital. Twenty young healthy adults (mean age+/-standard deviation=25.4+/-4.4), 20 geriatric patients with a history of severe falls without cognitive impairment (mean age=82.6+/-5.5, mean Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score=27.8+/-2.0) and 20 geriatric patients with a history of severe falls and cognitive impairment (mean age=83.2+/-5.5, mean MMSE=19.2+/-3.3). Motor performance: sway area and lateral and anterior-posterior sway angles. Cognition: semiautomated calculation steps (serial 2 forward) and nonautomated calculation derived from MMSE (serial 7 retro). Motor and cognitive performances were examined as single and dual tasks. Strategy decision, fear of falling, and subjective perception of motor and cognitive performance were assessed as covariates for dual-task performances. Motor performance decreased significantly during all dual tasks in geriatric patients with cognitive impairment and a history of falls resulting in injury. Cognitive performance was different depending on the task and group. Choice of cognitive strategies or fear of falling did not influence the dual-task performances. Even simple additional tasks substantially decrease postural stability due to attention-related cognitive deficits in cognitively impaired geriatric patients with a history of severe falls. The findings may help to explain the increased incidence and severity of falls in geriatric patients with cognitive impairment and a history of falls resulting in injury.

  14. Calculation Tool for Engineering


    Lampinen, Samuli


    The Study was conducted as qualitative research for K-S Konesuunnittelu Oy. The company provides mechanical engineering for technology suppliers in the Finnish export industries. The main objective was to study if the competitiveness of the case company could be improved using a self-made Calculation Tool (Excel Tool). The mission was to clarify processes in the case company to see the possibilities of Excel Tool and to compare it with other potential calculation applications. In addition,...

  15. Current interruption transients calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Peelo, David F


    Provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins, and the circuits involved, and how they can be calculated Current Interruption Transients Calculationis a comprehensive resource for the understanding, calculation and analysis of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) and related re-ignition or re-striking transients associated with fault current interruption and the switching of inductive and capacitive load currents in circuits. This book provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins,

  16. Effects of baseline task position on apparent activation in functional imaging of memory. (United States)

    Treyer, Valerie; Buck, Alfred; Schnider, Armin


    Brain activation dissociates during the repeated performance of memory tasks with decreasing medial temporal and increasing orbitofrontal activation. The impact of such adaptations on a baseline task is unknown. In this study, we used H2(15)O positron emission tomography (PET) in two groups of subjects performing a continuous recognition task and a baseline task. The group performing the baseline task after the main task showed significant medial temporal activation in the subtraction (recognition task-baseline). The group performing the baseline task at the beginning showed right orbitofrontal activation. These differences appeared to result primarily from different activations during the baseline task. It thus appears that the temporal context of a baseline task may fundamentally alter cognitive requirements and substantially influence apparent brain activation during a memory task. We suggest that the automatic filtration of memories according to their relevance for ongoing reality, a capacity mediated by the orbitofrontal cortex, is one such influence on apparent activation.

  17. Early Predictors of Calculation Fluency in Second Grade (United States)

    Locuniak, Maria N.


    Calculation fluency weaknesses are a key characteristic of children with mathematics difficulties. The major aim of this dissertation was to uncover early predictors of calculation fluency weaknesses in second graders. Children's performance on number sense tasks in kindergarten along with general cognitive abilities, early literacy skills, and…

  18. Calculations to an IAHR-benchmark test using the CFD-code CFX-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krepper, E.


    The calculation concerns a test, which was defined as a benchmark for 3-D codes by the working group of advanced nuclear reactor types of IAHR (International Association of Hydraulic Research). The test is well documented and detailed measuring results are available. The test aims at the investigation of phenomena, which are important for heat removal at natural circulation conditions in a nuclear reactor. The task for the calculation was the modelling of the forced flow field of a single phase incompressible fluid with consideration of heat transfer and influence of gravity. These phenomena are typical also for other industrial processes. The importance of correct modelling of these phenomena also for other applications is a motivation for performing these calculations. (orig.)

  19. Features or tasks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon

    In this paper for the Workshop on Human-computer interaction and e-learning, NordiCHI 2002, the author argues that in developing innovative E-learning systems, especially if constructivist pedagogy is to be applied, it will be useful to model the user interface on the often complex tasks that the...... that the user has to perform rather than just focusing on technical features (and adapting system use to them).......In this paper for the Workshop on Human-computer interaction and e-learning, NordiCHI 2002, the author argues that in developing innovative E-learning systems, especially if constructivist pedagogy is to be applied, it will be useful to model the user interface on the often complex tasks...

  20. Multicultural Leader Behaviors in Ethnically Mixed Task Groups. (United States)


    in Scon- trino, et al., International Journal of Intercultural Relations , 1977, Volume 1, 111-117. Scontrino, M. P., Larson, J. R., and Fiedler, F. E...Racial similarity as a moderator variable in the perception of leader behavior and control. International Journal of Intercultural Relations , 1977

  1. Peer support in small group EFL writing tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Este artículo se basa en una investigación de aula enfocada en la temática del apoyo en tareas de escritura en grupos pequeños al interior de un curso de inglés como lengua extranjera. Se buscó analizar la forma como los aprendices estructuran distintas formas de apoyo según su conciencia intersubjetiva de las necesidades y objetivos de sus pares, las cuales fueron comparadas con las ofrecidas por el docente con el fin de identificar similitudes y contrastes. Se encontró que los aprendices ofrecen al menos tres tipos de apoyo: cognitivo, estratégico y evaluativo. En cada uno de ellos se encontraron dinámicas intersubjetivas particulares a medida que los aprendices interpretaban las necesidades y objetivos que surgían durante la tarea. Se observó que el apoyo del docente fue principalmente estratégico, es decir, orientado al desarrollo de la tarea. Además, se observa que el apoyo del docente a menudo no corresponde con las necesidades de los aprendices debido a una falta de espacios para el establecimiento de terreno intersubjetivo común. Al final se discuten implicaciones pedagógicas e investigativas de estos hallazgos.

  2. Behavioral Task Analysis (United States)


    methods included task analysis as a critical phase in developing instruction and training. Mon- temerlo and Tennyson (1976) noted that from 1951 to 1976...designed. The trend in the U.S . Department of Defense toward extensive procedural documentation noted by Montemerlo and Tennyson (1976) has not...M. Gagne’ (Ed.), Psychological principles in system development (pp. 187-228). New York: Holt. Montemerlo, M. D., & Tennyson , M. E. (1975

  3. Task Inventory Construction (United States)


    Orientation , Training and Team Performance Research Area 7, Peace Time Task Analysis and Its Relation to War Time Conditions Research Area 8. Worker...January jar jaw jay jelly jellyfish jerk jig job jockey join joke joking jolly journey joy(ful) joyous judge jug juice juicy July...straight swept soil squash strange(r) swift sold squeak strap swim soldier squeeze straw swimming sole squirrel strawberry swing some stable

  4. Operationally Responsive Tasking (United States)


    RESPONSIVE TASKING by Aaron C. Bass September 2011 Thesis Advisor: Alan D. Scott Second Reader: Mark Rhoades THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT...September 2011 Author: Aaron C. Bass Approved by: Alan D. Scott Thesis Advisor Mark M. Rhoades Second Reader [34] D. Pizzocaro, M. Johnson, H. Rowaihy, S. Chalmers , A. Preece, A. Bar- Noy, and T. La Porta, “A Knapsack


    In response to a research requirement of the Department of the Army, an extensive exploratory survey of human factors problems in image in...imagery. (2) How can the Army best utilize its available human resources to cope with ever increasing variety of image types and at the same time...experiments conduct ed to date within each of four subtask areas encompassed by the research program of the Image Interpretation Task.

  6. Gap Task Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Lissuaer, D

    One of the more congested areas in the ATLAS detector is the GAP region (the area between the Barrel Calorimeter and the End Cap calorimeter) where Inner Detector services, LAr Services and some Tile services all must co-habitat in a very limited area. It has been clear for some time that the space in the GAP region is not sufficient to accommodate all that is needed. In the last few month additional problems of routing all the services to Z=0 have been encountered due to the very limited space between the Tile Calorimeter and the first layer of Muon chambers. The Technical Management Board (TMB) and the Executive Board (EB) decided in the middle of March to establish a Task Force to look at this problem and come up with a solution within well-specified guidelines. The task force consisted of experts from the ID, Muon, Liquid Argon and Tile systems in addition to experts from the Technical Coordination team and the Physics coordinator. The task force held many meetings and in general there were some very l...

  7. Neuromuscular control of scapula muscles during a voluntary task in subjects with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C M; Søgaard, Karen; Chreiteh, S S


    Imbalance of neuromuscular activity in the scapula stabilizers in subjects with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome (SIS) is described in restricted tasks and specific populations. Our aim was to compare the scapular muscle activity during a voluntary movement task in a general population with and w......Imbalance of neuromuscular activity in the scapula stabilizers in subjects with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome (SIS) is described in restricted tasks and specific populations. Our aim was to compare the scapular muscle activity during a voluntary movement task in a general population...... with and without SIS (n=16, No-SIS=15). Surface electromyography was measured from Serratus anterior (SA) and Trapezius during bilateral arm elevation (no-load, 1kg, 3kg). Mean relative muscle activity was calculated for SA and the upper (UT) and lower part of trapezius (LWT), in addition to activation ratio...... and time to activity onset. In spite of a tendency to higher activity among SIS 0.10-0.30 between-group differences were not significant neither in ratio of muscle activation 0.80-0.98 nor time to activity onset 0.53-0.98. The hypothesized between-group differences in neuromuscular activity of Trapezius...

  8. The Influence of Background Music on Task Engagement in Frail, Older Persons in Residential Care. (United States)

    Otto; Cochran; Johnson; Clair


    Colmery-O'Neil Veterans Affairs Medical CenterThe purpose of this study was to examine the effects of preferred background music on the engagement of residents of a nursing care facility in therapeutic recreation tasks. Eighteen subjects were assigned to one of two groups and both groups participated in a series of 12 weekly sessions in which the background conditions were randomly ordered. All subjects experienced four sessions each of 10 minutes of (a) silence, (b) preferred background music, and (c) nonpreferred background music. Videotapes were made of all sessions and an observer recorded the number of 30-second time intervals in which each subject was on task. A one-way analysis of variance calculated for frequencies of time intervals for the three conditions revealed no statistically significant differences. It was noted, however, that the therapist tended to prompt more conversations during the preferred music, and when subjects responded they generally dropped their task participation. The investigators concluded that background music may influence the therapists' behaviors which may, in turn, influence responses of their program participants. Further study of the effects of background music on task engagement among care home residents is recommended.

  9. Online plasma calculator (United States)

    Wisniewski, H.; Gourdain, P.-A.


    APOLLO is an online, Linux based plasma calculator. Users can input variables that correspond to their specific plasma, such as ion and electron densities, temperatures, and external magnetic fields. The system is based on a webserver where a FastCGI protocol computes key plasma parameters including frequencies, lengths, velocities, and dimensionless numbers. FastCGI was chosen to overcome security problems caused by JAVA-based plugins. The FastCGI also speeds up calculations over PHP based systems. APOLLO is built upon the WT library, which turns any web browser into a versatile, fast graphic user interface. All values with units are expressed in SI units except temperature, which is in electron-volts. SI units were chosen over cgs units because of the gradual shift to using SI units within the plasma community. APOLLO is intended to be a fast calculator that also provides the user with the proper equations used to calculate the plasma parameters. This system is intended to be used by undergraduates taking plasma courses as well as graduate students and researchers who need a quick reference calculation.

  10. The Use of Consciousness-Raising Tasks in Learning and Teaching of Subject-Verb Agreement (United States)

    Idek, Sirhajwan; Fong, Lee Lai; Sidhu, Gurnam Kaur


    This study investigates the use of two types of Consciousness-Raising (CR) tasks in learning Subject-Verb Agreement (SVA). The sample consisted of 28 Form 2 students who were divided into two groups. Group 1 was assigned with Grammaticality Judgment (GJ) tasks and Group 2 received Sentence Production (SP) tasks for eight weeks. Learners were given…

  11. An atlas of functions: with equator, the atlas function calculator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oldham, Keith


    ... of arguments. The first edition of An Atlas of Functions, the product of collaboration between a mathematician and a chemist, appeared during an era when the programmable calculator was the workhorse for the numerical evaluation of functions. That role has now been taken over by the omnipresent computer, and therefore the second edition delegates this duty to Equator, the Atlas function calculator. This is a software program that, as well as carrying out other tasks, will calculate va...

  12. Community hoarding task forces: a comparative case study of five task forces in the United States. (United States)

    Bratiotis, Christiana


    During the past decade, many community task forces have formed to address hoarding problems that come to public attention. Such task forces provide a societal-level intervention to assist people with the most severe cases of hoarding, who do not voluntarily seek or want help for their hoarding behaviour. This qualitative study of five U.S. hoarding task forces included sites selected for their diversity of purpose, approaches to hoarding intervention and community geography, composition and resources. Data were collected during the period of September 2007-March 2008. The case study methodology used multiple forms of data, including semi-structured interviews, analysis of documents, small group interviews and investigator observation. This study captured the perspectives of public and private sector service providers such as mental health, housing, social service, public health agencies and community enforcement organisations (fire, police, legal, animal control) to examine how task forces organise and operate and the emerging practice and policy changes. Study findings suggest that structural factors (e.g. leadership, purpose, funding and membership) impact hoarding task force viability, that participation on a task force influences practice and policy decisions about hoarding, and that social work can expand its role in task force leadership. Task forces may be a mechanism for improving community policies about hoarding and mechanisms for addressing other social problems across multiple sectors. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. LHC Bellows Impedance Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Dyachkov, M


    To compensate for thermal expansion the LHC ring has to accommodate about 2500 bellows which, together with beam position monitors, are the main contributors to the LHC broad-band impedance budget. In order to reduce this impedance to an acceptable value the bellows have to be shielded. In this paper we compare different designs proposed for the bellows and calculate their transverse and longitudinal wakefields and impedances. Owing to the 3D geometry of the bellows, the code MAFIA was used for the wakefield calculations; when possible the MAFIA results were compared to those obtained with ABCI. The results presented in this paper indicate that the latest bellows design, in which shielding is provided by sprung fingers which can slide along the beam screen, has impedances smaller tha those previously estimated according to a rather conservative scaling of SSC calculations and LEP measurements. Several failure modes, such as missing fingers and imperfect RF contact, have also been studied.

  14. INVAP's Nuclear Calculation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Mochi


    Full Text Available Since its origins in 1976, INVAP has been on continuous development of the calculation system used for design and optimization of nuclear reactors. The calculation codes have been polished and enhanced with new capabilities as they were needed or useful for the new challenges that the market imposed. The actual state of the code packages enables INVAP to design nuclear installations with complex geometries using a set of easy-to-use input files that minimize user errors due to confusion or misinterpretation. A set of intuitive graphic postprocessors have also been developed providing a fast and complete visualization tool for the parameters obtained in the calculations. The capabilities and general characteristics of this deterministic software package are presented throughout the paper including several examples of its recent application.

  15. Calculating Quenching Weights

    CERN Document Server

    Salgado, C A; Salgado, Carlos A.; Wiedemann, Urs Achim


    We calculate the probability (``quenching weight'') that a hard parton radiates an additional energy fraction due to scattering in spatially extended QCD matter. This study is based on an exact treatment of finite in-medium path length, it includes the case of a dynamically expanding medium, and it extends to the angular dependence of the medium-induced gluon radiation pattern. All calculations are done in the multiple soft scattering approximation (Baier-Dokshitzer-Mueller-Peign\\'e-Schiff--Zakharov ``BDMPS-Z''-formalism) and in the single hard scattering approximation (N=1 opacity approximation). By comparison, we establish a simple relation between transport coefficient, Debye screening mass and opacity, for which both approximations lead to comparable results. Together with this paper, a CPU-inexpensive numerical subroutine for calculating quenching weights is provided electronically. To illustrate its applications, we discuss the suppression of hadronic transverse momentum spectra in nucleus-nucleus colli...

  16. Real time UAV autonomy through offline calculations (United States)

    Jung, Sunghun

    Two or three dimensional mission plans for a single or a group of hover or fixed wing UAVs are generated. The mission plans can largely be separated into seven main parts. Firstly, the Region Growing algorithm is used to generate a map from 2D or 3D images. Secondly, the map is analyzed to separate each blocks using vertices of blocks and seven filtering steps. Thirdly, the Trapezoidal map algorithm is used to convert the map into a traversability graph. Fourthly, this process also filters out paths that are not traversable. That is, nodes located inside the blocks and too closely located nodes are filtered out. Fifthly, the Dijkstra algorithm is used to calculate the shortest path from a starting point to a goal point. Sixthly, the 1D Optimal Control algorithm is applied to manipulate the velocity and acceleration of the UAVs efficiently. Basically, the UAVs accelerates at one graph node and maintains a constant velocity and decelerates before reaching the next graph node. Lastly, Traveling Salesman Problem Method (TSP) algorithm is used to calculate the shortest path to search the whole region. After this discretization of space and time, it becomes possible to solve several autonomous mission planning problems. We focus on one of the most difficult problems: coordinated search. This is a multiple Traveling Salesman Problem (mTSP). We solve it by decomposing the search region and solving TSPs for each vehicle searching a sub-region. The mTSP is generally used when there are more than one salesman is used. In addition to the four main parts, there are three minor parts which support the main parts. Firstly, Target Detection algorithm is generated to detect a target located near the UAVs' path. A picture of the desired target is inserted into the algorithm before UAVs launch. Using the Scale-Invariant Transform Feature (SIFT) algorithm, a target with a specific shape can be detected. Secondly, Tracking algorithm is generated to manipulate UAVs to follow targets

  17. Graphing Calculator Mini Course (United States)

    Karnawat, Sunil R.


    The "Graphing Calculator Mini Course" project provided a mathematically-intensive technologically-based summer enrichment workshop for teachers of American Indian students on the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation. Eleven such teachers participated in the six-day workshop in summer of 1996 and three Sunday workshops in the academic year. The project aimed to improve science and mathematics education on the reservation by showing teachers effective ways to use high-end graphing calculators as teaching and learning tools in science and mathematics courses at all levels. In particular, the workshop concentrated on applying TI-82's user-friendly features to understand the various mathematical and scientific concepts.

  18. Task Dominance Determines Backward Inhibition in Task Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Jost


    Full Text Available Switching between tasks is assumed to be accompanied by inhibiting currently irrelevant, but competing tasks. A dominant task that strongly interferes with performing a weaker task may receive especially strong inhibition. We tested this prediction by letting participants switch among three tasks that differ in dominance: a location discrimination task with strong stimulus–response bindings (responding with left-hand and right-hand button presses to stimuli presented left or right to the fixation cross was combined with a color/pattern and a shape discrimination task, for which stimulus–response mappings were arbitrary (e.g., left-hand button press mapped to a red stimulus. Across three experiments, the dominance of the location task was documented by faster and more accurate responses than in the other tasks. This even held for incompatible stimulus–response mappings (i.e., right-hand response to a left-presented stimulus and vice versa, indicating that set-level compatibility (i.e., “dimension overlap” was sufficient for making this location task dominant. As a behavioral marker for backward inhibition, we utilized n-2 repetition costs that are defined by higher reaction times for a switch back to a just abandoned and thus just inhibited task (ABA sequence than for a switch to a less recently inhibited task (CBA, n-2 non-repetition. Reliable n-2 task repetition costs were obtained for all three tasks. Importantly, these costs were largest for the location task, suggesting that inhibition indeed was stronger for the dominant task. This finding adds to other evidence that the amount of inhibition is adjusted in a context-sensitive way.

  19. The cooking task: making a meal of executive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Andrew Doherty


    Full Text Available Current standardised neuropsychological tests may fail to accurately capture real-world executive deficits. We developed a computer-based Cooking Task assessment of executive functions and trialled the measure with a normative group before use with a head-injured population. Forty six participants completed the computerised Cooking Task and subtests from standardised neuropsychological tasks, including the Tower and Sorting Tests of executive function from the D-KEFS, and the CAMPROMPT measure of prospective memory, in order to examine whether standardised executive function tasks, predicted performance on measurement indices from the Cooking Task. Findings showed that verbal comprehension, rule detection and prospective memory contributed to measures of prospective planning accuracy and strategy implementation of the Cooking Task. Results also showed that functions necessary for cooking efficacy differ as an effect of task demands (difficulty levels. Performance on rule detection, strategy implementation and flexible thinking EF measures contributed to accuracy on the Cooking Task Findings raise questions about the functions captured by present standardised tasks particularly at varying levels of difficulty and during dual-task performance. Our preliminary findings also indicate that Cooking Task measures can effectively distinguish between EF and FSIQ abilities. Results of the present study indicate that the Cooking Task shows promise as an ecologically valid measure of executive function for future use with a head-injured population and indexes selective EF’s captured by standardised tests.

  20. Mathematical Literacy teachers’ engagement with contextualised income tax calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bansilal


    Full Text Available This study focuses on teachers’ engagement with tasks based on the income tax tables issued by the South African tax authorities. The participants in the study are a group of 37 teachers who were enrolled in an in-service programme for Mathematical Literacy teachers. The purpose of the study is to explore the teachers’ interpretation and use of the rule used to calculate income tax. Data were generated from written responses of the teachers to three tasks, as well as follow-up interviews with eight of the participants. The findings indicate that some teachers (8% did not recognise any of the demands inherent in the income tax rule that they teach to their learners. Most teachers (54% were in the novice category, showing that they met some of the demands but need some help in carrying out the rule fluently. A further 32% were able to use the rule to work out the tax given various input incomes, but could not use the rule to find the input income when given the tax output, because they did not have the necessary algebraic skill.

  1. Gravitational constant calculation methodologies


    Shakhparonov, V. M.; Karagioz, O. V.; Izmailov, V. P.


    We consider the gravitational constant calculation methodologies for a rectangular block of the torsion balance body presented in the papers Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 240801 (2009) and Phys.Rev. D. 82, 022001 (2010). We have established the influence of non-equilibrium gas flows on the obtained values of G.

  2. Dyscalculia and the Calculating Brain. (United States)

    Rapin, Isabelle


    Dyscalculia, like dyslexia, affects some 5% of school-age children but has received much less investigative attention. In two thirds of affected children, dyscalculia is associated with another developmental disorder like dyslexia, attention-deficit disorder, anxiety disorder, visual and spatial disorder, or cultural deprivation. Infants, primates, some birds, and other animals are born with the innate ability, called subitizing, to tell at a glance whether small sets of scattered dots or other items differ by one or more item. This nonverbal approximate number system extends mostly to single digit sets as visual discrimination drops logarithmically to "many" with increasing numerosity (size effect) and crowding (distance effect). Preschoolers need several years and specific teaching to learn verbal names and visual symbols for numbers and school agers to understand their cardinality and ordinality and the invariance of their sequence (arithmetic number line) that enables calculation. This arithmetic linear line differs drastically from the nonlinear approximate number system mental number line that parallels the individual number-tuned neurons in the intraparietal sulcus in monkeys and overlying scalp distribution of discrete functional magnetic resonance imaging activations by number tasks in man. Calculation is a complex skill that activates both visual and spatial and visual and verbal networks. It is less strongly left lateralized than language, with approximate number system activation somewhat more right sided and exact number and arithmetic activation more left sided. Maturation and increasing number skill decrease associated widespread non-numerical brain activations that persist in some individuals with dyscalculia, which has no single, universal neurological cause or underlying mechanism in all affected individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of dual tasks on balance ability in stroke patients. (United States)

    Song, Gui Bin; Park, Eun Cho


    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of training using dual tasks on balance ability in stroke patients. [Subjects] Forty stroke patients were divided into a dual-task training group (N = 20) and a single task training group (N = 20) randomly. [Methods] The subjects in the single-task traing group stood in a comfortable position, faced a therapist, then threw a Swiss ball back and forth. They then performed balance training in which they raised and lowered their ankles while facing forward or moved objects from one table to another. The DTG performed dual tasks, which involved performing a task on an unstable surface using a balance pad. Both groups received training 30 min per day, five times per week, for eight weeks. [Results] The DTG showed significant increases in weight distribution rate, anterior limit of stability, posterior limit of stability, and BBS scores compared with the STG. [Conclusion] According to the results of this study, dual-task training and single-task training were effective in improving balance in stroke patients, dual task training is more effective for increasing balance ability.

  4. The use of stochastic method for the calculation of liquid-vapor multicomponent equilibrium and the contribution of groups theory for the evaluation of fugacity coefficient; Uso de um metodo estocastico para calculo do equilibrio liquido-vapor de sistemas multicomponentes e avaliacao de uma abordagem por contribuicao de grupos para o calculo do coeficiente de fugacidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcanti, Rafaelly L.; Oliveira, Jackson A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Rojas, Leopoldo O.A. [Centro de Tecnologias do Gas (CTGAS), Natal, RN (Brazil)


    This work has the main objective of evaluating the mathematical model developed by Jaubert e Mutelet (2004) in terms of the prediction capacity for the calculation of the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE). This model is based on Peng-Robinson equation of state (EOS) and it considers the binary interaction parameters (Kij(T)) estimated by a contribution group method and dependent of the temperature. The model proposed by Jaubert e Mutelet (2004), named PPR78 (Predictive Peng-Robinson), was implemented in this work by using the Fortran language. An optimization approach based on the stochastic algorithm of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) was used in order to calculate the vapor-liquid equilibrium. Simulations were accomplished for several binary systems and the results were concordant with some experimental data of the investigated systems. However, for some systems different from those presented by Jaubert and Mutelet (2004), the model presented low prediction capacity. In spite of the great demand of computational performance, the algorithm PSO demonstrated robustness during the calculation of VLE and it assured convergence in most of the cases. (author)

  5. Quarternary tectonics, Task 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.W.


    Activities conducted for the evaluation of the geology and seismotectonics stability of Yucca Mountain as a potential site for the underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes continued. Tasks concerned with quaternary tectonics include: scheduling of photography of Little Skull Mountain area; the collection and dating of rock varnish samples from the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area for carbon 14 AMS and cation-ratio analysis; collection of samples for thermoluminescence dating from the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area; mapping of the northern area of Crater Flat; and surveying of the May 17, 1993 Eureka the Valley earthquake area.

  6. Effects of Gait and Cognitive Task Difficulty on Cognitive-Motor Interference in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence Plummer-D'Amato


    Full Text Available Although gait-related dual-task interference in aging is well established, the effect of gait and cognitive task difficulty on dual-task interference is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of gait and cognitive task difficulty on cognitive-motor interference in aging. Fifteen older adults (72.1 years, SD 5.2 and 20 young adults (21.7 years, SD 1.6 performed three walking tasks of varying difficulty (self-selected speed, fast speed, and fast speed with obstacle crossing under single- and dual-task conditions. The cognitive tasks were the auditory Stroop task and the clock task. There was a significant Group × Gait Task × Cognitive Task interaction for the dual-task effect on gait speed. After adjusting for education, there were no significant effects of gait or cognitive task difficulty on the dual-task effects on cognitive task performance. The results of this study provide evidence that gait task difficulty influences dual-task effects on gait speed, especially in older adults. Moreover, the effects of gait task difficulty on dual-task interference appear to be influenced by the difficulty of the cognitive task. Education is an important factor influencing cognitive-motor interference effects on cognition, but not gait.

  7. Image enhancement of digital periapical radiographs according to diagnostic tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dankook University College of Dentistry, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)


    his study was performed to investigate the effect of image enhancement of periapical radiographs according to the diagnostic task. Eighty digital intraoral radiographs were obtained from patients and classified into four groups according to the diagnostic tasks of dental caries, periodontal diseases, periapical lesions, and endodontic files. All images were enhanced differently by using five processing techniques. Three radiologists blindly compared the subjective image quality of the original images and the processed images using a 5-point scale. There were significant differences between the image quality of the processed images and that of the original images (P<0.01) in all the diagnostic task groups. Processing techniques showed significantly different efficacy according to the diagnostic task (P<0.01). Image enhancement affects the image quality differently depending on the diagnostic task. And the use of optimal parameters is important for each diagnostic task.

  8. Differential Calculation Abilities in Young Children from Middle- and Low-Income Families. (United States)

    Jordan, Nancy. C.; And Others


    Examined the performance of kindergartners from middle- and low-income families on arithmetic calculations presented in a nonverbal format and in three verbal formats. Children from middle-income families performed better than those from low-income families on verbal calculation tasks but not on the nonverbal task. (BC)

  9. Calculation of collisional mixing (United States)

    Koponen, I.; Hautala, M.


    Collisional mixing of markers is calculated by splitting the calculation into two parts. Relocation cross sections have been calculated using a realistic potential in a Monte Carlo simulation. The cross sections are used in the computation of marker relocation. The cumulative effect of successive relocations is assumed to be an uncorrelated transport process and it is treated as a weighted random walk. Matrix relocation was not included in the calculations. The results from this two-step simulation model are compared with analytical models. A fit to the simulated differential relocation cross sections has been found which makes the numerical integration of the Bothe formula feasible. The influence of primaries has been treated in this way. When all the recoils are included the relocation profiles are nearly Gaussian and the Pearson IV distributions yield acceptable profiles in the studied cases. The approximations and cut-off procedures which cause the major uncertainties in calculations are pointed out. The choice of the cut-off energy is shown to be the source of the largest uncertainty whereas the mathematical approximations can be used with good accuracy. The methods are used to study the broadening of a Pt marker in Si mixed by 300 keV Xe ions, broadening of a Ti marker in Al mixed by 300 keV Xe ions and broadening of a Ti marker in Hf mixed by 750 keV Kr ions. The fluence in each case is 2 × 10 16{ions}/{cm 2}. The calculated averages of half widths at half maximum vary between 11-18, 9-12 and 10-15 nm, respectively, depending on the cut-off energy and the mixing efficiencies vary between 11-29, 6-11 and 6-14 {Å5}/{eV}, respectively. The broadenings of Pt in Si and Ti in Al are about two times smaller than the measured values and the broadening of Ti in Hf is in agreement with the measured values.

  10. Measuring Multi-tasking Ability (United States)


    Bunting, 2001), antisaccade tasks (Kane, Bleckley, Conway, & Engle, 2001), and Stroop tasks (Kane & Engle, 2003). These attention-control tasks...departments of hospitals care for individuals who have cancer or who have other medical problems requiring surgery, respectively. Patients may be very...competition, and task set to Stroop interference. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 132, 47-70. Lansman, M., Poltrock, S., & Hunt, E. (1983

  11. Principles of Communicative Task Design. (United States)

    Nunan, David

    The use of the learning task as a basic planning and instructional tool for communicative second language instruction is discussed, and considerations and procedures for designing such tasks are outlined. A task is defined as a piece of classroom work that involves learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing, or interacting in the target…

  12. Task-oriented rehabilitation robotics. (United States)

    Schweighofer, Nicolas; Choi, Younggeun; Winstein, Carolee; Gordon, James


    Task-oriented training is emerging as the dominant and most effective approach to motor rehabilitation of upper extremity function after stroke. Here, the authors propose that the task-oriented training framework provides an evidence-based blueprint for the design of task-oriented robots for the rehabilitation of upper extremity function in the form of three design principles: skill acquisition of functional tasks, active participation training, and individualized adaptive training. The previous robotic systems that incorporate elements of task-oriented trainings are then reviewed. Finally, the authors critically analyze their own attempt to design and test the feasibility of a TOR robot, ADAPT (Adaptive and Automatic Presentation of Tasks), which incorporates the three design principles. Because of its task-oriented training-based design, ADAPT departs from most other current rehabilitation robotic systems: it presents realistic functional tasks in which the task goal is constantly adapted, so that the individual actively performs doable but challenging tasks without physical assistance. To maximize efficacy for a large clinical population, the authors propose that future task-oriented robots need to incorporate yet-to-be developed adaptive task presentation algorithms that emphasize acquisition of fine motor coordination skills while minimizing compensatory movements.

  13. TASK: Let's Have a Party! (United States)

    Rees, James


    In this article, the author describes a creative way to demystify contemporary art for students. TASK is artist Oliver Herring's creation, where participants actively interpret instructions found on little pieces of paper--what he calls "tasks." An art classroom has all the key ingredients for a TASK event: (1) people; (2) materials; (3) space;…

  14. Microcomputer calculations in physics (United States)

    Killingbeck, J. P.


    The use of microcomputers to carry out computations in an interactive manner allows the judgement of the operator to be allied with the calculating power of the machine in a synthesis which speeds up the creation and testing of mathematical techniques for physical problems. This advantage is accompanied by a disadvantage, in that microcomputers are limited in capacity and power, and special analysis is needed to compensate for this. These two features together mean that there is a fairly recognisable body of methods which are particularly appropriate for interactive microcomputing. This article surveys a wide range of mathematical methods used in physics, indicating how they can be applied using microcomputers and giving several original calculations which illustrate the value of the microcomputer in stimulating the exploration of new methods. Particular emphasis is given to methods which use iteration, recurrence relation or extrapolation procedures which are well adapted to the capabilities of modern microcomputers.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Romanos


    The purpose of these calculations is to design foundations for all conveyor supports for the surface conveyors that transport the muck resulting from the TBM operation, from the belt storage to the muck stockpile. These conveyors consist of: (1) Conveyor W-TO3, from the belt storage, at the starter tunnel, to the transfer tower. (2) Conveyor W-SO1, from the transfer tower to the material stacker, at the muck stockpile.

  16. Monte Carlo dose calculations for high-dose-rate brachytherapy using GPU-accelerated processing. (United States)

    Tian, Z; Zhang, M; Hrycushko, B; Albuquerque, K; Jiang, S B; Jia, X


    Current clinical brachytherapy dose calculations are typically based on the Association of American Physicists in Medicine Task Group report 43 (TG-43) guidelines, which approximate patient geometry as an infinitely large water phantom. This ignores patient and applicator geometries and heterogeneities, causing dosimetric errors. Although Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation is commonly recognized as the most accurate method, its associated long computational time is a major bottleneck for routine clinical applications. This article presents our recent developments of a fast MC dose calculation package for high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, gBMC, built on a graphics processing unit (GPU) platform. gBMC-simulated photon transport in voxelized geometry with physics in (192)Ir HDR brachytherapy energy range considered. A phase-space file was used as a source model. GPU-based parallel computation was used to simultaneously transport multiple photons, one on a GPU thread. We validated gBMC by comparing the dose calculation results in water with that computed TG-43. We also studied heterogeneous phantom cases and a patient case and compared gBMC results with Acuros BV results. Radial dose function in water calculated by gBMC showed GPU-based MC dose calculation package, gBMC, for HDR brachytherapy make it attractive for clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiation dose of nurses during IR procedures: a controlled trial evaluating operator alerts before nursing tasks. (United States)

    Komemushi, Atsushi; Suzuki, Satoshi; Sano, Akira; Kanno, Shohei; Kariya, Shuji; Nakatani, Miyuki; Yoshida, Rie; Kono, Yumiko; Ikeda, Koshi; Utsunomiya, Keita; Harima, Yoko; Komemushi, Sadao; Tanigawa, Noboru


    To compare radiation exposure of nurses when performing nursing tasks associated with interventional procedures depending on whether or not the nurses called out to the operator before approaching the patient. In a prospective study, 93 interventional radiology procedures were randomly divided into a call group and a no-call group; there were 50 procedures in the call group and 43 procedures in the no-call group. Two monitoring badges were used to calculate effective dose of nurses. In the call group, the nurse first told the operator she was going to approach the patient each time she was about to do so. In the no-call group, the nurse did not say anything to the operator when she was about to approach the patient. In all the nursing tasks, the equivalent dose at the umbilical level inside the lead apron was below the detectable limit. The equivalent dose at the sternal level outside the lead apron was 0.16 μSv ± 0.41 per procedure in the call group and 0.51 μSv ± 1.17 per procedure in the no-call group. The effective dose was 0.018 μSv ± 0.04 per procedure in the call group and 0.056 μSv ± 0.129 per procedure in the no-call group. The call group had a significantly lower radiation dose (P = .034). Radiation doses of nurses were lower in the group in which the nurse called to the operator before she approached the patient. Copyright © 2014 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Adaptive group coordination and role differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Roberts

    Full Text Available Many real world situations (potluck dinners, academic departments, sports teams, corporate divisions, committees, seminar classes, etc. involve actors adjusting their contributions in order to achieve a mutually satisfactory group goal, a win-win result. However, the majority of human group research has involved situations where groups perform poorly because task constraints promote either individual maximization behavior or diffusion of responsibility, and even successful tasks generally involve the propagation of one correct solution through a group. Here we introduce a group task that requires complementary actions among participants in order to reach a shared goal. Without communication, group members submit numbers in an attempt to collectively sum to a randomly selected target number. After receiving group feedback, members adjust their submitted numbers until the target number is reached. For all groups, performance improves with task experience, and group reactivity decreases over rounds. Our empirical results provide evidence for adaptive coordination in human groups, and as the coordination costs increase with group size, large groups adapt through spontaneous role differentiation and self-consistency among members. We suggest several agent-based models with different rules for agent reactions, and we show that the empirical results are best fit by a flexible, adaptive agent strategy in which agents decrease their reactions when the group feedback changes. The task offers a simple experimental platform for studying the general problem of group coordination while maximizing group returns, and we distinguish the task from several games in behavioral game theory.

  19. Dynamic, continuous multitasking training leads to task-specific improvements but does not transfer across action selection tasks (United States)

    Bender, Angela D.; Filmer, Hannah L.; Naughtin, Claire K.; Dux, Paul E.


    The ability to perform multiple tasks concurrently is an ever-increasing requirement in our information-rich world. Despite this, multitasking typically compromises performance due to the processing limitations associated with cognitive control and decision-making. While intensive dual-task training is known to improve multitasking performance, only limited evidence suggests that training-related performance benefits can transfer to untrained tasks that share overlapping processes. In the real world, however, coordinating and selecting several responses within close temporal proximity will often occur in high-interference environments. Over the last decade, there have been notable reports that training on video action games that require dynamic multitasking in a demanding environment can lead to transfer effects on aspects of cognition such as attention and working memory. Here, we asked whether continuous and dynamic multitasking training extends benefits to tasks that are theoretically related to the trained tasks. To examine this issue, we asked a group of participants to train on a combined continuous visuomotor tracking task and a perceptual discrimination task for six sessions, while an active control group practiced the component tasks in isolation. A battery of tests measuring response selection, response inhibition, and spatial attention was administered before and immediately after training to investigate transfer. Multitasking training resulted in substantial, task-specific gains in dual-task ability, but there was no evidence that these benefits generalized to other action control tasks. The findings suggest that training on a combined visuomotor tracking and discrimination task results in task-specific benefits but provides no additional value for untrained action selection tasks.

  20. Functional connectivity in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease during a working memory task. (United States)

    Liu, Tiaotiao; Bai, Wenwen; Yi, Hu; Tan, Tao; Wei, Jing; Wang, Ju; Tian, Xin


    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of memory. Impairment of working memory was typically observed in AD. The concept of brain functional connectivity plays an important role in neuroscience as a useful tool to understand the organized behavior of brain. Hence, the purpose of this study is to investigate the possible mechanism of working memory deficits in AD from a new perspective of functional connectivity. Rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: Aβ injection group (Aβ₁₋₄₂-induced toxicity rat model) and control group. Multi-channel local field potentials (LFPs) were obtained from rat prefrontal cortex with implanted microelectrode arrays while the rats performed a Y-maze working memory task. The short-time Fourier transform was utilized to analyze the power changes in LFPs and sub-bands (in particular theta and low gamma bands) were extracted via band filtering. Then the Directed transfer function (DTF) method was applied to calculate the functional connections among LFPs. From the DTF calculation, the causal networks in the sub-bands were identified. DTFmean (mean of connectivity matrix elements) was used to quantify connection strength as well as global efficiency (Eglob) was calculated to quantitatively describe the efficient of information transfer in the network. Our results showed that both connection strength and efficient of information transfer increased during the working memory task in the control group; by contrast, there was no significantly change in the Aβ injection group. These findings could lead to improve the understanding of the mechanism of working memory deficits in AD.

  1. Age-related decrements in dual-task performance: Comparison of different mobility and cognitive tasks. A cross sectional study. (United States)

    Brustio, Paolo Riccardo; Magistro, Daniele; Zecca, Massimiliano; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Liubicich, Monica Emma


    This cross-sectional study investigated the age-related differences in dual-task performance both in mobility and cognitive tasks and the additive dual-task costs in a sample of older, middle-aged and young adults. 74 older adults (M = 72.63±5.57 years), 58 middle-aged adults (M = 46.69±4.68 years) and 63 young adults (M = 25.34±3.00 years) participated in the study. Participants performed different mobility and subtraction tasks under both single- and dual-task conditions. Linear regressions, repeated-measures and one-way analyses of covariance were used, The results showed: significant effects of the age on the dual and mobility tasks (pperformance under dual-task conditions in all groups (pperformance in the older group (pperformance, especially in older adults who showed a higher dual-task cost, suggesting that dual-tasks activities are affected by the age and consequently also mobility and cognitive tasks are negatively influenced.

  2. Lessons Learned from Crowdsourcing Complex Engineering Tasks (United States)

    Kijewski-Correa, Tracy; Thain, Douglas; Kareem, Ahsan; Madey, Gregory


    Crowdsourcing Crowdsourcing is the practice of obtaining needed ideas, services, or content by requesting contributions from a large group of people. Amazon Mechanical Turk is a web marketplace for crowdsourcing microtasks, such as answering surveys and image tagging. We explored the limits of crowdsourcing by using Mechanical Turk for a more complicated task: analysis and creation of wind simulations. Harnessing Crowdworkers for Engineering Our investigation examined the feasibility of using crowdsourcing for complex, highly technical tasks. This was done to determine if the benefits of crowdsourcing could be harnessed to accurately and effectively contribute to solving complex real world engineering problems. Of course, untrained crowds cannot be used as a mere substitute for trained expertise. Rather, we sought to understand how crowd workers can be used as a large pool of labor for a preliminary analysis of complex data. Virtual Wind Tunnel We compared the skill of the anonymous crowd workers from Amazon Mechanical Turk with that of civil engineering graduate students, making a first pass at analyzing wind simulation data. For the first phase, we posted analysis questions to Amazon crowd workers and to two groups of civil engineering graduate students. A second phase of our experiment instructed crowd workers and students to create simulations on our Virtual Wind Tunnel website to solve a more complex task. Conclusions With a sufficiently comprehensive tutorial and compensation similar to typical crowd-sourcing wages, we were able to enlist crowd workers to effectively complete longer, more complex tasks with competence comparable to that of graduate students with more comprehensive, expert-level knowledge. Furthermore, more complex tasks require increased communication with the workers. As tasks become more complex, the employment relationship begins to become more akin to outsourcing than crowdsourcing. Through this investigation, we were able to stretch and

  3. Lessons Learned from Crowdsourcing Complex Engineering Tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Staffelbach

    Full Text Available Crowdsourcing is the practice of obtaining needed ideas, services, or content by requesting contributions from a large group of people. Amazon Mechanical Turk is a web marketplace for crowdsourcing microtasks, such as answering surveys and image tagging. We explored the limits of crowdsourcing by using Mechanical Turk for a more complicated task: analysis and creation of wind simulations.Our investigation examined the feasibility of using crowdsourcing for complex, highly technical tasks. This was done to determine if the benefits of crowdsourcing could be harnessed to accurately and effectively contribute to solving complex real world engineering problems. Of course, untrained crowds cannot be used as a mere substitute for trained expertise. Rather, we sought to understand how crowd workers can be used as a large pool of labor for a preliminary analysis of complex data.We compared the skill of the anonymous crowd workers from Amazon Mechanical Turk with that of civil engineering graduate students, making a first pass at analyzing wind simulation data. For the first phase, we posted analysis questions to Amazon crowd workers and to two groups of civil engineering graduate students. A second phase of our experiment instructed crowd workers and students to create simulations on our Virtual Wind Tunnel website to solve a more complex task.With a sufficiently comprehensive tutorial and compensation similar to typical crowd-sourcing wages, we were able to enlist crowd workers to effectively complete longer, more complex tasks with competence comparable to that of graduate students with more comprehensive, expert-level knowledge. Furthermore, more complex tasks require increased communication with the workers. As tasks become more complex, the employment relationship begins to become more akin to outsourcing than crowdsourcing. Through this investigation, we were able to stretch and explore the limits of crowdsourcing as a tool for solving complex

  4. Lessons Learned from Crowdsourcing Complex Engineering Tasks. (United States)

    Staffelbach, Matthew; Sempolinski, Peter; Kijewski-Correa, Tracy; Thain, Douglas; Wei, Daniel; Kareem, Ahsan; Madey, Gregory


    Crowdsourcing is the practice of obtaining needed ideas, services, or content by requesting contributions from a large group of people. Amazon Mechanical Turk is a web marketplace for crowdsourcing microtasks, such as answering surveys and image tagging. We explored the limits of crowdsourcing by using Mechanical Turk for a more complicated task: analysis and creation of wind simulations. Our investigation examined the feasibility of using crowdsourcing for complex, highly technical tasks. This was done to determine if the benefits of crowdsourcing could be harnessed to accurately and effectively contribute to solving complex real world engineering problems. Of course, untrained crowds cannot be used as a mere substitute for trained expertise. Rather, we sought to understand how crowd workers can be used as a large pool of labor for a preliminary analysis of complex data. We compared the skill of the anonymous crowd workers from Amazon Mechanical Turk with that of civil engineering graduate students, making a first pass at analyzing wind simulation data. For the first phase, we posted analysis questions to Amazon crowd workers and to two groups of civil engineering graduate students. A second phase of our experiment instructed crowd workers and students to create simulations on our Virtual Wind Tunnel website to solve a more complex task. With a sufficiently comprehensive tutorial and compensation similar to typical crowd-sourcing wages, we were able to enlist crowd workers to effectively complete longer, more complex tasks with competence comparable to that of graduate students with more comprehensive, expert-level knowledge. Furthermore, more complex tasks require increased communication with the workers. As tasks become more complex, the employment relationship begins to become more akin to outsourcing than crowdsourcing. Through this investigation, we were able to stretch and explore the limits of crowdsourcing as a tool for solving complex problems.

  5. Task Number and Cognitive Complexity as Determinants of Difficulty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    XY = 0.89. The three correlation coefficients is each significant (p < 0.05). Test constructors and users should include item task number and cognitive level in item analysis. These are testees or group of testees-independent and could be a bridge between CTT and IRT. Keywords: CTT, IRT, MCT, task number, cognitive level, ...

  6. Task Design and Interaction in Collaborative Writing: The Students' Story (United States)

    Bremner, Stephen; Peirson-Smith, Anne; Jones, Rodney; Bhatia, Vijay


    This article investigates student behaviour on collaborative assignments, looking at the relationship between task type and interaction, and considers the implications for task design. Students reported on interactions in a year-long workplace-focussed group communication project, comparing these with interactions on other academy-based group…

  7. Does a Speaking Task Affect Second Language Comprehensibility? (United States)

    Crowther, Dustin; Trofimovich, Pavel; Isaacs, Talia; Saito, Kazuya


    The current study investigated task effects on listener perception of second language (L2) comprehensibility (ease of understanding). Sixty university-level adult speakers of English from 4 first language (L1) backgrounds (Chinese, Romance, Hindi, Farsi), with 15 speakers per group, were recorded performing 2 tasks (IELTS long-turn speaking task…

  8. IEA SHC Task 42/ECES Annex 29 WG A1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ristić, Alenka; Furbo, Simon; Moser, Christoph


    An overview on the recent results on the engineering and characterization of sorption materials, PCMs and TCMs investigated in the working group WG A1 “Engineering and processing of TES materials” of IEA SHC Task 42 / ECES Annex 29 (Task 4229) entitled “Compact Thermal Energy Storage” is presented....

  9. Lie groups and algebraic groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    identity. It is a remarkable fact that simple. Lie groups can be completely classified; they are the special linear groups, orthogonal groups and symplectic groups. Apart from these, the list is a finite one (the so-called exceptional groups). This is the Cartan–Killing classification, which nowadays, is described in terms of the.

  10. Calculations in furnace technology

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Clive; Hopkins, DW; Owen, WS


    Calculations in Furnace Technology presents the theoretical and practical aspects of furnace technology. This book provides information pertinent to the development, application, and efficiency of furnace technology. Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the exothermic reactions that occur when carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur are burned to release the energy available in the fuel. This text then evaluates the efficiencies to measure the quantity of fuel used, of flue gases leaving the plant, of air entering, and the heat lost to the surroundings. Other chapters consi

  11. The relation of kinematic factors to the acquisition of skill on a novel task. (United States)

    Pytel, J L


    The purpose of the study was to determine which kinematic factors changes and how they changed during the process of skill acquisition. A novel throwing task, involving only the elbow joint, was selected that could be learned during one session. Biomechanical data were collected on-line by a program in a PDP - 11/34 computer via an A to D converter. Angular displacement, linear acceleration, and instant of ball release were continuously monitored and velocity was calculated. The subjects acquired the task within the first ten out of forty learning trials. Consequently, group analyses were limited to the first ten throws. The mechanical factors showed changes with skill acquisition, with elbow angle and elbow velocity at release accounting for 99% of the variance in score. It was found that to obtain the desired performance outcome, each subject selected his own limited range of angles and velocities at release. Although pertinent biomechanical factors are task specific, individuals in this case selected their own strategies to get the same outcome on a task.

  12. Kinetic measurements of hand motor impairments after mild to moderate stroke using grip control tasks. (United States)

    Ye, Yu; Ma, Le; Yan, Tiebin; Liu, Huihua; Wei, Xijun; Song, Rong


    The aim of this study is to investigate quantitative outcome measurements of hand motor performance for subjects after mild to moderate stroke using grip control tasks and characterize abnormal flexion synergy of upper extremities after stroke. A customized dynamometer with force sensors was used to measure grip force and calculate rotation torque during the sub-maximal grip control tasks. The paretic and nonpartic sides of eleven subjects after stroke and the dominant sides of ten healthy persons were tested. Their maximal voluntary grip force was measured and used to set sub-maximal grip control tasks at three different target force levels. Force control ability was characterized by the maximal grip force, mean force percentage, coefficient of variation (CV), target deviation ratio (TDR), and rotation torque ratio (RTR). The motor impairments of subjects after stroke were also evaluated using the Fugl-Meyer assessment for upper extremity (FMA-UE) and Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). Maximal grip force of the paretic side was significantly reduced as compared to the nonparetic side and the healthy group, while the difference of maximal grip force between the nonparetic side and the healthy group was not significant. TDR and RTR increased for all three groups with increasing target force level. There were significant differences of CV, TDR and RTR between the paretic side and the healthy group at all the force levels. CV, TDR and RTR showed significant negative correlations with FMA-UE and WMFT at 50% of maximum grip force. This study designed a customized dynamometer together with an innovative measurement, RTR, to investigate the hand motor performance of subjects after mild to moderate stroke during force control tasks. And stroke-induced abnormal flexion synergy of wrist and finger muscles could be characterized by RTR. This study also identified a set of kinetic parameters which can be applied to quantitatively assess the hand motor function of subjects after

  13. Calculating Speed of Sound (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Shalabh


    Sound is an emerging source of renewable energy but it has some limitations. The main limitation is, the amount of energy that can be extracted from sound is very less and that is because of the velocity of the sound. The velocity of sound changes as per medium. If we could increase the velocity of the sound in a medium we would be probably able to extract more amount of energy from sound and will be able to transfer it at a higher rate. To increase the velocity of sound we should know the speed of sound. If we go by the theory of classic mechanics speed is the distance travelled by a particle divided by time whereas velocity is the displacement of particle divided by time. The speed of sound in dry air at 20 °C (68 °F) is considered to be 343.2 meters per second and it won't be wrong in saying that 342.2 meters is the velocity of sound not the speed as it's the displacement of the sound not the total distance sound wave covered. Sound travels in the form of mechanical wave, so while calculating the speed of sound the whole path of wave should be considered not just the distance traveled by sound. In this paper I would like to focus on calculating the actual speed of sound wave which can help us to extract more energy and make sound travel with faster velocity.

  14. Multilayer optical calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Byrnes, Steven J


    When light hits a multilayer planar stack, it is reflected, refracted, and absorbed in a way that can be derived from the Fresnel equations. The analysis is treated in many textbooks, and implemented in many software programs, but certain aspects of it are difficult to find explicitly and consistently worked out in the literature. Here, we derive the formulas underlying the transfer-matrix method of calculating the optical properties of these stacks, including oblique-angle incidence, absorption-vs-position profiles, and ellipsometry parameters. We discuss and explain some strange consequences of the formulas in the situation where the incident and/or final (semi-infinite) medium are absorptive, such as calculating $T>1$ in the absence of gain. We also discuss some implementation details like complex-plane branch cuts. Finally, we derive modified formulas for including one or more "incoherent" layers, i.e. very thick layers in which interference can be neglected. This document was written in conjunction with ...

  15. Predicting Satisfaction with Group Work Assignments (United States)

    Burdett, Jane; Hastie, Brianne


    Universities are increasingly using group based assessment tasks; however, as with work-place teams, such tasks often elicit mixed feelings from participants. This study investigated factors that may predict student satisfaction with group work at university. Final-year business students completed a questionnaire addressing experiences of group…

  16. A dynamic 3D biomechanical evaluation of the load on the low back during different patient-handling tasks. (United States)

    Skotte, J H; Essendrop, M; Hansen, A F; Schibye, B


    The objective of this study was to investigate the low-back loading during common patient-handling tasks. Ten female health care workers without formal training in patient handling performed nine patient-handling tasks including turning, lifting and repositioning a male stroke patient. The low-back loading was quantified by net moment, compression, and shear forces at the L4/L5 joint, measured muscle activity (EMG) in erector spinae muscles and rate of perceived exertion (RPE; Borg scale). The experiments were videotaped with a 50Hz video system using five cameras, and the ground and bedside reaction forces of the health care worker were recorded by means of force platforms and force transducers on the bed. The biomechanical load was calculated using a dynamic 3D seven-segment model of the lower part of the body, and the forces at the L4/L5 joint were estimated by a 14 muscles cross-sectional model of the low back (optimisation procedure). Compression force and torque showed high task dependency whereas the EMG data and the RPE values were more dependent on the subject. The peak compression during two tasks involving lifting the patient (4132/4433N) was significantly higher than all other tasks. Four tasks involving repositioning the patient in the bed (3179/3091/2932/3094N) did not differ, but showed higher peak compression than two tasks turning the patient in the bed (1618/2197N). Thus, in this study the patient-handling tasks could be classified into three groups-characterised by lifting, repositioning or turning-with different levels of peak net torque and compression at the L4/L5 joint.

  17. Musical Training, Bilingualism, and Executive Function: A Closer Look at Task Switching and Dual-Task Performance (United States)

    Moradzadeh, Linda; Blumenthal, Galit; Wiseheart, Melody


    This study investigated whether musical training and bilingualism are associated with enhancements in specific components of executive function, namely, task switching and dual-task performance. Participants (n = 153) belonging to one of four groups (monolingual musician, bilingual musician, bilingual non-musician, or monolingual non-musician)…

  18. PyTransport: Calculate inflationary correlation functions (United States)

    Mulryne, David J.; Ronayne, John W.


    PyTransport calculates the 2-point and 3-point function of inflationary perturbations produced during multi-field inflation. The core of PyTransport is C++ code which is automatically edited and compiled into a Python module once an inflationary potential is specified. This module can then be called to solve the background inflationary cosmology as well as the evolution of correlations of inflationary perturbations. PyTransport includes two additional modules written in Python, one to perform the editing and compilation, and one containing a suite of functions for common tasks such as looping over the core module to construct spectra and bispectra.

  19. Challenges Facing Group Work Online (United States)

    Chang, Bo; Kang, Haijun


    Online group work can be complicated because of its asynchronous characteristics and lack of physical presence, and its requirements for skills in handling technology, human relationships, and content-related tasks. This study focuses on the administrative, logistical and relationship-related challenges in online group work. Challenges in areas…

  20. Neural mechanisms of savant calendar calculating in autism: an MEG-study of few single cases. (United States)

    Dubischar-Krivec, Anna Milena; Bölte, Sven; Braun, Christoph; Poustka, Fritz; Birbaumer, Niels; Neumann, Nicola


    This study contrasted the neurological correlates of calendar calculating (CC) between those individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing individuals. CC is the ability to correctly and quickly state the day of the week of a given date. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we presented 126 calendar tasks with dates of the present, past, and future. Event-related magnetic fields (ERF) of 3000ms duration and brain activation patterns were compared in three savant calendar calculators with ASD (ASDCC) and three typically developing calendar calculators (TYPCC). ASDCC outperformed TYPCC in correct responses, but not in answering speed. Comparing amplitudes of their ERFs, there was a main effect of group between 1000 and 3000ms, but no further effects of hemisphere or sensor location. We conducted CLARA source analysis across the entire CC period in each individual. Both ASDCC and TYPCC exhibited activation maxima in prefrontal areas including the insulae and the left superior temporal gyrus. This is in accordance with verbal fact retrieval and working memory as well as monitoring and coordination processes. In ASDCC, additional activation sites at the right superior occipital gyrus, the right precuneus, and the right putamen point to visual-spatial strategies and are in line with the preference of autistic individuals for engaging posterior regions relatively more strongly in various reasoning and problem solving tasks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Group X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Susannah


    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  2. Task Demands in OSCEs Influence Learning Strategies. (United States)

    Lafleur, Alexandre; Laflamme, Jonathan; Leppink, Jimmie; Côté, Luc


    Models on pre-assessment learning effects confirmed that task demands stand out among the factors assessors can modify in an assessment to influence learning. However, little is known about which tasks in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) improve students' cognitive and metacognitive processes. Research is needed to support OSCE designs that benefit students' metacognitive strategies when they are studying, reinforcing a hypothesis-driven approach. With that intent, hypothesis-driven physical examination (HDPE) assessments ask students to elicit and interpret findings of the physical exam to reach a diagnosis ("Examine this patient with a painful shoulder to reach a diagnosis"). When studying for HDPE, students will dedicate more time to hypothesis-driven discussions and practice than when studying for a part-task OSCE ("Perform the shoulder exam"). It is expected that the whole-task nature of HDPE will lead to a hypothesis-oriented use of the learning resources, a frequent use of adjustment strategies, and persistence with learning. In a mixed-methods study, 40 medical students were randomly paired and filmed while studying together for two hypothetical OSCE stations. Each 25-min study period began with video cues asking to study for either a part-task OSCE or an HDPE. In a crossover design, sequences were randomized for OSCEs and contents (shoulder or spine). Time-on-task for discussions or practice were categorized as "hypothesis-driven" or "sequence of signs and maneuvers." Content analysis of focus group interviews summarized students' perception of learning resources, adjustment strategies, and persistence with learning. When studying for HDPE, students allocate significantly more time for hypothesis-driven discussions and practice. Students use resources contrasting diagnoses and report persistence with learning. When studying for part-task OSCEs, time-on-task is reversed, spent on rehearsing a sequence of signs and maneuvers. OSCEs with

  3. Group Flow and Group Genius (United States)

    Sawyer, Keith


    Keith Sawyer views the spontaneous collaboration of group creativity and improvisation actions as "group flow," which organizations can use to function at optimum levels. Sawyer establishes ideal conditions for group flow: group goals, close listening, complete concentration, being in control, blending egos, equal participation, knowing…

  4. Intra and intersession reliability of a postural control protocol in athletes with and without anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a dual-task paradigm. (United States)

    Mohammadirad, Shahrzad; Salavati, Mahyar; Takamjani, Ismail Ebrahimi; Akhbari, Behnam; Sherafat, Shiva; Mazaheri, Masood; Negahban, Hossein


    Quantification of dynamic balance is essential to assess a patient's level of injury or ability to function so that a proper plan of care may commence. In spite of comprehensive utilization of dual-tasking in balance assessment protocols, a lack of sufficient reliability data is apparent. The purpose of the present study was to determine the intra- and inter-session reliability of dynamic balance measures obtained using the Biodex Balance System® (BBS) for a group of athletes who had undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) and a matched control group without ACLR, while using a dual-task paradigm. Single-limb postural stability was assessed in 15 athletes who had undergone ACLR and 15 healthy matched controls. The outcome variables included measures of both postural and cognitive performance. For measuring postural performance, the overall stability index (OSI), anterior-posterior stability index (APSI), and medial-lateral stability index (MLSI), were recorded. Cognitive performance was evaluated by measuring error ratio and average reaction time. Subjects faced 4 postural task difficulty levels (platform stabilities of 8 and 6 with eyes open and closed), and 2 cognitive task difficulty levels (with or without auditory Stroop task). During dual task conditions (conditions with Stroop task), error ratio and average reaction time were calculated. Regarding intrasession reliability, ICC values of test session were higher for MLSI [ACL-R group (0.83-0.95), control group (0.71-0.95)] compared to OSI [ACL-R group (0.80-0.92), control group (0.67-0.95)] and APSI [ACL-R group (0.73-0.90), control group (0.62-0.90)]. Furthermore, ICC values of first test session were higher in reaction time [ACL-R group (0.92-0.95), control group (0.80-0.92)] than error ratio [ACL-R group (0.72-0.88), control group (0.61-0.83)]. ICC values of retest session were higher for MLSI [ACL-R group (0.83-0.94), control group (0.87-0.93)] than OSI [ACL-R group (0


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Akaev1


    Full Text Available Aim.The task of reducing the deflection and increase the rigidity of single-span beams are made. In the article the calculation algorithm for truss crane girders is determined.Methods. To identify the internal effort required for the selection of cross section elements the design uses the Green's function.Results. It was found that the simplest truss system reduces deflection and increases the strength of design. The upper crossbar is subjected not only to bending and shear and compression work due to tightening tension. Preliminary determination of the geometrical characteristics of the crane farms elements are offered to make a comparison with previous similar configuration of his farms, using a simple approximate calculation methods.Conclusion.The method of sequential movements (incrementally the two bridge cranes along the length of the upper crossbar truss beams is suggested. We give the corresponding formulas and conditions of safety.

  6. Affordances and synchronization in collective creative construction tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tylén, Kristian; Fusaroli, Riccardo

    What does it mean to cooperate? How do we share meanings and actions in order to reach a common goal? In this paper we explore the relation between cooperative coordination and heart rate. We argue that in cooperative contexts participants synchronize their heart rhythms according to two factors...... measurements and employ recurrence analysis techniques to quantify the mutual adaptability of heart rates among the participants in the different tasks. We show that during individual tasks individual heart rates synchronize both within and between groups (but not with controls) plausibly due...... to the affordances of the task at hand. We also show that during collective, but not individual tasks, within group synchronization grows over time. Finally, we discuss how these measures of synchronization relate to the participants’ engagement in the tasks at hand and to the end products (LEGO models...

  7. The Mozart effect on task performance in a laparoscopic surgical simulator. (United States)

    Wiseman, Michael C


    The Mozart Effect is a phenomenon whereby certain pieces of music induce temporary enhancement in "spatial temporal reasoning." To determine whether the Mozart Effect can improve surgical performance, 55 male volunteers (mean age = 20.6 years, range = 16-27), novice to surgery, were timed as they completed an activity course on a laparoscopic simulator. Subjects were then randomized for exposure to 1 of 2 musical pieces by Mozart (n = 21) and Dream Theater (n = 19), after which they repeated the course. Following a 15-minute exposure to a nonmusical piece, subjects were exposed to one of the pieces and performed the activity course a third time. An additional group (n = 15) that was not corandomized performed the tasks without any exposure to music. The percent improvements in completion time between 3 successive trials were calculated for each subject and group means compared. In 2 of the tasks, subjects exposed to the Dream Theater piece achieved approximately 30% more improvement (26.7 ± 8.3%) than those exposed to the Mozart piece (20.2 ± 7.8%, P = .021) or to no music (20.4 ± 9.1%, P = .049). Distinct patterns of covariance between baseline performance and subsequent improvement were observed for the different musical conditions and tasks. The data confirm the existence of a Mozart Effect and demonstrate for the first time its practical applicability. Prior exposure to certain pieces may enhance performance in practical skills requiring spatial temporal reasoning.

  8. Girls with generalized joint hypermobility display changed muscle activity and postural sway during static balance tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Kristensen, B; Johansen, Kl; Hendriksen, P


    ) of Q, H, and G muscle activity was calculated. Knee function was self-reported using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for children (KOOS-Child). RESULTS: GJH had a significantly lower lateral HQ CCI and a higher medial/lateral HQ CCI ratio in all balance tasks. Group mean EMG varied......OBJECTIVES: To study knee muscle activity and static postural sway in girls with generalized joint hypermobility (GJH). METHOD: Sixteen girls with GJH and 11 girls with non-GJH (NGJH) aged 14 years, randomly recruited among schoolchildren, participated in this study. GJH inclusion criteria were...... of pressure path length, COPL) was calculated, along with rambling and trembling components. Surface electromyography (sEMG) from the quadriceps (Q), hamstrings (H), and gastrocnemius (G) muscles was recorded, expressed as a percentage of the maximum voluntary EMG (%MVE), and the co-contraction index (CCI...

  9. Individual personalities shape task differentiation in a social spider


    Grinsted, Lena; Pruitt, Jonathan N.; Settepani, Virginia; Bilde, Trine


    Deciphering the mechanisms involved in shaping social structure is key to a deeper understanding of the evolutionary processes leading to sociality. Individual specialization within groups can increase colony efficiency and consequently productivity. Here, we test the hypothesis that within-group variation in individual personalities (i.e. boldness and aggression) can shape task differentiation. The social spider Stegodyphus sarasinorum (Eresidae) showed task differentiation (significant uneq...

  10. Completing the Task Procedure or Focusing on Form: Contextualizing Grammar Instruction via Task-Based Teaching (United States)

    Saraç, Hatice Sezgi


    In this study, it was aimed to compare two distinct methodologies of grammar instruction: task-based and form-focused teaching. Within the application procedure, which lasted for one academic term, two groups of tertiary level learners (N = 53) were exposed to the same sequence of target structures, extensive writing activities and evaluation…

  11. A modified dose calculation formalism for electronic brachytherapy sources. (United States)

    DeWerd, Larry A; Culberson, Wesley S; Micka, John A; Simiele, Samantha J


    To propose a modification of the current dose calculation formalism introduced in the Task Group No. 43 Report (TG-43) to accommodate an air-kerma rate standard for electronic brachytherapy sources as an alternative to an air-kerma strength standard. Electronic brachytherapy sources are miniature x-ray tubes emitting low energies with high-dose-rates. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has introduced a new primary air-kerma rate standard for one of these sources, in contrast to air-kerma strength. A modification of the TG-43 protocol for calculation of dose-rate distributions around electronic brachytherapy sources including sources in an applicator is presented. It cannot be assumed that the perturbations from sources in an applicator are negligible, and thus, the applicator is incorporated in the formalism. The modified protocol mimics the fundamental methodology of the original TG-43 formalism, but now incorporates the new NIST-traceable source strength metric of air-kerma rate at 50 cm and introduces a new subscript, i, to denote the presence of an applicator used in treatment delivery. Applications of electronic brachytherapy sources for surface brachytherapy are not addressed in this Technical Note since they are well documented in other publications. A modification of the AAPM TG-43 protocol has been developed to accommodate an air-kerma rate standard for electronic brachytherapy sources as an alternative to an air-kerma strength standard. The modified TG-43 formalism allows dose calculations to be performed using a new NIST-traceable source strength metric and introduces the concept of applicator-specific formalism parameters denoted with subscript, i. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Specification of fact calculations within the MetaMIS approach


    Holten, Roland; Dreiling, Alexander


    Based on recent work on the so called MetaMIS approach we show how fact calculations can be specified from a management point of view. The MetaMIS approach's intention is to specify management views on business processes. It comprises a language, a representation formalism and guidelines to define information required for management decisions. Information in general should have pragmatic meaning for the management user. Beyond the task of specifying information in this sense, fact calculation...

  13. Correlates of academic procrastination: discomfort, task aversiveness, and task capability. (United States)

    Milgram, N; Marshevsky, S; Sadeh, C


    The relationships among five aspects of academic procrastination--behavioral delay, personal upset about the delay, task aversiveness, task capability, and the desire to reduce behavioral delay--were investigated in 10th-grade Israeli students (N = 195). Upset about delay was weakly related to delay itself, and--unlike delay--was strongly related to perceived capability to perform academic tasks and to the desire to change delaying behavior. Students delayed more on academic tasks labeled unpleasant than pleasant, were neutral in between, and were correspondingly more upset about the former than the latter. They more frequently acknowledged reasons for academic procrastination that were less threatening to their self-image (e.g., problems in time management) than reasons that were more threatening (e.g., lack of ability). Interest in reducing delay is related more to self-perceived ability to handle tasks than to time spent procrastinating or reasons given for procrastinating.

  14. The Impact of Task Complexity and Strategic Planning Time on EFL Learners’ Accuracy and Fluency in Written Task Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Salimi


    Full Text Available The past twenty years has witnessed a remarkable increase in the number of studies investigating different aspects and features of tasks in the second and foreign language class and their effects on learners’ oral and written task performance. Building up on a review of the studies conducted in the field of task-based language teaching a gap was revealed in the literature on the joint effects of task complexity and types of pre-task planning on L2 learners’ performance. The present study investigates the effects of strategic pre-task planning time and task complexity on a group of L2 learners’ written performance in terms of accuracy and fluency. The means of accuracy and fluency of 50 intermediate English language learners, both male and female, chosen randomly from Iran National Language Institute, Miandoab Branch were compared using T-test as the statistical means of analysis. The findings revealed a positive influence of pre-task strategic planning time in both simple and complex tasks, suggesting significant implications for syllabus and task designers, language teachers, and SLA researchers.

  15. Large solar energy systems within IEA task 14

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geus, A.C. de; Isakson, P.; Bokhoven, T.P.; Vanoli, K.; Tepe, R.


    Within IEA Task 14 (Advanced Solar Systems) a working group was established dealing with large advanced solar energy systems (the Large Systems Working group). The goal of this working group was to generate a common base of experiences for the design and construction of advanced large solar systems.

  16. Permutation groups

    CERN Document Server

    Passman, Donald S


    This volume by a prominent authority on permutation groups consists of lecture notes that provide a self-contained account of distinct classification theorems. A ready source of frequently quoted but usually inaccessible theorems, it is ideally suited for professional group theorists as well as students with a solid background in modern algebra.The three-part treatment begins with an introductory chapter and advances to an economical development of the tools of basic group theory, including group extensions, transfer theorems, and group representations and characters. The final chapter feature

  17. Exploring adolescent cognitive control in a combined interference switching task. (United States)

    Mennigen, Eva; Rodehacke, Sarah; Müller, Kathrin U; Ripke, Stephan; Goschke, Thomas; Smolka, Michael N


    Cognitive control enables individuals to flexibly adapt to environmental challenges. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we investigated 185 adolescents at the age of 14 with a combined response interference switching task measuring behavioral responses (reaction time, RT and error rate, ER) and brain activity during the task. This task comprises two types of conflict which are co-occurring, namely, task switching and stimulus-response incongruence. Data indicated that already in adolescents an overlapping cognitive control network comprising the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), pre-supplementary motor area (preSMA) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is recruited by conflicts arising from task switching and response incongruence. Furthermore our study revealed higher blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses elicited by incongruent stimuli in participants with a pronounced incongruence effect, calculated as the RT difference between incongruent and congruent trials. No such correlation was observed for switch costs. Furthermore, increased activation of the default mode network (DMN) was only observed in congruent trials compared to incongruent trials, but not in task repetition relative to task switch trials. These findings suggest that even though the two processes of task switching and response incongruence share a common cognitive control network they might be processed differentially within the cognitive control network. Results are discussed in the context of a novel hypothesis concerning antagonistic relations between the DMN and the cognitive control network. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Variations in articulatory movement with changes in speech task. (United States)

    Tasko, Stephen M; McClean, Michael D


    Studies of normal and disordered articulatory movement often rely on the use of short, simple speech tasks. However, the severity of speech disorders can be observed to vary markedly with task. Understanding task-related variations in articulatory kinematic behavior may allow for an improved understanding of normal and disordered speech motor behavior in varying communication contexts. This study evaluated how orofacial kinematic behavior varies as a function of speaking task in a group of 15 healthy male speakers. The speech tasks included a nonsense phrase with a high frequency of stop consonants, a sentence, an oral reading passage, and a spontaneous monologue. In addition, rate and intensity conditions were varied for the nonsense phrase and sentence. The articulatory positions of the upper lip, lower lip, tongue blade, and mandible were recorded, and measures reflecting (a). average features of individual movements or strokes (i.e., peak speed, distance, and duration) and (b). overall spatial variability of the articulators for each task were extracted, derived, and analyzed. Results showed a number of task- and condition-related differences in speech kinematic behavior. The most prominent result from the task comparison was that the nonsense speech task exhibited larger, faster, and longer movement strokes than the other speech tasks. For some articulators (lower lip and tongue), there were task-related differences in spatial variability. Changes in loudness and rate revealed variation in kinematic measures that were often complicated by articulator identity and task type. The results suggest that an expanded range of speech tasks and conditions may aid in the study of normal and disordered speech motor behavior.

  19. Cosmetology Series. Duty Task List. (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for three occupations in the cosmetology series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…

  20. The task of landscape ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendregt, A.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Smidt, de J.; Wassen, M.


    This final chapter is a personal reflection of the authors on this book. To find an answer to the question what the task is of landscape ecology, we split the question in two parts. The first past of the question is about science for society: what is the task of landscape ecology in a changing

  1. Human-System task integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.


    The Dutch Ministry of Defence research programme Human-System Task Integration aims at acquiring knowledge for the optimal cooperation between human and computer, under the following constraints: freedom of choice in decisions to automate and multiple, dynamic task distributions. This paper

  2. Science 102: This Month's Task (United States)

    Robertson, Bill


    This task asks readers to figure out why when you stir a cup of hot liquid and tap on the side of the cup with a spoon, the pitch of sound starts low and ends up high. The solution to last month's tasks relating to the circumference of the Earth and how many stars are in the (visible) sky is also presented.

  3. Group devaluation and group identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leach, C.W.; Rodriguez Mosquera, P.M.; Vliek, M.L.W.; Hirt, E.


    In three studies, we showed that increased in-group identification after (perceived or actual) group devaluation is an assertion of a (preexisting) positive social identity that counters the negative social identity implied in societal devaluation. Two studies with real-world groups used order

  4. IPC - Isoelectric Point Calculator. (United States)

    Kozlowski, Lukasz P


    Accurate estimation of the isoelectric point (pI) based on the amino acid sequence is useful for many analytical biochemistry and proteomics techniques such as 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, or capillary isoelectric focusing used in combination with high-throughput mass spectrometry. Additionally, pI estimation can be helpful during protein crystallization trials. Here, I present the Isoelectric Point Calculator (IPC), a web service and a standalone program for the accurate estimation of protein and peptide pI using different sets of dissociation constant (pKa) values, including two new computationally optimized pKa sets. According to the presented benchmarks, the newly developed IPC pKa sets outperform previous algorithms by at least 14.9 % for proteins and 0.9 % for peptides (on average, 22.1 % and 59.6 %, respectively), which corresponds to an average error of the pI estimation equal to 0.87 and 0.25 pH units for proteins and peptides, respectively. Moreover, the prediction of pI using the IPC pKa's leads to fewer outliers, i.e., predictions affected by errors greater than a given threshold. The IPC service is freely available at Peptide and protein datasets used in the study and the precalculated pI for the PDB and some of the most frequently used proteomes are available for large-scale analysis and future development. This article was reviewed by Frank Eisenhaber and Zoltán Gáspári.

  5. The rating reliability calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon David J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program.

  6. Caffeine improves anticipatory processes in task switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieges, Zoe; Snel, Jan; Kok, Albert; Wijnen, Jasper G.; Lorist, Monicque M.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    We studied the effects of moderate amounts of caffeine on task switching and task maintenance using mixed-task (AABB) blocks, in which participants alternated predictably between two tasks, and single-task (AAAA, BBBB) blocks. Switch costs refer to longer reaction times (RT) on task switch trials

  7. Cognitive impairments of aphasics in picture sorting and matching tasks. (United States)

    Cohen, R; Glöckner-Rist, A; Lutz, M; Maier, T; Meier, E


    On the basis of earlier experiments showing a differential deficit of aphasics in picture sorting and matching tasks, two experiments were conducted to test the conjecture of a specific deficit of aphasics in the analytical appraisal of individual features. Broca's and Wernicke's aphasics--according to clinical diagnoses and the Aachener Aphasie Test--were compared with patients having right-hemisphere lesions or left-hemisphere lesions without aphasia. Both groups of aphasics differed from the control groups in the sorting task, irrespective of the sorting criterion, but the differences were small. The picture matching task did not discriminate between groups. Obviously, the basic assumption has to be modified with respect to specific conditions of task requirements. The experimental literature is reviewed.

  8. EFFORTS Sub-task report on task 4.1: Experimental Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Bay, Niels


    Task 4.1 is a sub-task of task 4: Physical modelling validation. In sub-task 4.1 the existing experimental techniques has been conditioned to the tasks ahead in physical modelling.......Task 4.1 is a sub-task of task 4: Physical modelling validation. In sub-task 4.1 the existing experimental techniques has been conditioned to the tasks ahead in physical modelling....

  9. Aging and the vulnerability of speech to dual task demands. (United States)

    Kemper, Susan; Schmalzried, RaLynn; Hoffman, Lesa; Herman, Ruth


    Tracking a digital pursuit rotor task was used to measure dual task costs of language production by young and older adults. Tracking performance by both groups was affected by dual task demands: time on target declined and tracking error increased as dual task demands increased from the baseline condition to a moderately demanding dual task condition to a more demanding dual task condition. When dual task demands were moderate, older adults' speech rate declined but their fluency, grammatical complexity, and content were unaffected. When the dual task was more demanding, older adults' speech, like young adults' speech, became highly fragmented, ungrammatical, and incoherent. Vocabulary, working memory, processing speed, and inhibition affected vulnerability to dual task costs: vocabulary provided some protection for sentence length and grammaticality, working memory conferred some protection for grammatical complexity, and processing speed provided some protection for speech rate, propositional density, coherence, and lexical diversity. Further, vocabulary and working memory capacity provided more protection for older adults than for young adults although the protective effect of processing speed was somewhat reduced for older adults as compared to the young adults. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Group morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    In its original form, mathematical morphology is a theory of binary image transformations which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This paper surveys and extends constructions of morphological operators which are invariant under a more general group TT, such as the motion

  11. Effect of repeated restraint stress on memory in different tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.D. Gamaro


    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of repeated stress applied to female rats on memory evaluated by three behavioral tasks: two-way shuttle avoidance, inhibitory avoidance and habituation to an open field. Repeated stress had different effects on rat behavior when different tasks were considered. In the two-way active avoidance test the stressed animals presented memory of the task, but their memory scores were impaired when compared to all other groups. In the habituation to the open field, only the control group showed a significant difference in the number of rearings between training and testing sessions, which is interpreted as an adequate memory of the task. In the handled and chronically stressed animals, on the other hand, no memory was observed, suggesting that even a very mild repeated stress would be enough to alter habituation to this task. The performance in the inhibitory avoidance task presented no significant differences between groups. The findings suggest that repeated restraint stress might induce cognitive impairments that are dependent on the task and on stress intensity.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 3, 2004 ... linear regression analyses using SPSS (VER 10.0). To assess the degree of agreement ... Summary of Cholesterol, TG's, HDL-C and LDL-C; and correlation between calculated and direct. LDC-C among the groups(a) .... associated with hyperlipidaemia, including diabetes mellitus, nephrotic syndrome and ...

  13. Evolution of Self-Organized Task Specialization in Robot Swarms (United States)

    Ferrante, Eliseo; Turgut, Ali Emre; Duéñez-Guzmán, Edgar; Dorigo, Marco; Wenseleers, Tom


    Division of labor is ubiquitous in biological systems, as evidenced by various forms of complex task specialization observed in both animal societies and multicellular organisms. Although clearly adaptive, the way in which division of labor first evolved remains enigmatic, as it requires the simultaneous co-occurrence of several complex traits to achieve the required degree of coordination. Recently, evolutionary swarm robotics has emerged as an excellent test bed to study the evolution of coordinated group-level behavior. Here we use this framework for the first time to study the evolutionary origin of behavioral task specialization among groups of identical robots. The scenario we study involves an advanced form of division of labor, common in insect societies and known as “task partitioning”, whereby two sets of tasks have to be carried out in sequence by different individuals. Our results show that task partitioning is favored whenever the environment has features that, when exploited, reduce switching costs and increase the net efficiency of the group, and that an optimal mix of task specialists is achieved most readily when the behavioral repertoires aimed at carrying out the different subtasks are available as pre-adapted building blocks. Nevertheless, we also show for the first time that self-organized task specialization could be evolved entirely from scratch, starting only from basic, low-level behavioral primitives, using a nature-inspired evolutionary method known as Grammatical Evolution. Remarkably, division of labor was achieved merely by selecting on overall group performance, and without providing any prior information on how the global object retrieval task was best divided into smaller subtasks. We discuss the potential of our method for engineering adaptively behaving robot swarms and interpret our results in relation to the likely path that nature took to evolve complex sociality and task specialization. PMID:26247819

  14. Point Defect Calculations in Tungsten

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Danilowicz, Ronald


    .... The vacancy migration energy for tungsten was calculated. The calculated value of 1.73 electron volts, together with experimental data, suggests that vacancies migrate in stage III recovery in tungsten...

  15. Research on air and missile defense task allocation based on extended contract net protocol (United States)

    Zhang, Yunzhi; Wang, Gang


    Based on the background of air and missile defense distributed element corporative engagement, the interception task allocation problem of multiple weapon units with multiple targets under network condition is analyzed. Firstly, a mathematical model of task allocation is established by combat task decomposition. Secondly, the initialization assignment based on auction contract and the adjustment allocation scheme based on swap contract were introduced to the task allocation. Finally, through the simulation calculation of typical situation, the model can be used to solve the task allocation problem in complex combat environment.

  16. Computer-Related Task Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longstreet, Phil; Xiao, Xiao; Sarker, Saonee


    The existing information system (IS) literature has acknowledged computer self-efficacy (CSE) as an important factor contributing to enhancements in computer-related task performance. However, the empirical results of CSE on performance have not always been consistent, and increasing an individual......'s CSE is often a cumbersome process. Thus, we introduce the theoretical concept of self-prophecy (SP) and examine how this social influence strategy can be used to improve computer-related task performance. Two experiments are conducted to examine the influence of SP on task performance. Results show...

  17. Status in Groups: The Importance of Motivation. (United States)

    Ridgeway, Cecilia L.


    An experiment with mixed and same sex groups provided evidence that perceived motivation towards the group determines members' attained influence and status in task-oriented groups. While group-oriented members are generally more influential than self-oriented ones, the degree of motivation's effect depends on the member's external status…

  18. Groups and symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, David W


    In most mathematics textbooks, the most exciting part of mathematics-the process of invention and discovery-is completely hidden from the reader. The aim of Groups and Symmetry is to change all that. By means of a series of carefully selected tasks, this book leads readers to discover some real mathematics. There are no formulas to memorize; no procedures to follow. The book is a guide: Its job is to start you in the right direction and to bring you back if you stray too far. Discovery is left to you. Suitable for a one-semester course at the beginning undergraduate level, there are no prerequ

  19. Group Grammar (United States)

    Adams, Karen


    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  20. Algebraic Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    -theorists, and to stimulate contacts between participants. Each of the first four days was dedicated to one area of research that has recently seen decisive progress: \\begin{itemize} \\item structure and classification of wonderful varieties, \\item finite reductive groups and character sheaves, \\item quantum cohomology......The workshop continued a series of Oberwolfach meetings on algebraic groups, started in 1971 by Tonny Springer and Jacques Tits who both attended the present conference. This time, the organizers were Michel Brion, Jens Carsten Jantzen, and Raphaël Rouquier. During the last years, the subject...... of algebraic groups (in a broad sense) has seen important developments in several directions, also related to representation theory and algebraic geometry. The workshop aimed at presenting some of these developments in order to make them accessible to a "general audience" of algebraic group...

  1. Group theory

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, W R


    Here is a clear, well-organized coverage of the most standard theorems, including isomorphism theorems, transformations and subgroups, direct sums, abelian groups, and more. This undergraduate-level text features more than 500 exercises.

  2. Employee involvement, technology and job tasks


    Green, Francis


    Using new job requirements data for Britain I show that there has been a rise in various forms of communication tasks: influencing and literacy tasks have grown especially fast, as have self-planning tasks. External communication tasks, and numerical tasks have also become more important, but physical tasks have largely remained unchanged. Although the classification of tasks as programmable or otherwise is found to be problematic, computer use accounts for much of the changed use of generic ...

  3. Drug and alcohol task force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordey, T. [ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Sunstrum, M. [Enform, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    Worker absenteeism due to substance abuse costs the Alberta economy approximately $720 million a year. It is estimated that 20 per cent of all drivers in fatal crashes were using alcohol, and the use of cannabis and cocaine in Alberta has more than doubled over the last 15 years. In addition, 1 in 10 Alberta workers have reported using alcohol while at work and 4 per cent have reported using alcohol 4 hours prior to coming to work during the previous 12 months. In an effort to ensure appropriate health and safety for workers in the Canadian petroleum industry, 6 trade associations in the sector have joined together as the Enform Alcohol and Drug Initiative and are now working to develop a common approach to drug and alcohol guidelines and workplace rules. The task group will determine if existing policies and guidelines are sufficient to ensure a safe workplace and will consider standardizing the testing, application and rehabilitation of workers with respect to the use of drugs and alcohol. In the past, disciplinary actions have often been reversed because employers have not been consistent or did not follow established alcohol and drug policies or test to specific standards. Various work rules for inappropriate alcohol and drug use were reviewed, as well as education and communication strategies regarding policy content. Standards for testing criteria were discussed, as well as issues concerning duty-to-accommodate circumstances. An excerpt of concentration standards was presented. It was concluded that a matrix for companies to assess and determine safety sensitive positions is needed. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. Task Management in the New ATLAS Production System

    CERN Document Server

    De, K; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, A; Potekhin, M; Vaniachine, A


    The ATLAS Production System is the top level workflow manager which translates physicists' needs for production level processing into actual workflows executed across about a hundred processing sites used globally by ATLAS. As the production workload increased in volume and complexity in recent years (the ATLAS production tasks count is above one million, with each task containing hundreds or thousands of jobs) there is a need to upgrade the Production System to meet the challenging requirements of the next LHC run while minimizing the operating costs. Providing a front-end and a management layer for petascale data processing and analysis, the new Production System contains generic subsystems that can be used in a wider range of applications. The main subsystems are the Database Engine for Tasks (DEFT) and the Job Execution and Definition Interface (JEDI). Based on users' requests, the DEFT subsystem manages inter-dependent groups of tasks (Meta-Tasks) and generates corresponding data processing workflows. Th...

  5. Task Management in the New ATLAS Production System

    CERN Document Server

    De, K; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, A; Potekhin, M; Vaniachine, A


    The ATLAS Production System is the top level workflow manager which translates physicists' needs for production level processing into actual workflows executed across about a hundred processing sites used globally by ATLAS. As the production workload increased in volume and complexity in recent years (the ATLAS production tasks count is above one million, with each task containing hundreds or thousands of jobs) there is a need to upgrade the Production System to meet the challenging requirements of the next LHC run while minimizing the operating costs. Providing a front-end and a management layer for petascale data processing and analysis, the new Production System contains generic subsystems that can be used in a wider range of applications. The main subsystems are the Database Engine for Tasks (DEFT) and the Job Execution and Definition Interface (JEDI). Based on users' requests, the DEFT subsystem manages inter-dependent groups of tasks (Meta-Tasks) and generates corresponding data processing workflows. Th...

  6. Age-related differences in multiple task monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Todorov

    Full Text Available Coordinating multiple tasks with narrow deadlines is particularly challenging for older adults because of age related decline in cognitive control functions. We tested the hypothesis that multiple task performance reflects age- and gender-related differences in executive functioning and spatial ability. Young and older adults completed a multitasking session with four monitoring tasks as well as separate tasks measuring executive functioning and spatial ability. For both age groups, men exceeded women in multitasking, measured as monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of young adults' monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability was related to sex differences. For older adults, age and executive functioning, but not spatial ability, predicted multitasking performance. These results suggest that executive functions contribute to multiple task performance across the adult life span and that reliance on spatial skills for coordinating deadlines is modulated by age.

  7. Group Work. (United States)

    Wilson, Kristy J; Brickman, Peggy; Brame, Cynthia J


    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics faculty are increasingly incorporating both formal and informal group work in their courses. Implementing group work can be improved by an understanding of the extensive body of educational research studies on this topic. This essay describes an online, evidence-based teaching guide published by CBE-Life Sciences Education ( LSE ). The guide provides a tour of research studies and resources related to group work (including many articles from LSE ). Instructors who are new to group work, as well as instructors who have experienced difficulties in implementing group work, may value the condensed summaries of key research findings. These summaries are organized by teaching challenges, and actionable advice is provided in a checklist for instructors. Education researchers may value the inclusion of empirical studies, key reviews, and meta-analyses of group-work studies. In addition to describing key features of the guide, this essay also identifies areas in which further empirical studies are warranted. © 2018 K. J. Wilson et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2018 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (

  8. Abelian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, László


    Written by one of the subject’s foremost experts, this book focuses on the central developments and modern methods of the advanced theory of abelian groups, while remaining accessible, as an introduction and reference, to the non-specialist. It provides a coherent source for results scattered throughout the research literature with lots of new proofs. The presentation highlights major trends that have radically changed the modern character of the subject, in particular, the use of homological methods in the structure theory of various classes of abelian groups, and the use of advanced set-theoretical methods in the study of undecidability problems. The treatment of the latter trend includes Shelah’s seminal work on the undecidability in ZFC of Whitehead’s Problem; while the treatment of the former trend includes an extensive (but non-exhaustive) study of p-groups, torsion-free groups, mixed groups, and important classes of groups arising from ring theory. To prepare the reader to tackle these topics, th...

  9. Naval Postgraduate School Support Task

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    The purpose of this task was to provide lecturing and curriculum development support, as needed, to the Naval Postgraduate School's Physics Department/Weapons Curriculum in the area of High Energy Laser systems...

  10. Alteration of time perception in young and elderly people during jigsaw puzzle tasks with different complexities. (United States)

    Iwamoto, Yuko; Hoshiyama, Minoru


    We investigated the relationship between time perception during tasks and subjective feelings in young and elderly people. Simple and complex jigsaw puzzles were given to healthy young and elderly subjects. The subjects were asked to estimate the time they had taken to complete the tasks after performing them. The ratio of the subjective to actual duration of time, the duration judgment ratio (DJR), and the relationship between the DJR and the subjective feelings during the tasks were analysed. The elderly group required a significantly longer time than the younger group for both tasks, and both elderly and young subjects estimated a longer time than the actual time to complete the tasks. The effect of the tasks on the DJR was significant, and the value was higher for the 24-piece than 54-piece task in both groups. The DJR was smaller in subjects with "much interest" than in those with "little interest" in the 24-piece task, but there was no difference in the 54-piece task. The results indicate that time perception was modulated by subjective feelings during the task, as well as by the age and task complexity. Because the goal and the result of the task may modulate time perception during it, time perception while actually performing the task may differ from that after completing it. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. University Students' Emotion During Online Search Task: A Multiple Achievement Goal Perspective. (United States)

    Zhou, Mingming


    Endorsing a multiple goal perspective, students' academic emotions were examined with different goal profiles while solving learning tasks online. One hundred and seven Chinese undergraduates were classified based on the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework into three groups: Mastery-approach-focused, Approach-oriented, and Avoidance-oriented group. Participants' emotional states were assessed immediately prior to the task and following the task. Prior to the task, the Avoidance-oriented group reported significantly higher levels of deactivated negative emotion (i.e., bored and confused) than the Approach-oriented group. The Mastery-approach-focused group reported significantly higher levels of activated positive emotions (i.e., excited and eager) than the Avoidance-oriented group after the task. Within each group, all three groups followed a similar emotion change pattern prior versus after the search task in deactivated positive emotion, with a significant increase. In addition, the Mastery-approach-focused group also reported a significantly higher level of happiness after completing the task, whereas the other two groups did not report much change. The Avoidance-oriented group also reported a significant drop in the feeling of excitement, eagerness, anxiety, and nervousness; whereas, the Approach-oriented group reported a significantly higher level of confusion after the task was finished. Implications of the findings are further discussed.

  12. DECOVALEX ll PROJECT. Technical Report Task 1C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, L.; Stephansson, O. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Knight, L.J. [United Kingdom Nirex Ltd., Harwell (United Kingdom); Kautsky, F. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Tsang, C-F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Science Division


    The DECOVALEX II project is an international co-operative research project supported by eleven funding organizations from seven countries. The project studied four tasks: Task 1: numerical simulation of the RCF3 pump test at Sellafield, UK; Task 2: numerical simulation if the in situ T-H-M experiment at Kamaishi Mine, Japan; Task 3: monitoring of current development in rock fracture research; and Task 4: report on treatment of T-H-M processes in Performance Assessment works for nuclear waste repositories. The project started in 1995 and is scheduled to be finalised in June 1999. This report concerns the Task 1 of the DECOVALEX 11 project. Task 1 consists of three subtasks: i) Task 1 A - the blind numerical prediction to the hydraulic response of the rock mass of the in-situ RCF3 pump test in the Borrowdale Volcanic Group (BVG) at Sellafield, UK; ii) Task 1B -calibration of the numerical models of Task 1A against measured results of the RCF3 pump test; iii) Task 1C - the numerical predictions of the hydro-mechanical effects of the BVG rock mass to the excavation of a shaft along the axis of the RCF3 borehole, without actual excavation of the shaft and associated experiments and measurements. The aim of the subtasks 1 (A+B) was to characterise the hydro-mechanical property field of the fractured rock mass at the RCF3 test site, which could then be used to predict the hydro-mechanical responses of the rock mass to the excavation of a shaft centred on the RCF3 borehole. Task 1C involves a numerical simulation of an assumed excavation of a single shaft on the line of the RCF3 borehole used for Task 1 (A+B). The subtask is basically a generic prediction, with realistic site geology and hydrogeology data but without feedback from an actual excavation of the shaft and associated measurements. A model calibration is not possible due to lack of measured results. On the other hand, some additional components were introduced into the subtask, such as studies of EDZ formation

  13. The modality effect of ego depletion: Auditory task modality reduces ego depletion. (United States)

    Li, Qiong; Wang, Zhenhong


    An initial act of self-control that impairs subsequent acts of self-control is called ego depletion. The ego depletion phenomenon has been observed consistently. The modality effect refers to the effect of the presentation modality on the processing of stimuli. The modality effect was also robustly found in a large body of research. However, no study to date has examined the modality effects of ego depletion. This issue was addressed in the current study. In Experiment 1, after all participants completed a handgrip task, one group's participants completed a visual attention regulation task and the other group's participants completed an auditory attention regulation task, and then all participants again completed a handgrip task. The ego depletion phenomenon was observed in both the visual and the auditory attention regulation task. Moreover, participants who completed the visual task performed worse on the handgrip task than participants who completed the auditory task, which indicated that there was high ego depletion in the visual task condition. In Experiment 2, participants completed an initial task that either did or did not deplete self-control resources, and then they completed a second visual or auditory attention control task. The results indicated that depleted participants performed better on the auditory attention control task than the visual attention control task. These findings suggest that altering task modality may reduce ego depletion. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Neural correlates of arithmetic calculation strategies. (United States)

    Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Lovett, Marsha C; Anderson, John R


    Recent research into math cognition has identified areas of the brain that are involved in number processing (Dehaene, Piazza, Pinel, & Cohen, 2003) and complex problem solving (Anderson, 2007). Much of this research assumes that participants use a single strategy; yet, behavioral research finds that people use a variety of strategies (LeFevre et al., 1996; Siegler, 1987; Siegler & Lemaire, 1997). In the present study, we examined cortical activation as a function of two different calculation strategies for mentally solving multidigit multiplication problems. The school strategy, equivalent to long multiplication, involves working from right to left. The expert strategy, used by "lightning" mental calculators (Staszewski, 1988), proceeds from left to right. The two strategies require essentially the same calculations, but have different working memory demands (the school strategy incurs greater demands). The school strategy produced significantly greater early activity in areas involved in attentional aspects of number processing (posterior superior parietal lobule, PSPL) and mental representation (posterior parietal cortex, PPC), but not in a numerical magnitude area (horizontal intraparietal sulcus, HIPS) or a semantic memory retrieval area (lateral inferior prefrontal cortex, LIPFC). An ACT-R model of the task successfully predicted BOLD responses in PPC and LIPFC, as well as in PSPL and HIPS.

  15. Annual Progress report - General Task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesnousky, S.G.


    This report provides a summary of progress for the project {open_quotes}Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI).{close_quotes} A similar report was previously provided for the period of 1 October 1991 to 30 September 1992. The report initially covers the activities of the General Task and is followed by sections that describe the progress of the other ongoing tasks.

  16. Task experience influences coordinative structures and performance variables in learning a slalom ski-simulator task. (United States)

    Dutt-Mazumder, A; Newell, K M


    The experiment investigated the progressions of the qualitative and quantitative changes in the movement dynamics of learning the ski-simulator as a function of prior-related task experience. The focus was the differential timescales of change in the candidate collective variable, neuromuscular synergies, joint motions, and task outcome as a function of learning over 7 days of practice. Half of the novice participants revealed in day 1 a transition of in-phase to anti-phase coupling of center of mass (CoM)-platform motion whereas the remaining novices and experienced group all produced on the first trial an anti-phase CoM-platform coupling. The experienced group also had initially greater amplitude and velocity of platform motion-a performance advantage over the novice group that was reduced but not eliminated with 7 days of practice. The novice participants who had an in-phase CoM-platform coupling on the initial trials of day 1 also showed the most restricted platform motion in those trials. Prior-related practice experience differentially influenced the learning of the task as evidenced by both the qualitative organization and the quantitative motion properties of the individual degrees of freedom (dof) to meet the task demands. The findings provide further evidence to the proposition that CoM-platform coupling is a candidate collective variable in the ski-simulator task that provides organization and boundary conditions to the motions of the individual joint dof and their couplings. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A simplified analytical dose calculation algorithm accounting for tissue heterogeneity for low-energy brachytherapy sources (United States)

    Mashouf, Shahram; Lechtman, Eli; Beaulieu, Luc; Verhaegen, Frank; Keller, Brian M.; Ravi, Ananth; Pignol, Jean-Philippe


    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group No. 43 (AAPM TG-43) formalism is the standard for seeds brachytherapy dose calculation. But for breast seed implants, Monte Carlo simulations reveal large errors due to tissue heterogeneity. Since TG-43 includes several factors to account for source geometry, anisotropy and strength, we propose an additional correction factor, called the inhomogeneity correction factor (ICF), accounting for tissue heterogeneity for Pd-103 brachytherapy. This correction factor is calculated as a function of the media linear attenuation coefficient and mass energy absorption coefficient, and it is independent of the source internal structure. Ultimately the dose in heterogeneous media can be calculated as a product of dose in water as calculated by TG-43 protocol times the ICF. To validate the ICF methodology, dose absorbed in spherical phantoms with large tissue heterogeneities was compared using the TG-43 formalism corrected for heterogeneity versus Monte Carlo simulations. The agreement between Monte Carlo simulations and the ICF method remained within 5% in soft tissues up to several centimeters from a Pd-103 source. Compared to Monte Carlo, the ICF methods can easily be integrated into a clinical treatment planning system and it does not require the detailed internal structure of the source or the photon phase-space.

  18. Theory of Mind in Williams Syndrome Assessed Using a Nonverbal Task (United States)

    Porter, Melanie A.; Coltheart, Max; Langdon, Robyn


    This study examined Theory of Mind in Williams syndrome (WS) and in normal chronological age-matched and mental age-matched control groups, using a picture sequencing task. This task assesses understanding of pretence, intention and false belief, while controlling for social-script knowledge and physical cause-and-effect reasoning. The task was…

  19. A task dependent change in the medium latency component of the soleus stretch reflex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Michael James; Larsen, Birgit; Sinkjær, Thomas


    In comparison to the H-reflex, the task dependency of the human stretch reflex during locomotive and postural tasks has not received a great deal of attention in the literature. The few studies on reflex task dependency that have been performed to date have concentrated on either the group Ia...

  20. Cortical representation of facial and tongue movements: a task functional magnetic resonance imaging study. (United States)

    Xiao, Fu-Long; Gao, Pei-Yi; Qian, Tian-Yi; Sui, Bin-Bin; Xue, Jing; Zhou, Jian; Lin, Yan


    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) mapping can present the activated cortical area during movement, while little is known about precise location in facial and tongue movements. To investigate the representation of facial and tongue movements by task fMRI. Twenty right-handed healthy subjects were underwent block design task fMRI examination. Task movements included lip pursing, cheek bulging, grinning and vertical tongue excursion. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM8) was applied to analysis the data. One-sample t-test was used to calculate the common activation area between facial and tongue movements. Also, paired t-test was used to test for areas of over- or underactivation in tongue movement compared with each group of facial movements. The common areas within facial and tongue movements suggested the similar motor circuits of activation in both movements. Prior activation in tongue movement was situated laterally and inferiorly in sensorimotor area relative to facial movements. Prior activation of tongue movement was investigated in left superior parietal lobe relative to lip pursing. Also, prior activation in bilateral cuneus lobe in grinning compared with tongue movement was detected. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.