WorldWideScience

Sample records for calculational task group

  1. The work of the ICRP dose calculational task group: Issues in implementation of the ICRP dosimetric methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckerman, K.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has had efforts underway to provide the radiation protection community with age-dependent dose coefficients, i.e.g, the dose per unit intake. The Task Group on Dose Calculations, chaired by the author, is responsible for the computation of these coefficients. The Task Group, formed in 1974 to produce ICRP Publication 30, is now international in its membership and its work load has been distributed among the institutions represented on the task group. This paper discusses: (1) recent advances in biokinetic modeling; (2) the recent changes in the dosimetric methodology; (3) the novel computational problems with some of the ICRP quantities; and (4) quality assurance issues which the Task Group has encountered. Potential future developments of the dosimetric framework which might strengthen the relationships with the emerging understanding of radiation risk will also be discussed.

  2. Monitor unit calculations for external photon and electron beams: Report of the AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group No. 71

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A protocol is presented for the calculation of monitor units (MU) for photon and electron beams, delivered with and without beam modifiers, for constant source-surface distance (SSD) and source-axis distance (SAD) setups. This protocol was written by Task Group 71 of the Therapy Physics Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and has been formally approved by the AAPM for clinical use. The protocol defines the nomenclature for the dosimetric quantities used in these calculations, along with instructions for their determination and measurement. Calculations are made using the dose per MU under normalization conditions, D0′, that is determined for each user's photon and electron beams. For electron beams, the depth of normalization is taken to be the depth of maximum dose along the central axis for the same field incident on a water phantom at the same SSD, where D0′ = 1 cGy/MU. For photon beams, this task group recommends that a normalization depth of 10 cm be selected, where an energy-dependent D0′ ≤ 1 cGy/MU is required. This recommendation differs from the more common approach of a normalization depth of dm, with D0′ = 1 cGy/MU, although both systems are acceptable within the current protocol. For photon beams, the formalism includes the use of blocked fields, physical or dynamic wedges, and (static) multileaf collimation. No formalism is provided for intensity modulated radiation therapy calculations, although some general considerations and a review of current calculation techniques are included. For electron beams, the formalism provides for calculations at the standard and extended SSDs using either an effective SSD or an air-gap correction factor. Example tables and problems are included to illustrate the basic concepts within the presented formalism

  3. Monitor unit calculations for external photon and electron beams: Report of the AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group No. 71

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, John P., E-mail: john.gibbons@marybird.com [Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70809 (United States); Antolak, John A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Followill, David S. [Department of Radiation Physics, UT M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Huq, M. Saiful [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232 (United States); Klein, Eric E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Lam, Kwok L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Palta, Jatinder R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Roback, Donald M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Centers of North Carolina, Raleigh, North Carolina 27607 (United States); Reid, Mark [Department of Medical Physics, Fletcher-Allen Health Care, Burlington, Vermont 05401 (United States); Khan, Faiz M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    A protocol is presented for the calculation of monitor units (MU) for photon and electron beams, delivered with and without beam modifiers, for constant source-surface distance (SSD) and source-axis distance (SAD) setups. This protocol was written by Task Group 71 of the Therapy Physics Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and has been formally approved by the AAPM for clinical use. The protocol defines the nomenclature for the dosimetric quantities used in these calculations, along with instructions for their determination and measurement. Calculations are made using the dose per MU under normalization conditions, D{sub 0}{sup ′}, that is determined for each user's photon and electron beams. For electron beams, the depth of normalization is taken to be the depth of maximum dose along the central axis for the same field incident on a water phantom at the same SSD, where D{sub 0}{sup ′} = 1 cGy/MU. For photon beams, this task group recommends that a normalization depth of 10 cm be selected, where an energy-dependent D{sub 0}{sup ′} ≤ 1 cGy/MU is required. This recommendation differs from the more common approach of a normalization depth of d{sub m}, with D{sub 0}{sup ′} = 1 cGy/MU, although both systems are acceptable within the current protocol. For photon beams, the formalism includes the use of blocked fields, physical or dynamic wedges, and (static) multileaf collimation. No formalism is provided for intensity modulated radiation therapy calculations, although some general considerations and a review of current calculation techniques are included. For electron beams, the formalism provides for calculations at the standard and extended SSDs using either an effective SSD or an air-gap correction factor. Example tables and problems are included to illustrate the basic concepts within the presented formalism.

  4. Gender, Group Composition, and Task Type in Small Task Groups Using Computer-Mediated Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savicki, Victor; And Others

    1996-01-01

    To investigate gender effects on computer-mediated communication, undergraduate psychology students were put in small groups (males, females, or mixed) and were assigned feminine content (decision making) and masculine content (intellective) task types. Groups of females, regardless of task, sent more words per e-mail message, were more satisfied…

  5. Grouping of Tasks for Cooperative Product Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Murayama

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A lot of members from various disciplines are involved in the development of complex products, and this brings about large-scale, complicated cooperation among them. Such cooperation causes the following problems: • the time consumption for achieving a consensus among them increases; and • the management of product development becomes difficult. In order to develop the products efficiently, this paper proposes a method for dividing the product development activity into several work groups on an appropriate scale, in each of which some of the members can cooperate with each other without the problems mentioned above. In this method, the product development activity is represented by a directed graph, each of which nodes expresses a task and each of which arcs expresses the flow of data/information between the tasks. ISM (Interpretive Structural Modeling identifies strongly connected sub-graphs, in each of which the members should cooperate with each other. However, if a strongly connected sub-graph is large, the problems mentioned above still exist. In this case, we use Bottleneck Method to divide the sub-graph into several smaller sub-graphs, each of which corresponds to a work group. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by showing an example of constructing the work groups.

  6. Task reports of INFCE Working Group 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Task 1 Report summarizes on a country-by-country basis the data supplied by the participating states related to nuclear power forecast, spent fuel generation, AR storage capacity, AFR storage capacity, AFR storage and transport systems. Task Reports 2-5 analyse the spent fuel storage and transport situation according to reactor types. Information on the technical description of spent fuel existing storage and transport techniques and techniques under development and on costs is given. Task 6 summarizes the present legal framework for spent fuel management related to licensing, safety, environmental and physical protection, accounting and control of nuclear material by states, non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, assurances for national access to nuclear material contained in spent fuel, and protection of technology. The institutional practice for spent fuel storage and transport is described. For the period up to the year 2025 a prognosis and recommendations related to legal framework and institutional models are given. The special needs of developing countries and industrialized countries with a limited nuclear power programme with respect to spent fuel management are analysed in Task Reports 7 and 8

  7. Group Motivation and Group Task Performance: The Expectancy-Valence Theory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Masayuki

    1988-01-01

    Investigated effects of group motivation on group task performance. Created two levels of valence, expectancy and instrumentality. Valence variable reflected on group productivity on unstructured and task persistence measures. Expectancy variable's effect was on task persistence measure. Instrumentality affected group productivity on structured…

  8. The Emergence of Individual and Collective Leadership in Task Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paunova, Minna

    2015-01-01

    This review synthesizes conceptual and empirical research on the emergence of individual and collective leadership in task groups, and proposes avenues for leadership research. To advance multilevel study of leadership emergence, including emergence of distributed and shared leadership, the paper...... leader emergence in task groups as influenced by individual traits, states, and behaviors. However, current approaches to leadership in groups rely on functional achievement explanations of how collective leadership emerges, influenced by positive states and behaviors. Attention to ascription...

  9. ERP measures of math anxiety: how math anxiety affects working memory and mental calculation tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klados, Manousos A; Simos, Panagiotis; Micheloyannis, Sifis; Margulies, Daniel; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2015-01-01

    There have been several attempts to account for the impact of Mathematical Anxiety (MA) on brain activity with variable results. The present study examines the effects of MA on ERP amplitude during performance of simple arithmetic calculations and working memory tasks. Data were obtained from 32 university students as they solved four types of arithmetic problems (one- and two-digit addition and multiplication) and a working memory task comprised of three levels of difficulty (1, 2, and 3-back task). Compared to the Low-MA group, High-MA individuals demonstrated reduced ERP amplitude at frontocentral (between 180-320 ms) and centroparietal locations (between 380-420 ms). These effects were independent of task difficulty/complexity, individual performance, and general state/trait anxiety levels. Results support the hypothesis that higher levels of self-reported MA are associated with lower cortical activation during the early stages of the processing of numeric stimuli in the context of cognitive tasks.

  10. Group Activities in Task-based Communicative Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓一琳; 王宇澄

    2005-01-01

    In a task-based communicative classroom, group activities are effective ways to devdop students' 4 basic language skills. However, not all group activities can reach the expected results. English teachers should pay attention to some aspects in organizing a classroom group activity.

  11. The Decision-Making Process of a Small Task Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, Joan C.

    1985-01-01

    This article focuses on the following areas of group process: the nature of the task group, the steps taken to reach a decision, and the ways in which a leader can effectively manage the inevitable conflict that emerges within groups as the problem-solving process progresses. (CT)

  12. The work of the ICRP task group on internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last few years the task group of committee 2 of ICRP on internal dosimetry (INDOS), in conjunction with the task group on dose calculations (DOCAL), has prepared a series of publications that have given dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides by infants, children and adults. Most recently Publication 88 has been issued that gives doses to the embryo, fetus and newborn child from intakes of radionuclides by the mother. A document is presently being completed that will give doses to the child from intakes of radionuclides in mothers' milk (Publication 94). This document, to be published early in 2005, will complete the programme of work of committee 2 on dose coefficients for members of the public. The emphasis of work on internal dosimetry by Committee 2 has turned to occupational exposure. A comprehensive revision of advice on dose assessment and monitoring for occupational intakes of radionuclides is being prepared by INDOS and DOCAL. It is intended to replace Publications 30, 54, 68 and 78 by a series of publications that will cover both dosimetry and bioassay interpretation. The first report will cover radionuclides of the 31 elements covered in the series of publications on dose coefficients for members of the public. Subsequent publications will cover additional elements. This series of publications will be accompanied by a supporting Guidance Document that will give more comprehensive advice on the interpretation of bioassay data. The development of this document will draw from work carried out in an EC supported program, IDEAS that has examined how to improve the assessment of bioassay data. (orig.)

  13. Minimal Groups Increase Young Children's Motivation and Learning on Group-Relevant Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Allison; Walton, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments ("N" = 130) used a minimal group manipulation to show that just perceived membership in a social group boosts young children's motivation for and learning from group-relevant tasks. In Experiment 1, 4-year-old children assigned to a minimal "puzzles group" persisted longer on a challenging puzzle than children identified as the…

  14. ERP measures of math anxiety: how math anxiety affects working memory and mental calculation tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klados, Manousos A; Simos, Panagiotis; Micheloyannis, Sifis; Margulies, Daniel; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2015-01-01

    There have been several attempts to account for the impact of Mathematical Anxiety (MA) on brain activity with variable results. The present study examines the effects of MA on ERP amplitude during performance of simple arithmetic calculations and working memory tasks. Data were obtained from 32 university students as they solved four types of arithmetic problems (one- and two-digit addition and multiplication) and a working memory task comprised of three levels of difficulty (1, 2, and 3-back task). Compared to the Low-MA group, High-MA individuals demonstrated reduced ERP amplitude at frontocentral (between 180-320 ms) and centroparietal locations (between 380-420 ms). These effects were independent of task difficulty/complexity, individual performance, and general state/trait anxiety levels. Results support the hypothesis that higher levels of self-reported MA are associated with lower cortical activation during the early stages of the processing of numeric stimuli in the context of cognitive tasks. PMID:26578912

  15. ERP Measures of Math Anxiety: How Math Anxiety Affects Working Memory and Mental Calculation Tasks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manousos A. Klados

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There have been several attempts to account for the impact of Mathematical Anxiety (MA on brain activity with variable results. The present study examines the effects of MA on ERP amplitude during performance of simple arithmetic calculations and working memory tasks. Data were obtained from 32 university students as they solved four types of arithmetic problems (one- and two-digit addition and multiplication and a working memory task comprised of three levels of difficulty (1,2,and 3-back task. Compared to the Low-MA group, High-MA individuals demonstrated reduced ERP amplitude at frontocentral (between 180-320 ms and centroparietal locations (between 380-420 ms. These effects were independent of task difficulty/complexity, individual performance, and general state/trait anxiety levels. Results support the hypothesis that higher levels of self-reported MA are associated with lower cortical activation during the early stages of the processing of numeric stimuli in the context of cognitive tasks.

  16. Task group to develop list of environmental standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new task group designed to develop a list of existing and potential standards that are applicable to environmental contamination problems in soil, rock, and groundwater has been established by the American Society for Testing a n d Materials (ASTM) Subcommittee on Geotechnics of Waste Management. The list currently includes over 60 existing and draft ASTM standards from ASTM committees in the areas of site characterization, construction evaluation, and geosynthetics.

  17. The IUGS/IAGC Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David B.Smith; Shaun Reeder; Alecos Demetriades

    2012-01-01

    The Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines,operating under the auspices of both the International Union of Geological Sciences(IUGS) and the International Association of Geochemistry(IAGC),has the long-term goal of establishing a global geochemical database to document the concentration and distribution of chemical elements in the Earth's surface or near-surface environment.The database and accompanying element distribution maps represent a geochemical baseline against which future human-induced or natural changes to the chemistry of the land surface may be recognized and quantified.In order to accomplish this long-term goal,the activities of the Task Group include:(1) developing partnerships with countries conducting broad-scale geochemical mapping studies;(2) providing consultation and training in the form of workshops and short courses;(3) organizing periodic international symposia to foster communication among the geochemical mapping community;(4) developing criteria for certifying those projects whose data are acceptable in a global geochemical database;(5) acting as a repository for data collected by those projects meeting the criteria for standardization;(6) preparing complete metadata for the certified projects;and(7) preparing,ultimately,a global geochemical database.This paper summarizes the history and accomplishments of the Task Group since its first predecessor project was established in 1988.

  18. The work of the task group of committee 2 of ICRP on age-dependent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the accident at Chernobyl and developing concern in regard to the consequences of discharging radionuclides into the environment has come increasing awareness of the need to assess radiation doses to all age groups in the population. In 1987, ICRP set up a Task Group of Committee 2 on Age-dependent Dosimetry with the responsibility for calculating internationally agreed dose coefficients for members of the public. This covered the calculation and ingestion, as well as doses to the embryo and fetus from intakes of radionuclides by the mother. This paper reviews the programme of work.(authors). 17 refs., 6 tabs

  19. Report of the Task Group on Behavioral Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objective of the Task Group on Behavioral Effects is to examine effects on the mental health of the public and the workers directly involved in the accident at TMI-2. Of particular interest are the behavioral response of the workers under stress during the accident, and the behavioral response of the population under stress during the accident. In examining effects on mental health, a distinction is to be made between short term and long term effects. Attention is also to be paid to the possible impact [on] the affected populations and workers of a variety of studies either under way or planned

  20. Ability of aphasic individuals to perform numerical processing and calculation tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela De Luccia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare performance on EC301 battery calculation task between aphasic subjects and normal controls of the same sex, age, and education. Method Thirty-two aphasic patients who had suffered a single left hemisphere stroke were evaluated. Forty-four healthy volunteers were also selected. All subjects underwent a comprehensive arithmetic battery to assess their numerical and calculation skills. Performances on numerical processing and calculation tasks were then analyzed. Results Aphasic individuals showed changes in their ability to perform numerical processing and calculation tasks that were not observed in the healthy population. Conclusion Compared with healthy subjects of the same age and education level, individuals with aphasia had difficulty performing various tasks that involved numerical processing and calculation.

  1. Steam Generator Group Project. Task 6. Channel head decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Steam Generator Group Project utilizes a retired-from-service pressurized-water-reactor steam generator as a test bed and source of specimens for research. An important preparatory step to primary side research activities was reduction of the radiation field in the steam generator channel head. This task report describes the channel head decontamination activities. Though not a programmatic research objective it was judged beneficial to explore the use of dilute reagent chemical decontamination techniques. These techniques presented potential for reduced personnel exposure and reduced secondary radwaste generation, over currently used abrasive blasting techniques. Two techniques with extensive laboratory research and vendors prepared to offer commercial application were tested, one on either side of the channel head. As indicated in the report, both techniques accomplished similar decontamination objectives. Neither technique damaged the generator channel head or tubing materials, as applied. This report provides details of the decontamination operations. Application system and operating conditions are described

  2. Effects of Training on Computer-Mediated Communication in Single or Mixed Gender Small Task Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savicki, Victor; Kelley, Merle; Ammon, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Investigates group gender composition and communication styles in small task groups involved in computer-mediated communication. Describes a study that tried to train small task groups in the use of one communication style and suggests further research in the area of communication training for online task groups. (Author/LRW)

  3. Exact renormalization group as a scheme for calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this lecture I report on recent work to use exact renormalization group methods to construct a scheme for calculations in quantum field theory and classical statistical mechanics on the continuum. (orig./HSI)

  4. Renormalization-group calculation of excitation properties for impurity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, M.; Whitaker, M. A.; Oliveira, L. N.

    1990-05-01

    The renormalization-group method developed by Wilson to calculate thermodynamical properties of dilute magnetic alloys is generalized to allow the calculation of dynamical properties of many-body impurity Hamiltonians. As a simple illustration, the impurity spectral density for the resonant-level model (i.e., the U=0 Anderson model) is computed. As a second illustration, for the same model, the longitudinal relaxation rate for a nuclear spin coupled to the impurity is calculated as a function of temperature.

  5. Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinz, R.M.; Mufson, S.L.; Musser, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C has been actively involved in the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso and the SSC experiment L during the current contract year. MACRO is a large US-Italian Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory being built under the Gran Sasso Mountain outside of Rome. Indiana University is in charge of organizing the United States software effort. We have built a state-of-the-art two-meter spectrophotometer for the MACRO liquid scintillator. We are in charge of ERP, the Event Reconstruction Processor online trigger processor for muons and stellar collapse. We are designing an air Cerenkov array to be placed on top of the Gran Sasso. Our other activity involves participation in the SSC experiment L. As long-standing members of L we have done proposal writing and have worked on important L planning and organization matters. We are now doing development work on the L Central Tracker straw drift tubes, including gas optimization, readout, and Monte Carlos. 12 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C has been actively involved in the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso and the SSC experiment L during the current contract year. MACRO is a large US-Italian Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory being built under the Gran Sasso Mountain outside of Rome. Indiana University is in charge of organizing the United States software effort. We have built a state-of-the-art two-meter spectrophotometer for the MACRO liquid scintillator. We are in charge of ERP, the Event Reconstruction Processor online trigger processor for muons and stellar collapse. We are designing an air Cerenkov array to be placed on top of the Gran Sasso. Our other activity involves participation in the SSC experiment L. As long-standing members of L we have done proposal writing and have worked on important L planning and organization matters. We are now doing development work on the L Central Tracker straw drift tubes, including gas optimization, readout, and Monte Carlos. 12 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab

  7. Representations of task assignments in distributed systems using Young tableaux and symmetric groups

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Dohan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel approach to representing task assignments for partitioned processors (respectively, tasks) in distributed systems. A partition of processors (respectively, tasks) is represented by a Young tableau, which is one of the main tools in studying symmetric groups and their representations. We propose a task, processor, and assignment tableau in order to represent a task assignment for partitioned processors (respectively, tasks) in distributed systems. Due to their simplicity and tight relationship to symmetric groups, we mainly focus on n-task-n-processor assignments in distributed systems. A certain set of n-task-n-processor assignments is represented by a k-assignments vector in the k-assignments vector space. We present some examples of the dual space and vector space model for the vector space of k-assignments vectors in distributed systems. We concern representations of task assignments rather than finding approximate or near optimal solutions for task assignments. A Young tab...

  8. Student Perceptions of Social Task Development in Online Group Project Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Kari; Cameron, Bruce A.; Williams, Karen C.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores student perceptions of social task development in an online group project and poses recommendations for implementation of group projects. Qualitative methods were used to analyze student perceptions of social task development in online group project. Respect, "being nice," follow the rules/follow the leader, communication,…

  9. Communication on a problem solving task in cooperative learning groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Jo; Fawns, Rod

    1992-12-01

    There is some evidence from this study that reflectivity within cooperative learning groups develops over time. Preliminary observations suggest that Slavin's third and fourth levels of skills, those of reflection and reasoning and reconception and reformulation and Kempa and Ayob's higher levels of explanation and insight appear more advanced in groups strategically managed by teachers for such outcomes. Later analyses will permit more detailed accounts of the relationships between the teacher's management strategies, and reflection within groups of different gender composition.

  10. 76 FR 21073 - NASA Advisory Council; Task Group of the Science Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Task Group of the Science Committee; Meeting AGENCY... Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Task Group of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC) Science Committee... meeting will take place telephonically and by WebEx. Any interested person may call the USA toll...

  11. 76 FR 26771 - NASA Advisory Council; Task Group of the Science Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Task Group of the Science Committee; Meeting AGENCY... Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Task Group of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC) Science Committee... meeting will take place telephonically and by WebEx. Any interested person may call the USA toll...

  12. The Role of Communication in Group Decision-Making Efficacy: A Task-Contingency Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Randy Y.

    1990-01-01

    Argues importance of communication for group decision-making performance and its impact on such performance are function of three task characteristics: structure, information requirement, and evaluation demand. Identifies task circumstances in which group communication can be expected to play role in determining decision-making performance, as…

  13. MUPO, Critical 43 Group Spectra Calculation for Homogeneous Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: MUPO calculates the critical spectrum of a bare homogeneous reactor in 43 groups. This spectrum is used to evaluate condensed microscopic cross-sections. An option for this programme is to read in the library data from cards and write the binary library tape -DRAGON LIBRARY 3-. 2 - Method of solution: 3 options. Introduction of an additional absorber to account for a control poison, source iteration technique, and a buckling iteration. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: 110 materials

  14. Results and conclusions test capabilities task group summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomber, T.; Pierce, K.; Easterling, R.; Rogers, J.

    1996-12-01

    This annotated briefing documents an economic analysis of Sandia`s system-level test facilities maintained and operated by the Design, Evaluation, and Test Technology Center 9700. The study was divided into four primary sub-tasks: (1) Estimation of the future system-level test workload, (2) Development of a consistent economic model to estimate the cost of maintaining and operating the test facilities, (3) Determination of the availability of viable alternative test sites, and (4) Assessment of the potential savings through reduction of excess capacity under various facility-closure scenarios. The analysis indicated that potential savings from closing all facilities could approach $6 million per year. However, large uncertainties in these savings remove any sound economic arguments for such closure: it is possible that testing at alternative sites could cost more than maintaining the current set of system-level test facilities. Finally, a number of programmatic risks incurred by facility closure were identified. Consideration of facility closure requires a careful weighing of any projected economic benefit against these programmatic risks. This summary report covers the briefing given to upper management. A more detailed discussion of the data and analyses is given in the full report, available for internal use from the technical library.

  15. Group Planning and Task Efficiency with Complex Problems. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, E. D.

    One hundred eighty 4-man groups (90 of men and 90 of women) using 3 types of net (All-Channel, Wheel and Circle) under 3 conditions (Planning Period (PP), Rest Period (RP) and Control) were run in a single session with 5 complex problems to determine whether a single 2-minute planning period after solution of the first problem would result in…

  16. The role of peer groups in male and female adolescents' task values and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Piipari, Sami; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Kiuru, Noona; Watt, Anthony

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the role of peer groups and sex in adolescents' task values and physical activity. The participants were 330 Finnish Grade 6 students (173 girls, 157 boys), who responded to questionnaires that assessed physical education task values during the spring semester (Time 1). Students' physical activity was assessed one year later (Time 2). The results indicated that adolescent peer groups were moderately homogeneous in terms of task values toward physical education and physical activity. Girls' peer groups were more homogeneous than those of boys in regards to utility and attainment values. Furthermore, the results for both girls and boys showed that particularly intrinsic task value typical for the peer group predicted group members' physical activity. The findings highlight the important role of peer group membership as a determinant of future physical activity. PMID:21526593

  17. Steam Generator Group Project: Task 10, Secondary side examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concludes an effort to examine and assess from the secondary side, the condition of the retired-from-service Surry 2A steam generator. It is includes photographs of degradation of various components or regions in a generic recirculating type steam generator. The photographic detail given in the text (and the previous report NUREG/CR-3843, PNL-5033) have not been readily available to many investigators outside the Nuclear Steam Supply Vendors and Users. The photographs include views of Inconel 600 heat exchanger tubes (0.875 diameter [nominal] x 0.050 inch wall) showing deformed and intergranularly stress-corrosion cracked U-bends, tube denting in the support plate, intergranular attack and thinning (both in the tube sheet region), support plat deformation and cracking at flow slots and in ligaments between flow holes and tube holes. In addition, photographs of tube pitting, anti-vibration bar fretting, and the sludge pile are presented. An experimental stress analysis was conducted on a distorted Row 1 tube in the region of a compressed flow slot between the 6th and 7th (top) support plates. During removal of the tube, relaxation strains were measured and residual stresses calculated. Finally a cursory metallurgical failure analysis was conducted on a broken U-bend (R1C91) to determine its mode of failure. A rotabroach boring technique was used to make multiple penetrations with minimal damage to the secondary side, at various locations on the shell

  18. Effects of Gender and Communication Content on Leadership Emergence in Small Task-Oriented Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Katherine W.

    A study examined the role played by gender and communication content in the leadership emergence process in small, task-oriented groups. Six hours of transcribed group interaction from a sample of the group deliberations of 6 mixed-sex groups of college students (n=27) engaged in a 4-month-long decision-making project served as the database for…

  19. Perceptual grouping by similarity of surface roughness in haptics: the influence of task difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Aarsen, V; Overvliet, K E

    2016-08-01

    We investigated grouping by similarity of surface roughness in the context of task difficulty. We hypothesized that grouping yields a larger benefit at higher levels of task complexity, because efficient processing is more helpful when more cognitive resources are needed to execute a task. Participants searched for a patch of a different roughness as compared to the distractors in two strips of similar or dissimilar roughness values. We reasoned that if the distractors could be grouped based on similar roughness values, exploration time would be shorter and fewer errors would occur. To manipulate task complexity, we varied task difficulty (high target saliency equalling low task difficulty), and we varied the fingers used to explore the display (two fingers of one hand being more cognitive demanding than two fingers of opposite hands). We found much better performance in the easy condition as compared to the difficult condition (in both error rates and mean search slopes). Moreover, we found a larger effect for the similarity manipulation in the difficult condition as compared to the easy condition. Within the difficult condition, we found a larger effect for the one-hand condition as compared to the two-hand condition. These results show that haptic search is accelerated by the use of grouping by similarity of surface roughness, especially when the task is relatively complex. We conclude that the effect of perceptual grouping is more prominent when more cognitive resources are needed to perform a task.

  20. Perceptual grouping by similarity of surface roughness in haptics: the influence of task difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Aarsen, V; Overvliet, K E

    2016-08-01

    We investigated grouping by similarity of surface roughness in the context of task difficulty. We hypothesized that grouping yields a larger benefit at higher levels of task complexity, because efficient processing is more helpful when more cognitive resources are needed to execute a task. Participants searched for a patch of a different roughness as compared to the distractors in two strips of similar or dissimilar roughness values. We reasoned that if the distractors could be grouped based on similar roughness values, exploration time would be shorter and fewer errors would occur. To manipulate task complexity, we varied task difficulty (high target saliency equalling low task difficulty), and we varied the fingers used to explore the display (two fingers of one hand being more cognitive demanding than two fingers of opposite hands). We found much better performance in the easy condition as compared to the difficult condition (in both error rates and mean search slopes). Moreover, we found a larger effect for the similarity manipulation in the difficult condition as compared to the easy condition. Within the difficult condition, we found a larger effect for the one-hand condition as compared to the two-hand condition. These results show that haptic search is accelerated by the use of grouping by similarity of surface roughness, especially when the task is relatively complex. We conclude that the effect of perceptual grouping is more prominent when more cognitive resources are needed to perform a task. PMID:27010724

  1. Small-Group Leader Assignment: Effects Across Different Degrees of Task Interdependence

    OpenAIRE

    Basik, Kevin J.

    1997-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of teams and work groups in organizations has become increasingly more popular in the last decade. Within each of these groups, a leadership role must be filled in order for the team to achieve its task. This study posited that the method by which the leader comes into this role may have a direct impact on the group's performance and its perceptions of the group's interpersonal processes and efficiency, satisfaction with the group, satisfaction with the group output, a...

  2. The pernicious effects of unstable work group membership : How work group changes undermine unique task contributions and newcomer acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rink, Floor; Ellemers, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    This research demonstrates that group membership instability tends to raise self-related concerns that make it less likely that people value and accept constructive task contributions offered by newcomers. In Study 1 (N = 88), unstable group membership heightened self-related concerns. Participants

  3. Positioning during Group Work on a Novel Task in Algebra II

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJarnette, Anna F.; González, Gloriana

    2015-01-01

    Given the prominence of group work in mathematics education policy and curricular materials, it is important to understand how students make sense of mathematics during group work. We applied techniques from Systemic Functional Linguistics to examine how students positioned themselves during group work on a novel task in Algebra II classes. We…

  4. A Comparison of Hypnotic Induction, Task Motivation, and a "Cold Start" Control Group on Hypnotizability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystek, Stephen; Kumar, V K

    2016-10-01

    Groups of participants (N = 164) were randomly assigned to three conditions: Group 1 received a trance induction, Group 2 received task-motivational instructions, and Group 3-"cold start" control-was simply told, "We will begin the hypnosis procedure now." All participants received the Creative Imagination Scale suggestions and then completed the Creative Imagination Scale and Inventory Scale of Hypnotic Depth. The three conditions did not differ significantly either on the Creative Imagination Scale or in reported hypnotic depth. These results are consistent with prior studies which show that trance induction and task-motivational yield similar results, but they are inconsistent inasmuch as the trance induction and task-motivational groups did not differ from the control group. These results, however, are predictable from socio-cognitive perspectives that the context of hypnosis itself can elicit hypnotic behaviors. PMID:27586049

  5. Anxiety impairs spontaneous perspective calculation: Evidence from a level-1 visual perspective-taking task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Andrew R; Simpson, Austin J

    2016-11-01

    Reasoning about other people's mental states is central to social life. Yet, even neuro-typical adults sometimes have perspective-taking difficulties, particularly when another's perspective conflicts with their own. In two experiments, we examined the cognitive mechanisms underlying an affective factor known to hinder perspective taking in adults: anxiety. Using a level-1 visual perspective-taking task, we found that incidentally experiencing anxiety, relative to neutral feelings and anger, impaired the spontaneous calculation of what another social agent can see. Feeling anxious did not, however, impede perspective calculation with a non-social entity, suggesting that anxiety's disruptive effects may be particularly pronounced for social aspects of cognition. These findings help elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effects of incidental emotions on perspective taking and inform debates about "implicit" forms of mentalizing. PMID:27522111

  6. Performance on paced serial addition tasks indicates an associative network for calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, M; Caroselli, J S; Kimball, L E; Panwar, N

    2001-06-01

    Although paced serial addition (PSA) tasks are considered to be tests of general information-processing capacity, recent work suggests that performance on such tasks is influenced by arithmetic-specific variables. We designed two visual PSA experiments to determine whether the performance of normal adults would support predictions derived from the cognitive psychology of calculation. Experiment 1 showed that mixing familiar (Arabic numeral) and less familiar (Roman numeral) stimulus formats reduced scores below the averaged scores for pure Arabic and Roman lists. The Roman-Arabic order of addends was more difficult than the Arabic-Roman order. Experiment 2, which involved only Arabic numerals as addends, showed that performance could be impaired by constraining the trial-to-trial variability of sums. The results of both experiments confirm the importance of arithmetic-specific variables in PSA and provide support for an associative network model of calculation. In addition, the findings implicate interference from extraneous addends and responses as the performance-limiting factor. PMID:11404809

  7. Summary report for ITER task - D4: Activation calculations for the lithium vanadium ITER design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed activation analysis for ITER has been performed as a part of ITER Task D4. The calculations have been performed for the shielding blanket (SS/water) and for the breeding blanket (Li/V) options. The activation code RACC-P, which has been modified under ITER Task-D-10 for pulsed operation, has been used in this analysis. The spatial distributions of the radioactive inventory, decay heat, biological hazard potential, and the contact dose were calculated for the two designs for different operation modes and targeted fluences. A one-dimensional toroidal geometrical model has been utilized to determine the neutron fluxes in the two designs. The results are normalized for an inboard and outboard neutron wall loading of 0.91 and 1.2 MW/m2, respectively. The point-wise distributions of the decay gamma sources have been calculated everywhere in the reactor at several times after the shutdown of the two designs and are then used in the transport code ONEDANT to calculate the biological dose everywhere in the reactor. The point-wise distributions of all the responses have also been calculated. These calculations have been performed for neutron fluences of 3.0 MWa/m2, which corresponds to the target fluence of ITER, and 0.1 MWa/m2, which is anticipated to correspond to the beginning of the extended maintenance period. The decay heat results show that a large fraction of this energy (50 to 90%) Is produced by photons. This implies that this energy would be transported to different parts of the reactor, thus relieving the energy concentration at high intensity source locations such as the first wall. Accurate modeling for the decay gamma transport is required to produce realistic spatial distribution of the decay heat which may be used in LOCA and LOFA analyses. The results of the pulsed operation, using the new version of RACC, show large reductions in the radioactivity and the decay heat for pure pulsed operation

  8. The Impact of Big Five Personality Characteristics on Group Cohesion and Creative Task Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Laurie Birch

    1998-01-01

    One of the most prominent trends in organizations today is the use of teams to accomplish the work once assigned to individuals. Team composition variables, including the personality characteristics of team members, need to be carefully considered so that the transition of work from individuals to teams results in performance improvements. The types of tasks relegated to teams also affect performance, and it is equally important that group tasks are clearly defined. As such, the current st...

  9. Summary report for MEGAPIE R+D Task Group X9: Neutronic and nuclear assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comprehensive work performed by the R+D task group X9 since the beginning of the MEGAPIE initiative is described in this summary report. The list of topics covered by this group is large and covers many of the essential aspects of an innovative system such as the MEGAPIE target. The X9 group worked on the neutronic and nuclear related aspects of the target design, as summarized in the following. The main tool in the neutronic design of a spallation neutron target is a reliable particle transport code, and nowadays the Monte Carlo technique is widely adopted in this field. There are several codes which are more or less extensively used in the nuclear physics community; at the beginning of the project a benchmark exercise was performed among several institutes using different Monte Carlo codes. The aim of the benchmark was to perform a code intercomparison by looking at the different predictions of several important quantities, as described later in the report. The benchmark results were first compiled in two separate reports. The results are critically discussed here. Based on the obtained results, and considering also other factors such as the code maintenance, the codes FLUKA and MCNPX were indicated as the most recommended ones to be used in the continuation of the X9 work. Proton and neutron fluxes in the MEGAPIE target were calculated. Detailed models of he MEGAPIE target and of the surrounding SINQ facility were developed, as well as of the present solid SINQ target. A comparison between the neutron flux with MEGAPIE and the SINQ solid target showed that the MEGAPIE target sill deliver 40% to 50% more thermal neutrons to the instruments served by SINQ as compared to the SINQ Mark 3 target. Calculations of the beam power deposition distributions are essential as input for the thermohydraulics CFD analysis of the lower target. Power deposition was calculated with FLUKA and MCNPX. The results from the two codes agree within 5%. Approximately 85% of the beam

  10. Summary report for MEGAPIE R+D Task Group X9: Neutronic and nuclear assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanini, L

    2005-12-15

    The comprehensive work performed by the R+D task group X9 since the beginning of the MEGAPIE initiative is described in this summary report. The list of topics covered by this group is large and covers many of the essential aspects of an innovative system such as the MEGAPIE target. The X9 group worked on the neutronic and nuclear related aspects of the target design, as summarized in the following. The main tool in the neutronic design of a spallation neutron target is a reliable particle transport code, and nowadays the Monte Carlo technique is widely adopted in this field. There are several codes which are more or less extensively used in the nuclear physics community; at the beginning of the project a benchmark exercise was performed among several institutes using different Monte Carlo codes. The aim of the benchmark was to perform a code intercomparison by looking at the different predictions of several important quantities, as described later in the report. The benchmark results were first compiled in two separate reports. The results are critically discussed here. Based on the obtained results, and considering also other factors such as the code maintenance, the codes FLUKA and MCNPX were indicated as the most recommended ones to be used in the continuation of the X9 work. Proton and neutron fluxes in the MEGAPIE target were calculated. Detailed models of he MEGAPIE target and of the surrounding SINQ facility were developed, as well as of the present solid SINQ target. A comparison between the neutron flux with MEGAPIE and the SINQ solid target showed that the MEGAPIE target sill deliver 40% to 50% more thermal neutrons to the instruments served by SINQ as compared to the SINQ Mark 3 target. Calculations of the beam power deposition distributions are essential as input for the thermohydraulics CFD analysis of the lower target. Power deposition was calculated with FLUKA and MCNPX. The results from the two codes agree within 5%. Approximately 85% of the beam

  11. Optimisation and decisions in radiological protection - A report of the work of an ICRP task group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1984 the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) established a Task Group of Committee 4 to produce a report on methods for optimisation of protection other than cost-benefit analysis. As the work of the task group progressed it became clear that it would be more useful to produce a report on the entire field of application of optimisation, mainly to show how the various techniques including cost-benefit analysis could be applied appropriately to problems at different levels of complexity. This paper reports on the main ideas that have been developed by the task group. It must be emphasised that these ideas have not been endorsed by Committee 4 nor approved by the Commission so they can not yet be considered as recommendations

  12. HIV and Nurses: A Focus Group on Task Shifting in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Lori A; Gray, Jennifer; Opollo, Jackline; Mbalinda, Scovia

    2016-01-01

    The HIV prevalence rate is 7.4% in Uganda, where the HIV-related President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and United Nations millennial development goals have not been met. This is partially due to a critical shortage of nurses and other health care providers. Task shifting is a World Health Organization strategy to address the shortage of human resources for health by shifting work from one cadre of health care worker to another, often less-trained, cadre. We conducted three focus groups with nurses in Uganda to better understand perceptions of their preparation for and implementation of task shifting. The focus group included nurses from diverse work settings. Data analysis revealed that nurses were proud of the work they were doing but were challenged by the lack of consistent and appropriate support. We found a need for additional policies, regulations, and consistent preparation for nurses who work in environments with task shifting. PMID:26847378

  13. Indiana University high energy physics group, task C: Technical progress report, December 1, 1987-November 30, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C has been actively involved in the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso during the current contract year. MACRO is a large US-Italian Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory being built under the Gran Sasso Mountain outside of Rome. Indiana University is in charge of the US software effort. We have been performing extensive Monte Carlo design and data analysis calculations. We are also doing development work on the MACRO liquid scintillator. We are setting up a Quality Assurance liquid scintillator laboratory in Frascati, Italy. We are producing vertical scintillator tank endplates and calibration boats in our machine shop

  14. Sonar sound groups and increased terminal buzz duration reflect task complexity in hunting bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulgard, Katrine; Ratcliffe, John M

    2016-01-01

    More difficult tasks are generally regarded as such because they demand greater attention. Echolocators provide rare insight into this relationship because biosonar signals can be monitored. Here we show that bats produce longer terminal buzzes and more sonar sound groups during their approach to prey under presumably more difficult conditions. Specifically, we found Daubenton's bats, Myotis daubentonii, produced longer buzzes when aerial-hawking versus water-trawling prey, but that bats taking revolving air- and water-borne prey produced more sonar sound groups than did the bats when taking stationary prey. Buzz duration and sonar sound groups have been suggested to be independent means by which bats attend to would-be targets and other objects of interest. We suggest that for attacking bats both should be considered as indicators of task difficulty and that the buzz is, essentially, an extended sonar sound group.

  15. Sonar sound groups and increased terminal buzz duration reflect task complexity in hunting bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulgard, Katrine; Ratcliffe, John M

    2016-01-01

    More difficult tasks are generally regarded as such because they demand greater attention. Echolocators provide rare insight into this relationship because biosonar signals can be monitored. Here we show that bats produce longer terminal buzzes and more sonar sound groups during their approach to prey under presumably more difficult conditions. Specifically, we found Daubenton's bats, Myotis daubentonii, produced longer buzzes when aerial-hawking versus water-trawling prey, but that bats taking revolving air- and water-borne prey produced more sonar sound groups than did the bats when taking stationary prey. Buzz duration and sonar sound groups have been suggested to be independent means by which bats attend to would-be targets and other objects of interest. We suggest that for attacking bats both should be considered as indicators of task difficulty and that the buzz is, essentially, an extended sonar sound group. PMID:26857019

  16. Does the medium matter? The interaction of task type and technology on group performance and member reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, S G; McGrath, J E

    1994-02-01

    The authors investigated the hypothesis that as group tasks pose greater requirements for member interdependence, communication media that transmit more social context cues will foster group performance and satisfaction. Seventy-two 3-person groups of undergraduate students worked in either computer-mediated or face-to-face meetings on 3 tasks with increasing levels of interdependence: an idea-generation task, an intellective task, and a judgment task. Results showed few differences between computer-mediated and face-to-face groups in the quality of the work completed but large differences in productivity favoring face-to-face groups. Analysis of productivity and of members' reactions supported the predicted interaction of tasks and media, with greater discrepancies between media conditions for tasks requiring higher levels of coordination. Results are discussed in terms of the implications of using computer-mediated communications systems for group work. PMID:8200874

  17. Task Groups in the School Setting: Promoting Children's Social and Emotional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Velsor, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Through social and emotional learning (SEL), individuals develop skill in negotiating relationships successfully and expressing emotions appropriately. The socially and emotionally intelligent child reaps benefits in school and later life. Counselors are best qualified to promote children's SEL and the task group in the classroom provides an…

  18. Joint utility task group CGI data-base procurement history module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the procurement history record module of the Joint Utility Task Group's (JUTG's) commercial-grade item (CGI) data base is to assist utilities to cost effectively implement the dedication methodology provided in the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) report NP-5652, open-quotes Guidelines for the Utilization of Commercial Grade Items in Nuclear Safety-Related Applications.close quotes

  19. Hemispheric specialization of abacus experts in mental calculation: evidence from the results of time-sharing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatta, T; Ikeda, K

    1988-01-01

    Hemispheric specialization for mental calculation and verbal tasks in abacus (Soroban in Japanese) experts and control subjects was tested using time-sharing tasks. In Experiment 1, the effects of auditorily presented mental calculation and news-listening tasks on sequential finger tappings were examined. The results revealed that in the mental calculation condition, abacus experts showed greater interference effects on left hand tapping, whereas control subjects showed greater interference effects on right hand tapping (as compared to left hand). In the news-listening condition, abacus experts showed no hand difference while the controls showed greater interference effects on the right hand. In Experiment 2, the effects of visually presented mental calculation and word-reading tasks on sequential finger tapping were examined. The results revealed that in the mental calculation condition, abacus experts showed a non-significant tendency towards greater interference in the left hand whereas the controls showed no hand difference. In the word-reading condition, both abacus experts and controls showed greater interference in the right hand than in the left hand. In Experiment 3, intermediate and upper-rank abacus experts performed a similar task to Experiment 1 under two instruction conditions. The results of this control experiment confirmed that a greater left hand reduction in calculation of abacus experts is not due to subject's cognitive mode but due to the amount of abacus learning experience. These data suggest that (1) learning experiences can affect the pattern of cerebral specialization through the change of approaches to perform cognitive tasks, and (2) the right hemisphere engages in mental calculation for the abacus experts whereas the left hemisphere contributes to mental calculation in ordinary people having no experience of abacus learning.

  20. Communication Effects on Small Group Decision-Making: Homogeneity and Task as Moderators of the Communication-Performance Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Abran J.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates circumstances under which communication variables contribute significantly to the constitution of group decisions. Postulates two variables, homogeneity of task-relevant information possessed by group members and task demonstrability, to moderate the impact of communication and group member ability on quality of group outcomes.…

  1. Role of Gestalt grouping in selective attention: evidence from the Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Martijn J M; Roelofs, Ardi

    2007-11-01

    Selective attention has been intensively studied using the Stroop task. Evidence suggests that Stroop interference in a color-naming task arises partly because of visual attention sharing between color and word: Removing the target color after 150 msec reduces interference (Neumann, 1986). Moreover, removing both the color and the word simultaneously reduces interference less than does removing the color only (La Heij, van der Heijden, & Plooij, 2001). These findings could also be attributed to Gestalt grouping principles, such as common fate. We report three experiments in which the role of Gestalt grouping was further investigated. Experiment I replicated the reduced interference, using words and color patches. In Experiment 2, the color patch was not removed but only repositioned (Gestalt grouping in selective attention.

  2. Advanced density matrix renormalization group method for nuclear structure calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Legeza, Ö; Poves, A; Dukelsky, J

    2015-01-01

    We present an efficient implementation of the Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) algorithm that includes an optimal ordering of the proton and neutron orbitals and an efficient expansion of the active space utilizing various concepts of quantum information theory. We first show how this new DMRG methodology could solve a previous $400$ KeV discrepancy in the ground state energy of $^{56}$Ni. We then report the first DMRG results in the $pf+g9/2$ shell model space for the ground $0^+$ and first $2^+$ states of $^{64}$Ge which are benchmarked with reference data obtained from Monte Carlo shell model. The corresponding correlation structure among the proton and neutron orbitals is determined in terms of the two-orbital mutual information. Based on such correlation graphs we propose several further algorithmic improvement possibilities that can be utilized in a new generation of tensor network based algorithms.

  3. Advanced density matrix renormalization group method for nuclear structure calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeza, Ã.-.; Veis, L.; Poves, A.; Dukelsky, J.

    2015-11-01

    We present an efficient implementation of the Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) algorithm that includes an optimal ordering of the proton and neutron orbitals and an efficient expansion of the active space utilizing various concepts of quantum information theory. We first show how this new DMRG methodology could solve a previous 400 keV discrepancy in the ground state energy of 56Ni. We then report the first DMRG results in the p f +g 9 /2 shell model space for the ground 0+ and first 2+ states of 64Ge which are benchmarked with reference data obtained from a Monte Carlo shell model. The corresponding correlation structure among the proton and neutron orbitals is determined in terms of two-orbital mutual information. Based on such correlation graphs we propose several further algorithmic improvement possibilities that can be utilized in a new generation of tensor network based algorithms.

  4. One-group transport theory calculation for three slabs cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an idealized model of plate type fuel assemblies for nuclear reactors, three-slab cells are analysed numerically based on the exact solution of the transport equation in the one-group isotropic scattering model. From the equations describing the interface conditions, a set of regular integral equations for the coefficients of the singular eigenfunctions expansions is derived using the half-range orthogonality relations of the eigenfunctions and the recently developed method of regularization. Numerical solutions are obtained by solving this set of equations iteratively. The thermal utilization factor and thermal disadvantage factors as well as flux and current distributions are reported for the first time for various sets of parameters. The accuracy of the P sub(N) approximations is also analysed compared to the exact results. (Author)

  5. Calculating the renormalisation group equations of a SUSY model with Susyno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Renato M.

    2012-10-01

    Susyno is a Mathematica package dedicated to the computation of the 2-loop renormalisation group equations of a supersymmetric model based on any gauge group (the only exception being multiple U(1) groups) and for any field content. Program summary Program title: Susyno Catalogue identifier: AEMX_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMX_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 30829 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 650170 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica 7 or higher. Computer: All systems that Mathematica 7+ is available for (PC, Mac). Operating system: Any platform supporting Mathematica 7+ (Windows, Linux, Mac OS). Classification: 4.2, 5, 11.1. Nature of problem: Calculating the renormalisation group equations of a supersymmetric model involves using long and complicated general formulae [1, 2]. In addition, to apply them it is necessary to know the Lagrangian in its full form. Building the complete Lagrangian of models with small representations of SU(2) and SU(3) might be easy but in the general case of arbitrary representations of an arbitrary gauge group, this task can be hard, lengthy and error prone. Solution method: The Susyno package uses group theoretical functions to calculate the super-potential and the soft-SUSY-breaking Lagrangian of a supersymmetric model, and calculates the two-loop RGEs of the model using the general equations of [1, 2]. Susyno works for models based on any representation(s) of any gauge group (the only exception being multiple U(1) groups). Restrictions: As the program is based on the formalism of [1, 2], it shares its limitations. Running time can also be a significant restriction, in particular for models with many fields. Unusual features

  6. Molecular electronegativity in density functional theory (II) --Direct calculation of group electronegativity and the atomic charges in a group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨忠志; 沈尔忠

    1996-01-01

    On the basis of a more precise expression of the atomic effective electronegativity deduced from the density functional theory and electronegativity equalization principle, a new scheme for calculating the group electronegativity and the atomic charges in a group is proposed and programed, and various parameters of electronegativity and hardness are given for some common atoms. Through calculation, analysis and comparison of more than one hundred groups, it is shown that the results from this scheme are reasonable and may be extended.

  7. Sonar sound groups and increased terminal buzz duration reflect task complexity in hunting bats

    OpenAIRE

    Katrine Hulgard; Ratcliffe, John M.

    2016-01-01

    More difficult tasks are generally regarded as such because they demand greater attention. Echolocators provide rare insight into this relationship because biosonar signals can be monitored. Here we show that bats produce longer terminal buzzes and more sonar sound groups during their approach to prey under presumably more difficult conditions. Specifically, we found Daubenton’s bats, Myotis daubentonii, produced longer buzzes when aerial-hawking versus water-trawling prey, but that bats taki...

  8. The respiratory tract deposition model proposed by the ICRP Task Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Task Group has developed a new model of the deposition of inhaled aerosols in each anatomical region of the respiratory tract. The model is used to evaluate the fraction of airborne activity that is deposited in respiratory regions having distinct retention characteristics and clearance pathways, and/or tissue sensitivity: the extrathoracic airways of the naso- and oropharynx and larynx, the bronchi, the bronchioles, and the alveolated airways of the lung. Drawn from experimental data on total and regional deposition in human subjects, the model is based on extrapolation of these data by means of a detailed theoretical model of aerosol transport and deposition within the lung. The Task Group model applies to all practical conditions, and for aerosol particles and vapours from atomic size up to very coarse aerosols with an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 100 μm. The model is designed to predict regional deposition in different subjects, including adults of either sex, children of various ages, and infants, and also to account for anatomical differences among Caucasian and non-Caucasian subjects. The Task Group model represents aerosol inhalability and regional deposition in different subjects by algebraic expressions of aerosol size, breathing rates, standard lung volumes, and scaling factors for airway dimensions. It is emphasised that the current version of the model described here is still provisional. (author)

  9. The respiratory tract deposition model proposed by the ICRP Task Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, A.C.; Briant, J.K. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Stahlhofen, W.; Rudolf, G. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Frankfurt am Main (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Biophysikalische Strahlenforschung); Egan, M.J.; Nixon, W. (AEA Safety and Reliability, Culcheth (UK)); Gehr, P. (Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Anatomisches Inst.)

    1990-11-01

    The Task Group has developed a new model of the deposition of inhaled aerosols in each anatomical region of the respiratory tract. The model is used to evaluate the fraction of airborne activity that is deposited in respiratory regions having distinct retention characteristics and clearance pathways: the anterior nares, the extrathoracic airways of the naso- and oropharynx and larynx, the bronchi, the bronchioles, and the alveolated airways of the lung. Drawn from experimental data on total and regional deposition in human subjects, the model is based on extrapolation of these data by means of a detailed theoretical model of aerosol transport and deposition within the lung. The Task Group model applies to all practical conditions, and for aerosol particles and vapors from atomic size up to very coarse aerosols with an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 100 {mu}m. The model is designed to predict regional deposition in different subjects, including adults of either sex, children of various ages, and infants, and also to account for anatomical differences among Caucasian and non-Caucasian subjects. The Task Group model represents aerosol inhalability and regional deposition in different subjects by algebraic expressions of aerosol size, breathing rates, standard lung volumes, and scaling factors for airway dimensions. 35 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. The respiratory tract deposition model proposed by the ICRP Task Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Task Group has developed a new model of the deposition of inhaled aerosols in each anatomical region of the respiratory tract. The model is used to evaluate the fraction of airborne activity that is deposited in respiratory regions having distinct retention characteristics and clearance pathways: the anterior nares, the extrathoracic airways of the naso- and oropharynx and larynx, the bronchi, the bronchioles, and the alveolated airways of the lung. Drawn from experimental data on total and regional deposition in human subjects, the model is based on extrapolation of these data by means of a detailed theoretical model of aerosol transport and deposition within the lung. The Task Group model applies to all practical conditions, and for aerosol particles and vapors from atomic size up to very coarse aerosols with an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 100 μm. The model is designed to predict regional deposition in different subjects, including adults of either sex, children of various ages, and infants, and also to account for anatomical differences among Caucasian and non-Caucasian subjects. The Task Group model represents aerosol inhalability and regional deposition in different subjects by algebraic expressions of aerosol size, breathing rates, standard lung volumes, and scaling factors for airway dimensions. 35 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Mental Arithmetic in Children with Mathematics Learning Disabilities: The Adaptive Use of Approximate Calculation in an Addition Verification Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousselle, Laurence; Noel, Marie-Pascale

    2008-01-01

    The adaptive use of approximate calculation was examined using a verification task with 18 third graders with mathematics learning disabilities, 22 typically achieving third graders, and 21 typically achieving second graders. Participants were asked to make true-false decisions on simple and complex addition problems while the distance between the…

  12. TASK 2.5.4 DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENERGY SAVINGS CALCULATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, William A [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL; Huang, Joe [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Erdem, Ender [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Ronnen, Levinson [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2010-03-01

    California s major energy utilities and the California Energy Commission (CEC) are seeking to allocate capital that yields the greatest return on investment for energy infrastructure that meets any part of the need for reliable supplies of energy. The utilities are keenly interested in knowing the amount of electrical energy savings that would occur if cool roof color materials are adopted in the building market. To meet this need the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have been collaborating on a Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) project to develop an industry-consensus energy-savings calculator. The task was coordinated with an ongoing effort supported by the DOE to develop one calculator to achieve both the DOE and the EPA objectives for deployment of cool roof products. Recent emphasis on domestic building energy use has made the work a top priority by the Department of Energy s (DOE) Building Technologies Program. The Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) tool is designed to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and practitioners easily run complex simulations. The latest web technologies and usability design were employed to provide an easy input interface to an annual simulation of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim. Building defaults were assigned based on the best available statistical evidence and can provide energy and cost savings after the user selects nothing more than the building location. A key goal for the tool is to promote the energy benefits of cool color tile, metal and asphalt shingle roof products and other energy saving systems. The RSC tool focuses on applications for the roof and attic; however, the code conducts a whole building simulation that puts the energy and heat flows of the roof and attic into the perspective of the whole house. An annual simulation runs in about 30 sec. In addition to cool

  13. Optimal Group Size for Software Change Tasks: A Social Information Foraging Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Tanmay; Niu, Nan; Wang, Wentao; Cheng, Jing-Ru C; Li, Ling; Cao, Xiongfei

    2016-08-01

    Group size is a key factor in collaborative software development and many other cybernetic applications where task assignments are important. While methods exist to estimate its value for proprietary projects, little is known about how group size affects distributed and decentralized cybernetic applications and in particular open source software (OSS) development. This paper presents a novel approach in which we frame developers' collective resolution of OSS change tasks as a social information foraging problem. This new perspective enables us to predict the optimal group size and quantify group size's effect on individual performance. We test the theory with data mined from two projects: 1) Firefox and 2) Mylyn. This paper not only uncovers the mismatch of optimal and actual group sizes, but also reveals the association of optimality with improved productivity. In addition, the social-level productivity gain is observed as project evolves. We show this paper's impact by extending the frontiers of knowledge in two areas: 1) social coding and 2) recommendation systems. PMID:25910274

  14. Task Group on Non-conforming, Counterfeit, Fraudulent, and Suspect Items (TGNCFSI) - Report Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation deals with the new task force created under the umbrella of the CNRA (NEA) to cope with the emergent and safety relevant issues of non-conforming, counterfeit, fraudulent and suspect items (NCFSI). The presentation talks about what are the causal factors and challenges faced related to these problems and what are some of the main improvements and recommendations to cope with it such as: methods for inspecting NCFSI, review regulatory requirements and to work on international groups such as the WGIP and WGOE on these issues

  15. GRUCAL: a program system for the calculation of macroscopic group constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reactor calculations require material- and composition-dependent, energy-averaged neutron physical data in order to decribe the interaction between neutrons and isotopes. The multigroup cross section code GRUCAL calculates these macroscopic group constants for given material compositions from the material-dependent data of the group constant library GRUBA. The instructions for calculating group constants are not fixed in the program, but are read in from an instruction file. This makes it possible to adapt GRUCAL to various problems or different group constant concepts

  16. Mindfulness Training Improves Attentional Task Performance in Incarcerated Youth: A Group Randomized Controlled Intervention Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle R Leonard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness training (CBT/MT on attentional task performance in incarcerated adolescents. Attention is a cognitive system necessary for managing cognitive demands and regulating emotions. Yet persistent and intensive demands, such as those experienced during high-stress intervals like incarceration and the events leading to incarceration, may deplete attention resulting in cognitive failures, emotional disturbances, and impulsive behavior. We hypothesized that CBT/MT may mitigate these deleterious effects of high stress and protect against degradation in attention over the high-stress interval of incarceration. Using a group randomized controlled trial design, we randomly assigned dormitories of incarcerated youth, ages 16 to 18, to a CBT/MT intervention (youth n = 147 or an active control intervention (youth n = 117. Both arms received approximately 750 minutes of intervention in a small-group setting over a 3-5 week period. Youth in the CBT/MT arm also logged the amount of out-of-session time spent practicing MT exercises. The Attention Network Test was used to index attentional task performance at baseline and 4 months post-baseline. Overall, task performance degraded over time in all participants. The magnitude of performance degradation was significantly less in the CBT/MT vs. control arm. Further, within the CBT/MT arm, performance degraded over time in those with no outside-of-class practice time, but remained stable over time in those who practiced mindfulness exercises outside of the session meetings. Thus, these findings suggest that sufficient CBT/MT practice may protect against functional attentional impairments associated with high-stress intervals. Keywords: adolescent development, incarcerated adolescents, detained adolescents, stress, attention, mindfulness meditation.

  17. Task group of international union of radioecology 'ecosystem approach to environment protection'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ecosystem approach is a holistic (i.e., top-down) strategy for protection of ecosystem structures and functions from perturbations. A task group of International Union of Radioecology 'Ecosystem Approach to Environment Protection' was launched in April, 2010. This task group is preparing a report on the following topics: (1) goals of environmental protection; (2) legislation about environmental protection; (3) assessment of the Reference Animals and Plants (RAP) concept in the general context of environmental protection; (4) limitations and uncertainties of the RAPs concept; (5) justification and merits of the ecosystem approach; (6) assessing the feasibility of the ecosystem approach; (7) research and development required for the ecosystem approach; and (8) recommendations with respect to radiation protection. The topics 1, 3, 4 and 5 have been almost completely prepared, and demonstrate that the ecosystem approach is required for radiation protection of the environment. On the other hand, methods of the ecosystem approach which should be adopted for radiation protection of the environment are not clear in the current draft report. They should be specified by reviewing the Convention on Biological Diversity, fish stock management and other activities where the ecosystem approach is already adopted. (author)

  18. Studying the process of transforming a statistical inquiry-based task in the context of a teacher study group

    OpenAIRE

    Bakogianni, Dionysia

    2015-01-01

    Statistical inquiry, although beneficial for developing students' statistical thinking, constitutes a quite demanding task for the mathematics teacher. In this paper, I focus on the transformation of a statistical inquiry-based task. In the context of a study group of five secondary mathematics teachers, I investigate the various stages that the task passes through (set up phase, implementation phase, reflection) and explore factors that seem to frame the process of transformation. The emergi...

  19. Using Group Learning Activities in the Task-based Composition Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anita M. Copeland Kess; Joseph F. Kess

    2001-01-01

    @@ Research in general education has pointed to the effectiveness of task-based language teaching (TBLT). Task-based syllabi focus on tasks which require students to use the language for communication, but more specifically, on tasks which will be used outside of the classroom.

  20. The birth of NASA the work of the Space Task Group, America's first true space pioneers

    CERN Document Server

    von Ehrenfried, Dutch

    2016-01-01

    This is the story of the work of the original NASA space pioneers; men and women who were suddenly organized in 1958 from the then National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) into the Space Task Group. A relatively small group, they developed the initial mission concept plans and procedures for the U. S. space program. Then they boldly built hardware and facilities to accomplish those missions. The group existed only three years before they were transferred to the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, in 1962, but their organization left a large mark on what would follow. Von Ehrenfried's personal experience with the STG at Langley uniquely positions him to describe the way the group was structured and how it reacted to the new demands of a post-Sputnik era. He artfully analyzes how the growing space program was managed and what techniques enabled it to develop so quickly from an operations perspective. The result is a fascinating window into history, amply backed up by first person documentation ...

  1. Steam generator group project: Task 13 final report: Nondestructive examination validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Steam Generator Group Project (SGGP) was a multi-task effort using the retired-from-service Surry 2A pressurized water reactor steam generator as a test bed to investigate the reliability and effectiveness of in-service nondestructive eddy current (EC) inspection equipment and procedures. The information developed provided the technical basis for recommendations for improved in- service inspection and tube plugging criteria of steam generators. This report describes the results and analysis from Task 13--NDE Validation. The primary objective of Task 13 was to validate the EC inspection to detect and size tube defects. Additional objectives were to assess the nature and severity of tube degradation from all regions of the generator and to measure the remaining integrity of degraded specimens by burst testing. More than 550 specimens were removed from the generator and included in the validation studies. The bases for selecting the specimens and the methods and procedures used for specimen removal from the generator are reported. Results from metallurgical examinations of these specimens are presented and discussed. These examinations include visual inspection of all specimens to locate and identify tube degradation, metallographic examination of selected specimens to establish defect severity and burst testing of selected specimens to establish the remaining integrity of service-degraded tubes. Statistical analysis of the combined metallurgical and EC data to determine the probability of detection (POD) and sizing accuracy are reported along with a discussion of the factors which influenced the EC results. Finally, listings of the metallurgical and corresponding EC data bases are given. 12 refs., 141 figs., 24 tabs

  2. An Agent-Based Simulation for Investigating the Impact of Stereotypes on Task-Oriented Group Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghami, Mahsa; Sukthankar, Gita

    In this paper, we introduce an agent-based simulation for investigating the impact of social factors on the formation and evolution of task-oriented groups. Task-oriented groups are created explicitly to perform a task, and all members derive benefits from task completion. However, even in cases when all group members act in a way that is locally optimal for task completion, social forces that have mild effects on choice of associates can have a measurable impact on task completion performance. In this paper, we show how our simulation can be used to model the impact of stereotypes on group formation. In our simulation, stereotypes are based on observable features, learned from prior experience, and only affect an agent's link formation preferences. Even without assuming stereotypes affect the agents' willingness or ability to complete tasks, the long-term modifications that stereotypes have on the agents' social network impair the agents' ability to form groups with sufficient diversity of skills, as compared to agents who form links randomly. An interesting finding is that this effect holds even in cases where stereotype preference and skill existence are completely uncorrelated.

  3. SU-E-P-22: AAPM Task Group 263 Tackling Standardization of Nomenclature for Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matuszak, M; Feng, M [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Moran, J [Univ Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Xiao, Y [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mayo, C; Miller, R [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Bosch, W [Washington Univ, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Popple, R [Univ Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Marks, L [UNC School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Wu, Q [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Molineu, A; Martel, M [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Yock, T [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); McNutt, T [Johns Hopkins University, Severna Park, MD (United States); Brown, N [Baptist Medical Center, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Purdie, T [Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Yorke, E [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Santanam, L [Washington University School of Medicine, St.louis, MO (United States); Gabriel, P [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Michalski, J [Washington University, Saint Louis, MO (United States); and others

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: There is growing recognition of need for increased clarity and consistency in the nomenclatures used for body and organ structures, DVH metrics, toxicity, dose and volume units, etc. Standardization has multiple benefits; e.g. facilitating data collection for clinical trials, enabling the pooling of data between institutions, making transfers (i.e. hand-offs) between centers safer, and enabling vendors to define “default” settings. Towards this goal, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) formed a task group (TG263) in July of 2014, operating under the Work Group on Clinical Trials to develop consensus statements. Guiding principles derived from the investigation and example nomenclatures will be presented for public feedback. Methods: We formed a multi-institutional and multi-vendor collaborative group of 39 physicists, physicians and others involved in clinical use and electronic transfer of information. Members include individuals from IROC, NRG, IHE-RO, DICOM WG-7, ASTRO and EORTC groups with overlapping interests to maximize the quality of the consensus and increase the likelihood of adoption. Surveys of group and NRG members were used to define current nomenclatures and requirements. Technical requirements of vendor systems and the proposed DICOM standards were examined. Results: There is a marked degree of inter and intra institutional variation in current approaches, resulting from inter-vendor differences in capabilities, clinic specific conceptualizations and inconsistencies. Using a consensus approach, the group defined optimal formats for the naming of targets and normal structures. A formal objective assessment of 13 existing clinically-used software packages show that all had capabilities to accommodate these recommended nomenclatures. Conclusions: A multi-stakeholder effort is making significant steps forward in developing a standard nomenclature that will work across platforms. Our current working list includes > 550

  4. Report on Task 2 in the special working group of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishimoto, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-10-01

    Under international cooperation of four parties of U.S.A., EU, Russia, and Japan, the Engineering Design Activity (EDA) on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) began in June, 1992, the actions were finished their initial six years programs in 1998, but were not transferred to its construction. Then, an investigation on design option to intend to reduce its construction cost to it's a half was conducted by three years elongation of EDA, for which a Special Working Group (SWG) was established at the 13th ITER boards of directors. The work of this Task 2 was to evaluate some impacts to the Nuclear Fusion Development Program. The report of the Task 2 consists of five chapters, where general nuclear fusion development were discussed at a center of Tokamak. In special, on Chapter 4: Comparison with the other routes, for a modular route claimed by U.S.A., some earnest discussions were conducted by U.S.A. and other three parties, to be anxious to for U.S.A. to suggest to withdraw this work. In this report, four points of Japanese claims on security of flexibility capable of conducting advanced Tokamak research in ITER, safety proof due to positive introduction and test of low activation materials to ITER, and so forth, were all reflected. In the SWG, an opinion that the nuclear fusion program in the world was prepared to start to ITER was agreed by all members. (G.K.)

  5. Report on Task 2 in the special working group of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under international cooperation of four parties of U.S.A., EU, Russia, and Japan, the Engineering Design Activity (EDA) on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) began in June, 1992, the actions were finished their initial six years programs in 1998, but were not transferred to its construction. Then, an investigation on design option to intend to reduce its construction cost to it's a half was conducted by three years elongation of EDA, for which a Special Working Group (SWG) was established at the 13th ITER boards of directors. The work of this Task 2 was to evaluate some impacts to the Nuclear Fusion Development Program. The report of the Task 2 consists of five chapters, where general nuclear fusion development were discussed at a center of Tokamak. In special, on Chapter 4: Comparison with the other routes, for a modular route claimed by U.S.A., some earnest discussions were conducted by U.S.A. and other three parties, to be anxious to for U.S.A. to suggest to withdraw this work. In this report, four points of Japanese claims on security of flexibility capable of conducting advanced Tokamak research in ITER, safety proof due to positive introduction and test of low activation materials to ITER, and so forth, were all reflected. In the SWG, an opinion that the nuclear fusion program in the world was prepared to start to ITER was agreed by all members. (G.K.)

  6. Ongoing quality control in digital radiography: Report of AAPM Imaging Physics Committee Task Group 151.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A Kyle; Heintz, Philip; Geiser, William; Goldman, Lee; Jerjian, Khachig; Martin, Melissa; Peck, Donald; Pfeiffer, Douglas; Ranger, Nicole; Yorkston, John

    2015-11-01

    Quality control (QC) in medical imaging is an ongoing process and not just a series of infrequent evaluations of medical imaging equipment. The QC process involves designing and implementing a QC program, collecting and analyzing data, investigating results that are outside the acceptance levels for the QC program, and taking corrective action to bring these results back to an acceptable level. The QC process involves key personnel in the imaging department, including the radiologist, radiologic technologist, and the qualified medical physicist (QMP). The QMP performs detailed equipment evaluations and helps with oversight of the QC program, the radiologic technologist is responsible for the day-to-day operation of the QC program. The continued need for ongoing QC in digital radiography has been highlighted in the scientific literature. The charge of this task group was to recommend consistency tests designed to be performed by a medical physicist or a radiologic technologist under the direction of a medical physicist to identify problems with an imaging system that need further evaluation by a medical physicist, including a fault tree to define actions that need to be taken when certain fault conditions are identified. The focus of this final report is the ongoing QC process, including rejected image analysis, exposure analysis, and artifact identification. These QC tasks are vital for the optimal operation of a department performing digital radiography.

  7. Ongoing quality control in digital radiography: Report of AAPM Imaging Physics Committee Task Group 151

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A. Kyle, E-mail: kyle.jones@mdanderson.org; Geiser, William [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Heintz, Philip [Department of Radiology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87104 (United States); Goldman, Lee [Hartford Hospital, Hartford, Connecticut 06102 (United States); Jerjian, Khachig [Hoag Memorial Hospital, Newport Beach, California 92658 (United States); Martin, Melissa [Therapy Physics, Inc., Gardena, California 90248 (United States); Peck, Donald [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Pfeiffer, Douglas [Boulder Community Foothills Hospital, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Ranger, Nicole [Landauer, Inc., Glenwood, Illinois 60425 (United States); Yorkston, John [Carestream Health, Inc., Rochester, New York 14615 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Quality control (QC) in medical imaging is an ongoing process and not just a series of infrequent evaluations of medical imaging equipment. The QC process involves designing and implementing a QC program, collecting and analyzing data, investigating results that are outside the acceptance levels for the QC program, and taking corrective action to bring these results back to an acceptable level. The QC process involves key personnel in the imaging department, including the radiologist, radiologic technologist, and the qualified medical physicist (QMP). The QMP performs detailed equipment evaluations and helps with oversight of the QC program, the radiologic technologist is responsible for the day-to-day operation of the QC program. The continued need for ongoing QC in digital radiography has been highlighted in the scientific literature. The charge of this task group was to recommend consistency tests designed to be performed by a medical physicist or a radiologic technologist under the direction of a medical physicist to identify problems with an imaging system that need further evaluation by a medical physicist, including a fault tree to define actions that need to be taken when certain fault conditions are identified. The focus of this final report is the ongoing QC process, including rejected image analysis, exposure analysis, and artifact identification. These QC tasks are vital for the optimal operation of a department performing digital radiography.

  8. Comparison of multigroup and few-group calculations of fast power reactor parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic parameters of a fast breeder reactor in two-dimensional cylindrical geometry and in multi- and few-group diffusion approximation were calculated and compared. Two different types of reactor were considered, viz., homogeneous and heterogeneous. The results can serve as a quantitative aid for the choice of the proper number of groups for the calculations of various reactor parameters with required accuracy. (author)

  9. Picture Novelty Influences Response Selection and Inhibition: The Role of the In-Group Bias and Task-Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchenko, Artyom; Mahmud, Waich; Alam, Musrura Mefta; Kabir, Nadia; Al-Amin, Md. Mamun

    2016-01-01

    The human visual system prioritizes processing of novel information, leading to faster detection of novel stimuli. Novelty facilitates conflict resolution through the enhanced early perceptual processing. However, the role of novel information processing during the conflict-related response selection and inhibition remains unclear. Here, we used a face-gender classification version of the Simon task and manipulated task-difficulty and novelty of task-relevant information. The novel quality of stimuli was made task-irrelevant, and an in-group bias was tightly controlled by manipulation of a gender of picture stimuli. We found that the in-group bias modulated the role of novelty in executive control. Novel opposite-sex stimuli facilitated response inhibition only when the task was not demanding. By contrast, novelty enhanced response selection irrespective of the in-group factor when task-difficulty was increased. These findings support the in-group bias mechanism of visual processing, in cases when attentional resources are not limited by a demanding task. The results are further discussed along the lines of the attentional load theory and neural mechanisms of response-inhibition and locomotor activity. In conclusion, our data showed that processing of novel information may enhance executive control through facilitated response selection and inhibition. PMID:27788213

  10. Examining the Impact of Novel Pre-activity Tasks on Macroskills: The Case of Group Discussion on Writing Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Khoshsima

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main concern of most researchers in the field of second and foreign language teaching is lessening the problems and eliminating the hinders on the way of learning a language. Writing is considered as one of the most challenging and complicated tasks for learners to perform particularly when they have to write in a second or foreign language. Numerous studies were done on the importance of the pre-writing stage and activities which are directly and indirectly related to the theme of the writing. Accordingly, the main aim of this study was to examine the effects of group discussion as a pre- activity task on writing ability. To this aim, 27 Iranian EFL learners, who were at the same level –intermediate- studying at Shokuh and Safir Institutes, Birjand, Iran were chosen randomly. Two groups- one control and one experimental group- were studied. In control group the conventional method was used in teaching writing, while in experimental group, group discussion pre-activity task was administered. After 16 sessions, the obtained data of the pretests and posttests was analyzed by SPSS software. According to the results, researcher strongly concluded that group discussion has no significant effect on writing ability of Iranian intermediate learners. This study can help teachers and syllabus designers in choosing and applying an effective pre-activity task.Keywords: writing ability, pre-activity task, group discussion, EFL learners

  11. Neutronic calculations for a fast assembly by using two-group neutron albedo theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under Two-Group Neutron Albedo Theory, the effective neutron multiplication factor, Keff, explicitly appears and therefore it is possible to obtain an explicit form of variation of Keff. A generalization of the two-group albedo theory can be used if a more detailed energy spectrum treatment is required. The two-group neutron albedo theory is well illustrated by the endeavor of calculating the key parameters for a fast assembly. The results obtained from diffusion approach and albedo method calculations have had excellent concordance. (author)

  12. Harmonization of nuclear codes and standards. Pacific nuclear council working and task group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear codes and standards have been an integral part of the nuclear industry since its inception. As the industry came into the main stream over the 2nd half of the 20th century, a number of national and international standards were developed to support a specific nuclear reactor concept. These codes and standards have been a key component of the industry to maintain its focus on nuclear safety, reliability and quality. Both national and international standards have served the industry well in obtaining public, shareholder and regulatory acceptance. The existing suite of national and international standards is required to support the emerging nuclear renaissance. However as noted above under Pacific Nuclear Council (PNC), Manufacturing Design Evaluation Program (MDEP) and SMiRT discussions, the time has come now for the codes and standards writing bodies and the industry to take the next step to examine the relevance of existing suite in view of current needs and challenges. This review must account for the changing global environment including global supply chain and regulatory framework, resources, deregulation, free trade, and industry need for competitiveness and performance excellence. The Task Group (TG) has made limited progress in this review period as no additional information on the listing of codes and standards have been received from the members. However, TG Chair has been successful in obtaining considerable interest from some additional individuals from the member countries. It is important that PNC management seek additional participation from the member countries and asks for their active engagement in the Working Group (WG) TG activities to achieve its mandate and deliverables. The harmonization of codes and standards is a key area for the emerging nuclear renaissance and as noted by a number of international organizations (refer to MDEP action noted above) that these tasks can not be completed unless we have the right level of resources and

  13. Report of the task group on the seismic behaviour of structures: status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1995, the CSNI Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations) approved a new mandate for PWG-3 and the new title 'Integrity of Components and Structures'. The PWG-3 is assisted by three task groups, one of which is addressing the problem of seismic behavior of structures. Ten topics were identified: engineering characterization of seismic input, site response, soil structure interaction, identification of functions and classification of systems, structures and components, structural response and capacity evaluation (including effects of aging and degradation), component and equipment response and capacity evaluation (including effects of aging and degradation), response and capacity evaluation of distribution systems (piping, cable trays, conduit, HVAC), load combination and acceptance criteria, uncertainties (PSA and margins), plant seismic instrumentation and trip. This report summarizes the seismic issues and activities in various member countries (Canada, Czech Republic, France, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States) and international organizations (IAEA), provides a summary of the important issues that are of collective interest to the group members, and recommends a future programme of work to address these issues

  14. Nuclear Data Uncertainty Propagation in Depletion Calculations Using Cross Section Uncertainties in One-group or Multi-group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, C. J.; Cabellos, O.; Martínez, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Several approaches have been developed in last decades to tackle nuclear data uncertainty propagation problems of burn-up calculations. One approach proposed was the Hybrid Method, where uncertainties in nuclear data are propagated only on the depletion part of a burn-up problem. Because only depletion is addressed, only one-group cross sections are necessary, and hence, their collapsed one-group uncertainties. This approach has been applied successfully in several advanced reactor systems like EFIT (ADS-like reactor) or ESFR (Sodium fast reactor) to assess uncertainties on the isotopic composition. However, a comparison with using multi-group energy structures was not carried out, and has to be performed in order to analyse the limitations of using one-group uncertainties.

  15. Towards mainstreaming of biodiversity data publishing: recommendations of the GBIF Data Publishing Framework Task Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Tom

    2011-12-01

    'data publishing framework' that can address sociocultural, technical-infrastructural, policy, political and legal constraints, as well as addressing issues of sustainability and financial support. To address these aspects of a data publishing framework - a systematic, standard approach to the formal definition and public disclosure of data - in the context of biodiversity data, the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF, the single inter-governmental body most clearly mandated to undertake such an effort convened a Data Publishing Framework Task Group. We conceive this data publishing framework as an environment conducive to ensure free and open access to world's biodiversity data. Here, we present the recommendations of that Task Group, which are intended to encourage free and open access to the worlds' biodiversity data.

  16. Strategic development in exact calculation: Group and individual differences in four achievement subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Wylie, Judith; Jordan, Julie-Ann; Mulhern, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study sought to identify developmental changes in strategy use between 5 and 7 years of age when solving exact calculation problems. Four mathematics and reading achievement subtypes were examined at four time points. Five strategies were considered: finger counting, verbal counting, delayed retrieval, automatic retrieval, and derived fact retrieval. Results provided unique insights into children’s strategic development in exact calculation at this early stage. Group analysi...

  17. An Efficient Group Key Management Using Code for Key Calculation for Simultaneous Join/Leave: CKCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Hajyvahabzadeh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient group key management protocol, CKCS (Code for Key Calculation in Simultaneous join/leave for simultaneous join/leave in secure multicast. This protocol is based on logical key hierarchy. In this protocol, when new members join the group simultaneously, server sends only thegroup key for those new members. Then, current members and new members calculate the necessary keys by node codes and one-way hash function. A node code is a random number which is assigned to each key to help users calculate the necessary keys. Again, at leave, the server just sends the new group key to remaining members. The results show that CKCS reduces computational and communication overhead, and also message size in simultaneous join/leave.

  18. Radiation dosimetry in digital breast tomosynthesis: Report of AAPM Tomosynthesis Subcommittee Task Group 223

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis, E-mail: isechop@emory.edu [Departments of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Hematology and Medical Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, 1701 Uppergate Drive Northeast, Suite 5018, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Sabol, John M. [GE Healthcare, Global Diagnostic X-Ray, Mailstop W-701, 3000 North Grandview Boulevard, Waukesha, Wisconsin 53188 (United States); Berglund, Johan [Research and Development, Philips Women' s Healthcare, Solna (Sweden); Bolch, Wesley E. [J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Brateman, Libby [University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Goodsitt, Mitchell [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Flynn, Michael [Department of Radiology, Henry Ford Health System, Radiology Research 2F, 1 Ford Place, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Geiser, William [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States); Kyle Jones, A. [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Lo, Joseph Y.; Paul Segars, W. [Department of Radiology, Medical Physics Graduate Program, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Maidment, Andrew D. A. [Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-4206 (United States); Nishino, Kazuyoshi [R and D X-ray Products Group, Shimadzu Corporation, Tokyo (Japan); Nosratieh, Anita [Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis, California 95817 (United States); and others

    2014-09-15

    The radiation dose involved in any medical imaging modality that uses ionizing radiation needs to be well understood by the medical physics and clinical community. This is especially true of screening modalities. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has recently been introduced into the clinic and is being used for screening for breast cancer in the general population. Therefore, it is important that the medical physics community have the required information to be able to understand, estimate, and communicate the radiation dose levels involved in breast tomosynthesis imaging. For this purpose, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 223 on Dosimetry in Tomosynthesis Imaging has prepared this report that discusses dosimetry in breast imaging in general, and describes a methodology and provides the data necessary to estimate mean breast glandular dose from a tomosynthesis acquisition. In an effort to maximize familiarity with the procedures and data provided in this Report, the methodology to perform the dose estimation in DBT is based as much as possible on that used in mammography dose estimation.

  19. NASA Battery Working Group - 2007-2008: Battery Task Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This presentation provides a summary of the 2007-2008 NASA Battery Working Group efforts completed in support of the NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC). The effort covered a series of pro-active tasks that address the following: Binding Procurements -- guidelines related to requirements for the battery system that should be considered at the time of contract award Wet Life of Ni-H2 Batteries -- issues/strategies for effective storage and impact of long-term storage on performance and life Generic Guidelines for Lithium-ion Safety, Handling and Qualification -- Standardized approaches developed and risk assessments (1) Lithium-ion Performance Assessment -- survey of manufacturers and capabilities to meet mission needs. Guidelines document generated (2) Conditions Required for using Pouch Cells in Aerospace Missions -- focus on corrosion, thermal excursions and long-term performance issues. Document defining requirements to maintain performance and life (3) High Voltage Risk Assessment -- focus on safety and abuse tolerance of battery module assemblies. Recommendations of features required for safe implementation (4) Procedure for Determination of Safe Charge Rates -- evaluation of various cell chemistries and recommendation of safe operating regimes for specific cell designs

  20. Code of Ethics for the American Association of Physicists in Medicine: report of Task Group 109.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serago, Christopher F; Adnani, Nabil; Bank, Morris I; BenComo, Jose A; Duan, Jun; Fairobent, Lynne; Freedman, D Jay; Halvorsen, Per H; Hendee, William R; Herman, Michael G; Morse, Richard K; Mower, Herbert W; Pfeiffer, Douglas E; Root, William J; Sherouse, George W; Vossler, Matthew K; Wallace, Robert E; Walters, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive Code of Ethics for the members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is presented as the report of Task Group 109 which consolidates previous AAPM ethics policies into a unified document. The membership of the AAPM is increasingly diverse. Prior existing AAPM ethics polices were applicable specifically to medical physicists, and did not encompass other types of members such as health physicists, regulators, corporate affiliates, physicians, scientists, engineers, those in training, or other health care professionals. Prior AAPM ethics policies did not specifically address research, education, or business ethics. The Ethics Guidelines of this new Code of Ethics have four major sections: professional conduct, research ethics, education ethics, and business ethics. Some elements of each major section may be duplicated in other sections, so that readers interested in a particular aspect of the code do not need to read the entire document for all relevant information. The prior Complaint Procedure has also been incorporated into this Code of Ethics. This Code of Ethics (PP 24-A) replaces the following AAPM policies: Ethical Guidelines for Vacating a Position (PP 4-B); Ethical Guidelines for Reviewing the Work of Another Physicist (PP 5-C); Guidelines for Ethical Practice for Medical Physicists (PP 8-D); and Ethics Complaint Procedure (PP 21-A). The AAPM Board of Directors approved this Code or Ethics on July 31, 2008. PMID:19235389

  1. Code of Ethics for the American Association of Physicists in Medicine: report of Task Group 109.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serago, Christopher F; Adnani, Nabil; Bank, Morris I; BenComo, Jose A; Duan, Jun; Fairobent, Lynne; Freedman, D Jay; Halvorsen, Per H; Hendee, William R; Herman, Michael G; Morse, Richard K; Mower, Herbert W; Pfeiffer, Douglas E; Root, William J; Sherouse, George W; Vossler, Matthew K; Wallace, Robert E; Walters, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive Code of Ethics for the members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is presented as the report of Task Group 109 which consolidates previous AAPM ethics policies into a unified document. The membership of the AAPM is increasingly diverse. Prior existing AAPM ethics polices were applicable specifically to medical physicists, and did not encompass other types of members such as health physicists, regulators, corporate affiliates, physicians, scientists, engineers, those in training, or other health care professionals. Prior AAPM ethics policies did not specifically address research, education, or business ethics. The Ethics Guidelines of this new Code of Ethics have four major sections: professional conduct, research ethics, education ethics, and business ethics. Some elements of each major section may be duplicated in other sections, so that readers interested in a particular aspect of the code do not need to read the entire document for all relevant information. The prior Complaint Procedure has also been incorporated into this Code of Ethics. This Code of Ethics (PP 24-A) replaces the following AAPM policies: Ethical Guidelines for Vacating a Position (PP 4-B); Ethical Guidelines for Reviewing the Work of Another Physicist (PP 5-C); Guidelines for Ethical Practice for Medical Physicists (PP 8-D); and Ethics Complaint Procedure (PP 21-A). The AAPM Board of Directors approved this Code or Ethics on July 31, 2008.

  2. Clinical use of electronic portal imaging: Report of AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 58

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AAPM Task Group 58 was created to provide materials to help the medical physicist and colleagues succeed in the clinical implementation of electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) in radiation oncology. This complex technology has matured over the past decade and is capable of being integrated into routine practice. However, the difficulties encountered during the specification, installation, and implementation process can be overwhelming. TG58 was charged with providing sufficient information to allow the users to overcome these difficulties and put EPIDs into routine clinical practice. In answering the charge, this report provides; comprehensive information about the physics and technology of currently available EPID systems; a detailed discussion of the steps required for successful clinical implementation, based on accumulated experience; a review of software tools available and clinical use protocols to enhance EPID utilization; and specific quality assurance requirements for initial and continuing clinical use of the systems. Specific recommendations are summarized to assist the reader with successful implementation and continuing use of an EPID

  3. Teacher management behaviors and pupil task involvement during small group laboratory activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Warren

    A major concern of many beginning and experienced teachers is that of classroom management and control. This article describes recent research into defining classroom management procedures that are used by high school science teachers and their relationship to pupil ontaskness. The classroom is conceptualized as a manipulable behavioral system. This construct arises directly from Barker's (1968) ecological psychology, the classroom and its occupants being conceptualized as a behavior setting. The behaviors of the teacher and the pupils are an integral part of the unit (behavior setting), which in turn coerces certain behaviors from its participants. Thus settings, and, in particular, subsettings, are seen as more important determiners of social behavior than the personality of individual teacher or pupil. The methodology employed in this research has involved the extensive use of video in naturalistic science classrooms. Tapes of both teacher and pupil behaviors were continuously and independently recorded. Intensive analysis using electronic recording instruments interfaced with the computer has allowed the collection and sophisticated analysis of the observational data. Data relating to teacher management behavior in small group settings have been analyzed and the relationships to pupil task involvement have been explored.

  4. AAPM and GEC-ESTRO guidelines for image-guided robotic brachytherapy: Report of Task Group 192

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podder, Tarun K., E-mail: tarun.podder@uhhospitals.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44122 (United States); Beaulieu, Luc [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Univ de Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Caldwell, Barrett [Schools of Industrial Engineering and Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Cormack, Robert A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Crass, Jostin B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Dicker, Adam P.; Yu, Yan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107 (United States); Fenster, Aaron [Department of Imaging Research, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Fichtinger, Gabor [School of Computer Science, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Meltsner, Michael A. [Philips Radiation Oncology Systems, Fitchburg, Wisconsin 53711 (United States); Moerland, Marinus A. [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, 3508 GA (Netherlands); Nath, Ravinder [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Rivard, Mark J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States); Salcudean, Tim [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Song, Danny Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 (United States); Thomadsen, Bruce R. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    In the last decade, there have been significant developments into integration of robots and automation tools with brachytherapy delivery systems. These systems aim to improve the current paradigm by executing higher precision and accuracy in seed placement, improving calculation of optimal seed locations, minimizing surgical trauma, and reducing radiation exposure to medical staff. Most of the applications of this technology have been in the implantation of seeds in patients with early-stage prostate cancer. Nevertheless, the techniques apply to any clinical site where interstitial brachytherapy is appropriate. In consideration of the rapid developments in this area, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) commissioned Task Group 192 to review the state-of-the-art in the field of robotic interstitial brachytherapy. This is a joint Task Group with the Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie-European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (GEC-ESTRO). All developed and reported robotic brachytherapy systems were reviewed. Commissioning and quality assurance procedures for the safe and consistent use of these systems are also provided. Manual seed placement techniques with a rigid template have an estimated in vivo accuracy of 3–6 mm. In addition to the placement accuracy, factors such as tissue deformation, needle deviation, and edema may result in a delivered dose distribution that differs from the preimplant or intraoperative plan. However, real-time needle tracking and seed identification for dynamic updating of dosimetry may improve the quality of seed implantation. The AAPM and GEC-ESTRO recommend that robotic systems should demonstrate a spatial accuracy of seed placement ≤1.0 mm in a phantom. This recommendation is based on the current performance of existing robotic brachytherapy systems and propagation of uncertainties. During clinical commissioning, tests should be conducted to ensure that this level of accuracy is achieved. These tests

  5. AAPM and GEC-ESTRO guidelines for image-guided robotic brachytherapy: report of Task Group 192.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podder, Tarun K; Beaulieu, Luc; Caldwell, Barrett; Cormack, Robert A; Crass, Jostin B; Dicker, Adam P; Fenster, Aaron; Fichtinger, Gabor; Meltsner, Michael A; Moerland, Marinus A; Nath, Ravinder; Rivard, Mark J; Salcudean, Tim; Song, Danny Y; Thomadsen, Bruce R; Yu, Yan

    2014-10-01

    In the last decade, there have been significant developments into integration of robots and automation tools with brachytherapy delivery systems. These systems aim to improve the current paradigm by executing higher precision and accuracy in seed placement, improving calculation of optimal seed locations, minimizing surgical trauma, and reducing radiation exposure to medical staff. Most of the applications of this technology have been in the implantation of seeds in patients with early-stage prostate cancer. Nevertheless, the techniques apply to any clinical site where interstitial brachytherapy is appropriate. In consideration of the rapid developments in this area, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) commissioned Task Group 192 to review the state-of-the-art in the field of robotic interstitial brachytherapy. This is a joint Task Group with the Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie-European Society for Radiotherapy & Oncology (GEC-ESTRO). All developed and reported robotic brachytherapy systems were reviewed. Commissioning and quality assurance procedures for the safe and consistent use of these systems are also provided. Manual seed placement techniques with a rigid template have an estimated in vivo accuracy of 3-6 mm. In addition to the placement accuracy, factors such as tissue deformation, needle deviation, and edema may result in a delivered dose distribution that differs from the preimplant or intraoperative plan. However, real-time needle tracking and seed identification for dynamic updating of dosimetry may improve the quality of seed implantation. The AAPM and GEC-ESTRO recommend that robotic systems should demonstrate a spatial accuracy of seed placement ≤1.0 mm in a phantom. This recommendation is based on the current performance of existing robotic brachytherapy systems and propagation of uncertainties. During clinical commissioning, tests should be conducted to ensure that this level of accuracy is achieved. These tests should

  6. AAPM and GEC-ESTRO guidelines for image-guided robotic brachytherapy: Report of Task Group 192

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decade, there have been significant developments into integration of robots and automation tools with brachytherapy delivery systems. These systems aim to improve the current paradigm by executing higher precision and accuracy in seed placement, improving calculation of optimal seed locations, minimizing surgical trauma, and reducing radiation exposure to medical staff. Most of the applications of this technology have been in the implantation of seeds in patients with early-stage prostate cancer. Nevertheless, the techniques apply to any clinical site where interstitial brachytherapy is appropriate. In consideration of the rapid developments in this area, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) commissioned Task Group 192 to review the state-of-the-art in the field of robotic interstitial brachytherapy. This is a joint Task Group with the Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie-European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (GEC-ESTRO). All developed and reported robotic brachytherapy systems were reviewed. Commissioning and quality assurance procedures for the safe and consistent use of these systems are also provided. Manual seed placement techniques with a rigid template have an estimated in vivo accuracy of 3–6 mm. In addition to the placement accuracy, factors such as tissue deformation, needle deviation, and edema may result in a delivered dose distribution that differs from the preimplant or intraoperative plan. However, real-time needle tracking and seed identification for dynamic updating of dosimetry may improve the quality of seed implantation. The AAPM and GEC-ESTRO recommend that robotic systems should demonstrate a spatial accuracy of seed placement ≤1.0 mm in a phantom. This recommendation is based on the current performance of existing robotic brachytherapy systems and propagation of uncertainties. During clinical commissioning, tests should be conducted to ensure that this level of accuracy is achieved. These tests

  7. First principles calculation of material properties of group IV elements and III-V compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Malone, Brad Dean

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents first principles calculations on the properties of group IV elements and group III-V compounds. It includes investigations into what structure a material is likely to form in, and given that structure, what are its electronic, optical, and lattice dynamical properties as well as what are the properties of defects that might be introduced into the sample. The thesis is divided as follows:Chapter 1 contains some of the conceptual foundations used in the present work. These ...

  8. Collaborative Writing Tasks in the L2 Classroom: Comparing Group, Pair, and Individual Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobao, Ana Fernandez

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the benefits of collaborative writing tasks. Previous research from the perspective of the sociocultural theory of mind suggests that writing tasks completed in pairs offer learners an opportunity to collaborate in the solution of their language-related problems, co-construct new language knowledge, and produce…

  9. Role of Gestalt grouping in selective attention: Evidence from the Stroop task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, M.J.M.; Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Selective attention has been intensively studied using the Stroop task. Evidence suggests that Stroop interference in a color-naming task arises partly because of visual attention sharing between color and word: Removing the target color after 150 msec reduces interference (Neumann, 1986). Moreover,

  10. Feel Like You Belong: On the Bidirectional Link Between Emotional Fit and Group Identification in Task Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen eDelvaux

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Three studies investigated the association between members’ group identification and the emotional fit with their group. In the first study, a cross-sectional study in a large organization, we replicated earlier research by showing that group identification and emotional fit are positively associated, using a broader range of emotions and using profile correlations to measure group members’ emotional fit. In addition, in two longitudinal studies, where groups of students were followed at several time points during their collaboration on a project, we tested the directionality of the relationship between group identification and emotional fit. The results showed a bidirectional, positive link between group identification and emotional fit, such that group identification and emotional fit either mutually reinforce or mutually dampen each other over time. We discuss how these findings increase insights in group functioning and how they may be used to change group processes for better or worse.

  11. Feel like you belong: on the bidirectional link between emotional fit and group identification in task groups

    OpenAIRE

    Delvaux, Ellen; Meeussen, Loes; Mesquita, Batja

    2015-01-01

    Three studies investigated the association between members’ group identification and the emotional fit with their group. In the first study, a cross-sectional study in a large organization, we replicated earlier research by showing that group identification and emotional fit are positively associated, using a broader range of emotions and using profile correlations to measure group members’ emotional fit. In addition, in two longitudinal studies, where groups of students were followed at seve...

  12. Calculation and preliminary analysis of group cross sections for gadolinium and its isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluated nuclear data files ENDL 78 and ENDF/B-IV and the cross section generation code FEDGROUP-R were used to produce averaged group cross sections for group systems BNAB and THSIG for gadolinium and its isotopes. Different sets of group cross sections for gadolinium (due to different evaluated data files or different processing codes) were compared and significant differences analyzed. The group capture cross sections for the isotopes of gadolinium were compared with published data. The group cross sections data sets prepared are analyzed as to what extent they can meet the requirements of cell calculations for gadolinium-loaded fuel. Some group cross section tables and cross section plots are presented. (author)

  13. Non interactive calculation of effective neutron multiplication factor by using two-group neutron albedo theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effective neutron multiplication factor, Keff, explicitly appears under the neutron albedo theory. An albedo scheme can be used to determine Keff value without an iterative strategy. The albedo theory is illustrated by the endeavor of calculating Keff by using two-group neutron albedo method for spherical reflected cores. (author). 4 refs, 7 tabs

  14. Principal working group No. 1 on operating experience and human factors (PWG1). Report of the task group on reviewing the activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Task Group was formed by PWG-1 in the latter part of 1999 to review the mandate of PWG1 in light of new directions and assignments from CSNI, and to prepare a report that suggests future directions of the Working Group, in harmony with directions from CSNI. This report is the response of the Task Group. Principal Working Group no.1 was organized in September 1982. The group formed its charter, which included: - reviewing periodically activities for the collection, dissemination, storage and analysis of incidents reported under the IRS; - examining annually the incidents reported during the previous year in order to select issues (either technical or human-factor-oriented) with major safety significance and report them to CSNI; - encouraging feed-back through CSNI of lessons derived from operating experience to nuclear safety research programmes, including human factors studies; - providing a forum to exchange information in the field of human factors studies; - establishing short-term task forces, when necessary to carry out information exchange, special studies or any other work within its mandate; - making recommendations to CSNI for improving and encouraging these activities. The mandate of the working group was systematically re-examined in 1994. The purpose was to determine whether changes since the formation of the original mandate would indicate some need to refocus the directions of the working group. It was concluded that the main line of work (sometimes called the core business) of PWG1, which was shown to be an efficient tool for exchanging safety-significant operating experience and lessons learned from safety-significant issues, remained as valid and necessary in 1994 as it was in 1982. Some recommendations for improvement of efficiency were made, but the core business was unchanged. Very little of the mandate needed modification. With little change over nearly 20 years, these six items have constituted the mandate of PWG1. There have been twenty

  15. The main tasks and obtained results within soil protection working group of the Danube countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of the Danube Countries Working Community activities was in 1993 constituted independent Soil Protection Working Group (SPWG). Its primary task is to elaborate principles and common soil protection concept in given countries accepted on the level of governments and related authorities, and also to the solution of the solution of the problems on regional levels. Final objective is to implement such concept of soil protection policy, which is able to maintain its quality and productivity potential for next generations also. Based on four years activities coordination could be significance and the SPWG relevance expressed in following topics: (1) Soil pollution and soil degradation, particularly in most pos-communistic countries has been attaining high degree, and in many locations also the threshold of ecological be arability. As reclamation and revitalization of the degraded and polluted soils require long time and considerable financial means, it is not only moral;, even also economically more effective to protect preventively than subsequent reclamation. (2) Main objective of the correct soil protection policy should be its high quality conservation also for the next generations. To this is joined also the protection not only productional, but also non-productional functions, particularly filtrational, transformational and buffering capacibility, including its role and significance, as land and environment. From, in this way considered relationships reality is resulting that the soil protection objectives are not only laws and prohibition approvement, but also active relationships harmonization between the man requirements and soil productivity potential, in order of the sustainable land resources use for the next generations. (3) Based on mentioned realities and relationships we consider the SPWG as an active gremium for elaboration of the the uniform soil protection concepts for governments and responsible organisations that in financial consequence

  16. Dosimetric effects caused by couch tops and immobilization devices: Report of AAPM Task Group 176

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olch, Arthur J., E-mail: aolch@chla.usc.edu [Radiation Oncology Department, University of Southern California and Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90027 (United States); Gerig, Lee [Department of Physics, Ottawa Hospital Regional Cancer Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada and Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Li, Heng [Department of Radiation Physics, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Mihaylov, Ivaylo [Department of Radiation Oncology Department, University of Miami, Miami, Florida 33136 (United States); Morgan, Andrew [The Beacon Centre, Musgrove Park Hospital, Taunton TA1 5DA (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15

    The dosimetric impact from devices external to the patient is a complex combination of increased skin dose, reduced tumor dose, and altered dose distribution. Although small monitor unit or dose corrections are routinely made for blocking trays, ion chamber correction factors, e.g., accounting for temperature and pressure, or tissue inhomogeneities, the dose perturbation of the treatment couch top or immobilization devices is often overlooked. These devices also increase skin dose, an effect which is also often ignored or underestimated. These concerns have grown recently due to the increased use of monolithic carbon fiber couch tops which are optimal for imaging for patient position verification but cause attenuation and increased skin dose compared to the “tennis racket” style couch top they often replace. Also, arc delivery techniques have replaced stationary gantry techniques which cause a greater fraction of the dose to be delivered from posterior angles. A host of immobilization devices are available and used to increase patient positioning reproducibility, and these also have attenuation and skin dose implications which are often ignored. This report of Task Group 176 serves to present a survey of published data that illustrates the magnitude of the dosimetric effects of a wide range of devices external to the patient. The report also provides methods for modeling couch tops in treatment planning systems so the physicist can accurately compute the dosimetric effects for indexed patient treatments. Both photon and proton beams are considered. A discussion on avoidance of high density structures during beam planning is also provided. An important aspect of this report are the recommendations the authors make to clinical physicists, treatment planning system vendors, and device vendors on how to make measurements of surface dose and attenuation and how to report these values. For the vendors, an appeal is made to work together to provide accurate couch top

  17. Verification of a Multi-group Cross Section Library for Burnup Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daing, Aung Tharn; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Hang Yu [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Despite satisfying the estimation of the neutronic parameters without depletion to some extent, it still requires detailed investigation of the behavior of a fuel with strong neutron absorber over its operating life time by nTRACER, the direct whole core calculation code with the conventional semi Predictor-Corrector method. This study is mainly focused on the verification of the newly generated multi-group library for burnup calculation by nTRACER through the analysis of its performance of depletion calculation of UO{sub 2} fuel with strong neutron absorbers such as Gadolinium. Firstly, the depletion calculation results of nTRACER are presented by comparing the evolution of k-inf and the inventories of commonly found important isotopes as a function of burnup in the cases of gadolinia(GAD)-bearing fuel pin and fuel assembly (FA) with those of MCNPX-version.2.6.0. The newly generated multi-group library for burnup calculation by nTRACER was verified through GAD-bearing fuel after the new approach of resonance treatment had been employed. Though very good agreement in the overall effect reflected on the multiplication factor of FA at BOC, the evolution of k-inf along fuel irradiation history was systematically well underestimated by nTRACER when compared to Monte Carlo results.

  18. Depletion Calculations for MTR Core Using MCNPX and Multi-Group Nodal Diffusion Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaradata, Mustafa K. [Univ. of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chang Je; Lee, Byungchul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In order to maintain a self-sustaining steady-state chain reaction, more fuel than is necessary in order to maintain a steady state chain reaction must be loaded. The introduction of this excess fuel increases the net multiplication capability of the system. In this paper MCNPX and multi-group nodal diffusion theory will be used for depletion calculations for MTR core. The eigenvalue and power distribution in the core will be compared for different burnup. Multi-group nodal diffusion theory with combination of NEWT-TRITON system was used to perform depletion calculations for 3Χ3 MTR core. 2G and 6G approximations were used and compared with MCNPX results for 2G approximation the maximum difference from MCNPX was 40 mk and for 6G approximation was 6 mk which is comparable to the MCNPX results. The calculated power using nodal code was almost the same MCNPX results. Finally the results of the multi-group nodal theory were acceptable and comparable to the calculated using MCNPX.

  19. Innovative characteristics of the new dosimetric model for the human respiratory tract studied by the ICRP appointed Task Group of Committee 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1984, the ICRP appointed a Task Group of Committee 2 to review and revise, as necessary, the current lung dosimetric model. On the basis of the knowledge acquired during the past 20 years, the Task Group's approach has been to review, in depth, the morphology and physiology of the human respiratory tract, inspirability of aerosols and regional deposition of inhaled particles as functions of aerosol size and breathing parameters, clearance of deposited materials, nature and specific sites of damage to the respiratory system caused by inhaled radioactive substances. In the proposed model, clearance from the three regions of the respiratory tract (extrathoracic ET, fast-clearing thoracic Tf and slow-clearing thoracic Ts, comprising lymph nodes) is described in terms of competition between the mechanical processes moving particles, which do not depend on the substances, and those of absorption into the blood, determined solely by the material. A Task Group report will also include models for calculating radiation doses to tissues of the respiratory system following inhalation of α, β and γ emitting particulate and gaseous radionuclides. (author)

  20. Investigation of group IVA elements combined with HAXPES and first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y.-T.; Li, G.-L.; Oji, H.; Son, J.-Y.

    2014-04-01

    The core level and valence band spectra of group IVA elements were investigated with hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES) photon energy of 7.939 keV by bulk sensitive manner. The survey and valance band spectra were presented, relative peaks intensity are discussed by thinking about inelastic mean free path (IMFP) and photoionization cross section of photoelectrons (PICS). In order to understand bulk band structures, valence bands are compared with the calculated ones by considering PICS, IMFP and total energy resolution. The calculated results by GGA, HSE06 and GW0 methods are simply discussed by comparing with experiment spectra.

  1. Examining Preschoolers' Nutrition Knowledge Using a Meal Creation and Food Group Classification Task: Age and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Shayla C.; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.

    2010-01-01

    Eating behaviours begin to develop during early childhood, but relatively little is known about preschoolers' nutrition knowledge. The current study examined age and gender differences in this knowledge using two tasks: food group classification and the creation of unhealthy, healthy and preferred meals. Sixty-nine three- to six-year-old children…

  2. Fairness, Teachers' Non-Task Behavior and Alumni Satisfaction: The Influence of Group Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lara, Pablo Zoghbi Manrique

    2008-01-01

    Purpose--The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between interactional justice, as a type of organizational justice that reflects the teachers' perceived fairness of supervisor treatment, and their non-task behavior in terms of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and deviant workplace behavior (DWB).…

  3. Are Expert Users Always Better Searchers? Interaction of Expertise and Semantic Grouping in Hypertext Search Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmeron, L.; Canas, J. J.; Fajardo, I.

    2005-01-01

    The facilitative effect of expertise in hypertext information retrieval (IR) tasks has been widely reported in related literature. However, recent theories of human expertise question the robustness of this result, since previous works have not fully considered the interaction between user and system characteristics. In this study, the constraint…

  4. Method for calculation of global sensitivity indices for few-group cross-section-dependent problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variance based global sensitivity analysis technique is robust, has a wide range of applicability and provides accurate sensitivity information for most models. However, it requires input variables to be mutually independent. A modification to this technique that allows one to deal with input variables that are block-wise correlated and normally distributed is presented. The focus of this study is the application of the modified global sensitivity analysis technique to calculations of reactor parameters that are dependent on multigroup or few-group neutron cross-sections. The result of the sensitivity analysis is obtained in terms of the global sensitivity indices, which can be used for characterising the contribution of uncertainties from the input cross-sections or their groups to the uncertainty of the calculated reactor parameter. The main effort in this work, besides presenting the theoretical background, is in establishing a method for a practical numerical calculation of the global sensitivity indices. The implementation of the method involves the calculation of multi-dimensional integrals, which can be prohibitively expensive to compute. Numerical techniques specifically suited to the evaluation of multidimensional integrals namely Monte Carlo and sparse grids methods are used, and their efficiency is compared. The method is illustrated and tested on a two-group cross-section dependent problem. In all the cases considered the results obtained with sparse grids achieved much better accuracy while using a significantly smaller number of samples. This aspect is addressed in a mini-study and a preliminary explanation of the results obtained is given. (author)

  5. A functional renormalization group approach to electronic structure calculations for systems without translational symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Seiler, Christian

    2016-01-01

    A formalism for electronic-structure calculations is presented that is based on the functional renormalization group (FRG). The traditional FRG has been formulated for systems that exhibit a translational symmetry with an associated Fermi surface, which can provide the organization principle for the renormalization group (RG) procedure. We here advance an alternative formulation, where the RG-flow is organized in the energy-domain rather than in k-space. This has the advantage that it can also be applied to inhomogeneous matter lacking a band-structure, such as disordered metals or molecules. The energy-domain FRG ({\\epsilon}FRG) presented here accounts for Fermi-liquid corrections to quasi-particle energies and particle-hole excitations. It goes beyond the state of the art GW-BSE, because in {\\epsilon}FRG the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) is solved in a self-consistent manner. An efficient implementation of the approach that has been tested against exact diagonalization calculations and calculations based on...

  6. FOURACES, MultiGroup Cross-Sections, Resonance Calculation from ENDF/B, KEDAK, UKNDL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of problem or function: FOURACES produces spectrum weighted, group averaged nuclear cross sections and related parameters for nuclear reactor calculations. ENDF/B-IV, ENDF/B-V, KEDAK or UKNDL libraries may be used as basic input data. The weighting function and energy group structure are arbitrary, and are specified by the user. The code can deal with single or multi-level Breit-Wigner Adler- Adler and Reich-Moore resonance formalisms, and includes a Doppler broadening option. 4. Method of solution: If the weighting function is simple enough group averaged quantities are computed from the point data and interpolation rule read from the evaluated data library using analytic formulae. Otherwise the integrations are performed using the trapezium rule. Resonance data are converted into point data using subroutines written primarily for the program CRESO (abstract NEA 0719), then Doppler broadened, and finally group averaged. 5. Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: A maximum of 256 energy groups can be dealt with

  7. A Metaanalysis of Perceptual Organization in Schizophrenia, Schizotypy, and Other High-Risk Groups Based on Variants of the Embedded Figures Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panton, Kirsten R; Badcock, David R; Badcock, Johanna C

    2016-01-01

    Current research on perceptual organization in schizophrenia frequently employs shapes with regularly sampled contours (fragmented stimuli), in noise fields composed of similar elements, to elicit visual abnormalities. However, perceptual organization is multi-factorial and, in earlier studies, continuous contours have also been employed in tasks assessing the ability to extract shapes from a background. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies using closed-contour stimuli, including the Embedded Figures Test (EFT) and related tasks, both in people with schizophrenia and in healthy schizotypes and relatives, considered at increased risk for psychosis. Eleven studies met the selection criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis, including six that used a between-groups study design (i.e., perceptual organization abilities of schizophrenia/high-risk groups were compared to healthy or clinical controls), and five that treated schizophrenia symptoms or schizotypy traits and indices of perceptual organization as continuous variables. Effect sizes and heterogeneity statistics were calculated, and the risk of publication bias was explored. A significant, moderate effect for EFT performance was found with studies that compared performance of schizophrenia/high-risk groups to a healthy or patient comparison group (d = -0.523, p schizotypy, but not schizophrenia studies, as well as studies using accuracy, but not reaction time as a measure of performance. A non-significant correlation was found for the studies that examined schizophrenia symptoms or schizotypy traits as continuous variables (r = 0.012, p = 0.825). These results suggest that deficits in perceptual organization of non-fragmented stimuli are found when differences between schizophrenia/high-risk groups and comparison groups are maximized. These findings should motivate further investigation of perceptual organization abilities with closed-contour stimuli both in schizophrenia and high

  8. A metaanalysis of perceptual organization in schizophrenia, schizotypy, and other high-risk groups based on variants of the Embedded Figures Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Rebecca Panton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Current research on perceptual organization in schizophrenia frequently employs shapes with regularly sampled contours (fragmented stimuli, in noise fields composed of similar elements, to elicit visual abnormalities. However, perceptual organization is multi-factorial and, in earlier studies, continuous contours have also been employed in tasks assessing the ability to extract shapes from a background. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies using closed-contour stimuli, including the Embedded Figures Test (EFT and related tasks, both in people with schizophrenia and in healthy schizotypes and relatives, considered at increased risk for psychosis. Eleven studies met the selection criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis, including six that used a between-groups study design (i.e. perceptual organization abilities of schizophrenia/high-risk groups were compared to healthy or clinical controls, and five that treated schizophrenia symptoms or schizotypy traits and indices of perceptual organization as continuous variables. Effect sizes and heterogeneity statistics were calculated, and the risk of publication bias was explored. A significant, moderate effect for EFT performance was found with studies that compared performance of schizophrenia/high-risk groups to a healthy or patient comparison group (d = -.523, p<.001. However, significant heterogeneity was also found amongst the schizotypy, but not schizophrenia studies, as well as studies using accuracy, but not reaction time as a measure of performance. A non-significant correlation was found for the studies that examined schizophrenia symptoms or schizotypy traits as continuous variables (r = .012, p = .825. These results suggest that deficits in perceptual organization of non-fragmented stimuli are found when differences between schizophrenia/high-risk groups and comparison groups are maximized. These findings should motivate further investigation of perceptual

  9. The calculation of resonance captures in a few-group approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory of few-group treatment of resonance captures is expounded, and appropriate methods for the spatial and energy averaging of cross-sections are derived in a form suitable for machine computation - i.e. as material cross-sections which can be used directly in a neutronics code. The method treats both self and mutual shielding of resonances (the latter, interaction with other nuclides, by an approximate method), in geometries ranging from homogeneous mixtures, through regular rod arrays to clustered fuel assemblies, and includes the effect of spatial source distribution, for example between moderator and coolant in pressure tube configurations. A particular application of the method has been to the lattice calculation code WIMS, and a sample 10-group library of data for U-238 and U-235 as used in this code is included. (author)

  10. Reports of the Working Group on Precision Calculations for the Z Resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Report summarizes the results of 12 months' activities of the Working Group on Precision Calculations for the Z Resonance, run at CERN in 1994. The main goal of the Working Group was to present a update of studies on radiative corrections for Z-resonance processes, integrating all new results that had appeared since the previous Workshop on ''Z Physics at LEP 1'', held in 1989. The Report is, however, more than a mere collection of the proceedings of the three general meetings held on January 14, March 31 and June 13, 1994. Three subgroups have been working in three related fields: electroweak physics, QCD at the Z resonance and Bhabha scattering in the luminosity region. An attempt has been made to present the final reports from these subgroups in a complete and homogeneous form. The subgroups' contributions in the three fields correspondingly comprise the three main parts of the Report. (orig.)

  11. Getting behind the Scenes of Fleetwood Mac's "Rumours": Using a Documentary on the Making of a Music Album to Learn about Task Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Debra R.; Holbrook, Robert L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The authors present an efficient and easy-to-implement experiential exercise that reinforces for students key concepts about task groups (i.e., group cohesiveness, conflict within groups, group effectiveness, group norms, and group roles). The exercise, which uses a documentary about the making of Fleetwood Mac's "Rumours" album to demonstrate the…

  12. Report of the Fourth interim meeting of the Seabed Working Group Engineering Studies Task Group, 3-6 October 1983, at Rijks Geologische Dienst, Haarlem, The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of the fourth interim meeting of the Seabed Working Group's (SWG) Engineering Studies Task Group (ESTG). This task group is charged with determining whether the engineering technology exists to emplace waste canisters in deep ocean sediments. The fourth interim meeting, held at Rijks Geologische Dienst, Haarlem, The Netherlands, 3-6 October 1983, reviewed progress made by the various national programs since the ESTG third interim meeting (July 1982) and developed a table of requirements for processing samples for a geotechnical properties data base. Other items addressed were (1) potential methods of instrumenting penetrators to obtain in situ measurements, (2) procedures for evaluating and quantifying the disturbed zone created by an emplaced penetrator, (3) review and modification of the current draft version of the SWG Five-Year Plan, (4) review and extension of the ESTG detailed plan for penetrator tests, and (5) details of the penetrator tests scheduled for March 1984 in the Nares Abyssal Plain using the research vessel M/V TYRO. The review of the national programs indicated significant progress when measured against the integrated ESTG five-year plan which results in a joint evaluation of engineering feasibility of subseabed disposal based upon (1) a demonstration of an emplacement capability, (2) an evaluation of the zone of sediment disturbance created during emplacement, (3) the existence of acceptable emplacement models, and (4) an acceptable engineering data base. A table of geotechnical sample-processing requirements is being developed to provide guidance for the other task groups that may have the opportunity to furnish suitable geotechnical samples to the ESTG as well as to provide some measure of consistency within the ESTG for the development of the engineering data base for the SWG study areas

  13. Effects of long-term practice and task complexity on brain activities when performing abacus-based mental calculations: a PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to examine the neural bases for the exceptional mental calculation ability possessed by Chinese abacus experts through PET imaging. We compared the different regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns using 15O-water PET in 10 abacus experts and 12 non-experts while they were performing each of the following three tasks: covert reading, simple addition, and complex contiguous addition. All data collected were analyzed using SPM2 and MNI templates. For non-experts during the tasks of simple addition, the observed activation of brain regions were associated with coordination of language (inferior frontal network) and visuospatial processing (left parietal/frontal network). Similar activation patterns but with a larger visuospatial processing involvement were observed during complex contiguous addition tasks, suggesting the recruitment of more visuospatial memory for solving the complex problems. For abacus experts, however, the brain activation patterns showed slight differences when they were performing simple and complex addition tasks, both of which involve visuospatial processing (bilateral parietal/frontal network). These findings supported the notion that the experts were completing all the calculation process on a virtual mental abacus and relying on this same computational strategy in both simple and complex tasks, which required almost no increasing brain workload for solving the latter. In conclusion, after intensive training and practice, the neural pathways in an abacus expert have been connected more effectively for performing the number encoding and retrieval that are required in abacus tasks, resulting in exceptional mental computational ability. (orig.)

  14. Critical groups vs. representative person: dose calculations due to predicted releases from USEXA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, N.L.D., E-mail: nelson.luiz@ctmsp.mar.mil.br [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha (CTM/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rochedo, E.R.R., E-mail: elainerochedo@gmail.com [Instituto de Radiprotecao e Dosimetria (lRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mazzilli, B.P., E-mail: mazzilli@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The critical group cf Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA) site was previously defined based 00 the effluents releases to the environment resulting from the facilities already operational at CEA. In this work, effective doses are calculated to members of the critical group considering the predicted potential uranium releases from the Uranium Hexafluoride Production Plant (USEXA). Basically, this work studies the behavior of the resulting doses related to the type of habit data used in the analysis and two distinct situations are considered: (a) the utilization of average values obtained from official institutions (IBGE, IEA-SP, CNEN, IAEA) and from the literature; and (b) the utilization of the 95{sup tb} percentile of the values derived from distributions fit to the obtained habit data. The first option corresponds to the way that data was used for the definition of the critical group of CEA done in former assessments, while the second one corresponds to the use of data in deterministic assessments, as recommended by ICRP to estimate doses to the so--called 'representative person' . (author)

  15. Calculation and Word Problem-Solving Skills in Primary Grades--Impact of Cognitive Abilities and Longitudinal Interrelations with Task-persistent Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jõgi, Anna-Liisa; Kikas, Eve

    2016-01-01

    Background: Primary school math skills form a basis for academic success down the road. Different math skills have different antecedents and there is a reason to believe that more complex math tasks require better self-regulation. Aims: The study aimed to investigate longitudinal interrelations of calculation and problem-solving skills, and…

  16. Computer calculation of the Van Vleck second moment for materials with internal rotation of spin groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goc, Roman

    2004-09-01

    in this paper calculates the second moment for solids with rotation of different groups of spins with C 3 symmetry. Method of solution: The rotation of molecules or their parts, for example CH 3 groups, is simulated as a random walk process by rotating each individual group of spins about its symmetry axis by an angle allowed by the type of symmetry. It is not a continuous rotation, but is in the form of jumps between consecutive positions allowed by the symmetry of the rotating group. Such a model of rotation fulfills assumptions on which theoretical equations used in NMR are derived. The value of Van Vleck's second moment averaged by this rotation is evaluated. The degree of averaging depends on the number of rotational jumps simulated during calculation. This number is then expressed in terms of the frequency of rotation and finally into the temperature. As a result we obtain simulated values of the NMR second moment as a function of temperature. Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The only restriction is the number of spins for which calculations can be performed in a reasonable amount of CPU time. This restriction is therefore a combination of the number of spins in the unit cell, number of unit cells included in the calculation, and the speed of the computer used. The tested version of the program was compiled for a maximum number of 6250 spins, arranged in 125 unit cells. There are 15 axes of rotation allowed per unit cell. Any of these restrictions can be overcome by increasing the dimensions of the appropriate arrays in the program. The dimensions given in the program are sufficient for analysis of most of the NMR data which one can find in the scientific literature. This is due to the fact that the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction decreases with the third power of distance between spins, and calculations including spins up to a distance of about 2.0 nm give a final accuracy of the second moment equal to about 1%, while experimental values are

  17. Global oral health inequalities: task group--implementation and delivery of oral health strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheiham, A; Alexander, D; Cohen, L;

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the shortcomings of present approaches to reduce oral diseases and inequalities, details the importance of social determinants, and links that to research needs and policies on implementation of strategies to reduce oral health inequalities. Inequalities in health...... are not narrowing. Attention is therefore being directed at determinants of major health conditions and the extent to which those common determinants vary within, between, and among groups, because if inequalities in health vary across groups, then so must underlying causes. Tackling inequalities in health requires...... strategies tailored to determinants and needs of each group along the social gradient. Approaches focusing mainly on downstream lifestyle and behavioral factors have limited success in reducing health inequalities. They fail to address social determinants, for changing people's behaviors requires changing...

  18. Ab Initio Calculations on Halogen Bond Between N-Br and Electron-donating Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-hua; CHEN Xue-song; ZOU Jian-wei; YU Qing-sen

    2007-01-01

    Ab initio calculations of complexes formed between N-bromosuccinimide and a series of electron-donating groups were performed at the level of MP2/Lanl2DZ* to gain a deeper insight into the nature of the N-Br halogen stronger halogen-bonding complex than the C-Br. A comparison of neutral hydrogen bond complex series reveals that the electron-donating capacities of the atoms decrease in the order, N>O>S; O(sp3)>O(sp2), which is adequate for the C-Br halogen bonding. Interaction energies, in conjunction with the geometrical parameters show that the affinitive capacity of trihalide anions X-3 with N-bromosuccinimide are markedly lower than that of the corresponding X- with N-bromosuccinimide, even lower than those of neutral molecules with N-bromosuccinimide. AIM analyses further confirmed the above results.

  19. Group Constants Generation of the Pseudo Fission Products for Fast Reactor Burnup Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Choong-Sup; Kim, Do Heon; Chang, Jonghwa

    2005-05-01

    The pseudo fission products for the burnup calculations of the liquid metal fast reactor were generated. The cross-section data and fission product yield data of ENDF/B-VI were used for the pseudo fission product data of U-235, U-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242. The pseudo fission product data can be used with the KAFAX-F22 or -E66, which are the MATXS-format libraries for analyses of the liquid metal fast reactor at KAERI and were distributed through the OECD/NEA. The 80-group MATXS-format libraries of the 172 fission products were generated and the burnup chains for generation of the pseudo fission products were prepared.

  20. Minimal intervention dentistry for managing dental caries - a review: report of a FDI task group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frencken, Jo E; Peters, Mathilde C; Manton, David J; Leal, Soraya C; Gordan, Valeria V; Eden, Ece

    2012-10-01

    This publication describes the history of minimal intervention dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries and presents evidence for various carious lesion detection devices, for preventive measures, for restorative and non-restorative therapies as well as for repairing rather than replacing defective restorations. It is a follow-up to the FDI World Dental Federation publication on MID, of 2000. The dental profession currently is faced with an enormous task of how to manage the high burden of consequences of the caries process amongst the world population. If it is to manage carious lesion development and its progression, it should move away from the 'surgical' care approach and fully embrace the MID approach. The chance for MID to be successful is thought to be increased tremendously if dental caries is not considered an infectious but instead a behavioural disease with a bacterial component. Controlling the two main carious lesion development related behaviours, i.e. intake and frequency of fermentable sugars, to not more than five times daily and removing/disturbing dental plaque from all tooth surfaces using an effective fluoridated toothpaste twice daily, are the ingredients for reducing the burden of dental caries in many communities in the world. FDI's policy of reducing the need for restorative therapy by placing an even greater emphasis on caries prevention than is currently done, is therefore, worth pursuing.

  1. Accuracy and calibration of integrated radiation output indicators in diagnostic radiology: A report of the AAPM Imaging Physics Committee Task Group 190

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the proliferation of disciplines employing fluoroscopy as their primary imaging tool and the prolonged extensive use of fluoroscopy in interventional and cardiovascular angiography procedures, “dose-area-product” (DAP) meters were installed to monitor and record the radiation dose delivered to patients. In some cases, the radiation dose or the output value is calculated, rather than measured, using the pertinent radiological parameters and geometrical information. The AAPM Task Group 190 (TG-190) was established to evaluate the accuracy of the DAP meter in 2008. Since then, the term “DAP-meter” has been revised to air kerma-area product (KAP) meter. The charge of TG 190 (Accuracy and Calibration of Integrated Radiation Output Indicators in Diagnostic Radiology) has also been realigned to investigate the “Accuracy and Calibration of Integrated Radiation Output Indicators” which is reflected in the title of the task group, to include situations where the KAP may be acquired with or without the presence of a physical “meter.” To accomplish this goal, validation test protocols were developed to compare the displayed radiation output value to an external measurement. These test protocols were applied to a number of clinical systems to collect information on the accuracy of dose display values in the field

  2. Accuracy and calibration of integrated radiation output indicators in diagnostic radiology: A report of the AAPM Imaging Physics Committee Task Group 190

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Pei-Jan P., E-mail: Pei-Jan.Lin@vcuhealth.org [Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Schueler, Beth A. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Balter, Stephen [Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032 (United States); Strauss, Keith J. [Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229 (United States); Wunderle, Kevin A. [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); LaFrance, M. Terry [Baystate Health Systems, Inc., Springfield, Massachusetts 01199 (United States); Kim, Don-Soo [Children’s Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Behrman, Richard H. [Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02118 (United States); Shepard, S. Jeff [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77096 (United States); Bercha, Ishtiaq H. [Children’s Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Due to the proliferation of disciplines employing fluoroscopy as their primary imaging tool and the prolonged extensive use of fluoroscopy in interventional and cardiovascular angiography procedures, “dose-area-product” (DAP) meters were installed to monitor and record the radiation dose delivered to patients. In some cases, the radiation dose or the output value is calculated, rather than measured, using the pertinent radiological parameters and geometrical information. The AAPM Task Group 190 (TG-190) was established to evaluate the accuracy of the DAP meter in 2008. Since then, the term “DAP-meter” has been revised to air kerma-area product (KAP) meter. The charge of TG 190 (Accuracy and Calibration of Integrated Radiation Output Indicators in Diagnostic Radiology) has also been realigned to investigate the “Accuracy and Calibration of Integrated Radiation Output Indicators” which is reflected in the title of the task group, to include situations where the KAP may be acquired with or without the presence of a physical “meter.” To accomplish this goal, validation test protocols were developed to compare the displayed radiation output value to an external measurement. These test protocols were applied to a number of clinical systems to collect information on the accuracy of dose display values in the field.

  3. The Indirect Effect of Age Group on Switch Costs via Gray Matter Volume and Task-Related Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffener, Jason; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging simultaneously affects brain structure, brain function, and cognition. These effects are often investigated in isolation ignoring any relationships between them. It is plausible that age related declines in cognitive performance are the result of age-related structural and functional changes. This straightforward idea is tested in within a conceptual research model of cognitive aging. The current study tested whether age-related declines in task-performance were explained by age-related differences in brain structure and brain function using a task-switching paradigm in 175 participants. Sixty-three young and 112 old participants underwent MRI scanning of brain structure and brain activation. The experimental task was an executive context dual task with switch costs in response time as the behavioral measure. A serial mediation model was applied voxel-wise throughout the brain testing all pathways between age group, gray matter volume, brain activation and increased switch costs, worsening performance. There were widespread age group differences in gray matter volume and brain activation. Switch costs also significantly differed by age group. There were brain regions demonstrating significant indirect effects of age group on switch costs via the pathway through gray matter volume and brain activation. These were in the bilateral precuneus, bilateral parietal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, cerebellum, fusiform, and occipital cortices. There were also significant indirect effects via the brain activation pathway after controlling for gray matter volume. These effects were in the cerebellum, occipital cortex, left precentral gyrus, bilateral supramarginal, bilateral parietal, precuneus, middle cingulate extending to medial superior frontal gyri and the left middle frontal gyri. There were no significant effects through the gray matter volume alone pathway. These results demonstrate that a large proportion of the age group effect on switch costs can

  4. Group Tasks, Activities, Dynamics, and Interactions in Collaborative Robotics Projects with Elementary and Middle School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Timothy T.; Boecking, Melanie; Stone, Jennifer; Tiger, Erin Price; Gomez, Alvaro; Guillen, Adrienne; Arreguin, Analisa

    2014-01-01

    Robotics provide the opportunity for students to bring their individual interests, perspectives and areas of expertise together in order to work collaboratively on real-world science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) problems. This paper examines the nature of collaboration that manifests in groups of elementary and middle school…

  5. IEC Quality Assurance Task Group 5: UV, Temperature, and Humidity (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.; Bath, J.; K& ouml; hl, M.; Shioda, T.

    2014-06-01

    Taskgroup 5 (TG5) is concerned with a comparative aging standard incorporating factors including ultraviolet radiation and temperature. Separate experiments are being conducted in support of a test standard via the regional sub-groups in Asia, Europe, and the United States. The authors will describe the objectives and timeline for TG5 as well as providing an update on the experiments in progress.

  6. The report of Task Group 100 of the AAPM: Application of risk analysis methods to radiation therapy quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, M Saiful; Fraass, Benedick A; Dunscombe, Peter B; Gibbons, John P; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Mundt, Arno J; Mutic, Sasa; Palta, Jatinder R; Rath, Frank; Thomadsen, Bruce R; Williamson, Jeffrey F; Yorke, Ellen D

    2016-07-01

    The increasing complexity of modern radiation therapy planning and delivery challenges traditional prescriptive quality management (QM) methods, such as many of those included in guidelines published by organizations such as the AAPM, ASTRO, ACR, ESTRO, and IAEA. These prescriptive guidelines have traditionally focused on monitoring all aspects of the functional performance of radiotherapy (RT) equipment by comparing parameters against tolerances set at strict but achievable values. Many errors that occur in radiation oncology are not due to failures in devices and software; rather they are failures in workflow and process. A systematic understanding of the likelihood and clinical impact of possible failures throughout a course of radiotherapy is needed to direct limit QM resources efficiently to produce maximum safety and quality of patient care. Task Group 100 of the AAPM has taken a broad view of these issues and has developed a framework for designing QM activities, based on estimates of the probability of identified failures and their clinical outcome through the RT planning and delivery process. The Task Group has chosen a specific radiotherapy process required for "intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)" as a case study. The goal of this work is to apply modern risk-based analysis techniques to this complex RT process in order to demonstrate to the RT community that such techniques may help identify more effective and efficient ways to enhance the safety and quality of our treatment processes. The task group generated by consensus an example quality management program strategy for the IMRT process performed at the institution of one of the authors. This report describes the methodology and nomenclature developed, presents the process maps, FMEAs, fault trees, and QM programs developed, and makes suggestions on how this information could be used in the clinic. The development and implementation of risk-assessment techniques will make radiation therapy

  7. Topological influence and excitations: decomposition formulas for calculating homotopy groups of symmetry broken phases

    CERN Document Server

    Higashikawa, Sho

    2016-01-01

    A symmetry broken phase of a system with internal degrees of freedom often features a complex order parameter, which generates a rich variety of topological excitations and topological influence between them, yet the very complexity of the order parameter makes it difficult to treat topological excitations and topological influence in a unified manner. To overcome this problem, we develop a general method to calculate homotopy groups and derive decomposition formulas which express homotopy groups of a quotient space $G/H$ in terms of those of the symmetry $G$ of the system and those of the remaining symmetry $H$ of the state. We apply these formulas to analyze a general monopole and a general three-dimensional skyrmion, and show that their textures are obtained through substitution of the corresponding $\\mathfrak{su}(2)$-subalgebra for the $\\mathfrak{su}(2)$-spin. We also show that a discrete symmetry of $H$ is necessary for the presence of topological influence and find the topological influence on a skyrmio...

  8. Space group symmetry applied to SCF calculations with periodic boundary conditions and Gaussian orbitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusakov, Alexander A.; Frisch, Michael J.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    2013-09-01

    Space group symmetry is exploited and implemented in density functional calculations of extended systems with periodic boundary conditions. Our scheme for reducing the number of two-electron integrals employs the entire set of operations of the space group, including glide plains and screw axes. Speedups observed for the Fock matrix formation in simple 3D systems range from 2X to 9X for the near field Coulomb part and from 3X to 8X for the Hartree-Fock-type exchange, the slowest steps of the procedure, thus leading to a substantial reduction of the computational time. The relatively small speedup factors in special cases are attributed to the highly symmetric positions atoms occupy in crystals, including the ones tested here, as well as to the choice of the smallest possible unit cells. For quasi-1D systems with most atoms staying invariant only under identity, the speedup factors often exceed one order of magnitude reaching almost 70X (near-field Coulomb) and 57X (HFx) for the largest tested (16,7) single-walled nanotube with 278 symmetry operations.

  9. Extrapolated renormalization group calculation of the surface tension in square-lattice Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using self-dual clusters (whose sizes are characterized by the numbers b=2, 3, 4, 5) within a real space renormalization group framework, the longitudinal surface tension of the square-lattice first-neighbour 1/2-spin ferromagnetic Ising model is calculated. The exact critical temperature T sub(c) is recovered for any value of b; the exact assymptotic behaviour of the surface tension in the limit of low temperatures is analytically recovered; the approximate correlation length critical exponents monotonically tend towards the exact value ν=1 (which, at two dimensions, coincides with the surface tension critical exponent μ) for increasingly large cells; the same behaviour is remarked in what concerns the approximate values for the surface tension amplitude in the limit T→T sub(c). Four different numerical procedures are developed for extrapolating to b→infinite the renormalization group results for the surface tension, and quite satisfactory agreement is obtained with Onsager's exact expression (error varying from zero to a few percent on the whole temperature domain). Furthermore the set of RG surface tensions is compared with a set of biased surface tensions (associated to appropriate misfit seams), and find only fortuitous coincidence among them. (Author)

  10. Indiana University high energy physics group, Task E. Technical progress report, December 1, 1987-June 1, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Task E of the Indiana University High Energy Physics Group was established on December 1, 1987. This progress report covers the period December 1, 1987 to June 1, 1988. Work was concentrated on the development of the Large Volume Detector (LVD) at the Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy. Most effort was devoted to design and experimental tests for the gas recirculating and purification system of the limited streamer tubes used in particle tracking. Some time was also devoted to the valuation of competing designs for the data acquisition system of the limited streamer tubes

  11. Application de la methode des sous-groupes au calcul Monte-Carlo multigroupe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicolas

    This thesis is dedicated to the development of a Monte Carlo neutron transport solver based on the subgroup (or multiband) method. In this formalism, cross sections for resonant isotopes are represented in the form of probability tables on the whole energy spectrum. This study is intended in order to test and validate this approach in lattice physics and criticality-safety applications. The probability table method seems promising since it introduces an alternative computational way between the legacy continuous-energy representation and the multigroup method. In the first case, the amount of data invoked in continuous-energy Monte Carlo calculations can be very important and tend to slow down the overall computational time. In addition, this model preserves the quality of the physical laws present in the ENDF format. Due to its cheap computational cost, the multigroup Monte Carlo way is usually at the basis of production codes in criticality-safety studies. However, the use of a multigroup representation of the cross sections implies a preliminary calculation to take into account self-shielding effects for resonant isotopes. This is generally performed by deterministic lattice codes relying on the collision probability method. Using cross-section probability tables on the whole energy range permits to directly take into account self-shielding effects and can be employed in both lattice physics and criticality-safety calculations. Several aspects have been thoroughly studied: (1) The consistent computation of probability tables with a energy grid comprising only 295 or 361 groups. The CALENDF moment approach conducted to probability tables suitable for a Monte Carlo code. (2) The combination of the probability table sampling for the energy variable with the delta-tracking rejection technique for the space variable, and its impact on the overall efficiency of the proposed Monte Carlo algorithm. (3) The derivation of a model for taking into account anisotropic

  12. Range Commanders Council Meteorology Group 88th Meeting: NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Task Report, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Barry C.

    2004-01-01

    Supported Return-to-Flight activities by providing surface climate data from Kennedy Space Center used primarily for ice and dew formation studies, and upper air wind analysis primarily used for ascent loads analyses. The MSFC Environments Group's Terrestrial and Planetary Environments Team documented Space Shuttle day-of-launch support activities by publishing a document in support of SSP Return-to-Flight activities entitled "Space Shuttle Program Flight Operations Support". The team also formalized the Shuttle Natural Environments Technical Panel and chaired the first special session of the SSP Natural Environments Panel meeting at KSC, November 4-7,2003.58 participants from NASA, DOD and other government agencies from across the country attended the meeting.

  13. Two Paths from the Same Place: Task Driven and Human Centered Evolution of a Group Information Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Daniel M.; Trimble, Jay; Wales, Roxana; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    This is the tale of two different implementations of a collaborative information tool, that started from the same design source. The Blueboard, developed at IBM Research, is a tool for groups to use in exchanging information in a lightweight, informal collaborative way. It began as a large display surface for walk-by use in a corporate setting and has evolved in response to task demands and user needs. At NASA, the MERBoard is being designed to support surface operations for the upcoming Mars Exploration Rover Missions. The MERBoard is a tool that was inspired by the Blueboard design, extending this design to support the collaboration requirements for viewing, annotating, linking and distributing information for the science and engineering teams that will operate two rovers on the surface of Mars. The ways in which each group transformed the system reflects not only technical requirements, but also the needs of users in each setting and embedding of the system within the larger socio-technical environment. Lessons about how task requirements, information flow requirements and work practice drive the evolution of a system are illustrated.

  14. Summary report for MEGAPIE R+D Task Group X4: Fluid dynamics and structure mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B. L

    2006-03-15

    The document chronicles, and draws summary conclusions from, the activities of the X4 R+D Support Group from the start of the project on January 1, 2000 to the time of the Technical Review Meeting in Mol: 27-29 June, 2005. The objectives to be accomplished were set out in a Baseline document. These were: to define the lower target flow configuration, within the geometric constraints imposed by the physical boundary conditions (geometrical confinement, lead- bismuth eutectic (LBE) inventory, pump capacities, target heat exchanger (THX) power, etc.); to identify, and evaluate, optimum target window design to minimise thermal loads and pressure drops, and to avoid hot-spots and flow instabilities; to demonstrate reliable cooling of the lower target enclosure (LTE); to demonstrate the structural integrity of the lower section of the Iiquid-metal container LMC) and its internal components, and that of the LTE; to provide best-estimate safety margins on target coolability and structural integrity under operational flow conditions; to investigate, quantify, and make recommendations regarding, abnormal target operation including possible accident scenarios). The time-scale set for MEGAPIE was always such that much of the design work needed to be carried out at the same time as the R+D support. Often, the target design was changing faster than the time required to perform the detailed computer simulations. As a consequence, many of the simulations reported or referenced in this document do not refer to the very latest target design, and in many respects the results and conclusions must be regarded as generic in nature. Nonetheless, very valuable work has been carried out by the various organisations, and better understanding of the expected temperature distributions and stress levels in the operating MEGAPIE target has been gained, and direct feed-back to the design team on various aspects of the design details has taken place as a consequence of this work. As the design

  15. Summary report for MEGAPIE R+D Task Group X4: Fluid dynamics and structure mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document chronicles, and draws summary conclusions from, the activities of the X4 R+D Support Group from the start of the project on January 1, 2000 to the time of the Technical Review Meeting in Mol: 27-29 June, 2005. The objectives to be accomplished were set out in a Baseline document. These were: to define the lower target flow configuration, within the geometric constraints imposed by the physical boundary conditions (geometrical confinement, lead- bismuth eutectic (LBE) inventory, pump capacities, target heat exchanger (THX) power, etc.); to identify, and evaluate, optimum target window design to minimise thermal loads and pressure drops, and to avoid hot-spots and flow instabilities; to demonstrate reliable cooling of the lower target enclosure (LTE); to demonstrate the structural integrity of the lower section of the Iiquid-metal container LMC) and its internal components, and that of the LTE; to provide best-estimate safety margins on target coolability and structural integrity under operational flow conditions; to investigate, quantify, and make recommendations regarding, abnormal target operation including possible accident scenarios). The time-scale set for MEGAPIE was always such that much of the design work needed to be carried out at the same time as the R+D support. Often, the target design was changing faster than the time required to perform the detailed computer simulations. As a consequence, many of the simulations reported or referenced in this document do not refer to the very latest target design, and in many respects the results and conclusions must be regarded as generic in nature. Nonetheless, very valuable work has been carried out by the various organisations, and better understanding of the expected temperature distributions and stress levels in the operating MEGAPIE target has been gained, and direct feed-back to the design team on various aspects of the design details has taken place as a consequence of this work. As the design

  16. Extrapolating Accelerated UV Weathering Data: Perspective From PVQAT Task Group 5 (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.; Annigoni, E.; Ballion, A.; Bokria, J.; Bruckman, L.; Burns, D.; Elliott, L.; French, R.; Fowler, S.; Gu, X.; Honeker, C.; Khonkar, H.; Kohl, M.; Krommenhoek, P.; Peret-Aebi, L.; Phillips, N.; Scott, K.; Sculati-Meillaud, F.; Shioda, T.

    2015-02-01

    Taskgroup 5 (TG5) is concerned with a accelerated aging standard incorporating factors including ultraviolet radiation, temperature, and moisture. Separate experiments are being conducted in support of a test standard via the regional sub-groups in Asia, Europe, and the United States. The authors will describe the objectives and timeline for the TG5 interlaboratory study being directed out of the USA. Qualitative preliminary data from the experiment is presented. To date, the encapsulation transmittance experiment has: replicated behaviors of fielded materials (including specimen location- and formulation additive-specific discoloration); demonstrated coupling between UV aging and temperature; demonstrated that degradation in EVA results from UV- aging; and obtained good qualitative comparison between Xe and UVA-340 sources for EVA. To date, the encapsulation adhesion experiment (using the compressive shear test to quantify strength of attachment) has demonstrated that attachment strength can decrease drastically (>50%) with age; however, early results suggest significant factor (UV, T, RH) dependence. Much remains to be learned about adhesion.

  17. Report of task group on the biological basis for dose limitation in the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researchers have drawn attention to what they consider inconsistencies in the manner in which ICRP have considered skin in relation to the effective dose equivalent. They urge that the dose to the skin should be considered routinely for inclusion in the effective dose equivalent in the context of protection of individuals and population groups. They note that even with a weighting factor of only 0.01 that the dose to the skin can be a significant contributor to the effective dose equivalent including skin for practical exposure conditions. In the case of many exposures the risk to the skin can be ignored but exposure in an uniformly contaminated cloud that might occur with 85Kr the dose to the skin could contribute 60% of the stochastic risk if included in the effective dose equivalent with a WT of 0.01. Through the years and even today the same questions about radiation effects in the skin and dosimetry keep being asked. This report collates the available data and current understanding of radiation effects on the skin, and may make it possible to estimate risks more accurately and to improve the approach to characterizing skin irradiations. 294 refs., 29 figs

  18. Dynamical mean-field theory and path integral renormalisation group calculations of strongly correlated electronic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two-plane HUBBARD model, which is a model for some electronic properties of undoped YBCO superconductors as well as displays a MOTT metal-to-insulator transition and a metal-to-band insulator transition, is studied within Dynamical Mean-Field Theory using HIRSCH-FYE Monte Carlo. In order to find the different transitions and distinguish the types of insulator, we calculate the single-particle spectral densities, the self-energies and the optical conductivities. We conclude that there is a continuous transition from MOTT to band insulator. In the second part, ground state properties of a diagonally disordered HUBBARD model is studied using a generalisation of Path Integral Renormalisation Group, a variational method which can also determine low-lying excitations. In particular, the distribution of antiferromagnetic properties is investigated. We conclude that antiferromagnetism breaks down in a percolation-type transition at a critical disorder, which is not changed appreciably by the inclusion of correlation effects, when compared to earlier studies. Electronic and excitation properties at the system sizes considered turn out to primarily depend on the geometry. (orig.)

  19. Gate-tunable Kondo resistivity and dephasing rate in graphene studied by numerical renormalization group calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Po-Wei; Guo, Guang-Yu; Anders, Frithjof B.

    2014-05-01

    Motivated by the recent observation of the Kondo effect in graphene in transport experiments, we investigate the resistivity and dephasing rate in the Kondo regime due to magnetic impurities in graphene with different chemical potentials (μ). The Kondo effect due to either carbon vacancies or magnetic adatoms in graphene is described by the single-orbital pseudogap asymmetric Anderson impurity model which is solved by the accurate numerical renormalization group method. We find that although the Anderson impurity model considered here is a mixed-valence system, it can be driven into either the Kondo [μ >μc (critical value) >0], mixed-valency (μ ≈μc), or empty-orbital (μ μc, in contrast, the resistivity curve has an additional broad shoulder above 10TK and the dephasing rate exhibits an interesting shoulder-peak shape. In the narrow boundary region (μ ≈μc), both the resistivity and dephasing rate curves are similar to the corresponding ones in normal metals. This explains the conventional Kondo-like resistivity from recent experiments on graphene with defects, although the distinct features in the resistivity in the other cases (μ μc) were not seen in the experiments. The interesting features in the resistivity and dephasing rate are analyzed in terms of the calculated T-dependent spectral function, correlation self-energy, and renormalized impurity level.

  20. Second mission of North-Cotentin radio-ecology group. The uncertainty calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study treats only the collective risk of ex-utero leukaemia associated with the routine releases of the nuclear industrial installations of the North Cotentin (0.0009 cases over the considered period) the uncertainty on the contribution to the collective risk of the incidents and the accidents of the nuclear installations (notably the drilling of the pipe of release in sea arisen in 1979-1980 and the fire of the waste silo on January 6. 1981, for the reprocessing plant of La Hague has not been considered. Only 45% of the risk are taken into account by the study. Every calculated value remains very inferior to the number of leukemia cases observed (4 cases observed for two expected cases) and to the risk of radioinduced leukemia any merged exposure sources, that is to say 0.84 cases. It appears thus not very probable that the nuclear installations of the North - Cotentin can explain the tendency to the excess of observed leukaemia. The limits of the study become attached for the main part to the environmental impact of the routine releases and to the lifestyles and refuses to tackle anything concerning the health radiation effects. The work made by the group does not allow to end in the harmlessness of radioactive waste, nevertheless, it gives an idea of the scale of the impacts onto the environment of the routine releases. (N.C.)

  1. Dynamical mean-field theory and path integral renormalisation group calculations of strongly correlated electronic states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilmann, D.B.

    2007-02-15

    The two-plane HUBBARD model, which is a model for some electronic properties of undoped YBCO superconductors as well as displays a MOTT metal-to-insulator transition and a metal-to-band insulator transition, is studied within Dynamical Mean-Field Theory using HIRSCH-FYE Monte Carlo. In order to find the different transitions and distinguish the types of insulator, we calculate the single-particle spectral densities, the self-energies and the optical conductivities. We conclude that there is a continuous transition from MOTT to band insulator. In the second part, ground state properties of a diagonally disordered HUBBARD model is studied using a generalisation of Path Integral Renormalisation Group, a variational method which can also determine low-lying excitations. In particular, the distribution of antiferromagnetic properties is investigated. We conclude that antiferromagnetism breaks down in a percolation-type transition at a critical disorder, which is not changed appreciably by the inclusion of correlation effects, when compared to earlier studies. Electronic and excitation properties at the system sizes considered turn out to primarily depend on the geometry. (orig.)

  2. The Density Matrix Renormalization Group Method and Large-Scale Nuclear Shell-Model Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrova, S S; Pittel, S; Stoitsov, M V

    2002-01-01

    The particle-hole Density Matrix Renormalization Group (p-h DMRG) method is discussed as a possible new approach to large-scale nuclear shell-model calculations. Following a general description of the method, we apply it to a class of problems involving many identical nucleons constrained to move in a single large j-shell and to interact via a pairing plus quadrupole interaction. A single-particle term that splits the shell into degenerate doublets is included so as to accommodate the physics of a Fermi surface in the problem. We apply the p-h DMRG method to this test problem for two $j$ values, one for which the shell model can be solved exactly and one for which the size of the hamiltonian is much too large for exact treatment. In the former case, the method is able to reproduce the exact results for the ground state energy, the energies of low-lying excited states, and other observables with extreme precision. In the latter case, the results exhibit rapid exponential convergence, suggesting the great promi...

  3. Lead-chromium carbonyl complexes incorporated with group 8 metals: synthesis, reactivity, and theoretical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Minghuey; Chu, Yen-Yi; Hsu, Miao-Hsing; Ke, Wei-Ming; Lin, Chien-Nan

    2011-01-17

    The trichromium-lead complex [Pb{Cr(CO)5}3](2-) (1) was isolated from the reaction of PbCl2 and Cr(CO)6 in a KOH/MeOH solution, and the new mixed chromium-iron-lead complex [Pb{Cr(CO)5}{Fe(CO)4}2](2-) (3) was synthesized from the reaction of PbCl2 and Cr(CO)6 in a KOH/MeOH solution followed by the addition of Fe(CO)5. X-ray crystallography showed that 3 consisted of a central Pb atom bound in a trigonal-planar environment to two Fe(CO)4 and one Cr(CO)5 fragments. When complex 1 reacted with 1.5 equiv of Mn(CO)5Br, the Cr(CO)4-bridged dimeric lead-chromium carbonyl complex [Pb2Br2Cr4(CO)18](2-) (4) was produced. However, a similar reaction of 3 or the isostructural triiron-lead complex [Pb{Fe(CO)4}3](2-) (2) with Mn(CO)5Br in MeCN led to the formation of the Fe3Pb2-based trigonal-bipyramidal complexes [Fe3(CO)9{PbCr(CO)5}2](2-) (6) and [Fe3(CO)9{PbFe(CO)4}2](2-) (5), respectively. On the other hand, the Ru3Pb2-based trigonal-bipyramidal complex [Ru3(CO)9{PbCr(CO)5}2](2-) (7) was obtained directly from the reaction of PbCl2, Cr(CO)6, and Ru3(CO)12 in a KOH/MeOH solution. X-ray crystallography showed that 5 and 6 each had an Fe3Pb2 trigonal-bipyramidal core geometry, with three Fe(CO)3 groups occupying the equatorial positions and two PbFe(CO)4 or PbCr(CO)5 units in the axial positions, while 7 displayed a Ru3Pb2 trigonal-bipyramidal geometry with three equatorial Ru(CO)3 groups and two axial PbCr(CO)5 units. The complexes 3-7 were characterized spectroscopically, and their nature, formation, and electrochemistry were further examined by molecular orbital calculations at the B3LYP level of density functional theory.

  4. Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task E: Technical progress report, December 1, 1988--November 30, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report for Task E of the Indiana University High Energy Physics Group covers the period June 1, 1988 to May 31, 1989. During this time we worked on several aspects of the development of the Large Volume Detector (LVD) at the Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy. We finished our gas flow studies for the recirculating and purification system for the limited streamer gas and aided, on a consulting basis, our colleagues at Frascati with the technical specifications for the gas system which they plan to buy from industry. Our major efforts were devoted to design of the tracking trigger, plans for cabling of the whole detector, and learning about the L3 database system. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Study on the surface hydroxyl group on solid breeding materials by ab-initio calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Satoru; Taniguchi, Masaki [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    The nature of -OH on the surface of Li{sub 2}O was analyzed with the ab-initio quantum chemical calculation technique. Calculation results showed that the stretching vibration of O-H is affected by the chemical species around the -OH. (author)

  6. ANIGAM: a computer code for the automatic calculation of nuclear group data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer code ANIGAM consists mainly of the well-known programmes GAM-I and ANISN as well as of a subroutine which reads the THERMOS cross section library and prepares it for ANISN. ANIGAM has been written for the automatic calculation of microscopic and macroscopic cross sections of light water reactor fuel assemblies. In a single computer run both were calculated, the cross sections representative for fuel assemblies in reactor core calculations and the cross sections of each cell type of a fuel assembly. The calculated data were delivered to EXTERMINATOR and CITATION for following diffusion or burn up calculations by an auxiliary programme. This report contains a detailed description of the computer codes and methods used in ANIGAM, a description of the subroutines, of the OVERLAY structure and an input and output description. (oririg.)

  7. Small groups, large profits: Calculating interest rates in community-managed microfinance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ole Dahl

    2012-01-01

    Savings groups are a widely used strategy for women’s economic resilience – over 80% of members worldwide are women, and in the case described here, 72.5%. In these savings groups it is common to see the interest rate on savings reported as "20-30% annually". Using panel data from 204 groups...

  8. Critical operator actions: human reliability modeling and data issues. Principal Working Group No. 5 - Task 94-1. Final Task Report prepared by a Group of Experts of the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    information. The same may apply to the experiences made in the context of design and procedures improvements, based on or related to HRA. As a recognition of the importance of human interactions and of the need to exchange experiences from their treatment, Task 94-1 was initiated within PWG5 in 1994. The present report summarises the results of the work carried out by the group of experts. In Chapter 2 the specific task objectives are stated and the scope is defined. Chapter 3 contains the descriptions of the current HRA activities, including both industrial applications and research projects, in the countries participating in the task. In Chapter 4 data needs and sources for HRA are outlined and in Chapter 5 currently used analysis approaches and their limitations are discussed. Results of the HRA survey, carried out as a major part of this task, are presented in Chapter 6. Chapter 7 deals with a number of special topics in HRA, considered as particularly complex and/or difficult due to the scarceness of data. Current development tendencies are addressed with considerable detail in Chapter 8, followed by conclusions and recommendations (Chapter 9). Comprehensive references are provided at the end of each chapter. Finally, Appendices B, C, D, and F contain detailed information related to the HRA survey

  9. Electronic, vibrational and related properties of group IV metal oxides by ab initio calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite Alves, H.W. [Departamento de Ciencias Naturais, Universidade Federal de Sao Joao del Rei, C.P. 110, Sao Joao del Rei, MG 36301-160 (Brazil)], E-mail: hwlalves@ufsj.edu.br; Silva, C.C. [Departamento de Ciencias Naturais, Universidade Federal de Sao Joao del Rei, C.P. 110, Sao Joao del Rei, MG 36301-160 (Brazil); Lino, A.T. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, C.P. 593, Uberlandia, MG 38400-902 (Brazil); Borges, P.D. [Departamento de Engenharia de Telecomunicacoes, Uniao Educacional de Minas Gerais, Uberlandia, MG 38411-113 (Brazil); Scolfaro, L.M.R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66318, Sao Paulo, SP 05315-970 (Brazil); Silva, E.F. da [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitaria, Recife, PE 50670-901 (Brazil)

    2008-11-30

    We present our theoretical results for the structural, electronic, vibrational and optical properties of MO{sub 2} (M = Sn, Zr, Hf and Ti) obtained by first-principles calculations. Relativistic effects are demonstrated to be important for a realistic description of the detailed structure of the electronic frequency-dependent dielectric function, as well as of the carrier effective masses. Based on our results, we found that the main contribution of the high values calculated for the oxides dielectric constants arises from the vibrational properties of these oxides, and the vibrational static dielectric constant values diminish with increasing pressure.

  10. DECOVALEX-THMC Project. Task A. Influence of near field coupled THM phenomena on the performance of a spent fuel repository. Report of Task A1: Preliminary scoping calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Son (ed.) [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (Canada); Lanru Jing (ed.) [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Boergesson, Lennart [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Chijimatzu, Masakazu [Hazama Corporation (Japan); Jussila, Petri [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Helsinki (Finland); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory CA (United States)

    2007-02-15

    The DECOVALEX-THMC project is an ongoing international co-operative project that was stared in 2004 to support the development of mathematical models of coupled Thermal (T), Hydrological (H), Mechanical (M) and Chemical (C) processes in geological media for siting potential nuclear fuel waste repositories. The general objective is to characterise and evaluate the coupled THMC processes in the near field and far field of a geological repository and to assess their impact on performance assessment: - during the three phases of repository development: excavation phase, operation phase and post-closure phase; - for three different rocks types: crystalline, argillaceous and tuff; - with specific focus on the issues of: Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ), permanent property changes of rock masses, and glaciation and permafrost phenomena. The project involves a large number of research teams supported by radioactive waste management agencies or governmental regulatory bodies in Canada, China, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Sweden and USA, who conducted advanced studies and numerical modelling of coupled THMC processes under five tasks. This report presents the definition of the first phase, Task A-1, of the Task A of the project. The task is a working example of how interaction between THMC modelling and SA analysis could be performed. Starting with the technical definition of the Task A, the report presents the results of preliminary THM calculations with a purpose of an initial appreciation of the phenomena and material properties that must be better understood in subsequent phases. Many simplifications and assumptions were introduced and the results should be considered under these assumptions. Based on the evaluation of the multiple teams' results, a few points of concern were identified that may guide the successive phases of Task A studies: 1. The predicted maximum total stress in the MX-80 bentonite could slightly exceed the 15 MPa design pressure for the

  11. JMA's regional atmospheric transport model calculations for the WMO technical task team on meteorological analyses for Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) convened a small technical task team of experts to produce a set of meteorological analyses to drive atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition models (ATDMs) for the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation's assessment of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (DNPP) accident. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) collaborated with the WMO task team as the regional specialized meteorological center of the country where the accident occurred, and provided its operational 5-km resolution mesoscale (MESO) analysis and its 1-km resolution radar/rain gauge-analyzed precipitation (RAP) data. The JMA's mesoscale tracer transport model was modified to a regional ATDM for radionuclides (RATM), which included newly implemented algorithms for dry deposition, wet scavenging, and gravitational settling of radionuclide aerosol particles. Preliminary and revised calculations of the JMA-RATM were conducted according to the task team's protocol. Verification against Cesium 137 (137Cs) deposition measurements and observed air concentration time series showed that the performance of RATM with MESO data was significantly improved by the revisions to the model. The use of RAP data improved the 137Cs deposition pattern but not the time series of air concentrations at Tokai-mura compared with calculations just using the MESO data. Sensitivity tests of some of the more uncertain parameters were conducted to determine their impacts on ATDM calculations, and the dispersion and deposition of radionuclides on 15 March 2011, the period of some of the largest emissions and deposition to the land areas of Japan. The area with high deposition in the northwest of Fukushima DNPP and the hotspot in the central part of Fukushima prefecture were primarily formed by wet scavenging influenced by the orographic effect of the mountainous area in the west of the Fukushima prefecture

  12. Strategic Development in Exact Calculation: Group and Individual Differences in Four Achievement Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Judith; Jordan, Julie-Ann; Mulhern, Gerry

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study sought to identify developmental changes in strategy use between 5 and 7 years of age when solving exact calculation problems. Four mathematics and reading achievement subtypes were examined at four time points. Five strategies were considered: finger counting, verbal counting, delayed retrieval, automatic retrieval, and…

  13. Conformational energy calculations and proton nuclear overhauser enhancements reveal a unique conformation for blood group A oligosaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, C.A.; Yan, Z.Y.; Rao, B.N.N.

    1986-10-01

    The H NMR spectra of a series of blood group A active oligosaccharides containing from four to ten sugar residues have been completely assigned, and quantitative nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOE) have been measured between protons separated by known distances within the pyranoside ring. The observation of NOE between anomeric protons and those of the aglycon sugar as well as small effects between protons of distant rings suggests that the oligosaccharides have well-defined conformations. Conformational energy calculations were carried out on a trisaccharide, Fuc( -1 2)(GalNAc( -1 3))-GalUS -O-me, which models the nonreducing terminal fragments of the blood group A oligosaccharides. The results of calculations with three different potential energy functions which have been widely used in peptides and carbohydrates gave several minimum energy conformations. In NOE calculations from conformational models, the rotational correlation time was adjusted to fit T1's and intra-ring NOE. Comparison of calculated maps of NOE as a function of glycosidic dihedral angles showed that only a small region of conformational space was consistent with experimental data on a blood group A tetrasaccharide alditol. This conformation occurs at an energy minimum in all three energy calculations. Temperature dependence of the NOE implies that the oligosaccharides adopt single rigid conformations which do not change with temperature.

  14. Conformational energy calculations and proton nuclear overhauser enhancements reveal a unique conformation for blood group A oligosaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1H NMR spectra of a series of blood group A active oligosaccharides containing from four to ten sugar residues have been completely assigned, and quantitative nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOE) have been measured between protons separated by known distances within the pyranoside ring. The observation of NOE between anomeric protons and those of the aglycon sugar as well as small effects between protons of distant rings suggests that the oligosaccharides have well-defined conformations. Conformational energy calculations were carried out on a trisaccharide, Fuc(α-1→2)[GalNAc(α-1→3)]-Galβ-O-me, which models the nonreducing terminal fragments of the blood group A oligosaccharides. The results of calculations with three different potential energy functions which have been widely used in peptides and carbohydrates gave several minimum energy conformations. In NOE calculations from conformational models, the rotational correlation time was adjusted to fit T1's and intra-ring NOE. Comparison of calculated maps of NOE as a function of glycosidic dihedral angles showed that only a small region of conformational space was consistent with experimental data on a blood group A tetrasaccharide alditol. This conformation occurs at an energy minimum in all three energy calculations. Temperature dependence of the NOE implies that the oligosaccharides adopt single rigid conformations which do not change with temperature

  15. Report of ICRP Task Group 80: 'radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W

    2012-01-01

    The report of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Task Group 80 entitled 'Radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste' updates and consolidates previous ICRP recommendations related to solid waste disposal (ICRP Publications 46, 77, and 81). The recommendations given in this report apply specifically to geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report explains how the 2007 system of radiological protection, described in ICRP Publication 103, can be applied in the context of the geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report is written as a self-standing document. It describes the different stages in the lifetime of a geological disposal facility, and addresses the application of relevant radiological protection principles for each stage depending on the various exposure situations that can be encountered. In particular, the crucial factor that influences application of the protection system over the different phases in the lifetime of a disposal facility is the level of oversight that is present. The level of oversight affects the capability to reduce or avoid exposures. Three main time frames have to be considered for the purpose of radiological protection: time of direct oversight when the disposal facility is being implemented and active oversight is taking place; time of indirect oversight when the disposal facility is sealed and indirect oversight is being exercised to provide additional assurance on behalf of the population; and time of no oversight when oversight is no longer exercised because memory is lost.

  16. Reexamining the validity and reliability of the clinical version of the Iowa gambling task: Evidence from a normal subject group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hung eLin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Over past decade, the Iowa gambling task (IGT has been utilized to test various decision deficits induced by neurological damage or psychiatric disorders. The IGT has recently been standardized for identifying 13 different neuropsychological disorders. Neuropsychological patients choose bad decks frequently, and normal subjects prefer good EV decks. However, the IGT has several validity and reliability problems. Some research groups have pointed out that the validity of IGT is influenced by the personality and emotional state of subjects. Additionally, several other studies have proposed that the prominent deck B phenomenon (PDB phenomenon – that is, normal subjects preferring bad deck B – may be the most serious problem confronting IGT validity. Specifically, deck B offers a high frequency of gains but negative EV. In the standard IGT administration, choice behavior can be understood with reference to gain-loss frequency (GLF rather than inferred future consequences (EV, the basic assumption of IGT. Furthermore, using two different criteria (basic assumption vs. professional norm results in significantly different classification results. Therefore, we recruited 72 normal subjects to test the validity and reliability of IGT. Each subject performed three runs of the computer-based clinical IGT version. The PDB phenomenon has been observed to a significant degree in the first and second stages of the clinical IGT version. Obviously, validity, reliability and the practice effect were unstable between two given stages. The present form of the clinical IGT version has only one stage, so its use should be reconsidered for examining normal decision makers; results from patient groups must also be interpreted with great care. GLF could be the main factor to be considered in establishing the constructional validity and reliability of the clinical IGT version.

  17. Calculation of the one-dimension two energy groups lambda modes, using the boundary functions method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using parameters and cross sections of SIMULATE-III code, a method to obtain the lambda modes was developed. In order to validate the method, eigenvalues and eigenfunctions obtained with this method were compared with those obtained using SIMULATE III and VENTURE codes. For superior order modes, the results were compared with those calculated by General Electric, for the Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant-Spain. (author)

  18. Development of a multi-group SN transport calculation code with unstructured tetrahedral meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the computational methods used in the MUST (Multi-group Unstructured geometry SN Transport) code for solving the multi-group Sn transport equation in general geometries and describes the status of development of MUST. MUST solves the multi-group transport equation with unstructured tetrahedral meshes for modeling complicated geometrical problems. For tetrahedral mesh generation, input generation, and output visualization, we developed a management program where the mesh generation is based on Gmsh and TetGen that are open softwares. The geometrical modeling is done with the commercial CAD softwares such as CATIA. MUST uses the discontinuous finite element method (DFEM) and two-sub cell balance methods with linear discontinuous expansion (LDEM-SCB) to spatially discretize the transport equation. We applied MUST to three neutron and gamma coupled test problems for testing MUST. (author)

  19. Innovative characteristics of the new dosimetric model for the human respiratory tract studied by the ICRP appointed Task Group of Committee 2

    CERN Document Server

    Melandri, C; Tarroni, G

    1991-01-01

    In 1984, the ICRP appointed a Task Group of Committee 2 to review and revise, as necessary, the current lung dosimetric model. On the basis of the knowledge acquired during the past 20 years, the Task Group's approach has been to review, in depth, the morphology and physiology of the human respiratory tract, inspirability of aerosols and regional deposition of inhaled particles as functions of aerosol size and breathing parameters, clearance of deposited materials, nature and specific sites of damage to the respiratory system caused by inhaled radioactive substances. In the proposed model, clearance from the three regions of the respiratory tract (extrathoracic ET, fast-clearing thoracic T sub f and slow-clearing thoracic T sub s , comprising lymph nodes) is described in terms of competition between the mechanical processes moving particles, which do not depend on the substances, and those of absorption into the blood, determined solely by the material. A Task Group report will also include models for calcula...

  20. The management of cancer-related breakthrough pain: recommendations of a task group of the Science Committee of the Association for Palliative Medicine of Great Britain and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Andrew N; Dickman, Andrew; Reid, Colette; Stevens, Anna-Marie; Zeppetella, Giovambattista

    2009-04-01

    A task group of the Science Committee of the Association for Palliative Medicine of Great Britain and Ireland (APM) was convened to produce some up-to-date, evidence-based, practical, clinical guidelines on the management of cancer-related breakthrough pain in adults. On the basis of a review of the literature, the task group was unable to make recommendations about any individual interventions, but was able to make a series of 12 recommendations about certain generic strategies. However, most of the aforementioned recommendations are based on limited evidence (i.e., case series, expert opinion). The task group also proposed a definition of breakthrough pain, and some diagnostic criteria for breakthrough pain.

  1. Signal processing method based on group delay calculation for distributed Bragg wavelength shift in optical frequency domain reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Daichi; Igawa, Hirotaka; Murayama, Hideaki; Kasai, Tokio

    2014-03-24

    A signal processing method based on group delay calculations is introduced for distributed measurements of long-length fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) based on optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR). Bragg wavelength shifts in interfered signals of OFDR are regarded as group delay. By calculating group delay, the distribution of Bragg wavelength shifts is obtained with high computational efficiency. We introduce weighted averaging process for noise reduction. This method required only 3.5% of signal processing time which was necessary for conventional equivalent signal processing based on short-time Fourier transform. The method also showed high sensitivity to experimental signals where non-uniform strain distributions existed in a long-length FBG.

  2. Extreme group index measured and calculated in 2D SOI-based photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Fage-Pedersen, Jacob;

    2005-01-01

    lattice of air-holes in the 216-nm thick silicon layer in an SOI material. Experimental transmission spectra show a mode cut-off around 1562.5 nm for the fundamental photonic bandgap mode. In order to measure and model the group index of modes in the PCW, a time-of-flight (ToF) method is applied....

  3. Age and gender diversity as determinants of performance and health in a public organization: the role of task complexity and group size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegge, Jürgen; Roth, Carla; Neubach, Barbara; Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut; Kanfer, Ruth

    2008-11-01

    The influence of age and gender composition on group performance and self-reported health disorders was examined with data from 4,538 federal tax employees working in 222 natural work unit groups. As hypothesized, age diversity correlated positively with performance only in groups solving complex decision-making tasks, and this finding was replicated when analyzing performance data collected 1 year later. Age diversity was also positively correlated with health disorders--but only in groups working on routine decision-making tasks. Gender composition also had a significant effect on group performance, such that groups with a high proportion of female employees performed worse and reported more health disorders than did gender-diverse teams. As expected, effects of gender composition were most pronounced in large groups. Effects of age diversity were found when controlling for gender diversity and vice versa. Thus, age and gender diversity seem to play a unique role in performance and well-being. The moderating role of task complexity for both effects of age diversity and the moderating role of group size for both effects of gender diversity further suggest that the impact of these 2 variables depends on different group processes (e.g., knowledge exchange, variation in gender salience).

  4. Calculation of the wall pressure field generated on a group of buildings by an external explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim is to work out a three-dimensional code calculating the over-pressure distribution on any structure when an air shock wave arrives, especially in the case of a geometry providing multiple waves reflection. The computer code ZEPHIR was written under the assumption that the phenomena agree with the acoustic laws. An integral formulation leads infinite three-dimensional problems to a bidimensional one on a surface S limiting the real D. The surface S is discretized with triangular elements and replaced by the polyedron constituted by the mesh. The pressure is calculated at the barycenter of the triangular elements, with interpolation between several time-steps. The ZEPHIR code has been validated at first againt analytical solutions obtained for simple obstacle geometries. Test were performed with models of PWR buildings at a scale of 1/40, a cylinder for the reactor building and a parallelepiped for the fuel building, used adjacent or separated by a gap. Plastic explosive permits to obtain the pressure-time history of a hydrocarbon explosion at that scale. The results are in good agreement with the computation. The code ZEPHIR is characterized by a relatively cheap utilization

  5. Reports of the working groups on precision calculations for LEP2 physics. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the report of the LEP2 Monte Carlo Workshop held at CERN from 1999 to 2000. It consists of four parts. In the first part, the most recent developments in the calculation of four-fermion processes in electron-positron collisions at LEP2 are presented, concentrating on predictions for four main reactions: W-pair production, visible photons in four-fermion events, single-W production, and Z-pair production. Based on a comparison of results within different approaches, theoretical uncertainties on these prediction are established. The second part is devoted to QCD issues, focusing on improving the understanding and the Monte Carlo simulation of multijet final states due to hard QCD processes at LEP, i.e. quark-antiquark plus multigluon and/or secondary quark production, with particular emphasis on four-jet final states and b-quark mass effects. Specific topics covered are: relevant developments in the main event generators; description and tuning of inclusive (all-flavour) jet rates; quark mass effects in the three- and four-jet rates; mass, higher-order and hadronization effects in four-jet angular and shape distributions; b-quark fragmentation and gluon splitting into b-quarks. In the third part, γγ physics is discussed. After a detailed description of the physics modelling of the most recent versions of the currently available codes, comparisons between the results of the different event generators, as well as between LEP data and the theoretical predictions are presented, together with the problem of background due to γγ processes in searches for new particles. In the last part, recent developments in the theoretical calculation of two-fermion processes are reported. The Bhabha process and the production of muon, tau, neutrino and quark pairs is covered. On the basis of comparison of various calculations, theoretical uncertainties are estimated and compared with those needed for the final LEP2 data analysis. The subjects for further study are identified

  6. Calculation of anisotropic few-group constants in asymptotic cells: the code ANICELL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theoretical background of the ANICELL computer program together with a user's manual is presented. ANICELL is a nuclear reactor neutron transport code which solves the traditional asymptotic and the so-called tilted flux transport problems in one-dimensional cylindrical geometry using linearly anisotropic scattering. The method of solution used is the first flight collision probability technique. Few-group constants including radial and axial diffusion coefficients for the cell are also prepared by the program. (author)

  7. Optical properties of group-3 metal hexaboride nanoparticles by first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshio, Satoshi; Maki, Koichiro; Adachi, Kenji

    2016-06-01

    LaB6 nanoparticles are widely used as solar control materials for strong near-infrared absorption and high visible transparency. In order to elucidate the origin of this unique optical property, first-principles calculations have been made for the energy-band structure and dielectric functions of RIIIB6 (RIII = Sc, Y, La, Ac). On account of the precise assessment of the energy eigenvalues of vacant states in conduction band by employing the screened exchange method, as well as to the incorporation of the Drude term, dielectric functions and various physical properties of LaB6 have been reproduced in excellent agreement with experimental values. Systematic examinations of dielectric functions and electronic structures of the trivalent metal hexaborides have clarified the origin of the visible transparency and the near-infrared plasmon absorption of RIIIB6 nanoparticles.

  8. Task-Based Learning: Student’s Perception Of Their Skill In Participating In Small Group Discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifah Sulaiha S A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionTask-based learning (TBL has been accepted asan effective tool in teaching and learning activities inmost medical schools. Many studies have lookedat competencies and learning outcomes essential forundergraduates. Among the essential competenciesare interpersonal skills and the ability to engage in agroup discussion which this study has focused on.The evidence supporting higher interpersonal skills ishowever limited because many relevant competenciesare hard to measure and require long observationalperiods. ObjectiveTo determine students’ self-perceived value of TBL inenhancing their interpersonal skills during the clinicalphase. Material and MethodsAll students’ (semesters 6-10 in the clinical schoolof International Medical University (IMU wereinvited to participate in this cross-sectional study donein December 2007 utilising a self-administeredquestionnaire with a 5-point Likert scale. It assessed thestudents’ perception on TBL sessions conducted duringtheir clinical attachments in the various disciplines.Mean-scores, standard deviations, and confidenceinterval were used.ResultsResponse rate was 62%. The results indicated thatstudents were favorable in their opinion on TBL asa suitable forum for active communication andparticipation in group discussion. The results also showthat both male and female students’ have similarperception. As for the comparison according tosemesters, this showed that students’ maturity does notinfluence their perception as well.Conclusion In conclusion, the study has shown positive students’perception on the effect of TBL on acquired skills such as interpersonal communication. Our findings areconsistent with many earlier studies which showstudents’ perception of the method of learning asimportant factor in the enhancement of theirinterpersonal skills which is fundamental to clinicalpractice. Further research is necessary; long-term andlarger scale observational studies would undoubtedly

  9. Accurate variational electronic structure calculations with the density matrix renormalization group

    CERN Document Server

    Wouters, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    During the past 15 years, the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) has become increasingly important for ab initio quantum chemistry. The underlying matrix product state (MPS) ansatz is a low-rank decomposition of the full configuration interaction tensor. The virtual dimension of the MPS controls the size of the corner of the many-body Hilbert space that can be reached. Whereas the MPS ansatz will only yield an efficient description for noncritical one-dimensional systems, it can still be used as a variational ansatz for other finite-size systems. Rather large virtual dimensions are then required. The two most important aspects to reduce the corresponding computational cost are a proper choice and ordering of the active space orbitals, and the exploitation of the symmetry group of the Hamiltonian. By taking care of both aspects, DMRG becomes an efficient replacement for exact diagonalization in quantum chemistry. DMRG and Hartree-Fock theory have an analogous structure. The former can be interpreted a...

  10. Status Report on Activities of the Systems Assessment Task Force, OECD-NEA Expert Group on Accident Tolerant Fuels for LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon Michelle [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development /Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) Nuclear Science Committee approved the formation of an Expert Group on Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) for LWRs (EGATFL) in 2014. Chaired by Kemal Pasamehmetoglu, INL Associate Laboratory Director for Nuclear Science and Technology, the mandate for the EGATFL defines work under three task forces: (1) Systems Assessment, (2) Cladding and Core Materials, and (3) Fuel Concepts. Scope for the Systems Assessment task force includes definition of evaluation metrics for ATF, technology readiness level definition, definition of illustrative scenarios for ATF evaluation, parametric studies, and selection of system codes. The Cladding and Core Materials and Fuel Concepts task forces will identify gaps and needs for modeling and experimental demonstration; define key properties of interest; identify the data necessary to perform concept evaluation under normal conditions and illustrative scenarios; identify available infrastructure (internationally) to support experimental needs; and make recommendations on priorities. Where possible, considering proprietary and other export restrictions (e.g., International Traffic in Arms Regulations), the Expert Group will facilitate the sharing of data and lessons learned across the international group membership. The Systems Assessment Task Force is chaired by Shannon Bragg-Sitton (INL), while the Cladding Task Force will be chaired by a representative from France (Marie Moatti, Electricite de France [EdF]) and the Fuels Task Force will be chaired by a representative from Japan (Masaki Kurata, Japan Atomic Energy Agency [JAEA]). This report provides an overview of the Systems Assessment Task Force charter and status of work accomplishment.

  11. MCANG - a group data library of cumulative angular distributions of elastically scattered neutrons for Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A code has been written for producing group data suited to take into account the center of mass anisotropy of elastic neutron scattering in Monte Carlo calculations. The format of the generated data library is described. Up to now variants of the library based on KEDAK2 and KEDAK3/ENDL78 have been produced. One of the libraries is listed in the appendix. (author)

  12. Cluster-Continuum Calculations of Hydration Free Energies of Anions and Group 12 Divalent Cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hao-Bo [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Riccardi, Demian M [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Understanding aqueous phase processes involving group 12 metal cations is relevant to both environmental and biological sciences. Here, quantum chemical methods and polarizable continuum models are used to compute the hydration free energies of a series of divalent group 12 metal cations (Zn2+, Cd2+, and Hg2+) together with Cu2+ and the anions OH , SH , Cl , and F . A cluster-continuum method is employed, in which gas-phase clusters of the ion and explicit solvent molecules are immersed in a dielectric continuum. Two approaches to define the size of the solute-water cluster are compared, in which the number of explicit waters used is either held constant or determined variationally as that of the most favorable hydration free energy. Results obtained with various polarizable continuum models are also presented. Each leg of the relevant thermodynamic cycle is analyzed in detail to determine how different contributions yield the observed mean signed error (MSE) and the standard deviation of the error (STDEV) between theory and experiment. The use of a constant number of water molecules for each set of ions is found to lead to predicted relative trends that benefit from error cancellation. Overall, the best results are obtained with MP2 and the Solvent Model D polarizable continuum model (SMD), with eight explicit water molecules for anions and ten for the metal cations, yielding a STDEV of 2.3 kcal/mol and MSE of 0.9 kcal/mol between theoretical to experimental hydration free energies, which range from -72.4 kcal/mol for SH to -505.9 kcal/mol for Cu2+. Using B3PW91 with DFT-D3 dispersion corrections (B3PW91-D) and SMD yields a STDEV of 3.3 kcal mol 1 and MSE of 1.6 kcal/mol, to which adding MP2 corrections from smaller divalent metal ion water molecule clusters yields very good agreement with the full MP2 results. Using B3PW91-D and SMD, with two explicit water molecules for anions and six for divalent metal cations also yields reasonable agreement with experiment

  13. Hierarchical parallelisation of functional renormalisation group calculations - hp-fRG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohe, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    The functional renormalisation group (fRG) has evolved into a versatile tool in condensed matter theory for studying important aspects of correlated electron systems. Practical applications of the method often involve a high numerical effort, motivating the question in how far High Performance Computing (HPC) can leverage the approach. In this work we report on a multi-level parallelisation of the underlying computational machinery and show that this can speed up the code by several orders of magnitude. This in turn can extend the applicability of the method to otherwise inaccessible cases. We exploit three levels of parallelisation: Distributed computing by means of Message Passing (MPI), shared-memory computing using OpenMP, and vectorisation by means of SIMD units (single-instruction-multiple-data). Results are provided for two distinct High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms, namely the IBM-based BlueGene/Q system JUQUEEN and an Intel Sandy-Bridge-based development cluster. We discuss how certain issues and obstacles were overcome in the course of adapting the code. Most importantly, we conclude that this vast improvement can actually be accomplished by introducing only moderate changes to the code, such that this strategy may serve as a guideline for other researcher to likewise improve the efficiency of their codes.

  14. Hierarchical Parallelisation of Functional Renormalisation Group Calculations -- hp-fRG

    CERN Document Server

    Rohe, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The functional renormalisation group (fRG) has become a powerful and widely used method to study correlated electron systems. This often involves a high numerical effort, motivating the question in how far High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms can leverage the approach. In this work we report on a multi-level parallelisation of the underlying computational machinery and show that this can speed up the code by several orders of magnitude. This in turn can extend the applicability of the method to otherwise inaccessible cases. We exploit three levels of parallelisation: Distributed computing by means of Message Passing (MPI), shared-memory computing using OpenMP, and vectorisation by means of SIMD units (single-instruction-multiple-data). Results are provided for two distinct High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms, namely the IBM-based BlueGene/Q system JUQUEEN and an Intel Sandy-Bridge-based development cluster. We discuss how certain issues and obstacles were overcome in the course of adapting the co...

  15. INDUCED EEG GAMMA OSCILLATION ALIGNMENT IMPROVES DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN AUTISM AND ADHD GROUP RESPONSES IN A FACIAL CATEGORIZATION TASK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Eric; El-Baz, Ayman S; Sokhadze, Guela E; Sears, Lonnie; Casanova, Manuel F; Sokhadze, Estate M

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often lack the ability to recognize and properly respond to emotional stimuli. Emotional deficits also characterize children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in addition to exhibiting limited attention span. These abnormalities may effect a difference in the induced EEG gamma wave burst (35-45 Hz) peaked approximately 300-400 milliseconds following an emotional stimulus. Because induced gamma oscillations are not fixed at a definite point in time post-stimulus, analysis of averaged EEG data with traditional methods may result in an attenuated gamma burst power. METHODS: We used a data alignment technique to improve the averaged data, making it a better representation of the individual induced EEG gamma oscillations. A study was designed to test the response of a subject to emotional stimuli, presented in the form of emotional facial expression images. In a four part experiment, the subjects were instructed to identify gender in the first two blocks of the test, followed by differentiating between basic emotions in the final two blocks (i.e. anger vs. disgust). EEG data was collected from ASD (n=10), ADHD (n=9), and control (n=11) subjects via a 128 channel EGI system, and processed through a continuous wavelet transform and bandpass filter to isolate the gamma frequencies. A custom MATLAB code was used to align the data from individual trials between 200-600 ms post-stimulus, EEG site, and condition by maximizing the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient between trials. The gamma power for the 400 ms window of maximum induced gamma burst was then calculated and compared between subject groups. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Condition (anger/disgust recognition, gender recognition) × Alignment × Group (ADHD, ASD, Controls) interaction was significant at most of parietal topographies (e.g., P3-P4, P7-P8). These interactions were better manifested in the aligned data set

  16. Reactivity calculations for the fuel elements of I.T.U. TRIGA MARK-II reactor by means of one-group perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactivities of the fuel elements of I.T.U. TRIGA MARK-II reactor has been calculated by using both one-group perturbation theory and a one-dimensional, two-group diffusion computer code TRIGAP. For each fuel element, reactivities calculated by both methods are compared with those measured experimentally. It is seen that the reactivity calculations made by using the one-group perturbation theory give the results with better accuracy in comparison to TRIGAP. One-group perturbation theory can be easily applied to the reactivity calculations of fuel elements of TRIGA type reactors in acceptable range (orig.)

  17. Group cross sections calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just a few methods have been developped to compute multigroup cross-sections from ENDF data. We have developped an original method in order to get accuracy and to reduce the number of discretization points in the same time; this is why we have tried to use polynomial integration. In this paper, we describe this method: in the first part, we recall some physical hypothesis generally used to solve the linear Boltzmann equation: that is the frame in which the numerical method has been developped. Polynomial methods are really powerfull only if discretization points are suitably chosen. This choice is explained in the next part of this paper. In conclusion, some numerical results are given to illustrate our method

  18. Spin orbit coupling for molecular ab initio density matrix renormalization group calculations: Application to g-tensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spin Orbit Coupling (SOC) is introduced to molecular ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations. In the presented scheme, one first approximates the electronic ground state and a number of excited states of the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) Hamiltonian with the aid of the DMRG algorithm. Owing to the spin-adaptation of the algorithm, the total spin S is a good quantum number for these states. After the non-relativistic DMRG calculation is finished, all magnetic sublevels of the calculated states are constructed explicitly, and the SOC operator is expanded in the resulting basis. To this end, spin orbit coupled energies and wavefunctions are obtained as eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the full Hamiltonian matrix which is composed of the SOC operator matrix and the BO Hamiltonian matrix. This treatment corresponds to a quasi-degenerate perturbation theory approach and can be regarded as the molecular equivalent to atomic Russell-Saunders coupling. For the evaluation of SOC matrix elements, the full Breit-Pauli SOC Hamiltonian is approximated by the widely used spin-orbit mean field operator. This operator allows for an efficient use of the second quantized triplet replacement operators that are readily generated during the non-relativistic DMRG algorithm, together with the Wigner-Eckart theorem. With a set of spin-orbit coupled wavefunctions at hand, the molecular g-tensors are calculated following the scheme proposed by Gerloch and McMeeking. It interprets the effective molecular g-values as the slope of the energy difference between the lowest Kramers pair with respect to the strength of the applied magnetic field. Test calculations on a chemically relevant Mo complex demonstrate the capabilities of the presented method

  19. Spin orbit coupling for molecular ab initio density matrix renormalization group calculations: Application to g-tensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemelt, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Spin Orbit Coupling (SOC) is introduced to molecular ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations. In the presented scheme, one first approximates the electronic ground state and a number of excited states of the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) Hamiltonian with the aid of the DMRG algorithm. Owing to the spin-adaptation of the algorithm, the total spin S is a good quantum number for these states. After the non-relativistic DMRG calculation is finished, all magnetic sublevels of the calculated states are constructed explicitly, and the SOC operator is expanded in the resulting basis. To this end, spin orbit coupled energies and wavefunctions are obtained as eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the full Hamiltonian matrix which is composed of the SOC operator matrix and the BO Hamiltonian matrix. This treatment corresponds to a quasi-degenerate perturbation theory approach and can be regarded as the molecular equivalent to atomic Russell-Saunders coupling. For the evaluation of SOC matrix elements, the full Breit-Pauli SOC Hamiltonian is approximated by the widely used spin-orbit mean field operator. This operator allows for an efficient use of the second quantized triplet replacement operators that are readily generated during the non-relativistic DMRG algorithm, together with the Wigner-Eckart theorem. With a set of spin-orbit coupled wavefunctions at hand, the molecular g-tensors are calculated following the scheme proposed by Gerloch and McMeeking. It interprets the effective molecular g-values as the slope of the energy difference between the lowest Kramers pair with respect to the strength of the applied magnetic field. Test calculations on a chemically relevant Mo complex demonstrate the capabilities of the presented method.

  20. Use of Improved Orbitals for CCSD(T) Calculations for Predicting Heats of Formation of Group IV and Group VI Metal Oxide Monomers and Dimers and UCl6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zongtang; Lee, Zachary; Peterson, Kirk A; Dixon, David A

    2016-08-01

    The prediction of the heats of formation of group IV and group VI metal oxide monomers and dimers with the coupled cluster CCSD(T) method has been improved by using Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) and Brueckner orbitals for the initial wave function. The valence and core-valence contributions to the total atomization energies for the CrO3 monomer and dimer are predicted to be significantly larger than when using the Hartree-Fock (HF) orbitals. The predicted heat of formation of CrO3 with CCSD(T)/PW91 is consistent with previous calculations including high-order corrections beyond CCSD(T) and agrees well with the experiment. The improved heats of formation with the DFT and Brueckner orbitals are due to these orbitals being closer to the actual orbitals. Pure DFT functionals perform slightly better than the hybrid B3LYP functional due to the presence of exact exchange in the hybrid functional. Comparable heats of formation for TiO2 and the second- and the third-row group IV and group VI metal oxides are predicted well using either the DFT PW91 orbitals, Brueckner orbitals, or HF orbitals. The normalized clustering energies for the dimers are consistent with our previous work except for a larger value predicted for Cr2O6. The prediction of the reaction energy for UF6 + 3Cl2 → UCl6 + 3F2 was significantly improved with the use of DFT or Brueckner orbitals as compared to HF orbitals. PMID:27398941

  1. Quantification of resonance interference effect for multi-group effective cross-section in lattice physics calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the quantification of resonance interference effect for multi-group effective cross-section in lattice physics calculation. In the resonance self-shielding method based on the equivalence theory, the resonance interference effect among multiple nuclides cannot be treated directly to the multi-group effective cross-section. The continuous energy or the ultra-fine-group treatment can directly consider the effect, but the application to the fuel assembly geometry is not realistic with practical computation time. In the present study, the resonance interference effect to the multi-group effective cross-section is simply quantified by the resonance interference factor (RIF) in order to confirm the benefit for considering the effect. The RIF is generated for the typical pin-cell geometry of water moderated system. The multi-group effective cross-sections with and without RIFs are compared with the continuous energy Monte-Carlo result. As a result, the significant impact for considering the resonance interference effect is confirmed to the limited nuclide, reaction type and energy group. Fortunately, these have small effect on k-infinity because the resonance interference effect is mainly induced by the wide resonances of 238U to the other minor nuclides (e.g., 235U, 239Pu) in the limited resonance energy ranges. The results also show that the effect is small to the absorption cross-section of 238U, which is the dominant resonance nuclide in the fuel. The quantification results in the present study indicate a useful material to investigate the more advanced resonance treatment for the next generation lattice physics code. (author)

  2. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 7 is the annual update of the calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs. The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient potential energy to break up

  3. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOWLER KD

    2007-12-27

    This document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 7 is the annual update of the calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs. The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient

  4. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEBER RA

    2009-01-16

    a waste group B (or A) tank identifies the potential for an induced flammable gas release hazard, the hazard only exists for specific operations that can release the retained gas in the tank at a rate and quantity that results in reaching 100% of the lower flammability limit in the tank headspace. The identification and evaluation of tank farm operations that could cause an induced flammable gas release hazard in a waste group B (or A) tank are included in other documents. The third criterion is the buoyancy ratio. This criterion addresses tanks that are not waste group C double-shell tanks and have an energy ratio {ge} 3.0. For these double-shell tanks, the buoyancy ratio considers whether the saturated solids can retain sufficient gas to exceed neutral buoyancy relative to the supernatant layer and therefore have buoyant displacement gas release events. If the buoyancy ratio is {ge} 1.0, that double-shell tank is assigned to waste group A. These tanks are considered to have a potential spontaneous buoyant displacement flammable gas release hazard in addition to a potential induced flammable gas release hazard. This document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 8 is the annual update of the calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  5. Report of AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group 74: in-air output ratio, Sc, for megavoltage photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Timothy C; Ahnesjö, Anders; Lam, Kwok Leung; Li, X Allen; Ma, Chang-Ming Charlie; Palta, Jatinder R; Sharpe, Michael B; Thomadsen, Bruce; Tailor, Ramesh C

    2009-11-01

    The concept of in-air output ratio (Sc) was introduced to characterize how the incident photon fluence per monitor unit (or unit time for a Co-60 unit) varies with collimator settings. However, there has been much confusion regarding the measurement technique to be used that has prevented the accurate and consistent determination of Sc. The main thrust of the report is to devise a theoretical and measurement formalism that ensures interinstitutional consistency of Sc. The in-air output ratio, Sc, is defined as the ratio of primary collision water kerma in free-space, Kp, per monitor unit between an arbitrary collimator setting and the reference collimator setting at the same location. Miniphantoms with sufficient lateral and longitudinal thicknesses to eliminate electron contamination and maintain transient electron equilibrium are recommended for the measurement of Sc. The authors present a correction formalism to extrapolate the correct Sc from the measured values using high-Z miniphantom. Miniphantoms made of high-Z material are used to measure Sc for small fields (e.g., IMRT or stereotactic radiosurgery). This report presents a review of the components of Sc, including headscatter, source-obscuring, and monitor-backscattering effects. A review of calculation methods (Monte Carlo and empirical) used to calculate Sc for arbitrary shaped fields is presented. The authors discussed the use of Sc in photon dose calculation algorithms, in particular, monitor unit calculation. Finally, a summary of Sc data (from RPC and other institutions) is included for QA purposes.

  6. Albedo boundary conditions for thermal nuclear reactor global calculations with two-energy group discrete ordinates model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Carlos Eduardo de Araujo; Barros, Ricardo C.; Alves Filho, Hermes, E-mail: ceanunes@iprj.uerj.br, E-mail: rcbarros@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: halves@iprj.uerj.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Politecnico. Dept. de Modelagem Computacional

    2013-07-01

    As neutron fission events do not take place in the non-multiplying regions of nuclear reactors, e.g., moderator, reflector, and structural elements, these regions do not generate power and the computational efficiency of nuclear reactor global calculations can hence be improved by eliminating the explicit numerical calculations within the non-multiplying regions around the active domain. Discussed here is the computational efficiency of approximate discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) albedo boundary conditions for two-energy group eigenvalue problems in X,Y geometry. The non-standard S{sub N} albedo substitutes approximately the reflector region around the active domain, as we neglect the transverse leakage terms within the non-multiplying reflector. Should the problem have no transverse leakage terms, i.e., one-dimensional slab geometry, then the offered albedo boundary conditions are exact. By computational efficiency we mean analyzing the accuracy of the numerical results versus the CPU execution time of each run for a given model problem. Numerical results to a typical test problem are shown to illustrate this efficiency analysis. (author)

  7. Benchmark Calculations of Energetic Properties of Groups 4 and 6 Transition Metal Oxide Nanoclusters Including Comparison to Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zongtang; Both, Johan; Li, Shenggang; Yue, Shuwen; Aprà, Edoardo; Keçeli, Murat; Wagner, Albert F; Dixon, David A

    2016-08-01

    The heats of formation and the normalized clustering energies (NCEs) for the group 4 and group 6 transition metal oxide (TMO) trimers and tetramers have been calculated by the Feller-Peterson-Dixon (FPD) method. The heats of formation predicted by the FPD method do not differ much from those previously derived from the NCEs at the CCSD(T)/aT level except for the CrO3 nanoclusters. New and improved heats of formation for Cr3O9 and Cr4O12 were obtained using PW91 orbitals instead of Hartree-Fock (HF) orbitals. Diffuse functions are necessary to predict accurate heats of formation. The fluoride affinities (FAs) are calculated with the CCSD(T) method. The relative energies (REs) of different isomers, NCEs, electron affinities (EAs), and FAs of (MO2)n (M = Ti, Zr, Hf, n = 1-4) and (MO3)n (M = Cr, Mo, W, n = 1-3) clusters have been benchmarked with 55 exchange-correlation density functional theory (DFT) functionals including both pure and hybrid types. The absolute errors of the DFT results are mostly less than ±10 kcal/mol for the NCEs and the EAs and less than ±15 kcal/mol for the FAs. Hybrid functionals usually perform better than the pure functionals for the REs and NCEs. The performance of the two types of functionals in predicting EAs and FAs is comparable. The B1B95 and PBE1PBE functionals provide reliable energetic properties for most isomers. Long range corrected pure functionals usually give poor FAs. The standard deviation of the absolute error is always close to the mean errors, and the probability distributions of the DFT errors are often not Gaussian (normal). The breadth of the distribution of errors and the maximum probability are dependent on the energy property and the isomer. PMID:27384926

  8. The calculation of pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculation guidelines of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Druckbehaelter (task group for pressure vessels) have been revised with the following objective: conversion to international standards (SI), adaption to the latest state of guidelines for production and testing, revision of the contents of individual regulations. Another target of the cooperating interest groups of producers, operators, and supervisory bodies was a harmonization of the approaches for calculation with other German guidelines, in particular the Technische Regeln fuer Dampfkessel (technical regulations for steam boilers). (orig./RW)

  9. Resting-state BOLD networks versus task-associated functional MRI for distinguishing Alzheimer's disease risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, Adam S; Sherzai, Ayesha; Taylor, Curtis; Langbaum, Jessica B S; Chen, Kewei; Buxton, Richard B

    2009-10-01

    To assess the ability of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to distinguish known risk factors for AD, we evaluated 17 cognitively normal individuals with a family history of AD and at least one copy of the apolipoprotein e4 allele compared to 12 individuals who were not carriers of the APOE4 gene and did not have a family history of AD. Blood oxygen level dependent fMRI was performed evaluating encoding-associated signal and resting-state default mode network signal differences between the two risk groups. Neurocognitive testing revealed that the high risk group performed worse on category fluency testing, but the groups were equivalent on all other cognitive measures. During encoding of novel face-name pairs, there were no regions of encoding-associated BOLD activations that were different in the high risk group. Encoding-associated deactivations were greater in magnitude in the low risk group in the medial and right lateral parietal cortex, similar to findings in AD studies. The resting-state DMN analysis demonstrated nine regions in the prefrontal, orbital frontal, temporal and parietal lobes that distinguished the two risk groups. Resting-state DMN analysis could distinguish risk groups with an effect size of 3.35, compared to an effect size of 1.39 using encoding-associated fMRI techniques. Imaging of the resting state avoids performance related variability seen in activation fMRI, is less complicated to acquire and standardize, does not require radio-isotopes, and may be more effective at identifying functional pathology associated with AD risk compared to non-resting fMRI techniques.

  10. Faddeev calculation of 3 alpha and alpha alpha Lambda systems using alpha alpha resonating-group method kernel

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, Y; Kohno, M; Suzuki, Y; Baye, D; Sparenberg, J M

    2004-01-01

    We carry out Faddeev calculations of three-alpha (3 alpha) and two-alpha plus Lambda (alpha alpha Lambda) systems, using two-cluster resonating-group method kernels. The input includes an effective two-nucleon force for the alpha alpha resonating-group method and a new effective Lambda N force for the Lambda alpha interaction. The latter force is a simple two-range Gaussian potential for each spin-singlet and triplet state, generated from the phase-shift behavior of the quark-model hyperon-nucleon interaction, fss2, by using an inversion method based on supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Owing to the exact treatment of the Pauli-forbidden states between the clusters, the present three-cluster Faddeev formalism can describe the mutually related, alpha alpha, 3 alpha and alpha alpha Lambda systems, in terms of a unique set of the baryon-baryon interactions. For the three-range Minnesota force which describes the alpha alpha phase shifts quite accurately, the ground-state and excitation energies of 9Be Lambda are...

  11. METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARKER, S.A.

    2006-07-27

    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 5 is the annual update of the methodology and calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  12. Evidence-Based Interventions in School Psychology: An Illustration of Task Force Coding Criteria Using Group-Based Research Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Snyder, Gretchen; Stoiber, Karen Callan; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    2002-01-01

    Applies the criteria in the "Procedural and Coding Manual for Review of Evidence-Based Interventions," to a group-based design intervention study. In general, the application of the criteria suggested promising evidence in support of the program. Considerations for interpreting the results of the coding process are discussed with particular…

  13. 77 FR 14031 - Public Listening Sessions To Obtain Input on the Multi-Stakeholder Group Tasked With the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Transparency Initiative (74 FR 11151). In that notice, the Department stated that it would hold a series of... locations are: Session 1--Renaissance St. Louis Grand Hotel, 800 Washington Ave., St. Louis, Missouri 63101... group comprised of government, industry and civil society. Thirty-five countries are in various...

  14. Second mission of North-Cotentin radio-ecology group. The uncertainty calculation; Deuxieme mission du Groupe Radio-ecologie Nord-Cotentin. Le calcul d'incertitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boilley, D

    2003-03-15

    The present study treats only the collective risk of ex-utero leukaemia associated with the routine releases of the nuclear industrial installations of the North Cotentin (0.0009 cases over the considered period) the uncertainty on the contribution to the collective risk of the incidents and the accidents of the nuclear installations (notably the drilling of the pipe of release in sea arisen in 1979-1980 and the fire of the waste silo on January 6. 1981, for the reprocessing plant of La Hague has not been considered. Only 45% of the risk are taken into account by the study. Every calculated value remains very inferior to the number of leukemia cases observed (4 cases observed for two expected cases) and to the risk of radioinduced leukemia any merged exposure sources, that is to say 0.84 cases. It appears thus not very probable that the nuclear installations of the North - Cotentin can explain the tendency to the excess of observed leukaemia. The limits of the study become attached for the main part to the environmental impact of the routine releases and to the lifestyles and refuses to tackle anything concerning the health radiation effects. The work made by the group does not allow to end in the harmlessness of radioactive waste, nevertheless, it gives an idea of the scale of the impacts onto the environment of the routine releases. (N.C.)

  15. Report on the joint meeting of the Division of Development and Technology Plasma/Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, K.L. (ed.)

    1985-10-01

    This report of the Joint Meeting of the Division of Development and Technology Plasma/Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups contains contributing papers in the following areas: Plasma/Materials Interaction Program and Technical Assessment, High Heat Flux Materials and Components Program and Technical Assessment, Pumped Limiters, Ignition Devices, Program Planning Activities, Compact High Power Density Reactor Requirements, Steady State Tokamaks, and Tritium Plasma Experiments. All these areas involve the consideration of High Heat Flux on Materials and the Interaction of the Plasma with the First Wall. Many of the Test Facilities are described as well. (LSP)

  16. Report on the joint meeting of the Division of Development and Technology Plasma/Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report of the Joint Meeting of the Division of Development and Technology Plasma/Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups contains contributing papers in the following areas: Plasma/Materials Interaction Program and Technical Assessment, High Heat Flux Materials and Components Program and Technical Assessment, Pumped Limiters, Ignition Devices, Program Planning Activities, Compact High Power Density Reactor Requirements, Steady State Tokamaks, and Tritium Plasma Experiments. All these areas involve the consideration of High Heat Flux on Materials and the Interaction of the Plasma with the First Wall. Many of the Test Facilities are described as well

  17. Does the mask govern the mind?: effects of arbitrary gender representation on quantitative task performance in avatar-represented virtual groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Eun Roselyn; Nass, Clifford I; Bailenson, Jeremy N

    2014-04-01

    Virtual environments employing avatars for self-representation-including the opportunity to represent or misrepresent social categories-raise interesting and intriguing questions as to how one's avatar-based social category shapes social identity dynamics, particularly when stereotypes prevalent in the offline world apply to the social categories visually represented by avatars. The present experiment investigated how social category representation via avatars (i.e., graphical representations of people in computer-mediated environments) affects stereotype-relevant task performance. In particular, building on and extending the Proteus effect model, we explored whether and how stereotype lift (i.e., a performance boost caused by the awareness of a domain-specific negative stereotype associated with outgroup members) occurred in virtual group settings in which avatar-based gender representation was arbitrary. Female and male participants (N=120) were randomly assigned either a female avatar or a male avatar through a process masked as a random drawing. They were then placed in a numerical minority status with respect to virtual gender-as the only virtual female (male) in a computer-mediated triad with two opposite-gendered avatars-and performed a mental arithmetic task either competitively or cooperatively. The data revealed that participants who were arbitrarily represented by a male avatar and competed against two ostensible female avatars showed strongest performance compared to others on the arithmetic task. This pattern occurred regardless of participants' actual gender, pointing to a virtual stereotype lift effect. Additional mediation tests showed that task motivation partially mediated the effect. Theoretical and practical implications for social identity dynamics in avatar-based virtual environments are discussed.

  18. Crystal structure, dft calculations and herbicidal activity of a new 1,2,3-triazole derivative containing sulfonyl group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new 1,2,4-triazole with sulfonyl moiety was synthesized and confirmed by 1H-NMR, MS and elemental analyses. The crystal structure of the title compound 5 (C/sub 13/H/sub 14/FN/sub 3/SO/sub 2/, Mr = 295.33) was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structure of this compound is triclinic, space group P-1 with a = 7.3111(15), b = 8.8637(18), c = 11.514(2) A, alpha = 69.09(3), beta = 80.17(3), gamma = 72.08(3), V = 661.6(2) A3, Z = 2, F(000) = 308, Dc = 1.482 g/cm3, micro = 0.262 mm-1, the final R1 = 0.0292 and wR2 = 0.0848 for 1960 observed reflections with I > 2(I). A total of 4393 reflections were collected, of which 2305 were independent (Rint = 0.0223). The herbicidal activity of the triazole was moderate against rape root and barn-yard grass. Theoretical calculations of the title compound were carried out using B3LYP with the 6-31++G (d,p) basis set employing full geometry optimization and frontier orbital energies. The optimized geometric bond lengths and bond angles obtained by using DFT(B3LYP) showed the good agreement with the experimental data. (author)

  19. nα resonating-group calculation with a quark-model G-matrix NN interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate nα phase-shifts and scattering observables in the resonating-group method, using the nuclear-matter G-matrix of an SU6 quark-model NN interaction. The G-matrix is generated in the recent energy-independent procedure of the quark-model NN interaction with the continuous prescription for intermediate spectra, by assuming an appropriate Fermi momentum kF=1.2 fm-1. The nα RGM interaction kernels are evaluated with explicit treatments of the nonlocality and momentum dependence of partial-wave G-matrix components. The momentum dependence of the G-matrix components is different for each of the nucleon-exchange and interaction types. Without introducing any artificial parameters except for kF, the central and spin-orbit components of the nα Born kernel are found to have reasonable strengths under the assumption of a rigid translationally invariant shell-model wave function of the α-cluster. The characteristic behaviors of three different exchange terms, corresponding to knockout, heavy-particle pickup and nucleon-rearrangement processes, are essentially the same between the case of previous local effective NN forces and the case of nonlocal G-matrix NN interactions. (author)

  20. The IUGS Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism - promoting professional skills professionalism in the teaching, research and application of geoscience for the protection and education of the public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, Ruth; Fernandez-Fuentes, Isabel

    2013-04-01

    A new IUGS Task Group entitled the Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism was formed in 2012 and launched at a symposium at the 341GC in Brisbane on strengthening communication between fundamental and applied geosciences and between geoscientists and public. The Task Group aims to ensure that the international geoscience community is engaged in a transformation of its profession so as to embed the need for a professional skills base alongside technical and scientific skills and expertise, within a sound ethical framework in all arenas of geoscience practice. This needs to be established during training and education and reinforced as CPD throughout a career in geoscience as part of ensuring public safety and effective communication of geoscience concepts to the public. The specific objective of the Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism that is relevant to this poster session is: • To facilitate a more 'joined up' geoscience community fostering better appreciation by academics and teachers of the professional skills that geoscientists need in the workplace, and facilitate better communication between academic and applied communities leading to more effective application of research findings and technology to applied practitioners and development of research programmes that truly address urgent issues. Other Task Group objectives are: • To provide a specific international forum for discussion of matters of common concern and interest among geoscientists and geoscientific organizations involved in professional affairs, at the local, national and international level; • To act as a resource to IUGS on professional affairs in the geosciences as they may influence and impact "Earth Science for the Global Community" in general - both now and in the future; • To offer and provide leadership and knowledge transfer services to countries and geoscientist communities around the world seeking to introduce systems of professional governance and self

  1. Calculation of the reactivity worth for TRIGA core fuel elements by means of the two-dimensional, two-group perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-dimensional, two-group perturbation theory calculation method has been proposed for the rapid and accurate calculation of the reactivity worth for TRIGA core fuel elements. The method requires shorter computation times and provides almost the same level of accuracy as a conventional direct eigenvalue calculation method using the CITATION code. Values for changes in macroscopic cross-sections and diffusion coefficients are obtained from cell calculation. The reactivity worth for each individual fuel element is calculated on the basis of the above-mentioned changes, by means of the two-group, first order perturbation method using normal and adjoint neutron fluxes calculated beforehand for a normal core. The method was applied to a 250 kW TRIGA Mark-II reactor. The results of the calculations are in agreement with the experimental values for fuel elements in the locations C3, D8, E7 and F4. The reactivity worth for the TRIGA core fuel element placed in location B2 calculated by means of this method is approximately 5% greater than that calculated by means of the CITATION code which is based on a conventional direct eigenvalue calculation method. (orig.)

  2. Tarefa N-back auditiva: desempenho entre diferentes grupos etários Auditory N-back task: different age groups performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana De Nardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Um dos instrumentos mais utilizados internacionalmente para avaliação da Memória de Trabalho (MT é a Tarefa N-back Auditiva. Recursos para avaliação desse sistema são escassos no Brasil. O presente estudo objetiva observar o desempenho da Tarefa N-back Auditiva em indivíduos de diferentes faixas etárias: 27 crianças, 22 pré-adolescentes, 26 adultos e 27 idosos. Os resultados mostram que o grupo etário influencia no desempenho da Tarefa N-back Auditiva. A acurácia foi aumentando na transição da infância para a pré-adolescência e seguiu em crescimento até a adultez. Observou-se um declínio no desempenho de idosos. Os dados da Tarefa N-back Auditiva corrobora a trajetória desenvolvimental, sugerindo que essa tarefa possa ser utilizada no contexto experimental. Pesquisas de normatização contribuirão para melhor compreensão dessa tarefa.One of the most internationally used instruments for evaluation of Working Memory (WM is the Auditory N-Back Task. In Brazil, resources to evaluate this system are scarce. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of different age subjects in auditory n-back tasks. We divided the 102 subjects in four groups: 27 children, 22 adolescents, 26 young adults and 27 older adults. The results demonstrate an age-related difference in the n-back task performance. The accuracy increased in the transition from childhood to adolescence and kept growing from adolescence to adulthood. We also found a decrease in the performance of aged subjects. The Auditory N-Back Task results are in agreement with WM development trajectory, and so, it demonstrates to be an adjusted instrument to evaluate this system in experimental setting.

  3. Theoretical Calculations of Thermal Broadenings and Transition Probabilities of R, R' and B Line-Groups for Ruby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Dong-Ping; LIU Yan-Yun; CHEN Ju-Rong

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of the unified calculation of the thermal shifts of R1 line, R2 line and ground-state-splitting transition probabilities of direct and Raman processes have theoretically been calculated. The thermal broadenings of R,The theoretically predicted transition probabilities are in good agreement with the experimental ones.PACS numbers: 71.70.Ch, 78.20.Nv, 63.20.Mt, 63.20.Kr

  4. ACCEPTABILITY EVALUATION FOR USING ICRP TISSUE WEIGHTING FACTORS TO CALCULATE EFFECTIVE DOSE VALUE FOR SEPARATE GENDER-AGE GROUPS OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Repin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An article describes radiation risk factors for several gender-age population groups according to Russian statistical and medical-demographic data, evaluates the lethality rate for separate nosologic forms of malignant neoplasms based on Russian cancer registries according to the method of the International Agency for Cancer Research. Relative damage factors are calculated for the gender-age groups under consideration. The tissue weighting factors recommended by ICRP to calculate effective doses are compared with relative damage factors calculated by ICRP for the nominal population and with similar factors calculated in this work for separate population cohorts in theRussian Federation. The significance of differences and the feasibility of using tissue weighting factors adapted for the Russian population in assessing population risks in cohorts of different gender-age compositions have been assessed.

  5. Interference between postural control and spatial vs. non-spatial auditory reaction time tasks in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Susan I; Redfern, Mark S; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether spatial aspects of an information processing task influence dual-task interference. Two groups (Older/Young) of healthy adults participated in dual-task experiments. Two auditory information processing tasks included a frequency discrimination choice reaction time task (non-spatial task) and a lateralization choice reaction time task (spatial task). Postural tasks included combinations of standing with eyes open or eyes closed on either a fixed floor or a sway-referenced floor. Reaction times and postural sway via center of pressure were recorded. Baseline measures of reaction time and sway were subtracted from the corresponding dual-task results to calculate reaction time task costs and postural task costs. Reaction time task cost increased with eye closure (p = 0.01), sway-referenced flooring (p visual-spatial interference may occur in older subjects when vision is used to maintain posture. PMID:26410669

  6. Cliff´s Delta Calculator: A non-parametric effect size program for two groups of observations

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Macbeth; Eugenia Razumiejczyk; Rubén Daniel Ledesma

    2011-01-01

    The Cliff´s Delta statistic is an effect size measure that quantifies the amount of difference between two non-parametric variables beyond p-values interpretation. This measure can be understood as a useful complementary analysis for the corresponding hypothesis testing. During the last two decades the use of effect size measures has been strongly encouraged by methodologists and leading institutions of behavioral sciences. The aim of this contribution is to introduce the Cliff´s Delta Calcul...

  7. Processing and validation of JEFF-3.1.1 and ENDF/B-VII.0 group-wise cross section libraries for shielding calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a synthesis of the ENEA-Bologna Nuclear Data Group programme dedicated to generate and validate group-wise cross section libraries for shielding and radiation damage deterministic calculations in nuclear fission reactors, following the data processing methodology recommended in the ANSI/ANS-6.1.2-1999 (R2009) American Standard. The VITJEFF311.BOLIB and VITENDF70.BOLIB fine group coupled n-γ (199 n + 42 γ - VITAMIN-B6 structure) multi-purpose cross section libraries, based on the Bondarenko method for neutron resonance self-shielding and respectively on JEFF-3.1.1 and ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluated nuclear data, were produced in AMPX format using the NJOY-99.259 and the ENEA-Bologna 2007 Revision of the SCAMPI nuclear data processing systems. Two derived broad-group coupled n-γ (47 n + 20 γ - BUGLE-96 structure) working cross section libraries in FIDO-ANISN format for LWR shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry calculations, named BUGJEFF311.BOLIB and BUGENDF70.BOLIB, were generated by the revised version of SCAMPI, through problem-dependent cross section collapsing and self-shielding from the cited fine-group libraries. The validation results on the criticality safety benchmark experiments for the fine-group libraries and the preliminary validation results for the broad-group working libraries on the PCA-Replica and VENUS-3 engineering neutron shielding benchmark experiments are reported in synthesis. (authors)

  8. Application of the renormalization group to the calculation of the vacuum decay rate in flat and curved space-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaxas, Dimitrios

    2007-02-01

    I show that an application of renormalization group arguments may lead to significant corrections to the vacuum decay rate for phase transitions in flat and curved space-time. It can also give some information regarding its dependence on the parameters of the theory, including the cosmological constant in the case of decay in curved space-time.

  9. Group additivity calculation of the standard molal thermodynamic properties of aqueous amino acids, polypeptides and unfolded proteins as a function of temperature, pressure and ionization state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Dick

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculation of the chemical speciation of proteins and the limits of protein metastability affords a quantitative understanding of the biogeochemical constraints on the distribution of proteins within and among different organisms and chemical environments. These calculations depend on accurate determination of the ionization states and standard molal Gibbs free energies of proteins as a function of temperature and pressure, which are not generally available. Hence, to aid predictions of the standard molal thermodynamic properties of ionized proteins as a function of temperature and pressure, calculated values are given below of the standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25°C and 1 bar and the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equations of state parameters of the structural groups comprising amino acids, polypeptides and unfolded proteins. Group additivity and correlation algorithms were used to calculate contributions by ionized and neutral sidechain and backbone groups to the standard molal Gibbs free energy (Δ G°, enthalpy (Δ H°, entropy (S°, isobaric heat capacity (C°P, volume (V° and isothermal compressibility (κ°T of multiple reference model compounds. Experimental values of C°P, V° and κ°T at high temperature were taken from the recent literature, which ensures an internally consistent revision of the thermodynamic properties and equations of state parameters of the sidechain and backbone groups of proteins, as well as organic groups. As a result, Δ G°, Δ H°, S° C°P, V° and κ°T of unfolded proteins in any ionization state can be calculated up to T~-300°C and P~-5000 bars. In addition, the ionization states of unfolded proteins as a function of not only pH, but also temperature and pressure can be calculated by taking account of the degree of ionization of the sidechain and backbone groups present in the sequence. Calculations of this

  10. Radiation Protection in Brachytherapy. Report of the SEFM Task Group on Brachytherapy; Proteccion radiologica en Braquiterapia. Informe del grupo de trabajo de Braquiterapia de la SEFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Calatayud, J.; Corredoira Silva, E.; Crispin Contreras, V.; Eudaldo Puell, T.; Frutos Baraja, J. de; Pino Sorroche, F.; Pujades Claumarchirant, M. C.; Richart Sancho, J.

    2015-07-01

    This document presents the report of the Brachytherapy Task Group of the Spanish Society of Medical Physics. It is dedicated to the radiation protection aspects involved in brachytherapy. The aim of this work is to include the more relevant aspects related to radiation protection issues that appear in clinical practice, and for the current equipment in Spain. Basically this report focuses on the typical contents associated with high dose rate brachytherapy with {sup 1}92Ir and {sup 6}0Co sources, and permanent seed implants with {sup 1}25I, {sup 1}03Pd and {sup 1}31Cs, which are the most current and widespread modalities. Ophthalmic brachytherapy (COMS with {sup 1}25I, {sup 1}06Ru, {sup 9}0Sr) is also included due to its availability in a significant number of spanish hospitals. The purpose of this report is to assist to the medical physicist community in establishing a radiation protection program for brachytherapy procedures, trying to solve some ambiguities in the application of legal requirements and recommendations in clinical practice. (Author)

  11. Cliff´s Delta Calculator: A non-parametric effect size program for two groups of observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Macbeth

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Cliff´s Delta statistic is an effect size measure that quantifies the amount of difference between two non-parametric variables beyond p-values interpretation. This measure can be understood as a useful complementary analysis for the corresponding hypothesis testing. During the last two decades the use of effect size measures has been strongly encouraged by methodologists and leading institutions of behavioral sciences. The aim of this contribution is to introduce the Cliff´s Delta Calculator software that performs such analysis and offers some interpretation tips. Differences and similarities with the parametric case are analysed and illustrated. The implementation of this free program is fully described and compared with other calculators. Alternative algorithmic approaches are mathematically analysed and a basic linear algebra proof of its equivalence is formally presented. Two worked examples in cognitive psychology are commented. A visual interpretation of Cliff´s Delta is suggested. Availability, installation and applications of the program are presented and discussed.

  12. Temperature, pressure, and electrochemical constraints on protein speciation: Group additivity calculation of the standard molal thermodynamic properties of ionized unfolded proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Dick

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations can be used to quantify environmental constraints on the speciation of proteins, such as the pH and temperature dependence of ionization state, and the relative chemical stabilities of proteins in different biogeochemical settings. These calculations depend in part on values of the standard molal Gibbs energies of proteins and their ionization reactions as a function of temperature and pressure. Because these values are not generally available, we calculated values of the standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25°C and 1 bar as well as the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equations of state parameters of neutral and charged zwitterionic reference model compounds including aqueous amino acids, polypeptides, and unfolded proteins. The experimental calorimetric and volumetric data for these species taken from the literature were combined with group additivity algorithms to calculate the properties and parameters of neutral and ionized sidechain and backbone groups in unfolded proteins. The resulting set of group contributions enables the calculation of the standard molal Gibbs energy, enthalpy, entropy, isobaric heat capacity, volume, and isothermal compressibility of unfolded proteins in a range of proton ionization states to temperatures and pressures exceeding 100°C and 1000 bar. This approach provides a useful frame of reference for thermodynamic studies of protein folding and complexation reactions. It can also be used to assign provisional values of the net charge and Gibbs energy of ionized proteins as a function of temperature and pH. Using these values, an Eh-pH diagram for a reaction representing the speciation of extracellular proteins from Pyrococcus furiosus and Bacillus subtilis was generated. The predicted predominance limits of these proteins correspond with the different electrochemical conditions of hydrothermal vents and soils. More comprehensive calculations of this kind may reveal pervasive

  13. Task swapping networks in distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Dohan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose task swapping networks for task reassignments by using task swappings in distributed systems. Some classes of task reassignments are achieved by using iterative local task swappings between software agents in distributed systems. We use group-theoretic methods to find a minimum-length sequence of adjacent task swappings needed from a source task assignment to a target task assignment in a task swapping network of several well-known topologies.

  14. Utilizing Electroencephalography Measurements for Comparison of Task-Specific Neural Efficiencies: Spatial Intelligence Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Benjamin J; Goodridge, Wade; Villanueva, Idalis; Wan, Nicholas; Jordan, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Spatial intelligence is often linked to success in engineering education and engineering professions. The use of electroencephalography enables comparative calculation of individuals' neural efficiency as they perform successive tasks requiring spatial ability to derive solutions. Neural efficiency here is defined as having less beta activation, and therefore expending fewer neural resources, to perform a task in comparison to other groups or other tasks. For inter-task comparisons of tasks with similar durations, these measurements may enable a comparison of task type difficulty. For intra-participant and inter-participant comparisons, these measurements provide potential insight into the participant's level of spatial ability and different engineering problem solving tasks. Performance on the selected tasks can be analyzed and correlated with beta activities. This work presents a detailed research protocol studying the neural efficiency of students engaged in the solving of typical spatial ability and Statics problems. Students completed problems specific to the Mental Cutting Test (MCT), Purdue Spatial Visualization test of Rotations (PSVT:R), and Statics. While engaged in solving these problems, participants' brain waves were measured with EEG allowing data to be collected regarding alpha and beta brain wave activation and use. The work looks to correlate functional performance on pure spatial tasks with spatially intensive engineering tasks to identify the pathways to successful performance in engineering and the resulting improvements in engineering education that may follow. PMID:27584838

  15. Burnup-dependent effect of lattice-level homogenization and group condensation on calculated kinetics parameters for CANDU-type lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichita, E., E-mail: Eleodor.nichita@uoit.ca [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Str. North, Oshawa, ON, Canada L1H 7K4 (Canada); Serghiuta, D.; Podobed, S. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, 280 Slater Street, P.O. Box 1046 Station B, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1P 5S9 (Canada)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • CANDU-type-lattice kinetics parameters are calculated using different adjoint-weighting approximations at different burnups. • Fine-group space-dependent adjoint weighting is the most accurate method of calculating the kinetics parameters. • Two-group lattice-homogenized adjoint weighting overestimates the effective delayed-neutron fraction by approximately 5%. • Fine-group lattice-homogenized adjoint weighting overestimates the effective delayed neutron fraction only by approximately 2%. - Abstract: Modern analysis of nuclear reactor transients uses space-time reactor kinetics methods. In the Canadian nuclear industry, safety analysis calculations use almost exclusively the Improved Quasistatic (IQS) flux factorization method. The IQS method, like all methods based on flux factorization, relies on calculating effective point kinetics parameters, which dominate the time behavior of the flux, using adjoint-weighted integrals. The accuracy of the adjoint representation influences the accuracy of the effective kinetics parameters. Routine full core calculations are not performed using detailed models and transport theory, but rather using a cell-homogenized model and two-group diffusion theory. This work evaluates the effect of homogenization and group condensation at different burnups, for three fuel types: natural-uranium (NU) fuel, low-void reactivity (LVR) fuel and Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR) fuel. Results show that the use of a two-group lattice-homogenized adjoint consistently overestimates the effective delayed neutron fraction by approximately 5% for all three fuel types and over a wide burnup range. The use of a two-group lattice-homogenized adjoint also introduces errors in the effective neutron generation time, but these are at most 1.3% (and their sign changes with burnup). Errors tend to vary with burnup by approximately 1% (of the individual parameter value). If a 69-group lattice-homogenized adjoint is used, the errors drop to

  16. Processing and validation of JEFF-3.1.1 and ENDF/B-VII.0 group-wise cross section libraries for shielding calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsi R.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a synthesis of the ENEA-Bologna Nuclear Data Group programme dedicated to generate and validate group-wise cross section libraries for shielding and radiation damage deterministic calculations in nuclear fission reactors, following the data processing methodology recommended in the ANSI/ANS-6.1.2-1999 (R2009 American Standard. The VITJEFF311.BOLIB and VITENDF70.BOLIB finegroup coupled n-γ (199 n + 42 γ – VITAMIN-B6 structure multi-purpose cross section libraries, based on the Bondarenko method for neutron resonance self-shielding and respectively on JEFF-3.1.1 and ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluated nuclear data, were produced in AMPX format using the NJOY-99.259 and the ENEA-Bologna 2007 Revision of the SCAMPI nuclear data processing systems. Two derived broad-group coupled n-γ (47 n + 20 γ – BUGLE-96 structure working cross section libraries in FIDO-ANISN format for LWR shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry calculations, named BUGJEFF311.BOLIB and BUGENDF70.BOLIB, were generated by the revised version of SCAMPI, through problem-dependent cross section collapsing and self-shielding from the cited fine-group libraries. The validation results on the criticality safety benchmark experiments for the fine-group libraries and the preliminary validation results for the broad-group working libraries on the PCA-Replica and VENUS-3 engineering neutron shielding benchmark experiments are reported in synthesis.

  17. Solid state 1H spin-lattice relaxation and isolated-molecule and cluster electronic structure calculations in organic molecular solids: The relationship between structure and methyl group and t-butyl group rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianlong; Mallory, Frank B.; Mallory, Clelia W.; Odhner, Hosanna R.; Beckmann, Peter A.

    2014-05-01

    We report ab initio density functional theory electronic structure calculations of rotational barriers for t-butyl groups and their constituent methyl groups both in the isolated molecules and in central molecules in clusters built from the X-ray structure in four t-butyl aromatic compounds. The X-ray structures have been reported previously. We also report and interpret the temperature dependence of the solid state 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spin-lattice relaxation rate at 8.50, 22.5, and 53.0 MHz in one of the four compounds. Such experiments for the other three have been reported previously. We compare the computed barriers for methyl group and t-butyl group rotation in a central target molecule in the cluster with the activation energies determined from fitting the 1H NMR spin-lattice relaxation data. We formulate a dynamical model for the superposition of t-butyl group rotation and the rotation of the t-butyl group's constituent methyl groups. The four compounds are 2,7-di-t-butylpyrene, 1,4-di-t-butylbenzene, 2,6-di-t-butylnaphthalene, and 3-t-butylchrysene. We comment on the unusual ground state orientation of the t-butyl groups in the crystal of the pyrene and we comment on the unusually high rotational barrier of these t-butyl groups.

  18. Solid state {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation and isolated-molecule and cluster electronic structure calculations in organic molecular solids: The relationship between structure and methyl group and t-butyl group rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xianlong, E-mail: WangXianlong@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: pbeckman@brynmawr.edu [Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, 4 North Jianshe Rd., 2nd Section, Chengdu 610054 (China); Mallory, Frank B. [Department of Chemistry, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 (United States); Mallory, Clelia W. [Department of Chemistry, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6323 (United States); Odhner, Hosanna R.; Beckmann, Peter A., E-mail: WangXianlong@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: pbeckman@brynmawr.edu [Department of Physics, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 (United States)

    2014-05-21

    We report ab initio density functional theory electronic structure calculations of rotational barriers for t-butyl groups and their constituent methyl groups both in the isolated molecules and in central molecules in clusters built from the X-ray structure in four t-butyl aromatic compounds. The X-ray structures have been reported previously. We also report and interpret the temperature dependence of the solid state {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spin-lattice relaxation rate at 8.50, 22.5, and 53.0 MHz in one of the four compounds. Such experiments for the other three have been reported previously. We compare the computed barriers for methyl group and t-butyl group rotation in a central target molecule in the cluster with the activation energies determined from fitting the {sup 1}H NMR spin-lattice relaxation data. We formulate a dynamical model for the superposition of t-butyl group rotation and the rotation of the t-butyl group's constituent methyl groups. The four compounds are 2,7-di-t-butylpyrene, 1,4-di-t-butylbenzene, 2,6-di-t-butylnaphthalene, and 3-t-butylchrysene. We comment on the unusual ground state orientation of the t-butyl groups in the crystal of the pyrene and we comment on the unusually high rotational barrier of these t-butyl groups.

  19. Report of the task group reviewing national and international activities in the area of ageing of nuclear power plant concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a background information on the mandate of the task group and its organisation, the longevity of nuclear power plants is first addressed: the present status of nuclear power plants in the 25 OECD Member Countries is summarised and the importance of ensuring continued safe operation of nuclear power plants described. Safety-related concrete structures (primarily containments) for several reactor concepts are briefly described as well as their materials of construction. Primary mechanisms that can produce adverse ageing of the concrete structures are described (e.g., chemical attack and corrosion of steel reinforcement). The overall performance of nuclear power plant concrete structures is described and age-related degradation incidences that have occurred are noted (e.g., corrosion of steel in water intake structures and corrosion of metal liners). National ageing management programmes of OECD Member Countries are then described with the emphasis placed on nuclear power plant safety-related concrete structures. Although the majority of these programmes are addressing components such as the reactor pressure vessel and steam generator, several national programmes have sophisticated activities that address the concrete structures (e.g., Canada, France, Japan, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the United States). International ageing management activities are then summarised, primarily addressed under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (ageing management activities for concrete containment buildings) and the Commission of European Communities (CEC) (assessment of the long-term durability of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures and buildings, and steel containments in nuclear power plants). General conclusions and recommendations are provided at the end of the report

  20. A review of the NeT Task Group 1 residual stress measurement and analysis round robin on a single weld bead-on-plate specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the European network NeT round-robin activities on measuring and simulating the residual stresses generated by laying a single weld bead on a flat austenitic steel plate. The activities are described, as are the main results obtained. From 2002 to 2010, fourteen independent sets of residual stress measurements were made using five different techniques, and subjected to detailed statistical analysis to evaluate best estimate profiles for validation of finite element predictions. In parallel, over forty finite element simulations were performed, examining a wide range of solution variables and their impact on the predicted residual stresses. This large body of work has allowed NeT Task Group 1 to develop a reliable thermal solution strategy. This is described and involves a global weld heat input calibrated against far-field thermocouples followed by derivation of detailed weld heat source characteristics by matching the weld fusion boundary profile. The accurate thermal solutions then allow the most important mechanical solution variables to be isolated and optimised. An important variable is found to be the material hardening model, with mixed isotropic-kinematic hardening being the most accurate for the AISI 316L plate material. Other solution variables, such as the welding efficiency, the mesh design and the thermal boundary conditions, are found to be of much less importance. The NeT TG1 specimen is described here in sufficient detail to serve as a benchmark for both finite element simulation and measurement of weld residual stresses. - Highlights: • NeT TG1 is the most comprehensive weld residual stress benchmark yet produced. • The large measurements database allows statistical analysis of the measured stresses. • The mean measured profiles are of great value for validating residual stress prediction techniques. • The simulations database affords a unique insight into the sensitivity of predicted residual stresses to a variety of

  1. Steps towards a CSP yield calculation guideline: A first draft for discussion in the SolarPACES working group guiSmo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Tobias; Bachelier, Camille; Eck, Markus; Dersch, Jürgen; Fluri, Thomas; Giuliano, Stefano; Goebel, Olaf; Haller, Ursula; Lude, Simon; Meyer, Richard; Rau, Christoph; Schenk, Heiko; Schmidt, Norbert; Seitz, Markus; Westphal, Boris; Yildiz, Enver

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview on an important step towards a SolarPACES guideline for CSP yield calculation. With the increasing number of CSP installations, standardization becomes more and more important for further reduction of costs and increase in quality. Yield calculation is a key issue throughout all phases of project development and throughout most of the involved players. Due to the need for more complex process models for CSP compared to other renewables like PV or wind, the yield calculation procedure is more demanding. Uncertainties in the process are covered by additional but partially unnecessary risk surcharges since systematic approaches for avoiding expensive redundancies in risk buffers are not available. It is the main motivation of the mentioned CSP yield calculation guideline to overcome this situation by providing a detailed methodology for yield calculation. A first comprehensive draft version has been compiled and will be subject of discussion in the SolarPACES working group guiSmo. The following sections illustrate the motivation for the guideline, the contents at a glance, as well as expected benefits for selected players.

  2. Task Group 7B: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Biological Aging: The Roles of Nature, Nurture and Chance in the Maintenance of Human Healthspan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weier, Heinz-Ulrich; Arya, Suresh; Grant, Christine; Miller, Linda; Ono, Santa Jeremy; Patil, Chris; Shay, Jerry; Topol, Eric; Torry, Michael; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Tse, Iris; Lin, Su-Ju; Miller, Richard

    2007-11-14

    The degree to which an individual organism maintains healthspan and lifespan is a function of complex interactions between genetic inheritance ('nature'), environment, including cultural inheritance (nurture) and stochastic events ('luck' or 'chance'). This task group will focus upon the role of chance because it is so poorly understood and because it appears to be of major importance in the determination of individual variations in healthspan and lifespan within species. The major factor determining variations in healthspan and lifespan between species is genetic inheritance. Broader aspects of cellular and molecular mechanisms of biological aging will also be considered, given their importance for understanding the cellular and molecular basis of successful aging. The task force will consider the cellular and molecular basis for nature, nurture and chance in healthspan and life span determination. On the basis of comparisons between identical and non-identical twins, geneticists have estimated that genes control no more than about a quarter of the inter-individual differences in lifespan (Herskind 1996). Twin studies of very old individuals, however, show substantially greater genetic contributions to Healthspan (McClearn 2004; Reed 2003). The environment clearly plays an important role in the length and the quality of life. Tobacco smoke, for example has the potential to impact upon multiple body systems in ways that appear to accelerate the rates at which those systems age (Bernhard 2007). To document the role of chance events on aging, one must rigorously control both the genetic composition of an organism and its environment. This has been done to a remarkable degree in a species of nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans (Vanfleteren 1998). The results confirm hundreds of previous studies with a wide range of species, especially those with inbred rodents housed under apparently identical but less well controlled environments. One

  3. Calculation of average molecular parameters, functional groups, and a surrogate molecule for heavy fuel oils using 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Abdul Jameel, Abdul Gani

    2016-04-22

    Heavy fuel oil (HFO) is primarily used as fuel in marine engines and in boilers to generate electricity. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a powerful analytical tool for structure elucidation and in this study, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy were used for the structural characterization of 2 HFO samples. The NMR data was combined with elemental analysis and average molecular weight to quantify average molecular parameters (AMPs), such as the number of paraffinic carbons, naphthenic carbons, aromatic hydrogens, olefinic hydrogens, etc. in the HFO samples. Recent formulae published in the literature were used for calculating various derived AMPs like aromaticity factor 〖(f〗_a), C/H ratio, average paraffinic chain length (¯n), naphthenic ring number 〖(R〗_N), aromatic ring number〖 (R〗_A), total ring number〖 (R〗_T), aromatic condensation index (φ) and aromatic condensation degree (Ω). These derived AMPs help in understanding the overall structure of the fuel. A total of 19 functional groups were defined to represent the HFO samples, and their respective concentrations were calculated by formulating balance equations that equate the concentration of the functional groups with the concentration of the AMPs. Heteroatoms like sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen were also included in the functional groups. Surrogate molecules were finally constructed to represent the average structure of the molecules present in the HFO samples. This surrogate molecule can be used for property estimation of the HFO samples and also serve as a surrogate to represent the molecular structure for use in kinetic studies.

  4. Task Group 7B: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Biological Aging: The Roles of Nature, Nurture and Chance in the Maintenance of Human Healthspan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weier, Heinz-Ulrich; Arya, Suresh; Grant, Christine; Miller, Linda; Ono, Santa Jeremy; Patil, Chris; Shay, Jerry; Topol, Eric; Torry, Michael; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Tse, Iris; Lin, Su-Ju; Miller, Richard

    2007-11-14

    The degree to which an individual organism maintains healthspan and lifespan is a function of complex interactions between genetic inheritance ('nature'), environment, including cultural inheritance (nurture) and stochastic events ('luck' or 'chance'). This task group will focus upon the role of chance because it is so poorly understood and because it appears to be of major importance in the determination of individual variations in healthspan and lifespan within species. The major factor determining variations in healthspan and lifespan between species is genetic inheritance. Broader aspects of cellular and molecular mechanisms of biological aging will also be considered, given their importance for understanding the cellular and molecular basis of successful aging. The task force will consider the cellular and molecular basis for nature, nurture and chance in healthspan and life span determination. On the basis of comparisons between identical and non-identical twins, geneticists have estimated that genes control no more than about a quarter of the inter-individual differences in lifespan (Herskind 1996). Twin studies of very old individuals, however, show substantially greater genetic contributions to Healthspan (McClearn 2004; Reed 2003). The environment clearly plays an important role in the length and the quality of life. Tobacco smoke, for example has the potential to impact upon multiple body systems in ways that appear to accelerate the rates at which those systems age (Bernhard 2007). To document the role of chance events on aging, one must rigorously control both the genetic composition of an organism and its environment. This has been done to a remarkable degree in a species of nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans (Vanfleteren 1998). The results confirm hundreds of previous studies with a wide range of species, especially those with inbred rodents housed under apparently identical but less well controlled environments. One

  5. Effects of nuclear data library and ultra-fine group calculation for large size sodium-cooled fast reactor OECD benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper summarizes calculation results for an international benchmark proposed by the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor core Feed-back and transient response (SFR-FT) under the framework of the Working Party on scientific issues of Reactor Systems (WPRS) of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD. It focuses on the large size oxide-fueled SFR. Library effect for core performance characteristics and reactivity feedback coefficients is analyzed using sensitivity analysis. The effect of ultra-fine energy group calculation in effective cross section generation is also analyzed. The discrepancy is about 0.4% for a neutron multiplication factor by changing JENDL-4.0 with JEFF-3.1. That is about -0.1% by changing JENDL-4.0 with ENDF/B-VII.1. The main contributions to the discrepancy between JENDL-4.0 and ENDF/B-VII.1 are 240Pu capture, 238U inelastic scattering and 239Pu fission. Those to the discrepancy between JENDL-4.0 and JEFF-3.1 are 23Na inelastic scattering, 56Fe inelastic scattering, 238Pu fission, 240Pu capture, 240Pu fission, 238U inelastic scattering, 239Pu fission and 239Pu nu-value. As for the sodium void reactivity, JEFF-3.1 and ENDF/B-VII.1 underestimate by about 8% compared with JENDL-4.0. The main contributions to the discrepancy between JENDL-4.0 and ENDF/B-VII.1 and 23Na elastic scattering, 23Na inelastic scattering and 239Pu fission. That to the discrepancy between JENDL-4.0 and JEFF-3.1 is 23Na inelastic scattering. The ultra-fine energy group calculation increases the sodium void reactivity by 2%. (author)

  6. A Metaanalysis of Perceptual Organization in Schizophrenia, Schizotypy, and Other High-Risk Groups Based on Variants of the Embedded Figures Task

    OpenAIRE

    Panton, Kirsten R.; Badcock, David R.; Badcock, Johanna C.

    2016-01-01

    Current research on perceptual organization in schizophrenia frequently employs shapes with regularly sampled contours (fragmented stimuli), in noise fields composed of similar elements, to elicit visual abnormalities. However, perceptual organization is multi-factorial and, in earlier studies, continuous contours have also been employed in tasks assessing the ability to extract shapes from a background. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies using closed-contour stimul...

  7. Are we on a learning curve or a treadmill? The benefits of participative group goal setting become apparent as tasks become increasingly challenging over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haslam, S.A.; Wegge, J.; Postmes, T.

    2009-01-01

    A large body of research has pointed to the utility) of individual and group goal setting as a performance enhancement strategy. However, group goal setting is more complex than individual goal setting as the group context often strengthens the desire for voice and the possibility, of resistance. In

  8. Task A, High Energy Physics Program experiment and theory: Task B, High Energy Physics Program numerical simulation of quantum field theories. [Particle Physics Group, Physics Dept. , The Florida State Univ. , Tallahassee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The effort of the experimental group has been concentrated on the CERN ALEPH and FERMILAB D0 collider experiments and completion of two fixed target experiments. The BNL fixed target experiment 771 took the world's largest sample of D(1285) and E/iota(1420) events, using pion, kaon and antiproton beams. Observing the following resonances: 0[sup [minus plus

  9. ZZ IRDF-2002, 640-Group Cross-Section Library and Spectra for Dosimetry Calculation in ENDF-6 Format. ZZ IRDF-2002-ACE, Cross-Section Library and Spectra for Dosimetry Calculation in ACE Format for Monte Carlo methods. ZZ IRDF-90, 640-Group Cross-Section Library and Spectra for Dosimetry Calculation in ENDF-6 Format. ZZ IRDF-82, 620-Group Cross-Section Library and Spectra for Dosimetry Calculation in ENDF-5 Format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of problem or function: - ZZ-IRDF-82: ENDF-5 Format; 620 group (SAND II) Dosimetry Library. Nuclides: Li, B, F, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Sc, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr, Nb, Rh, In, I, Au, Th, U, Np, Pu, Am. - ZZ-IRDF-90: ENDF-6 Format; 640 groups extended SAND II structure. Nuclides: Li, B, F, Mg, Al, P, S, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr, Nb, Rh, Cd, Ir, Gd, Au, Th, U, Np, Pu, V. Damage cross section for Fe, Cr, Ni. Weighting spectrum: Maxwell spectrum, 1/E spectrum and Watt fission spectrum. - ZZ-IRDF-2002: ENDF-6 Format (pointwise cross-section data). SAND II 640 energy group structure (multigroup data). Nuclides: Li, B, F, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Y, Zr, Nb, Rh, Ag, In, I, La, Pr, Tm, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Pb, Th, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cd, Gd. Damage cross section for Fe, Cr, Ni, Si, GaAs displacement. Weighting spectrum: - Typical MTR spectrum used in the input of the cross-section uncertainty processing code. - Flat weighting spectrum used in converting the pointwise cross-section data to the extended SAND-II group structure. - ZZ-IRDF-2002-ACE: ACE Format (continuous energy cross-section data for Monte Carlo). Nuclides: Li, B, F, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Y, Zr, Nb, Rh, Ag, In, I, La, Pr, Tm, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Pb, Th, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cd, Gd. Damage cross section for Fe, Cr, Ni, Si, GaAs displacement. - (A) ZZ-IRDF-82: The 1982 version of the International Reactor Dosimetry File is composed of two different parts. The first part is made up of a collection of dosimetry Cross sections and the second part contains a collection of benchmark spectra. For ease of use in dosimetry applications both Cross sections and spectra are distributed in multigroup form. Each of these two parts is in the ENDF/B-V Format as a separate computer file. I) The dosimetry cross section library contains the following data: (1) The entire ENDF/B-V Dosimetry Library (Mod. 1) in the form of 620 group averaged Cross

  10. PopAffiliator: online calculator for individual affiliation to a major population group based on 17 autosomal short tandem repeat genotype profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luísa; Alshamali, Farida; Andreassen, Rune; Ballard, Ruth; Chantratita, Wasun; Cho, Nam Soo; Coudray, Clotilde; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Espinoza, Marta; González-Andrade, Fabricio; Hadi, Sibte; Immel, Uta-Dorothee; Marian, Catalin; Gonzalez-Martin, Antonio; Mertens, Gerhard; Parson, Walther; Perone, Carlos; Prieto, Lourdes; Takeshita, Haruo; Rangel Villalobos, Héctor; Zeng, Zhaoshu; Zhivotovsky, Lev; Camacho, Rui; Fonseca, Nuno A

    2011-09-01

    Because of their sensitivity and high level of discrimination, short tandem repeat (STR) maker systems are currently the method of choice in routine forensic casework and data banking, usually in multiplexes up to 15-17 loci. Constraints related to sample amount and quality, frequently encountered in forensic casework, will not allow to change this picture in the near future, notwithstanding the technological developments. In this study, we present a free online calculator named PopAffiliator ( http://cracs.fc.up.pt/popaffiliator ) for individual population affiliation in the three main population groups, Eurasian, East Asian and sub-Saharan African, based on genotype profiles for the common set of STRs used in forensics. This calculator performs affiliation based on a model constructed using machine learning techniques. The model was constructed using a data set of approximately fifteen thousand individuals collected for this work. The accuracy of individual population affiliation is approximately 86%, showing that the common set of STRs routinely used in forensics provide a considerable amount of information for population assignment, in addition to being excellent for individual identification.

  11. Description of Bacillus toyonensis sp. nov., a novel species of the Bacillus cereus group, and pairwise genome comparisons of the species of the group by means of ANI calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Guillermo; Urdiain, Mercedes; Cifuentes, Ana; López-López, Aránzazu; Blanch, Anicet R; Tamames, Javier; Kämpfer, Peter; Kolstø, Anne-Brit; Ramón, Daniel; Martínez, Juan F; Codoñer, Francisco M; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon

    2013-09-01

    Strain BCT-7112(T) was isolated in 1966 in Japan from a survey designed to obtain naturally occurring microorganisms as pure cultures in the laboratory for use as probiotics in animal nutrition. This strain, which was primarily identified as Bacillus cereus var toyoi, has been in use for more than 30 years as the active ingredient of the preparation TOYOCERIN(®), an additive for use in animal nutrition (e.g. swine, poultry, cattle, rabbits and aquaculture). Despite the fact that the strain was initially classified as B. cereus, it showed significant genomic differences from the type strains of the B. cereus group that were large enough (ANI values below 92%) to allow it to be considered as a different species within the group. The polyphasic taxonomic study presented here provides sufficient discriminative parameters to classify BCT-7112(T) as a new species for which the name Bacillus toyonensis sp. nov. is proposed, with BCT-7112(T) (=CECT 876(T); =NCIMB 14858(T)) being designated as the type strain. In addition, a pairwise comparison between the available genomes of the whole B. cereus group by means of average nucleotide identity (ANI) calculations indicated that besides the eight classified species (including B. toyonensis), additional genomospecies could be detected, and most of them also had ANI values below 94%. ANI values were on the borderline of a species definition only in the cases of representatives of B. cereus versus B. thuringiensis, and B. mycoides and B. weihenstephanensis. PMID:23791203

  12. A Comparison of Behavioral Consultation and Behavioral Consultation with Model-Reinforcement Group Counseling for Children Who Are Consistently Off-Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Daniel Lee; Wallin, Kenneth R.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if classroom behavior management (CBM) via behavioral consultation and in combination with model-reinforcement group (MRG) counseling, and a no-treatment control group have differential effects upon attitudes toward school. (Author/RK)

  13. Handout on shielding calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to avoid the difficulties of the radioprotection supervisors in the tasks related to shielding calculations, is presented in this paper the basic concepts of shielding theory. It also includes exercises and examples. (author)

  14. Scientific calculating peripheral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ethridge, C.D.; Nickell, J.D. Jr.; Hanna, W.H.

    1979-09-01

    A scientific calculating peripheral for small intelligent data acquisition and instrumentation systems and for distributed-task processing systems is established with a number-oriented microprocessor controlled by a single component universal peripheral interface microcontroller. A MOS/LSI number-oriented microprocessor provides the scientific calculating capability with Reverse Polish Notation data format. Master processor task definition storage, input data sequencing, computation processing, result reporting, and interface protocol is managed by a single component universal peripheral interface microcontroller.

  15. Report of AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group 74: In-air output ratio, S{sub c}, for megavoltage photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Timothy C.; Ahnesjoe, Anders; Lam, Kwok Leung; Li, X. Allen; Ma, Chang-Ming Charlie; Palta, Jatinder R.; Sharpe, Michael B.; Thomadsen, Bruce; Tailor, Ramesh C. [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Uppsala University, 751 85 Uppsala (Sweden) and Nucletron AB, Box 1704, 751 47 Uppsala (Sweden); University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States); Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States); University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610 (United States); Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON M5G 2M9 (Canada); University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); RPC, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    The concept of in-air output ratio (S{sub c}) was introduced to characterize how the incident photon fluence per monitor unit (or unit time for a Co-60 unit) varies with collimator settings. However, there has been much confusion regarding the measurement technique to be used that has prevented the accurate and consistent determination of S{sub c}. The main thrust of the report is to devise a theoretical and measurement formalism that ensures interinstitutional consistency of S{sub c}. The in-air output ratio, S{sub c}, is defined as the ratio of primary collision water kerma in free-space, K{sub p}, per monitor unit between an arbitrary collimator setting and the reference collimator setting at the same location. Miniphantoms with sufficient lateral and longitudinal thicknesses to eliminate electron contamination and maintain transient electron equilibrium are recommended for the measurement of S{sub c}. The authors present a correction formalism to extrapolate the correct S{sub c} from the measured values using high-Z miniphantom. Miniphantoms made of high-Z material are used to measure S{sub c} for small fields (e.g., IMRT or stereotactic radiosurgery). This report presents a review of the components of S{sub c}, including headscatter, source-obscuring, and monitor-backscattering effects. A review of calculation methods (Monte Carlo and empirical) used to calculate S{sub c} for arbitrary shaped fields is presented. The authors discussed the use of S{sub c} in photon dose calculation algorithms, in particular, monitor unit calculation. Finally, a summary of S{sub c} data (from RPC and other institutions) is included for QA purposes.

  16. Hot Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Kathleen

    1996-01-01

    Collaborators sparked by creative ideas and obsessed by a common task may not realize they're part of a "hot group"--a term coined by business professors Harold J. Leavitt and Jean Lipman-Blumen. Spawned by group decision making and employee empowerment, hot groups can flourish in education settings. They're typically small, short lived, and goal…

  17. Report of the AAPM Task Group No. 105: Issues associated with clinical implementation of Monte Carlo-based photon and electron external beam treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monte Carlo (MC) method has been shown through many research studies to calculate accurate dose distributions for clinical radiotherapy, particularly in heterogeneous patient tissues where the effects of electron transport cannot be accurately handled with conventional, deterministic dose algorithms. Despite its proven accuracy and the potential for improved dose distributions to influence treatment outcomes, the long calculation times previously associated with MC simulation rendered this method impractical for routine clinical treatment planning. However, the development of faster codes optimized for radiotherapy calculations and improvements in computer processor technology have substantially reduced calculation times to, in some instances, within minutes on a single processor. These advances have motivated several major treatment planning system vendors to embark upon the path of MC techniques. Several commercial vendors have already released or are currently in the process of releasing MC algorithms for photon and/or electron beam treatment planning. Consequently, the accessibility and use of MC treatment planning algorithms may well become widespread in the radiotherapy community. With MC simulation, dose is computed stochastically using first principles; this method is therefore quite different from conventional dose algorithms. Issues such as statistical uncertainties, the use of variance reduction techniques, the ability to account for geometric details in the accelerator treatment head simulation, and other features, are all unique components of a MC treatment planning algorithm. Successful implementation by the clinical physicist of such a system will require an understanding of the basic principles of MC techniques. The purpose of this report, while providing education and review on the use of MC simulation in radiotherapy planning, is to set out, for both users and developers, the salient issues associated with clinical implementation and

  18. INDAR: a computer code for the calculation of critical group radiation exposure from routine discharges of radioactivity to seas and estuaries - description and users' guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer program INDAR enables detailed estimates to be made of critical group radiation exposure arising from routine discharges of radioactivity for coastal sites where the discharge is close to the shore and the shoreline is reasonably straight, and for estuarine sites where radioactivity is rapidly mixed across the width of the estuary. Important processes which can be taken into account include the turbulence generated by the discharge, the effects of a sloping sea bed and the variation with time of the lateral dispersion coefficient. The significance of the timing of discharges can also be assessed. INDAR uses physically meaningful hydrographic parameters directly. For most sites the most important exposure pathways are seafood consumption, external exposure over estuarine sediments and beaches, and the handling of fishing gear. As well as for these primary pathways, INDAR enables direct calculations to be made for some additional exposure pathways. The secondary pathways considered are seaweed consumption, swimming, the handling of materials other than fishing gear and the inhalation of activity. (author)

  19. Potential hazard due to induced radioactivity secondary to radiotherapy: the report of task group 136 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomadsen, Bruce; Nath, Ravinder; Bateman, Fred B; Farr, Jonathan; Glisson, Cal; Islam, Mohammad K; LaFrance, Terry; Moore, Mary E; George Xu, X; Yudelev, Mark

    2014-11-01

    followed only if these actions are considered reasonable and practical in the individual clinics. Therapists working with proton beam and neutron beam units handle treatment devices that do become radioactive, and they should wear extremity monitors and make handling apertures and boluses their last task upon entering the room following treatment. Personnel doses from neutron-beam units can approach regulatory limits depending on the number of patients and beams, and strategies to reduce doses should be followed.

  20. Proposal of Setting Up a Joint ESC / EAEE Working (Task Group on Updating of the Concept of Seismic Intensity and of the Seismic Intensity Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horea SANDI

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The proposal presented subsequently was forwarded by the author, in August 2010, on the eve of the 14th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering, to:- Prof. Atilla Ansal, Secretary General, EAEE;- Dr. Mariano García-Fernández, Secretary General, ESC.This proposal was to a high extent a follow up of the project “Quantification of seismic action on structures” (2005-2008, in which research groups of institutes of Romania (coordination, Russian Federation and Republic Moldova were involved. A summary outcome of the project referred to is represented by the volume [Sandi & al., 2010a]. A brief presentation of the volume referred to is given in its foreword, reproduced in Annex II. The correspondence related to the submission of the proposal is reproduced in Annex III. A paper on this subject, [Sandi & al., 2010b], presented at the 14th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering, is also reproduced in this issue of the journal.

  1. 基于任务驱动和项目引领的小组协作Java教学模式研究%A Research on Java Teaching Pattern of Group Collaboration Based on Task Driven and Project Lead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洁

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the problems existing in Java teaching,this paper presents the thought and analysis of the method of solving problems. It also puts forward Java teaching pattern of group collaboration based on task driven and project lead which is always in a proj⁃ect throughout the course,takes task driven as the main content and considers group collaboration as the main way. The application shows that this method can improve and fully stimulate students’learning initiative.%针对Java教学中存在的问题,对问题解决方法进行了思考和分析,提出一种基于任务驱动和项目引领的小组协作Java教学模式,以一个项目贯穿课程始终,以任务驱动为主要环节,以小组协作为主要方式。实施应用表明,该方法能提高并充分调动学生的学习主动性。

  2. Waste area grouping 2 Phase I task data report: Ecological risk assessment and White Oak Creek watershed screening ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R.A.; Jackson, B.L.; Jones, D.S. [and others

    1996-05-01

    This report presents an ecological risk assessment for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 based on the data collected in the Phase I remedial investigation (RI). It serves as an update to the WAG 2 screening ecological risk assessment that was performed using historic data. In addition to identifying potential ecological risks in WAG 2 that may require additional data collection, this report serves to determine whether there are ecological risks of sufficient magnitude to require a removal action or some other expedited remedial process. WAG 2 consists of White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) main plant area, White Oak Lake (WOL), the White Oak Creek Embayment of the Clinch River, associated flood plains, and the associated groundwater. The WOC system drains the WOC watershed, an area of approximately 16.8 km{sup 2} that includes ORNL and associated WAGs. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminants released from ORNL and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent WAGs.

  3. Report of the results of the fiscal 1997 regional consortium R and D project. Regional consortium energy field / R and D of a task adaptation type group architecture transfer robot system, TRIPTERS (first fiscal year); 1997 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Chiiki consortium energy bun`ya / task tekigogata gun kosei hanso robot system TRIPTERS no kaihatsu kenkyu (daiichi nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper stated the fiscal 1997 result of the development of a task adaptation type group architecture transfer robot system (TRIPTERS) which can cope with changes in carrying task rapidly and flexibly. R and D were conducted mainly of various functional modules, the operation management technology which enables group architecture, and the basic design of a standardized transfer robot. As to the positioning, studied were the construction of the basic hardware of laser position measuring device, and the application method. Concerning the cooperative carrying, conducted were securing of positioning accuracy of matters to be carried, high speed heavy transfer control, and design of dead reckoning system. Relating to the operation management, passable areas were divided into more than one zones, and the effective path reservation method was constructed so that one and the same zone is not occupied. As to the environmental recognition/obstacle avoidance, developed were actual hour/distance acquisition equipment, and autonomous cars running according to the directions of the color sign recognition system by stereo CCD camera. Also conducted were the development of methods to recognize the distance to obstacles and to discriminate areas, the development of mobile sensor, and the basic experiment on running of the demonstration machine. 44 refs., 153 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Game Analysis of Relationships between Emotion Conflicts and Tasks Perform Conflicts in Project Group%项目团队中情感与履行任务冲突关系博弈分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万涛

    2011-01-01

    针对项目团队中存在冲突影响团队有效构建与和谐发展的问题,在现有的项目团队冲突经济行为研究成果基础上引进非经济行为分析,利用博弈论构建任务履行冲突(经济行为)与情感冲突(非经济行为)的关系理论模型,实例研究表明,该理论研究符合实际运作,为构建和谐的项目团队提供了理论依据.%Conflicts in project group are important factors affecting the effective establishment and harmonious development of project group. Non - economic behavior conflicts were analysed based on the research achievement of economic behavior conflicts in the existing project group. The relationship theoretical models were set up using tasks perform conflicts ( economic behaviors) and emotion conflicts ( non - economic behaviors) by game theory. The case indicates that the result accords with the practical operation;consequently it gives a basis for theory to establish the harmonious project group.

  5. Developmental changes in using verbal self-cueing in task-switching situations: The impact of task practice and task-sequencing demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta eKray

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined whether developmental changes in using verbal self-cueing for task-goal maintenance are dependent on the amount of task practice and task-sequencing demands. To measure task-goal maintenance we applied a switching paradigm in which children either performed only task A or B in single-task blocks or switched between them on every second trial in mixed-task blocks. Task-goal maintenance was determined by comparing the performance between both blocks (mixing costs. The influence of verbal self-cueing was measured by instructing children to either name the next task aloud or not to verbalize during task preparation. Task-sequencing demands were varied between groups whereas one group received spatial task cues to support keeping track of the task sequence, while the other group did not. We also varied by the amount of prior practice in task switching while one group of participants practiced task switching first, before performing the task naming in addition, and the other group did it vice versa. Results of our study investigating younger (8-10 years and older children (11-13 years revealed no age differences in beneficial effects of verbal self-cueing. In line with previous findings, children showed reduced mixing costs under task-naming instructions and under conditions of low task-sequence demands (with the presence of spatial task cues. Our results also indicated that these benefits were only obtained for those groups of children that first received practice in task switching alone with no additional verbalization instruction. These findings suggest that internal task-cueing strategies can be efficiently used in children but only if they received prior practice in the underlying task so that demands on keeping and coordinating various instructions are reduced. Moreover, children benefitted from spatial task cues for better task-goal maintenance only if no verbal task-cueing strategy was introduced first.

  6. An application of the renormalization group to the calculation of the vacuum decay rate in flat and curved space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Metaxas, D

    2004-01-01

    I show that an application of renormalization group arguments may lead to significant corrections to the vacuum decay rate for phase transitions in flat and curved space-time. It can also give some information regarding its dependence on the parameters of the theory, including the cosmological constant in the case of decay in curved space-time.

  7. Calculation of demands for nuclear fuels and fuel cycle services. Description of computer model and strategies developed by Working Group 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Working Group 1 examined a range of reactor deployment strategies and fuel cycle options, in oder to estimate the range of nuclear fuel requirements and fuel cycle service needs which would result. The computer model, its verification in comparison with other models, the strategies to be examined through use of the model, and the range of results obtained are described

  8. Heats of formation of MHxCly (M = Si, P, As, Sb) compounds and main group fluorides from high level electronic structure calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliu, Monica; Grant, Daniel J; Feller, David; Dixon, David A

    2012-04-12

    Atomization energies at 0 K and heats of formation at 0 and 298 K are predicted for the MH(x)Cl(y) compounds (M = Si, P, As, and Sb) and for a number of trivalent, tetravalent, and pentavalent fluorides (SbF(3), BiF(3), GeF(4), SnF(4), PbF(4), AsF(5), SbF(5)) from coupled cluster theory (CCSD(T)) calculations using correlation consistent basis sets and extrapolation to the complete basis set limit. Small-core, relativistic effective core potentials were used for the heavier elements (Ge, As, Sn, Sb, Pb, and Bi), including correlation of the outer core electrons. Additional scalar relativistic (for the lighter elements) and atomic spin-orbit corrections are included in order to achieve near chemical accuracy of ±1.5 kcal/mol. Vibrational zero point energies were computed from scaled harmonic frequencies at the second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) level where possible. Agreement between theory and the available experimental data is excellent. We present a revised heat of formation of the antimony atom in the gas phase. The calculated values will be of use in predicting the behavior of chemical vapor deposition systems. PMID:22397634

  9. Cognitive Complexity of Mathematics Instructional Tasks in a Taiwanese Classroom: An Examination of Task Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Yu; Silver, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined geometric calculation with number tasks used within a unit of geometry instruction in a Taiwanese classroom, identifying the source of each task used in classroom instruction and analyzing the cognitive complexity of each task with respect to 2 distinct features: diagram complexity and problem-solving complexity. We found that…

  10. MINOR PARAMETERS NEEDED FOR INDIVIDUAL-DOSE CALCULATIONS: Final Report for Tasks 7.1, 7.2, 8.1, 8.2, 9.1, 9.2, and 9.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2009-10-23

    This brief report documents the selection of parameters needed to support individual-dose calculations from 131I released into the environment with gaseous effluents from the Mayak Production Association.

  11. Ab initio calculation of the electronic and vibrational properties of metal-organic molecules based on cyclic C{sub 6} intercalated with some group VIII transition metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmin, Stanislav L.; Duley, Walter W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    The vibrational and electronic properties of a new class of organometallic sandwich molecules, (C{sub 6}){sub n}Me{sub n-1}, based on stacks of cyclic C{sub 6} intercalated with Fe and Ru have been studied using first principles density functional techniques (DFT). Spectral properties as well as the HOMO-LUMO gap energy in molecules containing up to eight C{sub 6} layers have been calculated. The HOMO-LUMO energy gap in these molecules is < 1 eV and decreases significantly in longer molecules. It is shown that infinite chains should have excellent metallic properties. These molecules are promising for nanoelectronic applications, due to their predicted high stability, conductivity, and magnetic properties. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Operating and maintenance experience with computer-based systems in nuclear power plants - A report by the PWG-1 Task Group on Computer-based Systems Important to Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared by the Task Group on Computer-based Systems Important to Safety of the Principal Working Group No. 1. Canada had a leading role in this study. Operating and Maintenance Experience with Computer-based Systems in nuclear power plants is essential for improving and upgrading against potential failures. The present report summarises the observations and findings related to the use of digital technology in nuclear power plants. It also makes recommendations for future activities in Member Countries. Continued expansion of digital technology in nuclear power reactor has resulted in new safety and licensing issues, since the existing licensing review criteria were mainly based on the analogue devices used when the plants were designed. On the industry side, a consensus approach is needed to help stabilise and standardise the treatment of digital installations and upgrades while ensuring safety and reliability. On the regulatory side, new guidelines and regulatory requirements are needed to assess digital upgrades. Upgrades or new installation issues always involve potential for system failures. They are addressed specifically in the 'hazard' or 'failure' analysis, and it is in this context that they ultimately are resolved in the design and addressed in licensing. Failure Analysis is normally performed in parallel with the design, verification and validation (V and V), and implementation activities of the upgrades. Current standards and guidelines in France, U.S. and Canada recognise the importance of failure analysis in computer-based system design. Thus failure analysis is an integral part of the design and implementation process and is aimed at evaluating potential failure modes and cause of system failures. In this context, it is essential to define 'System' as the plant system affected by the upgrade, not the 'Computer' system. The identified failures would provide input to the design process in the form of design requirements or design

  13. Mobile Thread Task Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Estlin, Tara A.; Bornstein, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    The Mobile Thread Task Manager (MTTM) is being applied to parallelizing existing flight software to understand the benefits and to develop new techniques and architectural concepts for adapting software to multicore architectures. It allocates and load-balances tasks for a group of threads that migrate across processors to improve cache performance. In order to balance-load across threads, the MTTM augments a basic map-reduce strategy to draw jobs from a global queue. In a multicore processor, memory may be "homed" to the cache of a specific processor and must be accessed from that processor. The MTTB architecture wraps access to data with thread management to move threads to the home processor for that data so that the computation follows the data in an attempt to avoid L2 cache misses. Cache homing is also handled by a memory manager that translates identifiers to processor IDs where the data will be homed (according to rules defined by the user). The user can also specify the number of threads and processors separately, which is important for tuning performance for different patterns of computation and memory access. MTTM efficiently processes tasks in parallel on a multiprocessor computer. It also provides an interface to make it easier to adapt existing software to a multiprocessor environment.

  14. Rostering and Task Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders Høeg

    In a modern society, manpower can be both a scarce and an expensive resource. Skilled personnel is usually in high demand and accounts for a significant part of total expenses in many companies. When the work is divided in shifts, a roster is compiled to allocate these to the employees. The roste......In a modern society, manpower can be both a scarce and an expensive resource. Skilled personnel is usually in high demand and accounts for a significant part of total expenses in many companies. When the work is divided in shifts, a roster is compiled to allocate these to the employees...... as possible to the available staff, while respecting various requirements and rules and while including possible transportation time between tasks. This thesis presents a number of industrial applications in rostering and task scheduling. The applications exist within various contexts in health care...... to scheduling problems with temporal dependencies between tasks. However, these problems appear in various contexts and with different properties. A group of the problems considered are related to vehicle routing problems, where transportation and time windows are important factors that must be accounted for...

  15. Effects of disease severity and medication state on postural control asymmetry during challenging postural tasks in individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Fabio A; Polastri, Paula F; Baptista, André M; Lirani-Silva, Ellen; Simieli, Lucas; Orcioli-Silva, Diego; Beretta, Victor S; Gobbi, Lilian T B

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of disease severity and medication state on postural control asymmetry during challenging tasks in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Nineteen people with PD and 11 neurologically healthy individuals performed three standing task conditions: bipedal standing, tandem and unipedal adapted standing; the individuals with PD performed the tasks in ON and OFF medication state. The participants with PD were distributed into 2 groups according to disease severity: unilateral group (n=8) and bilateral group (n=11). The two PD groups performed the evaluations both under and without the medication. Two force plates were used to analyze the posture. The symmetric index was calculated for various of center of pressure. ANOVA one-way (groups) and two-way (PD groups×medication), with repeated measures for medication, were calculated. For main effects of group, the bilateral group was more asymmetric than CG. For main effects of medication, only unipedal adapted standing presented effects of PD medication. There was PD groups×medication interaction. Under the effects of medication, the unilateral group presented lower asymmetry of RMS in anterior-posterior direction and area than the bilateral group in unipedal adapted standing. In addition, the unilateral group presented lower asymmetry of mean velocity, RMS in anterior-posterior direction and area in unipedal standing and area in tandem adapted standing after a medication dose. Postural control asymmetry during challenging postural tasks was dependent on disease severity and medication state in people with PD. The bilateral group presented higher postural control asymmetry than the control and unilateral groups in challenging postural tasks. Finally, the medication dose was able to reduce postural control asymmetry in the unilateral group during challenging postural tasks.

  16. Orientation Preferences of Backbone Secondary Amide Functional Groups in Peptide Nucleic Acid Complexes: Quantum Chemical Calculations Reveal an Intrinsic Preference of Cationic D-Amino Acid-Based Chiral PNA Analogues for the P-form

    OpenAIRE

    Topham, Christopher M.; Smith, Jeremy C.

    2006-01-01

    Geometric descriptions of nonideal interresidue hydrogen bonding and backbone-base water bridging in the minor groove are established in terms of polyamide backbone carbonyl group orientation from analyses of residue junction conformers in experimentally determined peptide nucleic acid (PNA) complexes. Two types of interresidue hydrogen bonding are identified in PNA conformers in heteroduplexes with nucleic acids that adopt A-like basepair stacking. Quantum chemical calculations on the bindin...

  17. Numerical processing efficiency improved in children using mental abacus: ERP evidence utilizing a numerical Stroop task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan eYao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether long-term abacus-based mental calculation (AMC training improved numerical processing efficiency and at what stage of information processing the effect appeard. Thirty-three children participated in the study and were randomly assigned to two groups at primary school entry, matched for age, gender and IQ. All children went through the same curriculum except that the abacus group received a 2-hour/per week AMC training, while the control group did traditional numerical practice for a similar amount of time. After a two-year training, they were tested with a numerical Stroop task. Electroencephalographic (EEG and event related potential (ERP recording techniques were used to monitor the temporal dynamics during the task. Children were required to determine the numerical magnitude (NC task or the physical size (PC task of two numbers presented simultaneously. In the NC task, the AMC group showed faster response times but similar accuracy compared to the control group. In the PC task, the two groups exhibited the same speed and accuracy. The saliency of numerical information relative to physical information was greater in AMC group. With regards to ERP results, the AMC group displayed congruity effects both in the earlier (N1 and later (N2 and LPC (late positive component time domain, while the control group only displayed congruity effects for LPC. In the left parietal region, LPC amplitudes were larger for the AMC than the control group. Individual differences for LPC amplitudes over left parietal area showed a positive correlation with RTs in the NC task in both congruent and neutral conditions. After controlling for the N2 amplitude, this correlation also became significant in the incongruent condition. Our results suggest that AMC training can strengthen the relationship between symbolic representation and numerical magnitude so that numerical information processing becomes quicker and automatic in AMC children.

  18. Numerical processing efficiency improved in children using mental abacus: ERP evidence utilizing a numerical Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Du, Fenglei; Wang, Chunjie; Liu, Yuqiu; Weng, Jian; Chen, Feiyan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether long-term abacus-based mental calculation (AMC) training improved numerical processing efficiency and at what stage of information processing the effect appeard. Thirty-three children participated in the study and were randomly assigned to two groups at primary school entry, matched for age, gender and IQ. All children went through the same curriculum except that the abacus group received a 2-h/per week AMC training, while the control group did traditional numerical practice for a similar amount of time. After a 2-year training, they were tested with a numerical Stroop task. Electroencephalographic (EEG) and event related potential (ERP) recording techniques were used to monitor the temporal dynamics during the task. Children were required to determine the numerical magnitude (NC) (NC task) or the physical size (PC task) of two numbers presented simultaneously. In the NC task, the AMC group showed faster response times but similar accuracy compared to the control group. In the PC task, the two groups exhibited the same speed and accuracy. The saliency of numerical information relative to physical information was greater in AMC group. With regards to ERP results, the AMC group displayed congruity effects both in the earlier (N1) and later (N2 and LPC (late positive component) time domain, while the control group only displayed congruity effects for LPC. In the left parietal region, LPC amplitudes were larger for the AMC than the control group. Individual differences for LPC amplitudes over left parietal area showed a positive correlation with RTs in the NC task in both congruent and neutral conditions. After controlling for the N2 amplitude, this correlation also became significant in the incongruent condition. Our results suggest that AMC training can strengthen the relationship between symbolic representation and numerical magnitude so that numerical information processing becomes quicker and automatic in AMC children.

  19. Numerical processing efficiency improved in children using mental abacus: ERP evidence utilizing a numerical Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Du, Fenglei; Wang, Chunjie; Liu, Yuqiu; Weng, Jian; Chen, Feiyan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether long-term abacus-based mental calculation (AMC) training improved numerical processing efficiency and at what stage of information processing the effect appeard. Thirty-three children participated in the study and were randomly assigned to two groups at primary school entry, matched for age, gender and IQ. All children went through the same curriculum except that the abacus group received a 2-h/per week AMC training, while the control group did traditional numerical practice for a similar amount of time. After a 2-year training, they were tested with a numerical Stroop task. Electroencephalographic (EEG) and event related potential (ERP) recording techniques were used to monitor the temporal dynamics during the task. Children were required to determine the numerical magnitude (NC) (NC task) or the physical size (PC task) of two numbers presented simultaneously. In the NC task, the AMC group showed faster response times but similar accuracy compared to the control group. In the PC task, the two groups exhibited the same speed and accuracy. The saliency of numerical information relative to physical information was greater in AMC group. With regards to ERP results, the AMC group displayed congruity effects both in the earlier (N1) and later (N2 and LPC (late positive component) time domain, while the control group only displayed congruity effects for LPC. In the left parietal region, LPC amplitudes were larger for the AMC than the control group. Individual differences for LPC amplitudes over left parietal area showed a positive correlation with RTs in the NC task in both congruent and neutral conditions. After controlling for the N2 amplitude, this correlation also became significant in the incongruent condition. Our results suggest that AMC training can strengthen the relationship between symbolic representation and numerical magnitude so that numerical information processing becomes quicker and automatic in AMC children. PMID:26042012

  20. Abacus Training Affects Math and Task Switching Abilities and Modulates Their Relationships in Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunjie; Geng, Fengji; Yao, Yuan; Weng, Jian; Hu, Yuzheng; Chen, Feiyan

    2015-01-01

    Our previous work demonstrated that abacus-based mental calculation (AMC), a traditional Chinese calculation method, could help children improve their math abilities (e.g. basic arithmetical ability) and executive function (e.g. working memory). This study further examined the effects of long-term AMC training on math ability in visual-spatial domain and the task switching component of executive function. More importantly, this study investigated whether AMC training modulated the relationship between math abilities and task switching. The participants were seventy 7-year-old children who were randomly assigned into AMC and control groups at primary school entry. Children in AMC group received 2-hour AMC training every week since primary school entry. On the contrary, children in the control group had never received any AMC training. Math and task switching abilities were measured one year and three years respectively after AMC training began. The results showed that AMC children performed better than their peers on math abilities in arithmetical and visual-spatial domains. In addition, AMC group responded faster than control group in the switching task, while no group difference was found in switch cost. Most interestingly, group difference was present in the relationships between math abilities and switch cost. These results implied the effect of AMC training on math abilities as well as its relationship with executive function.

  1. Abacus Training Affects Math and Task Switching Abilities and Modulates Their Relationships in Chinese Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjie Wang

    Full Text Available Our previous work demonstrated that abacus-based mental calculation (AMC, a traditional Chinese calculation method, could help children improve their math abilities (e.g. basic arithmetical ability and executive function (e.g. working memory. This study further examined the effects of long-term AMC training on math ability in visual-spatial domain and the task switching component of executive function. More importantly, this study investigated whether AMC training modulated the relationship between math abilities and task switching. The participants were seventy 7-year-old children who were randomly assigned into AMC and control groups at primary school entry. Children in AMC group received 2-hour AMC training every week since primary school entry. On the contrary, children in the control group had never received any AMC training. Math and task switching abilities were measured one year and three years respectively after AMC training began. The results showed that AMC children performed better than their peers on math abilities in arithmetical and visual-spatial domains. In addition, AMC group responded faster than control group in the switching task, while no group difference was found in switch cost. Most interestingly, group difference was present in the relationships between math abilities and switch cost. These results implied the effect of AMC training on math abilities as well as its relationship with executive function.

  2. Abacus Training Affects Math and Task Switching Abilities and Modulates Their Relationships in Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunjie; Geng, Fengji; Yao, Yuan; Weng, Jian; Hu, Yuzheng; Chen, Feiyan

    2015-01-01

    Our previous work demonstrated that abacus-based mental calculation (AMC), a traditional Chinese calculation method, could help children improve their math abilities (e.g. basic arithmetical ability) and executive function (e.g. working memory). This study further examined the effects of long-term AMC training on math ability in visual-spatial domain and the task switching component of executive function. More importantly, this study investigated whether AMC training modulated the relationship between math abilities and task switching. The participants were seventy 7-year-old children who were randomly assigned into AMC and control groups at primary school entry. Children in AMC group received 2-hour AMC training every week since primary school entry. On the contrary, children in the control group had never received any AMC training. Math and task switching abilities were measured one year and three years respectively after AMC training began. The results showed that AMC children performed better than their peers on math abilities in arithmetical and visual-spatial domains. In addition, AMC group responded faster than control group in the switching task, while no group difference was found in switch cost. Most interestingly, group difference was present in the relationships between math abilities and switch cost. These results implied the effect of AMC training on math abilities as well as its relationship with executive function. PMID:26444689

  3. Do frailty and cognitive impairment affect dual-task cost during walking in the oldest old institutionalized patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadore, Eduardo L; Casas-Herrero, Alvaro; Zambom-Ferraresi, Fabricio; Martínez-Ramírez, Alicia; Millor, Nora; Gómez, Marisol; Moneo, Ana B Bays; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate dual-task costs in several elderly populations, including robust oldest old, frail oldest old with MCI, frail oldest old without MCI, and frail elderly with dementia. Sixty-four elderly men and women categorized into frail without MCI (age 93.4 ± 3.2 years, n = 20), frail with MCI (age 92.4 ± 4.2 years, n = 13), robust (age 88.2 ± 4.1 years, n = 10), and patients with dementia (age 88.1 ± 5.1 years, n = 21). Five-meter gait ability and timed-up-and-go (TUG) tests with single and dual-task performance were assessed in the groups. Dual-task cost in both 5-m habitual gait velocity test and TUG test was calculated by the time differences between single and dual-task performance. The robust group exhibited better 5-m gait and TUG test performances in the single and dual-task conditions compared with the other three groups (P dementia group (P gait velocities in the verbal and arithmetic task conditions, but the dual-task cost of the groups were similar. Robust individuals exhibited superior single and dual-task walking performances than the other three groups, and the frail and frail + MCI individuals exhibited performances that were superior to those of the patients with dementia. However, the dual-task costs, i.e., the changes in gait performance when elderly participants switch from a single to a dual task, were similar among all four of the investigated groups. Therefore, these results demonstrated that the magnitude of the impairment in gait pattern is independent of frailty and cognitive impairment status. PMID:26667940

  4. Group Anonymity

    CERN Document Server

    Chertov, Oleg; 10.1007/978-3-642-14058-7_61

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the amount of digital data in the world has risen immensely. But, the more information exists, the greater is the possibility of its unwanted disclosure. Thus, the data privacy protection has become a pressing problem of the present time. The task of individual privacy-preserving is being thoroughly studied nowadays. At the same time, the problem of statistical disclosure control for collective (or group) data is still open. In this paper we propose an effective and relatively simple (wavelet-based) way to provide group anonymity in collective data. We also provide a real-life example to illustrate the method.

  5. Novice supervisors' tasks and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan; Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard; Mathiesen, Birgit Bork

    2012-01-01

    were confronted with complicated jobs, e.g., group, internal and interdisciplinary supervision, but were not prepared, i.e. trained, prior to these tasks. These findings imply that more training is needed for novice supervisors. Preferably, this training should be introduced before, or at least...

  6. Users Report of HIP-TEDDI. A two dimensional, four group code for the calculation of the neutron fluence in experiment positions and operating data of the materials testing reactor HFR at Petten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIP-TEDDI is a computer code package for the calculation of nuclear quantities in experiments or experiment positions and data relevant for the operation of the materials testing reactor HFR at Petten. It is based upon the calculation of the neutron flux densities in four broad energy groups, in X, Y geometry, averaged over the fuel height. From these flux densities and from-pre-calculated fine group spectra in several core regions, various nuclear quantities are derived such as fast flux densities (E > 0.1 MeV and E > 1.0 MeV), equivalent fission neutron flux density, 2200 m/s flux density, damaging flux densities, damage-to-activation ratio (DAR), equivalent DIDO nickel flux density and the nuclear heating rate. After each burn-up step the corresponding fluences, displacements per atom (DPA) and burn-up averaged DAR are determined. For the operation of the reactor a number of important data are calculated such as over reactivity, control rod insertion depth, shut-down time margin and thermal safety data e.g. allowable maximum inlet temperature of primary water. Calculations are performed at start-up with initial concentration of fission products, at start-up with equilibrium concentration of rapidly saturing fission products and after each burn-up step for the actual concentration of fission products. For all these situations the control rod setting is taken into account. Information about the history of the fuel elements is produced for subsequent HIP-TEDDI runs and for fuel transport and administration programmes. The HIP-TEDDI package consists of a number of computer programmes written in FORTRAN IV. The data transmission between these programmes takes place by means of files which are temporarily stored at backbround memory. The programme operates on the CDC 6600 computer at Petten. A complete calculation for one cycle of 26 days, with 15 copies for the experimentators and the operation staff, needs a field length of 60 K (decimal) words, a central processor

  7. Recalling academic tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Franklin Gno

    This study was focused on what students remembered about five middle school science tasks when they were juniors and seniors in high school. Descriptions of the five tasks were reconstructed from available artifacts and teachers' records, notes and recollections. Three of the five tasks were "authentic" in the sense that students were asked to duplicate the decisions practitioners make in the adult world. The other two tasks were more typical school tasks involving note taking and preparation for a quiz. All five tasks, however, involved use of computers. Students were interviewed to examine what and how well they recalled the tasks and what forms or patterns of recall existed. Analysis of their responses indicated that different kinds of tasks produced different levels of recall. Authentically situated tasks were remembered much better than routine school tasks. Further, authentic tasks centered on design elements were recalled better than those for which design was not as pivotal. Patterns of recall indicated that participants most often recalled the decisions they made, the scenarios of the authentically situated tasks, the consequences of their tasks and the social contexts of the classroom. Task events, in other words, appeared to form a framework upon which students constructed stories of the tasks. The more salient the events, the richer the story, the deeper and more detailed the recall of the task. Thus, authentic tasks appeared to lend themselves to creating stories better than regular school tasks and therefore such tasks were recalled better. Implications of these patterns of recall are discussed with respect to issues of school learning and assessment.

  8. Clinical task performance and imaging task performance compared for two different commercial electronic portal imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper reports on the investigation and comparison of performance of a Varian Portal Vision system and a Siemens Beamview Plus system using the framework outlined by ICRU Report 54. Radiation Therapy EPI (Electronic Portal Imaging) systems are one of the main applications of digital imaging technology in a radiation therapy department. Radiation Therapy EPI systems may produce images of a lesser quality than the diagnostic radiology equivalent. It is therefore important to optimise the system to obtain the best performance possible. Contrasting opinion on the performance of EPI by clinicians, radiation therapists, medical physicists and engineers often exists, even when the same system and even the same image are being evaluated. Differing opinion occurs because of differences in task end points and task assessment methods of two broad groups of individuals, the human-observer group and the technical-measurement group. Each group uses different task criteria and methodology for assessing performance. The human-observer group is primarily interested in system performance that assures a high level clinical-task performance while the technical-measurement group is concerned with system performance that assures a high level of imaging-task performance. The technical-measurement group tends to be closely associated with imaging system technology, testing, adjustment and optimisation tasks which are couched in terms imaging-task criteria. The human-observer group is usually attempting to optimise performance using clinical-task criteria. The challenge is to provide a balanced evaluation using complementary imaging-task performance and clinical-task performance assessments. Comparison of the systems is on the basis of imaging-task performance i.e. technical-measurement through physical performance assessments such as spatial resolution and noise level, and clinical-task performance i.e. human-observer measurements through the application of psychophysical

  9. Activation on occipital lobe in children with abacus mental calculation training: an fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: By exploring the activation on occipital lobe in children with and without abacus mental calculation training when they engaged in different calculation tasks with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), to identify the possible mechanism of occipital lobe in abacus mental calculation. Methods: fMRI was performed in children trained with and without (sixteen in each group) abacus mental calculation when they engaged in addition, subtraction. multiplication, division, and number-object control judging tasks. The data processing and statistical analysis were performed on SPM 2.0 (statistical parametric mapping 2.0) and the related-brain functional areas were identified. The activation on occipital lobe was observed carefully. The difference in activated areas of occipital lobe was statistically significant between two groups engaged in different tasks of calculations (P<0.01). Result: Bilateral occipital lobe, especially in the cuneus and lingual gyrus, were activated in children trained with abacus mental calculation. The main activated area was lingual gyrus in children without abacus mental calculation. Conclusion: The occipital lobe participates visuospatial processing in the abacus mental calculations. The neuromechanism maybe account for the specific activation in occipital lobe. (authors)

  10. New and extended parameterization of the thermodynamic model AIOMFAC: calculation of activity coefficients for organic-inorganic mixtures containing carboxyl, hydroxyl, carbonyl, ether, ester, alkenyl, alkyl, and aromatic functional groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zuend

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a new and considerably extended parameterization of the thermodynamic activity coefficient model AIOMFAC (Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients at room temperature. AIOMFAC combines a Pitzer-like electrolyte solution model with a UNIFAC-based group-contribution approach and explicitly accounts for interactions between organic functional groups and inorganic ions. Such interactions constitute the salt-effect, may cause liquid-liquid phase separation, and affect the gas-particle partitioning of aerosols. The previous AIOMFAC version was parameterized for alkyl and hydroxyl functional groups of alcohols and polyols. With the goal to describe a wide variety of organic compounds found in atmospheric aerosols, we extend here the parameterization of AIOMFAC to include the functional groups carboxyl, hydroxyl, ketone, aldehyde, ether, ester, alkenyl, alkyl, aromatic carbon-alcohol, and aromatic hydrocarbon. Thermodynamic equilibrium data of organic-inorganic systems from the literature are critically assessed and complemented with new measurements to establish a comprehensive database. The database is used to determine simultaneously the AIOMFAC parameters describing interactions of organic functional groups with the ions H+, Li+, Na+, K+, NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl, Br, NO3, HSO4, and SO42−. Detailed descriptions of different types of thermodynamic data, such as vapor-liquid, solid-liquid, and liquid-liquid equilibria, and their use for the model parameterization are provided. Issues regarding deficiencies of the database, types and uncertainties of experimental data, and limitations of the model, are discussed. The challenging parameter optimization problem is solved with a novel combination of powerful global minimization

  11. New and extended parameterization of the thermodynamic model AIOMFAC: calculation of activity coefficients for organic-inorganic mixtures containing carboxyl, hydroxyl, carbonyl, ether, ester, alkenyl, alkyl, and aromatic functional groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zuend

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a new and considerably extended parameterization of the thermodynamic activity coefficient model AIOMFAC (Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients at room temperature. AIOMFAC combines a Pitzer-like electrolyte solution model with a UNIFAC-based group-contribution approach and explicitly accounts for interactions between organic functional groups and inorganic ions. Such interactions constitute the salt-effect, may cause liquid-liquid phase separation, and affect the gas-particle partitioning of aerosols. The previous AIOMFAC version was parameterized for alkyl and hydroxyl functional groups of alcohols and polyols. With the goal to describe a wide variety of organic compounds found in atmospheric aerosols, we extend here the parameterization of AIOMFAC to include the functional groups carboxyl, hydroxyl, ketone, aldehyde, ether, ester, alkenyl, alkyl, aromatic carbon-alcohol, and aromatic hydrocarbon. Thermodynamic equilibrium data of organic-inorganic systems from the literature are critically assessed and complemented with new measurements to establish a comprehensive database. The database is used to determine simultaneously the AIOMFAC parameters describing interactions of organic functional groups with the ions H+, Li+, Na+, K+, NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl, Br, NO3, HSO4, and SO42−. Detailed descriptions of different types of thermodynamic data, such as vapor-liquid, solid-liquid, and liquid-liquid equilibria, and their use for the model parameterization are provided. Issues regarding deficiencies of the database, types and uncertainties of experimental data, and limitations of the model, are discussed. The challenging parameter optimization problem is solved with a novel combination of powerful global minimization

  12. MEMS Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 166 MEMS Calculator (Web, free access)   This MEMS Calculator determines the following thin film properties from data taken with an optical interferometer or comparable instrument: a) residual strain from fixed-fixed beams, b) strain gradient from cantilevers, c) step heights or thicknesses from step-height test structures, and d) in-plane lengths or deflections. Then, residual stress and stress gradient calculations can be made after an optical vibrometer or comparable instrument is used to obtain Young's modulus from resonating cantilevers or fixed-fixed beams. In addition, wafer bond strength is determined from micro-chevron test structures using a material test machine.

  13. Project Tasks in Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben; Hansen, Poul Erik

    1998-01-01

    Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics......Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics...

  14. The California Teaching Performance Assessment Task for Assessing Student Learning: What Do Teacher Education Candidates Really Learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdi, Michael P.; Riggs, Matt L.; Riggs, Iris M.

    2012-01-01

    A group of 87 teacher certification candidates in a program at a large university in Southern California took the California Teaching Performance Assessment task for assessing learners in 2004-2005. These candidates' tests were analyzed with qualitative research methods and their scores calculated with quantitative methods. Subsequently, three…

  15. Reliability Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kurt Erling

    1986-01-01

    approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very...... complex systems. In order to increase the applicability of the programs variance reduction techniques can be applied to speed up the calculation process. Variance reduction techniques have been studied and procedures for implementation of importance sampling are suggested....

  16. Launching Complex Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kara J.; Shahan, Emily C.; Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Cobb, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics lessons can take a variety of formats. In this article, the authors discuss lessons organized around complex mathematical tasks. These lessons usually unfold in three phases. First, the task is introduced to students. Second, students work on solving the task. Third, the teacher "orchestrates" a concluding whole-class discussion in…

  17. Analysis of Spectral Features of EEG during four different Cognitive Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.BAGYARAJ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognition is a group of information processing activities that involves the visual attention, visual awareness, problem solving and decision making. Finding the cognitive task related regional cerebral activations are of great interest among researchers in cognitive neuroscience. In this study four different types of cognitive tasks, namely tracking pendulum movement and counting, red flash counting, sequential subtraction, spot the difference is performed by 32 subjects and the EEG signals are acquired by using 24 channels RMS EEG-32 Super Spec machine. The analyses of the EEG signal are done by using well known spectral methods. The band powers are calculated in the frequency domain by using the Welch method. The task- relaxes relative band power values and the ratios of theta band power/ beta band power are the two variables used to find the regional cerebral activations during the four different cognitive tasks. The statistical paired t test is used to evaluate the significant difference between the particular tasks related cerebral activations and relaxation. The statistical significance level is set at p< 0.05. During the tracking pendulum movement and counting task, the cerebral activations are found to be bilateral prefrontal, frontal, right central and temporal regions. Red flash counting task has activations in bilateral prefrontal, frontal, right central, right parietal and right occipital lobes. Bilateral prefrontal regions are activated during the sequence subtraction task. The spot the difference task has activations in the left and right prefrontal cortex. The unique and common activations regions for the selected four different cognitive tasks are found to be left and right prefrontal cortex. The pre frontal lobe electrodes namely Fp1 & Fp2 can be used as the recording electrodes for detailed cognitive task analysis were cerebral activations are observed when compared with the other cerebral regions.

  18. Energy Efficient Task Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadottir, Asta; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Johnsen, Kjeld;

    2014-01-01

    the light source as far from the bottom edge as possible. The main results of the project show opportunities for energy savings in an office environment by reducing the installed power for the general lighting by applying a task light with a wide light distribution across the desk area , providing high...... and thereby a reduction in installed power for general lighting of about 40 % compared to the way illuminance levels are designed in an office environment in Denmark today. This lighting strategy is useful when the placement of the task area is not defined in the space before the lighting is design ed...... and the strategy also allows for the task area to be redefined in the space . The task lighting follows the task area as the developed task light is designed to be placed on the desktop of an office desk. The work carried out within this project is the architectural design of the task light, the optical design...

  19. Spatiotemporal characteristics of electrocortical brain activity during mental calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteensel, Mariska J; Bleichner, Martin G; Freudenburg, Zac V; Hermes, Dora; Aarnoutse, Erik J; Leijten, Frans S S; Ferrier, Cyrille H; Jansma, Johan Martijn; Ramsey, Nick F

    2014-12-01

    Mental calculation is a complex mental procedure involving a frontoparietal network of brain regions. Functional MRI (fMRI) studies have revealed interesting characteristics of these regions, but the precise function of some areas remains elusive. In the present study, we used electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings to chronometrically assess the neuronal processes during mental arithmetic. A calculation task was performed during presurgical 3T fMRI scanning and subsequent ECoG monitoring. Mental calculation induced an increase in fMRI blood oxygen level dependent signal in prefrontal, parietal and lower temporo-occipital regions. The group-fMRI result was subsequently used to cluster the implanted electrodes into anatomically defined regions of interest (ROIs). We observed remarkable differences in high frequency power profiles between ROIs, some of which were closely associated with stimulus presentation and others with the response. Upon stimulus presentation, occipital areas were the first to respond, followed by parietal and frontal areas, and finally by motor areas. Notably, we demonstrate that the fMRI activation in the middle frontal gyrus/precentral gyrus is associated with two subfunctions during mental calculation. This finding reveals the significance of the temporal dynamics of neural ensembles within regions with an apparent uniform function. In conclusion, our results shed more light on the spatiotemporal aspects of brain activation during a mental calculation task, and demonstrate that the use of fMRI data to cluster ECoG electrodes is a useful approach for ECoG group analysis. PMID:25044370

  20. Development of the neutron-transport code TransRay and studies on the two- and three-dimensional calculation of effective group cross sections; Entwicklung des Neutronentransportcodes TransRay und Untersuchungen zur zwei- und dreidimensionalen Berechnung effektiver Gruppenwirkungsquerschnitte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckert, C.

    2007-12-19

    Conventionally the data preparation of the neutron cross sections for reactor-core calculations pursues with 2D cell codes. Aim of this thesis was, to develop a 3D cell code, to study with this code 3D effects, and to evaluate the necessarity of a 3D data preparation of the neutron cross sections. For the calculation of the neutron transport the method of the first-collision probabilities, which are calculated with the ray-tracing method, was chosen. The mathematical algorithms were implemented in the 2D/3D cell code TransRay. For the geometry part of the program the geometry module of a Monte Carlo code was used.The ray tracing in 3D was parallelized because of the high computational time. The program TransRay was verified on 2D test problems. For a reference pressured-water reactor following 3D problems were studied: A partly immersed control rod and void (vacuum or steam) around a fuel rod as model of a steam void. All problems were for comparison calculated also with the programs HELIOS(2D) and MCNP(3D). The dependence of the multiplication factor and the averaged two-group cross section on the immersion depth of the control rod respectively of the height of the steam void were studied. The 3D-calculated two-group cross sections were compared with three conventional approximations: Linear interpolation, interpolation with flux weighting, and homogenization, At the 3D problem of the control rod it was shown that the interpolation with flux weighting is a good approximation. Therefore here a 3D data preparation is not necessary. At the test case of the single control rod, which is surrounded by the void, the three approximation for the two-group cross sections were proved as unsufficient. Therefore a 3D data preparation is necessary. The single fuel-rod cell with void can be considered as the limiting case of a reactor, in which a phase interface has been formed. [German] Standardmaessig erfolgt die Datenaufbereitung der Neutronenwirkungsquerschnitte fuer

  1. Classroom Interactions in a Cooperative Translation Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui chuan Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available For the past decade, translation learning has become one of the main foci for university language students in Taiwan. However, many studies have shown that translation teachers tend to adopt traditional teaching methods without considering class dynamics and student interactions. This paper therefore looks into the interactions in the researcher’s designed cooperative translation task, the Cooperative Translation Task, to see how these interactions helped or hindered students’ translation learning. A small class of 25 translation students and two translation teachers were participants. Videotaping and interviews were conducted in order to investigate the interaction modes and student participants’ perspectives toward each interaction mode. Six interaction modes were found in this task: within group, between group, translator group and comment-giver group, instructor and students, guest teacher and students, and instructor and guest teacher. Based on the results and participants’ responses, suggested teaching guidelines are provided.Keywords: classroom interaction, interaction mode, Cooperative Translation Task, translation teaching

  2. Error Sonification of a Complex Motor Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riener Robert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual information is mainly used to master complex motor tasks. Thus, additional information providing augmented feedback should be displayed in other modalities than vision, e.g. hearing. The present work evaluated the potential of error sonification to enhance learning of a rowing-type motor task. In contrast to a control group receiving self-controlled terminal feedback, the experimental group could not significantly reduce spatial errors. Thus, motor learning was not enhanced by error sonification, although during the training the participant could benefit from it. It seems that the motor task was too slow, resulting in immediate corrections of the movement rather than in an internal representation of the general characteristics of the motor task. Therefore, further studies should elaborate the impact of error sonification when general characteristics of the motor tasks are already known.

  3. Task Specialization, Immigration, and Wages

    OpenAIRE

    Peri, Giovanni; Sparber, Chad

    2008-01-01

    Many workers with low levels of educational attainment immigrated to the United States in recent decades. Large inflows of less-educated immigrants would reduce wages paid to comparably-educated native-born workers if the two groups are perfectly substitutable in production. In a simple model exploiting comparative advantage, however, we show that if less-educated foreign and native-born workers specialize in performing different tasks, immigration will cause natives to reallocate their...

  4. Transport Task Force Leadership, Task 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transport Task Force (TTF) was initiated as a broad-based US magnetic fusion community activity during the fall of 1988 to focus attention on and encourage development of an increased understanding of anomalous transport in tokamaks. The overall TTF goal is to make progress on Characterizing, Understanding and Identifying how to Reduce plasma transport in tokamaks -- to CUIR transport

  5. Math Task Force's Bad Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winders, Mike; Bisk, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The number of incoming college students who require development mathematics coursework is a national problem. This is an enormous area of concern for a number of reasons--such as the monetary cost to students who must take courses for which they are not granted credit, and colleges and universities who must pay instructors to teach such courses.…

  6. Burnout calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reviewed is the effect of heat flux of different system parameters on critical density in order to give an initial view on the value of several parameters. A thorough analysis of different equations is carried out to calculate burnout is steam-water flows in uniformly heated tubes, annular, and rectangular channels and rod bundles. Effect of heat flux density distribution and flux twisting on burnout and storage determination according to burnout are commended

  7. A Brief Analysis of Communication Tasks in Task- based Teaehing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xiaoying

    2011-01-01

    Task -Based Language Teaching (TBLT) aims at proving opportunities for the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities. This passage further exam if the following four communicative tasks jigsaw tasks, role - play tasks, problem solving tasks, and information gap tasks can assist classroom learning.

  8. Learning redundant motor tasks with and without overlapping dimensions: facilitation and interference effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Rajiv; Wieser, Jon; Mosier, Kristine M; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A; Scheidt, Robert A

    2014-06-11

    Prior learning of a motor skill creates motor memories that can facilitate or interfere with learning of new, but related, motor skills. One hypothesis of motor learning posits that for a sensorimotor task with redundant degrees of freedom, the nervous system learns the geometric structure of the task and improves performance by selectively operating within that task space. We tested this hypothesis by examining if transfer of learning between two tasks depends on shared dimensionality between their respective task spaces. Human participants wore a data glove and learned to manipulate a computer cursor by moving their fingers. Separate groups of participants learned two tasks: a prior task that was unique to each group and a criterion task that was common to all groups. We manipulated the mapping between finger motions and cursor positions in the prior task to define task spaces that either shared or did not share the task space dimensions (x-y axes) of the criterion task. We found that if the prior task shared task dimensions with the criterion task, there was an initial facilitation in criterion task performance. However, if the prior task did not share task dimensions with the criterion task, there was prolonged interference in learning the criterion task due to participants finding inefficient task solutions. These results show that the nervous system learns the task space through practice, and that the degree of shared task space dimensionality influences the extent to which prior experience transfers to subsequent learning of related motor skills.

  9. Collaborative drawing with interactive table in physics: Groups’ regulation and task interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mykkanen, A.; Gijlers, H.; Jarvenoja, H.; Jarvela, S.; Bollen, L.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between secondary school students’ (N=36, nine groups) group members’ task interpretation and individual and group level regulation during collaborative computer- supported drawing task. Furthermore, it investigates how these factors are related to students learn

  10. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation to Enhance Dual-Task Gait Training in Parkinson's Disease: A Pilot RCT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan M Schabrun

    Full Text Available To investigate the feasibility and safety of a combined anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS and dual task gait training intervention in people with Parkinson's Disease (PD and to provide data to support a sample size calculation for a fully powered trial should trends of effectiveness be present.A pilot, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled parallel group trial with 12 week follow-up.A university physiotherapy department.Sixteen participants diagnosed with PD received nine dual task gait training sessions over 3 weeks. Participants were randomized to receive either active or sham tDCS applied for the first 20 minutes of each session.The primary outcome was gait speed while undertaking concurrent cognitive tasks (word lists, counting, conversation. Secondary measures included step length, cadence, Timed Up and Go, bradykinesia and motor speed.Gait speed, step length and cadence improved in both groups, under all dual task conditions. This effect was maintained at follow-up. There was no difference between the active and sham tDCS groups. Time taken to perform the TUGwords also improved, with no difference between groups. The active tDCS group did however increase their correct cognitive response rate during the TUGwords and TUGcount. Bradykinesia improved after training in both groups.Three weeks of dual task gait training resulted in improved gait under dual task conditions, and bradykinesia, immediately following training and at 12 weeks follow-up. The only parameter enhanced by tDCS was the number of correct responses while performing the dual task TUG. tDCS applied to M1 may not be an effective adjunct to dual task gait training in PD.Australia-New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613001093774.

  11. Dynamical Models of Task Organization in Social Insect Colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yun; Theraulaz, Guy

    2016-05-01

    The organizations of insect societies, such as division of labor, task allocation, collective regulation, mass action responses, have been considered as main reasons for the ecological success. In this article, we propose and study a general modeling framework that includes the following three features: (a) the average internal response threshold for each task (the internal factor); (b) social network communications that could lead to task switching (the environmental factor); and (c) dynamical changes of task demands (the external factor). Since workers in many social insect species exhibit age polyethism, we also extend our model to incorporate age polyethism in which worker task preferences change with age. We apply our general modeling framework to the cases of two task groups: the inside colony task versus the outside colony task. Our analytical study of the models provides important insights and predictions on the effects of colony size, social communication, and age-related task preferences on task allocation and division of labor in the adaptive dynamical environment. Our study implies that the smaller size colony invests its resource for the colony growth and allocates more workers in the risky tasks such as foraging while the larger colony shifts more workers to perform the safer tasks inside the colony. Social interactions among different task groups play an important role in shaping task allocation depending on the relative cost and demands of the tasks. PMID:27125656

  12. 考虑加筋与遮帘效应计算群桩沉降的相互作用系数法%Interaction coefficients method for calculating piles group settlements considering reinforcing and restraining effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林智勇; 戴自航

    2014-01-01

    The reinforcing and restraining effect of piles embedded in soils is objective existence. However, the correlative research work on pile groups settlement methods is not deep enough and needs to be continued. Based on the shear displacement method, considering the reinforcing and restraining effect, the settlements of the analyzing pile caused by loads on the pile top were calculated, including the reduction effect caused by the existence of the other adjacent piles. And the additional settlements of the adjacent piles arising from the settlement of the loaded pile were obtained as well. Thus a simplified formula of interaction coefficients between any two piles was presented. Meanwhile, the equivalent shear stiffness coefficients of soil around each pile were developed; and an equation of displacements caused by load on top of the analyzing pile imbedded in multi-layered soils was built; so recurrence relations of settlement and axial force of pile shaft between upper and lower of each pile sections were respectively deduced; in the process of deduction, Boussinesq solution was modified to include the effect of different embedded depths, and then used to derive the equivalent stiffness coefficients of the soil under the pile tips. Lastly, the formula was extended to the settlements calculation of high and low cap pile groups. Different methods were compared with two engineering cases. The results show that the load-settlement curve computed by present method agreed well with those measured from real engineering cases; and the calculating interaction coefficients are much less than ones calculated by the elastic theory method.%群桩中各基桩在地基土中的加筋与遮帘效应是客观存在的,然而,在目前的桩基沉降理论与实践中,相关的研究仍显不足。基于剪切变形法理论,考虑桩的加筋与遮帘效应,求得各基桩在自身桩顶荷载作用下产生的沉降以及其引起相邻桩的附加沉降量,由此提

  13. Overview of the ID, EPI and REL tasks of BioNLP Shared Task 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyysalo Sampo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present the preparation, resources, results and analysis of three tasks of the BioNLP Shared Task 2011: the main tasks on Infectious Diseases (ID and Epigenetics and Post-translational Modifications (EPI, and the supporting task on Entity Relations (REL. The two main tasks represent extensions of the event extraction model introduced in the BioNLP Shared Task 2009 (ST'09 to two new areas of biomedical scientific literature, each motivated by the needs of specific biocuration tasks. The ID task concerns the molecular mechanisms of infection, virulence and resistance, focusing in particular on the functions of a class of signaling systems that are ubiquitous in bacteria. The EPI task is dedicated to the extraction of statements regarding chemical modifications of DNA and proteins, with particular emphasis on changes relating to the epigenetic control of gene expression. By contrast to these two application-oriented main tasks, the REL task seeks to support extraction in general by separating challenges relating to part-of relations into a subproblem that can be addressed by independent systems. Seven groups participated in each of the two main tasks and four groups in the supporting task. The participating systems indicated advances in the capability of event extraction methods and demonstrated generalization in many aspects: from abstracts to full texts, from previously considered subdomains to new ones, and from the ST'09 extraction targets to other entities and events. The highest performance achieved in the supporting task REL, 58% F-score, is broadly comparable with levels reported for other relation extraction tasks. For the ID task, the highest-performing system achieved 56% F-score, comparable to the state-of-the-art performance at the established ST'09 task. In the EPI task, the best result was 53% F-score for the full set of extraction targets and 69% F-score for a reduced set of core extraction targets, approaching a level

  14. Mental subtraction and multiplication recruit both phonological and visuospatial resources: evidence from a symmetric dual-task design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavdaroglu, Seda; Knops, A

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies pointed out a selective interaction between different working memory subsystems (i.e., phonological and visuospatial) and arithmetic operations (i.e., multiplication and subtraction). This was interpreted to support the idea that multiplication and subtraction predominantly rely on a phonologically or spatially organized number code, respectively. Here, we investigated this idea in two groups (multiplication and subtraction group) using a dual-task paradigm. Going beyond previous studies, we carefully controlled and balanced the difficulty of both working memory and calculation tasks within and across participants. This allowed us to test the reciprocal impact of calculations on working memory. We observed no selective interaction between different working memory subsystems and arithmetic operations. Instead, both types of arithmetic operations were impaired by both types of concurrent working memory tasks. Likewise, both types of working memory tasks were impaired by both types of concurrent arithmetic. Our findings suggest that multiplication and subtraction depend on both phonological and visuospatial codes and highlight the importance of balancing task demands within and between participants in the context of dual-task studies. PMID:25952478

  15. What Task Designers Do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Keith

    2000-01-01

    Describes a research project that is concerned with the design procedures followed by those engaged in designing pedagogic tasks for use in classrooms. Focuses on the part of the project that involves actual observation of designers in the process of developing one specific task for class use. Findings are presented under three headers: control…

  16. Scheduling PVM Tasks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠九滨; 王勇; 等

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a PVM task scheduler designed and implemented by the authors.The scheduler supports selecting idle workstations,scheduling pool tasks and dynamically produced subtasks.It can improve resource utilization,reduce job response time and simplify programming.

  17. Guessing versus Choosing an Upcoming Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsorge, Thomas; Scheil, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    We compared the effects of guessing vs. choosing an upcoming task. In a task-switching paradigm with four tasks, two groups of participants were asked to either guess or choose which task will be presented next under otherwise identical conditions. The upcoming task corresponded to participants' guesses or choices in 75 % of the trials. However, only participants in the Choosing condition were correctly informed about this, whereas participants in the Guessing condition were told that tasks were determined at random. In the Guessing condition, we replicated previous findings of a pronounced reduction of switch costs in case of incorrect guesses. This switch cost reduction was considerably less pronounced with denied choices in the Choosing condition. We suggest that in the Choosing condition, the signaling of prediction errors associated with denied choices is attenuated because a certain proportion of denied choices is consistent with the overall representation of the situation as conveyed by task instructions. In the Guessing condition, in contrast, the mismatch of guessed and actual task is resolved solely on the level of individual trials by strengthening the representation of the actual task. PMID:27047423

  18. Improving multi-tasking ability through action videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappe, Dan; Conger, Mark; Liao, Janet; Caldwell, J Lynn; Vu, Kim-Phuong L

    2013-03-01

    The present study examined whether action videogames can improve multi-tasking in high workload environments. Two groups with no action videogame experience were pre-tested using the Multi-Attribute Task Battery (MATB). It consists of two primary tasks; tracking and fuel management, and two secondary tasks; systems monitoring and communication. One group served as a control group, while a second played action videogames a minimum of 5 h a week for 10 weeks. Both groups returned for a post-assessment on the MATB. We found the videogame treatment enhanced performance on secondary tasks, without interfering with the primary tasks. Our results demonstrate action videogames can increase people's ability to take on additional tasks by increasing attentional capacity.

  19. Supporting complex search tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo;

    2015-01-01

    There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks......, is fragmented at best. The workshop addressed the many open research questions: What are the obvious use cases and applications of complex search? What are essential features of work tasks and search tasks to take into account? And how do these evolve over time? With a multitude of information, varying from...... introductory to specialized, and from authoritative to speculative or opinionated, when to show what sources of information? How does the information seeking process evolve and what are relevant differences between different stages? With complex task and search process management, blending searching, browsing...

  20. Board Task Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minichilli, Alessandro; Zattoni, Alessandro; Nielsen, Sabina;

    2012-01-01

    identify three board processes as micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Specifically, we focus on effort norms, cognitive conflicts and the use of knowledge and skills as determinants of board control and advisory task performance. Further, we consider how two different institutional settings...... influence board tasks, and how the context moderates the relationship between processes and tasks. Our hypotheses are tested on a survey-based dataset of 535 medium-sized and large industrial firms in Italy and Norway, which are considered to substantially differ along legal and cultural dimensions....... The findings show that: (i) Board processes have a larger potential than demographic variables to explain board task performance; (ii) board task performance differs significantly between boards operating in different contexts; and (iii) national context moderates the relationships between board processes...

  1. Task Description Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David

    2005-01-01

    Task Description Language (TDL) is an extension of the C++ programming language that enables programmers to quickly and easily write complex, concurrent computer programs for controlling real-time autonomous systems, including robots and spacecraft. TDL is based on earlier work (circa 1984 through 1989) on the Task Control Architecture (TCA). TDL provides syntactic support for hierarchical task-level control functions, including task decomposition, synchronization, execution monitoring, and exception handling. A Java-language-based compiler transforms TDL programs into pure C++ code that includes calls to a platform-independent task-control-management (TCM) library. TDL has been used to control and coordinate multiple heterogeneous robots in projects sponsored by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It has also been used in Brazil to control an autonomous airship and in Canada to control a robotic manipulator.

  2. Supporting complex search tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo;

    2015-01-01

    , and recommendations, and supporting exploratory search to sensemaking and analytics, UI and UX design pose an overconstrained challenge. How do we know that our approach is any good? Supporting complex search task requires new collaborations across the whole field of IR, and the proposed workshop will bring together......There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks......, is fragmented at best. The workshop addressed the many open research questions: What are the obvious use cases and applications of complex search? What are essential features of work tasks and search tasks to take into account? And how do these evolve over time? With a multitude of information, varying from...

  3. Calculator calculus

    CERN Document Server

    McCarty, George

    1982-01-01

    How THIS BOOK DIFFERS This book is about the calculus. What distinguishes it, however, from other books is that it uses the pocket calculator to illustrate the theory. A computation that requires hours of labor when done by hand with tables is quite inappropriate as an example or exercise in a beginning calculus course. But that same computation can become a delicate illustration of the theory when the student does it in seconds on his calculator. t Furthermore, the student's own personal involvement and easy accomplishment give hi~ reassurance and en­ couragement. The machine is like a microscope, and its magnification is a hundred millionfold. We shall be interested in limits, and no stage of numerical approximation proves anything about the limit. However, the derivative of fex) = 67.SgX, for instance, acquires real meaning when a student first appreciates its values as numbers, as limits of 10 100 1000 t A quick example is 1.1 , 1.01 , 1.001 , •••• Another example is t = 0.1, 0.01, in the functio...

  4. Reliability calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very complex systems. In order to increase the applicability of the programs variance reduction techniques can be applied to speed up the calculation process. Variance reduction techniques have been studied and procedures for implementation of importance sampling are suggested. (author)

  5. The fMRI study on the front-parietal activation in abacus mental calculation trained children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the difference in front-parietal activation between the trained and untrained children engaged in addition and multiplication with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and to explore the role of abacus mental calculation in brain development. Methods: Twenty-four children trained with abacus mental calculation and twelve untrained children performed mental calculation tasks including addition, multiplication and number-object control judging tasks. Blood oxygenation level dependence (BOLD) fMRI was performed when they were calculating. All data were analyzed by SPM2 (statistical parametric mapping 2) to generate the brain activation map. Results: The performance of the trained group had better correctness and shorter reaction time than that of the untrained group. The front-parietal activation between two groups had obvious difference. The activation involved less prefrontal cortex in the trained group than in the untrained group (P<0.05). The parietal activation in the trained group was mainly in the posterior superior parietal lobe/ precuneus, whereas the activation areas focused on the inferior parietal lobule in the untrained group. Conclusion: Abacus mental calculation involves multiple functional areas. and these areas may work together as a whole in processing arithmetic problems. Abacus mental calculation not only enhances the information processing in some brain areas and improves the utilization efficiency of neural resources, but also plays an important role in developing brain. (authors)

  6. Task-baseret kommunikativ sprogundervisning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Svendsen

    2015-01-01

    Definition af task-baseret sprogundervisning, kriterier for task. Forskning i Second Language Acquisition med brug af task, tilrettelæggelse af task-baseret kommunikativ undervisning. Begrænsninger i og perspektiver for videreudvikling af task-baseret sprogundervising-......Definition af task-baseret sprogundervisning, kriterier for task. Forskning i Second Language Acquisition med brug af task, tilrettelæggelse af task-baseret kommunikativ undervisning. Begrænsninger i og perspektiver for videreudvikling af task-baseret sprogundervising-...

  7. Orientation Preferences of Backbone Secondary Amide Functional Groups in Peptide Nucleic Acid Complexes: Quantum Chemical Calculations Reveal an Intrinsic Preference of Cationic D-Amino Acid-Based Chiral PNA Analogues for the P-form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Topham, Christopher [University of Heidelberg

    2007-01-01

    Geometric descriptions of nonideal interresidue hydrogen bonding and backbone-base water bridging in the minor groove are established in terms of polyamide backbone carbonyl group orientation from analyses of residue junction conformers in experimentally determined peptide nucleic acid (PNA) complexes. Two types of interresidue hydrogen bonding are identified in PNA conformers in heteroduplexes with nucleic acids that adopt A-like base pair stacking. Quantum chemical calculations on the binding of a water molecule to an O2 base atom in glycine-based PNA thymine dimers indicate that junctions modeled with P-form backbone conformations are lower in energy than a dimer comprising the predominant conformation observed in A-like helices. It is further shown in model systems that PNA analogs based on D-lysine are better able to preorganize in a conformation exclusive to P-form helices than is glycine-based PNA. An intrinsic preference for this conformation is also exhibited by positively charged chiral PNA dimers carrying 3-amino-D-alanine or 4-aza-D-leucine residue units that provide for additional rigidity by side-chain hydrogen bonding to the backbone carbonyl oxygen. Structural modifications stabilizing P-form helices may obviate the need for large heterocycles to target DNA pyrimidine bases via PNADNA-PNA triplex formation. Quantum chemical modeling methods are used to propose candidate PNA Hoogsteen strand designs.

  8. Orientation preferences of backbone secondary amide functional groups in peptide nucleic acid complexes: quantum chemical calculations reveal an intrinsic preference of cationic D-amino acid-based chiral PNA analogues for the P-form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topham, Christopher M; Smith, Jeremy C

    2007-02-01

    Geometric descriptions of nonideal interresidue hydrogen bonding and backbone-base water bridging in the minor groove are established in terms of polyamide backbone carbonyl group orientation from analyses of residue junction conformers in experimentally determined peptide nucleic acid (PNA) complexes. Two types of interresidue hydrogen bonding are identified in PNA conformers in heteroduplexes with nucleic acids that adopt A-like basepair stacking. Quantum chemical calculations on the binding of a water molecule to an O2 base atom in glycine-based PNA thymine dimers indicate that junctions modeled with P-form backbone conformations are lower in energy than a dimer comprising the predominant conformation observed in A-like helices. It is further shown in model systems that PNA analogs based on D-lysine are better able to preorganize in a conformation exclusive to P-form helices than is glycine-based PNA. An intrinsic preference for this conformation is also exhibited by positively charged chiral PNA dimers carrying 3-amino-D-alanine or 4-aza-D-leucine residue units that provide for additional rigidity by side-chain hydrogen bonding to the backbone carbonyl oxygen. Structural modifications stabilizing P-form helices may obviate the need for large heterocycles to target DNA pyrimidine bases via PNA.DNA-PNA triplex formation. Quantum chemical modeling methods are used to propose candidate PNA Hoogsteen strand designs. PMID:17071666

  9. Evidence of a short-range incommensurate d-wave charge order from a fermionic two-loop renormalization group calculation of a 2D model with hot spots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Vanuildo S de [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, 74.001-970, Goiânia-GO (Brazil); Freire, Hermann, E-mail: hfreire@mit.edu [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, 74.001-970, Goiânia-GO (Brazil); Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 2139 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    The two-loop renormalization group (RG) calculation is considerably extended here for the two-dimensional (2D) fermionic effective field theory model, which includes only the so-called “hot spots” that are connected by the spin-density-wave (SDW) ordering wavevector on a Fermi surface generated by the 2D t−t{sup ′} Hubbard model at low hole doping. We compute the Callan–Symanzik RG equation up to two loops describing the flow of the single-particle Green’s function, the corresponding spectral function, the Fermi velocity, and some of the most important order-parameter susceptibilities in the model at lower energies. As a result, we establish that–in addition to clearly dominant SDW correlations–an approximate (pseudospin) symmetry relating a short-range incommensurated-wave charge order to the d-wave superconducting order indeed emerges at lower energy scales, which is in agreement with recent works available in the literature addressing the 2D spin-fermion model. We derive implications of this possible electronic phase in the ongoing attempt to describe the phenomenology of the pseudogap regime in underdoped cuprates.

  10. 基于连续能量蒙特卡罗方法的均匀化群常数计算%Continuous energy Monte Carlo method based homogenization multi-group constants calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李满仓; 王侃; 姚栋

    2012-01-01

    两步法反应堆物理计算流程中,组件均匀化群常数显著影响堆芯计算精度.相比确定论方法,连续能量蒙特卡罗方法均匀化精确描述各种几何构型栅格,避免繁琐共振自屏计算,保留更多连续能量信息,不仅产生的群常数更精确,而且普适性也更强.作为实现连续能量蒙特卡罗组件均匀化的第一步,本文应用径迹长度方法统计计算一般群截面和群常数,提出并使用散射事件方法获得不能直接应用确定论方法计算群间散射截面和高阶勒让德系数,应用P1截面计算扩散系数.为还原两步法计算流程中组件在堆芯的临界状态,本文应用BN理论对均匀化群常数进行泄漏修正.在4种类型组件和简化压水堆堆芯上数值验证蒙特卡罗均匀化群常数.验证结果表明:连续能量蒙特卡罗方法组件均匀化群常数具有良好几何适应性,显著提高堆芯计算精度.%The efficiency of the standard two-step reactor physics calculation relies on the accuracy of multi-group constants from the assembly-level homogenization process. In contrast to the traditional deterministic methods, generating the homogenization cross sections via Monte Carlo method overcomes the difficulties in geometry and treats energy in continuum, thus provides more accuracy parameters. Besides, the same code and data bank can be used for a wide range of applications, resulting in the versatility using Monte Carlo codes for homogenization. As the first stage to realize Monte Carlo based lattice homogenization, the track length scheme is used as the foundation of cross section generation, which is straight forward. The scattering matrix and Legendre components, however, require special techniques. The Scattering Event method was proposed to solve the problem. There are no continuous energy counterparts in the Monte Carlo calculation for neutron diffusion coefficients. P1 cross sections were used to calculate the diffusion

  11. Task-specific dystonia: pathophysiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadnicka, Anna; Kassavetis, Panagiotis; Pareés, Isabel; Meppelink, Anne Marthe; Butler, Katherine; Edwards, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Task-specific dystonia is a form of isolated focal dystonia with the peculiarity of being displayed only during performance of a specific skilled motor task. This distinctive feature makes task-specific dystonia a particularly mysterious and fascinating neurological condition. In this review, we cover phenomenology and its increasingly broad-spectrum risk factors for the disease, critically review pathophysiological theories and evaluate current therapeutic options. We conclude by highlighting the unique features of task-specific dystonia within the wider concept of dystonia. We emphasise the central contribution of environmental risk factors, and propose a model by which these triggers may impact on the motor control of skilled movement. By viewing task-specific dystonia through this new lens which considers the disorder a modifiable disorder of motor control, we are optimistic that research will yield novel therapeutic avenues for this highly motivated group of patients.

  12. Task-specific dystonia: pathophysiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadnicka, Anna; Kassavetis, Panagiotis; Pareés, Isabel; Meppelink, Anne Marthe; Butler, Katherine; Edwards, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Task-specific dystonia is a form of isolated focal dystonia with the peculiarity of being displayed only during performance of a specific skilled motor task. This distinctive feature makes task-specific dystonia a particularly mysterious and fascinating neurological condition. In this review, we cover phenomenology and its increasingly broad-spectrum risk factors for the disease, critically review pathophysiological theories and evaluate current therapeutic options. We conclude by highlighting the unique features of task-specific dystonia within the wider concept of dystonia. We emphasise the central contribution of environmental risk factors, and propose a model by which these triggers may impact on the motor control of skilled movement. By viewing task-specific dystonia through this new lens which considers the disorder a modifiable disorder of motor control, we are optimistic that research will yield novel therapeutic avenues for this highly motivated group of patients. PMID:26818730

  13. Task Engagement: A Turning Point in Foreign Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Elizabeth J.; Brooks, Frank B.

    2002-01-01

    Uses a sociocultural framework to suggest task engagement as a viable construct in second language learning research. Examines second language learner data to identify task engagement as it emerges, unfolds in dialogic activity, and becomes associated with he transformation of task, self, and group. (Author/VWL)

  14. Fuel oil quality task force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laisy, J.; Turk, V. [R.W. Beckett Corp., Elyria, OH (United States)

    1997-09-01

    In April, 1996, the R.W. Beckett Corporation became aware of a series of apparently unrelated symptoms that made the leadership of the company concerned that there could be a fuel oil quality problem. A task force of company employees and industry consultants was convened to address the topic of current No. 2 heating oil quality and its effect on burner performance. The task force studied changes in fuel oil specifications and trends in properties that have occurred over the past few years. Experiments were performed at Beckett and Brookhaven National Laboratory to understand the effect of changes in some fuel oil properties. Studies by other groups were reviewed, and field installations were inspected to gain information about the performance of fuel oil that is currently being used in the U.S. and Canada. There was a special concern about the use of red dye in heating oils and the impact of sulfur levels due to the October, 1993 requirement of low sulfur (<0.05%) for on-highway diesel fuel. The results of the task force`s efforts were published in July, 1996. The primary conclusion of the task force was that there is not a crisis or widespread general problem with fuel oil quality. Localized problems that were seen may have been related to refinery practices and/or non-traditional fuel sources. System cleanliness is very important and the cause of many oil burner system problems. Finally, heating oil quality should get ongoing careful attention by Beckett engineering personnel and heating oil industry groups.

  15. [The effect of reading tasks on learning from multiple texts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Keiichi

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the effect of reading tasks on the integration of content and source information from multiple texts. Undergraduate students (N = 102) read five newspaper articles about a fictitious incident in either a summarization task condition or an evaluation task condition. Then, they performed an integration test and a source choice test, which assessed their understanding of a situation described in the texts and memory for the sources of text information. The results indicated that the summarization and evaluation task groups were not significantly different in situational understanding. However, the summarization task group significantly surpassed the evaluation task group for source memory. No significant correlation between the situational understanding and the source memory was found for the summarization group, whereas a significant positive correlation was found for the evaluation group. The results are discussed in terms of the documents model framework. PMID:25016841

  16. Is Distributed Cognition Group Level Cognition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Kirk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that recent arguments from group problem solving and task performance to emergent group level cognition that rest on the social parity and related principles are invalid or question begging. The paper shows that standard attributions of problem solving or task performance to groups require only multiple agents of the outcome, not a group agent over and above its members, whether or not any individual member of the group could have accomplished the task independently.

  17. Hypervigilance or avoidance of trigger related cues in migraineurs? - A case-control study using the emotional stroop task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puschmann Anne-Katrin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background "Negative affect" is one of the major migraine triggers. The aim of the study was to assess attentional biases for negative affective stimuli that might be related to migraine triggers in migraine patients with either few or frequent migraine and healthy controls. Methods Thirty-three subjects with frequent migraine (FM or with less frequent episodic migraine, and 20 healthy controls conducted two emotional Stroop tasks in the interictal period. In task 1, general affective words and in task 2, pictures of affective faces (angry, neutral, happy were used. For each task we calculated two emotional Stroop indices. Groups were compared using one-way ANOVAs. Results The expected attentional bias in migraine patients was not found. However, in task 2 the controls showed a significant attentional bias to negative faces, whereas the FM group showed indices near zero. Thus, the FM group responded faster to negative than to positive stimuli. The difference between the groups was statistically significant. Conclusions The findings in the FM group may reflect a learned avoidance mechanism away from affective migraine triggers.

  18. Small Group Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Martin M.

    Learning in small groups is a practical way to bring about behavior change. The inquiry learning process is perceived to be the most natural and scientific way of learning. Skills developed include those of problem-solving task analysis, decision-making, value formation and adaptability. The art of small group interaction is developed. Factual…

  19. Organizing Core Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    Civil servants conduct the work which makes welfare states functions on an everyday bases: Police men police, school teachers teach, and tax inspectors inspect. Focus in this paper is on the core tasks of tax inspectors. The paper argues that their core task of securing the collection of revenue...... has remained much the same within the last 10 years. However, how the core task has been organized has changed considerable under the influence of various “organizing devices”. The paper focusses on how organizing devices such as risk assessment, output-focus, effect orientation, and treatment...... projects influence the organization of core tasks within the tax administration. The paper shows that the organizational transformations based on the use of these devices have had consequences both for the overall collection of revenue and for the employees’ feeling of “making a difference”. All in all...

  20. Set Shifting Training with Categorization Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Soveri; Otto Waris; Matti Laine

    2013-01-01

    The very few cognitive training studies targeting an important executive function, set shifting, have reported performance improvements that also generalized to untrained tasks. The present randomized controlled trial extends set shifting training research by comparing previously used cued training with uncued training. A computerized adaptation of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test was utilized as the training task in a pretest-posttest experimental design involving three groups of university s...

  1. A Comparative Study of Task-based vs. Task- supported Teaching Approaches in an EFL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Shafipoor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the numerous merits of task-based language instruction as claimed by its supporters in the last few decades, task-supported teaching approach as an alternative was introduced. Since then, there have been controversial debates over the superiority of each of these two approaches. Thus, in the current research project, the purpose was to consider these two teaching approaches in the scope of English language teaching, with the purpose of exploring the most efficient one in an Iranian EFL context. To this end, 120 sophomore students, majoring in English language translation course at Islamic Azad University, Shar-e-Qods branch were selected among 4 intact reading comprehension II classes. Next, they were divided into two experimental groups. The first experimental group received task-based instruction and for the second experimental group, task-trusted teaching approach was applied. The results of the data analyses turned out that task-trusted teaching approach was superior to task-based teaching in teaching reading to EFL learners.Keywords: task-bsed language teaching (TBLT, task-supported language teaching (TSLT, reading comprehension 

  2. Dual task performance in normal aging: a comparison of choice reaction time tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftheria Vaportzis

    Full Text Available This study examined dual task performance in 28 younger (18-30 years and 28 older (>60 years adults using two sets of choice reaction time (RT tasks paired with digit tasks. Set one paired simple choice RT with digit forward; set two paired complex choice RT with digit backward. Each task within each set had easy and hard conditions. For the simple choice RT, participants viewed single letters and pressed a specified keyboard key if the letter was X or Z or a different key for other letters (easy. For the hard condition, there were 4 target letters (X, Z, O, Y. Digit forward consisted of 4 (easy or 5 (hard digits. For the complex choice RT, participants viewed 4×4 matrices of Xs and Os, and indicated whether four Xs (easy or four Xs or four Os (hard appeared in a row. Digit backward consisted of 3 (easy or 4 (hard digits. Within each set, participants performed every possible combination of tasks. We found that in the simple choice RT tasks older adults were significantly slower than, but as accurate as younger adults. In the complex choice RT tasks, older adults were significantly less accurate, but as fast as younger adults. For both age groups and both dual task sets, RT decreased and error rates increased with greater task difficulty. Older adults had greater dual task costs for error rates in the simple choice RT, whereas in the complex choice RT, it was the younger group that had greater dual task costs. Findings suggest that younger and older adults may adopt differential behavioral strategies depending on complexity and difficulty of dual tasks.

  3. Laterality of brain areas associated with arithmetic calculations revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yun-ting; ZHANG Quan; ZHANG Jing; LI Wei

    2005-01-01

    Background Asymmetry of bilateral cerebral function, i.e. laterality, is an important phenomenon in many brain actions: arithmetic calculation may be one of these phenomena. In this study, first, laterality of brain areas associated with arithmetic calculations was revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Second, the relationship among laterality, handedness, and types of arithmetic task was assessed. Third, we postulate possible reasons for laterality.Methods Using a block-designed experiment, twenty-five right-handed and seven left-handed healthy volunteers carried out simple calculations, complex calculations and proximity judgments. T1WI and GRE-EPI fMRI were performed with a GE 1.5T whole body MRI scanner. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM99) was used to process data and localize functional areas. Numbers of activated voxels were recorded to calculate laterality index for evaluating the laterality of functional brain areas.Results For both groups, the activation of functional areas in the frontal lobe showed a tendency towards the nonpredominant hand side, but the functional areas in the inferior parietal lobule had left laterality. During simple and complex calculations, the laterality indices of the prefrontal cortex and premotor area were higher in the right-handed group than that in the left-handed group, whereas the laterality of the inferior parietal lobule had no such significant difference. In both groups, when the difficulty of the task increased, the laterality of the prefrontal cortex, premotor area, and inferior parietal lobule decreased, but the laterality of posterior part of the inferior frontal gyrus increased.Conclusions The laterality of the functional brain areas associated with arithmetic calculations can be detected with fMRI. The laterality of the functional areas was related to handedness and task difficulty.

  4. Affordances and synchronization in collective creative construction tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tylén, Kristian; Fusaroli, Riccardo

    to the affordances of the task at hand. We also show that during collective, but not individual tasks, within group synchronization grows over time. Finally, we discuss how these measures of synchronization relate to the participants’ engagement in the tasks at hand and to the end products (LEGO models......: the affordances of the task at hand and the gradual consolidation of collaborative practices. Six groups of participants were instructed to construct LEGO models of six abstract notions (“responsibility”, “knowledge”, “justice” etc.), both individually and in groups. We combine video analysis and heart rate...... measurements and employ recurrence analysis techniques to quantify the mutual adaptability of heart rates among the participants in the different tasks. We show that during individual tasks individual heart rates synchronize both within and between groups (but not with controls) plausibly due...

  5. The neural correlates of calculation ability in children: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nicole; Cannistraci, Christopher J; Rogers, Baxter P; Gatenby, J Christopher; Fuchs, Lynn S; Anderson, Adam W; Gore, John C

    2009-11-01

    Most studies investigating mental numerical processing involve adult participants and little is known about the functioning of these systems in children. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates of numeracy and the influence of age on these correlates with a group of adults and a group of third graders who had average to above average mathematical ability. Participants performed simple and complex versions of exact and approximate calculation tasks while in the magnet. Like adults, children activated a network of brain regions in the frontal and parietal lobes during the calculation tasks, and they recruited additional brain regions for the more complex versions of the tasks. However, direct comparisons between adults and children revealed significant differences in level of activation across all tasks. In particular, patterns of activation in the parietal lobe were significantly different as a function of age. Findings support previous claims that the parietal lobe becomes more specialized for arithmetic tasks with age. PMID:19570639

  6. Cortical subnetwork dynamics during human language tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, Maxwell J; Fifer, Matthew S; Benz, Heather L; McMullen, David P; Wang, Yujing; Milsap, Griffin W; Korzeniewska, Anna; Crone, Nathan E

    2016-07-15

    Language tasks require the coordinated activation of multiple subnetworks-groups of related cortical interactions involved in specific components of task processing. Although electrocorticography (ECoG) has sufficient temporal and spatial resolution to capture the dynamics of event-related interactions between cortical sites, it is difficult to decompose these complex spatiotemporal patterns into functionally discrete subnetworks without explicit knowledge of each subnetwork's timing. We hypothesized that subnetworks corresponding to distinct components of task-related processing could be identified as groups of interactions with co-varying strengths. In this study, five subjects implanted with ECoG grids over language areas performed word repetition and picture naming. We estimated the interaction strength between each pair of electrodes during each task using a time-varying dynamic Bayesian network (tvDBN) model constructed from the power of high gamma (70-110Hz) activity, a surrogate for population firing rates. We then reduced the dimensionality of this model using principal component analysis (PCA) to identify groups of interactions with co-varying strengths, which we term functional network components (FNCs). This data-driven technique estimates both the weight of each interaction's contribution to a particular subnetwork, and the temporal profile of each subnetwork's activation during the task. We found FNCs with temporal and anatomical features consistent with articulatory preparation in both tasks, and with auditory and visual processing in the word repetition and picture naming tasks, respectively. These FNCs were highly consistent between subjects with similar electrode placement, and were robust enough to be characterized in single trials. Furthermore, the interaction patterns uncovered by FNC analysis correlated well with recent literature suggesting important functional-anatomical distinctions between processing external and self-produced speech. Our

  7. Group Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Laughlin, Patrick R

    2011-01-01

    Experimental research by social and cognitive psychologists has established that cooperative groups solve a wide range of problems better than individuals. Cooperative problem solving groups of scientific researchers, auditors, financial analysts, air crash investigators, and forensic art experts are increasingly important in our complex and interdependent society. This comprehensive textbook--the first of its kind in decades--presents important theories and experimental research about group problem solving. The book focuses on tasks that have demonstrably correct solutions within mathematical

  8. Performing Task Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjaer, Bente; Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    by shared goals and knowledge as well as mutual respect and frequent, timely, accurate and problem-solving ways of communication with the purpose of dealing with the tasks at hand in an integrated way. We introduce and discuss relational coordination theory through a case-study within public healthcare....... Here cross-professional coordination of work was done by scheduled communication twice a day. When we proposed a way for further integration of tasks through an all-inclusive team organization, we were met with resistance. We use the study to discuss whether relational coordination theory is able to do...

  9. Algebra task & drill sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 3-5, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are opportunities for problem-solving, patterning, algebraic graphing, equations and determining averages. The combined task & drill sheets

  10. Algebra task & drill sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are opportunities for problem-solving, patterning, algebraic graphing, equations and determining averages. The combined task & drill sheets

  11. Characterization of task-free and task-performance brain states via functional connectome patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Guo, Lei; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Tuo; Zhu, Dajiang; Li, Kaiming; Chen, Hanbo; Lv, Jinglei; Jin, Changfeng; Zhao, Qun; Li, Lingjiang; Liu, Tianming

    2013-12-01

    Both resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) and task-based fMRI (T-fMRI) have been widely used to study the functional activities of the human brain during task-free and task-performance periods, respectively. However, due to the difficulty in strictly controlling the participating subject's mental status and their cognitive behaviors during R-fMRI/T-fMRI scans, it has been challenging to ascertain whether or not an R-fMRI/T-fMRI scan truly reflects the participant's functional brain states during task-free/task-performance periods. This paper presents a novel computational approach to characterizing and differentiating the brain's functional status into task-free or task-performance states, by which the functional brain activities can be effectively understood and differentiated. Briefly, the brain's functional state is represented by a whole-brain quasi-stable connectome pattern (WQCP) of R-fMRI or T-fMRI data based on 358 consistent cortical landmarks across individuals, and then an effective sparse representation method was applied to learn the atomic connectome patterns (ACPs) of both task-free and task-performance states. Experimental results demonstrated that the learned ACPs for R-fMRI and T-fMRI datasets are substantially different, as expected. A certain portion of ACPs from R-fMRI and T-fMRI data were overlapped, suggesting some subjects with overlapping ACPs were not in the expected task-free/task-performance brain states. Besides, potential outliers in the T-fMRI dataset were further investigated via functional activation detections in different groups, and our results revealed unexpected task-performances of some subjects. This work offers novel insights into the functional architectures of the brain.

  12. Set shifting training with categorization tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Soveri

    Full Text Available The very few cognitive training studies targeting an important executive function, set shifting, have reported performance improvements that also generalized to untrained tasks. The present randomized controlled trial extends set shifting training research by comparing previously used cued training with uncued training. A computerized adaptation of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test was utilized as the training task in a pretest-posttest experimental design involving three groups of university students. One group received uncued training (n = 14, another received cued training (n = 14 and the control group (n = 14 only participated in pre- and posttests. The uncued training group showed posttraining performance increases on their training task, but neither training group showed statistically significant transfer effects. Nevertheless, comparison of effect sizes for transfer effects indicated that our results did not differ significantly from the previous studies. Our results suggest that the cognitive effects of computerized set shifting training are mostly task-specific, and would preclude any robust generalization effects with this training.

  13. Biomedical applications engineering tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laenger, C. J., Sr.

    1976-01-01

    The engineering tasks performed in response to needs articulated by clinicians are described. Initial contacts were made with these clinician-technology requestors by the Southwest Research Institute NASA Biomedical Applications Team. The basic purpose of the program was to effectively transfer aerospace technology into functional hardware to solve real biomedical problems.

  14. Task 1 quarternary tectonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.W.

    1994-12-31

    Activities on the task of quarternary tectonics for the Yucca Mountain Site investigations are described. Technical topics include: A preliminary reveiw of Bare Mountain Trench; A preliminary detailed lineament map of the Southwestern part of the proposed repository; A discussion on the 1994 Double Spring Flat, Nevada earthquake; and evidence for temporal clustering.

  15. A Daunting Task Still

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2010-01-01

    @@ Despite steady economic growth for three decades, China is still a developing country facing daunting poverty alleviation tasks. According to the poverty line of 1,196 yuan ($176) per capita net income in a year set in March 2009, the country still has a poverty population of more than 40 million, mainly living in rural areas.

  16. Influence of mental abacus calculation practice on mental arithmetic in children: a fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the influence of mental abacus calculation practice on mental arithmetic in children with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: Twelve children who had practiced mental abacus calculation for 3 years and 12 untrained children (The two groups were matched in terms of age, handedness and education) underwent fMRI during mental calculation tasks. The related behavior data were recorded at the same time. All data were analyzed with statistical parametric mapping 2. Results: The calculation accuracy was significantly higher [(95.00±7.16)% vs.(74.26±16.07)%. t=-4.084, P<0.01]; and the reaction time was significantly shorter [(597.91±124.05) ms vs. (770.07± 148.54) ms, t=3.082, P<0.01] in trained group than untrained group. The extent and magnitude of the activated areas were significantly increased in the untrained group compared with the trained group. The activated areas mainly localized in the frontal and parietal lobes in untrained group, while the brain activated areas were few and mainly localized in occipital and parietal lobes in the trained group. Conclusion: Mental abacus calculation can enhance the information processing m some brain areas, and improve the utilization efficiency of neural resources. (authors)

  17. Record of the fourth meeting of sub-group A, Vienna, 18-19 September 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The items discussed include the Co-Chairman's report on June 1978 Technical Co-ordinating Committee; Working Group 4 final report (format); task 1: requirements for reprocessing. (Incl. discussions of NEA documents), task 2: national reprocessing plans, task 3: base case reprocessing plant, task 4: resource utilization, task 5: identification of criteria: (Identification of economic criteria, identification of environmental criteria), task 6: evaluation of reprocessing, task 7: proliferation resistance, task 8: alternative reprocessing schemes and tasks 13-16: alternative institutional arrangements

  18. NONLINEAR STATIC CALCULATION MODEL AND PSEUDO-STATIC TEST OF PILE GROUP BRIDGE FOUNDATIONS%桥梁群桩基础非线性静力计算模型及拟静力试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永亮; 陈兴冲; 孙建飞

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal bearing characteristics of bridge pile foundations can be analyzed by using linear elastic subgrade reaction method(m-method) when displacement of pile foundation is generally smaller. However, displacement of pile foundations is often larger under the effect of strong earthquakes. In order to understand the horizontal bearing capacity and deformation characteristics of pile foundations considering nonlinear behaviors of pile shaft and subsoil,a model of pile foundations is constructed. Failure mechanism,bearing capacity, deformation characteristics and hysteresis characteristics of pile foundations are studied by using pseudo-static test. A nonlinear static calculation model of pile group foundations is put forward under horizontal load. The elastoplasticity of pile shafts in variable axial loads is simulated by distributed PMM plastic hinge;and nonlinearity of subsoil is simulated by the curves of p-y,t-z and q-z,respectively,which have been given in the code of American API;where p is horizontal soil resistance at lateral of pile shaft;y is horizontal displacement;t is vertical frictional resistance around piles shaft;q is vertical bearing resistance at pile tip;z is vertical relative displacement of interface between pile and soil. The results show that:(1) The numerical results are in good agreement with those obtained from experiments. (2) Hysteretic characteristics of pile foundations can be simulated using Clough degradation bilinear model. (3) Weak positions of pile shaft are 0-4 times around the radius of pile below pile top. The results can provide references for evaluating seismic performance of bridge pile foundation using capacity spectrum method.%线弹性地基反力法(m 法)仅适用于正常使用时桥梁桩基础变位较小的情况,但在强震作用下基础的变位较大。为了研究桩基础在地基土及桩身进入非线性状态下的水平承载能力及变形特性,通过群桩基础缩尺比例模型,采用拟

  19. Neural correlates of serial abacus mental calculation in children: a functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feiyan; Hu, Zhenghui; Zhao, Xiaohu; Wang, Rui; Yang, Zhenyan; Wang, Xiaolu; Tang, Xiaowei

    2006-07-31

    Abacus experts have demonstrated extraordinary potential of mental calculation by using an imaginary abacus. But the neural correlates of abacus mental calculation and the imaginary abacus still remain unclear. Here, we report, respectively, the analysis of fMRI images of abacus experts and non-experts in response to the performance of simple and complex serial calculation by visual stimuli as well as the images of the abacus experts with performance of the same tasks by auditory stimuli. We found that activated areas were quite different between two groups. In experts, enhanced activations were mainly observed in fronto-temporal circuit (lateral premotor cortex (LPMC) and posterior temporal areas) in simple addition, but in fronto-parietal circuit (lateral premotor cortex (LPMC) and posterior superior parietal lobe (PSPL)) in complex one. By contrast, in controls, the activated areas were almost similar in both simple and complex tasks, including bilateral inferior parietal lobule, prefrontal and premotor cortices. Furthermore, visual and auditory stimuli generated almost similar activations in experts. These observations reveal that (1) abacus mental calculation induces special patterns of brain response, and simple and complex tasks are sustained by dissociated brain circuits between the temporal and parietal cortices, respectively; (2) the abacus mental calculation may rely on neural resources of visuospatial representations with a super-modal form of abacus beads; (3) the posterior temporal areas and PSPL may be recruited for imaginary abacus.

  20. Neural correlates of serial abacus mental calculation in children: a functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feiyan; Hu, Zhenghui; Zhao, Xiaohu; Wang, Rui; Yang, Zhenyan; Wang, Xiaolu; Tang, Xiaowei

    2006-07-31

    Abacus experts have demonstrated extraordinary potential of mental calculation by using an imaginary abacus. But the neural correlates of abacus mental calculation and the imaginary abacus still remain unclear. Here, we report, respectively, the analysis of fMRI images of abacus experts and non-experts in response to the performance of simple and complex serial calculation by visual stimuli as well as the images of the abacus experts with performance of the same tasks by auditory stimuli. We found that activated areas were quite different between two groups. In experts, enhanced activations were mainly observed in fronto-temporal circuit (lateral premotor cortex (LPMC) and posterior temporal areas) in simple addition, but in fronto-parietal circuit (lateral premotor cortex (LPMC) and posterior superior parietal lobe (PSPL)) in complex one. By contrast, in controls, the activated areas were almost similar in both simple and complex tasks, including bilateral inferior parietal lobule, prefrontal and premotor cortices. Furthermore, visual and auditory stimuli generated almost similar activations in experts. These observations reveal that (1) abacus mental calculation induces special patterns of brain response, and simple and complex tasks are sustained by dissociated brain circuits between the temporal and parietal cortices, respectively; (2) the abacus mental calculation may rely on neural resources of visuospatial representations with a super-modal form of abacus beads; (3) the posterior temporal areas and PSPL may be recruited for imaginary abacus. PMID:16697526

  1. Community hoarding task forces: a comparative case study of five task forces in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratiotis, Christiana

    2013-05-01

    During the past decade, many community task forces have formed to address hoarding problems that come to public attention. Such task forces provide a societal-level intervention to assist people with the most severe cases of hoarding, who do not voluntarily seek or want help for their hoarding behaviour. This qualitative study of five U.S. hoarding task forces included sites selected for their diversity of purpose, approaches to hoarding intervention and community geography, composition and resources. Data were collected during the period of September 2007-March 2008. The case study methodology used multiple forms of data, including semi-structured interviews, analysis of documents, small group interviews and investigator observation. This study captured the perspectives of public and private sector service providers such as mental health, housing, social service, public health agencies and community enforcement organisations (fire, police, legal, animal control) to examine how task forces organise and operate and the emerging practice and policy changes. Study findings suggest that structural factors (e.g. leadership, purpose, funding and membership) impact hoarding task force viability, that participation on a task force influences practice and policy decisions about hoarding, and that social work can expand its role in task force leadership. Task forces may be a mechanism for improving community policies about hoarding and mechanisms for addressing other social problems across multiple sectors.

  2. Community hoarding task forces: a comparative case study of five task forces in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratiotis, Christiana

    2013-05-01

    During the past decade, many community task forces have formed to address hoarding problems that come to public attention. Such task forces provide a societal-level intervention to assist people with the most severe cases of hoarding, who do not voluntarily seek or want help for their hoarding behaviour. This qualitative study of five U.S. hoarding task forces included sites selected for their diversity of purpose, approaches to hoarding intervention and community geography, composition and resources. Data were collected during the period of September 2007-March 2008. The case study methodology used multiple forms of data, including semi-structured interviews, analysis of documents, small group interviews and investigator observation. This study captured the perspectives of public and private sector service providers such as mental health, housing, social service, public health agencies and community enforcement organisations (fire, police, legal, animal control) to examine how task forces organise and operate and the emerging practice and policy changes. Study findings suggest that structural factors (e.g. leadership, purpose, funding and membership) impact hoarding task force viability, that participation on a task force influences practice and policy decisions about hoarding, and that social work can expand its role in task force leadership. Task forces may be a mechanism for improving community policies about hoarding and mechanisms for addressing other social problems across multiple sectors. PMID:23199135

  3. Task analysis and support for problem solving tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is concerned with Task Analysis as the basis for ergonomic design to reduce human error rates, rather than for predicting human error rates. Task Analysis techniques usually provide a set of categories for describing sub tasks, and a framework describing the relations between sub-tasks. Both the task type categories and their organisation have implications for optimum interface and training design. In this paper, the framework needed for considering the most complex tasks faced by operators in process industries is discussed such as fault management in unexpected situations, and what is likely to minimise human error in these circumstances. (author)

  4. Intraindividual variability across cognitive tasks as a potential marker for prodromal Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Maria Kälin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that increased cognitive intraindividual variability (IIV across accuracy scores from tests representing different cognitive domains (across-domain IIV might indicate prodromal Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Although IIV has been proposed to index cognitive control processes, IIV across accuracy scores from cognitive control tasks (within-domain IIV has not been examined in healthy controls subjects (HCS, mild cognitive impairment (MCI and AD patients in a single comparative study. This study examines the discriminative properties of within-domain IIV, and across-domain IIV in 149 HCS, 31 MCI and 26 AD. Three tasks representing different cognitive domains were identified to calculate across-domain IIV. Three other tasks representing cognitive control were identified to calculate within-domain IIV. The intraindividual standard deviation (ISD was calculated across accuracy scores. To compare IIV between groups, ANCOVAs with the covariates age, gender, education, and mean performance were computed. IIV scores in general were higher in AD vs. HCS (p< 0.01. Only across-domain IIV was higher in AD vs. MCI (p=0.001, and only within-domain IIV was higher in MCI vs. HCS (p=0.05. Within-domain IIV may constitute a cognitive marker for the detection of prodromal AD at the MCI stage, whereas across-domain IIV may detect beginning AD at the MCI stage.

  5. Effects of noise and task loading on a communication task loading on a communication task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrell, Dean H., II

    Previous research had shown the effect of noise on a single communication task. This research has been criticized as not being representative of a real world situation since subjects allocated all of their attention to only one task. In the present study, the effect of adding a loading task to a standard noise-communication paradigm was investigated. Subjects performed both a communication task (Modified Rhyme Test; House et al. 1965) and a short term memory task (Sternberg, 1969) in simulated levels of aircraft noise (95, 105 and 115 dB overall sound pressure level (OASPL)). Task loading was varied with Sternberg's task by requiring subjects to memorize one, four, or six alphanumeric characters. Simulated aircraft noise was varied between levels of 95, 105 and 115 dB OASPL using a pink noise source. Results show that the addition of Sternberg's task and little effect on the intelligibility of the communication task while response time for the communication task increased.

  6. Urban task force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubović Ljiljana V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Urban Task Force Report has brought to our attention, that English towns and cities today require a new renaissance. The comprehensive planning has retarded urban living (Urban Renaissance, Sharing the Vision 01.99, 1999. Forty percent of inner-urban housing stock is subsidized 'social' housing. A review of the demographic and development trends have lead to the UK Government’s new urban policy that prioritizes the regeneration of towns and cities by building on recycled urban land and protecting the countryside. As result, Urban Task Force (UTF was founded the with the following aims To identify causes of urban decline in England; To recommend practical solutions how to bring people back into cities; To establish a new vision for urban regeneration based on the principles of design excellence, social well being and environmental responsibility within a viable economic and legislative framework (Urban Task Force, 1999:1. This paper represents the analysis of the economic and political effects of the program and its viability.

  7. Gap Task Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Lissuaer, D

    One of the more congested areas in the ATLAS detector is the GAP region (the area between the Barrel Calorimeter and the End Cap calorimeter) where Inner Detector services, LAr Services and some Tile services all must co-habitat in a very limited area. It has been clear for some time that the space in the GAP region is not sufficient to accommodate all that is needed. In the last few month additional problems of routing all the services to Z=0 have been encountered due to the very limited space between the Tile Calorimeter and the first layer of Muon chambers. The Technical Management Board (TMB) and the Executive Board (EB) decided in the middle of March to establish a Task Force to look at this problem and come up with a solution within well-specified guidelines. The task force consisted of experts from the ID, Muon, Liquid Argon and Tile systems in addition to experts from the Technical Coordination team and the Physics coordinator. The task force held many meetings and in general there were some very l...

  8. A flexible algorithm for calculating pair interactions on SIMD architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Páll, Szilárd

    2013-01-01

    Calculating interactions or correlations between pairs of particles is typically the most time-consuming task in particle simulation or correlation analysis. Straightforward implementations using a double loop over particle pairs have traditionally worked well, especially since compilers usually do a good job of unrolling the inner loop. In order to reach high performance on modern CPU and accelerator architectures, single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) parallelization has become essential. Avoiding memory bottlenecks is also increasingly important and requires reducing the ratio of memory to arithmetic operations. Moreover, when pairs only interact within a certain cut-off distance, good SIMD utilization can only be achieved by reordering input and output data, which quickly becomes a limiting factor. Here we present an algorithm for SIMD parallelization based on grouping a fixed number of particles, e.g. 2, 4, or 8, into spatial clusters. Calculating all interactions between particles in a pair of such cl...

  9. Social Loafing in a Co-operative Classroom Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Adrian C.; Linley, P. Alex; Hargreaves, David J.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates whether social loafing (the tendency for individuals to reduce their input when performing as part of a group) existed in a collaborative educational task employing groups of three and eight participants. Indicates that individuals working in smaller groups were more productive than those working in larger groups. (CMK)

  10. Zero Temperature Hope Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozsnyai, B F

    2002-07-26

    The primary purpose of the HOPE code is to calculate opacities over a wide temperature and density range. It can also produce equation of state (EOS) data. Since the experimental data at the high temperature region are scarce, comparisons of predictions with the ample zero temperature data provide a valuable physics check of the code. In this report we show a selected few examples across the periodic table. Below we give a brief general information about the physics of the HOPE code. The HOPE code is an ''average atom'' (AA) Dirac-Slater self-consistent code. The AA label in the case of finite temperature means that the one-electron levels are populated according to the Fermi statistics, at zero temperature it means that the ''aufbau'' principle works, i.e. no a priory electronic configuration is set, although it can be done. As such, it is a one-particle model (any Hartree-Fock model is a one particle model). The code is an ''ion-sphere'' model, meaning that the atom under investigation is neutral within the ion-sphere radius. Furthermore, the boundary conditions for the bound states are also set at the ion-sphere radius, which distinguishes the code from the INFERNO, OPAL and STA codes. Once the self-consistent AA state is obtained, the code proceeds to generate many-electron configurations and proceeds to calculate photoabsorption in the ''detailed configuration accounting'' (DCA) scheme. However, this last feature is meaningless at zero temperature. There is one important feature in the HOPE code which should be noted; any self-consistent model is self-consistent in the space of the occupied orbitals. The unoccupied orbitals, where electrons are lifted via photoexcitation, are unphysical. The rigorous way to deal with that problem is to carry out complete self-consistent calculations both in the initial and final states connecting photoexcitations, an enormous computational task

  11. The Variety of Group Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaoYanyan; YuZhihao

    2004-01-01

    With the rapid enrollment expansion in the recent years,the author feels it urgent to reform the traditional group work,and therefore to form a new and more effective pattern of group learning. The new of group word is based on the principles of cooperation and that of the task with the more flexible marking system.

  12. Effects of Gait and Cognitive Task Difficulty on Cognitive-Motor Interference in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence Plummer-D'Amato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although gait-related dual-task interference in aging is well established, the effect of gait and cognitive task difficulty on dual-task interference is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of gait and cognitive task difficulty on cognitive-motor interference in aging. Fifteen older adults (72.1 years, SD 5.2 and 20 young adults (21.7 years, SD 1.6 performed three walking tasks of varying difficulty (self-selected speed, fast speed, and fast speed with obstacle crossing under single- and dual-task conditions. The cognitive tasks were the auditory Stroop task and the clock task. There was a significant Group × Gait Task × Cognitive Task interaction for the dual-task effect on gait speed. After adjusting for education, there were no significant effects of gait or cognitive task difficulty on the dual-task effects on cognitive task performance. The results of this study provide evidence that gait task difficulty influences dual-task effects on gait speed, especially in older adults. Moreover, the effects of gait task difficulty on dual-task interference appear to be influenced by the difficulty of the cognitive task. Education is an important factor influencing cognitive-motor interference effects on cognition, but not gait.

  13. Plasticity of executive control through task switching training in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina eZinke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that cognitive training can enhance performance in executive control tasks. Current study was designed to explore whether executive control can also be trained in adolescents, what particular aspects of executive control may underlie training and transfer effects, and whether acute bouts of exercise directly prior to cognitive training enhance training effects. For that purpose, a task switching training was employed that has been shown to be effective in other age groups. A group of adolescents (10-14 years, n = 20 that received a three-week TS training was compared to a group (n = 20 that received the same TS training but who exercised on a stationary bike before each training session. Additionally, a no-contact and an exercise-only control group were included (both ns = 20. Analyses indicated that both training groups significantly reduced their switching costs over the course of the training sessions and also reduced their mixing costs in a near transfer task. The reduction in mixing costs in the near transfer task was larger in the trained groups than in the non-trained control groups. Far transfer of cognitive training was limited to a choice reaction time task and a tendency for faster reaction times in an updating task. Findings indicate that executive control can be enhanced in adolescents through training and that updating may be of particular relevance for the effects of task switching training.

  14. Integrated Teaching Tasks as part of Studying Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Mass Sosa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the known didactic value of integrated teaching tasks, they are not appropriately used neither individually, nor in groups, due to the lack of an specific integrating didactic and proposals that work as methodological tools. A bibliographic revision was conducted to clarify the role of integrated teaching tasks as part of the structure of studying activities and to highlight some aspects that could make easier the design, implementation and control of such tasks. It was possible to identify that integrated teaching tasks are part of the structure of studying activities to the level of partial objectives that students should meet. Among the aspects that make the design, implementation and control easier we may find: role as guideline, integrative approach and systematization of contents, systemic approach of the teaching tasks, links between teaching contents and practical life (theory and practice, care for diversity, integrated teaching tasks in groups and systemic, collective and dynamic methodologic work.

  15. Image enhancement of digital periapical radiographs according to diagnostic tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dankook University College of Dentistry, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    his study was performed to investigate the effect of image enhancement of periapical radiographs according to the diagnostic task. Eighty digital intraoral radiographs were obtained from patients and classified into four groups according to the diagnostic tasks of dental caries, periodontal diseases, periapical lesions, and endodontic files. All images were enhanced differently by using five processing techniques. Three radiologists blindly compared the subjective image quality of the original images and the processed images using a 5-point scale. There were significant differences between the image quality of the processed images and that of the original images (P<0.01) in all the diagnostic task groups. Processing techniques showed significantly different efficacy according to the diagnostic task (P<0.01). Image enhancement affects the image quality differently depending on the diagnostic task. And the use of optimal parameters is important for each diagnostic task.

  16. Image enhancement of digital periapical radiographs according to diagnostic tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    his study was performed to investigate the effect of image enhancement of periapical radiographs according to the diagnostic task. Eighty digital intraoral radiographs were obtained from patients and classified into four groups according to the diagnostic tasks of dental caries, periodontal diseases, periapical lesions, and endodontic files. All images were enhanced differently by using five processing techniques. Three radiologists blindly compared the subjective image quality of the original images and the processed images using a 5-point scale. There were significant differences between the image quality of the processed images and that of the original images (P<0.01) in all the diagnostic task groups. Processing techniques showed significantly different efficacy according to the diagnostic task (P<0.01). Image enhancement affects the image quality differently depending on the diagnostic task. And the use of optimal parameters is important for each diagnostic task.

  17. 以“任务”为导向的英语分组合作学习效用研究--以建设类高职英语教学为例%Research on the Effectiveness of English Group Coopera-tive Learning Oriented by "Tasks":A Case Study on Higher Vocational Architecture English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡澎; 贺华锋; 熊丽

    2014-01-01

    The group cooperative learning oriented by "tasks" is widely used by the classroom teaching in many developed coun-tries, as it plays a significant role in improving students' academic performance, activating class atmosphere, and improving learn-ers' group cooperative quality. This paper explores the effective-ness of group cooperative learning in high vocational architecture English teaching, proposes its importance in English classroom teaching, and analyzes the effective strategies for its implementa-tion.%以“任务”为导向的分组合作学习在许多发达国家英语课堂教学中被广泛地使用,它对提高学生成绩、活跃课堂气氛、提升学习者团队合作品质等方面有显著成效。本文探讨了该分组合作学习方式在建设类高职英语教学中的效用,提出其在英语课堂教学中的重要作用,并分析其实施的有效策略。

  18. The Impact of Task Complexity and Strategic Planning Time on EFL Learners’ Accuracy and Fluency in Written Task Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Salimi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The past twenty years has witnessed a remarkable increase in the number of studies investigating different aspects and features of tasks in the second and foreign language class and their effects on learners’ oral and written task performance. Building up on a review of the studies conducted in the field of task-based language teaching a gap was revealed in the literature on the joint effects of task complexity and types of pre-task planning on L2 learners’ performance. The present study investigates the effects of strategic pre-task planning time and task complexity on a group of L2 learners’ written performance in terms of accuracy and fluency. The means of accuracy and fluency of 50 intermediate English language learners, both male and female, chosen randomly from Iran National Language Institute, Miandoab Branch were compared using T-test as the statistical means of analysis. The findings revealed a positive influence of pre-task strategic planning time in both simple and complex tasks, suggesting significant implications for syllabus and task designers, language teachers, and SLA researchers.Keywords: Task-based language teaching, Planning time, Strategic planning, Task complexity, Accuracy, Fluency

  19. Report of the heavy-ion fusion task group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of heavy-ion fusion has been completed. Energetic heavy ions, for example 10-GeV uranium, provided by an rf linac or an induction linac, are used as alternatives to laser light to drive inertial confinement fusion pellets. The assessment has covered accelerator technology, transport of heavy-ion beams, target interaction physics, civilian power issues, and military applications. It is concluded that particle accelerators promise to be efficient pellet drivers, but that there are formidable technical problems to be solved. It is recommended that a moderate level research program on heavy-ion fusion be pursued and that LASL should continue to work on critical issues in accelerator development, beam transport, reactor systems studies, and target physics over the next few years

  20. Unique Signal mathematical analysis task group FY03 status report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baty, Roy Stuart (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Johnston, Anna Marie; Hart, Elizabeth (Utah State University, Logan, UT); White, Allan (NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA); Cooper, James Arlin

    2003-12-01

    The Unique Signal is a key constituent of Enhanced Nuclear Detonation Safety (ENDS). Although the Unique Signal approach is well prescribed and mathematically assured, there are numerous unsolved mathematical problems that could help assess the risk of deviations from the ideal approach. Some of the mathematics-based results shown in this report are: 1. The risk that two patterns with poor characteristics (easily generated by inadvertent processes) could be combined through exclusive-or mixing to generate an actual Unique Signal pattern has been investigated and found to be minimal (not significant when compared to the incompatibility metric of actual Unique Signal patterns used in nuclear weapons). 2. The risk of generating actual Unique Signal patterns with linear feedback shift registers is minimal, but the patterns in use are not as invulnerable to inadvertent generation by dependent processes as previously thought. 3. New methods of testing pair-wise incompatibility threats have resulted in no significant problems found for the set of Unique Signal patterns currently used. Any new patterns introduced would have to be carefully assessed for compatibility with existing patterns, since some new patterns under consideration were found to be deficient when associated with other patterns in use. 4. Markov models were shown to correspond to some of the engineered properties of Unique Signal sequences. This gives new support for the original design objectives. 5. Potential dependence among events (caused by a variety of communication protocols) has been studied. New evidence has been derived of the risk associated with combined communication of multiple events, and of the improvement in abnormal-environment safety that can be achieved through separate-event communication.

  1. 运用规范行为区分任务测查攻击/受欺儿童的情感预期能力%A Study on Affective Anticipation of Children with Different Aggression/ Victim Groups by Using Normative Behavior Identifying Tasks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚真; 桑标

    2012-01-01

    儿童社会信息加工的情绪一认知整合模型指出.对各种反应的情绪后果预期会影响儿童对反应的提取、决策及对情绪活动的评价。本研究运用规范行为区分任务(原称为社会情境任务)测查不同攻击/受欺类型儿童的情感预期能力,结果发现:不同类型儿童在3个规范一违反行为判断子任务上得分及总分上均不存在显著性差异,但在对规范行为和对违反行为判断的差异上,未卷入儿童在各个情境中所判定的差异都更大:未卷入儿童在三个任务情境上的规范行为觉知能力都优于其他类型儿童,其规范行为觉知能力具有跨情境的一致性:三个任务情境都具有检测力.但不同任务情境具有不同的检测力或区分力。%According to Integrated Model of Emotion Processes and Cognition in Social Information Pro- cessing(IEC-SIP), emotional outcome expectations of responses would influence response generation,evalua- tion, and decision. Study aims to find out the features of affective anticipation of children with different aggression/victim groups by using story tests, which originally called social situtations task, to explore children's ability to differentiate normative behavior from violation behavior. The results see that there isn't significant difference in each of normative-violation identifying tasks among different aggression/victim groups, so as to the total score, but difference between normative and violation behavior judged by non- involved children is significant and greater than any other kinds of children; non-involved children's ability to apperceive normative behavior is the best and has cross-situational consistency; all of the three social situtations tasks can test, but each has different degree of effectiveness.

  2. Calorimetry Task Force Report

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullin, Salavat; Banerjee, Sunanda; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Bhatti, Anwar; Chlebana, Frank; Cossutti, Fabio; Hirschauer, James; Ivanchenko, V; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Kunori, Shuichi; Kroeger, Rob; Liu, Yanwen; Moeller, Anthony; Paulini, Manfred; Piperov, Stefan; Rahmat, Rahmat; Rovelli, Chiara; Safronov, Grigory; Sharma, Seema; Spiropulu, Maria; Yetkin, Taylan

    2010-01-01

    In this note we summarize the progress made by the calorimeter simulation task force (CaloTF) over the past year. The CaloTF was established in February 2008 in order to understand and reconcile the discrepancies observed between the CMS calorimetry simulation and test beam data recorded during 2004 and 2006. The simulation has been significantly improved by using a newer version of Geant4 and an improved physics list for the full CMS detector simulation. Simulation times have been reduced by introducing flexible parameterizations to describe showering in the calorimeter (using a Gflash-like approach) which have been tuned to the test beam data.

  3. Quarternary tectonics, Task 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.W.

    1993-09-30

    Activities conducted for the evaluation of the geology and seismotectonics stability of Yucca Mountain as a potential site for the underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes continued. Tasks concerned with quaternary tectonics include: scheduling of photography of Little Skull Mountain area; the collection and dating of rock varnish samples from the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area for carbon 14 AMS and cation-ratio analysis; collection of samples for thermoluminescence dating from the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area; mapping of the northern area of Crater Flat; and surveying of the May 17, 1993 Eureka the Valley earthquake area.

  4. Formal language models for finding groups of experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Liang; M. de Rijke

    2016-01-01

    The task of finding groups or teams has recently received increased attention, as a natural and challenging extension of search tasks aimed at retrieving individual entities. We introduce a new group finding task: given a query topic, we try to find knowledgeable groups that have expertise on that t

  5. Highly task-related diversity vs. less task-related diversity among university staff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2013-01-01

    As only very few large-scale studies have investigated multi-cultural university staff and as none of these studies have dealt with diversity and group processes, this survey was directed toward staffs in 16 science departments from three large universities in Denmark. Results based on the response...... from 489 university staff members showed that age diversity and cultural diversity, representing highly task-related diversity, were positively associated with most of the variables depicting group cohesiveness. On the other hand, gender diversity, illustrating less task-related diversity, seemed...

  6. Social Pressures and Task Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Shearer, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the impact of the actions of others on task performance – citing that both social acceptance and ostracism can increase task performance (Lustenberger & Jagacinski, 2010; Jamieson et. al., 2010). In this study, the relationship between social inclusion/ostracism and performance on a verbal comprehension task is investigated in an attempt to discover which is more potent in influencing task performance. Two forms of social conditioning are used; face-to-face ...

  7. HENRY'S LAW CALCULATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    On-Site was developed to provide modelers and model reviewers with prepackaged tools ("calculators") for performing site assessment calculations. The philosophy behind OnSite is that the convenience of the prepackaged calculators helps provide consistency for simple calculations,...

  8. Reverse-Engineering Communication Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamber, Craig

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces an approach to planning sequences of communication tasks that require learners to become personally involved in their learning. By drawing on their own ideas and experiences, as a product of earlier tasks in a given sequence, learners generate the content and resource material on which subsequent tasks operate. The article…

  9. Skill Components of Task Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Anne E.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Fisk, Arthur D.

    2013-01-01

    Some task analysis methods break down a task into a hierarchy of subgoals. Although an important tool of many fields of study, learning to create such a hierarchy (redescription) is not trivial. To further the understanding of what makes task analysis a skill, the present research examined novices' problems with learning Hierarchical Task…

  10. Evaluating Energy Sector Investments: Calculating Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson de Oliveira Pamplona

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A major task in assessing risks of investment projects is defining the approach to calculating the project’s volatility. Looking at assorted estimation techniques, this paper calculates their volatilities. The techniques originate from authors in the area and involve project-specific variables of uncertainty. These techniques are applied to a case of electricity distribution through real options. Results are then compared. The difference between the calculated volatilities was low, leaving, in the case of the project evaluated here, the decision unchanged. The paper’s contribution consists of providing a detailed presentation of calculating volatility by the methods cited and by comparing the results obtained by its application.

  11. Does a Speaking Task Affect Second Language Comprehensibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Dustin; Trofimovich, Pavel; Isaacs, Talia; Saito, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated task effects on listener perception of second language (L2) comprehensibility (ease of understanding). Sixty university-level adult speakers of English from 4 first language (L1) backgrounds (Chinese, Romance, Hindi, Farsi), with 15 speakers per group, were recorded performing 2 tasks (IELTS long-turn speaking task…

  12. A Task that Elicits Reasoning: A Dual Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankelewitz, Dina; Mueller, Mary; Maher, Carolyn A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the forms of reasoning elicited as fourth grade students in a suburban district and sixth grade students in an urban district worked on similar tasks involving reasoning with the use of Cuisenaire rods. Analysis of the two data sets shows similarities in the reasoning used by both groups of students on specific tasks, and the…

  13. Adaptive group coordination and role differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Roberts

    Full Text Available Many real world situations (potluck dinners, academic departments, sports teams, corporate divisions, committees, seminar classes, etc. involve actors adjusting their contributions in order to achieve a mutually satisfactory group goal, a win-win result. However, the majority of human group research has involved situations where groups perform poorly because task constraints promote either individual maximization behavior or diffusion of responsibility, and even successful tasks generally involve the propagation of one correct solution through a group. Here we introduce a group task that requires complementary actions among participants in order to reach a shared goal. Without communication, group members submit numbers in an attempt to collectively sum to a randomly selected target number. After receiving group feedback, members adjust their submitted numbers until the target number is reached. For all groups, performance improves with task experience, and group reactivity decreases over rounds. Our empirical results provide evidence for adaptive coordination in human groups, and as the coordination costs increase with group size, large groups adapt through spontaneous role differentiation and self-consistency among members. We suggest several agent-based models with different rules for agent reactions, and we show that the empirical results are best fit by a flexible, adaptive agent strategy in which agents decrease their reactions when the group feedback changes. The task offers a simple experimental platform for studying the general problem of group coordination while maximizing group returns, and we distinguish the task from several games in behavioral game theory.

  14. Adaptive group coordination and role differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael E; Goldstone, Robert L

    2011-01-01

    Many real world situations (potluck dinners, academic departments, sports teams, corporate divisions, committees, seminar classes, etc.) involve actors adjusting their contributions in order to achieve a mutually satisfactory group goal, a win-win result. However, the majority of human group research has involved situations where groups perform poorly because task constraints promote either individual maximization behavior or diffusion of responsibility, and even successful tasks generally involve the propagation of one correct solution through a group. Here we introduce a group task that requires complementary actions among participants in order to reach a shared goal. Without communication, group members submit numbers in an attempt to collectively sum to a randomly selected target number. After receiving group feedback, members adjust their submitted numbers until the target number is reached. For all groups, performance improves with task experience, and group reactivity decreases over rounds. Our empirical results provide evidence for adaptive coordination in human groups, and as the coordination costs increase with group size, large groups adapt through spontaneous role differentiation and self-consistency among members. We suggest several agent-based models with different rules for agent reactions, and we show that the empirical results are best fit by a flexible, adaptive agent strategy in which agents decrease their reactions when the group feedback changes. The task offers a simple experimental platform for studying the general problem of group coordination while maximizing group returns, and we distinguish the task from several games in behavioral game theory. PMID:21811595

  15. Integrated system for production of neutronics and photonics calculational constants. Volume XVI. Tabular and graphical presentation of 175 neutron group constants derived from the LLL evaluated neutron data library (ENDL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As of February 3, 1975, 175 neutron group constants had been derived from the Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (ENDL) at LLL. In this volume, tables and graphs of the constants are presented along with the conventions used in their preparation. (U.S.)

  16. VENUS-2 MOX Core Benchmark: Results of ORNL Calculations Using HELIOS-1.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, RJ

    2001-02-02

    The Task Force on Reactor-Based Plutonium Disposition, now an Expert Group, was set up through the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency to facilitate technical assessments of burning weapons-grade plutonium mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in U.S. pressurized-water reactors and Russian VVER nuclear reactors. More than ten countries participated to advance the work of the Task Force in a major initiative, which was a blind benchmark study to compare code benchmark calculations against experimental data for the VENUS-2 MOX core at SCK-CEN in Mol, Belgium. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the HELIOS-1.4 code was used to perform a comprehensive study of pin-cell and core calculations for the VENUS-2 benchmark.

  17. LWR decay heat calculations using a GRS improved ENDF/B-6 based ORIGEN data library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, U.; Hummelsheim, K.I.; Kilger, R.; Moser, F.E.; Langenbuch, S. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Forschungsinstitute, Garching (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The known ORNL ORIGEN code is widely spread over the world for inventory, activity and decay heat tasks and is used stand-alone or implemented in activation, shielding or burn-up systems. More than 1000 isotopes with more than six coupled neutron capture and radioactive decay channels are handled simultaneously by the code. The characteristics of the calculated inventories, e.g., masses, activities, neutron and photon source terms or the decay heat during short or long decay time steps are achieved by summing over all isotopes, characterized in the ORIGEN libraries. An extended nuclear GRS-ORIGENX data library is now developed for practical appliance. The library was checked for activation tasks of structure material isotopes and for actinide and fission product burn-up calculations compared with experiments and standard methods. The paper is directed to the LWR decay heat calculation features of the new library and shows the differences of dynamical and time integrated results of Endf/B-6 based and older Endf/B-5 based libraries for decay heat tasks compared to fission burst experiments, ANS curves and some other published data. A multi-group time exponential evaluation is given for the fission burst power of {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu, to be used in quick LWR reactor accident decay heat calculation tools. (authors)

  18. Brain network adaptability across task states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth N Davison

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity in the human brain moves between diverse functional states to meet the demands of our dynamic environment, but fundamental principles guiding these transitions remain poorly understood. Here, we capitalize on recent advances in network science to analyze patterns of functional interactions between brain regions. We use dynamic network representations to probe the landscape of brain reconfigurations that accompany task performance both within and between four cognitive states: a task-free resting state, an attention-demanding state, and two memory-demanding states. Using the formalism of hypergraphs, we identify the presence of groups of functional interactions that fluctuate coherently in strength over time both within (task-specific and across (task-general brain states. In contrast to prior emphases on the complexity of many dyadic (region-to-region relationships, these results demonstrate that brain adaptability can be described by common processes that drive the dynamic integration of cognitive systems. Moreover, our results establish the hypergraph as an effective measure for understanding functional brain dynamics, which may also prove useful in examining cross-task, cross-age, and cross-cohort functional change.

  19. Job and task analysis for technical staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September of 1989 Cooper Nuclear Station began a project to upgrade the Technical Staff Training Program. This project's roots began by performing job and Task Analysis for Technical Staff. While the industry has long been committed to Job and Task Analysis to target performance based instruction for single job positions, this approach was unique in that it was not originally considered appropriate for a group as diverse as Tech Staff. Much to his satisfaction the Job and Task Analysis Project was much less complicated for Technical Staff than the author had imagined. The benefits of performing the Job and Task Analysis for Technical Staff have become increasingly obvious as he pursues lesson plan development and course revisions. The outline for this presentation will be as follows: philosophy adopted; preparation of the job survey document; performing the job analysis; performing task analysis for technical staff and associated pitfalls; clustering objectives for training and comparison to existing program; benefits now and in the future; final phase (comparison to INPO guides and meeting the needs of non-degreed engineering professionals); and conclusion. By focusing on performance based needs for engineers rather than traditional academics for training the author is confident the future Technical Staff Program will meet the challenges ahead and will exceed requirements for accreditation

  20. The Effect of Different Types of Walking on Dual-Task Performance and Task Prioritization among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maayan Agmon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The ability to safely conduct different types of walking concurrently with a cognitive task (i.e., dual task is crucial for daily life. The contribution of different walking types to dual-task performance has not yet been determined, nor is there agreement on the strategies that older adults use to divide their attention between two tasks (task prioritization. Objectives. To compare the effect of walking in three different directions (forward, backward, and sideways on dual-task performance and to explore the strategies of older adults to allocate their attention in response to different motor task demands. Design. A cross-sectional study. Subjects. Thirty-two (22 female community-dwelling older adults (aged 72.7±5.7 years. Methods. Subjects randomly conducted single and dual task: walking to three directions separately, cognitive tasks separately, and combination of the two. Results. Walking forward was the least demanding task, during single (FW < BW, SW (P<.001 and dual tasks (FW < BW < SW (P<.001. The calculation of DTC revealed the same pattern (P<.001. DTC of the cognitive tasks was not significantly different among the three walking types. Conclusions. The decline mainly in the motor performance during dual task indicates that participants prioritized the cognitive task. These findings challenge the “posture first” paradigm for task prioritization.

  1. AMU NEXRAD Exploitation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Winifred C.; Wheeler, Mark M.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Applied Meteorology Unit's NEXRAD Exploitation Task. The objectives of this task are to determine what radar signatures are present prior to and at the time of convection initiation, and to determine radar signatures which will help distinguish whether the ensuing convection will become severe. Radar data from the WSR-88D radar located at NWS Melbourne (WSR-88D/KMLB) were collected between June and September 1995, and 16 convective case studies were analyzed for which the radar was operating during the entire period of interest. All WSR-88D/KMLB products were scrutinized for their utility in detecting convection initiation and severe storm signatures. Through process of elimination, it was found that the 0.5 deg reflectivity product with the lowest reflectivity values displayed is the best product to monitor for convection initiation signatures. Seven meteorological features associated with the initiation of deep convection were identified: the Merritt Island and Indian River convergence zones, interlake convergence, horizontal convective rolls, the sea breeze, storm outflow boundaries, and fires. Their reflectivity values ranged from -5 to 20 dBZ. Of the three severe weather phenomena (winds greater than or equal to 50 kts, tornado, 3/4 inch hail), high wind events due to microbursts were most common in the data set. It was found that the values and trends of composite reflectivity, vertically integrated liquid, and core aspect ratio were key indicators of the potential of a cell to produce a microburst. The data were not analyzed for the other two severe weather phenomena because they rarely occurred during the data collection period. This report also includes suggestions for new WSR-88D products, summaries of ongoing research aimed at creating new products, and explicit recommended procedures for detecting convection initiation and severe storm signatures in the radar data using the currently available technology.

  2. Predicting Satisfaction with Group Work Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdett, Jane; Hastie, Brianne

    2009-01-01

    Universities are increasingly using group based assessment tasks; however, as with work-place teams, such tasks often elicit mixed feelings from participants. This study investigated factors that may predict student satisfaction with group work at university. Final-year business students completed a questionnaire addressing experiences of group…

  3. Large solar energy systems within IEA task 14

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geus, A.C. de; Isakson, P.; Bokhoven, T.P.; Vanoli, K.; Tepe, R.

    1996-01-01

    Within IEA Task 14 (Advanced Solar Systems) a working group was established dealing with large advanced solar energy systems (the Large Systems Working group). The goal of this working group was to generate a common base of experiences for the design and construction of advanced large solar systems.

  4. Calculating Shocks In Flows At Chemical Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Scott; Palmer, Grant

    1988-01-01

    Boundary conditions prove critical. Conference paper describes algorithm for calculation of shocks in hypersonic flows of gases at chemical equilibrium. Although algorithm represents intermediate stage in development of reliable, accurate computer code for two-dimensional flow, research leading up to it contributes to understanding of what is needed to complete task.

  5. Task Prioritization in Dual-Tasking: Instructions versus Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Reinier J.; van Egmond, René; de Ridder, Huib

    2016-01-01

    The role of task prioritization in performance tradeoffs during multi-tasking has received widespread attention. However, little is known on whether people have preferences regarding tasks, and if so, whether these preferences conflict with priority instructions. Three experiments were conducted with a high-speed driving game and an auditory memory task. In Experiment 1, participants did not receive priority instructions. Participants performed different sequences of single-task and dual-task conditions. Task performance was evaluated according to participants’ retrospective accounts on preferences. These preferences were reformulated as priority instructions in Experiments 2 and 3. The results showed that people differ in their preferences regarding task prioritization in an experimental setting, which can be overruled by priority instructions, but only after increased dual-task exposure. Additional measures of mental effort showed that performance tradeoffs had an impact on mental effort. The interpretation of these findings was used to explore an extension of Threaded Cognition Theory with Hockey’s Compensatory Control Model. PMID:27391779

  6. KENO, Multigroup P1 Scattering Monte-Carlo Transport Calculation for Criticality, Keff, Flux in 3-D. KENO-5, SCALE-1 Module with Pn Scattering, Super-grouping, Diffusion Albedo Reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of problem or function: KENO is a multigroup, Monte Carlo criticality code containing a special geometry package which allows easy description of systems composed of cylinders, spheres, and cuboids (rectangular parallelepipeds) arranged in any order with only one restriction. They cannot be rotated or translated. Each geometrical region must be described as completely enclosing all regions interior to it. For systems not describable using this special geometry package, the program can use the generalized geometry package (GEOM) developed for the O5R Monte Carlo code. It allows any system that can be described by a collection of planes and/or quadratic surfaces, arbitrarily oriented and intersecting in arbitrary fashion. The entire problem can be mocked up in generalized geometry, or one generalized geometry unit or box type can be used alone or in combination with standard KENO units or box types. Rectangular arrays of fissile units are allowed with or without external reflector regions. Output from KENO consists of keff for the system plus an estimate of its standard deviation and the leakage, absorption, and fissions for each energy group plus the totals for all groups. Flux as a function of energy group and region and fission densities as a function of region are optional output. KENO-4: Added features include a neutron balance edit, PICTURE routines to check the input geometry, and a random number sequencing subroutine written in FORTRAN-4. 2 - Method of solution: The scattering treatment used in KENO assumes that the differential neutron scattering cross section can be represented by a P1 Legendre polynomial. Absorption of neutrons in KENO is not allowed. Instead, at each collision point of a neutron tracking history the weight of the neutron is reduced by the absorption probability. When the neutron weight has been reduced below a specified point for the region in which the collision occurs, Russian roulette is played to determine if the

  7. Challenges Facing Group Work Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bo; Kang, Haijun

    2016-01-01

    Online group work can be complicated because of its asynchronous characteristics and lack of physical presence, and its requirements for skills in handling technology, human relationships, and content-related tasks. This study focuses on the administrative, logistical and relationship-related challenges in online group work. Challenges in areas…

  8. Defining and Classifying Interest Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroni, Laura; Carroll, Brendan; Chalmers, Adam;

    2014-01-01

    The interest group concept is defined in many different ways in the existing literature and a range of different classification schemes are employed. This complicates comparisons between different studies and their findings. One of the important tasks faced by interest group scholars engaged...

  9. Configuration space Faddeev calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detailed study of few-body systems provides one of the most effective means for studying nuclear physics at subnucleon distance scales. For few-body systems the model equations can be solved numerically with errors less than the experimental uncertainties. We have used such systems to investigate the size of relativistic effects, the role of meson-exchange currents, and the importance of quark degrees of freedom in the nucleus. Complete calculations for momentum-dependent potentials have been performed, and the properties of the three-body bound state for these potentials have been studied. Few-body calculations of the electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron and pion have been carried out using a front-form formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics. The decomposition of the operators transforming convariantly under the Poincare group into kinematical and dynamical parts has been studies. New ways for constructing interactions between particles, as well as interactions which lead to the production of particles, have been constructed in the context of a relativistic quantum mechanics. To compute scattering amplitudes in a nonperturbative way, classes of operators have been generated out of which the phase operator may be constructed. Finally, we have worked out procedures for computing Clebsch-Gordan and Racah coefficients on a computer, as well as giving procedures for dealing with the multiplicity problem

  10. Analysis of Brain Cognitive State for Arithmetic Task and Motor Task Using Electroencephalography Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kalpana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To localize the brain dynamics for cognitive processes from EEG signature has been a challenging taskfrom last two decades. In this paper we explore the spatial-temporal correlations of brain electricalneuronal activity for cognitive task such as Arithmetic and Motor Task using 3D cortical distributionmethod. Ten healthy right handed volunteers participated in the experiment. EEG signal was acquiredduring resting state with eyes open and eyes closed; performing motor task and arithmetic calculations.The signal was then computed for three dimensional cortical distributions on realistic head model withMNI152 template using standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA. Thiswas followed by an appropriate standardization of the current density, producing images of electricneuronal activity without localization bias. Neuronal generators responsible for cognitive state such asArithmetic Task and Motor Task were localized. The result was correlated with the previous neuroimaging(fMRI study investigation. Hence our result directed that the neuronal activity from EEG signal can bedemonstrated in cortical level with good spatial resolution. 3D cortical distribution method, thus, may beused to obtain both spatial and temporal information from EEG signal and may prove to be a significanttechnique to investigate the cognitive functions in mental health and brain dysfunctions. Also, it may behelpful for brain/human computer interfacing.

  11. Distillation Calculations with a Programmable Calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Charles A.; Halpern, Bret L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-step approach for teaching multicomponent distillation to undergraduates, emphasizing patterns of distribution as an aid to understanding the separation processes. Indicates that the second step can be carried out by programmable calculators. (A more complete set of programs for additional calculations is available from the…

  12. The Mozart effect on task performance in a laparoscopic surgical simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Michael C

    2013-10-01

    The Mozart Effect is a phenomenon whereby certain pieces of music induce temporary enhancement in "spatial temporal reasoning." To determine whether the Mozart Effect can improve surgical performance, 55 male volunteers (mean age = 20.6 years, range = 16-27), novice to surgery, were timed as they completed an activity course on a laparoscopic simulator. Subjects were then randomized for exposure to 1 of 2 musical pieces by Mozart (n = 21) and Dream Theater (n = 19), after which they repeated the course. Following a 15-minute exposure to a nonmusical piece, subjects were exposed to one of the pieces and performed the activity course a third time. An additional group (n = 15) that was not corandomized performed the tasks without any exposure to music. The percent improvements in completion time between 3 successive trials were calculated for each subject and group means compared. In 2 of the tasks, subjects exposed to the Dream Theater piece achieved approximately 30% more improvement (26.7 ± 8.3%) than those exposed to the Mozart piece (20.2 ± 7.8%, P = .021) or to no music (20.4 ± 9.1%, P = .049). Distinct patterns of covariance between baseline performance and subsequent improvement were observed for the different musical conditions and tasks. The data confirm the existence of a Mozart Effect and demonstrate for the first time its practical applicability. Prior exposure to certain pieces may enhance performance in practical skills requiring spatial temporal reasoning.

  13. Eliminating dual-task costs by minimizing crosstalk between tasks: The role of modality and feature pairings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göthe, Katrin; Oberauer, Klaus; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2016-05-01

    We tested the independent influences of two content-based factors on dual-task costs, and on the parallel processing ability: The pairing of S-R modalities and the pairing of relevant features between stimuli and responses of two tasks. The two pairing factors were realized across four dual-task groups. Within each group the two tasks comprised two different stimulus modalities (visual and auditory), two different relevant stimulus features (spatial and verbal) and two response modalities (manual and vocal). Pairings of S-R modalities (standard: visual-manual and auditory-vocal, non-standard: visual-vocal and auditory-manual) and feature pairings (standard: spatial-manual and verbal-vocal, non-standard: spatial-vocal and verbal-manual) varied across groups. All participants practiced their respective dual-task combination in a paradigm with simultaneous stimulus onset before being transferred to a psychological refractory period paradigm varying stimulus-onset asynchrony. A comparison at the end of practice revealed similar dual-task costs and similar pairing effects in both paradigms. Dual-task costs depended on modality and feature pairings. Groups training with non-standard feature pairings (i.e., verbal stimulus features mapped to spatially separated response keys, or spatial stimulus features mapped to verbal responses) and non-standard modality pairings (i.e., auditory stimulus mapped to manual response, or visual stimulus mapped to vocal responses) had higher dual-task costs than respective standard pairings. In contrast, irrespective of modality pairing dual-task costs virtually disappeared with standard feature pairings after practice in both paradigms. The results can be explained by crosstalk between feature-binding processes for the two tasks. Crosstalk was present for non-standard but absent for standard feature pairings. Therefore, standard feature pairings enabled parallel processing at the end of practice.

  14. A Study on Affective Decision -making of Children with Different Aggression/Victim Groups by Gambling Task,%运用赌博任务测查不同攻击/受欺类别儿童的情感决策过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚真; 桑标

    2012-01-01

    攻击行为认知研究存在的一个重要问题是忽视情感对儿童认知加工的影响。考虑了情绪-认知整合过程的儿童行为决策更能全面而真实地反映社会信息加工情境下的攻击/受欺行为卷入过程。情感决策的赌博任务范式被认为能诱发类似于个人真实生活决策的表现,本研究运用计算机程序编制的标准赌博任务,以过程的视角考察了不同攻击/受欺儿童的情感决策特点。结果发现,不同类型儿童的有利-不利选择净分数、对有利-不利选择及奖惩频数的决策偏向存在显著差异。研究结果反映未卷入儿童在赌博任务上的整体表现优于其他类型儿童,攻击-受欺儿童仅次于未卷入儿童;直接攻击、攻击-受欺、未卷入儿童呈现惩罚定向的决策风格,但这三类儿童也表现出截然不同的趋势。%Aggressive behavior has been a hot topic in the field of developmental psychology. One of the important problems in the study of aggressive behavior is that researchers neglect the influence of emotion on children's cognitive procession. In addition, there were few studies that probed the characteristics of decision-making of the children involved in the aggression/victim situation. If researchers took the integrated process of emotion and cognition into consideration when exploring children's decision-making, the results would reflect more truly and comprehensively the involved process of aggression/victim in social information processing. The gambling task paradigm of affective decision-making is believed to induce performance similar to the individual decision-making behavior in real life. A self-designed computer program of standard gambling task, in which 80 test items were divided into four blocks, was used to compare the decision-making achievement of the children belonging to different aggression/victim groups in different periods from the process perspective to reveal the

  15. Scalar relativistic calculations of hyperfine coupling constants using ab initio density matrix renormalization group method in combination with third-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess transformation: case studies on 4d transition metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Lan, Tran; Kurashige, Yuki; Yanai, Takeshi

    2015-01-13

    We have developed a new computational scheme for high-accuracy prediction of the isotropic hyperfine coupling constant (HFCC) of heavy molecules, accounting for the high-level electron correlation effects, as well as the scalar-relativistic effects. For electron correlation, we employed the ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method in conjunction with a complete active space model. The orbital-optimization procedure was employed to obtain the optimized orbitals required for accurately determining the isotropic HFCC. For the scalar-relativistic effects, we initially derived and implemented the Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) hyperfine coupling operators up to the third order (DKH3) by using the direct transformation scheme. A set of 4d transition-metal radicals consisting of Ag atom, PdH, and RhH2 were chosen as test cases. Good agreement between the isotropic HFCC values obtained from DMRG/DKH3 and experiment was archived. Because there are no available gas-phase values for PdH and RhH2 radicals in the literature, the results from the present high-level theory may serve as benchmark data.

  16. Calculating merit increases: a structured approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seithel, W W; Emans, J S

    1983-01-01

    Determining the amount of salary increase appropriate for each employee poses a major dilemma for many human resources managers and/or compensation managers (not to mention the employee's supervisor). This task requires complying with the company's compensation philosophy, meeting market competition, and rewarding employees fairly and equitably. Authors William W. Seithel, vice president, personnel of the Midwest Stock Exchange, Inc., and Jeff S. Emans, director, employee compensation of the Kemper Group, describe a method for pinpointing a salary rate increase that is not only structured enough to move people through the salary range in accordance with a reward philosophy, but precise enough to provide a basis for projecting costs and flexible enough to meet the needs of various performance levels. The method entails the use of a structured matrix that spells out the target percentage raises for various levels of performance. By using both the matrix-which is constructed to meet the individual company's needs-and a guide chart provided by the authors, it is possible to calculate a specific percentage increase for each employee. The manager who uses this system will find that the matrix is a mechanism for control as well as a means for projecting costs. PMID:10262948

  17. Correlates of academic procrastination: discomfort, task aversiveness, and task capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgram, N; Marshevsky, S; Sadeh, C

    1995-03-01

    The relationships among five aspects of academic procrastination--behavioral delay, personal upset about the delay, task aversiveness, task capability, and the desire to reduce behavioral delay--were investigated in 10th-grade Israeli students (N = 195). Upset about delay was weakly related to delay itself, and--unlike delay--was strongly related to perceived capability to perform academic tasks and to the desire to change delaying behavior. Students delayed more on academic tasks labeled unpleasant than pleasant, were neutral in between, and were correspondingly more upset about the former than the latter. They more frequently acknowledged reasons for academic procrastination that were less threatening to their self-image (e.g., problems in time management) than reasons that were more threatening (e.g., lack of ability). Interest in reducing delay is related more to self-perceived ability to handle tasks than to time spent procrastinating or reasons given for procrastinating. PMID:7760291

  18. Dual Tasking for the Differentiation between Depression and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Florian G.; Hobert, Markus A.; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Hasmann, Sandra E.; Hahn, Tim; Eschweiler, Gerhard W.; Berg, Daniela; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Maetzler, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation of mild cognitive impairment from depression in elderly adults is a clinically relevant issue which is not sufficiently solved. Gait and dual task (DT) parameters may have the potential to complement current diagnostic work-up, as both dementia and depression are associated with changes of gait and DT parameters. Methods: Seven hundred and four participants of the TREND study (Tübinger evaluation of Risk factors for Early detection of NeuroDegeneration) aged 50–80 years were assessed using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Plus test battery for testing cognition and Beck's Depression Inventory for evaluation of depression. Based on these results, four groups were defined: acute depressed (N = 53), cognitively mildly impaired (N = 97), acute depressed, and cognitively mildly impaired (N = 15), and controls (N = 536). Participants underwent a 20 m walk and checking boxes task under single (ST) and DT conditions. ST and DT performance and dual task costs (DTC) were calculated. Due to the typical age of increasing incidence of depressive and also cognitive symptoms, the 7th decade was calculated separately. Results: ST speeds of gait and checking boxes, DT walking speed, and walking DTC were significantly different between groups. Healthy controls were the fastest in all paradigms and cognitively mildly impaired had higher DTC than depressed individuals. Additionally, we constructed a multivariate predictive model differentiating the groups on a single-subject level. Conclusion: DT parameters are simply and comfortably measureable, and DTC can easily be determined. The combination of these parameters allows a differentiation of depressed and cognitively mildly impaired elderly adults.

  19. Establishment of IAEA knowledge of integrity of the geological repository boundaries and disposed spent fuel assemblies in the context of the Finnish geological repository. Experts' Group meeting Report on Task JNT/C 1204 of the Member States' Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Geological Repository Safeguards Experts Group (Member State Support Programme tasks JNT/C1204 and C1226), agreed that annual meetings should be held to address interface issues between IAEA safeguards and radioactive waste management and to explore the use of safety and operational information to make International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards more effective and efficient for geological repository facilities. It has also been recognised that the safeguards measures for geological repositories are to be developed site-specifically. To address these issues to the planned Olkiluoto repository in Finland a meeting of experts in safety, geological repository operations,and safeguards from 6 States, European Commission, and IAEA was held in Olkiluoto and Rauma, Finland, during September 29 - October 4, 2003. The pre-operational phase of the Olkiluoto repository should be efficiently used by the parties involved in safeguards. The applicability and reliability of the potential new techniques and the efficient practices must be developed and proven before their implementation as safeguards measures to be applied at the subsequent stages of the repository development. The visit to the location of the proposed Olkiluoto repository and neighbouring areas and subsequent presentations enabled the working groups to discuss the various issues with reference to actual site conditions. The working groups were thus able to identify potential measurement and monitoring techniques and research and development requirements for consideration by the Finnish authorities, in addition to making recommendations to the IAEA on planned activities for carrying out before and during the early investigation phase of the proposed Olkiluoto repository. It was understood that all parties shall take good care of the implementation of the planned activities to ensure that proven means, approaches and the required verified information is at hand at the time the projected facility will

  20. What Is a Group? Young Children's Perceptions of Different Types of Groups and Group Entitativity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Plötner

    Full Text Available To date, developmental research on groups has focused mainly on in-group biases and intergroup relations. However, little is known about children's general understanding of social groups and their perceptions of different forms of group. In this study, 5- to 6-year-old children were asked to evaluate prototypes of four key types of groups: an intimacy group (friends, a task group (people who are collaborating, a social category (people who look alike, and a loose association (people who coincidently meet at a tram stop. In line with previous work with adults, the vast majority of children perceived the intimacy group, task group, and social category, but not the loose association, to possess entitativity, that is, to be a 'real group.' In addition, children evaluated group member properties, social relations, and social obligations differently in each type of group, demonstrating that young children are able to distinguish between different types of in-group relations. The origins of the general group typology used by adults thus appear early in development. These findings contribute to our knowledge about children's intuitive understanding of groups and group members' behavior.

  1. Professional Growth & Support Spending Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Resource Strategies, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This "Professional Growth & Support Spending Calculator" helps school systems quantify all current spending aimed at improving teaching effectiveness. Part I provides worksheets to analyze total investment. Part II provides a system for evaluating investments based on purpose, target group, and delivery. In this Spending Calculator…

  2. Irregular head movement patterns in whiplash patients during a trajectory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Astrid; Stavdahl, Øyvind; Vasseljen, Ottar

    2010-03-01

    Patients with whiplash associated disorders (WAD) have shown less accuracy in trajectory head motion compared to asymptomatic controls, which comply with clinical observations. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a trajectory head movement task can differ between WAD patients, chronic non-traumatic neck pain (CNP) patients and asymptomatic controls. Study groups included subjects with WAD (n = 35) with persistent neck pain after a car accident, CNP (n = 45), and asymptomatic controls (n = 48). Head motion was recorded from an unsupported standing position using a 3D Fastrak device. A laser pointer was attached to the head and by moving the head the subjects were asked to trace a figure of eight displayed on the wall at three different paces (slow, moderate and fast). The motion signal was decomposed into 1 Hz frequency bands and angular velocity (deg/s) within each frequency band was calculated. Significantly higher angular RMS velocity was found in the WAD group compared to the two other groups for the slow paced test (3-4 and 4-5 Hz frequency bands) and the moderate paced test (3-4 Hz frequency band) indicating irregular and uncoordinated movements. Angular RMS velocity was associated with pain and dizziness, but only with severe symptom levels. In conclusion, irregular head movements during a complex task were found in the WAD group, indicating altered central sensorimotor processing. The irregularities were found within frequency levels observable to clinicians. PMID:19820919

  3. Autistic Savant Calendar Calculators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, Paul J.

    This study identified 10 savants with developmental disabilities and an exceptional ability to calculate calendar dates. These "calendar calculators" were asked to demonstrate their abilities, and their strategies were analyzed. The study found that the ability to calculate dates into the past or future varied widely among these calculators. Three…

  4. Group conflict and faculty engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Jonasson, Charlotte; Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    assessed the effect of group trust, group relational conflict and group task conflict on indicators of behavioural, cognitive and emotional engagement. Our findings show a strong positive association between group trust and all academic staff engagement variables as well as a strong negative association...... between group relational conflict and all staff engagement variables. Task conflict was negatively associated with indicators of staff cognitive engagement. However, surprisingly, group trust did not have any moderating effect. Implications for educational organisation managers and policy makers......In educational settings, substantial scholarly interest has focused on student engagement as an antecedent for educational development and positive school outcomes. Very limited research, however, has focused on the engagement of academic staff members. This may be a crucial oversight because...

  5. Task Models in the Digital Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCerbo, Kristen E.

    2014-01-01

    The Task Model is a description of each task in a workflow. It defines attributes associated with that task. The creation of task models becomes increasingly important as the assessment tasks become more complex. Explicitly delineating the impact of task variables on the ability to collect evidence and make inferences demands thoughtfulness from…

  6. Cosmetology Series. Duty Task List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for three occupations in the cosmetology series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…

  7. Designing for dynamic task allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, C.J.G. van; Maanen, P.P. van

    2005-01-01

    Future platforms are envisioned in which human-machine teams are able to share and trade tasks as demands in situations change. It seems that human-machine coordination has not received the attention it deserves by past and present approaches to task allocation. In this paper a simple way to make co

  8. Task modeling for collaborative authoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van der Gerrit; Kulyk, Olga; Vyas, Dhaval; Kubbe, Onno; Ebert, Achim; Dittmar, A.; Forbrig, P.

    2011-01-01

    Motivation –Task analysis for designing modern collaborative work needs a more fine grained approach. Especially in a complex task domain, like collaborative scientific authoring, when there is a single overall goal that can only be accomplished only by collaboration between multiple roles, each req

  9. Decision paths in complex tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanter, Eugene

    1991-01-01

    Complex real world action and its prediction and control has escaped analysis by the classical methods of psychological research. The reason is that psychologists have no procedures to parse complex tasks into their constituents. Where such a division can be made, based say on expert judgment, there is no natural scale to measure the positive or negative values of the components. Even if we could assign numbers to task parts, we lack rules i.e., a theory, to combine them into a total task representation. We compare here two plausible theories for the amalgamation of the value of task components. Both of these theories require a numerical representation of motivation, for motivation is the primary variable that guides choice and action in well-learned tasks. We address this problem of motivational quantification and performance prediction by developing psychophysical scales of the desireability or aversiveness of task components based on utility scaling methods (Galanter 1990). We modify methods used originally to scale sensory magnitudes (Stevens and Galanter 1957), and that have been applied recently to the measure of task 'workload' by Gopher and Braune (1984). Our modification uses utility comparison scaling techniques which avoid the unnecessary assumptions made by Gopher and Braune. Formula for the utility of complex tasks based on the theoretical models are used to predict decision and choice of alternate paths to the same goal.

  10. Group X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  11. Girls with generalized joint hypermobility display changed muscle activity and postural sway during static balance tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Kristensen, B; Johansen, Kl; Hendriksen, P;

    2016-01-01

    ) of Q, H, and G muscle activity was calculated. Knee function was self-reported using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for children (KOOS-Child). RESULTS: GJH had a significantly lower lateral HQ CCI and a higher medial/lateral HQ CCI ratio in all balance tasks. Group mean EMG varied......OBJECTIVES: To study knee muscle activity and static postural sway in girls with generalized joint hypermobility (GJH). METHOD: Sixteen girls with GJH and 11 girls with non-GJH (NGJH) aged 14 years, randomly recruited among schoolchildren, participated in this study. GJH inclusion criteria were...... of pressure path length, COPL) was calculated, along with rambling and trembling components. Surface electromyography (sEMG) from the quadriceps (Q), hamstrings (H), and gastrocnemius (G) muscles was recorded, expressed as a percentage of the maximum voluntary EMG (%MVE), and the co-contraction index (CCI...

  12. Evolution of Self-Organized Task Specialization in Robot Swarms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseo Ferrante

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Division of labor is ubiquitous in biological systems, as evidenced by various forms of complex task specialization observed in both animal societies and multicellular organisms. Although clearly adaptive, the way in which division of labor first evolved remains enigmatic, as it requires the simultaneous co-occurrence of several complex traits to achieve the required degree of coordination. Recently, evolutionary swarm robotics has emerged as an excellent test bed to study the evolution of coordinated group-level behavior. Here we use this framework for the first time to study the evolutionary origin of behavioral task specialization among groups of identical robots. The scenario we study involves an advanced form of division of labor, common in insect societies and known as "task partitioning", whereby two sets of tasks have to be carried out in sequence by different individuals. Our results show that task partitioning is favored whenever the environment has features that, when exploited, reduce switching costs and increase the net efficiency of the group, and that an optimal mix of task specialists is achieved most readily when the behavioral repertoires aimed at carrying out the different subtasks are available as pre-adapted building blocks. Nevertheless, we also show for the first time that self-organized task specialization could be evolved entirely from scratch, starting only from basic, low-level behavioral primitives, using a nature-inspired evolutionary method known as Grammatical Evolution. Remarkably, division of labor was achieved merely by selecting on overall group performance, and without providing any prior information on how the global object retrieval task was best divided into smaller subtasks. We discuss the potential of our method for engineering adaptively behaving robot swarms and interpret our results in relation to the likely path that nature took to evolve complex sociality and task specialization.

  13. Postural Adaptations to a Suprapostural Memory Task among Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Chen; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Chang, Chihu-Hui; Wade, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The present study investigated the effects of varying the cognitive demands of a memory task (a suprapostural task) while recording postural motion on two groups of children, one diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and an age-matched group of typically developing children. Method: Two groups, each comprising 38 child…

  14. University Students' Emotion During Online Search Task: A Multiple Achievement Goal Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mingming

    2016-07-01

    Endorsing a multiple goal perspective, students' academic emotions were examined with different goal profiles while solving learning tasks online. One hundred and seven Chinese undergraduates were classified based on the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework into three groups: Mastery-approach-focused, Approach-oriented, and Avoidance-oriented group. Participants' emotional states were assessed immediately prior to the task and following the task. Prior to the task, the Avoidance-oriented group reported significantly higher levels of deactivated negative emotion (i.e., bored and confused) than the Approach-oriented group. The Mastery-approach-focused group reported significantly higher levels of activated positive emotions (i.e., excited and eager) than the Avoidance-oriented group after the task. Within each group, all three groups followed a similar emotion change pattern prior versus after the search task in deactivated positive emotion, with a significant increase. In addition, the Mastery-approach-focused group also reported a significantly higher level of happiness after completing the task, whereas the other two groups did not report much change. The Avoidance-oriented group also reported a significant drop in the feeling of excitement, eagerness, anxiety, and nervousness; whereas, the Approach-oriented group reported a significantly higher level of confusion after the task was finished. Implications of the findings are further discussed. PMID:26914815

  15. Optimizing imaging hardware for estimation tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupinski, Matthew A.; Clarkson, Eric; Gross, Kevin; Hoppin, John W.

    2003-05-01

    Medical imaging is often performed for the purpose of estimating a clinically relevant parameter. For example, cardiologists are interested in the cardiac ejection fraction, the fraction of blood pumped out of the left ventricle at the end of each heart cycle. Even when the primary task of the imaging system is tumor detection, physicians frequently want to estimate parameters of the tumor, e.g. size and location. For signal-detection tasks, we advocate that the performance of an ideal observer be employed as the figure of merit for optimizing medical imaging hardware. We have examined the use of the minimum variance of the ideal, unbiased estimator as a figure of merit for hardware optimization. The minimum variance of the ideal, unbiased estimator can be calculated using the Fisher information matrix. To account for both image noise and object variability, we used a statistical method known as Markov-chain Monte Carlo. We employed a lumpy object model and simulated imaging systems to compute our figures of merit. We have demonstrated the use of this method in comparing imaging systems for estimation tasks.

  16. Abelian Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishina, A.P.

    1995-10-15

    This fifth survey of reviews on abelian groups comprises papers reviewed in 1985-1992. Just as in the preceding surveys, the issues concerning finite abelian groups, topological groups, ordered groups, group algebras, modules (with rare exceptions), and topics on logic are not considered. The issues on the lattice of subgroups of an abelian group are included in Section 11. In contrast to the fourth survey, this one does not contain Sections 6 (N-high subgroups), 9 (rings with a given additive group), and 10 (valuated groups); since only a few papers treated these topics, the material discussed earlier in Sections 9, and 10 is now included in Section 11 and the material of the former Section 6 will be found in Sections 1, 7, 8, and 11 of this survey. On the other hand, the fifth survey has three new sections devoted to separable groups (a new Sect. 5), Butler groups (a new Sect. 6), and the endormorphism rings and automorphism groups of abelian groups (a new Sect. 9).

  17. Group morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2000-01-01

    In its original form, mathematical morphology is a theory of binary image transformations which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This paper surveys and extends constructions of morphological operators which are invariant under a more general group TT, such as the motion group

  18. Measuring group cohesion in document collections

    OpenAIRE

    Renoust B.; Melancon G.; Viaud M.-L.

    2013-01-01

    Exploring document collections remains a focus of research. This task can be tackled using various techniques, typically ranking documents according to a relevance index or grouping documents based on various clustering algorithms. The task complexity produces results of varying quality that inevitably carry noise. Users must be careful when interpreting document relevance or groupings. We address this problem by computing cohesion measures for a group of documents confirming/infirming whether ...

  19. The classical task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillis, Steven; Souman, Agnita; Dhollander, Sim;

    the test words were found in child addressed speech, see the longitudinal data.   Predictions: Given that the model underlying the design of the experiment was identical for each language, we predicted that the outcome would be identical for each language. More specifically, the following predictions were...... of the experiment will give a picture of how children's knowledge develops over time and how well the dimensions ‘suffix predictability' and ‘stem transparency' are able to account for children's behavior.   Method Subjects: For each of the four languages, 20 subjects were tested in 7 age groups, ranging from 3...... picture shows two (or more) instances of X and the test leader says: "Here are two/a lot of ...." and the child is expected to provide the plural form of X. Stimuli: The target words used in the experiment were easily picturable and judged to be known even by the youngest participants. Moreover, all...

  20. Iron-group opacities in the envelopes of massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pennec, Maëlle; Turck-Chièze, Sylvaine

    2014-02-01

    β Cephei and SPB stars are pulsating stars for which the excitation of modes by the κ mechanism, due to the iron-group opacity peak, seems puzzling. We have first investigated the origins of the differences noticed between OP and OPAL iron and nickel opacity calculations (up to a factor 2), a fact which complicates the interpretation. To accomplish this task, new well-qualified calculations (SCO-RCG, HULLAC and ATOMIC) have been performed and compared to values of these tables, and most of the differences are now well understood. Next, we have exploited a dedicated experiment on chromium, iron and nickel, conducted at the LULI 2000 facilities. We found that, in the case of iron, detailed calculations (OP, ATOMIC and HULLAC) show good agreement, contrary to all of the non-detailed calculations. However, in the case of nickel, OP calculations show large discrepancies with the experiments but also with other codes. Thus, the opacity tables need to be revised in the thermodynamical conditions corresponding to the peak of the iron group. Consequently we study the evolution of this iron peak with changes in stellar mass, age, and metallicity to determine the relevant region where these tables should be revised.

  1. Calculations to an IAHR-benchmark test using the CFD-code CFX-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krepper, E.

    1998-10-01

    The calculation concerns a test, which was defined as a benchmark for 3-D codes by the working group of advanced nuclear reactor types of IAHR (International Association of Hydraulic Research). The test is well documented and detailed measuring results are available. The test aims at the investigation of phenomena, which are important for heat removal at natural circulation conditions in a nuclear reactor. The task for the calculation was the modelling of the forced flow field of a single phase incompressible fluid with consideration of heat transfer and influence of gravity. These phenomena are typical also for other industrial processes. The importance of correct modelling of these phenomena also for other applications is a motivation for performing these calculations. (orig.)

  2. Age-related differences in multiple task monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Ivo; Del Missier, Fabio; Mäntylä, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Coordinating multiple tasks with narrow deadlines is particularly challenging for older adults because of age related decline in cognitive control functions. We tested the hypothesis that multiple task performance reflects age- and gender-related differences in executive functioning and spatial ability. Young and older adults completed a multitasking session with four monitoring tasks as well as separate tasks measuring executive functioning and spatial ability. For both age groups, men exceeded women in multitasking, measured as monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of young adults' monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability was related to sex differences. For older adults, age and executive functioning, but not spatial ability, predicted multitasking performance. These results suggest that executive functions contribute to multiple task performance across the adult life span and that reliance on spatial skills for coordinating deadlines is modulated by age.

  3. Measurement of action planning in children, adolescents, and adults: A comparison between 3 tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Spruijt, S.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Steenbergen, B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To compare age-related action planning performance on 3 different tasks, focusing on differences in task complexity. Methods: A total of 119 participants were divided across 6 age groups (4-5, 6-7, 8-9, 10-12,14-16, and 20-22 years). Participants performed 3 action planning tasks: the overt

  4. Task Performance and Response to Frustration in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scime, Melinda; Norvilitis, Jill M.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined performance on an arithmetic task of increasing difficulty and a frustrating puzzle task for children with ADHD and comparison children. Emotional competence also was investigated in the two groups. Sixty-four children, 21 previously diagnosed with ADHD, participated. Performance on the arithmetic task was measured in…

  5. Permutation groups

    CERN Document Server

    Passman, Donald S

    2012-01-01

    This volume by a prominent authority on permutation groups consists of lecture notes that provide a self-contained account of distinct classification theorems. A ready source of frequently quoted but usually inaccessible theorems, it is ideally suited for professional group theorists as well as students with a solid background in modern algebra.The three-part treatment begins with an introductory chapter and advances to an economical development of the tools of basic group theory, including group extensions, transfer theorems, and group representations and characters. The final chapter feature

  6. The Effect of Mutual Task Sharing on the Number of Needed Health Workers at the Iranian Health Posts; Does Task Sharing Increase Efficiency?

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Fakhri; Aidin Aryankhesal

    2015-01-01

    Background Nowadays task sharing is a way to optimize utilization of human resources for health. This study was designed to assess the effect of task sharing, mutually between midwives and Family Health Workforces (FHWs), on the number of needed staff across the Iranian Health Posts. Methods The workload and required number of midwives and FHWs in a Health Post were calculated and compared in two different scenarios of task division using a combined approach for estimating t...

  7. The modality effect of ego depletion: Auditory task modality reduces ego depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiong; Wang, Zhenhong

    2016-08-01

    An initial act of self-control that impairs subsequent acts of self-control is called ego depletion. The ego depletion phenomenon has been observed consistently. The modality effect refers to the effect of the presentation modality on the processing of stimuli. The modality effect was also robustly found in a large body of research. However, no study to date has examined the modality effects of ego depletion. This issue was addressed in the current study. In Experiment 1, after all participants completed a handgrip task, one group's participants completed a visual attention regulation task and the other group's participants completed an auditory attention regulation task, and then all participants again completed a handgrip task. The ego depletion phenomenon was observed in both the visual and the auditory attention regulation task. Moreover, participants who completed the visual task performed worse on the handgrip task than participants who completed the auditory task, which indicated that there was high ego depletion in the visual task condition. In Experiment 2, participants completed an initial task that either did or did not deplete self-control resources, and then they completed a second visual or auditory attention control task. The results indicated that depleted participants performed better on the auditory attention control task than the visual attention control task. These findings suggest that altering task modality may reduce ego depletion. PMID:27241617

  8. The modality effect of ego depletion: Auditory task modality reduces ego depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiong; Wang, Zhenhong

    2016-08-01

    An initial act of self-control that impairs subsequent acts of self-control is called ego depletion. The ego depletion phenomenon has been observed consistently. The modality effect refers to the effect of the presentation modality on the processing of stimuli. The modality effect was also robustly found in a large body of research. However, no study to date has examined the modality effects of ego depletion. This issue was addressed in the current study. In Experiment 1, after all participants completed a handgrip task, one group's participants completed a visual attention regulation task and the other group's participants completed an auditory attention regulation task, and then all participants again completed a handgrip task. The ego depletion phenomenon was observed in both the visual and the auditory attention regulation task. Moreover, participants who completed the visual task performed worse on the handgrip task than participants who completed the auditory task, which indicated that there was high ego depletion in the visual task condition. In Experiment 2, participants completed an initial task that either did or did not deplete self-control resources, and then they completed a second visual or auditory attention control task. The results indicated that depleted participants performed better on the auditory attention control task than the visual attention control task. These findings suggest that altering task modality may reduce ego depletion.

  9. Optimal task mapping in safety-critical real-time parallel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This PhD thesis is dealing with the correct design of safety-critical real-time parallel systems. Such systems constitutes a fundamental part of high-performance systems for command and control that can be found in the nuclear domain or more generally in parallel embedded systems. The verification of their temporal correctness is the core of this thesis. our contribution is mainly in the following three points: the analysis and extension of a programming model for such real-time parallel systems; the proposal of an original method based on a new operator of synchronized product of state machines task-graphs; the validation of the approach by its implementation and evaluation. The work addresses particularly the main problem of optimal task mapping on a parallel architecture, such that the temporal constraints are globally guaranteed, i.e. the timeliness property is valid. The results incorporate also optimally criteria for the sizing and correct dimensioning of a parallel system, for instance in the number of processing elements. These criteria are connected with operational constraints of the application domain. Our approach is based on the off-line analysis of the feasibility of the deadline-driven dynamic scheduling that is used to schedule tasks inside one processor. This leads us to define the synchronized-product, a system of linear, constraints is automatically generated and then allows to calculate a maximum load of a group of tasks and then to verify their timeliness constraints. The communications, their timeliness verification and incorporation to the mapping problem is the second main contribution of this thesis. FInally, the global solving technique dealing with both task and communication aspects has been implemented and evaluated in the framework of the OASIS project in the LETI research center at the CEA/Saclay. (author)

  10. Galaxy Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, R. Brent

    2015-02-01

    Galaxy groups can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small groups with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well-studied groups over four decades in group mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for groups, confirming that groups with mass of a few times {{10}12}{{M}⊙ } are the most lit up while groups with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a group and the group mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in groups are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosity systems rather than variations in the number per unit mass of dwarfs. Finally, returning to the characteristic radii of groups, the ratio of first to second turnaround depends on the dark matter and dark energy content of the universe and a crude estimate can be made from the current observations of {{Ω}matter}˜ 0.15 in a flat topology, with a 68% probability of being less than 0.44.

  11. Galaxy groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent Tully, R. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Galaxy groups can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small groups with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well-studied groups over four decades in group mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for groups, confirming that groups with mass of a few times 10{sup 12}M{sub ⊙} are the most lit up while groups with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a group and the group mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in groups are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosity systems rather than variations in the number per unit mass of dwarfs. Finally, returning to the characteristic radii of groups, the ratio of first to second turnaround depends on the dark matter and dark energy content of the universe and a crude estimate can be made from the current observations of Ω{sub matter}∼0.15 in a flat topology, with a 68% probability of being less than 0.44.

  12. Multiple paths in complex tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanter, Eugene; Wiegand, Thomas; Mark, Gloria

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between utility judgments of subtask paths and the utility of the task as a whole was examined. The convergent validation procedure is based on the assumption that measurements of the same quantity done with different methods should covary. The utility measures of the subtasks were obtained during the performance of an aircraft flight controller navigation task. Analyses helped decide among various models of subtask utility combination, whether the utility ratings of subtask paths predict the whole tasks utility rating, and indirectly, whether judgmental models need to include the equivalent of cognitive noise.

  13. Drug and alcohol task force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worker absenteeism due to substance abuse costs the Alberta economy approximately $720 million a year. It is estimated that 20 per cent of all drivers in fatal crashes were using alcohol, and the use of cannabis and cocaine in Alberta has more than doubled over the last 15 years. In addition, 1 in 10 Alberta workers have reported using alcohol while at work and 4 per cent have reported using alcohol 4 hours prior to coming to work during the previous 12 months. In an effort to ensure appropriate health and safety for workers in the Canadian petroleum industry, 6 trade associations in the sector have joined together as the Enform Alcohol and Drug Initiative and are now working to develop a common approach to drug and alcohol guidelines and workplace rules. The task group will determine if existing policies and guidelines are sufficient to ensure a safe workplace and will consider standardizing the testing, application and rehabilitation of workers with respect to the use of drugs and alcohol. In the past, disciplinary actions have often been reversed because employers have not been consistent or did not follow established alcohol and drug policies or test to specific standards. Various work rules for inappropriate alcohol and drug use were reviewed, as well as education and communication strategies regarding policy content. Standards for testing criteria were discussed, as well as issues concerning duty-to-accommodate circumstances. An excerpt of concentration standards was presented. It was concluded that a matrix for companies to assess and determine safety sensitive positions is needed. refs., tabs., figs

  14. Drug and alcohol task force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordey, T. [ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Sunstrum, M. [Enform, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Worker absenteeism due to substance abuse costs the Alberta economy approximately $720 million a year. It is estimated that 20 per cent of all drivers in fatal crashes were using alcohol, and the use of cannabis and cocaine in Alberta has more than doubled over the last 15 years. In addition, 1 in 10 Alberta workers have reported using alcohol while at work and 4 per cent have reported using alcohol 4 hours prior to coming to work during the previous 12 months. In an effort to ensure appropriate health and safety for workers in the Canadian petroleum industry, 6 trade associations in the sector have joined together as the Enform Alcohol and Drug Initiative and are now working to develop a common approach to drug and alcohol guidelines and workplace rules. The task group will determine if existing policies and guidelines are sufficient to ensure a safe workplace and will consider standardizing the testing, application and rehabilitation of workers with respect to the use of drugs and alcohol. In the past, disciplinary actions have often been reversed because employers have not been consistent or did not follow established alcohol and drug policies or test to specific standards. Various work rules for inappropriate alcohol and drug use were reviewed, as well as education and communication strategies regarding policy content. Standards for testing criteria were discussed, as well as issues concerning duty-to-accommodate circumstances. An excerpt of concentration standards was presented. It was concluded that a matrix for companies to assess and determine safety sensitive positions is needed. refs., tabs., figs.

  15. DECOVALEX ll PROJECT. Technical Report Task 1C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, L.; Stephansson, O. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Knight, L.J. [United Kingdom Nirex Ltd., Harwell (United Kingdom); Kautsky, F. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Tsang, C-F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Science Division

    1999-05-01

    The DECOVALEX II project is an international co-operative research project supported by eleven funding organizations from seven countries. The project studied four tasks: Task 1: numerical simulation of the RCF3 pump test at Sellafield, UK; Task 2: numerical simulation if the in situ T-H-M experiment at Kamaishi Mine, Japan; Task 3: monitoring of current development in rock fracture research; and Task 4: report on treatment of T-H-M processes in Performance Assessment works for nuclear waste repositories. The project started in 1995 and is scheduled to be finalised in June 1999. This report concerns the Task 1 of the DECOVALEX 11 project. Task 1 consists of three subtasks: i) Task 1 A - the blind numerical prediction to the hydraulic response of the rock mass of the in-situ RCF3 pump test in the Borrowdale Volcanic Group (BVG) at Sellafield, UK; ii) Task 1B -calibration of the numerical models of Task 1A against measured results of the RCF3 pump test; iii) Task 1C - the numerical predictions of the hydro-mechanical effects of the BVG rock mass to the excavation of a shaft along the axis of the RCF3 borehole, without actual excavation of the shaft and associated experiments and measurements. The aim of the subtasks 1 (A+B) was to characterise the hydro-mechanical property field of the fractured rock mass at the RCF3 test site, which could then be used to predict the hydro-mechanical responses of the rock mass to the excavation of a shaft centred on the RCF3 borehole. Task 1C involves a numerical simulation of an assumed excavation of a single shaft on the line of the RCF3 borehole used for Task 1 (A+B). The subtask is basically a generic prediction, with realistic site geology and hydrogeology data but without feedback from an actual excavation of the shaft and associated measurements. A model calibration is not possible due to lack of measured results. On the other hand, some additional components were introduced into the subtask, such as studies of EDZ formation

  16. Task analysis for the single-shell Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, J.V.

    1993-03-01

    This document describes a task analysis for the Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator System. A task analysis is a formal method of examining work that must be done by the operators of human-machine systems. The starting point for a task analysis is the mission that a human-machine system must perform, and the ending point is a list of requirements for human actions and the displays and controls that must be provided to support them. The task analysis approach started with a top-down definition of the steps in a tank retrieval campaign. It started by dividing a waste retrieval campaign for one single-shell tank into the largest logical components (mission phases), then subdivided these into secondary components (sub functions), and then further subdivided the secondary components into tertiary units (tasks). Finally, the tertiary units were divided into potentially observable operator behaviors (task elements). In the next stage of the task analysis, the task elements were evaluated by completing an electronic task analysis form patterned after one developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for task analysis of nuclear power plant control rooms. In the final stage, the task analysis data base was used in a bottom-up approach to develop clusters of controls and displays called panel groups and to prioritize these groups for each subfunction. Panel groups are clusters of functionally related controls and displays. Actual control panels will be designed from panel groups, and panel groups will be organized within workstations to promote efficient operations during retrieval campaigns.

  17. Personal Finance Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argo, Mark

    1982-01-01

    Contains explanations and examples of mathematical calculations for a secondary level course on personal finance. How to calculate total monetary cost of an item, monthly payments, different types of interest, annual percentage rates, and unit pricing is explained. (RM)

  18. Galaxy Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Tully, R Brent

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy groups can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small groups with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well studied groups over four decades in group mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for groups, confirming that groups with mass of a few times 10^12 Msun are the most lit up while groups with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a group and the group mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in groups are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosi...

  19. Final Technical Report Transport Task Force Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transport Task Force has functioned as the primary scientific organization in the area of magnetic-fusion confinement and transport since its inception in 1988. It has defined and set research directions, coordinated broad research efforts, advocated new funding initiatives, and created a highly successful and widely admired interactive culture between experiment, theory and modeling. The Transport Task Force carries out its activities under the direction of its chair and the Executive Committee. The Executive Committee is comprised of the leaders and deputy leaders of the scientific working groups. The working groups are structured and organized according to research needs and priorities and have been organized around the areas of Core Transport, H Mode and Pedestal, Fast Particle Transport, Transient Transport Phenomena, and Modeling and Simulation. A steering committee provides advise on TTF activities. Further information on the working groups and the structure and management of the TTF can be found at http://psfcwww2.psfc.mit.edu/ttf/index.html. The TTF holds an annual workshop. A summary of the workshops held during the period of this report is given in Appendix I. During the period of this report the Transport Task Force was involved in several significant activities. Foremost of these was a sweeping review of the status of transport science, the key research tasks for progress during the next 5-10 years, and a proposal for a funding initiative to ensure application of adequate resources to these problems. The conclusions of this study were incorporated into a white paper, which is copied below in Appendix II. Other significant activities have included the introduction of an extended, ongoing discussion on verification and validation as a requisite for defining and codifying the path toward predictive capability, the orchestration of a gradual shift of focus from ion thermal confinement to electron thermal confinement, and a joining of efforts on edge

  20. ZEMO system for generating group constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The code system ZEMO for generating 26 group and 140-group constant sets for fast breeder reactors neutronics is considered. Group constant libraries, calculational techniques, formats of generated group constant sets and code control parameters are described. Results of one-dimensional model calculations for some critical assemblies and results of investigation of sodium void reactivity effect calculational error caused by 26-group approximation for two-dimensional model of BN-800 are presented. 14 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  1. Tasking and sharing sensing assets using controlled natural language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Pizzocaro, Diego; Braines, David; Mott, David

    2012-06-01

    We introduce an approach to representing intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) tasks at a relatively high level in controlled natural language. We demonstrate that this facilitates both human interpretation and machine processing of tasks. More specically, it allows the automatic assignment of sensing assets to tasks, and the informed sharing of tasks between collaborating users in a coalition environment. To enable automatic matching of sensor types to tasks, we created a machine-processable knowledge representation based on the Military Missions and Means Framework (MMF), and implemented a semantic reasoner to match task types to sensor types. We combined this mechanism with a sensor-task assignment procedure based on a well-known distributed protocol for resource allocation. In this paper, we re-formulate the MMF ontology in Controlled English (CE), a type of controlled natural language designed to be readable by a native English speaker whilst representing information in a structured, unambiguous form to facilitate machine processing. We show how CE can be used to describe both ISR tasks (for example, detection, localization, or identication of particular kinds of object) and sensing assets (for example, acoustic, visual, or seismic sensors, mounted on motes or unmanned vehicles). We show how these representations enable an automatic sensor-task assignment process. Where a group of users are cooperating in a coalition, we show how CE task summaries give users in the eld a high-level picture of ISR coverage of an area of interest. This allows them to make ecient use of sensing resources by sharing tasks.

  2. Task Space Tracking for Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olav Egeland

    1985-04-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of controlling a manipulator in the task space, a linear model with task space position and velocity as state variables can be developed. This is done by means of exact compensation of the state-space model non-linearities using non-linear feedback. In this paper, feedback control for this linear state space model is developed using optimal control theory. Integral action is included to compensate for unmodeled forces and torques. In the resulting control system, the problem of transforming the task space trajectory to the joint space is avoided, and the controller parameters can be chosen to satisfy requirements specified in the task space. Simulation experiments show promising results.

  3. Flexible Mental Calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threlfall, John

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that strategy choice is a misleading characterization of efficient mental calculation and that teaching mental calculation methods as a whole is not conducive to flexibility. Proposes an alternative in which calculation is thought of as an interaction between noticing and knowledge. Presents an associated teaching approach to promote…

  4. Proceedings of the IRI task force activity 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This internal report of the International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) contains presentations delivered during the International Reference Ionosphere Task Force Activity 2000 which took place at the Abdus Salam ICTP during July 2000. The 2000 Task Force Activity is the seventh successful encounter of specialists organized by the URSI-COSPAR IRI Working Group and the Aeronomy and Radiopropagation Laboratory of the ICTP of Trieste, Italy. The main topic of this task force activity was the modeling of the topside ionosphere and the development of strategies for modeling of ionospheric variability

  5. Modeling dynamic tactical behaviors in COMBATXXI using Hierarchical Task Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Donaldson, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Defining accurate representations of group behaviors in simulations is an expensive, time-consuming task. One reason for this is that previously produced behaviors are often not reusable within other scenarios or simulations. Using Hierarchical Task Networks (HTNs) to model military behaviors is a promising technique for addressing this problem. HTNs provide a methodology for linking tactical behaviors, and offer a potential system for...

  6. Hemispatial neglect evaluated by visual line bisection task in schizophrenic patients and their unaffected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel-Kizil, Erguvan Tugba; Baskak, Bora; Gunes, Emel; Cicek, Metehan; Atbasoglu, Esref Cem

    2012-12-30

    Visuospatial attentional asymmetry has been investigated by the line bisection task in patients with schizophrenia, however, those studies are in small number and the results are controversial. The present study aimed to investigate hemispatial neglect in patients with schizophrenia (n=30), their healthy siblings (n=30) and healthy individuals (n=24) by a computerized version of the line bisection task. Deviation from the midline for both hemispaces (mean bisection error-MBE) were calculated and the effects of both hand and line length were controlled. Repeated measures ANOVA yielded a significant hemispace effect for the MBE scores, but no group or group×hemispace interaction effect, i.e., all three groups were inclined to a leftward bias in the left and a rightward bias in the right hemispace. MBEs were significantly different from "zero" only for the right hemispace in siblings and for the left hemispace in controls. Negative symptoms were significantly correlated with the bisection errors in the right hemispace. The results of the present study do not support aberrant hemispheric asymmetry, but bigger bisection errors in schizophrenia.

  7. Emotional reactivity and awareness of task performance in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mograbi, Daniel C; Brown, Richard G; Salas, Christian; Morris, Robin G

    2012-07-01

    Lack of awareness about performance in tasks is a common feature of Alzheimer's disease. Nevertheless, clinical anecdotes have suggested that patients may show emotional or behavioural responses to the experience of failure despite reporting limited awareness, an aspect which has been little explored experimentally. The current study investigated emotional reactions to success or failure in tasks despite unawareness of performance in Alzheimer's disease. For this purpose, novel computerised tasks which expose participants to systematic success or failure were used in a group of Alzheimer's disease patients (n=23) and age-matched controls (n=21). Two experiments, the first with reaction time tasks and the second with memory tasks, were carried out, and in each experiment two parallel tasks were used, one in a success condition and one in a failure condition. Awareness of performance was measured comparing participant estimations of performance with actual performance. Emotional reactivity was assessed with a self-report questionnaire and rating of filmed facial expressions. In both experiments the results indicated that, relative to controls, Alzheimer's disease patients exhibited impaired awareness of performance, but comparable differential reactivity to failure relative to success tasks, both in terms of self-report and facial expressions. This suggests that affective valence of failure experience is processed despite unawareness of task performance, which might indicate implicit processing of information in neural pathways bypassing awareness. PMID:22609573

  8. SENSEVAL-2 Japanese Translation Task

    OpenAIRE

    Kurohashi, Sadao; Uchimoto, Kiyotaka

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the Senseval-2 Japanese translation task. In this task, word senses are defined according to distinct translations in a given target language. A translation memory (TM) was constructed which contains, for each Japanese head word, a list of typical Japanese expressions and their English translations. For each test word instance, participants were required to submit the TM record best approximating that usage, or alternatively, actual target word translations. There were 9 ...

  9. Annual Progress report - General Task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesnousky, S.G.

    1993-09-30

    This report provides a summary of progress for the project {open_quotes}Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI).{close_quotes} A similar report was previously provided for the period of 1 October 1991 to 30 September 1992. The report initially covers the activities of the General Task and is followed by sections that describe the progress of the other ongoing tasks.

  10. Cohomology of quantum groups

    CERN Document Server

    Frønsdal, Christian

    1995-01-01

    Lecture notes. Introduction to the cohomology of algebras, Lie algebras, Lie bialgebras and quantum groups. Contains a new derivation of the classification of classical r-matrices in terms of deformation cohomology, and a calculation of the esoteric forms of quantum gl(N) by deformation theory.

  11. Form-based Approaches vs. Task-Based Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Talebi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating whether task-based approaches bear any superiority to that of more traditional ones evident in presentation-practice- and production phase .to fulfill the purpose of the study, the participants within the age range of 11-19, took part in the study. Following a pretest, treatment, and a posttest, the obtained data was analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA to examine the effects of the variables. The results of the analysis showed that participants in the PPP group did significantly better in the grammar recognition of the posttest than that of the task group. However, their counterparts in the task group gained better scores in the writing section of the test .this research study provided evidence in support of task proponents' claim in the merit of task-based activity in raising learners' implicit knowledge claiming to play the primary role in spontaneous speech.Keywords: Task-based language teaching, PPP model, focus on form, focus on meaning

  12. Task-based incidental vocabulary learning in L2 Arabic: The role of proficiency and task performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A. Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study tests the claim that word learning in a second language are contingent upon a task’s involvement load (i.e. the amount of need, search, and evaluation it imposes, as proposed by Laufer and Hulstijn (2001. Fifty-three English-speaking learners of Arabic were assigned to one of three vocabulary learning tasks that varied in the degree of involvement: reading comprehension with glosses (low, fill-in-the-gap task (medium, and sentence writing (high. Ten words, selected based on a pretest, were targeted in the tasks. Results showed a main effect of task, with the sentence writing task yielding the highest rates of vocabulary learning, followed by the gap-fill task, and finally the reading comprehension task. A significant correlation was found between accuracy of performance across participants and their subsequent vocabulary acquisition in the immediate posttest. Within groups, only the performance of the writing group correlated significantly with their posttest scores. Results of the present study validate the hypothesis and point to multiple factors at play in incidental vocabulary acquisition. The study provides further arguments to refine the hypothesis and implement pedagogical practices that accommodate incidental learning in foreign language settings.

  13. Hydra groups

    CERN Document Server

    Dison, Will

    2010-01-01

    We give examples of CAT(0), biautomatic, free-by-cyclic, one-relator groups which have finite-rank free subgroups of huge (Ackermannian) distortion. This leads to elementary examples of groups whose Dehn functions are similarly extravagant. This behaviour originates in manifestations of Hercules-versus-the-hydra battles in string-rewriting.

  14. Mathematical Literacy teachers’ engagement with contextualised income tax calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bansilal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on teachers’ engagement with tasks based on the income tax tables issued by the South African tax authorities. The participants in the study are a group of 37 teachers who were enrolled in an in-service programme for Mathematical Literacy teachers. The purpose of the study is to explore the teachers’ interpretation and use of the rule used to calculate income tax. Data were generated from written responses of the teachers to three tasks, as well as follow-up interviews with eight of the participants. The findings indicate that some teachers (8% did not recognise any of the demands inherent in the income tax rule that they teach to their learners. Most teachers (54% were in the novice category, showing that they met some of the demands but need some help in carrying out the rule fluently. A further 32% were able to use the rule to work out the tax given various input incomes, but could not use the rule to find the input income when given the tax output, because they did not have the necessary algebraic skill.

  15. A simple approach for maximum heat recovery calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jezowski, J. (Wroclaw Technical Univ. (PL). Inst. of Chemical Engineering and Heating Equipment); Friedler, F. (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Egyetem (HU). Research Inst. for Technical Chmeistry)

    1992-04-01

    This paper addresses the problem of calculating the maximum heat energy recovery for a given set of process streams. Simple, straightforward algorithms of calculations are presented that account for tasks with multiple utilities, forbidden matches and nonpoint utilities. A new way of applying the so-called dual-stream approach to reduce utility usage for tasks with forbidden matches is also given in this paper. The calculation methods do not require computer programs and mathematical programming application. They give the user a proper insight into a problem to understand heat integration as well as to recognize options and traps in heat exchanger network synthesis. (author).

  16. Performance and consistency of indicator groups in two biodiversity hotspots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Trindade-Filho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a world limited by data availability and limited funds for conservation, scientists and practitioners must use indicator groups to define spatial conservation priorities. Several studies have evaluated the effectiveness of indicator groups, but still little is known about the consistency in performance of these groups in different regions, which would allow their a priori selection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We systematically examined the effectiveness and the consistency of nine indicator groups in representing mammal species in two top-ranked Biodiversity Hotspots (BH: the Brazilian Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest. To test for group effectiveness we first found the best sets of sites able to maximize the representation of each indicator group in the BH and then calculated the average representation of different target species by the indicator groups in the BH. We considered consistent indicator groups whose representation of target species was not statistically different between BH. We called effective those groups that outperformed the target-species representation achieved by random sets of species. Effective indicator groups required the selection of less than 2% of the BH area for representing target species. Restricted-range species were the most effective indicators for the representation of all mammal diversity as well as target species. It was also the only group with high consistency. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that several indicator groups could be applied as shortcuts for representing mammal species in the Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest to develop conservation plans, however, only restricted-range species consistently held as the most effective indicator group for such a task. This group is of particular importance in conservation planning as it captures high diversity of endemic and endangered species.

  17. Modified equipartition calculation for supernova remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Arbutina, B; Andjelic, M M; Pavlovic, M Z; Vukotic, B

    2011-01-01

    Determination of the magnetic field strength in the interstellar medium is one of the most complex tasks of contemporary astrophysics. We can only estimate the order of magnitude of the magnetic field strength by using a few very limited methods. Besides Zeeman effect and Faraday rotation, the equipartition or the minimum-energy calculation is a widespread method for estimating magnetic field strength and energy contained in the magnetic field and cosmic ray particles by using only the radio synchrotron emission. Despite of its approximate character, it remains a useful tool, especially when there is no other data about the magnetic field in a source. In this paper we give a modified calculation which we think is more appropriate for estimating magnetic field strengths and energetics in supernova remnants (SNRs). Finally, we present calculated estimates of the magnetic field strengths for all Galactic SNRs for which the necessary observational data are available. The web application for calculation of the mag...

  18. Effects of multitasking on operator performance using computational and auditory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanya, Bankole K

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of multiple cognitive tasks on human performance. Twenty-four students at North Carolina A&T State University participated in the study. The primary task was auditory signal change perception and the secondary task was a computational task. Results showed that participants' performance in a single task was statistically significantly different from their performance in combined tasks: (a) algebra problems (algebra problem primary and auditory perception secondary); (b) auditory perception tasks (auditory perception primary and algebra problems secondary); and (c) mean false-alarm score in auditory perception (auditory detection primary and algebra problems secondary). Using signal detection theory (SDT), participants' performance measured in terms of sensitivity was calculated as -0.54 for combined tasks (algebra problems the primary task) and -0.53 auditory perceptions the primary task. During auditory perception tasks alone, SDT was found to be 2.51. Performance was 83% in a single task compared to 17% when combined tasks. PMID:26886505

  19. Core calculations of JMTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Yoshiharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In material testing reactors like the JMTR (Japan Material Testing Reactor) of 50 MW in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of irradiated samples show complex distributions. It is necessary to assess the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of an irradiation field by carrying out the nuclear calculation of the core for every operation cycle. In order to advance core calculation, in the JMTR, the application of MCNP to the assessment of core reactivity and neutron flux and spectra has been investigated. In this study, in order to reduce the time for calculation and variance, the comparison of the results of the calculations by the use of K code and fixed source and the use of Weight Window were investigated. As to the calculation method, the modeling of the total JMTR core, the conditions for calculation and the adopted variance reduction technique are explained. The results of calculation are shown. Significant difference was not observed in the results of neutron flux calculations according to the difference of the modeling of fuel region in the calculations by K code and fixed source. The method of assessing the results of neutron flux calculation is described. (K.I.)

  20. The use of stochastic method for the calculation of liquid-vapor multicomponent equilibrium and the contribution of groups theory for the evaluation of fugacity coefficient; Uso de um metodo estocastico para calculo do equilibrio liquido-vapor de sistemas multicomponentes e avaliacao de uma abordagem por contribuicao de grupos para o calculo do coeficiente de fugacidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcanti, Rafaelly L.; Oliveira, Jackson A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Rojas, Leopoldo O.A. [Centro de Tecnologias do Gas (CTGAS), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work has the main objective of evaluating the mathematical model developed by Jaubert e Mutelet (2004) in terms of the prediction capacity for the calculation of the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE). This model is based on Peng-Robinson equation of state (EOS) and it considers the binary interaction parameters (Kij(T)) estimated by a contribution group method and dependent of the temperature. The model proposed by Jaubert e Mutelet (2004), named PPR78 (Predictive Peng-Robinson), was implemented in this work by using the Fortran language. An optimization approach based on the stochastic algorithm of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) was used in order to calculate the vapor-liquid equilibrium. Simulations were accomplished for several binary systems and the results were concordant with some experimental data of the investigated systems. However, for some systems different from those presented by Jaubert and Mutelet (2004), the model presented low prediction capacity. In spite of the great demand of computational performance, the algorithm PSO demonstrated robustness during the calculation of VLE and it assured convergence in most of the cases. (author)

  1. Relato histórico y categorías de inscripción pública del compromiso: aproximaciones al quehacer militante de los líderes de un grupo Historical narrative and categories of public‐registration: approximations of militancy tasks and know how's from leaders of a group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Vázquez

    2012-12-01

    active occupation, how they develop their activist careers and how activist socialization takes place regarding leadership positions. In connection with this general purpose, the article analyzes one of the main tasks performed by the leaders; their role as spokespersons of the group. To do this, the investigation approaches a set of primary sources, especially, a political calendar elaborated in occasion of the seventh anniversary of an Unoccupied Workers Movement located in the south area of the Great Buenos Aires. The investigation seeks to show how the objectification of the group is performed through the development a historical narrative about the genesis of the group and categories of public-registration, such as "unemployed worker" and "autonomy".

  2. Storage to Energy Calculator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taal, A.; Makkes, M.X.; Grosso, P.

    2014-01-01

    Computational and storage tasks can nowadays be offloaded among data centers, in order to optimize costs and or performance. We set out to investigate what are the environmental effects, namely the total CO2 emission, of such offloading. We built models for the various components present in these of

  3. Postural Adaptations To Supra-postural Tasks in Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Wade Michael G.; Stoffregen Thomas A.; Chen Fu-Chen

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effect of varying memory (cognitive) demands, and visual (perceptual) demands on postural motion. Sixty four children (32 DCD, 32 TDC, 9-to-10 years) were volunteers. Each performed separate memory and visual tasks at two levels of difficulty; easy (LD) and hard (HD) while recording their postural motion. For the memory task, both groups reduced postural sway in the HD condition. For the visual task only the TDC group reduced postural sway in the HD condition; DCD childre...

  4. The impact of gamification on intrinsic motivation : An experimental study of administrative tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Ranz, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Gamification could be a solution to make office work more productive by in- creasing the intrinsic motivation of employees. Currently, little research exists on gamification in connection to administrative tasks. In literature the im- portance of designing gamified tasks to the target group is stressed. This study explores in an experiment the impact of gamification on intrinsic motivation while conducting basic administrative tasks, as well as differences between age groups. The qualitative ...

  5. Central as well as peripheral attentional bottlenecks in dual-task performance activate lateral prefrontal cortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre J Szameitat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human information processing suffers from severe limitations in parallel processing. In particular, when required to respond to two stimuli in rapid succession, processing bottlenecks may appear at central and peripheral stages of task processing. Importantly, it has been suggested that executive functions are needed to resolve the interference arising at such bottlenecks. The aims of the present study were to test whether central attentional limitations (i.e., bottleneck at the decisional response selection stage as well as peripheral limitations (i.e., bottleneck at response initiation both demand executive functions located in the lateral prefrontal cortex. For this, we re-analysed two previous studies, in which a total of 33 participants performed a dual-task according to the paradigm of the psychological refractory period (PRP during fMRI. In one study (N=17, the PRP task consisted of two two-choice response tasks known to suffer from a central bottleneck (CB group. In the other study (N=16, the PRP task consisted of two simple-response tasks known to suffer from a peripheral bottleneck (PB group. Both groups showed considerable dual-task costs in form of slowing of the second response in the dual-task (PRP effect. Imaging results are based on the subtraction of both single-tasks from the dual-task within each group. In the CB group, the bilateral middle frontal gyri and inferior frontal gyri were activated. Higher activation in these areas was associated with lower dual-task costs. In the PB group, the right middle frontal and inferior frontal gyrus were activated. Here, higher activation was associated with higher dual-task costs. In conclusion we suggest that central and peripheral bottlenecks both demand executive functions located in lateral prefrontal cortices. Differences between the CB and PB groups with respect to the exact prefrontal areas activated and the correlational patterns suggest that the executive functions resolving

  6. Group Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  7. Exploring the disruptive effects of psychopathy and aggression on group processes and group effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysinger, Michael A; Scherer, Kelly T; LeBreton, James M

    2014-01-01

    The present research examines the influence of implicit and explicit personality characteristics on group process and effectiveness. Individuals from 112 groups participated in 2 problem-solving tasks and completed measures of group process and effectiveness. Results indicated that groups characterized by higher levels of psychopathy and implicit aggression tended to have more dysfunctional interactions and negative perceptions of the group. In addition, task participation and negative socioemotional behaviors fully mediated the relationship between group personality traits and group commitment and cohesion, and negative socioemotional behaviors fully mediated the relationship between group personality and performance on both tasks. Implications of antisocial traits for group interactions and performance, as well as for future theory and research, are discussed. PMID:24016207

  8. Differential Calculation Abilities in Young Children from Middle- and Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nancy. C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined the performance of kindergartners from middle- and low-income families on arithmetic calculations presented in a nonverbal format and in three verbal formats. Children from middle-income families performed better than those from low-income families on verbal calculation tasks but not on the nonverbal task. (BC)

  9. Real time UAV autonomy through offline calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunghun

    Two or three dimensional mission plans for a single or a group of hover or fixed wing UAVs are generated. The mission plans can largely be separated into seven main parts. Firstly, the Region Growing algorithm is used to generate a map from 2D or 3D images. Secondly, the map is analyzed to separate each blocks using vertices of blocks and seven filtering steps. Thirdly, the Trapezoidal map algorithm is used to convert the map into a traversability graph. Fourthly, this process also filters out paths that are not traversable. That is, nodes located inside the blocks and too closely located nodes are filtered out. Fifthly, the Dijkstra algorithm is used to calculate the shortest path from a starting point to a goal point. Sixthly, the 1D Optimal Control algorithm is applied to manipulate the velocity and acceleration of the UAVs efficiently. Basically, the UAVs accelerates at one graph node and maintains a constant velocity and decelerates before reaching the next graph node. Lastly, Traveling Salesman Problem Method (TSP) algorithm is used to calculate the shortest path to search the whole region. After this discretization of space and time, it becomes possible to solve several autonomous mission planning problems. We focus on one of the most difficult problems: coordinated search. This is a multiple Traveling Salesman Problem (mTSP). We solve it by decomposing the search region and solving TSPs for each vehicle searching a sub-region. The mTSP is generally used when there are more than one salesman is used. In addition to the four main parts, there are three minor parts which support the main parts. Firstly, Target Detection algorithm is generated to detect a target located near the UAVs' path. A picture of the desired target is inserted into the algorithm before UAVs launch. Using the Scale-Invariant Transform Feature (SIFT) algorithm, a target with a specific shape can be detected. Secondly, Tracking algorithm is generated to manipulate UAVs to follow targets

  10. MUYANG GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ With its headquarters in the historic city of Yangzhou,Jiangsu Muyang Group Co.,Ltd has since its founding in 1967 grown into a well-known group corporation whose activities cover research&development.project design,manufacturing,installation and services in a multitude of industries including feed machinery and engineering,storage engineering,grain machinery and engineering,environmental protection,conveying equipment and automatic control systems.

  11. Abelian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, László

    2015-01-01

    Written by one of the subject’s foremost experts, this book focuses on the central developments and modern methods of the advanced theory of abelian groups, while remaining accessible, as an introduction and reference, to the non-specialist. It provides a coherent source for results scattered throughout the research literature with lots of new proofs. The presentation highlights major trends that have radically changed the modern character of the subject, in particular, the use of homological methods in the structure theory of various classes of abelian groups, and the use of advanced set-theoretical methods in the study of undecidability problems. The treatment of the latter trend includes Shelah’s seminal work on the undecidability in ZFC of Whitehead’s Problem; while the treatment of the former trend includes an extensive (but non-exhaustive) study of p-groups, torsion-free groups, mixed groups, and important classes of groups arising from ring theory. To prepare the reader to tackle these topics, th...

  12. Electrical installation calculations basic

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3Fo

  13. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  14. Electrical installation calculations advanced

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for advanced electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practiceA step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3For apprentices and electrical installatio

  15. Operational testing of a figure of merit for overall task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Moira

    1990-01-01

    An overall indicator or figure of merit (FOM), for the quality of pilot performance is needed to define optimal workload levels, predict system failure, measure the impact of new automation in the cockpit, and define the relative contributions of subtasks to overall task performance. A normative FOM was developed based on the calculation of a standard score for each component of a complex task. It reflected some effects, detailed in an earlier study, of the introduction of new data link technology into the cockpit. Since the technique showed promise, further testing was done. A new set of data was obtained using the recently developed Multi-Attribute Task Battery. This is a complex battery consisting of four tasks which can be varied in task demand, and on which performance measures can be obtained. This battery was presented to 12 subjects in a 20 minute trial at each of three levels of workload or task demand, and performance measures collected on all four tasks. The NASA-TLX workload rating scale was presented at minutes 6, 12, and 18, of each trial. A figure of merit was then obtained for each run of the battery by calculating a mean, SD, and standard score for each task. Each task contributed its own proportion to the overall FOM, and relative contributions changed with increasing workload. Thus, the FOM shows the effect of task changes, not only on the individual task that is changed, but also on the performance of other tasks and of the whole task. The cost to other tasks of maintaining constant performance on an individual task can be quantified.

  16. Aging effects of regional activation in a spatial task A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jong-Rak Park; Dae-Woon Lim; Mi-Hyun Choi; Su-Jeong Lee; Jin-Seung Choi; Hyung-Sik Kim; Jeong-Han Yi; Gye-Rae Tack; Soon-Cheol Chung

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies have shown the effects of aging in basic cognitive processing and higher cognitive functions using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, little is known about the aging effects in diverse cognitive abilities, such as spatial learning and reasoning. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of aging on spatial cognitive performance and regional brain activation based on fMRI. DESIGN, TIME, AND SETTING: A block design for fMRI observation. This study was performed at the fMRI Laboratory, Brain Science Research Center, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology from March 2006 to May 2009.PARTICIPANTS: Eight right-handed, male, college students in their 20s (mean age 21.5 years) and six right-handed, male, adults in their 40s (mean age 45.7 years), who graduated from college, participated in the study. All subjects were healthy and had no prior history of psychiatric or neurological disorders. METHODS: A spatial task was presented while brain images were acquired using a 3T fMRI system (ISOL Technology, Korea). The spatial tasks involved selecting a shape that corresponded to a given figure using four examples, as well as selecting a development figure of a diagram. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The accuracy rate (number of correct answers/total number of items×100%) of spatial tasks was calculated. Using the subtraction procedure, the activated areas in the brain during spatial tasks were color-coded by T-score. The double subtraction method was used to analyze the effect of aging between the two age groups (20s versus 40s). RESULTS: The cerebellum, occipital lobe, parietal lobe, and frontal lobe were similarly activated in the two age groups. Increased brain activations, however, were observed in bilateral parietal and superior frontal lobes of the younger group. More activation was observed in bilateral middle frontal and right inferior frontal lobes in the older group. Compared with the older group, the

  17. International Task Force on Volunteer Cleft Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, Vincent K L; Lee, Seng-Teik T; Lambrecht, Thomas J; Barnett, John; Gorney, Mark; Hardjowasito, Widanto; Lemperle, Gottfried; McComb, Harold; Natsume, Nagato; Stranc, Mirek; Wilson, Libby

    2002-01-01

    The International Task Force on Volunteer Cleft Missions was set up to provide a report to be presented at the Eighth International Congress of Cleft Palate and Associated Craniofacial Anomalies on September 12, 1997, in Singapore. The aim of the report was to provide data from a wide range of different international teams performing volunteer cleft missions and, thereafter, based on the collected data, to identify common goals and aims of such missions. Thirteen different groups actively participating in volunteer cleft missions worldwide were selected from the International Confederation of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery's list of teams actively participating in volunteer cleft missions. Because of the time frame within which the committee had to work, three groups that did not respond by the stipulated deadline were omitted from the committee. The represented members and their respective institutions have undertaken more than 50 volunteer cleft missions to underdeveloped nations worldwide within the last 3 years. They have visited over 20 different countries, treating more than 3,500 patients worldwide. Based on the data collected and by consensus, the committee outlined recommendations for future volunteer cleft missions based on 1) mission objectives, 2) organization, 3) personal health and liability, 4) funding, 5) trainees in volunteer cleft missions, and 6) public relations. The task force believed that all volunteer cleft missions should have well-defined objectives, preferably with long-term plans. The task force also decided that it was impossible to achieve a successful mission without good organization and close coordination. All efforts should be made, and care taken, to ensure that there is minimal morbidity and no mortality. Finally, as ambassadors of goodwill and humanitarian aid, the participants must make every effort to understand and respect local customs and protocol. The main aims are to provide top-quality surgical service, train local

  18. On Calculating Activity Slack in Stochastic Project Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Mitchell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Identifying critical tasks in a project network is easily done when task times are deterministic, but doing so under stochastic task times is problematic. The few methods that have been proposed contain serious drawbacks which lead to identifying critical tasks incorrectly, leaving project managers without the means to (1 identify and rank the most probable sources of project delays, (2 assess the magnitude of each source of schedule risk, and (3 identify which tasks represent the best opportunities for successfully addressing schedule risk? Approach: In this study we considered the problem of identifying the sources of schedule risk in a stochastic project network. We developed general expressions for determining a task’s late starting and ending time distributions. We introduced the concept of stochastic slack and develop a number of metrics that help a project manager directly identify and estimate the magnitude of sources of schedule risk. Finally, we compared critical tasks identified using the activity criticality index to those found using stochastic slack metrics. Results: We have demonstrated that a task may have non-zero probability of negative stochastic slack and that expected total slack for a task may be negative. We also found that while the activity criticality index is effective for calculating the probability that a task is on a critical path, the stochastic slack based metrics discussed in this paper are better predictors of the extent to which a delay in a task will result in a project delay. Conclusion/Recommendations: Project managers should consider using stochastic slack based metrics for assessing project risk and establishing the most likely project schedule outcomes. Given the calculation complexity associated with theoretically exact stochastic slack metrics, effective heuristics are required.

  19. Performing Isometric Force Control in Combination with a Cognitive Task: A Multidimensional Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Jacques Temprado; Solveig Vieluf; Nicolas Bricot; Eric Berton; Rita Sleimen-Malkoun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We used a multidimensional approach to study isometric force control in single and dual-task conditions. Methods Multiple measures of performance, efficiency, variability, and structural interference were calculated at low and higher force levels under single (force maintenance) and dual-task (force maintenance and reaction time) conditions. Results Reaction time and signal-to-noise ratio were larger in the dual-task conditions. They were also greater for the higher force conditi...

  20. Number & operations task & drill sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the number & operations concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are problems involving place value, fractions, addition, subtraction and using money. The combined task & drill sheets offer spac