WorldWideScience

Sample records for calculating pulmonary-mode-lethality risk

  1. Models for pulmonary lethality and morbidity after irradiation from internal and external sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.; Filipy, R.E.; Hahn, E.F.

    1989-05-01

    This report provides a hazard-function model for estimating the risk of death from radiation pneumonitis and/or pulmonary fibrosis following a light-water nuclear power accident. A similar model is also provided for estimating the prevalence of respiratory functional morbidity among those that survive death from acute effects. Hazard-function models for lethality and for morbidity were constructed using the cumulative hazard estimator H, which is related to the risk estimator R through the equation R = 1-exp(-H). The estimator H can be calculated using information provided in the report. The method of calculation depends on the exposure scenario. In general, the total normalized dose X for lethality or for morbidity is calculated. For lethality, X = 1 corresponds to a median lethal dose (LD 50 ); for morbidity, X = 1 corresponds to a median effective dose (ED 50 ). H is related to X by the equation H = 1n(2)X/sup V/, where V depends on the type of radiation (or radiations) involved. Contributions to X can arise from each of two main modes of exposure: (1) brief exposure of the lung, at a relatively high dose rate, to mainly external gammas, followed by (2) chronic internal alpha, and/or beta, and/or gamma irradiation of the lung. Equations are provided for calculating the contributions to X from both modes of exposure. 73 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  2. An Immature Myeloid/Myeloid-Suppressor Cell Response Associated with Necrotizing Inflammation Mediates Lethal Pulmonary Tularemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Periasamy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhalation of Francisella tularensis (Ft causes acute and fatal pneumonia. The lung cytokine milieu favors exponential Ft replication, but the mechanisms underlying acute pathogenesis and death remain unknown. Evaluation of the sequential and systemic host immune response in pulmonary tularemia reveals that in contrast to overwhelming bacterial burden or cytokine production, an overt innate cellular response to Ft drives tissue pathology and host mortality. Lethal infection with Ft elicits medullary and extra-medullary myelopoiesis supporting recruitment of large numbers of immature myeloid cells and MDSC to the lungs. These cells fail to mature and die, leading to subsequent necrotic lung damage, loss of pulmonary function, and host death that is partially dependent upon immature Ly6G+ cells. Acceleration of this process may account for the rapid lethality seen with Ft SchuS4. In contrast, during sub-lethal infection with Ft LVS the pulmonary cellular response is characterized by a predominance of mature neutrophils and monocytes required for protection, suggesting a required threshold for lethal bacterial infection. Further, eliciting a mature phagocyte response provides transient, but dramatic, innate protection against Ft SchuS4. This study reveals that the nature of the myeloid cell response may be the primary determinant of host mortality versus survival following Francisella infection.

  3. An Immature Myeloid/Myeloid-Suppressor Cell Response Associated with Necrotizing Inflammation Mediates Lethal Pulmonary Tularemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, Sivakumar; Avram, Dorina; McCabe, Amanda; MacNamara, Katherine C.; Sellati, Timothy J.; Harton, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation of Francisella tularensis (Ft) causes acute and fatal pneumonia. The lung cytokine milieu favors exponential Ft replication, but the mechanisms underlying acute pathogenesis and death remain unknown. Evaluation of the sequential and systemic host immune response in pulmonary tularemia reveals that in contrast to overwhelming bacterial burden or cytokine production, an overt innate cellular response to Ft drives tissue pathology and host mortality. Lethal infection with Ft elicits medullary and extra-medullary myelopoiesis supporting recruitment of large numbers of immature myeloid cells and MDSC to the lungs. These cells fail to mature and die, leading to subsequent necrotic lung damage, loss of pulmonary function, and host death that is partially dependent upon immature Ly6G+ cells. Acceleration of this process may account for the rapid lethality seen with Ft SchuS4. In contrast, during sub-lethal infection with Ft LVS the pulmonary cellular response is characterized by a predominance of mature neutrophils and monocytes required for protection, suggesting a required threshold for lethal bacterial infection. Further, eliciting a mature phagocyte response provides transient, but dramatic, innate protection against Ft SchuS4. This study reveals that the nature of the myeloid cell response may be the primary determinant of host mortality versus survival following Francisella infection. PMID:27015566

  4. Isolated pulmonary veno-occlusive disease and pulmonary arterial thrombosis in systemic sclerosis – a lethal combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Jeevagan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Arun JeevaganGeneral Medicine, Ipswich NHS Hospital, UKBackground: Isolated pulmonary hypertension secondary to systemic sclerosis is not uncommon. Our patient with systemic sclerosis presented with a very aggressive form of pulmonary hypertension due to a lethal combination of pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD and pulmonary arterial thrombosis. This combined presentation has never before been reported in medical literature.Case report: A 75-year-old woman with a 4-month history of atypical chest pains was admitted with a 3-week history of worsening symptoms of shortness of breath, reduced exercise tolerance, and bilateral pitting edema. On examination she had thickened skin in her hands, telangiectasia on her face, maculopapular rash in her legs, raised jugular venous pressure, and bilateral pitting edema. Her autoimmune profile revealed positive anticentromere antibodies, and her echocardiogram showed right ventricular systolic pressure of 91 mmHg. She also had renal impairment secondary to hypoperfusion. A diagnosis of isolated pulmonary hypertension secondary to limited systemic sclerosis was made. As she was clinically improving on slow diuretic infusion and awaiting transfer to a specialist center for management of pulmonary hypertension, our patient died due to cardiopulmonary arrest. Her postmortem revealed that she died of a combination of PVOD and pulmonary arteriopathy due to thrombosis.Conclusion: This is clearly a unique case both in presentation and difficulty of management. Pulmonary vasodilators used in therapy of pulmonary arteriopathy can be detrimental in patients with PVOD. There is no definitive investigation, curative treatment, or management, that exists for a combination of PVOD and pulmonary arteriopathy due to thrombosis secondary to systemic sclerosis.Keywords: pulmonary veno-occlusive disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension, systemic sclerosis, pulmonary arteriopathy with thrombosis

  5. Pneumonitis and lethal pulmonary fibrosis (Hamman-Rich syndrome) due to Parathione (E605) poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotz, W.; Fasske, E.; Forschungsinstitut Borstel

    1986-01-01

    A patient with chronic Parathione (E 605) poisoning was observed over a period of 55 days. During that time he developed progressive changes, which were identical to those of progressive idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The rapid development of an alveolitis, followed by a lethal pulmonary fibrosis, differed in no way, macroscopically nor microscopically, from the lung changes in paraquat poisoning (paraquat lung). The radiologic course has been correlated with the clinical and post mortem findings. (orig.) [de

  6. Risk stratification of patients with combined acute pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension using dynamic and regular pulmonary perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuemei; Wang Jing; Li Guohua; Wang Xiangcheng; Zhang Kaixiu; Liu Caiping

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To stratify the risks of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE) and pulmonary hypertension (PH) by dynamic pulmonary perfusion imaging (DPPI) and pulmonary perfusion imaging (PPI). Methods: From October 2007 to February 2009, 20 healthy volunteers (12 males, 8 females; mean age =48.47±13.47 years) and 31 APE patients (21 males, 10 females; mean age =47.68±18.06 years; from October 2007 to July 2009) were included in the study. DPPI and PPI were performed in all subjects. Percentage of perfusion defect scores (PPDs%) were calculated by semi-quantitative analysis of PPI. Risk levels were defined according to PPDs% calculated from PPI: normal (PPDs% =0); very low risk (0 60%). Lung equilibrium time (LET) was calculated on region of interest (ROI) drawn over DPPI. Clinical risk was scored by Aujesky method.The t-test, ANOVA and correlation analysis were used with SPSS 13.0 software. Results: (1) LET in healthy volunteers and APE patients was (12.18±3.28) and (32.90±14.29) s respectively (t = 6.81, P<0.01). (2) The correlation coefficient, coefficient of determination between LET and PPDs% in APE patients were 0.93 and 0.87, respectively. The correlation coefficient between LET and clinical risk score was 0.86. (3) The mean LET of APE patients in very low risk (n =5), low risk (n = 12), moderate risk (n=9), high risk (n=4) and very high risk groups (n=1) were (19.59 ±0.04), (25.03±0.08), (36.07±0.10), (57.15±0.06) and (70±0.00) s, respectively. There was significant difference among APE patients with different risk levels (F =16.78, P<0.01). Conclusions: (1) DPPI was a reliable, convenient and non-invasive method for the evaluation of PH in APE. (2) Combined LET of DPPI and PPDs% of PPI was valuable for risk stratification and prognosis estimation in APE patients. (authors)

  7. Comparison of Thresholds for Pulmonary Capillary Hemorrhage Induced by Pulsed-wave and B-mode Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Douglas L.; Dou, Chunyan; Raghavendran, Krishnan

    Pulsed ultrasound was found to induce pulmonary capillary hemorrhage (PCH) in mice about 25 years ago but remains a poorly understood risk factor for pulmonary diagnostic ultrasound. In early research using laboratory fixed beam ultrasound, thresholds for PCH had frequency variation from 1-4 MHz similar to the Mechanical Index. In recent research, thresholds for B mode diagnostic ultrasound from 1.5-12 MHz had little dependence on frequency. To compare the diagnostic ultrasound method to laboratory pulsed exposure, thresholds for fixed beam ultrasound were determined using comparable methods at 1.5 and 7.5 MHz. PCH thresholds were lower for simple fixed-beam pulse modes than for B mode and in approximate agreement with early research. However, for comparable timing parameters, PCH thresholds had little dependence on ultrasonic frequency. These findings suggest that the MI may not be directly useful as a dosimetric parameter for safety guidance in pulmonary ultrasound.

  8. 21 CFR 868.1890 - Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1890 Predictive pulmonary-function value calculator. (a) Identification. A predictive pulmonary-function value calculator is...

  9. Pulmonary infections and risk of lung cancer among persons with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebl, Fatma M; Engels, Eric A; Goedert, James J; Chaturvedi, Anil K

    2010-11-01

    Lung cancer risk is significantly increased among persons with AIDS (PWA), and increased smoking may not explain all of the elevated risk, suggesting a role for additional cofactors. We investigated whether AIDS-defining pulmonary infections (recurrent pneumonia, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, and pulmonary tuberculosis) affected the risk of subsequent lung cancer over 10 years after AIDS onset among 322,675 PWA, whose records were linked with cancer registries in 11 US regions. We assessed lung cancer hazard ratios (HRs) using Cox regression and indirectly adjusted HRs for confounding by smoking. Individuals with recurrent pneumonia (n = 5317) were at significantly higher lung cancer risk than those without [HR = 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08 to 2.46, adjusted for age, race, sex, HIV acquisition mode, CD4 count, and AIDS diagnosis year]. This association was especially strong among young PWA (risk was unrelated to tuberculosis [(n = 13,878) HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.82 to 1.53] or Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia [(n = 69,771) HR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.80 to 1.18]. The increased lung cancer risk associated with recurrent pneumonia supports the hypothesis that chronic pulmonary inflammation arising from infections contributes to lung carcinogenesis.

  10. Relative Risks for Lethal Prostate Cancer Based on Complete Family History of Prostate Cancer Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Frederick S; Stephenson, Robert A; Agarwal, Neeraj; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A

    2017-01-01

    There are few published familial relative risks (RR) for lethal prostate cancer. This study estimates RRs for lethal prostate cancer based on comprehensive family history data, with the goal of improving identification of those men at highest risk of dying from prostate cancer. We used a population-based genealogical resource linked to a statewide electronic SEER cancer registry and death certificates to estimate relative risks (RR) for death from prostate cancer based upon family history. Over 600,000 male probands were analyzed, representing a variety of family history constellations of lethal prostate cancer. RR estimates were based on the ratio of the observed to the expected number of lethal prostate cancer cases using internal rates. RRs for lethal prostate cancer based on the number of affected first-degree relatives (FDR) ranged from 2.49 (95% CI: 2.27, 2.73) for exactly 1 FDR to 5.30 (2.13, 10.93) for ≥3 affected FDRs. In an absence of affected FDRs, increased risk was also significant for increasing numbers of affected second-degree or third degree relatives. Equivalent risks were observed for similar maternal and paternal family history. This study provides population-based estimates of lethal prostate cancer risk based on lethal prostate cancer family history. Many family history constellations associated with two to greater than five times increased risk for lethal prostate cancer were identified. These lethal prostate cancer risk estimates hold potential for use in identification, screening, early diagnosis, and treatment of men at high risk for death from prostate cancer. Prostate77:41-48, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida after sub-lethal exposure to organic contaminants with different toxic modes of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKelvie, Jennifer R.; Wolfe, David M.; Celejewski, Magda A. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada); Alaee, Mehran [Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd., P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Simpson, Andre J. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada); Simpson, Myrna J., E-mail: myrna.simpson@utoronto.ca [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada)

    2011-12-15

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) - based metabolomics has the potential to identify toxic responses of contaminants within a mixture in contaminated soil. This study evaluated the metabolic response of Eisenia fetida after exposure to an array of organic compounds to determine whether contaminant-specific responses could be identified. The compounds investigated in contact tests included: two pesticides (carbaryl and chlorpyrifos), three pharmaceuticals (carbamazephine, estrone and caffeine), two persistent organohalogens (Aroclor 1254 and PBDE 209) and two industrial compounds (nonylphenol and dimethyl phthalate). Control and contaminant-exposed metabolic profiles were distinguished using principal component analysis and potential contaminant-specific biomarkers of exposure were found for several contaminants. These results suggest that NMR-based metabolomics offers considerable promise for differentiating between the different toxic modes of action (MOA) associated with sub-lethal toxicity to earthworms. - Highlights: > NMR-based earthworm metabolomic analysis of the toxic mode of action of various environmental contaminants. > Organic chemicals with different toxic modes of action resulted in varied metabolomic responses for E. fetida. > NMR-based metabolomics differentiates between the different modes of action associated with sub-lethal toxicity. - {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics was used to identify potential biomarkers of organic contaminant exposure in Eisenia fetida earthworms.

  12. Pulmonary Capillary Hemorrhage Induced by Different Imaging Modes of Diagnostic Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Douglas L; Dong, Zhihong; Dou, Chunyan; Raghavendran, Krishnan

    2018-05-01

    The induction of pulmonary capillary hemorrhage (PCH) is a well-established non-thermal biological effect of pulsed ultrasound in animal models. Typically, research has been done using laboratory pulsed ultrasound systems with a fixed beam and, recently, by B-mode diagnostic ultrasound. In this study, a GE Vivid 7 Dimension ultrasound machine with 10 L linear array probe was used at 6.6 MHz to explore the relative PCH efficacy of B-mode imaging, M-mode (fixed beam), color angio mode Doppler imaging and pulsed Doppler mode (fixed beam). Anesthetized rats were scanned in a warmed water bath, and thresholds were determined by scanning at different power steps, 2 dB apart, in different groups of six rats. Exposures were performed for 5 min, except for a 15-s M-mode group. Peak rarefactional pressure amplitude thresholds were 1.5 MPa for B-mode and 1.1 MPa for angio Doppler mode. For the non-scanned modes, thresholds were 1.1 MPa for M-mode and 0.6 MPa for pulsed Doppler mode with its relatively high duty cycle (7.7 × 10 -3 vs. 0.27 × 10 -3 for M-mode). Reducing the duration of M-mode to 15 s (from 300 s) did not significantly reduce PCH (area, volume or depth) for some power settings, but the threshold was increased to 1.4 MPa. Pulmonary sonographers should be aware of this unique adverse bio-effect of diagnostic ultrasound and should consider reduced on-screen mechanical index settings for potentially vulnerable patients. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida after sub-lethal exposure to organic contaminants with different toxic modes of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKelvie, Jennifer R.; Wolfe, David M.; Celejewski, Magda A.; Alaee, Mehran; Simpson, Andre J.; Simpson, Myrna J.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) - based metabolomics has the potential to identify toxic responses of contaminants within a mixture in contaminated soil. This study evaluated the metabolic response of Eisenia fetida after exposure to an array of organic compounds to determine whether contaminant-specific responses could be identified. The compounds investigated in contact tests included: two pesticides (carbaryl and chlorpyrifos), three pharmaceuticals (carbamazephine, estrone and caffeine), two persistent organohalogens (Aroclor 1254 and PBDE 209) and two industrial compounds (nonylphenol and dimethyl phthalate). Control and contaminant-exposed metabolic profiles were distinguished using principal component analysis and potential contaminant-specific biomarkers of exposure were found for several contaminants. These results suggest that NMR-based metabolomics offers considerable promise for differentiating between the different toxic modes of action (MOA) associated with sub-lethal toxicity to earthworms. - Highlights: → NMR-based earthworm metabolomic analysis of the toxic mode of action of various environmental contaminants. → Organic chemicals with different toxic modes of action resulted in varied metabolomic responses for E. fetida. → NMR-based metabolomics differentiates between the different modes of action associated with sub-lethal toxicity. - 1 H NMR metabolomics was used to identify potential biomarkers of organic contaminant exposure in Eisenia fetida earthworms.

  14. When a pulmonary embolism is not a pulmonary embolism: a rare case of primary pulmonary leiomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargiz Muganlinskaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arterial leiomyosarcomas account for up to 21% of vascular leiomyosarcomas, with 56% of arterial leiomyosarcomas occurring in the pulmonary artery. While isolated cases of primary pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma document survival up to 36 months after treatment, these uncommon, aggressive tumors are highly lethal, with 1-year survival estimated at 20% from the onset of symptoms. We discuss a rare case of a pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma that was originally diagnosed as a pulmonary embolism (PE. A 72-year-old Caucasian female was initially diagnosed with ‘saddle pulmonary embolism’ based on computerized tomographic angiography of the chest 2 months prior to admission and placed on anticoagulation. Dyspnea escalated, and serial computed tomography scans showed cardiomegaly with pulmonary emboli involving the right and left main pulmonary arteries with extension into the right and left upper and lower lobe branches. An echocardiogram on admission showed severe pulmonary hypertension with a pulmonary artery pressure of 82.9 mm Hg, and a severely enlarged right ventricle. Respiratory distress and multiorgan failure developed and, unfortunately, the patient expired. Autopsy showed a lobulated, yellow mass throughout the main pulmonary arteries measuring 13 cm in diameter. The mass extended into the parenchyma of the right upper lobe. On microscopy, the mass was consistent with a high-grade primary pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma. Median survival of patients with primary pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma without surgery is one and a half months, and mortality is usually due to right-sided heart failure. Pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma is a rare but highly lethal disease commonly mistaken for PE. Thus, we recommend clinicians to suspect this malignancy when anticoagulation fails to relieve initial symptoms. In conclusion, early detection and suspicion of pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma should be considered in patients refractory to anticoagulation

  15. Pulmonary complications of liver transplantation: radiological appearance and statistical evaluation of risk factors in 300 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golfieri, R.; Giampalma, E.; D'Arienzo, P.; Maffei, M.; Muzzi, C.; Tancioni, S.; Gavelli, G.; Morselli Labate, A.M.; Sama, C.; Jovine, E.; Grazi, G.L.; Mazziotti, A.; Cavallari, A.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, radiographic appearance, time of onset, outcome and risk factors of non-infectious and infectious pulmonary complications following liver transplantation. Chest X-ray features of 300 consecutive patients who had undergone 333 liver transplants over an 11-year period were analysed: the type of pulmonary complication, the infecting pathogens and the mean time of their occurrence are described. The main risk factors for lung infections were quantified through univariate and multivariate statistical analysis. Non-infectious pulmonary abnormalities (atelectasis and/or pleural effusion: 86.7%) and pulmonary oedema (44.7%) appeared during the first postoperative week. Infectious pneumonia was observed in 13.7%, with a mortality of 36.6%. Bacterial and viral pneumonia made up the bulk of infections (63.4 and 29.3%, respectively) followed by fungal infiltrates (24.4%). A fairly good correlation between radiological chest X-ray pattern, time of onset and the cultured microorganisms has been observed in all cases. In multivariate analysis, persistent non-infectious abnormalities and pulmonary oedema were identified as the major independent predictors of posttransplant pneumonia, followed by prolonged assisted mechanical ventilation and traditional caval anastomosis. A ''pneumonia-risk score'' was calculated: low-risk score ( 3.30) population. The ''pneumonia-risk score'' identifies a specific group of patients in whom closer radiographic monitoring is recommended. In addition, a highly significant correlation (p<0.001) was observed between pneumonia-risk score and the expected survival, thus confirming pulmonary infections as a major cause of death in OLT recipients. (orig.)

  16. Severe Pulmonary Toxicity After Myeloablative Conditioning Using Total Body Irradiation: An Assessment of Risk Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, Chris R.; Horwitz, Mitchell E.; Chino, Junzo P.; Craciunescu, Oana; Steffey, Beverly; Folz, Rodney J.; Chao, Nelson J.; Rizzieri, David A.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess factors associated with severe pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using total body irradiation (TBI) followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 101 adult patients who underwent TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies at Duke University between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed. TBI was combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide, melphalan, fludarabine, or etoposide, depending on the underlying disease. Acute pulmonary toxicity, occurring within 90 days of transplantation, was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Actuarial overall survival and the cumulative incidence of acute pulmonary toxicity were calculated via the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using a log-rank test. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors independently associated with acute severe pulmonary toxicity. Results: The 90-day actuarial risk of developing severe (Grade 3-5) pulmonary toxicity was 33%. Actuarial survival at 90 days was 49% in patients with severe pulmonary toxicity vs. 94% in patients without (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the number of prior chemotherapy regimens was the only factor independently associated with development of severe pulmonary toxicity (odds ratio, 2.7 per regimen). Conclusions: Severe acute pulmonary toxicity is prevalent after TBI-based myeloablative conditioning regimens, occurring in approximately 33% of patients. The number of prior chemotherapy regimens appears to be an important risk factor.

  17. Control study of pulmonary surfactant combined with CPAP and BIPAP ventilation modes respectively in treatment of neonatal NRDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the differences in effect of pulmonary surfactant combined with CPAP and BIPAP ventilation modes respectively in treatment of neonatal NRDS. Methods: A total of 50 cases of children with neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS born and receiving treatment in our hospital from August 2012 to January 2015 were selected as research subjects and randomly divided into observation group and control group, each with 25 cases. Control group received pulmonary surfactant combined with CPAP ventilation mode treatment, observation group received pulmonary surfactant combined with BIPAP ventilation mode treatment, and then differences in blood gas indicators and mechanical ventilation parameters, pulmonary artery pressure, endothelin and nitric oxide levels, blood coagulation and anticoagulation indicators and protein expression levels of CD24, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-17A of two groups after treatment were compared. Results: PaO2, PH value and oxygenation index of observation group after treatment were higher than those of control group, and PaCO2, positive end-expiratory pressure, peak inspiratory pressure and inspired oxygen concentration were lower than those of control group; pulmonary artery pressure and EF-1 level of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group, and NO level was higher than that of control group; PC, TPS and AT-Ⅲ levels of observation group after treatment were higher than those of control group, and D-D and vWF levels were lower than those of control group; protein expression of CD24 and IL-6 of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group, and protein expression of TNF-α and IL-17A were higher than those of control group. Conclusion: Pulmonary surfactant combined with BIPAP ventilation mode treatment of children with NRDS can effectively optimize ventilation function and realize homeostasis, and it has active clinical significance.

  18. Effect of the high-pitch mode in dual-source computed tomography on the accuracy of three-dimensional volumetry of solid pulmonary nodules: a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Oh, Yu-Whan; Ham, Soo-Youn; Kang, Eun-Young; Lee, Ki Yeol

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of high-pitch mode (HPM) in dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) on the accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) volumetry for solid pulmonary nodules. A lung phantom implanted with 45 solid pulmonary nodules (n = 15 for each of 4-mm, 6-mm, and 8-mm in diameter) was scanned twice, first in conventional pitch mode (CPM) and then in HPM using DSCT. The relative percentage volume errors (RPEs) of 3D volumetry were compared between the HPM and CPM. In addition, the intermode volume variability (IVV) of 3D volumetry was calculated. In the measurement of the 6-mm and 8-mm nodules, there was no significant difference in RPE (p > 0.05, respectively) between the CPM and HPM (IVVs of 1.2 ± 0.9%, and 1.7 ± 1.5%, respectively). In the measurement of the 4-mm nodules, the mean RPE in the HPM (35.1 ± 7.4%) was significantly greater (p volumetry with HPM for solid pulmonary nodule is comparable to that with CPM. However, the use of HPM may adversely affect the accuracy of 3D volumetry for smaller (< 5 mm in diameter) nodule.

  19. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and risk of infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This review article focuses on the risk of infections in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Throughout the years there have been a number of studies describing the risk of pulmonary infections in patients with COPD, whereas only few studies have focused on the risk...... of infection outside the lungs. With increasing severity of COPD the risk of respiratory tract infection also increases. The impairment of the innate immune system is most likely responsible for both the colonization of respiratory tract with bacteria and for an increased risk of infection with new strains...... of bacteria causing acute exacerbations. Also lung infections like pneumonia, lung abscess and empyema are more often seen in patients with COPD than in healthy subjects. With regard to extrapulmonary infections, it seems that COPD patients are not at higher risk of infection compared with subjects without...

  20. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Jette Brommann; Sværke, Claus; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the risk of cancer in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including which cancer sites are most affected. We examined the short- and long-term risk of lung and extrapulmonary cancer in a nationwide cohort of COPD patients....

  1. Noninvasive risk stratification of lethal ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death after myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Yodogawa, MD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of lethal ventricular arrhythmias leading to sudden cardiac death is one of the most important and challenging problems after myocardial infarction (MI. Identification of MI patients who are prone to ventricular tachyarrhythmias allows for an indication of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement. To date, noninvasive techniques such as microvolt T-wave alternans (MTWA, signal-averaged electrocardiography (SAECG, heart rate variability (HRV, and heart rate turbulence (HRT have been developed for this purpose. MTWA is an indicator of repolarization abnormality and is currently the most promising risk-stratification tool for predicting malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Similarly, late potentials detected by SAECG are indices of depolarization abnormality and are useful in risk stratification. However, the role of SAECG is limited because of its low predictive accuracy. Abnormal HRV and HRT patterns reflect autonomic disturbances, which may increase the risk of lethal ventricular arrhythmias, but the existing evidence is insufficient. Further studies of noninvasive assessment may provide a new insight into risk stratification in post-MI patients.

  2. Pulmonary edema predictive scoring index (PEPSI), a new index to predict risk of reperfusion pulmonary edema and improvement of hemodynamics in percutaneous transluminal pulmonary angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Takumi; Kataoka, Masaharu; Shimura, Nobuhiko; Ishiguro, Haruhisa; Yanagisawa, Ryoji; Taguchi, Hiroki; Fukuda, Keiichi; Yoshino, Hideaki; Satoh, Toru

    2013-07-01

    This study sought to identify useful predictors for hemodynamic improvement and risk of reperfusion pulmonary edema (RPE), a major complication of this procedure. Percutaneous transluminal pulmonary angioplasty (PTPA) has been reported to be effective for the treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). PTPA has not been widespread because RPE has not been well predicted. We included 140 consecutive procedures in 54 patients with CTEPH. The flow appearance of the target vessels was graded into 4 groups (Pulmonary Flow Grade), and we proposed PEPSI (Pulmonary Edema Predictive Scoring Index) = (sum total change of Pulmonary Flow Grade scores) × (baseline pulmonary vascular resistance). Correlations between occurrence of RPE and 11 variables, including hemodynamic parameters, number of target vessels, and PEPSI, were analyzed. Hemodynamic parameters significantly improved after median observation period of 6.4 months, and the sum total changes in Pulmonary Flow Grade scores were significantly correlated with the improvement in hemodynamics. Multivariate analysis revealed that PEPSI was the strongest factor correlated with the occurrence of RPE (p PEPSI to be a useful marker of the risk of RPE (cutoff value 35.4, negative predictive value 92.3%). Pulmonary Flow Grade score is useful in determining therapeutic efficacy, and PEPSI is highly supportive to reduce the risk of RPE after PTPA. Using these 2 indexes, PTPA could become a safe and common therapeutic strategy for CTEPH. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Age-adjusted high-sensitivity troponin T cut-off value for risk stratification of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeberich, Anja; Seeber, Valerie; Jiménez, David; Kostrubiec, Maciej; Dellas, Claudia; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Konstantinides, Stavros; Lankeit, Mareike

    2015-05-01

    High-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) helps in identifying pulmonary embolism patients at low risk of an adverse outcome. In 682 normotensive pulmonary embolism patients we investigate whether an optimised hsTnT cut-off value and adjustment for age improve the identification of patients at elevated risk. Overall, 25 (3.7%) patients had an adverse 30-day outcome. The established hsTnT cut-off value of 14 pg·mL(-1) retained its high prognostic value (OR (95% CI) 16.64 (2.24-123.74); p=0.006) compared with the cut-off value of 33 pg·mL(-1) calculated by receiver operating characteristic analysis (7.14 (2.64-19.26); pvalue of 45 pg·mL(-1) but not the established cut-off value of 14 pg·mL(-1) predicted an adverse outcome. An age-adjusted hsTnT cut-off value (≥14 pg·mL(-1) for patients aged risk (12.4% adverse outcome). Risk assessment of normotensive pulmonary embolism patients was improved by the introduction of an age-adjusted hsTnT cut-off value. A three-step approach helped identify patients at higher risk of an adverse outcome who might benefit from advanced therapy. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  4. Pulmonary arteriography in the high-risk patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlmutt, L.M.; Braun, S.D.; Newman, G.E.; Dunnick, N.R.

    1986-01-01

    In order to assess the magnitude of risk associated with pulmonary arteriography in patients with pulmonary hypertension and/or right ventricular dysfunction, retrospectively reviewed the incidence of major nonfatal complications and death in patients with these conditions. Of 1,434 examinations, 388 (27%) were performed in patients with pulmonary hypertension and/or elevated right ventricular end-diastolic pressure. Major complications related to contrast agent injection occurred in 30 (2%) of the 1,434 examinations and included chest pain, respiratory distress, arrhythmias, cardiac arrest, and death (two patients). Six (2%) of these complications, including both deaths, occurred in the study group. Both patients who died had severe cardiopulmonary compromise, but most patients with severe cardiopulmonary compromise tolerated angiography well

  5. Clinical risk analysis with failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) model in a dialysis unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfant, Giovanna; Belfanti, Pietro; Paternoster, Giuseppe; Gabrielli, Danila; Gaiter, Alberto M; Manes, Massimo; Molino, Andrea; Pellu, Valentina; Ponzetti, Clemente; Farina, Massimo; Nebiolo, Pier E

    2010-01-01

    The aim of clinical risk management is to improve the quality of care provided by health care organizations and to assure patients' safety. Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is a tool employed for clinical risk reduction. We applied FMEA to chronic hemodialysis outpatients. FMEA steps: (i) process study: we recorded phases and activities. (ii) Hazard analysis: we listed activity-related failure modes and their effects; described control measures; assigned severity, occurrence and detection scores for each failure mode and calculated the risk priority numbers (RPNs) by multiplying the 3 scores. Total RPN is calculated by adding single failure mode RPN. (iii) Planning: we performed a RPNs prioritization on a priority matrix taking into account the 3 scores, and we analyzed failure modes causes, made recommendations and planned new control measures. (iv) Monitoring: after failure mode elimination or reduction, we compared the resulting RPN with the previous one. Our failure modes with the highest RPN came from communication and organization problems. Two tools have been created to ameliorate information flow: "dialysis agenda" software and nursing datasheets. We scheduled nephrological examinations, and we changed both medical and nursing organization. Total RPN value decreased from 892 to 815 (8.6%) after reorganization. Employing FMEA, we worked on a few critical activities, and we reduced patients' clinical risk. A priority matrix also takes into account the weight of the control measures: we believe this evaluation is quick, because of simple priority selection, and that it decreases action times.

  6. Epidemiology of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with liver failure: Clinical presentation, risk factors, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Yang, Meifang; Hu, Jianhua; Zhao, Hong; Li, Lanjuan

    2018-02-01

    Objective Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a severe and often lethal infection. The possible risk factors, clinical presentation, and treatment of patients with simultaneous liver failure and IPA have received little attention in previous studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of IPA in patients with liver failure in an effort to reduce patient mortality. Methods The patients with liver failure (including acute liver failure , sub-acute liver failure , acute-on-chronic liver failure and chronic liver failure) were recruited from 2011 to 2016. The clinical data of these patients were retrieved for the study. Results In total, 1077 patients with liver failure were included in this study. Of the 1077 patients, 53 (4.9%) had IPA. Forty-four (83%) patients with IPA died. Independent risk factors for IPA were male sex (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.542), hepatorenal syndrome (HR = 2.463), antibiotic use (HR = 4.631), and steroid exposure (HR = 18.615). Conclusions IPA is a fatal complication in patients with liver failure. Male sex, hepatorenal syndrome, antibiotic use, and steroid exposure were independent risk factors for IPA. When patients with liver failure have these risk factors and symptoms of pneumonia such as cough or hemoptysis, clinicians should be cautious about the possibility of IPA.

  7. Noninvasive Doppler tissue measurement of pulmonary artery compliance in children with pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Karrie; Lanning, Craig; Das, Bibhuti; Lee, Po-Feng; Ivy, D Dunbar; Valdes-Cruz, Lilliam; Shandas, Robin

    2006-04-01

    We have shown previously that input impedance of the pulmonary vasculature provides a comprehensive characterization of right ventricular afterload by including compliance. However, impedance-based compliance assessment requires invasive measurements. Here, we develop and validate a noninvasive method to measure pulmonary artery (PA) compliance using ultrasound color M-mode (CMM) Doppler tissue imaging (DTI). Dynamic compliance (C(dyn)) of the PA was obtained from CMM DTI and continuous wave Doppler measurement of the tricuspid regurgitant velocity. C(dyn) was calculated as: [(D(s) - D(d))/(D(d) x P(s))] x 10(4); where D(s) = systolic diameter, D(d) = diastolic diameter, and P(s) = systolic pressure. The method was validated both in vitro and in 13 patients in the catheterization laboratory, and then tested on 27 pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension, with comparison with 10 age-matched control subjects. C(dyn) was also measured in an additional 13 patients undergoing reactivity studies. Instantaneous diameter measured using CMM DTI agreed well with intravascular ultrasound measurements in the in vitro models. Clinically, C(dyn) calculated by CMM DTI agreed with C(dyn) calculated using invasive techniques (23.4 +/- 16.8 vs 29.1 +/- 20.6%/100 mm Hg; P = not significant). Patients with pulmonary hypertension had significantly lower peak wall velocity values and lower C(dyn) values than control subjects (P < .01). C(dyn) values followed an exponentially decaying relationship with PA pressure, indicating the nonlinear stress-strain behavior of these arteries. Reactivity in C(dyn) agreed with reactivity measured using impedance techniques. The C(dyn) method provides a noninvasive means of assessing PA compliance and should be useful as an additional measure of vascular reactivity subsequent to pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with pulmonary hypertension.

  8. Perioperative pulmonary aspiration is infrequent and low risk in pediatric anesthetic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Christopher J; Walker, Robert W M

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have reported perioperative pulmonary aspiration in pediatric practice to be an uncommon problem associated with low morbidity and mortality. This paper examines the recent publications in both the adult and pediatric literature and looks at some of the potential risk factors involved, both patient and anesthetic, in the development of aspiration of gastric contents. We also look at the risk of severe morbidity following pulmonary aspiration and speculate on possible reasons behind the assertion that pulmonary aspiration in pediatric anesthetic practice is rare and a low-risk event. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Smoking is a risk factor for pulmonary metastasis in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahagi, M; Tsuruta, M; Hasegawa, H; Okabayashi, K; Toyoda, N; Iwama, N; Morita, S; Kitagawa, Y

    2017-09-01

    The hepatic microenvironment, which may include chronic inflammation and fibrosis, is considered to contribute to the pathogenesis of liver metastases of colorectal cancer. A similar mechanism is anticipated for pulmonary metastases, although no reports are available. Smoking causes pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. Thus, we hypothesized that smokers would be especially affected by pulmonary metastases of colorectal cancer. In this study, we attempted to clarify the impact of smoking on pulmonary metastasis of colorectal cancer. Between September 2005 and December 2010 we reviewed 567 patients with pathological Stage I, II or III colorectal cancer, whose clinicopathological background included a preoperative smoking history, pack-year history from medical records. Univariate and multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazard model were performed to determine the independent prognostic factors for pulmonary metastasis-free survival. Pulmonary metastases occurred in 39 (6.9%) patients. The smoking histories revealed 355 never smokers, 119 former smokers and 93 current smokers among the subjects. Multivariate analysis revealed that being a current smoker (hazard ratio = 2.72, 95% CI 1.18-6.25; P = 0.02) was an independent risk factor for pulmonary metastases. Smoking may be a risk factor for pulmonary metastasis of colorectal cancer. Cessation of smoking should be recommended to prevent pulmonary metastasis, although further basic and clinical studies are required. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  10. Effect of the high-pitch mode in dual-source computed tomography on the accuracy of three-dimensional volumetry of solid pulmonary nodules: A phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Oh, Yu Whan; Ham, Soo Youn; Kang, Eun Young; Lee, Ki Yeol

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of high-pitch mode (HPM) in dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) on the accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) volumetry for solid pulmonary nodules. A lung phantom implanted with 45 solid pulmonary nodules (n = 15 for each of 4-mm, 6-mm, and 8-mm in diameter) was scanned twice, first in conventional pitch mode (CPM) and then in HPM using DSCT. The relative percentage volume errors (RPEs) of 3D volumetry were compared between the HPM and CPM. In addition, the intermode volume variability (IVV) of 3D volumetry was calculated. In the measurement of the 6-mm and 8-mm nodules, there was no significant difference in RPE (p > 0.05, respectively) between the CPM and HPM (IVVs of 1.2 +/- 0.9%, and 1.7 +/- 1.5%, respectively). In the measurement of the 4-mm nodules, the mean RPE in the HPM (35.1 +/- 7.4%) was significantly greater (p < 0.01) than that in the CPM (18.4 +/- 5.3%), with an IVV of 13.1 +/- 6.6%. However, the IVVs were in an acceptable range (< 25%), regardless of nodule size. The accuracy of 3D volumetry with HPM for solid pulmonary nodule is comparable to that with CPM. However, the use of HPM may adversely affect the accuracy of 3D volumetry for smaller (< 5 mm in diameter) nodule.

  11. Effect of the high-pitch mode in dual-source computed tomography on the accuracy of three-dimensional volumetry of solid pulmonary nodules: A phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Oh, Yu Whan; Ham, Soo Youn [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Eun Young [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ki Yeol [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    To evaluate the influence of high-pitch mode (HPM) in dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) on the accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) volumetry for solid pulmonary nodules. A lung phantom implanted with 45 solid pulmonary nodules (n = 15 for each of 4-mm, 6-mm, and 8-mm in diameter) was scanned twice, first in conventional pitch mode (CPM) and then in HPM using DSCT. The relative percentage volume errors (RPEs) of 3D volumetry were compared between the HPM and CPM. In addition, the intermode volume variability (IVV) of 3D volumetry was calculated. In the measurement of the 6-mm and 8-mm nodules, there was no significant difference in RPE (p > 0.05, respectively) between the CPM and HPM (IVVs of 1.2 +/- 0.9%, and 1.7 +/- 1.5%, respectively). In the measurement of the 4-mm nodules, the mean RPE in the HPM (35.1 +/- 7.4%) was significantly greater (p < 0.01) than that in the CPM (18.4 +/- 5.3%), with an IVV of 13.1 +/- 6.6%. However, the IVVs were in an acceptable range (< 25%), regardless of nodule size. The accuracy of 3D volumetry with HPM for solid pulmonary nodule is comparable to that with CPM. However, the use of HPM may adversely affect the accuracy of 3D volumetry for smaller (< 5 mm in diameter) nodule.

  12. Blood Biomarkers in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiot, Julien; Moermans, Catherine; Henket, Monique; Corhay, Jean-Louis; Louis, Renaud

    2017-06-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and lethal lung disease of unknown origin whose incidence has been increasing over the latest decade partly as a consequence of population ageing. New anti-fibrotic therapy including pirfenidone and nintedanib have now proven efficacy in slowing down the disease. Nevertheless, diagnosis and follow-up of IPF remain challenging. This review examines the recent literature on potentially useful blood molecular and cellular biomarkers in IPF. Most of the proposed biomarkers belong to chemokines (IL-8, CCL18), proteases (MMP-1 and MMP-7), and growth factors (IGBPs) families. Circulating T cells and fibrocytes have also gained recent interest in that respect. Up to now, though several interesting candidates are profiling there has not been a single biomarker, which proved to be specific of the disease and predictive of the evolution (decline of pulmonary function test values, risk of acute exacerbation or mortality). Large scale multicentric studies are eagerly needed to confirm the utility of these biomarkers.

  13. Linear calculations of edge current driven kink modes with BOUT++ code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, G. Q., E-mail: ligq@ipp.ac.cn; Xia, T. Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, CAS, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Xu, X. Q. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Snyder, P. B.; Turnbull, A. D. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Ma, C. H.; Xi, P. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); FSC, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-10-15

    This work extends previous BOUT++ work to systematically study the impact of edge current density on edge localized modes, and to benchmark with the GATO and ELITE codes. Using the CORSICA code, a set of equilibria was generated with different edge current densities by keeping total current and pressure profile fixed. Based on these equilibria, the effects of the edge current density on the MHD instabilities were studied with the 3-field BOUT++ code. For the linear calculations, with increasing edge current density, the dominant modes are changed from intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes to low-n kink modes, and the linear growth rate becomes smaller. The edge current provides stabilizing effects on ballooning modes due to the increase of local shear at the outer mid-plane with the edge current. For edge kink modes, however, the edge current does not always provide a destabilizing effect; with increasing edge current, the linear growth rate first increases, and then decreases. In benchmark calculations for BOUT++ against the linear results with the GATO and ELITE codes, the vacuum model has important effects on the edge kink mode calculations. By setting a realistic density profile and Spitzer resistivity profile in the vacuum region, the resistivity was found to have a destabilizing effect on both the kink mode and on the ballooning mode. With diamagnetic effects included, the intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes can be totally stabilized for finite edge current density.

  14. Linear calculations of edge current driven kink modes with BOUT++ code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G. Q.; Xia, T. Y.; Xu, X. Q.; Snyder, P. B.; Turnbull, A. D.; Ma, C. H.; Xi, P. W.

    2014-01-01

    This work extends previous BOUT++ work to systematically study the impact of edge current density on edge localized modes, and to benchmark with the GATO and ELITE codes. Using the CORSICA code, a set of equilibria was generated with different edge current densities by keeping total current and pressure profile fixed. Based on these equilibria, the effects of the edge current density on the MHD instabilities were studied with the 3-field BOUT++ code. For the linear calculations, with increasing edge current density, the dominant modes are changed from intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes to low-n kink modes, and the linear growth rate becomes smaller. The edge current provides stabilizing effects on ballooning modes due to the increase of local shear at the outer mid-plane with the edge current. For edge kink modes, however, the edge current does not always provide a destabilizing effect; with increasing edge current, the linear growth rate first increases, and then decreases. In benchmark calculations for BOUT++ against the linear results with the GATO and ELITE codes, the vacuum model has important effects on the edge kink mode calculations. By setting a realistic density profile and Spitzer resistivity profile in the vacuum region, the resistivity was found to have a destabilizing effect on both the kink mode and on the ballooning mode. With diamagnetic effects included, the intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes can be totally stabilized for finite edge current density

  15. Splenectomy correlates with increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis: a case-control study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, S-W; Wang, I-K; Lin, C-L; Chen, H-J; Liao, K-F

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated whether there was an association between splenectomy and pulmonary tuberculosis. This was a case-control study using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Programme. We identified 18 960 patients (aged 20 years or older) with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis as the case group and 73 988 participants without pulmonary tuberculosis as the control group from 1998 to 2011. Both groups were matched for sex, age (per 5 years) and index year of pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis. The risk of pulmonary tuberculosis associated with splenectomy and other co-morbidities was estimated. After controlling for confounders, multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of pulmonary tuberculosis were 1.91 in patients with splenectomy (95% CI 1.06-3.44), compared with the participants without splenectomy. Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (OR 3.07, 95% CI 2.94-3.21), pneumoconiosis (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.90-2.56), chronic kidney diseases (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.33-1.67), diabetes mellitus (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.50-1.64) and chronic liver diseases (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.25-1.37) were associated with an increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis. The sub-analysis demonstrated that the odds of pulmonary tuberculosis were 4.81 (95% CI 2.31-10.0) for patients co-morbid with splenectomy and any of the above diseases. Splenectomy is associated with a 1.9-fold increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis in Taiwan. There is a synergistic effect between splenectomy and other co-morbidities on the risk of pulmonary tuberculosis. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  16. Calculation of mixed mode stress intensity factors using an alternating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takayuki

    1999-01-01

    In this study, mixed mode stress intensity factors (K I and K II ) of a square plate with a notch were calculated using a finite element alternating method. The obtained results were compared with the ones by a finite element method, and it was shown that the finite element alternating method can accurately estimate mixed mode stress intensity factors. Then, using this finite element alternating method, mixed mode stress intensity factors were calculated as changing the size and position of the notch, and its simplified equations were proposed. (author)

  17. Eigenvalue translation method for mode calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerck, E.; Cruz, C.H.B.

    1978-11-01

    A new method is described for the first few modes calculations in a interferometer that has several advantages over the ALLMAT subroutine, the Prony Method and the Fox and Li Method. In the illustrative results shown for the same cases it can be seen that the eigenvalue translation method is typically 100 fold times faster than the usual Fox and Li Method and 10 times faster than ALLMAT [pt

  18. Risk analysis of geothermal power plants using Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feili, Hamid Reza; Akar, Navid; Lotfizadeh, Hossein; Bairampour, Mohammad; Nasiri, Sina

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Using Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) to find potential failures in geothermal power plants. • We considered 5 major parts of geothermal power plants for risk analysis. • Risk Priority Number (RPN) is calculated for all failure modes. • Corrective actions are recommended to eliminate or decrease the risk of failure modes. - Abstract: Renewable energy plays a key role in the transition toward a low carbon economy and the provision of a secure supply of energy. Geothermal energy is a versatile source as a form of renewable energy that meets popular demand. Since some Geothermal Power Plants (GPPs) face various failures, the requirement of a technique for team engineering to eliminate or decrease potential failures is considerable. Because no specific published record of considering an FMEA applied to GPPs with common failure modes have been found already, in this paper, the utilization of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) as a convenient technique for determining, classifying and analyzing common failures in typical GPPs is considered. As a result, an appropriate risk scoring of occurrence, detection and severity of failure modes and computing the Risk Priority Number (RPN) for detecting high potential failures is achieved. In order to expedite accuracy and ability to analyze the process, XFMEA software is utilized. Moreover, 5 major parts of a GPP is studied to propose a suitable approach for developing GPPs and increasing reliability by recommending corrective actions for each failure mode

  19. Pre-transplant reversible pulmonary hypertension predicts higher risk for mortality after cardiac transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Javed; Stankewicz, Mark A; Wu, Jack; Chomsky, Don B; Howser, Renee L; Khadim, Ghazanfar; Davis, Stacy F; Pierson, Richard N; Wilson, John R

    2005-02-01

    Pre-transplant fixed pulmonary hypertension is associated with higher post-transplant mortality. In this study, we assessed the significance of pre-transplant reversible pulmonary hypertension in patients undergoing cardiac transplantation. Overall, we studied 182 patients with baseline normal pulmonary pressures or reversible pulmonary hypertension, defined as a decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) to 50 mm Hg had a higher risk of death (odds ratio [OR] 5.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.46 to 19.84 as compared with PAS 4.0 WU, but patients with TPG > or =16 had a higher risk of mortality (OR 4.93, 95% CI 1.84 to 13.17). PAS pressure was an independent predictor of mortality (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.06). Recipient body mass index, history of sternotomy; and donor ischemic time were the other independent predictors of mortality. Pre-transplant pulmonary hypertension, even when reversible to a PVR of < or =2.5 WU, is associated with a higher mortality post-transplant.

  20. Measurement of pulmonary vascular resistance of Fontan candidates with pulmonary arterial distortion by means of pulmonary perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, In-Sam; Mizukami, Ayumi; Tomimatsu, Hirofumi; Kondou, Chisato; Nakanishi, Toshio; Nakazawa, Makoto; Momma, Kazuo

    1998-01-01

    We measured the distribution of blood flow to the right (R) and left lung (L) by means of pulmonary perfusion imaging and calculated pulmonary vascular resistance (Rp) in 13 patients, whose right and left pulmonary artery pressures were different by 2 to 9 mmHg due to pulmonary arterial distortion (5 interruption, 8 stenosis). The right lung/left lung blood flow ratio was determined and from the ratio and the total pulmonary blood flow, which was determined using the Fick's principle, the absolute values of right and left pulmonary blood flow were calculated. Using the right and left pulmonary blood flow and the right and left pulmonary arterial pressures, right and left pulmonary vascular resistance were calculated, separately. Vascular resistance of the whole lung (Rp) was then calculated using the following equation. 1/(Rp of total lung)=1/(Rp of right lung)+1/(Rp of left lung). Rp calculated from this equation was 1.8+/-0.8 U·m 2 and all values were less than 3 U·m 2 (range 0.3-2.8). Rp estimated from the conventional method using the total pulmonary blood flow and pulmonary arterial pressures, without using the right/left blood flow ratio, ranging from 0.4 to 3.8 U·m 2 and 5 of 13 patients showed Rp>3 U·m 2 . All patients underwent Fontan operation successfully. These data indicated that this method is useful to estimate Rp and to determine the indication of Fontan operation in patients with pulmonary arterial distortions. (author)

  1. Detection and follow-up of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and risk factors in the Southern Cone of Latin America. the pulmonary risk in South America (PRISA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Héctor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization has estimated that by 2030, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease will be the third leading cause of death worldwide. Most knowledge of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is based on studies performed in Europe or North America and little is known about the prevalence, patient characteristics and change in lung function over time in patients in developing countries, such as those of Latin America. This lack of knowledge is in sharp contrast to the high levels of tobacco consumption and exposure to biomass fuels exhibited in Latin America, both major risk factors for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Studies have also demonstrated that most Latin American physicians frequently do not follow international chronic obstructive pulmonary disease diagnostic and treatment guidelines. The PRISA Study will expand the current knowledge regarding chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and risk factors in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay to inform policy makers and health professionals on the best policies and practices to address this condition. Methods/Design PRISA is an observational, prospective cohort study with at least four years of follow-up. In the first year, PRISA has employed a randomized three-staged stratified cluster sampling strategy to identify 6,000 subjects from Marcos Paz and Bariloche, Argentina, Temuco, Chile, and Canelones, Uruguay. Information, such as comorbidities, socioeconomic status and tobacco and biomass exposure, will be collected and spirometry, anthropometric measurements, blood sampling and electrocardiogram will be performed. In year four, subjects will have repeat measurements taken. Discussion There is no longitudinal data on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease incidence and risk factors in the southern cone of Latin America, therefore this population-based prospective cohort study will fill knowledge gaps in the prevalence and incidence of

  2. Cardiovascular risk calculation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    James A. Ker

    2014-08-20

    Aug 20, 2014 ... smoking and elevated blood sugar levels (diabetes mellitus). These risk ... These are risk charts, e.g. FRS, a non-laboratory-based risk calculation, and ... for hard cardiovascular end-points, such as coronary death, myocardial ...

  3. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D, lung function and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Lange, Peter; Bojesen, Stig Egil

    2014-01-01

    25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) may be associated with lung function through modulation of pulmonary protease-antiprotease imbalance, airway inflammation, lung remodelling and oxidative stress. We examined the association of plasma 25(OH)D levels with lung function, lung function decline and risk o...... of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).......25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) may be associated with lung function through modulation of pulmonary protease-antiprotease imbalance, airway inflammation, lung remodelling and oxidative stress. We examined the association of plasma 25(OH)D levels with lung function, lung function decline and risk...

  4. The study of risk in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Simonneau

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of published evidence exists on the risk factors for disease progression in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. The Scientific Steering Committee for the Study of Risk in PAH was established to bring together leading clinical and statistical experts in PAH and risk modelling, for the purpose of advancing the understanding of the risk of development and progression of PAH. Herein, we discuss the impact of this information on three key areas: 1 clinical decision-making; 2 policy and reimbursement; and 3 future trials and research.

  5. A clinical audit of thrombolytic therapy in patients with normotensive pulmonary embolism and intermediate risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Carla; Mesquita, Dinis; Thomas, Boban; Ponte, Teresinha; Santos, Luis; Tavares, João

    2014-06-01

    There is considerable debate regarding the use of thrombolytic therapy in patients with pulmonary embolism, normal blood pressure and intermediate clinical risk, as defined by right ventricular dysfunction on transthoracic echocardiography or elevated serum markers of cardiac necrosis. A clinical audit of normotensive patients diagnosed with acute pulmonary embolism using multi- detector computerized tomography pulmonary angiography (MDCTPA) and intermediate risk, was conducted to determine clinical outcomes at 30 days. The specific role played by imaging findings and clinical severity, on the decision to thrombolyse, was assessed. The two cohorts who did (n = 15) and did not receive thrombolysis (n = 20) were compared for age, heart rate, blood pressure and oxyhemoglobin saturation at presentation, and the simplified PESI score was calculated in each patient. MDCTPA findings suggestive of adverse clinical outcome including central PE and an increased RV/LV diameter were determined for each patient. RV dysfunction on echocardiography was compared to clinical scoring, and findings on MDCTPA. The patients who received thrombolytic therapy were younger (48.6 ± 19.11 years versus 64.2 ± 13.83 years) (P audit revealed a predilection to use thrombolysis in younger patients with clinical severity and imaging findings on MDCTPA being the key drivers. A perception of a fragile hemodynamic status, as implied by a higher heart rate and shock index, despite a normal BP probably inclined us to thrombolyse.

  6. Calculating disability-adjusted life years (DALY) as a measure of excess cancer risk following radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, K; Kai, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper has proposed that disability-adjusted life year (DALY) can be used as a measure of radiation health risk. DALY is calculated as the sum of years of life lost (YLL) and years lived with disability (YLD). This multidimensional concept can be expressed as a risk index without a probability measure to avoid the misuse of the current radiation detriment at low doses. In this study, we calculated YLL and YLD using Japanese population data by gender. DALY for all cancers in Japan per 1 Gy per person was 0.84 year in men and 1.34 year in women. The DALY for all cancers in the Japanese baseline was 4.8 in men and 3.5 in women. When we calculated the ICRP detriment from the same data, DALYs for the cancer sites were similar to the radiation detriment in the cancer sites, excluding leukemia, breast and thyroid cancer. These results suggested that the ICRP detriment overestimate the weighting fraction of leukemia risk and underestimate the weighting fraction of breast and thyroid cancer. A big advantage over the ICRP detriment is that DALY can calculate the risk components for non-fatal diseases without the data of lethality. This study showed that DALY is a practical tool that can compare many types of diseases encountered in public health. (paper)

  7. Pulmonary thromboembolic disease – clinical and etiological aspects in internal medicine department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazilu Laura

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulmonary embolism (PE represents the third most frequent vascular disease following acute myocardial ischemic disease and stroke. It is a common and potentially lethal disease. Aim: We observed etiological spectrum, clinical aspects and diagnostic tests for patients with PE. Material and methods: Retrospective observational study that included 53 patients diagnosed with PE between 01.01.2009- 31.12.2013. We followed epidemiological aspects, risk factors, clinical manifestations and methods for positive diagnosis. Results: 53 patients which represents 0.66% from the patients admitted in our department (n=8,011, were diagnosed with PE. The main risk factor for PE was malignancy (n=16. Twenty patients with PE presented deep venous thrombosis (DVT and 12 patients arterial thrombosis (AT. Main clinical syndromes of patients with PE were pulmonary infarction (n=32, isolated dyspnea (n=11 and circulatory collapse (n=10. A lot of paraclinical investigation sustained positive diagnosis,mainly by high performance techniques. Four cases were diagnosed postmortem.

  8. Suicide Lethality: A Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBastiani, Summer; De Santis, Joseph P

    2018-02-01

    Suicide is a significant health problem internationally. Those who complete suicide may have different behaviors and risk factors than those who attempt a non-fatal suicide. The purpose of this article is to analyze the concept of suicide lethality and propose a clear definition of the concept through the identification of antecedents, attributes, and consequences. A literature search for articles published in the English language between 1970 and 2016 was conducted using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Pubmed, Psychlit, Ovid, PsycINFO, and Proquest. The bibliographies of all included studies were also reviewed to identify additional relevant citations. A concept analysis was conducted on the literature findings using six stages of Walker and Avant's method. The concept analysis differentiated between suicide, lethality, suicidal behavior, and suicide lethality. Presence of a suicide plan or a written suicide note was not found to be associated with the majority of completed suicides included in the definition of suicide lethality. There are a few scales that measure the lethality of a suicide attempt, but none that attempt to measure the concept of suicide lethality as described in this analysis. Clarifying the concept of suicide lethality encourages awareness of the possibility of different suicidal behaviors associated with different suicide outcomes and will inform the development of future nursing interventions. A clearer definition of the concept of suicide lethality will guide clinical practice, research, and policy development aimed at suicide prevention.

  9. Effective representation of amide III, II, I, and A modes on local vibrational modes: Analysis of ab initio quantum calculation results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Seungsoo

    2016-10-28

    The Hamiltonian matrix for the first excited vibrational states of a protein can be effectively represented by local vibrational modes constituting amide III, II, I, and A modes to simulate various vibrational spectra. Methods for obtaining the Hamiltonian matrix from ab initio quantum calculation results are discussed, where the methods consist of three steps: selection of local vibrational mode coordinates, calculation of a reduced Hessian matrix, and extraction of the Hamiltonian matrix from the Hessian matrix. We introduce several methods for each step. The methods were assessed based on the density functional theory calculation results of 24 oligopeptides with four different peptide lengths and six different secondary structures. The completeness of a Hamiltonian matrix represented in the reduced local mode space is improved by adopting a specific atom group for each amide mode and reducing the effect of ignored local modes. The calculation results are also compared to previous models using C=O stretching vibration and transition dipole couplings. We found that local electric transition dipole moments of the amide modes are mainly bound on the local peptide planes. Their direction and magnitude are well conserved except amide A modes, which show large variation. Contrary to amide I modes, the vibrational coupling constants of amide III, II, and A modes obtained by analysis of a dipeptide are not transferable to oligopeptides with the same secondary conformation because coupling constants are affected by the surrounding atomic environment.

  10. Calculation of induced modes of magnetic field in the geodynamo problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Yukiko; Yukutake, Takesi

    1989-01-01

    In the dynamo problem, the calculation of induced modes is of vital importance, because the interaction of fluid motions with the magnetic field induces specific types of fields which are, in many cases, different either from the type of velocity field or from the original magnetic field. This special induction relationship, known as 'selection rules', has so far been derived by calculating Adams-Gaunt integrals and Elsasser integrals. In this paper, we calculate the induced modes in a more direct way, expressing the magnetic fields and the velocity in a spherical harmonic series. By linearizing the product terms of spherical harmonic functions, which appear in interaction terms between the velocity and the magnetic field, into a simple spherical harmonic series, we have derived the induced magnetic modes in a simple general form. When the magnetic field and the velocity are expressed by toroidal and poloidal modes, four kinds of interaction are conceivable between the velocity and the magnetic field. By each interaction, two modes, the poloidal and toroidal, are induced, except in the interaction of the toroidal velocity with the toroidal magnetic field, which induces only the toroidal mode. In spite of the diversity of interaction processes, the induced modes have been found to be expressed simply by two types. For a velocity of degree l and order k interacting with a magnetic field of degree n and order m, one type is the mode with degree and order of n+l-2t, |m±k| for an integer t, and the other with n+l-2t-1, |m±k|. (author)

  11. Low risk of pulmonary tuberculosis of residents in high background radiation area, Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaojuan; Sun Quanfu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the pulmonary tuberculosis mortality risk of the residents in high background radiation area (HBRA), Yangjiang, China. Methods: A cohort including 89 694 persons in HBRA and 35 385 persons in control area (CA) has been established since 1979. Person-year tables based on classified variables including sex, attained age, follow-up calendar year, and dose-rate group (high, intermediate, and low in HBRA, and control group) were tabulated using DATAB in EPICURE. Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate the relative risks (RR) of infectious and parasitic disease especially for pulmonary tuberculosis. Cumulative dose for each cohort member was obtained. Results: Two million person-years were accumulated by follow-up and 612 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis ascertained. Compared with risk in the control area, statistically significant lower risk of pulmonary tuberculosis was observed in HBRA among those who aged 60 years and over; markedly decreased risk occurred among males; no significant difference was found among the 6 follow-up stages, two subregions in the HBRA, or different diagnostic facilities. A statistically significantly negative dose-response was observed (P<0.001), the higher accumulative dose, the lower dose the pulmonary tuberculosis mortality risk. Its excess relative risk (ERR/Sv) was estimated to be -1.09 (95% CI: -1.34, -0.85). No established risk factors could explain this lower risk. Conclusions: The mortality of puhnonary tuberculosis among residents in HBRA who were chronically exposed to low-dose radiation was statistically significantly lower than that in the control area, and a significant dose-response relationship was observed, which probably resulted from the immunoenhancement of low dose radiation. (authors)

  12. Dose Rate Calculations for Rotary Mode Core Sampling Exhauster

    CERN Document Server

    Foust, D J

    2000-01-01

    This document provides the calculated estimated dose rates for three external locations on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) exhauster HEPA filter housing, per the request of Characterization Field Engineering.

  13. Dose Rate Calculations for Rotary Mode Core Sampling Exhauster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FOUST, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides the calculated estimated dose rates for three external locations on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) exhauster HEPA filter housing, per the request of Characterization Field Engineering

  14. Measuring, calculating and estimating PEP's parasitic mode loss parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    This note discusses various ways the parasitic mode losses from a bunched beam to a vacuum chamber can be measured, calculated or estimated. A listing of the parameter, k, for the various PEP ring components is included. A number of formulas for calculating multiple and single pass losses are discussed and evaluated for several cases. 25 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. Computed tomographic assessment of the surgical risks associated with fibrocavernous pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ming-Ho; Chang, Jia-Ming; Haung, Tsung-Mao; Cheng, Li-Li; Tseng, Yau-Lin; Lin, Mu-Yen; Lai, Wu-Wei

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the surgical risks associated with fibrocavernous pulmonary tuberculosis by retrospectively examining chest computed tomography (CT) scans. We reviewed the records of 40 patients who underwent pulmonary resection for fibrocavernous pulmonary tuberculosis, for whom preoperative CT scans were available. The disease was categorized as class I, defined as a cavity within one lobe without remarkable pleural thickness, in 21 patients; class II, defined as a cavity extending beyond one lobe or within one lobe with remarkable pleural thickness, in 10 patients; and class III, defined as bilateral cavities, in 9 patients. Four of the nine patients with bilateral cavities underwent bilateral pulmonary resection and five underwent unilateral pulmonary resection. The study parameters were intraoperative blood loss, operative time, hospital stay, major operative morbidity, and hospital death. Intraoperative blood loss and operative time were significantly greater and hospital stay was significantly longer in patients with advanced disease (P=0.046, P=0.000, and P=0.143, respectively). Major surgical morbidity mainly occurred in association with advanced disease (P=0.028) at the following incidences: class I, 5%; class II, 30%; class III, 44.4%. Two hospital deaths occurred, both following bilateral pulmonary resection for class III disease, accounting for an overall 5% mortality rate. The surgical risks associated with fibrocavernous pulmonary tuberculosis were well correlated with anatomic involvement, according to the extent of cavitation and the severity of pleural thickness, as depicted by CT. Staged pulmonary resection or the combination of one-sided resection with other modalities is recommended for the treatment of bilateral cavities. (author)

  16. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biere-Rafi, Sara; Di Nisio, Marcello; Gerdes, Victor; Porreca, Ettore; Souverein, Patrick; de Boer, Anthonius; Büller, Harry; Kamphuisen, Pieter

    2011-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with an increased risk of arterial thrombosis, but their effect on venous thrombotic events is less well established. The study aimed to assess the risk of symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients using NSAIDs and to evaluate

  17. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: current understanding of the pathogenesis and the status of treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil, Nasreen; O'Connor, Robert

    2004-01-01

    IDIOPATHIC PULMONARY FIBROSIS (IPF) is a progressive and lethal pulmonary fibrotic lung disease. The diagnostic histological changes are called usual interstitial pneumonia and are characterized by histological temporal heterogeneity, whereby normal lung tissue is interspersed with interstitial fibrosis, honeycomb cysts and fibroblast foci. Pulmonary functions show restricted volumes and capacities, preserved flows and evidence of decreased gas exchange. High-resolution computed axial tomogra...

  18. An algorithm of α-and γ-mode eigenvalue calculations by Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Miyoshi, Yoshinori

    2003-01-01

    A new algorithm for Monte Carlo calculation was developed to obtain α- and γ-mode eigenvalues. The α is a prompt neutron time decay constant measured in subcritical experiments, and the γ is a spatial decay constant measured in an exponential method for determining the subcriticality. This algorithm can be implemented into existing Monte Carlo eigenvalue calculation codes with minimum modifications. The algorithm was implemented into MCNP code and the performance of calculating the both mode eigenvalues were verified through comparison of the calculated eigenvalues with the ones obtained by fixed source calculations. (author)

  19. Lung transplantation for high-risk patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Nilto C; Julliard, Walker; Osaki, Satoru; Maloney, James D; Cornwell, Richard D; Sonetti, David A; Meyer, Keith C

    2016-10-07

    Survival for patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and high lung allocation score (LAS) values may be significantly reduced in comparison to those with lower LAS values. To evaluate outcomes for high-risk IPF patients as defined by LAS values ≥46 (N=42) versus recipients with LAS values pulmonary complications was increased for the higher LAS group versus recipients with LAS <46, 30-day mortality and actuarial survival did not differ between the two cohorts. Although lung transplantation in patients with IPF and high LAS values is associated with increased risk of early post-transplant complications, long-term post-transplant survival for our high-LAS cohort was equivalent to that for the lower LAS recipients.

  20. Sensitivity of species to chemicals: dose-response characteristics for various test types (LC(50), LR(50) and LD(50)) and modes of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, A Jan; Awkerman, Jill A; de Zwart, Dick; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2013-11-01

    While variable sensitivity of model species to common toxicants has been addressed in previous studies, a systematic analysis of inter-species variability for different test types, modes of action and species is as of yet lacking. Hence, the aim of the present study was to identify similarities and differences in contaminant levels affecting cold-blooded and warm-blooded species administered via different routes. To that end, data on lethal water concentrations LC50, tissue residues LR50 and oral doses LD50 were collected from databases, each representing the largest of its kind. LC50 data were multiplied by a bioconcentration factor (BCF) to convert them to internal concentrations that allow for comparison among species. For each endpoint data set, we calculated the mean and standard deviation of species' lethal level per compound. Next, the means and standard deviations were averaged by mode of action. Both the means and standard deviations calculated depended on the number of species tested, which is at odds with quality standard setting procedures. Means calculated from (BCF) LC50, LR50 and LD50 were largely similar, suggesting that different administration routes roughly yield similar internal levels. Levels for compounds interfering biochemically with elementary life processes were about one order of magnitude below that of narcotics disturbing membranes, and neurotoxic pesticides and dioxins induced death in even lower amounts. Standard deviations for LD50 data were similar across modes of action, while variability of LC50 values was lower for narcotics than for substances with a specific mode of action. The study indicates several directions to go for efficient use of available data in risk assessment and reduction of species testing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Pulmonary hypertensive crisis in children with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension undergoing cardiac catheterization: the risk factors and clinical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Zhu, Y; Li, Q Q; Gu, H

    2018-06-02

    Objective: To investigate the risk factors, clinical features, treatments, and prevention of pulmonary hypertensive crisis (PHC) in children with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) undergoing cardiac catheterization. Methods: This retrospective study included 67 children who were diagnosed with IPAH and underwent cardiac catheterization between April 2009 and June 2017 in Beijing Anzhen Hospital. The medical histories, clinical manifestations, treatments, and outcomes were characterized. Statistical analyses were performed using t test, χ(2) test and a multiple Logistic regression analysis. Results: During cardiac catheterization, five children developed PHC who presented with markedly elevated pulmonary artery pressure and central venous pressure, decline in systemic arterial pressure and oxygen saturation. Heart rate decreased in 4 cases and increased in the remaining one. After the treatments including cardiopulmonary resuscitation, pulmonary vasodilator therapy, improving cardiac output and blood pressure, and correction of acidosis, 4 of the 5 cases recovered, while 1 died of severe right heart failure with irreversible PHC 3 days after operation. Potential PHC was considered in 7 other patients, whose pulmonary artery pressure increased and exceeded systemic arterial pressure, oxygen saturation decreased, and central venous pressure and vital signs were relatively stable. Univariate analysis showed that the risk factors of PHC in children with IPAH undergoing cardiac catheterization were younger age ( t= 3.160, P= 0.004), low weight ( t= 4.004, Phistory of syncope (χ(2)=4.948, P= 0.026), and WHO cardiac functional class Ⅲ or Ⅳ (χ(2)=19.013, Pcatheterization. WHO cardiac functional class may be associated with PHC. Integrated treatment is required for these patients. Reducing risk factors, early identification, and active treatment may help to prevent the occurrence and progression of PHC.

  2. Monitoring pulmonary function with superimposed pulmonary gas exchange curves from standard analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zar, Harvey A; Noe, Frances E; Szalados, James E; Goodrich, Michael D; Busby, Michael G

    2002-01-01

    A repetitive graphic display of the single breath pulmonary function can indicate changes in cardiac and pulmonary physiology brought on by clinical events. Parallel advances in computer technology and monitoring make real-time, single breath pulmonary function clinically practicable. We describe a system built from a commercially available airway gas monitor and off the shelf computer and data-acquisition hardware. Analog data for gas flow rate, O2, and CO2 concentrations are introduced into a computer through an analog-to-digital conversion board. Oxygen uptake (VO2) and carbon dioxide output (VCO2) are calculated for each breath. Inspired minus expired concentrations for O2 and CO2 are displayed simultaneously with the expired gas flow rate curve for each breath. Dead-space and alveolar ventilation are calculated for each breath and readily appreciated from the display. Graphs illustrating the function of the system are presented for the following clinical scenarios; upper airway obstruction, bronchospasm, bronchopleural fistula, pulmonary perfusion changes and inadequate oxygen delivery. This paper describes a real-time, single breath pulmonary monitoring system that displays three parameters graphed against time: expired flow rate, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production. This system allows for early and rapid recognition of treatable conditions that may lead to adverse events without any additional patient measurements or invasive procedures. Monitoring systems similar to the one described in this paper may lead to a higher level of patient safety without any additional patient risk.

  3. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallejo, Franco Javier; Vallejo, Alejandro; Parra, Maximiliano

    2007-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease characterized by the diffuse and bilateral presence of calcium phosphate microlite in the alveolar spaces. The progression of this potentially lethal disease is show and most of the patients remain asymptomatic during years or decades, resulting in a show deterioration of the pulmonary function. The typical finding of the sand storm in the chest X-ray is characteristic of this entity. Mutations in the SLC34A2 gene that does the coding for the type II co-transporter of sodium phosphate were identified as responsible for this disease. Of the almost 600 cases, only 6 have been reported in Colombia. We are presenting a case of pulmonary alveolar microlite in a 27 year old man, with progressive respiratory distress whose diagnosis was made by the X-ray findings and confirmed by trans bronchial biopsy. In the 2 years follow-up, shows evolution towards deterioration of his respiratory function making him a candidate for lung transplantation.

  4. Drift mode calculations for the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rewoldt, G.; Ku, L.-P.; Tang, W.M.; Sugama, H.; Nakajima, N.; Watanabe, K.Y.; Murakami, S.; Yamada, H.; Cooper, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    A fully kinetic assessment of the stability properties of toroidal drift modes has been obtained for a case for the Large Helical Device (LHD) [A.Iiyoshi, et al., Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, 1998, Nucl.Fusion 39, 1245 (1999)]. This calculation retains the important effects in the linearized gyrokinetic equation, using the lowest-order ''ballooning representation'' for high toroidal mode number instabilities in the electrostatic limit. Results for toroidal drift waves destabilized by trapped particle dynamics and ion temperature gradients are presented, using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics equilibria reconstructed from experimental measurements. The effects of helically-trapped particles and helical curvature are investigated

  5. Predation risk affects growth and reproduction of an invasive snail and its lethal effect depends on prey size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Martín, Pablo R.; Zhang, Chunxia

    2017-01-01

    The behavior of invasive species under predation risk has been studied extensively, but their growth and reproductive responses have rarely been investigated. We conducted experiments with juveniles and adults of the invasive freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata, and we observed changes in growth and reproduction in response to predation risk from a caged predator (Trachemys scripta elegans). P. canaliculata produced eggs earlier in the presence of predators and injured conspecifics compared with the control group (no risk), although the total number of egg masses laid by per female was exceeded by that of the controls after 15 days. Egg hatching success noticeably decreased under predation risk, and the incubation period was significantly prolonged; however, the oviposition height of the snails was not affected. A lethal effect of predation risk was detected in juvenile snails but not in adults. The growth of juvenile P. canaliculata was inhibited under predation risk, probably due to a reduction in food intake. Adult females exhibited a greater reduction in growth under predation risk than males, which likely resulted in part from the high reproductive investment of females in egg laying. These results indicate that P. canaliculata snails under predation risk face a trade-off between predator avoidance and growth and reproduction, where the lethal effect of predation risk is linked to the size of the prey. PMID:29136660

  6. Predation risk affects growth and reproduction of an invasive snail and its lethal effect depends on prey size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guo

    Full Text Available The behavior of invasive species under predation risk has been studied extensively, but their growth and reproductive responses have rarely been investigated. We conducted experiments with juveniles and adults of the invasive freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata, and we observed changes in growth and reproduction in response to predation risk from a caged predator (Trachemys scripta elegans. P. canaliculata produced eggs earlier in the presence of predators and injured conspecifics compared with the control group (no risk, although the total number of egg masses laid by per female was exceeded by that of the controls after 15 days. Egg hatching success noticeably decreased under predation risk, and the incubation period was significantly prolonged; however, the oviposition height of the snails was not affected. A lethal effect of predation risk was detected in juvenile snails but not in adults. The growth of juvenile P. canaliculata was inhibited under predation risk, probably due to a reduction in food intake. Adult females exhibited a greater reduction in growth under predation risk than males, which likely resulted in part from the high reproductive investment of females in egg laying. These results indicate that P. canaliculata snails under predation risk face a trade-off between predator avoidance and growth and reproduction, where the lethal effect of predation risk is linked to the size of the prey.

  7. Pulmonary Hypertension and Pulmonary Vasodilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Roberta L

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension in the perinatal period can present acutely (persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn) or chronically. Clinical and echocardiographic diagnosis of acute pulmonary hypertension is well accepted but there are no broadly validated criteria for echocardiographic diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension later in the clinical course, although there are significant populations of infants with lung disease at risk for this diagnosis. Contributing cardiovascular comorbidities are common in infants with pulmonary hypertension and lung disease. It is not clear who should be treated without confirmation of pulmonary vascular disease by cardiac catheterization, with concurrent evaluation of any contributing cardiovascular comorbidities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mode Calculation and Testing of a Car Body in White

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic parameters of a car body in white (BIW are important during a new car developing. Based on the finite element method, the model of a BIW is developed in which the welding points are treated specially as a new element type and the vibration modes of it are calculated. In modal testing, a fixed sine-sweeping exciter is used to conduct a single-point input force for the structure, whereas the output responses are picked up at different points to identify modes. The obtained modes are coincided both with the FE results and the practical testing.

  9. Prognostic implications of serial risk score assessments in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: a Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Disease Management (REVEAL) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benza, Raymond L; Miller, Dave P; Foreman, Aimee J; Frost, Adaani E; Badesch, David B; Benton, Wade W; McGoon, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    Data from the Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Disease Management (REVEAL) were used previously to develop a risk score calculator to predict 1-year survival. We evaluated prognostic implications of changes in the risk score and individual risk-score parameters over 12 months. Patients were grouped by decreased, unchanged, or increased risk score from enrollment to 12 months. Kaplan-Meier estimates of subsequent 1-year survival were made based on change in the risk score during the initial 12 months of follow-up. Cox regression was used for multivariable analysis. Of 2,529 patients in the analysis cohort, the risk score was decreased in 800, unchanged in 959, and increased in 770 at 12 months post-enrollment. Six parameters (functional class, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, 6-minute walk distance, brain natriuretic peptide levels, and pericardial effusion) each changed sufficiently over time to improve or worsen risk scores in ≥5% of patients. One-year survival estimates in the subsequent year were 93.7%, 90.3%, and 84.6% in patients with a decreased, unchanged, and increased risk score at 12 months, respectively. Change in risk score significantly predicted future survival, adjusting for risk at enrollment. Considering follow-up risk concurrently with risk at enrollment, follow-up risk was a much stronger predictor, although risk at enrollment maintained a significant effect on future survival. Changes in REVEAL risk scores occur in most patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension over a 12-month period and are predictive of survival. Thus, serial risk score assessments can identify changes in disease trajectory that may warrant treatment modifications. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimating the effect of lay knowledge and prior contact with pulmonary TB patients, on health-belief model in a high-risk pulmonary TB transmission population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zein, Rizqy Amelia; Suhariadi, Fendy; Hendriani, Wiwin

    2017-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate the effect of lay knowledge of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and prior contact with pulmonary TB patients on a health-belief model (HBM) as well as to identify the social determinants that affect lay knowledge. Survey research design was conducted, where participants were required to fill in a questionnaire, which measured HBM and lay knowledge of pulmonary TB. Research participants were 500 residents of Semampir, Asemrowo, Bubutan, Pabean Cantian, and Simokerto districts, where the risk of pulmonary TB transmission is higher than other districts in Surabaya. Being a female, older in age, and having prior contact with pulmonary TB patients significantly increase the likelihood of having a higher level of lay knowledge. Lay knowledge is a substantial determinant to estimate belief in the effectiveness of health behavior and personal health threat. Prior contact with pulmonary TB patients is able to explain the belief in the effectiveness of a health behavior, yet fails to estimate participants' belief in the personal health threat. Health authorities should prioritize males and young people as their main target groups in a pulmonary TB awareness campaign. The campaign should be able to reconstruct people's misconception about pulmonary TB, thereby bringing around the health-risk perception so that it is not solely focused on improving lay knowledge.

  11. Clinical spectrum and outcome of pulmonary nocardiosis: 5-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akashdeep Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulmonary nocardiosis is a rare but a life-threatening infection caused by Nocardia spp. The diagnosis is often missed and delayed resulting in delay in appropriate treatment and thus higher mortality. Aim: In this study, we aim to evaluate the clinical spectrum and outcome of patients with pulmonary nocardiosis. Methods: A retrospective, 5-year (2009-2014 review of demographic profile, risk factors, clinical manifestations, imaging findings, treatment, and outcome of patients with pulmonary nocardiosis admitted to a tertiary care hospital. Results: The median age of the study subjects was 54 years (range, 16-76 and majority of them (75% were males. The risk factors for pulmonary nocardiosis identified in our study were long-term steroid use (55.6%, chronic lung disease (52.8%, diabetes (27.8%, and solid-organ transplantation (22.2%. All the patients were symptomatic, and the most common symptoms were cough (91.7%, fever (78%, and expectoration (72%. Almost two-third of the patients were initially misdiagnosed and the alternative diagnosis included pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 7, community-acquired pneumonia (n = 5, lung abscess (n = 4, invasive fungal infection (n = 3, lung cancer (n = 2, and Wegener′s granulomatosis (n = 2. The most common radiographic features were consolidation (77.8% and nodules (56%. The mortality rate for indoor patients was 33% despite treatment. Higher mortality rate was observed among those who had brain abscess (100.0%, HIV positivity (100%, need for mechanical ventilation (87.5%, solid-organ transplantation (50%, and elderly (age > 60 years patients (43%. Conclusion: The diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis is often missed and delayed resulting in delay in appropriate treatment and thus high mortality. A lower threshold for diagnosing pulmonary nocardiosis needs to be exercised, in chest symptomatic patients with underlying chronic lung diseases or systemic immunosuppression, for the early diagnosis, and

  12. Assessing the utility of autofluorescence-based pulmonary optical endomicroscopy to predict the malignant potential of solitary pulmonary nodules in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Sohan; Akram, Ahsan R.; McCool, Paul; Westerfeld, Jody; Wilson, David; McLaughlin, Stephen; Dhaliwal, Kevin; Williams, Christopher K. I.

    2016-08-01

    Solitary pulmonary nodules are common, often incidental findings on chest CT scans. The investigation of pulmonary nodules is time-consuming and often leads to protracted follow-up with ongoing radiological surveillance, however, clinical calculators that assess the risk of the nodule being malignant exist to help in the stratification of patients. Furthermore recent advances in interventional pulmonology include the ability to both navigate to nodules and also to perform autofluorescence endomicroscopy. In this study we assessed the efficacy of incorporating additional information from label-free fibre-based optical endomicrosopy of the nodule on assessing risk of malignancy. Using image analysis and machine learning approaches, we find that this information does not yield any gain in predictive performance in a cohort of patients. Further advances with pulmonary endomicroscopy will require the addition of molecular tracers to improve information from this procedure.

  13. A three-dimensional model for calculating the micro disk laser resonant-modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabetjoo, H.; Bahrampor, A.; Farrahi-Moghaddam, R.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, a semi-analytical model for theoretical analysis of micro disk lasers is presented. Using this model, the necessary conditions for the existence of loss less and low-loss modes of micro-resonators are obtained. The resonance frequency of the resonant modes and also the attenuation of low-loss modes are calculated. By comparing the results with results of finite difference method, their validity is certified.

  14. Perturbative calculation of quasinormal modes of AdS Schwarzschild black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musiri, Suphot; Ness, Scott; Siopsis, George

    2006-01-01

    We calculate analytically quasinormal modes of AdS Schwarzschild black holes including first-order corrections. We consider massive scalar, gravitational and electromagnetic perturbations. Our results are in good agreement with numerical calculations. In the case of electromagnetic perturbations, ours is the first calculation to provide an analytic expression for quasinormal frequencies, because the effective potential vanishes at zeroth order. We show that the first-order correction is logarithmic

  15. Calculations of lattice vibrational mode lifetimes using Jazz: a Python wrapper for LAMMPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Y; Wang, H; Daw, M S

    2015-01-01

    Jazz is a new python wrapper for LAMMPS [1], implemented to calculate the lifetimes of vibrational normal modes based on forces as calculated for any interatomic potential available in that package. The anharmonic character of the normal modes is analyzed via the Monte Carlo-based moments approximation as is described in Gao and Daw [2]. It is distributed as open-source software and can be downloaded from the website http://jazz.sourceforge.net/. (paper)

  16. Calculations of lattice vibrational mode lifetimes using Jazz: a Python wrapper for LAMMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Wang, H.; Daw, M. S.

    2015-06-01

    Jazz is a new python wrapper for LAMMPS [1], implemented to calculate the lifetimes of vibrational normal modes based on forces as calculated for any interatomic potential available in that package. The anharmonic character of the normal modes is analyzed via the Monte Carlo-based moments approximation as is described in Gao and Daw [2]. It is distributed as open-source software and can be downloaded from the website http://jazz.sourceforge.net/.

  17. Using competing risks model and competing events in outcome of pulmonary tuberculosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Kazempour Dizaji

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Use of competing risks model with competing events can provide a better way to understand the associated risk factors co-related with outcome of the pulmonary TB process, especially among DR-TB patients.

  18. Pneumoconiosis and liver cirrhosis are not risk factors for tuberculosis in patients with pulmonary infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, H.P.; Pan, Y.H.; Hua, C.C.; Shieh, H.B.; Jiang, B.Y.; Yu, T.J. [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chilung (Taiwan)

    2007-05-15

    It is unclear whether patients with liver cirrhosis and coal miners with pneumoconiosis are at increased risk of developing pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Furthermore, little is known of the likelihood of pneumonia in patients with bronchiectasis, haemodialysis, diabetes mellitus or advanced lung cancer being due to TB. To answer these questions, patients with these clinical comorbidities were analysed. The study was retrospective and included 264 TB patients, 478 non-TB pneumonia patients, and as negative controls, 438 subjects without pneumonia. The parameters analysed were age, gender and the presence of pneumoconiosis, bronchiectasis, liver cirrhosis, haemodialysis, diabetes mellitus and advanced lung cancer. Male gender was the only significant factor increasing the risk of pulmonary TB. When compared with non-TB pneumonia and control patients, the odds ratios were 1.862 and 2.182, respectively. Patients with liver cirrhosis did not show an increased risk of pulmonary TB after regression analysis. Pneumoconiosis resulted in a 2.260 (P = 0.003) odds ratio for pulmonary TB, compared with the controls. However, there was no difference in pneurmoconiosis between TB and non-TB pneumonia patients. Patients with bronchiectasis, lung cancer and those receiving haemodialysis had a lower risk for pulmonary TB in lower respiratory tract infection, with odds ratios of 0.342, 0.311 and 0.182, respectively. Physicians should first consider non-TB bacterial infection rather than Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in pneumonia in patients with bronchiectasis, lung cancer or those receiving haemodialysis.

  19. Radiation dose and cancer risk estimates in helical CT for pulmonary tuberculosis infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleye Bamise

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The preference for computed tomography (CT for the clinical assessment of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB infections has increased the concern about the potential risk of cancer in exposed patients. In this study, we investigated the correlation between cancer risk and radiation doses from different CT scanners, assuming an equivalent scan protocol. Radiation doses from three 16-slice units were estimated using the CT-Expo dosimetry software version 2.4 and standard CT scan protocol for patients with suspected PTB infections. The lifetime risk of cancer for each scanner was determined using the methodology outlined in the BEIR VII report. Organ doses were significantly different (P < 0.05 between the scanners. The calculated effective dose for scanner H2 is 34% and 37% higher than scanners H3 and H1 respectively. A high and statistically significant correlation was observed between estimated lifetime cancer risk for both male (r2 = 0.943, P < 0.05 and female patients (r2 = 0.989, P < 0.05. The risk variation between the scanners was slightly higher than 2% for all ages but was much smaller for specific ages for male and female patients (0.2% and 0.7%, respectively. These variations provide an indication that the use of a scanner optimizing protocol is imperative.

  20. Radiation dose and cancer risk estimates in helical CT for pulmonary tuberculosis infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleye, Bamise; Chetty, Naven

    2017-12-01

    The preference for computed tomography (CT) for the clinical assessment of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) infections has increased the concern about the potential risk of cancer in exposed patients. In this study, we investigated the correlation between cancer risk and radiation doses from different CT scanners, assuming an equivalent scan protocol. Radiation doses from three 16-slice units were estimated using the CT-Expo dosimetry software version 2.4 and standard CT scan protocol for patients with suspected PTB infections. The lifetime risk of cancer for each scanner was determined using the methodology outlined in the BEIR VII report. Organ doses were significantly different (P < 0.05) between the scanners. The calculated effective dose for scanner H2 is 34% and 37% higher than scanners H3 and H1 respectively. A high and statistically significant correlation was observed between estimated lifetime cancer risk for both male (r2 = 0.943, P < 0.05) and female patients (r2 = 0.989, P < 0.05). The risk variation between the scanners was slightly higher than 2% for all ages but was much smaller for specific ages for male and female patients (0.2% and 0.7%, respectively). These variations provide an indication that the use of a scanner optimizing protocol is imperative.

  1. 3-D nonlinear calculations of resistive tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, H.R.; Holmes, J.A.; Lee, D.K.; Carreras, B.; Waddell, B.V.

    1981-03-01

    Recent numerical calculations of the evolution of resistive tearing modes have been central to the understanding of magnetohydrodynamic activity and disruptions in tokamaks. The nonlinear, 3-D, initial-value computer code RSF has provided many of these results. This code assumes cylindrical geometry with a Fourier series representation in the two periodic coordinates and a finite-difference representation in the radial direction. This choice makes RSF considerably more accurate and efficient than previous codes

  2. Perturbation method for calculation of narrow-band impedance and trapped modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heifets, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    An iterative method for calculation of the narrow-band impedance is described for a system with a small variation in boundary conditions, so that the variation can be considered as a perturbation. The results are compared with numeric calculations. The method is used to relate the origin of the trapped modes with the degeneracy of the spectrum of an unperturbed system. The method also can be applied to transverse impedance calculations. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  3. Source-receptor matrix calculation with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model in backward mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Seibert

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to calculate linear-source receptor relationships for the transport of atmospheric trace substances with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM running in backward mode is shown and presented with many tests and examples. This mode requires only minor modifications of the forward LPDM. The derivation includes the action of sources and of any first-order processes (transformation with prescribed rates, dry and wet deposition, radioactive decay, etc.. The backward mode is computationally advantageous if the number of receptors is less than the number of sources considered. The combination of an LPDM with the backward (adjoint methodology is especially attractive for the application to point measurements, which can be handled without artificial numerical diffusion. Practical hints are provided for source-receptor calculations with different settings, both in forward and backward mode. The equivalence of forward and backward calculations is shown in simple tests for release and sampling of particles, pure wet deposition, pure convective redistribution and realistic transport over a short distance. Furthermore, an application example explaining measurements of Cs-137 in Stockholm as transport from areas contaminated heavily in the Chernobyl disaster is included.

  4. Percutaneous Stent-Graft Repair of a Mycotic Pulmonary Artery Pseudoaneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou Meichun; Liang Hueilung; Pan Huayban; Yang Chienfang

    2006-01-01

    Ruptured mycotic pulmonary pseudoaneurysm is a lethal complication. Emergent surgical repair is usually recommended, but still associated with a high mortality rate. We present a patient in whom mycotic pulmonary pseudoaneurysm was a complication after surgical lobectomy 2 weeks earlier. This patient had suffered from repeated massive hemoptysis. After emergent surgical repair of the ruptured pulmonary artery stump, another episode of massive hemorrhage occurred. The pulmonary arteriogram revealed a segmental stenosis and a large, wide-necked, lobulated pseudoaneurysm at the left proximal pulmonary artery. We deployed a balloon-expandable stent-graft (48 mm in length mounted on a 12 mm x 40 mm angioplasty balloon) across the stenotic segment and the neck of the pulmonary pseudoaneurysm. Hemostasis was achieved immediately and, under a 4-week antibiotic treatment, patient was transferred to a local hospital for medical care. This case report demonstrates the benefit of minimally invasive endovascular therapy in a critically ill patient. A literature review of the etiology and management of mycotic pulmonary pseudoaneurysm is included

  5. Risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among never-smokers in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SJ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Seok Jeong Lee,1 Seo Woo Kim,1 Kyoung Ae Kong,2 Yon Ju Ryu,1 Jin Hwa Lee,1 Jung Hyun Chang1 1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Clinical Trial Center, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients include those who have never smoked. However, risk factors other than smoking in never-smokers have not been elucidated sufficiently. This study investigated the risk factors for COPD among never-smokers in Korea using population-based data. Methods: The data were retrieved from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey IV conducted from 2007 to 2009. Among subjects aged 40 years or older who underwent appropriate pulmonary function tests, never-smokers not diagnosed with asthma and not showing a restrictive pattern on pulmonary function tests were enrolled. Risk factors of COPD in never-smokers were analyzed using logistic regression models. Results: Among 24,871 participants in the representative Korean cohort, 3,473 never-smokers were enrolled. COPD patients accounted for 7.6% of the never-smokers. In the logistic regression analysis, low education status (odds ratio [OR]: 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2–3.2, occupational exposure (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.3–5.3, a history of tuberculosis (OR: 4.5; 95% CI: 2.3–8.7, bronchiectasis (OR: 6.0; 95% CI: 1.4–25.4, male sex (OR: 4.2; 95% CI: 2.6–6.7, advanced age (60–69 years vs 40–49 years; OR: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.0–7.0, and being underweight (body mass index <18.5 vs 18.0–24.9 kg/m2; OR: 3.1; 95% CI: 1.0–9.4 were associated with the development of COPD. Conclusion: Low education status, manual labor, a history of tuberculosis and bronchiectasis, as well as male sex, advanced age and being underweight were risk factors for COPD in Korean never-smokers. Keywords: socioeconomic status, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, never-smoker

  6. Pathogenetics of alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szafranski, P.; Gambin, T.; Dharmadhikari, A.V.; Akdemir, K.C.; Jhangiani, S.N.; Schuette, J.; Godiwala, N.; Yatsenko, S.A.; Sebastian, J.; Madan-Khetarpal, S.; Surti, U.; Abellar, R.G.; Bateman, D.A.; Wilson, A.L.; Markham, M.H.; Slamon, J.; Santos-Simarro, F.; Palomares, M.; Nevado, J.; Lapunzina, P.; Chung, B.H.; Wong, W.L.; Chu, Y.W.; Mok, G.T.; Kerem, E.; Reiter, J.; Ambalavanan, N.; Anderson, S.A.; Kelly, D.R.; Shieh, J.; Rosenthal, T.C.; Scheible, K.; Steiner, L.; Iqbal, M.A.; McKinnon, M.L.; Hamilton, S.J.; Schlade-Bartusiak, K.; English, D.; Hendson, G.; Roeder, E.R.; DeNapoli, T.S.; Littlejohn, R.O.; Wolff, D.J.; Wagner, C.L.; Yeung, A.; Francis, D.; Fiorino, E.K.; Edelman, M.; Fox, J.; Hayes, D.A.; Janssens, S.; Baere, E. De; Menten, B.; Loccufier, A.; Vanwalleghem, L.; Moerman, P.; Sznajer, Y.; Lay, A.S.; Kussmann, J.L.; Chawla, J.; Payton, D.J.; Phillips, G.E.; Brosens, E.; Tibboel, D.; Klein, A.; Maystadt, I.; Fisher, R.; Sebire, N.; Male, A.; Chopra, M.; Pinner, J.; Malcolm, G.; Peters, G.; Arbuckle, S.; Lees, M.; Mead, Z.; Quarrell, O.; Sayers, R.; Owens, M.; Shaw-Smith, C.; Lioy, J.; McKay, E.; Leeuw, N. de; Feenstra, I.; Spruijt, L.; Elmslie, F.; Thiruchelvam, T.; Bacino, C.A.; Langston, C.; Lupski, J.R.; Sen, P.; Popek, E.; Stankiewicz, P.

    2016-01-01

    Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) is a lethal lung developmental disorder caused by heterozygous point mutations or genomic deletion copy-number variants (CNVs) of FOXF1 or its upstream enhancer involving fetal lung-expressed long noncoding RNA genes

  7. Prevalence of nutritional deficiency in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Gomes Nunes Piva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of nutritional deficiency among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using data obtained from the Brazilian Case Registry Database and from the medical records of patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis (15-59 years of age residing in one of the municipalities that make up the 16th Regional Health District of the state of Bahia. We calculated the incidence, lethality, and mortality rates, as well as the prevalence of nutritional deficiency, as evaluated by body mass index. Demographic, social, clinical, and epidemiological data were collected. RESULTS: Of the 72 confirmed cases of tuberculosis, 59 (81.9% were in males, and 21 (29.2% of the patients were in the 40-49 year age bracket. The majority (85.3% described themselves as Mulatto or Black; 55.2% reported using alcohol; and approximately 90% were treated as outpatients. In the district and age bracket studied, the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 30.6/100,000 population. Among the 72 patients, data regarding nutritional status was available for 34. Of those, 50% and 25%, respectively, presented nutritional deficiency at the beginning and at the end of treatment. No statistically significant differences were found between normal-weight and malnourished patients regarding the characteristics studied. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of nutritional deficiency was high among our sample of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. This underscores the importance of nutritional follow-up for the assessment of tuberculosis treatment in the decision-making process regarding therapeutic interventions.

  8. Occupational exposure to organic solvents: a risk factor for pulmonary veno-occlusive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montani, David; Lau, Edmund M; Descatha, Alexis; Jaïs, Xavier; Savale, Laurent; Andujar, Pascal; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Girerd, Barbara; Zendah, Inès; Le Pavec, Jerome; Seferian, Andrei; Perros, Frédéric; Dorfmüller, Peter; Fadel, Elie; Soubrier, Florent; Sitbon, Oliver; Simonneau, Gérald; Humbert, Marc

    2015-12-01

    Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a rare form of pulmonary hypertension characterised by predominant remodelling of pulmonary venules. Bi-allelic mutations in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α kinase 4 (EIF2AK4) gene were recently described as the major cause of heritable PVOD, but risk factors associated with PVOD remain poorly understood. Occupational exposures have been proposed as a potential risk factor for PVOD, but epidemiological studies are lacking.A case-control study was conducted in consecutive PVOD (cases, n=33) and pulmonary arterial hypertension patients (controls, n=65). Occupational exposure was evaluated via questionnaire interview with blinded assessments using an expert consensus approach and a job exposure matrix (JEM).Using the expert consensus approach, PVOD was significantly associated with occupational exposure to organic solvents (adjusted OR 12.8, 95% CI 2.7-60.8), with trichloroethylene being the main agent implicated (adjusted OR 8.2, 95% CI 1.4-49.4). JEM analysis independently confirmed the association between PVOD and trichloroethylene exposure. Absence of significant trichloroethylene exposure was associated with a younger age of disease (54.8±21.4 years, p=0.037) and a high prevalence of harbouring bi-allelic EIF2AK4 mutations (41.7% versus 0%, p=0.015).Occupational exposure to organic solvents may represent a novel risk factor for PVOD. Genetic background and environmental exposure appear to influence the phenotypic expression of the disease. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  9. Safety analysis for push-mode and rotary-mode core sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milliken, N.J.; Geschke, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    This safety analysis analyzes using the push-mode core sampling truck in the push-mode and the rotary-mode core sampling trucks in both the push- and rotary-modes to retrieve core samples that, once taken and analyzed, will yield waste characterization data for the hazardous waste tanks at the Hanford Site. Operation of the core sampling trucks in both the push- and rotary-modes was reviewed to determine whether the release of radioactive materials could occur during operation. It was concluded that there are three credible scenarios: a sample spill outside of the tank, a steam release event, and an unfiltered release to the environment during continuous exhauster operation. The probability of a sample spill was found to be 10 -4 /event, the probability of a steam release event was determined to fall in the unlikely range (10 -2 /event to 10 -4 /event), and the probability of an unfiltered release was calculated to be 5 x 10 -3 /year. Typically, events with probabilities of 10 -6 /event or less are not considered to be risk significant, and the consequences usually are not analyzed. The three accident scenarios were analyzed to calculate the dose consequences. It was determined that the steam release event is the bounding accident. The onsite and offsite dose consequences for this event are calculated to be 0.24 Sv (24 rem) and 3.2 x 10 -4 Sv (32 mrem), respectively. These consequences are below the risk acceptance guidelines for an unlikely event, as established in WHC-CM-4-46, Nonreactor Facility Safety Analysis Manual. With the design features and the use of the controls presented in Section 8.0, this operation represents a minimal risk

  10. Glycyrrhizic acid alleviates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili eGao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and lethal form of interstitial lung disease that lacks effective therapies at present. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA, a natural compound extracted from a traditional Chinese herbal medicine Glycyrrhiza glabra, was recently reported to benefit lung injury and liver fibrosis in animal models, yet whether GA has a therapeutic effect on pulmonary fibrosis is unknown. In this study, we investigated the potential therapeutic effect of GA on pulmonary fibrosis in a rat model with bleomycin (BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. The results indicated that GA treatment remarkably ameliorated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and attenuated BLM-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and activation of tansforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway in the lungs. Further, we demonstrated that GA treatment inhibited proliferation of 3T6 fibroblast cells, induced cell cycle arrest and promoted apoptosis in vitro, implying that GA-mediated suppression of fibroproliferation may contribute to the anti-fibrotic effect against BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. In summary, our study suggests a therapeutic potential of GA in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis.

  11. Assessment of anemia during CT pulmonary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Caroline; Groth, Michael; Bley, Thorsten A.; Henes, Frank O.; Treszl, András; Adam, Gerhard; Bannas, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Anemia is associated with increased mortality in patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of Hounsfield unit (HU) measurements on the single unenhanced trigger slice of pulmonary CT angiography scans for diagnosis of anemia. Material and Methods: 150 consecutive patients (median age 64 ± 16 years) with suspected PE underwent pulmonary CT angiography. Two radiologists, blinded to laboratory results, performed HU measurements in the single unenhanced trigger scan independently by region-based analysis (ROI). HU values from ascending and descending aorta and the calculated mean of both were correlated with serum hemoglobin levels. Inter- and intraobserver variability was determined for HU measurements, and ROC analysis was performed for diagnosis of anemia. Calculated linear models were used to assess formulas for estimation of hemoglobin levels from HU measurements. Results: HU measurements revealed high intra- and interrater reliability (ICC > 0.981 and ICC > 0.965, respectively). Calculated mean HU values showed a strong correlation with serum hemoglobin levels (r = 0.734), which allowed generation of different formulas for calculation of hemoglobin levels from HU measurements. ROC analyses confirmed a high sensitivity (80.4 for men; 91.3 for women) and specificity (84.0 for men; 84.9 for women) for diagnosing anemia. Conclusion: Diagnosis of anemia and quantification of hemoglobin levels upon a single unenhanced trigger scan of pulmonary CT angiography is feasible. We suggest disclosing the anemic state in the radiological report, independent of the presence of PE, since anemia carries increased risks of morbidity and mortality.

  12. Assessment of anemia during CT pulmonary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Caroline, E-mail: cjung@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Groth, Michael; Bley, Thorsten A.; Henes, Frank O. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Treszl, András [Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, University Hospital Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Adam, Gerhard; Bannas, Peter [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Objectives: Anemia is associated with increased mortality in patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of Hounsfield unit (HU) measurements on the single unenhanced trigger slice of pulmonary CT angiography scans for diagnosis of anemia. Material and Methods: 150 consecutive patients (median age 64 ± 16 years) with suspected PE underwent pulmonary CT angiography. Two radiologists, blinded to laboratory results, performed HU measurements in the single unenhanced trigger scan independently by region-based analysis (ROI). HU values from ascending and descending aorta and the calculated mean of both were correlated with serum hemoglobin levels. Inter- and intraobserver variability was determined for HU measurements, and ROC analysis was performed for diagnosis of anemia. Calculated linear models were used to assess formulas for estimation of hemoglobin levels from HU measurements. Results: HU measurements revealed high intra- and interrater reliability (ICC > 0.981 and ICC > 0.965, respectively). Calculated mean HU values showed a strong correlation with serum hemoglobin levels (r = 0.734), which allowed generation of different formulas for calculation of hemoglobin levels from HU measurements. ROC analyses confirmed a high sensitivity (80.4 for men; 91.3 for women) and specificity (84.0 for men; 84.9 for women) for diagnosing anemia. Conclusion: Diagnosis of anemia and quantification of hemoglobin levels upon a single unenhanced trigger scan of pulmonary CT angiography is feasible. We suggest disclosing the anemic state in the radiological report, independent of the presence of PE, since anemia carries increased risks of morbidity and mortality.

  13. Calculating excess lifetime risk in relative risk models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeth, M.; Pierce, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    When assessing the impact of radiation exposure it is common practice to present the final conclusions in terms of excess lifetime cancer risk in a population exposed to a given dose. The present investigation is mainly a methodological study focusing on some of the major issues and uncertainties involved in calculating such excess lifetime risks and related risk projection methods. The age-constant relative risk model used in the recent analyses of the cancer mortality that was observed in the follow-up of the cohort of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is used to describe the effect of the exposure on the cancer mortality. In this type of model the excess relative risk is constant in age-at-risk, but depends on the age-at-exposure. Calculation of excess lifetime risks usually requires rather complicated life-table computations. In this paper we propose a simple approximation to the excess lifetime risk; the validity of the approximation for low levels of exposure is justified empirically as well as theoretically. This approximation provides important guidance in understanding the influence of the various factors involved in risk projections. Among the further topics considered are the influence of a latent period, the additional problems involved in calculations of site-specific excess lifetime cancer risks, the consequences of a leveling off or a plateau in the excess relative risk, and the uncertainties involved in transferring results from one population to another. The main part of this study relates to the situation with a single, instantaneous exposure, but a brief discussion is also given of the problem with a continuous exposure at a low-dose rate

  14. Calculation of normal modes of the closed waveguides in general vector case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malykh, M. D.; Sevastianov, L. A.; Tiutiunnik, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    The article is devoted to the calculation of normal modes of the closed waveguides with an arbitrary filling ɛ, μ in the system of computer algebra Sage. Maxwell equations in the cylinder are reduced to the system of two bounded Helmholtz equations, the notion of weak solution of this system is given and then this system is investigated as a system of ordinary differential equations. The normal modes of this system are an eigenvectors of a matrix pencil. We suggest to calculate the matrix elements approximately and to truncate the matrix by usual way but further to solve the truncated eigenvalue problem exactly in the field of algebraic numbers. This approach allows to keep the symmetry of the initial problem and in particular the multiplicity of the eigenvalues. In the work would be presented some results of calculations.

  15. Roundtrip matrix method for calculating the leaky resonant modes of open nanophotonic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mørk, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We present a numerical method for calculating quasi-normal modes of open nanophotonic structures. The method is based on scattering matrices and a unity eigenvalue of the roundtrip matrix of an internal cavity, and we develop it in detail with electromagnetic fields expanded on Bloch modes...

  16. Role and diagnostic value of gene variants in assessing the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Z P; Tong, X; Liu, S T; Ma, Y; Peng, S F; Yang, X; Fan, H

    2016-05-13

    Meta-analyses have revealed many positive associations between gene variants and susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, some of those positive results may be false positives. Therefore, we investigated the genetic polymorphisms associated with COPD risk and determined their diagnostic value. We extracted the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval for each polymorphism from published meta-analyses concerning gene variants and COPD susceptibility in October 2014, subsequently we calculated false-positive report probabilities (FPRPs) for statistically significant associations (P value value of the true positive polymorphisms of COPD using the Meta-DiSc software. Twenty-five gene polymorphisms were significantly associated with COPD risk. The FPRP test results were as follows: 1) when the prior probability was 0.001 and the OR was 1.5, ADAM33 rs612709, CHRNA3/5 rs1051730, CHRNA3/5 rs8034191, CHRNA3/5 rs16969968, and TGFB1 rs1800470 were truly associated with COPD risk (FPRP value for COPD diagnosis.

  17. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: current understanding of the pathogenesis and the status of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Nasreen; O'Connor, Robert

    2004-07-20

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and lethal pulmonary fibrotic lung disease. The diagnostic histological changes are called usual interstitial pneumonia and are characterized by histological temporal heterogeneity, whereby normal lung tissue is interspersed with interstitial fibrosis, honeycomb cysts and fibroblast foci. Pulmonary functions show restricted volumes and capacities, preserved flows and evidence of decreased gas exchange. High-resolution computed axial tomography demonstrates evidence of fibrosis and lung remodelling such as honeycomb cysts and traction bronchiectasis. There is no known effective treatment for IPF, but lung transplantation improves survival.

  18. Identification of patients with low-risk pulmonary embolism suitable for outpatient treatment using the pulmonary embolism severity index (PESI).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCabe, A

    2013-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that outpatient treatment of patients with low-risk stable pulmonary embolism (PE) is safe, effective and potentially reduces costs. It is not clear how many patients presenting to an Irish Emergency Department (ED) are potentially suitable for outpatient management.

  19. Increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest in obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam Jacoba; Blom, Marieke Tabo; Bardai, Abdennasser

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine whether (1) patients with obstructive pulmonary disease (OPD) have an increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) due to ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT/VF), and (2) the SCA risk is mediated by cardiovascular risk-profile and/or respiratory drug use...... with electrocardiographic documentation of VT/VF were included. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between SCA and OPD. Pre-specified subgroup analyses were performed regarding age, sex, cardiovascular risk-profile, disease severity, and current use of respiratory drugs. RESULTS...... is associated with an increased observed risk of SCA. The most increased risk was observed in patients with a high cardiovascular risk-profile, and in those who received SABA and, possibly, those who received AC at the time of SCA....

  20. Revised nonstochastic health effects models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaniv, S.S.; Scott, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    In 1989, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published a revision of the 1985 report, Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, NUREG/CR-4214, that included models for early occurring and continuing nonstochastic effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. This paper discusses specific models for lethality from early occurring and continuing effects. For brevity, hematopoietic-syndrome lethality is called hematopoietic death; pulmonary-syndrome lethality is called pulmonary death; and gastrointestinal syndrome lethality is called gastrointestinal death. Two-parameter Weibull risk functions are recommended for estimating the risk of hematopoietic, pulmonary, or gastrointestinal death. The risks are obtained indirectly by using hazard functions; as a result, this type of approach has been called hazard-function modeling and the models generated are called hazard-function models. In the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report, changes were made in the parameter values for a number of effects, and the models used to estimate hematopoietic and pulmonary deaths were substantially revised. Upper and lower estimates of model parameters are provided for all early health effects models. In this paper, we discuss the 1989 models for hematopoietic and pulmonary deaths, highlighting the differences between the 1989 and 1985 models. In addition, we give the reasons for which the 1985 models were modified

  1. Pulmonary embolism in old age: usefulness of risk stratification in clinical decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Bova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary embolism (PE is a common disease with a not negligible short-term risk of death, in particular in the elderly. An adequate evaluation of the prognosis in patients with PE may guide decision-making in terms of the intensity of the initial treatment during the acute phase. Patients with shock or persistent hypotension are at high risk of early mortality and may benefit from immediate reperfusion. Several tools are available to define the short-term prognosis of hemodynamically stable patients. The pulmonary embolism severity index (PESI score, and the simplified PESI score are particularly useful for identifying patients at low risk of early complications who might be safely treated at home. The identification of patients who are hemodynamically stable at diagnosis but are at a high risk of early complications is more challenging. Current guidelines recommend a multi-parametric prognostic algorithm based on the clinical status, biomarkers and imaging tests. However an aggressive treatment in hemodynamically stable patients is still controversial.

  2. A CALCULATION METHOD OF TRANSIENT MODES OF ELECTRIC SHIPS’ PROPELLING ELECTRIC PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Yarovenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to develop the method for calculating the transient modes of electric ships’ propelling electric plants during maneuver. This will allow us to evaluate and improve the maneuverability of vessels with electric motion. Methodology. The solution to the problems is proposed to be carried out on the basis of mathematical modeling of maneuvering modes. The duration of transient modes in an electric power plant at electric ships’ maneuvers is commensurable with the transient operation modes of the vessel itself. Therefore, the analysis of the electric power plants’ maneuvering modes should be made in unity with all the components of the ship’s propulsion complex. Results. A specified mathematical model of transient regimes of electric ship’s propulsion complex, including thermal motors, synchronous generators, electric power converters, propulsion motors, propellers, rudder, ship’s hull is developed. The model is universal. It covers the vast majority of modern and promising electric ships with a traditional type of propulsors. It allows calculating the current values of the basic mode indicators and assessing the quality indicators of maneuvering. The model is made in relative units. Dimensionless parameters of the complex are obtained. These parameters influence the main indicators of the quality of maneuvering. The adequacy of the suggested specified mathematical model and the developed computation method based on it were confirmed. To do this, the results of mathematical modeling for a real electric ship were compared with the data obtained in the course of field experiments conducted by other researchers. Originality. The mathematical description of a generator unit, as an integral part of an indivisible ship’s propulsion complex, makes it possible to calculate the dynamic operation modes of electric power sources during electric vessels’ maneuvering. There is an opportunity to design the electric ships

  3. Lethal pulmonary hemorrhage syndrome due to Leptospira infection transmitted by pet rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Ludwig

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis of leptospirosis was made after the patient died. The transmitting animal was a pet rat. Leptospirosis has to be considered in case of rapid multi-organ failure presenting with pulmonary hemorrhage.

  4. Coupling mode-destination accessibility with seismic risk assessment to identify at-risk communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Mahalia; Baker, Jack W.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a framework for coupling mode-destination accessibility with quantitative seismic risk assessment to identify communities at high risk for travel disruptions after an earthquake. Mode-destination accessibility measures the ability of people to reach destinations they desire. We use a probabilistic seismic risk assessment procedure, including a stochastic set of earthquake events, ground-motion intensity maps, damage maps, and realizations of traffic and accessibility impacts. For a case study of the San Francisco Bay Area, we couple our seismic risk framework with a practical activity-based traffic model. As a result, we quantify accessibility risk probabilistically by community and household type. We find that accessibility varies more strongly as a function of travelers' geographic location than as a function of their income class, and we identify particularly at-risk communities. We also observe that communities more conducive to local trips by foot or bike are predicted to be less impacted by losses in accessibility. This work shows the potential to link quantitative risk assessment methodologies with high-resolution travel models used by transportation planners. Quantitative risk metrics of this type should have great utility for planners working to reduce risk to a region's infrastructure systems. - Highlights: • We couple mode-destination accessibility with probabilistic seismic risk assessment. • Results identify communities at high risk for post-earthquake travel disruptions. • Accessibility varies more as a function of home location than by income. • Our model predicts reduced accessibility risk for more walking-friendly communities.

  5. Pulmonary hypertension as a risk factor of mortality after lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper H; Schultz, Hans Henrik L; Nyholm, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is recognized as a risk factor in lung transplantation as reflected in the lung allocation score (LAS). We examined the impact of PH on outcome after lung transplantation, with special emphasis on pre- and post-capillary PH. METHODS: Consecutive lung transplant...

  6. CFD calculations on the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of a tilt-rotor in a conversion mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Peng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to calculate the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of a tilt-rotor in a conversion mode, a virtual blade model (VBM and an real blade model (RBM are established respectively. A new multi-layer moving-embedded grid technique is proposed to reduce the numerical dissipation of the tilt-rotor wake in a conversion mode. In this method, a grid system generated abound the rotor accounts for rigid blade motions, and a new searching scheme named adaptive inverse map (AIM is established to search corresponding donor elements in the present moving-embedded grid system to translate information among the different computational zones. A dual-time method is employed to fulfill unsteady calculations on the flowfield of the tilt-rotor, and a second-order centered difference scheme considering artificial viscosity is used to calculate the flux. In order to improve the computing efficiency, the single program multiple data (SPMD model parallel acceleration technology is adopted, according to the characteristic of the current grid system. The lift and drag coefficients of an NACA0012 airfoil, the dynamic pressure distributions below a typical rotor plane, and the sectional pressure distributions on a three-bladed Branum–Tung tilt-rotor in hover flight are calculated respectively, and the present VBM and RBM are validated by comparing the calculated results with available experimental data. Then, unsteady aerodynamic forces and flowfields of an XV-15 tilt-rotor in different modes, such as a fixed conversion mode at different tilt angles (15°, 30°, 60° and a whole conversion mode which converses from 0° to 90°, are numerically simulated by the VBM and RBM respectively. By analyses and comparisons on the simulated results of unsteady aerodynamic forces of the tilt-rotor in different modes, some meaningful conclusions about distorted blade-tip vortex distribution and unsteady aerodynamic force variation in a conversion mode are obtained, and these

  7. Making sense of cancer risk calculators on the web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Andrea Gurmankin; Sonnad, Seema S; Kurichi, Jibby E; Sherman, Melani; Armstrong, Katrina

    2008-03-01

    Cancer risk calculators on the internet have the potential to provide users with valuable information about their individual cancer risk. However, the lack of oversight of these sites raises concerns about low quality and inconsistent information. These concerns led us to evaluate internet cancer risk calculators. After a systematic search to find all cancer risk calculators on the internet, we reviewed the content of each site for information that users should seek to evaluate the quality of a website. We then examined the consistency of the breast cancer risk calculators by having 27 women complete 10 of the breast cancer risk calculators for themselves. We also completed the breast cancer risk calculators for a hypothetical high- and low-risk woman, and compared the output to Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results estimates for the average same-age and same-race woman. Nineteen sites were found, 13 of which calculate breast cancer risk. Most sites do not provide the information users need to evaluate the legitimacy of a website. The breast cancer calculator sites vary in the risk factors they assess to calculate breast cancer risk, how they operationalize each risk factor and in the risk estimate they provide for the same individual. Internet cancer risk calculators have the potential to provide a public health benefit by educating individuals about their risks and potentially encouraging preventive health behaviors. However, our evaluation of internet calculators revealed several problems that call into question the accuracy of the information that they provide. This may lead the users of these sites to make inappropriate medical decisions on the basis of misinformation.

  8. Effect of lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of tobacco (Nicotiana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lethal and sub-lethal bioassays on Clarias gariepinus were conducted to evaluate the toxicity of tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum) leaf dust on weight gain and haematological indices of Clarias gariepinus (mean weight 10.5±0.70g) in glass aquaria with aeration system. The concentrations used during the lethal exposure are: ...

  9. Equilibrium calculations and mode analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrnegger, F.

    1987-01-01

    The STEP asymptotic stellarator expansion procedure was used to study the MHD equilibrium and stability properties of stellarator configurations without longitudinal net-current, which also apply to advanced stellarators. The effects of toroidal curvature and magnetic well, and the Shafranov shift were investigated. A classification of unstable modes in toroidal stellarators is given. For WVII-A coil-field configurations having a β value of 1% and a parabolic pressure profile, no free-boundary modes are found. This agrees with the experimental fact that unstable behavior of the plasma column is not observed for this parameter range. So a theoretical β-limit for stability against ideal MHD modes can be estimated by mode analysis for the WVII-A device

  10. Characterization of the Outer Membrane Proteome of Leptospira interrogans Expressed during Acute Lethal Infection▿

    OpenAIRE

    Nally, Jarlath E.; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Bassilian, Sara; Blanco, David R.; Lovett, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira species adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions during disease transmission and infection. While the proteome of in vitro cultivated Leptospira has been characterized in several studies to date, relatively little is known of the proteome as expressed by Leptospira during disease processes. Isolates of Leptospira obtained from patients suffering the severe pulmonary form of leptospirosis cause acute lethal infection in guinea pigs and chronic asymptomatic infect...

  11. Non-invasive Imaging of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Using Cathepsin Protease Probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withana, N.P.; Ma, X.W.; McGuire, H.M.; Verdoes, M.; Linden, W.A. van der; Ofori, L.O.; Zhang, R.P.; Li, H.; Sanman, L.E.; Wei, K.; Yao, S.B.; Wu, P.L.; Li, F.; Huang, H.; Xu, Z.J.; Wolters, P.J.; Rosen, G.D.; Collard, H.R.; Zhu, Z.H.; Cheng, Z.; Bogyo, M.

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal, chronic, progressive disease characterized by formation of scar tissue within the lungs. Because it is a disease of unknown etiology, it is difficult to diagnose, to predict disease course and to devise treatment strategies. Recent evidence suggests

  12. Risk-centered calculation of network charges in the power transmission sector; Risikoorientierte Kalkulation von Netznutzungsentgelten in der Stromverteilungswirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maennel, W. [Friedrich-Alexander-Univ., Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany). Betriebswirtschafliches Inst.

    2004-04-01

    Utilities insist that contrary to the opinions of the Federal Cartel Office and network users, distribution network operation is a high-risk enterprise. The contribution starts by listing typical relevant risks in power distribution and then proceeds to discussing risk factors one by one. Empirical findings generated with the Capital Asset Pricing Mode (CAPM) prove that the conservative approach for calculating the risk-based surcharges laid down in the VV II plus agreement is appropriate. (orig./CB) [German] Entgegen der Auffassung von Bundeskartellbehoerden und Netznutzern ist das stark anlagenintensive Netzgeschaeft mit bedeutsamen Unternehmerrisiken behaftet, deren Ueberwaelzung nur begrenzt moeglich ist. Ausgehend von generell bedeutsamen und typischen Unternehmerrisiken im Stromverteilungssektor beschaeftigt sich der Artikel mit den direkt auf die Eigenkapitalverzinsung einwirkenden Risikofaktoren. Mit dem Capital Asset Pricing Mode (CAPM) genierierte empirische Befunde bestaetigen die konservativen Wagniszuschlaege in der VV II plus. (orig.)

  13. Management of Pulmonary Nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Arvin Aryan

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary nodule characterization is currently being redefined as new clinical, radiological and pathological data are reported, necessitating a reevaluation of the clinical management."nIn approach to an incidentally detected pulmonary nodule, we should consider that there are different risk situations, different lesion morphologies, and different sizes with various management options."nIn this session we will review the different risk situations for patients with pulmonary nodules...

  14. Imaging findings in a distinct lethal inherited arteriopathy syndrome associated with a novel mutation in the FBLN4 gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajeshkannan, Ramiah; Kulkarni, Chinmay; Moorthy, Srikanth [Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, AIMS, Department of Radiology, Ernakulam (India); Kappanayil, Mahesh [Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, AIMS, Department of pediatric cardiology, Ernakulam (India); Nampoothiri, Sheela [Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, AIMS, Department of Pediatric Genetics, Ernakulam (India); Malfait, Fransiska; Paepe, Anne de [Ghent University Hospital, Center for Medical Genetics, Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-08-15

    We present the imaging findings of a newly identified lethal arteriopathy associated with a novel mutation in the gene encoding fibulin-4, occurring in a distinct community from southern India. A total of 31 children from a distinct population subgroup who presented with characteristic arterial dilatation and tortuosity were studied. All children except one belonged to unrelated families from an ethno-religious group (Muslim) from the northern coastal belt of southern India. CT angiography was performed in 30 children and contrast MRA in one. Impressive dilatation and elongation of ascending aorta, arch, descending aorta and main pulmonary arteries with characteristic narrowing of aortic isthmus were seen in all patients. Stenosis of arch branches, abdominal visceral branches and pulmonary artery branches was observed in 21 (68 %), 23 (62.5 %) and 20 (65 %) patients respectively. Genetic studies revealed an identical mutation in exon 7 of the FBLN4 gene. On follow-up, 27 of them had died before the age of 3 years and only two children were alive after the age of 4 years. FBLN4-associated vasculopathy is a highly lethal disease characterized by severe aneurysmal dilatation of thoracic aorta, its branches and pulmonary arteries with stenoses at typical locations. (orig.)

  15. Risk management for outsourcing biomedical waste disposal – Using the failure mode and effects analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Ching-Jong; Ho, Chao Chung

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This study is based on a real case in hospital in Taiwan. • We use Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) as the evaluation method. • We successfully identify the evaluation factors of bio-medical waste disposal risk. - Abstract: Using the failure mode and effects analysis, this study examined biomedical waste companies through risk assessment. Moreover, it evaluated the supervisors of biomedical waste units in hospitals, and factors relating to the outsourcing risk assessment of biomedical waste in hospitals by referring to waste disposal acts. An expert questionnaire survey was conducted on the personnel involved in waste disposal units in hospitals, in order to identify important factors relating to the outsourcing risk of biomedical waste in hospitals. This study calculated the risk priority number (RPN) and selected items with an RPN value higher than 80 for improvement. These items included “availability of freezing devices”, “availability of containers for sharp items”, “disposal frequency”, “disposal volume”, “disposal method”, “vehicles meeting the regulations”, and “declaration of three lists”. This study also aimed to identify important selection factors of biomedical waste disposal companies by hospitals in terms of risk. These findings can serve as references for hospitals in the selection of outsourcing companies for biomedical waste disposal

  16. Risk management for outsourcing biomedical waste disposal – Using the failure mode and effects analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Ching-Jong; Ho, Chao Chung, E-mail: ho919@pchome.com.tw

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • This study is based on a real case in hospital in Taiwan. • We use Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) as the evaluation method. • We successfully identify the evaluation factors of bio-medical waste disposal risk. - Abstract: Using the failure mode and effects analysis, this study examined biomedical waste companies through risk assessment. Moreover, it evaluated the supervisors of biomedical waste units in hospitals, and factors relating to the outsourcing risk assessment of biomedical waste in hospitals by referring to waste disposal acts. An expert questionnaire survey was conducted on the personnel involved in waste disposal units in hospitals, in order to identify important factors relating to the outsourcing risk of biomedical waste in hospitals. This study calculated the risk priority number (RPN) and selected items with an RPN value higher than 80 for improvement. These items included “availability of freezing devices”, “availability of containers for sharp items”, “disposal frequency”, “disposal volume”, “disposal method”, “vehicles meeting the regulations”, and “declaration of three lists”. This study also aimed to identify important selection factors of biomedical waste disposal companies by hospitals in terms of risk. These findings can serve as references for hospitals in the selection of outsourcing companies for biomedical waste disposal.

  17. Targeting coagulation factor receptors - protease-activated receptors in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, C.; Borensztajn, K.; Spek, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal lung disease with a 5-year mortality rate of > 50% and unknown etiology. Treatment options remain limited and, currently, only two drugs are available, i.e. nintedanib and pirfenidone. However, both of these antifibrotic agents only slow down the

  18. Pulmonary imaging in pregnancy. Maternal risk and fetal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, C.S.; Mason, G.R.; Kuperus, J.H.; Mena, I.

    1985-01-01

    A Tc-99m macroaggregated albumin (MAA) perfusion lung scan and a Tc-99m DTPA aerosol ventilation scan were performed for suspicion of pulmonary embolism (PE) in a patient who was ten weeks pregnant. There was considerable reluctance on the part of the obstetricians to permit this study. Standard MIRD dose estimates to the fetus were performed, which showed a maximum fetal exposure of about 50 mrem. It was concluded that the risk to mother and fetus from undiagnosed and untreated PE is much greater than the negligible risk to the fetus from the radiation exposure; fear of fetal radiation damage should not be a deterrent to performing these scans

  19. Failure mode and effect analysis: improving intensive care unit risk management processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Roohollah; Shafii, Milad; Rafiei, Sima; Abolhassani, Mohammad Sadegh; Salarikhah, Elaheh

    2017-04-18

    Purpose Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is a practical tool to evaluate risks, discover failures in a proactive manner and propose corrective actions to reduce or eliminate potential risks. The purpose of this paper is to apply FMEA technique to examine the hazards associated with the process of service delivery in intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary hospital in Yazd, Iran. Design/methodology/approach This was a before-after study conducted between March 2013 and December 2014. By forming a FMEA team, all potential hazards associated with ICU services - their frequency and severity - were identified. Then risk priority number was calculated for each activity as an indicator representing high priority areas that need special attention and resource allocation. Findings Eight failure modes with highest priority scores including endotracheal tube defect, wrong placement of endotracheal tube, EVD interface, aspiration failure during suctioning, chest tube failure, tissue injury and deep vein thrombosis were selected for improvement. Findings affirmed that improvement strategies were generally satisfying and significantly decreased total failures. Practical implications Application of FMEA in ICUs proved to be effective in proactively decreasing the risk of failures and corrected the control measures up to acceptable levels in all eight areas of function. Originality/value Using a prospective risk assessment approach, such as FMEA, could be beneficial in dealing with potential failures through proposing preventive actions in a proactive manner. The method could be used as a tool for healthcare continuous quality improvement so that the method identifies both systemic and human errors, and offers practical advice to deal effectively with them.

  20. Role of Biomarkers in the Diagnosis, Risk Assessment, and Management of Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameh, Vanessa; Kossaify, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a severe and debilitating disease with no definite cure, and the domain of targeted therapies is a promising field for better management of this severe condition. The disease comprises pulmonary arterial remodeling, hypoxia, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation, with subsequent organ damage including right heart and liver dysfunction. Biomarkers have a valuable role at different levels of the disease, from diagnosis to risk assessment and management, in order to decrease the burden of the disease in terms of both morbidity and mortality.

  1. Lethality Index 2008-2014: Less shootings, same lethality, more opacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Silva Forné

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the use of lethal force by Mexican federal security forces during shootings with presumed members of organized crime from 2008-2014. The authors use official data and press reports on deaths and wounded in shootings to construct indicators such as the number of dead civilians over the number of dead officials from the federal security forces and the number of dead civilians over the number of wounded civilians. In a context where certain factors that contribute to an excessive use of force become more common, the results of the study show a growing use of lethal force. This raises questions over the possible excessive use of lethal force as a normal or systematic practice. The study also shows a growing context of opacity in the information available to evaluate the use of lethal force and the general lack of a legal framework to regulate the use of lethal force in Mexico.

  2. The Critical Role of Pulmonary Arterial Compliance in Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Kurt W.; Pritzker, Marc R.; Scandurra, John; Volmers, Karl; Weir, E. Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    The normal pulmonary circulation is a low-pressure, high-compliance system. Pulmonary arterial compliance decreases in the presence of pulmonary hypertension because of increased extracellular matrix/collagen deposition in the pulmonary arteries. Loss of pulmonary arterial compliance has been consistently shown to be a predictor of increased mortality in patients with pulmonary hypertension, even more so than pulmonary vascular resistance in some studies. Decreased pulmonary arterial compliance causes premature reflection of waves from the distal pulmonary vasculature, leading to increased pulsatile right ventricular afterload and eventually right ventricular failure. Evidence suggests that decreased pulmonary arterial compliance is a cause rather than a consequence of distal small vessel proliferative vasculopathy. Pulmonary arterial compliance decreases early in the disease process even when pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance are normal, potentially enabling early diagnosis of pulmonary vascular disease, especially in high-risk populations. With the recognition of the prognostic importance of pulmonary arterial compliance, its impact on right ventricular function, and its contributory role in the development and progression of distal small-vessel proliferative vasculopathy, pulmonary arterial compliance is an attractive target for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:26848601

  3. Risk factors for pulmonary arterial hypertension in patients with tuberculosis-destroyed lungs and their clinical characteristics compared with patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yong Suk; Park, Ju-Hee; Lee, Jung Kyu; Heo, Eun Young; Chung, Hee Soon; Kim, Deog Kyeom

    2017-01-01

    There are limited data on pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in patients with tuberculosis-destroyed lung (TDL), a sequela of pulmonary tuberculosis. We identified the risk factors for PAH and their effects on acute exacerbation and mortality in patients with TDL, as well as the clinical differences in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and PAH. A retrospective cohort study was conducted from 2010 through 2015 in a municipal referral hospital in South Korea. PAH was defined when echocardiographic pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) was >40 mmHg. The clinical features and course of TDL patients with or without PAH were evaluated and differences between patients with COPD and PAH were analyzed. Among the 195 patients with TDL, echocardiographic data were available in 53 patients, and their mean PAP was 50.72±23.99 mmHg. The PAH group (n=37) had a smaller lung volume (forced vital capacity % predicted, 51.55% vs 72.37%, P <0.001) and more extensively destroyed lungs (3.27 lobes vs 2 lobes, P <0.001) than those in the non-PAH group (n=16). A higher PAP was significantly correlated with a higher frequency of acute exacerbation ( r =0.32, P =0.02). Multivariate analyses did not reveal any significant risk factors contributing to PAH in patients with TDL. Compared to COPD patients with PAH, TDL patients with PAH have smaller lung volume but a less severe airflow limitation. Tricuspid regurgitation and a D-shaped left ventricle during diastole were more frequently observed in TDL patients. The risk of exacerbation was not different between patients with PAH in COPD and TDL. PAH in patients with TDL was associated with severity of lung destruction but risk of exacerbation and mortality did not significantly differ between patients with PAH and without PAH.

  4. Definition, epidemiology and registries of pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awdish, R; Cajigas, H

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a subcategory of pulmonary hypertension (PH) that comprises a group of disorders with similar pulmonary vascular pathology. Though PH is common, the estimated incidence of IPAH is 1-3 cases per million, making it a rare disease. The hemodynamic definition of PAH is a mean pulmonary artery pressure at rest >OR = 25 mm Hg in the presence of a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) greater than 3 WU. Specific maneuvers during right heart catheterization can be utilized to disclose vasoreactivity and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, which have implications for management. The inherent complexity in studying a rare disease that exhibits clinical overlap with a common syndrome necessitated the creation of registries. These registries have been indispensable in the characterization and mapping of the natural history of the disease. Equations and risk calculators derived from registries have given clinicians a basis for risk stratification and prognostication. The sequential accumulation of data since the registries began in the 1980s allows for comparisons to be made. Patients who are differentiated by treatment eras and environments can be contrasted. Variability among inclusion criteria similarly allows for comparisons of these subpopulations. This article provides an overview of available registries, highlights insights provided by each and discusses key issues around the interpretation and extrapolation of data from PAH registries. Registries have allowed us to appreciate the improvement in survival afforded by modern therapy and enhanced detection of this disease. Moving forward, a more global approach to registries is needed, as is enhanced collaboration and centralization.

  5. Relationship between nutritional risk and exercise capacity in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in male patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xizheng; Liu, Jinming; Luo, Yanrong; Xu, Xiaowen; Han, Zhiqing; Li, Hailing

    2015-01-01

    Objective The nutritional status of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is associated with their exercise capacity. In the present study, we have explored the relationship between nutritional risk and exercise capacity in severe male COPD patients. Methods A total of 58 severe COPD male patients were enrolled in this study. The patients were assigned to no nutritional risk group (n=33) and nutritional risk group (n=25) according to the Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS, 2002) criteria. Blood gas analysis, conventional pulmonary function testing, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing were performed on all the patients. Results Results showed that the weight and BMI of the patients in the nutritional risk group were significantly lower than in the no nutritional risk group (Pnutritional risk group was significantly higher than that of the nutritional risk group (Pnutritional risk group were significantly lower than those of the no nutritional risk group (Pnutritional risk based on NRS 2002 in severe COPD male patients is supported by these results of this study. PMID:26150712

  6. Pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Myung Jin; Goo, Jin Mo E-mail: jmgoo@plaza.snu.ac.kr; Im, Jung-Gi

    2004-11-01

    Objectives: Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have an increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis. However, detecting pulmonary tuberculosis may be difficult due to the underlying fibrosis. The aim of this report is to describe the radiological and clinical findings of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Materials and methods: We reviewed 143 consecutive patients in whom IPF was diagnosed by either the histological or radio-clinical criteria. Among them, nine patients were histologically (n=2) or bacteriologically (n=7) confirmed to have active pulmonary tuberculosis. The location and patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis were examined on a thin section CT scan. Results: The most common thin section CT findings were subpleural nodules (n=6; mean diameter, 3.2 cm) and a lobar or segmental consolidation (n=3). The lesions were located most commonly in the right lower lobe (n=4). The incidence of tuberculosis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was more than five times higher than that of the general population. Conclusion: The atypical manifestation of pulmonary tuberculosis is common in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, which may mimic lung cancer or bacterial pneumonia.

  7. Pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Myung Jin; Goo, Jin Mo; Im, Jung-Gi

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have an increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis. However, detecting pulmonary tuberculosis may be difficult due to the underlying fibrosis. The aim of this report is to describe the radiological and clinical findings of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Materials and methods: We reviewed 143 consecutive patients in whom IPF was diagnosed by either the histological or radio-clinical criteria. Among them, nine patients were histologically (n=2) or bacteriologically (n=7) confirmed to have active pulmonary tuberculosis. The location and patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis were examined on a thin section CT scan. Results: The most common thin section CT findings were subpleural nodules (n=6; mean diameter, 3.2 cm) and a lobar or segmental consolidation (n=3). The lesions were located most commonly in the right lower lobe (n=4). The incidence of tuberculosis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was more than five times higher than that of the general population. Conclusion: The atypical manifestation of pulmonary tuberculosis is common in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, which may mimic lung cancer or bacterial pneumonia

  8. Pulmonary Hypertension in Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    PULMONARY HYPERTENSION IN SCLERODERMA PULMONARY HYPERTENSION Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is high blood pressure in the blood vessels of the lungs. If the high ... the right side of the heart. Patients with scleroderma are at increased risk for developing PH from ...

  9. A Single Imaging Modality in the Diagnosis, Severity, and Prognosis of Pulmonary Embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadice Selimoglu Sen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study aimed to investigate the currency of computerized tomography pulmonary angiography-based parameters as pulmonary artery obstruction index (PAOI, as well as right ventricular diameters for pulmonary embolism (PE risk evaluation and prediction of mortality and intensive care unit (ICU requirement. Materials and Methods. The study retrospectively enrolled 203 patients hospitalized with acute PE. PAOI was calculated according to Qanadli score. Results. Forty-three patients (23.9% were hospitalized in the ICU. Nineteen patients (10.6% died during the 30-day follow-up period. The optimal cutoff value of PAOI for PE 30th day mortality and ICU requirement were found as 36.5% in ROC curve analysis. The pulmonary artery systolic pressure had a significant positive correlation with right/left ventricular diameter ratio (r=0.531, P<0.001, PAOI (r=0.296, P<0.001, and pulmonary artery diameter (r=0.659, P<0.001. The patients with PAOI values higher than 36.5% have a 5.7-times increased risk of death. Conclusion. PAOI is a fast and promising parameter for risk assessment in patients with acute PE. With greater education of clinicians in this radiological scoring, a rapid assessment for diagnosis, clinical risk evaluation, and prognosis may be possible in emergency services without the need for echocardiography.

  10. Damage to E. coli cells induced by tritium decay: secondary lethality under nongrowth conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koukalova, B.; Kuhrova, V.

    1980-01-01

    Cells containing incorporated 3 H-thymidine are damaged by its decay. It was found with E.coli TAU-bar cells that a small part of the damage is lethal whereas most of it is reparable and only potentially lethal. If cells are subjected to nongrowth conditions, the potentially lethal damage changes to lethal damage. This process is called secondary lethality (SL). The extent of SL and some changes in DNA under three different modes of growth inhibition were determined. It was found that: (i) SL is maximal under conditions of amino acid starvation (-AA), the viable count decreasing by two orders of magnitude. (ii) SL is 4 times lower in the presence of chloramphenicol (-AA+CLP) and 6.5 times lower under +AA+CLP conditions. Changes in the sedimentation rate of DNA determined in alkaline sucrose gradient correlate with the differences in SL: under -AA conditions the sedimentation rate of DNA decreases whereas in the presence of CLP no decrease occurs. The results suggest that certain enzymatic processes take place under -AA conditions which lead to irreparable changes in DNA. (author)

  11. Damage to E. coli cells induced by tritium decay: secondary lethality under nongrowth conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukalova, B; Kuhrova, V [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Brno. Biofysikalni Ustav

    1980-05-01

    Cells containing incorporated /sup 3/H-thymidine are damaged by its decay. It was found with E.coli TAU-bar cells that a small part of the damage is lethal whereas most of it is reparable and only potentially lethal. If cells are subjected to nongrowth conditions, the potentially lethal damage changes to lethal damage. This process is called secondary lethality (SL). The extent of SL and some changes in DNA under three different modes of growth inhibition were determined. It was found that: (i) SL is maximal under conditions of amino acid starvation (-AA), the viable count decreasing by two orders of magnitude. (ii) SL is 4 times lower in the presence of chloramphenicol (-AA+CLP) and 6.5 times lower under +AA+CLP conditions. Changes in the sedimentation rate of DNA determined in alkaline sucrose gradient correlate with the differences in SL: under -AA conditions the sedimentation rate of DNA decreases whereas in the presence of CLP no decrease occurs. The results suggest that certain enzymatic processes take place under -AA conditions which lead to irreparable changes in DNA.

  12. Emerging Risk Factors and Prevention of Perioperative Pulmonary Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Bhateja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern surgery is faced with the emergence of newer “risk factors” and the challenges associated with identifying and managing these risks in the perioperative period. Obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome pose unique challenges in the perioperative setting. Recent studies have identified some of the specific risks arising from caring for such patients in the surgical setting. While all possible postoperative complications are not yet fully established or understood, the prevention and management of these complications pose even greater challenges. Pulmonary hypertension with its changing epidemiology and novel management strategies is another new disease for the surgeon and the anesthesiologist in the noncardiac surgical setting. Traditionally most such patients were not considered surgical candidates for any required elective surgery. Our review discusses these disease entities which are often undiagnosed before elective noncardiac surgery.

  13. Risk factor analysis of pulmonary hemorrhage complicating CT-guided lung biopsy in coaxial and non-coaxial core biopsy techniques in 650 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nour-Eldin, Nour-Eldin A., E-mail: nour410@hotmail.com [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johan Wolfgang Goethe – University Hospital, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Department, Cairo University Hospital, Cairo (Egypt); Alsubhi, Mohammed [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johan Wolfgang Goethe – University Hospital, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Naguib, Nagy N. [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johan Wolfgang Goethe – University Hospital, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Department, Alexandria University Hospital, Alexandria (Egypt); Lehnert, Thomas; Emam, Ahmed; Beeres, Martin; Bodelle, Boris; Koitka, Karen; Vogl, Thomas J.; Jacobi, Volkmar [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johan Wolfgang Goethe – University Hospital, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the risk factors involved in the development of pulmonary hemorrhage complicating CT-guided biopsy of pulmonary lesions in coaxial and non-coaxial techniques. Materials and methods: Retrospective study included CT-guided percutaneous lung biopsies in 650 consecutive patients (407 males, 243 females; mean age 54.6 years, SD: 5.2) from November 2008 to June 2013. Patients were classified according to lung biopsy technique in coaxial group (318 lesions) and non-coaxial group (332 lesions). Exclusion criteria for biopsy were: lesions <5 mm in diameter, uncorrectable coagulopathy, positive-pressure ventilation, severe respiratory compromise, pulmonary arterial hypertension or refusal of the procedure. Risk factors for pulmonary hemorrhage complicating lung biopsy were classified into: (a) patient's related risk factors, (b) lesion's related risk factors and (d) technical risk factors. Radiological assessments were performed by two radiologists in consensus. Mann–Whitney U test and Fisher's exact tests for statistical analysis. p values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Incidence of pulmonary hemorrhage was 19.6% (65/332) in non-coaxial group and 22.3% (71/318) in coaxial group. The difference in incidence between both groups was statistically insignificant (p = 0.27). Hemoptysis developed in 5.4% (18/332) and in 6.3% (20/318) in the non-coaxial and coaxial groups respectively. Traversing pulmonary vessels in the needle biopsy track was a significant risk factor of the development pulmonary hemorrhage (incidence: 55.4% (36/65, p = 0.0003) in the non-coaxial group and 57.7% (41/71, p = 0.0013) in coaxial group). Other significant risk factors included: lesions of less than 2 cm (p value of 0.01 and 0.02 in non-coaxial and coaxial groups respectively), basal and middle zonal lesions in comparison to upper zonal lung lesions (p = 0.002 and 0.03 in non-coaxial and coaxial groups respectively), increased lesion

  14. Risk factor analysis of pulmonary hemorrhage complicating CT-guided lung biopsy in coaxial and non-coaxial core biopsy techniques in 650 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nour-Eldin, Nour-Eldin A.; Alsubhi, Mohammed; Naguib, Nagy N.; Lehnert, Thomas; Emam, Ahmed; Beeres, Martin; Bodelle, Boris; Koitka, Karen; Vogl, Thomas J.; Jacobi, Volkmar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the risk factors involved in the development of pulmonary hemorrhage complicating CT-guided biopsy of pulmonary lesions in coaxial and non-coaxial techniques. Materials and methods: Retrospective study included CT-guided percutaneous lung biopsies in 650 consecutive patients (407 males, 243 females; mean age 54.6 years, SD: 5.2) from November 2008 to June 2013. Patients were classified according to lung biopsy technique in coaxial group (318 lesions) and non-coaxial group (332 lesions). Exclusion criteria for biopsy were: lesions <5 mm in diameter, uncorrectable coagulopathy, positive-pressure ventilation, severe respiratory compromise, pulmonary arterial hypertension or refusal of the procedure. Risk factors for pulmonary hemorrhage complicating lung biopsy were classified into: (a) patient's related risk factors, (b) lesion's related risk factors and (d) technical risk factors. Radiological assessments were performed by two radiologists in consensus. Mann–Whitney U test and Fisher's exact tests for statistical analysis. p values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Incidence of pulmonary hemorrhage was 19.6% (65/332) in non-coaxial group and 22.3% (71/318) in coaxial group. The difference in incidence between both groups was statistically insignificant (p = 0.27). Hemoptysis developed in 5.4% (18/332) and in 6.3% (20/318) in the non-coaxial and coaxial groups respectively. Traversing pulmonary vessels in the needle biopsy track was a significant risk factor of the development pulmonary hemorrhage (incidence: 55.4% (36/65, p = 0.0003) in the non-coaxial group and 57.7% (41/71, p = 0.0013) in coaxial group). Other significant risk factors included: lesions of less than 2 cm (p value of 0.01 and 0.02 in non-coaxial and coaxial groups respectively), basal and middle zonal lesions in comparison to upper zonal lung lesions (p = 0.002 and 0.03 in non-coaxial and coaxial groups respectively), increased lesion

  15. Perceived and calculated health risks: do the impacts differ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, B.A.; Williams, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    In many cases of radioactive and hazardous waste management, some members of the general public perceive that human health risks associated with the wastes are higher than the calculated risks. Calculated risks are projections that have been derived from models, and it is these risks that are usually used as the basis for waste management. However, for various reasons, the calculated risks are often considered by the public as too low or inappropriate. The reasons that calculated risks are not perceived as accurate and the factors that affect these perceptions are explored in this paper. Also discussed are the impacts related to the perceived and calculated health risks: what they are, and if and how they differ. The kinds of potential impacts examined are health effects, land value changes, and social, transportation, and economic effects. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of incorporating these different risk perspectives in decisions on waste management

  16. A Rare Cause of Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension Resistant to Therapy in The Newborn: Short-Rib Polydactyly Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Demir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-rib polydactyly syndrome is an autosomal recessively inherited lethal skeletal dysplasia. The syndrome is characterized by marked narrow fetal thorax, short extremities, micromelia, cleft palate/lip, polydactyly, cardiac and renal abnormalities, and genital malformations. In cases with pulmonary hypoplasia, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn can develop. In this paper, we present a term newborn with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, which has developed secondary to short-rib polydactyly syndrome and was resistant to therapy with inhaled nitric oxide and oral sildenafil.

  17. Flexible semiparametric joint modeling: an application to estimate individual lung function decline and risk of pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic surveillance of lung function is key to clinical care of individuals with cystic fibrosis, but lung function decline is nonlinear and often impacted by acute respiratory events known as pulmonary exacerbations. Statistical models are needed to simultaneously estimate lung function decline while providing risk estimates for the onset of pulmonary exacerbations, in order to identify relevant predictors of declining lung function and understand how these associations could be used to predict the onset of pulmonary exacerbations. Methods Using longitudinal lung function (FEV1 measurements and time-to-event data on pulmonary exacerbations from individuals in the United States Cystic Fibrosis Registry, we implemented a flexible semiparametric joint model consisting of a mixed-effects submodel with regression splines to fit repeated FEV1 measurements and a time-to-event submodel for possibly censored data on pulmonary exacerbations. We contrasted this approach with methods currently used in epidemiological studies and highlight clinical implications. Results The semiparametric joint model had the best fit of all models examined based on deviance information criterion. Higher starting FEV1 implied more rapid lung function decline in both separate and joint models; however, individualized risk estimates for pulmonary exacerbation differed depending upon model type. Based on shared parameter estimates from the joint model, which accounts for the nonlinear FEV1 trajectory, patients with more positive rates of change were less likely to experience a pulmonary exacerbation (HR per one standard deviation increase in FEV1 rate of change = 0.566, 95% CI 0.516–0.619, and having higher absolute FEV1 also corresponded to lower risk of having a pulmonary exacerbation (HR per one standard deviation increase in FEV1 = 0.856, 95% CI 0.781–0.937. At the population level, both submodels indicated significant effects of birth

  18. Return of the pulmonary nodule: the radiologist's key role in implementing the 2015 BTS guidelines on the investigation and management of pulmonary nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Richard N J; Baldwin, David R; Callister, Matthew E J; Gleeson, Fergus V

    2016-01-01

    The British Thoracic Society has published new comprehensive guidelines for the management of pulmonary nodules. These guidelines are significantly different from those previously published, as they use two malignancy prediction calculators to better characterize the risk of malignancy. There are recommendations for a higher nodule size threshold for follow-up (≥5 mm or ≥80 mm(3)) and a reduction of the follow-up period to 1 year for solid pulmonary nodules; both of these will reduce the number of follow-up CT scans. PET-CT plays a crucial role in characterization also, with an ordinal scale being recommended for reporting. Radiologists will be the key in implementing these guidelines, and routine use of volumetric image-analysis software will be required to manage patients with pulmonary nodules correctly.

  19. Risk factors associated with the occurrence of silent pulmonary embolism in patients with deep venous thrombosis of the lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fenghe; Wang, Xuehu; Huang, Wen; Ren, Wei; Cheng, Jun; Zhang, Mao; Zhao, Yu

    2014-08-01

    The aim of our study is to investigate the prevalence of silent pulmonary embolism in patients with deep venous thrombosis in the lower limbs and to evaluate the associated risk factors. A total of 322 patients with acute deep venous thrombosis confirmed by CT venography or Doppler ultrasonography were studied. The diagnosis of silent pulmonary embolism was established by computed tomography pulmonary arteriography (CTPA). The association between covariates and the prevalence of silent pulmonary embolism in patients with deep venous thrombosis in lower limbs were assessed using chi-square test and multivariable regression. The incidence of silent pulmonary embolism was 33.5% (108 in 322 patients) in all patients with deep venous thrombosis in lower limbs. Chi-square test showed male gender, the right lower limb, proximal location of the thrombus, unprovoked venous thrombosis and coexisting heart diseases were related to a higher incidence of silent pulmonary embolism in patients with deep venous thrombosis in lower limbs. The multivariate regression analysis confirmed that the risk factors associated with silent pulmonary embolism in deep venous thrombosis patients included the right side and proximal location of the thrombus (odds ratio: 2.023, 95% CI: 1.215-3.368; odds ratio: 3.610, 95% CI: 1.772-7.354), unprovoked venous thrombosis (odds ratio: 2.037, 95% CI: 1.188-3.493), coexisting heart diseases (odds ratio: 4.507, 95% CI: 2.667-7.618). Silent pulmonary embolism occurred frequently in patients with deep venous thrombosis in lower limbs. The right side, the proximal location of the thrombus, unprovoked venous thrombosis and coexisting heart diseases increased the risk for the occurrence of silent pulmonary embolism. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. Radiotherapy and pulmonary fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sone, S; Miyata, Y; Tachiiri, H [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-04-01

    Clinical findings of radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis were outlined, and the relationship between occurence of these disorders and radiotherapy, clinical findings and X-ray picture were studied. Standard radiation dose as cell lethal response of carcinoma of the lung were 4,500 to 5,500 rad in 4 to 5.5 weeks in undifferentiated carcinoma, 6,000 to 7,000 rad in 6 to 7 weeks in squamous cell carcinoma, 7,000 to 9,000 rad in 7 to 9 weeks in adenocarcinoma, 4,500 to 5,000 rad in 4 to 5 weeks in the large sized cancer of the esophagus, 6,500 to 7,000 rad in 5 to 7 weeks in the small sized cancer of the esophagus, and irradiation of these amount of dose caused hazards in pulmonary function. Pathological and clinical findings of pulmonary hazards within 6 month period after irradiation, factors causing them and changes in X-ray pictures before and after irradiation were observed and discussed in clinical cases: the case of breast cancer in which 3,000 R/6 times/18 days of 5.5 MeV Liniac electron was irradiated to the chest wall, and the case of pulmonary cancer in which 5,000 rad/25 times/34 days of 6 MeV Liniac X-ray was irradiated in opposite 2 ports radiation beam treatment. The former revealed alveolar lesion and interlobular pleuritis at 4 month later, and remarkable lesion of pulmonary fibrosis was followed at 9 month after radiotherapy. The later developed radiation pneumonitis 1 month after radiotherapy, of which lesion extended to the upper part by 3 months later, and cancer recurred 6.5 month later.

  1. Histopathological effects of lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The histopathological effects of lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of glyphosate on African catfish Clarias gariepinus were investigated. C. gariepinus juveniles were assessed in a static renewal bioassay for 96 hours (acute toxicity) and 28 days (chronic toxicity) using varying concentrations (0.0 mg/l 20.0 mg/l, 30.0 mg/l, ...

  2. Positive outcome of average volume-assured pressure support mode of a Respironics V60 Ventilator in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okuda Miyuki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We were able to treat a patient with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who also suffered from sleep-disordered breathing by using the average volume-assured pressure support mode of a Respironics V60 Ventilator (Philips Respironics: United States. This allows a target tidal volume to be set based on automatic changes in inspiratory positive airway pressure. This removed the need to change the noninvasive positive pressure ventilation settings during the day and during sleep. The Respironics V60 Ventilator, in the average volume-assured pressure support mode, was attached to our patient and improved and stabilized his sleep-related hypoventilation by automatically adjusting force to within an acceptable range. Case presentation Our patient was a 74-year-old Japanese man who was hospitalized for treatment due to worsening of dyspnea and hypoxemia. He was diagnosed with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and full-time biphasic positive airway pressure support ventilation was initiated. Our patient was temporarily provided with portable noninvasive positive pressure ventilation at night-time following an improvement in his condition, but his chronic obstructive pulmonary disease again worsened due to the recurrence of a respiratory infection. During the initial exacerbation, his tidal volume was significantly lower during sleep (378.9 ± 72.9mL than while awake (446.5 ± 63.3mL. A ventilator that allows ventilation to be maintained by automatically adjusting the inspiratory force to within an acceptable range was attached in average volume-assured pressure support mode, improving his sleep-related hypoventilation, which is often associated with the use of the Respironics V60 Ventilator. Polysomnography performed while our patient was on noninvasive positive pressure ventilation revealed obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (apnea-hypopnea index = 14, suggesting that his chronic

  3. Modes of mechanical ventilation for the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lorenzo; Dameri, Maddalena; Pelosi, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Most patients undergoing surgical procedures need to be mechanically ventilated, because of the impact of several drugs administered at induction and during maintenance of general anaesthesia on respiratory function. Optimization of intraoperative mechanical ventilation can reduce the incidence of post-operative pulmonary complications and improve the patient's outcome. Preoxygenation at induction of general anaesthesia prolongs the time window for safe intubation, reducing the risk of hypoxia and overweighs the potential risk of reabsorption atelectasis. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation delivered through different interfaces should be considered at the induction of anaesthesia morbidly obese patients. Anaesthesia ventilators are becoming increasingly sophisticated, integrating many functions that were once exclusive to intensive care. Modern anaesthesia machines provide high performances in delivering the desired volumes and pressures accurately and precisely, including assisted ventilation modes. Therefore, the physicians should be familiar with the potential and pitfalls of the most commonly used intraoperative ventilation modes: volume-controlled, pressure-controlled, dual-controlled and assisted ventilation. Although there is no clear evidence to support the advantage of any one of these ventilation modes over the others, protective mechanical ventilation with low tidal volume and low levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) should be considered in patients undergoing surgery. The target tidal volume should be calculated based on the predicted or ideal body weight rather than on the actual body weight. To optimize ventilation monitoring, anaesthesia machines should include end-inspiratory and end-expiratory pause as well as flow-volume loop curves. The routine administration of high PEEP levels should be avoided, as this may lead to haemodynamic impairment and fluid overload. Higher PEEP might be considered during surgery longer than 3 h

  4. Computed tomography prospective study of pleural-pulmonary changes after abdominal surgery : assessment of associated risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Luis Antonio; Bromberg, Sansom Henrique

    2005-01-01

    Postoperative pleural-pulmonary changes (PPC) are very common following elective abdominal surgery, resolving without clinical manifestations in most patients. The incidence and risk factors associated are unknown. Objective: to determine the incidence of PPC and possible association with risk factors using computerized tomography (CT). Material and method: thirty seven patients submitted to elective abdominal surgery were prospectively analyzed using CT performed in the preoperative period and 48 hours after surgery. The PPC was scored from 0 to III. The risk factors evaluated were: age, sex, obesity, smoking history, alcoholism, comorbid conditions, cancer, ASA classification, duration of surgery, surgical incision type and number of days of hospitalization. Results: Pleura effusion was detected by CT in 70.3% (26/37) of the patients and pulmonary atelectasis in 75.5% (28/37). Grade I and II PPC was found in 59.5% (22/37) of the patients and grade III in 21.6% (8/37). Two (5.4%) of these patients developed serious pulmonary complications whereas one patient died. Surgery due to cancer, class ASA >2, longitudinal incision and > 15 cm showed statistical significance and were associated with pleural effusion. The hospitalization was over 2.4 longer for patients with PPC. Conclusion: PPC is frequently seen in patients submitted to abdominal surgery. The use of the CT for the detection of pulmonary atelectasis and pleural effusion proved to be effective. Most cases of PPC are self-limited, resolving without symptoms. (author)

  5. Efficacy of lung ventilation scintigram and exercise pulmonary hemodynamic measurement to evaluate operability for pulmonary resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneda, Masanori; Hayashi, Takashi; Hiraiwa, Takane; Sakai, Takashi; Namikawa, Shoji; Kusakawa, Minoru.

    1989-01-01

    Preoperative evaluation of patients with lung cancer should include data concerning both resectability and operability. Operability addresses the question how much pulmonary tissue can be safely removed. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate an efficacy of the lung ventilation scintigram and measurement of exercise change in pulmonary hemodynamic parameters by detecting respiratory and circulatory reserve of pulmonary function. Predicted postoperative forced vital capacity (FVC) were calculated from the data of lung scintigram and preoperative spirometry by means of subsegmental formula. Accuracy of prediction was confirmed by spirometry 6 months after the operation. Correlation coefficient between predicted value and actually measured one was R=0.95, and simple regression formula was y=0.98x-10.4. It was recommended that the lower limit should be setted at 40% by the calculated postoperative %FVC. Exercise test were performed by means of bicycle ergometer with the measurement of pulmonary arterial pressure and cardiac output. Pulmonary arterial resistance index (PARI) were also calculated. In younger group rise of pulmonary arterial pressure during exercise was gentle, and PARI was settled between 150 to 200 in high output state. But in older group rise of pulmonary aerial pressure was steep and PARI was over 200 in some cases, just like the case of COLD. It should be recommended to set the upper limit of PARI at 400 in maximum exercise. (author)

  6. Evaluating the operational risks of biomedical waste using failure mode and effects analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chu; Tsai, Pei-Yi

    2017-06-01

    The potential problems and risks of biomedical waste generation have become increasingly apparent in recent years. This study applied a failure mode and effects analysis to evaluate the operational problems and risks of biomedical waste. The microbiological contamination of biomedical waste seldom receives the attention of researchers. In this study, the biomedical waste lifecycle was divided into seven processes: Production, classification, packaging, sterilisation, weighing, storage, and transportation. Twenty main failure modes were identified in these phases and risks were assessed based on their risk priority numbers. The failure modes in the production phase accounted for the highest proportion of the risk priority number score (27.7%). In the packaging phase, the failure mode 'sharp articles not placed in solid containers' had the highest risk priority number score, mainly owing to its high severity rating. The sterilisation process is the main difference in the treatment of infectious and non-infectious biomedical waste. The failure modes in the sterilisation phase were mainly owing to human factors (mostly related to operators). This study increases the understanding of the potential problems and risks associated with biomedical waste, thereby increasing awareness of how to improve the management of biomedical waste to better protect workers, the public, and the environment.

  7. Tityus serrulatus venom--A lethal cocktail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucca, Manuela Berto; Cerni, Felipe Augusto; Pinheiro Junior, Ernesto Lopes; Bordon, Karla de Castro Figueiredo; Amorim, Fernanda Gobbi; Cordeiro, Francielle Almeida; Longhim, Heloisa Tavoni; Cremonez, Caroline Marroni; Oliveira, Guilherme Honda; Arantes, Eliane Candiani

    2015-12-15

    Tityus serrulatus (Ts) is the main scorpion species of medical importance in Brazil. Ts venom is composed of several compounds such as mucus, inorganic salts, lipids, amines, nucleotides, enzymes, kallikrein inhibitor, natriuretic peptide, proteins with high molecular mass, peptides, free amino acids and neurotoxins. Neurotoxins are considered the most responsible for the envenoming syndrome due to their pharmacological action on ion channels such as voltage-gated sodium (Nav) and potassium (Kv) channels. The major goal of this review is to present important advances in Ts envenoming research, correlating both the crude Ts venom and isolated toxins with alterations observed in all human systems. The most remarkable event lies in the Ts induced massive releasing of neurotransmitters influencing, directly or indirectly, the entire body. Ts venom proved to extremely affect nervous and muscular systems, to modulate the immune system, to induce cardiac disorders, to cause pulmonary edema, to decrease urinary flow and to alter endocrine, exocrine, reproductive, integumentary, skeletal and digestive functions. Therefore, Ts venom possesses toxins affecting all anatomic systems, making it a lethal cocktail. However, its low lethality may be due to the low venom mass injected, to the different venom compositions, the body characteristics and health conditions of the victim and the local of Ts sting. Furthermore, we also described the different treatments employed during envenoming cases. In particular, throughout the review, an effort will be made to provide information from an extensive documented studies concerning Ts venom in vitro, in animals and in humans (a total of 151 references). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. ``Phantom'' Modes in Ab Initio Tunneling Calculations: Implications for Theoretical Materials Optimization, Tunneling, and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabash, Sergey V.; Pramanik, Dipankar

    2015-03-01

    Development of low-leakage dielectrics for semiconductor industry, together with many other areas of academic and industrial research, increasingly rely upon ab initio tunneling and transport calculations. Complex band structure (CBS) is a powerful formalism to establish the nature of tunneling modes, providing both a deeper understanding and a guided optimization of materials, with practical applications ranging from screening candidate dielectrics for lowest ``ultimate leakage'' to identifying charge-neutrality levels and Fermi level pinning. We demonstrate that CBS is prone to a particular type of spurious ``phantom'' solution, previously deemed true but irrelevant because of a very fast decay. We demonstrate that (i) in complex materials, phantom modes may exhibit very slow decay (appearing as leading tunneling terms implying qualitative and huge quantitative errors), (ii) the phantom modes are spurious, (iii) unlike the pseudopotential ``ghost'' states, phantoms are an apparently unavoidable artifact of large numerical basis sets, (iv) a presumed increase in computational accuracy increases the number of phantoms, effectively corrupting the CBS results despite the higher accuracy achieved in resolving the true CBS modes and the real band structure, and (v) the phantom modes cannot be easily separated from the true CBS modes. We discuss implications for direct transport calculations. The strategy for dealing with the phantom states is discussed in the context of optimizing high-quality high- κ dielectric materials for decreased tunneling leakage.

  9. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer: a clinical and pathogenesis update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Katerina M; Tomassetti, Sara; Tsitoura, Eliza; Vancheri, Carlo

    2015-11-01

    About one out of 10 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) develop lung cancer. This review provides an epidemiology and clinical update of the association of these two lethal diseases. In addition, we focus on the emerging overlapping epigenetic mechanisms in both diseases. In a vast majority of cases, lung cancer is diagnosed during the clinical and radiological follow-up for the fibrosis. The risk of development of lung cancer in IPF is higher for older male smokers and there is a significantly higher prevalence of lung cancer in the combined IPF and emphysema syndrome compared with fibrosis only. The association of two lethal diseases, such as IPF and lung cancer, carries a very poor outcome and the correct treatment strategy, particularly for advanced forms of lung cancer, is still unclear. The two novel drugs approved for IPF, pirfenidone and nintedanib, open a new scenario in which treated patients with fibrosis will live longer, and possibly have a lower incidence of lung cancer. However, prospective studies are urgently needed to definitively clarify the role of lung cancer treatment in the management of IPF patients. Furthermore, common epigenetic alterations may represent a promising target for therapeutic approaches in the near future.

  10. Relationship between polycythemia and in-hospital mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with low-risk pulmonary embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lu; Chughtai, Aamer Rasheed; Jiang, Hongli; Gao, Lingyun; Yang, Yan; Yang, Yang; Liu, Yuejian

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds Pulmonary embolism (PE) is frequent in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and associated with high mortality. This multi-center retrospective study was performed to investigate if secondary polycythemia is associated with in-hospital mortality in COPD patients with low-risk PE. Methods We identified COPD patients with proven PE between October, 2005 and October, 2015. Patients in risk classes III–V on the basis of the PESI score were excluded. We extracted demographic, clinical and laboratory information at the time of admission from medical records. All subjects were followed until hospital discharge to identify all-cause mortality. Results We enrolled 629 consecutive patients with COPD and PE at low risk: 132 of them (21.0%) with and 497 (79.0%) without secondary polycythemia. Compared with those without polycythemia, the polycythemia group had significantly lower forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) level (0.9±0.3 vs. 1.4±0.5, P=0.000), lower PaO2 and SpO2 as well as higher PaCO2 (P=0.03, P=0.03 and P=0.000, respectively). COPD patients with polycythemia had a higher proportion of arrhythmia in electrocardiogram (ECG) (49.5% vs. 35.7%, P=0.02), a longer hospital duration time (15.3±10.1 vs. 9.7±9.1, P=0.001), a higher mechanical ventilation rate (noninvasive and invasive, 51.7% vs. 30.3%, P=0.04 and 31.0% vs. 7.9%, P=0.04, respectively), and a higher in-hospital mortality (12.1% vs. 6.6%, P=0.04). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that polycythemia was associated with mortality in COPD patients with low-risk PE (adjusted OR 1.11; 95% CI, 1.04–1.66). Conclusions Polycythemia is an independent risk factor for all-cause in-hospital mortality in COPD patients with PE at low risk. PMID:28066591

  11. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Finkelstein

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Finkelstein1, Eunme Cha1, Steven M Scharf 21Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine at the Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USARationale: Recent studies described association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. In their analysis none of these studies accounted for sociodemographic factors, health behaviors, and patient comorbidities simultaneously.Objective: To study whether COPD diagnosis is an independent risk factor for CVD. Methods: Subjects aged 40 years and older (N = 18,342 from the sample adult file of the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS were included in the analysis. Chi-squared tests and odds ratios (OR were utilized to compare the data. Multiple logistic regression was employed to analyze the association between COPD and CVD with simultaneous control for sociodemographic factors (age, gender, race, marital status, education, income, health behaviors (tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and patient comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, and obesity. The analysis employed NHIS sampling weights to generate data representative of the entire US population.Results: The COPD population had increased prevalence of CVD (56.5% vs 25.6%; P < 0.0001. Adjusted logistic regression showed that COPD patients (N = 958 were at higher risk of having coronary heart disease (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.5–2.5, angina (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.6–2.7, myocardial infarction (OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.7–2.8, stroke (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1–2.1, congestive heart failure (OR = 3.9, 95% CI: 2.8–5.5, poor circulation in lower extremities (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 2.0–3.0, and arrhythmia (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 2.0–2.8. Overall, the presence of COPD increased the odds of having CVD by a factor of

  12. Potential Occupational Risks Associated with Pulmonary Toxicity of Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manke, Amruta; Luanpitpong, Sudjit; Rojanasakul, Yon

    Given their remarkable properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have made their way through various industrial and medicinal applications and the overall production of CNTs is expected to grow rapidly in the next few years, thus requiring an additional recruitment of workers. However, their unique applications and desirable properties are fraught with concerns regarding occupational exposure. The concern about worker exposure to CNTs arises from the results of recent animal studies. Short-term and sub-chronic exposure studies in rodents have shown consistent adverse health effects such as pulmonary inflammation, granulomas, fibrosis, genotoxicity and mesothelioma after inhalation or instillation of several types of CNTs. Furthermore, physicochemical properties of CNTs such as dispersion, functionalization and particle size can significantly affect their pulmonary toxicity. Risk estimates from animal studies necessitate implementation of protective measures to limit worker exposure to CNTs. Information on workplace exposure is very limited, however, studies have reported that CNTs can be aerosolized and attain respirable airborne levels during synthesis and processing activities in the workplace. Quantitative risk assessments from sub-chronic animal studies recommend the health-based need to reduce exposures below the recommended exposure limit of 1 µg/m 3 . Practice of prevention measures including the use of engineering controls, personal protective equipment, health surveillance program, safe handling and use, as well as worker training can significantly minimize worker exposure and improve worker health and safety.

  13. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in immune-compromised children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, S.S.; Jakaki, R.I.

    1991-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a potentially lethal complication of prolonged neutropenia occurring most commonly in patients with leukemia or aplastic anemia. Early diagnosis is important for prompt therapy but may prove difficult. This paper assesses the role of CT in the early diagnosis and follow-up of IPA in children. Nine proved cases and 2 cases clinically consistent with IPA were the group for both retrospective and prospective analysis. Medical records, chest radiographs, and CT scans were reviewed. Eight children had acute leukemia, and 3 had aplastic anemia. five patients died; 2 underwent lobectomy. Typical CT findings included multiple found parenchymal nodules, larger confluent masslike infiltrates, and peripheral pleural-based nodules/infiltrates resembling infarcts. No adenopathy or pleural effusions occurred. Some lesions later cavitated or developed an air crescent. CT clearly depicted several unusual complications, including involvement of bronchus (resulting in luminal narrowing, unilateral pulmonary overinflation, and air leak) and mycotic thrombosis or aneurysim of the pulmonary artery. Resolution of lesions with therapy was also documented by CT

  14. Theories of Lethal Mutagenesis: From Error Catastrophe to Lethal Defection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejero, Héctor; Montero, Francisco; Nuño, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    RNA viruses get extinct in a process called lethal mutagenesis when subjected to an increase in their mutation rate, for instance, by the action of mutagenic drugs. Several approaches have been proposed to understand this phenomenon. The extinction of RNA viruses by increased mutational pressure was inspired by the concept of the error threshold. The now classic quasispecies model predicts the existence of a limit to the mutation rate beyond which the genetic information of the wild type could not be efficiently transmitted to the next generation. This limit was called the error threshold, and for mutation rates larger than this threshold, the quasispecies was said to enter into error catastrophe. This transition has been assumed to foster the extinction of the whole population. Alternative explanations of lethal mutagenesis have been proposed recently. In the first place, a distinction is made between the error threshold and the extinction threshold, the mutation rate beyond which a population gets extinct. Extinction is explained from the effect the mutation rate has, throughout the mutational load, on the reproductive ability of the whole population. Secondly, lethal defection takes also into account the effect of interactions within mutant spectra, which have been shown to be determinant for the understanding the extinction of RNA virus due to an augmented mutational pressure. Nonetheless, some relevant issues concerning lethal mutagenesis are not completely understood yet, as so survival of the flattest, i.e. the development of resistance to lethal mutagenesis by evolving towards mutationally more robust regions of sequence space, or sublethal mutagenesis, i.e., the increase of the mutation rate below the extinction threshold which may boost the adaptability of RNA virus, increasing their ability to develop resistance to drugs (including mutagens). A better design of antiviral therapies will still require an improvement of our knowledge about lethal

  15. Pulmonary endarterectomy outputs in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Gude, María Jesús; Pérez de la Sota, Enrique; Pérez Vela, Jose Luís; Centeno Rodríguez, Jorge; Muñoz Guijosa, Christian; Velázquez, María Teresa; Alonso Chaterina, Sergio; Hernández González, Ignacio; Escribano Subías, Pilar; Cortina Romero, José María

    2017-07-07

    Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy surgery is the treatment of choice for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension; extremely high pulmonary vascular resistance constitutes a risk factor for hospital mortality. The objective of this study was to analyze the immediate and long-term results of the surgical treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in patients with very severe pulmonary hypertension. Since February 1996, we performed 160 pulmonary thromboendarterectomies. We divided the patient population in 2 groups: group 1, which included 40 patients with pulmonary vascular resistance≥1090dyn/sec/cm -5 , and group 2, which included the remaining 120 patients. Hospital mortality (15 vs. 2.5%), reperfusion pulmonary edema (33 vs. 14%) and heart failure (23 vs. 3.3%) were all higher in group 1; however, after one year of follow-up, there were no significant differences in the clinical, hemodynamic and echocardiographic conditions of both groups. Survival rate after 5 years was 77% in group 1 and 92% in group 2 (P=.033). After the learning curve including the 46 first patients, there was no difference in hospital mortality (3.8 vs. 2.3%) or survival rate after 5 years (96.2% in group 1 and 96.2% in group 2). Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy is linked to significantly higher morbidity and mortality rates in patients with severe chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Nevertheless, these patients benefit the same from the procedure in the mid-/long-term. In our experience, after the learning curve, this surgery is safe in severe pulmonary hypertension and no level of pulmonary vascular resistance should be an absolute counter-indication for this surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Regulatory Mode and Risk-Taking: The Mediating Role of Anticipated Regret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panno, Angelo; Lauriola, Marco; Pierro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We propose that decision maker's regulatory mode affects risk-taking through anticipated regret. In the Study 1 either a locomotion or an assessment orientation were experimentally induced, and in the Studies 2 and 3 these different orientations were assessed as chronic individual differences. To assess risk-taking we used two behavioral measures of risk: BART and hot-CCT. The results show that experimentally induced assessment orientation--compared to locomotion--leads to decreased risk-taking through increased anticipated regret (Study 1). People chronically predisposed to be in the assessment state take less risk through increased anticipated regret (Study 2 and Study 3). Study 2 results also show a marginally non-significant indirect effect of chronic locomotion mode on BART through anticipated regret. Differently, Study 3 shows that people chronically predisposed to be in the locomotion state take greater risk through decreased anticipated regret, when play a dynamic risk task triggering stronger emotional arousal. Through all three studies, the average effect size for the relationship of assessment with anticipated regret was in the moderate-large range, whereas for risk-taking was in the moderate range. The average effect size for the relationship of locomotion with anticipated regret was in the moderate range, whereas for risk-taking was in the small-moderate range. These results increase our understanding of human behavior under conditions of risk obtaining novel insights into regulatory mode theory and decision science.

  17. Identifying the Risk of Swallowing-Related Pulmonary Complications in Older Patients With Hip Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meals, Clifton; Roy, Siddharth; Medvedev, Gleb; Wallace, Matthew; Neviaser, Robert J; O'Brien, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    To identify and potentially modify the risk of pulmonary complications in a group of older patients with hip fracture, the authors obtained speech and language pathology consultations for these patients. Then they performed a retrospective chart review of all patients 65 years and older who were admitted to their institution between June 2011 and July 2013 with acute hip fracture, were treated surgically, and had a speech and language pathology evaluation in the immediate perioperative period. The authors identified 52 patients who met the study criteria. According to the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification system, at the time of surgery, 1 patient (2%) was classified as ASA I, 12 patients (23%) were ASA II, 26 (50%) were ASA III, and 12 (23%) were ASA IV. Based on a speech and language pathology evaluation, 22 patients (42%) were diagnosed with dysphagia. Statistical analysis showed that ASA III status and ASA IV status were meaningful predictors of dysphagia and that dysphagia itself was a strong risk factor for pulmonary aspiration, pneumonia, and aspiration pneumonitis. Evaluation by a speech and language pathologist, particularly of patients classified as ASA III or ASA IV, may be an efficient means of averting pulmonary morbidity that is common in older patients with hip fracture. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Risk management for outsourcing biomedical waste disposal - using the failure mode and effects analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ching-Jong; Ho, Chao Chung

    2014-07-01

    Using the failure mode and effects analysis, this study examined biomedical waste companies through risk assessment. Moreover, it evaluated the supervisors of biomedical waste units in hospitals, and factors relating to the outsourcing risk assessment of biomedical waste in hospitals by referring to waste disposal acts. An expert questionnaire survey was conducted on the personnel involved in waste disposal units in hospitals, in order to identify important factors relating to the outsourcing risk of biomedical waste in hospitals. This study calculated the risk priority number (RPN) and selected items with an RPN value higher than 80 for improvement. These items included "availability of freezing devices", "availability of containers for sharp items", "disposal frequency", "disposal volume", "disposal method", "vehicles meeting the regulations", and "declaration of three lists". This study also aimed to identify important selection factors of biomedical waste disposal companies by hospitals in terms of risk. These findings can serve as references for hospitals in the selection of outsourcing companies for biomedical waste disposal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gene expression profiling of prostate tissue identifies chromatin regulation as a potential link between obesity and lethal prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebot, Ericka M; Gerke, Travis; Labbé, David P; Sinnott, Jennifer A; Zadra, Giorgia; Rider, Jennifer R; Tyekucheva, Svitlana; Wilson, Kathryn M; Kelly, Rachel S; Shui, Irene M; Loda, Massimo; Kantoff, Philip W; Finn, Stephen; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Brown, Myles; Giovannucci, Edward L; Mucci, Lorelei A

    2017-11-01

    Obese men are at higher risk of advanced prostate cancer and cancer-specific mortality; however, the biology underlying this association remains unclear. This study examined gene expression profiles of prostate tissue to identify biological processes differentially expressed by obesity status and lethal prostate cancer. Gene expression profiling was performed on tumor (n = 402) and adjacent normal (n = 200) prostate tissue from participants in 2 prospective cohorts who had been diagnosed with prostate cancer from 1982 to 2005. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from the questionnaire immediately preceding cancer diagnosis. Men were followed for metastases or prostate cancer-specific death (lethal disease) through 2011. Gene Ontology biological processes differentially expressed by BMI were identified using gene set enrichment analysis. Pathway scores were computed by averaging the signal intensities of member genes. Odds ratios (ORs) for lethal prostate cancer were estimated with logistic regression. Among 402 men, 48% were healthy weight, 31% were overweight, and 21% were very overweight/obese. Fifteen gene sets were enriched in tumor tissue, but not normal tissue, of very overweight/obese men versus healthy-weight men; 5 of these were related to chromatin modification and remodeling (false-discovery rate 7, 41% vs 17%; P = 2 × 10 -4 ) and an increased risk of lethal disease that was independent of grade and stage (OR, 5.26; 95% confidence interval, 2.37-12.25). This study improves our understanding of the biology of aggressive prostate cancer and identifies a potential mechanistic link between obesity and prostate cancer death that warrants further study. Cancer 2017;123:4130-4138. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  20. Benefit of early discharge among patients with low-risk pulmonary embolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    Full Text Available Clinical guidelines recommend early discharge of patients with low-risk pulmonary embolism (LRPE. This study measured the overall impact of early discharge of LRPE patients on clinical outcomes and costs in the Veterans Health Administration population. Adult patients with ≥1 inpatient diagnosis for pulmonary embolism (PE (index date between 10/2011-06/2015, continuous enrollment for ≥12 months pre- and 3 months post-index date were included. PE risk stratification was performed using the simplified Pulmonary Embolism Stratification Index. Propensity score matching (PSM was used to compare 90-day adverse PE events (APEs [recurrent venous thromboembolism, major bleed and death], hospital-acquired complications (HACs, healthcare utilization, and costs among short (≤2 days versus long length of stay (LOS. Net clinical benefit was defined as 1 minus the combined rate of APE and HAC. Among 6,746 PE patients, 95.4% were men, 22.0% were African American, and 1,918 had LRPE. Among LRPE patients, only 688 had a short LOS. After 1:1 PSM, there were no differences in APE, but short LOS had fewer HAC (1.5% vs 13.3%, 95% CI: 3.77-19.94 and bacterial pneumonias (5.9% vs 11.7%, 95% CI: 1.24-3.23, resulting in better net clinical benefit (86.9% vs 78.3%, 95% CI: 0.84-0.96. Among long LOS patients, HACs (52 exceeded APEs (14 recurrent DVT, 5 bleeds. Short LOS incurred lower inpatient ($2,164 vs $5,100, 95% CI: $646.8-$5225.0 and total costs ($9,056 vs $12,544, 95% CI: $636.6-$6337.7. LRPE patients with short LOS had better net clinical outcomes at lower costs than matched LRPE patients with long LOS.

  1. Recombinant thrombomodulin protects mice against histone-induced lethal thromboembolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Nakahara

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have shown that histones, the chief protein component of chromatin, are released into the extracellular space during sepsis, trauma, and ischemia-reperfusion injury, and act as major mediators of the death of an organism. This study was designed to elucidate the cellular and molecular basis of histone-induced lethality and to assess the protective effects of recombinant thrombomodulin (rTM. rTM has been approved for the treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC in Japan, and is currently undergoing a phase III clinical trial in the United States. METHODS: Histone H3 levels in plasma of healthy volunteers and patients with sepsis and DIC were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Male C57BL/6 mice were injected intravenously with purified histones, and pathological examinations were performed. The protective effects of rTM against histone toxicity were analyzed both in vitro and in mice. RESULTS: Histone H3 was not detectable in plasma of healthy volunteers, but significant levels were observed in patients with sepsis and DIC. These levels were higher in non-survivors than in survivors. Extracellular histones triggered platelet aggregation, leading to thrombotic occlusion of pulmonary capillaries and subsequent right-sided heart failure in mice. These mice displayed symptoms of DIC, including thrombocytopenia, prolonged prothrombin time, decreased fibrinogen, fibrin deposition in capillaries, and bleeding. Platelet depletion protected mice from histone-induced death in the first 30 minutes, suggesting that vessel occlusion by platelet-rich thrombi might be responsible for death during the early phase. Furthermore, rTM bound to extracellular histones, suppressed histone-induced platelet aggregation, thrombotic occlusion of pulmonary capillaries, and dilatation of the right ventricle, and rescued mice from lethal thromboembolism. CONCLUSIONS: Extracellular histones cause massive

  2. Novel method to calculate pulmonary compliance images in rodents from computed tomography acquired at constant pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, Thomas; Castillo, Richard; Sanders, Kevin; Price, Roger; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cody, Dianna

    2006-01-01

    Our goal was to develop a method for generating high-resolution three-dimensional pulmonary compliance images in rodents from computed tomography (CT) images acquired at a series of constant pressures in ventilated animals. One rat and one mouse were used to demonstrate this technique. A pre-clinical GE flat panel CT scanner (maximum 31 line-pairs cm -1 resolution) was utilized for image acquisition. The thorax of each animal was imaged with breath-holds at 2, 6, 10, 14 and 18 cm H 2 O pressure in triplicate. A deformable image registration algorithm was applied to each pair of CT images to map corresponding tissue elements. Pulmonary compliance was calculated on a voxel by voxel basis using adjacent pairs of CT images. Triplicate imaging was used to estimate the measurement error of this technique. The 3D pulmonary compliance images revealed regional heterogeneity of compliance. The maximum total lung compliance measured 0.080 (±0.007) ml air per cm H 2 O per ml of lung and 0.039 (±0.004) ml air per cm H 2 O per ml of lung for the rat and mouse, respectively. In this study, we have demonstrated a unique method of quantifying regional lung compliance from 4 to 16 cm H 2 O pressure with sub-millimetre spatial resolution in rodents

  3. The new pooled cohort equations risk calculator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preiss, David; Kristensen, Søren L

    2015-01-01

    disease and any measure of social deprivation. An early criticism of the Pooled Cohort Equations Risk Calculator has been its alleged overestimation of ASCVD risk which, if confirmed in the general population, is likely to result in statin therapy being prescribed to many individuals at lower risk than...

  4. METABOLIC DISORDERS AND PULMONARY EMBOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ya. Vasiltseva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study. To examine the contribution of diabetes and obesity in the development of pulmonary embolism on the based data of the Register of new hospital of pulmonary embolism (PE in hospitals inTomsk(2003–2012. Material and Methods. The medical history and records of autopsies of patients treated in hospitals in the city ofTomsk, 2003–2012, and anatomopathological and/or instrumental examination revealed pulmonary embolism have been subjected to studies. We used the classification of diabetes mellitus proposed by the WHO in1999 inour work, because the register including data (2003–2012. The degree of obesity was assessed according to WHO classification (1997. Statistical analysis of the results was carried out with the help of software for computer Statistica for Windows, version 8.0. The Shapiro–Wilk and Kolmogorov–Smirnov tests was used to determine the nature of the distribution of the data. The ho mogeneity of the population variance was assessed using Fisher's exact test andLeuventest. The Mann– Whitney test was used when comparing two independent samples to determine the significance of differences. The analysis was conducted by means of qualitative characteristics contingency tables using Pearson χ 2 . The odds ratio was calculated to assess the association between a specific outcome and the risk. Data are presented as M ± SD factor. The significance level of p for all procedures used by the statistical analysis was taken to be 0.05. It was considered statistically significant level of p < 0.05. The results of the study. In intermediate urbanized city ofWestern Siberia,Tomsk, established register of hospital pulmonary embolism (2003–2012. The register included 751patients whose in vivo and / or postmortem revealed pulmonary embolism (PE. The data histories and autopsy reports was analyze. The type 2diabetes was diagnosed in 205 patients. The type 2 diabetes moderate had 29%. Diabetes severe suffer 82

  5. The role of pH in lethal effect of glucose load malignant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmakova, N.L.; Yarmonenko, S.P.; Laser, K.; Fomenkova, T.E.; Kozubek, S.; Korogodin, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    The lethal effect of variuos pH values on Erlich ascites tumour (EAT) calls has been investigated. Different pH values were obtained by means of both glucose load and phosphate buffers. The effect has been investigated by observing cell death in vitro, determining cancerogenity of EAT cells and determining their radiosensitivity. The results of all methods enabled us to conclude that the same values of pH lead to the same effect on EAT cells independently of the way by which the given pH value was reached. The lethal effect markedly increased when the value of pH was lower than 5.6. It is concluded that the basis of the mechanism of glucose load lethal effect is their ''self-acidisation''. The measurement of pH in tumours is proposed as a basic test for determining the suitability of the use of hyperglycemia in clinics and for comparison of the efficiency of various modes of treatment

  6. Balloon pulmonary valvotomy – Not just a simple balloon dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhendu Mohanty

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Balloon pulmonary valvotomy is the preferred mode of treatment in patients with isolated pulmonary valvar stenosis and has shown good long term results. It is generally considered a safe procedure with few complications. There have been however, case reports of potentially fatal acute severe pulmonary edema occurring after the procedure in some patients. The cause of this complication and its pathophysiology is still not clear. Its occurrence is also infrequent with less than 5 cases reported till now. We report a case of pulmonary valvar stenosis which developed acute severe refractory pulmonary edema immediately after balloon pulmonary valvotomy.

  7. Pulmonary tuberculosis - An emerging risk factor for venous thromboembolism: A case series and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitesh Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One-third of patients with symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE manifest pulmonary embolism, whereas two-thirds manifest deep vein thrombosis (DVT. Overall, 25%–50% of patients with first-time VTE have an idiopathic condition, without a readily identifiable risk factor, and its association with tuberculosis (TB is a rare occurrence. Deep venous thrombosis has been associated with 1.5%–3.4% cases of TB. Early initiation of anti-TB treatment along with anticoagulant therapy decreases the overall morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. We report three cases of DVT associated with pulmonary TB who were diagnosed due to high index of suspicion as the risk factors for the development of DVT were present in these cases.

  8. Pulmonary complications after abdominal surgery in patients with mild-to-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim TH

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tae Hoon Kim, Jae Seung Lee, Sei Won Lee, Yeon-Mok Oh Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea Abstract: Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs are one of the most important causes of postoperative morbidity and mortality after abdominal surgery. Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has been considered a risk factor for PPCs, it remains unclear whether mild-to-moderate COPD is a risk factor. This retrospective cohort study included 387 subjects who underwent abdominal surgery with general anesthesia in a tertiary referral hospital. PPCs included pneumonia, pulmonary edema, pulmonary thromboembolism, atelectasis, and acute exacerbation of COPD. Among the 387 subjects, PPCs developed in 14 (12.0% of 117 patients with mild-to-moderate COPD and in 13 (15.1% of 86 control patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that mild-to-moderate COPD was not a significant risk factor for PPCs (odds ratio [OR] =0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.31–2.03; P=0.628. However, previous hospitalization for respiratory problems (OR =4.20; 95% CI =1.52–11.59, emergency surgery (OR =3.93; 95% CI =1.75–8.82, increased amount of red blood cell (RBC transfusion (OR =1.09; 95% CI =1.05–1.14 for one pack increase of RBC transfusion, and laparoscopic surgery (OR =0.41; 95% CI =0.18–0.93 were independent predictors of PPCs. These findings suggested that mild-to-moderate COPD may not be a significant risk factor for PPCs after abdominal surgery.Keywords: postoperative pulmonary complications, spirometry, risk factor, abdominal surgery, postoperative complications, postoperative care

  9. Analysis of risk factors of pulmonary embolism in diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Changhui; Ma Zhihai; Zhu Lin; Chi Lianxiang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the related risk factors in diabetic patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods: 58 diabetic cases underwent lower limbs 99m Tc-MAA veins imaging (and/or ultrasonography) and pulmonary perfusion imaging. The related laboratory data [fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood cholesterol, blood long chain triglycerides (LCT)] and clinic information [age, disease courses, chest symptoms (chest pain and short of breathe), lower limbs symptoms (swelling, varicose veins and diabetic foot) and acute complication (diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar non ketotic diabetic coma)] were collected simultaneously. SPSS was used for χ 2 -test and Logistic regression analysis. Results: (1) 28 patients (48.3%) were showed to be with lower limbs deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and by 99m Tc-MAA imaging, 10 cases (17.2%) with PE. The PE ratios (32.1%) of the patients with DVT was more higher than no DVT (3.3%) (χ 2 =6.53, P 2 ≥4.23, P 2 ≤2.76, P>0.05), respectively. (3) Multiplicity analysis indicated: the related risk factors for PE included chest symptoms (Score=13.316, P=0.000) and lower limbs symptoms (Score=7.780, P=0.005). No significant difference to other factors (Score≤2.494, P>0.114), respectively. Conclusion: The serious DM with chest symptoms, lower limbs symptoms and/or DVT must be controlled as early as possible by all kinds of treatment. It will decrease the PE complication. (authors)

  10. Pulmonary thromboembolism in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babyn, Paul S.; Gahunia, Harpal K. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Pediatric Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Massicotte, Patricia [Stollery Children' s Hospital and University of Alberta, Departments of Pediatric Hematology and Cardiology, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-03-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is uncommonly diagnosed in the pediatric patient, and indeed often only discovered on autopsy. The incidence of pediatric PTE depends upon the associated underlying disease, diagnostic tests used, and index of suspicion. Multiple risk factors can be found including: peripartum asphyxia, dyspnea, haemoptysis, chest pain, dehydration, septicemia, central venous lines (CVLs), trauma, surgery, ongoing hemolysis, vascular lesions, malignancy, renal disease, foreign bodies or, uncommonly, intracranial venous sinus thrombosis, burns, or nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis. Other types of embolism can occur uncommonly in childhood and need to be recognized, as the required treatment will vary. These include pulmonary cytolytic thrombi, foreign bodies, tumor and septic emboli, and post-traumatic fat emboli. No single noninvasive test for pulmonary embolism is both sensitive and specific. A combination of diagnostic procedures must be used to identify suspect or confirmed cases of PTE. This article reviews the risk factors, clinical presentation and treatment of pulmonary embolism in children. It also highlights the current diagnostic tools and protocols used to evaluate pulmonary embolism in pediatric patients. (orig.)

  11. Pulmonary thromboembolism in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babyn, Paul S.; Gahunia, Harpal K.; Massicotte, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is uncommonly diagnosed in the pediatric patient, and indeed often only discovered on autopsy. The incidence of pediatric PTE depends upon the associated underlying disease, diagnostic tests used, and index of suspicion. Multiple risk factors can be found including: peripartum asphyxia, dyspnea, haemoptysis, chest pain, dehydration, septicemia, central venous lines (CVLs), trauma, surgery, ongoing hemolysis, vascular lesions, malignancy, renal disease, foreign bodies or, uncommonly, intracranial venous sinus thrombosis, burns, or nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis. Other types of embolism can occur uncommonly in childhood and need to be recognized, as the required treatment will vary. These include pulmonary cytolytic thrombi, foreign bodies, tumor and septic emboli, and post-traumatic fat emboli. No single noninvasive test for pulmonary embolism is both sensitive and specific. A combination of diagnostic procedures must be used to identify suspect or confirmed cases of PTE. This article reviews the risk factors, clinical presentation and treatment of pulmonary embolism in children. It also highlights the current diagnostic tools and protocols used to evaluate pulmonary embolism in pediatric patients. (orig.)

  12. Fundamentals of management of acute postoperative pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mary B; Laussen, Peter C

    2010-03-01

    In the last several years, there have been numerous advancements in the field of pulmonary hypertension as a whole, but there have been few changes in the management of children with pulmonary hypertension after cardiac surgery. Patients at particular risk for postoperative pulmonary hypertension can be identified preoperatively based on their cardiac disease and can be grouped into four broad categories based on the mechanisms responsible for pulmonary hypertension: 1) increased pulmonary vascular resistance; 2) increased pulmonary blood flow with normal pulmonary vascular resistance; 3) a combination of increased pulmonary vascular resistance and increased blood flow; and 4) increased pulmonary venous pressure. In this review of the immediate postoperative management of pulmonary hypertension, various strategies are discussed including medical therapies, monitoring, ventilatory strategies, and weaning from these supports. With early recognition of patients at particular risk for severe pulmonary hypertension, management strategies can be directed at preventing or minimizing hemodynamic instability and thereby prevent the development of ventricular dysfunction and a low output state.

  13. Lethal and Sub-lethal Effects of Four Insecticides on the Aphidophagous Coccinellid Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depalo, Laura; Lanzoni, Alberto; Masetti, Antonio; Pasqualini, Edison; Burgio, Giovanni

    2017-12-05

    Conventional insecticide assays, which measure the effects of insecticide exposure on short-term mortality, overlook important traits, including persistence of toxicity or sub-lethal effects. Therefore, such approaches are especially inadequate for prediction of the overall impact of insecticides on beneficial arthropods. In this study, the side effects of four modern insecticides (chlorantraniliprole, emamectin benzoate, spinosad, and spirotetramat) on Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were evaluated under laboratory conditions by exposition on treated potted plants. In addition to investigation of acute toxicity and persistence of harmful activity in both larvae and adults of A. bipunctata, demographic parameters were evaluated, to provide a comprehensive picture of the nontarget effects of these products. Field doses of the four insecticides caused detrimental effects to A. bipunctata; but in different ways. Overall, spinosad showed the best toxicological profile among the products tested. Emamectin benzoate could be considered a low-risk insecticide, but had high persistence. Chlorantraniliprole exhibited lethal effects on early instar larvae and adults, along with a long-lasting activity, instead spirotetramat showed a low impact on larval and adult mortality and can be considered a short-lived insecticide. However, demographic analysis demonstrated that chlorantraniliprole and spirotetramat caused sub-lethal effects. Our findings highlight that sole assessment of mortality can lead to underestimation of the full impact of pesticides on nontarget insects. Demographic analysis was demonstrated to be a sensitive method for detection of the sub-lethal effects of insecticides on A. bipunctata, and this approach should be considered for evaluation of insecticide selectivity. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Application and Evaluation of Control Modes for Risk-Based Engine Performance Enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Litt, Jonathan S.; Sowers, T. Shane; Owen, A. Karl; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The engine control system for civil transport aircraft imposes operational limits on the propulsion system to ensure compliance with safety standards. However, during certain emergency situations, aircraft survivability may benefit from engine performance beyond its normal limits despite the increased risk of failure. Accordingly, control modes were developed to improve the maximum thrust output and responsiveness of a generic high-bypass turbofan engine. The algorithms were designed such that the enhanced performance would always constitute an elevation in failure risk to a consistent predefined likelihood. This paper presents an application of these risk-based control modes to a combined engine/aircraft model. Through computer and piloted simulation tests, the aim is to present a notional implementation of these modes, evaluate their effects on a generic airframe, and demonstrate their usefulness during emergency flight situations. Results show that minimal control effort is required to compensate for the changes in flight dynamics due to control mode activation. The benefits gained from enhanced engine performance for various runway incursion scenarios are investigated. Finally, the control modes are shown to protect against potential instabilities during propulsion-only flight where all aircraft control surfaces are inoperable.

  15. Pulmonary blastomycosis in a professional diver: An occupational risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R Kroll

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In certain parts of the United States and Canada, and northern Ontario in particular, the dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis is endemic and can cause infection in exposed individuals. The site of infection is usually pulmonary, causing respiratory and constitutional symptoms, but can also affect other sites in the body. Symptom severity can vary substantially from no symptoms to fatal acute respiratory distress syndrome. The present report describes a 27-year-old professional diver who had recently worked in northern Ontario, who developed symptoms of pneumonia and exhibited atypical findings on chest imaging. He was diagnosed with blastomycosis based on histopathological findings and fungal culture, and was treated with amphotericin B and itraconazole in accordance with treatment guidelines. While outdoor occupations in endemic areas increase the risk of infection, there is no literature specifically identifying professional diving as an occupational risk for blastomycosis.

  16. Pulmonary balloon angioplasty of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) in surgically inaccessible cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitton, M.B.; Herber, S.; Thelen, M.; Mayer, E.

    2003-01-01

    The clinical course of patients suffering from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) depends on the distribution pattern of the thromboembolic material. In patients with thromboembolic findings in the central pulmonary segments pulmonary thrombendarterectomy (PTE) has excellent results and acceptable operative risk. This paper presents two surgically inaccessable cases that were successfully treated with balloon pulmonary angioplasty. Balloon angioplasty improved parenchymal perfusion, increased cardiac index (ΔCI + 19.2% [Case 1], and + 15.4% [2]), reduced pulmonary vascular resistance during follow-up (ΔPVRI - 25.0% [1] and - 15.9% [2]), and is discussed as an alternative treatment option for cases not suited for surgery. (orig.) [de

  17. Exercise rehabilitation in pulmonary patients: a review | Shaw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although aerobic exercise (specifically lower-body) continues to be the most popular mode of exercise for pulmonary rehabilitation, many lung patients report disabling symptoms for daily activities involving the upper extremities. The principal difference between aerobic training and resistance training (RT) modes of ...

  18. Normal Mode Analysis in Zeolites: Toward an Efficient Calculation of Adsorption Entropies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moor, Bart A; Ghysels, An; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Waroquier, Michel; Marin, Guy B

    2011-04-12

    An efficient procedure for normal-mode analysis of extended systems, such as zeolites, is developed and illustrated for the physisorption and chemisorption of n-octane and isobutene in H-ZSM-22 and H-FAU using periodic DFT calculations employing the Vienna Ab Initio Simulation Package. Physisorption and chemisorption entropies resulting from partial Hessian vibrational analysis (PHVA) differ at most 10 J mol(-1) K(-1) from those resulting from full Hessian vibrational analysis, even for PHVA schemes in which only a very limited number of atoms are considered free. To acquire a well-conditioned Hessian, much tighter optimization criteria than commonly used for electronic energy calculations in zeolites are required, i.e., at least an energy cutoff of 400 eV, maximum force of 0.02 eV/Å, and self-consistent field loop convergence criteria of 10(-8) eV. For loosely bonded complexes the mobile adsorbate method is applied, in which frequency contributions originating from translational or rotational motions of the adsorbate are removed from the total partition function and replaced by free translational and/or rotational contributions. The frequencies corresponding with these translational and rotational modes can be selected unambiguously based on a mobile block Hessian-PHVA calculation, allowing the prediction of physisorption entropies within an accuracy of 10-15 J mol(-1) K(-1) as compared to experimental values. The approach presented in this study is useful for studies on other extended catalytic systems.

  19. Risk calculations in the manufacturing technology selection process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, S.; O'Brien, C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present result obtained from a developed technology selection framework and provide a detailed insight into the risk calculations and their implications in manufacturing technology selection process. Design/methodology/approach - The results illustrated...... in the paper are the outcome of an action research study that was conducted in an aerospace company. Findings - The paper highlights the role of risk calculations in manufacturing technology selection process by elaborating the contribution of risk associated with manufacturing technology alternatives...... in the shape of opportunities and threats in different decision-making environments. Practical implications - The research quantifies the risk associated with different available manufacturing technology alternatives. This quantification of risk crystallises the process of technology selection decision making...

  20. Effectiveness of personalized and interactive health risk calculators: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harle, Christopher A; Downs, Julie S; Padman, Rema

    2012-01-01

    Risk calculators are popular websites that provide individualized disease risk assessments to the public. Little is known about their effect on risk perceptions and health behavior. This study sought to test whether risk calculator features-namely, personalized estimates of one's disease risk and feedback about the effects of risk-mitigating behaviors-improve risk perceptions and motivate healthy behavior. A web-based experimental study using simple randomization was conducted to compare the effects of 3 prediabetes risk communication websites. Setting The study was conducted in the context of ongoing health promotion activities sponsored by a university's human resources office. Patients Participants were adult university employees. Intervention The control website presented nonindividualized risk information. The personalized noninteractive website presented individualized risk calculations. The personalized interactive website presented individualized risk calculations and feedback about the effects of hypothetical risk-mitigating behaviors. Measurements Pre- and postintervention risk perceptions were measured in absolute and relative terms. Health behavior was measured by assessing participant interest in follow-up preventive health services. On average, risk perceptions decreased by 2%. There was no general effect of personalization or interactivity in aligning subjective risk perceptions with objective risk calculations or in increasing healthy behaviors. However, participants who previously overestimated their risk reduced their perceptions by 16%. This was a significantly larger change than the 2% increase by participants who underestimated their risk. Limitations Results may not generalize to different populations, different diseases, or longer-term outcomes. Compared to nonpersonalized information, individualized risk calculators had little positive effect on prediabetes risk perception accuracy or health behavior. Risk perception accuracy was improved in

  1. Pulmonary complications in 110 consecutive renal transplant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pulmonary embolism in 5, and lung abscess in 1. Sixty- nine patients ... The incidence of pulmonary complications after renal ... the factors that influence the development of these .... mobilisation have reduced the risk of pulmonary embolism.

  2. [Pregnancy in pulmonary arterial hypertension patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengarten, Dror; Kramer, Mordechai R

    2013-09-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a disorder defined by elevated mean pulmonary arterial pressure. PAH can be idiopathic or associated with a variety of medical conditions such as scleroderma, congenital heart disease, left heart failure, lung disease or chronic pulmonary thromboembolism. This progressive disease can cause severe right heart failure and death. Normal physiologic changes that occur during pregnancy may produce fatal consequences in PAH patients. Current guidelines recommend that pregnancy be avoided or terminated early in women with PAH. During the past decade, new advanced therapies for PAH have emerged gathering reports of successful pregnancies in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Substantial risk still exists and current recommendations have not changed. Nevertheless, in selected cases, if a patient insists on continuing the pregnancy, being fully aware of the risks involved, an intensive treatment approach should be implemented in experienced centers. This is necessary in order to control pulmonary hypertension during pregnancy and reduce the risk so as to improve outcomes. This review will focus on the pathophysiology of PAH in pregnancy and appropriate management during pregnancy, delivery and the post-partum period.

  3. Mixtures of toxic agents and attributable risk calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, F.A.; Scott, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    Calculations of attributable risks have attracted increasing interest recently. However, these efforts have been limited to mostly one agent, radiation, and no interactions with effects of other toxic agents have been taken into account. This paper outlines a generic approach to the calculation of attributable risks for an exposure to several toxic agents and interaction effects associated with them. In this calculation, the partition of interaction terms between the agents responsible is of particular importance. At present, there are no rules on how to assign equitable shares, so one methodology will be proposed and others discussed briefly. For one example of an assignment, the standard errors of the attributable risks are determined in terms of the uncertainties of the input parameters, thus setting the stage for a comparison of the different shares of responsibility

  4. Self-force calculations with matched expansions and quasinormal mode sums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casals, Marc; Dolan, Sam; Ottewill, Adrian C.; Wardell, Barry

    2009-01-01

    Accurate modeling of gravitational wave emission by extreme-mass ratio inspirals is essential for their detection by the LISA mission. A leading perturbative approach involves the calculation of the self-force acting upon the smaller orbital body. In this work, we present the first application of the Poisson-Wiseman-Anderson method of 'matched expansions' to compute the self-force acting on a point particle moving in a curved spacetime. The method employs two expansions for the Green function, which are, respectively, valid in the 'quasilocal' and 'distant past' regimes, and which may be matched together within the normal neighborhood. We perform our calculation in a static region of the spherically symmetric Nariai spacetime (dS 2 xS 2 ), in which scalar-field perturbations are governed by a radial equation with a Poeschl-Teller potential (frequently used as an approximation to the Schwarzschild radial potential) whose solutions are known in closed form. The key new ingredients in our study are (i) very high order quasilocal expansions and (ii) expansion of the distant past Green function in quasinormal modes. In combination, these tools enable a detailed study of the properties of the scalar-field Green function. We demonstrate that the Green function is singular whenever x and x ' are connected by a null geodesic, and apply asymptotic methods to determine the structure of the Green function near the null wave front. We show that the singular part of the Green function undergoes a transition each time the null wave front passes through a caustic point, following a repeating fourfold sequence δ(σ), 1/πσ, -δ(σ), -1/πσ, etc., where σ is Synge's world function. The matched-expansion method provides insight into the nonlocal properties of the self-force. We show that the self-force generated by the segment of the worldline lying outside the normal neighborhood is not negligible. We apply the matched-expansion method to compute the scalar self-force acting on

  5. Hyperglycemia is associated with increased risk of patient delay in pulmonary tuberculosis in rural areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Qiuzhen; Ma, Aiguo; Han, Xiuxia; Zhao, Shanliang; Cai, Jing; Kok, Frans J.; Schouten, Evert G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Excessive time between the first presentation of symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and diagnosis contributes to ongoing transmission and increased risk of infection in the community, as well as to increased disease severity and higher mortality. People with type 2 diabetes

  6. Mild pulmonary emphysema a risk factor for interstitial lung disease when using cetuximab for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Isaku; Tsukahara, Kiyoaki; Sato, Hiroki; Motohashi, Ray; Yunaiyama, Daisuke; Shimizu, Akira

    2017-12-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is an occasionally fatal adverse event associated with cetuximab (Cmab) therapy. Our objective was to clarify to what degree pulmonary emphysema is a risk factor in the treatment of head and neck cancer with Cmab through a retrospective analysis. Subjects were 116 patients who were administered Cmab for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The degree of pulmonary emphysema before initiating treatment with Cmab was visually assessed retrospectively, with scoring according to the Goddard classification used in Japanese chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) guidelines for chest computed tomography (CT). Scoring was conducted by two diagnostic radiologists and mean scores were used. Cutoffs for the development and nondevelopment of ILD were examined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and Fisher's exact test. Values of p pulmonary emphysema would represent a risk factor for ILD when using Cmab.

  7. Quasinormal modes of Schwarzschild black holes: Defined and calculated via Laplace transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nollert, H.; Schmidt, B.G.

    1992-01-01

    Quasinormal modes play a prominent role in the literature when dealing with the propagation of linearized perturbations of the Schwarzschild geometry. We show that space-time properties of the solutions of the perturbation equation imply the existence of a unique Green's function of the Laplace-transformed wave equation. This Green's function may be constructed from solutions of the homogeneous time-independent equation, which are uniquely characterized by the boundary conditions they satisfy. These boundary conditions are identified as the boundary conditions usually imposed for quasinormal-mode solutions. It turns out that solutions of the homogeneous equation exist which satisfy these boundary conditions at the horizon and at spatial infinity simultaneously, leading to poles of the Green's function. We therefore propose to define quasinormal-mode frequencies as the poles of the Green's function for the Laplace-transformed equation. On the basis of this definition a new technique for the numerical calculation of quasinormal frequencies is developed. The results agree with computations of Leaver, but not with more recent results obtained by Guinn, Will, Kojima, and Schutz

  8. Risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis: a clinic-based case control study in The Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegbola Richard A

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis (TB epidemic in Africa is on the rise, even in low-HIV prevalence settings. Few studies have attempted to identify possible reasons for this. We aimed to identify risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis in those attending a general outpatients clinic in The Gambia, a sub-Saharan African country with relatively low HIV prevalence in the community and in TB patients. Methods We conducted a case control study at the Medical Research Council Outpatients' clinic in The Gambia. Pulmonary TB cases were at least 15 years old, controls were age and sex matched clinic attendees. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results 100 sputum smear positive TB cases and 200 clinic controls were recruited. HIV prevalence was 6.1% in cases and 3.3% in controls. Multivariable assessment of host factors showed that risk of TB was increased among the Jola ethnic group and smokers, and decreased in those in a professional occupation. Assessment of environmental factors showed an increased risk with household crowding, history of household exposure to a known TB case, and absence of a ceiling in the house. In a combined multivariable host-environment model, the risk of TB increased with crowding, exposure to a known TB case, as well as amongst the Jola ethnic group. Conclusion In The Gambia, household crowding and past household exposure to a known TB case are the standout risk factors for TB disease. Further research is needed to identify why risk of TB seems to differ according to ethnicity.

  9. Acute and sub-lethal response to mercury in Arctic and boreal calanoid copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overjordet, Ida Beathe; Altin, Dag; Berg, Torunn; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik

    2014-10-01

    Acute lethal toxicity, expressed as LC50 values, is a widely used parameter in risk assessment of chemicals, and has been proposed as a tool to assess differences in species sensitivities to chemicals between climatic regions. Arctic Calanus glacialis and boreal Calanus finmarchicus were exposed to mercury (Hg(2+)) under natural environmental conditions including sea temperatures of 2° and 10°C, respectively. Acute lethal toxicity (96 h LC50) and sub-lethal molecular response (GST expression; in this article gene expression is used as a synonym of gene transcription, although it is acknowledged that gene expression is also regulated, e.g., at translation and protein stability level) were studied. The acute lethal toxicity was monitored for 96 h using seven different Hg concentrations. The sub-lethal experiment was set up on the basis of nominal LC50 values for each species using concentrations equivalent to 50, 5 and 0.5% of their 96 h LC50 value. No significant differences were found in acute lethal toxicity between the two species. The sub-lethal molecular response revealed large differences both in response time and the fold induction of GST, where the Arctic species responded both faster and with higher mRNA levels of GST after 48 h exposure. Under the natural exposure conditions applied in the present study, the Arctic species C. glacialis may potentially be more susceptible to mercury exposure on the sub-lethal level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. SU-F-T-246: Evaluation of Healthcare Failure Mode And Effect Analysis For Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harry, T; Manger, R; Cervino, L; Pawlicki, T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the differences between the Veteran Affairs Healthcare Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (HFMEA) and the AAPM Task Group 100 Failure and Effect Analysis (FMEA) risk assessment techniques in the setting of a stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) procedure were compared respectively. Understanding the differences in the techniques methodologies and outcomes will provide further insight into the applicability and utility of risk assessments exercises in radiation therapy. Methods: HFMEA risk assessment analysis was performed on a stereotactic radiosurgery procedure. A previous study from our institution completed a FMEA of our SRS procedure and the process map generated from this work was used for the HFMEA. The process of performing the HFMEA scoring was analyzed, and the results from both analyses were compared. Results: The key differences between the two risk assessments are the scoring criteria for failure modes and identifying critical failure modes for potential hazards. The general consensus among the team performing the analyses was that scoring for the HFMEA was simpler and more intuitive then the FMEA. The FMEA identified 25 critical failure modes while the HFMEA identified 39. Seven of the FMEA critical failure modes were not identified by the HFMEA and 21 of the HFMEA critical failure modes were not identified by the FMEA. HFMEA as described by the Veteran Affairs provides guidelines on which failure modes to address first. Conclusion: HFMEA is a more efficient model for identifying gross risks in a process than FMEA. Clinics with minimal staff, time and resources can benefit from this type of risk assessment to eliminate or mitigate high risk hazards with nominal effort. FMEA can provide more in depth details but at the cost of elevated effort.

  11. SU-F-T-246: Evaluation of Healthcare Failure Mode And Effect Analysis For Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry, T [Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Manger, R; Cervino, L; Pawlicki, T [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the differences between the Veteran Affairs Healthcare Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (HFMEA) and the AAPM Task Group 100 Failure and Effect Analysis (FMEA) risk assessment techniques in the setting of a stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) procedure were compared respectively. Understanding the differences in the techniques methodologies and outcomes will provide further insight into the applicability and utility of risk assessments exercises in radiation therapy. Methods: HFMEA risk assessment analysis was performed on a stereotactic radiosurgery procedure. A previous study from our institution completed a FMEA of our SRS procedure and the process map generated from this work was used for the HFMEA. The process of performing the HFMEA scoring was analyzed, and the results from both analyses were compared. Results: The key differences between the two risk assessments are the scoring criteria for failure modes and identifying critical failure modes for potential hazards. The general consensus among the team performing the analyses was that scoring for the HFMEA was simpler and more intuitive then the FMEA. The FMEA identified 25 critical failure modes while the HFMEA identified 39. Seven of the FMEA critical failure modes were not identified by the HFMEA and 21 of the HFMEA critical failure modes were not identified by the FMEA. HFMEA as described by the Veteran Affairs provides guidelines on which failure modes to address first. Conclusion: HFMEA is a more efficient model for identifying gross risks in a process than FMEA. Clinics with minimal staff, time and resources can benefit from this type of risk assessment to eliminate or mitigate high risk hazards with nominal effort. FMEA can provide more in depth details but at the cost of elevated effort.

  12. Lethality of patients with rheumatoid arthritis depending on adalimumab administration: imitation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D V Goryachev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lethality of pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA exceeds mortality values in general population. Possibility of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD influence on RA pts lethality has been widely discussed lately in scientific works. Objective. To determine possible lethality diminishment in Russian population of RA pts with one of biological drugs TNFα antagonist adalimumab. Material and methods. Model construction is based on the fact of lethality dependence on pt functional state assessed by HAQ. Model simulating progression of functional disability in pts with RA visiting medical institutions of Russia was made (RAISER study. 3 model variants for imitation of consecutive change of DMARDs including adalimumab were done. First consecution assessed DMARD change in the next chain: adalimumab-methotrexate-sulfasalazine-leflunomide-azathioprine-cyclosporine-palliative therapy. Second consecution: adalimumab administration after failure of first 3 DMARDs. Third consecution considered only change of synthetic DMARDs without adalimumab inclusion. Model imitated participation of 3000 pts in every consecution. Prognosis horizon was 12 years. Age of pts and initial HAQ distribution were get from results of epidemiological RAISER study. Calculation was done on the base of elevation of standardized lethality level (SLL in population of RA pts in average from 135% to 300%. SLL values from 80 to 320% were used depending on functional disability degree with converting to Russian values of age-specific lethality coefficient for 1999. Results. Lethality in treatment consecutions including adalimumab was significantly lower. To the end of 12th year in group not using adalimumab, using it at once and using it after 376 DMARDs respectively 65,1%, 71,6% and 71,1% of pts were still alive. Conclusion. Significant decrease of lethality with adalimumab inclusion in consecution of DMARD change during treatment of RA pts was demonstrated with imitation modeling

  13. Effective lethal mutagenesis of influenza virus by three nucleoside analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Matthew D; Lauring, Adam S

    2015-04-01

    Lethal mutagenesis is a broad-spectrum antiviral strategy that exploits the high mutation rate and low mutational tolerance of many RNA viruses. This approach uses mutagenic drugs to increase viral mutation rates and burden viral populations with mutations that reduce the number of infectious progeny. We investigated the effectiveness of lethal mutagenesis as a strategy against influenza virus using three nucleoside analogs, ribavirin, 5-azacytidine, and 5-fluorouracil. All three drugs were active against a panel of seasonal H3N2 and laboratory-adapted H1N1 strains. We found that each drug increased the frequency of mutations in influenza virus populations and decreased the virus' specific infectivity, indicating a mutagenic mode of action. We were able to drive viral populations to extinction by passaging influenza virus in the presence of each drug, indicating that complete lethal mutagenesis of influenza virus populations can be achieved when a sufficient mutational burden is applied. Population-wide resistance to these mutagenic agents did not arise after serial passage of influenza virus populations in sublethal concentrations of drug. Sequencing of these drug-passaged viral populations revealed genome-wide accumulation of mutations at low frequency. The replicative capacity of drug-passaged populations was reduced at higher multiplicities of infection, suggesting the presence of defective interfering particles and a possible barrier to the evolution of resistance. Together, our data suggest that lethal mutagenesis may be a particularly effective therapeutic approach with a high genetic barrier to resistance for influenza virus. Influenza virus is an RNA virus that causes significant morbidity and mortality during annual epidemics. Novel therapies for RNA viruses are needed due to the ease with which these viruses evolve resistance to existing therapeutics. Lethal mutagenesis is a broad-spectrum strategy that exploits the high mutation rate and the low

  14. A hierarchical procedure for calculation of risk importance measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poern, K.; Dinsmore, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    Starting with a general importance definition based on conditional probabilities, a hierarchical process for calculating risk importance measures from a PSA's numerical results is developed. By the appropriate choice of events in the general definition, measures such as the risk achievement worth and the risk reduction worth can be calculated without requantifying the PSA's models. Required approximations are clearly defined and the subsequent constraints on the applicability of the process discussed. (orig.)

  15. The bureaucratization of war: moral challenges exemplified by the covert lethal drone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Adams

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article interrogates the bureaucratization of war, incarnate in the covert lethal drone. Bureaucracies are criticized typically for their complexity, inefficiency, and inflexibility. This article is concerned with their moral indifference. It explores killing, which is so highly administered, so morally remote, and of such scale, that we acknowledge a covert lethal program. This is a bureaucratized program of assassination in contravention of critical human rights. In this article, this program is seen to compromise the advance of global justice. Moreover, the bureaucratization of lethal force is seen to dissolve democratic ideals from within. The bureaucracy isolates the citizens from lethal force applied in their name. People are killed, in the name of the State, but without conspicuous justification, or judicial review, and without informed public debate. This article gives an account of the risk associated with the bureaucratization of the State's lethal power. Exemplified by the covert drone, this is power with formidable reach. It is power as well, which requires great moral sensitivity. Considering the drone program, this article identifies challenges, which will become more prominent and pressing, as technology advances.

  16. 99mTc-DTPA Pulmonary Clearance in Normals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Soo Kyo; Yang, Woo Jin; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1994-01-01

    Pulmonary clearance of 99m Tc-DTPA(PCD) has been used for the measurement of pulmonary epithelial permeability. It has been reported to be increased not only in variety of pulmonary diseases including ARDS, interstitial fibrosis, and smokers, but also in normal subjects on positive end expiratory pressure respirator, or after exercise. It was also noted that decrease of pulmonary blood flow due to pulmonary arterial obstruction results in delayed PCD. Normal range of PCD varies with institutes. We prospectively measured PCD in 17 normals (5 males and 12 females) consisted of staffs and trainees in the department of radiology of Kangnam St, Marys hospital using original Bark Nebulizer (India). Age ranged from 32 to 43 years. 370 MBq of 99m Tc-DTPA was inhaled in supine position and supine posterior images were subsequently obtained with 1 min/frame, 64 X 64 matrix and word mode for 30 min. Regions of interest. Were set on each lung, whole lungs, and upper, middle and lower thirds of right lung, respectively. Best fit regression curve was obtained by least square method from initial 7 min after peak activity on each curve and time for half clearance of maximum activity (tl/2) was calculated. Mean tl/2 was 51 ± 11.2 min for whole lung. There was no significant difference between tl/ 2 of right and left lungs. Initial uptake was higher in the lower third and tl/2 was shorter in the lower third than in the upper third(P<0.05). We reviewed several reports on PCD and compared our data with the others. In this study, faster clearance in the lower third may be due to the position imaged with or the environment the subjects belong to, and further investigation is under way.

  17. OBESITY AS A RISK FACTOR FOR PULMONARY EMBOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ya. Vasiltseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study. Based on the data of the Register of new cases of hospital pulmonary embolism (PE in hospitals in Tomsk (2003–2012, to explore the contribution of obesity to the development of venous thromboembolism.Material and Methods. Study were subjected to medical history and records of autopsies of patients treated in hospitals in Tomsk in 2003–2012, who at patologoanatomic and/or instrumental study revealed pulmonary embolism. The degree of obesity was assessed according to WHO criteria (1997. Statistical processing of the results was carried out using the software package for PC Statistica 8.0 for Windows. To test the normality of the distribution of quantitative traits using the Shapiro–Wilk test and the Kolmogorov–Smirnov with the adjusted Lillieforsa. Check the equality of the population variance was performed using Fisher's exact test and Cochran. Was considered statistically significant level of p < 0.05.The results of the study. In Western Siberia, Tomsk, a register of hospital pulmonary embolism (2003–2012. In the register included 720 patients with in vivo and/or post mortem revealed pulmonary embolism (PE. Analyzed data from medical records and autopsy reports. Revealed statistically significant differences in BMI (p = 0.033 and the presence of obesity (p = 0.002 in patients with pulmonary embolism, holding medical and surgical beds. As of medical, surgical and among patients with thromboembolism, obesity is significantly more common in women than men (p = 0.050 and p = 0.041 respectively. According to the study, obesity grade 1 or 2 alone (at the isolated presence of the patient is not significantly increased the odds of a massive thromboembolism. However, grade 3 obesity increased the odds of a massive pulmonary embolism by more than 2.7 times (OR = 2.708, CI: 1,461–5,020.

  18. Logistic regression model for identification of right ventricular dysfunction in patients with acute pulmonary embolism by means of computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staskiewicz, Grzegorz; Czekajska-Chehab, Elżbieta; Uhlig, Sebastian; Przegalinski, Jerzy; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Drop, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Diagnosis of right ventricular dysfunction in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is known to be associated with increased risk of mortality. The aim of the study was to calculate a logistic regression model for reliable identification of right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) in patients diagnosed with computed tomography pulmonary angiography. Material and methods: Ninety-seven consecutive patients with acute pulmonary embolism were divided into groups with and without RVD basing upon echocardiographic measurement of pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP). PE severity was graded with the pulmonary obstruction score. CT measurements of heart chambers and mediastinal vessels were performed; position of interventricular septum and presence of contrast reflux into the inferior vena cava were also recorded. The logistic regression model was prepared by means of stepwise logistic regression. Results: Among the used parameters, the final model consisted of pulmonary obstruction score, short axis diameter of right ventricle and diameter of inferior vena cava. The calculated model is characterized by 79% sensitivity and 81% specificity, and its performance was significantly better than single CT-based measurements. Conclusion: Logistic regression model identifies RVD significantly better, than single CT-based measurements

  19. Pulmonary arterial capacitance in children with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease: relation to pulmonary vascular resistance, exercise capacity, and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajan, Imran; Manlhiot, Cedric; Reyes, Janette; McCrindle, Brian W; Humpl, Tilman; Friedberg, Mark K

    2011-09-01

    Pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), whether idiopathic PAH (iPAH) or PAH associated with congenital heart disease (aPAH), carries high morbidity and mortality. Low pulmonary arterial capacitance (PAC), defined as right ventricular stroke volume/pulmonary artery pulse pressure, is a risk factor for mortality in adults with PAH. However, the relation of PAC to pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), exercise endurance, and survival is poorly defined in children. Catheterization and clinical data of children with PAH (mean pulmonary artery pressure >25 mm Hg) were reviewed. Children with pulmonary shunts, stents, collaterals, or pulmonary venous hypertension were excluded. Primary outcomes were 6-minute walk distance and freedom from death/lung transplant. Forty-seven patients were studied. Nineteen (43%) had iPAH, and 28 (57%) had aPAH (7.1 ± 6.2 vs 8.4 ± 5.5 years, P = .45). Patients with iPAH had higher PVR indexed for body surface area (PVRi), lower indexed PAC (PACi), lower exercise tolerance, and lower freedom from death/lung transplant than patients with aPAH. Both higher PVRi (P 1.25 mL/mm Hg per square meter and a PVRi >13 Wood units × m(2) were associated with decreased freedom from death or lung transplant. The relationships between PVRi and PACi and survival were independent of each other and not confounded by etiologic group. Low PACi and high PVRi are independently associated with low 6-minute walk distance and survival in children with PAH. Therefore, both should be assessed for better prognostication and management in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Calcium-Sensing Receptor Tumor Expression and Lethal Prostate Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, Thomas U; Tchrakian, Nairi; Wilson, Kathryn M; Lis, Rosina; Nuttall, Elizabeth; Sesso, Howard D; Loda, Massimo; Giovannucci, Edward; Mucci, Lorelei A; Finn, Stephen; Shui, Irene M

    2016-06-01

    Prostate cancer metastases preferentially target bone, and the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) may play a role in promoting this metastatic progression. We evaluated the association of prostate tumor CaSR expression with lethal prostate cancer. A validated CaSR immunohistochemistry assay was performed on tumor tissue microarrays. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression and phosphatase and tensin homolog tumor status were previously assessed in a subset of cases by immunohistochemistry. Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for age and body mass index at diagnosis, Gleason grade, and pathological tumor node metastasis stage were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of CaSR expression with lethal prostate cancer. The investigation was conducted in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and Physicians' Health Study. We studied 1241 incident prostate cancer cases diagnosed between 1983 and 2009. Participants were followed up or cancer-specific mortality or development of metastatic disease. On average, men were followed up 13.6 years, during which there were 83 lethal events. High CaSR expression was associated with lethal prostate cancer independent of clinical and pathological variables (HR 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.3). Additionally, there was evidence of effect modification by VDR expression; CaSR was associated with lethal progression among men with low tumor VDR expression (HR 3.2; 95% CI 1.4-7.3) but not in cases with high tumor VDR expression (HR 0.8; 95% CI 0.2-3.0). Tumor CaSR expression is associated with an increased risk of lethal prostate cancer, particularly in tumors with low VDR expression. These results support further investigating the mechanism linking CaSR with metastases.

  1. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis and acute phase response link pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes to risk of cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Sarah S., E-mail: spo@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Saber, Anne T., E-mail: ats@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Mortensen, Alicja, E-mail: almo@food.dtu.dk [National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Søborg (Denmark); Szarek, Józef, E-mail: szarek@uwm.edu.pl [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 10-719 Olsztyn (Poland); Wu, Dongmei, E-mail: dongmei.wu@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Williams, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.williams@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Andersen, Ole, E-mail: oa@ruc.dk [Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Jacobsen, Nicklas R., E-mail: nrj@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Yauk, Carole L., E-mail: carole.yauk@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Wallin, Håkan, E-mail: hwa@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, DK-1014 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Halappanavar, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.halappanavar@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Vogel, Ulla, E-mail: ubv@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-03-15

    Adverse lung effects following pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are well documented in rodents. However, systemic effects are less understood. Epidemiological studies have shown increased cardiovascular disease risk after pulmonary exposure to airborne particles, which has led to concerns that inhalation exposure to MWCNTs might pose similar risks. We analyzed parameters related to cardiovascular disease, including plasma acute phase response (APR) proteins and plasma lipids, in female C57BL/6 mice exposed to a single intratracheal instillation of 0, 18, 54 or 162 μg/mouse of small, entangled (CNT{sub Small}, 0.8 ± 0.1 μm long) or large, thick MWCNTs (CNT{sub Large}, 4 ± 0.4 μm long). Liver tissues and plasma were harvested 1, 3 and 28 days post-exposure. In addition, global hepatic gene expression, hepatic cholesterol content and liver histology were used to assess hepatic effects. The two MWCNTs induced similar systemic responses despite their different physicochemical properties. APR proteins SAA3 and haptoglobin, plasma total cholesterol and low-density/very low-density lipoprotein were significantly increased following exposure to either MWCNTs. Plasma SAA3 levels correlated strongly with pulmonary Saa3 levels. Analysis of global gene expression revealed perturbation of the same biological processes and pathways in liver, including the HMG-CoA reductase pathway. Both MWCNTs induced similar histological hepatic changes, with a tendency towards greater response following CNT{sub Large} exposure. Overall, we show that pulmonary exposure to two different MWCNTs induces similar systemic and hepatic responses, including changes in plasma APR, lipid composition, hepatic gene expression and liver morphology. The results link pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs with risk of cardiovascular disease. - Highlights: • Systemic and hepatic alterations were evaluated in female mice following MWCNT instillation. • Despite being physicochemically

  2. Increased neonatal morbidity despite pulmonary maturity for deliveries occurring before 39 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu Ming Victor; Guirguis, Peter; Borgida, Adam; Feldman, Deborah; Ingardia, Charles; Herson, Victor

    2013-01-01

    To compare neonatal outcomes following deliveries 39 weeks after confirmation of fetal lung maturity with scheduled deliveries ≥39 weeks. A retrospective cohort study examining neonatal outcomes of women who were delivered following documented fetal pulmonary maturity at 36, 37, and 38 weeks compared to women undergoing a scheduled delivery at 39, 40, and 41 weeks. The χ(2)-test and Student's t-test were used to compare categorical and continuous data, respectively. Delivery prior to 39 weeks following fetal pulmonary maturity was associated with a 8.4% composite neonatal morbidity rate as compared to 3.3% for deliveries at 39 weeks or greater (relative risk [RR] 2.9; confidence interval [CI] 2.4-3.6). Neonatal respiratory morbidity was significantly higher (5.4%) for those delivering at less than 39 weeks with documented fetal pulmonary maturity as compared to 2.1% for those delivering at 39 weeks or greater (RR 3.0; CI 2.3-3.9). Increased neonatal morbidity persisted for those delivered prior to 39 weeks even after excluding all diabetics (p 39 weeks regardless of the mode of delivery. Despite fetal pulmonary maturity, delivery before 39 weeks is associated with significantly increased neonatal morbidity when compared to scheduled deliveries at 39 weeks or greater.

  3. Does exercise pulmonary hypertension exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Edmund M; Chemla, Denis; Whyte, Kenneth; Kovacs, Gabor; Olschewski, Horst; Herve, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    The exercise definition of pulmonary hypertension using a mean pulmonary artery pressure threshold of greater than 30 mmHg was abandoned following the 4th World Pulmonary Hypertension Symposium in 2008, as this definition was not supported by evidence and healthy individuals frequently exceed this threshold. Meanwhile, the clinical value of exercise pulmonary hemodynamic testing has also been questioned. Recent data support the notion that an abnormal pulmonary hemodynamic response during exercise (or exercise pulmonary hypertension) is associated with symptoms and exercise limitation. Pathophysiologic mechanisms accounting for the development of exercise pulmonary hypertension include increased vascular resistance, excessive elevation in left atrial pressure and/or increased volume of trapped air during exercise, resulting in a steep rise in pulmonary artery pressure relative to cardiac output. Recent evidence suggests that exercise pulmonary hypertension may be defined by a mean pulmonary artery pressure surpassing 30 mmHg together with a simultaneous total pulmonary resistance exceeding 3 WU. Exercise pulmonary hypertension is a clinically relevant entity and an improved definition has been suggested based on new evidence. Exercise pulmonary hemodynamics may help unmask early or latent disease, particularly in populations that are at high risk for the development of pulmonary hypertension.

  4. Automating Risk Assessments of Hazardous Material Shipments for Transportation Routes and Mode Selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolphin, Barbara H.; Richins, William D.; Novascone, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    The METEOR project at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) successfully addresses the difficult problem in risk assessment analyses of combining the results from bounding deterministic simulation results with probabilistic (Monte Carlo) risk assessment techniques. This paper describes a software suite designed to perform sensitivity and cost/benefit analyses on selected transportation routes and vehicles to minimize risk associated with the shipment of hazardous materials. METEOR uses Monte Carlo techniques to estimate the probability of an accidental release of a hazardous substance along a proposed transportation route. A METEOR user selects the mode of transportation, origin and destination points, and charts the route using interactive graphics. Inputs to METEOR (many selections built in) include crash rates for the specific aircraft, soil/rock type and population densities over the proposed route, and bounding limits for potential accident types (velocity, temperature, etc.). New vehicle, materials, and location data are added when available. If the risk estimates are unacceptable, the risks associated with alternate transportation modes or routes can be quickly evaluated and compared. Systematic optimizing methods will provide the user with the route and vehicle selection identified with the lowest risk of hazardous material release. The effects of a selected range of potential accidents such as vehicle impact, fire, fuel explosions, excessive containment pressure, flooding, etc. are evaluated primarily using hydrocodes capable of accurately simulating the material response of critical containment components. Bounding conditions that represent credible accidents (i.e; for an impact event, velocity, orientations, and soil conditions) are used as input parameters to the hydrocode models yielding correlation functions relating accident parameters to component damage. The Monte Carlo algorithms use random number generators to make selections at the various decision

  5. Cutis laxa and fatal pulmonary hypertension: a newly recognized syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Piccolo, Pasquale; Morava, Eva; Wevers, Ron A.; McGuirk, Megan; Johnson, Yvette R.; Urban, Zsolt; Dishop, Megan K.; Potocki, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Cutis laxa is a connective tissue disorder with distinctive lax, redundant, and inelastic skin. It is a genetically heterogenous disorder with autosomal dominant and recessive patterns of inheritance. We report a patient with cutis laxa supported by clinical, microscopic, and ultrastructural findings. Molecular analysis of fibulin-4 and -5, of the α2 subunit of the V-type H+ ATPase, and of the component of the oligomeric Golgi complex 7 (COG7) genes excluded the type I and type II autosomal recessive forms of cutis laxa, and congenital disorders of glycosylation associated with cutis laxa. Remarkably, our patient also presented severe and lethal pulmonary hypertension as a newborn. This case with cutis laxa, severe pulmonary hypertension, and no detectable mutations in fibulin-4 and -5 genes may represent a previously unrecognized syndrome. PMID:21285876

  6. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis and acute phase response link pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes to risk of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sarah S.; Saber, Anne T.; Mortensen, Alicja

    2015-01-01

    has led to concerns that inhalation exposure to MWCNTs might pose similar risks. We analyzed parameters related to cardiovascular disease, including plasma acute phase response (APR) proteins and plasma lipids, in female C57BL/6 mice exposed to a single intratracheal instillation of 0, 18,54 or 162 mu...... levels correlated strongly with pulmonary Saa3 levels. Analysis of global gene expression revealed perturbation of the same biological processes and pathways in liver, including the HMG-CoA reductase pathway. Both MWCNTs induced similar histological hepatic changes, with a tendency towards greater...... response following CNTLarge exposure. Overall, we show that pulmonary exposure to two different MWCNTs induces similar systemic and hepatic responses, including changes in plasma APR, lipid composition, hepatic gene expression and liver morphology. The results link pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs with risk...

  7. Quantum-Chemical Calculation and Visualization of the Vibrational Modes of Graphene in Different Points of the Brillouin Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedieva, Tetiana; Gubanov, Victor; Dovbeshko, Galyna; Pidhirnyi, Denys

    2015-12-01

    Different notations of graphene irreducible representations and optical modes could be found in the literature. The goals of this paper are to identify the correspondence between available notations, to calculate the optical modes of graphene in different points of the Brillouin zone, and to compare them with experimental data obtained by Raman and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy. The mechanism of the resonance enhancement of vibration modes of the molecules adsorbed on graphene in CARS experiments is proposed. The possibility of appearance of the discrete breathing modes is discussed.

  8. The prognostic value of pulmonary embolism severity index in acute pulmonary embolism: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xiao-Yu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prognostic assessment is important for the management of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE. Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI and simple PESI (sPESI are new emerged prognostic assessment tools for APE. The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the accuracy of the PESI and the sPESI to predict prognostic outcomes (all-cause and PE-related mortality, serious adverse events in APE patients, and compare between these two PESIs. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE database were searched up to June 2012 using the terms “Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index” and “pulmonary embolism”. Summary odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for prognostic outcomes in low risk PESI versus high risk PESI were calculated. Summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC used to estimate overall predicting accuracies of prognostic outcomes. Results Twenty-one studies were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed low-risk PESI was significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality (OR 0.13; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.15, PE-related mortality (OR 0.09; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.17 and serious adverse events (OR 0.34; 95% CI 0.29 to 0.41, with no homogeneity across studies. In sPESI subgroup, the OR of all-cause mortality, PE-related mortality, and serious adverse events was 0.10 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.14, 0.09 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.26 and 0.40 (95% CI 0.31 to 0.51, respectively; while in PESI subgroup, the OR was 0.14 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.16, 0.09 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.21, and 0.30 (95% CI 0.23 to 0.38, respectively. For accuracy analysis, the pooled sensitivity, the pooled specificity, and the overall weighted AUC for PESI predicting all-cause mortality was 0.909 (95% CI: 0.900 to 0.916, 0.411 (95% CI: 0.407 to 0.415, and 0.7853±0.0058, respectively; for PE-related mortality, it was 0.953 (95% CI: 0.913 to 0.978, 0.374 (95% CI: 0.360 to 0.388, and 0.8218±0.0349, respectively; for serious adverse events, it was 0.821 (95% CI: 0.795 to 0

  9. Trial occlusion to assess the risk of persistent pulmonary arterial hypertension after closure of a large patent ductus arteriosus in adolescents and adults with elevated pulmonary artery pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Duan-Zhen; Zhu, Xian-Yang; Lv, Bei; Cui, Chun-Sheng; Han, Xiu-Min; Sheng, Xiao-Tang; Wang, Qi-Guang; Zhang, Po

    2014-08-01

    No method is available to predict whether patients with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) will show persistent postprocedural PAH (PP-PAH) after PDA closure. This study evaluated the usefulness of trial occlusion for predicting PP-PAH after transcatheter PDA closure in patients with severe PAH. Trial occlusion was performed in 137 patients (age ≥12 years) with PDA and severe PAH. All patients undergoing trial occlusion had a mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥45 mm Hg, pulmonary:systemic flow (Qp/Qs) ratio >1.5, and pulmonary:systemic resistance (Rp/Rs) ratio closure. Linear correlation analysis revealed weak or moderate relationships between the baseline and post-trial pulmonary artery pressures and pulmonary:systemic pressure (Pp/Ps) ratios. Patients were followed up for 1 to 10 years (median: 5 years). PP-PAH (systolic pulmonary artery pressure >50 mm Hg by Doppler echocardiography) was detected in 17 patients (13%), who displayed no significant differences in sex and age compared with patients without PP-PAH. According to discriminant analysis, the strongest discriminators between patients with and without PP-PAH were the baseline left ventricular end-diastolic volume and the baseline and post-trial systolic Pp/Ps ratios. In particular, a post-trial systolic Pp/Ps ratio >0.5 correctly classified 100% of the PP-PAH and non-PAH patients. Trial occlusion is a feasible method to predict PP-PAH in patients with PDA and severe PAH. A post-trial systolic Pp/Ps ratio >0.5 indicates a high risk of PP-PAH occurrence after device closure. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Treatment Effect of Balloon Pulmonary Angioplasty in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension Quantified by Automatic Comparative Imaging in Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Zhiwei; Ota, Hideki; Staring, Marius; Stolk, Jan; Sugimura, Koichiro; Takase, Kei; Stoel, Berend C

    2018-05-01

    Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) in patients with inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) can have variable outcomes. To gain more insight into this variation, we designed a method for visualizing and quantifying changes in pulmonary perfusion by automatically comparing computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiography before and after BPA treatment. We validated these quantifications of perfusion changes against hemodynamic changes measured with right-sided heart catheterization. We studied 14 consecutive CTEPH patients (12 women; age, 70.5 ± 24), who underwent CT pulmonary angiography and right-sided heart catheterization, before and after BPA. Posttreatment images were registered to pretreatment CT scans (using the Elastix toolbox) to obtain corresponding locations. Pulmonary vascular trees and their centerlines were detected using a graph cuts method and a distance transform method, respectively. Areas distal from vessels were defined as pulmonary parenchyma. Subsequently, the density changes within the vascular centerlines and parenchymal areas were calculated and corrected for inspiration level differences. For visualization, the densitometric changes were displayed in color-coded overlays. For quantification, the median and interquartile range of the density changes in the vascular and parenchymal areas (ΔVD and ΔPD) were calculated. The recorded changes in hemodynamic parameters, including changes in systolic, diastolic, and mean pulmonary artery pressure (ΔsPAP, ΔdPAP, and ΔmPAP, respectively) and vascular resistance (ΔPVR), were used as reference assessments of the treatment effect. Spearman correlation coefficients were employed to investigate the correlations between changes in perfusion and hemodynamic changes. Comparative imaging maps showed distinct patterns in perfusion changes among patients. Within pulmonary vessels, the interquartile range of ΔVD correlated significantly with ΔsPAP (R = -0.58, P = 0.03),

  11. Pulmonary hypertension in chronic hemolytic anemias: Pathophysiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, Alexandra; Palevsky, Harold I

    2018-04-01

    Pulmonary hypertension has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with hemoglobinopathies and chronic hemolytic anemias. These hematological diseases include - but are not limited to - sickle cell disease (SCD), thalassemia, paroxysmal nocturnal hematuria, and hereditary spherocytosis. Although most studies have been based on the use of echocardiography as a screening tool for pulmonary hypertension as opposed to the gold standard of right heart catheterization for definitive diagnosis, the association between chronic hemolytic anemia and pulmonary hypertension is evident. Studies have shown that patients with SCD and a tricuspid regurgitant velocity (TRV) ≥ 2.5 m/sec are at increased risk of pulmonary hypertension and are at increased mortality risk. Additional markers of risk of pulmonary hypertension and increased mortality include a pro-BNP >160 pg/mL combined with a 6-min walk distance of pulmonary hypertension in chronic hemolytic anemias. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pulmonary Embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase the risk for PE, such as: Being bedridden or unable to move around much Having surgery ... of pulmonary embolism (PE) include unexplained shortness of breath, problems breathing, chest pain, coughing , or coughing up ...

  13. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema presenting in a woman on the intensive care unit: case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovaisa Tomas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is a life-threatening form of ventilator-induced lung injury. We present one of the few reported adult cases of pulmonary interstitial emphysema in a woman with respiratory failure admitted to our intensive care unit. Case presentation An 87-year-old Caucasian woman with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia was admitted to our intensive care unit requiring invasive ventilation. The combination of a poor oxygenation index and bilateral alveolar/interstitial infiltrates on a chest radiograph fulfilled the criteria for adult respiratory distress syndrome; the cause was thought to be a combination of the direct pneumonic pulmonary injury and extrapulmonary severe sepsis. By day seven, the fraction of inspired oxygen, peak airway and positive end expiratory pressures weaned sufficiently to allow an uncomplicated percutaneous tracheostomy. On day 10, problems with ventilation necessitated recruitment maneuvers with a Mapleson C circuit, after which dramatic surgical emphysema was noted. An upper airway bronchoscopy showed no obvious tracheal wall injury, and computed tomography of her chest showed extensive surgical emphysema, perivascular emphysema and peribronchial emphysema, which were consistent with a diagnosis of pulmonary interstitial emphysema. Over the following days, despite protective ventilatory strategies and intercostal tube thoracostomy, lung compliance along with oxygenation deteriorated and our patient died on day 14. Conclusion The development of pulmonary interstitial emphysema is a rare but real risk when caring for patients with worsening lung compliance on the intensive care unit. Improved awareness of the condition, early protective ventilation strategies and timely treatment of any of the lethal complications will hopefully result in improved survival from the condition in adults.

  14. Elevated plasma fibrinogen associated with reduced pulmonary function and increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A; Vestbo, J

    2001-01-01

    We tested whether increased concentrations of the acute-phase reactant fibrinogen correlate with pulmonary function and rate of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) hospitalization. We measured plasma fibrinogen and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), and assessed prospectively COPD...

  15. Reexpansion pulmonary edema: review of pediatric cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kira, Shinichiro

    2014-03-01

    Reexpansion pulmonary edema (RPE) is an increased permeability pulmonary edema that usually occurs in the reexpanded lung after several days of lung collapse. This condition is recognized to occur more frequently in patients under the age of 40 years, but there has been no detailed analysis of reported pediatric cases of RPE to date. For this review, PubMed literature searches were performed using the following terms: 're(-)expansion pulmonary (o)edema' AND ('child' OR 'children' OR 'infant' OR 'boy' OR 'girl' OR 'adolescent'). The 22 pediatric cases of RPE identified were included in this review. RPE was reported in almost the entire pediatric age range, and as in adult cases, the severity ranged from subclinical to lethal. No specific treatment for RPE was identified, and treatment was administered according to the clinical features of each patient. Of the 22 reported cases, 10 occurred during the perioperative period, but were not related to any specific surgical procedures or anesthetic techniques, or to the duration of lung collapse. Pediatric anesthesiologists should be aware that pediatric RPE can occur after reexpansion of any collapsed lung and that some invasive therapies can be useful in severe cases. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. An improved method for risk evaluation in failure modes and effects analysis of CNC lathe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachieru, N.; Belu, N.; Anghel, D. C.

    2015-11-01

    Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is one of the most popular reliability analysis tools for identifying, assessing and eliminating potential failure modes in a wide range of industries. In general, failure modes in FMEA are evaluated and ranked through the risk priority number (RPN), which is obtained by the multiplication of crisp values of the risk factors, such as the occurrence (O), severity (S), and detection (D) of each failure mode. However, the crisp RPN method has been criticized to have several deficiencies. In this paper, linguistic variables, expressed in Gaussian, trapezoidal or triangular fuzzy numbers, are used to assess the ratings and weights for the risk factors S, O and D. A new risk assessment system based on the fuzzy set theory and fuzzy rule base theory is to be applied to assess and rank risks associated to failure modes that could appear in the functioning of Turn 55 Lathe CNC. Two case studies have been shown to demonstrate the methodology thus developed. It is illustrated a parallel between the results obtained by the traditional method and fuzzy logic for determining the RPNs. The results show that the proposed approach can reduce duplicated RPN numbers and get a more accurate, reasonable risk assessment. As a result, the stability of product and process can be assured.

  17. Failure mode and effects analysis based risk profile assessment for stereotactic radiosurgery programs at three cancer centers in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Flavia C., E-mail: flavitiz@gmail.com [CNEN—Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 22290-901, Brazil and LCR/UERJ—Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas/Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20550-013 (Brazil); Almeida, Carlos E. de [LCR/UERJ—Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas/Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20550-013 (Brazil); Saiful Huq, M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute and UPMC Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate the safety and quality management program for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment processes at three radiotherapy centers in Brazil by using three industrial engineering tools (1) process mapping, (2) failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), and (3) fault tree analysis. Methods: The recommendations of Task Group 100 of American Association of Physicists in Medicine were followed to apply the three tools described above to create a process tree for SRS procedure for each radiotherapy center and then FMEA was performed. Failure modes were identified for all process steps and values of risk priority number (RPN) were calculated from O, S, and D (RPN = O × S × D) values assigned by a professional team responsible for patient care. Results: The subprocess treatment planning was presented with the highest number of failure modes for all centers. The total number of failure modes were 135, 104, and 131 for centers I, II, and III, respectively. The highest RPN value for each center is as follows: center I (204), center II (372), and center III (370). Failure modes with RPN ≥ 100: center I (22), center II (115), and center III (110). Failure modes characterized by S ≥ 7, represented 68% of the failure modes for center III, 62% for center II, and 45% for center I. Failure modes with RPNs values ≥100 and S ≥ 7, D ≥ 5, and O ≥ 5 were considered as high priority in this study. Conclusions: The results of the present study show that the safety risk profiles for the same stereotactic radiotherapy process are different at three radiotherapy centers in Brazil. Although this is the same treatment process, this present study showed that the risk priority is different and it will lead to implementation of different safety interventions among the centers. Therefore, the current practice of applying universal device-centric QA is not adequate to address all possible failures in clinical processes at different

  18. Failure mode and effects analysis based risk profile assessment for stereotactic radiosurgery programs at three cancer centers in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Flavia C.; Almeida, Carlos E. de; Saiful Huq, M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate the safety and quality management program for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment processes at three radiotherapy centers in Brazil by using three industrial engineering tools (1) process mapping, (2) failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), and (3) fault tree analysis. Methods: The recommendations of Task Group 100 of American Association of Physicists in Medicine were followed to apply the three tools described above to create a process tree for SRS procedure for each radiotherapy center and then FMEA was performed. Failure modes were identified for all process steps and values of risk priority number (RPN) were calculated from O, S, and D (RPN = O × S × D) values assigned by a professional team responsible for patient care. Results: The subprocess treatment planning was presented with the highest number of failure modes for all centers. The total number of failure modes were 135, 104, and 131 for centers I, II, and III, respectively. The highest RPN value for each center is as follows: center I (204), center II (372), and center III (370). Failure modes with RPN ≥ 100: center I (22), center II (115), and center III (110). Failure modes characterized by S ≥ 7, represented 68% of the failure modes for center III, 62% for center II, and 45% for center I. Failure modes with RPNs values ≥100 and S ≥ 7, D ≥ 5, and O ≥ 5 were considered as high priority in this study. Conclusions: The results of the present study show that the safety risk profiles for the same stereotactic radiotherapy process are different at three radiotherapy centers in Brazil. Although this is the same treatment process, this present study showed that the risk priority is different and it will lead to implementation of different safety interventions among the centers. Therefore, the current practice of applying universal device-centric QA is not adequate to address all possible failures in clinical processes at different

  19. [Pulmonary infections in patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Noboru; Tsuchiya, Yutaka; Tokunaga, Daidou; Miyahara, Yousuke; Yamaguchi, Shouzaburo; Saito, Hiroo; Ubukata, Mikio; Kurashima, Kazuyoshi; Yanagisawa, Tsutomu; Sugita, Yutaka

    2007-06-01

    We studied 149 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients (mean age 68.0 years; 68 men, 81 women) with pulmonary infections. The mean age at the onset of RA and the duration of RA was 57.2 +/- 15.2 years and 10.9 +/- 11.5 years, respectively. Pulmonary infections included nontuberculous mycobacteriosis in 59 patients (Mycobacterium avium complex infection, 50 cases : Mycobacterium kansasii infection, 4 cases; others, 5 cases), pneumonia in 46 patients, pulmonary tuberculosis in 28 patients, pulmonary aspergillosis in 12 patients, pulmonary cryptococcosis in 5 patients, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in 5 patients, lung abscess in 9 patients, exacerbation of bronchiectasis in 7 patients, and empyema in 4 patients. One hundred percent of patients with exacerbation of bronchiectasis, 91.7% of patients with pulmonary aspergillosis, 87% of patients with pneumonia, and 81.4% of patients with nontuberculous mycobacteriosis had underlying lung diseases. The pulmonary infections during therapy with steroids were pulmonary tuberculosis (78.6%), pneumonia (65.2%), and pulmonary aspergillosis (58.3%), while the pulmonary infections during methotrexate treatment were Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (80%), pulmonary cryptococcosis (40%), and pulmonary tuberculosis (28.6%). Pulmonary infections in RA patients who were taking TNFalpha inhibitors included 1 patient each with nontuberculous mycobacteriosis, pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis, and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. Among the RA patients with lung abscess, malignancy was noted in 55.6%, and diabetes mellitus in 22.2%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the second-most-common cause of pneumonia and cause of all exacerbations of bronchiectasis. As well as immunosuppressive medications (steroids, methotrexate, TNFalpha inhibitors) and systemic comorbid diseases, underlying lung diseases could be one of the risk factor for pulmonary infections in patients with RA. The dominant risk factor for each pulmonary infection in patients with RA

  20. Computed tomography for pulmonary embolism - Assessment of a 1-year cohort and estimated cancer risk associated with diagnostic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, T.; Zbinden, I.; Bremerich, J.; Bongartz, G.; Roser, H. W.; Remy-Jardin, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The principal concern of any radiation exposure in computed tomography (CT) is the induction of stochastic risks of developing a radiation-induced cancer. The results given in this manuscript will allow to (re-)calculate yield of chest CT. Purpose: To demonstrate a method to evaluate the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer incidence/mortality due to a single diagnostic investigation in a 1-year cohort of consecutive chest CT for suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Material and Methods: A 1-year cohort of consecutive chest CT for suspected PE using a standard scan protocol was analyzed retrospectively (691 patients, 352 men, 339 women). Normalized patient-specific estimations of the radiation doses received by individual organs were correlated with age- and sex-specific mean predicted cancer incidence and age- and sex-specific predicted cancer mortality based on the BEIR VII results. Additional correlation was provided for natural occurring risks. Results: LAR of cancer incidence/mortality following one chest CT was calculated for cancer of the stomach, colon, liver, lung, breast, uterus, ovaries, bladder, thyroid, and for leukemia. LAR remains very low for all age and sex categories, being highest for cancer of the lungs and breasts in 20-year-old women (0.61% and 0.4%, respectively). Summation of all cancer sites analyzed raised the cumulative relative LAR up to 2.76% in 20-year-old women. Conclusion: Using the method presented in this work, LAR of cancer incidence and cancer mortality for a single chest CT for PE seems very low for all age groups and both sexes, but being highest for young patients. Hence the risk for radiation-induced organ cancers must be outweighed with the potential benefit or a treatment and the potential risks of a missed and therefore untreated PE

  1. Computed tomography for pulmonary embolism - Assessment of a 1-year cohort and estimated cancer risk associated with diagnostic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, T. [Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Dept. of Thoracic Imaging, Univ. Lille Nord de France, Hospital Calmette, Lille (France)], e-mail: tilo.niemann@usb.ch; Zbinden, I.; Bremerich, J.; Bongartz, G. [Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Roser, H. W. [Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Radiological Physics, Basel (Switzerland); Remy-Jardin, M. [Dept. of Thoracic Imaging, Univ. Lille Nord de France, Hospital Calmette, Lille (France)

    2013-09-15

    Background: The principal concern of any radiation exposure in computed tomography (CT) is the induction of stochastic risks of developing a radiation-induced cancer. The results given in this manuscript will allow to (re-)calculate yield of chest CT. Purpose: To demonstrate a method to evaluate the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer incidence/mortality due to a single diagnostic investigation in a 1-year cohort of consecutive chest CT for suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Material and Methods: A 1-year cohort of consecutive chest CT for suspected PE using a standard scan protocol was analyzed retrospectively (691 patients, 352 men, 339 women). Normalized patient-specific estimations of the radiation doses received by individual organs were correlated with age- and sex-specific mean predicted cancer incidence and age- and sex-specific predicted cancer mortality based on the BEIR VII results. Additional correlation was provided for natural occurring risks. Results: LAR of cancer incidence/mortality following one chest CT was calculated for cancer of the stomach, colon, liver, lung, breast, uterus, ovaries, bladder, thyroid, and for leukemia. LAR remains very low for all age and sex categories, being highest for cancer of the lungs and breasts in 20-year-old women (0.61% and 0.4%, respectively). Summation of all cancer sites analyzed raised the cumulative relative LAR up to 2.76% in 20-year-old women. Conclusion: Using the method presented in this work, LAR of cancer incidence and cancer mortality for a single chest CT for PE seems very low for all age groups and both sexes, but being highest for young patients. Hence the risk for radiation-induced organ cancers must be outweighed with the potential benefit or a treatment and the potential risks of a missed and therefore untreated PE.

  2. A familial case of alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins supports paternal imprinting of FOXF1 in human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACD/MPV) is a rare developmental lung disorder that is uniformly lethal. Affected infants die within the first few weeks of their life despite aggressive treatment, although a few cases of late manifestation and longer survival have ...

  3. [Pulmonary hypertension: definition, classification and treatments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutant, Etienne-Marie; Humbert, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a cardio-pulmonary disorder that may involve multiple clinical conditions and can complicate the majority of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Its definition is an increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) \\hbox{$\\geqslant $} ⩾ 25 mmHg at rest, leading to right heart failure and ultimately death. The clinical classification of pulmonary hypertension (PH) categorizes PH into groups which share similar pathophysiological and hemodynamic characteristics and treatments. Five groups of disorders that cause PH are identified: pulmonary arterial hypertension (Group 1) which is a pre-capillary PH, defined by a normal pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) \\hbox{$\\leqslant $} ⩽ 15 mmH, due to remodelling of the small pulmonary arteries (15 mmHg; pulmonary hypertension due to chronic lung disease and/or hypoxia (Group 3); chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension (Group 4); and pulmonary hypertension due to unclear and/or multifactorial mechanisms (Group 5). PAH (PH group 1) can be treated with agents targeting three dysfunctional endothelial pathways of PAH: nitric oxide (NO) pathway, endothelin-1 pathway and prostacyclin pathway. Patients at low or intermediate risk can be treated with either initial monotherapy or initial oral combination therapy. In patients at high risk initial combination therapy including intravenous prostacyclin analogues should be considered. Patients with inadequate clinical response to maximum treatment (triple therapy with an intravenous prostacyclin) should be assessed for lung transplantation. Despite progresses, PAH remains a fatal disease with a 3-year survival rate of 58%. Treatment of group 2, group 3 and group 5 PH is the treatment of the causal disease and PAH therapeutics are not recommended. Treatment of group 4 PH is pulmonary endarteriectomy if patients are eligible, otherwise balloon pulmonary angioplasty and/or medical therapy can be considered. © Société de Biologie

  4. Evaluation of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator in a High-Risk Screening Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David J.; Boorjian, Stephen A.; Ruth, Karen; Egleston, Brian L.; Chen, David Y.T.; Viterbo, Rosalia; Uzzo, Robert G.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Raysor, Susan; Giri, Veda N.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Clinical factors in addition to PSA have been evaluated to improve risk assessment for prostate cancer. The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) risk calculator provides an assessment of prostate cancer risk based on age, PSA, race, prior biopsy, and family history. This study evaluated the risk calculator in a screening cohort of young, racially diverse, high-risk men with a low baseline PSA enrolled in the Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program. Patients and Methods Eligibility for PRAP include men ages 35-69 who are African-American, have a family history of prostate cancer, or have a known BRCA1/2 mutation. PCPT risk scores were determined for PRAP participants, and were compared to observed prostate cancer rates. Results 624 participants were evaluated, including 382 (61.2%) African-American men and 375 (60%) men with a family history of prostate cancer. Median age was 49.0 years (range 34.0-69.0), and median PSA was 0.9 (range 0.1-27.2). PCPT risk score correlated with prostate cancer diagnosis, as the median baseline risk score in patients diagnosed with prostate cancer was 31.3%, versus 14.2% in patients not diagnosed with prostate cancer (p<0.0001). The PCPT calculator similarly stratified the risk of diagnosis of Gleason score ≥7 disease, as the median risk score was 36.2% in patients diagnosed with Gleason ≥7 prostate cancer versus 15.2% in all other participants (p<0.0001). Conclusion PCPT risk calculator score was found to stratify prostate cancer risk in a cohort of young, primarily African-American men with a low baseline PSA. These results support further evaluation of this predictive tool for prostate cancer risk assessment in high-risk men. PMID:19709072

  5. Environmental risk assessment of low density polyethylene unit using the method of failure mode and effect analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salati Parinaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ninth olefin plan of Arya Sasol Petrochemical Company (A.S.P.C. is regarded the largest gas Olefin Unit located on Pars Special Economic Energy Zone (P.S.E.E.Z. Considering the importance of the petrochemical unit, its environmental assessment seems necessary to identify and reduce potential hazards. For this purpose, after determining the scope of the study area, identification and measurement of the environmental parameters, environmental risk assessment of the unit was carried out using Environment Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (EFMEA. Using the noted method, sources causing environmental risks were identified, rated and prioritized. Beside, the impacts of the environmental aspects derived from the unit activities as well as their consequences were also analyzed. Furthermore, the identified impacts were prioritized based on Risk Priority Number (RPN and severity level of the consequences imposed on the affected environment. After performing statistical calculations, it was found that the environmental aspects owing the risk priority number higher than 15 have a high level of risk. Results obtained from Low Density Polyethylene Unit revealed that the highest risk belongs to the emergency vent system with risk priority number equal to 48. It is occurred due to imperfect performance of the reactor safety system leading to the emissions of ethylene gas, particles, and radioactive steam as well as air and noise pollutions. Results derived from secondary assessment of the environmental aspects, through difference in calculated RPN and activities risk levels showed that employing modern methods and risk assessment are have remarkably reduced the severity of risk and consequently detracted the damages and losses incurred on the environment.

  6. Risk assessment of the emergency processes: Healthcare failure mode and effect analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleghani, Yasamin Molavi; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Sheikhbardsiri, Hojat

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring about the patient's safety is the first vital step in improving the quality of care and the emergency ward is known as a high-risk area in treatment health care. The present study was conducted to evaluate the selected risk processes of emergency surgery department of a treatment-educational Qaem center in Mashhad by using analysis method of the conditions and failure effects in health care. In this study, in combination (qualitative action research and quantitative cross-sectional), failure modes and effects of 5 high-risk procedures of the emergency surgery department were identified and analyzed according to Healthcare Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (HFMEA). To classify the failure modes from the "nursing errors in clinical management model (NECM)", the classification of the effective causes of error from "Eindhoven model" and determination of the strategies to improve from the "theory of solving problem by an inventive method" were used. To analyze the quantitative data of descriptive statistics (total points) and to analyze the qualitative data, content analysis and agreement of comments of the members were used. In 5 selected processes by "voting method using rating", 23 steps, 61 sub-processes and 217 potential failure modes were identified by HFMEA. 25 (11.5%) failure modes as the high risk errors were detected and transferred to the decision tree. The most and the least failure modes were placed in the categories of care errors (54.7%) and knowledge and skill (9.5%), respectively. Also, 29.4% of preventive measures were in the category of human resource management strategy. "Revision and re-engineering of processes", "continuous monitoring of the works", "preparation and revision of operating procedures and policies", "developing the criteria for evaluating the performance of the personnel", "designing a suitable educational content for needs of employee", "training patients", "reducing the workload and power shortage", "improving team

  7. Acute exacerbations and pulmonary hypertension in advanced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Judge, Eoin P

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for and outcomes of acute exacerbations in patients with advanced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and to examine the relationship between disease severity and neovascularisation in explanted IPF lung tissue. 55 IPF patients assessed for lung transplantation were divided into acute (n=27) and non-acute exacerbation (n=28) groups. Haemodynamic data was collected at baseline, at the time of acute exacerbation and at lung transplantation. Histological analysis and CD31 immunostaining to quantify microvessel density (MVD) was performed on the explanted lung tissue of 13 transplanted patients. Acute exacerbations were associated with increased mortality (p=0.0015). Pulmonary hypertension (PH) at baseline and acute exacerbations were associated with poor survival (p<0.01). PH at baseline was associated with a significant risk of acute exacerbations (HR 2.217, p=0.041). Neovascularisation (MVD) was significantly increased in areas of cellular fibrosis and significantly decreased in areas of honeycombing. There was a significant inverse correlation between mean pulmonary artery pressure and MVD in areas of honeycombing. Acute exacerbations were associated with significantly increased mortality in patients with advanced IPF. PH was associated with the subsequent development of an acute exacerbation and with poor survival. Neovascularisation was significantly decreased in areas of honeycombing, and was significantly inversely correlated with mean pulmonary arterial pressure in areas of honeycombing.

  8. Diet-Induced Alterations in Gut Microflora Contribute to Lethal Pulmonary Damage in TLR2/TLR4-Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yewei Ji

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic intake of Western diet has driven an epidemic of obesity and metabolic syndrome, but how it induces mortality remains unclear. Here, we show that chronic intake of a high-fat diet (HFD, not a low-fat diet, leads to severe pulmonary damage and mortality in mice deficient in Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 (DKO. Diet-induced pulmonary lesions are blocked by antibiotic treatment and are transmissible to wild-type mice upon either cohousing or fecal transplantation, pointing to the existence of bacterial pathogens. Indeed, diet and innate deficiency exert significant impact on gut microbiota composition. Thus, chronic intake of HFD promotes severe pulmonary damage and mortality in DKO mice in part via gut dysbiosis, a finding that may be important for immunodeficient patients, particularly those on chemotherapy or radiotherapy, where gut-microbiota-caused conditions are often life threatening.

  9. Estimating risk using bounding calculations and limited data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COWLEY, W.L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology for estimating the potential risk to workers and the public from igniting organic solvents in any of the 177 underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state. The Hanford Site is one of the U.S. Department of Energy's former production facilities for nuclear materials. The tanks contain mixed radioactive wastes. Risk is measured by calculating toxicological and radiological accident consequences and frequencies and comparing the results to established regulatory guidelines. Available sample data is insufficient to adequately characterize the waste and solvent, so a model that maximizes releases from the tanks (bounding case) is used. Maximizing releases (and thus consequences) is a standard technique used in safety analysis to compensate for lack of information. The model predicts bounding values of fire duration, the time at which the fire extinguishes because of lack of oxygen, and a pressure history of a fire in a tank. The model output is used to calculate mass and volume release rates of material from the tanks. The mass and volume release rates permit calculation of radiological and toxicological consequences. The resulting consequence calculations demonstrate that risk from an organic solvent fire in the tanks is within regulatory guidelines

  10. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease heterogeneity: challenges for health risk assessment, stratification and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Josep; Vargas, Claudia; Cano, Isaac; Selivanov, Vitaly; Barreiro, Esther; Maier, Dieter; Falciani, Francesco; Wagner, Peter; Cascante, Marta; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Kalko, Susana; De Mas, Igor; Tegnér, Jesper; Escarrabill, Joan; Agustí, Alvar; Gomez-Cabrero, David

    2014-11-28

    Heterogeneity in clinical manifestations and disease progression in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) lead to consequences for patient health risk assessment, stratification and management. Implicit with the classical "spill over" hypothesis is that COPD heterogeneity is driven by the pulmonary events of the disease. Alternatively, we hypothesized that COPD heterogeneities result from the interplay of mechanisms governing three conceptually different phenomena: 1) pulmonary disease, 2) systemic effects of COPD and 3) co-morbidity clustering, each of them with their own dynamics. To explore the potential of a systems analysis of COPD heterogeneity focused on skeletal muscle dysfunction and on co-morbidity clustering aiming at generating predictive modeling with impact on patient management. To this end, strategies combining deterministic modeling and network medicine analyses of the Biobridge dataset were used to investigate the mechanisms of skeletal muscle dysfunction. An independent data driven analysis of co-morbidity clustering examining associated genes and pathways was performed using a large dataset (ICD9-CM data from Medicare, 13 million people). Finally, a targeted network analysis using the outcomes of the two approaches (skeletal muscle dysfunction and co-morbidity clustering) explored shared pathways between these phenomena. (1) Evidence of abnormal regulation of skeletal muscle bioenergetics and skeletal muscle remodeling showing a significant association with nitroso-redox disequilibrium was observed in COPD; (2) COPD patients presented higher risk for co-morbidity clustering than non-COPD patients increasing with ageing; and, (3) the on-going targeted network analyses suggests shared pathways between skeletal muscle dysfunction and co-morbidity clustering. The results indicate the high potential of a systems approach to address COPD heterogeneity. Significant knowledge gaps were identified that are relevant to shape strategies aiming at

  11. Mesenchymal neoplasia and congenital pulmonary cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.G.; Currarino, G.; Moore, G.C.; Votteler, T.P.

    1980-01-01

    A malignant mesenchymoma exibiting a varied spectrum of differentation developed within a congenital pulmonary cyst 6 1/2 years after the cyst was first recognized. Related tumors with a similar gross appearance have been previously described and have included rhabdomyosarcomas and so-called pulmonary blastomas. There is a low but distinct risk for the developement of mesenchymal sarcomas within congenital peripheral pulmonary cysts. (orig.) [de

  12. Lethal and nonlethal violence against an intimate female partner: comparing male murderers to nonlethal abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobash, R Emerson; Dobash, Russell P; Cavanagh, Kate; Medina-Ariza, Juanjo

    2007-04-01

    Men's lethal and nonlethal violence against an intimate female partner are compared. Various risk factors are examined to compare men's lethal and nonlethal violence against an intimate woman partner. Relative to abusers, men who kill are generally more conventional with respect to childhood backgrounds, education, employment, and criminal careers, are more likely to be possessive and jealous, and are more likely to be separated from their partner at the time of the event. Men who kill are more likely to have used violence against a previous partner, to have sexually assaulted and strangled the victim, and to have used a weapon or instrument. However, they were less likely to have been drunk at the time of the event and/or to have previously used violence against the woman they killed. Overall, the findings do not support the notion of a simple progression from nonlethal to lethal violence and raise some dilemmas for the growing area of risk assessment.

  13. Future Rear View Mirror: How We Learned to Love Lethal Autonomous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-24

    noncombatants as well. While there are still technological hurdles to overcome, LAS could eventually be programmed free of human emotions such as... branded as “less lethal,” many can also be used in a different mode to carry out deadly force.59 Once proven in the domestic sector, the ease of...These changes in context also fuel emotions and irrational fears, which only aid in the acceleration to develop and field LAS. Two major fears are

  14. Clinical characteristics and risk factors of pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic respiratory diseases: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yonghua; Liu, Chunli; Lu, Wenju; Li, Mengxi; Hadadi, Cyrus; Wang, Elizabeth Wenqian; Yang, Kai; Lai, Ning; Huang, Junyi; Li, Shiyue; Zhong, Nanshan; Zhang, Nuofu; Wang, Jian

    2016-03-01

    Chronic respiratory disease-associated pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an important subtype of PH, which lacks clinical epidemiological data in China. Six hundred and ninety three patients hospitalized from 2010 to 2013 were classified by echocardiography according to pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP): mild (36≤ PASP increase of N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and right ventricular (RV) diameter (>20 mm) were associated with moderate-to-severe PH, while RV [odds ratio (OR) =3.53, 95% CI, 2.17-5.74], NT-proBNP (OR=2.44, 95% CI, 1.51-3.95), HCT (OR=1.03, 95% CI, 1.00-1.07) and PaCO2 (OR=1.01, 95% CI, 1.00-1.03) were independent risk factors. PH related to respiratory diseases is mostly mild to moderate, and the severity is associated with the category of respiratory disease. Increased HCT can be an independent risk factor for PH related to chronic respiratory diseases.

  15. Psychosocial Risk Factors for Hospitalisation and Death from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Pedersen, Jolene Lee Masters

    2015-01-01

    Only a few smaller studies have addressed the effect of psychosocial factors on risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in spite of the potential for psychosocial stress to affect development of the disease through immunological and behavioural pathways. The aim of this study...... is to determine the relation between various psychosocial risk factors, individually and accumulated, and COPD hospitalisation and deaths. A total of 8728 women and men free of asthma and COPD participating in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work......-related stress, social network, vital exhaustion, economic hardship, and sleep medication in 1991-1993 and followed in nationwide registers until 2009, with COPD. Major life events in adult life and vital...

  16. Calculation of the quantities of radiation risk in Japanese population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yuji

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reevaluate various kinds of indicators of radiation risks using additive projection and multiplicative projection models, as proposed by ICRP. Total death probability rate (1985) and probability rate of cancer death (1983 to 1987) were used as data base. The following indicators were calculated: total conditional death probability rate and conditional death probability rate; normalized death age probability density and unconditional death probability rate; attributable life-time probability of cancer death; and other risk indicators, including mean loss of life expectancy, reduction of life expectancy, mean annually committed probability of attributable cancer deaths, annual extra probability of cancer death, probability density of the age of death, maximum relative death probability rate (age at maximum relative rate), and probabilistic aging. In terms of calculations of these risk indicators for the comprehensive cancer death, there was no great difference between the Japanese population and ICRP. When calculating according to sites of cancer, calculations of indicators for cancer mortality (or cancer cure rate) in the Japanese population might bedifferent from ICRP's calculation. (N.K.) different from ICRP's calculations. (N.K.)

  17. [Immersion pulmonary edema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgraz, Benoît; Sartori, Claudio; Saubade, Mathieu; Héritier, Francis; Gabus, Vincent

    2017-07-12

    Immersion pulmonary edema may occur during scuba diving, snorke-ling or swimming. It is a rare and often recurrent disease, mainly affecting individuals aged over 50 with high blood pressure. However it also occurs in young individuals with a healthy heart. The main symptoms are dyspnea, cough and hemoptysis. The outcome is often favorable under oxygen treatment but deaths are reported. A cardiac and pulmonary assessment is necessary to evaluate the risk of recurrence and possible contraindications to immersion.

  18. CT pulmonary angiography findings that predict 30-day mortality in patients with acute pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, Andreas Gunter, E-mail: mail@andreas-bach.de [Department of Radiology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Ernst-Grube-Str. 40, 06120 Halle (Germany); Nansalmaa, Baasai; Kranz, Johanna [Department of Radiology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Ernst-Grube-Str. 40, 06120 Halle (Germany); Taute, Bettina-Maria [Department of Internal Medicine, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Ernst-Grube-Str. 40, 06120 Halle (Germany); Wienke, Andreas [Institute of Medical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Informatics, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Magdeburger-Str. 8, 06112 Halle (Germany); Schramm, Dominik; Surov, Alexey [Department of Radiology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Ernst-Grube-Str. 40, 06120 Halle (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • In patients with acute pulmonary embolism contrast reflux in inferior vena cava is significantly stronger in non-survivors (odds ratio 3.29; p < 0.001). • This finding is independent from the following comorbidities: heart insufficiency and pulmonary hypertension. • Measurement of contrast reflux is a new and robust radiologic method for predicting 30-day mortality in patients with acute pulmonary embolism. • Measurement of contrast reflux is a better predictor of 30-day mortality after acute pulmonary embolism than any other existing radiologic predictor. This includes thrombus distribution, and morphometric measurements of right ventricular dysfunction. - Abstract: Purpose: Standard computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) can be used to diagnose acute pulmonary embolism. In addition, multiple findings at CTPA have been proposed as potential tools for risk stratification. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine the prognostic value of (I) thrombus distribution, (II) morphometric parameters of right ventricular dysfunction, and (III) contrast reflux in inferior vena cava on 30-day mortality. Material and methods: In a retrospective, single-center study from 06/2005 to 01/2010 365 consecutive patients were included. Inclusion criteria were: presence of acute pulmonary embolism, and availability of 30-day follow-up. A review of patient charts and images was performed. Results: There were no significant differences between the group of 326 survivors and 39 non-survivors in (I) thrombus distribution, and (II) morphometric measurements of right ventricular dysfunction. However, (III) contrast reflux in inferior vena cava was significantly stronger in non-survivors (odds ratio 3.29; p < 0.001). Results were independent from comorbidities like heart insufficiency and pulmonary hypertension. Conclusion: Measurement of contrast reflux is a new and robust method for predicting 30-day mortality in patients with acute pulmonary

  19. Main pulmonary artery cross-section ratio is low in fetuses with tetralogy of Fallot and ductus arteriosus-dependent pulmonary circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebishima, Hironori; Kurosaki, Kenichi; Yoshimatsu, Jun; Shiraishi, Isao

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to determine fetal echocardiographic features of tetralogy of Fallot in association with postnatal outcomes. The Z-scores of the main and bilateral pulmonary arteries and the aorta were measured, and the following variables were calculated in 13 fetuses with tetralogy of Fallot: pulmonary artery-to-aorta ratio and main pulmonary artery cross-section ratio - the main pulmonary artery diameter squared divided by the sum of the diameter squared of the left and right pulmonary arteries. Fetuses were classified as having ductus arteriosus-dependent or ductus arteriosus-independent pulmonary circulation. We included two infants with pulmonary atresia and six infants with ductus-dependent pulmonary circulation, who underwent systemic-to-pulmonary shunt surgeries at ⩽1 month of age. The Z-scores of the main pulmonary artery and the pulmonary artery-to-aorta ratio in fetuses with ductus-dependent pulmonary circulation were lesser than those in fetuses with ductus independence, but not significantly. The main pulmonary artery cross-section ratio in fetuses with ductus dependence was significantly lesser (0.65±0.44 versus 1.56±0.48, ptetralogy of Fallot.

  20. Investigation of Suspected Pulmonary Embolism at Hutt Valley Hospital with CT Pulmonary Angiography: Current Practice and Opportunities for Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Kennedy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To study the use of CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA at Hutt Hospital and investigate the use of pretest probability scoring in the assessment of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE. Methods. We studied patients with suspected PE that underwent CTPA between January and May 2012 and collected data on demographics, use of pretest probability scoring, and use of D Dimer and compared our practice with the British Thoracic Society (BTS guideline. Results. 105 patients underwent CTPA and 15% of patients had PE. 13% of patients had a Wells score prior to their scan. Wells score calculated by researchers revealed 54%, 36%, and 8% patients had low, medium, and high risk pretest probabilities and 8%, 20%, and 50% of these patients had positive scans. D Dimer was performed in 58% of patients and no patients with a negative D Dimer had a PE. Conclusion. The CTPA positive rate was similar to other contemporary studies but lower than previous New Zealand studies and some international guidelines. Risk stratification of suspected PE using Wells score and D Dimer was underutilised. A number of scans could have been safely avoided by using accepted guidelines reducing resources use and improving patient safety.

  1. Pulmonary Hypertension in the Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentzer, Jacob C; Mathier, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    Pulmonary hypertension occurs as the result of disease processes increasing pressure within the pulmonary circulation, eventually leading to right ventricular failure. Patients may become critically ill from complications of pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular failure or may develop pulmonary hypertension as the result of critical illness. Diagnostic testing should evaluate for common causes such as left heart failure, hypoxemic lung disease and pulmonary embolism. Relatively few patients with pulmonary hypertension encountered in clinical practice require specific pharmacologic treatment of pulmonary hypertension targeting the pulmonary vasculature. Management of right ventricular failure involves optimization of preload, maintenance of systemic blood pressure and augmentation of inotropy to restore systemic perfusion. Selected patients may require pharmacologic therapy to reduce right ventricular afterload by directly targeting the pulmonary vasculature, but only after excluding elevated left heart filling pressures and confirming increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Critically-ill patients with pulmonary hypertension remain at high risk of adverse outcomes, requiring a diligent and thoughtful approach to diagnosis and treatment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in children: diagnosis using ratio of main pulmonary artery to ascending aorta diameter as determined by multi-detector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro-Domínguez, Pablo; Compton, Gregory; Humpl, Tilman; Manson, David E

    2016-09-01

    The ratio of the transverse diameter of the main pulmonary artery (MPA) to ascending aorta as determined at multi-detector CT is a tool that can be used to assess the pulmonary arterial size in cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. To establish a ratio of MPA to ascending aorta diameter using multi-detector CT imaging suggestive of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. We hypothesize that a defined ratio of MPA to ascending aorta is identifiable on multi-detector CT and that higher ratios can be used to reliably diagnose the presence of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. We calculated the multi-detector CT ratio of MPA to ascending aorta diameter in 44 children with documented pulmonary arterial hypertension by right heart catheterization and in 44 age- and gender-matched control children with no predisposing factors for pulmonary arterial hypertension. We compared this multi-detector-CT-determined ratio with the MPA pressure in the study group, as well as with the ratio of MPA to ascending aorta in the control group. A threshold ratio value was calculated to accurately identify children with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Children with documented primary pulmonary arterial hypertension have a significantly higher ratio of MPA to ascending aorta (1.46) than children without pulmonary arterial hypertension (1.11). A ratio of 1.3 carries a positive likelihood of 34 and a positive predictive value of 97% for the diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The pulmonary arteries were larger in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension than in a control group of normal children. A CT-measured ratio of MPA to ascending aorta of 1.3 should raise the suspicion of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children.

  3. Diagnosis and Management of Pulmonary Embolism in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Broder

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary embolism in pregnancy is a significant and under-recognized problem. In British Columbia, where there are 46,000 pregnancies per year, it is estimated that there are approximately 160 pulmonary embolisms per year and one maternal death every two years secondary to pulmonary embolism. A complete assessment for suspected pulmonary embolus can be performed without putting the fetus at significant risk from radiation exposure. An algorithm is provided for the workup of pulmonary embolus during pregnancy. Heparin is the drug of choice for anticoagulating pregnant women, initially managing the situation with intravenous heparin and then switching to the subcutaneous route given in a bid or tid regimen, aiming to keep the activated partial thromboplastin time 1.5 to 2 times the control. The risks to both the fetus and the mother from anticoagulation during pregnancy are reviewed.

  4. Mode of action of Buddleja cordata verbascoside against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, J G; de Liverant, J G; Martínez, A; Martínez, G; Muñoz, J L; Arciniegas, A; Romo de Vivar, A

    1999-07-01

    We evaluate the mode of action of verbascoside obtained from Buddleja cordata against Staphylococcus aureus by killing kinetics and incorporation of precursors methods. Verbascoside induced lethal effect on S. aureus, by affecting protein synthesis and inhibiting leucine incorporation.

  5. Initial CT manifestations of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in 45 non-HIV immunocompromised patients: association with patient outcome?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horger, Marius; Hebart, Holger; Einsele, Hermann; Lengerke, Claudia; Claussen, C.D.; Vonthein, Reinhard; Pfannenberg, Christina

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To assess early high-resolution computer tomographic (CT) signs of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in non-HIV immunosuppressed patients and their potential association with patient's outcome, including frequency and severity of pulmonary hemorrhage, taking also in consideration the impact of other known risk factors contributory to IPA. Material and methods: A retrospective review of serial CT scans was performed in 45 immunocompromised patients with a total of 46 episodes of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. All patients underwent CT beginning with the day they showed clinical or laboratory signs of infection. Serial follow-up CT included more than two, up to 12 CT examinations. Patient's outcome was judged by clinical and radiological follow-up and classified as survival, death by IPA, or death unrelated to IPA. The influence of patient's age, underlying disease, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, neutropenia, graft versus host disease, and antifungal therapy onset was also statistically considered. Results: Three main CT findings were identified: small nodules (<1 cm) 43% (20/46), large nodules 21% (10/46) and consolidations, either in patchy ± segmental 26% (12/46), or peribronchial distribution ± tree in bud 9% (4/46). In 11 patients (24%) we found a combination of two or more of these signs: 9 (19%) patients presented concurrent small nodules accompanied by reticulation, tree in bud or peribronchial infiltrates, while 2 (4%) patients showed large pulmonary nodules accompanied by large consolidations. An accompanying 'halo' sign was observed in 38 patients (82%). Crescent sign followed by cavitation was encountered in 29 patients (63%). Two patients succumbed to massive pulmonary bleeding caused by IPA. Twenty-one patients (15/46) deceased in this series, 12 of them succumbed to IPA, 1 died from cerebral invasive aspergillosis, while in 9 patients the cause of death was not primarily IPA. Manifest pulmonary hemorrhage occurred in 19% (9

  6. Mobile application-based Seoul National University Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator: development, validation, and comparative analysis with two Western risk calculators in Korean men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Wook Jeong

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We developed a mobile application-based Seoul National University Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator (SNUPC-RC that predicts the probability of prostate cancer (PC at the initial prostate biopsy in a Korean cohort. Additionally, the application was validated and subjected to head-to-head comparisons with internet-based Western risk calculators in a validation cohort. Here, we describe its development and validation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: As a retrospective study, consecutive men who underwent initial prostate biopsy with more than 12 cores at a tertiary center were included. In the development stage, 3,482 cases from May 2003 through November 2010 were analyzed. Clinical variables were evaluated, and the final prediction model was developed using the logistic regression model. In the validation stage, 1,112 cases from December 2010 through June 2012 were used. SNUPC-RC was compared with the European Randomized Study of Screening for PC Risk Calculator (ERSPC-RC and the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator (PCPT-RC. The predictive accuracy was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC. The clinical value was evaluated using decision curve analysis. RESULTS: PC was diagnosed in 1,240 (35.6% and 417 (37.5% men in the development and validation cohorts, respectively. Age, prostate-specific antigen level, prostate size, and abnormality on digital rectal examination or transrectal ultrasonography were significant factors of PC and were included in the final model. The predictive accuracy in the development cohort was 0.786. In the validation cohort, AUC was significantly higher for the SNUPC-RC (0.811 than for ERSPC-RC (0.768, p<0.001 and PCPT-RC (0.704, p<0.001. Decision curve analysis also showed higher net benefits with SNUPC-RC than with the other calculators. CONCLUSIONS: SNUPC-RC has a higher predictive accuracy and clinical benefit than Western risk calculators. Furthermore, it is easy

  7. Calculation of risk for workers in dust working site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geldová Erika

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The fibrogeneous dust is considered as a specific harmful substance in the mine working site. Such kind of dust cumulates in lungs and this fact usually results in lungs dusting, so - called pneumoconiosis. Thus, dustiness risk poses a probability of lungs damage by pneumoconiosis. For the calculation of dustiness risk it is needed to know the following data: the value of average dustiness kC in the working site per a definite time period, the dispersivity of dust “D” (it determines a portion of dust particles with a diameter under 5 µm, so - called respirable particles and the percentage content of quartz Qr in the respirable grain size fraction.The contribution presents the calculation of dustiness risk “R” according to the equation (1, where “R” is in percentage, “ša” is the analytically specific harmfulness and “KDc” is the total cumulative dust dose received by worker in time of its dust exposure.The total cumulative dust dose is calculated on the basis of the equation (4, where “kc” is the average dust concentration in the assessed time period, t–time of exposure, V –average amount of air inspired by exposed worker per time unit ( standardized on the value of 1,2 m3h-1,10-6-recalculation from mg to kg for “KDc”.If the values of “Qr”, “D” and “kc” during the worker exposure on a definite workplace are constant, the dustiness risk “R” is calculated according to the equation (1 and (5 respectively. In the case of “n” time intervals in that the values “Qr”, “D” and “kc” are known the dustiness risk “R” is calculated according to the equation (7. The total personal risk of worker is given by the equation (8.Conclusively, the influence of parameters change namely “Qr”, “D” and “kc” on the value of dustiness risk per equal time period is reported.

  8. Spontaneous Pneumothorax as a Complication of Septic Pulmonary Embolism in an Intravenous Drug User: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau-Chyun Sheu

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis has been the major cause of morbidity and mortality among intravenous drug users (IDUs with infections, mostly involving the tricuspid valve and presenting multiple septic pulmonary embolisms. Numerous pulmonary complications of septic pulmonary embolism have been described, but only a few have reported spontaneous pneumothorax. Our patient, a 23-year-old heroin addict, was hospitalized for tricuspid endocarditis and septic pulmonary embolism. Acute onset of respiratory distress occurred on his seventh hospital day and rapidly resulted in hypoxemia. Immediate bedside chest radiograph demonstrated left pneumothorax. It was thought to be a spontaneous pneumothorax, because he had not undergone any invasive procedure before the occurrence of pneumothorax. His clinical condition improved after the insertion of an intercostal chest tube. He later underwent surgery to replace the tricuspid valve as a result of the large size of the vegetation and poor control of infection. He ultimately survived. Pneumothorax is a possible lethal complication of septic pulmonary embolism in IDUs with right-sided endocarditis and should be considered in such patients when respiratory distress occurs acutely during their hospitalization.

  9. Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Edema in a Triathlon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotomo Yamanashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Family physicians have more opportunities to attend athletic competitions as medical staff at first-aid centers because of the increasing popularity of endurance sports. Case. A 38-year-old man who participated in a triathlon race experienced difficulty in breathing after swimming and was moved to a first-aid center. His initial oxygen saturation was 82% and a thoracic computed tomography scan showed bilateral ground glass opacity in the peripheral lungs. His diagnosis was noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with exercise or swimming: exercise-induced pulmonary edema (EIPE or swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE. Treatment with furosemide and corticosteroid relieved his symptoms of pulmonary edema. Discussion. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with endurance sports is not common, but knowledge about EIPE/SIPE or neurogenic pulmonary edema associated with hyponatremia, which is called Ayus-Arieff syndrome, is crucial. Knowledge and caution for possible risk factors, such as exposure to cold water or overhydration, are essential for both medical staff and endurance athletes. Conclusion. To determine the presence of pulmonary edema associated with strenuous exercise, oxygen saturation should be used as a screening tool at a first-aid center. To avoid risks for EIPE/SIPE, knowledge about these diseases is essential for medical staff and for athletes who perform extreme exercise.

  10. Nontuberculous pulmonary mycobacteriosis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andréjak, Claire; Thomsen, Vibeke Ø; Johansen, Isik Somuncu

    2010-01-01

    RATIONALE: Few population-based data are available regarding nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) pulmonary disease epidemiology and prognosis. OBJECTIVES: To examine NTM pulmonary colonization incidence, disease incidence, and prognostic factors. METHODS: All adults in Denmark with at least one NTM......-positive pulmonary specimen during 1997 to 2008 were identified using national medical databases and were categorized as having possible or definite NTM disease or colonization. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We calculated annual age-standardized NTM incidence rates and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of death...... associated with patient age, sex, comorbidity, NTM species, and NTM disease status. Of 1,282 adults with 2,666 NTM-positive pulmonary specimens, 335 (26%) had definite NTM disease, 238 (19%) possible disease, and 709 (55%) colonization only. NTM incidence rates decreased until 2002, followed by an increase...

  11. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Use of Delayed Contrast-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessa, Luiz Gustavo Pignataro; Junqueira, Flávia Pegado; Bandeira, Marcelo Luiz da Silva; Garcia, Marcelo Iorio; Xavier, Sérgio Salles; Lavall, Guilherme; Torres, Diego; Waetge, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a severe and progressive disease. Its early diagnosis is the greatest clinical challenge. To evaluate the presence and extension of the delayed myocardial contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance, as well as to verify if the percentage of the myocardial fibrosis mass is a severity predictor. Cross-sectional study with 30 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension of groups I and IV, subjected to clinical, functional and hemodynamic evaluation, and to cardiac magnetic resonance. The mean age of patients was 52 years old, with female predominance (77%). Among the patients, 53% had right ventricular failure at diagnosis, and 90% were in functional class II/III. The mean of the 6-minute walk test was 395m. In hemodynamic study with right catheterism, the mean average pulmonary arterial pressure was 53.3mmHg, of the cardiac index of 2.1L/ min.m 2 , and median right atrial pressure was 13.5 mmHg. Delayed myocardial contrast enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance was found in 28 patients. The mean fibrosis mass was 9.9 g and the median percentage of fibrosis mass was 6.17%. The presence of functional class IV, right ventricular failure at diagnosis, 6-minute walk test < 300 meters and right atrial pressure ≥ 15 mmHg, with cardiac index < 2.0 L/ min.m 2 , there was a relevant association with the increased percentage of myocardial fibrosis. The percentage of the myocardial fibrosis mass indicates a non-invasive marker with promising perspectives in identifying patients with high risk factors for pulmonary hypertension

  12. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Use of Delayed Contrast-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessa, Luiz Gustavo Pignataro, E-mail: lgpignataro@ig.com.br; Junqueira, Flávia Pegado; Bandeira, Marcelo Luiz da Silva; Garcia, Marcelo Iorio; Xavier, Sérgio Salles; Lavall, Guilherme; Torres, Diego; Waetge, Daniel [Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Ilha do Fundão, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-10-15

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a severe and progressive disease. Its early diagnosis is the greatest clinical challenge. To evaluate the presence and extension of the delayed myocardial contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance, as well as to verify if the percentage of the myocardial fibrosis mass is a severity predictor. Cross-sectional study with 30 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension of groups I and IV, subjected to clinical, functional and hemodynamic evaluation, and to cardiac magnetic resonance. The mean age of patients was 52 years old, with female predominance (77%). Among the patients, 53% had right ventricular failure at diagnosis, and 90% were in functional class II/III. The mean of the 6-minute walk test was 395m. In hemodynamic study with right catheterism, the mean average pulmonary arterial pressure was 53.3mmHg, of the cardiac index of 2.1L/ min.m{sup 2}, and median right atrial pressure was 13.5 mmHg. Delayed myocardial contrast enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance was found in 28 patients. The mean fibrosis mass was 9.9 g and the median percentage of fibrosis mass was 6.17%. The presence of functional class IV, right ventricular failure at diagnosis, 6-minute walk test < 300 meters and right atrial pressure ≥ 15 mmHg, with cardiac index < 2.0 L/ min.m{sup 2}, there was a relevant association with the increased percentage of myocardial fibrosis. The percentage of the myocardial fibrosis mass indicates a non-invasive marker with promising perspectives in identifying patients with high risk factors for pulmonary hypertension.

  13. Tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo de alto riesgo asociado a foramen oval permeable High-risk massive pulmonary thromboembolism associated with patent foramen ovale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Miranda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La alta mortalidad de los pacientes con tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo de alto riesgo amerita un enfoque terapéutico enérgico e invasivo que incluya la embolectomía pulmonar quirúrgica en aquellos pacientes con contraindicación para trombolisis o trombolisis fallida. Describimos un caso de tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo de alto riesgo que recibió tratamiento quirúrgico en vez de trombolisis debido a que al momento del diagnóstico presentaba un trombo móvil a través de un foramen oval permeable con altísima posibilidad de embolismo paradójico arterial.High mortality rate associated with massive pulmonary embolism requires an aggressive invasive approach including surgical pulmonary embolectomy when thrombolytic therapy has failed or is contraindicated. We describe a case of high-risk massive pulmonary embolism who underwent surgical treatment due to the presence of a mobile intracardiac clot in a patent foramen ovale, and the possible risk of paradoxical arterial embolism.

  14. Pulmonary embolism and nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltier, P.; Planchon, B.; Faucal, P. de; Touze, M.D.; Dupas, B.

    1988-01-01

    Risks related to pulmonary embolism require use of diagnostic procedures with good sensitivity, and the potential complications of effective anticoagulant therapy require procedures with good specificity. Clinical signs are not more accurate for diagnosis of pulmonary than are ECG, blood gas and chest X ray examinations. Perfusion-ventilation scintigraphy has good diagnostic accuracy approaching that of pulmonary angiography which remains the gold standard. Since pulmonary embolism is usually a complication of deep venous thrombosis, distal clot detection should be associated with lung explorations. Plethysmography, ultrasonography, doppler studies and scintigraphy of the lower limbs could provide data supplementing those of contrast venography. The value and role of these examinations are analyzed and discussed in terms of different clinical situations [fr

  15. Component mode synthesis methods applied to 3D heterogeneous core calculations, using the mixed dual finite element solver MINOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, P.; Baudron, A. M.; Lautard, J. J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SERMA/LENR, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes a new technique for determining the pin power in heterogeneous core calculations. It is based on a domain decomposition with overlapping sub-domains and a component mode synthesis technique for the global flux determination. Local basis functions are used to span a discrete space that allows fundamental global mode approximation through a Galerkin technique. Two approaches are given to obtain these local basis functions: in the first one (Component Mode Synthesis method), the first few spatial eigenfunctions are computed on each sub-domain, using periodic boundary conditions. In the second one (Factorized Component Mode Synthesis method), only the fundamental mode is computed, and we use a factorization principle for the flux in order to replace the higher order Eigenmodes. These different local spatial functions are extended to the global domain by defining them as zero outside the sub-domain. These methods are well-fitted for heterogeneous core calculations because the spatial interface modes are taken into account in the domain decomposition. Although these methods could be applied to higher order angular approximations - particularly easily to a SPN approximation - the numerical results we provide are obtained using a diffusion model. We show the methods' accuracy for reactor cores loaded with UOX and MOX assemblies, for which standard reconstruction techniques are known to perform poorly. Furthermore, we show that our methods are highly and easily parallelizable. (authors)

  16. Component mode synthesis methods applied to 3D heterogeneous core calculations, using the mixed dual finite element solver MINOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, P.; Baudron, A. M.; Lautard, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique for determining the pin power in heterogeneous core calculations. It is based on a domain decomposition with overlapping sub-domains and a component mode synthesis technique for the global flux determination. Local basis functions are used to span a discrete space that allows fundamental global mode approximation through a Galerkin technique. Two approaches are given to obtain these local basis functions: in the first one (Component Mode Synthesis method), the first few spatial eigenfunctions are computed on each sub-domain, using periodic boundary conditions. In the second one (Factorized Component Mode Synthesis method), only the fundamental mode is computed, and we use a factorization principle for the flux in order to replace the higher order Eigenmodes. These different local spatial functions are extended to the global domain by defining them as zero outside the sub-domain. These methods are well-fitted for heterogeneous core calculations because the spatial interface modes are taken into account in the domain decomposition. Although these methods could be applied to higher order angular approximations - particularly easily to a SPN approximation - the numerical results we provide are obtained using a diffusion model. We show the methods' accuracy for reactor cores loaded with UOX and MOX assemblies, for which standard reconstruction techniques are known to perform poorly. Furthermore, we show that our methods are highly and easily parallelizable. (authors)

  17. Managing comorbidities in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Blair G; Ryerson, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Major risk factors for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) include older age and a history of smoking, which predispose to several pulmonary and extra-pulmonary diseases. IPF can be associated with additional comorbidities through other mechanisms as either a cause or a consequence of these diseases. We review the literature regarding the management of common pulmonary and extra-pulmonary comorbidities, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, pulmonary hypertension, venous thromboembolism, sleep-disordered breathing, gastroesophageal reflux disease, coronary artery disease, depression and anxiety, and deconditioning. Recent studies have provided some guidance on the management of these diseases in IPF; however, most treatment recommendations are extrapolated from studies of non-IPF patients. Additional studies are required to more accurately determine the clinical features of these comorbidities in patients with IPF and to evaluate conventional treatments and management strategies that are beneficial in non-IPF populations. PMID:26451121

  18. The effect of pulmonary rehabilitation on mortality, balance, and risk of fall in stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakamy, Ali; Bolton, Charlotte E; McKeever, Tricia M

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review of published studies that evaluate the impact of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) on survival and fall (including balance) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at stability. OVID, Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane collaboration library were searched for literature dating from January 1980 up to November 2014 as well as an update in October 2015. Two reviewers screened titles, abstracts and full text records, extracted data, and assessed studies for risk of bias; any disagreements were resolved by a third member of the team, and consensus was always sought. Initial searches yielded 3216 records but after review only seven studies were included and there were no studies focused solely on falls. Two cohort studies found some positive benefits of PR on balance, but the results were inconsistent across the studies. Regarding survival, two randomized controlled trials were conducted; one study showed significant survival benefit at 1 year, while the other one showed nonsignificant survival benefit at 3 years. Neither were adequately powered and in both, survival was a secondary outcome. There was only limited inconclusive evidence to show that PR has a significant beneficial effect on balance or survival.

  19. Factors influencing circadian rhythms in acetaminophen lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, R C; Bozigian, H P; Davies, M H; Merrick, B A; Park, K S; McMillan, D A

    1984-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of changes in lighting schedules and food consumption on circadian rhythms in acetaminophen lethality and hepatic glutathione levels in male mice. Under a normal lighting schedule (light: 06.00-18.00 h), male mice exhibited a circadian rhythm in acetaminophen lethality (peak: 18.00 h; nadir: 06.00, 10.00 h) and an inverse rhythm in hepatic glutathione concentrations (peak: 06.00, 10.00 h; nadir: 18.00 h). Under a reversed lighting schedule (light: 18.00-06.00 h) the glutathione rhythm was reversed and the rhythm in acetaminophen lethality was altered showing greater sensitivity to the drug. Under continuous light, there was a shift in the acetaminophen lethality and the hepatic glutathione rhythms. Under continuous dark, both rhythms were abolished. Under a normal lighting regimen, hepatic glutathione levels were closely correlated with food consumption; i.e., both were increased during the dark phase and decreased during the light phase. Fasting the mice for 12 h abolished the rhythms in acetaminophen lethality and hepatic glutathione levels; moreover, the lethality was increased and the hepatic glutathione levels were decreased. These experiments show that both lighting schedules and feeding can alter the circadian rhythms in acetaminophen lethality and hepatic glutathione levels in male mice.

  20. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in children: diagnosis using ratio of main pulmonary artery to ascending aorta diameter as determined by multi-detector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro-Dominguez, Pablo; Manson, David E.; Compton, Gregory; Humpl, Tilman

    2016-01-01

    The ratio of the transverse diameter of the main pulmonary artery (MPA) to ascending aorta as determined at multi-detector CT is a tool that can be used to assess the pulmonary arterial size in cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. To establish a ratio of MPA to ascending aorta diameter using multi-detector CT imaging suggestive of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. We hypothesize that a defined ratio of MPA to ascending aorta is identifiable on multi-detector CT and that higher ratios can be used to reliably diagnose the presence of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. We calculated the multi-detector CT ratio of MPA to ascending aorta diameter in 44 children with documented pulmonary arterial hypertension by right heart catheterization and in 44 age- and gender-matched control children with no predisposing factors for pulmonary arterial hypertension. We compared this multi-detector-CT-determined ratio with the MPA pressure in the study group, as well as with the ratio of MPA to ascending aorta in the control group. A threshold ratio value was calculated to accurately identify children with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Children with documented primary pulmonary arterial hypertension have a significantly higher ratio of MPA to ascending aorta (1.46) than children without pulmonary arterial hypertension (1.11). A ratio of 1.3 carries a positive likelihood of 34 and a positive predictive value of 97% for the diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The pulmonary arteries were larger in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension than in a control group of normal children. A CT-measured ratio of MPA to ascending aorta of 1.3 should raise the suspicion of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. (orig.)

  1. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in children: diagnosis using ratio of main pulmonary artery to ascending aorta diameter as determined by multi-detector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro-Dominguez, Pablo; Manson, David E. [University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Compton, Gregory [University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Epworth Hospital, Epworth Medical Imaging, Richmond, VIC (Australia); Humpl, Tilman [University of Toronto, Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    The ratio of the transverse diameter of the main pulmonary artery (MPA) to ascending aorta as determined at multi-detector CT is a tool that can be used to assess the pulmonary arterial size in cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. To establish a ratio of MPA to ascending aorta diameter using multi-detector CT imaging suggestive of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. We hypothesize that a defined ratio of MPA to ascending aorta is identifiable on multi-detector CT and that higher ratios can be used to reliably diagnose the presence of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. We calculated the multi-detector CT ratio of MPA to ascending aorta diameter in 44 children with documented pulmonary arterial hypertension by right heart catheterization and in 44 age- and gender-matched control children with no predisposing factors for pulmonary arterial hypertension. We compared this multi-detector-CT-determined ratio with the MPA pressure in the study group, as well as with the ratio of MPA to ascending aorta in the control group. A threshold ratio value was calculated to accurately identify children with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Children with documented primary pulmonary arterial hypertension have a significantly higher ratio of MPA to ascending aorta (1.46) than children without pulmonary arterial hypertension (1.11). A ratio of 1.3 carries a positive likelihood of 34 and a positive predictive value of 97% for the diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The pulmonary arteries were larger in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension than in a control group of normal children. A CT-measured ratio of MPA to ascending aorta of 1.3 should raise the suspicion of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. (orig.)

  2. RAFT: a computer program for fault tree risk calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seybold, G.D.

    1977-11-01

    A description and user instructions are presented for RAFT, a FORTRAN computer code for calculation of a risk measure for fault tree cut sets. RAFT calculates release quantities and a risk measure based on the product of probability and release quantity for cut sets of fault trees modeling the accidental release of radioactive material from a nuclear fuel cycle facility. Cut sets and their probabilities are supplied as input to RAFT from an external fault tree analysis code. Using the total inventory available of radioactive material, along with release fractions for each event in a cut set, the release terms are calculated for each cut set. Each release term is multiplied by the cut set probability to yield the cut set risk measure. RAFT orders the dominant cut sets on the risk measure. The total risk measure of processed cut sets and their fractional contributions are supplied as output. Input options are available to eliminate redundant cut sets, apply threshold values on cut set probability and risk, and control the total number of cut sets output. Hash addressing is used to remove redundant cut sets from the analysis. Computer hardware and software restrictions are given along with a sample problem and cross-reference table of the code. Except for the use of file management utilities, RAFT is written exclusively in FORTRAN language and is operational on a Control Data, CYBER 74-18--series computer system. 4 figures

  3. Diastolic Pressure Difference to Classify Pulmonary Hypertension in the Assessment of Heart Transplant Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephen P; Moayedi, Yasbanoo; Foroutan, Farid; Agarwal, Suhail; Paradero, Geraldine; Alba, Ana C; Baumwol, Jay; Mak, Susanna

    2017-09-01

    The diastolic pressure difference (DPD) is recommended to differentiate between isolated postcapillary and combined pre-/postcapillary pulmonary hypertension (Cpc-PH) in left heart disease (PH-LHD). However, in usual practice, negative DPD values are commonly calculated, potentially related to the use of mean pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP). We used the ECG to gate late-diastolic PAWP measurements. We examined the method's impact on calculated DPD, PH-LHD subclassification, hemodynamic profiles, and mortality. We studied patients with advanced heart failure undergoing right heart catheterization to assess cardiac transplantation candidacy (N=141). Pressure tracings were analyzed offline over 8 to 10 beat intervals. Diastolic pulmonary artery pressure and mean PAWP were measured to calculate the DPD as per usual practice (diastolic pulmonary artery pressure-mean PAWP). Within the same intervals, PAWP was measured gated to the ECG QRS complex to calculate the QRS-gated DPD (diastolic pulmonary artery pressure-QRS-gated PAWP). Outcomes occurring within 1 year were collected retrospectively from chart review. Overall, 72 of 141 cases demonstrated PH-LHD. Within PH-LHD, the QRS-gated DPD yielded higher calculated DPD values (3 [-1 to 6] versus 0 [-4 to 3] mm Hg; P pulmonary hypertension ( P pulmonary hypertension. The QRS-gated DPD reclassifies a subset of PH-LHD patients from isolated postcapillary pulmonary hypertension to Cpc-PH, which is characterized by an adverse hemodynamic profile. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Commercial air travel and in-flight pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas G; Chang, Rae W; Robbins, Peter A; Dorrington, Keith L

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been shown that commercial air travel triggers hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and modestly increases pulmonary artery pressure in healthy passengers. There is large interindividual variation in hypoxic pulmonary vasoreactivity, and some passengers may be at risk of developing flight-induced pulmonary hypertension, with potentially dangerous consequences. This study sought to determine whether it is possible for a susceptible passenger to develop pulmonary hypertension in response to a routine commercial flight. Using in-flight echocardiography, a passenger was studied during a 6-h commercial flight from London to Dubai. The passenger was generally well and frequently traveled by air, but had been diagnosed with Chuvash polycythemia, a genetic condition that is associated with increased hypoxic pulmonary vasoreactivity. Hematocrit had been normalized with regular venesection. During the flight, arterial oxygen saturation fell to a minimum of 96% and systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) rapidly increased into the pulmonary hypertensive range. The in-flight increase in sPAP was 50%, reaching a peak of 45 mmHg. This study has established that an asymptomatic but susceptible passenger can rapidly develop in-flight pulmonary hypertension even during a medium-haul flight. Prospective passengers at risk from such responses, including those who have cardiopulmonary disease or increased hypoxic pulmonary vasoreactivity, could benefit from preflight evaluation with a hypoxia altitude simulation test combined with simultaneous echocardiography (HAST-echo). The use of in-flight supplementary oxygen should be considered for susceptible individuals, including all patients diagnosed with Chuvash polycythemia.

  5. Pulmonary hypertension and vasculopathy in incontinentia pigmenti: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshenqiti A

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abduljabbar Alshenqiti,1 Marwan Nashabat,1 Hissah AlGhoraibi,1 Omar Tamimi,2 Majid Alfadhel1 1Division of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, King Abdullah International Medical Research Centre, King Saud bin Abdulaziz Uiversity for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs (NGHA, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Cardiology, King Abdullah International Medical Research Centre, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard-Health Affairs (NGHA, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Incontinentia pigmenti (IP; Bloch–Sulzberger syndrome is a rare, genetic syndrome inherited as an X-linked dominant trait. It primarily affects female infants and is lethal in the majority of males during fetal life. The clinical findings include skin lesions, developmental defects, and defects of the eyes, teeth, skeletal system, and central nervous system. Cardiovascular complications of this disease in general, and pulmonary hypertension in particular, are extremely rare. This report describes the case of a 3-year-old girl with IP complicated by pulmonary arterial hypertension. Extensive cardiology workup done to the patient indicates underlying vasculopathy. This report sheds light on the relationship between IP and pulmonary hypertension, reviews the previously reported cases, and compares them with the reported case. Keywords: incontinentia pigmenti, IKBKG, pulmonary hypertension, vasculopathy, Bloch–Sulzberger syndrome, lines of Blaschko, hyperpigmentation

  6. Risk-Adapted Management of Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Recent Evidence, New Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Käberich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE, the third most frequent acute cardiovascular syndrome, may cause life-threatening complications and imposes a substantial socio-economic burden. During the past years, several landmark trials paved the way towards novel strategies in acute and long-term management of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE. Risk stratification is increasingly recognized as a cornerstone for an adequate diagnostic and therapeutic management of the highly heterogeneous population of patients with acute PE. Recently published European Guidelines emphasize the importance of clinical prediction rules in combination with imaging procedures (assessment of right ventricular function and laboratory biomarkers (indicative of myocardial stress or injury for identification of normotensive PE patients at intermediate risk for an adverse short-term outcome. In this patient group, systemic full-dose thrombolysis was associated with a significantly increased risk of intracranial bleeding, a complication which discourages its clinical application unless hemodynamic decompensation occurs. A large-scale clinical trial program evaluating new oral anticoagulants in the initial and long-term treatment of venous thromboembolism showed at least comparable efficacy and presumably increased safety of these drugs compared to the current standard treatment. Research is continuing on catheter-directed, ultrasound-assisted, local, low-dose thrombolysis in the management of intermediate-risk PE.

  7. Detection of high-sensitivity troponin in outpatients with stable pulmonary hypertension identifies a subgroup at higher risk of adverse outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Andrew K; McCullagh, Brian N; Segurado, Ricardo; McGorrian, Catherine; Keane, Elizabeth; Keaney, John; Fitzgibbon, Maria N; Mahon, Niall G; Murray, Patrick T; Gaine, Sean P

    2014-01-01

    The detection of elevations in cardiorenal biomarkers, such as troponins, B-type natriuretic peptides (BNPs), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalins, are associated with poor outcomes in patients hospitalized with acute heart failure. Less is known about the association of these markers with adverse events in chronic right ventricular dysfunction due to pulmonary hypertension, or whether their measurement may improve risk assessment in the outpatient setting. We performed a cohort study of 108 patients attending the National Pulmonary Hypertension Unit in Dublin, Ireland, from 2007 to 2009. Cox proportional hazards analysis and receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine predictors of mortality and hospitalization. Death or hospitalization occurred in 50 patients (46.3%) during the median study period of 4.1 years. Independent predictors of mortality were: 1) decreasing 6-minute walk test (6MWT; hazard ratio [HR] 12.8; P < .001); 2) BNP (HR 6.68; P < .001); and 3) highly sensitive troponin (hsTnT; HR 5.48; P < .001). Adjusted hazard analyses remained significant when hsTnT was added to a model with BNP and 6MWT (HR 9.26, 95% CI 3.61-23.79), as did the predictive ability of the model for death and rehospitalization (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.81, 95% CI 0.73-0.90). Detection of troponin using a highly sensitive assay identifies a pulmonary hypertension subgroup with a poorer prognosis. hsTnT may also be used in a risk prediction model to identify patients at higher risk who may require escalation of targeted pulmonary vasodilator therapies and closer clinical surveillance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pulmonary emphysema is a predictor of pneumothorax after CT-guided transthoracic pulmonary biopsies of pulmonary nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendeckel, Derik; Kromrey, Marie-Luise; Ittermann, Till; Schäfer, Sophia; Mensel, Birger; Kühn, Jens-Peter

    2017-01-01

    Pneumothoraces are the most frequently occurring complications of CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic pulmonary biopsies (PTPB). The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of pre-diagnostic lung emphysema on the incidence and extent of pneumothoraces and to establish a risk stratification for the evaluation of the pre-procedure complication probability. CT-guided PTPB of 100 pre-selected patients (mean age 67.1±12.8 years) were retrospectively enrolled from a single center database of 235 PTPB performed between 2012-2014. Patients were grouped according to pneumothorax appearance directly after PTPB (group I: without pneumothorax, n = 50; group II: with pneumothorax, n = 50). Group II was further divided according to post-interventional treatment (group IIa: chest tube placement, n = 24; group IIb: conservative therapy, n = 26). For each patient pre-diagnostic percentage of emphysema was quantified using CT density analysis. Emphysema stages were compared between groups using bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression analyses. Emphysema percentage was significantly associated with the occurrence of post-interventional pneumothorax (p = 0.006). Adjusted for potential confounders (age, gender, lesion size and length of interventional pathway) the study yielded an OR of 1.07 (p = 0.042). Absolute risk of pneumothorax increased from 43.4% at an emphysema rate of 5% to 73.8% at 25%. No differences could be seen in patients with pneumothorax between percentage of emphysema and mode of therapy (p = 0.721). The rate of lung emphysema is proportionally related to the incidence of pneumothorax after CT-guided PTPB and allows pre-interventional risk stratification. There is no association between stage of emphysema and post-interventional requirement of chest tube placement.

  9. Low-frequency high-definition power Doppler in visualizing and defining fetal pulmonary venous connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; He, Yihua; Li, Zhian; Gu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Lianzhong

    2014-07-01

    The use of low-frequency high-definition power Doppler in assessing and defining pulmonary venous connections was investigated. Study A included 260 fetuses at gestational ages ranging from 18 to 36 weeks. Pulmonary veins were assessed by performing two-dimensional B-mode imaging, color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI), and low-frequency high-definition power Doppler. A score of 1 was assigned if one pulmonary vein was visualized, 2 if two pulmonary veins were visualized, 3 if three pulmonary veins were visualized, and 4 if four pulmonary veins were visualized. The detection rate between Exam-1 and Exam-2 (intra-observer variability) and between Exam-1 and Exam-3 (inter-observer variability) was compared. In study B, five cases with abnormal pulmonary venous connection were diagnosed and compared to their anatomical examination. In study A, there was a significant difference between CDFI and low-frequency high-definition power Doppler for the four pulmonary veins observed (P low-frequency high-definition power Doppler was higher than that when employing two-dimensional B-mode imaging or CDFI. There was no significant difference between the intra- and inter-observer variabilities using low-frequency high-definition power Doppler display of pulmonary veins (P > 0.05). The coefficient correlation between Exam-1 and Exam-2 was 0.844, and the coefficient correlation between Exam-1 and Exam-3 was 0.821. In study B, one case of total anomalous pulmonary venous return and four cases of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return were diagnosed by low-frequency high-definition power Doppler and confirmed by autopsy. The assessment of pulmonary venous connections by low-frequency high-definition power Doppler is advantageous. Pulmonary venous anatomy can and should be monitored during fetal heart examination.

  10. Pulmonary complication associated with head and neck cancer surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoor, T.; Ahmed, Z.; Sheikh, N.A.; Khan, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency of short-term pulmonary complications in the patients undergoing various head and neck cancer surgeries in our setup and to assess possible risk factors responsible for these complications. Seventy patients of age group 20 to 80 years, regardless of gender, treated surgically for head and neck cancers were enrolled. Main outcome measures included development of pulmonary complications following 15 days of oncological surgery. The complications studied were pneumothorax, bronchopneumonia, atelectasis, pulmonary embolism and cardiopulmonary arrest. A total of 24.28% patients suffered from postoperative pulmonary complications; 17.14% developed bronchopneumonia, 5.71% pulmonary embolism, and 1.42% went into cardiopulmonary arrest, none developed pneumothorax or pulmonary atelectasis. A significant correlation of postoperative bronchopneumonia was seen with heavy smoking and assisted ventilation. Pulmonary embolism was associated with extended assisted ventilation and prolonged surgery. Cardiopulmonary arrest was associated with comorbidity and assisted ventilation after surgery. The frequency of bronchopneumonia supersedes all of the postoperative pulmonary complications in head and neck oncological surgery. Patients at risk of developing postoperative complications are heavy smokers, diabetics, those undergoing prolonged surgery, tracheostomy, and extended assisted ventilation. (author)

  11. Epidemiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ley B

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brett Ley, Harold R Collard Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown cause that occurs in adults and has a poor prognosis. Its epidemiology has been difficult to study because of its rarity and evolution in diagnostic and coding practices. Though uncommon, it is likely underappreciated both in terms of its occurrence (ie, incidence, prevalence and public health impact (ie, health care costs and resource utilization. Incidence and mortality appear to be on the rise, and prevalence is expected to increase with the aging population. Potential risk factors include occupational and environmental exposures, tobacco smoking, gastroesophageal reflux, and genetic factors. An accurate understanding of its epidemiology is important, especially as novel therapies are emerging. Keywords: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, epidemiology, incidence, prevalence, mortality, risk factors

  12. A nodal collocation method for the calculation of the lambda modes of the P L equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capilla, M.; Talavera, C.F.; Ginestar, D.; Verdu, G.

    2005-01-01

    P L equations are classical approximations to the neutron transport equation admitting a diffusive form. Using this property, a nodal collocation method is developed for the P L approximations, which is based on the expansion of the flux in terms of orthonormal Legendre polynomials. This method approximates the differential lambda modes problem by an algebraic eigenvalue problem from which the fundamental and the subcritical modes of the system can be calculated. To test the performance of this method, two problems have been considered, a homogeneous slab, which admits an analytical solution, and a seven-region slab corresponding to a more realistic problem

  13. Multicenter external validation of two malignancy risk prediction models in patients undergoing 18F-FDG-PET for solitary pulmonary nodule evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perandini, Simone; Soardi, G.A.; Signorini, M.; Motton, M.; Montemezzi, S.; Larici, A.R.; Del Ciello, A.; Rizzardi, G.; Solazzo, A.; Mancino, L.; Zeraj, F.; Bernhart, M.

    2017-01-01

    To achieve multicentre external validation of the Herder and Bayesian Inference Malignancy Calculator (BIMC) models. Two hundred and fifty-nine solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) collected from four major hospitals which underwent 18-FDG-PET characterization were included in this multicentre retrospective study. The Herder model was tested on all available lesions (group A). A subgroup of 180 SPNs (group B) was used to provide unbiased comparison between the Herder and BIMC models. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) analysis was performed to assess diagnostic accuracy. Decision analysis was performed by adopting the risk threshold stated in British Thoracic Society (BTS) guidelines. Unbiased comparison performed In Group B showed a ROC AUC for the Herder model of 0.807 (95 % CI 0.742-0.862) and for the BIMC model of 0.822 (95 % CI 0.758-0.875). Both the Herder and the BIMC models were proven to accurately predict the risk of malignancy when tested on a large multicentre external case series. The BIMC model seems advantageous on the basis of a more favourable decision analysis. (orig.)

  14. Multicenter external validation of two malignancy risk prediction models in patients undergoing 18F-FDG-PET for solitary pulmonary nodule evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perandini, Simone; Soardi, G.A.; Signorini, M.; Motton, M.; Montemezzi, S. [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata di Verona, UOC Radiologia, Ospedale Maggiore di Borgo Trento, Verona (Italy); Larici, A.R.; Del Ciello, A. [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Roma (Italy); Rizzardi, G. [Ospedale Humanitas Gavazzeni, UO Chirurgia Toracica, Bergamo (Italy); Solazzo, A. [Ospedale Humanitas Gavazzeni, UO Radiologia, Bergamo (Italy); Mancino, L.; Zeraj, F. [Ospedale dell' Angelo di Mestre, UO Pneumologia, Venezia (Italy); Bernhart, M. [Ospedale dell' Angelo di Mestre, UO Radiologia, Venezia (Italy)

    2017-05-15

    To achieve multicentre external validation of the Herder and Bayesian Inference Malignancy Calculator (BIMC) models. Two hundred and fifty-nine solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) collected from four major hospitals which underwent 18-FDG-PET characterization were included in this multicentre retrospective study. The Herder model was tested on all available lesions (group A). A subgroup of 180 SPNs (group B) was used to provide unbiased comparison between the Herder and BIMC models. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) analysis was performed to assess diagnostic accuracy. Decision analysis was performed by adopting the risk threshold stated in British Thoracic Society (BTS) guidelines. Unbiased comparison performed In Group B showed a ROC AUC for the Herder model of 0.807 (95 % CI 0.742-0.862) and for the BIMC model of 0.822 (95 % CI 0.758-0.875). Both the Herder and the BIMC models were proven to accurately predict the risk of malignancy when tested on a large multicentre external case series. The BIMC model seems advantageous on the basis of a more favourable decision analysis. (orig.)

  15. Evaluating risk using bounding calculations and limited data; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COWLEY, W.L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology for estimating the potential risk to workers and the public from igniting organic solvents in any of the 177 underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state. The Hanford Site is one of the U.S. Department of Energy's former production facilities for nuclear materials. The tanks contain mixed radioactive wastes. Risk is measured by calculating toxicological and radiological accident consequences and frequencies and comparing the results to established regulatory guidelines. Available sample data is insufficient to adequately characterize the waste and solvent, so a model that maximizes releases from the tanks (bounding case) is used. Maximizing releases (and thus consequences) is a standard technique used in safety analysis to compensate for lack of information. The model predicts bounding values of fire duration, the time at which the fire extinguishes because of lack of oxygen, and a pressure history of a fire in a tank. The model output is used to calculate mass and volume release rates of material from the tanks. The mass and volume release rates permit calculation of radiological and toxicological consequences. The resulting consequence calculations demonstrate that risk from an organic solvent fire in the tanks is within regulatory guidelines

  16. Omental Pedicled Flap for Pulmonary Tuberculosis Sequelae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The omental flap should be prophylactically used in post-pneumonectomy bronchial stump reinforcement where the underlying chronic inflammatory condition poses high risk for bronchial dehiscence. We present a unique case of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) complicated by empyema, chronic pulmonary aspergillosis and ...

  17. Retrospective review of neonates with persistent pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a clinical syndrome characterised by high pulmonary pressures, low systemic pressures and severe hypoxaemia due to circulation transition failure after birth. Objective. To determine the incidence of and describe the risk factors, infant ...

  18. LALAGE - a computer program to calculate the TM01 modes of cylindrically symmetrical multicell resonant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, P.

    1982-01-01

    An improvement has been made to the LALA program to compute resonant frequencies and fields for all the modes of the lowest TM 01 band-pass of multicell structures. The results are compared with those calculated by another popular rf cavity code and with experimentally measured quantities. (author)

  19. Calculation of health risks from spent-nuclear-fuel transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; Yuan, Y.C.

    1987-01-01

    Models developed to analyze potential radiological health risks from various accident scenarios during transportation of spent nuclear fuels are described. The models are designed both for detailed route-specific risk analyses and for use in conducting overall risk analyses for route selection and related decision-making activities. The radiological risks calculated include individual dose commitments, collective dose commitments, and long-term (100-year) environmental dose commitments to a population following release of radioactivity. To facilitate route-specific analysis, a state-level database was developed and incorporated into the model. Route-specific analysis is demonstrated by the calculation of radiological risks resulting from various accident scenarios, as postulated by the recent US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Modal Study, for four representative states selected from various regions of the United States. 10 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Pathophysiology and treatment of pulmonary hypertension in sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Oswaldo L.; Machado, Roberto F.

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension affects ∼10% of adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), particularly those with the homozygous genotype. An increase in pulmonary artery systolic pressure, estimated noninvasively by echocardiography, helps identify SCD patients at risk for pulmonary hypertension, but definitive diagnosis requires right-heart catheterization. About half of SCD-related pulmonary hypertension patients have precapillary pulmonary hypertension with potential etiologies of (1) a nitric oxide deficiency state and vasculopathy consequent to intravascular hemolysis, (2) chronic pulmonary thromboembolism, or (3) upregulated hypoxic responses secondary to anemia, low O2 saturation, and microvascular obstruction. The remainder have postcapillary pulmonary hypertension secondary to left ventricular dysfunction. Although the pulmonary artery pressure in SCD patients with pulmonary hypertension is only moderately elevated, they have a markedly higher risk of death than patients without pulmonary hypertension. Guidelines for diagnosis and management of SCD-related pulmonary hypertension were published recently by the American Thoracic Society. Management of adults with sickle-related pulmonary hypertension is based on anticoagulation for those with thromboembolism; oxygen therapy for those with low oxygen saturation; treatment of left ventricular failure in those with postcapillary pulmonary hypertension; and hydroxyurea or transfusions to raise the hemoglobin concentration, reduce hemolysis, and prevent vaso-occlusive events that cause additional increases in pulmonary pressure. Randomized trials have not identified drugs to lower pulmonary pressure in SCD patients with precapillary pulmonary hypertension. Patients with hemodynamics of pulmonary arterial hypertension should be referred to specialized centers and considered for treatments known to be effective in other forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension. There have been reports that some of these treatments

  1. ACCEPTABILITY EVALUATION FOR USING ICRP TISSUE WEIGHTING FACTORS TO CALCULATE EFFECTIVE DOSE VALUE FOR SEPARATE GENDER-AGE GROUPS OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Repin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An article describes radiation risk factors for several gender-age population groups according to Russian statistical and medical-demographic data, evaluates the lethality rate for separate nosologic forms of malignant neoplasms based on Russian cancer registries according to the method of the International Agency for Cancer Research. Relative damage factors are calculated for the gender-age groups under consideration. The tissue weighting factors recommended by ICRP to calculate effective doses are compared with relative damage factors calculated by ICRP for the nominal population and with similar factors calculated in this work for separate population cohorts in theRussian Federation. The significance of differences and the feasibility of using tissue weighting factors adapted for the Russian population in assessing population risks in cohorts of different gender-age compositions have been assessed.

  2. Prognostic importance of pulmonary hypertension in patients with heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Jesper; Akkan, Dilek; Iversen, Kasper Karmark

    2007-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a well-known complication in heart failure, but its prognostic importance is less well established. This study assessed the risk associated with pulmonary hypertension in patients with heart failure with preserved or reduced left ventricular (LV) ejection fractions. Pati...... obstructive lung disease, heart failure, and impaired renal function. In conclusion, pulmonary hypertension is associated with increased short- and long-term mortality in patients with reduced LV ejection fractions and also in patients with preserved LV ejection fractions.......Pulmonary hypertension is a well-known complication in heart failure, but its prognostic importance is less well established. This study assessed the risk associated with pulmonary hypertension in patients with heart failure with preserved or reduced left ventricular (LV) ejection fractions....... Patients with known or presumed heart failure (n = 388) underwent the echocardiographic assessment of pulmonary systolic pressure and LV ejection fraction. Patients were followed for up to 5.5 years. Increased pulmonary pressure was associated with increased short- and long-term mortality (p

  3. Randomized Controlled Trial of an Educational Intervention Using an Online Risk Calculator for Knee Osteoarthritis: Effect on Risk Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losina, Elena; Michl, Griffin L; Smith, Karen C; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2017-08-01

    Young adults, in general, are not aware of their risk of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Understanding risk and risk factors is critical to knee OA prevention. We tested the efficacy of a personalized risk calculator on accuracy of knee OA risk perception and willingness to change behaviors associated with knee OA risk factors. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 375 subjects recruited using Amazon Mechanical Turk. Subjects were randomized to either use a personalized risk calculator based on demographic and risk-factor information (intervention), or to view general OA risk information (control). At baseline and after the intervention, subjects estimated their 10-year and lifetime risk of knee OA and responded to contemplation ladders measuring willingness to change diet, exercise, or weight-control behaviors. Subjects in both arms had an estimated 3.6% 10-year and 25.3% lifetime chance of developing symptomatic knee OA. Both arms greatly overestimated knee OA risk at baseline, estimating a 10-year risk of 26.1% and a lifetime risk of 47.8%. After the intervention, risk calculator subjects' perceived 10-year risk decreased by 12.9 percentage points to 12.5% and perceived lifetime risk decreased by 19.5 percentage points to 28.1%. Control subjects' perceived risks remained unchanged. Risk calculator subjects were more likely to move to an action stage on the exercise contemplation ladder (relative risk 2.1). There was no difference between the groups for diet or weight-control ladders. The risk calculator is a useful intervention for knee OA education and may motivate some exercise-related behavioral change. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  4. Calculation of beam injection and modes of acceleration for the JINR phasotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorozhtsov, S.B.; Dmitrievsky, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of computer simulation of particles motion from the injection region up to the final radius of the accelerated proton beam behaviour together with different modes of the JINR high current synchrocyclotron operation is investigated. The THOUR modified computer code is used for calculations. The calculations have been performed with allowance for particle radial-phase motion and particle axial motion and although with beam collective effects. Beam dynamics during first turns of particles has been considered by integrating equations of motion. Tolerances for magnetic field structure in the region of first phase oscillation are obtained. Verifications of time dependences of accelerated voltage amplitude are performed. Time dependences of beam intensity (with and without account for space charge effect) and of mean magnetic field disturbance and the dependence of the separatrice dimension on the orbit radius of the accelerated beam are given. The conclusion is drawn on the correctness of the earlier appreciation of beam intensity equaling 40-45 mkA

  5. [Risk factors for neonatal pulmonary hemorrhage in the neonatal intensive care unit of a municipal hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jie; Hei, Ming-Yan; Huang, Xi-Lin; Li, Xiao-Ping

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the risk factors for neonatal pulmonary hemorrhage (NPH) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a municipal hospital, and to provide a basis for the early identification and treatment of NPH. A total of 112 neonates who were admitted to the NICU of Shaoyang Central Hospital of Hunan Province and diagnosed with NPH were enrolled as the case group. A nested case-control method was used to select, as a control group (n=224), the neonates who underwent the treatment with an assisted mechanical ventilator and did not experience pulmonary hemorrhage. Univariate analysis and unconditional logistic regression analysis were used to identify the high risk factors for NPH. The univariate analysis showed that compared with the control group, the case group had significantly higher incidence rates of gestational diabetes and cholestasis in mothers, cesarean delivery, gestational age <34 weeks, 5-minute Apgar score ≤5, birth weight <2 500 g, heart failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) before the development of NPH, partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen (oxygenation index, OI) ≤100, and a reduction in mean platelet volume. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that DIC, heart failure, and OI ≤100 were independent risk factors for NPH (OR=33.975, 3.975, 1.818 respectively; P<0.05). Heart failure, OI ≤100, and DIC are risk factors for the development of NPH in the NICU of the municipal hospital.

  6. A novel approach for evaluating the risk of health care failure modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dong Shang; Chung, Jenq Hann; Sun, Kuo Lung; Yang, Fu Chiang

    2012-12-01

    Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) can be employed to reduce medical errors by identifying the risk ranking of the health care failure modes and taking priority action for safety improvement. The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel approach of data analysis. The approach is to integrate FMEA and a mathematical tool-Data envelopment analysis (DEA) with "slack-based measure" (SBM), in the field of data analysis. The risk indexes (severity, occurrence, and detection) of FMEA are viewed as multiple inputs of DEA. The practicality and usefulness of the proposed approach is illustrated by one case of health care. Being a systematic approach for improving the service quality of health care, the approach can offer quantitative corrective information of risk indexes that thereafter reduce failure possibility. For safety improvement, these new targets of the risk indexes could be used for management by objectives. But FMEA cannot provide quantitative corrective information of risk indexes. The novel approach can surely overcome this chief shortcoming of FMEA. After combining DEA SBM model with FMEA, the two goals-increase of patient safety, medical cost reduction-can be together achieved.

  7. Gyrokinetic Calculations of Microinstabilities and Transport During RF H-Modes on Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redi, M.H.; Fiore, C.; Bonoli, P.; Bourdelle, C.; Budny, R.; Dorland, W.D.; Ernst, D.; Hammett, G.; Mikkelsen, D.; Rice, J.; Wukitch, S.

    2002-01-01

    Physics understanding for the experimental improvement of particle and energy confinement is being advanced through massively parallel calculations of microturbulence for simulated plasma conditions. The ultimate goal, an experimentally validated, global, non-local, fully nonlinear calculation of plasma microturbulence is still not within reach, but extraordinary progress has been achieved in understanding microturbulence, driving forces and the plasma response in recent years. In this paper we discuss gyrokinetic simulations of plasma turbulence being carried out to examine a reproducible, H-mode, RF heated experiment on the Alcator CMOD tokamak3, which exhibits an internal transport barrier (ITB). This off axis RF case represents the early phase of a very interesting dual frequency RF experiment, which shows density control with central RF heating later in the discharge. The ITB exhibits steep, spontaneous density peaking: a reduction in particle transport occurring without a central particle source. Since the central temperature is maintained while the central density is increasing, this also suggests a thermal transport barrier exists. TRANSP analysis shows that ceff drops inside the ITB. Sawtooth heat pulse analysis also shows a localized thermal transport barrier. For this ICRF EDA H-mode, the minority resonance is at r/a * 0.5 on the high field side. There is a normal shear profile, with q monotonic

  8. Immersion Pulmonary Edema in Female Triathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A. Carter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary edema has been reported in SCUBA divers, apnea divers, and long-distance swimmers however, no instances of pulmonary edema in triathletes exist in the scientific literature. Pulmonary edema may cause seizures and loss of consciousness which in a water environment may become life threatening. This paper describes pulmonary edema in three female triathletes. Signs and symptoms including cough, fatigue, dyspnea, haemoptysis, and rales may occur within minutes of immersion. Contributing factors include hemodynamic changes due to water immersion, cold exposure, and exertion which elevate cardiac output, causing pulmonary capillary stress failure, resulting in extravasation of fluid into the airspace of the lung. Previous history is a major risk factor. Treatment involves immediate removal from immersion and in more serious cases, hospitalization, and oxygen administration. Immersion pulmonary edema is a critical environmental illness of which triathletes, race organizers, and medical staff, should be made aware.

  9. Pulmonary function in subjects with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P. R.; Isaksen, Jonas Lynggaard; Jemec, G. B.

    2018-01-01

    Psoriasis is a prevalent chronic inflammatory disease associated with comorbidities, e.g. cardiometabolic diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, and depression that may share an inflammatory origin. Smoking increases the risk of psoriasis and the disease has also been linked to chronic obstructive...... pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, with evidence of shared inflammatory cytokine-mediated mechanisms. Moreover, subjects with psoriasis display increased risk of infections, especially respiratory infections including pneumonia. However, only a small single-center study of pulmonary function in subjects...... with psoriasis is available. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  10. Pulmonary valve endocarditis associated to a septal interventricular defect and infundibular and pulmonary valve Stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverri, Juan G; Diaz, Alejandro; Jaramillo, Nicolas; Gonzalez, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    Ventricular septal defects generate 10% of all adult congenital cardiopathies. 4% to 8% of patients to whom the defect has not been corrected are in risk of developing endocarditis. Pulmonary valve endocarditis is a rare event (1.5% to 2% of all endocarditis cases) and its mean etiology is intravenous drug abuse. The most frequently isolated microorganism in these cases is staphylococcus aurous. We report a case of pulmonary valve endocarditis associated with ventricular septal defect and valvular and infundibular pulmonary stenosis caused by streptococcus sp. in a patient without past medical history of drug abuse, alcoholism or previous invasive procedures

  11. ANOTHER "LETHAL TRIAD"-RISK FACTORS FOR VIOLENT INJURY AND LONG-TERM MORTALITY AMONG ADULT VICTIMS OF VIOLENT INJURY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laytin, Adam D; Shumway, Martha; Boccellari, Alicia; Juillard, Catherine J; Dicker, Rochelle A

    2018-04-14

    Mental illness, substance abuse, and poverty are risk factors for violent injury, and violent injury is a risk factor for early mortality that can be attenuated through hospital-based violence intervention programs. Most of these programs focus on victims under the age of 30 years. Little is known about risk factors or long-term mortality among older victims of violent injury. To explore the prevalence of risk factors for violent injury among younger (age < 30 years) and older (age 30 ≥ years) victims of violent injury, to determine the long-term mortality rates in these age groups, and to explore the association between risk factors for violent injury and long-term mortality. Adults with violent injuries were enrolled between 2001 and 2004. Demographic and injury data were recorded on enrollment. Ten-year mortality rates were measured. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were used to compare older and younger subjects. Among 541 subjects, 70% were over age 30. The overall 10-year mortality rate was 15%, and was much higher than in the age-matched general population in both age groups. Risk factors for violent injury including mental illness, substance abuse, and poverty were prevalent, especially among older subjects, and were each independently associated with increased risk of long-term mortality. Mental illness, substance abuse, and poverty constitute a "lethal triad" that is associated with an increased risk of long-term mortality among victims of violent injury, including both younger adults and those over age 30 years. Both groups may benefit from targeted risk-reduction efforts. Emergency department visits offer an invaluable opportunity to engage these vulnerable patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Epidemiology, practice of ventilation and outcome for patients at increased risk of postoperative pulmonary complications: LAS VEGAS - an observational study in 29 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroell, Wolfgang; Metzler, Helfried; Struber, Gerd; Wegscheider, Thomas; Gombotz, Hans; Hiesmayr, Michael; Schmid, Werner; Urbanek, Bernhard; Leva, Brigitte; Damster, Sandrine; Plichon, Benoit; Kahn, David; Momeni, Mona; Pospiech, Audrey; Lois, Fernande; Forget, Patrice; Grosu, Irina; Poelaert, Jan; van Mossevelde, Veerle; van Malderen, Marie-Claire; Dylst, Dimitri; van Melkebeek, Jeroen; Beran, Maud; de Hert, Stefan; de Baerdemaeker, Luc; Heyse, Bjorn; van Limmen, Jurgen; Wyffels, Piet; Jacobs, Tom; Roels, Nathalie; de Bruyne, Ann; van de Velde, Stijn; Juros-Zovko, Marina; Djonoviċ-Omanoviċ, Dejana; Serpa Neto, Ary; Pernar, Selma; Zunic, Josip; Miskovic, Petar; Zilic, Antonio; Kvolik, Slavica; Ivic, Dubravka; Azenic-Venzera, Darija; Skiljic, Sonja; Vinkovic, Hrvoje; Oputric, Ivana; Juricic, Kazimir; Frkovic, Vedran; Kopic, Jasminka; Mirkovic, Ivan; Karanovic, Nenad; Carev, Mladen; Dropulic, Natasa; Pavičić-Šarić, Jadranka; Erceg, Gorjana; Bogdanović Dvorščak, Matea; Mazul-Sunko, Branka; Pavicic, Anna Marija; Goranovic, Tanja; Maldini, Branka; Radocaj, Tomislav; Gavranovic, Zeljka; Mladic-Batinica, Inga; Sehovic, Mirna; Stourac, Petr; Harazim, Hana; Smekalova, Olga; Kosinova, Martina; Kolacek, Tomas; Hudacek, Kamil; Drab, Michal; Brujevic, Jan; Vitkova, Katerina; Jirmanova, Katerina; Volfova, Ivana; Dzurnakova, Paula; Liskova, Katarina; Dudas, Radovan; Filipsky, Radek; El Kafrawy, Samir; Hosny Abdelwahab, Hisham; Metwally, Tarek; Abdel-Razek, Ahmed; El-Shaarawy, Ahmed Mostafa; Fathy Hasan, Wael; Gouda Ahmed, Ahmed; Yassin, Hany; Magdy, Mohamed; Abdelhady, Mahdy; Mahran, Mohamed; Herodes, Eiko; Kivik, Peeter; Oganjan, Juri; Aun, Annika; Sormus, Alar; Sarapuu, Kaili; Mall, Merilin; Karjagin, Juri; Futier, Emmanuel; Petit, Antoine; Gerard, Adeline; Marret, Emmanuel; Solier, Marc; Jaber, Samir; Prades, Albert; Putensen, Christian; Krassler, Jens; Merzky, Simone; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Uhlig, Christopher; Kiss, Thomas; Bundy, Anette; Bluth, Thomas; Güldner, Andreas; Spieth, Peter; Scharffenberg, Martin; Tran Thiem, Denny; Koch, Thea; Treschan, Tanja; Schaefer, Maximilian; Bastin, Bea; Geib, Johann; Weiss, Martin; Kienbaum, Peter; Pannen, Benedikt; Gottschalk, Andre; Konrad, Mirja; Westerheide, Diana; Schwertfeger, Ben; Wrigge, Hermann; Simon, Philipp; Reske, Andreas; Nestler, Christian; Valsamidis, Dimitrios; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Anthopoulos, Georgios; Andreaou, Antonis; Karapanos, Dimitris; Theodoraki, Kassiani; Gkiokas, Georgios; Ttasoulis, Marios-Konstantinos; Sidiropoulou, Tatiana; Zafeiropoulou, Foteini; Florou, Panagiota; Pandazi, Aggeliki; Tsaousi, Georgia; Nouris, Christos; Pourzitaki, Chryssa; Bystritski, Dmitri; Pizov, Reuven; Eden, Arieh; Pesce, Caterina Valeria; Campanile, Annamaria; Marrella, Antonella; Grasso, Salvatore; de Michele, Michele; Bona, Francesco; Giacoletto, Gianmarco; Sardo, Elena; Giancarlo, Luigi; Sottosanti, Vicari; Solca, Maurizio; Volta, Carlo Alberto; Spadaro, Savino; Verri, Marco; Ragazzi, Riccardo; Zoppellari, Roberto; Cinnella, Gilda; Raimondo, Pasquale; La Bella, Daniela; Mirabella, Lucia; D'Antini, Davide; Pelosi, Paolo; Molin, Alexandre; Brunetti, Iole; Gratarola, Angelo; Pellerano, Giulia; Sileo, Rosanna; Pezzato, Stefano; Montagnani, Luca; Pasin, Laura; Landoni, Giovanni; Zangrillo, Alberto; Beretta, Luigi; Di Parma, Ambra Licia; Tarzia, Valentina; Dossi, Roberto; Sassone, Marta Eugenia; Sances, Daniele; Tredici, Stefano; Spano, Gianluca; Castellani, Gianluca; Delunas, Luigi; Peradze, Sopio; Venturino, Marco; Arpino, Ines; Sher, Sara; Tommasino, Concezione; Rapido, Francesca; Morelli, Paola; Vargas, Maria; Servillo, Giuseppe; Cortegiani, Andrea; Raineri, Santi Maurizio; Montalto, Francesca; Russotto, Vincenzo; Giarratano, Antonino; Baciarello, Marco; Generali, Michela; Cerati, Giorgia; Leykin, Yigal; Bressan, Filippo; Bartolini, Vittoria; Zamidei, Lucia; Brazzi, Luca; Liperi, Corrado; Sales, Gabriele; Pistidda, Laura; Severgnini, Paolo; Brugnoni, Elisa; Musella, Giuseppe; Bacuzzi, Alessandro; Muhardri, Dalip; Gecaj-Gashi, Agreta; Sada, Fatos; Bytyqi, Adem; Karbonskiene, Aurika; Aukstakalniene, Ruta; Teberaite, Zivile; Salciute, Erika; Tikuisis, Renatas; Miliauskas, Povilas; Jurate, Sipylaite; Kontrimaviciute, Egle; Tomkute, Gabija; Xuereb, John; Bezzina, Maureen; Borg, Francis Joseph; Hemmes, Sabrine; Schultz, Marcus; Hollmann, Markus; Wiersma, Irene; Binnekade, Jan; Bos, Lieuwe; Boer, Christa; Duvekot, Anne; In 't Veld, Bas; Werger, Alice; Dennesen, Paul; Severijns, Charlotte; de Jong, Jasper; Hering, Jens; van Beek, Rienk; Ivars, Stefan; Jammer, Ib; Breidablik, Alena; Skirstad Hodt, Katharina; Fjellanger, Frode; VicoAvalos, Manuel; Mellin-Olsen, Jannicke; Andersson, Elisabeth; Shafi-Kabiri, Amir; Molina, Ruby; Wutai, Stanley; Morais, Erick; Tareco, Glo Ria; Ferreira, Daniel; Amaral, Joana; Gonçalves Castro, Maria de Lurdes; Cadilha, Susana; Appleton, Sofia; Parente, Suzana; Correia, Mariana; Martins, Diogo; Monteirosa, Angela; Ricardo, Ana; Rodrigues, Sara; Horhota, Lucian; Grintescu, Ioana Marina; Mirea, Liliana; Grintescu, Ioana Cristina; Corneci, Dan; Negoita, Silvius; Dutu, Madalina; Popescu Garotescu, Ioana; Filipescu, Daniela; Prodan, Alexandru Bogdan; Droc, Gabriela; Fota, Ruxandra; Popescu, Mihai; Tomescu, Dana; Petcu, Ana Maria; Tudoroiu, Marian Irinel; Moise, Alida; Guran, Catalin-Traian; Gherghina, Iorel; Costea, Dan; Cindea, Iulia; Copotoiu, Sanda-Maria; Copotoiu, Ruxandra; Barsan, Victoria; Tolcser, Zsolt; Riciu, Magda; Septimiu, Gheorghe Moldovan; Veres, Mihaly; Gritsan, Alexey; Kapkan, Tatyana; Gritsan, Galina; Korolkov, Oleg; Kulikov, Alexander; Lubnin, Andrey; Ovezov, Alexey; Prokoshev, Pavel; Lugovoy, Alexander; Anipchenko, Natalia; Babayants, Andrey; Komissarova, Irina; Zalina, Karginova; Likhvantsev, Valery; Fedorov, Sergei; Lazukic, Aleksandra; Pejakovic, Jasmina; Mihajlovic, Dunja; Kusnierikova, Zuzana; Zelinkova, Maria; Bruncakova, Katarina; Polakovicova, Lenka; Sobona, Villiam; Novak-Supe, Barbka; Pekle-Golez, Ana; Jovanov, Miroljub; Strazisar, Branka; Markovic-Bozic, Jasmina; Novak-Jankovic, Vesna; Voje, Minca; Grynyuk, Andriy; Kostadinov, Ivan; Spindler-Vesel, Alenka; Moral, Victoria; Unzueta, Carmen; Puigbo, Carlos; Fava, Josep; Canet, Jaume; Moret, Enrique; Rodriguez Nunez, Mo Nica; Sendra, Mar; Brunelli, Andrea; Rodenas, Frederic; Monedero, Pablo; Hidalgo Martinez, Francisco; Yepes Temino, Maria Jose; Marti Nez Simon, Antonio; de Abajo Larriba, Ana; Lisi, Alberto; Perez, Gisela; Martinez, Raquel; Granell, Manuel; Tatay Vivo, Jose; Saiz Ruiz, Cristina; de Andre S Iban Ez, Jose Antonio; Pastor, Ernesto; Soro, Marina; Ferrando, Carlos; Defez, Mario; Aldecoa Alvares-Santullano, Cesar; Pere, Rocio; Rico, Jesus; Jawad, Monir; Saeed, Yousif; Gillberg, Lars; Hedenstierna, Göran; Kazak Bengisun, Zuleyha; Kansu Kazbek, Baturay; Coskunfirat, Nesil; Boztug, Neval; Sanli, Suat; Yilmaz, Murat; Hadimioglu, Necmiye; Senturk, Nuzhet Mert; Camci, Emre; Kucukgoncu, Semra; Sungur, Zerrin; Sivrikoz, Nukhet; Ustalar Ozgen, Serpil; Toraman, Fevzi; Selvi, Onur; Senturk, Ozgur; Yildiz, Mine; Kuvaki, Bahar; Gunenc, Ferim; Kucukguclu, Semih; Ozbilgin, S. Ule; Maral, Jale; Canli, Seyda; Arun, Oguzhan; Saltali, Ali; Aydogan, Eyup; Akgün, Fatma Nur; Sanlikarip, Ceren; Mine Karaman, Fatma; Mazur, Andriy; Vorotyntsev, Sergiy; Rousseau, Guy; Barrett, Colin; Stancombe, Lucia; Shelley, Ben; Scholes, Helen; Limb, James; Rafi, Amir; Wayman, Lisa; Deane, Jill; Rogerson, David; Williams, John; Yates, Susan; Rogers, Elaine; Pulletz, Mark; Moreton, Sarah; Jones, Stephanie; Venkatesh, Suresh; Burton, Maudrian; Brown, Lucy; Goodall, Cait; Rucklidge, Matthew; Fuller, Debbie; Nadolski, Maria; Kusre, Sandeep; Lundberg, Michael; Everett, Lynn; Nutt, Helen; Zuleika, Maka; Carvalho, Peter; Clements, Deborah; Creagh-Brown, Ben; Watt, Philip; Raymode, Parizade; Pearse, Rupert; Mohr, Otto; Raj, Ashok; Creary, Thais; Chishti, Ahmed; Bell, Andrea; Higham, Charley; Cain, Alistair; Gibb, Sarah; Mowat, Stephen; Franklin, Danielle; West, Claire; Minto, Gary; Boyd, Nicholas; Mills, Gary; Calton, Emily; Walker, Rachel; Mackenzie, Felicity; Ellison, Branwen; Roberts, Helen; Chikungwa, Moses; Jackson, Clare; Donovan, Andrew; Foot, Jayne; Homan, Elizabeth; Montgomery, Jane; Portch, David; Mercer, Pauline; Palme, Janet; Paddle, Jonathan; Fouracres, Anna; Datson, Amanda; Andrew, Alyson; Welch, Leanne; Rose, Alastair; Varma, Sandeep; Simeson, Karen; Rambhatla, Mrutyunjaya; Susarla, Jaysimha; Marri, Sudhakar; Kodaganallur, Krishnan; Das, Ashok; Algarsamy, Shivarajan; Colley, Julie; Davies, Simon; Szewczyk, Margaret; Smith, Thomas; Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Luzier, Elizabeth; Almagro, Angela; Vidal Melo, Marcos; Fernando, Luiz; Sulemanji, Demet; Sprung, Juraj; Weingarten, Toby; Kor, Daryl; Scavonetto, Federica; Tze, Yeo

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUNDLimited information exists about the epidemiology and outcome of surgical patients at increased risk of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs), and how intraoperative ventilation was managed in these patients.OBJECTIVESTo determine the incidence of surgical patients at increased risk

  13. First-principles calculation of the polarization-dependent force driving the Eg mode in bismuth under optical excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Eamonn; Fahy, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Using first principles electronic structure methods, we calculate the induced force on the Eg (zone centre transverse optical) phonon mode in bismuth immediately after absorption of polarized light. When radiation with polarization perpendicular to the c-axis is absorbed in bismuth, the distribution of excited electrons and holes breaks the three-fold rotational symmetry and leads to a net force on the atoms in the direction perpendicular to the axis. We calculate the initial excited electronic distribution as a function of photon energy and polarization and find the resulting transverse and longitudinal forces experienced by the atoms. Using the measured, temperature-dependent rate of decay of the transverse force[2], we predict the approximate amplitude of induced atomic motion in the Eg mode as a function of temperature and optical fluence. This work is supported by Science Foundation Ireland and a Marie Curie International Incoming Fellowship.

  14. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of five pesticides used in rice farming on the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, Andreu; Sabater, Consuelo; Castillo, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    The toxicity of five pesticides typically used in rice farming (trichlorfon, dimethoate, carbendazim, tebuconazole and prochloraz) was evaluated on different lethal and sub-lethal endpoints of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The evaluated endpoints included: avoidance behaviour after an exposure

  15. Lethal Epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W

    2016-09-01

    Epistaxis or nosebleed refers to bleeding from the nostrils, nasal cavity, or nasopharynx. Occasional cases may present with torrential lethal hemorrhage. Three cases are reported to demonstrate particular features: Case 1: A 51-year-old woman with lethal epistaxis with no obvious bleeding source; Case 2: A 77-year-old man with treated nasopharyngeal carcinoma who died from epistaxis arising from a markedly neovascularized tumor bed; Case 3: A 2-year-old boy with hemophilia B who died from epistaxis with airway obstruction in addition to gastrointestinal bleeding. Epistaxis may be associated with trauma, tumors, vascular malformations, bleeding diatheses, infections, pregnancy, endometriosis, and a variety of different drugs. Careful dissection of the nasal cavity is required to locate the site of hemorrhage and to identify any predisposing conditions. This may be guided by postmortem computerized tomographic angiography (PCTA). Despite careful dissection, however, a source of bleeding may never be identified. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Factors of risk for relapse of pulmonary tuberculosis in-patient of the Hospital Santa Clara from Bogota 1992/2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo Martinez, Patricia; Awad Garcia, Carlos; Pavia Albor, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis relapse is defined as these patients that make recurrence of tuberculosis after complete an adequate treatment, and these patients are again diagnosed bacteriologically with tuberculosis. We tried to identify the risk factors for relapse among adults, through an analytical study of cases and controls, with eighty patients among the tuberculosis programmed of Santa Clara Hospital between 1992-2000 with relapse diagnosis which meet criterion of case and eighty patients which meet criterion of control. We did a bivariate analysis with confidence intervals and univariate calculation with logistic regression analysis to predict the development of relapse for the different variables. Diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, silicosis are associated with relapse, but in our study we found another factors which are joined to relapse and we suggest that if we find these factors among tuberculosis patients would indicate the chance of relapse and this would create the necessity of use a larger number of doses of antituberculosis medicaments

  17. A syndrome of severe idiopathic pulmonary parenchymal disease with pulmonary hypertension in Pekingese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Köster LS

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Liza S Köster,1 Robert M Kirberger2 1Section of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Integrative Mammalian Research (IMR Center, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine (RUSVM, Basseterre, St Kitts, West Indies; 2Diagnostic Imaging Section, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa Abstract: This paper describes 35 Pekingese dogs with a syndrome characterized by dyspnea, cyanosis, episodic syncope, soft pulmonary “Velcro” crackles, pulmonary hypertension (PH, and computed tomography and radiographic changes consistent with pulmonary parenchymal disease. The medical data base was searched with the criteria “Pekingese” and “syncope” or “dyspnea” or “tachypnea” or “pulmonary hypertension”, over a 36-month period. Inclusion criteria were echocardiographic changes consistent with noninvasive diagnosis of PH, either subjectively by B-mode or objectively by Doppler. Dogs were excluded (n=106 if there were insufficient or poor-quality radiographic or echocardiographic records or if diseases other than chronic pulmonary disease were found to be the etiology. The records of 35 dogs met these criteria and presented with a respiratory crises preceded by a history of chronic exercise intolerance and episodic syncope. The average age was 14.5 years (range: 7–19 years, with 21 males and 14 females. Most of the dogs had an interstitial lung pattern with radiographic evidence of right heart enlargement. There was a 77% (n=27 mortality and a median survival of 60 days (interquartile range: 9–210 days. This study highlights a cor pulmonale syndrome from PH due to chronic pulmonary parenchymal disease, with a grave prognosis, in middle-aged to geriatric population of Hong Kong Pekingese. Keywords: computed tomography, interstitial lung disease, dog, syncope

  18. Nasal Acai Polysaccharides Potentiate Innate Immunity to Protect against Pulmonary Francisella tularensis and Burkholderia pseudomallei Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Skyberg, Jerod A.; Rollins, MaryClare F.; Holderness, Jeff S.; Marlenee, Nicole L.; Schepetkin, Igor A.; Goodyear, Andrew; Dow, Steven W.; Jutila, Mark A.; Pascual, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary Francisella tularensis and Burkholderia pseudomallei infections are highly lethal in untreated patients, and current antibiotic regimens are not always effective. Activating the innate immune system provides an alternative means of treating infection and can also complement antibiotic therapies. Several natural agonists were screened for their ability to enhance host resistance to infection, and polysaccharides derived from the Acai berry (Acai PS) were found to have potent abilitie...

  19. Sildenafil attenuates pulmonary inflammation and fibrin deposition, mortality and right ventricular hypertrophy in neonatal hyperoxic lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boersma Hester

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibition with sildenafil has been used to treat severe pulmonary hypertension and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, a chronic lung disease in very preterm infants who were mechanically ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome. Methods Sildenafil treatment was investigated in 2 models of experimental BPD: a lethal neonatal model, in which rat pups were continuously exposed to hyperoxia and treated daily with sildenafil (50–150 mg/kg body weight/day; injected subcutaneously and a neonatal lung injury-recovery model in which rat pups were exposed to hyperoxia for 9 days, followed by 9 days of recovery in room air and started sildenafil treatment on day 6 of hyperoxia exposure. Parameters investigated include survival, histopathology, fibrin deposition, alveolar vascular leakage, right ventricular hypertrophy, and differential mRNA expression in lung and heart tissue. Results Prophylactic treatment with an optimal dose of sildenafil (2 × 50 mg/kg/day significantly increased lung cGMP levels, prolonged median survival, reduced fibrin deposition, total protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, inflammation and septum thickness. Treatment with sildenafil partially corrected the differential mRNA expression of amphiregulin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, fibroblast growth factor receptor-4 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 in the lung and of brain and c-type natriuretic peptides and the natriuretic peptide receptors NPR-A, -B, and -C in the right ventricle. In the lethal and injury-recovery model we demonstrated improved alveolarization and angiogenesis by attenuating mean linear intercept and arteriolar wall thickness and increasing pulmonary blood vessel density, and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH. Conclusion Sildenafil treatment, started simultaneously with exposure to hyperoxia after birth, prolongs survival, increases pulmonary cGMP levels, reduces the pulmonary

  20. Clinical Validity, Understandability, and Actionability of Online Cardiovascular Disease Risk Calculators: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Carissa; Fajardo, Michael Anthony; Hui, Samuel; Stubbs, Renee; Trevena, Lyndal

    2018-02-01

    Online health information is particularly important for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, where lifestyle changes are recommended until risk becomes high enough to warrant pharmacological intervention. Online information is abundant, but the quality is often poor and many people do not have adequate health literacy to access, understand, and use it effectively. This project aimed to review and evaluate the suitability of online CVD risk calculators for use by low health literate consumers in terms of clinical validity, understandability, and actionability. This systematic review of public websites from August to November 2016 used evaluation of clinical validity based on a high-risk patient profile and assessment of understandability and actionability using Patient Education Material Evaluation Tool for Print Materials. A total of 67 unique webpages and 73 unique CVD risk calculators were identified. The same high-risk patient profile produced widely variable CVD risk estimates, ranging from as little as 3% to as high as a 43% risk of a CVD event over the next 10 years. One-quarter (25%) of risk calculators did not specify what model these estimates were based on. The most common clinical model was Framingham (44%), and most calculators (77%) provided a 10-year CVD risk estimate. The calculators scored moderately on understandability (mean score 64%) and poorly on actionability (mean score 19%). The absolute percentage risk was stated in most (but not all) calculators (79%), and only 18% included graphical formats consistent with recommended risk communication guidelines. There is a plethora of online CVD risk calculators available, but they are not readily understandable and their actionability is poor. Entering the same clinical information produces widely varying results with little explanation. Developers need to address actionability as well as clinical validity and understandability to improve usefulness to consumers with low health literacy.

  1. Toxicity of binary mixtures of metals and pyrethroid insecticides to Daphnia magna Straus. Implications for multi-substance risks assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barata, Carlos [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Universitat Poltiecnica de Catalunya, CN 150 Km 14.5, Terrassa 08220 (Spain)]. E-mail: barata@intexter.upc.edu; Baird, D.J. [National Water Research Institute (Environment Canada) at Canadian Rivers Institute, 10 Bailey Drive, PO Box 45111, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton E3B 6E1, New Brunswick (Canada); Nogueira, A.J.A. [Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Soares, A.M.V.M. [Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Riva, M.C. [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Universitat Poltiecnica de Catalunya, CN 150 Km 14.5, Terrassa 08220 (Spain)

    2006-06-10

    Two different concepts, termed concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA), describe general relationships between the effects of single substances and their corresponding mixtures allowing calculation of an expected mixture toxicity on the basis of known toxicities of the mixture components. Both concepts are limited to cases in which all substances in a mixture influence the same experimental endpoint, and are usually tested against a 'fixed ratio design' where the mixture ratio is kept constant throughout the studies and the overall concentration of the mixture is systematically varied. With this design, interaction among toxic components across different mixture ratios and endpoints (i.e. lethal versus sublethal) is not assessed. In this study lethal and sublethal (feeding) responses of Daphnia magna individuals to single and binary combinations of similarly and dissimilarly acting chemicals including the metals (cadmium, copper) and the pyrethroid insecticides ({lambda}-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin) were assayed using a composite experimental design to test for interactions among toxic components across mixture effect levels, mixture ratios, lethal and sublethal toxic effects. To account for inter-experiment response variability, in each binary mixture toxicity assay the toxicity of the individual mixture constituents was also assessed. Model adequacy was then evaluated comparing the slopes and elevations of predicted versus observed mixture toxicity curves with those estimated for the individual components. Model predictive abilities changed across endpoints. The IA concept was able to predict accurately mixture toxicities of dissimilarly acting chemicals for lethal responses, whereas the CA concept did so in three out of four pairings for feeding response, irrespective of the chemical mode of action. Interaction effects across mixture effect levels, evidenced by crossing slopes, were only observed for the binary mixture Cd and Cu for

  2. Toxicity of binary mixtures of metals and pyrethroid insecticides to Daphnia magna Straus. Implications for multi-substance risks assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barata, Carlos; Baird, D.J.; Nogueira, A.J.A.; Soares, A.M.V.M.; Riva, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Two different concepts, termed concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA), describe general relationships between the effects of single substances and their corresponding mixtures allowing calculation of an expected mixture toxicity on the basis of known toxicities of the mixture components. Both concepts are limited to cases in which all substances in a mixture influence the same experimental endpoint, and are usually tested against a 'fixed ratio design' where the mixture ratio is kept constant throughout the studies and the overall concentration of the mixture is systematically varied. With this design, interaction among toxic components across different mixture ratios and endpoints (i.e. lethal versus sublethal) is not assessed. In this study lethal and sublethal (feeding) responses of Daphnia magna individuals to single and binary combinations of similarly and dissimilarly acting chemicals including the metals (cadmium, copper) and the pyrethroid insecticides (λ-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin) were assayed using a composite experimental design to test for interactions among toxic components across mixture effect levels, mixture ratios, lethal and sublethal toxic effects. To account for inter-experiment response variability, in each binary mixture toxicity assay the toxicity of the individual mixture constituents was also assessed. Model adequacy was then evaluated comparing the slopes and elevations of predicted versus observed mixture toxicity curves with those estimated for the individual components. Model predictive abilities changed across endpoints. The IA concept was able to predict accurately mixture toxicities of dissimilarly acting chemicals for lethal responses, whereas the CA concept did so in three out of four pairings for feeding response, irrespective of the chemical mode of action. Interaction effects across mixture effect levels, evidenced by crossing slopes, were only observed for the binary mixture Cd and Cu for lethal effects

  3. Antibacterial Activity and Mode of Action of Mentha arvensis Ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial Activity and Mode of Action of Mentha arvensis Ethanol Extract against ... the antibacterial effect of ethanol extract of Mentha arvensis against multi-drug ... Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and protein leakage from the ... A. baumannii and acts by inducing lethal cellular damage to the bacterium.

  4. Psychosocial influences on prisoner suicide: a case-control study of near-lethal self-harm in women prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Lisa; Hawton, Keith; Rivlin, Adrienne; Fazel, Seena

    2011-03-01

    We examined the psychosocial influences on female prisoner suicide by carrying out a study of near-lethal self-harm. We interviewed 60 women prisoners who had recently engaged in near-lethal self-harm (cases) and 60 others who had never carried out near-lethal acts in prison (controls) from all closed female prison establishments in England and Wales, using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. We gathered information on socio-demographic and criminological variables, life events and childhood trauma, exposure to suicidal behaviour, contributory and precipitating factors for near-lethal self-harm, social support and psychological characteristics. While socio-demographic factors were only modestly associated with near-lethal self-harm, being on remand, in single cell accommodation, and reporting negative experiences of imprisonment were strong correlates. Recent life events and past trauma, including different forms of childhood abuse, were also significantly associated with near-lethal self-harm, as were a family history of suicide and high scores on measures of depression, aggression, impulsivity and hostility, and low levels of self-esteem and social support. Our findings underline the importance of both individual and prison-related factors for suicide in custody, and hence the need for a comprehensive approach to suicide prevention in women's prisons. Given the multiple needs of female prisoners at-risk of self-harm and suicide, complex psychosocial interventions are likely to be required, including interventions for abused and bereaved women, and initiatives to improve staff-prisoner relationships and reduce bullying. The findings of this research may provide insights into factors leading to suicidal behaviour in other forensic and institutional settings, such as detention centres and psychiatric hospitals, and may assist in developing suicide prevention policies for prisoners and other at-risk populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  5. Pulmonary hypertension associated with thalassemia syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraidenburg, Dustin R.; Machado, Roberto F.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hemolytic anemia has increasingly been identified as an important risk factor for the development of pulmonary hypertension. Within the thalassemia syndromes, there are multiple mechanisms, both distinct and overlapping, by which pulmonary hypertension develops and that differ among β-thalassemia major or intermedia patients. Pulmonary hypertension in β-thalassemia major correlates with the severity of hemolysis, yet in patients whose disease is well treated with chronic transfusion therapy, the development of pulmonary hypertension can be related to cardiac dysfunction and the subsequent toxic effects of iron overload rather than hemolysis. β-thalassemia intermedia, on the other hand, has a higher incidence of pulmonary hypertension owing to the low level of hemolysis that exists over years without the requirement for frequent transfusions, while splenectomy is shown to play an important role in both types. Standard therapies such as chronic transfusion have been shown to mitigate pulmonary hypertension, and appropriate chelation therapy can avoid the toxic effects of iron overload, yet is not indicated in many patients. Limited evidence exists for the use of pulmonary vasodilators or other therapies, such as l-carnitine, to treat pulmonary hypertension associated with thalassemia. Here we review the most recent findings regarding the pathogenic mechanisms, epidemiology, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of pulmonary hypertension in thalassemia syndromes. PMID:27008311

  6. Air pollution as a risk factor in health impact assessments of a travel mode shift towards cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Wasif; Forsberg, Bertil; Johansson, Christer; Sommar, Johan Nilsson

    2018-01-01

    Promotion of active commuting provides substantial health and environmental benefits by influencing air pollution, physical activity, accidents, and noise. However, studies evaluating intervention and policies on a mode shift from motorized transport to cycling have estimated health impacts with varying validity and precision. To review and discuss the estimation of air pollution exposure and its impacts in health impact assessment studies of a shift in transport from cars to bicycles in order to guide future assessments. A systematic database search of PubMed was done primarily for articles published from January 2000 to May 2016 according to PRISMA guidelines. We identified 18 studies of health impact assessment of change in transport mode. Most studies investigated future hypothetical scenarios of increased cycling. The impact on the general population was estimated using a comparative risk assessment approach in the majority of these studies, whereas some used previously published cost estimates. Air pollution exposure during cycling was estimated based on the ventilation rate, the pollutant concentration, and the trip duration. Most studies employed exposure-response functions from studies comparing background levels of fine particles between cities to estimate the health impacts of local traffic emissions. The effect of air pollution associated with increased cycling contributed small health benefits for the general population, and also only slightly increased risks associated with fine particle exposure among those who shifted to cycling. However, studies calculating health impacts based on exposure-response functions for ozone, black carbon or nitrogen oxides found larger effects attributed to changes in air pollution exposure. A large discrepancy between studies was observed due to different health impact assessment approaches, different assumptions for calculation of inhaled dose and different selection of dose-response functions. This kind of assessments

  7. Air pollution as a risk factor in health impact assessments of a travel mode shift towards cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Wasif; Forsberg, Bertil; Johansson, Christer; Sommar, Johan Nilsson

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Promotion of active commuting provides substantial health and environmental benefits by influencing air pollution, physical activity, accidents, and noise. However, studies evaluating intervention and policies on a mode shift from motorized transport to cycling have estimated health impacts with varying validity and precision. Objective: To review and discuss the estimation of air pollution exposure and its impacts in health impact assessment studies of a shift in transport from cars to bicycles in order to guide future assessments. Methods: A systematic database search of PubMed was done primarily for articles published from January 2000 to May 2016 according to PRISMA guidelines. Results: We identified 18 studies of health impact assessment of change in transport mode. Most studies investigated future hypothetical scenarios of increased cycling. The impact on the general population was estimated using a comparative risk assessment approach in the majority of these studies, whereas some used previously published cost estimates. Air pollution exposure during cycling was estimated based on the ventilation rate, the pollutant concentration, and the trip duration. Most studies employed exposure-response functions from studies comparing background levels of fine particles between cities to estimate the health impacts of local traffic emissions. The effect of air pollution associated with increased cycling contributed small health benefits for the general population, and also only slightly increased risks associated with fine particle exposure among those who shifted to cycling. However, studies calculating health impacts based on exposure-response functions for ozone, black carbon or nitrogen oxides found larger effects attributed to changes in air pollution exposure. Conclusion: A large discrepancy between studies was observed due to different health impact assessment approaches, different assumptions for calculation of inhaled dose and different

  8. Strong lethality and teratogenicity of strobilurins on Xenopus tropicalis embryos: Basing on ten agricultural fungicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dan; Liu, Mengyun; Yang, Yongsheng; Shi, Huahong; Zhou, Junliang; He, Defu

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural chemical inputs have been considered as a risk factor for the global declines in amphibian populations, yet the application of agricultural fungicides has increased dramatically in recent years. Currently little is known about the potential toxicity of fungicides on the embryos of amphibians. We studied the effects of ten commonly used fungicides (four strobilurins, two SDHIs, two triazoles, fludioxonil and folpet) on Xenopus tropicalis embryos. Lethal and teratogenic effects were respectively examined after 48 h exposure. The median lethal concentrations (LC50s) and the median teratogenic concentrations (TC50s) were determined in line with actual exposure concentrations. These fungicides except two triazoles showed obvious lethal effects on embryos; however LC50s of four strobilurins were the lowest and in the range of 6.81–196.59 μg/L. Strobilurins, SDHIs and fludioxonil induced severe malformations in embryos. Among the ten fungicides, the lowest TC50s were observed for four strobilurins in the range of 0.61–84.13 μg/L. The teratogenicity shared similar dose–effect relationship and consistent phenotypes mainly including microcephaly, hypopigmentation, somite segmentation and narrow fins. The findings indicate that the developmental toxicity of currently-used fungicides involved with ecologic risks on amphibians. Especially strobilurins are highly toxic to amphibian embryos at μg/L level, which is close to environmentally relevant concentrations. - Highlights: • Effects of ten agricultural fungicides were tested on Xenopus tropicalis embryos. • Strobilurin fungicides showed strong lethal and teratogenic effects on embryos. • Lowest LC50 and TC50 were observed for strobilurins in ten fungicides. • μg/L level of toxic concentrations for strobilurins was environmentally relevant. • Teratogenicity shared similar dose–effect relationship and main phenotypes. - Strobilurins induced strong lethality and teratogenicity on Xenopus

  9. Novel biomarkers for risk stratification in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Zelniker

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Risk stratification in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is paramount to identifying individuals at highest risk of death. So far, there are only limited parameters for prognostication in patients with PAH. 95 patients with confirmed PAH were included in the present analysis and followed for a total of 4 years. Blood samples were analysed for serum levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT, pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (proANP, growth differentiation factor 15, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and placental growth factor. 27 (28.4% patients died during a follow-up of 4 years. Levels of all tested biomarkers, except for placental growth factor, were significantly elevated in nonsurvivors compared with survivors. Receiver operating characteristic analyses demonstrated that cardiac biomarkers had the highest power in predicting mortality. In particular, proANP exhibited the highest area under the curve, followed by N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and hsTnT. Furthermore, proANP and hsTnT added significant additive prognostic value to the established markers in categorical and continuous net reclassification index. Moreover, after Cox regression, proANP (hazard ratio (HR 1.91, hsTnT (HR 1.41, echocardiographic right ventricular impairment (HR 1.30 and 6-min walk test (HR 0.97 per 10 m remained the only significant parameters in prognostication of mortality. Our data suggest benefits of the implementation of proANP and hsTnT as additive biomarkers for risk stratification in patients with PAH.

  10. Mode-to-mode energy transfers in convective patterns

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We investigate the energy transfer between various Fourier modes in a low- dimensional model for thermal convection. We have used the formalism of mode-to-mode energy transfer rate in our calculation. The evolution equations derived using this scheme is the same as those derived using the hydrodynamical ...

  11. Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis-mimicking Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Han; Kim, Mi Young; Hong, Sun In; Jung, Jiwon; Lee, Hyun Joo; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Oh; Choi, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun Hee

    2015-07-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis is occasionally confused with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in transplant recipients, since clinical suspicion and early diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and IPA rely heavily on imaging modes such as computed tomography (CT). We therefore investigated IPA-mimicking tuberculosis in transplant recipients. All adult transplant recipients who developed tuberculosis or IPA at a tertiary hospital in an intermediate tuberculosis-burden country during a 6-year period were enrolled. First, we tested whether experienced radiologists could differentiate pulmonary tuberculosis from IPA. Second, we determined which radiologic findings could help us differentiate them. During the study period, 28 transplant recipients developed pulmonary tuberculosis after transplantation, and 80 patients developed IPA after transplantation. Two experienced radiologists scored blindly 28 tuberculosis and 50 randomly selected IPA cases. The sensitivities of radiologists A and B for IPA were 78% and 68%, respectively (poor agreement, kappa value = 0.25). The sensitivities of radiologists A and B for tuberculosis were 64% and 61%, respectively (excellent agreement, kappa value = 0.77). We then compared the CT findings of the 28 patients with tuberculosis and 80 patients with IPA. Infarct-shaped consolidations and smooth bronchial wall thickening were more frequent in IPA, and mass-shaped consolidations and centrilobular nodules (tuberculosis. Certain CT findings appear to be helpful in differentiating between IPA and tuberculosis. Nevertheless, the CT findings of about one-third of pulmonary tuberculosis cases in transplant recipients are very close to those of IPA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Lethal congenital contracture syndrome (LCCS) and other lethal arthrogryposes in Finland--an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakkasjärvi, Niklas; Ritvanen, Annukka; Herva, Riitta; Peltonen, Leena; Kestilä, Marjo; Ignatius, Jaakko

    2006-09-01

    Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by multiple contractures with an estimated frequency of 1 in 3,000 births. With improving diagnostic methods, increasing numbers of fetuses with arthrogryposis are found. The pathogenetic mechanisms are relatively well known but the epidemiology and genetics of the prenatally lethal forms of arthrogryposis are less well known. In this study we collected all cases of a multiple contractures diagnosed in Finland during 1987-2002 including live born infants, stillbirths, and terminated pregnancies. Ninety-two cases of 214 suffered intrauterine demise (68 selective pregnancy terminations and 24 stillbirths) and 58 died in infancy. In 141 out of these cases the diagnosis could be included within lethal arthrogryposes, with a prevalence of 1 in 6,985 (1.43/10,000) births. Of these, 59 had spinal cord pathology at autopsy and thus were of neurogenic origin. Thirty-nine cases had lethal congenital contracture syndrome (LCCS) clinically characterized by total immobility of the fetus at all ultrasound examinations (12 weeks or later), multiple joint contractures in both upper and lower limbs, hydrops, and fetal death before the 32nd week of pregnancy. LCCS is noted as a unique Finnish disorder with a prevalence of 1 in 25,250 (0.40/10,000) births and is a major cause of lethal arthrogryposis in Finland.

  13. Risk factors for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism after traumatic injury: A competing risks analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gent, Jan-Michael; Calvo, Richard Yee; Zander, Ashley L; Olson, Erik J; Sise, C Beth; Sise, Michael J; Shackford, Steven R

    2017-12-01

    Venous thromboembolism, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is typically reported as a composite measure of the quality of trauma center care. Given that recent data suggesting postinjury DVT and PE are distinct clinical processes, a better understanding may result from analyzing them as independent, competing events. Using competing risks analysis, we evaluated our hypothesis that the risk factors and timing of postinjury DVT and PE are different. We examined all adult trauma patients admitted to our Level I trauma center from July 2006 to December 2011 who received at least one surveillance duplex ultrasound of the lower extremities and who were at high risk or greater for DVT. Outcomes included DVT and PE events, and time-to-event from admission. We used competing risks analysis to evaluate risk factors for DVT while accounting for PE as a competing event, and vice versa. Of 2,370 patients, 265 (11.2%) had at least one venous thromboembolism event, 235 DVT only, 19 PE only, 11 DVT and PE. Within 2 days of admission, 38% of DVT cases had occurred compared with 26% of PE. Competing risks modeling of DVT as primary event identified older age, severe injury (Injury Severity Score, ≥ 15), mechanical ventilation longer than 4 days, active cancer, history of DVT or PE, major venous repair, male sex, and prophylactic enoxaparin and prophylactic heparin as associated risk factors. Modeling of PE as the primary event showed younger age, nonsevere injury (Injury Severity Score, risk factors for PE and DVT after injury were different, suggesting that they are clinically distinct events that merit independent consideration. Many DVT events occurred early despite prophylaxis, bringing into question the preventability of postinjury DVT. We recommend trauma center quality reporting program measures be revised to account for DVT and PE as unique events. Epidemiologic, level III.

  14. Pulmonary embolism; Lungenarterienembolie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudarski, Sonja; Henzler, Thomas [Heidelberg Univ., Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin

    2016-09-15

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) requires a quick diagnostic algorithm, as the untreated disease has a high mortality and morbidity. Crucial for the diagnostic assessment chosen is the initial clinical likelihood of PE and the individual risk profile of the patient. The overall goal is to diagnose or rule out PE as quickly and safely as possible or to initiate timely treatment if necessary. CT angiography of the pulmonary arteries (CTPA) with multi-slice CT scanner systems presents the actual diagnostic reference standard. With CTPA further important diagnoses can be made, like presence of right ventricular dysfunction. There are different scan and contrast application protocols that can be applied in order to gain diagnostic examinations with sufficient contrast material enhancement in the pulmonary arteries while avoiding all kinds of artifacts. This review article is meant to be a practical guide to examine patients with suspected PE according to the actual guidelines.

  15. Classification and calculation of primary failure modes in bread production line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsarouhas, Panagiotis H.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we describe the classification methodology over a 2-year period of the primary failure modes in categories based on failure data of bread production line. We estimate the probabilities of these categories applying the chi-square goodness of fit test, and we calculate their joint probabilities of mass function at workstation and line level. Then, we present numerical examples in order to predict the causes and frequencies of breakdowns for workstations and for the entire bread production line that will occur in the future. The methodology is meant to guide bread and bakery product manufacturers, improving the operation of the production lines. It can also be a useful tool to maintenance engineers, who wish to analyze and improve the reliability and efficiency of the manufacturing systems

  16. Low-Mode Conformational Search Method with Semiempirical Quantum Mechanical Calculations: Application to Enantioselective Organocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamachi, Takashi; Yoshizawa, Kazunari

    2016-02-22

    A conformational search program for finding low-energy conformations of large noncovalent complexes has been developed. A quantitatively reliable semiempirical quantum mechanical PM6-DH+ method, which is able to accurately describe noncovalent interactions at a low computational cost, was employed in contrast to conventional conformational search programs in which molecular mechanical methods are usually adopted. Our approach is based on the low-mode method whereby an initial structure is perturbed along one of its low-mode eigenvectors to generate new conformations. This method was applied to determine the most stable conformation of transition state for enantioselective alkylation by the Maruoka and cinchona alkaloid catalysts and Hantzsch ester hydrogenation of imines by chiral phosphoric acid. Besides successfully reproducing the previously reported most stable DFT conformations, the conformational search with the semiempirical quantum mechanical calculations newly discovered a more stable conformation at a low computational cost.

  17. Pulmonary function after segmentectomy for small peripheral carcinoma of the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, T; Haga, M; Yagi, N; Terashima, M; Uehara, H; Yokoyama, A; Kurita, Y

    1999-09-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the pulmonary function after a segmentectomy with that after a lobectomy for small peripheral carcinoma of the lung. Between 1993 and 1996, segmentectomy and lobectomy were performed on 48 and 133 good-risk patients, respectively. Lymph node metastases were detected after the operation in 6 and 24 patients of the segmentectomy and lobectomy groups, respectively. For bias reduction in comparison with a nonrandomized control group, we paired 40 segmentectomy patients with 40 lobectomy patients using nearest available matching method on the estimated propensity score. Twelve months after the operation, the segmentectomy and lobectomy groups had forced vital capacities of 2.67 +/- 0.73 L (mean +/- standard deviation) and 2.57 +/- 0.59 L, which were calculated to be 94.9% +/- 10.6% and 91.0% +/- 13.2% of the preoperative values (P =.14), respectively. The segmentectomy and lobectomy groups had postoperative 1-second forced expiratory volumes of 1.99 +/- 0.63 L and 1.95 +/- 0.49 L, which were calculated to be 93.3% +/- 10.3% and 87.3% +/- 14.0% of the preoperative values, respectively (P =.03). The multiple linear regression analysis showed that the alternative of segmentectomy or lobectomy was not a determinant for postoperative forced vital capacity but did affect postoperative 1-second forced expiratory volume. Pulmonary function after a segmentectomy for a good-risk patient is slightly better than that after a lobectomy. However, segmentectomy should be still the surgical procedure for only poor-risk patients because of the difficulty in excluding patients with metastatic lymph nodes from the candidates for the procedure.

  18. Risk of acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia after pulmonary resection for lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis based on preoperative high-resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hidemi; Sekine, Yasuo; Yoshida, Shigetoshi

    2011-01-01

    In patients with lung cancer accompanied by idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), acute exacerbation of the IPF often occurs after pulmonary resection; however, few studies have been done to identify its preexisting risk factors. We analyzed the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of IPF to identify the radiological characteristics of IPF susceptible to acute exacerbation after lung cancer surgery. We reviewed retrospectively 28 lung cancer patients with IPF who underwent pulmonary resection. Clinical data, respiratory function, HRCT findings, and historical features were compared between the acute exacerbation (n=9) and nonexacerbation (n=19) groups. The classification of radiological findings of IPF on HRCT was done using a scoring system of seven factors related to the interstitial shadow, including fibrosis, ground-glass opacity, and low-attenuation area. There were no significant differences in clinical background, respiratory function, composite physiologic index, or pathological features between the groups; however, the degree of fibrosis on preoperative HRCT was significantly higher in the exacerbation group (P<0.003). The fibrosis score was higher on the opposite side to the lung cancer in the exacerbation group (P<0.05). Although it is difficult to predict postoperative acute IPF exacerbation, the degree and laterality of co-existing fibrosis seem to be predictors. (author)

  19. Influence of sex on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease risk and treatment outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryal S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Shambhu Aryal,1 Enrique Diaz-Guzman,2 David M Mannino3 1Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, 2Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, 3Department of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, one of the most common chronic diseases and a leading cause of death, has historically been considered a disease of men. However, there has been a rapid increase in the prevalence, morbidity, and mortality of COPD in women over the last two decades. This has largely been attributed to historical increases in tobacco consumption among women. But the influence of sex on COPD is complex and involves several other factors, including differential susceptibility to the effects of tobacco, anatomic, hormonal, and behavioral differences, and differential response to therapy. Interestingly, nonsmokers with COPD are more likely to be women. In addition, women with COPD are more likely to have a chronic bronchitis phenotype, suffer from less cardiovascular comorbidity, have more concomitant depression and osteoporosis, and have a better outcome with acute exacerbations. Women historically have had lower mortality with COPD, but this is changing as well. There are also differences in how men and women respond to different therapies. Despite the changing face of COPD, care providers continue to harbor a sex bias, leading to underdiagnosis and delayed diagnosis of COPD in women. In this review, we present the current knowledge on the influence of sex on COPD risk factors, epidemiology, diagnosis, comorbidities, treatment, and outcomes, and how this knowledge may be applied to improve clinical practices and advance research. Keywords: chronic obstructive lung disease, sex, smoking, comorbidity, sex bias

  20. Optimal Monochromatic Energy Levels in Spectral CT Pulmonary Angiography for the Evaluation of Pulmonary Embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huawei; Zhang, Qing; Hua, Jia; Hua, Xiaolan; Xu, Jianrong

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the optimal monochromatic spectral CT pulmonary angiography (sCTPA) levels to obtain the highest image quality and diagnostic confidence for pulmonary embolism detection. Methods The Institutional Review Board of the Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine approved this study, and written informed consent was obtained from all participating patients. Seventy-two patients with pulmonary embolism were scanned with spectral CT mode in the arterial phase. One hundred and one sets of virtual monochromatic spectral (VMS) images were generated ranging from 40 keV to 140 keV. Image noise, clot diameter and clot to artery contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) from seven sets of VMS images at selected monochromatic levels in sCTPA were measured and compared. Subjective image quality and diagnostic confidence for these images were also assessed and compared. Data were analyzed by paired t test and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results The lowest noise and the highest image quality score for the VMS images were obtained at 65 keV. The VMS images at 65 keV also had the second highest CNR value behind that of 50 keV VMS images. There was no difference in the mean noise and CNR between the 65 keV and 70 keV VMS images. The apparent clot diameter correlated with the keV levels. Conclusions The optimal energy level for detecting pulmonary embolism using dual-energy spectral CT pulmonary angiography was 65–70 keV. Virtual monochromatic spectral images at approximately 65–70 keV yielded the lowest image noise, high CNR and highest diagnostic confidence for the detection of pulmonary embolism. PMID:23667583

  1. CPU time reduction strategies for the Lambda modes calculation of a nuclear power reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, V.; Garayoa, J.; Hernandez, V. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Sistemas Informaticos y Computacion; Navarro, J.; Verdu, G.; Munoz-Cobo, J.L. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear; Ginestar, D. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Matematica Aplicada

    1997-12-01

    In this paper, we present two strategies to reduce the CPU time spent in the lambda modes calculation for a realistic nuclear power reactor.The discretization of the multigroup neutron diffusion equation has been made using a nodal collocation method, solving the associated eigenvalue problem with two different techniques: the Subspace Iteration Method and Arnoldi`s Method. CPU time reduction is based on a coarse grain parallelization approach together with a multistep algorithm to initialize adequately the solution. (author). 9 refs., 6 tabs.

  2. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and variation in risk factors across four geographically diverse resource-limited settings in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganath, Devan; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; Wise, Robert A; Diette, Gregory B; Miele, Catherine H; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Checkley, William

    2015-03-18

    It is unclear how geographic and social diversity affects the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We sought to characterize the prevalence of COPD and identify risk factors across four settings in Peru with varying degrees of urbanization, altitude, and biomass fuel use. We collected sociodemographics, clinical history, and post-bronchodilator spirometry in a randomly selected, age-, sex- and site-stratified, population-based sample of 2,957 adults aged ≥35 years (median age was 54.8 years and 49.3% were men) from four resource-poor settings: Lima, Tumbes, urban and rural Puno. We defined COPD as a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC Peru was not uniform and, unlike other settings, was not predominantly explained by tobacco smoking. This study emphasizes the role of biomass fuel use, and highlights pulmonary tuberculosis as an often neglected risk factor in endemic areas.

  3. Pulmonary arterial hypertension: tailoring treatment to risk in the current era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Gaine

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH have led to improved patient outcomes. Multiple PAH therapies are now available and optimising the use of these drugs in clinical practice is vital. In this review, we discuss the management of PAH patients in the context of current treatment guidelines and supporting clinical evidence. In clinical practice, considerable emphasis is placed on the importance of making treatment decisions guided by each patient's risk status, which should be assessed using multiple prognostic parameters. As PAH is a progressive disease, regular assessments are essential to ensure that any change in risk is detected in a timely manner and treatment is adjusted accordingly. With the availability of therapies that target three different pathogenic pathways, combination therapy is now the standard of care. For most patients, this involves dual combination therapy with agents targeting the endothelin and nitric oxide pathways. Therapies targeting the prostacyclin pathway should be added for patients receiving dual combination therapy who do not achieve a low-risk status. There is also a need for a holistic approach to treatment beyond pharmacological therapies. Implementation of all these approaches will ensure that PAH patients receive maximal benefit from currently available therapies.

  4. Risk factors for the discontinuation of roflumilast in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim KH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Kyung Hoon Kim,1 Hye Seon Kang,2 Ju Sang Kim,3 Hyoung Kyu Yoon,4 Sung Kyoung Kim,5 Chin Kook Rhee1 1Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 2Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Bucheon St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, 3Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Incheon St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Incheon, 4Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yeouido St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 5Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, St Vincent’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, Republic of Korea Introduction: Roflumilast is a phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor, which can decrease exacerbation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, adverse effects are a major barrier to medication use, and little is known regarding the risk factors for discontinuation of roflumilast in COPD patients.Method: A search of the clinical databases identified all patients who were prescribed roflumilast between December 2012 and April 2015 in the four hospitals of The Catholic University of Korea, Korea. The study subjects were limited to patients who had taken 500 µg of roflumilast. We studied the factors associated with drug discontinuation and drug adverse events by univariate and multivariate analyses.Results: Among 154 eligible patients, 54 (35.1% discontinued their roflumilast prescription. Most patients were elderly, male, current or former smokers, and had moderate-to-severe airflow limitation. Low–body mass index (BMI patients were more likely to undergo drug

  5. Variable Resistance to Plasminogen Activator Initiated Fibrinolysis for Intermediate-Risk Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, William B; Alves, Nathan J; Rondina, Matthew T; Kline, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    We examine the clinical significance and biomarkers of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-catalyzed clot lysis time (CLT) in patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism (PE). Platelet-poor, citrated plasma was obtained from patients with PE. Healthy age- and sex-matched patients served as disease-negative controls. Fibrinogen, α2-antiplasmin, plasminogen, thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), plasminogen activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), thrombin time and D-dimer were quantified. Clotting was induced using CaCl2, tissue factor, and phospholipid. Lysis was induced using 60 ng/mL tPA. Time to 50% clot lysis (CLT) was assessed by both thromboelastography (TEG) and turbidimetry (A405). Compared with disease-negative controls, patients with PE exhibited significantly longer mean CLT on TEG (+2,580 seconds, 95% CI 1,380 to 3,720 sec). Patients with PE and a short CLT who were treated with tenecteplase had increased risk of bleeding, whereas those with long CLT had significantly worse exercise tolerance and psychometric testing for quality of life at 3 months. A multivariate stepwise removal regression model selected PAI-1 and TAFI as predictive biomarkers of CLT. The CLT from TEG predicted increased risk of bleeding and clinical failure with tenecteplase treatment for intermediate-risk PE. Plasmatic PAI-1 and TAFI were independent predictors of CLT.

  6. Association between regulator of telomere elongation helicase1 (RTEL1) gene and HAPE risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Hao; He, Xue; Zhu, Linhao; Zhu, Xikai; Kang, Longli; Wang, Li; He, Yongjun; Yuan, Dongya; Jin, Tianbo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a paradigm of pulmonary edema. Mutations in regulator of telomere elongation helicase1 (RTEL1) represent an important contributor to risk for pulmonary fibrosis. However, little information is found about the association between RTEL1 and HAPE risk. The present study was undertaken to tentatively explore the potential relation between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in RTEL1 and HAPE risk in Chinese Han population. A total of 265 HAPE patients and 303 healthy controls were included in our case-control study. Four SNPs in RTEL1 were selected and genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY method. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated by unconditional logistic regression with adjustment for gender and age. All P values were Bonferroni corrected, and statistical significance was set at P RTEL1 and a decreased risk HAPE in the Chinese population. The results need further confirmation. PMID:28953687

  7. Association between cigarette smoking and pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, S.M.; Ershadian, S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the association between cigarette smoking and pulmonary tuberculosis. Methodology: In this retrospective study which was carried out in Razi hospital, in Ahvaz a city southwest Iran, medical charts of patients with tuberculosis between 2005 and 2007 were reviewed. Sixty one patients aged 15-96 years with documented pulmonary tuberculosis (smear positive) were selected as cases and 122 age and sex matched persons without tuberculosis(patients hospitalized in surgery and orthopedic wards) were selected randomly as controls. Data on smoking status, quantity of cigarette smoked, and duration of smoking was collected from medical charts. The data in the two groups were statistically compared with SPSS version 16. The chi square test was used to compare the frequency of cigarette smoking in two groups. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals were calculated when appropriate. Differences with a P value of <0.05 were considered significant. Results: Of total 61 case, 42 (68.9%) were smoker, while, of total 122 controls 22(18%) were smoker. The estimated odds ratio (OR) of the relation between smoking and tuberculosis was 10.1 [(95% confidence interval (CI) 4.3 to 23.5), P<0.001]. The mean of pocket - year of smoked cigarette (20/pocket) in cases and controls were 15.9 +- 13.7 and 13.5 +- 9.1, respectively (P=0.5). Conclusion: This study showed that pulmonary tuberculosis is associated to cigarette smoking. The association is not dose-dependent. Smoking may be a risk factor for TB acquisition. (author)

  8. Failure mode and effects analysis applied to the administration of liquid medication by oral syringes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva María Guerra-Alia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To carry out a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA to the use of oral syringes. Methods: A multidisciplinary team was assembled within the Safety Committee. The stages of oral administration process of liquid medication were analysed, identifying the most critical and establishing the potential modes of failure that can cause errors. The impact associated with each mode of failure was calculated using the Risk Priority Number (RPN. Preventive actions were proposed. Results: Five failure modes were identified, all classified as high risk (RPN> 100. Seven of the eight preventive actions were implemented. Conclusions: The FMEA methodology was a useful tool. It has allowed to know the risks, analyse the causes that cause them, their effects on patient safety and the measures to reduce them

  9. Drug-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension: a recent outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald Simonneau

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a rare disorder characterised by progressive obliteration of the pulmonary microvasculature resulting in elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and premature death. According to the current classification PAH can be associated with exposure to certain drugs or toxins, particularly to appetite suppressant intake drugs, such as aminorex, fenfluramine derivatives and benfluorex. These drugs have been confirmed to be risk factors for PAH and were withdrawn from the market. The supposed mechanism is an increase in serotonin levels, which was demonstrated to act as a growth factor for the pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Amphetamines, phentermine and mazindol were less frequently used, but are considered possible risk factors, for PAH. Dasatinib, dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor, used in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukaemia was associated with cases of severe PAH, potentially in part reversible after dasatinib withdrawal. Recently, several studies have raised the issue of potential endothelial dysfunction that could be induced by interferon, and a few cases of PAH have been reported with interferon therapy. PAH remains a rare complication of these drugs, suggesting possible individual susceptibility, and further studies are needed to identify patients at risk of drug-induced PAH.

  10. An Official American Thoracic Society Public Policy Statement : Novel Risk Factors and the Global Burden of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisner, Mark D.; Anthonisen, Nicholas; Coultas, David; Kuenzli, Nino; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Postma, Dirkje; Romieu, Isabelle; Silverman, Edwin K.; Balmes, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Although cigarette smoking is the most important cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a substantial proportion of COPD cases cannot be explained by smoking alone. Objectives: To evaluate the risk factors for COPD besides personal cigarette smoking. Methods: We

  11. Excluding deep vein thrombosis in primary care: validation, updating, and implementation of a diagnostic rule.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toll, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    In primary care patients suspected of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), it is a challenge to discriminate the patients with DVT from those without DVT. The risk of missing the diagnosis (which may result in a potentially lethal pulmonary embolism) and the risk of unnecessary referral and treatment with a

  12. Risk Factors and Clinical Outcomes in Preterm Infants with Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Collaco

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension (PH is a significant cause of morbidity in preterm infants, but no screening guidelines exist. We sought to identify risk factors and clinical outcomes associated with PH in preterm infants to develop a PH risk score.Retrospective analysis of two separate populations of preterm infants (NICU cohort n = 230; Clinic registry n = 580.8.3% of the NICU cohort had PH after 4 weeks of age, while 14.8% of the clinic registry had PH after 2 months of age. Lower birth weights and longer initial hospitalizations were associated with PH in both populations (p<0.001 for all tests. Using adjusted logistic regression, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA requiring ligation was associated with PH in both the NICU cohort (OR: 3.19; p = 0.024 and the clinic registry (OR: 2.67; p<0.001. Risk factors (birth weight ≤780 grams, home supplemental oxygen use, and PDA ligation identified in the clinic registry (training dataset were validated in the NICU cohort with 0-1 factors present were associated with ≤1.5% probability of having PH, any 2 factors with a 25% probability, and all 3 factors with a 40% probability.Lower birth weight, PDA ligation, and respiratory support were associated with PH in both populations. A PH risk score based on clinical indicators from the training dataset predicted PH in the validation set. This risk score could help focus resources to preterm infants at higher risk for PH. Further work is needed to determine whether earlier or more aggressive management of ductal lesions could alter PH outcomes.

  13. Risk Factors of Building Apartments for University Talent through the Agent Construction Mode in China: Interrelationship and Prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengrong Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Apartments for university talent (AUT, are apartments provided to staff at non-market price, in order to attract outstanding scholars from around the world to work in universities and improve educational quality. This has been a critical issue in achieving social sustainability in China during rapid urbanization and industrialization. The agent construction mode has been adopted to build AUT because universities usually lack relevant management experience. The agent construction mode is a type of turnkey engineer construction based on the principal-agent model, project bidding mode, engineering contracting projects, and project supervision system. Risk factors are important considerations for both universities and agent construction companies. Although some studies have investigated the risk factors, only a few studies have identified the hierarchical structure of relevant risk factors. Therefore, the interrelationship and prioritization of the risk factors remain unknown, and this situation presents a barrier to better risk management. This paper investigates the interrelationship of risk factors with interpretative structural modeling (ISM. In addition, fuzzy MICMAC (matric d’impacts croises-multiplication appliqué a un classemen analysis was conducted to prioritize the risk factors. The findings provide useful references for better risk management of building AUT through the agent construction mode. Although this study focuses on China, the analytical process can also be generalized to other research topics and other countries.

  14. The involvement of IL-17A in the murine response to sub-lethal inhalational infection with Francisella tularensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Markel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is an intercellular bacterium often causing fatal disease when inhaled. Previous reports have underlined the role of cell-mediated immunity and IFNgamma in the host response to Francisella tularensis infection.Here we provide evidence for the involvement of IL-17A in host defense to inhalational tularemia, using a mouse model of intranasal infection with the Live Vaccine Strain (LVS. We demonstrate the kinetics of IL-17A production in lavage fluids of infected lungs and identify the IL-17A-producing lymphocytes as pulmonary gammadelta and Th17 cells. The peak of IL-17A production appears early during sub-lethal infection, it precedes the peak of immune activation and the nadir of the disease, and then subsides subsequently. Exogenous airway administration of IL-17A or of IL-23 had a limited yet consistent effect of delaying the onset of death from a lethal dose of LVS, implying that IL-17A may be involved in restraining the infection. The protective role for IL-17A was directly demonstrated by in vivo neutralization of IL-17A. Administration of anti IL-17A antibodies concomitantly to a sub-lethal airway infection with 0.1xLD(50 resulted in a fatal disease.In summary, these data characterize the involvement and underline the protective key role of the IL-17A axis in the lungs from inhalational tularemia.

  15. Calculation of the ALMA Risk of Right Ventricular Failure After Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loforte, Antonio; Montalto, Andrea; Musumeci, Francesco; Amarelli, Cristiano; Mariani, Carlo; Polizzi, Vincenzo; Lilla Della Monica, Paola; Grigioni, Francesco; Di Bartolomeo, Roberto; Marinelli, Giuseppe

    2018-05-08

    Right ventricular failure after continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation is still an unsolved issue and remains a life-threatening event for patients. We undertook this study to determine predictors of the patients who are candidates for isolated LVAD therapy as opposed to biventricular support (BVAD). We reviewed demographic, echocardiographic, hemodynamic, and laboratory variables for 258 patients who underwent both isolated LVAD implantation and unplanned BVAD because of early right ventricular failure after LVAD insertion, between 2006 and 2017 (LVAD = 170 and BVAD = 88). The final study patients were randomly divided into derivation (79.8%, n = 206) and validation (20.1%, n = 52) cohorts. Fifty-seven preoperative risk factors were compared between patients who were successfully managed with an LVAD and those who required a BVAD. Nineteen variables demonstrated statistical significance on univariable analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified destination therapy (odds ratio [OR] 2.0 [1.7-3.9], p = 0.003), a pulmonary artery pulsatility index right ventricle/left ventricle end-diastolic diameter ratio >0.75 (OR 2.7 [1.5-5.5], p = 0.001), an right ventricle stroke work index 17 (OR 3.5 [1.9-6.9], p the major predictors of the need for BVAD. Using these data, we propose a simple risk calculator to determine the suitability of patients for isolated LVAD support in the era of continuous-flow mechanical circulatory support devices.

  16. Quantitative analysis of pulmonary artery and pulmonary collaterals in preoperative patients with pulmonary artery atresia using dual-source computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Lei; Lu, Bin; Han Lei; Wu Runze; Johnson, Laura; Xu Zhongying; Jiang Shiliang; Dai Ruping

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) in quantitatively measuring pulmonary arteries and major aortopulmonary collateral vessels in comparison with conventional angiographic (CA) on preoperative patients with pulmonary artery atresia and ventricular septal defect (PAA-VSD). Materials and methods: Twenty PAA-VSD patients who had complete imaging data of DSCT, CA and echocardiography (ECHO) studies were retrospectively analyzed. Using final clinical diagnosis as the standard, results of DSCT, CA and ECHO on the detection of cardiac malformations, measurement of diameters of pulmonary artery and collateral vessel, as well as the values of McGoon ratio, pulmonary arterial index (PAI) and total neopulmonary arterial index (TNPAI) were derived and compared. Results: In 20 patients, 51 of 54 (94.4%) cardiac malformations were visualized by DSCT, whereas 42 (77.8%) by ECHO (p = 0.027). Fourteen cases with aortopulmonary collateral vessels were all (100%) detected by DSCT, whereas 5 cases (35.7%) by ECHO (p = 0.001), and 13 cases (92.9%) by CA (p = 0.995). Sixteen cases with confluence of native pulmonary arteries were diagnosed by DSCT, whereas 10 cases by CA (p = 0.024). Measurement of the diameters of pulmonary arteries, collateral vessels, and descending aorta at the level of diaphragm were correlated well between DSCT and CA (r = 0.95-0.99). McGoon ratio (DSCT = 1.18 ± 0.60, CA = 1.23 ± 0.64), PAI (DSCT = 130.96 ± 99.38 mm 2 /m 2 , CA = 140.91 ± 107.87 mm 2 /m 2 ) and TNPAI (DSCT = 160.31 ± 125.62 mm 2 /m 2 , CA = 169.14 ± 122.81 mm 2 /m 2 ) were calculated respectively, without significant differences between DSCT and CA by paired t-tests (all p > 0.05). Conclusion: DSCT was efficient for evaluating and measuring native pulmonary artery and aortopulmonary collateral vessels prior to surgical procedures in PAA-VSD patients. Combined with echocardiography, DSCT showed potential to replace CA for evaluating pulmonary artery

  17. Administrative risk quantification of subcutaneous and intravenous therapies in Italian centers utilizing the Failure Mode and Effects Analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponzetti C

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Clemente Ponzetti,1 Monica Canciani,2 Massimo Farina,2 Sara Era,3 Stefan Walzer4,5 1Gruppo Policlinico di Monza, Alessandria, ANMDO National Association of Hospital Physicians, Bologna, 2Studio EmmEffe Srl, Milan, 3Roche Spa, Monza, Italy; 4MArS Market Access & Pricing Strategy GmbH, Weil am Rhein, 5State University Baden-Wuerttemberg, Health Care Management, Loerrach, Germany Background: In oncology, an important parameter of safety is the potential treatment error in hospitals. The analyzed hypothesis is that of subcutaneous therapies would provide a superior safety benefit over intravenous therapies through fixed-dose administrations, when analyzed with trastuzumab and rituximab.Methods: For the calculation of risk levels, the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis approach was applied. Within this approach, the critical treatment path is followed and risk classification for each individual step is estimated. For oncology and hematology administration, 35 different risk steps were assessed. The study was executed in 17 hematology and 16 breast cancer centers in Italy. As intravenous and subcutaneous were the only injection routes in medical available for trastuzumab and rituximab in oncology at the time of the study, these two therapies were chosen.Results: When the risk classes were calculated, eight high-risk areas were identified for the administration of an intravenous therapy in hematology or oncology; 13 areas would be defined as having a median-risk classification and 14 areas as having a low-risk classification (total risk areas: n=35. When the new subcutaneous formulation would be applied, 23 different risk levels could be completely eliminated (65% reduction. Important high-risk classes such as dose calculation, preparation and package labeling, preparation of the access to the vein, pump infusion preparation, and infusion monitoring were included in the eliminations. The overall risk level for the intravenous administration was estimated

  18. Association of genetic polymorphisms of CISH with the risk of pulmonary tuberculosis in Zahedan, Southeast Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Mohammad; Hashemi, Mohammad; Safdari, Abolhassan; Bahari, Gholamreza; Taheri, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    In the current study we aimed to find out the impact of cytokine-inducible Src homology 2 domain protein (CISH) gene polymorphisms on the risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in a sample of Iranian population. Polymorphisms of CISH rs2239751, rs414171, and rs6768300 were determined in 200 PTB patients and 200 healthy subjects using T-ARMS-PCR or PCR-RFLP method. The results showed that rs414171 A>T genotypes significantly decreased the risk of PTB (OR=0.16, 95% CI=0.10-0.27, pCISH rs2239751 polymorphism and risk/protection of PTB. Our findings indicated that CISH rs414171 and rs6768300 variants might be associated with protection from PTB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Chronic Exposure of Corals to Fine Sediments: Lethal and Sub-Lethal Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Florita; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Smith, Luke D.; Cooper, Timothy F.; Abrego, David; Negri, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the sedimentation and turbidity thresholds for corals is critical in assessing the potential impacts of dredging projects in tropical marine systems. In this study, we exposed two species of coral sampled from offshore locations to six levels of total suspended solids (TSS) for 16 weeks in the laboratory, including a 4 week recovery period. Dose-response relationships were developed to quantify the lethal and sub-lethal thresholds of sedimentation and turbidity for the corals. The sediment treatments affected the horizontal foliaceous species (Montipora aequituberculata) more than the upright branching species (Acropora millepora). The lowest sediment treatments that caused full colony mortality were 30 mg l−1 TSS (25 mg cm−2 day−1) for M. aequituberculata and 100 mg l−1 TSS (83 mg cm−2 day−1) for A. millepora after 12 weeks. Coral mortality generally took longer than 4 weeks and was closely related to sediment accumulation on the surface of the corals. While measurements of damage to photosystem II in the symbionts and reductions in lipid content and growth indicated sub-lethal responses in surviving corals, the most reliable predictor of coral mortality in this experiment was long-term sediment accumulation on coral tissue. PMID:22662225

  20. Chronic exposure of corals to fine sediments: lethal and sub-lethal impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florita Flores

    Full Text Available Understanding the sedimentation and turbidity thresholds for corals is critical in assessing the potential impacts of dredging projects in tropical marine systems. In this study, we exposed two species of coral sampled from offshore locations to six levels of total suspended solids (TSS for 16 weeks in the laboratory, including a 4 week recovery period. Dose-response relationships were developed to quantify the lethal and sub-lethal thresholds of sedimentation and turbidity for the corals. The sediment treatments affected the horizontal foliaceous species (Montipora aequituberculata more than the upright branching species (Acropora millepora. The lowest sediment treatments that caused full colony mortality were 30 mg l(-1 TSS (25 mg cm(-2 day(-1 for M. aequituberculata and 100 mg l(-1 TSS (83 mg cm(-2 day(-1 for A. millepora after 12 weeks. Coral mortality generally took longer than 4 weeks and was closely related to sediment accumulation on the surface of the corals. While measurements of damage to photosystem II in the symbionts and reductions in lipid content and growth indicated sub-lethal responses in surviving corals, the most reliable predictor of coral mortality in this experiment was long-term sediment accumulation on coral tissue.

  1. Prevalence, risk factors and social context of active pulmonary tuberculosis among prison inmates in Tajikistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Winetsky

    Full Text Available SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB is highly prevalent in prisons of the former Soviet Union. OBJECTIVE: To understand the behavioral, demographic and biological factors placing inmates in Tajikistan at risk for active TB. DESIGN: We administered a behavioral and demographic survey to 1317 inmates in two prison facilities in Sughd province, Tajikistan along with radiographic screening for pulmonary TB. Suspected cases were confirmed bacteriologically. Inmates undergoing TB treatment were also surveyed. In-depth interviews were conducted with former prisoners to elicit relevant social and behavioral characteristics. RESULTS: We identified 59 cases of active pulmonary TB (prevalence 4.5%. Factors independently associated with increased prevalence of active TB were: HIV-infection by self-report (PR 7.88; 95%CI 3.40-18.28, history of previous TB (PR 10.21; 95%CI 6.27-16.63 and infrequent supplemental nutrition beyond scheduled meals (PR 3.00; 95%CI 1.67-5.62. Access to supplemental nutrition was associated with frequency of visits from friends and family and ability to rely on other inmates for help. CONCLUSION: In prison facilities of Tajikistan, HIV-infection, injection drug use and low access to supplemental nutrition were associated with prevalent cases of active pulmonary TB. Policies that reduce HIV transmission among injection drug users and improve the nutritional status of socially isolated inmates may alleviate the TB burden in Tajikistan's prisons.

  2. Application of database management software to probabilistic risk assessment calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyss, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) calculations require the management and processing of large amounts of information. This data normally falls into two general categories. For example, a commercial nuclear power plant PRA study makes use of plant blueprints and system schematics, formal plant safety analysis reports, incident reports, letters, memos, handwritten notes from plant visits, and even the analyst's ''engineering judgment''. This information must be documented and cross-referenced in order to properly execute and substantiate the models used in a PRA study. The first category is composed of raw data that is accumulated from equipment testing and operational experiences. These data describe the equipment, its service or testing conditions, its failure mode, and its performance history. The second category is composed of statistical distributions. These distributions can represent probabilities, frequencies, or values of important parameters that are not time-related. Probability and frequency distributions are often obtained by fitting raw data to an appropriate statistical distribution. Database management software is used to store both types of data so that it can be readily queried, manipulated, and archived. This paper provides an overview of the information models used for storing PRA data and illustrates the implementation of these models using examples from current PRA software packages

  3. The frequency of allelic lethals and complementation maps in natural populations of drosophila melanogaster from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salceda Victor M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Departing from a previous study on the genetic loads affecting the second chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster in four natural populations, 171 lethal chromosomes were recovered and maintained as a balanced stocks in the condition Cy L / 1 (l=lethal; of those lethais 24 correspond to population A, 50 to populations B and C and 47 to population D. later on an intra-population allelism test for the four populations was performed for each one. A total of 3807 inter lethal crosses were done yielding a total of i 10 allelic combinations, from them the respective percentage of allelism for each population was calculated and they are as follow: 3.98 % for population A, 1.80 % for population B, 3.67 % for population C and 2.96 % for population D. the observed values for the frequency of allelism in these populations are not significantly different from those reported by other authors in similar studies in natural and/or experimental populations. Beside these values the frequency for singles, doubles, triplets and even quadruplets present in each population were determined, they shown the presence of various complementation maps due to the clustering of few different lethals: also a large complementation map formed by a large cluster involving the presence of 26 different lethals found in population D all of them combined constituting a single unit was found.

  4. Estimation of the risks of stochastic effects attributable to the radiological conditions in Tbilisi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vepkhvadze, N.R.; Gelashvili, K.D.; Kiladze, N.A.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation background in Tbilisi City has been studied; collective and annual average statistic dozes have been ascertained, parameters of stochastic effects' (cancerogenic, genetic) risks caused by low dozes of ionizing radiation have been calculated. From 21 cases of total risk 7 are stipulated by genetic defects, 14 - by lethal malignant tumor. The conclusion is that we should not expect important changes in health condition of population caused by existing in Tbilisi City radiation background. (author)

  5. Risk factors associated with default among new pulmonary TB patients and social support in six Russian regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowiak, W M; Bogorodskaya, E M; Borisov, S E; Borisov, E S; Danilova, I D; Danilova, D I; Kourbatova, E V; Kourbatova, E K

    2007-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) services in six Russian regions in which social support programmes for TB patients were implemented. To identify risk factors for default and to evaluate possible impact of social support. Retrospective study of new pulmonary smear-positive and smear-negative TB patients registered during the second and third quarters of the 2003. Data were analysed in a case-control study including default patients as cases and successfully treated patients as controls, using multivariate logistic regression modelling. A total of 1805 cases of pulmonary TB were enrolled. Default rates in the regions were 2.3-6.3%. On multivariate analysis, risk factors independently associated with default outcome included: unemployment (OR 4.44; 95%CI 2.23-8.86), alcohol abuse (OR 1.99; 95%CI 1.04-3.81), and homelessness (OR 3.49; 95%CI 1.25-9.77). Social support reduced the default outcome (OR 0.13; 95%CI 0.06-0.28), controlling for age, sex, region, residence and acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear of sputum. Unemployment, alcohol abuse and homelessness were associated with increased default outcome among new TB patients, while social support for TB patients reduced default. Further prospective randomised studies are necessary to evaluate the impact and to determine the most cost-effective social support for improving treatment outcomes of TB in patients in Russia, especially among populations at risk of default.

  6. A pilot audit of a protocol for ambulatory investigation of predicted low-risk patients with possible pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, A H; Murphy, R

    2011-09-01

    Patients with possible pulmonary embolism (PE) commonly present to acute medical services. Research has led to the identification of low-risk patients suitable for ambulatory management. We report on a protocol designed to select low-risk patients for ambulatory investigation if confirmatory imaging is not available that day. The protocol was piloted in the Emergency Department and Medical Assessment Area at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh. We retrospectively analysed electronic patient records in an open observational audit of all patients managed in the ambulatory arm over five months of use. We analysed 45 patients' records. Of these, 91.1% required imaging to confirm or refute PE, 62.2% received a computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA). In 25% of patients, PE was confirmed with musculoskeletal pain (22.7%), and respiratory tract infection (15.9%) the next most prevalent diagnoses. Alternative diagnoses was provided by CTPA in 32% of cases. We identified no adverse events or readmissions but individualised follow-up was not attempted. The data from this audit suggests this protocol can be applied to select and manage low-risk patients suitable for ambulatory investigation of possible PE. A larger prospective comparative study would be required to accurately define the safety and effectiveness of this protocol.

  7. SU-F-T-247: Collision Risks in a Modern Radiation Oncology Department: An Efficient Approach to Failure Modes and Effects Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, L; Westerly, D; Vinogradskiy, Y; Fisher, C; Liu, A [University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Aldridge, J [University of Colorado Hospital, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Collisions between treatment equipment and patients are potentially catastrophic. Modern technology now commonly involves automated remote motion during imaging and treatment, yet a systematic assessment to identify and mitigate collision risks has yet to be performed. Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is a method of risk assessment that has been increasingly used in healthcare, yet can be resource intensive. This work presents an efficient approach to FMEA to identify collision risks and implement practical interventions within a modern radiation therapy department. Methods: Potential collisions (e.g. failure modes) were assessed for all treatment and simulation rooms by teams consisting of physicists, therapists, and radiation oncologists. Failure modes were grouped into classes according to similar characteristics. A single group meeting was held to identify implementable interventions for the highest priority classes of failure modes. Results: A total of 60 unique failure modes were identified by 6 different teams of physicists, therapists, and radiation oncologists. Failure modes were grouped into four main classes: specific patient setups, automated equipment motion, manual equipment motion, and actions in QA or service mode. Two of these classes, unusual patient setups and automated machine motion, were identified as being high priority in terms severity of consequence and addressability by interventions. The two highest risk classes consisted of 33 failure modes (55% of the total). In a single one hour group meeting, 6 interventions were identified. Those interventions addressed 100% of the high risk classes of failure modes (55% of all failure modes identified). Conclusion: A class-based approach to FMEA was developed to efficiently identify collision risks and implement interventions in a modern radiation oncology department. Failure modes and interventions will be listed, and a comparison of this approach against traditional FMEA methods

  8. SU-F-T-247: Collision Risks in a Modern Radiation Oncology Department: An Efficient Approach to Failure Modes and Effects Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, L; Westerly, D; Vinogradskiy, Y; Fisher, C; Liu, A; Aldridge, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Collisions between treatment equipment and patients are potentially catastrophic. Modern technology now commonly involves automated remote motion during imaging and treatment, yet a systematic assessment to identify and mitigate collision risks has yet to be performed. Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is a method of risk assessment that has been increasingly used in healthcare, yet can be resource intensive. This work presents an efficient approach to FMEA to identify collision risks and implement practical interventions within a modern radiation therapy department. Methods: Potential collisions (e.g. failure modes) were assessed for all treatment and simulation rooms by teams consisting of physicists, therapists, and radiation oncologists. Failure modes were grouped into classes according to similar characteristics. A single group meeting was held to identify implementable interventions for the highest priority classes of failure modes. Results: A total of 60 unique failure modes were identified by 6 different teams of physicists, therapists, and radiation oncologists. Failure modes were grouped into four main classes: specific patient setups, automated equipment motion, manual equipment motion, and actions in QA or service mode. Two of these classes, unusual patient setups and automated machine motion, were identified as being high priority in terms severity of consequence and addressability by interventions. The two highest risk classes consisted of 33 failure modes (55% of the total). In a single one hour group meeting, 6 interventions were identified. Those interventions addressed 100% of the high risk classes of failure modes (55% of all failure modes identified). Conclusion: A class-based approach to FMEA was developed to efficiently identify collision risks and implement interventions in a modern radiation oncology department. Failure modes and interventions will be listed, and a comparison of this approach against traditional FMEA methods

  9. High Prevalence of Pulmonary Hypertension Complicates the Care of Infants with Omphalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Shandee; Baerg, Joanne; Deming, Douglas; St Peter, Shawn D; Hopper, Andrew; Goff, Donna A

    2017-01-01

    Omphalocele is one of the most common abdominal wall defects. Many newborn infants born with omphalocele present with significant respiratory distress at birth, requiring mechanical ventilatory support, and have clinical evidence of pulmonary hypertension. Little information exists on the prevalence of and risk factors associated with pulmonary hypertension in this cohort of infants. To describe the prevalence of and risk factors associated with pulmonary hypertension among infants with omphalocele. This is a multicenter retrospective chart review of demographic data and clinical characteristics of infants with omphalocele admitted to the neonatal intensive care units of Loma Linda University Children's Hospital and Children's Mercy Hospital between 1994 and 2011. Echocardiogram images were reviewed for pulmonary hypertension, and statistical analyses were performed to identify risk factors associated with the presence of pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed in 32/56 (57%) infants with omphalocele. Compared to infants without pulmonary hypertension, infants with pulmonary hypertension were more likely to have a liver-containing defect (16/32 [50%] vs. 5/24 [21%], p = 0.03), require intubation at birth (18/32 [56%] vs. 6/24 [17%], p = 0.03), and die during initial hospitalization (12/32 [38%] vs. 2/24 [8%], p = 0.01). The majority of infants with omphalocele have evidence of pulmonary hypertension which is associated with increased mortality. Echocardiograms to screen for pulmonary hypertension should be obtained at ≥2 days of life in infants with omphalocele, especially in those with liver within the omphalocele sac and/or in those infants who require intubation at birth to screen for pulmonary hypertension. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Pulmonary hemorrhage complicating radiofrequency ablation, from mild hemoptysis to life-threatening pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nour-Eldin, Nour-Eldin A.; Naguib, Nagy N.N.; Mack, Martin; Abskharon, John E.; Vogl, Thomas J. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Hospital, Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    To assess risk factors and the extent of pulmonary hemorrhage complicating radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of pulmonary neoplasms. This retrospective study involved 248 ablation sessions for lung tumors (20 primary lesions and 228 metastatic lesions) in 164 patients (mean age 59.7 years, SD: 10.2). Both unipolar and bipolar radiofrequency systems were used under CT fluoroscopic guidance. Extent and underlying factors associated with development of pulmonary hemorrhage were analyzed. Incidence of intra-parenchymal pulmonary hemorrhage, pleural effusion, and hemoptysis were 17.7% (44/248 sessions), 4% (8/248 sessions), and 16.1% (40/248 sessions), respectively. Death because of massive bleeding occurred in one session (0.4%). Significant risk factors associated with intra-parenchymal hemorrhage included: lesions of <1.5 cm diameter (P = 0.007); basal and middle lung zone lesions (P = 0.026); increased needle track distance traversing the lung parenchyma >2.5 cm (P = 0.0017); traversing pulmonary vessels in the track of ablation (P < 0.001); and the use of multi-tined electrodes (P = 0.004). Concomitant incidence of pulmonary hemorrhage and pneumothorax was 29.2% (14/48 sessions). While typically safe, RFA of pulmonary neoplasms can result in pulmonary hemorrhage ranging from mild to life-threatening. Management of this complication is mainly preventive through adequate patient selection for ablation therapy and exclusion of technically avoidable risk factors. (orig.)

  11. Component mode synthesis methods for 3-D heterogeneous core calculations applied to the mixed-dual finite element solver MINOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, P.; Baudron, A.M.; Lautard, J.J.; Van Criekingen, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique for determining the pin power in heterogeneous three-dimensional calculations. It is based on a domain decomposition with overlapping sub-domains and a component mode synthesis (CMS) technique for the global flux determination. Local basis functions are used to span a discrete space that allows fundamental global mode approximation through a Galerkin technique. Two approaches are given to obtain these local basis functions. In the first one (the CMS method), the first few spatial eigenfunctions are computed on each sub-domain, using periodic boundary conditions. In the second one (factorized CMS method), only the fundamental mode is computed, and we use a factorization principle for the flux in order to replace the higher-order Eigenmodes. These different local spatial functions are extended to the global domain by defining them as zero outside the sub-domain. These methods are well fitted for heterogeneous core calculations because the spatial interface modes are taken into account in the domain decomposition. Although these methods could be applied to higher-order angular approximations-particularly easily to an SPN approximation-the numerical results we provide are obtained using a diffusion model. We show the methods' accuracy for reactor cores loaded with uranium dioxide and mixed oxide assemblies, for which standard reconstruction techniques are known to perform poorly. Furthermore, we show that our methods are highly and easily parallelizable. (authors)

  12. Pulmonary Hypertension in Congenital Heart Disease: Beyond Eisenmenger Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Eric V; Leary, Peter J; Opotowsky, Alexander R

    2015-11-01

    Patients with adult congenital heart disease have an increased risk of developing pulmonary hypertension. There are several mechanisms of pulmonary hypertension in patients with adult congenital heart disease, and understanding them requires a systematic approach to define the patient's hemodynamics and physiology. This article reviews the updated classification of pulmonary hypertension in patients with adult congenital heart disease with a focus on pathophysiology, diagnostics, and the evaluation of pulmonary hypertension in special adult congenital heart disease populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Cardiac catheterization and pulmonary vasoreactivity testing in children with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Qiangqiang; Liu, Tianyang; Gu, Hong

    2014-06-01

    As an important method of hemodynamic assessment in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), cardiac catheterization combined with pulmonary vasoreactivity testing remains with limited experience in children, and the acute pulmonary vasodilator agents as well as response criteria for vasoreactivity testing remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical importance, agent selection, and responder definition of cardiac catheterization combined with pulmonary vasoreactivity testing in pediatric IPAH. The patients admitted to Department of Pediatric Cardiology of Beijing Anzhen Hospital between April 2009 and September 2013 with suspected IPAH, under 18 years of age, with WHO functional class II or III, were enrolled. All the patients were arranged to receive left and right heart catheterization and pulmonary vasoreactivity testing with inhalation of pure oxygen and iloprost (PGI2) respectively. Hemodynamic changes were analyzed, and two criteria, the European Society of Cardiology recommendation criteria (Sitbon criteria) and traditional application criteria (Barst criteria), were used to evaluate the test results. Thirty-nine cases of children with suspected IPAH underwent cardiac catheterization. In 4 patients IPAH was excluded; 4 patients developed pulmonary hypertension crisis. The other 31 patients received standard cardiac catheterization and pulmonary vasoreactivity testing. Baseline mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) was (66 ± 16) mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa), and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) (17 ± 8) Wood U · m². After inhalation of pure oxygen, mPAP fell to (59 ± 16) mmHg, and PVRI to (14 ± 8) Wood U · m² (t = 4.88 and 4.56, both P hypertension crisis is an important complication of cardiac catheterization in pediatric IPAH. Younger age, general anesthesia, crisis history, and poor heart function are important risk factors for pulmonary hypertension crisis. PGI2 is a relatively ideal agent for

  14. Correlation of pulmonary perfusion volume analysis with pulmonary function in emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneta, Tomohiro; Yamazaki, Tetsuro; Takai, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Shoki; Yamada, Shogo; Maruoka, Shin; Abe, Yoetsu

    2000-01-01

    Pulmonary perfusion single photon emission tomography with 99m Tc MAA was performed on 13 pulmonary emphysema patients and 6 controls. We calculated perfusion volume with lower 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of the highest counts/boxels in the lung cut-off. And perfusion index (PI) was defined as follows; PI=((A% cut-off volume)-(B% cut-off volume))/(A% cut-off volume); A and B take 10 to 50, A 1 , FEV 1 %, VC, VC%, FVC, FVC%, PaO 2 and PaCO 2 ) was examined. There were significant correlation between every PI and FEV 1 or FEV 1 % (p 1 (r=0.680) and FEV 1 % (r=0.830). And the PI showed an increasing tendency along with the rise of the emphysema severity. The PI may have the clinical utility of the evaluation of pulmonary function. Moreover, we showed the lung CT painted the area where the uptake counts/boxels was more than 10% and less than 40% of the highest counts/boxels. This makes it easy to understand the severe emphysematous area. (author)

  15. Nurse administered propofol sedation for pulmonary endoscopies requires a specific protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Thue; Banning, Anne-Marie; Clementsen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study provides an evaluation and risk analysis of propofol sedation for endoscopic pulmonary procedures according to our unit's "gastroenterologic nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) guideline".......This study provides an evaluation and risk analysis of propofol sedation for endoscopic pulmonary procedures according to our unit's "gastroenterologic nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) guideline"....

  16. Investigation of single-mode and multi-mode hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in planar geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roderick, N.F.; Cochrane, K.; Douglas, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    Previous investigations carried out to study various methods of seeding the hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in magnetohydrodynamic simulations showed features similar to those seen in hydrodynamic calculations. For periodic single-mode initiations the results showed the appearance of harmonics as the single modes became nonlinear. For periodic multi-mode initiations new modes developed that indicated the presence of mode coupling. The MHD simulations used parameters of the high velocity large radius z-pinch experiments performed in the Z-accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories. The cylindrical convergent geometry and variable acceleration of these configurations made comparison with analytic, developed for planar geometry with constant acceleration, difficult. A set of calculations in planar geometry using constant current to produce acceleration and parameters characteristic of the cylindrical implosions has been performed to allow a better comparison. Results of these calculations, comparison with analytic theory, and comparison with the cylindrical configuration calculations will be discussed

  17. Risk factors for pulmonary cavitation in tuberculosis patients from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqun; Pang, Yu; Yu, Xia; Wang, Yufeng; Lu, Jie; Gao, Mengqiu; Huang, Hairong; Zhao, Yanlin

    2016-10-12

    Pulmonary cavitation is one of the most frequently observed clinical characteristics in tuberculosis (TB). The objective of this study was to investigate the potential risk factors associated with cavitary TB in China. A total of 385 smear-positive patients were enrolled in the study, including 192 (49.9%) patients with cavitation as determined by radiographic findings. Statistical analysis revealed that the distribution of patients with diabetes in the cavitary group was significantly higher than that in the non-cavitary group (adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)):12.08 (5.75-25.35), Ptuberculosis strains, 330 strains (85.7%) were classified as the Beijing genotype, which included 260 strains that belonged to the modern Beijing sublineage and 70 to the ancient Beijing sublineage. In addition, there were 80 and 31 strains belonging to large and small clusters, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that cavitary disease was observed more frequently among the large clusters than the small clusters (P=0.037). In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that diabetes and multidrug resistance are risk factors associated with cavitary TB. In addition, there was no significant difference in the cavitary presentation between patients infected with the Beijing genotype strains and those infected with the non-Beijing genotype strains.

  18. Intrauterine growth restriction decreases pulmonary alveolar and vessel growth and causes pulmonary artery endothelial cell dysfunction in vitro in fetal sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedorf, Gregory J.; Brown, Alicia; Roe, Gates; O'Meara, Meghan C.; Gien, Jason; Tang, Jen-Ruey; Abman, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases the risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Abnormal lung structure has been noted in animal models of IUGR, but whether IUGR adversely impacts fetal pulmonary vascular development and pulmonary artery endothelial cell (PAEC) function is unknown. We hypothesized that IUGR would decrease fetal pulmonary alveolarization, vascular growth, and in vitro PAEC function. Studies were performed in an established model of severe placental insufficiency and IUGR induced by exposing pregnant sheep to elevated temperatures. Alveolarization, quantified by radial alveolar counts, was decreased 20% (P growth by 68% (P growth was reduced in IUGR PAECs by 29% at baseline (P growth and PAEC dysfunction in vitro. This may contribute to the increased risk for adverse respiratory outcomes and BPD in infants with IUGR. PMID:21873446

  19. Exposure to Free-Play Modes in Simulated Online Gaming Increases Risk-Taking in Monetary Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahn, Tahnee; Delfabbro, Paul; King, Daniel L

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the behavioral effects of practice modes in simulated slot machine gambling. A sample of 128 participants predominantly aged 18-24 years were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 pre-exposure conditions: control (no practice), standard 90% return to player, inflated return to player and inflated return with pop-up messages. Participants in all conditions engaged in monetary gambling using a realistic online simulation of a slot machine. As predicted, the results showed that those players exposed to inflated or 'profit' demonstration modes placed significantly higher bets in the real-play mode as compared to the other groups. However, the groups did not differ in relation to how long they persisted in the real-play mode. Pop-up messages had no significant effect on monetary gambling behavior. The results of this study confirm that exposure to inflated practice or "demo" modes lead to short-term increases in risk-taking. These findings highlight the need for careful regulation and monitoring of internet gambling sites, as well as further research on the potential risks of simulated gambling activities for vulnerable segments of the gambling population.

  20. Prevalence of and risk factors for postoperative pulmonary complications after lung cancer surgery in patients with early-stage COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim ES

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Eun Sun Kim,1 Young Tae Kim,2 Chang Hyun Kang,2 In Kyu Park,2 Won Bae,1 Sun Mi Choi,1 Jinwoo Lee,1 Young Sik Park,1 Chang-Hoon Lee,1 Sang-Min Lee,1 Jae-Joon Yim,1 Young Whan Kim,1 Sung Koo Han,1 Chul-Gyu Yoo1 1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Purpose: This study aimed to investigate whether the prevalence of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC is even higher in the early stages of COPD than in such patients with normal lung function and to verify the usefulness of symptom- or quality of life (QoL-based scores in predicting risk for PPCs.Patients and methods: Patients undergoing pulmonary resection for NSCLC between July 2012 and October 2014 were prospectively enrolled. Preoperative measurements of lung function, dyspnea, and QoL, operative characteristics, PPCs, duration of postoperative hospitalization, and in-hospital mortality were assessed.Results: Among 351 consecutive patients with NSCLC, 343 patients with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ≥70% of predicted value were enrolled. At least one PPC occurred in 57 (16.6% patients. Prevalence of PPC was higher in patients with COPD (30.1% than in those with normal spirometry (10.0%; P<0.001. However, in patients with COPD, the prevalence of PPC was not different in patients with FEV1 ≥70% compared to those with FEV1 <70% and between group A (low risk and less symptoms and group B (low risk and more symptoms patients with COPD, based on the new Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease 2011 guidelines. In patients with COPD, body mass index (odds ratio [OR]: 0.80, P=0.007, carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung (DLCO, % predicted value (OR: 0.97, P=0.024, and operation time (OR: 1.01, P=0.003, but not COPD assessment test or St

  1. Transport priorities, risk perception and worry associated with mode use and preferences among Norwegian commuters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordfjærn, Trond; Simşekoğlu, Özlem; Lind, Hans Brende; Jørgensen, Stig Halvard; Rundmo, Torbjørn

    2014-11-01

    There is currently scant research on the role of transport priorities, risk perception and worry for travel mode use and preferences. The present study aims to examine these factors in relation to mode use and preferences among Norwegian commuters. A web-based survey was conducted in a randomly obtained representative sample of daily commuters in the extended greater Oslo area (n=690). The results showed that those who prioritized efficiency and flexibility tended to commute by car, while those who prioritized safety and comfort used public (e.g. metro, tram, and train) or active (e.g. walking and cycling) transport. In a free choice scenario, the respondents who prioritized flexibility reported a preference for using a car, whereas those who prioritized safety and comfort preferred public and active transport for their commuter travels. Risk perception of high impact events, such as terrorism and major accidents, as well as risk perception related to personal impact risks (theft, violence etc.) were related to car use on commuter travels. Transport-related worry exerted weak influences on mode use and preferences. Increased speed on rail transport and more frequent departures may be effective in reducing car use on commuter travels. Risk communication should focus on highlighting the low risk of experiencing security and safety issues in the public transport sector, and this message should be complemented by efforts to reduce the probability of negative events affecting public transport. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Multidisciplinary Intervention of Early, Lethal Metastatic Prostate Cancer: Report From the 2015 Coffey-Holden Prostate Cancer Academy Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahira, Andrea K.; Lang, Joshua M.; Den, Robert B.; Garraway, Isla P.; Lotan, Tamara L.; Ross, Ashley E.; Stoyanova, Tanya; Cho, Steve Y.; Simons, Jonathan W.; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Soule, Howard R.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND The 2015 Coffey-Holden Prostate Cancer Academy Meeting, themed: “Multidisciplinary Intervention of Early, Lethal Metastatic Prostate Cancer,” was held in La Jolla, California from June 25 to 28, 2015. METHODS The Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) sponsors an annual, invitation-only, action-tank-structured meeting on a critical topic concerning lethal prostate cancer. The 2015 meeting was attended by 71 basic, translational, and clinical investigators who discussed the current state of the field, major unmet needs, and ideas for addressing earlier diagnosis and treatment of men with lethal prostate cancer for the purpose of extending lives and making progress toward a cure. RESULTS The questions addressed at the meeting included: cellular and molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis, evaluating, and targeting the microenvironment in the primary tumor, advancing biomarkers for clinical integration, new molecular imaging technologies, clinical trials, and clinical trial design in localized high-risk and oligometastatic settings, targeting the primary tumor in advanced disease, and instituting multi-modal care of high risk and oligometastatic patients. DISCUSSION This article highlights the current status, greatest unmet needs, and anticipated field changes that were discussed at the meeting toward the goal of optimizing earlier interventions to potentiate cures in high-risk and oligometastatic prostate cancer patients. PMID:26477609

  3. Pregnancy in women with pulmonary hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieper, P. G.; Hoendermis, E. S.

    2011-01-01

    Women with pulmonary hypertension have a high risk of morbidity and mortality during pregnancy. The inability to increase cardiac output leads to heart failure while further risks are introduced with hypercoagulability and decrease in systemic vascular resistance. There is no proof that new advanced

  4. Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography in the assessment of severity of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Min; Ma Zhanhong; Guo Xiaojuan; Zhang Hongxia; Yang Yuanhua; WangChen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim was to investigate the role of computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in the assessment of severity and right ventricular function in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Materials and methods: Clinical and radiological data of 56 patients with CTEPH January 2006–October 2009 were retrospectively reviewed in the present study. All patients received CTPA with a 64-row CT using the retrospective ECG-Gated mode before digital subtraction pulmonary angiography and right-heart catheterization. CTPA findings including Right Ventricular diameter (RVd) and left ventricular diameter (LVd) were measured at the end diastole. CT Pulmonary Artery Obstruction Indexes including Qanadli Index and Mastora Index were used in the assessment of severity of pulmonary arterial obstruction. Hemodynamic parameters and pulmonary hypertension classification were evaluated by right-heart catheterization in all patients. Right ventricular function was measured with echocardiography in 49 patients. Results: Qanadli Index and Mastora Index respectively were (37.93 ± 14.74)% and (30.92 ± 16.91)%, which showed a significant difference (Z = −5.983, P = 0.000) and a good correlation (r = 0.881, P = 0.000). Neither Qanadli nor Mastora Index correlated with pulmonary hypertension classification (r = −0.009, P = 0.920) or New York Heart Association heart function classification (r = −0.031, P = 0.756). Neither Qanadli nor Mastora Index correlated with any echocardiographic right ventricular parameters (P > 0.05), while RVd/LVd by CTPA correlated with echocardiographic right ventricular functional parameters (P 2 . CTPA findings correlated with hemodynamic variables. Backward linear regression analysis revealed that the RVd/LVd, Right Ventricular Anterior Wall Thickness (RVAWT), Main Pulmonary Artery trunk diameter (MPAd) were shown to be independently associated with mean Pulmonary Artery Pressure (mPAP) levels (model: r 2 = 0.351, P = 0.025; RVd

  5. A combined pulmonary function and emphysema score prognostic index for staging in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afroditi K Boutou

    Full Text Available Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Lung computed tomography parameters, individually or as part of a composite index, may provide more prognostic information than pulmonary function tests alone.To investigate the prognostic value of emphysema score and pulmonary artery measurements compared with lung function parameters in COPD and construct a prognostic index using a contingent staging approach.Predictors of mortality were assessed in COPD outpatients whose lung computed tomography, spirometry, lung volumes and gas transfer data were collected prospectively in a clinical database. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis models with bootstrap techniques were used.169 patients were included (59.8% male, 61.1 years old; Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second % predicted: 40.5±19.2. 20.1% died; mean survival was 115.4 months. Age (HR = 1.098, 95% Cl = 1.04-1.252 and emphysema score (HR = 1.034, 95% CI = 1.007-1.07 were the only independent predictors of mortality. Pulmonary artery dimensions were not associated with survival. An emphysema score of 55% was chosen as the optimal threshold and 30% and 65% as suboptimals. Where emphysema score was between 30% and 65% (intermediate risk the optimal lung volume threshold, a functional residual capacity of 210% predicted, was applied. This contingent staging approach separated patients with an intermediate risk based on emphysema score alone into high risk (Functional Residual Capacity ≥210% predicted or low risk (Functional Residual Capacity <210% predicted. This approach was more discriminatory for survival (HR = 3.123; 95% CI = 1.094-10.412 than either individual component alone.Although to an extent limited by the small sample size, this preliminary study indicates that the composite Emphysema score-Functional Residual Capacity index might provide a better separation of high and low risk patients

  6. Co-existence of COPD and bronchiectasis: a risk factor for a high ratio of main pulmonary artery to aorta diameter (PA:A from computed tomography in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dou S

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Shuang Dou,1 Chunyan Zheng,1 Xiuli Ji,2 Wei Wang,1 Mengshuang Xie,1 Liwei Cui,1 Wei Xiao1 1Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pulmonary Disease, Jinan Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Background: Pulmonary vascular disease, especially pulmonary hypertension, is an important complication of COPD. Bronchiectasis is considered not only a comorbidity of COPD, but also a risk factor for vascular diseases. The main pulmonary artery to aorta diameter ratio (PA:A ratio has been found to be a reliable indicator of pulmonary vascular disease. It is hypothesized that the co-existence of COPD and bronchiectasis may be associated with relative pulmonary artery enlargement (PA:A ratio >1.Methods: This retrospective study enrolled COPD patients from 2012 through 2016. Demographic and clinical data were collected. Bhalla score was used to determine the severity of bronchiectasis. Patient characteristics were analyzed in two ways: the high (PA:A >1 and low (PA:A ≤1 ratio groups; and COPD with and without bronchiectasis groups. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess risk factors for high PA:A ratios.Results: In this study, 480 COPD patients were included, of whom 168 had radiographic bronchiectasis. Patients with pulmonary artery enlargement presented with poorer nutrition (albumin, 35.6±5.1 vs 38.3±4.9, P<0.001, lower oxygen partial pressure (74.4±34.5 vs 81.3±25.4, P<0.001, more severe airflow obstruction (FEV1.0, 0.9±0.5 vs 1.1±0.6, P=0.004, and a higher frequency of bronchiectasis (60% vs 28.8%, P<0.001 than patients in the low ratio group. Patients with both COPD and bronchiectasis had higher levels of systemic inflammation (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, P<0.001 and fibrinogen, P=0.006 and PA:A ratios (P<0.001. A higher PA:A ratio was significantly closely correlated with a higher Bhalla score (r=0.412, P<0

  7. Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) for Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Andy Yuanguang; Bhatnagar, Jagdish; Bednarz, Greg; Flickinger, John; Arai, Yoshio; Vacsulka, Jonet; Feng, Wenzheng; Monaco, Edward; Niranjan, Ajay; Lunsford, L Dade; Huq, M Saiful

    2017-11-01

    Gamma Knife radiosurgery is a highly precise and accurate treatment technique for treating brain diseases with low risk of serious error that nevertheless could potentially be reduced. We applied the AAPM Task Group 100 recommended failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) tool to develop a risk-based quality management program for Gamma Knife radiosurgery. A team consisting of medical physicists, radiation oncologists, neurosurgeons, radiation safety officers, nurses, operating room technologists, and schedulers at our institution and an external physicist expert on Gamma Knife was formed for the FMEA study. A process tree and a failure mode table were created for the Gamma Knife radiosurgery procedures using the Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion and 4C units. Three scores for the probability of occurrence (O), the severity (S), and the probability of no detection for failure mode (D) were assigned to each failure mode by 8 professionals on a scale from 1 to 10. An overall risk priority number (RPN) for each failure mode was then calculated from the averaged O, S, and D scores. The coefficient of variation for each O, S, or D score was also calculated. The failure modes identified were prioritized in terms of both the RPN scores and the severity scores. The established process tree for Gamma Knife radiosurgery consists of 10 subprocesses and 53 steps, including a subprocess for frame placement and 11 steps that are directly related to the frame-based nature of the Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Out of the 86 failure modes identified, 40 Gamma Knife specific failure modes were caused by the potential for inappropriate use of the radiosurgery head frame, the imaging fiducial boxes, the Gamma Knife helmets and plugs, the skull definition tools as well as other features of the GammaPlan treatment planning system. The other 46 failure modes are associated with the registration, imaging, image transfer, contouring processes that are common for all external beam radiation therapy

  8. Noninvasive estimation of pulmonary arterial pressure by analysis of pulmonary blood-flow distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstam, M.A.; Strauss, H.W.; Alpert, N.M.; Miller, S.W.; Murphy, R.X.; Greene, R.E.; McKusick, K.A.

    1979-01-01

    To determine whether a correlation exists between pulmonary arterial (PA) pressure (P/sub a/) and the distribution of pulmonary blood flow, this distribution was measured in four upright dogs in the control state and during intravenous infusions of epinephrine or prostaglandin F/sub 2α/. During suspension of respiration, 15 mCi of Xe-133 were injected intravenously, and perfusion and equilibration lung images were recorded with a scintillation camera. The procedure was performed several times on each dog, with and without pharmacological elevation of PA pressure by 5 to 50 cm H 2 O. For each scintigram, the relative blood flow per unit ventilated lung volume (F) was plotted against centimeters above the hilum (h). Pulmonary arterial pressure was derived from each curve, assuming the relation F = B(P/sub a/ - hD) 2 , where B = constant and D = specific gravity of blood. Calculated PA pressure correlated strongly (r = 0.83) with measured PA pressure, suggesting a possible means of noninvasive estimation of PA pressure

  9. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with increased risk of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Vincent Yi-Fong; Hu, Li-Yu; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Shen, Cheng-Che; Chou, Kun-Ta; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Lu, Ti; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai; Liu, Chia-Jen

    2017-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified a trend in the development of depressive and anxiety disorders following a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the relationship between COPD and subsequent bipolar disorder remains unclear. From January 1, 2000, we identified adult patients with COPD from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A nationwide population-based study was conducted; 46,778 COPD patients and 46,778 age-, sex-, and comorbidity-matched subjects between 2000 and 2011 were enrolled. The two cohorts were followed up till December 31, 2011 and observed for occurrence of bipolar disorder. We observed the COPD and comparison cohorts for 263,020 and 267,895 person-years, respectively, from 2000 to 2011. The incidence rate for bipolar disorder was 1.6/1000 person-years in the COPD cohort and 1.2/1000 person-years in the comparison cohort ( p bipolar disorder among the COPD patients was 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-1.64; p bipolar disorder development (HR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.25-2.69, p = 0.002). Other COPD medications were not associated with the risk of bipolar disorder development. The study results indicate that COPD may be an independent risk factor for the development of bipolar disorder. The regular use of SABAs might increase the risk of bipolar disorder in COPD patients.

  10. Variable Resistance to Plasminogen Activator Initiated Fibrinolysis for Intermediate-Risk Pulmonary Embolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B Stubblefield

    Full Text Available We examine the clinical significance and biomarkers of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA-catalyzed clot lysis time (CLT in patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism (PE.Platelet-poor, citrated plasma was obtained from patients with PE. Healthy age- and sex-matched patients served as disease-negative controls. Fibrinogen, α2-antiplasmin, plasminogen, thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI, plasminogen activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, thrombin time and D-dimer were quantified. Clotting was induced using CaCl2, tissue factor, and phospholipid. Lysis was induced using 60 ng/mL tPA. Time to 50% clot lysis (CLT was assessed by both thromboelastography (TEG and turbidimetry (A405.Compared with disease-negative controls, patients with PE exhibited significantly longer mean CLT on TEG (+2,580 seconds, 95% CI 1,380 to 3,720 sec. Patients with PE and a short CLT who were treated with tenecteplase had increased risk of bleeding, whereas those with long CLT had significantly worse exercise tolerance and psychometric testing for quality of life at 3 months. A multivariate stepwise removal regression model selected PAI-1 and TAFI as predictive biomarkers of CLT.The CLT from TEG predicted increased risk of bleeding and clinical failure with tenecteplase treatment for intermediate-risk PE. Plasmatic PAI-1 and TAFI were independent predictors of CLT.

  11. Use of Respiratory Support in the Biphase Ventilation Airway Mode in the Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Koval

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biphasic positive airway pressure (BIPAP (also known as DuoPAP, BiLevel, BiVent, PCV+, SPAP is a mode of ventilation with cycling variations between two continuous positive airway pressure levels. It is a mixture of pressure controlled ventilation and spontaneous breathing, which is unrestricted in each phase of the respiratory cycle. The volume displacement caused by the difference between Phigh and Plow airway pressure level. The phase time ratio (PTR — the BIPAP frequency is calculated as the ratio between the durations of the two pressure phases, a PTR greater than 1:1 is called APRV (airway pressure release ventilation. In patients with ARDS maintained spontaneous breathing with BIPAP resulted in lower venous admixture and better arterial blood oxygenation as compared with A/C. Only a few studies with BIPAP have been performed in newborn and infants until now. We studied the use of BIPAP in newborn (body mass > 3kg and randomised 40 patients with respiratory failure for ventilation with BIPAP (n=20 or conventional mechanical ventilatory support (assist-control A/C — synchronised intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV (n=20. The Pediatric Risk of Mortality score (PRISM were collected for each patient. Fentanyl, diazepam, GABA were used as sedatives and adjusted in accordance with the Cook scale. We compared ventilatory parameters, information pertaining to pulmonary function and oxygen delivery, cardiac output, additional descriptors of organ system functions, duration and complications of ventilation and number and dosages of sedatives administered. All the patients that we intended to ventilate with BIPAP were successfully ventilated, we can conclude that biphasic ventilatory support suitable mode of ventilation for newborn with a decreased need of analgetics and sedatives than A/C. Finally, BIPAP is an a effective safe, and easy to use for personal mode of mechanical ventilatory support in newborn. 

  12. Upfront triple combination therapy-induced pulmonary edema in a case of pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with Sjogren's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimikazu Takeuchi

    Full Text Available Clinical efficacy of combination therapy using vasodilators for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is well established. However, information on its safety are limited. We experienced a case of primary Sjogren's syndrome associated with PAH where the patient developed pulmonary edema immediately after the introduction of upfront triple combination therapy. Although the combination therapy successfully stabilized her pre-shock state, multiple ground glass opacities (GGO emerged. We aborted the dose escalation of epoprostenol and initiated continuous furosemide infusion and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV, but this did not prevent an exacerbation of pulmonary edema. Chest computed tomography showing diffuse alveolar infiltrates without inter-lobular septal thickening suggests the pulmonary edema was unlikely due to cardiogenic pulmonary edema and pulmonary venous occlusive disease. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was also denied from no remarkable inflammatory sign and negative results of drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation tests (DLST. We diagnosed the etiological mechanism as pulmonary vasodilator-induced trans-capillary fluid leakage. Following steroid pulse therapy dramatically improved GGO. We realized that overmuch dose escalation of epoprostenol on the top of dual upfront combination poses the risk of pulmonary edema. Steroid pulse therapy might be effective in cases of vasodilator-induced pulmonary edema in Sjogren's syndrome associated with PAH. Keywords: Steroid therapy, Ground glass opacity, Inter-lobular septal thickening, Epoprostenol, Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Trans-capillary fluid leakage

  13. The risk of major nuclear accident: calculation and perception of probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Whereas before the Fukushima accident, already eight major accidents occurred in nuclear power plants, a number which is higher than that expected by experts and rather close to that corresponding of people perception of risk, the author discusses how to understand these differences and reconcile observations, objective probability of accidents and subjective assessment of risks, why experts have been over-optimistic, whether public opinion is irrational regarding nuclear risk, and how to measure risk and its perception. Thus, he addresses and discusses the following issues: risk calculation (cost, calculated frequency of major accident, bias between the number of observed accidents and model predictions), perceived probabilities and aversion for disasters (perception biases of probability, perception biases unfavourable to nuclear), the Bayes contribution and its application (Bayes-Laplace law, statistics, choice of an a priori probability, prediction of the next event, probability of a core fusion tomorrow)

  14. A streamlined failure mode and effects analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Eric C.; Smith, Koren; Terezakis, Stephanie; Croog, Victoria; Gollamudi, Smitha; Gage, Irene; Keck, Jordie; DeWeese, Theodore; Sibley, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Explore the feasibility and impact of a streamlined failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) using a structured process that is designed to minimize staff effort. Methods: FMEA for the external beam process was conducted at an affiliate radiation oncology center that treats approximately 60 patients per day. A structured FMEA process was developed which included clearly defined roles and goals for each phase. A core group of seven people was identified and a facilitator was chosen to lead the effort. Failure modes were identified and scored according to the FMEA formalism. A risk priority number,RPN, was calculated and used to rank failure modes. Failure modes with RPN > 150 received safety improvement interventions. Staff effort was carefully tracked throughout the project. Results: Fifty-two failure modes were identified, 22 collected during meetings, and 30 from take-home worksheets. The four top-ranked failure modes were: delay in film check, missing pacemaker protocol/consent, critical structures not contoured, and pregnant patient simulated without the team's knowledge of the pregnancy. These four failure modes hadRPN > 150 and received safety interventions. The FMEA was completed in one month in four 1-h meetings. A total of 55 staff hours were required and, additionally, 20 h by the facilitator. Conclusions: Streamlined FMEA provides a means of accomplishing a relatively large-scale analysis with modest effort. One potential value of FMEA is that it potentially provides a means of measuring the impact of quality improvement efforts through a reduction in risk scores. Future study of this possibility is needed

  15. A streamlined failure mode and effects analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Eric C; Smith, Koren; Terezakis, Stephanie; Croog, Victoria; Gollamudi, Smitha; Gage, Irene; Keck, Jordie; DeWeese, Theodore; Sibley, Greg

    2014-06-01

    Explore the feasibility and impact of a streamlined failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) using a structured process that is designed to minimize staff effort. FMEA for the external beam process was conducted at an affiliate radiation oncology center that treats approximately 60 patients per day. A structured FMEA process was developed which included clearly defined roles and goals for each phase. A core group of seven people was identified and a facilitator was chosen to lead the effort. Failure modes were identified and scored according to the FMEA formalism. A risk priority number,RPN, was calculated and used to rank failure modes. Failure modes with RPN > 150 received safety improvement interventions. Staff effort was carefully tracked throughout the project. Fifty-two failure modes were identified, 22 collected during meetings, and 30 from take-home worksheets. The four top-ranked failure modes were: delay in film check, missing pacemaker protocol/consent, critical structures not contoured, and pregnant patient simulated without the team's knowledge of the pregnancy. These four failure modes had RPN > 150 and received safety interventions. The FMEA was completed in one month in four 1-h meetings. A total of 55 staff hours were required and, additionally, 20 h by the facilitator. Streamlined FMEA provides a means of accomplishing a relatively large-scale analysis with modest effort. One potential value of FMEA is that it potentially provides a means of measuring the impact of quality improvement efforts through a reduction in risk scores. Future study of this possibility is needed.

  16. A streamlined failure mode and effects analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Eric C., E-mail: eford@uw.edu; Smith, Koren; Terezakis, Stephanie; Croog, Victoria; Gollamudi, Smitha; Gage, Irene; Keck, Jordie; DeWeese, Theodore; Sibley, Greg [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Explore the feasibility and impact of a streamlined failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) using a structured process that is designed to minimize staff effort. Methods: FMEA for the external beam process was conducted at an affiliate radiation oncology center that treats approximately 60 patients per day. A structured FMEA process was developed which included clearly defined roles and goals for each phase. A core group of seven people was identified and a facilitator was chosen to lead the effort. Failure modes were identified and scored according to the FMEA formalism. A risk priority number,RPN, was calculated and used to rank failure modes. Failure modes with RPN > 150 received safety improvement interventions. Staff effort was carefully tracked throughout the project. Results: Fifty-two failure modes were identified, 22 collected during meetings, and 30 from take-home worksheets. The four top-ranked failure modes were: delay in film check, missing pacemaker protocol/consent, critical structures not contoured, and pregnant patient simulated without the team's knowledge of the pregnancy. These four failure modes hadRPN > 150 and received safety interventions. The FMEA was completed in one month in four 1-h meetings. A total of 55 staff hours were required and, additionally, 20 h by the facilitator. Conclusions: Streamlined FMEA provides a means of accomplishing a relatively large-scale analysis with modest effort. One potential value of FMEA is that it potentially provides a means of measuring the impact of quality improvement efforts through a reduction in risk scores. Future study of this possibility is needed.

  17. Prothrombin fragment 1+2 in urine as a marker on coagulation activity in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexels, Fredrik; Dahl, Ola E; Pripp, Are H; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Borris, Lars C; Haslund, Anniken; Gudmundsen, Tor E; Lauritzen, Trine; Lassen, Michael R

    2014-07-01

    We have recently reported that increased levels of urine prothrombin fragment 1+2 reflected radiologically verified deep vein thrombosis. In this study we evaluated whether urine prothrombin fragment 1+2 was associated with pulmonary embolism in non-selected patients. Patients with clinical suspected pulmonary embolism were interviewed on comorbidities and medications. Urine was collected from each patient before radiological examination and snap frozen until analysed on urine prothrombin fragment 1+2 with an ELISA kit. Imaging of the pulmonary arteries were conducted with contrast enhanced computer tomography. Pulmonary embolism was diagnosed in 44/197 patients. Non-significantly higher urine prothrombin fragment 1+2 levels were found in non-selected patients with pulmonary embolism vs. those without (p=0.324). Significantly higher urine prothrombin fragment 1+2 levels were found in the pulmonary embolism positive patients without comorbidities (n=13) compared to the control group (n=28) (p=0.009). The calculated sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value using the lowest detectable urine prothrombin fragment 1+2 level was 82%, 34% and 87%, respectively. There was no significant urine prothrombin fragment 1+2 level difference in patients with and without pulmonary embolism. In non-comorbide pulmonary embolism positive patients the urine prothrombin fragment 1+2 levels were significantly higher compared to the control group. The negative predictive value found in this study indicates that uF1+2 has the potential to identify patients with a low risk of PE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis induces a unique pulmonary inflammatory response: role of bacterial gene expression in temporal regulation of host defense responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathie-Anne Walters

    Full Text Available Pulmonary exposure to Francisella tularensis is associated with severe lung pathology and a high mortality rate. The lack of induction of classical inflammatory mediators, including IL1-β and TNF-α, during early infection has led to the suggestion that F. tularensis evades detection by host innate immune surveillance and/or actively suppresses inflammation. To gain more insight into the host response to Francisella infection during the acute stage, transcriptomic analysis was performed on lung tissue from mice exposed to virulent (Francisella tularensis ssp tularensis SchuS4. Despite an extensive transcriptional response in the lungs of animals as early as 4 hrs post-exposure, Francisella tularensis was associated with an almost complete lack of induction of immune-related genes during the initial 24 hrs post-exposure. This broad subversion of innate immune responses was particularly evident when compared to the pulmonary inflammatory response induced by other lethal (Yersinia pestis and non-lethal (Legionella pneumophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa pulmonary infections. However, the unique induction of a subset of inflammation-related genes suggests a role for dysregulation of lymphocyte function and anti-inflammatory pathways in the extreme virulence of Francisella. Subsequent activation of a classical inflammatory response 48 hrs post-exposure was associated with altered abundance of Francisella-specific transcripts, including those associated with bacterial surface components. In summary, virulent Francisella induces a unique pulmonary inflammatory response characterized by temporal regulation of innate immune pathways correlating with altered bacterial gene expression patterns. This study represents the first simultaneous measurement of both host and Francisella transcriptome changes that occur during in vivo infection and identifies potential bacterial virulence factors responsible for regulation of host inflammatory pathways.

  19. Pulmonary extraction of serotonin and propranolol in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, D.R.; Dargent, F.; Bachmann, M.; Suter, P.M.; Junod, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    Because injury to the pulmonary vascular endothelium is associated with the development of the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the authors assessed the metabolic function of pulmonary endothelial cells by the measurements of the first-pass pulmonary extraction of [ 14 C]serotonin and [ 3 H]propranolol in 15 patients with ARDS and 15 patients at risk for developing ARDS. Serotonin extraction ratio was lower in patients with ARDS (0.85 +/- 0.10, mean +/- SD) than in patients at risk (0.91 +/- 0.04) (p less than 0.025), and both values were significantly reduced (p less than 0.005) when compared with a control group value (0.97 +/- 0.01). The decrease in serotonin extraction was correlated with the severity of ARDS (r = -0.67) (p less than 0.001) and with pulmonary function changes over time. Propranolol extraction ratio was decreased in patients at risk (0.66 +/- 0.11) (p less than 0.005) but not in patients with ARDS (0.75 +/- 0.11), when compared with those in the control group (0.81 +/- 0.03). Low values in patients at risk were restored to normal by continuous positive airway pressure breathing. The authors conclude that pulmonary extraction of serotonin, an index of pulmonary endothelial cell function, correlates with the severity of ARDS

  20. Classification and Risk-factor Analysis of Postoperative Cardio-pulmonary 
Complications after Lobectomy in Patients with Stage I Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutian LAI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective There are incresing lung cancer patients detected and diagnosed at the intermediate stage when the pre-malignant or early lesions are amenable to resection and cure, owing to the progress of medical technology, the renewal of detection methods, the popularity of medical screening and the improvement of social health consciousness. The aim of this study is to investigate the risk factors of the occurrence of postoperative cardio-pulmonary complications in stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients, based on routine laboratory tests, basic characteristics, and intraoperative variables in hospital. Methods The 421 patients after lobectomy in patients with stage I NSCLC at the West China Hospital of Sichuan University from January 2012 to December 2013 were included into the study and stratified into complication group and non-complication group, according to whether to occur postoperative cardio-pulmonary complications after lobectomy in 30 days. Results Of them, 64 (15.2% patients were finally identified and selected into the complication group, compared with 357 (84.8% in non-complication group: pneumonia (8.8%, 37/421 was the primary complication, and other main complications included atelectasis (5.9%, 25/421, pleural effusion (≥middle (5.0%, 21/421, persistent air leak (3.6%, 15/421; The operation time (P=0.007, amount of blood loss (P=0.034, preoperative chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (P=0.027, white blood cell (WBC count (P<0.001, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR (P<0.001 were significantly different between the two groups. According to the binary logistics regression analysis, preoperative COPD (OR=0.031, 95%CI: 0.012-0.078, P<0.001 and WBC count (OR=1.451, 95%CI: 1.212-1.736, P<0.001 were independent risk factors for postoperative cardio-pulmonary complications. Conclusion Among an array of clinical variables in hospital, operation time, preoperative white blood cell count, preoperative COPD

  1. Pulmonary health effects of agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Tara M; Bailey, Kristina L

    2016-03-01

    Occupational exposures in the agricultural industry are associated with numerous lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, lung cancer, and interstitial lung diseases. Efforts are ongoing to ascertain contributing factors to these negative respiratory outcomes and improve monitoring of environmental factors leading to disease. In this review, recently published studies investigating the deleterious effects of occupational exposures in the agricultural industry are discussed. Occupational exposures to numerous agricultural environment aerosols, including pesticides, fungi, and bacteria are associated with impaired respiratory function and disease. Increases in certain farming practices, including mushroom and greenhouse farming, present new occupational exposure concerns. Improved detection methods may provide opportunities to better monitor safe exposure levels to known lung irritants. In the agricultural industry, occupational exposures to organic and inorganic aerosols lead to increased risk for lung disease among workers. Increased awareness of respiratory risks and improved monitoring of agricultural environments are necessary to limit pulmonary health risks to exposed populations.

  2. Mathematical model for calculation of the heat-hydraulic modes of heating points of heat-supplying systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaginova, Z. I.

    2016-03-01

    The mathematical model and calculation method of the thermal-hydraulic modes of heat points, based on the theory of hydraulic circuits, being developed at the Melentiev Energy Systems Institute are presented. The redundant circuit of the heat point was developed, in which all possible connecting circuits (CC) of the heat engineering equipment and the places of possible installation of control valve were inserted. It allows simulating the operating modes both at central heat points (CHP) and individual heat points (IHP). The configuration of the desired circuit is carried out automatically by removing the unnecessary links. The following circuits connecting the heating systems (HS) are considered: the dependent circuit (direct and through mixing elevator) and independent one (through the heater). The following connecting circuits of the load of hot water supply (HWS) were considered: open CC (direct water pumping from pipelines of heat networks) and a closed CC with connecting the HWS heaters on single-level (serial and parallel) and two-level (sequential and combined) circuits. The following connecting circuits of the ventilation systems (VS) were also considered: dependent circuit and independent one through a common heat exchanger with HS load. In the heat points, water temperature regulators for the hot water supply and ventilation and flow regulators for the heating system, as well as to the inlet as a whole, are possible. According to the accepted decomposition, the model of the heat point is an integral part of the overall heat-hydraulic model of the heat-supplying system having intermediate control stages (CHP and IHP), which allows to consider the operating modes of the heat networks of different levels connected with each other through CHP as well as connected through IHP of consumers with various connecting circuits of local systems of heat consumption: heating, ventilation and hot water supply. The model is implemented in the Angara data

  3. Three cases of pulmonary thromboembolism and extensive prayer (invocation) activity as a new possible risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Minseob; Lim, Sung-Chul; Shin Kim, Youn

    2009-06-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is caused when thrombi are detached from the deep vein of the lower leg. In the field of forensic medicine, it is a well-known cause of sudden death. It has been reported that risk factors for PTE include surgery, trauma, extensive bed rest, and malignant neoplasm, among others; in addition, long-haul air travel is associated with a slightly increased risk for PTE, though such cases are rare. Recently, PTE had been reported in association with different conditions, such as ethrombosis, seated immobility thromboembolism, driving for long periods, and after traveling. The authors performed autopsies on 3 patients who died suddenly after 3 to 4 days of prayer in a prayer center or hermitage. It was confirmed that all deaths were caused by thrombi that had developed in the deep vein, obstructing the pulmonary artery. It was concluded that during repeated praying activities over an extensive time period, the kneeling position might have caused PTE. It is also possible that dehydration due to fasting may affect the formation of thrombi. According to the literature, PTE cases developed in association with prayer activity and position have not been reported to date, and so PTE caused by prayer activity is thought to be a new type of PTE developed in association with a certain life style. Therefore, people should be advised that a position involving a long period of immobilization, including long periods of prayer, could raise the risk of PTE. In addition, social policies to prevent the development of this kind of PTE are needed.

  4. Poor Baseline Pulmonary Function May Not Increase the Risk of Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jingbo [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Cao, Jianzhong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Yuan, Shuanghu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ji, Wei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Arenberg, Douglas [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Dai, Jianrong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Stanton, Paul; Tatro, Daniel; Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Wang, Luhua, E-mail: wlhwq@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Kong, Feng-Ming, E-mail: fengkong@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Poor pulmonary function (PF) is often considered a contraindication to definitive radiation therapy for lung cancer. This study investigated whether baseline PF was associated with radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving conformal radiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: NSCLC patients treated with CRT and tested for PF at baseline were eligible. Baseline predicted values of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and diffusion capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were analyzed. Additional factors included age, gender, smoking status, Karnofsky performance status, coexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tumor location, histology, concurrent chemotherapy, radiation dose, and mean lung dose (MLD) were evaluated for RILT. The primary endpoint was symptomatic RILT (SRILT), including grade ≥2 radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. Results: There was a total of 260 patients, and SRILT occurred in 58 (22.3%) of them. Mean FEV1 values for SRILT and non-SRILT patients were 71.7% and 65.9% (P=.077). Under univariate analysis, risk of SRILT increased with MLD (P=.008), the absence of COPD (P=.047), and FEV1 (P=.077). Age (65 split) and MLD were significantly associated with SRILT in multivariate analysis. The addition of FEV1 and age with the MLD-based model slightly improved the predictability of SRILT (area under curve from 0.63-0.70, P=.088). Conclusions: Poor baseline PF does not increase the risk of SRILT, and combining FEV1, age, and MLD may improve the predictive ability.

  5. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. D. Bazdyrev

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to detect previously undiagnosed arterial hypertension in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality.Materials and methods. 43 patients with stage I–II of COPD and the absence of clinical signs of cardiovascular diseases were examined. Spirometry, body plethysmography and diffusing lung capacity (DLCO were included in the respiratory system assessment. The cardiovascular system was assessed with echocardiography and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM.Results. Despite the absence of obvious signs of cardiovascular lesions (an increase of office blood pressure, intracardiac hemodynamic changes, the following cardiovascular risk factors were identified: age (58.2 ± 2.0 years, male gender, smoking, hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia (total cholesterol 5.9 ± 0.9 mmol / l, low density lipoproteins 3.8 ± 0.5 mmol / l, triglycerides 1.8 ± 0.2 mmol / l. Correlation analysis has revealed the relation between several respiratory parameters and the severity of dyspnea and quality of life in patients with COPD, as well as its relation with lipid levels.Conclusion. The patients with COPD have a large number of risk factors for CVD. According to ABPM data, arterial hypertension was verified in 18 (41.9 % of 43 patients with COPD at normal level of office blood pressure; moreover, 51.2 % of patients demonstrated low reduction of blood pressure during the night-time that nowadays, is considered to be a predictor of cardiovascular disease and sudden death.

  6. Risk analysis of analytical validations by probabilistic modification of FMEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barends, D M; Oldenhof, M T; Vredenbregt, M J; Nauta, M J

    2012-05-01

    Risk analysis is a valuable addition to validation of an analytical chemistry process, enabling not only detecting technical risks, but also risks related to human failures. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) can be applied, using a categorical risk scoring of the occurrence, detection and severity of failure modes, and calculating the Risk Priority Number (RPN) to select failure modes for correction. We propose a probabilistic modification of FMEA, replacing the categorical scoring of occurrence and detection by their estimated relative frequency and maintaining the categorical scoring of severity. In an example, the results of traditional FMEA of a Near Infrared (NIR) analytical procedure used for the screening of suspected counterfeited tablets are re-interpretated by this probabilistic modification of FMEA. Using this probabilistic modification of FMEA, the frequency of occurrence of undetected failure mode(s) can be estimated quantitatively, for each individual failure mode, for a set of failure modes, and the full analytical procedure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Nociceptor sensory neurons suppress neutrophil and γδ T cell responses in bacterial lung infections and lethal pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Pankaj; Umans, Benjamin D; Li, Lu; Wallrapp, Antonia; Bist, Meghna; Kirschbaum, Talia; Wei, Yibing; Zhou, Yan; Kuchroo, Vijay K; Burkett, Patrick R; Yipp, Bryan G; Liberles, Stephen D; Chiu, Isaac M

    2018-05-01

    Lung-innervating nociceptor sensory neurons detect noxious or harmful stimuli and consequently protect organisms by mediating coughing, pain, and bronchoconstriction. However, the role of sensory neurons in pulmonary host defense is unclear. Here, we found that TRPV1 + nociceptors suppressed protective immunity against lethal Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia. Targeted TRPV1 + -neuron ablation increased survival, cytokine induction, and lung bacterial clearance. Nociceptors suppressed the recruitment and surveillance of neutrophils, and altered lung γδ T cell numbers, which are necessary for immunity. Vagal ganglia TRPV1 + afferents mediated immunosuppression through release of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Targeting neuroimmunological signaling may be an effective approach to treat lung infections and bacterial pneumonia.

  8. [Invasive nosocomial pulmonary aspergillosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germaud, P; Haloun, A

    2001-04-01

    Immunodepressed patients, particularly those with neutropenia or bone marrow or organ grafts, are at risk of developing nosocomial invasive pulmonary aspergilosis. The favoring factors, early diagnostic criteria and curative treatment protocols are well known. Prognosis remains however quite severe with a death rate above 50%. Preventive measures are required for the treatment of these high-risk patients and epidemiology surveillance is needed in case of aspergillosis acquired in the hospital.

  9. Pulmonary functions in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Gulfidan; Saler, Tayyibe; Saglam, Zuhal Aydan; Yenigun, Mustafa; Ataoglu, Esra; Demir, Tuncalp; Temiz, Levent Umit

    2011-10-01

    To determine whether alterations in pulmonary function takes place in subclinical hypothyroidism by examining the diffusion lung capacity and muscle strength of such patients. This is a descriptive study conducted in 2009 at Haseki Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. Hundred and twenty-six patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and 58 age and sex matched individuals were recruited. Simple spirometry tests were performed, and pulmonary diffusion capacity (DLco) and muscle strength were measured. ScH patients showed a significant reduciton of the following pulmonary function tests (% predicted value) as compared with control subjects: FVC, FEV1, FEV1%, FEF25-75, FEF25-75%, DLco, DLco/VA, Pimax, Pimax% and Pemax%. These data indicate that pulmonary functions are effected in subclinical hypothyrodism. Therefore patients with or who are at high risk of having subclinical hypothyroidism, should be subjected to evaluation of pulmonary functions with simple spirometry.

  10. RADTRAN3, Risk of Radioactive Material Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, M.M.; Taylor, J.M.; Ostmeyer, R.M.; Reardon, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: RADTRAN3 is a flexible analytical tool for calculating both the incident-free and accident impacts of transporting radioactive materials. The consequences from incident-free shipments are apportioned among eight population sub- groups and can be calculated for several transport modes. The radiological accident risk (probability times consequence summed over all postulated accidents) is calculated in terms of early fatalities, early morbidities, latent cancer fatalities, genetic effects, and economic impacts. Ground-shine, ingestion, inhalation, direct exposure, resuspension, and cloud-shine dose pathways are modeled to calculate the radiological health risks from accidents. Economic impacts are evaluated based on costs for emergency response, cleanup, evacuation, income loss, and land use. RADTRAN3 can be applied to specific scenario evaluations (individual transport modes or specified combinations), to compare alternative modes or to evaluate generic radioactive material shipments. Unit-risk factors can easily be evaluated to aid in performing generic analyses when several options must be compared with the amount of travel as the only variable. RADTRAN4 offers advances in the handling of route-related data and in the treatment of multiple-isotope materials. 2 - Method of solution: There are several modes used in the transporting of radioactive material such as trucks, passenger vans, passenger airplanes, rail and others. With these modes of transport come several shipment scenarios. The RADTRAN4 methodology uses material, transportation, population distribution, and health effects models to treat the incident-free case. To handle the vehicle accident impacts, accident severity and package release, meteorological dispersion, and economic models are also employed. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: There are no apparent limitations due to programming dimensions

  11. Influence of risk factors on development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and legislative foundations for copd medical care in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhalchuk, Vasyl M; Vasyliev, Averian G

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Out of all respiratory diseases COPD is the leading cause of death and is characterized with diffuse non-reversible airway obstruction. Many various components play role in development and progression of this disease, while COPD risk factors play the most prominent role. Further progress in healthcare system development around COPD in Ukraine requires analysis of legislation, regulating pulmonological medical service in Ukraine. The aim: To analyze the influence of major risk factors on the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and to determine key legislative aspects of the organization of medical care for COPD patients in Ukraine. Materials and methods: 50 medical literature sources were systematically reviewed as the material for the research of COPD risk factors and their impact on studies disease. Also, an analysis of existing legislative acts regulating the pulmonological medical care in Ukraine, specifically, in patients with COPD, was conducted. Conclusions: There is a need to develop and implement a set of organizational and medical measures aiming at addressing the priorities of public healthcare, and specifically improvement of the quality of medical care for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Ukraine.

  12. Mining of lethal recessive genetic variation in Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    in fertility. The primary objective of this PhD projekt was to identify recessive lethal gentic variants in the main Danish dairy cattle breed. Holstein-Friesian utilzing next generation sequencing (NGS) data. This study shows a potential for the use of the NGS-based reverse genetic approach in identifying...... lethal or semi-lethal recessive gentic variation...

  13. Risk factors for unfavorable outcome of pulmonary tuberculosis in adults in Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yung-Feng; Yen, Muh-Yong; Shih, Hsiu-Chen; Deng, Chung-Yeh

    2012-05-01

    This study was undertaken to identify factors associated with unfavorable outcomes in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Taipei, Taiwan in 2007-2008. Taiwanese adults with culture-positive PTB diagnosed in Taipei during the study period were included in this retrospective cohort study. Unfavorable outcomes were classified as treatment default, death, treatment failure, or transfer. Of 1616 eligible patients, 22.6% (365) had unfavorable outcomes, mainly death. After controlling for patient sociodemographic factors, clinical findings, and underlying disease, independent risk factors for unfavorable outcomes included advanced age, unemployment, end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis, malignancy, acid-fast bacilius smear-positivity, multidrug-resistant TB, and notification from ordinary ward or intensive care unit. In contrast, patients receiving directly observed treatment, and with a high school or higher education were significantly less likely to have unfavorable outcomes. This study advanced our understanding by revealing that a high school or higher education might lower the risk of an unfavorable outcome. Our results also confirmed the risk factors for unfavorable outcomes shown in previous research. Future TB control programmes in Taiwan should target particularly high-risk patients including those who had lower educational levels. Copyright © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. MODELING OF THREE-PHASE THREE LEG TRANSFORMER DEVICES FOR ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS OF ASYMMETRICAL MODES FOR DIFFERENT SCHEMES OF WINDING CONNECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosneaga V.A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The model is proposed for the calculation and research of steady state asymmetric modes and transients in three-phase three legs transformer devices with arbitrary diagram of windings connection, taking into account the electromagnetic coupling of the windings, located on different legs. Using as an example distribution transformer of 10/0.4 kV calculations and analysis were performed of the most characteristic steady asymmetrical modes, that occur during short circuit, phase failure, unbalanced load for the most common windings connections and, in particular, associated with the occurrence of zero sequence magnetic flow. For the considered regimes and schemes vector diagrams were constructed for currents and voltages as well as for the relative values of magnetic flow, which give a clear idea about their particular features.

  15. MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR CALCULATION OF INFORMATION RISKS FOR INFORMATION AND LOGISTICS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Korobeynikov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of research. The paper deals with mathematical model for assessment calculation of information risks arising during transporting and distribution of material resources in the conditions of uncertainty. Meanwhile information risks imply the danger of origin of losses or damage as a result of application of information technologies by the company. Method. The solution is based on ideology of the transport task solution in stochastic statement with mobilization of mathematical modeling theory methods, the theory of graphs, probability theory, Markov chains. Creation of mathematical model is performed through the several stages. At the initial stage, capacity on different sites depending on time is calculated, on the basis of information received from information and logistic system, the weight matrix is formed and the digraph is under construction. Then there is a search of the minimum route which covers all specified vertexes by means of Dejkstra algorithm. At the second stage, systems of differential Kolmogorov equations are formed using information about the calculated route. The received decisions show probabilities of resources location in concrete vertex depending on time. At the third stage, general probability of the whole route passing depending on time is calculated on the basis of multiplication theorem of probabilities. Information risk, as time function, is defined by multiplication of the greatest possible damage by the general probability of the whole route passing. In this case information risk is measured in units of damage which corresponds to that monetary unit which the information and logistic system operates with. Main results. Operability of the presented mathematical model is shown on a concrete example of transportation of material resources where places of shipment and delivery, routes and their capacity, the greatest possible damage and admissible risk are specified. The calculations presented on a diagram showed

  16. Genetic influences on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - a twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylvan Ingebrigtsen, Truls; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Genes that contribute to the risk of developing Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) have been identified, but an attempt to accurately quantify the total genetic contribution to COPD has to our knowledge never been conducted.......Genes that contribute to the risk of developing Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) have been identified, but an attempt to accurately quantify the total genetic contribution to COPD has to our knowledge never been conducted....

  17. Prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers in a hospital for pulmonary diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diel Roland

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infections (LTBI in health care workers (HCW in low-incidence countries especially in hospitals for pulmonary diseases. With Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA, a new method for diagnosis of LTBI is available which is more specific than the tuberculin skin test (TST. Objectives The study was designed to estimate prevalence of LTBI among 270 HCW in a Hospital of Pulmonary Diseases routinely screened for TB. Methods LTBI was assessed by the QuantiFERON-Gold In Tube (QFT-IT. Information on gender, age, workplace, job title, BCG vaccination and history of both TB and TST were collected using a standardised questionnaire. Adjusted odds ratios for potential risk factors for LTBI were calculated. Results The prevalence of LTBI was 7.2%. In HCW younger than 30 years LTBI prevalence was 3.5% and in those older than 50 years 22%. Physicians and nurses showed a higher prevalence rate than other professions (10.8% to 4.5%. The putative risk factors for LTBI were age (>50 year OR 9.3, 95%CI 2.5–33.7, working as physicians/nurses (OR 3. 95%CI 1.2–10.4 and no previous TST in medical history (OR 4.4, 95%CI 1.01–18.9 when compared to those with a negative TST. Conclusion Prevalence of LTBI assessed by QFT-IT is low, this indicates a low infection risk even in hospitals for pulmonary diseases. No statement can be made regarding the occupational risk as compared to the general population because there are no LTBI prevalence data from Germany available. The higher LTBI prevalence rate in older HCWs might be due to the cohort effect or the longer time at risk.

  18. A European Commission software tool for radon risk calculation and evaluation of countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degrange, J.P.; Levy, F.P. [CEPN, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Birchall, A.; Haylock, R.; Marsh, J.; Muirhead, C. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom); Janssens, A. [European Commission, DG XI (Luxembourg)

    2000-05-01

    The effects of exposure to radon on workers and members of the public have been examined for many years. Recent advances have been made in evaluating the risk associated with radon exposure and in implementing remediation programmes in dwellings. However, decisions about whether to implement countermeasures to reduce radon exposures may benefit from an enhanced capability to evaluate and understand the associated health risk. In this context, the European Commission has launched a project to develop a user friendly software package based upon current information on radon epidemiology, radon dosimetry, demography, and countermeasure efficiency. The software has been designed to perform lung cancer risk calculations specific to European populations for various exposure profiles and to evaluate, in terms of risk reduction, the efficiency of various countermeasures in dwellings. This paper presents an overview of the general structure of the software and outlines its most important modelling approaches. The software is able to evaluate the risk of fatal lung cancer associated with individual or collective exposure to radon. The individual risk calculation module determines, for an individual of given age, sex and tobacco consumption, the excess risk for a given exposure (past or future exposure) time-profile, on the basis of demographic data (WHO, 1996 and 1998) specific to the selected population. The collective risk calculation module determines the excess risk for each occupant of a dwelling, for an exposure time-profile derived from data describing the dwelling, its occupancy, and the chosen countermeasures. These calculations may be done using one of two classical approaches: 1) The epidemiological approach in which the risk is obtained directly from the radon exposure data using a risk model (BEIR IV, 1988; BEIR VI, 1999) derived from epidemiological studies of uranium miners; 2) The dosimetric approach in which the risk is derived from the radon exposure data

  19. A European Commission software tool for radon risk calculation and evaluation of countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrange, J.P.; Levy, F.P.; Birchall, A.; Haylock, R.; Marsh, J.; Muirhead, C.; Janssens, A.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of exposure to radon on workers and members of the public have been examined for many years. Recent advances have been made in evaluating the risk associated with radon exposure and in implementing remediation programmes in dwellings. However, decisions about whether to implement countermeasures to reduce radon exposures may benefit from an enhanced capability to evaluate and understand the associated health risk. In this context, the European Commission has launched a project to develop a user friendly software package based upon current information on radon epidemiology, radon dosimetry, demography, and countermeasure efficiency. The software has been designed to perform lung cancer risk calculations specific to European populations for various exposure profiles and to evaluate, in terms of risk reduction, the efficiency of various countermeasures in dwellings. This paper presents an overview of the general structure of the software and outlines its most important modelling approaches. The software is able to evaluate the risk of fatal lung cancer associated with individual or collective exposure to radon. The individual risk calculation module determines, for an individual of given age, sex and tobacco consumption, the excess risk for a given exposure (past or future exposure) time-profile, on the basis of demographic data (WHO, 1996 and 1998) specific to the selected population. The collective risk calculation module determines the excess risk for each occupant of a dwelling, for an exposure time-profile derived from data describing the dwelling, its occupancy, and the chosen countermeasures. These calculations may be done using one of two classical approaches: 1) The epidemiological approach in which the risk is obtained directly from the radon exposure data using a risk model (BEIR IV, 1988; BEIR VI, 1999) derived from epidemiological studies of uranium miners; 2) The dosimetric approach in which the risk is derived from the radon exposure data

  20. Chronic mucus hypersecretion in COPD and death from pulmonary infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Lange, P; Vestbo, J

    1995-01-01

    The association of chronic mucus hypersecretion and mortality is a matter of debate. We wished to determine whether the relationship between chronic mucus hypersecretion and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-related mortality could be explained by proneness to pulmonary infection. We...... with pulmonary infection implicated (relative risk (RR) 3.5) but not of death without pulmonary infection (RR 0.9). We consider that subjects with COPD and chronic mucus hypersecretion are more likely to die from pulmonary infections than subjects without chronic mucus hypersecretion. This may explain the excess...... radiography, death was classified as either due to pulmonary infection (n = 38), other causes (n = 51), or unclassifiable (n = 12). Of subjects reporting chronic mucus hypersecretion at the initial examination, pulmonary infection was implicated in 54% of deaths, whereas this only occurred in 28% of subjects...

  1. Estrogen exposure, obesity and thyroid disease in women with severe pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweeney Lori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Severe pulmonary hypertension is a lethal group of disorders which preferentially afflicts women. It appears that in recent years the patient profile has shifted towards older, obese, and postmenopausal women, suggesting that endocrine factors may be important. Several studies have revealed an increased prevalence of thyroid disease in these patients, but no studies have evaluated for a coexistence of endocrine factors. In particular, no studies have attempted to evaluate for concurrent thyroid disease, obesity and long-term estrogen exposure in patients. 88 patients attending the Pulmonary Hypertension Association 8th International meeting completed a questionnaire and were interviewed. Information was collected regarding reproductive history, height, weight, and previous diagnosis of thyroid disease. 46% met criteria for obesity. 41% reported a diagnosis of thyroid disease. 81% of women reported prior use of hormone therapy. 70% reported greater than 10 years of exogenous hormone use. 74% of female patients reported two or more of potentially disease modifying endocrine factors (obesity, thyroid disease or estrogen therapy. The coexistent high prevalence in our cohort of exogenous estrogen exposure, thyroid disease and obesity suggests that an interaction of multiple endocrine factors might contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension and may represent epigenetic modifiers in genetically-susceptible individuals.

  2. Pulmonary hypertension and echocardiogram parameters in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H T; Chee, K H; Chong, A W

    2017-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a growing health hazard in the United States and worldwide. OSA is now recognized as a disorder with systemic manifestations and its association with obesity and adverse cardiovascular consequences. There is increasing evidence that OSA may be associated with systemic hypertension and an increased incidence of stroke, heart failure, myocardial infarction, and arrhythmias. Less information is available about the association between OSA and pulmonary hypertension (PH). We therefore conduct this study to look at the prevalence of the pulmonary hypertension in obstructive sleep apnea patient and to identify risk factors leading to pulmonary hypertension among OSA patient. We studied and analyzed all OSA patient confirmed by polysomnograph in the year 2015. Twenty-five patients with OSA were included in this study with prevalence of pulmonary hypertension of 16%. Univariate analysis of various factors revealed a statistically significant association between having the lowest SpO 2 of pulmonary hypertension (p = 0.016). There were no statistically significant associations between age, gender, smoking status, hypertension, body mass index (BMI), or apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) with occurrence of pulmonary hypertension. AHI is not a good predictor for pulmonary hypertension. The real value of using AHI to predict the health risk of OSA is doubtful. We recommend routine echocardiogram among OSA patient. The objective information in the echocardiogram provides evidence for counseling of patient with disease of OSA and hence hopefully can improve compliance of patient to treatment especially usage of CPAP.

  3. Risks of on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to sulfur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoozabadi, Mehdi Dehghani; Sheikhi, Mohammad Ali; Rahmani, Hossein; Ebadi, Ahmad; Heidari, Amanollah; Gholizadeh, Behnam; Sharifi, Khosrow

    2017-10-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a toxic chemical agent that belongs to a class of vesicant compounds. In the 1980s it was used by the Iraqi army against Iranian forces. Sulfur mustard severely irritates the skin, eyes and lungs. The highest side effects seen in patients affected by this gas are pulmonary complications including different types of lung diseases such as bronchiolitis. It has also led to a certain type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease called mustard lung. Similar extra-pulmonary, molecular and hormonal effects can be observed in these patients and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Here cardiovascular complications may be one of the most dangerous visible effects. And atherosclerosis is probable following the direct effects or consequential long-term effects of SM. The development of atherosclerosis in these patients is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and coronary artery disease. Coronary artery bypass grafting surgery is the treatment of coronary artery disease. Doing this surgery by bypass pump has its own morbidity and due to local and systemic inflammation changes in patients with SM pulmonary disorders it may have more side effects. Therefore, detailed knowledge of inflammatory diseases as well as the serum level or even the local lung fluid of the inflammatory factors in these patients before surgery are needed so that it would be possible to reduce the rate of morbidity and mortality by normalizing the inflammatory conditions of the patients before cardiac surgery.

  4. Videodensitometry in rats with pulmonary damage due to microembolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegenius, G.; Wegener, T.; Ruhn, G.; Saldeen, T.; Erikson, U.

    Serial pulmonary angiography with videodensitometry was performed in 18 rats with pulmonary damage caused by administration of a fibrinolysis inhibitor, tranexamic acid (200 mg/kg body weight injected intraperitoneally) and bovine thrombin (500 NIH/kg body weight injected into the right femoral vein). The mean transit time (MTT) was calculated from videodensitometry, the observed area of interest consisting of approximately one-third of the right lung, including both central and peripheral parts. The impact of the pulmonary damage was analysed by morphologic methods and correlated to MTT. Although a pressure rise presumably occurred in the pulmonary circulation, no change in MTT was found after induction of pulmonary damage, indicating opening of actual and potential anastomoses between pulmonary arterioles and venules to serve as by-pass portions and as a safety-valve mechanism for the capillary bed and the right heart, respectively. Another explanation to unchanged MTT may be opening of resting capillary beds. Two rats with very severe pulmonary damage showed prolonged MTT. These rats may have suffered from cardiac failure.

  5. Videodensitometry in rats with pulmonary damage due to microembolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegenius, G.; Wegener, T.; Ruhn, G.; Saldeen, T.; Erikson, U.

    1985-01-01

    Serial pulmonary angiography with videodensitometry was performed in 18 rats with pulmonary damage caused by administration of a fibrinolysis inhibitor, tranexamic acid (200 mg/kg body weight injected intraperitoneally) and bovine thrombin (500 NIH/kg body weight injected into the right femoral vein). The mean transit time (MTT) was calculated from videodensitometry, the observed area of interest consisting of approximately one-third of the right lung, including both central and peripheral parts. The impact of the pulmonary damage was analysed by morphologic methods and correlated to MTT. Although a pressure rise presumably occurred in the pulmonary circulation, no change in MTT was found after induction of pulmonary damage, indicating opening of actual and potential anastomoses between pulmonary arterioles and venules to serve as by-pass portions and as a safety-valve mechanism for the capillary bed and the right heart, respectively. Another explanation to unchanged MTT may be opening of resting capillary beds. Two rats with very severe pulmonary damage showed prolonged MTT. These rats may have suffered from cardiac failure. (orig.)

  6. Fuzzy Risk Evaluation in Failure Mode and Effects Analysis Using a D Numbers Based Multi-Sensor Information Fusion Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinyang; Jiang, Wen

    2017-09-12

    Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is a useful tool to define, identify, and eliminate potential failures or errors so as to improve the reliability of systems, designs, and products. Risk evaluation is an important issue in FMEA to determine the risk priorities of failure modes. There are some shortcomings in the traditional risk priority number (RPN) approach for risk evaluation in FMEA, and fuzzy risk evaluation has become an important research direction that attracts increasing attention. In this paper, the fuzzy risk evaluation in FMEA is studied from a perspective of multi-sensor information fusion. By considering the non-exclusiveness between the evaluations of fuzzy linguistic variables to failure modes, a novel model called D numbers is used to model the non-exclusive fuzzy evaluations. A D numbers based multi-sensor information fusion method is proposed to establish a new model for fuzzy risk evaluation in FMEA. An illustrative example is provided and examined using the proposed model and other existing method to show the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  7. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Tucumán province associated to an unexpected viral genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Ciancaglini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the characterization of the viral genotype involved in the first case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome reported in Tucumán, a Northwestern province of Argentina. A 23-year-old woman, with no record of travel history and previously diagnosed with an antiphospholipid syndrome, died after 11 days of severe cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Among the four endemic regions of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina, the Northwest Region has the highest incidence, exceeding 50% of all reported cases in the country. Until now, only Salta and Jujuy (2 out of the 6 provinces composing the Northwest Region, reported cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, all of which occurred in the Yungas Forest area. Remarkably, the viral genotype characterized in this case showed higher nucleotide identity with the Andes-BsAs genotype most prevalent in Buenos Aires province, located 1400 km apart from Tucumán, than with any of the commonly found genotypes in the Northwest Region. The Andes-BsAs genotype has been associated with 30% lethality and interhuman transmission in Buenos Aires province. Interhuman transmission cannot be ruled out in the present case

  8. Power of resting echocardiographic measurements to classify pulmonary hypertension patients according to European society of cardiology exercise testing risk stratification cut-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Michaela B; Garcia, Rodrigue; Christiaens, Luc; Larrieu-Ardilouze, Elisa; Howard, Luke S; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros

    2018-04-15

    Right ventricular function is the major determinant of morbidity and mortality in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The ESC risk assessment strategy for PAH is based on clinical status, exercise testing, NTproBNP, imaging and haemodynamics but does not include right ventricular function. Our aims were to test the power of resting echocardiographic measurements to classify PAH patients according to ESC exercise testing risk stratification cut-offs and to determine if the classification power of echocardiographic parameters varied in chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We prospectively and consecutively recruited 46 PAH patients and 42 CTEPH patients referred for cardio-pulmonary exercise testing and comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography. Exercise testing parameters analyzed were peak oxygen consumption, percentage of predicted maximal oxygen consumption and the slope of ventilation against carbon dioxide production. Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to determine the optimal diagnostic cut-off values of echocardiographic parameters for classifying the patients in intermediate or high risk category according to exercise testing. Measurements of right ventricular systolic function were the best for classifying in PAH (area under the curve 0.815 to 0.935). Measurements of right ventricular pressure overload (0.810 to 0.909) were optimal for classifying according to exercise testing in CTEPH. Measurements of left ventricular function were of no use in either group. Measurements of right ventricular systolic function can classify according to exercise testing risk stratification cut-offs in PAH. However, this is not the case in CTEPH where pressure overload, rather than right ventricular function seems to be linked to exercise performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of lethal effect of microwave exposure on protoscolices of hydatid cyst in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Eslamirad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the lethal effect of microwave radiation on protoscolices of hydatid cyst. Methods: The protoscolices were divided in two separate groups. The first group received continuous irradiation while the second group received repetitive irradiation. According to the exposure time, the first and the second groups were divided into 8 subgroups. Non-treated protoscolices were considered as the control in each experiment. The protoscolex mortality rate was calculated, and changes in temperature difference in protoscolex suspension before and after the irradiation and the mortality rate with the increase of exposure time were recorded. Results: The results showed that microwave was able to increase the mortality rate of protoscolices in hydatid cyst. The mortality rate from 20% in 20 s of continuous exposure was increased to 100% in 50 s. Also, the differences between the mortality rates in subgroups of the first and the second groups and the control were significant (P < 0.001. Although the effect of temperature change in repetitive irradiation was not significant, non-thermal repetitive irradiation effects were obviously stronger than the thermal continuous irradiation effects. Conclusions: It seems that, microwaves especially in the repetitive mode, may be used as a supplementary measure for both treatment and prevention of hydatidosis.

  10. Selection and Mode Effects in Risk Preference Elicitation Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Gaudecker, Hans-Martin; van Soest, Arthur; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2008-01-01

    experiment is drastically below that of the representative sample in the Internet experiment, and average risk aversion is also lower. Considering the student-like subsample of the Internet subjects and comparing a traditional lab design with an Internet-like design in the lab gives two ways to decompose......We combine data from a risk preference elicitation experiment conducted on a representative sample via the Internet with laboratory data on students for the same experiment to investigate effects of implementation mode and of subject pool selection. We find that the frequency of errors in the lab...... shows that these processes are selective in selecting subjects who make fewer errors, but do not lead to biased conclusions on risk preferences. These findings point at the usefulness of the Internet survey as an alternative to a student pool in the laboratory if the ambition is to use the experiments...

  11. Association between regulator of telomere elongation helicase1 (RTEL1) gene and HAPE risk: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Hao; He, Xue; Zhu, Linhao; Zhu, Xikai; Kang, Longli; Wang, Li; He, Yongjun; Yuan, Dongya; Jin, Tianbo

    2017-09-01

    High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a paradigm of pulmonary edema. Mutations in regulator of telomere elongation helicase1 (RTEL1) represent an important contributor to risk for pulmonary fibrosis. However, little information is found about the association between RTEL1 and HAPE risk. The present study was undertaken to tentatively explore the potential relation between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in RTEL1 and HAPE risk in Chinese Han population. A total of 265 HAPE patients and 303 healthy controls were included in our case-control study. Four SNPs in RTEL1 were selected and genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY method. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated by unconditional logistic regression with adjustment for gender and age. All P values were Bonferroni corrected, and statistical significance was set at P RTEL1 and a decreased risk HAPE in the Chinese population. The results need further confirmation.

  12. Microsomal epoxide hydrolase gene polymorphisms and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A comprehensive meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    LI, HUI; FU, WEI-PING; HONG, ZE-HUI

    2012-01-01

    Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) is an enzyme involved in the detoxification the products of smoking and is proposed to be a genetic factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Two functional polymorphisms of EPHX1, T113C and A139G, have been analyzed in numerous studies to assess the COPD risk attributed to these variants. However, the conclusions were controversial. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis to clarify these findings. A total of 24 studie...

  13. Analysis of risk factors for pulmonary complications in patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer. A single-centre retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sas-Korczynska, Beata; Kamzol, Wojciech; Luczynska, Elzbieta; Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    The most effective therapy in patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LS SCLC) seems to be chemotherapy (using platinum-based regimens) and thoracic radiotherapy (TRT), which is followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation. The analysed group comprised 217 patients who received combined treatment for LS SCLC, i.e. chemotherapy (according to cisplatin and etoposide schedule) and TRT (concurrent in 101 and sequential in 116 patients). The influence of chemoradiotherapy (ChT-RT) schedule on treatment results (frequency of complete response, survival rates, and incidence of treatment failure and complications) was evaluated, and the frequency and severity of pulmonary complications were analysed to identify risk factors. The 5-year survival rates in concurrent vs. sequential ChT-RT schedules were 27.3 vs. 11.7% (overall) and 28 vs. 14.3% (disease-free). The frequencies of adverse events in relation to concurrent vs. sequential therapy were 85.1 vs. 9.5% (haematological complications) and 58.4 vs. 38.8% (pulmonary fibrosis), respectively. It was found that concurrent ChT-RT (hazard ratio, HR 2.75), a total dose equal to or more than 54 Gy (HR 2.55), the presence of haematological complications (HR 1.89) and a lung volume receiving a dose equal to or greater than 20 Gy exceeding 31% (HR 1.06) were the risk factors for pulmonary complications. Pulmonary complications after ChT-RT developed in 82% of patients treated for LS SCLC. In comparison to the sequential approach, concurrent ChT-RT had a positive effect on treatment outcome. However, this is a factor that can impair treatment tolerance, which manifests in the appearance of side effects. (orig.) [de

  14. Occupational exposure and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alif, Sheikh M; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Bowatte, Gayan; Karahalios, Amalia; Benke, Geza; Dennekamp, Martine; Mehta, Amar J; Miedinger, David; Künzli, Nino; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Matheson, Melanie C

    2016-08-01

    Due to contradictory literature we have performed a systematic review and meta-analyse of population-based studies that have used Job Exposure Matrices to assess occupational exposure and risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Two researchers independently searched databases for published articles using predefined inclusion criteria. Study quality was assessed, and results pooled for COPD and chronic bronchitis for exposure to biological dust, mineral dust, and gases/fumes using a fixed and random effect model. Five studies met predetermined inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis showed low exposure to mineral dust, and high exposure to gases/fumes were associated with an increased risk of COPD. We also found significantly increased the risk of chronic bronchitis for low and high exposure to biological dust and mineral dust. Expert commentary: The relationship between occupational exposure assessed by the JEM and the risk of COPD and chronic bronchitis shows significant association with occupational exposure. However, the heterogeneity of the meta-analyses suggests more wide population-based studies with older age groups and longitudinal phenotype assessment of COPD to clarify the role of occupational exposure to COPD risk.

  15. Colonic resection with early discharge after combined subarachnoid-epidural analgesia, preoperative glucocorticoids, and early postoperative mobilization and feeding in a pulmonary high-risk patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Dahl, J B; Rosenberg, J

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES. A pulmonary high-risk patient undergoing right hemicolectomy for cancer was treated with a combination of intense afferent neural block with subarachnoid-epidural local anesthetics followed by continuous epidural analgesia, preoperative high-dose glucocorticoids......) with unchanged pulmonary function. Nocturnal episodic oxygen desaturation, hyperthermia, and postoperative fatigue were prevented. Defecation occurred on the first postoperative day and oral caloric intake was normal after 24 hours with no postoperative weight loss. Self care was normalized on the third...... postoperative day and the patient discharged from the hospital 80 hours after surgery. CONCLUSIONS. The technique of combined neural and humoral mediator block should be evaluated in other high-risk patients undergoing major surgical procedures, where minimal invasive techniques are not possible....

  16. Pulmonary Embolism as the Initial Presentation of Testicular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Ilhami; Erkurt, Mehmet Ali; Ulutas, Ozkan; Ediz, Caner; Nizam, Ilknur; Kırıcı Berber, Nurcan; Unlu, Serkan; Koroglu, Reyhan; Koroglu, Mustafa; Akpolat, Nusret

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The risk of pulmonary embolism is well recognized as showing an increase in oncological patients. We report a case presenting with pulmonary embolism initially, which was then diagnosed with testicular cancer. Clinical Presentation and Intervention. A 25-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with a complaint of dyspnoea. Thoracic tomography, lung ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy, and an increased D-dimer level revealed pulmonary embolism. For the aetiology of pulmonary embolism, a left orchiectomy was performed and the patient was diagnosed with a germinal cell tumour of the testicle. Conclusion. In this paper, we present a patient for whom pulmonary embolism was the initial presentation, and a germinal cell tumour was diagnosed later during the search for the aetiology. PMID:24383024

  17. Long-term survival in patients hospitalized for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Gislason, Thorarinn

    2012-01-01

    Mortality rate is high in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our aim was to investigate long-term mortality and associated risk factors in COPD patients previously hospitalized for a COPD exacerbation.......Mortality rate is high in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our aim was to investigate long-term mortality and associated risk factors in COPD patients previously hospitalized for a COPD exacerbation....

  18. Suicide Attempt as a Risk Factor for Completed Suicide: Even More Lethal Than We Knew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, J Michael; Pabbati, Chaitanya; Geske, Jennifer R; McKean, Alastair J

    2016-11-01

    prevalence. Our findings support suicide attempt as an even more lethal risk factor for completed suicide than previously thought. Research should focus on identifying risk factors for populations vulnerable to making first attempts and target risk reduction in those groups.

  19. Genetics of pulmonary hypertension in the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girerd, Barbara; Lau, Edmund; Montani, David; Humbert, Marc

    2017-09-01

    Heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an autosomal dominant disease with incomplete penetrance because of mutations in bone morphogenetic protein receptor-II (BMPR2), activin A receptor type II-like kinase 1, endoglin, caveolin-1, potassium channel subfamily K, member 3, and T-box gene 4 genes. Heritable pulmonary veno-occlusive disease and/or pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PVOD/PCH) is an autosomal recessive disease because of biallelic mutations in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 4 gene. The 2015 european society of cardiology (ESC) and european respiratory society (ERS) pulmonary hypertension guidelines recommend genetic counselling and testing to adults and children with PAH or PVOD/PCH as well as in adult relatives at risk of carrying a predisposing mutation. In France, genetic counseling and testing are offered to all patients displaying sporadic or familial form of PAH or PVOD/PCH and to their relatives at high risk of carrying a predisposing mutation. Patients with a heritable form of PAH are younger at diagnosis with a worse hemodynamic and a dismal prognosis. Patients with a heritable form of PVOD/PCH are younger at diagnosis with a worse response to specific PAH therapies. A program to detect PAH in an early phase was offered to all asymptomatic BMPR2 mutation carriers, according to the 2015 ESC/ERS guidelines. Finally, preimplantation genetic diagnosis has been performed in families with a history of BMPR2 mutations. Genetic counseling and testing has to be implemented in pulmonary hypertension centers.

  20. The dilatation of main pulmonary artery and right ventricle observed by enhanced chest computed tomography predict poor outcome in inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, Ryogo; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Kawata, Naoko; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Kasai, Hajime; Nishimura, Rintaro; Jujo, Takayuki; Shigeta, Ayako; Sakao, Seiichiro; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2017-09-01

    Dilatation of the pulmonary artery and right ventricle on chest computed tomography images is often observed in patients with pulmonary hypertension. The clinical significance of these image findings has not been defined in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. We investigated whether the pulmonary arterial and right ventricle dilatation was associated with poor outcome in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. This was a retrospective cohort investigation in 60 subjects with inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension diagnosed consecutively between 1997 and 2010 at Chiba University Hospital. Digital scout multi-detector chest computed tomography images were obtained. The main pulmonary arterial to ascending aortic diameter ratio and the right ventricular to left ventricular diameter ratio were calculated. Main pulmonary arterial to ascending aortic diameter ratio ranged from 0.85 to 1.84, and right ventricular to left ventricular diameter ratio ranged from 0.71 to 2.88. During the observation period of 1284.5days (range, 21-4550days), 13 patients required hospitalization due to worsening; 6 of them died. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significant differences in hospitalization between the patients with main pulmonary arterial to ascending aortic diameter ratio of ≥1.1 and pulmonary hypertension. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pulmonary Impairment in Tuberculosis Survivors: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae-Woo; Choi, Jae-Chol; Shin, Jong-Wook; Kim, Jae-Yeol; Choi, Byoung-Whui; Park, In-Won

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) can affect lung function, but studies regarding long-term follow-up in patients with no sequelae on chest X-ray (CXR) have not been performed. We evaluated lung functional impairment and persistent respiratory symptoms in those with prior pulmonary TB and those with prior pulmonary TB with no residual sequelae on CXR, and determined risk factors for airflow obstruction. We used data from adults aged ≥ 40 years from the annual Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted between 2008 and 2012. P values for comparisons were adjusted for age, sex, and smoking status. In total of 14,967 adults, 822 subjects (5.5%) had diagnosed and treated pulmonary TB (mean 29.0 years ago). The FVC% (84.9 vs. 92.6), FEV1% (83.4 vs. 92.4), and FEV1/FVC% (73.4 vs. 77.9) were significantly decreased in subjects with prior pulmonary TB compared to those without (p pulmonary TB (296, 2.3%) had significantly lower FEV1% (90.9 vs. 93.4, p = 0.001) and FEV1/FVC% (76.6 vs. 78.4, p pulmonary TB as well as subjects with no sequalae on CXR were more likely to experience cough and physical activity limitations due to pulmonary symptoms than those without prior pulmonary TB (p pulmonary TB (OR, 2.314; 95% CI, 1.922-2.785), along with age, male, asthma, and smoking mount was risk factor for airflow obstruction. In subjects with prior pulmonary tuberculosis, inactive TB lesion on chest x-ray (OR, 2.300; 95% CI, 1.606-3.294) were risk factors of airflow obstruction. In addition to subjects with inactive TB lesion on CXR, subjects with no sequelae on CXR can show impaired pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms. Prior TB is a risk factor for airflow obstruction and that the risk is more important when they have inactive lesions on chest X-ray. Hence, the patients with treated TB should need to have regular follow-up of lung function and stop smoking for early detection and prevention of the chronic airway disease.

  2. Effects of copper nanoparticle exposure on host defense in a murine pulmonary infection model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grassian Vicki H

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human exposure to nanoparticles (NPs and environmental bacteria can occur simultaneously. NPs induce inflammatory responses and oxidative stress but may also have immune-suppressive effects, impairing macrophage function and altering epithelial barrier functions. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential pulmonary effects of inhalation and instillation exposure to copper (Cu NPs using a model of lung inflammation and host defense. Methods We used Klebsiella pneumoniae (K.p. in a murine lung infection model to determine if pulmonary bacterial clearance is enhanced or impaired by Cu NP exposure. Two different exposure modes were tested: sub-acute inhalation (4 hr/day, 5 d/week for 2 weeks, 3.5 mg/m3 and intratracheal instillation (24 hr post-exposure, 3, 35, and 100 μg/mouse. Pulmonary responses were evaluated by lung histopathology plus measurement of differential cell counts, total protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity, and inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid. Results Cu NP exposure induced inflammatory responses with increased recruitment of total cells and neutrophils to the lungs as well as increased total protein and LDH activity in BAL fluid. Both inhalation and instillation exposure to Cu NPs significantly decreased the pulmonary clearance of K.p.-exposed mice measured 24 hr after bacterial infection following Cu NP exposure versus sham-exposed mice also challenged with K.p (1.4 × 105 bacteria/mouse. Conclusions Cu NP exposure impaired host defense against bacterial lung infections and induced a dose-dependent decrease in bacterial clearance in which even our lowest dose demonstrated significantly lower clearance than observed in sham-exposed mice. Thus, exposure to Cu NPs may increase the risk of pulmonary infection.

  3. Pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary artery anastomoses: angiographic demonstration in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodson, J.; Graham, A.; Hughes, J.M.B.; Gibbs, J.S.R.; Jackson, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To describe direct pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary artery anastomoses seen at pulmonary angiography in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and discuss their possible significance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1 August 2000 and 31 July 2004 43 patients (male-to-female ratio 25:18) with a diagnosis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) underwent selective pulmonary angiography to assess the extent of disease and suitability for surgical pulmonary endarterectomy. The mean pulmonary artery pressure ranged from 27-84 mmHg (average of 51 mmHg). Selective bilateral digital subtraction pulmonary angiograms performed in all individuals were reviewed for the presence of intrapulmonary collaterals. RESULTS: In 15 of the 43 patients (male-to-female ratio =7:8) definite (n=12) or probable (n=3) pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary artery anastomoses were demonstrated. Of the remaining 28 patients in whom intrapulmonary collaterals were not seen it was felt that in 16 the angiograms were of insufficient diagnostic quality (grades 4-5) to exclude their presence. Twelve patients, eight of whom had angiograms of sufficient diagnostic quality (grades 1-3), demonstrated one or more areas of luxury perfusion but intrapulmonary collaterals were not seen. CONCLUSION: Direct pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary artery anastomoses were demonstrated in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, which to our knowledge have not been previously described. The importance of these collateral vessels is unclear but they may play a role in the maintenance of pulmonary parenchymal viability in patients with chronic pulmonary embolic disease. The rate of development of these collaterals and their prognostic significance in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension are areas worthy of further study

  4. Pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary artery anastomoses: angiographic demonstration in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodson, J. [Department of Imaging, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London (United Kingdom); Graham, A. [Department of Imaging, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London (United Kingdom); Hughes, J.M.B. [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London (United Kingdom); Gibbs, J.S.R. [Department of Cardiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London (United Kingdom); Jackson, J.E. [Department of Imaging, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jejackson@hhnt.org

    2006-03-15

    AIM: To describe direct pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary artery anastomoses seen at pulmonary angiography in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and discuss their possible significance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1 August 2000 and 31 July 2004 43 patients (male-to-female ratio 25:18) with a diagnosis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) underwent selective pulmonary angiography to assess the extent of disease and suitability for surgical pulmonary endarterectomy. The mean pulmonary artery pressure ranged from 27-84 mmHg (average of 51 mmHg). Selective bilateral digital subtraction pulmonary angiograms performed in all individuals were reviewed for the presence of intrapulmonary collaterals. RESULTS: In 15 of the 43 patients (male-to-female ratio =7:8) definite (n=12) or probable (n=3) pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary artery anastomoses were demonstrated. Of the remaining 28 patients in whom intrapulmonary collaterals were not seen it was felt that in 16 the angiograms were of insufficient diagnostic quality (grades 4-5) to exclude their presence. Twelve patients, eight of whom had angiograms of sufficient diagnostic quality (grades 1-3), demonstrated one or more areas of luxury perfusion but intrapulmonary collaterals were not seen. CONCLUSION: Direct pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary artery anastomoses were demonstrated in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, which to our knowledge have not been previously described. The importance of these collateral vessels is unclear but they may play a role in the maintenance of pulmonary parenchymal viability in patients with chronic pulmonary embolic disease. The rate of development of these collaterals and their prognostic significance in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension are areas worthy of further study.

  5. Differences in absorbed doses at risk organs and target tumoral of planning(PTV) in lung treatments using two algorithms of different calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uruena Llinares, A.; Santos Rubio, A.; Luis Simon, F. J.; Sanchez Carmona, G.; Herrador Cordoba, M.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare, in thirty treatments for lung cancer,the absorbed doses at risk organs and target volumes obtained between the two used algorithms of calculation of our treatment planning system Oncentra Masterplan, that is, Pencil Beams vs Collapsed Cone. For it we use a set of measured indicators (D1 and D99 of tumor volume, V20 of lung, homogeneity index defined as (D5-D95)/D prescribed, and others). Analysing the dta, making a descriptor analysis of the results, and applying the non parametric test of the ranks with sign of Wilcoxon we find that the use of Pencil Beam algorithm underestimates the dose in the zone of the PTV including regions of low density as well as the values of maximum dose in spine cord. So, we conclude that in those treatments in which the spine dose is near the maximum permissible limit or those in which the PTV it includes a zone with pulmonary tissue must be used the Collapse Cone algorithm systematically and in any case an analysis must become to choose between time and precision in the calculation for both algorithms. (Authors)

  6. Risk analysis by FMEA as an element of analytical validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, J F; Nauta, M J; de Kaste, D; Odekerken-Rombouts, Y M C F; Oldenhof, M T; Vredenbregt, M J; Barends, D M

    2009-12-05

    We subjected a Near-Infrared (NIR) analytical procedure used for screening drugs on authenticity to a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), including technical risks as well as risks related to human failure. An FMEA team broke down the NIR analytical method into process steps and identified possible failure modes for each step. Each failure mode was ranked on estimated frequency of occurrence (O), probability that the failure would remain undetected later in the process (D) and severity (S), each on a scale of 1-10. Human errors turned out to be the most common cause of failure modes. Failure risks were calculated by Risk Priority Numbers (RPNs)=O x D x S. Failure modes with the highest RPN scores were subjected to corrective actions and the FMEA was repeated, showing reductions in RPN scores and resulting in improvement indices up to 5.0. We recommend risk analysis as an addition to the usual analytical validation, as the FMEA enabled us to detect previously unidentified risks.

  7. Lethality of Rendang packaged in multilayer retortable pouch with sterilization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praharasti, A. S.; Kusumaningrum, A.; Frediansyah, A.; Nurhikmat, A.; Khasanah, Y.; Suprapedi

    2017-01-01

    Retort Pouch had become a choice to preserve foods nowadays, besides the used of the can. Both had their own advantages, and Retort Pouch became more popular for the reason of cheaper and easier to recycle. General Method usually used to estimate the lethality of commercial heat sterilization process. Lethality value wa s used for evaluating the efficacy of the thermal process. This study aimed to find whether different layers of pouch materials affect the lethality value and to find differences lethality in two types of multilayer retort pouch, PET/Aluminum Foil/Nylon/RCPP and PET/Nylon/Modified Aluminum/CPP. The result showed that the different layer arrangement was resulted different Sterilization Value (SV). PET/Nylon/Modified Aluminum/CPP had better heat penetration, implied by the higher value of lethality. PET/Nylon/Modified Aluminum/CPP had the lethality value of 6,24 minutes, whereas the lethality value of PET/Aluminum Foil/Nylon/RCPP was 3,54 minutes.

  8. Tearing modes in toroidal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.W.; Cowley, S.C.; Hastie, R.J.; Hender, T.C.; Hood, A.; Martin, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    The separation of the cylindrical tearing mode stability problem into a resistive resonant layer calculation and an external marginal ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) calculation (Δ' calculation) is generalized to axisymmetric toroidal geometry. The general structure of this separation is analyzed and the marginal ideal MHD information (the toroidal generalization of Δ') required to discuss stability is isolated. This can then, in principle, be combined with relevant resonant layer calculations to determine tearing mode growth rates in realistic situations. Two examples are given: the first is an analytic treatment of toroidally coupled (m = 1, n = 1) and (m = 2, n = 1) tearing modes in a large aspect ratio torus; the second, a numerical treatment of the toroidal coupling of three tearing modes through finite pressure effects in a large aspect ratio torus. In addition, the use of a coupling integral approach for determining the stability of coupled tearing modes is discussed. Finally, the possibility of using initial value resistive MHD codes in realistic toroidal geometry to determine the necessary information from the ideal MHD marginal solution is discussed

  9. L to H-mode Power Threshold and Confinement Characteristics of H-modes in KSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. S.; Na, Y.S., E-mail: ftwalker.hyuns@gmail.com [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, J. W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); Jeon, Y. M.; Yoon, S. W.; Lee, K. D.; Ko, W. H.; Bae, Y. S.; Kim, W. C.; Kwak, J. G. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: Since KSTAR has obtained the H-mode in 2010 campaign, H-mode plasmas were routinely obtained with combined heating of NBI with maximum power of 1.5 MW and ECRH with maximum power of {approx} 0.3 MW and {approx} 0.6 MW for 110 GHz and 170 GHz, respectively. The L- to H-mode power threshold and confinement properties of KSTAR H-modes are investigated in this work. Firstly, the L- to H-mode power threshold and the power loss to the seperatrix are calculated by power balance analysis for about collected 400 shots. As a result, a trend of roll-over is observed in the power threshold of KSTAR H-mode compared with the multi-machine power threshold scaling in the low density regime. Dependence of the power threshold on other parameters are also investigated such as the X-point position and shaping parameters like as triangularity and elongation. In addition, the reason of reduction of power threshold in 2011 campaign compared with that in 2010 is addressed. Secondly, the confinement enhancement factors are calculated to evaluate the performance of KSTAR H-modes. The calculated H{sub 89-p} and H{sub 98} (y, 2) represent that the confinement is enhanced in most KSTAR H-mode discharges. Interestingly, even in L-mode phases, confinement is observed to be enhanced against the multi-machine scalings. H{sub exp} factor is newly introduced to evaluate the amount of confinement improvement in the H-mode phase compared with the L-mode phase in a single discharge. H{sub exp} exhibits that the global energy confinement time of the H-mode phase is improved about 1.3 - 2.0 times compared with that of the L-mode phase. Finally, interpretive and predictive numerical simulations are carried out using the ASTRA code for typical KSTAR H-mode discharges. The Weiland model and the GLF23 model are employed for calculating the anomalous contributions of both electron and ion heat transport in predictive simulations. For the H-mode phase, the Weiland model reproduces the experiment

  10. Comprehensive comparison of macro-strain mode and displacement mode based on different sensing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wan; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Gang; Wu, Zhishen

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive comparison of macro-strain mode and displacement mode obtained from distributed macro-strain sensing and high-density point sensing (such as accelerometers) technologies is presented in this paper. Theoretical derivation reveals that displacement mode shape from accelerometers and modal macro-strain from distributed macro-strain sensors can be converted into each other. However, it is realized that displacement mode shape as global behavior of a structure can still be calculated with high-precision from modal macro-strain considering measurement errors in practical monitoring, whereas modal macro-strain can hardly be accurately achieved from displacement mode shape when signals are corrupted with noise in practical monitoring. Simulation and experiment results show that the calculated displacement mode shapes are very close to the actual ones even if the noise level reaches 5%. Meanwhile, damage index using measured modal macro-strain is still effective when the measurements are corrupted with 5% noise which is reliable for damage detection in practical monitoring. Calculating modal macro-strain from noise-polluted displacement mode shape will cause an unacceptable error if the noise level reaches only 0.5%, which has been verified in the simulation.

  11. Pulmonary CT angiography: optimization of contrast enhancement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Lianju; Tang Guangjian; Fu Jiazhen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To derive and evaluate the formula of exactly calculating the contrast dosage used during pulmonary CT angiography (CTPA). Methods: Time density curves in 27 patients who underwent CTPA were collected and analyzed,the formula for calculating contrast dosage during CTPA was derived. 68 patients suspected of pulmonary embolism (PE) clinically but no PE on CTPA were divided randomly into group A, with bolus tracing technique (n=26), and group B, with small dose injection contrast test (SDCT) (n=42). The CT values of the right main pulmonary artery (RMPA), right upper pulmonary vein (RUPV), right posterior basal PA, right lower PV (RLPV) and the aorta were calculated. The total contrast dosage and the hard beam artifact in the SVC were compared between the two groups.Student's t test, Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U test were used. Results: The ratio of the time from starting injection to enhancement peak of caudal end of SVC and the time to enhancement peak of the main pulmonary trunk was 0.65 ±0.09 (about 2/3), the formula for contrast dosage calculation was derived as (DTs/3 + STs/2) FR ml/s. The CT values of RMPA and RLPA between the two groups [(301 ±117), (329 ± 122) and (283 ±95), (277 ±98) HU respectively] were not significantly different (t=1.060, P=0.292; t=2.056, P=0.044), but the differences of CT values in the paired PA and PV between the two groups (median were 22.5, 58.0 and 170.5, 166.5 HU respectively) were significant (U=292, P=0.001 and U=325, P=0.005), contrast artifact of the SVC (grade 1-3) in group B (n=34, 7, 1 respectively) was significantly less than in group A (n=11, 10, 5 respectively, χ 2 =10.714, P=0.002), the contrast dosage injected in group A was ( 87.6 ± 7.3) ml, and in group B was (40.0 ±5.4) ml (P<0.01). Conclusion: CTPA with SDCT technique is superior to that with conventional bolus tracing technique regarding contrast dosage and contrast artifact in the SVC. (authors)

  12. Disease and drug-induced arrhythmias : the example of obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warnier, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Notwithstanding the clinical importance of cardiac arrhythmias, relevant information about the background risk and the exact underlying mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias in patients with obstructive pulmonary disease (asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD]) is still lacking. The

  13. Pulmonary hemodynamics and gas exchange in off pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedin, Jenny; Jensen, Ulf; Ericsson, Anders; Samuelsson, Sten; Vaage, Jarle

    2005-10-01

    To investigate the influence of cardiopulmonary bypass on pulmonary hemodynamics and gas exchange. Low risk patients admitted for elective coronary artery bypass grafting were randomized to either on (n=25) or off pump (n=25) surgery. Central hemodynamics, gas exchange, and venous admixture were studied during and up to 20 h after surgery. There was no difference in pulmonary vascular resistance index (P=0.16), right ventricular stroke work index (P>0.2), mean pulmonary artery pressure (P>0.2) or pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (P>0.2) between groups. Soon after surgery there was a tendency towards higher cardiac index (P=0.07) in the off pump group. Arterial oxygen tension (P>0.2), hematocrit (P>0.2), venous admixture (P>0.2), and arterial-venous oxygen content difference (P=0.12) did not differ between groups. This prospective, randomized study showed no difference in pulmonary hemodynamics, pulmonary gas exchange, and venous admixture, in low risk patients undergoing off pump compared to on pump coronary artery bypass surgery.

  14. [Obstetric outcome in pregnancy complained with pulmonary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C X; Xiong, W; Yang, J; Chen, H Q; Niu, G; Wang, Z L

    2017-12-19

    Objective: To identify whether pregnancy outcomes vary by the severity of pulmonary hypertension. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 78 cases of pregnancies complained with pulmonary hypertension who delivered in the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University from 2006 to 2016.The selected cases were divided into three groups according to severity of pulmonary hypertension: mild pulmonary hypertension group (mild PAH group) was defined as a mean pulmonary artery pressure 30-49 mmHg, moderate pulmonary hypertension (moderate PAH group) as mean pulmonary artery pressure 50-69 mmHg and severe pulmonary hypertension (severe PAH group) as mean pulmonary artery pressure 70 mmHg or greater.The clinical features, risk pregnant complication, maternal and neonatal outcomes were described between these three groups.Analysis of variance, Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The average age of mild, moderate and severe PAH group were (31±5) years old, (31±5) years old and (27±3) years old, respectively ( P =0.050). The rate of natural fertilization ( P =0.414), parity ( P =0.527) and gestational age ( P =0.165) were similar in these three groups. In 78 pregnancies with pulmonary hypertension, 64.9% of pregnancies in mild PAH group was NYHA Ⅰ, 50.0% of moderate PAH group was NYHA Ⅱ and 54.5% of severe PAH group was NYHA Ⅲ( P pulmonary hypertension.But the severity of pulmonary hypertension affect the type of anesthesia.Close monitoring during pregnancy and timely termination of pregnancy can improve the outcome of pregnancy.

  15. 1H NMR-based metabolomics of time-dependent responses of Eisenia fetida to sub-lethal phenanthrene exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankadurai, Brian P.; Wolfe, David M.; Simpson, Andre J.; Simpson, Myrna J.

    2011-01-01

    1 H NMR-based metabolomics was used to examine the response of the earthworm Eisenia fetida after exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of phenanthrene over time. Earthworms were exposed to 0.025 mg/cm 2 of phenanthrene (1/64th of the LC 50 ) via contact tests over four days. Earthworm tissues were extracted using a mixture of chloroform, methanol and water, resulting in polar and non-polar fractions that were analyzed by 1 H NMR after one, two, three and four days. NMR-based metabolomic analyses revealed heightened E. fetida responses with longer phenanthrene exposure times. Amino acids alanine and glutamate, the sugar maltose, the lipids cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine emerged as potential indicators of phenanthrene exposure. The conversion of succinate to fumarate in the Krebs cycle was also interrupted by phenanthrene. Therefore, this study shows that NMR-based metabolomics is a powerful tool for elucidating time-dependent relationships in addition to the mode of toxicity of phenanthrene in earthworm exposure studies. - Highlights: → NMR-based earthworm metabolomic analysis of the mode of action of phenanthrene is presented. → The earthworm species E. fetida were exposed to sub-lethal phenanthrene concentrations. → Both polar and non-polar metabolites of E. fetida tissue extracts were analyzed by 1 H NMR. → Longer phenanthrene exposure times resulted in heightened earthworm responses. → An interruption of the Krebs cycle was also observed due to phenanthrene exposure. - 1 H NMR metabolomics is used to determine the relationship between phenanthrene exposure and the metabolic response of the earthworm E. fetida over time and also to elucidate the phenanthrene mode of toxicity.

  16. [Bladder tumor lethality. Results in the autonomous community of Rioja between 1975-1991].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Fernández, A; Gil Fabra, J; Fernández Ruíz, M; Angulo Castellanos, M G; Blanco Martín, E; Otero Mauricio, G

    1998-01-01

    Between 1975-1991, a total of 557 cases of bladder carcinoma were identified in the Autonomous Community of La Rioja (CAR) which were followed up to December 1994. The overall lethality was 21.9%. 492 cases with 22.35% lethality were identified in males. In females, however, there was 65 cases with 18.46% lethality. The comparison of males and females lethality resulted in p = 0.525. Lethality between cases diagnosed within each 5-year period analyzed is: 1975-1981: 177 cases, lethality 23.72%. 1982-1986: 168 cases, lethality 30.95%. 1987-1991: 212 cases, lethality 13.20%. Between the first and the second 5-year periods, p = 0.132; between the first and third 5-year periods p = 0.007 and between the second and third 5-year periods p CAR for a 22.35% lethality. Lethality is higher in males that in females but the difference is not statistically significant. In the last 5-year period assessed, 1987-1991, a reduction of lethality from bladder neoplasms has been documented.

  17. Spontaneous pneumothorax associated with pulmonary fibrosis in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcala Cerra, Gabriel; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael; Lozano Tagua, Carlos Fernando; Sabogal Barrios, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary involvement in patients with neurofibromatosis has been repetitively reported as a very rare complication in type 1 variety. It is characterized by pulmonary interstitial disease, pulmonary fibrosis and bullaes, the last with high risk of rupture. We described a case of spontaneous pneumothorax in a patient with type 2 neurofibromatosis, as consequence of pulmonary fibrotic changes. To our knowledge this association had not been reported.

  18. Identification of gaps in the current knowledge on pulmonary hypertension in extremely preterm infants: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjaans, Sanne; Zwart, Elvira A H; Ploegstra, Mark-Jan; Bos, Arend F; Kooi, Elisabeth M W; Hillege, Hans L; Berger, Rolf M F

    2018-01-17

    Pulmonary hypertension complicates the clinical course of extremely preterm infants and is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). However, prevalence, risk factors, and outcome of pulmonary hypertension in these infants are insufficiently known. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to provide an up-to-date overview of available data on prevalence, risk factors, and outcome of pulmonary hypertension and to identify current knowledge gaps. Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched in July 2017. Two authors reviewed titles/abstracts and full-texts. Eligible studies reported prevalence, patient characteristics or mortality of infants with/without pulmonary hypertension. Studies were excluded if they did not include extremely preterm infants. Only similar study samples (selected infants with BPD or infants both with/without BPD) were compared in the meta-analyses. Of 1829 unique articles identified, 25 were eligible for inclusion. Pulmonary hypertension was observed in infants with BPD (20%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14, 25), but also in those without BPD (2%, 95% CI 0, 8). Infants with severe BPD were most at risk of pulmonary hypertension (risk ratio [RR] 2.7, 95% CI 1.7, 4.2). Infants with pulmonary hypertension were more at risk of mortality (RR 4.7, 95% CI 2.7, 8.3). Pulmonary hypertension occurs in particularly in infants with severe BPD, and increases risk of mortality. Due to selected study populations, heterogeneous pulmonary hypertension-definitions and poorly reported timing of pulmonary hypertension assessments, however, data available in current reports are insufficient to allow accurate assessment of true prevalence, risk factors, and time-related outcome. Prospective studies, with standardised methodology and follow-up are needed to determine these factors. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. [PULMONARY COMPLICATIONS IN CHILDREN, OPERATED ON FOR INBORN HEART FAILURES IN THE ARTIFICIAL BLOOD CIRCULATION ENVIRONMENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshkivska, L V; Nastenko, E A; Golovenko, O S; Lazoryshynets, V V

    2015-11-01

    The risk factors of pulmonary complications occurrence were analyzed in children, operated on for inborn heart failures in atrificial blood circulation environment. Pulmonary complications rate and the risk factors of their occurrence were analyzed.

  20. The ACS NSQIP Risk Calculator Is a Fair Predictor of Acute Periprosthetic Joint Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingert, Nathaniel C; Gotoff, James; Parrilla, Edgardo; Gotoff, Robert; Hou, Laura; Ghanem, Elie

    2016-07-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a severe complication from the patient's perspective and an expensive one in a value-driven healthcare model. Risk stratification can help identify those patients who may have risk factors for complications that can be mitigated in advance of elective surgery. Although numerous surgical risk calculators have been created, their accuracy in predicting outcomes, specifically PJI, has not been tested. (1) How accurate is the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) Surgical Site Infection Calculator in predicting 30-day postoperative infection? (2) How accurate is the calculator in predicting 90-day postoperative infection? We isolated 1536 patients who underwent 1620 primary THAs and TKAs at our institution during 2011 to 2013. Minimum followup was 90 days. The ACS NSQIP Surgical Risk Calculator was assessed in its ability to predict acute PJI within 30 and 90 days postoperatively. Patients who underwent a repeat surgical procedure within 90 days of the index arthroplasty and in whom at least one positive intraoperative culture was obtained at time of reoperation were considered to have PJI. A total of 19 cases of PJI were identified, including 11 at 30 days and an additional eight instances by 90 days postoperatively. Patient-specific risk probabilities for PJI based on demographics and comorbidities were recorded from the ACS NSQIP Surgical Risk Calculator website. The area under the curve (AUC) for receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves was calculated to determine the predictability of the risk probability for PJI. The AUC is an effective method for quantifying the discriminatory capacity of a diagnostic test to correctly classify patients with and without infection in which it is defined as excellent (AUC 0.9-1), good (AUC 0.8-0.89), fair (AUC 0.7-0.79), poor (AUC 0.6-0.69), or fail/no discriminatory capacity (AUC 0.5-0.59). A p value of fair accuracy in predicting 30

  1. 1H NMR-Based Metabolomic Analysis of Sub-Lethal Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Exposure to the Earthworm, Eisenia fetida, in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna J. Simpson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 1H NMR-based metabolomics was used to measure the response of Eisenia fetida earthworms after exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS in soil. Earthworms were exposed to a range of PFOS concentrations (five, 10, 25, 50, 100 or 150 mg/kg for two, seven and fourteen days. Earthworm tissues were extracted and analyzed by 1H NMR. Multivariate statistical analysis of the metabolic response of E. fetida to PFOS exposure identified time-dependent responses that were comprised of two separate modes of action: a non-polar narcosis type mechanism after two days of exposure and increased fatty acid oxidation after seven and fourteen days of exposure. Univariate statistical analysis revealed that 2-hexyl-5-ethyl-3-furansulfonate (HEFS, betaine, leucine, arginine, glutamate, maltose and ATP are potential indicators of PFOS exposure, as the concentrations of these metabolites fluctuated significantly. Overall, NMR-based metabolomic analysis suggests elevated fatty acid oxidation, disruption in energy metabolism and biological membrane structure and a possible interruption of ATP synthesis. These conclusions obtained from analysis of the metabolic profile in response to sub-lethal PFOS exposure indicates that NMR-based metabolomics is an excellent discovery tool when the mode of action (MOA of contaminants is not clearly defined.

  2. Categorization of nano-structured titanium dioxide according to physicochemical characteristics and pulmonary toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Hashizume

    Full Text Available A potentially useful means of predicting the pulmonary risk posed by new forms of nano-structured titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2 is to use the associations between the physicochemical properties and pulmonary toxicity of characterized forms of TiO2. In the present study, we conducted intratracheal administration studies in rats to clarify the associations between the physicochemical characteristics of seven characterized forms of TiO2 and their acute or subacute pulmonary inflammatory toxicity. Examination of the associations between the physicochemical characteristics of the TiO2 and the pulmonary inflammatory responses they induced revealed (1 that differences in the crystallinity or shape of the TiO2 particles were not associated with the acute pulmonary inflammatory response; (2 that particle size was associated with the acute pulmonary inflammatory response; and (3 that TiO2 particles coated with Al(OH3 induced a greater pulmonary inflammatory response than did non-coated particles. We separated the seven TiO2 into two groups: a group containing the six TiO2 with no surface coating and a group containing the one TiO2 with a surface coating. Intratracheal administration to rats of TiO2 from the first group (i.e., non-coated TiO2 induced only acute pulmonary inflammatory responses, and within this group, the acute pulmonary inflammatory response was equivalent when the particle size was the same, regardless of crystallinity or shape. In contrast, intratracheal administration to rats of the TiO2 from the second group (i.e., the coated TiO2 induced a more severe, subacute pulmonary inflammatory response compared with that produced by the non-coated TiO2. Since alteration of the pulmonary inflammatory response by surface treatment may depend on the coating material used, the pulmonary toxicities of coated TiO2 need to be further evaluated. Overall, the present results demonstrate that physicochemical properties may be useful for predicting the

  3. Humanitarian Algorithms : A Codified Key Safety Switch Protocol for Lethal Autonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu

    2014-01-01

    With the deployment of lethal autonomous weapons, there is the requirement that any such platform complies with the precepts of International Humanitarian Law. Humanitarian Algorithms[9: p. 9] ensure that lethal autonomous weapon systems perform military/security operations, within the confines of International Humanitarian Law. Unlike other existing techniques of regulating lethal autonomy this scheme advocates for an approach that enables Machine Learning. Lethal autonomous weapons must be ...

  4. Inhalation of nitric oxide as a treatment of pulmonary hypertension in congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, Steen Winther; Jepsen, S; Andersen, P K

    1995-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) still has a mortality risk of around 40%. The concomitant pulmonary hypoplasia and the persistent pulmonary hypertension are of major prognostic importance. The use of a selective pulmonary vasodilator may revert this vicious circle that is fatal to many...

  5. Vitamin d status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who participate in pulmonary rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringbaek, Thomas; Martinez, Gerd; Durakovic, Amal

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary d