WorldWideScience

Sample records for calculating near-field pressures

  1. Efficient Calculation of Near Fields in the FDTD Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej

    2011-01-01

    When calculating frequency-domain near fields by the FDTD method, almost 50 % reduction in memory and CPU operations can be achieved if only E-fields are stored during the main time-stepping loop and H-fields computed later. An improved method of obtaining the H-fields from Faraday's Law is prese...

  2. Project-90 Near-field calculations using CALIBRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worgan, K.; Robinson, P.

    1992-02-01

    A comprehensive set of near-field calculations for the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorates Project-90 safety assessment has been performed using the CALIBRE model. In the majority of cases considered the redox front migrates through the bentonite buffer and into the rock, where it becomes effectively immobilised. The fracture remains in a reducing state, which means that for solubility-limited nuclides, the concentration at the bentonite/fracture interface can never be greater than the reducing solubility limit. The calculations also show that significant retardation occurs for nuclides which are even moderately sorbed. The effect is less pronounced in the wider fracture and high flow cases, as the opportunity for diffusion from the fracture to the rock matrix is reduced. In contrast, the release from the near-field of poorly-sorbed nuclides which are not solubility limited is governed by the release rate from the fuel, the diffusive mass transfer resistance of the buffer, rock matrix and fracture, the initial inventories and the nuclide half-lives. In the reference case, the maximum dose potential of nuclides emerging from the near-field occur for I-129 and was 3.2 x 10 -7 Sv per canister-year, assuming the flux to be discharged directly into the wall receptor biosphere. The parameters which have the most impact on the reference base results are high flow, wide aperture and poor chemistry (i.e. high solubility limits and low sorption distribution coefficients). The effects of combining extreme values of parameters does not give results which are in proportion to their effect when applied in isolation. In the worst case variant (early canister failure high flow, wide aperture and poor chemistry) the maximum dose potential is 1.0 x 10 -4 Sv per canister-year, compared with 8.9 x 10 -6 Sv in the high flow case, 4.5 x 10 -7 in the wide aperture case, 2.3 x 10 -6 in the poor chemistry case and 3.9 x 10 -6 in the early failure, wide aperture and high flow case. (au)

  3. Calculation of near-field concentrations of hydrogen sulphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baynes, C.J.

    1985-03-01

    This report provides simulations of the near-field dispersion in the atmosphere of postulated releases of hydrogen sulphide gas (H2S) at a heavy water plant. The size and extent of the flammable or detonable gas clouds which might result are estimated. This work was undertaken to support experimental studies of the detonability of H2S releases. Thirty-six different cases were simulated involving the catastrophic failure of a liquid H2S storage tank or tank car of H2S. The major variables were the size of the release, the initial mixing ratio of gas with ambient air, and the wind speed. Since the gas/air mixture is initially heavier than air, an existing heavy gas mathematical model (DENZ) was used for these simulations. The model was modified to provide the outputs needed to support the experimental studies. The outputs were the mass of H2S in the cloud, the mass and volume of the cloud, its radius at ground level and its temperature, all as functions of distance and time from release. The edge of the cloud was defined by a given concentration of H2S in air. The simulations were repeated for ten different values of this parameter, ranging between 3% and 40% H2S by volume. Simulations were also performed using a simple 'top-hat' mixing model to predict the length of the flammable or detonable jet formed at the break in a pipe carrying H2S vapour under pressure. The analysis was conducted for four postulated pipe break diameters and repeated for the same ten concentration levels used in the storage tank studies. The report presents a summary of the results. The complete outputs from the 36 storage tank failure simulations are available on floppy disks in a format suitable for detailed examination using any IBM-PC compatible microcomputer system

  4. Optical measurement of acoustic radiation pressure of the near-field acoustic levitation through transparent object

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Satoshi; Furusawa, Toshiaki; Sasao, Yasuhiro; Katsura, Kogure; Naoki, Kondo

    2013-01-01

    It is known that macroscopic objects can be levitated for few to several hundred micrometers by near-field acoustic field and this phenomenon is called near-field acoustic levitation (NFAL). Although there are various experiments conducted to measure integrated acoustic pressure on the object surface, up to now there was no direct method to measure pressure distribution. In this study we measured the acoustic radiation pressure of the near-field acoustic levitation via pressure-sensitive paint.

  5. Near-field acoustic holography with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren

    of the particle velocity has notable potential in NAH, and furthermore, combined measurement of sound pressure and particle velocity opens a new range of possibilities that are examined in this study. On this basis, sound field separation methods have been studied, and a new measurement principle based on double...... layer measurements of the particle velocity has been proposed. Also, the relation between near-field and far-field radiation from sound sources has been examined using the concept of the supersonic intensity. The calculation of this quantity has been extended to other holographic methods, and studied...

  6. Fast Near-Field Calculation for Volume Integral Equations for Layered Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2005-01-01

    . Afterwards, the scattered electric field can be easily computed at a regular rectangular grid on any horizontal plane us-ing a 2-dimensional FFT. This approach provides significant speedup in the near-field calculation in comparison to a straightforward numerical evaluation of the ra-diation integral since......An efficient technique based on the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) for calculating near-field scattering by dielectric objects in layered media is presented. A higher or-der method of moments technique is employed to solve the volume integral equation for the unknown induced volume current density...

  7. Model calculations of stresses and deformations in rock salt in the near field of heated borehols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pudewills, A.

    1984-08-01

    With the help of the finite element computer code ADINA thermally induced borehole closure and stress distribution in the salt were investigated by the example of the 'Temperature Test 3' performed in the Asse mine during which the temperature and the borehole closure were measured. The aim of the calculations has been the assessment of the capabilities of the ADINA code to solve complex thermomechanical problems and to verify the available thermomechanical material laws for rock salt. In these computations the modulus of elasticity and the creep law of salt were varied in order to assess the influence exerted by these material parameters. The computed borehole closures are in good agreement with the measured data. In second part the model computations of thermomechanical phenomena around a 300 m deep borehole are presented for a HLW repository with and without brine, respectively. The finite element investigations are carried out for a periodical and symmetrical disposal field configuration with an equivalent radius of 28 m of the cylindrical unit cell. The initial state of stress was assumed to be lithostatic. A hydrostatic fluid pressure of 12 MPa was chosen for the case of accidental flooding of the repository field shortly after emplacement of the waste canisters. The essential results of this thermomechanical analysis are the borehole closure and the stresses in rock salt in the near field of the repository borehole. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Comparison of two numerical modelling codes for hydraulic and transport calculations in the near-field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, J.; Petkovsek, B.; Montarnal, Ph.; Genty, A.; Deville, E.; Krivic, J.; Ratej, J.

    2011-01-01

    In the past years the Slovenian Performance Analysis/Safety Assessment team has performed many generic studies for the future Slovenian low and intermediate level waste repository, most recently a Special Safety Analysis for the Krsko site. The modelling approach was to split the problem into three parts: near-field (detailed model of the repository), far-field (i.e., geosphere) and biosphere. In the Special Safety Analysis the code used to perform the near-field calculations was Hydrus2D. Recently the team has begun a cooperation with the French Commisariat al'Energie Atomique/Saclay (CEA/Saclay) and, as a part of this cooperation, began investigations into using the Alliances numerical platform for near-field calculations in order to compare the overall approach and calculated results. The article presents the comparison between these two codes for a silo-type repository that was considered in the Special Safety Analysis. The physical layout and characteristics of the repository are presented and a hydraulic and transport model of the repository is developed and implemented in Alliances. Some analysis of sensitivity to mesh fineness and to simulation timestep has been preformed and is also presented. The compared quantity is the output flux of radionuclides on the boundary of the model. Finally the results from Hydrus2D and Alliances are compared and the differences and similarities are commented.

  9. Comparison of two numerical modelling codes for hydraulic and transport calculations in the near-field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalin, J., E-mail: jan.kalin@zag.s [Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Dimiceva 12, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Petkovsek, B., E-mail: borut.petkovsek@zag.s [Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Dimiceva 12, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Montarnal, Ph., E-mail: philippe.montarnal@cea.f [CEA/Saclay, DM2S/SFME/LSET, Gif-sur-Yvette, 91191 cedex (France); Genty, A., E-mail: alain.genty@cea.f [CEA/Saclay, DM2S/SFME/LSET, Gif-sur-Yvette, 91191 cedex (France); Deville, E., E-mail: estelle.deville@cea.f [CEA/Saclay, DM2S/SFME/LSET, Gif-sur-Yvette, 91191 cedex (France); Krivic, J., E-mail: jure.krivic@geo-zs.s [Geological Survey of Slovenia, Dimiceva 14, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ratej, J., E-mail: joze.ratej@geo-zs.s [Geological Survey of Slovenia, Dimiceva 14, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2011-04-15

    In the past years the Slovenian Performance Analysis/Safety Assessment team has performed many generic studies for the future Slovenian low and intermediate level waste repository, most recently a Special Safety Analysis for the Krsko site. The modelling approach was to split the problem into three parts: near-field (detailed model of the repository), far-field (i.e., geosphere) and biosphere. In the Special Safety Analysis the code used to perform the near-field calculations was Hydrus2D. Recently the team has begun a cooperation with the French Commisariat al'Energie Atomique/Saclay (CEA/Saclay) and, as a part of this cooperation, began investigations into using the Alliances numerical platform for near-field calculations in order to compare the overall approach and calculated results. The article presents the comparison between these two codes for a silo-type repository that was considered in the Special Safety Analysis. The physical layout and characteristics of the repository are presented and a hydraulic and transport model of the repository is developed and implemented in Alliances. Some analysis of sensitivity to mesh fineness and to simulation timestep has been preformed and is also presented. The compared quantity is the output flux of radionuclides on the boundary of the model. Finally the results from Hydrus2D and Alliances are compared and the differences and similarities are commented.

  10. Near field acoustic holography based on the equivalent source method and pressure-velocity transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y.-B.; Chen, X.-Z.; Jacobsen, Finn

    2009-01-01

    The advantage of using the normal component of the particle velocity rather than the sound pressure in the hologram plane as the input of conventional spatial Fourier transform based near field acoustic holography (NAH) and also as the input of the statistically optimized variant of NAH has recen...... generated by sources on the two sides of the hologram plane is also examined....

  11. Nuclide release calculation in the near-field of a reference HLW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2004-01-01

    The HLW-relevant R and D program for disposal of high-level radioactive waste has been carried out at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) since early 1997 in order to develop a conceptual Korea Reference Repository System for direct disposal of nuclear spent fuel by the end of 2007. A preliminary reference geologic repository concept considering such established criteria and requirements as waste and generic site characteristics in Korea was roughly envisaged in 2003 focusing on the near-field components of the repository system. According to above basic repository concept, which is similar to that of Swedish KBS-3 repository, the spent fuel is first encapsulated in corrosion resistant canisters, even though the material has not yet been determined, and then emplaced into the deposition holes surrounded by high density bentonite clay in tunnels constructed at a depth of about 500 m in a stable plutonic rock body. Not only to demonstrate how much a reference repository is safe in the generic point of view with several possible scenarios and cases associated with a preliminary repository concept by conducting calculations for nuclide release and transport in the near-field components of the repository, even though enough information has not been available that much yet, but also to show a methodology by which a generic safety assessment could be performed for further development of Korea reference repository concept, nuclide release calculation study strongly seems to be necessary

  12. Statistical analysis of the hydrodynamic pressure in the near field of compressible jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camussi, R.; Di Marco, A.; Castelain, T.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Statistical properties of pressure fluctuations retrieved through wavelet analysis • Time delay PDFs approximated by a log-normal distribution • Amplitude PDFs approximated by a Gamma distribution • Random variable PDFs weakly dependent upon position and Mach number. • A general stochastic model achieved for the distance dependency - Abstract: This paper is devoted to the statistical characterization of the pressure fluctuations measured in the near field of a compressible jet at two subsonic Mach numbers, 0.6 and 0.9. The analysis is focused on the hydrodynamic pressure measured at different distances from the jet exit and analyzed at the typical frequency associated to the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability. Statistical properties are retrieved by the application of the wavelet transform to the experimental data and the computation of the wavelet scalogram around that frequency. This procedure highlights traces of events that appear intermittently in time and have variable strength. A wavelet-based event tracking procedure has been applied providing a statistical characterization of the time delay between successive events and of their energy level. On this basis, two stochastic models are proposed and validated against the experimental data in the different flow conditions

  13. Modelling reactive material transport in the near field of a repository for radioactive waste. Coupling the EMOS near field modules CLAYPOS and LOPOS with thermodynamic equilibrium calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moog, H.C.; Keesmann, S.M.

    2007-02-01

    This paper reports on the project ''Coupling transport models with thermodynamic equilibrium calculations'' - short title EQLINK, promotion code number 02 E 9723 - in the which the scope for coupling thermodynamic equilibrium model calculations with EMOS was expanded and improved. The first step was to inquire into the current state of research on radiolytic processes. It transpired that there is currently no conclusive description of radiolytic processes. The existing descriptions are too complex and too narrowly geared to specific scenarios to allow a general view on radiolytic processes, which would be a prerequisite for creating suitable long-term geochemical safety analysis modules. It appears that the approximation calculations implemented in EMOS tend to overestimate rather than underestimate radiolytic gas formation. The thermodynamic database which is used at GRS (Society for Plant and Reactor Safety) as a basis for coupled transport calculations has been updated. For this purpose the radionuclide database of the Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE = Institute for Nuclear Disposal) was converted to an in-house format which permits creating parameter files for specific requirements. The data of the INE comprise thermodynamic parameters such as equilibrium constants, Gibbs free enthalpies of formation, enthalpies and entropies of formation and Pitzer parameters, which are required for model calculations on high-saline solutions. The database for low-saline solutions which had been developed by PSI/NAGRA for calculations with CLAYPOS was also adopted. Both parameter sets were subjected to test calculations to detect any errors that might have occurred during the data transfer. It is thus now possible to perform coupled transport calculations with the EMOS modules LOPOS and CLAYPOS according to the state of the art of geochemical research. The EQLINK interface which had been developed in an earlier project, titled ''Development of a model for describing the

  14. Calculation of population doses with RADTRAN for route segments that have an unpopulated near-field region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanipe, F.L.; Neuhauser, S.; Sprung, J.L.

    1998-03-01

    The RADTRAN code (Neuhauser and Kanipe, 1994) models the radiological consequences of the transportation of radioactive materials, both the exposures that will occur if the transport occurs without incident, and the exposures that may occur should the transport vehicle be involved in an accident while en route. Because accidents might occur at any point along a transportation route, RADTRAN divides the route into segments (links) and uses a uniform population density and constant meteorological conditions (wind speed and atmospheric stability) to represent the population and weather characteristics of each route segment. A way to perform RADTRAN calculations, that allows an unpopulated near-field region along a transportation link to be approximately modeled, is described, validated, and then illustratively applied to a coastal sailing route

  15. Seawater-sediment interaction at elevated temperatures and pressures: implications for the near field chemical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyfried, W.E. Jr.; Thornton, E.C.; Janecky, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Results of four experiments are reported which document chemical exchange and mineralogic modification during seawater-sediment interaction at 200 0 to 300 0 C, 500 bars. Sediments used for this study are from MPG-1 (central North Pacific). Experimental conditions (T, P, W/R) were chosen to be reasonably analogous to conditions which will characterize the near field environment; that is a zone within approximately 1 m of the buried waste canister. In general, the major element chemistry of seawater was similarly modified in all experiments. The aqueous concentrations of Ca, Mg, Sr, and SO 4 decreased and SiO 2 /sub (aq)/, Na, K, and ΣCO 2 increased relative to values in seawater prior to reaction with sediments. pH decreased and remained distinctly acid. Con comitantly significant concentrations of heavy metals entered seawater from the sediments during reaction. Dissolution of Mn-rich phases profoundly affected alteration processes. For example, reaction of MnO 2 components of the smectite-rich sediment (Pacific smectite) with seawater created an unusually oxidizing milieu (fO 2 = 10 -7 74 ), and resulted in dissolution of significant quantities of Au from the reaction cell. Although illite-quartz-Fe-chlorite (sediment B)-seawater interaction also created a relatively oxidizing environment, this environment was not capable of oxidizing Au. Thus, in this regard (oxidation potential) sediment mineralogy exerts a strong influence. Mineralogic modification of sediment B at 200 0 and 300 0 C was minor and characterized by partial dissolution of illite and exchange of Fe for Mg in chlorite. In contrast the smectite-rich sediment, which, prior to reaction with seawater contained a poorly crystalline smectite phase, clinoptilolite, and amorphous material, recrystallized totally to a well defined smectite mineral. Anhydrite was abundantly present amongst the alteration products of all experiments

  16. Statistically optimized near field acoustic holography using an array of pressure-velocity probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Jaud, Virginie

    2007-01-01

    of a measurement aperture that extends well beyond the source can be relaxed. Both NAH and SONAH are based on the assumption that all sources are on one side of the measurement plane whereas the other side is source free. An extension of the SONAH procedure based on measurement with a double layer array...... of pressure microphones has been suggested. The double layer technique makes it possible to distinguish between sources on the two sides of the array and thus suppress the influence of extraneous noise coming from the “wrong” side. It has also recently been demonstrated that there are significant advantages...... in NAH based on an array of acoustic particle velocity transducers (in a single layer) compared with NAH based on an array of pressure microphones. This investigation combines the two ideas and examines SONAH based on an array of pressure-velocity intensity probes through computer simulations as well...

  17. Near-field heat transfer at the spent fuel test-climax: a comparison of measurements and calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, W.C.; Montan, D.N.; Ballou, L.B.

    1981-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Test in the Climax granitic stock at the DOE Nevada Test Site is a test of the feasibility of storage and retrieval of spent nuclear reactor fuel in a deep geologic environment. Eleven spent fuel elements, together with six thermally identical electrical resistance heaters and 20 peripheral guard heaters, are emplaced 420 m below surface in a three-drift test array. This array was designed to simulate the near-field effects of thousands of canisters of nuclear waste and to evaluate the effects of heat alone, and heat plus ionizing radiation on the rock. Thermal calculations and measurements are conducted to determine thermal transport from the spent fuel and electrical resistance heaters. Calculations associated with the as-built Spent Fuel Test geometry and thermal source histories are presented and compared with thermocouple measurements made throughout the test array. Comparisons in space begin at the spent fuel canister and include the first few metres outside the test array. Comparisons in time begin at emplacement and progress through the first year of thermal loading in this multi-year test

  18. Plane-wave spectrum approach for the calculation of electromagnetic absorption under near-field exposure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, I.; Gandhi, O.P.; Hagmann, M.J.; Riazi, A.

    1980-01-01

    The exposure of humans to electromagnetic near fields has not been sufficiently emphasized by researcher. We have used the plane-wave-spectrum approach to evaluate the electromagnetic field and determine the energy deposited in a lossy, homogeneous, semi-infinite slab placed in the near field of a source leaking radiation. Values of the fields and absorbed energy in the target are obtained by vector summation of the contributions of all the plane waves into which the prescribed field is decomposed. Use of a fast Fourier transform algorithm contributes to the high efficiency of the computations. The numerical results show that, for field distributions that are nearly constant over a physical extent of at least a free-space wavelength, the energy coupled into the target is approximately equal to the resulting from plane-wave exposed

  19. A design tool for direct and non-stochastic calculations of near-field radiative transfer in complex structures: The NF-RT-FDTD algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didari, Azadeh; Pinar Mengüç, M.

    2017-08-01

    Advances in nanotechnology and nanophotonics are inextricably linked with the need for reliable computational algorithms to be adapted as design tools for the development of new concepts in energy harvesting, radiative cooling, nanolithography and nano-scale manufacturing, among others. In this paper, we provide an outline for such a computational tool, named NF-RT-FDTD, to determine the near-field radiative transfer between structured surfaces using Finite Difference Time Domain method. NF-RT-FDTD is a direct and non-stochastic algorithm, which accounts for the statistical nature of the thermal radiation and is easily applicable to any arbitrary geometry at thermal equilibrium. We present a review of the fundamental relations for far- and near-field radiative transfer between different geometries with nano-scale surface and volumetric features and gaps, and then we discuss the details of the NF-RT-FDTD formulation, its application to sample geometries and outline its future expansion to more complex geometries. In addition, we briefly discuss some of the recent numerical works for direct and indirect calculations of near-field thermal radiation transfer, including Scattering Matrix method, Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD), Wiener Chaos Expansion, Fluctuating Surface Current (FSC), Fluctuating Volume Current (FVC) and Thermal Discrete Dipole Approximations (TDDA).

  20. Pore pressure measurement plan of near field rock used on three dimensional groundwater flow analysis in demonstration test of cavern type disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, Kazuhiro; Terada, Kenji; Matsumura, Katsuhide; Koyama, Toshihiro; Yajima, Kazuaki

    2008-01-01

    Demonstration test of underground cavern type disposal facilities is planed though carrying out construction of full scale engineering barrier system which simulated in the underground space in full scale and under actual environment. This test consists of three part, these are construction test, performance test and measurement test. Behavior of near field rock mass is measured about hydrological behavior under and after construction to evaluate effect at test facility. To make plan of pore pressure measurement, three dimensional groundwater flow analysis has been carried out. Based on comparison of analysis before and after test, detail plan has been studied. (author)

  1. A line array based near field imaging technique for characterising acoustical properties of elongated targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, F.P.G.

    1995-01-01

    With near field imaging techniques the acoustical pressure waves at distances other than the recorded can be calculated. Normally, acquisition on a two dimensional plane is necessary and extrapolation is performed by a Rayleigh integral. A near field single line instead of two dimensional plane

  2. Thermodynamics of the near field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apps, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The near field is normally taken to mean the part of the geologic setting of a repository that is affected by mechanical or thermal perturbations resulting from repository excavations and emplacement of radioactive waste. The near-field host rocks, the waste package, and the intervening backfill constitute a series of engineered and natural barriers that should be designed to initially prevent and subsequently control radionuclide release. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations 10 CFR part 60 specify that the waste package must not allow any release of radionuclides for at least 300 years, and preferably 1000 years. Thereafter, the release rate of any radionuclide is not to exceed on part in 100,000 per year of the inventory that is calculated to be present 1000 years after closure. In this paper, the author briefly outlines recent developments and identifies important fundamental research in thermodynamics and related areas that is needed to resolve some of the current uncertainties

  3. Near field communications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ahson, Syed A; Furht, Borko

    2011-01-01

    Near Field Communication, or NFC, is a short-range high frequency wireless communication technology that enables the exchange of data between devices over about a decimeter. The technology is a simple extension of the ISO 14443 proximity-card standard (contact less card, RFID) that combines the interface of a smart card and a reader into a single device with practical implications. A complete reference for NFC, this handbook provides technical information about all aspects of NFC, as well as applications. It covers basic concepts as well as research grade material and includes a discussion of

  4. Migration model for the near field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, G.; Rasmusson, A.; Neretnieks, I.

    1982-11-01

    The near field model describes the transport of substances dissolved in the groundwater to and from a canister in which radioactive materials are stored. The migration of substances that can cause corrosion (oxidants) of the canister is described by means of a mathematical model. The model takes into account diffusion through the buffer material and water flow in the rock fractures. Two distinct transport resistances can be distinguished in this transport process. The first consists of the diffusion resistance in the buffer material and the second arises due to diffusion resistance in the flowing water in the thin fractures in the rock. The model can also be used to calculate the non-steady-state phase of the inward or outward transport of dissolved species. The model has also been used to calculate how a redox front caused by radiolytically produced oxidants moves out through the clay and into the rock. It has been shown that the migration rate of the redox front can be calculated with good accuracy by means of simple mass balance computations. The transport of radiolytically formed hydrogen away from the fuel has been calculated. When dissolved in the water, hydrogen can be transported through the clay barrier by means of diffusion without the partial pressure of the hydrogen exceeding the hydrostatic pressure. (author)

  5. A comparison of statistically optimized near field acoustic holography using single layer pressure velocity measurements and using double layer pressure measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Chen, Xinyi; Jaud, Virginie

    2008-01-01

    recently been suggested. An alternative method uses a double layer array of pressure transducers. Both methods make it possible to distinguish between sources on the two sides of the array and thus suppress the influence of extraneous noise and reflections coming from the “wrong” side. This letter compares...

  6. Near field studies within the SKB 91 Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widen, H.; Bengtsson, A.; Grundfelt, B.

    1991-06-01

    A number of near field studies was preformed during the early part of the SKB91 project. This report summaries this work and includes: - Simulation of the steady release from the near field with different time for canister penetration. - Simulation of the release from a repository with 5300 canisters with different penetration times for different parts of the canisters due to manufacturing error, glaciations, inner over pressure and corrosion. - Calculation with a numerical model of the transient release of the instantaneously dissolvable species and the effect of different boundary conditions both at the canister/bentonite and the bentonite/rock interface. - Description of the implementation of a resistance network model for the calculation of the steady state transport resistances in the different pathways from the canisters. - Comparison of two analytical models for the calculation of the release of the instantaneously dissolvable species. (au)

  7. Report of near field group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.; Baggett, N.; Claus, J.

    1985-04-01

    Substantial progress since the Los Alamos Workshop two years ago is reported. A radio-frequency model of a grating accelerator has been tested at Cornell, and extensive calculations compared with observations. Alternative structures consisting of either hemispherical bumps on a plane, or conducting spheres in space, have also been rf modeled. The use of liquid droplets to form such structures has been proposed and a conceptual design studied. Calculations and experiments have examined the effects of surface plasmas, and shown that in this case the reflectivity is low. However, calculations and observations suggest that gradients in excess of 1 GeV/meter should be obtainable without forming such plasma. An examination of wake fields shows that, with Landau damping, these are independent of wavelength. The use of near field structures to act as high gradient focusing elements has been studied and shows promise, independent of the acceleration mechanism. A proposal has been made to establish a facility that would enable ''proof of principle experiments'' to be performed on these and other laser driven accelerator mechanisms. 11 refs., 10 figs

  8. Report of near field group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, R.B.; Baggett, N.; Claus, J.; Fernow, R.; Stumer, I.; Figueroa, H.; Kroll, N.; Funk, W.; Lee-Whiting, G.; Pickup, M.

    1985-04-01

    Substantial progress since the Los Alamos Workshop two years ago is reported. A radio-frequency model of a grating accelerator has been tested at Cornell, and extensive calculations compared with observations. Alternative structures consisting of either hemispherical bumps on a plane, or conducting spheres in space, have also been rf modeled. The use of liquid droplets to form such structures has been proposed and a conceptual design studied. Calculations and experiments have examined the effects of surface plasmas, and shown that in this case the reflectivity is low. However, calculations and observations suggest that gradients in excess of 1 GeV/meter should be obtainable without forming such plasma. An examination of wake fields shows that, with Landau damping, these are independent of wavelength. The use of near field structures to act as high gradient focusing elements has been studied and shows promise, independent of the acceleration mechanism. A proposal has been made to establish a facility that would enable ''proof of principle experiments'' to be performed on these and other laser driven accelerator mechanisms. 11 refs., 10 figs.

  9. Calculation of the inventory and near-field release rates of radioactivity from neutron-activated metal parts discharged from the high flux isotope reactor and emplaced in solid waste storage area 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelmers, A.D.; Hightower, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    Emplacement of contaminated reactor components involves disposal in lined and unlined auger holes in soil above the water table. The radionuclide inventory of disposed components was calculated. Information on the composition and weight of the components, as well as reasonable assumptions for the neutron flux fueling use, the time of neutron exposure, and radioactive decay after discharge, were employed in the inventory calculation. Near-field release rates of /sup 152/Eu, /sup 154/Eu, and /sup 155/Eu from control plates and cylinders were calculated for 50 years after emplacement. Release rates of the europium isotopes were uncertain. Two release-rate-limiting models were considered and a range of reasonable values were assumed for the time-to-failure of the auger-hole linear and aluminum cladding and europium solubility in SWSA-6 groundwater. The bounding europium radionuclide near-field release rates peaked at about 1.3 Ci/year total for /sup 152,154,155/Eu in 1987 for the lower bound, and at about 420 Ci/year in 1992 for the upper bound. The near-field release rates of /sup 55/Fe, /sup 59/Ni, /sup 60/Co, and /sup 63/Ni from stainless steel and cobalt alloy components, as well as of /sup 10/Be, /sup 41/Ca, and /sup 55/Fe from beryllium reflectors, were calculated for the next 100 years, assuming bulk waste corrosion was the release-rate-limiting step. Under the most conservative assumptions for the reflectors, the current (1986) total radionuclide release rate was calculated to be about 1.2 x 10/sup -4/ Ci/year, decreasing by 1992 to a steady release of about 1.5 x 10/sup -5/ Ci/year due primarily to /sup 41/Ca. 50 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Calculation Of Pneumatic Attenuation In Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.

    1991-01-01

    Errors caused by attenuation of air-pressure waves in narrow tubes calculated by method based on fundamental equations of flow. Changes in ambient pressure transmitted along narrow tube to sensor. Attenuation of high-frequency components of pressure wave calculated from wave equation derived from Navier-Stokes equations of viscous flow in tube. Developed to understand and compensate for frictional attenuation in narrow tubes used to connect aircraft pressure sensors with pressure taps on affected surfaces.

  11. A comparison of inverse boundary element method and near-field acoustical holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuhmacher, Andreas; Hald, Jørgen; Saemann, E.-U.

    1999-01-01

    An inverse boundary element method (IBEM) is used to estimate the surface velocity of a rolling tyre from measurements of the near-field pressure. Subsequently, the sound pressure is calculated over a finite plane surface next to the tyre from the reconstructed velocity field on the tyre surface........ In order to verify the reconstruction process, part of the measurement data is used together with Near-Field Acoustical Holography (NAH). Estimated distributions of sound pressure and particle velocity over a plane surface obtained from the two methods are compared....

  12. DECOVALEX-THMC Project. Task A. Influence of near field coupled THM phenomena on the performance of a spent fuel repository. Report of Task A1: Preliminary scoping calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Son (ed.) [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (Canada); Lanru Jing (ed.) [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Boergesson, Lennart [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Chijimatzu, Masakazu [Hazama Corporation (Japan); Jussila, Petri [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Helsinki (Finland); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory CA (United States)

    2007-02-15

    The DECOVALEX-THMC project is an ongoing international co-operative project that was stared in 2004 to support the development of mathematical models of coupled Thermal (T), Hydrological (H), Mechanical (M) and Chemical (C) processes in geological media for siting potential nuclear fuel waste repositories. The general objective is to characterise and evaluate the coupled THMC processes in the near field and far field of a geological repository and to assess their impact on performance assessment: - during the three phases of repository development: excavation phase, operation phase and post-closure phase; - for three different rocks types: crystalline, argillaceous and tuff; - with specific focus on the issues of: Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ), permanent property changes of rock masses, and glaciation and permafrost phenomena. The project involves a large number of research teams supported by radioactive waste management agencies or governmental regulatory bodies in Canada, China, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Sweden and USA, who conducted advanced studies and numerical modelling of coupled THMC processes under five tasks. This report presents the definition of the first phase, Task A-1, of the Task A of the project. The task is a working example of how interaction between THMC modelling and SA analysis could be performed. Starting with the technical definition of the Task A, the report presents the results of preliminary THM calculations with a purpose of an initial appreciation of the phenomena and material properties that must be better understood in subsequent phases. Many simplifications and assumptions were introduced and the results should be considered under these assumptions. Based on the evaluation of the multiple teams' results, a few points of concern were identified that may guide the successive phases of Task A studies: 1. The predicted maximum total stress in the MX-80 bentonite could slightly exceed the 15 MPa design pressure for the

  13. DECOVALEX-THMC Project. Task A. Influence of near field coupled THM phenomena on the performance of a spent fuel repository. Report of Task A1: Preliminary scoping calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Son; Lanru Jing; Boergesson, Lennart; Chijimatzu, Masakazu; Jussila, Petri; Rutqvist, Jonny

    2007-02-01

    The DECOVALEX-THMC project is an ongoing international co-operative project that was stared in 2004 to support the development of mathematical models of coupled Thermal (T), Hydrological (H), Mechanical (M) and Chemical (C) processes in geological media for siting potential nuclear fuel waste repositories. The general objective is to characterise and evaluate the coupled THMC processes in the near field and far field of a geological repository and to assess their impact on performance assessment: - during the three phases of repository development: excavation phase, operation phase and post-closure phase; - for three different rocks types: crystalline, argillaceous and tuff; - with specific focus on the issues of: Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ), permanent property changes of rock masses, and glaciation and permafrost phenomena. The project involves a large number of research teams supported by radioactive waste management agencies or governmental regulatory bodies in Canada, China, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Sweden and USA, who conducted advanced studies and numerical modelling of coupled THMC processes under five tasks. This report presents the definition of the first phase, Task A-1, of the Task A of the project. The task is a working example of how interaction between THMC modelling and SA analysis could be performed. Starting with the technical definition of the Task A, the report presents the results of preliminary THM calculations with a purpose of an initial appreciation of the phenomena and material properties that must be better understood in subsequent phases. Many simplifications and assumptions were introduced and the results should be considered under these assumptions. Based on the evaluation of the multiple teams' results, a few points of concern were identified that may guide the successive phases of Task A studies: 1. The predicted maximum total stress in the MX-80 bentonite could slightly exceed the 15 MPa design pressure for the container

  14. Near field optics and nanoscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fillard, J P

    1996-01-01

    This book contains the most recent information on optical nanoscopy. Far-Field and Near-Field properties on e.m. waves are presented which illustrate how optical images can be obtained from sub-micron objects. Scanning Probe techniques and computer processing are covered here. An explanation is given on how propagating photons or evanescent waves can behave over distances shorter than the wavelength, taking into account the presence of small objects. Quantum tunneling of photons is explained comparatively with the electron mechanism. Technical details are given on photon tunneling microscopes.

  15. Nanomanipulation using near field photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David; Serey, Xavier; Chen, Yih-Fan; Mandal, Sudeep

    2011-03-21

    In this article we review the use of near-field photonics for trapping, transport and handling of nanomaterials. While the advantages of traditional optical tweezing are well known at the microscale, direct application of these techniques to the handling of nanoscale materials has proven difficult due to unfavourable scaling of the fundamental physics. Recently a number of research groups have demonstrated how the evanescent fields surrounding photonic structures like photonic waveguides, optical resonators, and plasmonic nanoparticles can be used to greatly enhance optical forces. Here, we introduce some of the most common implementations of these techniques, focusing on those which have relevance to microfluidic or optofluidic applications. Since the field is still relatively nascent, we spend much of the article laying out the fundamental and practical advantages that near field optical manipulation offers over both traditional optical tweezing and other particle handling techniques. In addition we highlight three application areas where these techniques namely could be of interest to the lab-on-a-chip community, namely: single molecule analysis, nanoassembly, and optical chromatography. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  16. Pressure calculations in nanochannel gas flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, J.H.; Frijns, A.J.H.; Nedea, S.V.; Steenhoven, van A.A.; Frijns, A.J.H.; Valougeorgis, D.; Colin, S.; Baldas, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this research, pressure driven flow within a nanochannel is studied for argon in rarefied gas states. A Molecular Dynamics simulation is used to resolve the density and stress variations. Normal stress calculations are based on Irving-Kirkwood method, which divides the stress tensor into its

  17. Near-field solubility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomason, H.P.; Williams, S.J.

    1992-02-01

    Experimental determinations of the solubilities of americium, plutonium, neptunium, protactinium, thorium, radium, lead, tin, palladium and zirconium are reported. These elements have radioactive isotopes of concern in assessments of radioactive waste disposal. All measurements were made under the highly alkaline conditions typical of the near field of a radioactive waste repository which uses cementitious materials for many of the immobilisation matrices, the backfill and the engineered structures. Low redox potentials, typical of those resulting from the corrosion of iron and steel, were simulated for those elements having more than one accessible oxidation state. The dissolved concentrations of the elements were defined using ultrafiltration. In addition, the corrosion of iron and stainless steel was shown to generate low redox potentials in solution and the solubility of iron(II) at high pH was measured and found to be sufficient for it to act as a redox buffer with respect to neptunium and plutonium. (author)

  18. Data requirements for integrated near field models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilems, R.E.; Pearson, F.J. Jr.; Faust, C.R.; Brecher, A.

    1981-01-01

    The coupled nature of the various processes in the near field require that integrated models be employed to assess long term performance of the waste package and repository. The nature of the integrated near field models being compiled under the SCEPTER program are discussed. The interfaces between these near field models and far field models are described. Finally, near field data requirements are outlined in sufficient detail to indicate overall programmatic guidance for data gathering activities

  19. Continuous borehole strain and pore pressure in the near field of the 28 September 2004 M 6.0 parkfield, California, earthquake: Implications for nucleation, fault response, earthquake prediction and tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M.J.S.; Borcherdt, R.D.; Linde, A.T.; Gladwin, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Near-field observations of high-precision borehole strain and pore pressure, show no indication of coherent accelerating strain or pore pressure during the weeks to seconds before the 28 September 2004 M 6.0 Parkfield earthquake. Minor changes in strain rate did occur at a few sites during the last 24 hr before the earthquake but these changes are neither significant nor have the form expected for strain during slip coalescence initiating fault failure. Seconds before the event, strain is stable at the 10-11 level. Final prerupture nucleation slip in the hypocentral region is constrained to have a moment less than 2 ?? 1012 N m (M 2.2) and a source size less than 30 m. Ground displacement data indicate similar constraints. Localized rupture nucleation and runaway precludes useful prediction of damaging earthquakes. Coseismic dynamic strains of about 10 microstrain peak-to-peak were superimposed on volumetric strain offsets of about 0.5 microstrain to the northwest of the epicenter and about 0.2 microstrain to the southeast of the epicenter, consistent with right lateral slip. Observed strain and Global Positioning System (GPS) offsets can be simply fit with 20 cm of slip between 4 and 10 km on a 20-km segment of the fault north of Gold Hill (M0 = 7 ?? 1017 N m). Variable slip inversion models using GPS data and seismic data indicate similar moments. Observed postseismic strain is 60% to 300% of the coseismic strain, indicating incomplete release of accumulated strain. No measurable change in fault zone compliance preceding or following the earthquake is indicated by stable earth tidal response. No indications of strain change accompany nonvolcanic tremor events reported prior to and following the earthquake.

  20. Near field plasmon and force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hollander, R.B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Kooyman, R.P.H.

    1995-01-01

    A scanning plasmon near field optical microscope (SPNM) is presented which combines a conventional far field surface plasmon microscope with a stand-alone atomic force microscope (AFM). Near field plasmon and force images are recorded simultaneously both with a lateral resolution limited by the

  1. Near Field Communication: Introduction and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Sheli; Yarmey, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    Near field communication is an emerging technology that allows objects, such as mobile phones, computers, tags, or posters, to exchange information wirelessly across a small distance. Though primarily associated with mobile payment, near field communication has many different potential commercial applications, ranging from marketing to nutrition,…

  2. Measurement of incident sound power using near field acoustic holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Tiana Roig, Elisabet

    2009-01-01

    ; and it has always been regarded as impossible to measure the sound power that is incident on a wall directly. This paper examines a new method of determining this quantity from sound pressure measurements at positions on the wall using ‘statistically optimised near field acoustic holography’ (SONAH...

  3. Near field acoustic holography with microphones on a rigid sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Moreno-Pescador, Guillermo; Fernandez Grande, Efren

    2011-01-01

    Spherical near field acoustic holography (spherical NAH) is a technique that makes it possible to reconstruct the sound field inside and just outside a spherical surface on which the sound pressure is measured with an array of microphones. This is potentially very useful for source identification...

  4. Sampling Criterion for EMC Near Field Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej; Sørensen, Morten; Ebert, Hans

    2012-01-01

    An alternative, quasi-empirical sampling criterion for EMC near field measurements intended for close coupling investigations is proposed. The criterion is based on maximum error caused by sub-optimal sampling of near fields in the vicinity of an elementary dipole, which is suggested as a worst......-case representative of a signal trace on a typical printed circuit board. It has been found that the sampling density derived in this way is in fact very similar to that given by the antenna near field sampling theorem, if an error less than 1 dB is required. The principal advantage of the proposed formulation is its...

  5. Near field plasmon and force microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    de Hollander, R.B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Kooyman, R.P.H.

    1995-01-01

    A scanning plasmon near field optical microscope (SPNM) is presented which combines a conventional far field surface plasmon microscope with a stand-alone atomic force microscope (AFM). Near field plasmon and force images are recorded simultaneously both with a lateral resolution limited by the probe size to about 20 nm. At variance to previous work, utilizing a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with a metallic tip, a dielectric silicon-nitride tip is used in contact mode. This arrangement ...

  6. Patch near field acoustic holography based on particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yong-Bin; Jacobsen, Finn; Bi, Chuan-Xing

    2009-01-01

    Patch near field acoustic holography (PNAH) based on sound pressure measurements makes it possible to reconstruct the source field near a source by measuring the sound pressure at positions on a surface. that is comparable in size to the source region of concern. Particle velocity is an alternative...... examines the use of particle velocity as the input of PNAH. Because the particle velocity decays faster toward the edges of the measurement aperture than the pressure does and because the wave number ratio that enters into the inverse propagator from pressure to velocity amplifies high spatial frequencies...

  7. Evaluation of seismic stability of near field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Wataru; Takaji, Kazuhiko; Sugino, Hiroyuki; Mori, Koji

    1999-11-01

    For the buffer material of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan, it is considered to use a compacted bentonite or a compacted sand-mixture bentonite that is one kind of clay. The buffer material is expected to maintain long-term mechanical stability, to hold the waste in designated place, and to avoid the effects on the radionuclides migration. It is considered that the cyclic load due to seismic activities affects long-term mechanical stability in Japan, where many earthquakes have been occurring. In this report, aseismic mechanical stability of engineered barrier of HLW is studied by dynamic analysis based on equation of vibration, mainly in the view point of mechanical stability of the buffer. The analytical computer code that has been developed by JNC in cooperative project with National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention Science and Technology Agency is used in this study. Seismic wave at the disposal depth in the assumed geological environment is established by multiple reflection theory analysis, and then seismic wave at the disposal depth is used for the aseismic mechanical stability analysis. For the aseismic mechanical stability, total stress analyses (single-phase system) with the target field of near field are conducted to evaluate the shear failure of the buffer, the displacement of overpack, and vibrational behavior of the engineered barrier, and then effective stress analyses (two-phase system) with the target field of the engineered barrier are conducted to evaluate excursion in the pore water pressure within the buffer (i. e. liquefaction), concerning the non-linear dynamic properties of the buffer material. From the results, the following conclusions are obtained. (1) From the results of the total stress analyses, it is confirmed that the buffer must not reach a shear failure condition from the stresses caused by an earthquake and the overpack must not move significantly due to the inertial

  8. Calculation of fission gases internal pressure in nuclear fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos Santana, M. de.

    1981-12-01

    Models concerning the principal phenomena, particularly thermal expansion, fuel swelling, densification, reestructuring, relocation, mechanical strain, fission gas production and release, direct or indirectly important to calculate the internal pressure in nuclear fuel rods were analysed and selected. Through these analyses a computer code was developed to calculate fuel pin internal pressure evolution. Three different models were utilized to calculate the internal pressure in order to select the best and the most conservative estimate. (Author) [pt

  9. Near-field characterization of plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenin, Volodymyr

    2014-01-01

    simply by changing geometric parameters of the waveguide, keeping in mind the trade-off between confinement and propagation losses. A broad variety of plasmonic waveguides and waveguide components, including antennas for coupling the light in/out of the waveguide, requires correspondent characterization...... capabilities, especially on experimental side. The most straight-forward and powerful technique for such purpose is scanning near-field optical microscopy, which allows to probe and map near-field distribution and therefore becomes the main tool in this project. The detailed description of the used setups...

  10. Radiative heat transfer in the extreme near field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeongtae; Song, Bai; Fernández-Hurtado, Víctor; Lee, Woochul; Jeong, Wonho; Cui, Longji; Thompson, Dakotah; Feist, Johannes; Reid, M T Homer; García-Vidal, Francisco J; Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod

    2015-12-17

    Radiative transfer of energy at the nanometre length scale is of great importance to a variety of technologies including heat-assisted magnetic recording, near-field thermophotovoltaics and lithography. Although experimental advances have enabled elucidation of near-field radiative heat transfer in gaps as small as 20-30 nanometres (refs 4-6), quantitative analysis in the extreme near field (less than 10 nanometres) has been greatly limited by experimental challenges. Moreover, the results of pioneering measurements differed from theoretical predictions by orders of magnitude. Here we use custom-fabricated scanning probes with embedded thermocouples, in conjunction with new microdevices capable of periodic temperature modulation, to measure radiative heat transfer down to gaps as small as two nanometres. For our experiments we deposited suitably chosen metal or dielectric layers on the scanning probes and microdevices, enabling direct study of extreme near-field radiation between silica-silica, silicon nitride-silicon nitride and gold-gold surfaces to reveal marked, gap-size-dependent enhancements of radiative heat transfer. Furthermore, our state-of-the-art calculations of radiative heat transfer, performed within the theoretical framework of fluctuational electrodynamics, are in excellent agreement with our experimental results, providing unambiguous evidence that confirms the validity of this theory for modelling radiative heat transfer in gaps as small as a few nanometres. This work lays the foundations required for the rational design of novel technologies that leverage nanoscale radiative heat transfer.

  11. Near-field/altered-zone models report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardin, E. L.

    1998-01-01

    lithophysal units. These units are made up of moderately to densely welded, devitrified, fractured tuff. The rock's chemical composition is comparable to that of typical granite, but has textural features and mineralogical characteristics of large-scale, silicic volcanism. Because the repository horizon will be approximately 300 m below the ground surface and 200 m above the water table, the repository will be partially saturated. The welded tuff matrix in the host units is highly impermeable, but water and gas flow readily through fractures. The degree of fracturing in these units is highly variable, and the hydrologic significance of fracturing is an important aspect of site investigation. This report describes the characterization and modeling of a region around the potential repository--the altered zone--a region in which the temperature will be increased significantly by waste-generated heat. Numerical simulation has shown that, depending on the boundary conditions, rock properties, and repository design features incorporated in the models, the altered zone (AZ) may extend from the water table to the ground surface. This report also describes models of the near field, the region comprising the repository emplacement drifts and the surrounding rock, which are critical to the performance of engineered components. Investigations of near-field and altered-zone (NF/AZ) processes support the design of underground repository facilities and engineered barriers and also provide constraint data for probabilistic calculations of waste-isolation performance (i.e., performance assessment). The approach to investigation, which is an iterative process involving hypothesis testing and experimentation, has relied on conceptualizing engineered barriers and on performance analysis. This report is a collection, emphasizing conceptual and numerical models, of the recent results contributed from studies of NF/AZ processes and of quantitative measures of NF/AZ performance. The selection and

  12. Near-field/altered-zone models report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, E. L., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal units. These units are made up of moderately to densely welded, devitrified, fractured tuff. The rock's chemical composition is comparable to that of typical granite, but has textural features and mineralogical characteristics of large-scale, silicic volcanism. Because the repository horizon will be approximately 300 m below the ground surface and 200 m above the water table, the repository will be partially saturated. The welded tuff matrix in the host units is highly impermeable, but water and gas flow readily through fractures. The degree of fracturing in these units is highly variable, and the hydrologic significance of fracturing is an important aspect of site investigation. This report describes the characterization and modeling of a region around the potential repository--the altered zone--a region in which the temperature will be increased significantly by waste-generated heat. Numerical simulation has shown that, depending on the boundary conditions, rock properties, and repository design features incorporated in the models, the altered zone (AZ) may extend from the water table to the ground surface. This report also describes models of the near field, the region comprising the repository emplacement drifts and the surrounding rock, which are critical to the performance of engineered components. Investigations of near-field and altered-zone (NF/AZ) processes support the design of underground repository facilities and engineered barriers and also provide constraint data for probabilistic calculations of waste-isolation performance (i.e., performance assessment). The approach to investigation, which is an iterative process involving hypothesis testing and experimentation, has relied on conceptualizing engineered barriers and on performance analysis. This report is a collection, emphasizing conceptual and numerical models, of the recent results contributed from studies of NF/AZ processes and of quantitative measures of NF

  13. Computational lens for the near field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carney, P. Scott; Franzin, Richard A.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2004-01-01

    A method is presented to reconstruct the structure of a scattering object from data acquired with a photon scanning tunneling microscope . The data may be understood to form a Gabor type near-field hologram and are obtained at a distance from the sample where the field is defocused and normally...

  14. Near-field flat focusing mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Chieh; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2018-03-01

    This article reviews recent progress towards the design of near-field flat focusing mirrors, focusing/imaging light patterns in reflection. An important feature of such flat focusing mirrors is their transverse invariance, as they do not possess any optical axis. We start with a review of the physical background to the different focusing mechanisms of near- and far-field focusing. These near-field focusing devices like flat lenses and the reviewed near-field focusing mirrors can implement planar focusing devices without any optical axis. In contrast, various types of far-field planar focusing devices, such as high-contrast gratings and metasurfaces, unavoidably break the transverse invariance due to their radially symmetrical structures. The particular realizations of near-field flat focusing mirrors including Bragg-like dielectric mirrors and dielectric subwavelength gratings are the main subjects of the review. The first flat focusing mirror was demonstrated with a chirped mirror and was shown to manage an angular dispersion for beam focusing, similar to the management of chromatic dispersion for pulse compression. Furthermore, the reviewed optimized chirped mirror demonstrated a long near-field focal length, hardly achieved by a flat lens or a planar hyperlens. Two more different configurations of dielectric subwavelength gratings that focus a light beam at normal or oblique incidence are also reviewed. We also summarize and compare focusing performance, limitations, and future perspectives between the reviewed flat focusing mirrors and other planar focusing devices including a flat lens with a negative-index material, a planar hyperlens, a high-contrast grating, and a metasurface.

  15. Characterization of near-field optical probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohnsen, Brian; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation and collection characteristics of four different near-field optical-fiber probes, namely, three uncoated probes and an aluminium-coated small-aperture probe, are investigated and compared. Their radiation properties are characterized by observation of light-induced topography changes...... in a photo-sensitive film illuminated with the probes, and it is confirmed that the radiated optical field is unambigiously confined only for the coated probe. Near-field optical imaging of a standing evanescent-wave pattern is used to compare the detection characteristics of the probes, and it is concluded...... that, for the imaging of optical-field intensity distributions containing predominantly evanescent-wave components, a sharp uncoated tip is the probe of choice. Complementary results obtained with optical phase-conjugation experiments with he uncoated probes are discussed in relation to the probe...

  16. The status of near-field modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apted, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    The near-field of a high-level nuclear waste repository consists of the waste itself and of the man-made barriers engineered around it (Engineered Barrier System, EBS). The conceptual and mathematical models of repositories and EBS, and the state of the air of performance assessment of waste repositories with EBS are discussed at the meeting. 18 individual items have been indexed and abstracted for the INIS database. (R.P.)

  17. Radiation Entropy and Near-Field Thermophotovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuomin M.

    2008-08-01

    Radiation entropy was key to the original derivation of Planck's law of blackbody radiation, in 1900. This discovery opened the door to quantum mechanical theory and Planck was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918. Thermal radiation plays an important role in incandescent lamps, solar energy utilization, temperature measurements, materials processing, remote sensing for astronomy and space exploration, combustion and furnace design, food processing, cryogenic engineering, as well as numerous agricultural, health, and military applications. While Planck's law has been fruitfully applied to a large number of engineering problems for over 100 years, questions have been raised about its limitation in micro/nano systems, especially at subwavelength distances or in the near field. When two objects are located closer than the characteristic wavelength, wave interference and photon tunneling occurs that can result in significant enhancement of the radiative transfer. Recent studies have shown that the near-field effects can realize emerging technologies, such as superlens, sub-wavelength light source, polariton-assisted nanolithography, thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems, scanning tunneling thermal microscopy, etc. The concept of entropy has also been applied to explain laser cooling of solids as well as the second law efficiency of devices that utilize thermal radiation to produce electricity. However, little is known as regards the nature of entropy in near-field radiation. Some history and recent advances are reviewed in this presentation with a call for research of radiation entropy in the near field, due to the important applications in the optimization of thermophotovoltaic converters and in the design of practical systems that can harvest photon energies efficiently.

  18. The geochemistry of the near-field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, I.G.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes a study of the Swiss disposal concept used in 'Project Gewaehr 1985' safety analysis. The main components of the near-field of a high level waste repository are the waste glass matrix, the thick steel canister and the surrounding backfill of compressed bentonite. In this report it is concluded that mineralogical alteration of the backfill will be negligibly small over the million year period considered. Its physical and chemical properties can thus be relied on for such a period. The canister will retain its integrity for > 10/sup 3/ y and thereafter will act as an Eh/pH buffer. The near-field buffers ensure more alkaline and reducing conditions than in the far-field. Complete degradation of the glass matrix will take > 10/sup 5/ years and nuclide release will be limited by their congruent dissolution although it may be further constrained by low solubility. Diffusion of dissolved nuclides through the backfill is so slow that many species decay to insignificance within it. The large uptake capacity of the bentonite also significantly extends the release duration for longer lived, non-solubility limited nuclides thus decreasing output mixima. Possible perturbing factors such as radiolysis and hydrogen production by anoxic corrosion are of little importance but modelling of speciation/solubility in the near-field and, in particular, colloid formation and mobility are identified as areas in which more work is required. Although the main analysis aims to err on the side of conservatism, the extent of such pessimism is assessed in a 'realistic' appraisal of the near-field. This suggests that the engineered barriers will prevent any radiologically significant releases over periods in excess of a million years which would strengthen their role in the multiple barrier safety concept. (author)

  19. Development of the near field geochemistry model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcos, D.; Bruno, J.; Duro, L.; Grive, M.

    2000-01-01

    This report discusses in a quantitative manner the evolution of the near field geochemistry as a result of the interactions between two different introducing granitic groundwaters and the FEBEX bentonite as a buffer material. The two granitic groundwaters considered are: SR-5 water, sampled in a borehole at 500 m depth in Mina Ratones, and a mean composition of different granitic groundwaters from the iberian Massif. The steel canister has also been introduced by considering the iron corrosion in anoxic conditions. (Author)

  20. Analysis of artificial opals by scanning near field optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, J.; Lozano, G.; Lamela, J.; Lifante, G.; Dorado, L. A.; Depine, R. A.; Jaque, F.; Míguez, H.

    2011-04-01

    Herein we present a detailed analysis of the optical response of artificial opal films realized employing a near-field scanning optical microscope in collection and transmission modes. Near-field patterns measured at the rear surface when a plane wave impinges on the front face are presented with the finding that optical intensity maps present a clear correlation with the periodic arrangement of the outer surface. Calculations based on the vector Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method reproduce the different profiles experimentally observed as well as the response to the polarization of the incident field. These observations constitute the first experimental confirmation of the collective lattice resonances that give rise to the optical response of these three dimensional periodic structures in the high-energy range.

  1. Near-field effects of asteroid impacts in deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisler, Galen R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weaver, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gittings, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-06-11

    Our previous work has shown that ocean impacts of asteroids below 500 m in diameter do not produce devastating long-distance tsunamis. Nevertheless, a significant portion of the ocean lies close enough to land that near-field effects may prove to be the greatest danger from asteroid impacts in the ocean. Crown splashes and central jets that rise up many kilometres into the atmosphere can produce, upon their collapse, highly non-linear breaking waves that could devastate shorelines within a hundred kilometres of the impact site. We present illustrative calculations, in two and three dimensions, of such impacts for a range of asteroid sizes and impact angles. We find that, as for land impacts, the greatest dangers from oceanic impacts are the short-term near-field, and long-term atmospheric effects.

  2. Oscillometric blood pressure measurements: differences between measured and calculated mean arterial pressure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, H.D.; Hofstra, J.M.; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    Mean arterial pressure (MAP) is often used as an index of overall blood pressure. In recent years, the use of automated oscillometric blood pressure measurement devices is increasing. These devices directly measure and display MAP; however, MAP is often calculated from systolic blood pressure (SBP)

  3. Methodological problems in pressure profile calculations for lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Jacob; Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Peters, Günther H.J.

    2005-01-01

    calculations: The first problem is that the pressure profile is not uniquely defined since the expression for the local pressure involves an arbitrary choice of an integration contour. We have investigated two different choices leading to the Irving-Kirkwood (IK) and Harasima (H) expressions for the local...

  4. Near-field radiative heat transfer in mesoporous alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Feng Yan-Hui; Zhang Xin-Xin; Huang Cong-Liang; Wang Ge

    2015-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of mesoporous material has aroused the great interest of scholars due to its wide applications such as insulation, catalyst, etc. Mesoporous alumina substrate consists of uniformly distributed, unconnected cylindrical pores. Near-field radiative heat transfer cannot be ignored, when the diameters of the pores are less than the characteristic wavelength of thermal radiation. In this paper, near-field radiation across a cylindrical pore is simulated by employing the fluctuation dissipation theorem and Green function. Such factors as the diameter of the pore, and the temperature of the material are further analyzed. The research results show that the radiative heat transfer on a mesoscale is 2∼4 orders higher than on a macroscale. The heat flux and equivalent thermal conductivity of radiation across a cylindrical pore decrease exponentially with pore diameter increasing, while increase with temperature increasing. The calculated equivalent thermal conductivity of radiation is further developed to modify the thermal conductivity of the mesoporous alumina. The combined thermal conductivity of the mesoporous alumina is obtained by using porosity weighted dilute medium and compared with the measurement. The combined thermal conductivity of mesoporous silica decreases gradually with pore diameter increasing, while increases smoothly with temperature increasing, which is in good agreement with the experimental data. The larger the porosity, the more significant the near-field effect is, which cannot be ignored. (paper)

  5. Maximal near-field radiative heat transfer between two plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefzaoui, Elyes; Ezzahri, Younès; Drévillon, Jérémie; Joulain, Karl

    2013-09-01

    Near-field radiative transfer is a promising way to significantly and simultaneously enhance both thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) devices power densities and efficiencies. A parametric study of Drude and Lorentz models performances in maximizing near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite planes separated by nanometric distances at room temperature is presented in this paper. Optimal parameters of these models that provide optical properties maximizing the radiative heat flux are reported and compared to real materials usually considered in similar studies, silicon carbide and heavily doped silicon in this case. Results are obtained by exact and approximate (in the extreme near-field regime and the electrostatic limit hypothesis) calculations. The two methods are compared in terms of accuracy and CPU resources consumption. Their differences are explained according to a mesoscopic description of nearfield radiative heat transfer. Finally, the frequently assumed hypothesis which states a maximal radiative heat transfer when the two semi-infinite planes are of identical materials is numerically confirmed. Its subsequent practical constraints are then discussed. Presented results enlighten relevant paths to follow in order to choose or design materials maximizing nano-TPV devices performances.

  6. Interior near-field acoustical holography in flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E G; Houston, B H; Herdic, P C; Raveendra, S T; Gardner, B

    2000-10-01

    In this paper boundary element methods (BEM) are mated with near-field acoustical holography (NAH) in order to determine the normal velocity over a large area of a fuselage of a turboprop airplane from a measurement of the pressure (hologram) on a concentric surface in the interior of the aircraft. This work represents the first time NAH has been applied in situ, in-flight. The normal fuselage velocity was successfully reconstructed at the blade passage frequency (BPF) of the propeller and its first two harmonics. This reconstructed velocity reveals structure-borne and airborne sound-transmission paths from the engine to the interior space.

  7. Pressure algorithm for elliptic flow calculations with the PDF method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, M. S.; Pope, S. B.; Mongia, H. C.

    1991-01-01

    An algorithm to determine the mean pressure field for elliptic flow calculations with the probability density function (PDF) method is developed and applied. The PDF method is a most promising approach for the computation of turbulent reacting flows. Previous computations of elliptic flows with the method were in conjunction with conventional finite volume based calculations that provided the mean pressure field. The algorithm developed and described here permits the mean pressure field to be determined within the PDF calculations. The PDF method incorporating the pressure algorithm is applied to the flow past a backward-facing step. The results are in good agreement with data for the reattachment length, mean velocities, and turbulence quantities including triple correlations.

  8. Convergence analysis in near-field imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Gang; Li, Peijun

    2014-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the mathematical analysis of the direct and inverse modeling of the diffraction by a perfectly conducting grating surface in the near-field regime. It is motivated by our effort to analyze recent significant numerical results, in order to solve a class of inverse rough surface scattering problems in near-field imaging. In a model problem, the diffractive grating surface is assumed to be a small and smooth deformation of a plane surface. On the basis of the variational method, the direct problem is shown to have a unique weak solution. An analytical solution is introduced as a convergent power series in the deformation parameter by using the transformed field and Fourier series expansions. A local uniqueness result is proved for the inverse problem where only a single incident field is needed. On the basis of the analytic solution of the direct problem, an explicit reconstruction formula is presented for recovering the grating surface function with resolution beyond the Rayleigh criterion. Error estimates for the reconstructed grating surface are established with fully revealed dependence on such quantities as the surface deformation parameter, measurement distance, noise level of the scattering data, and regularity of the exact grating surface function. (paper)

  9. Near Field Communication: Technology and Market Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Arcese

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the different hi-tech content domains, the telecommunications industry is one of the most relevant, in particular for the Italian economy. Moreover, Near Field Communication (NFC represents an example of innovative production and a technological introduction in the telecommunications context. It has a threefold function: card emulator, peer-to-peer communication and digital content access, and it could be pervasively integrated in many different domains, especially in the mobile payment one. The increasing attention on NFC technology from the academic community has improved an analysis on the changes and the development perspective about mobile payments. It has considered the work done by the GSMA (Global System for Mobile Communications Association and the NFC Forum in recent years. This study starts from an analysis of the scientific contributions to Near Field Communication and how the main researches on this topic were conceived. Our focus is on the diffusion rates, the adoption rates and the technology life cycle. After that, we analyze the technical-economical elements of NFC. Finally, this work presents the state of art of the improvements to this technology with a deeper focus on NFC technologies applied to the tourism industry. In this way, we have done a case analysis that shows some of the NFC existent applications linked to each stage of the tourism value chain.

  10. Near Field Environment Process Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Wagner

    2000-11-14

    Waste emplacement and activities associated with construction of a repository system potentially will change environmental conditions within the repository system. These environmental changes principally result from heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, which elevates temperatures within the repository system. Elevated temperatures affect distribution of water, increase kinetic rates of geochemical processes, and cause stresses to change in magnitude and orientation from the stresses resulting from the overlying rock and from underground construction activities. The recognition of this evolving environment has been reflected in activities, studies and discussions generally associated with what has been termed the Near-Field Environment (NFE). The NFE interacts directly with waste packages and engineered barriers as well as potentially changing the fluid composition and flow conditions within the mountain. As such, the NFE defines the environment for assessing the performance of a potential Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The NFe evolves over time, and therefore is not amenable to direct characterization or measurement in the ambient system. Analysis or assessment of the NFE must rely upon projections based on tests and models that encompass the long-term processes of the evolution of this environment. This NFE Process Model Report (PMR) describes the analyses and modeling based on current understanding of the evolution of the near-field within the rock mass extending outward from the drift wall.

  11. Review of international near-field modeling for high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apted, M.J.; Andersson, K.; Pescatore, C.

    1993-01-01

    The primary components of nuclear waste repositories that mitigate radionuclide release are the near-field and the far-field subsystems. The near-field encompasses the waste package, which is composed of engineered barriers; the far-field includes the natural barriers. An international survey and review is being conducted on the latest developments in modeling of near-field performance, with particular emphasis on the conceptual and mathematical models for source-term calculations. The objectives of this review will be to establish the status and commonality among models and methods for assessing near-field performance, as well as to identify possible future needs for continued comparison and collaboration. In parallel with the technical evaluation, an international technical Workshop on near-field performance assessment will be held, in association with the Nuclear Energy Agency, on May 11-13, 1993 in Cadarache, France

  12. Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Vobornik

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available An average human eye can see details down to 0,07 mm in size. The ability to see smaller details of the matter is correlated with the development of the science and the comprehension of the nature. Today’s science needs eyes for the nano-world. Examples are easily found in biology and medical sciences. There is a great need to determine shape, size, chemical composition, molecular structure and dynamic properties of nano-structures. To do this, microscopes with high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution are required. Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy (SNOM is a new step in the evolution of microscopy. The conventional, lens-based microscopes have their resolution limited by diffraction. SNOM is not subject to this limitation and can offer up to 70 times better resolution.

  13. Scanning near-field optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vobornik, Dusan; Vobornik, Slavenka

    2008-02-01

    An average human eye can see details down to 0,07 mm in size. The ability to see smaller details of the matter is correlated with the development of the science and the comprehension of the nature. Today's science needs eyes for the nano-world. Examples are easily found in biology and medical sciences. There is a great need to determine shape, size, chemical composition, molecular structure and dynamic properties of nano-structures. To do this, microscopes with high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution are required. Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy (SNOM) is a new step in the evolution of microscopy. The conventional, lens-based microscopes have their resolution limited by diffraction. SNOM is not subject to this limitation and can offer up to 70 times better resolution.

  14. Curved laser microjet in near field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyar, Victor V; Stafeev, Sergey S; Kovalev, Alexey A

    2013-06-20

    With the use of the finite-difference time-domain-based simulation and a scanning near-field optical microscope that has a metal cantilever tip, the diffraction of a linearly polarized plane wave of wavelength λ by a glass corner step of height 2λ is shown to generate a low divergence laser jet of a root-parabolic form: over a distance of 4.7λ on the optical axis, the beam path is shifted by 2.1λ. The curved laser jet of the FWHM length depth of focus=9.5λ has the diameter FWHM=1.94λ over the distance 5.5λ, and the intensity maximum is 5 times higher than the incident wave intensity. The discrepancy between the analytical and the experimental results amounts to 11%.

  15. Light distribution analysis of optical fibre probe-based near-field optical tweezers using FDTD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B H; Yang, L J; Wang, Y [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Heilongjiang, Harbin, 150001 (China)], E-mail: richelaw@163.com

    2009-09-01

    Optical fibre probe-based near-field optical tweezers overcomes the diffraction limit of conventional optical tweezers, utilizing strong mechanical forces and torque associated with highly enhanced electric fields to trap and manipulate nano-scale particles. Near-field evanescent wave generated at optical fibre probe decays rapidly with the distance that results a significant reduced trapping volume, thus it is necessary to analyze the near-field distribution of optical fibre probe. The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is applied to characterize the near-field distribution of optical fibre probe. In terms of the distribution patterns, depolarization and polarization, the near-field distributions in longitudinal sections and cross-sections of tapered metal-coated optical fibre probe are calculated. The calculation results reveal that the incident polarized wave becomes depolarized after exiting from the nano-scale aperture of probe. The near-field distribution of the probe is unsymmetrical, and the near-field distribution in the cross-section vertical to the incident polarized wave is different from that in the cross-section parallel to the incident polarized wave. Moreover, the polarization of incident wave has a great impact on the light intensity distribution.

  16. Evaluation of long-term mechanical stability of near field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaji, Kazuhiko; Sugino, Hiroyuki; Okutsu, Kazuo; Miura, Kazuhiko; Tabei, Kazuto; Noda, Masaru; Takahashi, Shinichi; Sugie, Shigehiko

    1999-11-01

    In the near field, as tunnels and pits are excavated, a redistribution of stresses in the surrounding rock will occur. For a long period of time after the emplacement of waste packages various events will take place, such as the swelling of the buffer, sinking of the overpack under its own weight, deformation arising from expansion of overpack corrosion products and the creep deformation of the rock mass. The evaluation of what effects these changes in the stress-state will have on the buffer and rock mass is a major issue from the viewpoint of safety assessment. Therefore, rock creep analysis, overpack corrosion expansion analysis and overpack sinking analysis have been made in order to examine the long-term mechanical stability of the near field and the interaction of various events that may affect the stability of the near field over a long period of time. As the results, rock creep behavior, the variations of the stress-state and the range of the influence zone differ from the rock strength, strength of buffer in the tunnel and side pressure coefficient etc. about the hard rock system and soft rock system established as basic cases. And the magnitude of the stress variations for buffer by the overpack sinking and rock creep deformation is negligible compared with it by the overpack corrosion expansion. Furthermore, though very limited zone of buffer around the overpack is close to the critical state by the overpack corrosion expansion, the engineered barrier system attains a comparatively stable state for a long period of time. (author)

  17. TORT application in reactor pressure vessel neutron flux calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belousov, S.I.; Ilieva, K.D.; Antonov, S.Y.

    1994-01-01

    The neutron flux values onto reactor pressure vessel for WWER-1000 and WWER-440 reactors, at the places important for metal embrittlement surveillance have been calculated by 3 dimensional code TORT and synthesis method. The comparison of the results received by both methods confirms their good consistency. (authors). 13 refs., 4 tabs

  18. Calculation of vapor pressure of fission product fluorides and oxyfluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, J.P.

    1976-03-01

    The equilibrium diagrams of the condensed phases - solid and liquid - and vapor phase are collected for the principal fluorides and oxyfluorides of fission product elements (atomic number from 30 to 66). These diagrams are used more particularly in fuel reprocessing by fluoride volatility process. Calculations and curves (vapor pressure in function of temperature) are processed using a computer program given in this report [fr

  19. Contribution to a neutronic calculation scheme for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Del Campo, C.

    1987-01-01

    This research thesis aims at developing and validating the set of data and codes which build up the neutron computation scheme of pressurized water reactors. More precisely, it focuses on the improvement of the precision of calculation of command clusters (absorbing components which can be inserted into the core to control the reactivity), and on the modelling of reflector representation (material placed around the core and reflecting back the escaping neutrons). For the first case, a precise calculation is performed, based on the transport theory. For the second case, diffusion constants obtained in the previous case and simplified equations are used to reduce the calculation cost

  20. Wind turbine sound pressure level calculations at dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Stephen E; Feder, Katya; Voicescu, Sonia A; Soukhovtsev, Victor; Denning, Allison; Tsang, Jason; Broner, Norm; Leroux, Tony; Richarz, Werner; van den Berg, Frits

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides calculations of outdoor sound pressure levels (SPLs) at dwellings for 10 wind turbine models, to support Health Canada's Community Noise and Health Study. Manufacturer supplied and measured wind turbine sound power levels were used to calculate outdoor SPL at 1238 dwellings using ISO [(1996). ISO 9613-2-Acoustics] and a Swedish noise propagation method. Both methods yielded statistically equivalent results. The A- and C-weighted results were highly correlated over the 1238 dwellings (Pearson's linear correlation coefficient r > 0.8). Calculated wind turbine SPLs were compared to ambient SPLs from other sources, estimated using guidance documents from the United States and Alberta, Canada.

  1. A Study of a Powder Coating Gun near Field: A Case of Staggered Concentric Jet Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Grandmaison

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines, experimentally and numerically, an isothermal coaxial air jet, created by an innovative nozzle design for an air propane torch, used for the thermal deposition of polymers. This design includes staggering the origins of the central and annular jets and creating an annular air jet with an inward radial velocity component. The experimental work used a Pitot tube to measure axial velocity on the jet centerline and in the fully developed flow. The static gauge pressure in the near field was also measured and found to be positive, an unexpected result. The numerical work used Gambit and Fluent. An extensive grid sensitivity study was conducted and it was found that results from a relatively coarse mesh were substantially the same as results from a mesh with almost 11 times the number of control volumes. A thorough evaluation of all of the RANS models in Fluent 6.3.26 found that the flow fields they calculated showed at most partial agreement with the experimental results. The greatest difference between numerical and experimental results was the incorrect prediction by all RANS models of a recirculation zone in the near field on the jet axis. Experimental work showed it did not exist.

  2. The Survey on Near Field Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat Coskun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Near Field Communication (NFC is an emerging short-range wireless communication technology that offers great and varied promise in services such as payment, ticketing, gaming, crowd sourcing, voting, navigation, and many others. NFC technology enables the integration of services from a wide range of applications into one single smartphone. NFC technology has emerged recently, and consequently not much academic data are available yet, although the number of academic research studies carried out in the past two years has already surpassed the total number of the prior works combined. This paper presents the concept of NFC technology in a holistic approach from different perspectives, including hardware improvement and optimization, communication essentials and standards, applications, secure elements, privacy and security, usability analysis, and ecosystem and business issues. Further research opportunities in terms of the academic and business points of view are also explored and discussed at the end of each section. This comprehensive survey will be a valuable guide for researchers and academicians, as well as for business in the NFC technology and ecosystem.

  3. Chemical effects in the near-field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewart, F.T.; Tasker, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    A research program is described which is designed to investigate the chemical conditions in the near-field of a concrete based repository and the behavior of the radiologically important nuclides under these conditions. The chemical conditions are determined by the corrosion of the iron components of the repository and by the soluble components of the concrete. Both of these have been investigated experimentally and models developed which have been validated by further experiment. The effect of these reactions on the repository pH and Eh, and how these develop in time and space have been modelled using a new coupled chemical equilibrium and transport code. The solubility of the important nuclides are being studied experimentally under these conditions, and under sensible variations. Results are reported for plutonium, americium, neptunium and lead; these results have been under to refine the thermodynamic data base used for the geochemical code PHREEQE. The sorption behavior of plutonium and americium, under the same conditions, have been studied, the sorption coefficients were found to be large and independent of the concrete formulation, particle size and solid liquid ratio

  4. The Survey on Near Field Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Vedat; Ozdenizci, Busra; Ok, Kerem

    2015-06-05

    Near Field Communication (NFC) is an emerging short-range wireless communication technology that offers great and varied promise in services such as payment, ticketing, gaming, crowd sourcing, voting, navigation, and many others. NFC technology enables the integration of services from a wide range of applications into one single smartphone. NFC technology has emerged recently, and consequently not much academic data are available yet, although the number of academic research studies carried out in the past two years has already surpassed the total number of the prior works combined. This paper presents the concept of NFC technology in a holistic approach from different perspectives, including hardware improvement and optimization, communication essentials and standards, applications, secure elements, privacy and security, usability analysis, and ecosystem and business issues. Further research opportunities in terms of the academic and business points of view are also explored and discussed at the end of each section. This comprehensive survey will be a valuable guide for researchers and academicians, as well as for business in the NFC technology and ecosystem.

  5. Estimation of polarization distribution on gold nanorods system from hierarchical features of optical near-field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Kazuharu; Nishikawa, Naoki; Nakagomi, Ryo; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi; Hori, Hirokazu

    2018-02-01

    To design optoelectronic functionalities in nanometer scale based on interactions of electronic system with optical near-fields, it is essential to evaluate the relationship between optical near-fields and their sources. Several theoretical studies have been performed, so far, to analyze such complex relationship to design the interaction fields of several specific scales. In this study, we have performed detailed and high-precision measurements of optical near-field structures woven by a large number of independent polarizations generated in the gold nanorods array under laser light irradiation at the resonant frequency. We have accumulated the multi-layered data of optical near-field imaging at different heights above the planar surface with the resolution of several nm by a STM-assisted scanning near-field optical microscope. Based on these data, we have performed an inverse calculation to estimate the position, direction, and strength of the local polarization buried under the flat surface of the sample. As a result of the inverse operation, we have confirmed that the complexities in the nanometer scale optical near-fields could be reconstructed by combinations of induced polarization in each gold nanorod. We have demonstrated the hierarchical properties of optical near-fields based on spatial frequency expansion and superposition of dipole fields to provide insightful information for applications such for secure multi-layered information storage.

  6. Spectral calculations for pressure-velocity and pressure-strain correlations in homogeneous shear turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Kishore

    2018-02-01

    Theoretical analyses of pressure related turbulent statistics are vital for a reliable and accurate modeling of turbulence. In the inertial subrange of turbulent shear flow, pressure-velocity and pressure-strain correlations are affected by anisotropy imposed at large scales. Recently, Tsuji and Kaneda (2012 J. Fluid Mech. 694 50) performed a set of experiments on homogeneous shear flow, and estimated various one-dimensional pressure related spectra and the associated non-dimensional universal numbers. Here, starting from the governing Navier-Stokes dynamics for the fluctuating velocity field and assuming the anisotropy at inertial scales as a weak perturbation of an otherwise isotropic dynamics, we analytically derive the form of the pressure-velocity and pressure-strain correlations. The associated universal numbers are calculated using the well-known renormalization-group results, and are compared with the experimental estimates of Tsuji and Kaneda. Approximations involved in the perturbative calculations are discussed.

  7. Calculation of cooling tower plumes for high pressure wintry situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassmann, F.; Tinguely, M.; Haschke, D.

    1982-12-01

    The diffusion of the plumes of the projected nuclear power plants at Kaiseraugst and Schwoerstadt, during high pressure wintry conditions, has been examined using a mathematical model to simulate the plumes. For these calculations, microaerological measurements were made in the proximity of Kaiseraugst and Schwoerstadt. These give a typical image of the weather during high pressure wintry conditions, which is normally associated with an inversion, sometimes strong, at a low height. Dry cooling towers with natural draught, which offer an alternative solution to the wet cooling towers proposed for Kasieraugst, are examined equally. (Auth./G.T.H.)

  8. Signal of microstrip scanning near-field optical microscope in far- and near-field zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Yevhenii M; Lapchuk, Anatoliy S

    2016-05-01

    An analytical model of interference between an electromagnetic field of fundamental quasi-TM(EH)00-mode and an electromagnetic field of background radiation at the apex of a near-field probe based on an optical plasmon microstrip line (microstrip probe) has been proposed. The condition of the occurrence of electromagnetic energy reverse flux at the apex of the microstrip probe was obtained. It has been shown that the nature of the interference depends on the length of the probe. Numerical simulation of the sample scanning process was conducted in illumination-reflection and illumination-collection modes. Results of numerical simulation have shown that interference affects the scanning signal in both modes. However, in illumination-collection mode (pure near-field mode), the signal shape and its polarity are practically insensible to probe length change; only signal amplitude (contrast) is slightly changed. However, changing the probe length strongly affects the signal amplitude and shape in the illumination-reflection mode (the signal formed in the far-field zone). Thus, we can conclude that even small background radiation can significantly influence the signal in the far-field zone and has practically no influence on a pure near-field signal.

  9. Near field fluid coupling between internal motion of the organ of Corti and the basilar membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Stephen J.; Ni, Guangjian [Institute of Sound and Vibration Research, University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-31

    The pressure distribution in each of the fluid chambers of the cochlea can be decomposed into a 1D, or plane wave, component and a near field component, which decays rapidly away from the excitation point. The transverse motion of the basilar membrane, BM, for example, generates both a 1D pressure field, which couples into the slow wave, and a local near field pressure, proportional to the BM acceleration, that generates an added mass on the BM due to the fluid motion. When the organ of Corti, OC, undergoes internal motion, due for example to outer hair cell activity, this motion will not itself generate any 1D pressure if the OC is incompressible and the BM is constrained not to move volumetrically, and so will not directly couple into the slow wave. This motion will, however, generate a near field pressure, proportional to the OC acceleration, which will act on the OC and thus increases its effective mass. The near field pressure due to this OC motion will also act on the BM, generating a force on the BM proportional to the acceleration of the OC, and thus create a “coupling mass” effect. By reciprocity, this coupling mass is the same as that acting on the OC due to the motion of the BM. This near field fluid coupling is initially observed in a finite element model of a slice of the cochlea. These simulations suggest a simple analytical formulation for the fluid coupling, using higher order beam modes across the width of the cochlear partition. It is well known that the added mass due to the near field pressure dominates the overall mass of the BM, and thus significantly affects the micromechanical dynamics. This work not only quantifies the added mass of the OC due its own motion in the fluid, and shows that this is important, but also demonstrates that the coupling mass effect between the BM and OC significantly affects the dynamics of simple micromechanical models.

  10. Montmorillonite stability under near-field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leupin, O.X. (ed.); Birgersson, M.; Karnland, O. [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Korkeakoski, P. [Posiva Oy, Eurajoki (Finland); Sellin, P. [Svensk Kärnbränslehantering AB, SKB, Stockholm (USSR); Mäder, U.; Wersin, P. [University of Berne, Berne (Switzerland)

    2014-07-15

    Clay-based engineered barriers comprising bentonite and bentonite/sand mixtures are the favoured option in geological repositories for high-level waste due to their inherently low hydraulic conductivity at full saturation. This ensures that diffusion of solutes such as radionuclides will be the dominating mechanism for transport through the engineered barriers. Another advantageous property of bentonite is the development of swelling pressure in contact with water under the constant volume conditions of repository excavations, ensuring the closure of unintentional gaps or openings. The predictability of the long-term behaviour of bentonite (up to a million years) is thus key to the safety analysis. The thermal pulse from the radioactive decay of the radionuclides in the high-level waste and spent fuel will lead to temperatures significantly higher than in the undisturbed host rock for hundreds of years, which may influence the thermodynamic stability and kinetics of alteration reactions of montmorillonite, the smectite that is the main constituent of the bentonite. The aim of this report is to review the present understanding of potential alteration of bentonite by focusing on experimental and modeling results under the thermal conditions of a repository. Many studies show that the transformation of smectite-to-illite is induced by increasing temperature and potassium activity. The conversion process is complex and still not completely understood. Nonetheless, it displays very slow kinetics over a wide range of environmental conditions for the temperatures of interest. The various models for illitisation of smectites suggest negligible transformation in a repository due to the relatively short period of elevated temperatures and slow mass transport. However, because of uncertainties and a number of conservatisms in the application of such models, the results of such calculations should be considered as bounding and indicative and not as quantitative predictions. In

  11. Montmorillonite stability under near-field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leupin, O.X.; Korkeakoski, P.; Sellin, P.; Mäder, U.; Wersin, P.

    2014-07-01

    Clay-based engineered barriers comprising bentonite and bentonite/sand mixtures are the favoured option in geological repositories for high-level waste due to their inherently low hydraulic conductivity at full saturation. This ensures that diffusion of solutes such as radionuclides will be the dominating mechanism for transport through the engineered barriers. Another advantageous property of bentonite is the development of swelling pressure in contact with water under the constant volume conditions of repository excavations, ensuring the closure of unintentional gaps or openings. The predictability of the long-term behaviour of bentonite (up to a million years) is thus key to the safety analysis. The thermal pulse from the radioactive decay of the radionuclides in the high-level waste and spent fuel will lead to temperatures significantly higher than in the undisturbed host rock for hundreds of years, which may influence the thermodynamic stability and kinetics of alteration reactions of montmorillonite, the smectite that is the main constituent of the bentonite. The aim of this report is to review the present understanding of potential alteration of bentonite by focusing on experimental and modeling results under the thermal conditions of a repository. Many studies show that the transformation of smectite-to-illite is induced by increasing temperature and potassium activity. The conversion process is complex and still not completely understood. Nonetheless, it displays very slow kinetics over a wide range of environmental conditions for the temperatures of interest. The various models for illitisation of smectites suggest negligible transformation in a repository due to the relatively short period of elevated temperatures and slow mass transport. However, because of uncertainties and a number of conservatisms in the application of such models, the results of such calculations should be considered as bounding and indicative and not as quantitative predictions. In

  12. Theoretical and experimental examination of near-field acoustic levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Hideyuki; Kamakura, Tomoo; Matsuda, Kazuhisa

    2002-04-01

    A planar object can be levitated stably close to a piston sound source by making use of acoustic radiation pressure. This phenomenon is called near-field acoustic levitation [Y. Hashimoto et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 2057-2061 (1996)]. In the present article, the levitation distance is predicted theoretically by numerically solving basic equations in a compressible viscous fluid subject to the appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Additionally, experiments are carried out using a 19.5-kHz piston source with a 40-mm aperture and various aluminum disks of different sizes. The measured levitation distance agrees well with the theory, which is different from a conventional theory, and the levitation distance is not inversely proportional to the square root of the surface density of the levitated disk in a strict sense.

  13. Calculation of vapour pressures over mixed carbide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, M.; Mathews, C.K.

    1988-01-01

    Vapour pressure over the uranium-plutonium mixed carbide (Usub(l-p) Pusub(p C) was calculated in the temperature range of 1300-9000 for various compositions (p=0.1 to 0.7). Effects of variation of the sesquicarbide content were also studied. The principle of corresponding states was applied to UC and mixed carbides to obtain the equation of state. (author)

  14. MP.EXE Microphone pressure sensitivity calibration calculation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud

    1999-01-01

    MP.EXE is a program which calculates the pressure sensitivity of LS1 microphones as defined in IEC 61094-1, based on measurement results performed as laid down in IEC 61094-2.A very early program was developed and written by K. Rasmussen. The code of the present heavily extended version is writte...... by E.S. Olsen.The present manual is written by K.Rasmussen and E.S. Olsen....

  15. Improving MODPRESS heat loss calculations for PWR pressurizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Natalia V.; Lira, Carlos A. Brayner O.; Castrillho, Lazara S.

    2009-01-01

    The improvement of heat loss calculations in MODPRESS transient code for PWR pressurizer analysis is the main focus of this investigation. Initially, a heat loss model was built based on heat transfer coefficient (HTC) correlations obtained in handbooks of thermal engineering. A hand calculation for Neptunus experimental test number U47 yielded a thermal power loss of 11.2 kW against 17.3 kW given by MODPRESS at the same conditions, while the experimental estimate is given as 17 kW. This comparison is valid only for steady state or before starting the transient experiment, because MODPRESS does not update HTC's when the transient phase begins. Furthermore, it must be noted that MODPRESS heat transfer coefficients are adjusted to reproduce the experimental value of the specific type of pressurizer. After inserting the new routine for HTC's into MODPRESS, the heat loss was calculated as 11.4 kW, a value very close to the first estimate but far below 17 kW found in the U47 experiment. In this paper, the heat loss model and results will be described. Further research is being developed to find a more general HTC that allows the analysis of the effects of heat losses on transient behavior of Neptunus and IRIS pressurizers. (author)

  16. Near field characteristics of buoyant helium plumes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pressure tubing. Helium gas enters the bottom of the settling chamber, passing through two ... A 40 mesh, flat stainless steel screen is placed across the orifice exit. ... PIV and PLIF measurements are carried out in phase resolved manner.

  17. Novel concepts in near-field optics: from magnetic near-field to optical forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Honghua

    Driven by the progress in nanotechnology, imaging and spectroscopy tools with nanometer spatial resolution are needed for in situ material characterizations. Near-field optics provides a unique way to selectively excite and detect elementary electronic and vibrational interactions at the nanometer scale, through interactions of light with matter in the near-field region. This dissertation discusses the development and applications of near-field optical imaging techniques, including plasmonic material characterization, optical spectral nano-imaging and magnetic field detection using scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM), and exploring new modalities of optical spectroscopy based on optical gradient force detection. Firstly, the optical dielectric functions of one of the most common plasmonic materials---silver is measured with ellipsometry, and analyzed with the Drude model over a broad spectral range from visible to mid-infrared. This work was motivated by the conflicting results of previous measurements, and the need for accurate values for a wide range of applications of silver in plasmonics, optical antennas, and metamaterials. This measurement provides a reference for dielectric functions of silver used in metamaterials, plasmonics, and nanophotonics. Secondly, I implemented an infrared s-SNOM instrument for spectroscopic nano-imaging at both room temperature and low temperature. As one of the first cryogenic s-SNOM instruments, the novel design concept and key specifications are discussed. Initial low-temperature and high-temperature performances of the instrument are examined by imaging of optical conductivity of vanadium oxides (VO2 and V2O 3) across their phase transitions. The spectroscopic imaging capability is demonstrated on chemical vibrational resonances of Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and other samples. The third part of this dissertation explores imaging of optical magnetic fields. As a proof-of-principle, the magnetic

  18. Distinct element method modeling of fracture behavior in near field rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekmark, H.

    1990-12-01

    This report concerns the numerical calculations of the behavior of the near field of a nuclear waste repository. The calculations were performed using the two-dimensional distinct element code UDEC. The distinct element method accounts specifically for discontinuities, e.g. fractures that intersect the model region. It is shown that, if an appropriate joint constitutive relation is applied, the calculated joint behavior can be brought in close agreement with empirically derived stress-strain relations. Three basic geometries are studied, namely a vertical tunnel section, a horizontal borehole section and a combination, i.e. a vertical section of tunnel and deposition hole. The effects of different processes and activities are investigated, e.g. effects of excavations, of thermal loads, of internal tunnel pressures and of pore pressures and fracture flow resulting from the hydraulic ground water pressure. The interpretation of the results concerns in particular joint behavior, especially joint openings, in the nearest surroundings of excavations and of thermally affected regions. The calculations show that joint shear and joint normal displacements induced by excavation and by thermal processes may be considerable, and that thermal cycles may result in residual joint aperture changes, especially in systems with loosely bound rock blocks. It is concluded that the UDEC code, when applied to problems that have a two-dimensional character, gives results that are probably quantitatively correct. The results appear to be strongly dependant on the detailed joint structure close to free boundaries such as tunnel walls, which indicated that the 3-D situation regarding joint orientation might have to be considered. It is recommended that 3-D calculations should be performed to verify and quantitatively interpret the 2-D results and to analyze situations that are actually three-dimensional. (au)

  19. A unidirectional subwavelength focusing near-field plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imani, Mohammadreza F.; Grbic, Anthony [Radiation Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-01-28

    Near-field plates consist of non-periodically patterned surfaces that can overcome the diffraction limit and confine electromagnetic fields to subwavelength dimensions. Previous near-field plates experimentally demonstrated extreme field tailoring capabilities. However, their performance suffered from radiation/reflection in undesired directions, those other than the subwavelength focus. This issue can limit the practical use of near-field plates. In this paper, we address this issue by designing a unidirectional near-field plate that can form a subwavelength focal pattern, while suppressing the field radiated/reflected in other directions. The design and operation of the proposed unidirectional near-field plate are verified through full-wave simulation. The unidirectional near-field plate may find application in high resolution imaging and probing, high density data storage, and wireless power transfer systems. As an example, its utility as a high resolution probe is demonstrated through full-wave electromagnetic simulation.

  20. Viscoacoustic model for near-field ultrasonic levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melikhov, Ivan; Chivilikhin, Sergey; Amosov, Alexey; Jeanson, Romain

    2016-11-01

    Ultrasonic near-field levitation allows for contactless support and transportation of an object over vibrating surface. We developed an accurate model predicting pressure distribution in the gap between the surface and levitating object. The formulation covers a wide range of the air flow regimes: from viscous squeezed flow dominating in small gap to acoustic wave propagation in larger gap. The paper explains derivation of the governing equations from the basic fluid dynamics. The nonreflective boundary conditions were developed to properly define air flow at the outlet. Comparing to direct computational fluid dynamics modeling our approach allows achieving good accuracy while keeping the computation cost low. Using the model we studied the levitation force as a function of gap distance. It was shown that there are three distinguished flow regimes: purely viscous, viscoacoustic, and acoustic. The regimes are defined by the balance of viscous and inertial forces. In the viscous regime the pressure in the gap is close to uniform while in the intermediate viscoacoustic and the acoustic regimes the pressure profile is wavy. The model was validated by a dedicated levitation experiment and compared to similar published results.

  1. About reliability of WWER pressure vessel neutron fluence calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belousov, S; Ilieva, K; Antonov, S [Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika

    1996-12-31

    This reliability study was carried out under a Research Contracts F111 and TH-324 of the Bulgarian Ministry of Higher Education and the IAEA. The effect of geometry approximation and the choice of neutron cross-sections on the calculation model is estimated. The neutron flux onto reactor pressure vessel at locations, important for metal embrittlement surveillance, has been calculated using the codes TORT and DORT. The flux values calculated for both WWER-440 and WWER-1000 show good consistency within the limits of solution accuracy. It is concluded that the synthesis method (DORT) can be used for calculations at a reasonable cost whenever metal embrittlement surveillance is considered. Using an iron sphere benchmark measurement, a comparison of an experimental leakage spectrum with spectrum calculated using multigroup neutron cross-sections based on ENDF/B-4 and ENDF/B-6 data is performed. In the energy region above 1 MeV the best agreement with the experiment is achieved for ENDF/B-6 in VITAMIN-E group structure. 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  2. About reliability of WWER pressure vessel neutron fluence calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belousov, S.; Ilieva, K.; Antonov, S.

    1995-01-01

    This reliability study was carried out under a Research Contracts F111 and TH-324 of the Bulgarian Ministry of Higher Education and the IAEA. The effect of geometry approximation and the choice of neutron cross-sections on the calculation model is estimated. The neutron flux onto reactor pressure vessel at locations, important for metal embrittlement surveillance, has been calculated using the codes TORT and DORT. The flux values calculated for both WWER-440 and WWER-1000 show good consistency within the limits of solution accuracy. It is concluded that the synthesis method (DORT) can be used for calculations at a reasonable cost whenever metal embrittlement surveillance is considered. Using an iron sphere benchmark measurement, a comparison of an experimental leakage spectrum with spectrum calculated using multigroup neutron cross-sections based on ENDF/B-4 and ENDF/B-6 data is performed. In the energy region above 1 MeV the best agreement with the experiment is achieved for ENDF/B-6 in VITAMIN-E group structure. 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  3. Near field heat transfer between random composite materials. Applications and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, Eva Yazmin; Esquivel-Sirvent, Raul [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica

    2017-05-01

    We present a theoretical study of the limits and bounds of using effective medium approximations in the calculation of the near field radiative heat transfer between a composite system made of Au nanoparticles in a SiC host and an homogeneous SiC slab. The effective dielectric function of the composite slab is calculated using three different approximations: Maxwell-Garnett, Bruggeman, and Looyenga's. In addition, we considered an empirical fit to the effective dielectric function by Grundquist and Hunderi. We show that the calculated value of the heat flux in the near field is dependent on the model, and the difference in the effective dielectric function is larger around the plasmonic response of the Au nanoparticles. This, in turn, accounts for the difference in the near field radiative heat flux. For all values of filling fractions, the Looyenga approximation gives a lower bound for the heat flux.

  4. Modeling of Near-Field Blast Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The freeze-out temperature is chosen by comparison of calorimetry experiments (2, 3) and thermoequilibrium calculations using CHEETAH (4). The near...P.; Vitello, P. CHEETAH Users Manual; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Livermore, CA, 2012. 5. Walter, P. Introduction to Air Blast

  5. Stresses in reactor pressure vessel nozzles -- Calculations and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.; Polachova, H.

    1995-01-01

    Reactor pressure vessel nozzles are characterized by a high stress concentration which is critical in their low-cycle fatigue assessment. Program of experimental verification of stress/strain field distribution during elastic-plastic loading of a reactor pressure vessel WWER-1000 primary nozzle model in scale 1:3 is presented. While primary nozzle has an ID equal to 850 mm, the model nozzle has ID equal to 280 mm, and was made from 15Kh2NMFA type of steel. Calculation using analytical methods was performed. Comparison of results using different analytical methods -- Neuber's, Hardrath-Ohman's as well as equivalent energy ones, used in different reactor Codes -- is shown. Experimental verification was carried out on model nozzles loaded statically as well as by repeated loading, both in elastic-plastic region. Strain fields were measured using high-strain gauges, which were located in different distances from center of nozzle radius, thus different stress concentration values were reached. Comparison of calculated and experimental data are shown and compared

  6. Near-Field Optical Microscopy of Fractal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coello, Victor; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    1999-01-01

    Using a photon scanning tunnelling microscope combined with a shear-force feedback system, we image both topographical and near-field optical images (at the wavelengths of 633 and 594 nm) of silver colloid fractals. Near-field optical imaging is calibrated with a standing evanescent wave pattern...

  7. Ultra thin metallic coatings to control near field radiative heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Sirvent, R.

    2016-09-01

    We present a theoretical calculation of the changes in the near field radiative heat transfer between two surfaces due to the presence of ultra thin metallic coatings on semiconductors. Depending on the substrates, the radiative heat transfer is modulated by the thickness of the ultra thin film. In particular we consider gold thin films with thicknesses varying from 4 to 20 nm. The ultra-thin film has an insulator-conductor transition close to a critical thickness of dc = 6.4 nm and there is an increase in the near field spectral heat transfer just before the percolation transition. Depending on the substrates (Si or SiC) and the thickness of the metallic coatings we show how the near field heat transfer can be increased or decreased as a function of the metallic coating thickness. The calculations are based on available experimental data for the optical properties of ultrathin coatings.

  8. Near-field visualization of plasmonic lenses: an overall analysis of characterization errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Many factors influence the near-field visualization of plasmonic structures that are based on perforated elliptical slits. Here, characterization errors are experimentally analyzed in detail from both fabrication and measurement points of view. Some issues such as geometrical parameter, probe–sample surface interaction, misalignment, stigmation, and internal stress, have influence on the final near-field probing results. In comparison to the theoretical ideal case of near-field probing of the structures, numerical calculation is carried out on the basis of a finite-difference and time-domain (FDTD algorithm so as to support the error analyses. The analyses performed on the basis of both theoretical calculation and experimental probing can provide a helpful reference for the researchers probing their plasmonic structures and nanophotonic devices.

  9. Control strategies for active noise barriers using near-field error sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    In this paper active noise control strategies for noise barriers are presented which are based on the use of sensors near the noise barrier. Virtual error signals are derived from these near-field sensor signals such that reductions of the far-field sound pressure are obtained with the active

  10. Chiral near-fields around chiral dolmen nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Tong; Wang, Tiankun; Chen, Yuyan; Wang, Yongkai; Qu, Yu; Zhang, Zhongyue

    2017-01-01

    Discriminating the handedness of the chiral molecule is of great importance in the field of pharmacology and biomedicine. Enhancing the chiral near-field is one way to increase the chiral signal of chiral molecules. In this paper, the chiral dolmen nanostructure (CDN) is proposed to enhance the chiral near-field. Numerical results show that the CDN can increase the optical chirality of the near-field by almost two orders of magnitude compared to that of a circularly polarized incident wave. In addition, the optical chirality of the near-field of the bonding mode is enhanced more than that of the antibonding mode. These results provide an effective method for tailoring the chiral near-field for biophotonics sensors. (paper)

  11. Characteristics of near-field earthquake ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. K.; Choi, I. G.; Jeon, Y. S.; Seo, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    The near-field ground motions exhibit special response characteristics that are different from those of ordinary ground motions in the velocity and displacement response. This study first examines the characteristics of near-field ground motion depending on fault directivity and fault normal and parallel component. And the response spectra of the near field ground motion are statistically processed, and are compared with the Regulatory Guide 1.60 spectrum that is present design spectrum of the nuclear power plant. The response spectrum of the near filed ground motions shows large spectral velocity and displacement in the low frequency range. The spectral accelerations of near field ground motion are greatly amplified in the high frequency range for the rock site motions, and in the low frequency range for the soil site motions. As a result, the near field ground motion effects should be considered in the seismic design and seismic safety evaluation of the nuclear power plant structures and equipment

  12. Survey and review of near-field performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apted, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical reactions control the performance, stability, and rate of degradation of natural and engineered barriers to waste repositories of the near field. Chemical processes are overviewed in this context. Temperature, and associated temperature gradients, are also important parameters in near-field performance assessment. The mechanical conditions of the near-field rock will be perturbed by construction of the underground repository. Mechanical analysis in the near field is further complicated by the introduction of HLW canisters and associated engineered barrier materials. Hydrological processes important to near-field performance include those associated with fluid transport. Considerable discussions and studies have been conducted on the issue of coupling among chemical-thermal-mechanical-hydrological processes; they are overviewed. (R.P.) 2 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Near-field probing of photonic crystal directional couplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volkov, V. S.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Borel, Peter Ingo

    2006-01-01

    We report the design, fabrication and characterization of a photonic crystal directional with a size of ~20 x 20 mm2 fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material. Using a scanning near-field optical microscope we demonstrate a high coupling efficiency for TM polarized light at telecom wavelengths....... By comparing the near-field optical images recorded in and after the directional coupler area, the features of light distribution are analyzed. Finally, the scanning near-field optical microscope observations are found to be in agreement with the transmission measurements conducted with the same sample....

  14. Analysis of near-field components of a plasmonic optical antenna and their contribution to quantum dot infrared photodetector enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Guiru; Vaillancourt, Jarrod; Lu, Xuejun

    2014-10-20

    In this paper, we analyze near-field vector components of a metallic circular disk array (MCDA) plasmonic optical antenna and their contribution to quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP) enhancement. The near-field vector components of the MCDA optical antenna and their distribution in the QD active region are simulated. The near-field overlap integral with the QD active region is calculated at different wavelengths and compared with the QDIP enhancement spectrum. The x-component (E(x)) of the near-field vector shows a larger intensity overlap integral and stronger correlation with the QDIP enhancement than E(z) and thus is determined to be the major near-field component to the QDIP enhancement.

  15. Large-area parallel near-field optical nanopatterning of functional materials using microsphere mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, G.X. [NUS Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Hong, M.H. [NUS Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Data Storage Institute, ASTAR, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore)], E-mail: Hong_Minghui@dsi.a-star.edu.sg; Lin, Y. [NUS Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Wang, Z.B. [Data Storage Institute, ASTAR, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Ng, D.K.T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Data Storage Institute, ASTAR, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Xie, Q. [Data Storage Institute, ASTAR, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Tan, L.S. [NUS Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Chong, T.C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Data Storage Institute, ASTAR, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore)

    2008-01-31

    Large-area parallel near-field optical nanopatterning on functional material surfaces was investigated with KrF excimer laser irradiation. A monolayer of silicon dioxide microspheres was self-assembled on the sample surfaces as the processing mask. Nanoholes and nanospots were obtained on silicon surfaces and thin silver films, respectively. The nanopatterning results were affected by the refractive indices of the surrounding media. Near-field optical enhancement beneath the microspheres is the physical origin of nanostructure formation. Theoretical calculation was performed to study the intensity of optical field distributions under the microspheres according to the light scattering model of a sphere on the substrate.

  16. Antenna diagnostics for power flow in extreme near-field of a standard gain horn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popa, Paula Irina; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2016-01-01

    The plane wave spectrum of an aperture antenna can be calculated from a complex measurement of the radiated near- or far-field and it facilitates antenna diagnostics for the extreme near-field of the antenna. While antenna diagnostics often concerns the magnitude of the co-polar field, the plane...... wave spectrum actually allows for determination of both magnitude and phase of all three components of the electric as well as the magnetic field - and thus also the Poynting vector. In this work we focus on the Poynting vector and thus the power flow in the extreme near-field; as an example we employ...... that these oscillations are not merely a “Gibbs-like” phenomenon due to the availability of only the visible region of the plane wave spectrum and they are not caused by multiple reflections between the horn and the near-field probe - but resulted from the interference between the direct field and the edge...

  17. Near-field Spectroscopy of Surface Plasmons in Flat Gold Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achermann, Marc; Shuford, Kevin L.; Schatz, George C.; Dahanayaka, D.H.; Bumm, Lloyd A; Klimov, Victor I.

    2007-01-01

    We use near-field interference spectroscopy with a broadband femtosecond, white-light probe to study local surface plasmon resonances in flat gold nanoparticles (FGNPs). Depending on nanoparticle dimensions, local near-field extinction spectra exhibit none, one, or two resonances in the range of visible wavelengths (1.6-2.6 eV). The measured spectra can be accurately described in terms of interference between the field emitted by the probe aperture and the field reradiated by driven FGNP surface plasmon oscillations. The measured resonances are in good agreement with those predicted by calculations using discrete dipole approximation. We observe that the amplitudes of these resonances are dependent upon the spatial position of the near-field probe, which indicates the possibility of spatially selective excitation of specific plasmon modes

  18. Superresolution Near-field Imaging with Surface Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Lei; Liu, Zhaolun; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    We present the theory for near-field superresolution imaging with surface waves and time reverse mirrors (TRMs). Theoretical formulas and numerical results show that applying the TRM operation to surface waves in an elastic half-space can achieve

  19. Biological applications of near-field scanning optical microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moers, M.H.P.; Moers, Marco H.P.; Ruiter, A.G.T.; Jalocha, A.; Jalocha, Alain; van Hulst, N.F.

    1995-01-01

    Near-field Scanning Optical Microscopy (NSOM) is a true optical microscopic technique allowing fluorescence, absorption, reflection and polarization contrast with the additional advantage of nanometer lateral resolution, unlimited by diffraction and operation at ambient conditions. NSOM based on

  20. Principles of planar near-field antenna measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Gregson, Stuart; Parini, Clive

    2007-01-01

    This single volume provides a comprehensive introduction and explanation of both the theory and practice of 'Planar Near-Field Antenna Measurement' from its basic postulates and assumptions, to the intricacies of its deployment in complex and demanding measurement scenarios.

  1. Survey and review of near-field performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apted, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to describe the performance assessment (PA) context in which near-field models have been developed and applied. An overview is given of a number of PA studies. Although the focus is on near-field models, the overview covers the full context in which the PAs have been performed, including the purpose of the studies and regulatory context. Special emphasis has been given to the scenarios analyzed in the assessments; the scenarios set the framework for model development and application. Another aspect to consider in a study of near-field modeling from the perspective of total PA is the linking between near-field and far-field assessment. (R.P.) 6 tabs

  2. Non-contact transportation using near-field acoustic levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueha; Hashimoto; Koike

    2000-03-01

    Near-field acoustic levitation, where planar objects 10 kg in weight can levitate stably near the vibrating plate, is successfully applied both to non-contact transportation of objects and to a non-contact ultrasonic motor. Transporting apparatuses and an ultrasonic motor have been fabricated and their characteristics measured. The theory of near-field acoustic levitation both for a piston-like sound source and a flexural vibration source is also briefly described.

  3. Phased Array Excitations For Efficient Near Field Wireless Power Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    channeled to the battery or power plant. Figure 2. WPT System Block Diagram for Battery Charging. Source : [2]. Wireless power transfer has gained...EXCITATIONS FOR EFFICIENT NEAR-FIELD WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION by Sean X. Hong September 2016 Thesis Advisor: David Jenn Second Reader...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PHASED ARRAY EXCITATIONS FOR EFFICIENT NEAR-FIELD WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION 5

  4. Phase retrieval in near-field measurements by array synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jian; Larsen, Flemming Holm

    1991-01-01

    The phase retrieval problem in near-field antenna measurements is formulated as an array synthesis problem. As a test case, a particular synthesis algorithm has been used to retrieve the phase of a linear array......The phase retrieval problem in near-field antenna measurements is formulated as an array synthesis problem. As a test case, a particular synthesis algorithm has been used to retrieve the phase of a linear array...

  5. Maximal near-field radiative heat transfer between two plates

    OpenAIRE

    Nefzaoui, Elyes; Ezzahri, Younès; Drevillon, Jérémie; Joulain, Karl

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Near-field radiative transfer is a promising way to significantly and simultaneously enhance both thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) devices power densities and efficiencies. A parametric study of Drude and Lorentz models performances in maximizing near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite planes separated by nanometric distances at room temperature is presented in this paper. Optimal parameters of these models that provide optical properties maximizing the r...

  6. Near-field mapping by laser ablation of PMMA coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiutowski, J.; Maibohm, C.; Kostiucenko, O.

    2011-01-01

    The optical near-field of lithography-defined gold nanostructures, arranged into regular arrays on a gold film, is characterized via ablation of a polymer coating by laser illumination. The method utilizes femto-second laser pulses from a laser scanning microscope which induces electrical field...... that the different stages in the ablation process can be controlled and characterized making the technique suitable for characterizing optical near-fields of metal nanostructures....

  7. Scanning near-field infrared microscopy on semiconductor structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Rainer

    2011-01-15

    Near-field optical microscopy has attracted remarkable attention, as it is the only technique that allows the investigation of local optical properties with a resolution far below the diffraction limit. Especially, the scattering-type near-field optical microscopy allows the nondestructive examination of surfaces without restrictions to the applicable wavelengths. However, its usability is limited by the availability of appropriate light sources. In the context of this work, this limit was overcome by the development of a scattering-type near-field microscope that uses a widely tunable free-electron laser as primary light source. In the theoretical part, it is shown that an optical near-field contrast can be expected when materials with different dielectric functions are combined. It is derived that these differences yield different scattering cross-sections for the coupled system of the probe and the sample. Those cross-sections define the strength of the near-field signal that can be measured for different materials. Hence, an optical contrast can be expected, when different scattering cross-sections are probed. This principle also applies to vertically stacked or even buried materials, as shown in this thesis experimentally for two sample systems. In the first example, the different dielectric functions were obtained by locally changing the carrier concentration in silicon by the implantation of boron. It is shown that the concentration of free charge-carriers can be deduced from the near-field contrast between implanted and pure silicon. For this purpose, two different experimental approaches were used, a non-interferometric one by using variable wavelengths and an interferometric one with a fixed wavelength. As those techniques yield complementary information, they can be used to quantitatively determine the effective carrier concentration. Both approaches yield consistent results for the carrier concentration, which excellently agrees with predictions from

  8. Scanning near-field infrared microscopy on semiconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Near-field optical microscopy has attracted remarkable attention, as it is the only technique that allows the investigation of local optical properties with a resolution far below the diffraction limit. Especially, the scattering-type near-field optical microscopy allows the nondestructive examination of surfaces without restrictions to the applicable wavelengths. However, its usability is limited by the availability of appropriate light sources. In the context of this work, this limit was overcome by the development of a scattering-type near-field microscope that uses a widely tunable free-electron laser as primary light source. In the theoretical part, it is shown that an optical near-field contrast can be expected when materials with different dielectric functions are combined. It is derived that these differences yield different scattering cross-sections for the coupled system of the probe and the sample. Those cross-sections define the strength of the near-field signal that can be measured for different materials. Hence, an optical contrast can be expected, when different scattering cross-sections are probed. This principle also applies to vertically stacked or even buried materials, as shown in this thesis experimentally for two sample systems. In the first example, the different dielectric functions were obtained by locally changing the carrier concentration in silicon by the implantation of boron. It is shown that the concentration of free charge-carriers can be deduced from the near-field contrast between implanted and pure silicon. For this purpose, two different experimental approaches were used, a non-interferometric one by using variable wavelengths and an interferometric one with a fixed wavelength. As those techniques yield complementary information, they can be used to quantitatively determine the effective carrier concentration. Both approaches yield consistent results for the carrier concentration, which excellently agrees with predictions from

  9. Suppression of sound radiation to far field of near-field acoustic communication system using evanescent sound field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Ayaka; Wakatsuki, Naoto; Mizutani, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    A method of suppressing sound radiation to the far field of a near-field acoustic communication system using an evanescent sound field is proposed. The amplitude of the evanescent sound field generated from an infinite vibrating plate attenuates exponentially with increasing a distance from the surface of the vibrating plate. However, a discontinuity of the sound field exists at the edge of the finite vibrating plate in practice, which broadens the wavenumber spectrum. A sound wave radiates over the evanescent sound field because of broadening of the wavenumber spectrum. Therefore, we calculated the optimum distribution of the particle velocity on the vibrating plate to reduce the broadening of the wavenumber spectrum. We focused on a window function that is utilized in the field of signal analysis for reducing the broadening of the frequency spectrum. The optimization calculation is necessary for the design of window function suitable for suppressing sound radiation and securing a spatial area for data communication. In addition, a wide frequency bandwidth is required to increase the data transmission speed. Therefore, we investigated a suitable method for calculating the sound pressure level at the far field to confirm the variation of the distribution of sound pressure level determined on the basis of the window shape and frequency. The distribution of the sound pressure level at a finite distance was in good agreement with that obtained at an infinite far field under the condition generating the evanescent sound field. Consequently, the window function was optimized by the method used to calculate the distribution of the sound pressure level at an infinite far field using the wavenumber spectrum on the vibrating plate. According to the result of comparing the distributions of the sound pressure level in the cases with and without the window function, it was confirmed that the area whose sound pressure level was reduced from the maximum level to -50 dB was

  10. Develoment of pressure drop calculation modules for a wire-wrapped LMR subassembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Gyun; Lim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Won Seok; Kim, Young Il

    2000-06-01

    Pressure drop calculation modules for a wire-wrapped LMR subassembly was been developed. This report summarizes present information on pressure drop calculation modules for inlet hole, lower part and upper part of a wire-wrapped LMR subassembly which was developed using simple formulas of sudden expansion and sudden contraction. A case calculation study was done using design data of a KALIMER driver fuel subassembly. And the total pressure drop in the driver fuel subassembly, except for the bundle part, was calculated as 0.13 MPa, which is in the reasonable pressure drop range. The developed modules will be integrated in the total subassembly pressure drop calculation code with further improvements

  11. Near field plasmonic gradient effects on high vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yurui; Zhang, Zhenglong; Chen, Li; Sun, Mengtao

    2015-01-14

    Near field gradient effects in high vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (HV-TERS) are a recent developing ultra-sensitive optical and spectral analysis technology on the nanoscale, based on the plasmons and plasmonic gradient enhancement in the near field and under high vacuum. HV-TERS can not only be used to detect ultra-sensitive Raman spectra enhanced by surface plasmon, but also to detect clear molecular IR-active modes enhanced by strongly plasmonic gradient. Furthermore, the molecular overtone modes and combinational modes can also be experimentally measured, where the Fermi resonance and Darling-Dennison resonance were successfully observed in HV-TERS. Theoretical calculations using electromagnetic field theory firmly supported experimental observation. The intensity ratio of the plasmon gradient term over the linear plasmon term can reach values greater than 1. Theoretical calculations also revealed that with the increase in gap distance between tip and substrate, the decrease in the plasmon gradient was more significant than the decrease in plasmon intensity, which is the reason that the gradient Raman can be only observed in the near field. Recent experimental results of near field gradient effects on HV-TERS were summarized, following the section of the theoretical analysis.

  12. Near Field Communication-based telemonitoring with integrated ECG recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morak, J; Kumpusch, H; Hayn, D; Leitner, M; Scherr, D; Fruhwald, F M; Schreier, G

    2011-01-01

    Telemonitoring of vital signs is an established option in treatment of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). In order to allow for early detection of atrial fibrillation (AF) which is highly prevalent in the CHF population telemonitoring programs should include electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. It was therefore the aim to extend our current home monitoring system based on mobile phones and Near Field Communication technology (NFC) to enable patients acquiring their ECG signals autonomously in an easy-to-use way. We prototypically developed a sensing device for the concurrent acquisition of blood pressure and ECG signals. The design of the device equipped with NFC technology and Bluetooth allowed for intuitive interaction with a mobile phone based patient terminal. This ECG monitoring system was evaluated in the course of a clinical pilot trial to assess the system's technical feasibility, usability and patient's adherence to twice daily usage. 21 patients (4f, 54 ± 14 years) suffering from CHF were included in the study and were asked to transmit two ECG recordings per day via the telemonitoring system autonomously over a monitoring period of seven days. One patient dropped out from the study. 211 data sets were transmitted over a cumulative monitoring period of 140 days (overall adherence rate 82.2%). 55% and 8% of the transmitted ECG signals were sufficient for ventricular and atrial rhythm assessment, respectively. Although ECG signal quality has to be improved for better AF detection the developed communication design of joining Bluetooth and NFC technology in our telemonitoring system allows for ambulatory ECG acquisition with high adherence rates and system usability in heart failure patients.

  13. Study on Transient Properties of Levitated Object in Near-Field Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bing; Chen, Chao; Zhao, Chun-Sheng

    2011-12-01

    A new approach to the study on the transient properties of the levitated object in near-field acoustic levitation (NFAL) is presented. In this article, the transient response characteristics, including the levitated height of an object with radius of 24 mm and thickness of 5 mm, the radial velocity and pressure difference of gas at the boundary of clearance between the levitated object and radiating surface (squeeze film), is calculated according to several velocity amplitudes of radiating surface. First, the basic equations in fluid areas on Arbitrary Lagrange—Euler (ALE) form are numerically solved by using streamline upwind petrov galerkin (SUPG) finite elements method. Second, the formed algebraic equations and solid control equations are solved by using synchronous alternating method to gain the transient messages of the levitated object and gas in the squeeze film. Through theoretical and numerical analyses, it is found that there is a oscillation time in the transient process and that the response time does not simply increase with the increasing of velocity amplitudes of radiating surface. More investigations in this paper are helpful for the understanding of the transient properties of levitated object in NFAL, which are in favor of enhancing stabilities and responsiveness of levitated object.

  14. Study on Transient Properties of Levitated Object in Near-Field Acoustic Levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Bing; Chen Chao; Zhao Chunsheng

    2011-01-01

    A new approach to the study on the transient properties of the levitated object in near-field acoustic levitation (NFAL) is presented. In this article, the transient response characteristics, including the levitated height of an object with radius of 24 mm and thickness of 5 mm, the radial velocity and pressure difference of gas at the boundary of clearance between the levitated object and radiating surface (squeeze film), is calculated according to several velocity amplitudes of radiating surface. First, the basic equations in fluid areas on Arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) form are numerically solved by using streamline upwind petrov galerkin (SUPG) finite elements method. Second, the formed algebraic equations and solid control equations are solved by using synchronous alternating method to gain the transient messages of the levitated object and gas in the squeeze film. Through theoretical and numerical analyses, it is found that there is a oscillation time in the transient process and that the response time does not simply increase with the increasing of velocity amplitudes of radiating surface. More investigations in this paper are helpful for the understanding of the transient properties of levitated object in NFAL, which are in favor of enhancing stabilities and responsiveness of levitated object. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  15. A New Method for Determining Optimal Regularization Parameter in Near-Field Acoustic Holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Xiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tikhonov regularization method is effective in stabilizing reconstruction process of the near-field acoustic holography (NAH based on the equivalent source method (ESM, and the selection of the optimal regularization parameter is a key problem that determines the regularization effect. In this work, a new method for determining the optimal regularization parameter is proposed. The transfer matrix relating the source strengths of the equivalent sources to the measured pressures on the hologram surface is augmented by adding a fictitious point source with zero strength. The minimization of the norm of this fictitious point source strength is as the criterion for choosing the optimal regularization parameter since the reconstructed value should tend to zero. The original inverse problem in calculating the source strengths is converted into a univariate optimization problem which is solved by a one-dimensional search technique. Two numerical simulations with a point driven simply supported plate and a pulsating sphere are investigated to validate the performance of the proposed method by comparison with the L-curve method. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can determine the regularization parameter correctly and effectively for the reconstruction in NAH.

  16. THz near-field imaging of biological tissues employing synchrotronradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schade, Ulrich; Holldack, Karsten; Martin, Michael C.; Fried,Daniel

    2004-12-23

    Terahertz scanning near-field infrared microscopy (SNIM) below 1 THz is demonstrated. The near-field technique benefits from the broadband and highly brilliant coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) from an electron storage ring and from a detection method based on locking onto the intrinsic time structure of the synchrotron radiation. The scanning microscope utilizes conical wave guides as near-field probes with apertures smaller than the wavelength. Different cone approaches have been investigated to obtain maximum transmittance. Together with a Martin-Puplett spectrometer the set-up enables spectroscopic mapping of the transmittance of samples well below the diffraction limit. Spatial resolution down to about lambda/40 at 2 wavenumbers (0.06 THz) is derived from the transmittance spectra of the near-field probes. The potential of the technique is exemplified by imaging biological samples. Strongly absorbing living leaves have been imaged in transmittance with a spatial resolution of 130 mu-m at about 12 wave numbers (0.36 THz). The THz near-field images reveal distinct structural differences of leaves from different plants investigated. The technique presented also allows spectral imaging of bulky organic tissues. Human teeth samples of various thicknesses have been imaged between 2 and 20 wavenumbers (between 0.06and 0.6 THz). Regions of enamel and dentin within tooth samples are spatially and spectrally resolved, and buried caries lesions are imaged through both the outer enamel and into the underlying dentin.

  17. Large scale steam flow test: Pressure drop data and calculated pressure loss coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, J.B.; Spears, J.R.; Feder, A.R.; Moore, B.P.; Young, C.E.

    1993-12-01

    This report presents the result of large scale steam flow testing, 3 million to 7 million lbs/hr., conducted at approximate steam qualities of 25, 45, 70 and 100 percent (dry, saturated). It is concluded from the test data that reasonable estimates of piping component pressure loss coefficients for single phase flow in complex piping geometries can be calculated using available engineering literature. This includes the effects of nearby upstream and downstream components, compressibility, and internal obstructions, such as splitters, and ladder rungs on individual piping components. Despite expected uncertainties in the data resulting from the complexity of the piping geometry and two-phase flow, the test data support the conclusion that the predicted dry steam K-factors are accurate and provide useful insight into the effect of entrained liquid on the flow resistance. The K-factors calculated from the wet steam test data were compared to two-phase K-factors based on the Martinelli-Nelson pressure drop correlations. This comparison supports the concept of a two-phase multiplier for estimating the resistance of piping with liquid entrained into the flow. The test data in general appears to be reasonably consistent with the shape of a curve based on the Martinelli-Nelson correlation over the tested range of steam quality

  18. Near-field second-harmonic generation from gold nanoellipsoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celebrano, M; Zavelani-Rossi, M; Polli, D; Cerullo, G [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CNR, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Biagioni, P; Finazzi, M; Duo, L [LNESS - Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Labardi, M; Allegrini, M [CNR-INFM, polyLab, Dipartimento di Fisica ' Enrico Fermi' , Universita di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Grand, J; Adam, P M; Royer, P [Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060 10010 Troyes cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    Second-harmonic generation from single gold nanofabricated particles is experimentally investigated by a nonlinear scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM). High peak power femtosecond polarized light pulses at the output of a hollow pyramid aperture allow for efficient second-harmonic imaging, with sub-100-nm spatial resolution and high contrast. The near-field nonlinear response is found to be directly related to both local surface plasmon resonances and particle morphology. The combined analysis of linear and second-harmonic SNOM images allows one to discriminate among near-field scattering, absorption and re-emission processes, which would not be possible with linear techniques alone. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. High-Density Near-Field Optical Disc Recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Masataka; Saito, Kimihiro; Ishimoto, Tsutomu; Kondo, Takao; Nakaoki, Ariyoshi; Ide, Naoki; Furuki, Motohiro; Takeda, Minoru; Akiyama, Yuji; Shimouma, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masanobu

    2005-05-01

    We developed a high-density near-field optical recording disc system using a solid immersion lens. The near-field optical pick-up consists of a solid immersion lens with a numerical aperture of 1.84. The laser wavelength for recording is 405 nm. In order to realize the near-field optical recording disc, we used a phase-change recording media and a molded polycarbonate substrate. A clear eye pattern of 112 GB capacity with 160 nm track pitch and 50 nm bit length was observed. The equivalent areal density is 80.6 Gbit/in2. The bottom bit error rate of 3 tracks-write was 4.5× 10-5. The readout power margin and the recording power margin were ± 30.4% and ± 11.2%, respectively.

  20. Chemical and microbiological effects in the near field: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewart, F.T.; Pugh, S.Y.R.; Wisbey, S.J.; Woodwark, D.R.

    1988-12-01

    The radionuclide inventory of a radioactive waste repository, influenced by the chemical conditions in the near-field, determines the source term for radionuclides entering the geosphere. The research described in this report is focussed on providing the information necessary to quantify this source term. The processes which interact to determine near field behaviour over a long period of time are complex and a simplified representation is required for radiological assessment modelling. The assumptions made in formulating the near field assessment methodology are discussed and justified in this report. The techniques for acquiring the necessary large body of data for a wide range of relevant radionuclides are also described and the values used in the CASCADE I exercise are given. (author)

  1. Near field communication recent developments and library implications

    CERN Document Server

    McHugh, Sheli

    2014-01-01

    Near Field Communication is a radio frequency technology that allows objects, such as mobile phones, computers, tags, or posters, to exchange information wirelessly across a small distance. This report on the progress of Near Field Communication reviews the features and functionality of the technology and summarizes the broad spectrum of its current and anticipated applications. We explore the development of NFC technology in recent years, introduce the major stakeholders in the NFC ecosystem, and project its movement toward mainstream adoption. Several examples of early implementation of NFC

  2. Near-Field Resonance Microwave Tomography and Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikovich, K. P.; Smirnov, A. I.; Yanin, D. V.

    2018-02-01

    We develop the methods of electromagnetic computer near-field microwave tomography of distributed subsurface inhomogeneities of complex dielectric permittivity and of holography (shape retrieval) of internally homogeneous subsurface objects. The methods are based on the solution of the near-field inverse scattering problem from measurements of the resonance-parameter variations of microwave probes above the medium surface. The capabilities of the proposed diagnostic technique are demonstrated in the numerical simulation for sensors with a cylindrical capacitor as a probe element, the edge capacitance of which is sensitive to subsurface inhomogeneities.

  3. Laser terahertz emission microscopy with near-field probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Mittleman, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Using an AFM, an optical near-field image at 800 nm of a dipole antenna for THz emission is measured, and by simultaneously collecting the emitted THz radiation, the laser light confined under the AFM probe gives a THz emission resolution of less than 50 nm.......Using an AFM, an optical near-field image at 800 nm of a dipole antenna for THz emission is measured, and by simultaneously collecting the emitted THz radiation, the laser light confined under the AFM probe gives a THz emission resolution of less than 50 nm....

  4. Transfer function and near-field detection of evanescent waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radko, Ylia P.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Gregersen, Niels

    2006-01-01

    of collection and illumination modes. Making use of a collection near-field microscope with a similar fiber tip illuminated by an evanescent field, we measure the collected power as a function of the field spatial frequency in different polarization configurations. Considering a two-dimensional probe...... for the transfer function, which is derived by introducing an effective pointof (dipolelike) detection inside the probe tip. It is found to be possible to fit reasonably well both the experimental and the simulation data for evanescent field components, implying that the developed approximation of the near......-field transfer function can serve as a simple, rational, and sufficiently reliable means of fiber probe characterization....

  5. Towards phonon photonics: scattering-type near-field optical microscopy reveals phonon-enhanced near-field interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillenbrand, Rainer

    2004-01-01

    Diffraction limits the spatial resolution in classical microscopy or the dimensions of optical circuits to about half the illumination wavelength. Scanning near-field microscopy can overcome this limitation by exploiting the evanescent near fields existing close to any illuminated object. We use a scattering-type near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM) that uses the illuminated metal tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) to act as scattering near-field probe. The presented images are direct evidence that the s-SNOM enables optical imaging at a spatial resolution on a 10 nm scale, independent of the wavelength used (λ=633 nm and 10 μm). Operating the microscope at specific mid-infrared frequencies we found a tip-induced phonon-polariton resonance on flat polar crystals such as SiC and Si 3 N 4 . Being a spectral fingerprint of any polar material such phonon-enhanced near-field interaction has enormous applicability in nondestructive, material-specific infrared microscopy at nanoscale resolution. The potential of s-SNOM to study eigenfields of surface polaritons in nanostructures opens the door to the development of phonon photonics--a proposed infrared nanotechnology that uses localized or propagating surface phonon polaritons for probing, manipulating and guiding infrared light in nanoscale devices, analogous to plasmon photonics

  6. Pseudopotential calculations of AlSb under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algarni, H.; Al-Hagan, O. A.; Bouarissa, N.; Khan, M. A.; Alhuwaymel, T. F.

    2018-02-01

    The dependence on hydrostatic pressure of the electronic and optical properties of zinc-blende AlSb semiconducting material in the pressure range of 0-20 kbar has been reported using a pseudopotential approach. At zero pressure, our findings showed that the electron and heavy hole effective masses are 0.11 and 0.38 m0, respectively. Moreover, our results yielded values of 3.3289 and 11.08 for refractive index and high frequency dielectric constant, respectively. These results are found to be in good accord with experiment. Upon compression, all physical parameters of interest showed a monotonic behavior. The pressure-induced energy shifts for the optical transition related to band-gaps indicated that AlSb remains an indirect (D-X) band-gap semiconductor at pressures from 0 to 20 kbar. The trend in all features of interest versus pressure has been presented and discussed. It is found that the lattice parameter is reduced from 0.61355 to 0.60705 nm when pressure is raised from 0 to 20 kbar. The present investigation may be useful for mid-infrared lasers applications, detectors and communication devices.

  7. A New Method for Analyzing Near-Field Faraday Probe Data in Hall Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wensheng; Shastry, Rohit; Herman, Daniel A.; Soulas, George C.; Kamhawi, Hani

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for analyzing near-field Faraday probe data obtained from Hall thrusters. Traditional methods spawned from far-field Faraday probe analysis rely on assumptions that are not applicable to near-field Faraday probe data. In particular, arbitrary choices for the point of origin and limits of integration have made interpretation of the results difficult. The new method, called iterative pathfinding, uses the evolution of the near-field plume with distance to provide feedback for determining the location of the point of origin. Although still susceptible to the choice of integration limits, this method presents a systematic approach to determining the origin point for calculating the divergence angle. The iterative pathfinding method is applied to near-field Faraday probe data taken in a previous study from the NASA-300M and NASA-457Mv2 Hall thrusters. Since these two thrusters use centrally mounted cathodes the current density associated with the cathode plume is removed before applying iterative pathfinding. A procedure is presented for removing the cathode plume. The results of the analysis are compared to far-field probe analysis results. This paper ends with checks on the validity of the new method and discussions on the implications of the results.

  8. The calculation of dryout during flow and pressure transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, P.W.; Whalley, P.B.

    1981-01-01

    The method for predicting dryout in a round tube by means of an annular flow model (Whalley et al 1974) is extended to cover the case where both inlet mass flux and pressure are time-dependent. The qualitative effects of an inlet pressure transient are assessed by performing a 'numerical experiment' and it is found that the predictions of the model represent reasonable physical trends. The relative merits of wo numerical solution schemes are also discussed

  9. Induced Light Emission from Quantum Dots: The Directional Near-Field Pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iezhokin, Igor; Keller, Ole; Lozovski, Valeri

    2010-01-01

    The optical Lippmann-Schwinger equation, supplemented by the microscopic conductivity tensor, is used to establish a near-field radiation theory for a mesoscopic particle. The present theory deviates from previous ones in that it allows one to take into account the finite size of the particle...... in a selfconsistent local-field calculation. The main result of the basic theory is illustrated by a number of numerical calculations on box-shaped quantum dots keeping only two optically mobile electrons. Particular attendance is paid to the distance and angular dependences of the near-field radiation pattern When...... the distance between the particle and observation point exceeds just a few times the linear dimension of the particle the directional radiation diagrams all become qualitatively identical to those of an electric point-dipole radiator The result of the present theory may be of particular interest for studies...

  10. Near-field circular polarization probed by chiral polyfluorene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savoini, M.; Biagioni, P.; Lakhwani, G.; Meskers, S.C.J.; Duò, L.; Finazzi, M.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that a high degree of circular polarization can be delivered to the near field (NF) of an aperture at the apex of hollow-pyramid probes for scanning optical microscopy. This result is achieved by analyzing the dichroic properties of an annealed thin polymer film containing a chiral

  11. Transfer functions in collection scanning near-field optical microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Vohnsen, Brian; Bozhevolnaya, Elena A.

    1999-01-01

    are considered with respect to the relation between near-field optical images and the corresponding intensity distributions. Our conclusions are supported with numerical simulations and experimental results obtained by using a photon scanning tunneling microscope with an uncoated fiber tip....

  12. Near-field photon wave mechanics in the Lorenz gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Optical near-field interactions are studied theoretically in the perspective of photon wave mechanics paying particular attention to the dynamics in the wave-vector time domain. A unitary transformation is used to replace the scalar and longitudinal photon variables by so-called near-field and gauge photon variables. Dynamical equations are established for these types of photon variables, and it is shown that these equations are invariant against gauge transformations within the Lorenz gauge. The near-field photon is absent in the free-field limit, and the gauge photon can be eliminated by a suitable gauge transformation. Implicit solutions for the near-field, gauge, and transverse photon variables are obtained and discussed. The general theory is applied to an investigation of transverse photon propagation in a uniform solid-state plasma dominated by the diamagnetic field-matter interaction. It is found that the diamagnetic response can be incorporated in a quantum mechanical wave equation for a massive transverse photon. The Compton wave number of the massive photon equals the plasma wave number of the electron system. A dynamical equation describing the emission of a massive transverse photon from a mesoscopic source embedded in the plasma is finally established

  13. New developments in near-field acoustic holography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozen, N.B.; Geerlings, A.C.; Verhaar, B.T.; Vliegenthart, T.

    2007-01-01

    In the field of noise-control engineering, information about the individual strength, andlocation, of the most dominant sources is of vital importance. This information allows theacoustic engineer to take effective measures in his effort to reduce the emitted acoustic noiselevels. Near-field

  14. Graphene-on-Silicon Near-Field Thermophotovoltaic Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svetovoy, V. B.; Palasantzas, G.

    2014-01-01

    A graphene layer on top of a dielectric can dramatically influence the ability of the material for radiative heat transfer. This property of graphene is used to improve the performance and reduce costs of near-field thermophotovoltaic cells. Instead of low-band-gap semiconductors it is proposed to

  15. Near-Field Spectroscopy with Nanoparticles Deposited by AFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2008-01-01

    An alternative approach to apertureless near-field optical spectroscopy involving an atomic-force microscope (AFM) entails less complexity of equipment than does a prior approach. The alternative approach has been demonstrated to be applicable to apertureless near-field optical spectroscopy of the type using an AFM and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and is expected to be equally applicable in cases in which infrared or fluorescence spectroscopy is used. Apertureless near-field optical spectroscopy is a means of performing spatially resolved analyses of chemical compositions of surface regions of nanostructured materials. In apertureless near-field spectroscopy, it is common practice to utilize nanostructured probe tips or nanoparticles (usually of gold) having shapes and dimensions chosen to exploit plasmon resonances so as to increase spectroscopic-signal strengths. To implement the particular prior approach to which the present approach is an alternative, it is necessary to integrate a Raman spectrometer with an AFM and to utilize a special SERS-active probe tip. The resulting instrumentation system is complex, and the tasks of designing and constructing the system and using the system to acquire spectro-chemical information from nanometer-scale regions on a surface are correspondingly demanding.

  16. Near-Field Nanolasers based on Nonradiating Anapole Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Gongora, J. S. Totero

    2016-05-31

    By employing ab-initio simulations of Maxwell-Bloch equations with a source of quantum noise, we study a new laser concept based on photonic dark-matter nanostructures that emit only in the near-field, with no far-field radiation pattern.

  17. Near-Field Nanolasers based on Nonradiating Anapole Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Gongora, J. S. Totero; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    By employing ab-initio simulations of Maxwell-Bloch equations with a source of quantum noise, we study a new laser concept based on photonic dark-matter nanostructures that emit only in the near-field, with no far-field radiation pattern.

  18. Near-field characterization of photonic crystal Y-splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volkov, V. S.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Borel, Peter Ingo

    2005-01-01

    A scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) is used to directly map the propagation of light in a specially designed 50/50 photonic crystal (PC) Y-splitter fabricated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers. SNOM images are obtained for TE- and TM-polarized light in the wavelength range 1425...

  19. Unsteady State Two Phase Flow Pressure Drop Calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Ayatollahi, Shahaboddin

    1992-01-01

    A method is presented to calculate unsteady state two phase flow in a gas-liquid line based on a quasi-steady state approach. A computer program for numerical solution of this method was prepared. Results of calculations using the computer program are presented for several unsteady state two phase flow systems

  20. Simulated near-field mapping of ripple pattern supported metal nanoparticles arrays for SERS optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Mahima; Bhatnagar, Mukul; Ranjan, Mukesh; Mukherjee, Subroto; Nath, Rabinder; Mitra, Anirban

    2017-11-01

    An analytical model has been developed using a modified Yamaguchi model along with the wavelength dependent plasmon line-width correction. The model has been used to calculate the near-field response of random nanoparticles on the plane surface, elongated and spherical silver nanoparticle arrays supported on ion beam produced ripple patterned templates. The calculated near-field mapping for elongated nanoparticles arrays on the ripple patterned surface shows maximum number of hot-spots with a higher near-field enhancement (NFE) as compared to the spherical nanoparticle arrays and randomly distributed nanoparticles on the plane surface. The results from the simulations show a similar trend for the NFE when compared to the far field reflection spectra. The nature of the wavelength dependent NFE is also found to be in agreement with the observed experimental results from surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The calculated and the measured optical response unambiguously reveal the importance of interparticle gap and ordering, where a high intensity Raman signal is obtained for ordered elongated nanoparticles arrays case as against non-ordered and the aligned configuration of spherical nanoparticles on the rippled surface.

  1. First-principles calculations of a high-pressure synthesized compound PtC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Linyan; Yu Wen; Jin Changqing

    2005-01-01

    The first-principles density-functional method is used to study the recently high-pressure synthesized compound PtC. It is confirmed by our calculations that platinum carbide has a zinc-blende ground-state phase at zero pressure and that the rock-salt structure is a high-pressure phase. The theoretical transition pressure from zinc-blende to rock-salt structure is determined to be 52 GPa. Furthermore, our calculation shows the possibility that the PtC experimentally synthesized under high pressure conditions might undergo a transition from rock-salt to zinc-blende structure after a pressure quench to ambient conditions

  2. Laminar and turbulent nozzle-jet flows and their acoustic near-field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bühler, Stefan; Obrist, Dominik; Kleiser, Leonhard

    2014-01-01

    We investigate numerically the effects of nozzle-exit flow conditions on the jet-flow development and the near-field sound at a diameter-based Reynolds number of Re D = 18 100 and Mach number Ma = 0.9. Our computational setup features the inclusion of a cylindrical nozzle which allows to establish a physical nozzle-exit flow and therefore well-defined initial jet-flow conditions. Within the nozzle, the flow is modeled by a potential flow core and a laminar, transitional, or developing turbulent boundary layer. The goal is to document and to compare the effects of the different jet inflows on the jet flow development and the sound radiation. For laminar and transitional boundary layers, transition to turbulence in the jet shear layer is governed by the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. With the turbulent nozzle boundary layer, the jet flow development is characterized by a rapid changeover to a turbulent free shear layer within about one nozzle diameter. Sound pressure levels are strongly enhanced for laminar and transitional exit conditions compared to the turbulent case. However, a frequency and frequency-wavenumber analysis of the near-field pressure indicates that the dominant sound radiation characteristics remain largely unaffected. By applying a recently developed scaling procedure, we obtain a close match of the scaled near-field sound spectra for all nozzle-exit turbulence levels and also a reasonable agreement with experimental far-field data

  3. Directivity of Spherical Polyhedron Sound Source Used in Near-Field HRTF Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Guang-Zheng; Xie Bo-Sun; Rao Dan

    2010-01-01

    The omnidirectional character is one of important requirements for the sound source used in near-field head-related transfer function (HRTF) measurements. Based on the analysis on the radiation sound pressure and directivity character of various spherical polyhedron sound sources, a spherical dodecahedral sound source with radius of 0.035m is proposed and manufactured. Theoretical and measured results indicate that the sound source is approximately omnidirectional below the frequency of 8 kHz. In addition, the sound source has reasonable magnitude response from 350Hz to 20kHz and linear phase characteristics. Therefore, it is suitable for the near-field HRTF measurements. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  4. Patch near-field acoustic holography: The influence of acoustic contributions from outside the source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn; Zhang, Yong-Bin

    2009-01-01

    It is a requirement of conventional Near-field Acoustic Holography that the measurement area covers the entire surface of the source. In the case of Patch Near-field Acoustic Holography (patch NAH), the measurement area can be reduced to cover only a specific area of the source which...... is of particular interest (known as the “patch” or “source patch”). The area of the source beyond this patch is not of interest in the analysis. However, its acoustic output may nevertheless contribute to the total sound field in the measurement plane, and influence the reconstruction of the field close...... to the patch. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the acoustic radiation from outside the patch area influences the reconstruction of the sound field close to the source. The reconstruction is based on simulated measurements of sound pressure and particle velocity. The methods used in this paper...

  5. Calculations of quasi-particle spectra of semiconductors under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Niels Egede; Svane, Axel; Cardona, M.

    2011-01-01

    Different approximations in calculations of electronic quasiparticle states in semiconductors are compared and evaluated with respect to their validity in predictions of optical properties. The quasi-particle self-consistent GW (QSGW) approach yields values of the band gaps which are close...

  6. Error Propagation Dynamics of PIV-based Pressure Field Calculations: How well does the pressure Poisson solver perform inherently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhao; Whitehead, Jared; Thomson, Scott; Truscott, Tadd

    2016-08-01

    Obtaining pressure field data from particle image velocimetry (PIV) is an attractive technique in fluid dynamics due to its noninvasive nature. The application of this technique generally involves integrating the pressure gradient or solving the pressure Poisson equation using a velocity field measured with PIV. However, very little research has been done to investigate the dynamics of error propagation from PIV-based velocity measurements to the pressure field calculation. Rather than measure the error through experiment, we investigate the dynamics of the error propagation by examining the Poisson equation directly. We analytically quantify the error bound in the pressure field, and are able to illustrate the mathematical roots of why and how the Poisson equation based pressure calculation propagates error from the PIV data. The results show that the error depends on the shape and type of boundary conditions, the dimensions of the flow domain, and the flow type.

  7. Error propagation dynamics of PIV-based pressure field calculations: How well does the pressure Poisson solver perform inherently?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Zhao; Thomson, Scott; Whitehead, Jared; Truscott, Tadd

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining pressure field data from particle image velocimetry (PIV) is an attractive technique in fluid dynamics due to its noninvasive nature. The application of this technique generally involves integrating the pressure gradient or solving the pressure Poisson equation using a velocity field measured with PIV. However, very little research has been done to investigate the dynamics of error propagation from PIV-based velocity measurements to the pressure field calculation. Rather than measure the error through experiment, we investigate the dynamics of the error propagation by examining the Poisson equation directly. We analytically quantify the error bound in the pressure field, and are able to illustrate the mathematical roots of why and how the Poisson equation based pressure calculation propagates error from the PIV data. The results show that the error depends on the shape and type of boundary conditions, the dimensions of the flow domain, and the flow type. (paper)

  8. Error Propagation Dynamics of PIV-based Pressure Field Calculations: How well does the pressure Poisson solver perform inherently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhao; Whitehead, Jared; Thomson, Scott; Truscott, Tadd

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining pressure field data from particle image velocimetry (PIV) is an attractive technique in fluid dynamics due to its noninvasive nature. The application of this technique generally involves integrating the pressure gradient or solving the pressure Poisson equation using a velocity field measured with PIV. However, very little research has been done to investigate the dynamics of error propagation from PIV-based velocity measurements to the pressure field calculation. Rather than measure the error through experiment, we investigate the dynamics of the error propagation by examining the Poisson equation directly. We analytically quantify the error bound in the pressure field, and are able to illustrate the mathematical roots of why and how the Poisson equation based pressure calculation propagates error from the PIV data. The results show that the error depends on the shape and type of boundary conditions, the dimensions of the flow domain, and the flow type. PMID:27499587

  9. Automatic Calculation of Hydrostatic Pressure Gradient in Patients with Head Injury: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Laura; Shaw, Martin; Piper, Ian; Arvind, D K; Hawthorne, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The non-surgical management of patients with traumatic brain injury is the treatment and prevention of secondary insults, such as low cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). Most clinical pressure monitoring systems measure pressure relative to atmospheric pressure. If a patient is managed with their head tilted up, relative to their arterial pressure transducer, then a hydrostatic pressure gradient (HPG) can act against arterial pressure and cause significant errors in calculated CPP.To correct for HPG, the arterial pressure transducer should be placed level with the intracranial pressure transducer. However, this is not always achieved. In this chapter, we describe a pilot study investigating the application of speckled computing (or "specks") for the automatic monitoring of the patient's head tilt and subsequent automatic calculation of HPG. In future applications this will allow us to automatically correct CPP to take into account any HPG.

  10. Modeling of the near field plume of a Hall thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, Iain D.; Yim, John T.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a detailed numerical model is developed to simulate the xenon plasma near-field plume from a Hall thruster. The model uses a detailed fluid model to describe the electrons and a particle-based kinetic approach is used to model the heavy xenon ions and atoms. The detailed model is applied to compute the near field plume of a small, 200 W Hall thruster. Results from the detailed model are compared with the standard modeling approach that employs the Boltzmann model. The usefulness of the model detailed is assessed through direct comparisons with a number of different measured data sets. The comparisons illustrate that the detailed model accurately predicts a number of features of the measured data not captured by the simpler Boltzmann approach

  11. Near-field strong coupling of single quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, Heiko; Hamm, Joachim M; Tufarelli, Tommaso; Hess, Ortwin; Hecht, Bert

    2018-03-01

    Strong coupling and the resultant mixing of light and matter states is an important asset for future quantum technologies. We demonstrate deterministic room temperature strong coupling of a mesoscopic colloidal quantum dot to a plasmonic nanoresonator at the apex of a scanning probe. Enormous Rabi splittings of up to 110 meV are accomplished by nanometer-precise positioning of the quantum dot with respect to the nanoresonator probe. We find that, in addition to a small mode volume of the nanoresonator, collective coherent coupling of quantum dot band-edge states and near-field proximity interaction are vital ingredients for the realization of near-field strong coupling of mesoscopic quantum dots. The broadband nature of the interaction paves the road toward ultrafast coherent manipulation of the coupled quantum dot-plasmon system under ambient conditions.

  12. Near-Field Source Localization Using a Special Cumulant Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Han; Wei, Gang

    A new near-field source localization algorithm based on a uniform linear array was proposed. The proposed algorithm estimates each parameter separately but does not need pairing parameters. It can be divided into two important steps. The first step is bearing-related electric angle estimation based on the ESPRIT algorithm by constructing a special cumulant matrix. The second step is the other electric angle estimation based on the 1-D MUSIC spectrum. It offers much lower computational complexity than the traditional near-field 2-D MUSIC algorithm and has better performance than the high-order ESPRIT algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed algorithm is close to the Cramer-Rao Bound (CRB).

  13. Strain-induced modulation of near-field radiative transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanekar, Alok; Ricci, Matthew; Tian, Yanpei; Gregory, Otto; Zheng, Yi

    2018-06-11

    In this theoretical study, we present a near-field thermal modulator that exhibits change in radiative heat transfer when subjected to mechanical stress/strain. The device has two terminals at different temperatures separated by vacuum: one fixed and one stretchable. The stretchable side contains one-dimensional grating. When subjected to mechanical strain, the effective optical properties of the stretchable side are affected upon deformation of the grating. This results in modulation of surface waves across the interfaces influencing near-field radiative heat transfer. We show that for a separation of 100 nm, it is possible to achieve 25% change in radiative heat transfer for a strain of 10%.

  14. Near-field levitated quantum optomechanics with nanodiamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, M. L.; Molina-Terriza, G.; Volz, T.; Romero-Isart, O.

    2016-08-01

    We theoretically show that the dipole force of an ensemble of quantum emitters embedded in a dielectric nanosphere can be exploited to achieve near-field optical levitation. The key ingredient is that the polarizability from the ensemble of embedded quantum emitters can be larger than the bulk polarizability of the sphere, thereby enabling the use of repulsive optical potentials and consequently the levitation using optical near fields. In levitated cavity quantum optomechanics, this could be used to boost the single-photon coupling by combining larger polarizability to mass ratio, larger field gradients, and smaller cavity volumes while remaining in the resolved sideband regime and at room temperature. A case study is done with a nanodiamond containing a high density of silicon-vacancy color centers that is optically levitated in the evanescent field of a tapered nanofiber and coupled to a high-finesse microsphere cavity.

  15. Meshed doped silicon photonic crystals for manipulating near-field thermal radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzouka, Mahmoud; Ndao, Sidy

    2018-01-01

    The ability to control and manipulate heat flow is of great interest to thermal management and thermal logic and memory devices. Particularly, near-field thermal radiation presents a unique opportunity to enhance heat transfer while being able to tailor its characteristics (e.g., spectral selectivity). However, achieving nanometric gaps, necessary for near-field, has been and remains a formidable challenge. Here, we demonstrate significant enhancement of the near-field heat transfer through meshed photonic crystals with separation gaps above 0.5 μm. Using a first-principle method, we investigate the meshed photonic structures numerically via finite-difference time-domain technique (FDTD) along with the Langevin approach. Results for doped-silicon meshed structures show significant enhancement in heat transfer; 26 times over the non-meshed corrugated structures. This is especially important for thermal management and thermal rectification applications. The results also support the premise that thermal radiation at micro scale is a bulk (rather than a surface) phenomenon; the increase in heat transfer between two meshed-corrugated surfaces compared to the flat surface (8.2) wasn't proportional to the increase in the surface area due to the corrugations (9). Results were further validated through good agreements between the resonant modes predicted from the dispersion relation (calculated using a finite-element method), and transmission factors (calculated from FDTD).

  16. Calculation of radiation losses in cylinder symmetric high pressure discharges by means of a digital computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriessen, F.J.; Boerman, W.; Holtz, I.F.E.M.

    1973-08-01

    Computer calculations have been made of radiative energy losses in a cylindrically symmetric high pressure discharge. The calculations show that the radiation losses which occur in discharges at pressures of a few atmospheres and central temperatures of about 20000degK when compared with the electrical energy supplied, are only of importance in the neighbourhood of the centre of discharge

  17. Modulation of near-field heat transfer between two gratings

    OpenAIRE

    Biehs , Svend-Age; Da Rosa , Felipe S. S.; Ben-Abdallah , Philippe

    2011-01-01

    International audience; We present a theoretical study of near-field heat transfer between two uniaxial anisotropic planar structures. We investigate how the distance and relative orientation (with respect to their optical axes) between the objects affect the heat flux. In particular, we show that by changing the angle between the optical axes it is possible in certain cases to modulate the net heat flux up to 90% at room temperature, and discuss possible applications of such a strong effect.

  18. Epidermal electronics with advanced capabilities in near-field communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeonghyun; Banks, Anthony; Cheng, Huanyu; Xie, Zhaoqian; Xu, Sheng; Jang, Kyung-In; Lee, Jung Woo; Liu, Zhuangjian; Gutruf, Philipp; Huang, Xian; Wei, Pinghung; Liu, Fei; Li, Kan; Dalal, Mitul; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Feng, Xue; Huang, Yonggang; Gupta, Sanjay; Paik, Ungyu; Rogers, John A

    2015-02-25

    Epidermal electronics with advanced capabilities in near field communications (NFC) are presented. The systems include stretchable coils and thinned NFC chips on thin, low modulus stretchable adhesives, to allow seamless, conformal contact with the skin and simultaneous capabilities for wireless interfaces to any standard, NFC-enabled smartphone, even under extreme deformation and after/during normal daily activities. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Near-field acoustic imaging based on Laplacian sparsity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Daudet, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    We present a sound source identification method for near-field acoustic imaging of extended sources. The methodology is based on a wave superposition method (or equivalent source method) that promotes solutions with sparse higher order spatial derivatives. Instead of promoting direct sparsity......, and the validity of the wave extrapolation used for the reconstruction is examined. It is shown that this methodology can overcome conventional limits of spatial sampling, and is therefore valid for wide-band acoustic imaging of extended sources....

  20. Use of Near Field Communication in emergency Rescue situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramp, Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    Near Field Communication (NFC) where the placement of two devices in close proximity of each other makes it possible for two devices to exhange and share information, opens up for a variety of transparent and intuitive interaction possibilities. However, as we have identified in the palcom project...... [1], instant and appropriate feedback regarding state of the connection and identification of which devices are connected to each other, is crucial for use....

  1. Students attendance monitoring using near field communication technology

    OpenAIRE

    Stakėnas, Tautvydas

    2017-01-01

    Today, near field communication technology (NFC) is one of the most popular automatic identification technologies. There is a lot of research and development in this area trying to make as much use of this technology as possible, and in coming years many new applications and research areas will continue to appear. In this paper the author examines NFC technology application for student’s attendance monitoring. In the first part of the thesis NFC uses, application methods and security levels a...

  2. Approximation for maximum pressure calculation in containment of PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, A.L. de

    1989-01-01

    A correlation was developed to estimate the maximum pressure of dry containment of PWR following a Loss-of-Coolant Accident - LOCA. The expression proposed is a function of the total energy released to the containment by the primary circuit, of the free volume of the containment building and of the total surface are of the heat-conducting structures. The results show good agreement with those present in Final Safety Analysis Report - FSAR of several PWR's plants. The errors are in the order of ± 12%. (author) [pt

  3. Near-Field Source Localization by Using Focusing Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongyang; Wang, Yide; Saillard, Joseph

    2008-12-01

    We discuss two fast algorithms to localize multiple sources in near field. The symmetry-based method proposed by Zhi and Chia (2007) is first improved by implementing a search-free procedure for the reduction of computation cost. We present then a focusing-based method which does not require symmetric array configuration. By using focusing technique, the near-field signal model is transformed into a model possessing the same structure as in the far-field situation, which allows the bearing estimation with the well-studied far-field methods. With the estimated bearing, the range estimation of each source is consequently obtained by using 1D MUSIC method without parameter pairing. The performance of the improved symmetry-based method and the proposed focusing-based method is compared by Monte Carlo simulations and with Crammer-Rao bound as well. Unlike other near-field algorithms, these two approaches require neither high-computation cost nor high-order statistics.

  4. Near-Field Source Localization by Using Focusing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Saillard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We discuss two fast algorithms to localize multiple sources in near field. The symmetry-based method proposed by Zhi and Chia (2007 is first improved by implementing a search-free procedure for the reduction of computation cost. We present then a focusing-based method which does not require symmetric array configuration. By using focusing technique, the near-field signal model is transformed into a model possessing the same structure as in the far-field situation, which allows the bearing estimation with the well-studied far-field methods. With the estimated bearing, the range estimation of each source is consequently obtained by using 1D MUSIC method without parameter pairing. The performance of the improved symmetry-based method and the proposed focusing-based method is compared by Monte Carlo simulations and with Crammer-Rao bound as well. Unlike other near-field algorithms, these two approaches require neither high-computation cost nor high-order statistics

  5. Near-field scanning optical microscopy based nanostructuring of glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimmalgi, A; Hwang, D J; Grigoropoulos, C P

    2007-01-01

    Nanofabrication, at lateral resolutions beyond the capability of conventional optical lithography techniques, is demonstrated here. Femtosecond laser was used in conjunction with Near-field Scanning Optical Microscopes (NSOMs) to nanostructure thin metal films. Also, the possibility of using these nanostructured metal films as masks to effectively transfer the pattern to the underlying substrate by wet etching process is shown. Two different optical nearfiled processing schemes were studied for near-field nanostructuring. In the first scheme, local field enhancement in the near-field of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) probe tip irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses was utilized (apertureless NSOM mode) and as a second approach, femtosecond laser beam was spatially confined by cantilevered NSOM fiber tip (apertured NOSM mode). The minimized heat- and shock-affected areas introduced during ultrafast laser based machining process, allows processing of even high conductivity thin metal films with minimized formation of any interfacial compounds between the metal films and the underlying substrate. Potential applications of this method may be in the fields of nanolithography, nanofluidics, nanoscale chemical and gas sensors, high-density data storage, nano-opto-electronics, as well as biotechnology related applications

  6. Gold nanocone probes for near-field scanning optical microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeeb, Bastian; Schaefer, Christian; Nill, Peter; Fleischer, Monika; Kern, Dieter P. [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy (ANSOM) provides the possibility to collect simultaneously high-resolution topographical and sub-diffraction limited optical information from a surface. When optically excited, the scanning probes act as optical antennae with a strong near-field enhancement near the tip apex. Spatial resolution and optical near-field enhancement depend strongly on the properties and geometry of the scanning probe - in particular on very sharp tip radii. Various possibilities for fabricating good antennae have been pursued. Most commonly, scanning probes consist of electrochemically etched gold wires which are sharp but not well-defined in geometry. We present two different approaches for ultra sharp and well-defined antennae based upon fabricating gold nanocones with a tip radius smaller than 10 nm which can be used in ANSOM. A transfer process is presented that can be used to attach single gold nanocones to non-metallic probes such as sharp glass fiber tips. Alternatively, new processes are presented to fabricate cones directly on pillars of different materials such as silicon or bismuth, which can be applied to cantilever tips for ANSOM scanning applications.

  7. Short presentation on some researches activities about near field earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donald, John

    2002-01-01

    The major hazard posed by earthquakes is often thought to be due to moderate to large magnitude events. However, there have been many cases where earthquakes of moderate and even small magnitude have caused very significant destruction when they have coincided with population centres. Even though the area of intense ground shaking caused by such events is generally small, the epicentral motions can be severe enough to cause damage even in well-engineered structures. Two issues are addressed here, the first being the identification of the minimum earthquake magnitude likely to cause damage to engineered structures and the limits of the near-field for small-to-moderate magnitude earthquakes. The second issue addressed is whether features of near-field ground motions such as directivity, which can significantly enhance the destructive potential, occur in small-to-moderate magnitude events. The accelerograms from the 1986 San Salvador (El Salvador) earthquake indicate that it may be non conservative to assume that near-field directivity effects only need to be considered for earthquakes of moment magnitude M 6.5 and greater. (author)

  8. Near-field photometry for organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Harikumar, Krishnan; Isphording, Alexandar; Venkataramanan, Venkat

    2013-03-01

    Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) technology is rapidly maturing to be ready for next generation of light source for general lighting. The current standard test methods for solid state lighting have evolved for semiconductor sources, with point-like emission characteristics. However, OLED devices are extended surface emitters, where spatial uniformity and angular variation of brightness and colour are important. This necessitates advanced test methods to obtain meaningful data for fundamental understanding, lighting product development and deployment. In this work, a near field imaging goniophotometer was used to characterize lighting-class white OLED devices, where luminance and colour information of the pixels on the light sources were measured at a near field distance for various angles. Analysis was performed to obtain angle dependent luminous intensity, CIE chromaticity coordinates and correlated colour temperature (CCT) in the far field. Furthermore, a complete ray set with chromaticity information was generated, so that illuminance at any distance and angle from the light source can be determined. The generated ray set is needed for optical modeling and design of OLED luminaires. Our results show that luminance non-uniformity could potentially affect the luminaire aesthetics and CCT can vary with angle by more than 2000K. This leads to the same source being perceived as warm or cool depending on the viewing angle. As OLEDs are becoming commercially available, this could be a major challenge for lighting designers. Near field measurement can provide detailed specifications and quantitative comparison between OLED products for performance improvement.

  9. Near-field millimeter - wave imaging of nonmetallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalsami, N.; Bakhtiari, S.; Raptis, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    A near-field millimeter-wave (mm-wave) imaging system has been designed and built in the 94-GHz range for on-line inspection of nonmetallic (dielectric) materials. The imaging system consists of a transceiver block coupled to an antenna that scans the material to be imaged; a reflector plate is placed behind the material. A quadrature IF mixer in the transceiver block enables measurement of in-phase and quadrature-phase components of reflected signals with respect to the transmitted signal. All transceiver components, with the exception of the Gunn-diode oscillator and antenna, were fabricated in uniform blocks and integrated and packaged into a compact unit (12.7 x 10.2 x 2.5 cm). The objective of this work is to test the applicability of a near-field compact mm-wave sensor for on-line inspection of sheetlike materials such as paper, fabrics, and plastics. This paper presents initial near-field mm-wave images of paper and fabric samples containing known artifacts

  10. Error Propagation dynamics: from PIV-based pressure reconstruction to vorticity field calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhao; Whitehead, Jared; Richards, Geordie; Truscott, Tadd; USU Team; BYU Team

    2017-11-01

    Noninvasive data from velocimetry experiments (e.g., PIV) have been used to calculate vorticity and pressure fields. However, the noise, error, or uncertainties in the PIV measurements would eventually propagate to the calculated pressure or vorticity field through reconstruction schemes. Despite the vast applications of pressure and/or vorticity field calculated from PIV measurements, studies on the error propagation from the velocity field to the reconstructed fields (PIV-pressure and PIV-vorticity are few. In the current study, we break down the inherent connections between PIV-based pressure reconstruction and PIV-based vorticity calculation. The similar error propagation dynamics, which involve competition between physical properties of the flow and numerical errors from reconstruction schemes, are found in both PIV-pressure and PIV-vorticity reconstructions.

  11. Value and limitations of transpulmonary pressure calculations during intra-abdominal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Puentes, Gustavo A; Gard, Kenneth E; Adams, Alexander B; Faltesek, Katherine A; Anderson, Christopher P; Dries, David J; Marini, John J

    2013-08-01

    To clarify the effect of progressively increasing intra-abdominal pressure on esophageal pressure, transpulmonary pressure, and functional residual capacity. Controlled application of increased intra-abdominal pressure at two positive end-expiratory pressure levels (1 and 10 cm H2O) in an anesthetized porcine model of controlled ventilation. Large animal laboratory of a university-affiliated hospital. Eleven deeply anesthetized swine (weight 46.2 ± 6.2 kg). Air-regulated intra-abdominal hypertension (0-25 mm Hg). Esophageal pressure, tidal compliance, bladder pressure, and end-expiratory lung aeration by gas dilution. Functional residual capacity was significantly reduced by increasing intra-abdominal pressure at both positive end-expiratory pressure levels (p ≤ 0.0001) without corresponding changes of end-expiratory esophageal pressure. Above intra-abdominal pressure 5 mm Hg, plateau airway pressure increased linearly by ~ 50% of the applied intra-abdominal pressure value, associated with commensurate changes of esophageal pressure. With tidal volume held constant, negligible changes occurred in transpulmonary pressure due to intra-abdominal pressure. Driving pressures calculated from airway pressures alone (plateau airway pressure--positive end-expiratory pressure) did not equate to those computed from transpulmonary pressure (tidal changes in transpulmonary pressure). Increasing positive end-expiratory pressure shifted the predominantly negative end-expiratory transpulmonary pressure at positive end-expiratory pressure 1 cm H2O (mean -3.5 ± 0.4 cm H2O) into the positive range at positive end-expiratory pressure 10 cm H2O (mean 0.58 ± 1.2 cm H2O). Despite its insensitivity to changes in functional residual capacity, measuring transpulmonary pressure may be helpful in explaining how different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure influence recruitment and collapse during tidal ventilation in the presence of increased intra-abdominal pressure and in

  12. Near-field multiple traps of paraxial acoustic vortices with strengthened gradient force generated by sector transducer array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingdong; Li, Yuzhi; Ma, Qingyu; Guo, Gepu; Tu, Juan; Zhang, Dong

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve the capability of particle trapping close to the source plane, theoretical and experimental studies on near-field multiple traps of paraxial acoustic vortices (AVs) with a strengthened acoustic gradient force (AGF) generated by a sector transducer array were conducted. By applying the integration of point source radiation, numerical simulations for the acoustic fields generated by the sector transducer array were conducted and compared with those produced by the circular transducer array. It was proved that strengthened AGFs of near-field multiple AVs with higher peak pressures and smaller vortex radii could be produced by the sector transducer array with a small topological charge. The axial distributions of the equivalent potential gradient indicated that the AGFs of paraxial AVs in the near field were much higher than those in the far field, and the distances at the near-field vortex antinodes were also proved to be the ideal trapping positions with relatively higher AGFs. With the established 8-channel AV generation system, theoretical studies were also verified by the experimental measurements of pressure and phase for AVs with various topological charges. The formation of near-field multiple paraxial AVs was verified by the cross-sectional circular pressure distributions with perfect phase spirals around central pressure nulls, and was also proved by the vortex nodes and antinodes along the center axis. The favorable results demonstrated the feasibility of generating near-field multiple traps of paraxial AVs with strengthened AGF using the sector transducer array, and suggested the potential applications of close-range particle trapping in biomedical engineering.

  13. Thermodynamic Calculations of Hydrogen-Oxygen Detonation Parameters for Various Initial Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, Loren E.; Edse, Rudolph

    1961-01-01

    Composition, temperature, pressure and density behind a stable detonation wave and its propagation rate have been calculated for seven hydrogen-oxygen mixture at 1, 5, 25 and 100 atm initial pressure, and at an initial temperature of 40C. For stoichiometric mixtures that calculations also include an initial temperature of 200C. According to these calculations the detonation velocities of hydrogen-oxygen mixtures increase with increasing initial pressure, but decrease slightly when the initial temperature is raised from 40 to 200 C. The calculated detonation velocities agree satisfactorily with values determined experimentally. These values will be published in the near future.

  14. On the slow dynamics of near-field acoustically levitated objects under High excitation frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilssar, Dotan; Bucher, Izhak

    2015-10-01

    This paper introduces a simplified analytical model describing the governing dynamics of near-field acoustically levitated objects. The simplification converts the equation of motion coupled with the partial differential equation of a compressible fluid, into a compact, second order ordinary differential equation, where the local stiffness and damping are transparent. The simplified model allows one to more easily analyse and design near-field acoustic levitation based systems, and it also helps to devise closed-loop controller algorithms for such systems. Near-field acoustic levitation employs fast ultrasonic vibrations of a driving surface and exploits the viscosity and the compressibility of a gaseous medium to achieve average, load carrying pressure. It is demonstrated that the slow dynamics dominates the transient behaviour, while the time-scale associated with the fast, ultrasonic excitation has a small presence in the oscillations of the levitated object. Indeed, the present paper formulates the slow dynamics under an ultrasonic excitation without the need to explicitly consider the latter. The simplified model is compared with a numerical scheme based on Reynolds equation and with experiments, both showing reasonably good results.

  15. Scanning near-field optical microscopy and near-field optical probes: properties, fabrication, and control of parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryakhlushin, V F; Veiko, V P; Voznesenskii, N B

    2007-01-01

    A brief review of modern applications of scanning near-field optical (SNO) devices in microscopy, spectroscopy, and lithography is presented in the introduction. The problem of the development of SNO probes, as the most important elements of SNO devices determining their resolution and efficiency, is discussed. Based on the works of the authors, two different methods for fabricating SNO probes by using the adiabatic tapering of an optical fibre are considered: the laser-heated mechanical drawing and chemical etching. A nondestructive optical method for controlling the nanometre aperture of SNO probes is proposed, substantiated, and tested experimentally. The method is based on the reconstruction of a near-field source with the help of a theoretical algorithm of the inverse problem from the experimental far-filed intensity distribution. Some prospects for a further refinement of the construction and technology of SNO probes are discussed. (optical microscopy)

  16. REFREP: a near-field model for a spent fuel repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautojaervi, A.; Vieno, T.

    1988-05-01

    A code package for near-field performance analysis of spent fuel disposal has been programmed. The conceptual models used are shortly described in connection with th model presentations. For more comprehensive descriptions the previous safety analysis and references therein are referred. The REFREP package consists of nine individual modules performing the following tasks: viewing and updating of the data files (UPDATE), calculating of the breaching times of canisters (CORRFLUX), calculating of stationary nuclide release rates using solubility values (MASSFLUX), calculating of actinide inventories from chain decay (INVENT), calculating of elemental inventories of actinides (ELEMENT), calculating of nuclide release rates according to congruent release (CONGRUNT), performing of sensitivity analysis for one variable (SENSIT), summing of release rates from individual canisters according to given probability distributions of canister breaching times (PROBREL), and forming a compact data file including all the input values (DATAOUT). The results have been shown to agree very well with the results of the previous safety analysis where near-field analysis was performed by means of separate codes and manual calculation. The REFREP model offers already at this stage some additional features to the old procedures and more versatile capabilities can easyly be added into the modular structure of the package. REFREP has been developed in a VAX-environment. Some changes in file handling might be necessary if the code is transferred to another computer

  17. Cesium under pressure: First-principles calculation of the bcc-to-fcc phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesi, S.; Franchini, A.; Bortolani, V.; Martinelli, S.

    1999-05-01

    In this paper we present the ab initio calculation of the structural properties of cesium under pressure. The calculation of the total energy is done in the local-density approximation of density-functional theory, using a nonlocal pseudopotential including the nonlinear core corrections proposed by Louie et al. The calculation of the pressure-volume diagram for both bcc and fcc structures allows us to prove that the transition from bcc to fcc structure is a first-order transition.

  18. Measurement of the sound power incident on the walls of a reverberation room with near field acoustic holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Tiana Roig, Elisabet

    2010-01-01

    area; and it has always been regarded as impossible to measure the sound power that is incident on a wall directly. This paper examines a new method of determining this quantity from sound pressure measurements at positions on the wall using 'statistically optimised near field acoustic holography...

  19. Influence of Individual Differences on the Calculation Method for FBG-Type Blood Pressure Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shouhei; Ishizawa, Hiroaki; Fujimoto, Keisaku; Chino, Shun; Kobayashi, Yuka

    2016-12-28

    In this paper, we propose a blood pressure calculation and associated measurement method that by using a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor. There are several points at which the pulse can be measured on the surface of the human body, and when a FBG sensor located at any of these points, the pulse wave signal can be measured. The measured waveform is similar to the acceleration pulse wave. The pulse wave signal changes depending on several factors, including whether or not the individual is healthy and/or elderly. The measured pulse wave signal can be used to calculate the blood pressure using a calibration curve, which is constructed by a partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis using a reference blood pressure and the pulse wave signal. In this paper, we focus on the influence of individual differences from calculated blood pressure based on each calibration curve. In our study, the calculated blood pressure from both the individual and overall calibration curves were compared, and our results show that the calculated blood pressure based on the overall calibration curve had a lower measurement accuracy than that based on an individual calibration curve. We also found that the influence of the individual differences on the calculated blood pressure when using the FBG sensor method were very low. Therefore, the FBG sensor method that we developed for measuring the blood pressure was found to be suitable for use by many people.

  20. Near-field heat transfer between graphene/hBN multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Guizal, Brahim; Zhang, Zhuomin M.; Fan, Shanhui; Antezza, Mauro

    2017-06-01

    We study the radiative heat transfer between multilayer structures made by a periodic repetition of a graphene sheet and a hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) slab. Surface plasmons in a monolayer graphene can couple with hyperbolic phonon polaritons in a single hBN film to form hybrid polaritons that can assist photon tunneling. For periodic multilayer graphene/hBN structures, the stacked metallic/dielectric array can give rise to a further effective hyperbolic behavior, in addition to the intrinsic natural hyperbolic behavior of hBN. The effective hyperbolicity can enable more hyperbolic polaritons that enhance the photon tunneling and hence the near-field heat transfer. However, the hybrid polaritons on the surface, i.e., surface plasmon-phonon polaritons, dominate the near-field heat transfer between multilayer structures when the topmost layer is graphene. The effective hyperbolic regions can be well predicted by the effective medium theory (EMT), thought EMT fails to capture the hybrid surface polaritons and results in a heat transfer rate much lower compared to the exact calculation. The chemical potential of the graphene sheets can be tuned through electrical gating and results in an additional modulation of the heat transfer. We found that the near-field heat transfer between multilayer structures does not increase monotonously with the number of layers in the stack, which provides a way to control the heat transfer rate by the number of graphene layers in the multilayer structure. The results may benefit the applications of near-field energy harvesting and radiative cooling based on hybrid polaritons in two-dimensional materials.

  1. Planar Near-Field Measurements of Ground Penetrating Radar Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Hansen, Thorkild

    2004-01-01

    Planar near-field measurements are formulated for a general ground penetrating radar (GPR) antenna. A total plane-wave scattering matrix is defined for the system consisting of the GPR antenna and the planar air-soil interface. The transmitting spectrum of the GPR antenna is expressed in terms...... of measurements obtained with a buried probe as the GPR antenna moves over a scan plane on the ground. A numerical example in which the scan plane is finite validates the expressions for the spectrum of the GPR antenna....

  2. Geochemical evolution of the L/ILW near-field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosakowski, G.; Berner, U.; Wieland, E.; Glaus, M.; Degueldre, C.

    2014-10-01

    The deep geological repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (L/ILW) contains large amounts of cement based materials used for waste conditioning, tunnel support and the backfill of cavities. The waste inventory is composed of a wide range of organic and inorganic materials. This study describes the spatial and temporal geochemical evolution of the cementitious near-field, and the interactions with the technical barriers and the surrounding host rock. This evolution is governed by several coupled processes, an important one being the development of saturation by groundwater ingress from the host rock. Saturation of the near-field is controlled by the inflow of water from the host rock, by the transport of dissolved gases from the near-field into the host rock and in the engineered gas transport system, and by the transport of humidity in the gas phase. The production of gas by anoxic corrosion of metals and by microbial degradation of organic wastes consumes water. The mineral reactions which give rise to concrete degradation, such as carbonation or alkali-silica-aggregate reactions may also consume or produce water. The first phase of cementitious near-field degradation, which persists only for a short period of time, is related to the hydration of cement minerals. The pore water has a pH of 13 or even higher because of the high content of dissolved alkali hydroxides. A constant pH of 12.5 determines the second phase of the cement degradation. The alkali concentration is reduced by mineral reactions and/or solute transport. This phase persists for a long time. In the third phase the portlandite is completely dissolved due to the reaction with silicates/aluminates present in the near-field and carbonate in the groundwater of the host rock or associated with reactive waste materials. The pore water is in equilibrium with calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H) which gives rise to a pH value near 11 or lower. The Ca/Si ratio of C-S-H changes towards

  3. Geochemical evolution of the L/ILW near-field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosakowski, G.; Berner, U.; Wieland, E.; Glaus, M.; Degueldre, C.

    2014-10-15

    The deep geological repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (L/ILW) contains large amounts of cement based materials used for waste conditioning, tunnel support and the backfill of cavities. The waste inventory is composed of a wide range of organic and inorganic materials. This study describes the spatial and temporal geochemical evolution of the cementitious near-field, and the interactions with the technical barriers and the surrounding host rock. This evolution is governed by several coupled processes, an important one being the development of saturation by groundwater ingress from the host rock. Saturation of the near-field is controlled by the inflow of water from the host rock, by the transport of dissolved gases from the near-field into the host rock and in the engineered gas transport system, and by the transport of humidity in the gas phase. The production of gas by anoxic corrosion of metals and by microbial degradation of organic wastes consumes water. The mineral reactions which give rise to concrete degradation, such as carbonation or alkali-silica-aggregate reactions may also consume or produce water. The first phase of cementitious near-field degradation, which persists only for a short period of time, is related to the hydration of cement minerals. The pore water has a pH of 13 or even higher because of the high content of dissolved alkali hydroxides. A constant pH of 12.5 determines the second phase of the cement degradation. The alkali concentration is reduced by mineral reactions and/or solute transport. This phase persists for a long time. In the third phase the portlandite is completely dissolved due to the reaction with silicates/aluminates present in the near-field and carbonate in the groundwater of the host rock or associated with reactive waste materials. The pore water is in equilibrium with calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H) which gives rise to a pH value near 11 or lower. The Ca/Si ratio of C-S-H changes towards

  4. Determination of near field excavation disturbance in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopmans, R.; Hughes, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    The computerized dilatometer system has rapidly and economically provided deformation moduli of low and high modulus rock, determined the extent of excavation disturbance surrounding an underground opening and located open fracture within a rock mass. Results from both test sites indicate that the moduli obtained were influenced by the in situ tangential stress field. It has been shown that the near field excavation disturbance is kept to a minimum through the use of careful excavation techniques such as the tunnel boring machine. In turn, the in situ tangential stress levels and deformation moduli are maximized while the corresponding permeability is minimized

  5. Near-field optical microscopy with a scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbara, A.; Lopez-Rios, T.; Quemerais, P.

    2005-01-01

    A homemade apertureless near-field optical microscope using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is described. The experimental set-up simultaneously provides optical and topographic images of the sample. Technical details and features of the set-up are presented, together with results demonstrating the sub-wavelength resolution achieved as well as its sensitivity to dielectric contrasts. We show that the use of a STM permits to precisely control very small distances between the tip and the sample which is a great advantage to excite localized optical resonances between the tip and the surface

  6. Near field acoustic holography with microphones mounted on a rigid sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Moreno, Guillermo; Fernandez Grande, Efren

    2008-01-01

    Spherical near field acoustic holography (spherical NAH) is a technique that makes it pos-sible to reconstruct the sound field inside and just outside an acoustically transparent spherical surface on which the sound pressure is measured with an array of microphones with negligible scattering...... is only valid if it can be assumed that the sphere has a negligible in-fluence on the incident sound field, and this is not necessarily a good assumption when the sphere is very close to a radiating surface. This paper describes the modified spherical NAH theory and examines the matter through simulations...

  7. Spherical near field acoustic holography with microphones on a rigid sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Hald, Jørgen; Fernandez Grande, Efren

    2008-01-01

    Spherical near field acoustic holography (SNAH) is a recently developed technique that makes it possible to reconstruct the sound field inside and just outside an acoustically transparent spherical surface on which the sound pressure is measured with an array of microphones with negligible...... with an array of microphones flush-mounted on a rigid sphere. However, this approach is only valid if it can be assumed that the sphere has a negligible influence on the incident sound field, in other words if multiple scattering can be ignored, and this is not necessarily a good assumption when the sphere...

  8. On calculating the pressure on cylindrical timbers of vertical shafts in clayey soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizyumskii, V A

    1979-11-01

    In order to calculate the pressure built up on timbers which have been constructed to hold back freely moving soil in a clay environment, a formula is recommended which characterizes the state of clayey soil. The formula incorporates the parameters for volume information, momentary and long displacement modulus, decay factor of deformations of the after effect, viscosity factor in the starting zone of reforming. Because the timber creates a reaction pressure on the contour of the working, the radial travel of the timber is calculated and then the pressure on the timber. Correlation of the calculated pressure with the results of measurements in workings showed that the pressure of clayey soil on the timber is the result of viscous flow deformations. Disregarding these deformations, the pressures on the shaft timbering in the Yuzhno-Belozerskii deposit were calculated at 0.004 and 0.006 tons/m/sup 2/ respectively at a depth of 90 and 142 meters. After reworking the soil and setting up timbering the pressure was calculated at 2/3 of that of the highest measurements. The formula suggested is suitable for determining pressure on timbers having a large creep. (12 refs.) (In Russian)

  9. Building Practical Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungordu, M. Zeki

    The fundamental objective of this study is to establish a functional, practical apertureless type scanning near-field optical microscope, and to figure out the working mechanism behind it. Whereas a far-field microscope can measure the propagating field's components, this gives us little information about the features of the sample. The resolution is limited to about half of the wavelength of the illuminating light. On the other hand, the a-SNOM system enables achieving non-propagating components of the field, which provides more details about the sample's features. It is really difficult to measure because the amplitude of this field decays exponentially when the tip is moved away from the sample. The sharpness of the tip is the only limitation for resolution of the a-SNOM system. Consequently, the sharp tips are achieved by using electrochemical etching, and these tips are used to detect near-field signal. Separating the weak a-SNOM system signals from the undesired background signal, the higher demodulation background suppression is utilized by lock-in detection.

  10. Unidirectional wireless power transfer using near-field plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imani, Mohammadreza F., E-mail: mohamad.imani@gmail.com [Center for Metamaterials and Integrated Plasmonics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Grbic, Anthony [Radiation Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2015-05-14

    One of the obstacles preventing wireless power transfer from becoming ubiquitous is their leakage of power: high-amplitude electromagnetic fields that can interfere with other electronic devices, increase health concerns, or hinder power metering. In this paper, we present near-field plates (NFPs) as a novel method to tailor the electromagnetic fields generated by a wireless power transfer system while maintaining high efficiency. NFPs are modulated arrays or surfaces designed to form prescribed near-field patterns. The NFP proposed in this paper consists of an array of loaded loops that are designed to confine the electromagnetic fields of a resonant transmitting loop to the desired direction (receiving loop) while suppressing fields in other directions. The step-by-step design procedure for this device is outlined. Two NFPs are designed and examined in full-wave simulation. Their performance is shown to be in close agreement with the design predictions, thereby verifying the proposed design and operation. A NFP is also fabricated and experimentally shown to form a unidirectional wireless power transfer link with high efficiency.

  11. Unidirectional wireless power transfer using near-field plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imani, Mohammadreza F.; Grbic, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    One of the obstacles preventing wireless power transfer from becoming ubiquitous is their leakage of power: high-amplitude electromagnetic fields that can interfere with other electronic devices, increase health concerns, or hinder power metering. In this paper, we present near-field plates (NFPs) as a novel method to tailor the electromagnetic fields generated by a wireless power transfer system while maintaining high efficiency. NFPs are modulated arrays or surfaces designed to form prescribed near-field patterns. The NFP proposed in this paper consists of an array of loaded loops that are designed to confine the electromagnetic fields of a resonant transmitting loop to the desired direction (receiving loop) while suppressing fields in other directions. The step-by-step design procedure for this device is outlined. Two NFPs are designed and examined in full-wave simulation. Their performance is shown to be in close agreement with the design predictions, thereby verifying the proposed design and operation. A NFP is also fabricated and experimentally shown to form a unidirectional wireless power transfer link with high efficiency

  12. Near field ice detection using infrared based optical imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moati, Hazem; Morris, Jonathan; Zeng, Yousheng; Corie, Martin Wesley; Yanni, Victor Garas

    2018-02-01

    If not detected and characterized, icebergs can potentially pose a hazard to oil and gas exploration, development and production operations in arctic environments as well as commercial shipping channels. In general, very large bergs are tracked and predicted using models or satellite imagery. Small and medium bergs are detectable using conventional marine radar. As icebergs decay they shed bergy bits and growlers, which are much smaller and more difficult to detect. Their low profile above the water surface, in addition to occasional relatively high seas, makes them invisible to conventional marine radar. Visual inspection is the most common method used to detect bergy bits and growlers, but the effectiveness of visual inspections is reduced by operator fatigue and low light conditions. The potential hazard from bergy bits and growlers is further increased by short detection range (<1 km). As such, there is a need for robust and autonomous near-field detection of such smaller icebergs. This paper presents a review of iceberg detection technology and explores applications for infrared imagers in the field. Preliminary experiments are performed and recommendations are made for future work, including a proposed imager design which would be suited for near field ice detection.

  13. Literature survey of redox reactions in the near field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Takahito; Chiba, Tamotsu; Inagaki, Manabu; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yui, Mikazu

    2000-01-01

    This report presents a summary of literature survey about geochemical reactions which are important to evaluate the redox conditions in the near field rock mass and buffer. The results of literature survey are summarized as follows; Minerals including ferrous iron and organic materials in the rock mass are important reductants. Initial stage after closure of repository, oxygen will be consumed by pyrite, because the reaction rate between pyrite and oxygen is relatively fast. It is possible to estimate the redox capacity for reductants by rock (mineral)-water interaction experiment in a laboratory. And it is expected that the ferrous iron-rich rock and higher porosity rock may have bigger redox capacity. It is impossible to estimate the oxygen consumption rate by reductants such as minerals including ferrous iron. The rate law and rate constant for the oxidation reaction of ferrous iron in the solution are also determined. As a conclusion, it seems that we can evaluate kinetically the evolution of geochemical conditions in the near field rock mass and buffer by excavation of drifts, based on data derived from these existing literatures. (author)

  14. Near-field NanoThermoMechanical memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzouka, Mahmoud; Ndao, Sidy

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, we introduce the concept of NanoThermoMechanical Memory. Unlike electronic memory, a NanoThermoMechanical memory device uses heat instead of electricity to record, store, and recover data. Memory function is achieved through the coupling of near-field thermal radiation and thermal expansion resulting in negative differential thermal resistance and thermal latching. Here, we demonstrate theoretically via numerical modeling the concept of near-field thermal radiation enabled negative differential thermal resistance that achieves bistable states. Design and implementation of a practical silicon based NanoThermoMechanical memory device are proposed along with a study of its dynamic response under write/read cycles. With more than 50% of the world's energy losses being in the form of heat along with the ever increasing need to develop computer technologies which can operate in harsh environments (e.g., very high temperatures), NanoThermoMechanical memory and logic devices may hold the answer

  15. Calculation of pressure fields from arbitrarily shaped, apodized, and excited ultrasound transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Svendsen, Niels Bruun

    1992-01-01

    A method for simulation of pulsed pressure fields from arbitrarily shaped, apodized and excited ultrasound transducers is suggested. It relies on the Tupholme-Stepanishen method for calculating pulsed pressure fields, and can also handle the continuous wave and pulse-echo case. The field...... is calculated by dividing the surface into small rectangles and then Summing their response. A fast calculation is obtained by using the far-field approximation. Examples of the accuracy of the approach and actual calculation times are given...

  16. Pressure induced structural phase transition of OsB 2: First-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fengzhu; Wang, Yuanxu; Lo, V. C.

    2010-04-01

    Orthorhombic OsB 2 was synthesized at 1000 °C and its compressibility was measured by using the high-pressure X-ray diffraction in a Diacell diamond anvil cell from ambient pressure to 32 GPa [R.W. Cumberland, et al. (2005)]. First-principles calculations were performed to study the possibility of the phase transition of OsB 2. An analysis of the calculated enthalpy shows that orthorhombic OsB 2 can transfer to the hexagonal phase at 10.8 GPa. The calculated results with the quasi-harmonic approximation indicate that this phase transition pressure is little affected by the thermal effect. The calculated phonon band structure shows that the hexagonal P 6 3/ mmc structure (high-pressure phase) is stable for OsB 2. We expect the phase transition can be further confirmed by the experimental work.

  17. Reduction of Truncation Errors in Planar Near-Field Aperture Antenna Measurements Using the Gerchberg-Papoulis Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martini, Enrica; Breinbjerg, Olav; Maci, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    A simple and effective procedure for the reduction of truncation errors in planar near-field measurements of aperture antennas is presented. The procedure relies on the consideration that, due to the scan plane truncation, the calculated plane wave spectrum of the field radiated by the antenna is...

  18. Light depolarization induced by metallic tips in apertureless near-field optical microscopy and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gucciardi, P G [CNR-Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, sezione Messina, Salita Sperone, Contrada Papardo, I-98158 Faro Superiore, Messina (Italy); Lopes, M; Deturche, R; Julien, C; Barchiesi, D; Chapelle, M Lamy de la [Institut Charles Delaunay-CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes (France)

    2008-05-28

    We have investigated the depolarization effects of light scattered by sharp tips used for apertureless near-field optical microscopy. Dielectric and metal coated tips have been investigated and depolarization factors between 5 and 30% have been measured, changing as a function of the incident light polarization and of the tip shape. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical calculations performed by the finite element method, giving a near-field depolarization factor close to 10%. The effect of depolarization has been investigated in polarized tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) experiments; the depolarization gives rise to forbidden Raman modes in Si crystals.

  19. Research on evaluation of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena in the near-field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Imai, Hisashi; Fukutome, Kazuhito; Kayukawa, Koji; Sasaki, Hajime; Moro, Yoshiji

    2004-02-01

    After emplacement of the engineered barrier system (EBS), it is expected that the near-field environment will be impacted by phenomena such as heat dissipation by conduction and other heat transfer mechanisms, infiltration of groundwater from the surrounding rock in the engineered barrier system, stress imposed by the overburden pressure and generation of swelling pressure in the buffer due to water infiltration. In order to recognize and evaluate these coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) phenomena, it is necessary to make a confidence of the mathematical models and computer codes. Evaluating these coupled THM phenomena is important in order to clarify the initial transient behavior of the EBS within the near field. DECOVALEX project is an international co-operative project for the DEvelopment of COupled models and their VALidation against EXperiments in nuclear waste isolation and it is significance to participate this project and to apply the code for the validation. Therefore, we tried to apply the developed numerical code against the subjects of DECOVALEX. We carried out the simulation against the Task 1 (simulation of FEBEX in-situ full-scale experiment), Task 3 BMT1 (Bench Mark Test against the near field coupling phenomena) and Task 3 BMT2 (Bench Mark Test against the up-scaling of fractured rock mass). This report shows the simulation results against these tasks. Furthermore, technical investigations about the in-situ full-scale experiment (called Prototype Repository Project) in Aespoe HRL facility by SKB of Sweden were performed. In order to evaluate the coupled phenomena in the engineered barrier, we use the new swelling model based on the theoretical approach. In this paper, we introduce the modeling approach and applicability about the new model. (author)

  20. Influence on Calculated Blood Pressure of Measurement Posture for the Development of Wearable Vital Sign Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouhei Koyama

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied a wearable blood pressure sensor using a fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensor, which is a highly accurate strain sensor. This sensor is installed at the pulsation point of the human body to measure the pulse wave signal. A calibration curve is built that calculates the blood pressure by multivariate analysis using the pulse wave signal and a reference blood pressure measurement. However, if the measurement height of the FBG sensor is different from the reference measurement height, an error is included in the reference blood pressure. We verified the accuracy of the blood pressure calculation with respect to the measurement height difference and the posture of the subject. As the difference between the measurement height of the FBG sensor and the reference blood pressure measurement increased, the accuracy of the blood pressure calculation decreased. When the measurement height was identical and only posture was changed, good accuracy was achieved. In addition, when calibration curves were built using data measured in multiple postures, the blood pressure of each posture could be calculated from a single calibration curve. This will allow miniaturization of the necessary electronics of the sensor system, which is important for a wearable sensor.

  1. Computer program TMOC for calculating of pressure transients in fluid filled piping networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siikonen, T.

    1978-01-01

    The propagation of a pressure wave in fluid filles tubes is significantly affected by the pipe wall motion and vice versa. A computer code TMOC (Transients by the Method of Characteristics) is being developed for the analysis of the coupled fluid and pipe wall transients. Because of the structural feedback, the pressure can be calculated more accurately than in the programs commonly used. (author)

  2. Calculation of high-pressure argon plasma parameters produced by excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Norio; Yamada, Jun

    2000-01-01

    When a XeCl excimer laser light was focused in a high-pressure argon gas up to 150 atm, a dense plasma developed not only backward but also forward. It is important to study on the electron density and temperature of the laser-induced plasma in the high-pressure gas. The electron density and temperature in high-pressure argon plasma produced by XeCl excimer laser has been calculated and compared with the experimental data. (author)

  3. SITE-94. Modelling of near-field chemistry for SITE-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, R.; Apted, M. [QuantiSci, Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-12-01

    This report evaluates methods for the incorporation of site data into models simulating the long-term chemical evolution of the near field. The models are based on limiting conditions at equilibrium, or steady state, in three closed systems representing fully saturated bentonite, Fe{sup o} corrosion products of the canister and spent fuel. A l kg reference mass of site groundwater is assumed to equilibrate first with bentonite and then with the canister`s corrosion products. A third closed system representing spent fuel is modeled in terms of spent-fuel dissolution in 1 kg of water evolved from the canister, coupled with steady-state constraints on the rate of oxidant production by {alpha} radiolysis of H{sub 2}O(l). Precipitation of secondary minerals controlling the solubilities of radioelements dissolved from spent fuel is also simulated in this model. Version 7.2 of the EQ3/6 geochemical software package and its supporting composite thermodynamic database, dataO.com.R22, are used to carry out these calculations. It is concluded that chemical models of near-field evolution combined with thermodynamic models of radionuclide speciation-solubility behavior can assist efforts to assimilate site characterization data into the performance assessment process, and to deal with uncertainties that are inherent in both site properties and in concepts of near field chemistry. It is essential, however, that expert judgement and prudence should be exercised such that model results are conservative with respect to acknowledged and documented uncertainties. Most importantly, it must be recognized that it is probably not possible to model with a high-level of accuracy the complex chemical environments and long timescales involved in disposal technologies for nuclear wastes. For performance assessment, however, only bounding values are needed, and modeling approaches such as described in this report are useful for this purpose. Technical peer review and cross-comparisons of near-field

  4. Nonlinear waveform distortion and shock formation in the near field of a continuous wave piston source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Khokhlova, Vera A.; Cathignol, Dominique

    2004-05-01

    A classical effect of nonlinear acoustics is that a plane sinusoidal acoustic wave propagating in a nonlinear medium transforms to a sawtooth wave with one shock per cycle. However, the waveform evolution can be quite different in the near field of a plane source due to diffraction. Previous numerical simulations of nonlinear acoustic waves in the near field of a circular piston source predict the development of two shocks per wave cycle [Khokhlova et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 95-108 (2001)]. Moreover, at some locations the peak pressure may be up to 4 times the source amplitude. The motivation of this work was to experimentally verify and further explain the phenomena of the nonlinear waveform distortion. Measurements were conducted in water with a 47-mm-diameter unfocused transducer, working at 1-MHz frequency. For pressure amplitudes higher than 0.5 MPa, two shocks per cycle were observed in the waveform beyond the last minimum of the fundamental harmonic amplitude. With the increase of the observation distance, these two shocks collided and formed one shock (per cycle), i.e., the waveform developed into the classical sawtooth wave. The experimental results were in a very good agreement with the modeling based on the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation.

  5. MP.EXE, a Calculation Program for Pressure Reciprocity Calibration of Microphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud

    1998-01-01

    A computer program is described which calculates the pressure sensitivity of microphones based on measurements of the electrical transfer impedance in a reciprocity calibration set-up. The calculations are performed according to the International Standard IEC 6194-2. In addition a number of options...

  6. Analytic Optimization of Near-Field Optical Chirality Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We present an analytic derivation for the enhancement of local optical chirality in the near field of plasmonic nanostructures by tuning the far-field polarization of external light. We illustrate the results by means of simulations with an achiral and a chiral nanostructure assembly and demonstrate that local optical chirality is significantly enhanced with respect to circular polarization in free space. The optimal external far-field polarizations are different from both circular and linear. Symmetry properties of the nanostructure can be exploited to determine whether the optimal far-field polarization is circular. Furthermore, the optimal far-field polarization depends on the frequency, which results in complex-shaped laser pulses for broadband optimization. PMID:28239617

  7. Deep underground disposal of radioactive wastes: Near field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report reviews the important near-field effects of the disposal of wastes in deep rock formations. The basic characteristics of waste form, container and package, buffer and backfill materials and potential host-rock types are discussed from the perspective of the performance requirements of the total repository system. Effects of waste emplacement on the separate system components and on the system as a whole are discussed. The effects include interactions between groundwater and brines and the other system components, thermal and thermo-mechanical effects, and chemical and geochemical reactions. Special consideration is given to the radiation field that exists in proximity to the waste containers and also to the coupled effects of different phenomena

  8. Near-Field, On-Chip Optical Brownian Ratchets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shao-Hua; Huang, Ningfeng; Jaquay, Eric; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2016-08-10

    Nanoparticles in aqueous solution are subject to collisions with solvent molecules, resulting in random, Brownian motion. By breaking the spatiotemporal symmetry of the system, the motion can be rectified. In nature, Brownian ratchets leverage thermal fluctuations to provide directional motion of proteins and enzymes. In man-made systems, Brownian ratchets have been used for nanoparticle sorting and manipulation. Implementations based on optical traps provide a high degree of tunability along with precise spatiotemporal control. Here, we demonstrate an optical Brownian ratchet based on the near-field traps of an asymmetrically patterned photonic crystal. The system yields over 25 times greater trap stiffness than conventional optical tweezers. Our technique opens up new possibilities for particle manipulation in a microfluidic, lab-on-chip environment.

  9. Near-field optical nanopatterning of crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wysocki, G.; Heitz, J.; Baeuerle, D.

    2004-01-01

    Nanoscale photochemical and photophysical etching of Si in Cl 2 atmosphere is demonstrated by means of an optical near-field setup. With 351 nm Ar + -laser radiation and low intensities, the etching mechanism is purely photochemical. In this regime, the width of patterns - which is about 115 nm at full width at half maximum (FWHM) - corresponds, approximately, to the diameter of the fiber tip. The vertical etch rate is of the order of 1 nm/s. With 514.5 nm Ar + -laser light etching is observed only at significantly higher laser-light intensities. Patterns with width down to about 30 nm at FWHM have been achieved. Here, the lateral resolution corresponds to about 1/18 of the laser wavelength employed

  10. Utilization of Near Field Communication Technology for Loyalty Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferina Ferdianti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Near Field Communication (NFC is one of wireless technology developed at this time. We can use a mobile phone to do many transactions with NFC. Mobile developments have created to provide convenience for users in all aspects. However, at this time the function of NFC just limited for payment and micropayment. Beside it, there are assets that support to increase sales with attention of loyality management system. In this system, discounts or prizes are given based on data mining for every transaction costumers. Loyalty management has three concept, those are Frequency, Recency and Quantity. The goals are minimizing the cost, making purchase process faster, and managing data obtained through the NFC technology more simple. The result of this paper is the procedure to use data mining of NFC for loyalty management and system design using Unified Modeling Language approach.

  11. Study of Near Field Communication Technology in University Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Irene Luque; Miraz, Guillermo Matas; Gómez-Nieto, Miguel Ángel

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we present an introduction to the possibilities of NFC (Near Field Communication) technology in the University environment. NFC is the key for the development of interactive systems where "intelligent" objects interact with the user just only by touching the objects with a NFC device. We support that a University environment with active objects dispatching information and services to the users (students and teachers) can introduce an appropriate environment for the fulfillment of the new Educational European directives. Here, we briefly describe some of the possibilities of the NFC technology and we include an example of the use of NFC through a Smart Poster for a scenario where a Department directory is considered.

  12. Reliability analysis of numerical simulation in near field behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Akira; Yamamoto, Kiyohito; Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Fujita, Tomoo

    2008-01-01

    The uncertainties of the boundary conditions, the elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio on the mechanical behavior at near field of high level radioactive waste repository were examined. The method used to examine the error propagation was the first order second moment method. The reliability of the maximum principal stress, maximum shear stress at crown of the tunnel and the minimum principal stress at spring line was examined for one million years. For elastic model, the reliability of the maximum shear stress gradually decreased while that of the maximum principle stress increased. That of the minimum principal stress was relatively low for one million years. This tendency was similar to that from the damage model. (author)

  13. RF-plasma interactions in the antenna near fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colestock, P.; Greene, G.J.; Hosea, J.C.; Phillips, C.K.; Stevens, J.E.; Ono, M.; Wilson, J.R. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.); D' Ippolito, D.A.; Myra, J.R. (Lodestar Research Corp., Boulder, CO (USA)); Lehrman, I.S. (Grumman Aerospace Corp., Bethpage, NY (USA))

    1990-04-01

    An assessment is made of the various linear and nonlinear mechanisms that are likely to play a role in the near-field of Faraday shielded inductive antennas commonly used in ICRF heating experiments. A number of low-level, but potentially important, RF loss mechanisms have been proposed as candidates to explain the observed surface phenomena and impurity production associated with ICRF. These range from edge heating via linear processes, such as surface wave or Bernstein wave generation to a variety of nonlinear phenomena including parametric decay and RF-driven sheath effects. The various proposed mechanisms will be examined in this work in terms of the available experimental data and an evaluation will be made of the scaling of these phenomena to higher density and temperature plasmas. (orig.).

  14. Modeling of Coastal Effluent Transport: an Approach to Linking of Far-field and Near-field Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.

    2008-01-01

    One of the challenges in effluent transport modeling in coastal tidal environments is the proper calculation of initial dilution in connection with the far-field transport model. In this study, an approach of external linkage of far-field and near-field effluent transport models is presented, and applied to simulate the effluent transport in the Port Angeles Harbor, Washington in the Strait of Juan de Fuca. A near-field plume model was used to calculate the effluent initial dilution and a three-dimensional (3-D) hydrodynamic model was developed to simulate the tidal circulation and far-field effluent transport in the Port Angeles Harbor. In the present study, the hydrodynamic model was driven by tides and surface winds. Observed water surface elevation and velocity data were used to calibrate the model over a period covering the neap-spring tidal cycle. The model was also validated with observed surface drogue trajectory data. The model successfully reproduced the tidal dynamics in the study area and good agreements between model results and observed data were obtained. This study demonstrated that the linkage between the near-field and far-field models in effluent transport modeling can be achieved through iteratively adjusting the model grid sizes such that the far-field modeled dilution ratio and effluent concentration in the effluent discharge model grid cell match the concentration calculated by the near-field plume model

  15. Near-Field Ground Motion Modal versus Wave Propagation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Cichowicz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The response spectrum generally provides a good estimate of the global displacement and acceleration demand of far-field ground motion on a structure. However, it does not provide accurate information on the local shape or internal deformation of the response of the structure. Near-field pulse-like ground motion will propagate through the structure as waves, causing large, localized deformation. Therefore, the response spectrum alone is not a sufficient representation of near-field ground motion features. Results show that the drift-response technique based on a continuous shear-beam model has to be employed here to estimate structure-demand parameters when structure is exposed to the pulse like ground motion. Conduced modeling shows limited applicability of the drift spectrum based on the SDOF approximation. The SDOF drift spectrum approximation can only be applied to structures with smaller natural periods than the dominant period of the ground motion. For periods larger than the dominant period of ground motion the SDOF drift spectra model significantly underestimates maximum deformation. Strong pulse-type motions are observed in the near-source region of large earthquakes; however, there is a lack of waveforms collected from small earthquakes at very close distances that were recorded underground in mines. The results presented in this paper are relevant for structures with a height of a few meters, placed in an underground excavation. The strong ground motion sensors recorded mine-induced earthquakes in a deep gold mine, South Africa. The strongest monitored horizontal ground motion was caused by an event of magnitude 2 at a distance of 90 m with PGA 123 m/s2, causing drifts of 0.25%–0.35%. The weak underground motion has spectral characteristics similar to the strong ground motion observed on the earth's surface; the drift spectrum has a maximum value less than 0.02%.

  16. Supplementary neutron flux calculations for the ORNL pool critical assembly pressure vessel facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maerker, R.E.; Maudlin, P.J.

    1981-02-01

    A three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculation was performed to estimate the neutron flux in the 8/7 configuration of the ORNL Pool Critical Assembly Pressure Vessel Facility. The calculational tool was the multigroup transport code MORSE operated in the adjoint mode. The MORSE flux results compared well with those using a previously adopted procedure for constructing a three-dimensional flux from one- and two-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations using the DOT-IV code. This study concluded that use of these discrete ordinates constructions in previous calculations is sufficiently accurate and does not account for the existing discrepancies between calculation and experiment.

  17. Supplementary neutron flux calculations for the ORNL pool critical assembly pressure vessel facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerker, R.E.; Maudlin, P.J.

    1981-02-01

    A three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculation was performed to estimate the neutron flux in the 8/7 configuration of the ORNL Pool Critical Assembly Pressure Vessel Facility. The calculational tool was the multigroup transport code MORSE operated in the adjoint mode. The MORSE flux results compared well with those using a previously adopted procedure for constructing a three-dimensional flux from one- and two-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations using the DOT-IV code. This study concluded that use of these discrete ordinates constructions in previous calculations is sufficiently accurate and does not account for the existing discrepancies between calculation and experiment

  18. Calculation of pressure drop and flow redistribution in the core of LMFBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, D.A.; Morgado, O.J.

    1985-01-01

    It is studied the flow redistribution through of fuel elements to the pressure drop calculation in the core of sodium cooled reactors. Using the quasi-static formulation of equations of the conservation of mass, energy and momentum, it was developed a computer program to flow redistribution calculations and pressure drop for different power levels and total flow simulating an arbitrary number of channels for sodium flowing . An optimization of the number of sufficient channels for calculations of this nature is done. The method is applied in studies of transients in the same reactor. (M.C.K.) [pt

  19. Interferometric determination of electron density in a high pressure hydrogen arc. 1. Calculation of refraction index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, R; Guenther, K; Ulbricht, R [Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin. Zentralinstitut fuer Elektronenphysik

    1980-01-14

    The refraction index of a hydrogen plasma in LTE was calculated as a function of the wavelength of observation, temperature and pressure, taking into account bound-bound and bound-free transitions of the neutral atom. According to the present calculation, the influence of excited states at higher temperatures is smaller than indicated by Baum et al (Plasma Phys.; 17: 79 (1975)) for argon. Using the calculations presented here, the interferometric investigation of a high pressure hydrogen arc should allow the determination of the electron density with an accuracy of the order of 1%.

  20. Normal coordinate treatment of liquid water and calculation of vapor pressure isotope effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellai, B.; Van Hook, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    A vibrational analysis of liquid water is reported, assuming a completely hydrogen-bonded network with continuously varying strengths of the hydrogen bonds. Frequency distribution calculations are made for intramolecular stretching and bending modes and for the intramolecular frequency region. The calculated distributions are compared with the experimental spectroscopic ones. As another test, vapor pressure isotope effects are calculated from the theoretical distributions for some isotopic water molecules. Results are compared with those of other authors obtained from a mixture model. (author)

  1. Coupling of near-field thermal radiative heating and phonon Monte Carlo simulation: Assessment of temperature gradient in n-doped silicon thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Basil T.; Francoeur, Mathieu; Bong, Victor N.-S.; Mengüç, M. Pinar

    2014-01-01

    Near-field thermal radiative exchange between two objects is typically more effective than the far-field thermal radiative exchange as the heat flux can increase up to several orders higher in magnitudes due to tunneling of evanescent waves. Such an interesting phenomenon has started to gain its popularity in nanotechnology, especially in nano-gap thermophotovoltaic systems and near-field radiative cooling of micro-/nano-devices. Here, we explored the existence of thermal gradient within an n-doped silicon thin film when it is subjected to intensive near-field thermal radiative heating. The near-field radiative power density deposited within the film is calculated using the Maxwell equations combined with fluctuational electrodynamics. A phonon Monte Carlo simulation is then used to assess the temperature gradient by treating the near-field radiative power density as the heat source. Results indicated that it is improbable to have temperature gradient with the near-field radiative heating as a continuous source unless the source comprises of ultra-short radiative pulses with a strong power density. - Highlights: • This study investigates temperature distribution in an n-doped silicon thin film. • Near-field radiative heating is treated as a volumetric phenomenon. • The temperature gradient is computed using phonon MC simulation. • Temperature of thin film can be approximated as uniform for radiation calculations. • If heat source is a pulsed radiation, a temperature gradient can be established

  2. Nuclide release from the near-field of a L/ILW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, L.G.; Hoeglund, L.O.; Pers, K.

    1986-12-01

    For Project Gewaehr 1985, the release of nuclides from a repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste is calculated. The calculations are made for a reference design repository located in the marl host rock at the Oberbauen Stock reference site. The results are limited to the release of the nuclides from the waste through the engineered barriers into the surrounding host rock and will, therefore, constitute a source term for the far-field and biosphere calculations. The most probable nuclide transport mechanism is diffusion and releases are thus influenced by the nuclide diffusivities in the barriers, nuclide sorption and nuclide solubility limits. Degradation of the engineered concrete barriers is taken into account. The effects of convective flow through the barriers are described elsewhere. A near-field release model is presented. It consists of a set of computer programs suited to handel different repository designs, solubility limitations and the different waste categories. The release calculations were made for a base case in which best estimates of the parameters were used. Sensitivity to the choice of the most important parameters was tested by parameter variations. The numerical models used were checked by comparative calculations with different codes and similar data. The results of the base calculations show that near-field barriers will cause both a delay of the release to the far-field and a reduced rate of release. The sorbed nuclides, comprising the actinides and some activation and fission products, will be delayed by 10'000 years and have a maximum release rate of less than 10 -3 Ci/a each. The non-sorbed nuclides are delayed by only about 100 years and the maximum release rate is less than 10 -2 Ci per year and nuclide. The parameter variations and the design model tests gave only limited deviations from the base case results. (author)

  3. Application of the planar-scanning technique to the near-field dosimetry of millimeter-wave radiators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianxun; Lu, Hongmin; Deng, Jun

    2015-02-01

    The planar-scanning technique was applied to the experimental measurement of the electric field and power flux density (PFD) in the exposure area close to the millimeter-wave (MMW) radiator. In the near-field region, the field and PFD were calculated from the plane-wave spectrum of the field sampled on a scan plane far from the radiator. The measurement resolution was improved by reducing the spatial interval between the field samples to a fraction of half the wavelength and implementing multiple iterations of the fast Fourier transform. With the reference to the results from the numerical calculation, an experimental evaluation of the planar-scanning measurement was made for a 50 GHz radiator. Placing the probe 1 to 3 wavelengths from the aperture of the radiator, the direct measurement gave the near-field data with significant differences from the numerical results. The planar-scanning measurement placed the probe 9 wavelengths away from the aperture and effectively reduced the maximum and averaged differences in the near-field data by 70.6% and 65.5%, respectively. Applied to the dosimetry of an open-ended waveguide and a choke ring antenna for 60 GHz exposure, the technique proved useful to the measurement of the PFD in the near-field exposure area of MMW radiators. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Spherical near-field scanning at the Technical University of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J. E.; Jensen, F.

    1988-01-01

    The early work (1969-79) on spherical near-field antenna measurements at the Technical University of Denmark (TUD) is outlined. A spherical near-field transmission formula is described and the first probe-corrected spherical near-field measurements are discussed. The TUD-ESA (European Space Agency...

  5. Calculation of cardiac pressures using left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) derived from radionuclide angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hommer, E.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt has been made to develop formulas to determine cardiac pressures in an undisturbed flow in patients without valvular or shunt diseases. These are based entirely on the results of left ventricular ejection fraction rates, permitting pressure analysis of several compartments at the same tine. According to BORER et al. they also enable determination of left ventricular 'Functional Reserve' after bycycle exercise as well as left ventricular 'Relaxation Reserve'. They support the views of NYHA in determining the grades of cardiac insufficiency proving the system- and low-pressure participation. A single formula for pulmonary flow can determine the pulmonary arterial pressure. The left ventricular enddiastolic pressure can also be exclusively calculated by values of left ventricular functions, thus both formulas may be used in disorders of the mitral valves. The possibility to calculate pressures of all the compartments of the heart from left ventricular ejection rate shows, that in undisturbed flow global heart function depends on left ventricular function. Therefore the mutual dependence of these formulas presents an intercompartimental pressure regulation of the heart through pulmonary flow and pulmonary vascular pressure, which leaves an aspect of autonomous cardiac regulation open to discussion. (orig.) [de

  6. Supplementary neutron-flux calculations for the ORNL Pool Critical Assembly Pressure Vessel Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maudlin, P.J.; Maerker, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculation using the MORSE code was performed to validate a procedure previously adopted in the ORNL discrete ordinate analysis of measurements made in the ORNL Pool Critical Assembly Pressure Vessel Facility. The results of these flux calculations agree, within statistical undertainties of about 5%, with those obtained from a discrete ordinate analysis employing the same procedure. This study therefore concludes that the procedure for combining several one- and two-dimensional discrete ordinate calculations into a three-dimensional flux is sufficiently accurate that it does not account for the existing discrepancies observed between calculations and measurements in this facility

  7. Supplementary neutron-flux calculations for the ORNL Pool Critical Assembly Pressure Vessel Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maudlin, P.J.; Maerker, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculation using the MORSE code was performed to validate a procedure previously adopted in the ORNL discrete ordinate analysis of measurements made in the ORNL Pool Critical Assembly Pressure Vessel Facility. The results of these flux calculations agree, within statistical undertainties of about 5%, with those obtained from a discrete ordinate analysis employing the same procedure. This study therefore concludes that the procedure for combining several one- and two-dimensional discrete ordinate calculations into a three-dimensional flux is sufficiently accurate that it does not account for the existing discrepancies observed between calculations and measurements in this facility.

  8. Software for X-Ray Images Calculation of Hydrogen Compression Device in Megabar Pressure Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Nikolay; Bykov, Alexander; Pavlov, Valery

    2007-06-01

    Software for x-ray images simulation is described. The software is a part of x-ray method used for investigation of an equation of state of hydrogen in a megabar pressure range. A graphical interface that clearly and simply allows users to input data for x-ray image calculation: properties of the studied device, parameters of the x-ray radiation source, parameters of the x-ray radiation recorder, the experiment geometry; to represent the calculation results and efficiently transmit them to other software for processing. The calculation time is minimized. This makes it possible to perform calculations in a dialogue regime. The software is written in ``MATLAB'' system.

  9. Regenerator heat exchanger – calculation of heat recovery efficiency and pressure loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    Performance of heat exchangers is determined based on two main parameters: efficiency to exchange / recover heat and pressure loss due to friction between fluid and exchanger surfaces. These two parameters are contradicting each other which mean that the higher is efficiency the higher becomes...... pressure loss. The aim of the optimized design of heat exchanger is to reach the highest or the required heat efficiency and at the same time to keep pressure losses as low as possible keeping total exchanger size within acceptable size. In this report is presented analytical calculation method...... to calculate efficiency and pressure loss in the regenerator heat exchanger with a fixed matrix that will be used in the decentralized ventilation unit combined in the roof window. Moreover, this study presents sensitivity study of regenerator heat exchanger performance, taking into account, such parameters as...

  10. Near Field Modeling for the Maule Tsunami from DART, GPS and Finite Fault Solutions (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcas, D.; Chamberlin, C.; Lagos, M.; Ramirez-Herrera, M.; Tang, L.; Wei, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The earthquake and tsunami of February, 27, 2010 in central Chile has rekindled an interest in developing techniques to predict the impact of near field tsunamis along the Chilean coastline. Following the earthquake, several initiatives were proposed to increase the density of seismic, pressure and motion sensors along the South American trench, in order to provide field data that could be used to estimate tsunami impact on the coast. However, the precise use of those data in the elaboration of a quantitative assessment of coastal tsunami damage has not been clarified. The present work makes use of seismic, Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART®) systems, and GPS measurements obtained during the Maule earthquake to initiate a number of tsunami inundation models along the rupture area by expressing different versions of the seismic crustal deformation in terms of NOAA’s tsunami unit source functions. Translation of all available real-time data into a feasible tsunami source is essential in near-field tsunami impact prediction in which an impact assessment must be generated under very stringent time constraints. Inundation results from each different source are then contrasted with field and tide gauge data by comparing arrival time, maximum wave height, maximum inundation and tsunami decay rate, using field data collected by the authors.

  11. A novel mathematical model for controllable near-field electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ru, Changhai; Chen, Jie; Shao, Zhushuai; Pang, Ming; Luo, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Near-field electrospinning (NFES) had better controllability than conventional electrospinning. However, due to the lack of guidance of theoretical model, precise deposition of micro/nano fibers could only accomplished by experience. To analyze the behavior of charged jet in NFES using mathematical model, the momentum balance equation was simplified and a new expression between jet cross-sectional radius and axial position was derived. Using this new expression and mass conservation equation, expressions for jet cross-sectional radius and velocity were derived in terms of axial position and initial jet acceleration in the form of exponential functions. Based on Slender-body theory and Giesekus model, a quadratic equation for initial jet acceleration was acquired. With the proposed model, it was able to accurately predict the diameter and velocity of polymer fibers in NFES, and mathematical analysis rather than experimental methods could be applied to study the effects of the process parameters in NFES. Moreover, the movement velocity of the collector stage can be regulated by mathematical model rather than experience. Therefore, the model proposed in this paper had important guiding significance to precise deposition of polymer fibers

  12. Biological applications of near-field scanning optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moers, Marco H. P.; Ruiter, A. G. T.; Jalocha, Alain; van Hulst, Niko F.; Kalle, W. H. J.; Wiegant, J. C. A. G.; Raap, A. K.

    1995-09-01

    Near-field Scanning Optical Microscopy (NSOM) is a true optical microscopic technique allowing fluorescence, absorption, reflection and polarization contrast with the additional advantage of nanometer lateral resolution, unlimited by diffraction and operation at ambient conditions. NSOM based on metal coated adiabatically tapered fibers, combined with shear force feedback and operated in illumination mode, has proven to be the most powerful NSOM arrangement, because of its true localization of the optical interaction, its various optical contrast possibilities and its sensitivity down to the single molecular level. In this paper applications of `aperture' NSOM to Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization of human metaphase chromosomes are presented, where the localized fluorescence allows to identify specific DNA sequences. All images are accompanied by the simultaneously acquired force image, enabling direct comparison of the optical contrast with the sample topography on nanometer scale, far beyond the diffraction limit. Thus the unique combination of high resolution, specific optical contrast and ambient operation offers many new direction possibilities in biological studies.

  13. Photocurrent mapping of near-field optical antenna resonances

    KAUST Repository

    Barnard, Edward S.; Pala, Ragip A.; Brongersma, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of photonics applications make use of nanoscale optical antennas that exhibit a strong, resonant interaction with photons of a specific frequency. The resonant properties of such antennas are conventionally characterized by far-field light-scattering techniques. However, many applications require quantitative knowledge of the near-field behaviour, and existing local field measurement techniques provide only relative, rather than absolute, data. Here, we demonstrate a photodetector platform that uses a silicon-on-insulator substrate to spectrally and spatially map the absolute values of enhanced fields near any type of optical antenna by transducing local electric fields into photocurrent. We are able to quantify the resonant optical and materials properties of nanoscale (∼50nm) and wavelength-scale (∼1μm) metallic antennas as well as high-refractive-index semiconductor antennas. The data agree well with light-scattering measurements, full-field simulations and intuitive resonator models. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  14. Interfacing external sensors with Android smartphones through near field communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leikanger, Tore; Häkkinen, Juha; Schuss, Christian

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present and evaluate a new approach to communicate with inter-integrated circuit (I2C) enabled circuits such as sensors over near field communication (NFC). The NFC-to-I2C interface was designed using a non-standard NFC command to control the I2C bus directly from a smartphone, which was controlling both, the read and write operations on the I2C bus. The NFC-to-I2C interface was reporting back the data bytes on the bus to the smartphone when the transaction was completed successfully. The proposed system was tested experimentally, both, with write and read requests to a commercial microcontroller featuring a hardware I2C port, as well as reading a commercial I2C enabled humidity and temperature sensor. We present experimental results of the system which show that our approach enables an easy interface between smartphones and external sensors. Interfacing external sensors is useful and beneficial for smartphone users, especially, if certain types of sensors are not available on smartphones. (paper)

  15. A novel mathematical model for controllable near-field electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Changhai; Chen, Jie; Shao, Zhushuai; Pang, Ming; Luo, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Near-field electrospinning (NFES) had better controllability than conventional electrospinning. However, due to the lack of guidance of theoretical model, precise deposition of micro/nano fibers could only accomplished by experience. To analyze the behavior of charged jet in NFES using mathematical model, the momentum balance equation was simplified and a new expression between jet cross-sectional radius and axial position was derived. Using this new expression and mass conservation equation, expressions for jet cross-sectional radius and velocity were derived in terms of axial position and initial jet acceleration in the form of exponential functions. Based on Slender-body theory and Giesekus model, a quadratic equation for initial jet acceleration was acquired. With the proposed model, it was able to accurately predict the diameter and velocity of polymer fibers in NFES, and mathematical analysis rather than experimental methods could be applied to study the effects of the process parameters in NFES. Moreover, the movement velocity of the collector stage can be regulated by mathematical model rather than experience. Therefore, the model proposed in this paper had important guiding significance to precise deposition of polymer fibers.

  16. Photocurrent mapping of near-field optical antenna resonances

    KAUST Repository

    Barnard, Edward S.

    2011-08-21

    An increasing number of photonics applications make use of nanoscale optical antennas that exhibit a strong, resonant interaction with photons of a specific frequency. The resonant properties of such antennas are conventionally characterized by far-field light-scattering techniques. However, many applications require quantitative knowledge of the near-field behaviour, and existing local field measurement techniques provide only relative, rather than absolute, data. Here, we demonstrate a photodetector platform that uses a silicon-on-insulator substrate to spectrally and spatially map the absolute values of enhanced fields near any type of optical antenna by transducing local electric fields into photocurrent. We are able to quantify the resonant optical and materials properties of nanoscale (∼50nm) and wavelength-scale (∼1μm) metallic antennas as well as high-refractive-index semiconductor antennas. The data agree well with light-scattering measurements, full-field simulations and intuitive resonator models. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  17. Near-field performance of the advanced cold process canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werme, L.

    1991-12-01

    A near-field performance evaluation of an advanced cold process canister for spent fuel disposal has been performed jointly by TVO, Finland and SKB, Sweden. The canister consists of a steel canister as a load bearing element, with an outer corrosion shield of copper. In the analysis, as well internal (ie corrosion processes from the inside of the canister) as external processes (mechanical and chemical) have been considered both prior to and after canister breach. The major conclusions for the evaluation are: Internal processes cannot cause the canister breach under foreseen conditions, ie local-iced corrosion for the steel or copper canisters can be dismissed as a failure mechanism; The evaluation of the effects of processed outside the canister indicate that there is no rapid mechanism to endanger the integrity of the canister. Consequently the service life of the canister will be several million years. For completeness also evaluation of post-failure behaviour was carried out. Analyses were focussed on low probability phenomena from faults in canisters. Some items were identified where further research is justified in order to increase knowledge of the phenomena and thus strengthen the confidence of safety margins. However, it can be concluded that the risks of these scenarios can be judged to be acceptable. This is due to the fact that firstly, the probability of occurrence of most of these scenarios can be controlled to a large extent through technical measures. Secondly, these analyses indicated that the consequences would not be severe

  18. Simulations for printing contacts with near field x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdillon, Antony J; Boothroyd, Chris B

    2005-01-01

    In ultra high resolution lithography, sometimes called near field x-ray lithography, Fresnel diffraction is deliberately used to increase resolution: the contraction in current occurring beyond a clear mask feature has, further, important experimentally beneficial effects that were previously overlooked. All the key features of the technique have, by now, been demonstrated and previously reported. The technique is also an enhancement of the most-developed next generation lithography. The enhancement has fundamental advantages, including an increase in mask-wafer Gap (the Gap scales as the square of the width of a clear mask feature); reduced exposure times; more easily fabricated masks; high density prints by multiple exposures; high contrast; elimination of sidebands; reduction in the effects of mask defects, compact masks, etc. We have, previously reported experimental and simulated prints from lines and more complex flag and bridge structures; here we report simulations for symmetrical contacts. More particularly, in the printing of circular features, it is shown that a demagnification factor around 7 can be routinely used to optimize mask-wafer Gap. Although the Gap is significantly extended by using larger clear mask features, finer prints can still be developed

  19. A novel mathematical model for controllable near-field electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru, Changhai, E-mail: rchhai@gmail.com, E-mail: luojun@shu.edu.cn [College of Automation, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Robotics and Microsystems Center, Soochow University, Suzhou 215021 (China); Chen, Jie; Shao, Zhushuai [Robotics and Microsystems Center, Soochow University, Suzhou 215021 (China); Pang, Ming [College of Automation, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Luo, Jun, E-mail: rchhai@gmail.com, E-mail: luojun@shu.edu.cn [School of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Near-field electrospinning (NFES) had better controllability than conventional electrospinning. However, due to the lack of guidance of theoretical model, precise deposition of micro/nano fibers could only accomplished by experience. To analyze the behavior of charged jet in NFES using mathematical model, the momentum balance equation was simplified and a new expression between jet cross-sectional radius and axial position was derived. Using this new expression and mass conservation equation, expressions for jet cross-sectional radius and velocity were derived in terms of axial position and initial jet acceleration in the form of exponential functions. Based on Slender-body theory and Giesekus model, a quadratic equation for initial jet acceleration was acquired. With the proposed model, it was able to accurately predict the diameter and velocity of polymer fibers in NFES, and mathematical analysis rather than experimental methods could be applied to study the effects of the process parameters in NFES. Moreover, the movement velocity of the collector stage can be regulated by mathematical model rather than experience. Therefore, the model proposed in this paper had important guiding significance to precise deposition of polymer fibers.

  20. Superresolution Near-field Imaging with Surface Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Lei

    2017-10-21

    We present the theory for near-field superresolution imaging with surface waves and time reverse mirrors (TRMs). Theoretical formulas and numerical results show that applying the TRM operation to surface waves in an elastic half-space can achieve superresolution imaging of subwavelength scatterers if they are located less than about 1/2 of the shear wavelength from the source line. We also show that the TRM operation for a single frequency is equivalent to natural migration, which uses the recorded data to approximate the Green’s functions for migration, and only costs O(N4) algebraic operations for poststack migration compared to O(N6) operations for natural prestack migration. Here, we assume the sources and receivers are on an N × N grid and there are N2 trial image points on the free surface. Our theoretical predictions of superresolution are validated with tests on synthetic data. The field-data tests suggest that hidden faults at the near surface can be detected with subwavelength imaging of surface waves by using the TRM operation if they are no deeper than about 1/2 the dominant shear wavelength.

  1. Enhancing usability using Near Field Communication for mobile application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wihidayat Endar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Near Field Communication (NFC as relatively new wireless communication technology pushes new challenges to application developers to make their applications easier to use and simpler to operate. This point of view known as usability element. Usability is one of the elements for creating good quality applications. This study aims to analyse the usability of mobile-based application embeds with NFC. We also try to evaluate usability in applications used by children. We developed an application called Receptionist which has a primary function as a communication tool between students, teachers and parents at a middle school. To know the impact of the NFC, the Receptionist input system is designed with two methods, via conventional navigation (using buttons and via NFC. To understand the usability of each method, we do user testing and questioners on students. The results show, using the NFC there is a significant increase in usability attributes: efficiency, effectiveness, and learnability. On the other hand, there is decreases of user satisfaction comparing to conventional method. In general, this study demonstrates the potential of new input device technologies that can improve the usability of mobile-based applications.

  2. Near-field performance of the advanced cold process canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werme, L.

    1990-09-01

    A near-field performance evaluation of an Advanced Cold Process Canister for spent fuel disposal has been performed jointly by TVO, Finland and SKB, Sweden. The canister consists of a steel canister as a load bearing element, with an outer corrosion shield of copper. The canister design was originally proposed by TVO. In the analysis, as well internal (ie corrosion processes from the inside of the canister) as external processes (mechanical and chemical) have been considered both prior to and after canister breach. Throughout the analysis, present day underground conditions has been assumed to persist during the service life of the canister. The major conclusions for the evaluation are: Internal processes cannot cause the canister breach under foreseen conditions, ie localized corrosion for the steel or copper canisters can be dismissed as a failure mechanism. The evaluation of the effects of processes outside the canister indicate that there is no rapid mechanism to endanger the integrity of the canister. Consequently the service life of the canister will be several million years. This factor will ensure the safety of the concept. (orig.)

  3. Calculation of sample problems related to two-phase flow blowdown transients in pressure relief piping of a PWR pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.W.; Wiedermann, A.H.

    1984-02-01

    A method was published, based on the integral method of characteristics, by which the junction and boundary conditions needed in computation of a flow in a piping network can be accurately formulated. The method for the junction and boundary conditions formulation together with the two-step Lax-Wendroff scheme are used in a computer program; the program in turn, is used here in calculating sample problems related to the blowdown transient of a two-phase flow in the piping network downstream of a PWR pressurizer. Independent, nearly exact analytical solutions also are obtained for the sample problems. Comparison of the results obtained by the hybrid numerical technique with the analytical solutions showed generally good agreement. The good numerical accuracy shown by the results of our scheme suggest that the hybrid numerical technique is suitable for both benchmark and design calculations of PWR pressurizer blowdown transients

  4. Pressure induced structural phase transition of OsB2: First-principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Fengzhu; Wang Yuanxu; Lo, V.C.

    2010-01-01

    Orthorhombic OsB 2 was synthesized at 1000 deg. C and its compressibility was measured by using the high-pressure X-ray diffraction in a Diacell diamond anvil cell from ambient pressure to 32 GPa [R.W. Cumberland, et al. (2005)]. First-principles calculations were performed to study the possibility of the phase transition of OsB 2 . An analysis of the calculated enthalpy shows that orthorhombic OsB 2 can transfer to the hexagonal phase at 10.8 GPa. The calculated results with the quasi-harmonic approximation indicate that this phase transition pressure is little affected by the thermal effect. The calculated phonon band structure shows that the hexagonal P 6 3 /mmc structure (high-pressure phase) is stable for OsB 2 . We expect the phase transition can be further confirmed by the experimental work. - Abstract: Graphical Abstract Legend (TOC Figure): Table of Contents Figure Pressure induced structural phase transition from the orthorhombic structure to the hexagonal one for OsB 2 takes place under 10.8 GPa (0 K), 10.35 GPa (300, 1000 K) by the first-principles predictions.

  5. FDTD simulations of near-field mediated semiconductor molecular optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dai; Sakrow, Marcus; Mihaljevic, Josip; Meixner, Alfred J. [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 8, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The optical properties of molecules can be dramatically altered when they are in a close proximity of an excited metal antenna. In order to get insight into how the antenna generated near-field influences the optical properties of low quantum yield molecules, we carried out FDTD simulations of a sharp laser-illuminated Au tip approaching to a semiconductor thin film. The time-averaged field distribution between the semiconductor thin film and the tip antenna is calculated regarding to different distances. Our calculation demonstrates that the coupling between the localized plasmon at the tip apex and semiconductor polariton can be achieved building up a distance-dependent high field enhancement. Our experimental results show that such a high field strength enhances not only the excitation process by a factor of 104, but alters the radiative: non-radiative decay rate giving approx. 15 times stronger photoluminescence emission.

  6. A Poisson equation formulation for pressure calculations in penalty finite element models for viscous incompressible flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, J. L.; Heinrich, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    The calculation of pressures when the penalty-function approximation is used in finite-element solutions of laminar incompressible flows is addressed. A Poisson equation for the pressure is formulated that involves third derivatives of the velocity field. The second derivatives appearing in the weak formulation of the Poisson equation are calculated from the C0 velocity approximation using a least-squares method. The present scheme is shown to be efficient, free of spurious oscillations, and accurate. Examples of applications are given and compared with results obtained using mixed formulations.

  7. Finite element method used in strength calculations of nuclear power plant pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanulak, E.

    1987-01-01

    A software system based on the use of the finite element method in linear and nonlinear elastomechanics was developed for assessing the strength and service life of steam generators and pressurizers for WWER type nuclear power plants. The individual programs are briefly described. They are written in FORTRAN IV, some modules are in ASSEMBLER. Programs EGUSAP, NEANKO, ROSYNA are designed for the calculation of stress and deformation, programs ROSYNA, NEANKO and NTEPLO are used for the calculation of temperature fields. Programs SPOJ and STATES are used for assessing the strength and service life of screw joints and other nodes of the WWER-440 type steam generators and pressurizers. (Z.M.)

  8. Structural, Mechanical and Thermodynamic Properties under Pressure Effect of Rubidium Telluride: First Principle Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidai K.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available First-principles density functional theory calculations have been performed to investigate the structural, elastic and thermodynamic properties of rubidium telluride in cubic anti-fluorite (anti-CaF2-type structure. The calculated ground-state properties of Rb2Te compound such as equilibrium lattice parameter and bulk moduli are investigated by generalized gradient approximation (GGA-PBE that are based on the optimization of total energy. The elastic constants, Young’s and shear modulus, Poisson ratio, have also been calculated. Our results are in reasonable agreement with the available theoretical and experimental data. The pressure dependence of elastic constant and thermodynamic quantities under high pressure are also calculated and discussed.

  9. Results of Propellant Mixing Variable Study Using Precise Pressure-Based Burn Rate Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanski, Philip L.

    2014-01-01

    A designed experiment was conducted in which three mix processing variables (pre-curative addition mix temperature, pre-curative addition mixing time, and mixer speed) were varied to estimate their effects on within-mix propellant burn rate variability. The chosen discriminator for the experiment was the 2-inch diameter by 4-inch long (2x4) Center-Perforated (CP) ballistic evaluation motor. Motor nozzle throat diameters were sized to produce a common targeted chamber pressure. Initial data analysis did not show a statistically significant effect. Because propellant burn rate must be directly related to chamber pressure, a method was developed that showed statistically significant effects on chamber pressure (either maximum or average) by adjustments to the process settings. Burn rates were calculated from chamber pressures and these were then normalized to a common pressure for comparative purposes. The pressure-based method of burn rate determination showed significant reduction in error when compared to results obtained from the Brooks' modification of the propellant web-bisector burn rate determination method. Analysis of effects using burn rates calculated by the pressure-based method showed a significant correlation of within-mix burn rate dispersion to mixing duration and the quadratic of mixing duration. The findings were confirmed in a series of mixes that examined the effects of mixing time on burn rate variation, which yielded the same results.

  10. Thermodynamic coupling of heat and matter flows in near-field regions of nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnahan, C.L.

    1983-11-01

    In near-field regions of nuclear waste repositories, thermodynamically coupled flows of heat and matter can occur in addition to the independent flows in the presence of gradients of temperature, hydraulic potential, and composition. The following coupled effects can occur: thermal osmosis, thermal diffusion, chemical osmosis, thermal filtration, diffusion thermal effect, ultrafiltration, and coupled diffusion. Flows of heat and matter associated with these effects can modify the flows predictable from the direct effects, which are expressed by Fourier's law, Darcy's law, and Fick's law. The coupled effects can be treated quantitatively together with the direct effects by the methods of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. The extent of departure of fully coupled flows from predictions based only on consideration of direct effects depends on the strengths of the gradients driving flows, and may be significant at early times in backfills and in near-field geologic environments of repositories. Approximate calculations using data from the literature and reasonable assumptions of repository conditions indicate that thermal-osmotic and chemical-osmotic flows of water in semipermeable backfills may exceed Darcian flows by two to three orders of magnitude, while flows of solutes may be reduced greatly by ultrafiltration and chemical osmosis, relative to the flows predicted by advection and diffusion alone. In permeable materials, thermal diffusion may contribute to solute flows to a smaller, but still significant, extent

  11. Development of Spherical Near Field Model for Geological Radioactive Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. Y.; Lee, K. J.; Chang, S. H. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K. J.; Chang, S. H. [Khalifa Univ. of Science/Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2012-03-15

    Modeling for geological radioactive waste repository can be divided into 3 parts. They are near field modeling related to engineered barrier, far field modeling related to natural barrier and biosphere modeling. In order to make the general application for safety assessment of geological waste repository, spherical geometry near field model has been developed. This model can be used quite extensively when users calculate equivalent spherical geometry for specific engineered barrier like equivalent waste radius, equivalent barrier radius and etc. Only diffusion was considered for general purpose but advection part can be updated. Goldsim and Goldsim Radionuclide Transport (RT) module were chosen and used as developing tool for the flexible modeling. Developer can freely make their own model with developer friendly graphic interface by using Goldsim. Furthermore, model with user friendly graphic interface can be developed by using Goldsim Dashboard Authoring module. The model has been validated by comparing the result with that of another model, inserting similar inputs and conditions. The model has been proved to be reasonably operating from the comparison result by validation process. Cylindrical model can be developed as a further work based on the knowledge and experience from this research.

  12. Near-field enhanced femtosecond laser nano-drilling of glass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Y.; Hong, M.H.; Fuh, J.Y.H.; Lu, L.; Lukyanchuk, B.S.; Wang, Z.B.

    2008-01-01

    Particle mask assisted near-field enhanced femtosecond laser nano-drilling of transparent glass substrate was demonstrated in this paper. A particle mask was fabricated by self-assembly of spherical 1 μm silica particles on the substrate surface. Then the samples were exposed to femtosecond laser (800 nm, 100 fs) and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The nano-hole array was found on the glass surface. The hole sizes were measured from 200 to 300 nm with an average depth of 150 nm and increased with laser fluence. Non-linear triple-photon absorption and near-field enhancement were the main mechanisms of the nano-feature formation. Calculations based on Mie theory shows an agreement with experiment results. More debris, however, was found at high laser fluence. This can be attributed to the explosion of silica particles because the focusing point is inside the 1 μm particle. The simulation predicts that the focusing point will move outside the particle if the particle size increases. The experiment performed under 6.84 μm silica particles verified that no debris was formed. And for all the samples, no cracks were found on the substrate surface because of ultra-short pulse width of femtosecond laser. This method has potential applications in nano-patterning of transparent glass substrate for nano-structure device fabrication

  13. Development of Spherical Near Field Model for Geological Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. Y.; Lee, K. J.; Chang, S. H.; Lee, K. J.; Chang, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    Modeling for geological radioactive waste repository can be divided into 3 parts. They are near field modeling related to engineered barrier, far field modeling related to natural barrier and biosphere modeling. In order to make the general application for safety assessment of geological waste repository, spherical geometry near field model has been developed. This model can be used quite extensively when users calculate equivalent spherical geometry for specific engineered barrier like equivalent waste radius, equivalent barrier radius and etc. Only diffusion was considered for general purpose but advection part can be updated. Goldsim and Goldsim Radionuclide Transport (RT) module were chosen and used as developing tool for the flexible modeling. Developer can freely make their own model with developer friendly graphic interface by using Goldsim. Furthermore, model with user friendly graphic interface can be developed by using Goldsim Dashboard Authoring module. The model has been validated by comparing the result with that of another model, inserting similar inputs and conditions. The model has been proved to be reasonably operating from the comparison result by validation process. Cylindrical model can be developed as a further work based on the knowledge and experience from this research

  14. Parameterized source term in the diffusion approximation for enhanced near-field modeling of collimated light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Mengyu; Wang, Shuang; Chen, Xueying; Gao, Feng; Zhao, Huijuan

    2016-03-01

    Most analytical methods for describing light propagation in turbid medium exhibit low effectiveness in the near-field of a collimated source. Motivated by the Charge Simulation Method in electromagnetic theory as well as the established discrete source based modeling, we have reported on an improved explicit model, referred to as "Virtual Source" (VS) diffuse approximation (DA), to inherit the mathematical simplicity of the DA while considerably extend its validity in modeling the near-field photon migration in low-albedo medium. In this model, the collimated light in the standard DA is analogously approximated as multiple isotropic point sources (VS) distributed along the incident direction. For performance enhancement, a fitting procedure between the calculated and realistic reflectances is adopted in the nearfield to optimize the VS parameters (intensities and locations). To be practically applicable, an explicit 2VS-DA model is established based on close-form derivations of the VS parameters for the typical ranges of the optical parameters. The proposed VS-DA model is validated by comparing with the Monte Carlo simulations, and further introduced in the image reconstruction of the Laminar Optical Tomography system.

  15. An ab-initio coupled mode theory for near field radiative thermal transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalabi, Hamidreza; Hasman, Erez; Brongersma, Mark L

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the thermal transfer between finite-thickness planar slabs which support surface phonon polariton modes (SPhPs). The thickness-dependent dispersion of SPhPs in such layered materials provides a unique opportunity to manipulate and enhance the near field thermal transfer. The key accomplishment of this paper is the development of an ab-initio coupled mode theory that accurately describes all of its thermal transfer properties. We illustrate how the coupled mode parameters can be obtained in a direct fashion from the dispersion relation of the relevant modes of the system. This is illustrated for the specific case of a semi-infinite SiC substrate placed in close proximity to a thin slab of SiC. This is a system that exhibits rich physics in terms of its thermal transfer properties, despite the seemingly simple geometry. This includes a universal scaling behavior of the thermal conductance with the slab thickness and spacing. The work highlights and further increases the value of coupled mode theories in rapidly calculating and intuitively understanding near-field transfer.

  16. Calculation of the net emission coefficient of an air thermal plasma at very high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billoux, T; Cressault, Y; Teulet, Ph; Gleizes, A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an accurate evaluation of the phenomena appearing for high pressure air plasmas supposed to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). In the past, we already calculated the net emission coefficient for air mixtures at atmospheric pressure and for temperatures up to 30kK (molecular contribution being restricted to 10kK). Unfortunately, the existence of high pressures does not allow us to use this database due to the non-ideality of the plasma (Viriel and Debye corrections, energy cut-off ...), and due to the significant shifts of molecular reactions towards upper temperatures. Consequently, this paper proposes an improvement of our previous works with a consideration of high pressure corrections in the composition algorithm in order to take into account the pressure effects, and with a new calculation of all the contributions of the plasma radiation (atomic lines and continuum, molecular continuum, and molecular bands) using an updated database. A particular attention is paid to calculate the contribution of all the major molecular band systems to the radiation: O 2 (Schumann–Runge), N 2 (VUV, 1st and 2nd positive), NO (IR, β, γ, δ, element of ) and N 2 + (1st negative and Meinel). The discrete atomic lines and molecular bands radiation including the overlapping are calculated by a line-by-line method up to 30kK and 100 bar. This updated database is validated in the case of optically thin plasmas and pressure of 1bar by the comparison of our integrated emission strength with the published results. Finally, this work shows the necessity to extend the molecular radiation database up to 15kK at high pressure (bands and continuum) since their corresponding contributions could not be neglected at high temperature.

  17. Empirical Formulas for Calculation of Negative Pressure Difference in Vacuum Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kalenik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of results of empirical investigations of a negative pressure difference in vacuum pipelines with internal diameters of 57, 81, 102 mm. The investigations were performed in an experimental installation of a vacuum sewage system, built in a laboratory hall on a scale of 1:1. The paper contains a review of the literature concerning two-phase flows (liquid-gas in horizontal, vertical and diagonal pipelines. It presents the construction and working principles of the experimental installation of vacuum sewage system in steady and unsteady conditions during a two-phase flow of water and air. It also presents a methodology for determination of formula for calculation of a negative pressure difference in vacuum pipelines. The results obtained from the measurements of the negative pressure difference Δpvr in the vacuum pipelines were analyzed and compared with the results of calculations of the negative pressure difference Δpvr, obtained from the determined formula. The values of the negative pressure difference Δpvr calculated for the vacuum pipelines with internal diameters of 57, 81, and 102 mm with the use of Formula (19 coincide with the values of Δpvr measured in the experimental installation of a vacuum sewage system. The dependence of the negative pressure difference Δpvr along the length of the vacuum pipelines on the set negative pressure in the vacuum container pvzp is linear. The smaller the vacuum pipeline diameter, the greater the negative pressure difference Δpvr is along its length.

  18. Optical Near-field Interactions and Forces for Optoelectronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohoutek, John Michael

    Throughout history, as a particle view of the universe began to take shape, scientists began to realize that these particles were attracted to each other and hence came up with theories, both analytical and empirical in nature, to explain their interaction. The interaction pair potential (empirical) and electromagnetics (analytical) theories, both help to explain not only the interaction between the basic constituents of matter, such as atoms and molecules, but also between macroscopic objects, such as two surfaces in close proximity. The electrostatic force, optical force, and Casimir force can be categorized as such forces. A surface plasmon (SP) is a collective motion of electrons generated by light at the interface between two mediums of opposite signs of dielectric susceptibility (e.g. metal and dielectric). Recently, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has been exploited in many areas through the use of tiny antennas that work on similar principles as radio frequency (RF) antennas in optoelectronic devices. These antennas can produce a very high gradient in the electric field thereby leading to an optical force, similar in concept to the surface forces discussed above. The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) was introduced in the 1980s at IBM. Here we report on its uses in measuring these aforementioned forces and fields, as well as actively modulating and manipulating multiple optoelectronic devices. We have shown that it is possible to change the far field radiation pattern of an optical antenna-integrated device through modification of the near-field of the device. This modification is possible through change of the local refractive index or reflectivity of the "hot spot" of the device, either mechanically or optically. Finally, we have shown how a mechanically active device can be used to detect light with high gain and low noise at room temperature. It is the aim of several of these integrated and future devices to be used for applications in molecular sensing

  19. Near-field modeling in Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlmann, K.; Shirley, C.; Andricevic, R.

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is investigating the effects of nuclear testing in underground test areas (the UGTA program) at the Nevada Test Site. The principal focus of the UGTA program is to better understand and define subsurface radionuclide migration. The study described in this report focuses on the development of tools for generating maps of hydrogeologic characteristics of subsurface Tertiary volcanic units at the Frenchman Flat corrective Action Unit (CAU). The process includes three steps. The first step involves generation of three-dimensional maps of the geologic structure of subsurface volcanic units using geophysical logs to distinguish between two classes: densely welded tuff and nonwelded tuff. The second step generates three-dimensional maps of hydraulic conductivity utilizing the spatial distribution of the two geologic classes obtained in the first step. Each class is described by a correlation structure based on existing data on hydraulic conductivity, and conditioned on the generated spatial location of each class. The final step demonstrates the use of the maps of hydraulic conductivity for modeling groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in volcanic tuffs from an underground nuclear test at the Frenchman Flat CAU. The results indicate that the majority of groundwater flow through the volcanic section occurs through zones of densely welded tuff where connected fractures provide the transport pathway. Migration rates range between near zero to approximately four m/yr, with a mean rate of 0.68 m/yr. This report presents the results of work under the FY96 Near-Field Modeling task of the UGTA program

  20. Near field acoustic holography with particle velocity transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Liu, Yang

    2005-01-01

    of the pressure measured in a plane further away, high spatial frequency components corresponding to evanescent modes are not only amplified by the distance but also by the wave number ratio (kz/k). By contrast, when the pressure is predicted close to the source on the basis of the particle velocity measured...

  1. Sonic Boom Pressure Signature Uncertainty Calculation and Propagation to Ground Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Thomas K., IV; Bretl, Katherine N.; Walker, Eric L.; Pinier, Jeremy T.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to outline an approach for the quantification of uncertainty in sonic boom measurements and to investigate the effect of various near-field uncertainty representation approaches on ground noise predictions. These approaches included a symmetric versus asymmetric uncertainty band representation and a dispersion technique based on a partial sum Fourier series that allows for the inclusion of random error sources in the uncertainty. The near-field uncertainty was propagated to the ground level, along with additional uncertainty in the propagation modeling. Estimates of perceived loudness were obtained for the various types of uncertainty representation in the near-field. Analyses were performed on three configurations of interest to the sonic boom community: the SEEB-ALR, the 69o DeltaWing, and the LM 1021-01. Results showed that representation of the near-field uncertainty plays a key role in ground noise predictions. Using a Fourier series based dispersion approach can double the amount of uncertainty in the ground noise compared to a pure bias representation. Compared to previous computational fluid dynamics results, uncertainty in ground noise predictions were greater when considering the near-field experimental uncertainty.

  2. New test techniques to evaluate near field effects for supersonic store carriage and separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Wallace C.; Stallings, Robert L., Jr.; Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Blair, A. B., Jr.; Monta, William J.; Plentovich, Elizabeth B.

    1989-01-01

    Store separation and store carriage drag studies were conducted. A primary purpose is to develop new experimental methods to evaluate near field effects of store separation and levels of store carriage drag associated with a variety of carriage techniques for different store shapes and arrangements. Flow field measurements consisting of surface pressure distributions and vapor screen photographs are used to analyze the variations of the store separation characteristics with cavity geometry. Store carriage drag measurements representative of tangent, semi-submerged, and internal carriage installations are presented and discussed. Results are included from both fully metric models and models with only metric segments (metric pallets) and the relative merits of the two are discussed. Carriage drag measurements for store installations on an aircraft parent body are compared both with prediction methods and with installations on a generic parent body.

  3. Numerically induced pressure excursions in two-phase-flow calculations. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaffy, J.H.; Liles, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    Pressure spikes that cannot be traced to any physical origin sometimes are observed when standard Eulerian finite-difference methods are used to calculate two-phase-flow transients. This problem occurs with varying frequency in nuclear reactor safety codes such as RELAP, RETRAN, COBRA, and TRAC. These spikes usually result from numerical water packing or from interactions between spatial discretization and heat transfer

  4. Alterations in the evaporation and discharge calculations for safety and relief valves in the Almod pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madeira, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Models to estimate bubble rise velocity for evaporation, and critical mass flow for pressurizer relief and safety valves discharge calculation were implemented in ALMOD, a digital code developed to perform primary loop simulation of a PWR type during operational transients or accidents without loss of coolant. These models can be utilized alternatively, depending on the requirements for the analyzed transient condition. (Author) [pt

  5. Calculation of passive earth pressure of cohesive soil based on Culmann's method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-feng Lu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the sliding plane hypothesis of Coulumb earth pressure theory, a new method for calculation of the passive earth pressure of cohesive soil was constructed with Culmann's graphical construction. The influences of the cohesive force, adhesive force, and the fill surface form were considered in this method. In order to obtain the passive earth pressure and sliding plane angle, a program based on the sliding surface assumption was developed with the VB.NET programming language. The calculated results from this method were basically the same as those from the Rankine theory and Coulumb theory formulas. This method is conceptually clear, and the corresponding formulas given in this paper are simple and convenient for application when the fill surface form is complex.

  6. Calculation of pressure distribution in vacuum systems using a commercial finite element program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, J.; Wehrle, B.; Jostlein, H.

    1991-01-01

    The finite element method has proven to be a very useful tool for calculating pressure distributions in complex vacuum systems. A number of finite element programs have been developed for this specific task. For those who do not have access to one of these specialized programs and do not wish to develop their own program, another option is available. Any commercial finite element program with heat transfer analysis capabilities can be used to calculate pressure distributions. The approach uses an analogy between thermal conduction and gas conduction with the quantity temperature substituted for pressure. The thermal analogies for pumps, gas loads and tube conductances are described in detail. The method is illustrated for an example vacuum system. A listing of the ANSYS data input file for this example is included. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Calculation models of pressure wave propagation within the WWER-440 primary circulating loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamik, V.; Tkach, A.

    1982-01-01

    Computer codes SHOCK, LOVE, BAREL are described that can be used for the study of pressure wave propagation within the reactor and pipeline system during a LOCA as well as for mechanical loads identification in various parts of the system. SHOCK code is applicable to one-dimensional pressure wave propagation analysis in any hydraulic network containing a compressible nonviscous liquid with a constant (within the considered transient process period) density. LOVE code allows to calculate non-symmetrical mechanical loads on the WWER shaft in case of the main circulation pipeline cold branch rupture. BAREL code is an advanced modification of SHOCK code. It is fitted for two-dimensional pressure wave propagation analysing in the downstream section of a pressurised water reactor in case of the main circulation pipeline cold branch rupture. The calculation results for B-213 type WWER-440 reactor are presented that have been obtained under the assumption of perfect structure rigidity [ru

  8. Development of a database system for the calculation of indicators of environmental pressure caused by transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannouli, Myrsini; Samaras, Zissis; Keller, Mario

    2006-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to summarise a methodology developed for TRENDS (TRansport and ENvironment Database System-TRENDS). The main objective of TRENDS was the calculation of environmental pressure indicators caused by transport. The environmental pressures considered are associated with air...... emissions from the four main transport modes, i.e. road, rail, ships and air. In order to determine these indicators a system for calculating a range of environmental pressures due to transport was developed within a PC-based MS Access environment. Emphasis is given oil the latest features incorporated...... the production of collective results for all transport modes as well as a comparative assessment of air emissions produced by the various modes. Traffic activity and emission data obtained according to a basic (reference) scenario are displayed for the time period 1970-2020. In addition, a detailed assessment...

  9. Calculation of propellant gas pressure by simple extended corresponding state principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The virial equation can well describe gas state at high temperature and pressure, but the difficulties in virial coefficient calculation limit the use of virial equation. Simple extended corresponding state principle (SE-CSP is introduced in virial equation. Based on a corresponding state equation, including three characteristic parameters, an extended parameter is introduced to describe the second virial coefficient expressions of main products of propellant gas. The modified SE-CSP second virial coefficient expression was extrapolated based on the virial coefficients experimental temperature, and the second virial coefficients obtained are in good agreement with the experimental data at a low temperature and the theoretical values at high temperature. The maximum pressure in the closed bomb test was calculated with modified SE-CSP virial coefficient expressions with the calculated error of less than 2%, and the error was smaller than the result calculated with the reported values under the same calculation conditions. The modified SE-CSP virial coefficient expression provides a convenient and efficient method for practical virial coefficient calculation without resorting to complicated molecular model design and integral calculation.

  10. Relation between second-order moment radius of focal spot and near field distribution of laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xueyan; Su Yi; Ye Yidong; Guan Youguang

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyze the effect of aberration of amplitude and phase of laser beam on second-order moment radius of focal spot, based on the Fraunhofer formula for light wave scalar diffraction theory and the definition of second-order moment radius, the general expression for focal spot second-order moment radius depending on the complex amplitude of near field is derived. The second-order moment radius of the focal spot depending on intensity distribution and phase distribution of near field is derived, and its clear physical meaning is described. The second-order moment radius and the divergence angle of focal spot may be easily calculated with the second-order moment radius expression of focal spot. At last, the divergence angles of focal spots of several kinds of Gaussian laser beams are calculated directly, and the results are in accordance with those in the related references. (authors)

  11. Experimental research of pressure drop in packed beds of monosized spheres a novel correlation for pressure drop calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenić Mirjana S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow through packed beds of spheres is a complex phenomenon and it has been extensively studied. Although, there is many different correlations there is still no reliable universal equation for prediction of pressure drop. The paper presents the results of experimental research of pressure drop in packed bed of monosized spheres of three different diameters, 8, 11, and 13 mm set within cylindrical vessel of diameter dk = 74 mm, and two different heights of packed bed, hs = 300 and 400 mm. It has been proposed modification of widely used Ergun’s equation in the form of fp = [150+1.3•(Rep/(1-ε]•(1-ε2/(ε3×Rep and new correlation fp = 1/[(27.4-25700•dh/Rep+0.545+6.85•dh] for pressure drop calculation in simple and convenient form for hand and computer calculations. For total number of 362 experimental runs the correlation ratio of the modified Ergun’s relation was CR = 99.3%, and standard deviation SD = 12.2%, while novel relation has CR = 93.7% and SD = 5.4%. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 33049

  12. Calculation of pressure drop and flow redistribution in the LMFBR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgado, O.J.

    1984-01-01

    The flow redistribution through fuel assemblies of LMFBRs: for the correct calculation of mass flow rates and pressure drop, are studied. Using a quasi-static formulation of conservation equations of mass and energy, a computer program was developed to simulate any arbitrary number of flow channels, operating at different linear power levels. Therefore f flow channels, operating at different linear power levels. Therefore, it was possible to perform thermal transient calculations for the Clinch River reactor core. The results of the calculations agree with the data found in the literature and supply accurate information about flow redistribution, average temperature, and pressure drop in the core, when the reactor is operated at conditions from the designed flow conditions, as is always the case in a load changing operation, or during transients. (Autor) [pt

  13. Modeling and experimental study on near-field acoustic levitation by flexural mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pinkuan; Li, Jin; Ding, Han; Cao, Wenwu

    2009-12-01

    Near-field acoustic levitation (NFAL) has been used in noncontact handling and transportation of small objects to avoid contamination. We have performed a theoretical analysis based on nonuniform vibrating surface to quantify the levitation force produced by the air film and also conducted experimental tests to verify our model. Modal analysis was performed using ANSYS on the flexural plate radiator to obtain its natural frequency of desired mode, which is used to design the measurement system. Then, the levitation force was calculated as a function of levitation distance based on squeeze gas film theory using measured amplitude and phase distributions on the vibrator surface. Compared with previous fluid-structural analyses using a uniform piston motion, our model based on the nonuniform radiating surface of the vibrator is more realistic and fits better with experimentally measured levitation force.

  14. On the horizontal wobbling of an object levitated by near-field acoustic levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheol-Ho; Ih, Jeong-Guon

    2007-11-01

    A circular planar object can be levitated with several hundreds of microns by ultrasonic near-field acoustic levitation (NFAL). However, when both the sound source and the levitated object are circularly shaped and the center of the levitated object does not coincide with the source center, instability problem often occurs. When this happens, it becomes difficult to pick up or transport the object for the next process. In this study, when the center of the levitated object was offset from the source center, the moving direction of the levitated object was predicted by using the time averaged potential around the levitated object. The wobbling frequency of the levitated object was calculated by analyzing the nonlinear wobbling motion of the object. It was shown that the predicted wobbling frequencies agreed with measured ones well. Finally, a safe zone was suggested to avoid the unstable movement of an object.

  15. Research on Radar Cross Section Measurement Based on Near-field Imaging of Cylindrical Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Shu-guang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new method of Radar Cross Section (RCS measurement based on near-field imaging of cylindrical scanning surface is proposed. The method is based on the core assumption that the target consists of ideal isotropic scattered centers. Three-dimensional radar scattered images are obtained by using the proposed method, and then to obtain the RCS of the target, the scattered far field is calculated by summing the fields generated by the equivalent scattered centers. Not only three dimensional radar reflectivity images but also the RCS of targets in certain three dimensional angle areas can be obtained. Compared with circular scanning that can only obtain twodimensional radar reflectivity images and RCS results in two-dimensional angle areas, cylindrical scanning can provide more information about the scattering properties of the targets. The method has strong practicability and its validity is verified by simulations.

  16. Superresolution near-field readout in phase-change optical disk data storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Chubing

    2001-01-01

    Readout of a phase-change optical disk with a superresolution (SR) near-field structure (Super-RENS) is theoretically examined on the basis of three-dimensional, full-wave vector diffraction theory. Calculations have demonstrated that Super-RENS has a high spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit in readout. The read signal is dependent on the nature of SR, the layer structure of the disk, and the state of polarization of the incident laser beam. For the Super-RENS in which antimony is used for SR readout, the readout signal is quite small, and the estimated carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) is only ∼30 dB for marks of 300 nm. For the Super-RENS in which a metallic region is formed during readout, the read signal is large, and the CNR can be as high as 50 dB in reading 300-nm marks

  17. Application of the graphics processor unit to simulate a near field diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchik, Alexander A.; Topalov, Oleg K.; Muzychenko, Yana B.

    2017-06-01

    For many years, computer modeling program used for lecture demonstrations. Most of the existing commercial software, such as Virtual Lab, LightTrans GmbH company are quite expensive and have a surplus capabilities for educational tasks. The complexity of the diffraction demonstrations in the near zone, due to the large amount of calculations required to obtain the two-dimensional distribution of the amplitude and phase. At this day, there are no demonstrations, allowing to show the resulting distribution of amplitude and phase without much time delay. Even when using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithms diffraction calculation speed in the near zone for the input complex amplitude distributions with size more than 2000 × 2000 pixels is tens of seconds. Our program selects the appropriate propagation operator from a prescribed set of operators including Spectrum of Plane Waves propagation and Rayleigh-Sommerfeld propagation (using convolution). After implementation, we make a comparison between the calculation time for the near field diffraction: calculations made on GPU and CPU, showing that using GPU for calculations diffraction pattern in near zone does increase the overall speed of algorithm for an image of size 2048×2048 sampling points and more. The modules are implemented as separate dynamic-link libraries and can be used for lecture demonstrations, workshops, selfstudy and students in solving various problems such as the phase retrieval task.

  18. The phase diagram of solid hydrogen at high pressure: A challenge for first principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, Sam; Foulkes, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    We present comprehensive results for the high-pressure phase diagram of solid hydrogen. We focus on the energetically most favorable molecular and atomic crystal structures. To obtain the ground-state static enthalpy and phase diagram, we use semi-local and hybrid density functional theory (DFT) as well as diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (DMC) methods. The closure of the band gap with increasing pressure is investigated utilizing quasi-particle many-body calculations within the GW approximation. The dynamical phase diagram is calculated by adding proton zero-point energies (ZPE) to static enthalpies. Density functional perturbation theory is employed to calculate the proton ZPE and the infra-red and Raman spectra. Our results clearly demonstrate the failure of DFT-based methods to provide an accurate static phase diagram, especially when comparing insulating and metallic phases. Our dynamical phase diagram obtained using fully many-body DMC calculations shows that the molecular-to-atomic phase transition happens at the experimentally accessible pressure of 374 GPa. We claim that going beyond mean-field schemes to obtain derivatives of the total energy and optimize crystal structures at the many-body level is crucial. This work was supported by the UK engineering and physics science research council under Grant EP/I030190/1, and made use of computing facilities provided by HECTOR, and by the Imperial College London high performance computing centre.

  19. Phase Envelope Calculations for Reservoir Fluids in the Presence of Capillary Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemus, Diego; Yan, Wei; Michelsen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    the bubble and dew point curves but also other quality lines with vapor fractions between 0 and 1. The algorithm has been used to calculate the phase envelopes of binary, multicomponent and reservoir fluid systems for pore radius from 10 to 50 nm. The presence of capillary pressure changes the saturation...... pressures in the whole phase envelope except at the critical point. The bubble point curve shows a negative change while the dew point curve shows positive and negative changes in the upper dew point branch and the lower dew point branch, respectively. In particular, the cricondentherm is also shifted...

  20. First-principles calculations for elastic properties of OsB{sub 2} under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Junwei [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Chen Xiangrong, E-mail: x.r.chen@tom.co [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); International Centre for Materials Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Luo Fen [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Ji Guangfu [Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2009-11-01

    The structure, elastic properties and elastic anisotropy of orthorhombic OsB{sub 2} are investigated by density functional theory method with the ultrasoft pseudopotential scheme in the frame of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) as well as local density approximation (LDA). The obtained structural parameters, elastic constants, elastic anisotropy and Debye temperature for OsB{sub 2} under pressure are consistent with the available experimental data and other theoretical results. It is found that the elastic constants, bulk modulus and Debye temperature of OsB{sub 2} tend to increase with increasing pressure. It is predicted that OsB{sub 2} is not a superhard material from our calculations.

  1. First-principles calculations for elastic properties of OsB2 under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Junwei; Chen Xiangrong; Luo Fen; Ji Guangfu

    2009-01-01

    The structure, elastic properties and elastic anisotropy of orthorhombic OsB 2 are investigated by density functional theory method with the ultrasoft pseudopotential scheme in the frame of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) as well as local density approximation (LDA). The obtained structural parameters, elastic constants, elastic anisotropy and Debye temperature for OsB 2 under pressure are consistent with the available experimental data and other theoretical results. It is found that the elastic constants, bulk modulus and Debye temperature of OsB 2 tend to increase with increasing pressure. It is predicted that OsB 2 is not a superhard material from our calculations.

  2. First-principles calculations for elastic properties of OsB 2 under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun-Wei; Chen, Xiang-Rong; Luo, Fen; Ji, Guang-Fu

    2009-11-01

    The structure, elastic properties and elastic anisotropy of orthorhombic OsB 2 are investigated by density functional theory method with the ultrasoft pseudopotential scheme in the frame of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) as well as local density approximation (LDA). The obtained structural parameters, elastic constants, elastic anisotropy and Debye temperature for OsB 2 under pressure are consistent with the available experimental data and other theoretical results. It is found that the elastic constants, bulk modulus and Debye temperature of OsB 2 tend to increase with increasing pressure. It is predicted that OsB 2 is not a superhard material from our calculations.

  3. Calculated Fermi surface properties of LaSn3 and YSn3 under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanchana, V.

    2012-01-01

    The electronic structure, Fermi surface and elastic properties of the iso-structural and iso-electronic LaSn 3 and YSn 3 intermetallic compounds are studied under pressure within the frame work of density functional theory including spin-orbit coupling. The LaSn 3 Fermi surface consists of two sheets, of which the second is very complex. Under pressure a third sheet appears around compression V/V 0 =0.94, while a small topology changes in the second sheet is seen at compression V/V 0 =0.90. This may be in accordance with the anomalous behavior in the superconducting transition temperature observed in LaSn 3 , which has been suggested to reflect a Fermi surface topological transition, along with a non-monotonic pressure dependence of the density of states at the Fermi level. The similar behavior is not observed in YSn 3 for which the Fermi surface includes three sheets already at ambient conditions, and the topology remains unchanged under pressure. The reason for the difference in behavior between LaSn 3 and YSn 3 is the role of spin-orbit coupling and the hybridization of La-4f state with the Sn-p state in the vicinity of the Fermi level, which is well explained using the band structure calculation. The elastic constants and related mechanical properties are calculated at ambient as well as at elevated pressures. The elastic constants increase with pressure for both compounds and satisfy the conditions for mechanical stability under pressure. (author)

  4. Review of near-field optics and superlenses for sub-diffraction-limited nano-imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyatt Adams

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Near-field optics and superlenses for imaging beyond Abbe’s diffraction limit are reviewed. A comprehensive and contemporary background is given on scanning near-field microscopy and superlensing. Attention is brought to recent research leveraging scanning near-field optical microscopy with superlenses for new nano-imaging capabilities. Future research directions are explored for realizing the goal of low-cost and high-performance sub-diffraction-limited imaging systems.

  5. An improved method for calculation of interface pressure force in PLIC-VOF methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefollahi, M.; Shirani, E.

    2004-08-01

    Conventional methods for the modeling of surface tension force in Piecewise Linear Interface Calculation-Volume of Fluid (PLIC-VOF) methods, such as Continuum Surface Force (CSF), Continuum Surface Stress (CSS) and also Meier's method, convert the surface tension force into a body force. Not only do they include the force in the interfacial cells but also in the neighboring cells. Thus they produce spurious currents. Also the pressure jump, due to the surface tension, is not calculated accurately in these methods. In this paper a more accurate method for the application of interface force in the computational modeling of free surfaces and interfaces which use PLIC-VOF methods is developed. This method is based on the evaluation of the surface tension force only in the interfacial cells and not the neighboring cells. Also the normal and the interface surface area needed for the calculation of the surface tension force is calculated more accurately. The present method is applied to a two-dimensional motionless drop of liquid and a bubble of gas as well as a non-circular two-dimensional drop, which oscillates due to the surface tension force, in an initially stagnant fluid with no gravity force. The results are compared with the results of the cases when CSF, CSS and Meier's methods are used. It is shown that the present method calculates pressure jump at the interface more accurately and produces less spurious currents comparing to CSS an CSF models. (author)

  6. NFAP calculation of pressure response of 1/6th scale model containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantino, C.J.; Pepper, S.; Reich, M.

    1988-01-01

    The details associated with the NFAP calculation of the pressure response of the 1/6th scale model containment structure are discussed in this paper. Comparisons are presented of some of the primary items of interest with those determined from the experiment. It was found from this comparison that the hoop response of the containment wall was adequately predicted by the NFAP finite element calculation, including the response in the high pressure, high strain range at which cracking of the concrete and yielding of the hoop reinforcement occurred. In the vertical or meridional direction, it was found that the model was significantly softer than predicted by the finite element calculation; that is, the vertical strains in the test were three to four times larger than computed in the NFAP calculation. These differences were noted even at low strain levels at which the concrete would not be expected to be cracked under tensile loadings. Simplified calculations for the containment indicate that the vertical stiffness of the wall is similar to that which would be determined by assuming the concrete fully cracked. Thus, the experiment indicates an anomalous behavior in the vertical direction

  7. Monte Carlo calculations of thermodynamic properties of deuterium under high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levashov, P R; Filinov, V S; BoTan, A; Fortov, V E; Bonitz, M

    2008-01-01

    Two different numerical approaches have been applied for calculations of shock Hugoniots and compression isentrope of deuterium: direct path integral Monte Carlo and reactive Monte Carlo. The results show good agreement between two methods at intermediate pressure which is an indication of correct accounting of dissociation effects in the direct path integral Monte Carlo method. Experimental data on both shock and quasi-isentropic compression of deuterium are well described by calculations. Thus dissociation of deuterium molecules in these experiments together with interparticle interaction play significant role

  8. Statistical Analysis of Reactor Pressure Vessel Fluence Calculation Benchmark Data Using Multiple Regression Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carew, John F.; Finch, Stephen J.; Lois, Lambros

    2003-01-01

    The calculated >1-MeV pressure vessel fluence is used to determine the fracture toughness and integrity of the reactor pressure vessel. It is therefore of the utmost importance to ensure that the fluence prediction is accurate and unbiased. In practice, this assurance is provided by comparing the predictions of the calculational methodology with an extensive set of accurate benchmarks. A benchmarking database is used to provide an estimate of the overall average measurement-to-calculation (M/C) bias in the calculations ( ). This average is used as an ad-hoc multiplicative adjustment to the calculations to correct for the observed calculational bias. However, this average only provides a well-defined and valid adjustment of the fluence if the M/C data are homogeneous; i.e., the data are statistically independent and there is no correlation between subsets of M/C data.Typically, the identification of correlations between the errors in the database M/C values is difficult because the correlation is of the same magnitude as the random errors in the M/C data and varies substantially over the database. In this paper, an evaluation of a reactor dosimetry benchmark database is performed to determine the statistical validity of the adjustment to the calculated pressure vessel fluence. Physical mechanisms that could potentially introduce a correlation between the subsets of M/C ratios are identified and included in a multiple regression analysis of the M/C data. Rigorous statistical criteria are used to evaluate the homogeneity of the M/C data and determine the validity of the adjustment.For the database evaluated, the M/C data are found to be strongly correlated with dosimeter response threshold energy and dosimeter location (e.g., cavity versus in-vessel). It is shown that because of the inhomogeneity in the M/C data, for this database, the benchmark data do not provide a valid basis for adjusting the pressure vessel fluence.The statistical criteria and methods employed in

  9. The inside–outside duality for inverse scattering problems with near field data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechleiter, Armin; Peters, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We derive an inside–outside duality for near field scattering data generated by time-harmonic scattering of acoustic point sources from a sound-soft scatterer. This duality in particular rigorously characterizes interior Dirichlet eigenvalues of the scattering object by near field operators for an interval of wave numbers. As a crucial new concept to prove this duality we exploit the numerical ranges of certain modifications of these near field operators. We also show that our theoretical results can be numerically used to approximate interior Dirichlet eigenvalues from multi-frequency near field measurements. (paper)

  10. Polarization resolved imaging with a reflection near-field optical microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Xiao, Mufei; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1999-01-01

    Using a rigorous microscopic point-dipole description of probe-sample interactions, we study imaging with a reflection scanning near-field optical microscope. Optical content, topographical artifacts, sensitivity window-i.e., the scale on which near-field optical images represent mainly optical...... configuration is preferable to the cross-linear one, since it ensures more isotropic (in the surface plane) near-field imaging of surface features. The numerical results are supported with experimental near-field images obtained by using a reflection microscope with an uncoated fiber tip....

  11. Raman Frequencies Calculated at Various Pressures in Phase I of Benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tari, Ozlem; Yurtseven, Hamit [Istanbul Arel Univ., Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2013-04-15

    We calculate in this study the pressure dependence of the frequencies for the Raman modes of A (A{sub g}), B (A{sub g}, B{sub 2g}) and C (B{sub 1g}, B{sub 3g}) at constant temperatures of 274 and 294K (room temperature) for the solid phase I of benzene. Using the mode Gruneisen parameter of each lattice mode, which correlates the pressure dependence of the crystal volume and the frequency, the Raman frequencies of those modes are computed for phase I of benzene. Our results show that the Raman frequencies of the three lattice modes (A, B and C) increase as the pressure increases, as expected. The temperature effect on the Raman frequencies is not significant, which can be explained by the experimental measurements.

  12. Calculation of the internal pressure of fuel rod from measurements of krypton-85 at its plenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arana, I.; Doncel, N.; Casado, C.

    2012-01-01

    ENUSA carried out numerous campaigns of measurement internal pressure of fuel rod irradiated. All of them have been performed of form destructively in a hot cell laboratory which implies a time high to obtain results and a high economic cost to obtain a single data by rod, representative of the end of the irradiation. The objective of the project is to develop a non-destructive measurement and a methodology for reliable calculation that eliminates these problems.

  13. Calculation of propellant gas pressure by simple extended corresponding state principle

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Xu; San-jiu Ying; Xin Liao

    2016-01-01

    The virial equation can well describe gas state at high temperature and pressure, but the difficulties in virial coefficient calculation limit the use of virial equation. Simple extended corresponding state principle (SE-CSP) is introduced in virial equation. Based on a corresponding state equation, including three characteristic parameters, an extended parameter is introduced to describe the second virial coefficient expressions of main products of propellant gas. The modified SE-CSP second ...

  14. Near-field study with a photon scanning tunneling microscope: Comparison between dielectric nanostructure and metallic nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Mahmoud Youcef; Bassou, Ghaouti; Salomon, Laurant; Chekroun, Z.; Djamai, Nesrine

    2007-01-01

    Scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) integrates standard optical methods with scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques allowing to collect optical information with resolution well beyond the diffraction limit. We study the influence on image formation of several parameters in scanning near-field microscopy. The numerical calculations have been carried out using the differential method. We investigate a 2D-PSTM configuration with a dielectric rectangular object. We will focus on the collection type SNOM in a constant height scanning mode. Various oscillation patterns are observed from both sides of the nanostructure, which we interpret as interference between the diffracted waves scattered by the nanostructure (with the components of the wave vector parallel to the surface) and the evanescent incident wave above the surface. Using an optical near-field analysis and by calculating the electric field intensity distribution, we investigate the probe-sample distance effect. It is found that the distribution of the intensity related to the electric field is depending on sample-probe distance. We noticed the loss of details in the image and the presence of dramatic oscillations. Also, both of the polarization state of the illuminating light effect and the angle of incidence are investigated. We conclude that a differential method provides physical insight into the main features of the different images

  15. Near-field study with a photon scanning tunneling microscope: Comparison between dielectric nanostructure and metallic nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Mahmoud Youcef [Laboratoire d' elaboration et caracterisation des materiaux, Groupe de Microscopie et Microanalyse, Universite Djilali Liabes de Sidi Bel-Abbes, Faculte des sciences (Algeria)], E-mail: mahmoudhamoud@yahoo.com; Bassou, Ghaouti [Laboratoire d' elaboration et caracterisation des materiaux, Groupe de Microscopie et Microanalyse, Universite Djilali Liabes de Sidi Bel-Abbes, Faculte des sciences (Algeria); Laboratoire de Physique (LPUB), CNRS UMR 5027, Groupe d' Optique de Champ Proche, Faculte des Sciences Mirande, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Avenue Alain Savary, BP 47 870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Salomon, Laurant [Laboratoire de Physique (LPUB), CNRS UMR 5027, Groupe d' Optique de Champ Proche, Faculte des Sciences Mirande, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Avenue Alain Savary, BP 47 870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Chekroun, Z. [Laboratoire d' elaboration et caracterisation des materiaux, Groupe de Microscopie et Microanalyse, Universite Djilali Liabes de Sidi Bel-Abbes, Faculte des sciences (Algeria); Djamai, Nesrine [Laboratoire de telecommunications et de traitement numerique du signal (LTTNS), Universite Djilali Liabes de Sidi Bel-Abbes, Faculte des sciences de l' ingenieur, Departement d' electronique (Algeria)

    2007-08-25

    Scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) integrates standard optical methods with scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques allowing to collect optical information with resolution well beyond the diffraction limit. We study the influence on image formation of several parameters in scanning near-field microscopy. The numerical calculations have been carried out using the differential method. We investigate a 2D-PSTM configuration with a dielectric rectangular object. We will focus on the collection type SNOM in a constant height scanning mode. Various oscillation patterns are observed from both sides of the nanostructure, which we interpret as interference between the diffracted waves scattered by the nanostructure (with the components of the wave vector parallel to the surface) and the evanescent incident wave above the surface. Using an optical near-field analysis and by calculating the electric field intensity distribution, we investigate the probe-sample distance effect. It is found that the distribution of the intensity related to the electric field is depending on sample-probe distance. We noticed the loss of details in the image and the presence of dramatic oscillations. Also, both of the polarization state of the illuminating light effect and the angle of incidence are investigated. We conclude that a differential method provides physical insight into the main features of the different images.

  16. Calculation of fast neutron flux in reactor pressure tubes and experimental facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, P. C. [Canadian General Electric (Canada)

    1968-07-15

    The computer program EPITHET was used to calculate the fast neutron flux (>1 MeV) in several reactor pressure tubes and experimental facilities in order to compare the fast neutron flux in the different cases and to provide a self-consistent set of flux values which may be used to relate creep strain to fast neutron flux . The facilities considered are shown below together with the calculated fast neutron flux (>1 MeV). Fast flux 10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}s: NPD 1.14, Douglas Point 2.66, Pickering 2.89, Gentilly 2.35, SGHWR 3.65, NRU U-1 and U-2 3.25'' pressure tube - 19 element fuel 3.05, NRU U-1 and U-2 4.07'' pressure tube - 28 element fuel 3.18, NRU U-1 and U-2 4.07'' pressure tube - 18 element fuel 2.90, NRX X-5 0.88, PRTR Mk I fuel 2.81, PRTR HPD fuel 3.52, WR-1 2.73, Mk IV creep machine (NRX) 0.85, Mk VI creep machine (NRU) 2.04, Biaxial creep insert (NRU U-49) 2.61.

  17. Engineering the near-field imaging of a rectangular-lattice photonic-crystal slab in the second band

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Imaging properties of a two-dimensional rectangular-lattice photonic crystal (PC) slab consisting of air holes immersed in a dielectric are studied in this work. The field patterns of electromagnetic waves radiated from a point source through the PC slab are calculated with the finite-difference time-domain method. Comparing the field patterns with the corresponding equifrequency-surface contours simulated by the plane-wave expansion method, we find that an excellent-quality near-field image may be formed through the PC slab by the mechanisms of the simultaneous action of the self-collimation effect and the negative-refraction effect. Near-field imaging may be obtained within two different frequency regions in two vertical directions of the PC slab.

  18. Novel and Efficient Methods for Calculating Pressure in Polymer Lattice Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Qiang

    2014-03-01

    Pressure calculation in polymer lattice models is an important but nontrivial subject. The three existing methods - thermodynamic integration, repulsive wall, and sedimentation equilibrium methods - all have their limitations and cannot be used to accurately calculate the pressure at all polymer volume fractions φ. Here we propose two novel methods. In the first method, we combine Monte Carlo simulation in an expanded grand-canonical ensemble with the Wang-Landau - Optimized Ensemble (WL-OE) simulation to calculate the pressure as a function of polymer volume fraction, which is very efficient at low to intermediate φ and exhibits negligible finite-size effects. In the second method, we introduce a repulsive plane with bridging bonds, which is similar to the repulsive wall method but eliminates its confinement effects, and estimate the two-dimensional density of states (in terms of the number of bridging bonds and the contact number) using the 1/ t version of Wang-Landau algorithm. This works well at all φ, especially at high φ where all the methods involving chain insertion trial moves fail.

  19. Aspects of geochemical evolution of the SKB near field in the frame of SR-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sena, Clara; Salas, Joaquin; Arcos, David

    2010-09-01

    The concept for the final disposal of high level nuclear waste (HLNW) developed by the Swedish Nuclear Waste Management Company (SKB) entails a multi-barrier system that surrounds the HLNW, which is also known as the near-field. In the near-field, the buffer is initially subject to a high thermal gradient induced by the heat generated by the radioactive decay of the HLNW. During this period, the buffer is also subject to a hydrodynamic pressure induced by the surrounding water saturated rock massif which progressively leads to the saturation of the buffer. After saturation and cooling of the near-field, the interaction of groundwater with the bentonite buffer may result in an evolving distribution of some aqueous species in the bentonite porewater, as well as the redistribution of accessory minerals and the cation exchanger composition in the montmorillonite interlayer. The distribution of aqueous and solid species in the buffer can affect, directly or indirectly, some of the relevant safety function indicators defined by. In this context, the work developed by Arcos et al is revisited in the present work and, based on new data from SKB, additional models are developed for the SR-Site Safety Assessment. The work presented here represents an update of the model conducted within the SR-Can exercise and, therefore, similar simulation cases are developed. Three aspects must be considered regarding the geochemical evolution of the near field: (1) the effect of the thermal period; (2) the processes during the saturation of bentonite; and, (3) the interaction of the water-saturated bentonite with the local groundwater. In this numerical exercise, two types of bentonite are analysed: the MX-80 and the Deponit CA-N. The effect of the thermal period and the water saturation are analysed in a series of one-dimensional radial-symmetric simulations performed using TOUGHREACT which is a reactive transport code that accounts for variably saturated multi-phase flow under non

  20. Aspects of geochemical evolution of the SKB near field in the frame of SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sena, Clara; Salas, Joaquin; Arcos, David (Amphos 21, Barcelona (Spain))

    2010-09-15

    The concept for the final disposal of high level nuclear waste (HLNW) developed by the Swedish Nuclear Waste Management Company (SKB) entails a multi-barrier system that surrounds the HLNW, which is also known as the near-field. In the near-field, the buffer is initially subject to a high thermal gradient induced by the heat generated by the radioactive decay of the HLNW. During this period, the buffer is also subject to a hydrodynamic pressure induced by the surrounding water saturated rock massif which progressively leads to the saturation of the buffer. After saturation and cooling of the near-field, the interaction of groundwater with the bentonite buffer may result in an evolving distribution of some aqueous species in the bentonite porewater, as well as the redistribution of accessory minerals and the cation exchanger composition in the montmorillonite interlayer. The distribution of aqueous and solid species in the buffer can affect, directly or indirectly, some of the relevant safety function indicators defined by. In this context, the work developed by Arcos et al is revisited in the present work and, based on new data from SKB, additional models are developed for the SR-Site Safety Assessment. The work presented here represents an update of the model conducted within the SR-Can exercise and, therefore, similar simulation cases are developed. Three aspects must be considered regarding the geochemical evolution of the near field: (1) the effect of the thermal period; (2) the processes during the saturation of bentonite; and, (3) the interaction of the water-saturated bentonite with the local groundwater. In this numerical exercise, two types of bentonite are analysed: the MX-80 and the Deponit CA-N. The effect of the thermal period and the water saturation are analysed in a series of one-dimensional radial-symmetric simulations performed using TOUGHREACT which is a reactive transport code that accounts for variably saturated multi-phase flow under non

  1. Fast neutron fluence calculations as support for a BWR pressure vessel and internals surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucatero, Marco A.; Palacios-Hernandez, Javier C.; Ortiz-Villafuerte, Javier; Xolocostli-Munguia, J. Vicente; Gomez-Torres, Armando M.

    2010-01-01

    Materials surveillance programs are required to detect and prevent degradation of safety-related structures and components of a nuclear power reactor. In this work, following the directions in the Regulatory Guide 1.190, a calculational methodology is implemented as additional support for a reactor pressure vessel and internals surveillance program for a BWR. The choice of the neutronic methods employed was based on the premise of being able of performing all the expected future survey calculations in relatively short times, but without compromising accuracy. First, a geometrical model of a typical BWR was developed, from the core to the primary containment, including jet pumps and all other structures. The methodology uses the Synthesis Method to compute the three-dimensional neutron flux distribution. In the methodology, the code CORE-MASTER-PRESTO is used as the three-dimensional core simulator; SCALE is used to generate the fine-group flux spectra of the components of the model and also used to generate a 47 energy-groups job cross section library, collapsed from the 199-fine-group master library VITAMIN-B6; ORIGEN2 was used to compute the isotopic densities of uranium and plutonium; and, finally, DORT was used to calculate the two-dimensional and one-dimensional neutron flux distributions required to compute the synthesized three-dimensional neutron flux. Then, the calculation of fast neutron fluence was performed using the effective full power time periods through six operational fuel cycles of two BWR Units and until the 13th cycle for Unit 1. The results showed a maximum relative difference between the calculated-by-synthesis fast neutron fluxes and fluences and those measured by Fe, Cu and Ni dosimeters less than 7%. The dosimeters were originally located adjacent to the pressure vessel wall, as part of the surveillance program. Results from the computations of peak fast fluence on pressure vessel wall and specific weld locations on the core shroud are

  2. Survey of near-field flow calculations for nuclear waste repositories NMA L21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.N.; Holland, D.H.

    1979-11-01

    A survey of methods and codes which describe the flow of groundwater and the migration of radioactive waste in and about nuclear repositories was performed. A number of laboratories engaged in studies of waste migration and groundwater flow were visited in order to discuss the general problem and obtain reports of work being performed. The results of this survey are discussed

  3. Analysis of near-field thermal and psychometric waste package environment using ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danko, G.

    1995-03-01

    The ultimate objective of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Program is to safely emplace and isolate the nations' spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive wastes in a geologic repository. Radioactive waste emplaced in a geologic repository will generate heat, increasing the temperature in the repository. The magnitude of this temperature increase depends upon (1) the heat source, i.e. the thermal loading of the repository, and (2) the geologic and engineered heat transport characteristics of the repository. Thermal management techniques currently under investigation include ventilation of the emplacement drifts during the preclosure period which could last as long as 100 years. Understanding the amount of heat and moisture removed from the emplacement drifts and near-field rock by ventilation, are important in determining performance of the engineered barrier system (EBS), as well as the corrosive environment of the waste packages, and the interaction of the EBS with the near-field host rock. Since radionuclide releases and repository system performance are significantly affected by the corrosion rate related to the psychometric environment, it is necessary to predict the amount of heat and moisture that are removed from the repository horizon using a realistic model for a wide range of thermal loading. This can be realized by coupling the hydrothermal model of the rock mass to a ventilation/climate model which includes the heat and moisture transport on the rock-air interface and the dilution of water vapor in the drift. This paper deals with the development of the coupled model concept, and determination of the boundary conditions for the calculations

  4. Viscosity measurements on metal melts at high pressure and viscosity calculations for the earth's core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineev, Vladimir N; Funtikov, Aleksandr I

    2004-01-01

    A review is given of experimental and calculated data on the viscosity of iron-based melts on the melting curve. The interest in these data originates in the division of opinion on whether viscosity increases rather moderately or considerably in the high-pressure range. This disagreement is especially pronounced in the interpretation of the values of molten iron and its compounds in the environment of the earth's outer core. The conclusion on a substantial rise in viscosity mostly follows from the universal law, proposed by Brazhkin and Lyapin [1], of viscosity changing along the metal melting curve in the high-pressure range. The review analyzes available experimental and computational data, including the most recent ones. Data on viscosity of metals under shock wave compression in the megabar pressure range are also discussed. It is shown that data on viscosity of metal melts point to a small increase of viscosity on the melting curve. Specifics are discussed of the phase diagram of iron made more complex by the presence of several phase transitions and by the uncertainty in the position of the melting curve in the high-pressure range. Inaccuracies that arise in extrapolating the results of viscosity measurements to the pressure range corresponding to the earth's core environment are pointed out. (reviews of topical problems)

  5. A computer program for accident calculations of a standard pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keutner, H.

    1979-01-01

    In this computer program the dynamic of a standard pressurized water reactor should be realized by both circulation loops with all important components. All important phenomena are taken into consideration, which appear for calculation of disturbances in order to state a realistic process for some minutes after a disturbance or a desired change of condition. In order to optimize the computer time simplifications are introduced in the statement of a differential-algebraic equalization system such that all important effects are taken into consideration. The model analysis starts from the heat production of the fuel rod via cladding material to the cooling medium water and considers the delay time from the core to the steam generator. Alternations of the cooling medium pressure as well as the different temperatures in the primary loop influence the pressuring system - the pressurizer - which is realized by a water and a steam zone with saturated and superheated steam respectively saturated and undercooled water with injection, heating and blow-down devices. The bilance of the steam generator to the secondary loop realizes the process engineering devices. Thereby the control regulation of the steam pressure and the reactor performance is realized. (orig.) [de

  6. Development and qualification of reference calculation schemes for absorbers in pressured water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc-Tranchant, P.

    2001-01-01

    The general field in which this work takes place is the field of the accuracy improvement of neutronic calculations, required to operate Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) with a better precision and a lower cost. More specifically, this thesis deals with the calculation of the absorber clusters used to control these reactors. The first aim of that work was to define and validate a reference calculation route of such an absorber cluster, based on the deterministic code APOLLO2. This calculation scheme was then to be checked against experimental data. This study of the complex situation of absorber clusters required several intermediate studies, of simpler problems, such as the study of fuel rods lattices and the study of single absorber rods (B4C, AIC, Hafnium) isolated in such lattices. Each one of these different studies led to a particular reference calculation route. All these calculation routes were developed against reference continuous energy Monte-Carlo calculations, carried out with the stochastic code TRIPOLI4. They were then checked against experimental data measured during French experimental programs, undertaken within the EOLE experimental reactor, at the Nuclear Research Center of Cadarache: the MISTRAL experiments for the study of isolated absorber rods and the EPICURE experiments for the study of absorber clusters. This work led to important improvements in the calculation of isolated absorbers and absorber clusters. The reactivity worth of these clusters in particular, can now be obtained with a great accuracy: the discrepancy observed between the calculated and the experimental values is less than 2.5 %, and then slightly lower than the experimental uncertainty. (author)

  7. The near-field transport in a repository for high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranguiz, L.R.

    1995-05-01

    The thesis is focused on the modelling of a redox front which is created when the oxidants produced by a radiolytic process in a damaged canister escape to the surroundings, and on a fast and flexible model to calculate the radionuclide transport in the repository. In addition, the thesis includes an attempt to validate the processes involved in the redox front model and a sensitivity analysis of the uncertainties in the parameter values regarding the release of radionuclides from the Swedish KBS-3 repository. The redox front model considers that the transport of oxidants in the clay surrounding the canister is by diffusion and that the transport in the fractures in the rock is by flow with diffusion into the rock matrix.The assumed radiolysis rates denoted high and low in the thesis are probably not realistic, but can be seen as upper limits. thus it is unlikely that the redox front will ever move past the bentonite clay surrounding the canister, and if it does, the front may move less than 100 m. The model to calculate the transport of radionuclides in the near-field uses a coarse compartmentalization of the repository by embedding analytical solutions in zones where other techniques, such as finite difference methods, would need a very fine discretization. Only a few compartments are required to obtain a good accuracy in the calculated release. 34 refs, 17 figs

  8. The near-field transport in a repository for high-level nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranguiz, L.R.

    1995-05-01

    The thesis is focused on the modelling of a redox front which is created when the oxidants produced by a radiolytic process in a damaged canister escape to the surroundings, and on a fast and flexible model to calculate the radionuclide transport in the repository. In addition, the thesis includes an attempt to validate the processes involved in the redox front model and a sensitivity analysis of the uncertainties in the parameter values regarding the release of radionuclides from the Swedish KBS-3 repository. The redox front model considers that the transport of oxidants in the clay surrounding the canister is by diffusion and that the transport in the fractures in the rock is by flow with diffusion into the rock matrix.The assumed radiolysis rates denoted high and low in the thesis are probably not realistic, but can be seen as upper limits. thus it is unlikely that the redox front will ever move past the bentonite clay surrounding the canister, and if it does, the front may move less than 100 m. The model to calculate the transport of radionuclides in the near-field uses a coarse compartmentalization of the repository by embedding analytical solutions in zones where other techniques, such as finite difference methods, would need a very fine discretization. Only a few compartments are required to obtain a good accuracy in the calculated release. 34 refs, 17 figs.

  9. Cementitious Near-Field Sorption Data Base for Performance Assessment of an ILW Repository in Opalinus Clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieland, E.; Van Loon, L. R

    2003-08-01

    The present report describes a cement sorption database (SDB) for the safety-relevant radionuclides to be disposed of in the planned Swiss repository for long-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes (ILW). This report is an update on earlier SDBs, which were compiled for the cementitious near field of a repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes (L/ILW) by BRADBURY + SAROTT (1995) and BRADBURY + VAN LOON (1998). The radionuclide inventories are determined by the waste streams to be disposed of in the ILW repository. A list of the safety-relevant radionuclides was provided based on the currently available information on ILW inventories. The compositions of the cement porewaters in the near fields of the L/ILW and ILW repositories, which had been calculated using well-established codes for modelling cement degradation, were compared to identify any differences in the near-field conditions and to assess their influence on radionuclide sorption. Sorption values were selected based on the previously reported SDBs for the near field of the L/ILW repository. Sorption values were revised if new information and/or data were available which allowed changes to or re-appraisals of the data to be made. The sorption values recommended in this report were either selected on the basis of data from in-house experimental studies or from literature data. For some key radioelements, i.e., Cs(l), Sr(II), Ni(II), Eu(lll), Th(IV) and Sn(IV), new data were available from in-house measurements. These elements had been selected for experimental studies due to their relevance to safety assessment and/or their importance as appropriate chemical analogues. Degradation products of bitumen and cellulose, concrete admixtures and cement-derived near-field colloids were taken into account as the main potential perturbations, which could reduce radionuclide sorption in the near field. Possible impacts of the perturbing factors on radionuclide mobility were considered and

  10. Qualification of a Method to Calculate the Irrecoverable Pressure Loss in High Reynolds Number Piping Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigg, K. C.; Coffield, R. D.

    2002-09-01

    High Reynolds number test data has recently been reported for both single and multiple piping elbow design configurations at earlier ASME Fluid Engineering Division conferences. The data of these studies ranged up to a Reynolds number of 42 x 10[sup]6 which is significantly greater than that used to establish design correlations before the data was available. Many of the accepted design correlations, based on the lower Reynolds number data, date back as much as fifty years. The new data shows that these earlier correlations are extremely conservative for high Reynolds number applications. Based on the recent high Reynolds number information a new recommended method has been developed for calculating irrecoverable pressure loses in piping systems for design considerations such as establishing pump sizing requirements. This paper describes the recommended design approach and additional testing that has been performed as part of the qualification of the method. This qualification testing determined the irrecoverable pressure loss of a piping configuration that would typify a limiting piping section in a complicated piping network, i.e., multiple, tightly coupled, out-of-plane elbows in series under high Reynolds number flow conditions. The overall pressure loss measurements were then compared to predictions, which used the new methodology to assure that conservative estimates for the pressure loss (of the type used for pump sizing) were obtained. The recommended design methodology, the qualification testing and the comparison between the predictions and the test data are presented. A major conclusion of this study is that the recommended method for calculating irrecoverable pressure loss in piping systems is conservative yet significantly lower than predicted by early design correlations that were based on the extrapolation of low Reynolds number test data.

  11. The prospect of modern thermomechanics in structural integrity calculations of large-scale pressure vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Tamás

    2018-05-01

    Structural integrity calculations play a crucial role in designing large-scale pressure vessels. Used in the electric power generation industry, these kinds of vessels undergo extensive safety analyses and certification procedures before deemed feasible for future long-term operation. The calculations are nowadays directed and supported by international standards and guides based on state-of-the-art results of applied research and technical development. However, their ability to predict a vessel's behavior under accidental circumstances after long-term operation is largely limited by the strong dependence of the analysis methodology on empirical models that are correlated to the behavior of structural materials and their changes during material aging. Recently a new scientific engineering paradigm, structural integrity has been developing that is essentially a synergistic collaboration between a number of scientific and engineering disciplines, modeling, experiments and numerics. Although the application of the structural integrity paradigm highly contributed to improving the accuracy of safety evaluations of large-scale pressure vessels, the predictive power of the analysis methodology has not yet improved significantly. This is due to the fact that already existing structural integrity calculation methodologies are based on the widespread and commonly accepted 'traditional' engineering thermal stress approach, which is essentially based on the weakly coupled model of thermomechanics and fracture mechanics. Recently, a research has been initiated in MTA EK with the aim to review and evaluate current methodologies and models applied in structural integrity calculations, including their scope of validity. The research intends to come to a better understanding of the physical problems that are inherently present in the pool of structural integrity problems of reactor pressure vessels, and to ultimately find a theoretical framework that could serve as a well

  12. Optimization of s-Polarization Sensitivity in Apertureless Near-Field Optical Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuika Saito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a general belief in apertureless near-field microscopy that the so-called p-polarization configuration, where the incident light is polarized parallel to the axis of the probe, is advantageous to its counterpart, the s-polarization configuration, where the incident light is polarized perpendicular to the probe axis. While this is true for most samples under common near-field experimental conditions, there are samples which respond better to the s-polarization configuration due to their orientations. Indeed, there have been several reports that have discussed such samples. This leads us to an important requirement that the near-field experimental setup should be equipped with proper sensitivity for measurements with s-polarization configuration. This requires not only creation of effective s-polarized illumination at the near-field probe, but also proper enhancement of s-polarized light by the probe. In this paper, we have examined the s-polarization enhancement sensitivity of near-field probes by measuring and evaluating the near-field Rayleigh scattering images constructed by a variety of probes. We found that the s-polarization enhancement sensitivity strongly depends on the sharpness of the apex of near-field probes. We have discussed the efficient value of probe sharpness by considering a balance between the enhancement and the spatial resolution, both of which are essential requirements of apertureless near-field microscopy.

  13. Panel discussion on near-field coupled processes with emphasis on performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codell, R.B.; Baca, R.G.; Ahola, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    The presentations in this panel discussion involve the general topic of near-field coupled processes and postclosure performance assessment with an emphasis on rock mechanics. The potential impact of near-field rock mass deformation on repository performance was discussed, as well as topics including long term excavation deterioration, the performance of geologic seals, and coupled processes concerning rock mechanics in performance assessments

  14. Very high-accuracy calibration of radiation pattern and gain of a near-field probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Nielsen, Jeppe Majlund; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, very high-accuracy calibration of the radiation pattern and gain of a near-field probe is described. An open-ended waveguide near-field probe has been used in a recent measurement of the C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Antenna Subsystem for the Sentinel 1 mission of the Europ...

  15. Near-field optical microscope using a silicon-nitride probe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulst, N.F.; Moers, M.H.P.; Moers, M.H.P.; Noordman, O.F.J.; Noordman, O.F.J.; Tack, R.G.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Bölger, B.; Bölger, B.

    1993-01-01

    Operation of an alternative near-field optical microscope is presented. The microscope uses a microfabricated silicon- nitride probe with integrated cantilever, as originally developed for force microscopy. The cantilever allows routine close contact near-field imaging o­n arbitrary surfaces without

  16. ZOCO V - a computer code for the calculation of time-dependent spatial pressure distribution in reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfeld, G.; Schally, P.

    1978-06-01

    ZOCO V is a computer code which can calculate the time- and space- dependent pressure distribution in containments of water-cooled nuclear power reactors (both full pressure containments and pressure suppression systems) following a loss-of-coolant accident, caused by the rupture of a main coolant or steam pipe

  17. Graphene as a local probe to investigate near-field properties of plasmonic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserroth, Sören; Bisswanger, Timo; Mueller, Niclas S.; Kusch, Patryk; Heeg, Sebastian; Clark, Nick; Schedin, Fredrik; Gorbachev, Roman; Reich, Stephanie

    2018-04-01

    Light interacting with metallic nanoparticles creates a strongly localized near-field around the particle that enhances inelastic light scattering by several orders of magnitude. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering describes the enhancement of the Raman intensity by plasmonic nanoparticles. We present an extensive Raman characterization of a plasmonic gold nanodimer covered with graphene. Its two-dimensional nature and energy-independent optical properties make graphene an excellent material for investigating local electromagnetic near-fields. We show the localization of the near-field of the plasmonic dimer by spatial Raman measurements. Energy- and polarization-dependent measurements reveal the local near-field resonance of the plasmonic system. To investigate the far-field resonance we perform dark-field spectroscopy and find that near-field and far-field resonance energies differ by 170 meV, much more than expected from the model of a damped oscillator (40 meV).

  18. Development of a database system for the calculation of indicators of environmental pressure caused by transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannouli, Myrsini; Samaras, Zissis [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Laboratory of Applied Thermodynamics, Mechanical Engineering Department, GR 54124, Thessaloniki, P.O. Box 458 (Greece); Keller, Mario; De Haan, Peter [INFRAS, Muhlemattstrasse 45 CH-3007, Bern (Switzerland); Kallivoda, Manfred [psiA-Consult, Environmental Research and Engineering GmbH, Lastenstrasse 38/1, 1230 Wien (Austria); Sorenson, Spencer; Georgakaki, Aliki [DTU: Technical University of Denmark, Nils Koppels Alle, Building 403, DK 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2006-03-15

    The scope of this paper is to summarise a methodology developed for TRENDS (TRansport and ENvironment Database System-TRENDS). The main objective of TRENDS was the calculation of environmental pressure indicators caused by transport. The environmental pressures considered are associated with air emissions from the four main transport modes, i.e. road, rail, ships and air. In order to determine these indicators a system for calculating a range of environmental pressures due to transport was developed within a PC-based MS Access environment. Emphasis is given on the latest features incorporated in the model and their applications. One of the recently developed features of the software provides an option for simple scenario analysis including vehicle dynamics (such as turnover and evolution) for all EU15 member states. This feature is called the Transport Activity Balance module (TAB) and enables the production of collective results for all transport modes as well as a comparative assessment of air emissions produced by the various modes. Traffic activity and emission data obtained according to a basic (reference) scenario are displayed for the time period 1970-2020. In addition, a detailed assessment of the results produced by TRENDS was conducted by means of comparison with data found in the literature. Finally, vehicle emissions produced by the model for the EU15 member states were spatially disaggregated for the base year, 1995 and GIS maps were generated. Examples of these maps are displayed in this document, for the various modes of transport considered in the study. (author)

  19. Elastic Properties of Tricalcium Aluminate from High-Pressure Experiments and First-Principles Calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Moon, Juhyuk

    2012-06-04

    The structure and elasticity of tricalcium aluminate (C 3A) have been experimentally and theoretically studied. From high-pressure X-ray diffraction experiments, the bulk modulus of 102(6) and 110(3) GPa were obtained by fitting second- and third-order finite strain equation of state, respectively. First-principles calculations with a generalized gradient approximation gave an isotropic bulk modulus of 102.1 GPa and an isothermal bulk modulus of 106.0 GPa. The static calculations using the exchange-correlation functional show an excellent agreement with the experimental measurements. Based on the agreement, accurate elastic constants and other elastic moduli were computed. The slight difference of behavior at high pressure can be explained by the infiltration of pressure-transmitting silicone oil into structural holes in C 3A. The computed elastic and mechanical properties will be useful in understanding structural and mechanical properties of cementitious materials, particularly with the increasing interest in the advanced applications at the nanoscale. © 2012 The American Ceramic Society.

  20. Elastic Properties of Tricalcium Aluminate from High-Pressure Experiments and First-Principles Calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Moon, Juhyuk; Yoon, Seyoon; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.; Clark, Simon M.; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The structure and elasticity of tricalcium aluminate (C 3A) have been experimentally and theoretically studied. From high-pressure X-ray diffraction experiments, the bulk modulus of 102(6) and 110(3) GPa were obtained by fitting second- and third-order finite strain equation of state, respectively. First-principles calculations with a generalized gradient approximation gave an isotropic bulk modulus of 102.1 GPa and an isothermal bulk modulus of 106.0 GPa. The static calculations using the exchange-correlation functional show an excellent agreement with the experimental measurements. Based on the agreement, accurate elastic constants and other elastic moduli were computed. The slight difference of behavior at high pressure can be explained by the infiltration of pressure-transmitting silicone oil into structural holes in C 3A. The computed elastic and mechanical properties will be useful in understanding structural and mechanical properties of cementitious materials, particularly with the increasing interest in the advanced applications at the nanoscale. © 2012 The American Ceramic Society.

  1. High-pressure Raman spectra and DFT calculations of L-tyrosine hydrochloride crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, C. A. A. S. S.; Carvalho, J. O.; da Silva Filho, J. G.; Rodrigues, J. L.; Lima, R. J. C.; Pinheiro, G. S.; Freire, P. T. C.; Façanha Filho, P. F.

    2018-02-01

    High-pressure Raman spectra of L-tyrosine hydrochloride crystal were obtained from 1.0 atm to 7.0 GPa in the 90-1800 cm-1 spectral region. At atmospheric pressure, the Raman spectrum was obtained in the 50-3200 cm-1 spectral range and the assignment of the normal modes based on density functional theory calculations was provided. We found good correspondence between the calculated and the observed intramolecular geometry parameters. This confirms the correct assignment of the normal modes, since it was crucial to understand the meaning of the changes observed in particular Raman active modes. Here we show that bands associated with internal modes undergo slight modifications during compression. However, an inversion of the relative intensity of bands around 125 cm-1 as well as a change of slope dω/dP from 1.0 to 1.5 GPa was understood as a conformational change involving a torsion of the L-tyrosine molecule. As a consequence, it is possible to conclude that the crystal remained in the same monoclinic structure in the 1 atm-7.0 GPa interval, although conformational change of the molecule was verified. A comparison of our results with other selected studies provided insights about the role of the amino acid side chain on the arrangement of hydrogen bonds. Finally, when the pressure was released back to 1 atm, the Raman spectrum was recovered and no hysteresis was observed.

  2. Robust motion artefact resistant circuit for calculation of Mean Arterial Pressure from pulse transit time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Tinish; Gupta, Ankesh; Singh, Salam ThoiThoi; Roy, Sitikantha; Prasad, Anamika

    2017-07-01

    Cuff-less and non-invasive methods of Blood Pressure (BP) monitoring have faced a lot of challenges like stability, noise, motion artefact and requirement for calibration. These factors are the major reasons why such devices do not get approval from the medical community easily. One such method is calculating Blood Pressure indirectly from pulse transit time (PTT) obtained from electrocardiogram (ECG) and Photoplethysmogram (PPG). In this paper we have proposed two novel analog signal conditioning circuits for ECG and PPG that increase stability, remove motion artefacts, remove the sinusoidal wavering of the ECG baseline due to respiration and provide consistent digital pulses corresponding to blood pulses/heart-beat. We have combined these two systems to obtain the PTT and then correlated it with the Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP). The aim was to perform major part of the processing in analog domain to decrease processing load over microcontroller so as to reduce cost and make it simple and robust. We have found from our experiments that the proposed circuits can calculate the Heart Rate (HR) with a maximum error of ~3.0% and MAP with a maximum error of ~2.4% at rest and ~4.6% in motion.

  3. Mean Blood Pressure Assessment during Post-Exercise: Result from Two Different Methods of Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianmarco Sainas, Raffaele Milia, Girolamo Palazzolo, Gianfranco Ibba, Elisabetta Marongiu, Silvana Roberto, Virginia Pinna, Giovanna Ghiani, Filippo Tocco, Antonio Crisafulli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available At rest the proportion between systolic and diastolic periods of the cardiac cycle is about 1/3 and 2/3 respectively. Therefore, mean blood pressure (MBP is usually calculated with a standard formula (SF as follows: MBP = diastolic blood pressure (DBP + 1/3 [systolic blood pressure (SBP – DBP]. However, during exercise this proportion is lost because of tachycardia, which shortens diastole more than systole. We analysed the difference in MBP calculation between the SF and a corrected formula (CF which takes into account changes in the diastolic and systolic periods caused by exercise-induced tachycardia. Our hypothesis was that the SF potentially induce a systematic error in MBP assessment during recovery after exercise. Ten healthy males underwent two exercise-recovery tests on a cycle-ergometer at mild-moderate and moderate-heavy workloads. Hemodynamics and MBP were monitored for 30 minutes after exercise bouts. The main result was that the SF on average underestimated MBP by –4.1 mmHg with respect to the CF. Moreover, in the period immediately after exercise, when sustained tachycardia occurred, the difference between SF and CF was large (in the order of -20-30 mmHg. Likewise, a systematic error in systemic vascular resistance assessment was present. It was concluded that the SF introduces a substantial error in MBP estimation in the period immediately following effort. This equation should not be used in this situation.

  4. Generalized spectral method for near-field optical microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, B.-Y.; Zhang, L. M.; Basov, D. N.; Fogler, M. M. [Department of Physics, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Castro Neto, A. H. [Department of Physics, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Centre for Advanced 2D Materials and Graphene Research Centre, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

    2016-02-07

    Electromagnetic interaction between a sub-wavelength particle (the “probe”) and a material surface (the “sample”) is studied theoretically. The interaction is shown to be governed by a series of resonances corresponding to surface polariton modes localized near the probe. The resonance parameters depend on the dielectric function and geometry of the probe as well as on the surface reflectivity of the material. Calculation of such resonances is carried out for several types of axisymmetric probes: spherical, spheroidal, and pear-shaped. For spheroids, an efficient numerical method is developed, capable of handling cases of large or strongly momentum-dependent surface reflectivity. Application of the method to highly resonant materials, such as aluminum oxide (by itself or covered with graphene), reveals a rich structure of multi-peak spectra and nonmonotonic approach curves, i.e., the probe-sample distance dependence. These features also strongly depend on the probe shape and optical constants of the model. For less resonant materials such as silicon oxide, the dependence is weak, so that the spheroidal model is reliable. The calculations are done within the quasistatic approximation with radiative damping included perturbatively.

  5. Calculation of Pressure Distribution at Rotary Body Surface with the Vortex Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Dergachev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vortex element method allows to simulate unsteady hydrodynamic processes in incompressible environment, taking into account the evolution of the vortex sheet, including taking into account the deformation or moving of the body or part of construction.For the calculation of the hydrodynamic characteristics of the method based on vortex element software package was developed MVE3D. Vortex element (VE in program is symmetrical Vorton-cut. For satisfying the boundary conditions at the surface used closed frame of vortons.With this software system modeled incompressible flow around a cylindrical body protection elongation L / D = 13 with a front spherical blunt with the angle of attack of 10 °. We analyzed the distribution of the pressure coefficient on the body surface of the top and bottom forming.The calculate results were compared with known Results of experiment.Considered design schemes with different number of Vorton framework. Also varied radius of VE. Calculation make possible to establish the degree of sampling surface needed to produce close to experiment results. It has been shown that an adequate reproducing the pressure distribution in the transition region spherical cylindrical surface, on the windward side requires a high degree of sampling.Based on these results Can be possible need to improve on the design scheme of body's surface, allowing more accurate to describe the flow vorticity in areas with abrupt changes of geometry streamlined body.

  6. Electronic and optical properties of GaN under pressure: DFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaheri, Sahar; Boochani, Arash; Babaeipour, Manuchehr; Naderi, Sirvan

    2017-12-01

    Optical and electronic properties of ZB, RS and WZ structures of gallium nitride (GaN) are studied in equilibrium and under pressure using the first-principles calculation in the density functional theory (DFT) framework to obtain quantities like dielectric function, loss function, reflectance and absorption spectra, refractive index and their relation parameters. The electronic properties are studied using EV-GGA and GGA approximations and the results calculated by EV-GGA approximation were found to be much closer to the experimental results. The interband electron transitions are studied using the band structure and electron transition peaks in the imaginary part of the dielectric function; these transitions occur in three structures from N-2p orbital to Ga-4s and Ga-4p orbitals in the conduction band. Different optical properties of WZ structure were calculated in two polarization directions of (100) and (001) and the results were close to each other. Plasmon energy corresponding to the main peak of the energy-loss function in RS with the value of 26 eV was the highest one, which increased under pressure. In general, RS shows more different properties than WZ and ZB.

  7. Virtual-source diffusion approximation for enhanced near-field modeling of photon-migration in low-albedo medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Mengyu; Chen, Xueying; Zhao, Huijuan; Cui, Shanshan; Liu, Ming; Liu, Lingling; Gao, Feng

    2015-01-26

    Most analytical methods for describing light propagation in turbid medium exhibit low effectiveness in the near-field of a collimated source. Motivated by the Charge Simulation Method in electromagnetic theory as well as the established discrete source based modeling, we herein report on an improved explicit model for a semi-infinite geometry, referred to as "Virtual Source" (VS) diffuse approximation (DA), to fit for low-albedo medium and short source-detector separation. In this model, the collimated light in the standard DA is analogously approximated as multiple isotropic point sources (VS) distributed along the incident direction. For performance enhancement, a fitting procedure between the calculated and realistic reflectances is adopted in the near-field to optimize the VS parameters (intensities and locations). To be practically applicable, an explicit 2VS-DA model is established based on close-form derivations of the VS parameters for the typical ranges of the optical parameters. This parameterized scheme is proved to inherit the mathematical simplicity of the DA approximation while considerably extending its validity in modeling the near-field photon migration in low-albedo medium. The superiority of the proposed VS-DA method to the established ones is demonstrated in comparison with Monte-Carlo simulations over wide ranges of the source-detector separation and the medium optical properties.

  8. Red-Shift Effects in Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy: Spectral or Intensity Dependence of the Near-Field?

    KAUST Repository

    Colas, Florent; Cottat, Maximilien; Gillibert, Raymond; Guillot, Nicolas; Djaker, Nadia; Lidgi-Guigui, Nathalie; Toury, Timothé e; Barchiesi, Dominique; Toma, Andrea; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Gucciardi, Pietro Giuseppe; de la Chapelle, Marc Lamy

    2016-01-01

    Optimum amplification in Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) from individual nanoantennas is expected when the excitation is slightly blue-shifted with respect to the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR), so that the LSPR peak falls in the middle between the laser and the Stokes Raman emission. Recent experiments have shown when moving the excitation from the visible to the near-infrared that this rule of thumb is no more valid. The excitation has to be red-shifted with respect to the LSPR peak, up to 80nm, to obtain highest SERS. Such discrepancy is usually attributed to a Near-Field (NF) to Far-Field (FF) spectral shift. Here we critically discuss this hypothesis for the case of gold nanocylinders. By combining multi-wavelength excitation SERS experiments with numerical calculations, we show that the red-shift of the excitation energy does not originate from a spectral shift between the extinction (FF) and the near-field distribution (NF), which is found to be not larger than 10nm. Rather, it can be accounted for by looking at the peculiar spectral dependence of the near-field intensity on the cylinders diameter, characterized by an initial increase, up to 180nm diameter, followed by a decrease and a pronounced skewness.

  9. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a cone with conformal mapping: Application to scanning near-field optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, S. T.; Chen, Xinzhong; Liu, Mengkun; Lin, Zhifang; Zi, Jian

    2018-02-01

    We study the response of a conical metallic surface to an external electromagnetic (em) field by representing the fields in basis functions containing the integrable singularity at the tip of the cone. A fast analytical solution is obtained by the conformal mapping between the cone and a round disk. We apply our calculation to the scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM) and successfully quantify the elastic light scattering from a vibrating metallic tip over a uniform sample. We find that the field-induced charge distribution consists of localized terms at the tip and the base and an extended bulk term along the body of the cone far away from the tip. In recent s-SNOM experiments at the visible and infrared range (600 nm to 1 μ m ) the fundamental of the demodulated near-field signal is found to be much larger than the higher harmonics whereas at THz range (100 μ m to 3 mm) the fundamental becomes comparable to the higher harmonics. We find that the localized tip charge dominates the contribution to the higher harmonics and becomes larger for the THz experiments, thus providing an intuitive understanding of the origin of the near-field signals. We demonstrate the application of our method by extracting a two-dimensional effective dielectric constant map from the s-SNOM image of a finite metallic disk, where the variation comes from the charge density induced by the em field.

  10. Red-Shift Effects in Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy: Spectral or Intensity Dependence of the Near-Field?

    KAUST Repository

    Colas, Florent

    2016-06-06

    Optimum amplification in Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) from individual nanoantennas is expected when the excitation is slightly blue-shifted with respect to the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR), so that the LSPR peak falls in the middle between the laser and the Stokes Raman emission. Recent experiments have shown when moving the excitation from the visible to the near-infrared that this rule of thumb is no more valid. The excitation has to be red-shifted with respect to the LSPR peak, up to 80nm, to obtain highest SERS. Such discrepancy is usually attributed to a Near-Field (NF) to Far-Field (FF) spectral shift. Here we critically discuss this hypothesis for the case of gold nanocylinders. By combining multi-wavelength excitation SERS experiments with numerical calculations, we show that the red-shift of the excitation energy does not originate from a spectral shift between the extinction (FF) and the near-field distribution (NF), which is found to be not larger than 10nm. Rather, it can be accounted for by looking at the peculiar spectral dependence of the near-field intensity on the cylinders diameter, characterized by an initial increase, up to 180nm diameter, followed by a decrease and a pronounced skewness.

  11. A New Way to Calculate Flow Pressure for Low Permeability Oil Well with Partially Penetrating Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Ping

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the validity of the previous models on calculating flow pressure for oil well with partially perforating fracture, a new physical model that obeys the actual heterogeneous reservoir characteristics was built. Different conditions, including reservoir with impermeable top and bottom borders or the reservoir top which has constant pressure, were considered. Through dimensionless transformation, Laplace transformation, Fourier cosine transformation, separation of variables, and other mathematical methods, the analytical solution of Laplace domain was obtained. By using Stephenson numerical methods, the numerical solution pressure in a real domain was obtained. The results of this method agree with the numerical simulations, suggesting that this new method is reliable. The following sensitivity analysis showed that the pressure dynamic linear flow curve can be divided into four flow streams of early linear flow, midradial flow, advanced spherical flow, and border controlling flow. Fracture length controls the early linear flow. Permeability anisotropy significantly affects the midradial flow. The degree of penetration and fracture orientation dominantly affect the late spherical flow. The boundary conditions and reservoir boundary width mainly affect the border controlling flow. The method can be used to determine the optimal degree of opening shot, vertical permeability, and other useful parameters, providing theoretical guidance for reservoir engineering analysis.

  12. Resummed two-loop calculation of the disjoining pressure of a symmetric electrolyte soap film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, D.S.; Horgan, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we consider the calculation of the disjoining pressure of a symmetric electrolytic soap film correct to two loops in perturbation theory. We show that the disjoining pressure is finite when the loop expansion is resummed using a cumulant expansion and requires no short distance cutoff in order to give a finite result. The loop expansion is resummed in terms of an expansion in g=l B /l D where l D is the Debye length and l B is the Bjerrum length. We show that there there is a nonanalytic contribution of order g ln(g). We also show that the two-loop correction is greater than the one-loop term at large film thicknesses suggesting a nonperturbative correction to the one-loop result in this limit

  13. Computer calculation of heat capacity of natural gases over a wide range of pressure and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dranchuk, P.M. (Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)); Abou-Kassem, J.H. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (USA))

    1992-04-01

    A method is presented whereby specific heats or heat capacities of natural gases, both sweet and sour, at elevated pressures and temperatures may be made suitable to modern-day machine calculation. The method involves developing a correlation for ideal isobaric heat capacity as a function of gas gravity and pseudo reduced temperature over the temperature range of 300 to 1500 K, and a mathematical equation for the isobaric heat capacity departure based on accepted thermodynamic principles applied to an equation of state that adequately describes the behavior of gases to which the Standing and Katz Z factor correlation applies. The heat capacity departure equation is applicable over the range of 0.2 {le} Pr {le} 15 and 1.05 {le} Tr {le} 3, where Pr and Tr refer to the reduced pressure and temperature respectively. The significance of the method presented lies in its utility and adaptability to computer applications. 25 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Calculation method for residual stress analysis of filament-wound spherical pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, C.E. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Filament wound spherical pressure vessels may be produced with very high performance factors. These performance factors are a calculation of contained pressure times enclosed volume divided by structure weight. A number of parameters are important in determining the level of performance achieved. One of these is the residual stress state in the fabricated unit. A significant level of an unfavorable residual stress state could seriously impair the performance of the vessel. Residual stresses are of more concern for vessels with relatively thick walls and/or vessels constructed with the highly anisotropic graphite or aramid fibers. A method is established for measuring these stresses. A theoretical model of the composite structure is required. Data collection procedures and techniques are developed. The data are reduced by means of the model and result in the residual stress analysis. The analysis method can be used in process parameter studies to establish the best fabrication procedures

  15. Safety Assessment of a Hypothetical Near Surface Disposal at PPTN Serpong Site: Near-Field Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubis, Erwansyah

    2000-01-01

    The near field modeling of a hypothetical surface disposal at Serpong site has been performed. Considering a realistic downward water flux of 10 -1 0 m/s through the conditioned waste zone and the concrete barriers, transport of radionuclide by advection and dispersion below the bottom of the repository was calculated using PORFLOW computer code. The result shows that the highest fluxes were observed H-3, Cs-135, Nb-94 and Ni-59, all about 10 4 Bq/a/m 2 . Intermediate fluxes were obtained for Cs-137, I-129 and Co-60. Lowest were due to Ni-63 and C-14. The effect on radionuclide fluxes by having an unsaturated soil of 1.0-m depth below the bottom of the repository also was investigated. The results indicate that the highest fluxes are due to Cs-135, Nb-94 and Ni- 59, approximately 10 4 Bq/a/m 2 . The fluxes owing to H-3 has decreased to 10 -9 Bq/a/m 2 owing to decay. Radionuclides that are not absorbed onto lateritic clay soil, C-14 and I-129 are not decreased in flux. All other radionuclides has significantly smaller fluxes compared to the ones calculated at the bottom of the repository. This indicates that the lateric clay soil at Serpong site plays an important role in retarding and dispersing the radionuclide migration towards the ground water. (author)

  16. Evolution of near-field physico-chemical characteristics of the SFR repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, D.; Stenhouse, M.; Benbow, S.

    2000-08-01

    The evaluation of the post-closure performance of the SFR repository needs to consider time dependent evolution of the repository environment. Time-dependent reaction of near-field barriers (cement, steel, bentonite) with saturating groundwater will lead to the development of hyper alkaline repository pore fluids, chemically reducing conditions, and ultimately, the generation of gas through anaerobic corrosion of metals. Cement and concrete will act as chemical conditioning agents to minimise metal corrosion and ultimately, maximise radioelement sorption. The chemical and physical evolution of cement and concrete through reaction with ambient groundwater will thus affect sorption processes through changes in pH, complexing ligands, and solid surface properties. It is desirable that these changes be incorporated into the safety assessment. The sorption behaviour of radionuclides in cementitious systems has been reviewed in detail. The available evidence from experimental work carried out on the influence of organic materials on the sorption behaviour of radionuclides, indicates that most organic degradation products will not affect sorption significantly at the concentrations expected in a cementitious repository. The notable exception to this conclusion involves the degradation products of cellulose and, in particular, polycarboxylic acids represented by iso-saccharinic acid (ISA). Results using ISA indicate a significant reduction in sorption of Pu, by several orders of magnitude, for an ISA concentration of about 10 -3 M. More recent data indicate that the negative effect is not as great, though still significant. Therefore, some scoping calculations are advisable to determine how realistic an ISA concentration of about 10 -3 M would be for the SFR repository and to estimate concentrations of other relevant organic compounds, in particular EDTA, for comparison. Scoping calculations relevant to the longevity of hyper alkaline pore fluid conditions at SFR have been

  17. Evolution of near-field physico-chemical characteristics of the SFR repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, D [Quintessa Ltd., Nottingham (United Kingdom); Stenhouse, M [Monitor Scientific LLC, Denver, CO (United States); Benbow, S [Quintessa Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2000-08-01

    The evaluation of the post-closure performance of the SFR repository needs to consider time dependent evolution of the repository environment. Time-dependent reaction of near-field barriers (cement, steel, bentonite) with saturating groundwater will lead to the development of hyper alkaline repository pore fluids, chemically reducing conditions, and ultimately, the generation of gas through anaerobic corrosion of metals. Cement and concrete will act as chemical conditioning agents to minimise metal corrosion and ultimately, maximise radioelement sorption. The chemical and physical evolution of cement and concrete through reaction with ambient groundwater will thus affect sorption processes through changes in pH, complexing ligands, and solid surface properties. It is desirable that these changes be incorporated into the safety assessment. The sorption behaviour of radionuclides in cementitious systems has been reviewed in detail. The available evidence from experimental work carried out on the influence of organic materials on the sorption behaviour of radionuclides, indicates that most organic degradation products will not affect sorption significantly at the concentrations expected in a cementitious repository. The notable exception to this conclusion involves the degradation products of cellulose and, in particular, polycarboxylic acids represented by iso-saccharinic acid (ISA). Results using ISA indicate a significant reduction in sorption of Pu, by several orders of magnitude, for an ISA concentration of about 10{sup -3} M. More recent data indicate that the negative effect is not as great, though still significant. Therefore, some scoping calculations are advisable to determine how realistic an ISA concentration of about 10{sup -3} M would be for the SFR repository and to estimate concentrations of other relevant organic compounds, in particular EDTA, for comparison. Scoping calculations relevant to the longevity of hyper alkaline pore fluid conditions at SFR

  18. Integral linear momentum balance in combining flows for calculating the pressure drop coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollmann, A.

    1983-01-01

    Equations for calculating the loss coefficient in combining flows in tee functions are obtained by an integral linear momentum balance. It is a practice, when solving this type of problem, to neglect the pressure difference in the upstream location as well as the wall-fluid interaction in the lateral branch of the junction. In this work it is demonstrated the influence of the above parameters on the loss coefficient based on experimental values and by apropriate algebraic manipulation of the loss coefficient values published by previous investigators. (Author) [pt

  19. A rapid estimation of near field tsunami run-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riqueime, Sebastian; Fuentes, Mauricio; Hayes, Gavin; Campos, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Many efforts have been made to quickly estimate the maximum run-up height of tsunamis associated with large earthquakes. This is a difficult task, because of the time it takes to construct a tsunami model using real time data from the source. It is possible to construct a database of potential seismic sources and their corresponding tsunami a priori.However, such models are generally based on uniform slip distributions and thus oversimplify the knowledge of the earthquake source. Here, we show how to predict tsunami run-up from any seismic source model using an analytic solution, that was specifically designed for subduction zones with a well defined geometry, i.e., Chile, Japan, Nicaragua, Alaska. The main idea of this work is to provide a tool for emergency response, trading off accuracy for speed. The solutions we present for large earthquakes appear promising. Here, run-up models are computed for: The 1992 Mw 7.7 Nicaragua Earthquake, the 2001 Mw 8.4 Perú Earthquake, the 2003Mw 8.3 Hokkaido Earthquake, the 2007 Mw 8.1 Perú Earthquake, the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule Earthquake, the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku Earthquake and the recent 2014 Mw 8.2 Iquique Earthquake. The maximum run-up estimations are consistent with measurements made inland after each event, with a peak of 9 m for Nicaragua, 8 m for Perú (2001), 32 m for Maule, 41 m for Tohoku, and 4.1 m for Iquique. Considering recent advances made in the analysis of real time GPS data and the ability to rapidly resolve the finiteness of a large earthquake close to existing GPS networks, it will be possible in the near future to perform these calculations within the first minutes after the occurrence of similar events. Thus, such calculations will provide faster run-up information than is available from existing uniform-slip seismic source databases or past events of pre-modeled seismic sources.

  20. Engine jet entrainment in the near field of an aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, F.; Jacquin, L.; Laverdant, A. [Office National d`Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    1997-12-31

    A simplified approach has been applied to analyse the mixing and entrainment processes of the engine exhaust through their interaction with the vortex wake of an aircraft. These investigations are focused on the near filed, extending from exit nozzle to the beginning of the vortex phase (i.e. to about twenty seconds after the wake is generated). This study is performed using an integral model and a numerical simulation for a two-engine large civil aircraft. The properties of the wing-tip vortices on the calculation of the dilution ratio (defined as a tracer concentration) have been shown. The mixing process is also affected by the buoyancy effect, but only after the jet regime, when the trapping in the vortex core has occurred. Qualitative comparison with contrail photography shows similar features. Finally the distortion and stretching of the plume streamlines inside the vortices can be observed, and the role of the descent of the vortices on the maximum tracer concentration has been discussed. (author) 19 refs.

  1. Engine jet entrainment in the near field of an aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, F; Jacquin, L; Laverdant, A [Office National d` Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    1998-12-31

    A simplified approach has been applied to analyse the mixing and entrainment processes of the engine exhaust through their interaction with the vortex wake of an aircraft. These investigations are focused on the near filed, extending from exit nozzle to the beginning of the vortex phase (i.e. to about twenty seconds after the wake is generated). This study is performed using an integral model and a numerical simulation for a two-engine large civil aircraft. The properties of the wing-tip vortices on the calculation of the dilution ratio (defined as a tracer concentration) have been shown. The mixing process is also affected by the buoyancy effect, but only after the jet regime, when the trapping in the vortex core has occurred. Qualitative comparison with contrail photography shows similar features. Finally the distortion and stretching of the plume streamlines inside the vortices can be observed, and the role of the descent of the vortices on the maximum tracer concentration has been discussed. (author) 19 refs.

  2. Neutronic calculations for the reactor pressure vessel of Atucha I nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerner, Ana M.; Madariaga, Marcelo R.

    1999-01-01

    In 1974 a surveillance program for the Atucha I nuclear power plant pressure vessel was initiated which included the construction of different types of specimens, distributed in 30 irradiation capsules located under the core at the lower part of some of the fuel channels. The capsules containing the irradiated specimens were withdrawn in two stages; the first set (SET 1) of 15 specimens in 1980 and the second one (SET 2) of the remaining 15, in 1987. Both fracture mechanic tests and dosimetry analysis were carried out by the designer (KWU) for SET1 and by the owner National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) for SET2. The calculations performed in the case of SET1 showed that there was a significant spectrum difference between the position where the specimens had been and the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) - inner surface (IS). It was established that the ratio of thermal flux (E 1 MeV) varied, approximately, from 1000 to 10 from the irradiation position to the RPV- IS. The purpose of this report is to show the calculations recently performed at the Nuclear Regulatory Authority, with particular emphasis on the difference in the results generated by the modification to sightly enriched fuel. A simplified 1-D calculations show that there is a slight increase (4% approximately) in the flux along the whole energy range. As it has already been mentioned, this is due, more than to the isotopic composition of the new fuel, to the difference in power density spatial distribution, which is a consequence of a different fuel management, necessary to preserve operational limits below their maximum allowed values with the same total thermal power generated. More detailed calculations are nevertheless foreseen in order to verify these first results. (author)

  3. On the sensitivity of HCPWR [high conversion pressurized water reactors] microcell calculations to geometrical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbaffoni, Maria; Abbate, Maximo; Patino, Nestor

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear reactor microcell calculations are, normally, carried out using simplified geometrical models which do not include the total number of homogeneous zones actually present. Regarding the particular case of High Conversion Pressurized Water Reactors (HCPWR), the revision of this approximation has been done to determine the sensitivity of its neutronic parameters to the use of these models. The study was performed comparing multiplication factors, reaction rates and neutron spectra, obtained using different geometrical treatments for a HCPWR typical microcell. From the results, it can be asserted that, if only two zones should be used in the calculation, the model which dilutes the clad into the moderator gives best results for the neutron fluxes, but the model that mix it with the fuel is better for k-infinite and reaction rate values. Considering the significance of these parameters on the physical behaviour of the reactor, the last one is recommended for cell calculations. Even if there is a slight difference between the cells considered, some results of this work were also compared with those of the NEACRP HCLWR benchmark with good agreement, so it can be concluded that the methodology here used for data processing and calculations is applicable to HCR's cell studies. (Author)

  4. Calculation and analysis of thermal–hydraulics fluctuations in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmir, Hessam; Vosoughi, Naser

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Single-phase thermal–hydraulics noise equations are originally derived in the frequency domain. • The fluctuations of all the coolant parameters are calculated, without any simplifying assumptions. • The radial distribution of the temperature fluctuations in the fuel, gap and cladding are taken into account. • The closed-loop calculations are performed by means of the point kinetics noise theory. • Both the space- and frequency-dependence of the thermal–hydraulics fluctuations are analyzed. - Abstract: Analysis of thermal–hydraulics fluctuations in pressurized water reactors (e.g., local and global temperature or density fluctuations, as well as primary and charging pumps fluctuations) has various applications in calculation or measurement of the core dynamical parameters (temperature or density reactivity coefficients) in addition to thermal–hydraulics surveillance and diagnostics. In this paper, the thermal–hydraulics fluctuations in PWRs are investigated. At first, the single-phase thermal–hydraulics noise equations (in the frequency domain) are originally derived, without any simplifying assumptions. The fluctuations of all the coolant parameters, as well as the radial distribution of the temperature fluctuations in the fuel, gap and cladding are taken into account. Then, the derived governing equations are discretized using the finite volume method (FVM). Based on the discretized equations and the proposed algorithm of solving, a single heated channel noise calculation code (SHC-Noise) is developed, by which the steady-state and fluctuating parameters of PWR fuel assemblies can be calculated. The noise sources include the inlet coolant temperature and velocity fluctuations, in addition to the power density noises. The developed SHC-Noise code is benchmarked in different cases and scenarios. Furthermore, to show the effects of the power feedbacks, the closed-loop calculations are performed by means of the point kinetics noise

  5. Effects of topical hypotensive drugs on circadian IOP, blood pressure, and calculated diastolic ocular perfusion pressure in patients with glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Luciano; Gandolfo, Federico; Turano, Raffaele; Rovida, Federico; Pizzolante, Teodoro; Musig, Andrea; Gandolfo, Enrico

    2006-07-01

    To compare the short-term effects of timolol 0.5%, brimonidine 0.2%, dorzolamide 2%, and latanoprost 0.005% on intraocular pressure (IOP), blood pressure (BP), and diastolic ocular perfusion pressure (DOPP), calculated as the difference between the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and IOP. According to a 4 x 4 Latin squares design for repeated measures, 27 untreated patients and patients with newly diagnosed primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) were treated with timolol 0.5% at 8 AM and 8 PM; brimonidine 0.2% at 8 AM and 8 PM; dorzolamide 2% at 8 AM, 2 PM, and 8 PM; and latanoprost 0.005% at 8 PM. The duration of each treatment course was 6-weeks, with a 4-week washout between each treatment. IOP and BP were measured at baseline and at the end of each treatment period. IOP was measured every 2 hours throughout a 24-hour period. Sitting IOP was measured from 8 AM to 10 PM by Goldmann applanation tonometry. Supine IOP was assessed from 12 to 6 AM by means of a handheld electronic tonometer (TonoPen XL; Mentor, Norwell, MA). BP monitoring was performed by means of an automated portable device (TM-2430; A & D Co., Saitama, Japan). All the drugs tested decreased the IOP significantly at all time points in comparison with baseline pressure. The mean 24-hour IOP after latanoprost administration (16.62+/-0.98 mm Hg) was significantly lower than that after timolol, brimonidine, or dorzolamide (P=0.0001). During the 24-hour period, brimonidine induced a significant decrease in systolic BP (SBP) and DBP at all time points when compared with baseline measurements and with those after administration of the other drugs (P<0.0001). Timolol caused a significant decrease in DBP and SBP at all the 24-hour time points when compared with the baseline and with the dorzolamide- and latanoprost-induced changes (P<0.0001). The mean 24-hour DOPPs were 50.7+/-5.9 mm Hg at baseline, 53+/-5.5 mm Hg with timolol, 46.2+/-5.4 mm Hg with brimonidine, 55.9+/-4.6 mm Hg with dorzolamide, and 56

  6. EARLY DETECTION OF NEAR-FIELD TSUNAMIS USING UNDERWATER SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Freitag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel approach for near-field tsunami detection, specifically for the area near the city of Padang, Indonesia. Padang is located on the western shore of Sumatra, directly across from the Mentawai segment of the Sunda Trench, where accumulated strain has not been released since the great earthquake of 1797. Consequently, the risk of a major tsunamigenic earthquake on this segment is high. Currently, no ocean-bottom pressure sensors are deployed in the Mentawai basin to provide a definitive tsunami warning for Padang. Timely warnings are essential to initiate evacuation procedures and minimize loss of human life. Our approach augments existing technology with a network of underwater sensors to detect tsunamis generated by an earthquake or landslide fast enough to provide at least 15 minutes of warning. Data from the underwater sensor network would feed into existing decision support systems that accept input from land and sea-based sensors and provide warning information to city and regional authorities.

  7. Radionuclide transport in the repository near-field and far-field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poteri, A.; Nordman, H.; Pulkkanen, V.-M.; Smith, P.

    2014-01-01

    This report is a background report of the TURVA-2012 safety case report 'Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System'. This report gives a comprehensive account of the modelling of radionuclide release from a defective canister and the subsequent migration to the surface groundwater system. The focus of this report is in the radionuclide migration both in the repository near-field and in the repository far-field. Radionuclide releases from the canister and migration through the repository near-field and far-field have also been analysed in the probabilistic sensitivity analysis based on the Monte Carlo simulation method. Those simulations are discussed in a separate report by Cormenzana. Calculation cases are derived from three different types of scenarios: (i) The base scenario that assumes a single initially defective canister located in a cautiously selected canister position, i.e. selecting the failed canister location such that radionuclide release and transport properties are conservative compared to the statistics over all canister locations. Migration processes and parameter values follow the most likely lines of evolution. Repository safety functions are assumed to perform according to the design basis. Calculation cases defined in the Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios report are also supplemented by additional calculation cases that are aimed to study variability between different DFN realisations (additional BS-ALL cases), longitudinal dispersion (BS-RC-ld cases) and alternative realisations of the transport classes along the release paths (BS-RC-tc cases), (ii) Variant scenarios that study declined performance of the repository safety functions. These include enhanced corrosion failure and degradation of the buffer under variant geochemical conditions (iii) Disturbance scenarios that analyse influences of unlikely events on the radionuclide release and migration. Analysis of the variant and disturbance scenarios

  8. Pressure drop calculation in a fuel element of a pool type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassance, Victor; Oliveira, Andre F.; Moreira, Maria de L.

    2013-01-01

    Even with the advances of hardware in computer sciences, sometimes it is necessary to simplify the simulation in order to optimize the results given the same calculation runtime. The object of this study is a thermodynamic analysis of the core of a pool type research reactor, focusing on natural circulation. Due to the high geometrical complexity of the core, the scale transfer process becomes an essential step to the thermodynamic study of the reactor. This process takes place by determining the effective equivalent properties obtained from a detailed simulation of the core and transferring them to a porous medium having a coarse mesh while preserving the overall characteristics. In this way, it will be able to obtain the quadratic resistance coefficient KQ by calculating the pressure drop inside the fuel element. To observe in detail the behavior of this flow, longitudinal and transversal cross sections will be made in different points, thereby observing the velocity and pressure distributions. The analysis will provide detailed data on the fluid flow between the fuel plates enabling the observation of possible critical points or undesired behavior. The whole analysis was made by using the commercial code ANSYS CFX ver. 12.1. This is study will provide data, as a first step to enable future simulations which will consider the entire reactor. (author)

  9. Supersonic acoustic intensity with statistically optimized near-field acoustic holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    The concept of supersonic acoustic intensity was introduced some years ago for estimating the fraction of the flow of energy radiated by a source that propagates to the far field. It differs from the usual (active) intensity by excluding the near-field energy resulting from evanescent waves...... to the information provided by the near-field acoustic holography technique. This study proposes a version of the supersonic acoustic intensity applied to statistically optimized near-field acoustic holography (SONAH). The theory, numerical results and an experimental study are presented. The possibility of using...

  10. Direct subwavelength imaging and control of near-field localization in individual silver nanocubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mårsell, Erik; Svärd, Robin; Miranda, Miguel; Guo, Chen; Harth, Anne; Lorek, Eleonora; Mauritsson, Johan; Arnold, Cord L.; L' Huillier, Anne; Mikkelsen, Anders; Losquin, Arthur, E-mail: arthur.losquin@fysik.lth.se [Department of Physics, Lund University, PO Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Xu, Hongxing [Department of Physics, Lund University, PO Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); School of Physics and Technology and Institute for Advanced Studies, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2015-11-16

    We demonstrate the control of near-field localization within individual silver nanocubes through photoemission electron microscopy combined with broadband, few-cycle laser pulses. We find that the near-field is concentrated at the corners of the cubes, and that it can be efficiently localized to different individual corners depending on the polarization of the incoming light. The experimental results are confirmed by finite-difference time-domain simulations, which also provide an intuitive picture of polarization dependent near-field localization in nanocubes.

  11. Near-field imaging of femtosecond laser ablated sub-λ/4 holes in lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenas, Airan; Lamela, Jorge; Jaque, Daniel; Lifante, Gines; Jaque, Francisco; Garcia-Martin, Antonio; Zhou Guangyong; Gu Min

    2009-01-01

    We report on the direct femtosecond laser ablation of sub-λ/4 (80-250 nm) holes in LiNbO 3 crystals and on its local near-field imaging. We show that the near-field transmission of holes can feature an attenuation of ∼75% at hole central position, and a ∼20% transmission enhancement at its sides. This high-contrast ring-shaped near-field distribution is found to be in agreement with simulations, suggesting the surface relief as the main contrast mechanism.

  12. Calculation of Local Stress and Fatigue Resistance due to Thermal Stratification on Pressurized Surge Line Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandriyana, B.; Utaja

    2010-06-01

    Thermal stratification introduces thermal shock effect which results in local stress and fatique problems that must be considered in the design of nuclear power plant components. Local stress and fatique calculation were performed on the Pressurize Surge Line piping system of the Pressurize Water Reactor of the Nuclear Power Plant. Analysis was done on the operating temperature between 177 to 343° C and the operating pressure of 16 MPa (160 Bar). The stagnant and transient condition with two kinds of stratification model has been evaluated by the two dimensional finite elements method using the ANSYS program. Evaluation of fatigue resistance is developed based on the maximum local stress using the ASME standard Code formula. Maximum stress of 427 MPa occurred at the upper side of the top half of hot fluid pipe stratification model in the transient case condition. The evaluation of the fatigue resistance is performed on 500 operating cycles in the life time of 40 years and giving the usage value of 0,64 which met to the design requirement for class 1 of nuclear component. The out surge transient were the most significant case in the localized effects due to thermal stratification.

  13. High pressure stability of lithium metatitanate and metazirconate: Insight from experiments & ab-initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitnis, Abhishek; Chakraborty, B.; Tripathi, B. M.; Tyagi, A. K.; Garg, Nandini

    2018-02-01

    Lithium metatitanate (LTO) and lithium metazirconate (LZO) are lithium rich ceramics which can be used as tritium breeder materials for thermonuclear reactors. In-situ x-ray diffraction and ab-initio studies at high pressure show that LTO has a higher bulk modulus than that of LZO. In fact these studies indicate that they are the least compressible of the known lithium rich ceramics like Li2O or Li4SiO4, which are potential candidates for blanket materials. These studies show that the TiO6 octahedra are responsible for the higher bulk modulus of LTO when compared to that of LZO. It has also been shown that the compressibility and distortion of the softer LiO6 octahedra can be controlled by altering the stacking sequence of the more rigid covalently bonded octahedra. This knowledge can be used by chemists to design new lithium based ceramics with higher bulk modulus. It was observed that LTO was stable upto 34 GPa. Ab initio DFT calculations helped to understand the anisotropy in compressibility of both LZO and LTO. This study also shows, that even though the empirical potentials developed by Vijaykumar et al. successfully determine the ambient pressure structure of lithium metatitanate, they cannot be used at non ambient conditions like high pressure [1].

  14. Novel method to calculate pulmonary compliance images in rodents from computed tomography acquired at constant pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, Thomas; Castillo, Richard; Sanders, Kevin; Price, Roger; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cody, Dianna

    2006-01-01

    Our goal was to develop a method for generating high-resolution three-dimensional pulmonary compliance images in rodents from computed tomography (CT) images acquired at a series of constant pressures in ventilated animals. One rat and one mouse were used to demonstrate this technique. A pre-clinical GE flat panel CT scanner (maximum 31 line-pairs cm -1 resolution) was utilized for image acquisition. The thorax of each animal was imaged with breath-holds at 2, 6, 10, 14 and 18 cm H 2 O pressure in triplicate. A deformable image registration algorithm was applied to each pair of CT images to map corresponding tissue elements. Pulmonary compliance was calculated on a voxel by voxel basis using adjacent pairs of CT images. Triplicate imaging was used to estimate the measurement error of this technique. The 3D pulmonary compliance images revealed regional heterogeneity of compliance. The maximum total lung compliance measured 0.080 (±0.007) ml air per cm H 2 O per ml of lung and 0.039 (±0.004) ml air per cm H 2 O per ml of lung for the rat and mouse, respectively. In this study, we have demonstrated a unique method of quantifying regional lung compliance from 4 to 16 cm H 2 O pressure with sub-millimetre spatial resolution in rodents

  15. SKB WP-cave project. Radionuclide release from the near-field in a WP-cave repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, M.; Skagius, K.

    1989-04-01

    The release of radionuclides from the bentonite-sand barrier (near-field) in a WP-cave repository for high level radioactive waste has been studied. Calculations were made for two cases; a Low Flow Through Case and a High Flow Through Case. The difference between the two cases lies in the assumed hydraulic properties of the bentonite-sand barrier and the system inside the barrier. The effect on the nuclide release of solubility limitations, sorption capacity of the barriers, radiolytic fuel oxidation rate as well as the thickness of the bentonite-sand barrier, were also investigated for the Low Flow Through Case. (authors)

  16. An inverse method for determining the interaction force between the probe and sample using scanning near-field optical microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Win-Jin; Fang, Te-Hua

    2006-01-01

    This study proposes a means for calculating the interaction force during the scanning process using a scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) probe. The determination of the interaction force in the scanning system is regarded as an inverse vibration problem. The conjugate gradient method is applied to treat the inverse problem using available displacement measurements. The results show that the conjugate gradient method is less sensitive to measurement errors and prior information on the functional form of quality was not required. Furthermore, the initial guesses for the interaction force can be arbitrarily chosen for the iteration process

  17. Modeling coupled thermal, flow, transport and geochemical processes controlling near field long-term evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, W.; Arthur, R.; Xu, T.; Pruess, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Bentonite is planned for use as a buffer material in the Swedish nuclear waste disposal concept (KBS-3). Upon emplacement, the buffer is expected to experience a complex set of coupled processes involving heating, re-saturation, reaction and transport of groundwater imbibed from the host rock. The effect of these processes may eventually lead to changes in desirable physical and rheological properties of the buffer, but these processes are not well understood. In this paper, a new quantitative model is evaluated to help improve our understanding of the long-term performance of buffer materials. This is an extension of a previous study [1] that involved simple thermal and chemical models applied to a fully saturated buffer. The thermal model in the present study uses heating histories for spent fuel in a single waste package [2]. The model uses repository dimensions, such as borehole and tunnel spacings [2], which affect the temperature distribution around the waste package. At the time of emplacement, bentonite is partially saturated with water having a different composition than the host-rock groundwater. The present model simulates water imbibition from the host rock into the bentonite under capillary and hydraulic pressure gradients. The associated chemical reactions and solute transport are simulated using Aespoe water composition [3]. The initial mineralogy of bentonite is assumed to be dominated by Na-smectite with much smaller amounts of anhydrite and calcite. Na-smectite dissolution is assumed to be kinetically-controlled while all other reactions are assumed to be at equilibrium controlled. All equilibrium and kinetic constants are temperature dependent. The modeling tool used is TOUGHREACT, developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory [4]. TOUGHREACT is a numerical model that is well suited for near-field simulations because it accounts for feedback between porosity and permeability changes from mineral

  18. Development of a simplified statistical methodology for nuclear fuel rod internal pressure calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyu Tae; Kim, Oh Hwan

    1999-01-01

    A simplified statistical methodology is developed in order to both reduce over-conservatism of deterministic methodologies employed for PWR fuel rod internal pressure (RIP) calculation and simplify the complicated calculation procedure of the widely used statistical methodology which employs the response surface method and Monte Carlo simulation. The simplified statistical methodology employs the system moment method with a deterministic statistical methodology employs the system moment method with a deterministic approach in determining the maximum variance of RIP. The maximum RIP variance is determined with the square sum of each maximum value of a mean RIP value times a RIP sensitivity factor for all input variables considered. This approach makes this simplified statistical methodology much more efficient in the routine reload core design analysis since it eliminates the numerous calculations required for the power history-dependent RIP variance determination. This simplified statistical methodology is shown to be more conservative in generating RIP distribution than the widely used statistical methodology. Comparison of the significances of each input variable to RIP indicates that fission gas release model is the most significant input variable. (author). 11 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Calculation of Oxygen Fugacity in High Pressure Metal-Silicate Experiments and Comparison to Standard Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Ghiorso, M.

    2009-01-01

    Calculation of oxygen fugacity in high pressure and temperature experiments in metal-silicate systems is usually approximated by the ratio of Fe in the metal and FeO in the silicate melt: (Delta)IW=2*log(X(sub Fe)/X(sub FeO)), where IW is the iron-wustite reference oxygen buffer. Although this is a quick and easy calculation to make, it has been applied to a huge variety of metallic (Fe- Ni-S-C-O-Si systems) and silicate liquids (SiO2, Al2O3, TiO2, FeO, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O systems). This approach has surely led to values that have little meaning, yet are applied with great confidence, for example, to a terrestrial mantle at "IW-2". Although fO2 can be circumvented in some cases by consideration of Fe-M distribution coefficient, these do not eliminate the effects of alloy or silicate liquid compositional variation, or the specific chemical effects of S in the silicate liquid, for example. In order to address the issue of what the actual value of fO2 is in any given experiment, we have calculated fO2 from the equilibria 2Fe (metal) + SiO2 (liq) + O2 = Fe2SiO4 (liq).

  20. Calculation of fluences of fast neutrons hitting the pressure vessel of the Dukovany NPP WWER-440 reactor. Part I. Theory, calculations, comparison with the experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rataj, J.

    1993-10-01

    The method of calculating neutron spectra and integral flux densities of neutrons hitting the pressure vessel of the Dukovany NPP WWER-440 reactor is outlined. The one-dimensional and two-dimensional calculations were performed by means of the DORT code in R, R-Z, and R-Θ geometries using the cross sections from the ELXSIR library. In the R-Θ geometry, the coupled neutron flux densities were determined. The calculated values of the maximum activation of detectors differ less than 15% from the values measured in surveillance specimens, which is within the limit of uncertainty associated with the position of the detector in the casing. The differences between the calculated and observed data behind the pressure vessel were below 4%. 10 tabs., 3 figs., 41 refs

  1. Near field vorticity distributions from a sharp-edged rectangular jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vouros, Alexandros P.; Panidis, Thrassos; Pollard, Andrew; Schwab, Rainer R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Axial mean vorticity equation terms are calculated from experimental data. • Appearance of ridges, dumbbell shape and saddleback velocity profiles is highlighted. • Explanations are provided using terms from the vorticity equation. - Abstract: Experimental results on the near field development of a free rectangular jet with aspect ratio 10 are presented. The jet issues from a sharp-edged orifice attached to a rectangular settling chamber at Re h ∼ 23,000, based on slot width, h. Measurements on cross plane grids were obtained with a two-component hot wire anemometry probe, which provided information on the three dimensional characteristics of the flow field. Two key features of this type of jet are mean axial velocity profiles presenting two off axis peaks, commonly mentioned as saddleback profiles, and a predominant dumbbell shape as described by, for example, a contour of the axial mean velocity. The saddleback shape is found to be significantly influenced by the vorticity distribution in the transverse plane of the jet, while the dumbbell is traced to two terms in the axial mean vorticity transport equation that diffuse fluid from the centre of the jet towards its periphery. At the farthest location where measurements were taken, 30 slot widths from the jet exit, the flow field resembles that of an axisymmetric jet

  2. Spherical near-field antenna measurements — The most accurate antenna measurement technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Olav

    2016-01-01

    The spherical near-field antenna measurement technique combines several advantages and generally constitutes the most accurate technique for experimental characterization of radiation from antennas. This paper/presentation discusses these advantages, briefly reviews the early history and present...

  3. Near-field enhanced thermionic energy conversion for renewable energy recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghashami, Mohammad; Cho, Sung Kwon; Park, Keunhan

    2017-09-01

    This article proposes a new energy harvesting concept that greatly enhances thermionic power generation with high efficiency by exploiting the near-field enhancement of thermal radiation. The proposed near-field enhanced thermionic energy conversion (NETEC) system is uniquely configured with a low-bandgap semiconductor cathode separated from a thermal emitter with a subwavelength gap distance, such that a significant amount of electrons can be photoexcited by near-field thermal radiation to contribute to the enhancement of thermionic current density. We theoretically demonstrate that the NETEC system can generate electric power at a significantly lower temperature than the standard thermionic generator, and the energy conversion efficiency can exceed 40%. The obtained results reveal that near-field photoexcitation can enhance the thermionic power output by more than 10 times, making this hybrid system attractive for renewable energy recycling.

  4. High-density near-field optical disc recording using phase change media and polycarbonate substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Masataka; Saito, Kimihiro; Ishimoto, Tsutomu; Kondo, Takao; Nakaoki, Ariyoshi; Furuki, Motohiro; Takeda, Minoru; Akiyama, Yuji; Shimouma, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masanobu

    2004-09-01

    We developed a high density near field optical recording disc system with a solid immersion lens and two laser sources. In order to realize the near field optical recording, we used a phase change recording media and a molded polycarbonate substrate. The near field optical pick-up consists of a solid immersion lens with numerical aperture of 1.84. The clear eye pattern of 90.2 GB capacity (160nm track pitch and 62 nm per bit) was observed. The jitter using a limit equalizer was 10.0 % without cross-talk. The bit error rate using an adaptive PRML with 8 taps was 3.7e-6 without cross-talk. We confirmed that the near field optical disc system is a promising technology for a next generation high density optical disc system.

  5. A review of models for near-field exposure pathways of chemicals in consumer products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lei; Ernstoff, Alexi; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    able to quantify the multiple transfers of chemicals from products used near-field to humans. The present review therefore aims at an in-depth overview of modeling approaches for near-field chemical release and human exposure pathways associated with consumer products. It focuses on lower......-tier, mechanistic models suitable for life cycle assessments (LCA), chemical alternative assessment (CAA) and high-throughput screening risk assessment (HTS). Chemicals in a product enter the near-field via a defined “compartment of entry”, are transformed or transferred to adjacent compartments, and eventually end......Exposure to chemicals in consumer products has been gaining increasing attention, with multiple studies showing that near-field exposures from products is high compared to far-field exposures. Regarding the numerous chemical-product combinations, there is a need for an overarching review of models...

  6. Janus and Huygens Dipoles: Near-Field Directionality Beyond Spin-Momentum Locking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, Michela F.; Zayats, Anatoly V.; Rodríguez-Fortuño, Francisco J.

    2018-03-01

    Unidirectional scattering from circularly polarized dipoles has been demonstrated in near-field optics, where the quantum spin-Hall effect of light translates into spin-momentum locking. By considering the whole electromagnetic field, instead of its spin component alone, near-field directionality can be achieved beyond spin-momentum locking. This unveils the existence of the Janus dipole, with side-dependent topologically protected coupling to waveguides, and reveals the near-field directionality of Huygens dipoles, generalizing Kerker's condition. Circular dipoles, together with Huygens and Janus sources, form the complete set of all possible directional dipolar sources in the far- and near-field. This allows the designing of directional emission, scattering, and waveguiding, fundamental for quantum optical technology, integrated nanophotonics, and new metasurface designs.

  7. Near field communications technology and the potential to reduce medication errors through multidisciplinary application

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Connell, Emer

    2016-07-01

    Patient safety requires optimal management of medications. Electronic systems are encouraged to reduce medication errors. Near field communications (NFC) is an emerging technology that may be used to develop novel medication management systems.

  8. Performance analysis of near-field thermophotovoltaic devices considering absorption distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, K.; Basu, S.; King, W.P.; Zhang, Z.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper elucidates the energy transfer and conversion processes in near-field thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems, considering local radiation absorption and photocurrent generation in the TPV cell. Radiation heat transfer in a multilayered structure is modeled using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, and the electric current generation is evaluated based on the photogeneration and recombination of electron-hole pairs in different regions of the TPV cell. The effects of near-field radiation on the photon penetration depth, photocurrent generation, and quantum efficiency are examined in the spectral region of interest. The detailed analysis performed in the present work demonstrates that, while the near-field operation can enhance the power throughput, the conversion efficiency is not much improved and may even be reduced. Subsequently, a modified design of near-field TPV systems is proposed to improve the efficiency

  9. Nanohybrids Near-Field Optical Microscopy: From Image Shift to Biosensor Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayla El-Kork

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Near-Field Optical Microscopy is a valuable tool for the optical and topographic study of objects at a nanometric scale. Nanoparticles constitute important candidates for such type of investigations, as they bear an important weight for medical, biomedical, and biosensing applications. One, however, has to be careful as artifacts can be easily reproduced. In this study, we examined hybrid nanoparticles (or nanohybrids in the near-field, while in solution and attached to gold nanoplots. We found out that they can be used for wavelength modulable near-field biosensors within conditions of artifact free imaging. In detail, we refer to the use of topographic/optical image shift and the imaging of Local Surface Plasmon hot spots to validate the genuineness of the obtained images. In summary, this study demonstrates a new way of using simple easily achievable comparative methods to prove the authenticity of near-field images and presents nanohybrid biosensors as an application.

  10. Effects of a power and photon energy of incident light on near-field etching properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsui, T.; Saito, H.; Nishioka, K.; Leuschel, B.; Soppera, O.; Nobusada, K.

    2017-12-01

    We developed a near-field etching technique for realizing an ultra-flat surfaces of various materials and structures. To elucidate the near-field etching properties, we have investigated the effects of power and the photon energy of the incident light. First, we established theoretically that an optical near-field with photon energy lower than the absorption edge of the molecules can induce molecular vibrations. We used nanodiamonds to study the power dependence of the near-field etching properties. From the topological changes of the nanodiamonds, we confirmed the linear-dependence of the etching volume with the incident power. Furthermore, we studied the photon energy dependence using TiO2 nanostriped structures, which revealed that a lower photon energy results in a lower etching rate.

  11. The near-field acoustic levitation of high-mass rotors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Z. Y.; Lü, P.; Geng, D. L.; Zhai, W.; Yan, N.; Wei, B.

    2014-01-01

    Here we demonstrate that spherical rotors with 40 mm diameter and 0-1 kg mass can be suspended more than tens of micrometers away from an ultrasonically vibrating concave surface by near-field acoustic radiation force. Their rotating speeds exceed 3000 rpm. An acoustic model has been developed to evaluate the near-field acoustic radiation force and the resonant frequencies of levitation system. This technique has potential application in developing acoustic gyroscope

  12. Asymmetric active nano-particles for directive near-field radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Thorsen, Rasmus O.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the potential of cylindrical active coated nano-particles with certain geometrical asymmetries for the creation of directive near-field radiation. The particles are excited by a near-by magnetic line source, and their performance characteristics are reported in terms...... of radiated power, near-field and power flow distributions as well as the far-field directivity....

  13. Quantification of source-term profiles from near-field geochemical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, I.G.

    1985-01-01

    A geochemical model of the near-field is described which quantitatively treats the processes of engineered barrier degradation, buffering of aqueous chemistry by solid phases, nuclide solubilization and transport through the near-field and release to the far-field. The radionuclide source-terms derived from this model are compared with those from a simpler model used for repository safety analysis. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  14. The near-field acoustic levitation of high-mass rotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Z. Y.; Lü, P.; Geng, D. L.; Zhai, W.; Yan, N.; Wei, B., E-mail: bbwei@nwpu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Here we demonstrate that spherical rotors with 40 mm diameter and 0-1 kg mass can be suspended more than tens of micrometers away from an ultrasonically vibrating concave surface by near-field acoustic radiation force. Their rotating speeds exceed 3000 rpm. An acoustic model has been developed to evaluate the near-field acoustic radiation force and the resonant frequencies of levitation system. This technique has potential application in developing acoustic gyroscope.

  15. The near-field acoustic levitation of high-mass rotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Z Y; Lü, P; Geng, D L; Zhai, W; Yan, N; Wei, B

    2014-10-01

    Here we demonstrate that spherical rotors with 40 mm diameter and 0-1 kg mass can be suspended more than tens of micrometers away from an ultrasonically vibrating concave surface by near-field acoustic radiation force. Their rotating speeds exceed 3000 rpm. An acoustic model has been developed to evaluate the near-field acoustic radiation force and the resonant frequencies of levitation system. This technique has potential application in developing acoustic gyroscope.

  16. Near-field marking of gold nanostars by ultrashort pulsed laser irradiation: experiment and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Søren H.; Vester-Petersen, Joakim; Nazir, Adnan; Eriksen, Emil H.; Julsgaard, Brian; Madsen, Søren P.; Balling, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Quantitative measurements of the electric near-field distribution of star-shaped gold nanoparticles have been performed by femtosecond laser ablation. Measurements were carried out on and off the plasmon resonance. A detailed comparison with numerical simulations of the electric fields is presented. Semi-quantitative agreement is found, with slight systematic differences between experimentally observed and simulated near-field patterns close to strong electric-field gradients. The deviations are attributed to carrier transport preceding ablation.

  17. Cosmological models in globally geodesic coordinates. II. Near-field approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongya

    1987-01-01

    A near-field approximation dealing with the cosmological field near a typical freely falling observer is developed within the framework established in the preceding paper [J. Math. Phys. 28, xxxx(1987)]. It is found that for the matter-dominated era the standard cosmological model of general relativity contains the Newtonian cosmological model, proposed by Zel'dovich, as its near-field approximation in the observer's globally geodesic coordinate system

  18. Energy modulation of nonrelativistic electrons in an optical near field on a metal microslit

    OpenAIRE

    R., Ishikawa; Jongsuck, Bae; K., Mizuno

    2001-01-01

    Energy modulation of nonrelativistic electrons with a laser beam using a metal microslit as an interaction circuit has been investigated. An optical near field is induced in the proximity of the microslit by illumination of the laser beam. The electrons passing close to the slit are accelerated or decelerated by an evanescent wave contained in the near field whose phase velocity is equal to the velocity of the electrons. The electron-evanescent wave interaction in the microslit has been analy...

  19. Role of regression analysis and variation of rheological data in calculation of pressure drop for sludge pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farno, E; Coventry, K; Slatter, P; Eshtiaghi, N

    2018-06-15

    Sludge pumps in wastewater treatment plants are often oversized due to uncertainty in calculation of pressure drop. This issue costs millions of dollars for industry to purchase and operate the oversized pumps. Besides costs, higher electricity consumption is associated with extra CO 2 emission which creates huge environmental impacts. Calculation of pressure drop via current pipe flow theory requires model estimation of flow curve data which depends on regression analysis and also varies with natural variation of rheological data. This study investigates impact of variation of rheological data and regression analysis on variation of pressure drop calculated via current pipe flow theories. Results compare the variation of calculated pressure drop between different models and regression methods and suggest on the suitability of each method. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Near-field optical recording based on solid immersion lens system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Tao; Wang, Jia; Wu, Yan; Li, Dacheng

    2002-09-01

    Near-field optical recording based on solid immersion lens (SIL) system has attracted great attention in the field of high-density data storage in recent years. The diffraction limited spot size in optical recording and lithography can be decreased by utilizing the SIL. The SIL near-field optical storage has advantages of high density, mass storage capacity and compatibility with many technologies well developed. We have set up a SIL near-field static recording system. The recording medium is placed on a 3-D scanning stage with the scanning range of 70×70×70μm and positioning accuracy of sub-nanometer, which will ensure the rigorous separation control in SIL system and the precision motion of the recording medium. The SIL is mounted on an inverted microscope. The focusing between long working distance objective and SIL can be monitored and observed by the CCD camera and eyes. Readout signal can be collected by a detector. Some experiments have been performed based on the SIL near-field recording system. The attempt of the near-field recording on photochromic medium has been made and the resolution improvement of the SIL has been presented. The influence factors in SIL near-field recording system are also discussed in the paper.

  1. Geochemical evolution of the near field of a KBS-3 repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcos, David; Grandia, Fidel; Domenech, Cristina

    2006-09-01

    The Swedish concept developed by SKB for deep radioactive waste disposal, envisages an engineered multi-barrier system surrounding the nuclear waste (near field). In the present study we developed a numerical model to assess the geochemical evolution of the near field in the frame of the SKB's safety assessment SR-Can. These numerical models allow us to predict the long-term geochemical evolution of the near field system by means of reactive-transport codes and the information gathered in underground laboratory experiments and natural analogues. Two different scenarios have been defined to model this near field evolution, according to the pathway used by groundwater to contact the near field: a) through a fracture in the host rock intersecting the deposition hole; and b) through the material used to backfill the deposition tunnel. Moreover, we also modelled the effect of different groundwater compositions reaching the near field, as the up-rise of deep-seated brines and the intrusion of ice-melting derived groundwater. We also modelled the effect of the thermal stage due to the heat generated by spent fuel on the geochemical evolution of the bentonite barrier

  2. Geochemical evolution of the near field of a KBS-3 repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcos, David; Grandia, Fidel; Domenech, Cristina [Enviros Spain S.L., Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-09-15

    The Swedish concept developed by SKB for deep radioactive waste disposal, envisages an engineered multi-barrier system surrounding the nuclear waste (near field). In the present study we developed a numerical model to assess the geochemical evolution of the near field in the frame of the SKB's safety assessment SR-Can. These numerical models allow us to predict the long-term geochemical evolution of the near field system by means of reactive-transport codes and the information gathered in underground laboratory experiments and natural analogues. Two different scenarios have been defined to model this near field evolution, according to the pathway used by groundwater to contact the near field: a) through a fracture in the host rock intersecting the deposition hole; and b) through the material used to backfill the deposition tunnel. Moreover, we also modelled the effect of different groundwater compositions reaching the near field, as the up-rise of deep-seated brines and the intrusion of ice-melting derived groundwater. We also modelled the effect of the thermal stage due to the heat generated by spent fuel on the geochemical evolution of the bentonite barrier.

  3. High Frequency Near-Field Ground Motion Excited by Strike-Slip Step Overs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Feng; Wen, Jian; Chen, Xiaofei

    2018-03-01

    We performed dynamic rupture simulations on step overs with 1-2 km step widths and present their corresponding horizontal peak ground velocity distributions in the near field within different frequency ranges. The rupture speeds on fault segments are determinant in controlling the near-field ground motion. A Mach wave impact area at the free surface, which can be inferred from the distribution of the ratio of the maximum fault-strike particle velocity to the maximum fault-normal particle velocity, is generated in the near field with sustained supershear ruptures on fault segments, and the Mach wave impact area cannot be detected with unsustained supershear ruptures alone. Sub-Rayleigh ruptures produce stronger ground motions beyond the end of fault segments. The existence of a low-velocity layer close to the free surface generates large amounts of high-frequency seismic radiation at step over discontinuities. For near-vertical step overs, normal stress perturbations on the primary fault caused by dipping structures affect the rupture speed transition, which further determines the distribution of the near-field ground motion. The presence of an extensional linking fault enhances the near-field ground motion in the extensional regime. This work helps us understand the characteristics of high-frequency seismic radiation in the vicinities of step overs and provides useful insights for interpreting the rupture speed distributions derived from the characteristics of near-field ground motion.

  4. Diverse Radiofrequency Sensitivity and Radiofrequency Effects of Mobile or Cordless Phone near Fields Exposure in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geronikolou, Styliani; Zimeras, Stelios; Davos, Constantinos H.; Michalopoulos, Ioannis; Tsitomeneas, Stephanos

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The impact of electromagnetic fields on health is of increasing scientific interest. The aim of this study was to examine how the Drosophila melanogaster animal model is affected when exposed to portable or mobile phone fields. Methods/Results Two experiments have been designed and performed in the same laboratory conditions. Insect cultures were exposed to the near field of a 2G mobile phone (the GSM 2G networks support and complement in parallel the 3G wide band or in other words the transmission of information via voice signals is served by the 2G technology in both mobile phones generations) and a 1880 MHz cordless phone both digitally modulated by human voice. Comparison with advanced statistics of the egg laying of the second generation exposed and non-exposed cultures showed limited statistical significance for the cordless phone exposed culture and statistical significance for the 900 MHz exposed insects. We calculated by physics, simulated and illustrated in three dimensional figures the calculated near fields of radiation inside the experimenting vials and their difference. Comparison of the power of the two fields showed that the difference between them becomes null when the experimental cylinder radius and the height of the antenna increase. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest a possible radiofrequency sensitivity difference in insects which may be due to the distance from the antenna or to unexplored intimate factors. Comparing the near fields of the two frequencies bands, we see similar not identical geometry in length and height from the antenna and that lower frequencies tend to drive to increased radiofrequency effects. PMID:25402465

  5. Diverse radiofrequency sensitivity and radiofrequency effects of mobile or cordless phone near fields exposure in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Styliani Geronikolou

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The impact of electromagnetic fields on health is of increasing scientific interest. The aim of this study was to examine how the Drosophila melanogaster animal model is affected when exposed to portable or mobile phone fields. METHODS/RESULTS: Two experiments have been designed and performed in the same laboratory conditions. Insect cultures were exposed to the near field of a 2G mobile phone (the GSM 2G networks support and complement in parallel the 3G wide band or in other words the transmission of information via voice signals is served by the 2G technology in both mobile phones generations and a 1880 MHz cordless phone both digitally modulated by human voice. Comparison with advanced statistics of the egg laying of the second generation exposed and non-exposed cultures showed limited statistical significance for the cordless phone exposed culture and statistical significance for the 900 MHz exposed insects. We calculated by physics, simulated and illustrated in three dimensional figures the calculated near fields of radiation inside the experimenting vials and their difference. Comparison of the power of the two fields showed that the difference between them becomes null when the experimental cylinder radius and the height of the antenna increase. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest a possible radiofrequency sensitivity difference in insects which may be due to the distance from the antenna or to unexplored intimate factors. Comparing the near fields of the two frequencies bands, we see similar not identical geometry in length and height from the antenna and that lower frequencies tend to drive to increased radiofrequency effects.

  6. Diverse radiofrequency sensitivity and radiofrequency effects of mobile or cordless phone near fields exposure in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geronikolou, Styliani; Zimeras, Stelios; Davos, Constantinos H; Michalopoulos, Ioannis; Tsitomeneas, Stephanos

    2014-01-01

    The impact of electromagnetic fields on health is of increasing scientific interest. The aim of this study was to examine how the Drosophila melanogaster animal model is affected when exposed to portable or mobile phone fields. Two experiments have been designed and performed in the same laboratory conditions. Insect cultures were exposed to the near field of a 2G mobile phone (the GSM 2G networks support and complement in parallel the 3G wide band or in other words the transmission of information via voice signals is served by the 2G technology in both mobile phones generations) and a 1880 MHz cordless phone both digitally modulated by human voice. Comparison with advanced statistics of the egg laying of the second generation exposed and non-exposed cultures showed limited statistical significance for the cordless phone exposed culture and statistical significance for the 900 MHz exposed insects. We calculated by physics, simulated and illustrated in three dimensional figures the calculated near fields of radiation inside the experimenting vials and their difference. Comparison of the power of the two fields showed that the difference between them becomes null when the experimental cylinder radius and the height of the antenna increase. Our results suggest a possible radiofrequency sensitivity difference in insects which may be due to the distance from the antenna or to unexplored intimate factors. Comparing the near fields of the two frequencies bands, we see similar not identical geometry in length and height from the antenna and that lower frequencies tend to drive to increased radiofrequency effects.

  7. Rate maximum calculation of Dpa in CNA-II pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascitti, J. A

    2012-01-01

    The maximum dpa rate was calculated for the reactor in the following state: fresh fuel, no Xenon, a Boron concentration of 15.3 ppm, critical state, its control rods in the criticality position, hot, at full power (2160 MW). It was determined that the maximum dpa rate under such conditions is 3.54(2)x10 12 s -1 and it is located in the positions corresponding to θ=210 o in the azimuthal direction, and z=20 cm and -60 cm respectively in the axial direction, considering the calculation mesh centered at half height of the fuel element (FE) active length. The dpa rate spectrum was determined as well as the contribution to it for 4 energy groups: a thermal group, two epithermal groups and a fast one. The maximum dpa rate considering the photo-neutrons production from (γ, n) reaction in the heavy water of coolant and moderator was 3.93(4)x10 12 s -1 that is 11% greater than the obtained without photo-neutrons. This verified significant difference between both cases, suggest that photo-neutrons in large heavy water reactors such as CNA-II should not be ignored. The maximum DPA rate in the first mm of the reactor pressure vessel was calculated too and it was obtained a value of 4.22(6)x10 12 s -1 . It should be added that the calculation was carried out with the reactor complete accurate model, with no approximations in spatial or energy variables. Each value has, between parentheses, a percentage relative error representing the statistical uncertainty due to the probabilistic Monte Carlo method used to estimate it. More representative values may be obtained with this method if equilibrium burn-up distribution is used (author)

  8. Near-field Pressure Distributions to Enhance Sounds Transmission into Multi-layer Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    long. The properties of the HTPB surrogate vary significantly between the 50% and 75% samples. While the 50% samples are flexible and deform under...typically more. The polycarbonate samples were tested in three mounting conditions. The first was a hung condition, wherein the polycarbonate rod was...side excitation, even some that ought 118 to be inherent to the side excitation (such as torsional waves). While waves relating to the flexural

  9. Pressure-induced absorption coefficients for radiative transfer calculations in Titan's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtin, Regis

    1988-01-01

    The semiempirical theory of Birnbaum and Cohen (1976) is used to calculate the FIR pressure-induced absorption (PIA) spectra of N2, CH4, N2 + Ar, N2 + CH4, and N2 + H2 under conditions like those in the Titan troposphere. The results are presented graphically and compared with published data from laboratory measurements of PIA in the same gases and mixtures (Dagg et al., 1986; Dore et al., 1986). Good agreement is obtained, with only a slight underestimation of PIA at 300-400/cm in the case of CH4. The absorption coefficients are presented in tables, and it is suggested that the present findings are of value for evaluating the effects of tropospheric clouds on the Titan FIR spectrum and studying the greenhouse effect near the Titan surface.

  10. Characterization of viscous biofuel sprays using digital imaging in the near field region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallevelt, J.L.H.P.; Pozarlik, A.K.; Brem, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodiesel, vegetable oil and glycerin sprays have been studied using PDIA. • The study is focused on the effect of fuel viscosity on the spray characteristics. • Viscosity has a strong effect on the breakup length in pressure-swirl atomization. • The results are compared to combustion experiments with a micro gas turbine. • The penetration depth of ligaments can be a critical factor in burning viscous fuel. - Abstract: The atomization of biodiesel, vegetable oil and glycerin has been studied in an atmospheric spray rig by using digital imaging (PDIA). Images of the spray were captured in the near field, just 18 mm downstream of the atomizer, and processed to automatically determine the size of both ligaments and droplets. The effect of the spray structure in this region is of major interest for the combustion of biofuels in gas turbines. The sprays were produced by a pressure-swirl atomizer that originates from the multifuel micro gas turbine (MMGT) setup. Various injection conditions have been tested to investigate the influence of viscosity on the spray characteristics and to assess the overall performance of the atomizer. The spray measurements have been compared to combustion experiments with biodiesel and vegetable oil in the micro gas turbine at similar injection conditions. The results show that the primary breakup process rapidly deteriorates when the viscosity is increased. A higher viscosity increases the breakup length, which becomes visible at the measurement location in the form of ligaments. This effect leads to an unacceptable spray quality once the viscosity slightly exceeds the typical range for conventional gas turbine fuels. The SMD in the investigated spray region was not significantly affected by viscosity, but mainly influenced by injection pressure. The data furthermore indicate an increase in SMD with surface tension. It was found that the penetration depth of ligaments can have major impact on the combustion process

  11. Buoyancy effects in overcooling transients calculated for the NRC pressurized thermal shock study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theofanous, T.G.; Iyer, K.; Nourbakhsh, H.P.; Gherson, P.

    1986-05-01

    The thermal-hydraulic responses of three PWRs (Oconee, Calvert Cliffs, and H.B. Robinson), to postulated Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) scenarios, which were originally determined by RELAP5 and TRAC calculations, are being further developed here with regard to buoyancy/stratification effects. These three PWRs were the subject of the NRC PTS study, and the present results helped define the thermal-hydraulic conditions utilized in the fracture mechanics calculations carried out at ORNL. The computer program REMIX, which is based on the Regional Mixing Model (RMM), was the analytical tool employed, while Purdue's 1/2-Scale HPI Thermal Mixing facility provided the basis for experimental support. Important mixing and wall heat transfer regimes are delineated on the basis of these results. We conclude that stratification is important only in cases of complete loop stagnation and that mixed-convection effects are important for downcomer flow velocities below approx.0.25 m/s. The stratification is small in magnitude, however it is important in creating a recirculating flow pattern which activates the lower plenum, pump and loop seal volumes, to participate in the mixing process. This mixing process together with the heat input from the wall metal significantly impact the cooldown rates. Heat transfer in the plume region is dominated by forced convection. On the other hand, the presence of the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) wall cladding and wall conduction significantly dampen the free convection effects in the low velocity, mixed-convection, regime. For the stagnant loop cases, all locations outside the plume region are included in this regime. In the presence of natural loop circulation and a uniformly distributed downcomer flow, the mixed convection regime is also expected, however, the forced convection regime can also be observed in highly asymmetric flow behavior

  12. Generalized method for calculation and prediction of vapour-liquid equilibria at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drahos, J; Wichterle, I; Hala, E

    1978-02-01

    Following the approaches of K.C. Chao and J.D. Seader (see Gas Abstr. 18,24 (1962) Jan.) and B.I. Lee, J.H. Erbar, and W.C. Edmister (see Gas Abst. 29, 73-0331), the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences developed a generalized method for prediction of vapor-liquid equilibria in hydrocarbon mixtures containing some nonhydrocarbon gases at high pressures. The method proposed is based on three equations: (1) a generalized equation of state for vapor-phase calculations; (2) a generalized expression for the pure-liquid fugacity coefficient; and (3) an activity coefficient expression based on a surface modification of the regular solution model. The equations used contain only one partially generalized binary parameter, which was evaluated from experimental K-value data. Researchers tested the proposed method by computing K-values and pressures in binary and multicomponent systems consisting of 13 hydrocarbons and 3 nonhydrocarbon gases. The results show that the method is applicable over a wide range of conditions with a degree of accuracy comparable with that of more complicated methods.

  13. Review of high pressure phases of calcium by first-principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, T; Tsuchiya, T; Nagara, H; Suzuki, N; Tsuchiya, J

    2010-01-01

    We review high pressure phases of calcium which have obtained by recent experimental and first-principles studies. In this study, we investigated the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure, the body-centered cubic (bcc) structure, the simple cubic (sc) structure, a tetragonal P4 3 2 1 2 [Ishikawa T et al. 2008 Phys. Rev. B 77 020101(R)], an orthorhombic Cmca [Ishikawa T et al. 2008 Phys. Rev. B 77 020101(R)], an orthorhombic Cmcm [Teweldeberhan A M and Bonev S A 2008 Phys. Rev. B 78 140101(R)], an orthorhombic Pnma [Yao Y et al. 2008 Phys. Rev. B 78 054506] and a tetragonal I4/mcm [Arapan S et al. 2008 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105 20627]. We compared the enthalpies among the structures up to 200 GPa and theoretically determined the phase diagram of calcium. The sequence of the structural transitions is fcc (0- 3.5 GPa) → bcc (3.5 - 35.7 GPa) → Cmcm (35.7- 52GPa) → P4 3 2 1 2 (52-109 GPa) → Cmca (109-117.4GPa) → Pnma (117.4-134.6GPa) → I4mcm(134.6 GPa -). The sc phase is experimentally observed in the pressure range from 32 to 113 GPa but, in our calculation, there is no pressure region where the sc phase is the most stable. In addition, we found that the enthalpy of the hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structure is lower than that of I4/mcm above 495 GPa.

  14. Review of high pressure phases of calcium by first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, T.; Nagara, H.; Suzuki, N.; Tsuchiya, J.; Tsuchiya, T.

    2010-03-01

    We review high pressure phases of calcium which have obtained by recent experimental and first-principles studies. In this study, we investigated the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure, the body-centered cubic (bcc) structure, the simple cubic (sc) structure, a tetragonal P43212 [Ishikawa T et al. 2008 Phys. Rev. B 77 020101(R)], an orthorhombic Cmca [Ishikawa T et al. 2008 Phys. Rev. B 77 020101(R)], an orthorhombic Cmcm [Teweldeberhan A M and Bonev S A 2008 Phys. Rev. B 78 140101(R)], an orthorhombic Pnma [Yao Y et al. 2008 Phys. Rev. B 78 054506] and a tetragonal I4/mcm(00) [Arapan S et al. 2008 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105 20627]. We compared the enthalpies among the structures up to 200 GPa and theoretically determined the phase diagram of calcium. The sequence of the structural transitions is fcc (0- 3.5 GPa) → bcc (3.5 - 35.7 GPa) → Cmcm (35.7- 52GPa) → P43212 (52-109 GPa) → Cmca (109-117.4GPa) → Pnma (117.4-134.6GPa) → I4/mcm(00) (134.6 GPa -). The sc phase is experimentally observed in the pressure range from 32 to 113 GPa but, in our calculation, there is no pressure region where the sc phase is the most stable. In addition, we found that the enthalpy of the hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structure is lower than that of I4/mcm(00) above 495 GPa.

  15. Near-field and far-field modeling of scattered surface waves. Application to the apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, J.; Parent, G.; Fumeron, S.; Jeandel, G.; Lacroix, D.

    2011-01-01

    The detection of surface waves through scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) is a promising technique for thermal measurements at very small scales. Recent studies have shown that electromagnetic waves, in the vicinity of a scattering structure such as an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip, can be scattered from near to far-field and thus detected. In the present work, a model based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method and the near-field to far-field (NFTFF) transformation for electromagnetic waves propagation is presented. This model has been validated by studying the electromagnetic field of a dipole in vacuum and close to a dielectric substrate. Then simulations for a tetrahedral tip close to an interface are presented and discussed.

  16. A computer program for calculation of the fuel cycle in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanilla, R.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the FUCEFURE program is two-fold: first, it is designed to solve the problem of nuclear fuel cycle cost in one pressurized light water reactor calculation. The code was developed primarily for comparative and sensitivity studies. The program contains simple correlations between exposure and available depletion data used to predict the uranium and plutonium content of the fuel as a function of the fuel initial enrichment. Second, it has been devised to evaluate the nuclear fuel demand associated with an expanding nuclear power system. Evaluation can be carried out at any time and stage in the fuel cycle. The program can calculate the natural uranium and separate work requirements of any final and tails enrichment. It also can determine the nuclear power share of each reactor in the system when a decision has been made about the long-term nuclear power installations to be used and the types of PWR and fast breeder reactor characteristics to be involved in them. (author)

  17. Neutron-gamma flux and dose calculations in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovchenko, Mariya; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Burn, Kenneth W.; Console Camprini, Patrizio; Duhamel, Isabelle; Peron, Arthur

    2017-09-01

    The present work deals with Monte Carlo simulations, aiming to determine the neutron and gamma responses outside the vessel and in the basemat of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The model is based on the Tihange-I Belgian nuclear reactor. With a large set of information and measurements available, this reactor has the advantage to be easily modelled and allows validation based on the experimental measurements. Power distribution calculations were therefore performed with the MCNP code at IRSN and compared to the available in-core measurements. Results showed a good agreement between calculated and measured values over the whole core. In this paper, the methods and hypotheses used for the particle transport simulation from the fission distribution in the core to the detectors outside the vessel of the reactor are also summarized. The results of the simulations are presented including the neutron and gamma doses and flux energy spectra. MCNP6 computational results comparing JEFF3.1 and ENDF-B/VII.1 nuclear data evaluations and sensitivity of the results to some model parameters are presented.

  18. Neutron-gamma flux and dose calculations in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brovchenko Mariya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with Monte Carlo simulations, aiming to determine the neutron and gamma responses outside the vessel and in the basemat of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR. The model is based on the Tihange-I Belgian nuclear reactor. With a large set of information and measurements available, this reactor has the advantage to be easily modelled and allows validation based on the experimental measurements. Power distribution calculations were therefore performed with the MCNP code at IRSN and compared to the available in-core measurements. Results showed a good agreement between calculated and measured values over the whole core. In this paper, the methods and hypotheses used for the particle transport simulation from the fission distribution in the core to the detectors outside the vessel of the reactor are also summarized. The results of the simulations are presented including the neutron and gamma doses and flux energy spectra. MCNP6 computational results comparing JEFF3.1 and ENDF-B/VII.1 nuclear data evaluations and sensitivity of the results to some model parameters are presented.

  19. Causal Correlation Functions and Fourier Transforms: Application in Calculating Pressure Induced Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Tipping, R. H.; Lavrentieva, N. N.

    2012-01-01

    By adopting a concept from signal processing, instead of starting from the correlation functions which are even, one considers the causal correlation functions whose Fourier transforms become complex. Their real and imaginary parts multiplied by 2 are the Fourier transforms of the original correlations and the subsequent Hilbert transforms, respectively. Thus, by taking this step one can complete the two previously needed transforms. However, to obviate performing the Cauchy principal integrations required in the Hilbert transforms is the greatest advantage. Meanwhile, because the causal correlations are well-bounded within the time domain and band limited in the frequency domain, one can replace their Fourier transforms by the discrete Fourier transforms and the latter can be carried out with the FFT algorithm. This replacement is justified by sampling theory because the Fourier transforms can be derived from the discrete Fourier transforms with the Nyquis rate without any distortions. We apply this method in calculating pressure induced shifts of H2O lines and obtain more reliable values. By comparing the calculated shifts with those in HITRAN 2008 and by screening both of them with the pair identity and the smooth variation rules, one can conclude many of shift values in HITRAN are not correct.

  20. Use of CPXSD for generation of effective fast multigroup libraries for pressure vessel fluence calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpan, F. Arzu; Haghighat, Alireza

    2008-01-01

    Multigroup (i.e., broad-group) libraries play a significant role in the accuracy of transport calculations. There are several broad-group libraries available for particular applications. For example the 47-neutron (26 fast groups), 20-gamma-group BUGLE libraries are commonly used for light water reactor shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry problems. However, there is no publicly available methodology to construct group structures for a problem and objective of interest. Therefore, we have developed the Contribution and Point-wise Cross-Section Driven (CPXSD) methodology, which constructs effective fine-and broad-group structures. In this paper, we use the CPXSD methodology to construct broad-group structures for fast neutron dosimetry problems. It is demonstrated that the broad-group libraries generated from CPXSD constructed group structures, while only 14 groups (rather than 26 groups) in the fast energy range are in good agreement (similar to 1 %-2 %) with the fine-group library from which they were derived, in reaction rate calculations.

  1. Estimate on the uncertainty of predicting radiated emission from near-field scan caused by insufficient or inaccurate near-field data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Radchenko, Andriy; Kam, Keong

    2012-01-01

    Near-field scan on a Huygens’ box can be used in order to predict the maximal radiated emission from a Printed Circuit Board. The significance of step size and phase accuracy, and the importance of a full Huygens’ box are investigated by simulation of two different models with two different...... numerical methods. The prediction of maximal radiated emission is quite robust but the results also show that a full scan on all six surfaces is probably needed....

  2. Near-field radiative heat transfer between clusters of dielectric nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, J.; Zhao, J.M.; Liu, L.H.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we explore the near-field radiative heat transfer between two clusters of silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles using the many-body radiative heat transfer theory. The effects of fractal dimension of clusters, many-body interaction between nanoparticles and relative orientation of clusters on the thermal conductance are studied. Meanwhile, the applicability of the equivalent volume spheres (EVS) approximation for near-field radiative heat transfer between clusters is examined. It is observed that the thermal conductance is larger for clusters with larger fractal dimension, which is more significant in the near-field. The thermal conductance of EVS resembles that of the clusters, but EVS overestimates the conductance of clusters, especially in the near-field. Compared to the case of two nanoparticles, the conductance of nanoparticle clusters decays much slower with increasing distance in the near-field, but shares similar dependence on the distance in the far-field. The thermal conductance of SiC nanoparticle clusters is inhibited by the many-body interaction when surface phonon polariton is supported but enhanced at frequencies close to the resonance frequency. The total thermal conductance is decreased due to many-body interaction among particles in the cluster. The relative orientation between the clusters is also an important factor in the near-field, especially for clusters with lower fractal dimension. - Highlights: • Near-field radiative heat transfer between clusters of nanoparticles is studied. • The many-body radiative heat transfer theory is applied for rigorous analysis. • The accuracy of equivalent volume spheres approximation is examined. • Clusters with larger fractal dimension have larger radiative thermal conductance. • Many-body interaction inhibits the total radiative thermal conductance.

  3. Laboratory study of fracture healing in Topopah Spring tuff: Implications for near field hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wunan; Daily, W.D.

    1989-09-01

    Seven Topopah Spring tuff samples were studied to determine water permeability in this rock under pressure and temperature conditions similar to those expected in the near field of a nuclear waste package. Six of the seven samples were studied under isothermal condition; the other was subjected to a thermal gradient. Four of the six fractured samples contained a reopened, healed, natural fracture; one contained an induced tensile fracture and the other contained a saw-cut. The fracture surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM) before and after the experiments and the water that flowed through the samples was sampled for chemical analysis. The experimental durations ranged from about 3 months to almost 6 months. Water permeability of the fractured samples was found to decrease by more than three orders of magnitude when the sample temperature increased to 150 degree C. The sharpest decrease in permeability occurred when the temperature was increased above 90 degree C. Permeability of the intact sample did not change significantly under the similar experimental conditions. When the temperature returned to room conditions, the water permeability did not recover. The mechanical strength of one healed sample was about half that of the intact rock. SEM studies of the fracture surfaces and water chemical analysis of the water suggested that both dissolution and deposition occurred on the fracture surfaces. Smoothing of fracture asperities because of dissolution and deposition was probably the main cause of the permeability decrease. Deposition of dissolved silica was probably the main cause of fracture healing. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  4. Calculation of vapor pressures of oxide fuels up to 5,000 K for equilibrium and nonequilibrium evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitung, W.

    1975-06-01

    In the first part of this work the evaporation kinetics of multicomponent systems is studied with UO 2 as the example. The evaporation, which is generally incongruent, implies that two opposing types of steady-state evaporation must be distinguished: equilibrium evaporation and 'forced congruent' evaporation. The two types of evaporation indicated entail different vapor pressures. In some prompt critical reactor incidents forced congruent evaporation must be anticipated. The second part of this work contains the calculation of the vapor pressures of UOsub(2+-x) and (U,Pu)Osub(2+-x) for both types of evaporation up to temperature of 5,000 K. The calculating procedures are based on the method of Rand and Markin (1967) incorporating the recent thermodynamic data. The agreement between the measured and calculated total pressures is good for the ranges of temperature and stoichiometry for which experimental results are available. This supports the results calculated for higher temperature ranges. (orig./UA) [de

  5. Some variations of the Kristallin-I near-field model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.A.; Curti, E.

    1995-11-01

    The Kristallin-I project is an integrated analysis of the final disposal of vitrified high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in the crystalline basement of Northern Switzerland. It includes an analysis of the radiological consequences of radionuclide release from a repository. This analysis employs a chain of independent models for the near-field, geosphere and biosphere. In constructing these models, processes are incorporated that are believed to be relevant to repository safety, while other processes are neglected. In the present report, a set of simplified, steady-state models of the near-field is developed to investigate the possible effects of specific processes which are neglected in the time-dependent Kristallin-I near-field model. These processes are neglected, either because they are thought unlikely to occur to a significant degree, or because they are likely to make a positive contribution to the performance of the near-field barrier to radionuclide migration, but are insufficiently understood to justify incorporating them in a safety assessment. The aim of this report is to investigate whether the arguments for neglecting these processes in the Kristallin-I near-field model can be justified. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  6. THz near-field imaging of biological tissues employing synchrotron radiation (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Ulrich; Holldack, Karsten; Martin, Michael C.; Fried, Daniel

    2005-04-01

    Terahertz scanning near-field infrared microscopy (SNIM) below 1 THz is demonstrated. The near-field technique benefits from the broadband and highly brilliant coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) from an electron storage ring and from a detection method based on locking on to the intrinsic time structure of the synchrotron radiation. The scanning microscope utilizes conical waveguides as near-field probes with apertures smaller than the wavelength. Different cone approaches have been investigated to obtain maximum transmittance. Together with a Martin-Puplett spectrometer the set-up enables spectroscopic mapping of the transmittance of samples well below the diffraction limit. Spatial resolution down to about λ/40 at 2 wavenumbers (0.06 THz) is derived from the transmittance spectra of the near-field probes. The potential of the technique is exemplified by imaging biological samples. Strongly absorbing living leaves have been imaged in transmittance with a spatial resolution of 130 μm at about 12 wavenumbers (0.36 THz). The THz near-field images reveal distinct structural differences of leaves from different plants investigated. The technique presented also allows spectral imaging of bulky organic tissues. Human teeth samples of various thicknesses have been imaged between 2 and 20 wavenumbers (between 0.06 and 0.6 THz). Regions of enamel and dentin within tooth samples are spatially and spectrally resolved, and buried caries lesions are imaged through both the outer enamel and into the underlying dentin.

  7. Prediction of Near-Field Wave Attenuation Due to a Spherical Blast Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae-Kwang; Park, Duhee

    2017-11-01

    Empirical and theoretical far-field attenuation relationships, which do not capture the near-field response, are most often used to predict the peak amplitude of blast wave. Jiang et al. (Vibration due to a buried explosive source. PhD Thesis, Curtin University, Western Australian School of Mines, 1993) present rigorous wave equations that simulates the near-field attenuation to a spherical blast source in damped and undamped media. However, the effect of loading frequency and velocity of the media have not yet been investigated. We perform a suite of axisymmetric, dynamic finite difference analyses to simulate the propagation of stress waves induced by spherical blast source and to quantify the near-field attenuation. A broad range of loading frequencies, wave velocities, and damping ratios are used in the simulations. The near-field effect is revealed to be proportional to the rise time of the impulse load and wave velocity. We propose an empirical additive function to the theoretical far-field attenuation curve to predict the near-field range and attenuation. The proposed curve is validated against measurements recorded in a test blast.

  8. Near-Field Enhanced Photochemistry of Single Molecules in a Scanning Tunneling Microscope Junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böckmann, Hannes; Gawinkowski, Sylwester; Waluk, Jacek; Raschke, Markus B; Wolf, Martin; Kumagai, Takashi

    2018-01-10

    Optical near-field excitation of metallic nanostructures can be used to enhance photochemical reactions. The enhancement under visible light illumination is of particular interest because it can facilitate the use of sunlight to promote photocatalytic chemical and energy conversion. However, few studies have yet addressed optical near-field induced chemistry, in particular at the single-molecule level. In this Letter, we report the near-field enhanced tautomerization of porphycene on a Cu(111) surface in a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) junction. The light-induced tautomerization is mediated by photogenerated carriers in the Cu substrate. It is revealed that the reaction cross section is significantly enhanced in the presence of a Au tip compared to the far-field induced process. The strong enhancement occurs in the red and near-infrared spectral range for Au tips, whereas a W tip shows a much weaker enhancement, suggesting that excitation of the localized plasmon resonance contributes to the process. Additionally, using the precise tip-surface distance control of the STM, the near-field enhanced tautomerization is examined in and out of the tunneling regime. Our results suggest that the enhancement is attributed to the increased carrier generation rate via decay of the excited near-field in the STM junction. Additionally, optically excited tunneling electrons also contribute to the process in the tunneling regime.

  9. THz near-field imaging of biological tissues employing synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schade, Ulrich; Holldack, Karsten; Martin, Michael C.; Fried, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Terahertz scanning near-field infrared microscopy (SNIM) below 1 THz is demonstrated. The near-field technique benefits from the broadband and highly brilliant coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) from an electron storage ring and from a detection method based on locking onto the intrinsic time structure of the synchrotron radiation. The scanning microscope utilizes conical wave guides as near-field probes with apertures smaller than the wavelength. Different cone approaches have been investigated to obtain maximum transmittance. Together with a Martin-Puplett spectrometer the set-up enables spectroscopic mapping of the transmittance of samples well below the diffraction limit. Spatial resolution down to about lambda/40 at 2 wavenumbers (0.06 THz) is derived from the transmittance spectra of the near-field probes. The potential of the technique is exemplified by imaging biological samples. Strongly absorbing living leaves have been imaged in transmittance with a spatial resolution of 130 mu-m at about 12 wave numbers (0.36 THz). The THz near-field images reveal distinct structural differences of leaves from different plants investigated. The technique presented also allows spectral imaging of bulky organic tissues. Human teeth samples of various thicknesses have been imaged between 2 and 20 wavenumbers (between 0.06and 0.6 THz). Regions of enamel and dentin within tooth samples are spatially and spectrally resolved, and buried caries lesions are imaged through both the outer enamel and into the underlying dentin

  10. Some variations of the Kristallin-I near-field model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P A; Curti, E [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1995-11-01

    The Kristallin-I project is an integrated analysis of the final disposal of vitrified high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in the crystalline basement of Northern Switzerland. It includes an analysis of the radiological consequences of radionuclide release from a repository. This analysis employs a chain of independent models for the near-field, geosphere and biosphere. In constructing these models, processes are incorporated that are believed to be relevant to repository safety, while other processes are neglected. In the present report, a set of simplified, steady-state models of the near-field is developed to investigate the possible effects of specific processes which are neglected in the time-dependent Kristallin-I near-field model. These processes are neglected, either because (i) they are thought unlikely to occur to a significant degree, or because (ii) they are likely to make a positive contribution to the performance of the near-field barrier to radionuclide migration, but are insufficiently understood to justify incorporating them in a safety assessment. The aim of this report is to investigate whether the arguments for neglecting these processes in the Kristallin-I near-field model can be justified. This work addresses the following topics: - radionuclide transport at the bentonite-host rock interface, - canister settlement, -chemical conditions and radionuclide transport at the glass-bentonite interface. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  11. Some variations of the Kristallin-I near-field model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.A.; Curti, E.

    1995-11-01

    The Kristallin-I project is an integrated analysis of the final disposal of vitrified high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in the crystalline basement of Northern Switzerland. It includes an analysis of the radiological consequences of radionuclide release from a repository. This analysis employs a chain of independent models for the near-field, geosphere and biosphere. In constructing these models, processes are incorporated that are believed to be relevant to repository safety, while other processes are neglected. In the present report, a set of simplified, steady-state models of the near-field is developed to investigate the possible effects of specific processes which are neglected in the time-dependent Kristallin-I near-field model. These processes are neglected, either because (i) they are thought unlikely to occur to a significant degree, or because (ii) they are likely to make a positive contribution to the performance of the near-field barrier to radionuclide migration, but are insufficiently understood to justify incorporating them in a safety assessment. The aim of this report is to investigate whether the arguments for neglecting these processes in the Kristallin-I near-field model can be justified. This work addresses the following topics: - radionuclide transport at the bentonite-host rock interface, - canister settlement, -chemical conditions and radionuclide transport at the glass-bentonite interface. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  12. H2 gas pressure calculation of FPM capsule failure at RSG-GAS reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastuti, Endiah Puji; Sunaryo, Geni Rina

    2002-01-01

    RSG-GAS has been irradiated FPM capsule for 236 times, one of those i.e. capsule number 228 has failure. The one of root cause of failure possibility is radiolysis reaction can be occurred in FPM capsule when it is filled with water during irradiation in the reactor core. The safety analysis of the radiolysis reaction in the capsule has been done. The oc cumulative hydrogen gas production can cause high pressure in the capsule then a mechanical damage occurred. The analysis was done at 10 MW of reactor power which equivalent with neutron flux of 0,6929 x 10 1 4 n/cm 2 sec and γ dose rate of 0,63x10 9 rad/hour. The assumption is the capsule is filled with water at maximum volume, i.e. 176.67 ml. The results of calculation showed that radiolysis reaction with γ and neutron produce hydrogen gas for nominal flow rate each are 494 atm and 19683 atm for γ and neutron radiolysis, respectively. H 2 gas pressure for 5% flow rate each are 723 atm. and 25772 atm., for γ and neutron radiolysis, respectively. The changing of the operation condition due to radiolysis together with one way valve' phenomena, can be produce hydrogen gas from water during irradiation in the reactor core and can be the one of root cause of capsule failure. This analysis recommended the FPM capsule preparation must be guaranteed no water or/and there is no possibility of water immersion in the capsule during irradiation in the core by more accurate leak test

  13. Monopole antenna in quantitative near-field microwave microscopy of planar structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reznik, Alexander N.; Korolyov, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed an analytical model of a near-field microwave microscope based on a coaxial resonator with a sharpened tip probe. The probe interacts with a layered sample that features an arbitrary depth distribution of permittivity. The microscopic tip end with the accumulated charge is regarded as a monopole antenna radiating an electric field in near zone. The impedance of such an antenna is determined within a quasi-static approximation. The proposed model is used for calculating the sample-sensitive parameters of the microscope, specifically, resonance frequency f_0 and quality factor Q_0, as a function of probe-sample distance h. The theory has been verified experimentally in studies of semiconductor structures, both bulk and thin films. For measurements, we built a ∼2.1 GHz microscope with an effective tip radius of about 100 μm. The theoretical and experimental dependences f_0(h) and Q_0(h) were found to be in a good agreement. The developed theory underlies the method for determining sheet resistance R_s_h of a semiconductor film on a dielectric substrate proposed in this article. Studies were performed on doped n-GaN films on an Al_2O_3 substrate. The effective radius and height of the probe determined from calibration measurements of etalon samples were used as the model fitting parameters. For etalon samples, we employed homogeneous sapphire and doped silicon plates. We also performed four-probe dc measurements of R_s_h. The corresponding values for samples with R_s_h > 1 kΩ were found to be 50% to 100% higher than the microwave results, which are attributed to the presence of microdefects in semiconductor films.

  14. On the Impact of the Fuel Dissolution Rate Upon Near-Field Releases From Nuclear Waste Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Pereira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Calculations of the impact of the dissolution of spent nuclear fuel on the release from a damaged canister in a KBS-3 repository are presented. The dissolution of the fuel matrix is a complex process and the dissolution rate is known to be one of the most important parameters in performance assessment models of the near-field of a geological repository. A variability study has been made to estimate the uncertainties associated with the process of fuel dissolution. The model considered in this work is a 3D model of a KBS-3 copper canister. The nuclide used in the calculations is Cs-135. Our results confirm that the fuel degradation rate is an important parameter, however there are considerable uncertainties associated with the data and the conceptual models. Consequently, in the interests of safety one should reduce, as far as possible, the uncertainties coupled to fuel degradation.

  15. The near-field acoustic levitation for spheres by transducer with concave spherical radiating surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jian Fang; Sun, Xu Guang; Jiao, Xiao Yang; Chen, Hong Xia; Hua, Shun Ming; Zhang, Hong Chun

    2013-01-01

    To levitate ICF target spheres in the near-field acoustic levitation, a transducer with concave spherical radiating surface and a nearfield acoustic levitation system is established. The concave spherical radiating surface of the transducer is designed by the finite element parametric method. Then the levitation height and levitation perturbation of spheres with different mass and diameters in the near-field acoustic levitation system are tested and discussed in the driving voltage at 400V, 500V and 600V, respectively, when the levitation system is under the resonant frequency. Finally, based on the experimental results, the height formula of the near-field acoustic levitation for spheres is deduced by introducing a coupling coefficient.

  16. Near-field light design with colloidal quantum dots for photonics and plasmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Stephan J P; Richner, Patrizia; Jayanti, Sriharsha V; Galliker, Patrick; Kim, David K; Poulikakos, Dimos; Norris, David J

    2014-10-08

    Colloidal quantum-dots are bright, tunable emitters that are ideal for studying near-field quantum-optical interactions. However, their colloidal nature has hindered their facile and precise placement at desired near-field positions, particularly on the structured substrates prevalent in plasmonics. Here, we use high-resolution electro-hydrodynamic printing (quantum dots on both flat and structured substrates with a few nanometer precision. We also demonstrate that the autofocusing capability of the printing method enables placement of quantum dots preferentially at plasmonic hot spots. We exploit this control and design diffraction-limited photonic and plasmonic sources with arbitrary wavelength, shape, and intensity. We show that simple far-field illumination can excite these near-field sources and generate fundamental plasmonic wave-patterns (plane and spherical waves). The ability to tailor subdiffraction sources of plasmons with quantum dots provides a complementary technique to traditional scattering approaches, offering new capabilities for nanophotonics.

  17. Plasmonic superfocusing on metallic tips for near-field optical imaging and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neacsu, Catalin C.; Olmon, Rob; Berweger, Samuel; Kappus, Alexandria; Kirchner, Friedrich; Ropers, Claus; Saraf, Lax; Raschke, Markus B.

    2008-03-01

    Realization of localized light sources through nonlocal excitation is important in the context of plasmon photonics, molecular sensing, and in particular near-field optical techniques. Here, the efficient conversion of propagating surface plasmons, launched on the shaft of a scanning probe tip, into localized plasmon at the apex provides a true nanoconfined light source. Focused ion beam milling is used to generate periodic surface nanostructures on the tip shaft that allow for tailoring the plasmon excitation. Using ultrashort visible and mid-IR transients the dynamics of the propagation and subsequent scattered emission is characterized. The strong field enhancement and spatial field confinement at the apex is demonstrated studying the coupling of the tip in near-field interaction with a flat sample surface. It is used in scattering near-field spectroscopic imaging (s-SNOM) to probe surface nanostructures with spatial resolution down to 10 nm.

  18. Terahertz Near-Field Imaging Using Enhanced Transmission through a Single Subwavelength Aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Kunihiko; Ikari, Tomofumi; Minamide, Hiroaki; Shikata, Jun-ichi; Ohashi, Keishi; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Ito, Hiromasa

    2005-07-01

    We demonstrate terahertz (THz) near-field imaging using resonantly enhanced transmission of THz-wave radiation (λ˜ 200 μm) through a bull’s eye structure (a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by concentric periodic grooves in a metal plate). The bull’s eye structure shows extremely large enhanced transmission, which has the advantage for a single subwavelength aperture. The spatial resolution for the bull’s eye structure (with an aperture diameter d=100 μm) is evaluated in the near-field region, and a resolution of 50 μm (corresponding to λ/4) is achieved. We obtain the THz near-field images of the subwavelength metal pattern with a spatial resolution below the diffraction limit.

  19. Natural geochemical analogues of the near field of high-level nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apps, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    United States practice has been to design high-level nuclear waste (HLW) geological repositories with waste densities sufficiently high that repository temperatures surrounding the waste will exceed 100 degrees C and could reach 250 degrees C. Basalt and devitrified vitroclastic tuff are among the host rocks considered for waste emplacement. Near-field repository thermal behavior and chemical alteration in such rocks is expected to be similar to that observed in many geothermal systems. Therefore, the predictive modeling required for performance assessment studies of the near field could be validated and calibrated using geothermal systems as natural analogues. Examples are given which demonstrate the need for refinement of the thermodynamic databases used in geochemical modeling of near-field natural analogues and the extent to which present models can predict conditions in geothermal fields

  20. High-Accuracy Spherical Near-Field Measurements for Satellite Antenna Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Olav

    2017-01-01

    The spherical near-field antenna measurement technique is unique in combining several distinct advantages and it generally constitutes the most accurate technique for experimental characterization of radiation from antennas. From the outset in 1970, spherical near-field antenna measurements have...... matured into a well-established technique that is widely used for testing antennas for many wireless applications. In particular, for high-accuracy applications, such as remote sensing satellite missions in ESA's Earth Observation Programme with uncertainty requirements at the level of 0.05dB - 0.10d......B, the spherical near-field antenna measurement technique is generally superior. This paper addresses the means to achieving high measurement accuracy; these include the measurement technique per se, its implementation in terms of proper measurement procedures, the use of uncertainty estimates, as well as facility...

  1. The near-field acoustic levitation for spheres by transducer with concave spherical radiating surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian Fang; Sun, Xu Guang; Jiao, Xiao Yang; Chen, Hong Xia [Jilin University, Changchun (China); Hua, Shun Ming [Zhejiang University, Ningbo (China); Zhang, Hong Chun [Aviation University of AirForce, Changchun (China)

    2013-02-15

    To levitate ICF target spheres in the near-field acoustic levitation, a transducer with concave spherical radiating surface and a nearfield acoustic levitation system is established. The concave spherical radiating surface of the transducer is designed by the finite element parametric method. Then the levitation height and levitation perturbation of spheres with different mass and diameters in the near-field acoustic levitation system are tested and discussed in the driving voltage at 400V, 500V and 600V, respectively, when the levitation system is under the resonant frequency. Finally, based on the experimental results, the height formula of the near-field acoustic levitation for spheres is deduced by introducing a coupling coefficient.

  2. Sub-nanosecond time-resolved near-field scanning magneto-optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudge, J; Xu, H; Kolthammer, J; Hong, Y K; Choi, B C

    2015-02-01

    We report on the development of a new magnetic microscope, time-resolved near-field scanning magneto-optical microscope, which combines a near-field scanning optical microscope and magneto-optical contrast. By taking advantage of the high temporal resolution of time-resolved Kerr microscope and the sub-wavelength spatial resolution of a near-field microscope, we achieved a temporal resolution of ∼50 ps and a spatial resolution of microscope, the magnetic field pulse induced gyrotropic vortex dynamics occurring in 1 μm diameter, 20 nm thick CoFeB circular disks has been investigated. The microscope provides sub-wavelength resolution magnetic images of the gyrotropic motion of the vortex core at a resonance frequency of ∼240 MHz.

  3. Beam alignment based on two-dimensional power spectral density of a near-field image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shenzhen; Yuan, Qiang; Zeng, Fa; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Junpu; Li, Kehong; Zhang, Xiaolu; Xue, Qiao; Yang, Ying; Dai, Wanjun; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Yuanchen; Zheng, Kuixing; Su, Jingqin; Hu, Dongxia; Zhu, Qihua

    2017-10-30

    Beam alignment is crucial to high-power laser facilities and is used to adjust the laser beams quickly and accurately to meet stringent requirements of pointing and centering. In this paper, a novel alignment method is presented, which employs data processing of the two-dimensional power spectral density (2D-PSD) for a near-field image and resolves the beam pointing error relative to the spatial filter pinhole directly. Combining this with a near-field fiducial mark, the operation of beam alignment is achieved. It is experimentally demonstrated that this scheme realizes a far-field alignment precision of approximately 3% of the pinhole size. This scheme adopts only one near-field camera to construct the alignment system, which provides a simple, efficient, and low-cost way to align lasers.

  4. Proceedings from the technical workshop on near-field performance assessment for high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellin, P.; Apted, M.; Gago, J.

    1991-12-01

    This report contains the proceedings of 'Technical workshop of near-filed performance assessment for high-level waste' held in Madrid October 15-17, 1990. It includes the invited presentations and summaries of the scientific discussions. The workshop covered several topics: * post-emplacement environment, * benchmarking of computer codes, * glass release, * spent-fuel release, * radionuclide solubility, * near-field transport processes, * coupled processes in the near-field, * integrated assessments, * sensitivity analyses and validation. There was an invited presentation on each topic followed by an extensive discussion. One of the points highlighted in the closing discussion of the workshop was the need for international cooperation in the field of near-field performance assessment. The general opinion was that this was best achieved in smaller groups discussing specific questions. (au) Separate abstracts were prepared for 9 papers in this volume

  5. Fabrication of a novel nano-probe slide for near-field optical microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Sang-Youp; Jeang, Eun-Hee; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Park, Seung-Han; Cho, Kyu-Man

    2004-01-01

    A novel probe structure, which can act as a planar nano-probe slide for near-field microscopy, was proposed and fabricated. Sub-wavelength apertures on a Si substrate are successfully produced by means of standard photolithography techniques with properly selected masks. In particular, the anisotropic etching characteristics of Si substrate and the hardness of the Si 3 N 4 film are utilized. Probe-to-probe scanning of the fabricated near-field nano-probe slide shows sub-wavelength confinement of light and comparable throughput to the conventional optical fiber probe. We also show that the nano-probe slide can serve as a supporting base and a sub-wavelength aperture to obtain the near-field photoluminescence spectra of a limited number of CdSe nanocrystals.

  6. Near-field interference for the unidirectional excitation of electromagnetic guided modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fortuño, Francisco J; Marino, Giuseppe; Ginzburg, Pavel; O'Connor, Daniel; Martínez, Alejandro; Wurtz, Gregory A; Zayats, Anatoly V

    2013-04-19

    Wave interference is a fundamental manifestation of the superposition principle with numerous applications. Although in conventional optics, interference occurs between waves undergoing different phase advances during propagation, we show that the vectorial structure of the near field of an emitter is essential for controlling its radiation as it interferes with itself on interaction with a mediating object. We demonstrate that the near-field interference of a circularly polarized dipole results in the unidirectional excitation of guided electromagnetic modes in the near field, with no preferred far-field radiation direction. By mimicking the dipole with a single illuminated slit in a gold film, we measured unidirectional surface-plasmon excitation in a spatially symmetric structure. The surface wave direction is switchable with the polarization.

  7. Preliminary analysis for evolution of redox conditions in the near field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Tamotsu; Miki, Takahito; Inagaki, Manabu; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yui, Mikazu

    1999-06-01

    It is planned that high level radioactive waste is going to be disposed under deep geological environment. It is believed that the chemical condition of deep groundwater is generally anoxic and reducing. However, during construction and operation phase of repository, oxygen will diffuse some distance into the surrounding rock mass, and diffused oxygen may remain in the surrounding rock mass even after repository closure. In such a case, the transitional redox condition around the drift is not preferable in view point of safety assessment for HLW disposal. Hence, it is very important to evaluate evolution of redox conditions in the near field. This report describes results of preliminary analysis for evolution of redox conditions in the near field rock mass and buffer after repository closure based on the model developed by Chiba et al. (1999). The results of preliminary analysis are summarized as follows: The decrease of oxygen in the near field rock mass and buffer are affected by pH of groundwater and surface area of iron-bearing minerals. The decrease of oxygen in the near field rock mass takes place at time scales lower than 500 years in considering the hypothetical reference groundwater pH range for H12 report. It is implicated that the redox conditions in the near field rock mass will recover to reducing conditions. The decrease of oxygen in the buffer takes place at time scales lower several tens years under neutral to weakly alkaline pH values of porewater in the buffer, even if it is assumed that residual oxygen in the near field rock mass after repository closure will diffuse into the buffer. On the other hand, under weakly acid pH values of porewater in the buffer, it may be presumed that oxygen remain in the buffer at time scale more than 500 years. (author)

  8. Model development to evaluate evolution of redox conditions in the near field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Tamotsu; Miki, Takahito; Inagaki, Manabu; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yui, Mikazu

    1999-02-01

    Deep underground is thought to be a potential place for high level radioactive waste repository. It is believed that the chemical condition of deep groundwater is generally anoxic and reducing. However, during construction and operation phase of repository, oxygen will diffuse some distance into the surrounding rock mass, and diffused oxygen may remain in the surrounding rock mass even after repository closure. In such a case, the transitional redox condition around the drift is not preferable in view point of safety assessment for HLW disposal. Hence, it is very important to evaluate evolution of redox conditions in the near field. This report describes the status of model development to evaluate evolution of redox conditions in the near field. We use the commercial solver to equate the mathematical equations which mean evolution of redox condition in the near field. The target area modeled in this report are near field rock mass and engineered barrier (buffer). In case of near field rock mass, we consider the following two geological media: (1) porous media for sedimentary rock, (2) fractured media for crystalline rock. In case of the engineered barrier, we regard the buffer as porous media. We simulate the behavior of dissolved oxygen and Fe 2+ in groundwater during evolution of redox condition in the near field rock mass and the buffer. In case of the porous media, we consider diffusion of chemical species as dominant transport mechanism. On the other hand, in case of the fractured media, we consider diffusion of chemical species in rock matrix and advection of that (only dissolved oxygen considered in this model) in fracture as transport mechanism. We also use the rate law of iron oxidation reaction and dissolution of Fe-bearing minerals in this model besides. (author)

  9. Nanospectrofluorometry inside single living cell by scanning near-field optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, F. H.; Shang, G. Y.; Troyon, M.; Spajer, M.; Morjani, H.; Angiboust, J. F.; Manfait, M.

    2001-10-01

    Near-field fluorescence spectra with subdiffraction limit spatial resolution have been taken in the proximity of mitochondrial membrane inside breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF7) treated with the fluorescent dye (JC-1) by using a scanning near-field optical microscope coupled with a confocal laser microspectrofluorometer. The probe-sample distance control is based on a piezoelectric bimorph shear force sensor having a static spring constant k=5 μN/nm and a quality factor Q=40 in a physiological medium of viscosity η=1.0 cp. The sensitivity of the force sensor has been tested by imaging a MCF7 cell surface.

  10. Near field evidence of backward surface plasmon polaritons on negative index material boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuevas, Mauro; Grunhut, Vivian; Depine, Ricardo A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electromagnetic scattering from a localized defect on a NIM surface is presented. • The electromagnetic response strongly depends on the SPPs excited. • Near field distribution reveals the forward or backward character of SPPs excited. - Abstract: We present a detailed analysis about the electromagnetic response of a metamaterial surface with a localized defect. The excitation of electromagnetic surface waves leads to a near-field distribution showing a periodic dependence along the metamaterial surface. We find that this periodic pattern provides a direct demonstration of the forward or backward surface wave propagation.

  11. Near field evidence of backward surface plasmon polaritons on negative index material boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas, Mauro, E-mail: cuevas@df.uba.ar [Facultad de Ingeniería y Tecnología Informática, Universidad de Belgrano, Villanueva 1324, C1426BMJ, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Grunhut, Vivian [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Austral (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Depine, Ricardo A. [Grupo de Electromagnetismo Aplicado, Departamento de Física, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, C1428EHA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina)

    2016-12-09

    Highlights: • Electromagnetic scattering from a localized defect on a NIM surface is presented. • The electromagnetic response strongly depends on the SPPs excited. • Near field distribution reveals the forward or backward character of SPPs excited. - Abstract: We present a detailed analysis about the electromagnetic response of a metamaterial surface with a localized defect. The excitation of electromagnetic surface waves leads to a near-field distribution showing a periodic dependence along the metamaterial surface. We find that this periodic pattern provides a direct demonstration of the forward or backward surface wave propagation.

  12. Far- and near-field second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domain walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Pedersen, K.; Skettrup, Torben

    1998-01-01

    Domain walls in periodically poled ferroelectric LiNbO3 crystals are observed with both far- and near-field imaging techniques that make use of second harmonic generation in the transition regions between neighbouring domains. Second harmonic images of domain walls represent bright lines of about.......5 micrometers in width (as measured with the near-field microscope) for the polarization of the second harmonic radiation perpendicular to the domain walls. Origin and selection rules for the constrast in second harmonic images of domain walls are discussed....

  13. Shape matters: Near-field fluid mechanics dominate the collective motions of ellipsoidal squirmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoya, K; Matsunaga, D; Imai, Y; Omori, T; Ishikawa, T

    2015-12-01

    Microswimmers show a variety of collective motions. Despite extensive study, questions remain regarding the role of near-field fluid mechanics in collective motion. In this paper, we describe precisely the Stokes flow around hydrodynamically interacting ellipsoidal squirmers in a monolayer suspension. The results showed that various collective motions, such as ordering, aggregation, and whirls, are dominated by the swimming mode and the aspect ratio. The collective motions are mainly induced by near-field fluid mechanics, despite Stokes flow propagation over a long range. These results emphasize the importance of particle shape in collective motion.

  14. Double phi-Step theta-Scanning Technique for Spherical Near-Field Antenna Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Tommi

    2008-01-01

    Probe-corrected spherical near-field antenna measurements with an arbitrary probe set certain requirements on an applicable scanning technique. The computational complexity of the general high-order probe correction technique for an arbitrary probe, that is based on the Phi scanning, is O(N4...... a specific double Phi-step thetas scanning technique for spherical near-field antenna measurements. This technique not only constitutes an alternative spherical scanning technique, but it also enables formulating an associated probe correction technique for arbitrary probes with the computational complexity...

  15. Near-field thermal radiation between hyperbolic metamaterials: Graphite and carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X. L.; Zhang, R. Z.; Zhang, Z. M., E-mail: zhuomin.zhang@me.gatech.edu [G. W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2013-11-18

    The near-field radiative heat transfer for two hyperbolic metamaterials, namely, graphite and vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), is investigated. Graphite is a naturally existing uniaxial medium, while CNT arrays can be modeled as an effective anisotropic medium. Different hyperbolic modes can be separately supported by these materials in certain infrared regions, resulting in a strong enhancement in near-field heat transfer. It is predicted that the heat flux between two CNT arrays can exceed that between SiC plates at any vacuum gap distance and is about 10 times higher with a 10 nm gap.

  16. Near-field characteristics of radiating-wave simulator antenna based on TEM horn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Chunming; Ge Debiao

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a novel antenna of NEMP (nuclear electromagnetic pulse) radiating-wave simulator, which is analyzed and optimized using the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method. The intense voltage pulse is fed as the source to this antenna by the coaxial line. The parallel plate transmission line and the size of the transverse electromagnetic horn are optimized. The near field of antenna is analyzed, and the effects of the size on the near field are also given. The antenna designed in this paper can well satisfy the requirement for studying the EMP effects

  17. Graphene-assisted near-field radiative heat transfer between corrugated polar materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X. L.; Zhang, Z. M.

    2014-01-01

    Graphene has attracted great attention in nanoelectronics, optics, and energy harvesting. Here, the near-field radiative heat transfer between graphene-covered corrugated silica is investigated based on the exact scattering theory. It is found that graphene can improve the radiative heat flux between silica gratings by more than one order of magnitude and alleviate the performance sensitivity to lateral shift. The underlying mechanism is mainly attributed to the improved photon tunneling of modes away from phonon resonances. Besides, coating with graphene leads to nonlocal radiative transfer that breaks Derjaguin's proximity approximation and enables corrugated silica to outperform bulk silica in near-field radiation.

  18. Cancer cell imaging by stable wet near-field scanning optical microscope with resonance tracking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyoung-Duck; Park, Doo-Jae; Jeong, Mun-Seok; Choi, Geun-Chang; Lee, Seung-Gol; Byeon, Clare-Chisu; Choi, Soo-Bong

    2014-01-01

    We report on a successful topographical and optical imaging of various cancer cells in liquid and in air by using a stable wet near-field scanning optical microscope that utilizes a resonance tracking method. We observed a clear dehydration which gives rise to a decrease in the cell volume down to 51%. In addition, a micro-ball lens effect due to the round-shaped young cancer cells was observed from near-field imaging, where the refractive index of young cancer cells was deduced.

  19. Development of a backscattering type ultraviolet apertureless near-field scanning optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sangjin; Jeong, Hyun; Jeong, Mun Seok; Jeong, Sungho

    2011-08-01

    A backscattering type ultraviolet apertureless near-field scanning optical microscope (ANSOM) for the correlated measurement of topographical and optical characteristics of photonic materials with high optical resolution was developed. The near-field Rayleigh scattering image of GaN covered with periodic submicron Cr dots showed that optical resolution around 40 nm was achievable. By measuring the tip scattered photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN multi quantum wells, the applicability of the developed microscope for high resolution fluorescence measurement was also demonstrated.

  20. Polarization contrast in reflection near-field optical microscopy with uncoated fibre tips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Langbein, Wolfgang; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1999-01-01

    Using cross-hatched, patterned semiconductor surfaces and round 20-nm-thick gold pads on semiconductor wafers, we investigate the imaging characteristics of a reflection near-field optical microscope with an uncoated fibre tip for different polarization configurations and light wavelengths....... Is is shown that cross-polarized detection allows one to effectively suppress far-field components in the detected signal and to realise imaging of optical contrast on the sub-wavelength scale. The sensitivity window of our microscope, i.e. the scale on which near-field optical images represent mainly optical...

  1. Optical near-field lithography on hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Steen; Müllenborn, Matthias; Birkelund, Karen

    1996-01-01

    by the optical near field, were observed after etching in potassium hydroxide. The uncoated fibers can also induce oxidation without light exposure, in a manner similar to an atomic force microscope, and linewidths of 50 nm have been achieved this way. (C) 1996 American Institute of Physics.......We report on a novel lithography technique for patterning of hydrogen-passivated amorphous silicon surfaces. A reflection mode scanning near-field optical microscope with uncoated fiber probes has been used to locally oxidize a thin amorphous silicon layer. Lines of 110 nm in width, induced...

  2. Near field and altered zone environmental report Volume I: technical bases for EBS design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilder, D. G., LLNL

    1997-08-01

    This report presents an updated summary of results for the waste package (WP) and engineered barrier system (EBS) evaluations, including materials testing, waste-form characterization, EBS performance assessments, and near-field environment (NFE) characterization. Materials testing, design criteria and concept development, and waste-form characterization all require an understanding of the environmental conditions that will interact with the WP and EBS. The Near-Field Environment Report (NFER) was identified in the Waste Package Plan (WPP) (Harrison- Giesler, 1991) as the formal means for transmitting and documenting this information.

  3. Group velocity measurement using spectral interference in near-field scanning optical microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, John D.; Chaipiboonwong, Tipsuda; Brocklesby, William S.; Charlton, Martin D. B.; Netti, Caterina; Zoorob, Majd E.; Baumberg, Jeremy J.

    2006-01-01

    Near-field scanning optical microscopy provides a tool for studying the behavior of optical fields inside waveguides. In this experiment the authors measure directly the variation of group velocity between different modes of a planar slab waveguide as the modes propagate along the guide. The measurement is made using the spectral interference between pulses propagating inside the waveguide with different group velocities, collected using a near-field scanning optical microscope at different points down the guide and spectrally resolved. The results are compared to models of group velocities in simple guides

  4. Cancer cell imaging by stable wet near-field scanning optical microscope with resonance tracking method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyoung-Duck [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Doo-Jae; Jeong, Mun-Seok [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Geun-Chang [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung-Gol [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Byeon, Clare-Chisu [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Soo-Bong [Incheon National University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    We report on a successful topographical and optical imaging of various cancer cells in liquid and in air by using a stable wet near-field scanning optical microscope that utilizes a resonance tracking method. We observed a clear dehydration which gives rise to a decrease in the cell volume down to 51%. In addition, a micro-ball lens effect due to the round-shaped young cancer cells was observed from near-field imaging, where the refractive index of young cancer cells was deduced.

  5. Time-Domain Analytical Expression for Near Fields of Arbitrarily Oriented Electric Dipole and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The near fields of electric dipole are commonly used in wide-band analysis of complex electromagnetic problems. In this paper, we propose new near field time-domain expressions for electric dipole. The analytical expressions for the frequency-domain of arbitrarily oriented electric dipole are given at first; next we give the time-domain expressions by time-frequency transformation. The proposed expressions are used in hybrid TDIE/DGTD method for analysis of circular antenna with radome. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm is verified by numerical examples.

  6. Resistance calculation of un-fully developed two-phase flow through high differential pressure regulating valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mingyang; Wang Wenran; Wang Jiaying

    1999-01-01

    To reduce the flow velocity in the high differential pressure regulating valve with labyrinth. A type of complicated valve core structure were designed with tortuous flow path made from reversal double elbows. It is very difficult to calculate the pressure-drop of the un-fully developed two-phase flow under high temperature and pressure which flow through the valve core. A calculation method called 'constant (varing) pressure-drop progressing step by step design method' was developed. The complicated flow path was disintegrated into a series of independent resistance units and with the valve stem end progressing step by step the dimensions of the flow path were designed in accordance with the principle that in every position the total pressure-drop of the valve should amount to that required by the design goal curve. In the course of calculating the total pressure-drop, the valve flow path was also divided into a series of independent resistance units. The experiment results show that design flow characteristics are approximately consistent with the flow characteristics measured in the test

  7. A Mathematical Scheme for Calculating Flows and Pressure Drops in Lit and Unlit Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer RW

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A computational methodology is presented for evaluating the flows and pressure drops in both lit and unlit cigarettes. The flows and pressure drops across rows of tipping-paper perforations are considered explicitly, as are the locations and relative sizes of the ventilation holes. The flows and pressure drops across air-permeable cigarette papers are included. The influence of plugwrappermeabilities on filter ventilation is developed. Lit cigarettes are mimicked by adding a “coal” pressure drop to the upstream end of the cigarette. The computational scheme is used to predict the effects of tobacco-rod length, puff volume, and vent blocking on cigarette ventilation and pressure drop. A derivation of the pressure-drop and flow equations for a cigarette with an upstream pressure drop is included in an appendix.

  8. First-principles calculations of structural, elastic, and electronic properties of trigonal ZnSnO{sub 3} under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qi-Jun, E-mail: qijunliu@home.swjtu.edu.cn [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education of China, Chengdu 610031 (China); Bond and Band Engineering Group, Sichuan Provincial Key Laboratory (for Universities) of High Pressure Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Qin, Han; Jiao, Zhen; Liu, Fu-Sheng [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education of China, Chengdu 610031 (China); Bond and Band Engineering Group, Sichuan Provincial Key Laboratory (for Universities) of High Pressure Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Liu, Zheng-Tang [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China)

    2016-09-01

    First-principles calculations of the structural, elastic, mechanical and electronic properties of ilmenite-type ZnSnO{sub 3} under pressure have been investigated in the present paper. Our calculated lattice constants at zero pressure are in agreement with the published theoretical and experimental data. The elastic constants at zero and high pressure have been obtained, which are used to discuss the mechanical stability of ilmenite-type ZnSnO{sub 3}. The mechanical properties such as bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio under pressure have been studied. Electronic properties show that ilmenite-type ZnSnO{sub 3} is shown to be a direct bandgap of 1.063 (GGA-PW91)/3.977 (PBE0) eV. The bandgap increases with the increasing pressure. Moreover, the partial density of states has been analyzed to explain the increased bandgap. - Highlights: • Physical properties of ilmenite-type ZnSnO{sub 3} under pressure have been investigated. • Ilmenite-type ZnSnO{sub 3} behaves in a ductile manner. • Ilmenite-type ZnSnO{sub 3} is a direct bandgap compound with 3.977 eV. • Bandgap of Ilmenite-type ZnSnO{sub 3} increases with the increasing pressure.

  9. Noninvasive calculation of the aortic blood pressure waveform from the flow velocity waveform: a proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennin, Samuel; Mayer, Alexia; Li, Ye; Fok, Henry; Clapp, Brian; Alastruey, Jordi; Chowienczyk, Phil

    2015-09-01

    Estimation of aortic and left ventricular (LV) pressure usually requires measurements that are difficult to acquire during the imaging required to obtain concurrent LV dimensions essential for determination of LV mechanical properties. We describe a novel method for deriving aortic pressure from the aortic flow velocity. The target pressure waveform is divided into an early systolic upstroke, determined by the water hammer equation, and a diastolic decay equal to that in the peripheral arterial tree, interposed by a late systolic portion described by a second-order polynomial constrained by conditions of continuity and conservation of mean arterial pressure. Pulse wave velocity (PWV, which can be obtained through imaging), mean arterial pressure, diastolic pressure, and diastolic decay are required inputs for the algorithm. The algorithm was tested using 1) pressure data derived theoretically from prespecified flow waveforms and properties of the arterial tree using a single-tube 1-D model of the arterial tree, and 2) experimental data acquired from a pressure/Doppler flow velocity transducer placed in the ascending aorta in 18 patients (mean ± SD: age 63 ± 11 yr, aortic BP 136 ± 23/73 ± 13 mmHg) at the time of cardiac catheterization. For experimental data, PWV was calculated from measured pressures/flows, and mean and diastolic pressures and diastolic decay were taken from measured pressure (i.e., were assumed to be known). Pressure reconstructed from measured flow agreed well with theoretical pressure: mean ± SD root mean square (RMS) error 0.7 ± 0.1 mmHg. Similarly, for experimental data, pressure reconstructed from measured flow agreed well with measured pressure (mean RMS error 2.4 ± 1.0 mmHg). First systolic shoulder and systolic peak pressures were also accurately rendered (mean ± SD difference 1.4 ± 2.0 mmHg for peak systolic pressure). This is the first noninvasive derivation of aortic pressure based on fluid dynamics (flow and wave speed) in the

  10. Buckling calculations with the CEASEMT system for elliptical heads subjected to an internal pressure. Comparison with the Saclay experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bung, Hariddh; Alix, Michel; Hoffmann, Alain.

    1980-06-01

    In this paper, Buckling calculations with the CEASEMT System (INCA) are compared with experimental results obtained on elliptical heads subjected to an internal pressure. Tests were performed with 18 ellipsoidal heads welded on cylinders made of carbon steel A 36-401, stainless steel Z6CN18-09 and aluminium-magnesium alloys (AG3). Experimental data are higher than calculated data, this leads to a good safety factor [fr

  11. High definition aperture probes for near-field optical microscopy fabricated by focused ion beam milling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, J.A.; Otter, A.M.; Kuipers, L.; van Hulst, N.F.

    1998-01-01

    We have improved the optical characteristics of aluminum-coated fiber probes used in near-field scanning optical microscopy by milling with a focused ion beam. This treatment produces a flat-end face free of aluminum grains, containing a well- defined circularly-symmetric aperture with controllable

  12. The ACE-DTU Planar Near-Field Ground Penetrating Radar Antenna Test Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenler-Eriksen, Hans-Rudolph; Meincke, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The ACE-DTU planar near-field ground penetrating radar (GPR) antenna test facility is used to measure the plane-wave transmitting spectrum of a GPR loop antenna close to the air-soil interface by means of a probe buried in soil. Probe correction is implemented using knowledge about the complex...

  13. Near-field characterization of low-loss photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volkov, V. S.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Borel, Peter Ingo

    2005-01-01

    -nm-period lattices with different filling factors (0.76 and 0.82) and connected to access ridge waveguides. Using the near-field optical images we investigate the light propagation along PCWs for TM and TE polarization (the electric field is perpendicular/parallel to the sample surface). Efficient...

  14. Topography characterization of a deep grating using near-field imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Tromborg, Bjarne; Volkov, Valentyn S.

    2006-01-01

    Using near-field optical microscopy at the wavelength of 633 nm, we image light intensity distributions at several distances above an ~2-mm deep and a 1-mm-period glass grating illuminated from below under the condition of total internal reflection. The intensity distributions are numerically mod...

  15. Direct measurement of the near-field super resolved focused spot in InSb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assafrao, A.C.; Wachters, A.J.H.; Verheijen, M.; Nugrowati, A.M.; Pereira, S.F.; Urbach, H.P.; Armand, M.F.; Olivier, S.

    2012-01-01

    Under appropriate laser exposure, a thin film of InSb exhibits a sub-wavelength thermally modified area that can be used to focus light beyond the diffraction limit. This technique, called Super-Resolution Near-Field Structure, is a potential candidate for ultrahigh density optical data storage and

  16. Atomic force and scanning near-field optical microscopy study of carbocyanine dye J-aggregates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokhorov, V.V.; Petrova, M.G.; Kovaleva, Natalia; Demikhov, E.I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 5 (2014), s. 700-704 ISSN 1573-4137 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : carbocyanine dye * elementary fibri * high-resolution atomic force microscopy * J-aggregate * probe microscopy * scanning near-field optical microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.096, year: 2014

  17. Fluorescence in situ hybridization on human metaphase chromosomes detected by near-field scanning optical microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moers, M.H.P.; Moers, M.H.P.; Kalle, W.H.J.; Kalle, W.H.J.; Ruiter, A.G.T.; Wiegant, J.C.A.G.; Raap, A.K.; Greve, Jan; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.

    1996-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization o­n human metaphase chromosomes is detected by near-field scanning optical microscopy. This combination of cytochemical and scanning probe techniques enables the localization and identification of several fluorescently labelled genomic DNA fragments o­n a single

  18. Single molecule detection on the cell membrane with Near-field Scanning Optical Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bakker, B.I.

    2004-01-01

    In this research we have developed a dedicated near- field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) for molecular biology and applied it to study the spatial organization of (fluorescently labeled) proteins at the cell surface. For the first time, protein clusters and individual molecules are resolved at

  19. Spectral tuning of near-field radiative heat transfer by graphene-covered metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhiheng; Wang, Ao; Xuan, Yimin

    2018-03-01

    When two gratings are respectively covered by a layer of graphene sheet, the near-field radiative heat transfer between two parallel gratings made of silica (SiO2) could be greatly improved. As the material properties of doped silicon (n-type doping concentration is 1020 cm-3, marked as Si-20) and SiO2 differ greatly, we theoretically investigate the near-field radiative heat transfer between two parallel graphene-covered gratings made of Si-20 to explore some different phenomena, especially for modulating the spectral properties. The radiative heat flux between two parallel bulks made of Si-20 can be enhanced by using gratings instead of bulks. When the two gratings are respectively covered by a layer of graphene sheet, the radiative heat flux between two gratings made of Si-20 can be further enhanced. By tuning graphene chemical potential μ and grating filling factor f, due to the interaction between surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) of graphene sheets and grating structures, the spectral properties of the radiative heat flux between two parallel graphene-covered gratings can be effectively regulated. This work will develop and supplement the effects of materials on the near-field radiative heat transfer for this kind of system configuration, paving a way to modulate the spectral properties of near-field radiative heat transfer.

  20. Near-field imaging of interference pattern of counterpropagating evanescent waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Bozhevolnaya, Elena A.

    1999-01-01

    It is generally accepted that measurement of of the contrast of the intensity interference pattern formed by two counterpropagating evanescent waves can be used to characterize the resolving power of a collection near-field microscope. We argue that, if the light collected by a fiber probe propag...... be equal to the contrast of the interference pattern....

  1. Room-temperature near-field reflection spectrocopy of semiconductor nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Madsen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the properties of near-field reflection spectroscopy in different polarization and detection modes using uncoated fiber probes. The results show, that cross-polarized detection suppresses to a large extent far-field contributions. Using the fiber dithering as a modulation source fo...

  2. Near field wireless power transfer using curved relay resonators for extended transfer distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, D; Beeby, S P; Clare, L; Stark, B H

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of a near field wireless power transfer system that uses curved relay resonator to extend transfer distance. Near field wireless power transfer operates based on the near-field electromagnetic coupling of coils. Such a system can transfer energy over a relatively short distance which is of the same order of dimensions of the coupled coils. The energy transfer distance can be increased using flat relay resonators. Recent developments in printing electronics and e-textiles have seen increasing demand of embedding electronics into fabrics. Near field wireless power transfer is one of the most promising methods to power electronics on fabrics. The concept can be applied to body-worn textiles by, for example, integrating a transmitter coil into upholstery, and a flexible receiver coil into garments. Flexible textile coils take on the shape of the supporting materials such as garments, and therefore curved resonator and receiver coils are investigated in this work. Experimental results showed that using curved relay resonator can effectively extend the wireless power transfer distance. However, as the curvature of the coil increases, the performance of the wireless power transfer, especially the maximum received power, deteriorates. (paper)

  3. Near field imaging of transient collisional excitation x-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Momoko; Kado, Masataka; Hasegawa, Noboru; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Sukegawa, Kouta; Lu, Peixiang; Nagashima, Akira; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2001-01-01

    We observed the spatial profile of the transient collisional excitation Ni-like Ag laser (λ=13.9 nm) for various plasma lengths using the near field imaging method. The gain coefficient of the x-ray laser was estimated as 24 cm -1 . The gain region was a 50 μm crescent shape and included localized high gain areas. (author)

  4. A 60 GHz Dual-Polarized Probe for Spherical Near-Field Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popa, Paula Irina; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2017-01-01

    to waveguide adapters up to 67 GHz for OMT-switch connection. A 27 dBi gain conical horn is designed by using WIPL-D software and in-house manufactured. The 60 GHz probe system is being assembled and tested in planar near-field (PNF) setup at DTU. The results are validated by comparison with WIPL-D simulations...

  5. 60 GHz Antenna Diagnostics from Planar Near Field Antenna Measurement Without External Frequency Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popa, Paula Irina; Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2015-01-01

    ,J.M. Nielsen, O. Breinbjerg, 60 GHz Antenna Measurement Setup using a VNA without External Frequency Conversion,36th Annual Symposium of the Antenna Measurement Technique Association ,October 12-17,Tucson, Arizona, 2014]. In this work we extend the validation of this 60 GHz planar near-field (PNF) set...

  6. Characterization of Alq3 thin films by a near-field microwave microprobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovsepyan, Artur; Lee, Huneung; Sargsyan, Tigran; Melikyan, Harutyun; Yoon, Youngwoon; Babajanyan, Arsen; Friedman, Barry; Lee, Kiejin

    2008-09-01

    We observed tris-8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq3) thin films dependence on substrate heating temperatures by using a near-field microwave microprobe (NFMM) and by optical absorption at wavelengths between 200 and 900 nm. The changes of absorption intensity at different substrate heating temperatures are correlated to the changes in the sheet resistance of Alq3 thin films.

  7. Characterization of viscous biofuel sprays using digital imaging in the near field region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sallevelt, J.L.H.P.; Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof; Brem, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    The atomization of biodiesel, vegetable oil and glycerin has been studied in an atmospheric spray rig by using digital imaging (PDIA). Images of the spray were captured in the near field, just 18 mm downstream of the atomizer, and processed to automatically determine the size of both ligaments and

  8. Optical detection of ultrasound using an apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Phillip; Zhang, Zhen; Sun, Cheng; Balogun, Oluwaseyi

    2013-01-01

    Laser ultrasonics techniques are power approaches for non-contact generation and detection of high frequency ultrasound on a local scale. In these techniques, optical diffraction limits the spatial information that can be accessed from a measurement. In order to improve the lateral spatial resolution, we incorporate an apertureless near-field scanning optical microscope (aNSOM) into laser ultrasonics setup for local detection of laser generated ultrasound. The aNSOM technique relies on the measurement of a weak backscattered near-field light intensity resulting from the oblique illumination of a nanoscale probe-tip positioned close to a sample surface. We enhance the optical near-field intensity by coupling light to surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on the shaft of an atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever. The SPPs propagate down the AFM shaft, localize at the tip apex, and are backscattered to the far-field when the separation distance between the probe tip and the sample surface is comparable to the probe-tip radius. The backscattered near-field intensity is dynamically modulated when an ultrasonic wave arrives at the sample surface leading to a transient change in the tip-sample separation distance. We present experimental results detailing measurement of broadband and narrowband laser generated ultrasound in solids with frequencies reaching up to 180 MHz range.

  9. Direct measurement of source RDP's and yields from near-field Soviet seismic data. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikia, C.K.; McLaren, J.P.; Helmberger, D.V.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the source characteristics represented in the form of a reduced displacement potential (RDP) of Soviet nuclear explosions and was based on the availability of in-country near-field data. At the start of the project, it was thought that data would be readily accessible to us with the start of the open exchange of seismic data between the US and the Soviet Union. In fact, we did receive near-field waveforms of two Soviet nuclear explosions from Azghir test site near the Caspian Sea following which the transfer of data stopped till the end of the project. Consequently, the research effort was descoped. Only recently, some additional data have become available at CSS (Center for Seismic Studies). We have undertaken a thorough investigation of the limited data available from a large coupled shot (64 kT) in Azghir followed five years later by a decoupled shot (8 kT). We have successfully modeled the near-field data from these events to determine their source RDP's and establish a decoupling factor of 15 using a time-domain waveform modeling technique. The results of this study are presented in the enclosed manuscript: Analysis of near-field data from a Soviet decoupling experiment

  10. Single molecule mapping of the optical field distribution of probes for near-field microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, J.A.; Garcia Parajo, M.F.; Kuipers, L.; van Hulst, N.F.

    1999-01-01

    The most difficult task in near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) is to make a high quality subwavelength aperture probe, Recently we have developed high definition NSOM probes by focused ion beam (FIB) milling. These probes have a higher brightness, better polarization characteristics,

  11. A near-field scanning microwave microscope based on a superconducting resonator for low power measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, S E; Danilov, A V; Adamyan, A; Kubatkin, S E

    2013-02-01

    We report on the design and performance of a cryogenic (300 mK) near-field scanning microwave microscope. It uses a microwave resonator as the near-field sensor, operating at a frequency of 6 GHz and microwave probing amplitudes down to 100 μV, approaching low enough photon population (N ∼ 1000) of the resonator such that coherent quantum manipulation becomes feasible. The resonator is made out of a miniaturized distributed fractal superconducting circuit that is integrated with the probing tip, micromachined to be compact enough such that it can be mounted directly on a quartz tuning-fork, and used for parallel operation as an atomic force microscope (AFM). The resonator is magnetically coupled to a transmission line for readout, and to achieve enhanced sensitivity we employ a Pound-Drever-Hall measurement scheme to lock to the resonance frequency. We achieve a well localized near-field around the tip such that the microwave resolution is comparable to the AFM resolution, and a capacitive sensitivity down to 6.4 × 10(-20) F/Hz, limited by mechanical noise. We believe that the results presented here are a significant step towards probing quantum systems at the nanoscale using near-field scanning microwave microscopy.

  12. Simultaneous near field imaging of electric and magnetic field in photonic crystal nanocavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vignolini, S.; Intonti, F.; Riboli, F.; Wiersma, D.S.; Balet, L.P.; Li, L.H.; Francardi, M.; Gerardino, A.; Fiore, A.; Gurioli, M.

    2012-01-01

    The insertion of a metal-coated tip on the surface of a photonic crystal microcavity is used for simultaneous near field imaging of electric and magnetic fields in photonic crystal nanocavities, via the radiative emission of embedded semiconductor quantum dots (QD). The photoluminescence intensity

  13. Near-Field Antenna Measurements Using Photonic Sensor of Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanobu Hirose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have been developing a photonic sensor system to measure the electric near-field distribution at a distance shorter than one wavelength from the aperture of an antenna. The photonic sensor is a type of Mach-Zehnder interferometer and consists of an array antenna of 2.4 mm height and 2 mm width on a LiNbO3 substrate (0.5 mm thickness, 8 mm length, and 3 mm width supported by a glass pipe. The photonic sensor can be considered to be a receiving infinitesimal dipole antenna that is a tiny metallic part printed on a small dielectric plate at microwave frequency. Those physical and electrical features make the photonic sensor attractive when used as a probe for near-field antenna measurements. We have demonstrated that the system can be applied to planar, spherical, and cylindrical near-field antenna measurements without any probe compensation approximately below 10 GHz. We show the theories and the measurements using the photonic sensor in the three near-field antenna measurement methods.

  14. Magnetic anisotropy in a permalloy microgrid fabricated by near-field optical lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S. P.; Lebib, A.; Peyrade, D.; Natali, M.; Chen, Y.; Lew, W. S.; Bland, J. A. C.

    2001-01-01

    We report the fabrication and magnetic properties of permalloy microgrids prepared by near-field optical lithography and characterized using high-sensitivity magneto-optical Kerr effect techniques. A fourfold magnetic anisotropy induced by the grid architecture is identified. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  15. Rigorous numerical modeling of scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinzhong; Lo, Chiu Fan Bowen; Zheng, William; Hu, Hai; Dai, Qing; Liu, Mengkun

    2017-11-01

    Over the last decade, scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy have been widely used in nano-photonics and material research due to their fine spatial resolution and broad spectral range. A number of simplified analytical models have been proposed to quantitatively understand the tip-scattered near-field signal. However, a rigorous interpretation of the experimental results is still lacking at this stage. Numerical modelings, on the other hand, are mostly done by simulating the local electric field slightly above the sample surface, which only qualitatively represents the near-field signal rendered by the tip-sample interaction. In this work, we performed a more comprehensive numerical simulation which is based on realistic experimental parameters and signal extraction procedures. By directly comparing to the experiments as well as other simulation efforts, our methods offer a more accurate quantitative description of the near-field signal, paving the way for future studies of complex systems at the nanoscale.

  16. Near-field optical microscopy of localized excitations on rough surfaces: influence of a probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    1999-01-01

    Starting from the general principles of near-field optical microscopy. I consider the influence of a probe when being used to image localized dipolar excitations and suggest a way of evaluating the perturbation thus introduced. Using the rigorous microscopic (electric) point-dipole description, I...

  17. Poly(diacetylene) Monolayers Studied with a Fluorescence Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moers, Marco H.P.; Moers, M.H.P.; Gaub, Hermann E.; van Hulst, N.F.

    1994-01-01

    A novel and powerful method to study the optical properties of thin lipid films which a resolution superior to confocal microscopy is presented. With a scanning near-field optical microscope, fluorescence images of a Langmuir-Blodgett film of diethylene glycol diamine pentacosadiynoic amide are

  18. Minimal BRDF Sampling for Two-Shot Near-Field Reflectance Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zexiang; Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Yu, Jiyang

    2016-01-01

    We develop a method to acquire the BRDF of a homogeneous flat sample from only two images, taken by a near-field perspective camera, and lit by a directional light source. Our method uses the MERL BRDF database to determine the optimal set of lightview pairs for data-driven reflectance acquisition...

  19. The influence of organic materials on the near field of an intermediate level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of organic materials which are present in some intermediate level wastes on the chemistry of the near field of a radioactive waste repository is discussed. Particular attention is given to the possible formation of water soluble complexing agents as a result of the radiation field and chemical conditions. The present state of the research is reviewed. (author)

  20. Experimental measurements of the solubility of technetium under near-field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilkington, N.J.; Wilkins, J.D.

    1988-05-01

    The solubility of technetium in contact with hydrated technetium dioxide under near-field conditions has been measured experimentally. The values obtained were changed little by a change in pH or in the filtration method used. The presence of organic degradation products increased slightly the solution concentration of technetium. (author)