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Sample records for calculating cadmium body

  1. Programs and subroutines for calculating cadmium body burdens based on a one-compartment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, C.V.; Novak, K.M.

    1980-08-01

    A pair of FORTRAN programs for calculating the body burden of cadmium as a function of age is presented, together with a discussion of the assumptions which serve to specify the underlying, one-compartment model. Account is taken of the contributions to the body burden from food, from ambient air, from smoking, and from occupational inhalation. The output is a set of values for ages from birth to 90 years which is either longitudinal (for a given year of birth) or cross-sectional (for a given calendar year), depending on the choice of input parameters

  2. Relativistic few body calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, F.

    1988-01-01

    A modern treatment of the nuclear few-body problem must take into account both the quark structure of baryons and mesons, which should be important at short range, and the relativistic exchange of mesons, which describes the long range, peripheral interactions. A way to model both of these aspects is described. The long range, peripheral interactions are calculated using the spectator model, a general approach in which the spectators to nucleon interactions are put on their mass-shell. Recent numerical results for a relativistic OBE model of the NN interaction, obtained by solving a relativistic equation with one-particle on mass-shell, will be presented and discussed. Two meson exchange models, one with only four mesons (π,σ,/rho/,ω) but with a 25% admixture of γ 5 coupling for the pion, and a second with six mesons (π,σ,/rho/,ω,δ,/eta/) but pure γ 5 γ/sup μ/ pion coupling, are shown to give very good quantitative fits to the NN scattering phase shifts below 400 MeV, and also a good description of the /rvec p/ 40 Ca elastic scattering observables. Applications of this model to electromagnetic interactions of the two body system, with emphasis on the determination of relativistic current operators consistent with the dynamics and the exact treatment of current conservation in the presence of phenomenological form factors, will be described. 18 refs., 8 figs

  3. Calculate Your Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Calculate Your Body Mass Index Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based ... Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health Department of ...

  4. Burnup calculations for cadmium. A case study for HFR experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pijlgroms, B.J.; Sciolla, C.M

    2000-09-11

    This report describes the pre-design burnup calculations performed for a cadmium shielded high fluence irradiation experiment in the HFR. The very high absorption cross section in cadmium causes problems in the calculations for two different reasons. Firstly, because of the large reaction rates the assumption that the flux and the cross sections remain piecewise constant is no longer true. Therefore the correct solution can only be obtained when using extremely small time steps which leads to excessive computing times. Secondly, the self-shielding in the cadmium becomes complete (black absorber) causing the depletion to progress in a shell-wise manner. As a consequence the depletion evolves nearly linear instead of exponential with time. Because of this the depletion codes are used in a regime for which these have not been designed leading to a systematic error. The analysis shows however that a good estimate for the burnup time can be obtained by extrapolation from calculations with practically sized time steps and a correction is derived to compensate the systematic error. The calculations were done using the OCTOPUS burnup code system, including the 3-D Monte-Carlo spectrum code MCNP-4B and the depletion code FISPACT-4.2. Verifications were performed with the WIMS code system. The first part of the report describes the study of the cadmium burnup calculations for a shielded steel sample with the emphasis on analyzing the requirements for obtaining the correct solution. The second part describes the time-dependent power production calculations with the steel replaced by lithium containing ceramic material such as to be used in the 'High Fluence Irradiation of Ceramics for Fusion' (HICU) experiment. 12 refs.

  5. Spatial and temporal variation in cadmium body loads of four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing urbanization and industrialization along the coastal areas of False Bay in South Africa can endanger coastal ecosystems because of increasing metal pollution. To obtain baseline data on contamination levels in the intertidal zone, cadmium (Cd) body loads of four invertebrate species were measured seasonally ...

  6. The relationship between body iron stores and blood and urine cadmium concentrations in US never-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cadmium is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant associated with increased risk of leading causes of mortality and morbidity in women, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. Iron deficiency increases absorption of dietary cadmium, rendering women, who tend to have lower iron stores than men, more susceptible to cadmium uptake. We used body iron, a measure that incorporates both serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, as recommended by the World Health Organization, to evaluate the relationships between iron status and urine and blood cadmium. Methods: Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, urine and blood cadmium values in never-smoking, non-pregnant, non-lactating, non-menopausal women aged 20-49 years (n=599) were obtained from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, and iron deficiency defined as body iron <0 mg/kg. Robust linear regression was used to evaluate the relationships between body iron and blood and urine cadmium, adjusted for age, race, poverty, body mass index, and parity. Results: Per incremental (mg/kg) increase in body iron, urine cadmium decreased by 0.003 μg/g creatinine and blood cadmium decreased by 0.014 μg/L. Iron deficiency was associated with 0.044 μg/g creatinine greater urine cadmium (95% CI=0.020, 0.069) and 0.162 μg/L greater blood cadmium (95% CI=0.132, 0.193). Conclusions: Iron deficiency is a risk factor for increased blood and urine cadmium among never-smoking, pre-menopausal, non-pregnant US women, independent of age, race, poverty, body mass index and parity. Expanding programs to detect and correct iron deficiency among non-pregnant women merits consideration as a potential means to reduce the risk of cadmium associated diseases. - Highlights: → Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. → Body iron was inversely associated with blood and urine cadmium

  7. The relationship between body iron stores and blood and urine cadmium concentrations in US never-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Carolyn M., E-mail: 2crgallagher@optonline.net [PhD Program in Population Health and Clinical Outcomes Research, Stony Brook University, NY (United States) and Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States); Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Background: Cadmium is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant associated with increased risk of leading causes of mortality and morbidity in women, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. Iron deficiency increases absorption of dietary cadmium, rendering women, who tend to have lower iron stores than men, more susceptible to cadmium uptake. We used body iron, a measure that incorporates both serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, as recommended by the World Health Organization, to evaluate the relationships between iron status and urine and blood cadmium. Methods: Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, urine and blood cadmium values in never-smoking, non-pregnant, non-lactating, non-menopausal women aged 20-49 years (n=599) were obtained from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, and iron deficiency defined as body iron <0 mg/kg. Robust linear regression was used to evaluate the relationships between body iron and blood and urine cadmium, adjusted for age, race, poverty, body mass index, and parity. Results: Per incremental (mg/kg) increase in body iron, urine cadmium decreased by 0.003 {mu}g/g creatinine and blood cadmium decreased by 0.014 {mu}g/L. Iron deficiency was associated with 0.044 {mu}g/g creatinine greater urine cadmium (95% CI=0.020, 0.069) and 0.162 {mu}g/L greater blood cadmium (95% CI=0.132, 0.193). Conclusions: Iron deficiency is a risk factor for increased blood and urine cadmium among never-smoking, pre-menopausal, non-pregnant US women, independent of age, race, poverty, body mass index and parity. Expanding programs to detect and correct iron deficiency among non-pregnant women merits consideration as a potential means to reduce the risk of cadmium associated diseases. - Highlights: {yields} Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. {yields} Body iron was inversely associated with blood

  8. Maternal body burden of cadmium and offspring size at birth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Megan E., E-mail: megan_romano@brown.edu [Department of Epidemiology, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, RI (United States); Enquobahrie, Daniel A. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Center for Perinatal Studies, Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Simpson, Christopher [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Checkoway, Harvey [Department of Family Medicine & Public Health, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Williams, Michelle A. [Center for Perinatal Studies, Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Increasing evidence suggests an inverse association between cadmium (Cd) and size at birth, potentially greatest among female neonates. We evaluated whether greater maternal body burden of Cd is associated with reduced neonatal anthropometry (birthweight, birth length, head circumference, and ponderal index) and assessed whether these associations differ by infant sex. The analytic sample for the present study (n=396) was derived from a subcohort of 750 women randomly drawn from among all participants (N=4344) in the Omega Study, a prospective pregnancy cohort. Creatinine-corrected Cd in maternal clean-catch spot urine samples (U-Cd) was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Continuous log{sub 2}-transformed Cd (log{sub 2}-Cd) and U-Cd tertiles (low<0.29 μg/g creatinine, middle 0.29–0.42 μg/g creatinine, high≥0.43 μg/g creatinine) were used in multivariable linear regression models. Females had reduced birth length with greater U-Cd tertile, whereas males birth length marginally increased [β(95% CI) females: low=reference, middle=−0.59 cm (−1.37, 0.19), high=−0.83 cm (−1.69, 0.02), p-trend=0.08; males: low=reference, middle=0.18 cm (−0.59, 0.95), high=0.78 cm (–0.04, 1.60), p-trend=0.07; p for interaction=0.03]. The log{sub 2}-Cd by infant sex interaction was statistically significant for ponderal index [p=0.003; β(95% CI): female=0.25 kg/m{sup 3} (−0.20, 0.70); male=−0.63 kg/m{sup 3} (−1.01, −0.24)] and birth length [p<0.001; β(95% CI): female=−0.47 cm (−0.74, −0.20), male=0.32 cm (0.00, 0.65)]. Our findings suggest potential sex-specific reversal of Cd’s associations on birth length and contribute to the evidence suggesting Cd impairs fetal growth. - Highlights: • Cadmium levels in the general population potentially adversely affect size at birth. • Maternal urinary cadmium was inversely related to birth length among female infants. • For male infants, maternal cadmium was positively associated

  9. Maternal body burden of cadmium and offspring size at birth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Megan E.; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Simpson, Christopher; Checkoway, Harvey; Williams, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests an inverse association between cadmium (Cd) and size at birth, potentially greatest among female neonates. We evaluated whether greater maternal body burden of Cd is associated with reduced neonatal anthropometry (birthweight, birth length, head circumference, and ponderal index) and assessed whether these associations differ by infant sex. The analytic sample for the present study (n=396) was derived from a subcohort of 750 women randomly drawn from among all participants (N=4344) in the Omega Study, a prospective pregnancy cohort. Creatinine-corrected Cd in maternal clean-catch spot urine samples (U-Cd) was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Continuous log 2 -transformed Cd (log 2 -Cd) and U-Cd tertiles (low<0.29 μg/g creatinine, middle 0.29–0.42 μg/g creatinine, high≥0.43 μg/g creatinine) were used in multivariable linear regression models. Females had reduced birth length with greater U-Cd tertile, whereas males birth length marginally increased [β(95% CI) females: low=reference, middle=−0.59 cm (−1.37, 0.19), high=−0.83 cm (−1.69, 0.02), p-trend=0.08; males: low=reference, middle=0.18 cm (−0.59, 0.95), high=0.78 cm (–0.04, 1.60), p-trend=0.07; p for interaction=0.03]. The log 2 -Cd by infant sex interaction was statistically significant for ponderal index [p=0.003; β(95% CI): female=0.25 kg/m 3 (−0.20, 0.70); male=−0.63 kg/m 3 (−1.01, −0.24)] and birth length [p<0.001; β(95% CI): female=−0.47 cm (−0.74, −0.20), male=0.32 cm (0.00, 0.65)]. Our findings suggest potential sex-specific reversal of Cd’s associations on birth length and contribute to the evidence suggesting Cd impairs fetal growth. - Highlights: • Cadmium levels in the general population potentially adversely affect size at birth. • Maternal urinary cadmium was inversely related to birth length among female infants. • For male infants, maternal cadmium was positively associated with birth length.

  10. Cadmium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbelt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Together with zinc and mercury, cadmium belongs to group IIb of the periodic table. It can be found in rocks, soil, water, coal, zinc ore, lead ore, and copper ore. In the environment, cadmium is present predominantly as the oxide or as the chloride, sulfide, or sulfate salt. It has no recognizable

  11. Many body calculations in atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The use of the many-body perturbation theory for atomic calculations are reviewed. The major emphasis is on the use of the linked-cluster many-body perturbation theory derived by Brueckner and Goldstone. Applications of many-body theory to calculations of hyperfine structure are examined. Auger rates and parity violation are discussed. Photoionization is reviewed, and the authors show how many-body perturbation theory can be applied to problems ranging from structural properties such as correlation energies and hyperfine structure to dynamical properties such as transitions induced by weak neutral currents and photoionization cross sections

  12. Many body perturbation calculations of photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, H.P.

    1979-01-01

    The application of many body perturbation theory to the calculation of atomic photoionization cross sections is reviewed. The choice of appropriate potential for the single-particle state is discussed and results are presented for several atoms including resonance structure. In addition to single photoionization, the process of double photoionization is considered and is found to be significant. (Auth.)

  13. Relation between dietary cadmium intake and biomarkers of cadmium exposure in premenopausal women accounting for body iron stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julin Bettina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant with adverse effects on kidneys and bone, but with insufficiently elucidated public health consequences such as risk of end-stage renal diseases, fractures and cancer. Urinary cadmium is considered a valid biomarker of lifetime kidney accumulation from overall cadmium exposure and thus used in the assessment of cadmium-induced health effects. We aimed to assess the relationship between dietary cadmium intake assessed by analyses of duplicate food portions and cadmium concentrations in urine and blood, taking the toxicokinetics of cadmium into consideration. Methods In a sample of 57 non-smoking Swedish women aged 20-50 years, we assessed Pearson's correlation coefficients between: 1 Dietary intake of cadmium assessed by analyses of cadmium in duplicate food portions collected during four consecutive days and cadmium concentrations in urine, 2 Partial correlations between the duplicate food portions and urinary and blood cadmium concentrations, respectively, and 3 Model-predicted urinary cadmium concentration predicted from the dietary intake using a one-compartment toxicokinetic model (with individual data on age, weight and gastrointestinal cadmium absorption and urinary cadmium concentration. Results The mean concentration of cadmium in urine was 0.18 (+/- s.d.0.12 μg/g creatinine and the model-predicted urinary cadmium concentration was 0.19 (+/- s.d.0.15 μg/g creatinine. The partial Pearson correlations between analyzed dietary cadmium intake and urinary cadmium or blood concentrations were r = 0.43 and 0.42, respectively. The correlation between diet and urinary cadmium increased to r = 0.54 when using a one-compartment model with individual gastrointestinal cadmium absorption coefficients based on the women's iron status. Conclusions Our results indicate that measured dietary cadmium intake can reasonably well predict biomarkers of both long-term kidney accumulation

  14. Examination of some chelating agents to decorporate fixed body-burdens of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.W.; Lloyd, R.D.; Mays, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Male and female C57BL/Do mice, five to six months old, were injected intraperitoneally with 2.0 mg/kg cadmium citrate labeled with about 2.0 μCi 109 Cd per mouse. Three days after cadmium injection, male mice were injected subcutaneously with 2,3 dimercaptopropanesulfonate (DMPS), and female mice were injected subcutaneously with calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetra-acetate (CaEDTA), salicylic acid (SA), or 2,3 dimercaptopropanesulfonate, alone, or in combination. A total of four treatment injections were administered to each group of mice. Cadmium total-body retention was measured by in vivo counting using NaI(T1) spectrometry. Male mice given DMPS, and groups of females given EDTA, SA, EDTA + DMPS, EDTA + SA, or EDTA + DMPS + SA had total-body retentions of cadmium no different from saline controls (P > 0.05). Measurement of cadmium content in kidneys, livers, gonads, and femora excised from test animals also showed no difference from corresponding organs in control animals

  15. Lethal body concentrations and accumulation patterns determine time-dependent toxicity of cadmium in soil arthropods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crommentuijn, T.; Doodeman, C.J.A.M.; Doornekamp, A.; Pol, J.J.C. van der; Bedaux, J.J.M.; Gestel, C.A.M. van (Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1994-11-01

    Time-dependent toxicity in bioassays is usually explained in terms of uptake and elimination kinetics of the toxicant. By comparing different species with essentially different accumulation kinetics, a firm test of this concept may be made. This article compares the sensitivity of six soil arthropods, the collembolans Orchesella cincta and Tomocerus minor, the oribatid mite Platynothrus peltifer, the isopods Porcellio scaber and Oniscus asellus, and the diplopod Cylindroiulus britannicus, when exposed to cadmium in the food. Survival was determined at various time intervals; accumulation of cadmium in the animals was measured at one time interval. Kinetic-based toxicity models were fitted to the data, and estimates were obtained for lethal body concentration, uptake rate constant, elimination rate constant, and ultimate LC50. Two different accumulation patterns could be discerned; these were correlated with time-survival relationships. One, species that have the possibility to eliminate cadmium will reach an equilibrium for the internal concentration and also an ultimate LC50. Two, species that are unable to eliminate cadmium but store it in the body will have an ultimate LC50 equal to zero. For these species the time in which the lethal body concentration is reached is more important. Taxonomically related species appeared to have comparable accumulation patterns, but lethal body concentrations differed. It is concluded that knowledge of the accumulation pattern is indispensable for the evaluation of species' sensitivities to toxicants.

  16. Relativistic Few-Body Hadronic Physics Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyzou, Wayne [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2016-06-20

    The goal of this research proposal was to use ``few-body'' methods to understand the structure and reactions of systems of interacting hadrons (neutrons, protons, mesons, quarks) over a broad range of energy scales. Realistic mathematical models of few-hadron systems have the advantage that they are sufficiently simple that they can be solved with mathematically controlled errors. These systems are also simple enough that it is possible to perform complete accurate experimental measurements on these systems. Comparison between theory and experiment puts strong constraints on the structure of the models. Even though these systems are ``simple'', both the experiments and computations push the limits of technology. The important property of ``few-body'' systems is that the ``cluster property'' implies that the interactions that appear in few-body systems are identical to the interactions that appear in complicated many-body systems. Of particular interest are models that correctly describe physics at distance scales that are sensitive to the internal structure of the individual nucleons. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle implies that in order to be sensitive to physics on distance scales that are a fraction of the proton or neutron radius, a relativistic treatment of quantum mechanics is necessary. The research supported by this grant involved 30 years of effort devoted to studying all aspects of interacting two and three-body systems. Realistic interactions were used to compute bound states of two- and three-nucleon, and two- and three-quark systems. Scattering observables for these systems were computed for a broad range of energies - from zero energy scattering to few GeV scattering, where experimental evidence of sub-nucleon degrees of freedom is beginning to appear. Benchmark calculations were produced, which when compared with calculations of other groups provided an essential check on these complicated calculations. In

  17. A dynamic model to calculate cadmium concentrations in bovine tissues from basic soil characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waegeneers, Nadia; Ruttens, Ann; De Temmerman, Ludwig

    2011-01-01

    A chain model was developed to calculate the flow of cadmium from soil, drinking water and feed towards bovine tissues. The data used for model development were tissue Cd concentrations of 57 bovines and Cd concentrations in soil, feed and drinking water, sampled at the farms were the bovines were reared. Validation of the model occurred with a second set of measured tissue Cd concentrations of 93 bovines of which age and farm location were known. The exposure part of the chain model consists of two parts: (1) a soil-plant transfer model, deriving cadmium concentrations in feed from basic soil characteristics (pH and organic matter content) and soil Cd concentrations, and (2) bovine intake calculations, based on typical feed and water consumption patterns for cattle and Cd concentrations in feed and drinking water. The output of the exposure model is an animal-specific average daily Cd intake, which is then taken forward to a kinetic uptake model in which time-dependent Cd concentrations in bovine tissues are calculated. The chain model was able to account for 65%, 42% and 32% of the variation in observed kidney, liver and meat Cd concentrations in the validation study. - Research highlights: → Cadmium transfer from soil, drinking water and feed to bovine tissues was modeled. → The model was based on 57 bovines and corresponding feed and soil Cd concentrations. → The model was validated with an independent data set of 93 bovines. → The model explained 65% of variation in kidney Cd in the validation study.

  18. Calculation analysis of Wims/D4-Batan-2DIFF neutron spectrum on RSG-GAS with cadmium ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radianti, I.B.; Zuhair; Hamzah, A.

    1998-01-01

    The calculation analysis of WIMS/D4-BATAN-2DIFF neutron spectrum was performed by comparison the calculation result of cadmium ratio with the experiment result on CIP, IP2, IP3 and IP4 irradiation positions of RSG GAS tenth core. The foils of Au, Mn and Co were used for determination of the measured and calculated cadmium ratios. Spectrum calculation was done in 69 energy group with 541 energy group (till 10 MeV) cross section of foil absorption reaction. The difference values between cadmium ratio calculation and experiment result for all cases were in interval of 11.0%-26.3% which are out of measurement deviation range. From these result, it concluded that the use of WIM /D4 in generating group constant is not sufficient to obtain the neutron spectrum, especially for non-fuel region

  19. Cadmium-related mortality and long-term secular trends in the cadmium body burden of an environmentally exposed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrot, Tim S; Van Hecke, Etienne; Thijs, Lutgarde; Richart, Tom; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Jin, Yu; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Roels, Harry A; Staessen, Jan A

    2008-12-01

    Few population studies have reported on the long-term changes in the internal cadmium dose and simultaneously occurring mortality. We monitored blood cadmium (BCd), 24-hr urinary cadmium (UCd), and mortality in an environmentally exposed population. Starting from 1985, we followed BCd (until 2003), UCd (until 1996), and mortality (until 2007) among 476 and 480 subjects, randomly recruited from low- exposure areas (LEA) and high-exposure areas (HEA). The last cadmium-producing plant in the HEA closed in 2002. From 1985-1989 to 1991-1996, BCd decreased by 40.3% and 18.9% in the LEA and HEA, respectively (p fashion without threshold.

  20. Review of many-body calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, H.P.

    1981-01-01

    A brief review is given of many-body perturbation theory and its application to atomic physics. Particular attention is given to the choice of single-particle potential used to generate excited states. Applications to many atomic properties are discussed including hyperfine structure, photoabsorption including multiple processes, and parity non-conserving transitions in heavy atoms

  1. Three-body calculations at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    This work was motivated by four goals: (1) by working in configuration space, where intuition is greatest, investigate graphically those trinucleon properties which are determined by specific features of wave functions; (2) produce benchmark calculations against which new techniques and numerical methods can be measured; (3) investigate the effect of the Coulomb interaction between the two protons in 3 He and in the p-d system; (4) systematically investigate the various trinucleon observables. Configuration space is particularly well-suited for investigating the Coulomb problem. The singularity and discontinuity problems associated with the Coulomb (momentum space) t-matrix are transformed into boundary condition problems in configuration space. One simply adds the Coulomb potential to the strong interaction. In order to produce accurate numerical solutions powerful techniques were adopted which have not frequently been used in nuclear physics. These spline methods together with collocation techniques combine the power of Gaussian quadrature procedures with the flexibility and strength of finite element approaches to solving partial differential equations. The union of these methods allows one to calculate wavefunctions at the same qualitative level of accuracy as the eigenvalues. Observables can therefore be calculated with considerable confidence. 30 refs., 6 figs

  2. Electronic structure of polycrystalline cadmium dichloride studied by X-ray spectroscopies and ab initio calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demchenko, I.N.; Chernyshova, M.; Stolte, W.C.; Speaks, D.T.; Derkachova, A.

    2012-01-01

    The electronic structure of cadmium dichloride has been studied by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and, for the first time, by resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) at the Cl K edge. Good agreement was obtained between the non-resonant X-ray emission (XES) along with XANES experimental spectra and the calculated Cl 3p local partial density of states (DOS). The calculations were performed using the full-potential linearized-augmented-plane-wave with the local orbitals (FP-(L)APW l o) method utilized in the WIEN2k code. It was shown that the position of the RIXS band in CdCl 2 follows a linear dispersion according to the Raman–Stokes law if the excitation energy is tuned below the absorption threshold. The situation changes for core excitation above the photoabsorption threshold where the dispersion relation is split into two branches. The position of the resonant contribution does not depend on the excitation energy, while the excitonic sideband follows the Raman–Stoke law. Combined XANES and RIXS measurements compared to calculated band structure allowed us to determine the direct band gap of CdCl 2 to be at 5.7 ± 0.05 eV. -- Highlights: ► XANES at the K edge of Cl and related emission KV band interpreted within the ab initio DFT formalism. ► Two dominant contributions observed in RIXS data: the resonant and the excitonic ones. ► The dispersion relation below the absorption threshold follows Raman–Stokes law. ► Dispersion above the threshold splits into two qualitatively different relations. ► Overlapping of XAS spectrum with RIXS one makes possible to estimate direct band gap value to be 5.7 eV.

  3. Diffusion Monte Carlo calculation of three-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Mengjiao; Lin Qihu; Ren Zhongzhou

    2012-01-01

    The application of the diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm in three-body systems is studied. We develop a program and use it to calculate the property of various three-body systems. Regular Coulomb systems such as atoms, molecules, and ions are investigated. The calculation is then extended to exotic systems where electrons are replaced by muons. Some nuclei with neutron halos are also calculated as three-body systems consisting of a core and two external nucleons. Our results agree well with experiments and others' work. (authors)

  4. Cadmium and the kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Friberg, L

    1984-01-01

    The paper is a review of certain aspects of importance of cadmium and the kidney regarding the assessment of risks and understanding of mechanisms of action. The review discusses the following topics: history and etiology of cadmium-induced kidney dysfunction and related disorders; cadmium metabolism, metallothionein and kidney dysfunction; cadmium in urine as indicator of body burden, exposure and kidney dysfunction; cadmium levels in kidney and liver as indicators of kidney dysfunction; cha...

  5. Numeric calculation of celestial bodies with spreadsheet analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The motion of the planets and moons in our solar system can easily be calculated for any time by the Kepler laws of planetary motion. The Kepler laws are a special case of the gravitational law of Newton, especially if you consider more than two celestial bodies. Therefore it is more basic to calculate the motion by using the gravitational law. But the problem is, that by gravitational law it is not possible to calculate the state of motion with only one step of calculation. The motion has to be numerical calculated for many time intervalls. For this reason, spreadsheet analysis is helpful for students. Skills in programmes like Excel, Calc or Gnumeric are important in professional life and can easily be learnt by students. These programmes can help to calculate the complex motions with many intervalls. The more intervalls are used, the more exact are the calculated orbits. The sutdents will first get a quick course in Excel. After that they calculate with instructions the 2-D-coordinates of the orbits of Moon and Mars. Step by step the students are coding the formulae for calculating physical parameters like coordinates, force, acceleration and velocity. The project is limited to 4 weeks or 8 lessons. So the calcualtion will only include the calculation of one body around the central mass like Earth or Sun. The three-body problem can only be shortly discussed at the end of the project.

  6. Cadmium transfer from contaminated soils to the human body through rice consumption in southern Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianyuan; Chang, Qing; Yuan, Xuyin; Li, Jizhou; Ayoko, Godwin A; Frost, Ray L; Chen, Hongyan; Zhang, Xinjian; Song, Yinxian; Song, Wenzhi

    2017-06-21

    Consumption of crops grown in cadmium-contaminated soils is an important Cd exposure route to humans. The present study utilizes statistical analysis and in vitro digestion experiments to uncover the transfer processes of Cd from soils to the human body through rice consumption. Here, a model was created to predict the levels of bioaccessible Cd in rice grains using phytoavailable Cd quantities in the soil. During the in vitro digestion, a relatively constant ratio between the total and bioaccessible Cd in rice was observed. About 14.89% of Cd in soils was found to be transferred into rice grains and up to 3.19% could be transferred from rice grains to the human body. This model was able to sufficiently predict rice grain cadmium concentrations based on CaCl 2 extracted zinc and cadmium concentrations in soils (R 2 = 0.862). The bioaccessible Cd concentration in rice grains was also able to be predicted using CaCl 2 extracted cadmium from soil (R 2 = 0.892). The models established in this study demonstrated that CaCl 2 is a suitable indicator of total rice Cd concentrations and bioaccessible rice grain Cd concentrations. The chain model approach proposed in this study can be used for the fast and accurate evaluation of human Cd exposure through rice consumption based on the soil conditions in contaminated regions.

  7. Quantum-mechanical calculations of the electronic structure of calcium and cadmium vanadate apatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbovskij, V.L.; Soroka, A.P.; Kasiyanenko, V.Kh.; Shpak, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Electronic structures of compounds Me 10 (VO 4 ) 6 X 2 , where Me = Ca or Cd and X = F, Cl, OH are investigated using the full potential APW + lo method. The degrees of distortions of VO 4- tetrahedra with respect to the Td point group are analyzed using a relaxation of atomic positions. Apatites in the form of Ca 10 (VO 4 ) 6 X 2 , where X = F, Cl, OH, are established to decrease the band gap by 0.5-1.0 eV under the isomorphic substitution of calcium for cadmium. Apatites Ca 10 (VO 4 ) 6 X 2 , where X = F, Cl, OH are proven to decrease the degree of covalency of the oxygen-halogen bond under the isomorphic substitution of calcium for cadmium.

  8. Calculation of gamma ray exposure rates from uranium ore bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.E.; Wilson, O.J.

    1980-02-01

    The planning of operations associated with uranium mines often requires that estimates be made of the exposure rates from various ore bodies. A straight-forward method of calculating the exposure rate from an arbitrarily shaped body is presented. Parameters for the calculation are evaluated under the assumption of secular equilibrium of uranium with its daughters and that the uranium is uniformly distributed throughout an average soil mixture. The spectral distribution of the emitted gamma rays and the effect of air attenuation are discussed. Worked examples are given of typical situations encountered in uranium mines

  9. Estimation of lead, cadmium and nickel content by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in dry fruit bodies of some macromycetes growing in Poland. II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Grzybek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The content of lead, cadmium, and nickel in dry fruit bodies of 34 species of macromyoetes collected in Poland from 72 natural babitats by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS was estimated.

  10. Body drop into a fluid tank and dynamic loads calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarov Aleksandr Andreevich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The theory of a body striking a fluid began intensively developing due to the tasks of hydroplanes landing. For the recent years the study of a stroke and submersion of bodies into fluid became even more current. We face them in the process of strength calculation of ship hulls and other structures in modern technology. These tasks solution represents great mathematical difficulty even in case of the mentioned simplifications. These difficulties emerge due to the unsteady character of fluid motion in case of body submersion, and also jet and spray phenomena, which lead to discontinuous motions. On the basis of G.V. Logvinovich’s concept the problem of loads determination with consideration for air gap is solved for both a body and reservoir enclosing structures when a body falls into a fluid. Numerical method is based on the decay of an arbitrary discontinuity.

  11. Three-body calculation of Be double-hypernuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Energy levels and bond energy of the double- hypernucleus are calculated by considering two- and three-cluster interactions. Interactions between constituent particles are contact interactions for reproducing the low binding energy of nuclei. The effective action is constructed to involve three-body forces. In this paper ...

  12. Calculation of electromagnetic observables in few-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, B.F.

    1986-10-01

    An introduction to the calculation of electromagnetic observables in few-body systems is given by studying two examples in the trinucleon system: (1) the elastic electron scattering charge form factor in configuration space and momentum space and (2) the two-body photodisintegration of 3 H leading to a neutron-deuteron final state in a separable potential formalism. In the discussion of charge form factor calculations, a number of related topics are touched upon: the relation of structure in Psi to the properties of simple NN forces, the Faddeev and Schroedinger solution to the harmonic oscillator problem, the Rosenbluth formula for electron scattering from a spin-1/2 nuclear target (e.g., the proton or 3 H), and the charge density operator. Formulae for 3 He and 3 H charge form factors in a central force approximation are given in configuration and momentum space. The physics of these form factors is discussed in light of results from realistic nucleon-nucleon potential model calculations, including the effects of two-pion-exchange three-body force models. Topics covered are the rms charge densities, and the Coulomb energy of 3 He. In the discussion of the 3 H photodisintegration, the Siegert form of the electric dipole operator (in the long wave length limit) is derived as are the separable potential equations which describe the off-shell transition amplitudes which connect nucleon-plus-corrected-pair states. Expressions for the Born amplitudes required to complete the two-body photodisintegration amplitude calculation are given. Numerical results for a model central force problem are discussed and compared with an approximate calculation. Comparisons with 3 H(γ,n)d and 3 He(γ,p)d data are made, and the significant features of the exact theoretical calculation are outlined. 61 refs., 26 figs

  13. Monte Carlo calculations of few-body and light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiringa, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    A major goal in nuclear physics is to understand how nuclear structure comes about from the underlying interactions between nucleons. This requires modelling nuclei as collections of strongly interacting particles. Using realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials, supplemented with consistent three-nucleon potentials and two-body electroweak current operators, variational Monte Carlo methods are used to calculate nuclear ground-state properties, such as the binding energy, electromagnetic form factors, and momentum distributions. Other properties such as excited states and low-energy reactions are also calculable with these methods

  14. Body burden of cadmium and its related factors: A large-scale survey in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Shen; Cheng, Xi-Yu; Li, Hao; Jia, Wen-Jing; Zhang, Jie-Ying; Luo, Hui-Fang; Wang, Zi-Ling; Chen, Zhi-Nan, E-mail: chen_zhinan56@163.com

    2015-04-01

    A survey of more than 6000 participants from four distinct non-polluted and polluted regions in China was conducted to evaluate the body burden of cadmium (Cd) on the Chinese populations using urinary Cd (UCd) as a biomarker. The findings revealed that the UCd level was 1.24 μg/g creatinine (μg/g cr) for the sample population from non-polluted Shanghai, and the UCd levels exceeded 5 μg/g cr, which is the health-based exposure limit set by the World Health Organization (WHO), in 1.1% of people. The mean UCd levels in moderately polluted (Hubei and Liaoning) and highly polluted areas (Guizhou) were 4.69 μg/g cr, 3.62 μg/g cr and 6.08 μg/g cr, respectively, and these levels were 2.9 to 4.9 times the levels observed in Shanghai. Notably, the UCd levels exceeded the recently updated human biomonitoring II values (i.e., intervention or “action level”) in 44.8%–87.9% of people from these areas compared to only 5.1%–21.4% of people in Shanghai. The corresponding prevalence of elevated UCd levels (> WHO threshold, 5 μg/g cr) was also significantly higher (30.7% to 63.8% vs. 1.1%), which indicates that elevated Cd-induced health risks to residents in these areas. Age and region were significant determinants for UCd levels in a population, whereas gender did not significantly influence UCd. - Highlights: • We performed a Cd exposure survey that involved more than 6000 Chinese subjects. • The body burden of Cd in most of subjects of non-polluted Shanghai is relatively safe. • The UCd levels were much higher in the subjects from polluted areas than from Shanghai. • The UCd levels in the population from Guizhou substantially exceeded the safety limit. • Age and region were significant determinants of UCd.

  15. Calculation of self-shielding coefficients, flux depression and cadmium factor for thermal neutron flux measurement of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Andre Luis Ferreira; Ting, Daniel Kao Sun; Mendonca, Arlindo Gilson

    1996-01-01

    A calculation methodology of Flux Depression, Self-Shielding and Cadmium Factors is presented, using the ANISN code, for experiments conducted at the IPEN/MB-01 Research Reactor. The correction factors were determined considering thermal neutron flux and 0.125 e 0.250 mm diameter of 197 Au wires. (author)

  16. Mode Calculation and Testing of a Car Body in White

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic parameters of a car body in white (BIW are important during a new car developing. Based on the finite element method, the model of a BIW is developed in which the welding points are treated specially as a new element type and the vibration modes of it are calculated. In modal testing, a fixed sine-sweeping exciter is used to conduct a single-point input force for the structure, whereas the output responses are picked up at different points to identify modes. The obtained modes are coincided both with the FE results and the practical testing.

  17. Theoretical calculations of primary particle condensation for cadmium and caesium iodide vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckle, E.R. [Division of Metallurgy, School of Materials, The University, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Bowsher, B.R. [Chemistry Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1988-10-15

    A theoretical approach to modelling aerosol nucleation from the vapour phase has been developed by Buckle. In this theory, the condensing vapour species are assumed to be transported from an evaporating source across a one-dimensional stagnant boundary layer into an unreactive vapour-free atmosphere. A slip-flow model for interfacial energy and mass flow is combined with this stagnant boundary layer model to yield a set of parameters that uniquely characterise the evaporative flow process (i.e. pressure, source and sink temperatures, sink concentration, and the flux density of heat or mass from the source). To obtain the initial conditions for nucleation the vapour saturation ratio p/p deg is plotted against temperature and compared with the minimum saturation ratio defined by homogeneous nucleation theory. The co-education be represented by a nucleation threshold (or F) diagram. The mass and energy equations of the flow are solved by introducing the Becker-Doering formula for the nucleation rate, and the Stefan diffusion model for particle growth. This gives the rise and fall of supersaturation and the evolution of the particle size distribution along the flow coordinate. In the present studies, the applicability of the model has been tested by considering the condensation of caesium iodide and cadmium vapours under a wide variety of pre-mixed flow conditions of interest to PWR severe accident studies. The model has been used to predict the onset of nucleation and the particle size distribution for single vapour species. Preliminary studies have demonstrated that conditions exist whereby both heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation can occur simultaneously. This process could account for experimental observations of chemically-different aerosols being formed under severe reactor accident conditions. (author)

  18. Calculation of the life-time of thermal neutrons in a heterogeneous moderator: graphite-cadmium. Experimental verification using the pulsed neutrons method; Calcul du temps de vie des neutrons thermiques dans un moderateur heterogene: graphite-cadmium. Verification experimentale par la methode des neutrons pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean, Lalande [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The heterogeneous medium is made up of an oblong assembly consisting 23 cm cells containing a cadmium bar having a diameter of 3.31 cm. The experimental value found for the lattice absorption v{sigma}a = 941 sec{sup -1} is in agreement with the value calculated from a one-group theory for one cell taking d = 2.55 {+-} 0.12 cm for the extrapolation distance in the cadmium rod. (author) [French] Le milieu heterogene est constitue par un assemblage parallelepipedique de cellules carrees de pas 23 cm contenant une barre de cadmium de diametre 3,31 cm. La valeur experimentale trouvee pour l'absorption du reseau v{sigma}a = 941 s{sup -1} concorde avec la valeur calculee par une theorie a un groupe sur une cellule en prenant comme distance d'extrapolation dans la barre de cadmium d = 2,55 {+-} 0,12 cm. (auteur)

  19. Determination of cadmium selenide nonstoichiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezhnev, V.Yu.; Kharif, Ya.L.; Kovtunenko, P.V.

    1986-01-01

    Physicochemical method of determination of cadmium selenide nonstoichiometry is developed. The method nature consists in the fact, that under definite conditions dissolved cadmium is extracted from crystals to a vapor phase and then is determined in it using the photocolorimetric method. Cadmium solubility in CdSe crystal is calculated from known CdSe mass and amount of separated cadmium. The lower boundary of determined contents constitutes 1x10 -5 % mol at sample of cadmium selenide 10 g

  20. Distortion of calculated whole-body hematocrit during lower-body immersion in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, D R; Santoro, T; Bondi, K R

    1986-11-01

    We found a difference between the venous hematocrits of immersed and nonimmersed arms during immersion of the lower body in cold water but not during a comparable exposure to warm water. Fourteen healthy men were exposed to three different experimental conditions: arm immersion, body immersion, and control. The men always sat upright while both upper extremities hung vertically at their sides. During arm immersion, one forearm was completely immersed for 30 min in either cold water (28 degrees C, n = 7) or warm water (38 degrees C, n = 7). This cold-warm water protocol was repeated on separate days for exposure to the remaining conditions of body immersion (immersion of 1 forearm and all tissues below the xiphoid process) and control (no immersion). Blood samples were simultaneously drawn from cannulated veins in both antecubital fossae. Hematocrit difference (Hct diff) was measured by subtracting the nonimmersed forearm's hematocrit (Hct dry) from the immersed forearm's hematocrit (Hct wet). Hct diff was approximately zero when the men were exposed to the control condition and body immersion in warm water. In the remaining conditions, Hct wet dropped below Hct dry (P less than 0.01, 3-way analysis of variance). The decrements of Hct diff showed there were differences between venous hematocrits in immersed and nonimmersed regions of the body, indicating that changes of the whole-body hematocrit cannot be calculated from a large-vessel hematocrit soon after immersing the lower body in cold water.

  1. Accurate first principles calculation of many-body interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawa, G.J.; Moskowitz, J.W.; Schmidt, K.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the electronic structure Schrodinger equation that is solved for the van der Waals complexes spin-polarized H 2 and H 3 , and the closed-shell systems He 2 and He 3 by Monte Carlo methods. Two types of calculations are performed, variational Monte Carlo, which gives an upper bound to the eigenvalue of the Schrodinger equation, and Green's function Monte Carlo, which can solve the Schrodinger equation exactly within statistical sampling errors. The simulations are carried out on an ETA-10 supercomputer, and already existing computer codes were extensively modified to ensure highly efficient coding. A major component of the computations was the development of highly optimized many-electron wave functions. The results from the variational Monte Carlo simulations are reported for both the two- and three-body interaction energies

  2. Unitary three-body calculation of nucleon-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, H.; Ohta, K.

    1986-07-01

    We calculate nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering phase parameters based on a unitary, relativistic, pion-exchange model. The results are highly dependent on the off-shell amplitudes of πN scattering. The isobar-dominated model for the P 33 interaction leads to too small pion production rates owing to its strong suppression of off-shell pions. We propose to expand the idea of the Δ-isobar model in such a manner as to incorporate a background (non-pole) interaction. The two-potential model, which was first applied to the P 11 partial wave by Mizutani and Koltun, is applied also to the P 33 wave. Our phenomenological model for πN interaction in the P 33 partial wave differs from the conventional model only in its off-shell extrapolation, and has two different variants for the πN → Δ vertex. The three-body approach of Kloet and Silbar is extended such that the background interactions can be included straightfowardly. We make detailed comparisons of the new model with the conventional one and find that our model adequately reproduces the 1 D 2 phase parameters as well as those of peripheral partial waves. We also find that the longitudinal total cross section difference Δσ L (pp → NNπ) comes closer to the data compared to Kloet and Silbar. We discuss about the backward pion propagation in the three-body calculation, and the Pauli-principle violating states for the background P 11 interaction. (author)

  3. Ideal Body Weight Calculation in the Bariatric Surgical Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Michael R; Porter, Michelle M; Beekley, Alec C; Tichansky, David S

    2015-10-01

    In bariatric surgery, ideal body weight (IBW) is used to calculate excess body weight (EBW) and percent excess weight lost (%EWL). Bariatric literature typically uses the midpoint of the medium frame from older Metropolitan Life Insurance (MetLife) tables to estimate IBW. This is neither universal nor always clinically accurate. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of standard IBW formulas compared to MetLife data. Weight loss data from 200 bariatric surgical patients between 2009 and 2011 was used to assess the accuracy of IBW formulas. IBWs assigned from the midpoint of the medium frame and reassigned using different gender targets were compared to standard formulas and a new formula to assess the accuracy of all formulas to both targets. Using standard MetLife data, the mean IBW was 136 lb, the mean EBW was 153.6 lb, and the mean %EWL was 43.8 %. Using the new target baseline, the mean IBW was 137.1 lb, the mean EBW was 152.6 lb, and the mean %EWL was 44 %. Deitel and Greenstein's formula was accurate to 0.3 % of EBW using the standard method, while our new formula was accurate to 0.03 % of EBW. Deitel and Greenstein's formula is most accurate using standard target IBW. The most accurate is our formula using the new MetLife target IBW.

  4. Body Mass Index: Calculator for Child and Teen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Weight Sample Link BMI Percentile Calculator for Child and Teen English Version Language: English Español (Spanish) ... and Weight Accurately At Home BMI Calculator for Child and Teen ( English | Metric ) 1. Birth Date : Month: ...

  5. Three-body calculation of two-body threshold electrodisintegration of 3He and 3H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimbach, C.R.; Lehman, D.R.; O'Connell, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    Threshold two-body electrodisintegration of 3 He and 3 H is investigated within the context of exact three-body theory. The calculations performed are based on the formalism of Gibson and Lehman. Careful consideration is given to the singularities of the disintegration Born amplitude for this case, since the momentum transfer is not zero, to assure validity of the numerical methods. Calculated results are compared with all the latest threshold 3 He electrodisintegration data which samples a range of scattered-electron angles, 92.6 0 0 , and incident electron energies, 40 MeV 0 3 H electrodisintegration for some of the same kinematics. The mechanism for the sharp rise as a function of excitation energy in the (e,e') cross section for theta/sub e/ approx. 90 0 due to the 2 S → 2 S monopole transition from Coulomb scattering is singled out by examination of the contributions to the Coulomb doublet amplitude. A similar analysis is carried out for the doublet and quartet transverse amplitudes where the 2 S → 4 P magnetic quadrupole transition dominates for excitation energies less than 20 MeV

  6. Toxicity of cadmium in Japanese quail: Evaluation of body weight, hepatic and renal function, and cellular immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sant'Ana, M.G.; Moraes, R.; Bernardi, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant that is able to alter the immune function. Previous studies have shown that, in mammals, chronic exposure to Cd decreases the release of macrophagic cytokines such as IL1 and TNα and decreases phagocytosis activity. On the other hand contradictory results showed an increase in the humoral response. The cellular response could be decreased by exposure to Cd. These alterations were observed in mammals. The present study aimed to investigate some of the toxic effects of Cd exposure in birds. In particular, the main objective of this work was to elucidate the effects of exposure to this pollutant on the cellular immune function of the Japanese quail as a model for the study of toxicity in animals exposed in nature. The animals were exposed to the metal (100 ppm, per os) during development, i.e., from 1 to 28 days old. Body weight, biochemical parameters, and cellular immune response were measured during and at the end of treatment. The results showed that the exposure to Cd for 28 days significantly reduced the body weight and induced hepatic toxicity. The kidney function and cellular immune response were not affected by the Cd exposure

  7. Photoionization cross sections and Auger rates calculated by many-body perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, H.P.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for applying the many body perturbation theory to atomic calculations are discussed with particular emphasis on calculation of photoionization cross sections and Auger rates. Topics covered include: Rayleigh--Schroedinger theory; many body perturbation theory; calculations of photoionization cross sections; and Auger rates

  8. Cadmium body burden and increased blood pressure in middle-aged American Indians: the Strong Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, N; Fry, R C; Balakrishnan, P; Navas-Acien, A; Oliver-Williams, C; Howard, A G; Cole, S A; Haack, K; Lange, E M; Howard, B V; Best, L G; Francesconi, K A; Goessler, W; Umans, J G; Tellez-Plaza, M

    2017-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant that has been associated with cardiovascular disease in populations, but the relationship of Cd with hypertension has been inconsistent. We studied the association between urinary Cd concentrations, a measure of total body burden, and blood pressure in American Indians, a US population with above national average Cd burden. Urinary Cd was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and adjusted for urinary creatinine concentration. Among 3714 middle-aged American Indian participants of the Strong Heart Study (mean age 56 years, 41% male, 67% ever-smokers, 23% taking antihypertensive medications), urinary Cd ranged from 0.01 to 78.48 μg g -1 creatinine (geometric mean=0.94 μg g -1 ) and it was correlated with smoking pack-year among ever-smokers (r 2 =0.16, Pyears), and urinary Cd was similarly elevated in light- and never-smokers (geometric means of 0.88 μg g -1 creatinine for both categories). Log-transformed urinary Cd was significantly associated with higher systolic blood pressure in models adjusted for age, sex, geographic area, body mass index, smoking (ever vs never, and cumulative pack-years) and kidney function (mean blood pressure difference by lnCd concentration (β)=1.64, P=0.002). These associations were present among light- and never-smokers (β=2.03, P=0.002, n=2627), although not significant among never-smokers (β=1.22, P=0.18, n=1260). Cd was also associated with diastolic blood pressure among light- and never-smokers (β=0.94, P=0.004). These findings suggest that there is a relationship between Cd body burden and increased blood pressure in American Indians, a population with increased cardiovascular disease risk.

  9. In vivo prompt gamma activation analysis facility for total body nitrogen and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munive, Marco; Solis, Jose; Revilla, Angel

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Prompt Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) is a technique that could have medical applications, like determination of body's contents of protein and heavy metals in vivo. The in vivo PGNAA facility, contains a neutron source (Cf-252) with safety device, a compartment for animal irradiation, and a gamma rays detecting system based on the NaI(Tl) detector with an analytical software. The prompt gamma rays were emitted after 10 -15 s of the interaction, so they don't produce radioactive waste, and have a characteristics energy for each element, i.e. a strong peak at 2.24 MeV is observed for H. The facility has been used with laboratory mice. Water-filled phantom placed in the neutron beam was used to system calibration. Three study groups of 5 mice each one were selected and were feed with a different diet and the total body nitrogen (TBN) of the mice was monitored with the facility. The diet produced a different TBN for each group. Some mice drunk diluted water with Cl 2 Cd, so the presence of Cd was detected in the mouse. The minimum Cd concentration that the system can detect was 20 ppm. The total dose (neutron and gamma dose was measured from TLDs and simulated by MNCP-4B in the sample compartment during the irradiation time (5 minutes) is less than 2.5 mSv. This total dose is low than the dose from other analytical radiological techniques (25 a 50 mSv). (author)

  10. Optical modeling and electrical properties of cadmium oxide nanofilms: Developing a meta–heuristic calculation process model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdolahzadeh Ziabari, Ali, E-mail: ali.abd.ziabari@gmail.com [Nano Research Lab, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 1616, Lahijan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Refahi Sheikhani, A. H. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nezafat, Reza Vatani [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haghighidoust, Kasra Monsef [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-04-07

    Cadmium oxide thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by sol–gel dip-coating method and annealed in air. The normal incidence transmittance of the films was measured by a spectrophotometer. D.C electrical parameters such as carrier concentration and mobility were analyzed by Hall Effect measurements. A combination of Forouhi–Bloomer and standard Drude model was used to simulate the optical constants and thicknesses of the films from transmittance data. The transmittance spectra of the films in the visible domain of wavelengths were successfully fitted by using the result of a hybrid particle swarm optimization method and genetic algorithm. The simulated transmittance is in good accordance with the measured spectrum in the whole measurement wavelength range. The electrical parameters obtained from the optical simulation are well consistent with those measured electrically by Hall Effect measurements.

  11. Cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waalkes, Michael P.

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable environmental and occupational concern. Cadmium compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. The most convincing data that cadmium is carcinogenic in humans comes from studies indicating occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer. Cadmium exposure has also been linked to human prostate and renal cancer, although this linkage is weaker than for lung cancer. Other target sites of cadmium carcinogenesis in humans, such as liver, pancreas and stomach, are considered equivocal. In animals, cadmium effectively induces cancers at multiple sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats induces pulmonary adenocarcinomas, in accord with its role in human lung cancer. Cadmium can induce tumors and/or preneoplastic lesions within the rat prostate after ingestion or injection. At relatively high doses, cadmium induces benign testicular tumors in rats, but these appear to be due to early toxic lesions and loss of testicular function, rather than from a specific carcinogenic effect of cadmium. Like many other metals, cadmium salts will induce mesenchymal tumors at the site of subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injections, but the human relevance of these is dubious. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the liver, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, and hematopoietic system. With the exception of testicular tumors in rodents, the mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis are poorly defined. Cadmium can cause any number of molecular lesions that would be relevant to oncogenesis in various cellular model systems. Most studies indicate cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect or epigenetic mechanisms, potentially including aberrant activation of oncogenes and suppression of apoptosis

  12. Cadmium carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waalkes, Michael P

    2003-12-10

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable environmental and occupational concern. Cadmium compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. The most convincing data that cadmium is carcinogenic in humans comes from studies indicating occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer. Cadmium exposure has also been linked to human prostate and renal cancer, although this linkage is weaker than for lung cancer. Other target sites of cadmium carcinogenesis in humans, such as liver, pancreas and stomach, are considered equivocal. In animals, cadmium effectively induces cancers at multiple sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats induces pulmonary adenocarcinomas, in accord with its role in human lung cancer. Cadmium can induce tumors and/or preneoplastic lesions within the rat prostate after ingestion or injection. At relatively high doses, cadmium induces benign testicular tumors in rats, but these appear to be due to early toxic lesions and loss of testicular function, rather than from a specific carcinogenic effect of cadmium. Like many other metals, cadmium salts will induce mesenchymal tumors at the site of subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injections, but the human relevance of these is dubious. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the liver, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, and hematopoietic system. With the exception of testicular tumors in rodents, the mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis are poorly defined. Cadmium can cause any number of molecular lesions that would be relevant to oncogenesis in various cellular model systems. Most studies indicate cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect or epigenetic mechanisms, potentially including aberrant activation of oncogenes and suppression of apoptosis.

  13. Monte Carlo calculation of efficiencies of whole-body counter, by microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes Neto, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    A computer programming using the Monte Carlo method for calculation of efficiencies of whole-body counting of body radiation distribution is presented. An analytical simulator (for man e for child) incorporated with 99m Tc, 131 I and 42 K is used. (M.A.C.) [pt

  14. The mass-damped Riemann problem and the aerodynamic surface force calculation for an accelerating body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Zhiqiang; Wilson, D.; Varghese, P.L.

    1997-01-01

    We consider an extension of the ordinary Riemann problem and present an efficient approximate solution that can be used to improve the calculations of aerodynamic forces on an accelerating body. The method is demonstrated with one-dimensional examples where the Euler equations and the body motion are solved in the non-inertial co-ordinate frame fixed to the accelerating body. 8 refs., 6 figs

  15. Four-body calculation above four-body break-up threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzu, E.; Kamada, H.; Koike, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The complex energy method [Prog. Theor. Phys. 109, 869L (2003)] is applied to the four body Faddeev-Yakubovsky equations in the four nucleon system. We obtain a well converged solution in all energy regions below and above the four nucleon break-up threshold

  16. Environmental exposures to lead, mercury, and cadmium among South Korean teenagers (KNHANES 2010-2013): Body burden and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Soo; Ahn, Jaeouk; Lee, Byung-Kook; Park, Jungsun; Kim, Yangho

    2017-07-01

    Limited information is available on the association of age and sex with blood concentrations of heavy metals in teenagers. In addition, factors such as a shared family environment may have an association. We analyzed data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2010-2013) to determine whether blood levels of heavy metals differ by risk factors such as age, sex, and shared family environment in a representative sample of teenagers. This study used data obtained in the KNHANES 2010-2013, which had a rolling sampling design that involved a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the non-institutionalized civilian population in South Korea. Our cross-sectional analysis was restricted to teenagers and their parents who completed the health examination survey, and for whom blood measurements of cadmium, lead, and mercury were available. The final analytical sample consisted of 1585 teenagers, and 376 fathers and 399 mothers who provided measurements of blood heavy metal concentrations. Male teenagers had greater blood levels of lead and mercury, but sex had no association with blood cadmium level. There were age-related increases in blood cadmium, but blood lead decreased with age, and age had little association with blood mercury. The concentrations of cadmium and mercury declined from 2010 to 2013. The blood concentrations of lead, cadmium, and mercury in teenagers were positively associated with the levels in their parents after adjustment for covariates. Our results show that blood heavy metal concentrations differ by risk factors such as age, sex, and shared family environment in teenagers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rigid Body Motion Calculated From Spatial Co-ordinates of Markers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we present a unified method for calculating spatial coordinates of markers for a rigid body motion such as in bones. Kinematical analysis of bone movement in cadaveric specimens or living objects had been developed. Here, we show how spatial co-ordinates of markers in or on bone can be calculated from ...

  18. Using Cut-off grade isograms to delineate ore body and calculate parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yongfeng; Zhu Xiaobing; Deng Yonghui

    2014-01-01

    Taking a uranium mine for an example, using cut-off grade isograms to achieve automatic delineation of ore body and calculation of parameters are explored. With center line of catalog sampling as baseline, the number of sampling and length of sampling constructing rectangular grid and grade as elevation value, isograms of cut-off grade were drawn, thus achieving the delineation of the ore body. Then, the other parameters of the ore body can be calculated. Compared with the traditional hand drawing method, the work efficiency was greatly improved, and the material inquiry was more convenient. (authors)

  19. Practical Calculation of Second-order Supersonic Flow past Nonlifting Bodies of Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Milton D

    1952-01-01

    Calculation of second-order supersonic flow past bodies of revolution at zero angle of attack is described in detail, and reduced to routine computation. Use of an approximate tangency condition is shown to increase the accuracy for bodies with corners. Tables of basic functions and standard computing forms are presented. The procedure is summarized so that one can apply it without necessarily understanding the details of the theory. A sample calculation is given, and several examples are compared with solutions calculated by the method of characteristics.

  20. Exact calculation of three-body contact interaction to second order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, N.

    2012-01-01

    For a system of fermions with a three-body contact interaction the second-order contributions to the energy per particle anti E(k f ) are calculated exactly. The three-particle scattering amplitude in the medium is derived in closed analytical form from the corresponding two-loop rescattering diagram. We compare the (genuine) second-order three-body contribution to anti E(k f )∝k f 10 with the second-order term due to the density-dependent effective two-body interaction, and find that the latter term dominates. The results of the present study are of interest for nuclear many-body calculations where chiral three-nucleon forces are treated beyond leading order via a density-dependent effective two-body interaction. (orig.)

  1. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal...... sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to calculated human-body exergy consumption rates. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to the slightly cool side of thermal sensation....... Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy...

  2. Statistical methods for including two-body forces in large system calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, S.M.

    1980-07-01

    Large systems of interacting particles are often treated by assuming that the effect on any one particle of the remaining N-1 may be approximated by an average potential. This approach reduces the problem to that of finding the bound-state solutions for a particle in a potential; statistical mechanics is then used to obtain the properties of the many-body system. In some physical systems this approach may not be acceptable, because the two-body force component cannot be treated in this one-body limit. A technique for incorporating two-body forces in such calculations in a more realistic fashion is described. 1 figure

  3. [Investigation of urinary cadmium reference of general population in two rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium-polluted in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingxiu; Li, Qiujuan; Yao, Dancheng; Zheng, Jiangang; Zhang, Wenli; Shang, Qi

    2014-09-01

    To study the reference of urinary. cadmium of the general population in rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium contaminated in China. In rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium contaminated, randomly selected non-occupational-cadmium exposed population 1134 people (male 519, female 615) with each gender and age groups, questionnaire surveyed and collected random urine. Urinary cadmium and urinary creatinine (Cr) concentration were tested, excluding urinary Cr 3 g/L. Analyze the impact factors of urinary cadmium and calculated 95% quantile (P,95 ) of urinary cadmium after correction by urinary Cr. Female median urinary cadmium was significantly higher than men, male smokers median urinary cadmium was significantly higher than male non-smokers (P 30 year-old. According to gender, and 15 -30, 30 years old, analysis the upper limit of cadmium in urine. The 95% upper limit of urinary cadmium of 30 year-old female (12.24 microg/gCr) was significantly higher than other populations ( population exceeded the upper limit (5 microg/gCr) of the occupational cadmium poisoning diagnostic criteria in China (GBZ 17-2002). In the two rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium polluted , urinary cadmium reference of non-cadmium-occupational-exposed male is <9.0 microg/gCr, and female <13.0 microg/gCr.

  4. Dose calculation method with 60-cobalt gamma rays in total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaff, Luiz Alberto Malaguti

    2001-01-01

    Physical factors associated to total body irradiation using 60 Co gamma rays beams, were studied in order to develop a calculation method of the dose distribution that could be reproduced in any radiotherapy center with good precision. The method is based on considering total body irradiation as a large and irregular field with heterogeneities. To calculate doses, or doses rates, of each area of interest (head, thorax, thigh, etc.), scattered radiation is determined. It was observed that if dismagnified fields were considered to calculate the scattered radiation, the resulting values could be applied on a projection to the real size to obtain the values for dose rate calculations. In a parallel work it was determined the variation of the dose rate in the air, for the distance of treatment, and for points out of the central axis. This confirm that the use of the inverse square law is not valid. An attenuation curve for a broad beam was also determined in order to allow the use of absorbers. In this work all the adapted formulas for dose rate calculations in several areas of the body are described, as well time/dose templates sheets for total body irradiation. The in vivo dosimetry, proved that either experimental or calculated dose rate values (achieved by the proposed method), did not have significant discrepancies. (author)

  5. Many-body calculations with deuteron based single-particle bases and their associated natural orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puddu, G.

    2018-06-01

    We use the recently introduced single-particle states obtained from localized deuteron wave-functions as a basis for nuclear many-body calculations. We show that energies can be substantially lowered if the natural orbits (NOs) obtained from this basis are used. We use this modified basis for {}10{{B}}, {}16{{O}} and {}24{{Mg}} employing the bare NNLOopt nucleon–nucleon interaction. The lowering of the energies increases with the mass. Although in principle NOs require a full scale preliminary many-body calculation, we found that an approximate preliminary many-body calculation, with a marginal increase in the computational cost, is sufficient. The use of natural orbits based on an harmonic oscillator basis leads to a much smaller lowering of the energies for a comparable computational cost.

  6. Bioaccumulation and partitioning of cadmium within the freshwater mussel Dreissena polymorpha Pallas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bias, R.; Karbe, L.

    1985-01-01

    Kinetics of uptake, partitioning and elimination of cadmium were investigated in experimental studies with the freshwater mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. 109 Cd and 115 Cd were used as tracers. Shells, soft parts and body fluid of the mussel exhibited considerable differences in accumulation and elimination. Accumulation factors up to more than 70,000 were calculated for the periostracum, whereas accumulation factors for the whole mussels ranging up to 3,000 were calculated. The shells bound a great deal of cadmium, but only loosely, and the metal could be readily eliminated after transfer to uncontaminated water. In contrast, no significant amounts of the cadmium incorporated in the soft parts were eliminated. The results indicate that the major portion of cadmium in the soft parts is strongly bound and cannot be eliminated by exchange processes. (author)

  7. Influence of protein deficiency on cadmium toxicity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari, P C; Jain, V K; Ashquin, M; Tandon, S K

    1986-07-01

    The effects of a low protein diet on the body uptake and retention of cadmium, levels of essential trace elements, and cadmium-induced biochemical alterations in liver and kidneys of the rat were investigated. Low dietary protein disturbs cadmium induced alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, essential trace elements metabolism and offsets the hepatic and renal process of cadmium detoxification. Protein malnutrition enhances the susceptibility to cadmium intoxication.

  8. Calculation of Pressure Distribution at Rotary Body Surface with the Vortex Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Dergachev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vortex element method allows to simulate unsteady hydrodynamic processes in incompressible environment, taking into account the evolution of the vortex sheet, including taking into account the deformation or moving of the body or part of construction.For the calculation of the hydrodynamic characteristics of the method based on vortex element software package was developed MVE3D. Vortex element (VE in program is symmetrical Vorton-cut. For satisfying the boundary conditions at the surface used closed frame of vortons.With this software system modeled incompressible flow around a cylindrical body protection elongation L / D = 13 with a front spherical blunt with the angle of attack of 10 °. We analyzed the distribution of the pressure coefficient on the body surface of the top and bottom forming.The calculate results were compared with known Results of experiment.Considered design schemes with different number of Vorton framework. Also varied radius of VE. Calculation make possible to establish the degree of sampling surface needed to produce close to experiment results. It has been shown that an adequate reproducing the pressure distribution in the transition region spherical cylindrical surface, on the windward side requires a high degree of sampling.Based on these results Can be possible need to improve on the design scheme of body's surface, allowing more accurate to describe the flow vorticity in areas with abrupt changes of geometry streamlined body.

  9. [Investigation of urinary cadmium characteristics of the general population in three non-cadmium-polluted rural areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingxiu; Hu, Ji; Sun, Hong; Jing, Qiqing; Wang, Xiaofeng; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Zhen; Chen, Xiaodong; Zhang, Wenli; Shang, Qi

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the characteristics of urinary cadmium of the non-occupational-cadmium-exposed population in non-cadmium contaminated rural area in China. Randomly selected non-occupational cadmium exposed population 2548 people (male 1290, female 1258) with each gender and age groups, questionnaire surveyed and collected random urine. Urinary cadmium and urinary creatinine (Cr) concentration were tested, excluding urinary Cr 3 g/L. Analyze the impact factors of urinary cadmium and calculated 95% quantile (P95) of urinary cadmium after correction by urinary Cr. Urinary cadmium increased with age and showed an upward trend. The urinary cadmium of the population of ≥ 30 years old was significantly higher than that of populations (China (GB Z17-2002). The urinary cadmium reference value of non-occupational-cadmium-exposed populations is China, but for smoking women over 30 year-old it needs more research to explore.

  10. Calculation of the hyperfine interaction using an effective-operator form of many-body theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garpman, S.; Lindgren, I.; Lindgren, J.; Morrison, J.

    1975-01-01

    The effective-operator form of many-body theory is reviewed and applied to the calculation of the hyperfine structure. Numerical results are given for the 2p, 3p, and 4p excited states of Li and the 3p state of Na. This is the first complete calculation of the hyperfine structure using an effective-operator form of perturbation theory. As in the Brueckner-Goldstone form of many-body theory, the various terms in the perturbation expansion are represented by Feynman diagrams which correspond to basic physical processes. The angular part of the perturbation diagrams are evaluated by taking advantage of the formal analogy between the Feynman diagrams and the angular-momentum diagrams, introduced by Jucys et al. The radial part of the diagrams is calculated by solving one- and two-particle equations for the particular linear combination of excited states that contribute to the Feynman diagrams. In this way all second- and third-order effects are accurately evaluated without explicitly constructing the excited orbitals. For the 2p state of Li our results are in agreement with the calculations of Nesbet and of Hameed and Foley. However, our quadrupole calculation disagrees with the work of Das and co-workers. The many-body results for Li and Na are compared with semiempirical methods for evaluating the quadrupole moment from the hyperfine interaction, and a new quadrupole moment of 23 Na is given

  11. Predictors of urinary cadmium levels in adult females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, Jane A.; Shafer, Martin M.; Hampton, John M.; Newcomb, Polly A.

    2007-01-01

    Ubiquitous exposure to low levels of cadmium has raised concern about adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of non-occupationally exposed adult females that correlated with creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels. In our population-based study, trained interviewers collected information from 254 female Wisconsin residents aged 20-69 years on tobacco use, limited dietary consumption patterns, reproductive history, demographics, and residential history. Participants provided spot-urine specimens collected at home. Urine cadmium concentrations were quantified using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and creatinine levels were also determined. Least square means and 95% confidence intervals for the natural log of the creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were calculated for each characteristic using multivariate analysis of variance adjusting for age and smoking status. Results were calculated on the log scale and then transformed to the original scale by taking the exponent of each of the values. We observed statistically significant increasing creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium mean levels relative to smoking status, older age, parity, lower body surface area, mineral zinc supplement consumption, and high income. We did not observe a difference relative to consumption of organ meats, crustaceans, alcohol, multivitamins, multiminerals or homegrown vegetables, age of menopause, menarche of participant or oldest daughter, menopausal status or urban-rural residential location. Approximately 40% of the variance in creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels in adult women was explained by several characteristics. Similar to other studies, age and smoking were the strongest determinants of creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium concentration

  12. Predictors of urinary cadmium levels in adult females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, Jane A. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States)]. E-mail: jamcelroy@wisc.edu; Shafer, Martin M. [University of Wisconsin, Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, 600 N Park Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Hampton, John M. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Cancer Prevention Program, 1100 Fairview Ave N, M4-B402 PO Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Ubiquitous exposure to low levels of cadmium has raised concern about adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of non-occupationally exposed adult females that correlated with creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels. In our population-based study, trained interviewers collected information from 254 female Wisconsin residents aged 20-69 years on tobacco use, limited dietary consumption patterns, reproductive history, demographics, and residential history. Participants provided spot-urine specimens collected at home. Urine cadmium concentrations were quantified using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and creatinine levels were also determined. Least square means and 95% confidence intervals for the natural log of the creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were calculated for each characteristic using multivariate analysis of variance adjusting for age and smoking status. Results were calculated on the log scale and then transformed to the original scale by taking the exponent of each of the values. We observed statistically significant increasing creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium mean levels relative to smoking status, older age, parity, lower body surface area, mineral zinc supplement consumption, and high income. We did not observe a difference relative to consumption of organ meats, crustaceans, alcohol, multivitamins, multiminerals or homegrown vegetables, age of menopause, menarche of participant or oldest daughter, menopausal status or urban-rural residential location. Approximately 40% of the variance in creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels in adult women was explained by several characteristics. Similar to other studies, age and smoking were the strongest determinants of creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium concentration.

  13. Neutron-deuteron scattering calculations with W-matrix representation of the two-body input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartnik, E.A.; Haberzettl, H.; Januschke, T.; Kerwath, U.; Sandhas, W.

    1987-05-01

    Employing the W-matrix representation of the partial-wave T matrix introduced by Bartnik, Haberzettl, and Sandhas, we show for the example of the Malfliet-Tjon potentials I and III that the single-term separable part of the W-matrix representation, when used as input in three-nucleon neutron-deuteron scattering calculations, is fully capable of reproducing the exact results obtained by Kloet and Tjon. This approximate two-body input not only satisfies the two-body off-shell unitarity relation but, moreover, it also contains a parameter which may be used in optimizing the three-body data. We present numerical evidence that there exists a variational (minimum) principle for the determination of the three-body binding energy which allows one to choose this parameter also in the absence of an exact reference calculation. Our results for neutron-deuteron scattering show that it is precisely this choice of the parameter which provides optimal scattering data. We conclude that the W-matrix approach, despite its simplicity, is a remarkably efficient tool for high-quality three-nucleon calculations. (orig.)

  14. Cadmium and children: Exposure and health effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoeters, G.; Hond, E. Den; Zuurbier, M.; Naginiene, R.; Hazel, P.J. van den; Stilianakis, N.; Ronchetti, R.; Koppe, J.G.

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium exposure and accumulation in the body start at young age. Exposure routes in children are mainly via food, environmental tobacco smoke and house dust. Excretion from the body is limited. Cadmium accumulation in the kidney is responsible for effects such as nephrotoxicity and osteoporosis

  15. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Olesen, Bjarne W. [ICIEE/BYG, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Iwamatsu, Toshiya [Faculty of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University (Japan); Asada, Hideo [Architech Consulting Co., Tokyo (Japan); Dovjak, Mateja [Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Schellen, Lisje [Eindhoven University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture Building and Planning (Netherlands); Shukuya, Masanori [Laboratory of Building Environment, Tokyo City University, Yokohama (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    Application of the exergy concept to research on the built environment is a relatively new approach. It helps to optimize climate conditioning systems so that they meet the requirements of sustainable building design. As the building should provide a healthy and comfortable environment for its occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to calculated human-body exergy consumption rates. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to the slightly cool side of thermal sensation. Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy consumption rates increase as the operative temperature increases above 24 C or decreases below 22 C. With the data available so far, a second-order polynomial relationship between thermal sensation and the exergy consumption rate was established. (author)

  16. Effects of variations in cadmium and lead levels in river sediments on local foods and body burden of local residents in non-polluted areas in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masayuki; Watanabe, Takao; Ohashi, Fumiko; Shimbo, Shinichiro

    2010-03-01

    This study was initiated to examine if variations in the concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in water environment may affect metal levels in local foods and body burden of local residents in non-polluted areas in Japan. Two nationwide databases have been made available on concentrations of Cd in locally harvested brown rice and of Cd and Pb in sediments in local river beds. These data were combined with published data on metal concentrations in polished rice, food duplicates, and blood and urine from the residents. Cd in river sediments correlated significantly with those in brown rice, food duplicates, blood, and urine. Cd in food duplicates correlated with Cd in rice. In contrast, Pb concentrations in the river sediments either did not correlate or correlated only weakly with Pb in biological materials or food duplicates. Possible implication of the different behavior between Cd and Pb regarding the intensity of correlation was discussed with reference to the different routes of exposure to the elements. In conclusions, the Cd body burden on local residents in Japan is significantly influenced by Cd levels in water in the general environment, whereas water-borne Pb did not show clear correlation with the Pb body burden.

  17. Coulomb-Sturmian separable expansion approach: Three-body Faddeev calculations for Coulomb-like interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, Z.; Plessas, W.

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the Coulomb-Sturmian separable expansion method for generating accurate solutions of the Faddeev equations. Results obtained with this method are reported for several benchmark cases of bosonic and fermionic three-body systems. Correct bound-state results in agreement with the ones established in the literature are achieved for short-range interactions. We outline the formalism for the treatment of three-body Coulomb systems and present a bound-state calculation for a three-boson system interacting via Coulomb plus short-range forces. The corresponding result is in good agreement with the answer from a recent stochastic-variational-method calculation. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  18. Cadmium Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    carcinogenic, leachable Trivalent and non- chrome passivates generally struggle with conductivity Major Differences in Trivalent vs. Hexavalent Passivates...for Change Cadmium passivated with hexavalent chromium has been in use for many decades Cadmium is toxic, and is classified as a priority...Executive Orders 13514 & 13423 DoD initiatives – Young memo (April 2009) DFAR restricting use of hexavalent chromium Allows the use of hexavalent

  19. Speeding up N-body Calculations on Machines without Hardware Square Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan H. Karp

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The most time consuming part of an N-body simulation is computing the components of the accelerations of the particles. On most machines the slowest part of computing the acceleration is in evaluating r-3/2, which is especially true on machines that do the square root in software. This note shows how to cut the time for this part of the calculation by a factor of 3 or more using standard Fortran.

  20. Relativistic many-body perturbation-theory calculations based on Dirac-Fock-Breit wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Y.; Quiney, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    A relativistic many-body perturbation theory based on the Dirac-Fock-Breit wave functions has been developed and implemented by employing analytic basis sets of Gaussian-type functions. The instantaneous Coulomb and low-frequency Breit interactions are treated using a unified formalism in both the construction of the Dirac-Fock-Breit self-consistent-field atomic potential and in the evaluation of many-body perturbation-theory diagrams. The relativistic many-body perturbation-theory calculations have been performed on the helium atom and ions of the helium isoelectronic sequence up to Z=50. The contribution of the low-frequency Breit interaction to the relativistic correlation energy is examined for the helium isoelectronic sequence

  1. Towards predictive many-body calculations of phonon-limited carrier mobilities in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncé, Samuel; Margine, Elena R.; Giustino, Feliciano

    2018-03-01

    We probe the accuracy limit of ab initio calculations of carrier mobilities in semiconductors, within the framework of the Boltzmann transport equation. By focusing on the paradigmatic case of silicon, we show that fully predictive calculations of electron and hole mobilities require many-body quasiparticle corrections to band structures and electron-phonon matrix elements, the inclusion of spin-orbit coupling, and an extremely fine sampling of inelastic scattering processes in momentum space. By considering all these factors we obtain excellent agreement with experiment, and we identify the band effective masses as the most critical parameters to achieve predictive accuracy. Our findings set a blueprint for future calculations of carrier mobilities, and pave the way to engineering transport properties in semiconductors by design.

  2. Cadmium Exposure is Associated with the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhou; Lu, Yong-Hui; Pi, Hui-Feng; Gao, Peng; Li, Min; Zhang, Lei; Pei, Li-Ping; Mei, Xiang; Liu, Lin; Zhao, Qi; Qin, Qi-Zhong; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Yue-Ming; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Yu, Zheng-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental and occupational pollutant that accumulates in human body with a biological half-life exceeding 10 years. Cadmium exposure has been demonstrated to increase rates of cardiovascular diseases. Whether occupational cadmium exposure is associated with the increase in the prevalence of dyslipidemia and hence contributes to the risk of cardiovascular diseases is still equivocal. To test the hypothesis that exposure to cadmium is related to the prevalence of dyslipidemia, we examined the associations between blood cadmium concentration and the prevalence of dyslipidemia in workers occupationally exposed to cadmium in China. A cross-sectional survey on demographic data, blood cadmium level and lipid profile in cadmium exposed workers from seven cadmium smelting factories in central and southwestern China was conducted. We measured blood cadmium concentration and lipid components of 1489 cadmium exposed workers. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was compared across blood cadmium quartiles. Associations between the blood cadmium concentrations and the prevalence of dyslipidemia were assessed using confounder adjusted linear and logistic regressions. The blood cadmium concentration was 3.61±0.84µg/L ( mean ±SD). The prevalence of dyslipidemia in this occupational population was 66.3%. Mean blood cadmium concentration of workers with dyslipedemia was significantly higher than that of workers without dyslipidemia (p dyslipidemia increased dose-dependently with elevations in blood cadmium concentrations (p for trend dyslipidemia across the increasing blood cadmium quartiles were 1.21(1.16-1.55), 1.56(1.11-1.87), 1.79(1.26-2.25) respectively (referencing to 1.00; p for trend dyslipidemia remained unchanged (all p for trend dyslipidemia. Cadmium exposure could alter lipid metabolism in humans. It is imperative to control cadmium exposure of occupational population in cadmium related industries and reduce adverse health effects. © 2016 The

  3. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R. Steven

    2017-01-01

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs. PMID:28961214

  4. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R Steven

    2017-09-29

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs.

  5. Data for absorbed dose calculations for external sources and for emitters within the body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hep, J.; Valenta, V.

    1976-01-01

    Tables give data for the calculation of absorbed doses from radioactivity sources accumulated in individual body organs. The tables are arranged in such manner that the gamma energy (J) absorbed in 1 kg of target organ (19 organs and total body) are given for 18 source organs (16 different organs, total doby and surrounding air) resulting from 1 decay event, this for more than 250 radioisotopes evenly distributed in the source organ (1 J/kg=100 rad). Also given are the energies of alpha and beta radiations related to one decay. In tables having the surrounding air as the source it is assumed that the intensity of the external source is 1 decay per 1 m 3 of surrounding air which is constant in the entire half-space. The tables are only elaborated for radioisotopes with a half-life of more than 1 min. (B.S.)

  6. Cadmium in the biofuel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aabyhammar, T.; Fahlin, M.; Holmroos, S.

    1993-12-01

    Removal of biofuel depletes the soil of important nutrients. Investigations are being made of possibilities to return most of these nutrients by spreading the ashes remaining after combustion in the forest or on field. Return of ashes implies that both beneficial and harmful substances are returned. This study has been conducted to illustrate that the return of cadmium implies the greatest risk for negative influences. The occurrence, utilization, emissions and effects of cadmium are discussed. The behaviour of cadmium in soil is discussed in detail. Flows and quantities of cadmium in Swedish society are reviewed. Flows and quantities of both total and plant available cadmium in the entire forest and arable areas of Sweden are given. A scenario for a bioenergy system of max 100 TWh is discussed. The cadmium flow in different biofuels and forest raw products, and anticipated amounts of ashes and cadmium concentrations, are calculated. Power production from biofuels is surveyed. Possibilities to clean ashes have been examined in laboratory experiments. Ashes and trace elements occurring as a result of the gasification of biofuels are reviewed. Strategies for handling ashes are discussed. Proposals on continued inputs in both the biological and technical sciences are made. 146 refs, 23 figs, 38 tabs

  7. Cadmium Exposure is Associated with the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium is a widespread environmental and occupational pollutant that accumulates in human body with a biological half-life exceeding 10 years. Cadmium exposure has been demonstrated to increase rates of cardiovascular diseases. Whether occupational cadmium exposure is associated with the increase in the prevalence of dyslipidemia and hence contributes to the risk of cardiovascular diseases is still equivocal. To test the hypothesis that exposure to cadmium is related to the prevalence of dyslipidemia, we examined the associations between blood cadmium concentration and the prevalence of dyslipidemia in workers occupationally exposed to cadmium in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey on demographic data, blood cadmium level and lipid profile in cadmium exposed workers from seven cadmium smelting factories in central and southwestern China was conducted. We measured blood cadmium concentration and lipid components of 1489 cadmium exposed workers. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was compared across blood cadmium quartiles. Associations between the blood cadmium concentrations and the prevalence of dyslipidemia were assessed using confounder adjusted linear and logistic regressions. Results: The blood cadmium concentration was 3.61±0.84µg/L ( mean ±SD. The prevalence of dyslipidemia in this occupational population was 66.3%. Mean blood cadmium concentration of workers with dyslipedemia was significantly higher than that of workers without dyslipidemia (p Conclusion: Elevated blood cadmium concentration is associated with prevalence of dyslipidemia. Cadmium exposure could alter lipid metabolism in humans. It is imperative to control cadmium exposure of occupational population in cadmium related industries and reduce adverse health effects.

  8. Cadmium Exposure is Associated with the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Zhou; Yong-hui Lu; Hui-feng Pi; Peng Gao; Min Li; Lei Zhang; Li-ping Pei; Xiang Mei; Lin Liu; Qi Zhao; Qi-Zhong Qin; Yu Chen; Yue-ming Jiang; Zhao-hui Zhang; Zheng-ping Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cadmium is a widespread environmental and occupational pollutant that accumulates in human body with a biological half-life exceeding 10 years. Cadmium exposure has been demonstrated to increase rates of cardiovascular diseases. Whether occupational cadmium exposure is associated with the increase in the prevalence of dyslipidemia and hence contributes to the risk of cardiovascular diseases is still equivocal. To test the hypothesis that exposure to cadmium is related to the preva...

  9. Relativistic many-body calculations of magnetic dipole transitions in Be-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronova, U.I.; Johnson, W.R.; Derevianko, A.

    1999-01-01

    Reduced matrix elements and transition rates are calculated for all magnetic dipole (M1) transitions within 2l2l' configurations and for some 2l3l'-2l2l' transitions in Be-like ions with nuclear charges ranging from Z = 4 to 100. Many-body perturbation theory (MBPT), including the Breit interaction, is used to evaluate retarded M1 matrix elements. The calculations start with a (1s) 2 Dirac-Fock potential and include all possible n = 2 configurations, leading to 4 odd-parity and 6 even-parity states, and some n = 3 configurations. First-order perturbation theory is used to obtain intermediate coupling coefficients. Second-order MBPT is used to determine the matrix elements, which are evaluated for all 11 M1 transitions within 2l2l' configurations and for 35 M1 transitions between 2l3l' and 2l2l' states. The transition energies used in the calculation of oscillator strengths and transition rates are obtained from second-order MBPT. The importance of negative-energy contributions to M1 transition amplitudes is discussed. (orig.)

  10. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, A.S.; Huff, J.E.; Braunstein, H.M.; Drury, J.S.; Shriner, C.R.; Lewis, E.B.; Whitfield, B.L.; Towill, L.E.

    1978-06-01

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 ..mu..g per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels.

  11. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammons, A.S.; Huff, J.E.; Braunstein, H.M.; Drury, J.S.; Shriner, C.R.; Lewis, E.B.; Whitfield, B.L.; Towill, L.E.

    1978-06-01

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 μg per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels

  12. Density-density functionals and effective potentials in many-body electronic structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboredo, Fernando A.; Kent, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of different density-density functionals designed to retain selected properties of the many-body ground state in a non-interacting solution starting from the standard density functional theory ground state. We focus on diffusion quantum Monte Carlo applications that require trial wave functions with optimal Fermion nodes. The theory is extensible and can be used to understand current practices in several electronic structure methods within a generalized density functional framework. The theory justifies and stimulates the search of optimal empirical density functionals and effective potentials for accurate calculations of the properties of real materials, but also cautions on the limits of their applicability. The concepts are tested and validated with a near-analytic model.

  13. Ab Initio Many-Body Calculations Of Nucleon-Nucleus Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaglioni, S; Navratil, P

    2008-12-17

    We develop a new ab initio many-body approach capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei, by combining the resonating-group method with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters. This approach preserves translational symmetry and Pauli principle. We outline technical details and present phase shift results for neutron scattering on {sup 3}H, {sup 4}He and {sup 10}Be and proton scattering on {sup 3,4}He, using realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials. Our A = 4 scattering results are compared to earlier ab initio calculations. We find that the CD-Bonn NN potential in particular provides an excellent description of nucleon-{sup 4}He S-wave phase shifts. We demonstrate that a proper treatment of the coupling to the n-{sup 10}Be continuum is successful in explaining the parity-inverted ground state in {sup 11}Be.

  14. Whole-body aerosol exposure of cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) induced hepatic changes in CD-1 male mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuanhong; Hu, Yabing; Liu, Shuyun; Zheng, Huiying; Wu, Xiaojuan; Huang, Zhengyu; Li, Hao; Peng, Baoqi; Long, Jinlie [Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Pan, Bishu [Taizhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Taizhou 318000 (China); Huang, Changjiang, E-mail: cjhuang5711@163.com [Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Dong, Qiaoxiang, E-mail: dqxdong@163.com [Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Hepatotoxicity of TBBPA and Cd aerosol co-exposure was evaluated in CD-1 male mice. • Hepatic changes include focal necrosis, increased organ weight, and elevated enzymes. • TBBPA group exhibited highest hepatic toxicity followed by co-exposure and Cd groups. • We did not observe any synergistic effect of hepatic toxicity between TBBPA and Cd. • TBBPA/Cd suppressed antioxidant defensive mechanisms and increased oxidative stress. - Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) are two prevalent contaminants in e-waste recycling facilities. However, the potential adversely health effect of co-exposure to these two types of pollutants in an occupational setting is unknown. In this study, we investigated co-exposure of these two pollutants on hepatic toxicity in CD-1 male mice through a whole-body aerosol inhalation route. Specifically, mice were exposed to solvent control (5% DMSO), Cd (8 μg/m{sup 3}), TBBPA (16 μg/m{sup 3}) and Cd/TBBPA mixture for 8 h/day and 6 days a week for 60 days. Hepatic changes include increased organ weight, focal necrosis, and elevated levels of liver enzymes in serum. These changes were most severe in mice exposed to TBBPA, followed by Cd/TBBPA mixture and Cd. These chemicals also led to suppressed antioxidant defensive mechanisms and increased oxidative stress. Further, these chemicals induced gene expression of apoptosis-related genes, activated genes encoding for phase I detoxification enzymes and inhibited genes encoding for phase II detoxification enzymes. These findings indicate that the hepatic damages induced by subchronic aerosol exposure of Cd and TBBPA may result from the oxidative damages caused by excessive ROS production when these chemicals were metabolized in the liver.

  15. [The model of geometrical human body phantom for calculating tissue doses in the service module of the International Space Station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, V A; Mitrikas, V G

    2007-01-01

    The model of a geometrical human body phantom developed for calculating the shielding functions of representative points of the body organs and systems is similar to the anthropomorphic phantom. This form of phantom can be integrated with the shielding model of the ISS Russian orbital segment to make analysis of radiation loading of crewmembers in different compartments of the vehicle. Calculation of doses absorbed by the body systems in terms of the representative points makes it clear that doses essentially depend on the phantom spatial orientation (eye direction). It also enables the absorbed dose evaluation from the shielding functions as the mean of the representative points and phantom orientation.

  16. Bioaccumulation and partitioning of cadmium within the freshwater mussel Dreissena polymorpha Pallas. [Using /sup 109/Cd and /sup 115/Cd as tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bias, R.; Karbe, L. (Hamburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.))

    1985-01-01

    Kinetics of uptake, partitioning and elimination of cadmium were investigated in experimental studies with the freshwater mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. /sup 109/Cd and /sup 115/Cd were used as tracers. Shells, soft parts and body fluid of the mussel exhibited considerable differences in accumulation and elimination. Accumulation factors up to more than 70,000 were calculated for the periostracum, whereas accumulation factors for the whole mussels ranging up to 3,000 were calculated. The shells bound a great deal of cadmium, but only loosely, and the metal could be readily eliminated after transfer to uncontaminated water. In contrast, no significant amounts of the cadmium incorporated in the soft parts were eliminated. The results indicate that the major portion of cadmium in the soft parts is strongly bound and cannot be eliminated by exchange processes.

  17. Generic calculation of two-body partial decay widths at the full one-loop level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, Mark D.; Liebler, Stefan; Staub, Florian

    2017-11-01

    We describe a fully generic implementation of two-body partial decay widths at the full one-loop level in the SARAH and SPheno framework compatible with most supported models. It incorporates fermionic decays to a fermion and a scalar or a gauge boson as well as scalar decays into two fermions, two gauge bosons, two scalars or a scalar and a gauge boson. We present the relevant generic expressions for virtual and real corrections. Whereas wave-function corrections are determined from on-shell conditions, the parameters of the underlying model are by default renormalised in a \\overline{ {DR}} (or \\overline{ {MS}}) scheme. However, the user can also define model-specific counter-terms. As an example we discuss the renormalisation of the electric charge in the Thomson limit for top-quark decays in the standard model. One-loop-induced decays are also supported. The framework additionally allows the addition of mass and mixing corrections induced at higher orders for the involved external states. We explain our procedure to cancel infrared divergences for such cases, which is achieved through an infrared counter-term taking into account corrected Goldstone boson vertices. We compare our results for sfermion, gluino and Higgs decays in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) against the public codes SFOLD, FVSFOLD and HFOLD and explain observed differences. Radiatively induced gluino and neutralino decays are compared against the original implementation in SPheno in the MSSM. We exactly reproduce the results of the code CNNDecays for decays of neutralinos and charginos in R-parity violating models. The new version SARAH 4.11.0 by default includes the calculation of two-body decay widths at the full one-loop level. Current limitations for certain model classes are described.

  18. Generic calculation of two-body partial decay widths at the full one-loop level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodsell, Mark D. [UPMC Univ. Paris 06 (France); Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France); Sorbonne Univ., Paris (France); Liebler, Stefan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Staub, Florian [Karlsruhe Institute for Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Karlsruhe Institute for Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Physics

    2017-04-15

    We describe a fully generic implementation of two-body partial decay widths at the full one-loop level in the SARAH and SPheno framework compatible with most supported models. It incorporates fermionic decays to a fermion and a scalar or a gauge boson as well as scalar decays into two fermions, two gauge bosons, two scalars or a scalar and a gauge boson. We present the relevant generic expressions for virtual and real corrections. Whereas wavefunction corrections are determined from on-shell conditions, the parameters of the underlying model are by default renormalised in a DR (or MS) scheme. However, the user can also define model-specific counter-terms. As an example we discuss the renormalisation of the electric charge in the Thomson limit for top-quark decays in the standard model. One-loop induced decays are also supported. The framework additionally allows the addition of mass and mixing corrections induced at higher orders for the involved external states. We explain our procedure to cancel infra-red divergences for such cases, which is achieved through an infra-red counter-term taking into account corrected Goldstone boson vertices. We compare our results for sfermion, gluino and Higgs decays in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) against the public codes SFOLD, FVSFOLD and HFOLD and explain observed differences. Radiative induced gluino and neutralino decays are compared against the original implementation in SPheno in the MSSM. We exactly reproduce the results of the code CNNDecays for decays of neutralinos and charginos in R-parity violating models. The new version SARAH 4.11.0 by default includes the calculation of two-body decay widths at the full one-loop level. Current limitations for certain model classes are described.

  19. Generic calculation of two-body partial decay widths at the full one-loop level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodsell, Mark D. [Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France); Liebler, Stefan [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Staub, Florian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITP), Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Nuclear Physics (IKP), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    We describe a fully generic implementation of two-body partial decay widths at the full one-loop level in the SARAH and SPheno framework compatible with most supported models. It incorporates fermionic decays to a fermion and a scalar or a gauge boson as well as scalar decays into two fermions, two gauge bosons, two scalars or a scalar and a gauge boson. We present the relevant generic expressions for virtual and real corrections. Whereas wave-function corrections are determined from on-shell conditions, the parameters of the underlying model are by default renormalised in a DR (or MS) scheme. However, the user can also define model-specific counter-terms. As an example we discuss the renormalisation of the electric charge in the Thomson limit for top-quark decays in the standard model. One-loop-induced decays are also supported. The framework additionally allows the addition of mass and mixing corrections induced at higher orders for the involved external states. We explain our procedure to cancel infrared divergences for such cases, which is achieved through an infrared counter-term taking into account corrected Goldstone boson vertices. We compare our results for sfermion, gluino and Higgs decays in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) against the public codes SFOLD, FVSFOLD and HFOLD and explain observed differences. Radiatively induced gluino and neutralino decays are compared against the original implementation in SPheno in the MSSM. We exactly reproduce the results of the code CNNDecays for decays of neutralinos and charginos in R-parity violating models. The new version SARAH 4.11.0 by default includes the calculation of two-body decay widths at the full one-loop level. Current limitations for certain model classes are described. (orig.)

  20. Generic calculation of two-body partial decay widths at the full one-loop level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodsell, Mark D.; Liebler, Stefan; Staub, Florian; Karlsruhe Institute for Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen

    2017-04-01

    We describe a fully generic implementation of two-body partial decay widths at the full one-loop level in the SARAH and SPheno framework compatible with most supported models. It incorporates fermionic decays to a fermion and a scalar or a gauge boson as well as scalar decays into two fermions, two gauge bosons, two scalars or a scalar and a gauge boson. We present the relevant generic expressions for virtual and real corrections. Whereas wavefunction corrections are determined from on-shell conditions, the parameters of the underlying model are by default renormalised in a DR (or MS) scheme. However, the user can also define model-specific counter-terms. As an example we discuss the renormalisation of the electric charge in the Thomson limit for top-quark decays in the standard model. One-loop induced decays are also supported. The framework additionally allows the addition of mass and mixing corrections induced at higher orders for the involved external states. We explain our procedure to cancel infra-red divergences for such cases, which is achieved through an infra-red counter-term taking into account corrected Goldstone boson vertices. We compare our results for sfermion, gluino and Higgs decays in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) against the public codes SFOLD, FVSFOLD and HFOLD and explain observed differences. Radiative induced gluino and neutralino decays are compared against the original implementation in SPheno in the MSSM. We exactly reproduce the results of the code CNNDecays for decays of neutralinos and charginos in R-parity violating models. The new version SARAH 4.11.0 by default includes the calculation of two-body decay widths at the full one-loop level. Current limitations for certain model classes are described.

  1. A Kidney Graft Survival Calculator that Accounts for Mismatches in Age, Sex, HLA, and Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Valarie B; Leichtman, Alan B; Rees, Michael A; Song, Peter X-K; Bray, Mathieu; Wang, Wen; Kalbfleisch, John D

    2017-07-07

    Outcomes for transplants from living unrelated donors are of particular interest in kidney paired donation (KPD) programs where exchanges can be arranged between incompatible donor-recipient pairs or chains created from nondirected/altruistic donors. Using Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data, we analyzed 232,705 recipients of kidney-alone transplants from 1998 to 2012. Graft failure rates were estimated using Cox models for recipients of kidney transplants from living unrelated, living related, and deceased donors. Models were adjusted for year of transplant and donor and recipient characteristics, with particular attention to mismatches in age, sex, human leukocyte antigens (HLA), body size, and weight. The dependence of graft failure on increasing donor age was less pronounced for living-donor than for deceased-donor transplants. Male donor-to-male recipient transplants had lower graft failure, particularly better than female to male (5%-13% lower risk). HLA mismatch was important in all donor types. Obesity of both the recipient (8%-18% higher risk) and donor (5%-11% higher risk) was associated with higher graft loss, as were donor-recipient weight ratios of transplants where both parties were of similar weight (9%-12% higher risk). These models are used to create a calculator of estimated graft survival for living donors. This calculator provides useful information to donors, candidates, and physicians of estimated outcomes and potentially in allowing candidates to choose among several living donors. It may also help inform candidates with compatible donors on the advisability of joining a KPD program. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  2. Calculation of midplane dose for total body irradiation from entrance and exit dose MOSFET measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satory, P R

    2012-03-01

    This work is the development of a MOSFET based surface in vivo dosimetry system for total body irradiation patients treated with bilateral extended SSD beams using PMMA missing tissue compensators adjacent to the patient. An empirical formula to calculate midplane dose from MOSFET measured entrance and exit doses has been derived. The dependency of surface dose on the air-gap between the spoiler and the surface was investigated by suspending a spoiler above a water phantom, and taking percentage depth dose measurements (PDD). Exit and entrances doses were measured with MOSFETs in conjunction with midplane doses measured with an ion chamber. The entrance and exit doses were combined using an exponential attenuation formula to give an estimate of midplane dose and were compared to the midplane ion chamber measurement for a range of phantom thicknesses. Having a maximum PDD at the surface simplifies the prediction of midplane dose, which is achieved by ensuring that the air gap between the compensator and the surface is less than 10 cm. The comparison of estimated midplane dose and measured midplane dose showed no dependence on phantom thickness and an average correction factor of 0.88 was found. If the missing tissue compensators are kept within 10 cm of the patient then MOSFET measurements of entrance and exit dose can predict the midplane dose for the patient.

  3. FaCE: a tool for Three Body Faddeev calculations with core excitation

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, I. J.; Nunes, F. M.; Danilin, B. V.

    2004-01-01

    FaCE is a self contained programme, with namelist input, that solves the three body Faddeev equations. It enables the inclusion of excitation of one of the three bodies, whilst the other two remain inert. It is particularly useful for obtaining the binding energies and bound state structure compositions of light exotic nuclei treated as three-body systems, given the three effective two body interactions. A large variety of forms for these interactions may be defined, and supersymmetric transf...

  4. A numerical calculation method for flow discretisation in complex geometry with body-fitted grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, X.

    2001-04-01

    A numerical calculation method basing on body fitted grids is developed in this work for computational fluid dynamics in complex geometry. The method solves the conservation equations in a general nonorthogonal coordinate system which matches the curvilinear boundary. The nonorthogonal, patched grid is generated by a grid generator which solves algebraic equations. By means of an interface its geometrical data can be used by this method. The conservation equations are transformed from the Cartesian system to a general curvilinear system keeping the physical Cartesian velocity components as dependent variables. Using a staggered arrangement of variables, the three Cartesian velocity components are defined on every cell surface. Thus the coupling between pressure and velocity is ensured, and numerical oscillations are avoided. The contravariant velocity for calculating mass flux on one cell surface is resulting from dependent Cartesian velocity components. After the discretisation and linear interpolation, a three dimensional 19-point pressure equation is found. Using the explicit treatment for cross-derivative terms, it reduces to the usual 7-point equation. Under the same data and process structure, this method is compatible with the code FLUTAN using Cartesian coordinates. In order to verify this method, several laminar flows are simulated in orthogonal grids at tilted space directions and in nonorthogonal grids with variations of cell angles. The simulated flow types are considered like various duct flows, transient heat conduction, natural convection in a chimney and natural convection in cavities. Their results achieve very good agreement with analytical solutions or empirical data. Convergence for highly nonorthogonal grids is obtained. After the successful validation of this method, it is applied for a reactor safety case. A transient natural convection flow for an optional sump cooling concept SUCO is simulated. The numerical result is comparable with the

  5. Relativistic Dirac-Fock and many-body perturbation calculations on He, He-like ions, Ne, and Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Relativistic Dirac-Fock and diagrammatic many-body perturbation-theory calculations have been performed on He, several He-like ions, Ne, and Ar. The no-pair Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian is taken as the starting point. A solution of the Dirac-Fock equations is obtained by analytic expansion in basis sets of Gaussian-type functions. Many-body perturbation improvements of Coulomb correlation are done to third order

  6. Many-body calculation of the coincidence L3 photoelectron spectroscopy main line of Ni metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masahide

    2008-01-01

    The partial singles L 3 photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) main line of Ni metal correlated with Auger electrons emitted by the localized L 3 -VV Auger decay is calculated by a many-body theory. The partial singles L 3 PES main line of Ni metal almost coincides in both line shape and peak kinetic energy (KE) with the singles one. The former main line peak shows a KE shift of only 0.01 eV toward the lower KE and a very small asymmetric line shape change compared to the singles one. The asymmetric line shape change and the peak KE shift of the partial singles L 3 main line are very small. However, they are due to the variation with photoelectron KE in the branching ratio of the partial Auger decay width in the partial singles L 3 PES main line by the photoelectron KE dependent imaginary part of the shakeup self-energy. The L 3 PES main line of Ni metal measured in coincidence with the L 3 -VV ( 1 G) Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) main line peak is the partial singles one modulated by a spectral function R a of a fixed energy Auger electron analyzer so that it should show only a symmetric line narrowing by R a compared to the singles one. The L 3 PES main line peak of Ni metal measured in coincidence with the delocalized band-like L 3 -VV AES peak or not completely split-off (or not completely localized) L 3 -VV ( 3 F) AES peak, will show an asymmetric line narrowing and a KE shift compared to the singles one. Thus, the L 3 PES main line of Ni metal in coincidence with various parts of the L 3 -VV AES spectrum depends on which part of the L 3 -VV AES spectrum a fixed energy Auger electron analyzer is set. The experimental verification is in need

  7. Liquid scintillation counting analysis of cadmium-109

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, M.K.; Barfuss, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently the authors have used radiolabled cadmium-109 to measure the transport of inorganic cadmium in renal proximal tubules. An anomaly discovered in the liquid scintillation counting analysis of Cd-109 which is not attributable to normal decay; it consists of a significant decrease in the measured count rate of small amounts of sample. The objective is to determine whether the buffer solution used in the membrane transport studies is causing precipitation of the cadmium or whether cadmium is being adsorbed by the glass. It was important to determine whether the procedure could be modified to correct this problem. The problem does not appear to be related to the use of the buffer or to adsorption of Cd onto glass. Correction based on using triated L-glucose in all of these experiments and calculating a correction factor for the concentration of cadmium

  8. Cadmium toxcity in the pregnant rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.G.; Hitchcock, B.B.; King, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    Iron-deficient and normal pregnant rats were assigned to groups that either received a dose of cadmium (0.025, 0.050, or 0.100 mmole) plus 8 μCi of /sup 115m/Cd on day 18 of gestation or served as a nondosed group. Animals were either sacrificed 3 days after the dosing or allowed to litter (nondosed and 0.100 mmole cadmium groups only); pups and dams were sacrificed at 14 days of age. Viability of iron-deficient dams and fetuses and pups from iron-deficient dams was affected by the 0.100 mmole cadmium dose to a greater degree than was that in comparable normal animals. Although calculated amounts of cadmium deposited in the dam's liver, kidney, blood, tibia, and fetuses were greater in iron-deficient than in normal animals at all doses, differences were not significant except in the amount of cadmium accumulated in the placenta at the highest cadmium doses. Total deposition in the placentas/litter was similar for normal and iron-deficient groups at each dose level. The decreased viability may have been due to the dam's decreased food intake; blockage of nutrients, especially minerals, by cadmium--protein complexes in the placenta; or hormonal interruptions of pregnancy by steroid--cadmium complexes

  9. Dynamic of cadmium accumulation in the internal organs of rats after exposure to cadmium chloride and cadmium sulphide nanoparticules of various sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apykhtina O.L.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of study of cadmium accumulation in the internal organs of Wistar rats after prolonged intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride and cadmium sulphide nanoparticles of 4-6 nm and 9-11 nm in size in a dose of 0.08 mg /kg/day calculated as cadmium. Toxic effects were evaluated after 30 injections (1.5 months, 60 injections (3 months, and 1.5 months after the exposure has been ceased. The results of the study showed that the most intensive accumulation of cadmium was observed in the kidneys and liver of experimental animals, which is due to the peculiarities of the toxicokinetics and the route of administration of cadmium compounds. In the kidneys, spleen and thymus of animals exposed to cadmium sulphide nanoparticles, a greater concentration of cadmium than in the organs of animals exposed to cadmium chloride was found. Cadmium accumulated more intensively in the spleen after exposure to larger nanoparticles, than in the kidneys and thymus. In the liver, heart, aorta and brain significant accumulation was observed after cadmium chloride exposure.

  10. Thermal stresses calculations in near-surface layers of sphere bodies, falling to the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demchenko, B.I.; Shestakova, L.I.

    2005-01-01

    Profiles of temperature and temperature stresses in surface layers of silicate and icy spheric bodies, falling to the Sun along parabolic orbits were obtained on the base of the analytical solution of the linear heat diffusion equation. Results may be useful for thermal evolution analysis of meteor and comet bodies in the Sun system. (author)

  11. Run-up on a body in waves and current. Fully nonlinear and finite-order calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büchmann, Bjarne; Ferrant, P.; Skourup, J.

    2001-01-01

    Run-up on a large fixed body in waves and current have been calculated using both a fully nonlinear time-domain boundary element model and a finite-order time-domain boundary element model, the latter being correct to second order in the wave steepness and to first-order in the current strength...

  12. Cadmium, an environmental poison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, A K

    1974-04-15

    In recent years, industrial employment of cadmium has increased considerably. Cadmium is now present in the environment and has caused acute and chronic poisoning. Inhalation of cadmium vapor or dust causes pulmonary damage while the kidney is the critical organ in absorption of cadmium. The element accumulates in the kidney and causes tubular damage or 200 ppm in the renal cortex. In animal experiments, cadmium may cause raised blood pressure, sterility and malignant tumors. On account of the pronounced tendency of cadmium to accumulate and its toxicity, it is important to trace sources and to reduce exposure of the population. 62 references.

  13. Cadmium poisoning. Knowledge of the risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltier, A.; Demange, M.; Carton, M.B.

    1979-01-01

    This data sheet provides an up-to-date summary of information on cadmium poisoning. The following points are examined: - the problem of increasing pollution of soil, water and the food chain; - physical and chemical properties, manufacture, industrial applications; - the toxic action of cadmium and its derivatives; - methods and apparatus for taking and analysis samples from the atmosphere and from body fluids; - existing French regulations; - technical control and medical surveillance [fr

  14. In vivo measurement of cadmium in an occupationally-exposed population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, K.J.; Morgan, W.D.; Yasumura, S.; Vartsky, D.; Zanzi, I.; Cohn, S.H.

    1980-01-01

    Exposure to cadmium is recognized as a potentially serious health problem. A number of clinical abnormalities have been observed in workers occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, it is essential that accurate data on body burdens be available in order to formulate dose-response relationships in man. This report describes the present Brookhaven facility for in vivo measurements of cadmium in man and recent results from a field study to a cadmium production plant. The cadmium content of the left kidney and concentration in the liver were measured by prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis in 82 occupationally exposed workers and 10 control subjects. Organ content ranged up to 57 mg in the kidney and up to 120 ppM in the liver for the industrial group. By contrast, the values for the control group ranged from 0.4 to 11.8 mg for the kidney and 0.7 to 7.9 ppM for the liver. The geometric means were 3.7 mg for the kidney and 2.7 ppM for the liver in the control group. When the data were analyzed to provide an estimate of the critical concentration for the kidney, a range of 300 to 400 μg/g for the renal cortex was calculated. These results are compared with the available data in the literature

  15. Studies of the nuclear three-body system with three dimensional Faddeev calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang

    A three-body system consists of either a bound state of three particles with definite binding energy or a beam of single particles scattered from a target, where two of the particles are bound. Of the particles are nucleons, the interactions between them are strong and short ranged. A theoretical framework for studying the dynamics of a nuclear three-body system is the Faddeev scheme. In this work the equation for three-body scattering and the bound state are formulated in momentum space, and directly solved in terms of vector variables. For three identical bosons the Faddeev equation for scattering is a three- dimensional inhomogeneous integral equation in five variables, and is solved by Padé summation. The equation for the bound state is a homogeneous one in three variables, and is solved by a Lanczos' type method. The corresponding algorithms are presented, and their numerical feasibility is demonstrated. Elastic as well as inelastic scattering processes in the intermediate energy regime up to 1 GeV incident energy are studied for the first within a Faddeev scheme. The two-body force employed is of Malfliet-Tjon type. Specific emphasis is placed on studying the convergence of the multiple scattering series given by the Faddeev equations. For the bound state, a three-body force of Fujita- Miyazawa type is incorporated in addition to the two-body force. The effects of this three-body force on the bound state properties are investigated.

  16. Non-perturbative Calculation of the Scalar Yukawa Theory in Four-Body Truncation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yang; Maris, P.; Vary, J. P.; Karmanov, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    The quenched scalar Yukawa theory is solved in the light-front Tamm–Dancoff approach including up to four constituents (one scalar nucleon, three scalar pions). The Fock sector dependent renormalization is implemented. By studying the Fock sector norms, we find that the lowest two Fock sectors dominate the state even in the large-coupling region. The one-body sector shows convergence with respect to the Fock sector truncation. However, the four-body norm exceeds the three-body norm at the coupling α≈1.7 . (author)

  17. Calculation of effective dose in whole body in dependence of angle of collimator for photon fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenzalida, M.; Varon, C.; Piriz, G.; Banguero, Y.; Lozano, E.; Mancilla, C.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to obtain quantifiable data of whole body effective dose for photons fields of 6 MV and 18 MV in function of the collimator angle of a Varian Clinac 21EX lineal accelerator. It has been made a variety of studies which investigate the form to reduce the dose in whole body with photons fields, specially over the potential risks and the influence of the collimator angle, as performed Stanthakis et al. [1] with the Monte Carlo method. As a result of this work, the values of whole body effective doses are higher with a 0 deg collimator than with a 90 deg collimator, and as the field size increases, the effective doses difference in whole body, between 0 deg and 90 deg collimator angle, for both energies, becomes smaller. (author)

  18. Calculation of effective dose in whole body in dependence of angle of collimator for photon fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuenzalida, M. [Universidad de la Frontera, Temuco (Chile). Programa de Magister en Fisica Medica; Varon, C.; Piriz, G.; Banguero, Y.; Lozano, E.; Mancilla, C., E-mail: fisicamedica@incancer.c [Instituto Nacional del Cancer, Santiago (Chile). Unidad de Fisica Medica

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this work is to obtain quantifiable data of whole body effective dose for photons fields of 6 MV and 18 MV in function of the collimator angle of a Varian Clinac 21EX lineal accelerator. It has been made a variety of studies which investigate the form to reduce the dose in whole body with photons fields, specially over the potential risks and the influence of the collimator angle, as performed Stanthakis et al. [1] with the Monte Carlo method. As a result of this work, the values of whole body effective doses are higher with a 0 deg collimator than with a 90 deg collimator, and as the field size increases, the effective doses difference in whole body, between 0 deg and 90 deg collimator angle, for both energies, becomes smaller. (author)

  19. Zn-VI quasiparticle gaps and optical spectra from many-body calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riefer, A; Weber, N; Mund, J; Yakovlev, D R; Bayer, M; Schindlmayr, Arno; Meier, C; Schmidt, W G

    2017-06-01

    The electronic band structures of hexagonal ZnO and cubic ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe compounds are determined within hybrid-density-functional theory and quasiparticle calculations. It is found that the band-edge energies calculated on the [Formula: see text] (Zn chalcogenides) or GW (ZnO) level of theory agree well with experiment, while fully self-consistent QSGW calculations are required for the correct description of the Zn 3d bands. The quasiparticle band structures are used to calculate the linear response and second-harmonic-generation (SHG) spectra of the Zn-VI compounds. Excitonic effects in the optical absorption are accounted for within the Bethe-Salpeter approach. The calculated spectra are discussed in the context of previous experimental data and present SHG measurements for ZnO.

  20. Effects of posture on FDTD calculations of specific absorption rate in a voxel model of the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, R P; Dimbylow, P J

    2005-01-01

    A change in the posture of the human body can significantly affect the way in which it absorbs radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. To study this, an anatomically realistic model of the body has been modified to develop new voxel models in postures other than the standard standing position with arms to the side. These postures were sitting, arms stretched out horizontally to the side and vertically above the head. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations of the whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) have been performed from 10 MHz to 300 MHz at a resolution of 4 mm. Calculations show that the effect of a raised arm above the head posture was to increase the value of the whole-body averaged SAR at resonance by up to 35% when compared to the standard, arms by the side position. SAR values, both whole-body averaged and localized in the ankle, were used to derive the external electric field values required to produce the SAR basic restrictions of the ICNIRP guidelines. It was found that, in certain postures, external electric field reference levels alone would not provide a conservative estimate of localized SAR exposure and it would be necessary to invoke secondary reference levels on limb currents to provide compliance with restrictions

  1. Effects of posture on FDTD calculations of specific absorption rate in a voxel model of the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, R. P.; Dimbylow, P. J.

    2005-08-01

    A change in the posture of the human body can significantly affect the way in which it absorbs radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. To study this, an anatomically realistic model of the body has been modified to develop new voxel models in postures other than the standard standing position with arms to the side. These postures were sitting, arms stretched out horizontally to the side and vertically above the head. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations of the whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) have been performed from 10 MHz to 300 MHz at a resolution of 4 mm. Calculations show that the effect of a raised arm above the head posture was to increase the value of the whole-body averaged SAR at resonance by up to 35% when compared to the standard, arms by the side position. SAR values, both whole-body averaged and localized in the ankle, were used to derive the external electric field values required to produce the SAR basic restrictions of the ICNIRP guidelines. It was found that, in certain postures, external electric field reference levels alone would not provide a conservative estimate of localized SAR exposure and it would be necessary to invoke secondary reference levels on limb currents to provide compliance with restrictions.

  2. Effects of posture on FDTD calculations of specific absorption rate in a voxel model of the human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, R P; Dimbylow, P J [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-21

    A change in the posture of the human body can significantly affect the way in which it absorbs radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. To study this, an anatomically realistic model of the body has been modified to develop new voxel models in postures other than the standard standing position with arms to the side. These postures were sitting, arms stretched out horizontally to the side and vertically above the head. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations of the whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) have been performed from 10 MHz to 300 MHz at a resolution of 4 mm. Calculations show that the effect of a raised arm above the head posture was to increase the value of the whole-body averaged SAR at resonance by up to 35% when compared to the standard, arms by the side position. SAR values, both whole-body averaged and localized in the ankle, were used to derive the external electric field values required to produce the SAR basic restrictions of the ICNIRP guidelines. It was found that, in certain postures, external electric field reference levels alone would not provide a conservative estimate of localized SAR exposure and it would be necessary to invoke secondary reference levels on limb currents to provide compliance with restrictions.

  3. The effects of body posture, anatomy, age and pregnancy on the calculation of induced current densities at 50 Hz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimbylow, P.; Findlay, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents calculations of the induced current density in the body at 50 Hz from applied electric and magnetic fields. An extensive ensemble of 25 voxel models has been used to investigate the effects of body posture, anatomy, age and pregnancy. This set includes six adult models, eight child models and seven pregnant female models at various stages of gestation. The four postures investigated in the HPA adult model, NORMAN, were the standard position with the arms at the side, with the arms vertically above the head, the arms horizontally to the side and sitting. (authors)

  4. The relationship between cadmium in kidney and cadmium in urine and blood in an environmentally exposed population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerstrom, Magnus; Barregard, Lars; Lundh, Thomas; Sallsten, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Cadmium (Cd) is toxic to the kidney and a major part of the body burden occurs here. Cd in urine (U-Cd) and blood (B-Cd) are widely-used biomarkers for assessing Cd exposure or body burden. However, empirical general population data on the relationship between Cd in kidney (K-Cd), urine, and blood are scarce. Our objectives were to determine the relationship between cadmium in kidney, urine, and blood, and calculate the elimination half-time of Cd from the kidney. Methods: Kidney cortex biopsies, urine, and blood samples were collected from 109 living kidney donors. Cd concentrations were determined and the relationships between K-Cd, U-Cd, and B-Cd were investigated in regression models. The half-time of K-Cd was estimated from the elimination constant. Results: There was a strong association between K-Cd and U-Cd adjusted for creatinine (r p = 0.70, p p = 0.44, p < 0.001). The relationship between K-Cd and U-Cd was nonlinear, with slower elimination of Cd at high K-Cd. Estimates of the K-Cd half-time varied between 18 and 44 years. A K-Cd of 25 μg/g corresponds to U-Cd of 0.42 μg/g creatinine in overnight urine (U-Cd/K-Cd ratio: about 1:60). Multivariate models showed Cd in blood and urinary albumin as determinants for U-Cd excretion. Discussion: In healthy individuals with low-level Cd exposure, there was a strong correlation between Cd in kidney and urine, especially after adjustment for creatinine. Urinary Cd was also affected by Cd in blood and urinary albumin. Previous estimates of the U-Cd/K-Cd ratio may underestimate K-Cd at low U-Cd. - Highlights: ► The first study of the relation between Cd in kidney, blood and urine at low U-Cd ► Simultaneous samples were collected from healthy kidney donors. ► There was a nonlinear relationship between cadmium in kidney and urine. ► Estimates of the kidney cadmium half-time were 18–44 years, depending on model used. ► Previous data seem to underestimate kidney cadmium at low urinary cadmium

  5. The relationship between cadmium in kidney and cadmium in urine and blood in an environmentally exposed population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akerstrom, Magnus, E-mail: magnus.akerstrom@amm.gu.se [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Barregard, Lars [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Lundh, Thomas [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Sallsten, Gerd [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2013-05-01

    Introduction: Cadmium (Cd) is toxic to the kidney and a major part of the body burden occurs here. Cd in urine (U-Cd) and blood (B-Cd) are widely-used biomarkers for assessing Cd exposure or body burden. However, empirical general population data on the relationship between Cd in kidney (K-Cd), urine, and blood are scarce. Our objectives were to determine the relationship between cadmium in kidney, urine, and blood, and calculate the elimination half-time of Cd from the kidney. Methods: Kidney cortex biopsies, urine, and blood samples were collected from 109 living kidney donors. Cd concentrations were determined and the relationships between K-Cd, U-Cd, and B-Cd were investigated in regression models. The half-time of K-Cd was estimated from the elimination constant. Results: There was a strong association between K-Cd and U-Cd adjusted for creatinine (r{sub p} = 0.70, p < 0.001), while the association with B-Cd was weaker (r{sub p} = 0.44, p < 0.001). The relationship between K-Cd and U-Cd was nonlinear, with slower elimination of Cd at high K-Cd. Estimates of the K-Cd half-time varied between 18 and 44 years. A K-Cd of 25 μg/g corresponds to U-Cd of 0.42 μg/g creatinine in overnight urine (U-Cd/K-Cd ratio: about 1:60). Multivariate models showed Cd in blood and urinary albumin as determinants for U-Cd excretion. Discussion: In healthy individuals with low-level Cd exposure, there was a strong correlation between Cd in kidney and urine, especially after adjustment for creatinine. Urinary Cd was also affected by Cd in blood and urinary albumin. Previous estimates of the U-Cd/K-Cd ratio may underestimate K-Cd at low U-Cd. - Highlights: ► The first study of the relation between Cd in kidney, blood and urine at low U-Cd ► Simultaneous samples were collected from healthy kidney donors. ► There was a nonlinear relationship between cadmium in kidney and urine. ► Estimates of the kidney cadmium half-time were 18–44 years, depending on model used. ► Previous

  6. Calcium enhances cadmium tolerance and decreases cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We aimed at characterizing mechanisms controlling cadmium accumulation in lettuce, which is a food crop showing one of the highest capacities to accumulate this toxic compound. In this study, plants from three lettuce varieties were grown for eight days on media supplemented or not with cadmium (15 μM CdCl2) and ...

  7. One-nucleon removal reactions as a test of overlap functions from the one-body density matrix calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrova, S.S.; Gaidarov, M.K.; Antonov, A.N.; Stoitsov, M.V.; Hodgson, P.E; Lukyanov, V.K.; Zemlyanaya, E.V.; Krumova, G.Z.

    1997-01-01

    Overlap functions and spectroscopic factors extracted from a model one-body density matrix (OBDM) accounting for short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations are used to calculate differential cross sections of (p, d) reactions and the momentum distributions of transitions to single-particle states in 16 O and 40 Ca. A comparison between the experimental (p, d) and (e, e'p) data, their DWBA and CDWIA analyses and the OBDM calculations is made. Our theoretical predictions for the spectroscopic factors are compared with the empirically extracted ones. It is shown that the overlap functions obtained within the Jastrow correlation method are applicable to the description of the quantities considered. (author)

  8. A new method for calculating the hyperspherical functions for the quantum mechanics of three bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.; Buck, B.

    1982-01-01

    Using the shift operators of Hughes (J. Phys. A.; 6:48 and 281 (1973)) for the group SU(3) in an O(3) basis, a simple method is developed to obtain the three-body hyperspherical functions of a definite symmetry for any angular momentum in a given SU(3) representation. (author)

  9. Escaping the correction for body surface area when calculating glomerular filtration rate in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepsz, Amy; Tondeur, Marianne; Ham, Hamphrey

    2008-01-01

    51 Cr ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid ( 51 Cr EDTA) clearance is nowadays considered as an accurate and reproducible method for measuring glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children. Normal values in function of age, corrected for body surface area, have been recently updated. However, much criticism has been expressed about the validity of body surface area correction. The aim of the present paper was to present the normal GFR values, not corrected for body surface area, with the associated percentile curves. For that purpose, the same patients as in the previous paper were selected, namely those with no recent urinary tract infection, having a normal left to right 99m Tc MAG3 uptake ratio and a normal kidney morphology on the early parenchymal images. A single blood sample method was used for 51 Cr EDTA clearance measurement. Clearance values, not corrected for body surface area, increased progressively up to the adolescence. The percentile curves were determined and allow, for a single patient, to estimate accurately the level of non-corrected clearance and the evolution with time, whatever the age. (orig.)

  10. Lattice location of dopant atoms: An N-body model calculation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here we applied the superior -body model to study the yield from bismuth in silicon. The finding that bismuth atom occupies a position close to the silicon substitutional site is new. The transverse displacement of the suggested lattice site from the channelling direction is consistent with the experimental results. The above ...

  11. Escaping the correction for body surface area when calculating glomerular filtration rate in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepsz, Amy; Tondeur, Marianne [CHU St. Pierre, Department of Radioisotopes, Brussels (Belgium); Ham, Hamphrey [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-09-15

    {sup 51}Cr ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid ({sup 51}Cr EDTA) clearance is nowadays considered as an accurate and reproducible method for measuring glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children. Normal values in function of age, corrected for body surface area, have been recently updated. However, much criticism has been expressed about the validity of body surface area correction. The aim of the present paper was to present the normal GFR values, not corrected for body surface area, with the associated percentile curves. For that purpose, the same patients as in the previous paper were selected, namely those with no recent urinary tract infection, having a normal left to right {sup 99m}Tc MAG3 uptake ratio and a normal kidney morphology on the early parenchymal images. A single blood sample method was used for {sup 51}Cr EDTA clearance measurement. Clearance values, not corrected for body surface area, increased progressively up to the adolescence. The percentile curves were determined and allow, for a single patient, to estimate accurately the level of non-corrected clearance and the evolution with time, whatever the age. (orig.)

  12. Universal algorithms and programs for calculating the motion parameters in the two-body problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshiyan, B. T.; Sukhanov, A. A.

    1979-01-01

    The algorithms and FORTRAN programs for computing positions and velocities, orbital elements and first and second partial derivatives in the two-body problem are presented. The algorithms are applicable for any value of eccentricity and are convenient for computing various navigation parameters.

  13. The effects of low environmental cadmium exposure on bone density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trzcinka-Ochocka, M., E-mail: ochocka@imp.lodz.pl [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Jakubowski, M. [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Szymczak, W. [Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Insitute of Psychology, University of Lodz (Poland); Janasik, B.; Brodzka, R. [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)

    2010-04-15

    Recent epidemiological data indicate that low environmental exposure to cadmium, as shown by cadmium body burden (Cd-U), is associated with renal dysfunction as well as an increased risk of cadmium-induced bone disorders. The present study was designed to assess the effects of low environmental cadmium exposure, at the level sufficient to induce kidney damage, on bone metabolism and mineral density (BMD). The project was conducted in the area contaminated with cadmium, nearby a zinc smelter located in the region of Poland where heavy industry prevails. The study population comprised 170 women (mean age=39.7; 18-70 years) and 100 men (mean age=31.9; 18-76 years). Urinary and blood cadmium and the markers of renal tubular dysfunction ({beta}{sub 2}M-U RBP, NAG), glomerular dysfunction (Alb-U and {beta}{sub 2}M-S) and bone metabolism markers (BAP-S, CTX-S) as well as forearm BMD, were measured. The results of this study based on simple dose-effect analysis showed the relationship between increasing cadmium concentrations and an increased excretion of renal dysfunction markers and decreasing bone density. However, the results of the multivariate analysis did not indicate the association between exposure to cadmium and decrease in bone density. They showed that the most important factors that have impact on bone density are body weight and age in the female subjects and body weight and calcium excretion in males. Our investigation revealed that the excretion of low molecular weight proteins occurred at a lower level of cadmium exposure than the possible loss of bone mass. It seems that renal tubular markers are the most sensitive and significant indicators of early health effects of cadmium intoxication in the general population. The correlation of urinary cadmium concentration with markers of kidney dysfunction was observed in the absence of significant correlations with bone effects. Our findings did not indicate any effects of environmental cadmium exposure on bone

  14. Calculated and Observed Speeds of Cavitation About Two- and Three- Dimensional Bodies in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1942-11-01

    yE1l0.044po ellipse of - 36 (1 - Y) 6 0 .l.Olxx 0(y) L . 6.54 Porabolo Elipe em - Cicl Y ,11p f. 2 1 - fal: Figure 1 ScinofCylinders and Bodies of...Propellers,* by E.Z. Stowell and A.F. Deming , BACA Report 526, 1935. (2) "Flow about a Pair of Adjacent, Parallel Cylinders Normal to a Stream, Theoretical

  15. Cadmium and renal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'yasova, Dora; Schwartz, Gary G.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Rates of renal cancer have increased steadily during the past two decades, and these increases are not explicable solely by advances in imaging modalities. Cadmium, a widespread environmental pollutant, is a carcinogen that accumulates in the kidney cortex and is a cause of end-stage renal disease. Several observations suggest that cadmium may be a cause of renal cancer. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature on cadmium and renal cancer using MEDLINE for the years 1966-2003. We reviewed seven epidemiological and eleven clinical studies. Results: Despite different methodologies, three large epidemiologic studies indicate that occupational exposure to cadmium is associated with increased risk renal cancer, with odds ratios varying from 1.2 to 5.0. Six of seven studies that compared the cadmium content of kidneys from patients with kidney cancer to that of patients without kidney cancer found lower concentrations of cadmium in renal cancer tissues. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium appears to be associated with renal cancer, although this conclusion is tempered by the inability of studies to assess cumulative cadmium exposure from all sources including smoking and diet. The paradoxical findings of lower cadmium content in kidney tissues from patients with renal cancer may be caused by dilution of cadmium in rapidly dividing cells. This and other methodological problems limit the interpretation of studies of cadmium in clinical samples. Whether cadmium is a cause of renal cancer may be answered more definitively by future studies that employ biomarkers of cadmium exposure, such as cadmium levels in blood and urine

  16. A virtual crack-closure technique for calculating stress intensity factors for cracked three dimensional bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumar, K. N.; Tan, P. W.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A three-dimensional virtual crack-closure technique is presented which calculates the strain energy release rates and the stress intensity factors using only nodal forces and displacements from a standard finite element analysis. The technique is an extension of the Rybicki-Kanninen (1977) method, and it assumes that any continuous function can be approximated by a finite number of straight line segments. Results obtained by the method for surface cracked plates with and without notches agree favorably with previous results.

  17. Optical absorption spectra of semiconductors and insulators: ab initio calculation of many-body effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, Stefan

    1999-01-01

    A method for the inclusion of self-energy and excitonic effects in first-principle calculations of absorption spectra, within the state-of-the-art plane wave pseudopotential approach, is presented. Starting from a ground state calculation, using density functional theory (DFT) in the local density approximation (LDA), we correct the exchange-correlation potential of DFT-LDA with the self-energy applying Hedin's GW approximation to obtain the physical quasiparticles states. The electron-hole interaction is treated solving an effective two-particle equation, which we derive from Hedin's coupled integral equations, leading to the fundamental Bethe-Salpeter equation in an intermediate step. The interaction kernel contains the screened electron-hole Coulomb interaction and the electron-hole exchange effects, which reflect the microscopic structure of the system and are thus also called local-field effects. We obtain the excitonic eigenstates through diagonalization. This allows us a detailed analysis of the optical properties. The application of symmetry properties enables us to reduce the size of the two-particle Hamiltonian matrix, thus minimizing the computational effort. We apply our method to silicon, diamond, lithium oxide and the sodium tetramer. Good agreement with experiment is obtained for the absorption spectra of Si and diamond, the static dielectric constant of diamond, and for the onset of optical absorption of Li 2 O due to discrete bound excitons. We discuss various approximations of our method and show the strong mixing of independent particle transitions to a bound excitonic state in the Na 4 cluster. The influence of ground state calculations on optical spectra is investigated under particular consideration of the pseudopotential generation and we discuss the use of different Brillouin zone point sampling schemes for spectral calculations. (author) [fr

  18. Effects of body habitus on internal radiation dose calculations using the 5-year-old anthropomorphic male models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tianwu; Kuster, Niels; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-08-01

    Computational phantoms are commonly used in internal radiation dosimetry to assess the amount and distribution pattern of energy deposited in various parts of the human body from different internal radiation sources. Radiation dose assessments are commonly performed on predetermined reference computational phantoms while the argument for individualized patient-specific radiation dosimetry exists. This study aims to evaluate the influence of body habitus on internal dosimetry and to quantify the uncertainties in dose estimation correlated with the use of fixed reference models. The 5-year-old IT’IS male phantom was modified to match target anthropometric parameters, including body weight, body height and sitting height/stature ratio (SSR), determined from reference databases, thus enabling the creation of 125 5-year-old habitus-dependent male phantoms with 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentile body morphometries. We evaluated the absorbed fractions and the mean absorbed dose to the target region per unit cumulative activity in the source region (S-values) of F-18 in 46 source regions for the generated 125 anthropomorphic 5-year-old hybrid male phantoms using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended general purpose Monte Carlo transport code and calculated the absorbed dose and effective dose of five 18F-labelled radiotracers for children of various habitus. For most organs, the S-value of F-18 presents stronger statistical correlations with body weight, standing height and sitting height than BMI and SSR. The self-absorbed fraction and self-absorbed S-values of F-18 and the absorbed dose and effective dose of 18F-labelled radiotracers present with the strongest statistical correlations with body weight. For 18F-Amino acids, 18F-Brain receptor substances, 18F-FDG, 18F-L-DOPA and 18F-FBPA, the mean absolute effective dose differences between phantoms of different habitus and fixed reference models are 11.4%, 11.3%, 10.8%, 13.3% and 11.4%, respectively. Total body

  19. 3He(d,p)4He reaction calculation with three-body Faddeev equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oryu, S.; Uzu, E.; Sunahara, H.; Yamada, T.; Tabaru, G.; Hino, T.

    1998-01-01

    In order to investigate the 3 He-n-p system as a three-body problem, we have formulated 3 He-n and 3 H-p effective potentials using both a microscopic treatment and a phenomenological approach. In the microscopic treatment, potentials are generated by means of the resonating group method (RGM) based on the Minnesota nucleon-nucleon potential. These potentials are converted into separable form by means of the microscopic Pauli correct (MPC) method. The MPC potentials are properly formulated to avoid Pauli forbidden states. The phenomenological potentials are obtained by modifying parameters of the EST approximation to the Paris nucleon-nucleon potential, such that they fit the low-energy 3 He-n, 3 H-p, and 3 He-p phase shifts. Therefore, they describe the 3 He-n differential cross section, the polarization observables, and the energy levels of 4 He. The 3 He-n-p Faddeev equations are solved numerically. We reproduce correctly the ground state and the first excited state of 5 Li. Furthermore, the Paris-type potential is used to investigate the 3 He(d,p) 4 He reaction at a deuteron bombarding energy of 270 MeV, where the system is treated as a three-body problem. Results for the polarized and unpolarized differential cross sections demonstrate convergence of the Born series. (orig.)

  20. Cadmium in the aquatic environment. Volume 19. Advances in environmental science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nriagu, J.O.; Sprague, J.B. (eds.)

    1987-01-01

    This book addresses the biogeochemistry of cadmium in the marine and freshwater aquatic environment and comprises 10 chapters on: distribution and cycling of cadmium in the environment; evidence for anthropogenic modification of global transport of cadmium; cadmium in fresh water: The Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River; cadmium associations in freshwater and marine sediment; biological cycling of cadmium in fresh water; toxicity of cadmium to freshwater microorganisms, phytoplankton, and invertebrates; effects of cadmium on freshwater fish; effects of cadmium on marine biota; biological cycling of cadmium in marine environment; and methods of cadmium detection. Although there is some overlap of chapter topics, the major compartments of the aquatic system are addressed: atmosphere, water, sediment, phytoplankton, macrophytes, zooplankton, and fish. These chapters are well written and critically review the available data in each area. The research cited is heavily dominated by studies of the Great Lakes and Western European rivers such as the Rhine, but this reflects the degree of cadmium contamination of these important water bodies and the environmental concerns they have raised. Many of the chapters strive to critically address the problems of data quality, which are a result of the great difficulty in detecting cadmium at the ng/L or ..mu..g/kg levels at which cadmium contamination occurs.

  1. Modelling of cadmium fluxes on energy crop land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, V.

    1992-04-01

    The flux of cadmium on energy crop land is investigated. Three mechanisms are accounted for; Uptake by plant, transport with water, and sorption to soil. Sorption is described with Freundlich isotherms. The system is simulated mathematically in order to estimate the sensitivity and importance of different parameters on the cadmium flow and sorption. The water flux through the soil and the uptake by plants are simulated with a hydrological model, SOIL. The simulated time period is two years. The parameters describing root distribution and evaporation due to crop are taken from measurements on energy crop (Salix). The resulting water flux, water content in the soil profile and the water uptake into roots, for each day and soil compartment, are used in the cadmium sorption simulation. In the cadmium sorption simulation the flux and equilibrium chemistry of cadmium is calculated. It is shown that the amount of cadmium that accumulates in the plant, and the depth to which the applied cadmium reaches depends strongly on the constants in the sorption isotherm. With an application of 10 mg Cd/m 2 in the given range of Freundlich equations, the simulations gave a plant uptake of between 0 and 30 % of the applied cadmium in two years. At higher concentrations, where cadmium sorption can be described by nonlinear isotherms, more cadmium is present in soil water and is generally more bioavailable. 25 refs

  2. Exposure dose response relationships of the freshwater bivalve Hyridella australis to cadmium spiked sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marasinghe Wadige, Chamani P.M.; Maher, William A.; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The exposure–dose–response approach was used to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. • Accumulated cadmium in H. australis reflected the sediment cadmium exposure. • Spill over of cadmium into the biologically active pool was observed. • Increased cadmium resulted in measurable biological effects. • H. australis has the potential to be a cadmium biomonitor in freshwater environments. - Abstract: To understand how benthic biota may respond to the additive or antagonistic effects of metal mixtures in the environment it is first necessary to examine their responses to the individual metals. In this context, laboratory controlled single metal-spiked sediment toxicity tests are useful to assess this. The exposure–dose–response relationships of Hyridella australis to cadmium-spiked sediments were, therefore, investigated in laboratory microcosms. H. australis was exposed to individual cadmium spiked sediments (<0.05 (control), 4 ± 0.3 (low) and 15 ± 1 (high) μg/g dry mass) for 28 days. Dose was measured as cadmium accumulation in whole soft body and individual tissues at weekly intervals over the exposure period. Dose was further examined as sub-cellular localisation of cadmium in hepatopancreas tissues. The biological responses in terms of enzymatic and cellular biomarkers were measured in hepatopancreas tissues at day 28. H. australis accumulated cadmium from spiked sediments with an 8-fold (low exposure organisms) and 16-fold (high exposure organisms) increase at day 28 compared to control organisms. The accumulated tissue cadmium concentrations reflected the sediment cadmium exposure at day 28. Cadmium accumulation in high exposure organisms was inversely related to the tissue calcium concentrations. Gills of H. australis showed significantly higher cadmium accumulation than the other tissues. Accumulated cadmium in biologically active and biologically detoxified metal pools was not significantly different in cadmium exposed

  3. Isolation, identification and cadmium adsorption of a high cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... 1School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha, ... Cadmium is a non-essential ... (1994) reported that cadmium might interact ... uptake of cadmium, lead and mercury (Svecova et al.,.

  4. Calculating many-body effects in resonant [(dtμ)d2e] formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, M.

    1986-01-01

    A method is developed for calculating the effect of neighboring molecules on the resonant molecular formation reaction tμ + D 2 → [(dtμ)d2e]*, avoiding any expansion in powers of the density. Using a simplified model, the role of collisional broadening, motional narrowing, and the interference of different formation amplitudes is examined. This model is used to generate molecular formation rates as functions of density for fixed temperature. The generalization which will allow comparison with experimental data is discussed

  5. Effects of body habitus on internal radiation dose calculations using the 5-year-old anthropomorphic male models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Tianwu; Kuster, Niels; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-01-01

    Xtended general purpose Monte Carlo transport code and calculated the absorbed dose and effective dose of five 18F-labelled radiotracers for children of various habitus. For most organs, the S-value of F-18 presents stronger statistical correlations with body weight, standing height and sitting height than BMI...... and SSR. The self-absorbed fraction and self-absorbed S-values of F-18 and the absorbed dose and effective dose of 18F-labelled radiotracers present with the strongest statistical correlations with body weight. For 18F-Amino acids, 18F-Brain receptor substances, 18F-FDG, 18F-L-DOPA and 18F-FBPA, the mean...... absolute effective dose differences between phantoms of different habitus and fixed reference models are 11.4%, 11.3%, 10.8%, 13.3% and 11.4%, respectively. Total body weight, standing height and sitting height have considerable effects on human internal dosimetry. Radiation dose calculations...

  6. The relationship between maternal blood cadmium, zinc levels and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The delivery of babies with low birth weight is a prognosis of neonatal mortality, morbidity and poor health outcomes later in life. This study evaluates the levels of cadmium, zinc and calculated cadmium/zinc ratio in non-occupationally exposed pregnant women at delivery and their relationship with birth weight of babies.

  7. Radiobiological impact of dose calculation algorithms on biologically optimized IMRT lung stereotactic body radiation therapy plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, X.; Penagaricano, J.; Zheng, D.; Morrill, S.; Zhang, X.; Corry, P.; Griffin, R. J.; Han, E. Y.; Hardee, M.; Ratanatharathom, V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the radiobiological impact of Acuros XB (AXB) vs. Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm (AAA) dose calculation algorithms in combined dose-volume and biological optimized IMRT plans of SBRT treatments for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Twenty eight patients with NSCLC previously treated SBRT were re-planned using Varian Eclipse (V11) with combined dose-volume and biological optimization IMRT sliding window technique. The total dose prescribed to the PTV was 60 Gy with 12 Gy per fraction. The plans were initially optimized using AAA algorithm, and then were recomputed using AXB using the same MUs and MLC files to compare with the dose distribution of the original plans and assess the radiobiological as well as dosimetric impact of the two different dose algorithms. The Poisson Linear-Quadatric (PLQ) and Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) models were used for estimating the tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), respectively. The influence of the model parameter uncertainties on the TCP differences and the NTCP differences between AAA and AXB plans were studied by applying different sets of published model parameters. Patients were grouped into peripheral and centrally-located tumors to evaluate the impact of tumor location. PTV dose was lower in the re-calculated AXB plans, as compared to AAA plans. The median differences of PTV(D 95% ) were 1.7 Gy (range: 0.3, 6.5 Gy) and 1.0 Gy (range: 0.6, 4.4 Gy) for peripheral tumors and centrally-located tumors, respectively. The median differences of PTV(mean) were 0.4 Gy (range: 0.0, 1.9 Gy) and 0.9 Gy (range: 0.0, 4.3 Gy) for peripheral tumors and centrally-located tumors, respectively. TCP was also found lower in AXB-recalculated plans compared with the AAA plans. The median (range) of the TCP differences for 30 month local control were 1.6 % (0.3 %, 5.8 %) for peripheral tumors and 1.3 % (0.5 %, 3.4 %) for centrally located tumors. The lower

  8. Basis for calculating body equivalent doses after external radiation exposure. 3. rev. and enl. ed.; Berechnungsgrundlage fuer die Ermittlung von Koerper-Aequivalentdosen bei aeusserer Strahlenexposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarenio, O. (comp.) [Geschaeftsstelle der Strahlenschutzkommission beim Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Bonn (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    The book on the basis for calculating body equivalent doses after external radiation exposure includes the following issues: introduction covering the scope of coverage and body equivalent doses for radiation protection, terminology, photon radiation, neutron radiation, electron radiation, mixed radiation fields and the estimation of body equivalent doses for skin surface contamination.

  9. Human health effects of exposure to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    The health effects of human exposure to cadmium are discussed with emphases on intake, absorption, body burden, and excretion; osteomalacia in Japan; hypertension; and proteinuria, emphysema, osteomalacia, and cancer in workers. Elevated blood pressure has not been observed as a result of excessive exposures to cadmium in Japan or the workplace. Renal tubular dysfunction and consequent proteinuria is generally accepted as the main effect following long-term, low-level exposure to cadmium. Studies of workers show that proteinuria may develop after the first year of exposure or many years after the last exposure. Proteinuria and deterioration of renal function may continue even after cessation of exposure. The immediate health significance of low-level proteinuria is still under debate. However, there is evidence that long-term renal tubular dysfunction may lead to abnormalities of calcium metabolism and osteomalacia. The few autopsy and cross-sectional studies of workers do not permit conclusions to be drawn regarding the relationship between cadmium exposure and emphysema. Retrospective and historical-prospective studies are needed to settle this important question. No conclusive evidence has been published regarding cadmium-induced cancer in humans. However, there is sufficient evidence to regard cadmium as a suspect renal and prostate carcinogen. Because of equivocal results and the absence of dose-response relationships, the studies reviewed should be used with caution in making regulatory decisions and low-dose risk assessments. 62 references.

  10. Human health effects of exposure to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1984-02-15

    The health effects of human exposure to cadmium are discussed with emphasis on intake, absorption, body burden, and excretion; osteomalacia in Japan; hypertension; and proteinuria, emphysema, osteomalacia, and cancer in workers. Elevated blood pressure has not been observed as a result of excessive exposures to cadmium in Japan or the workplace. Renal tubular dysfunction and consequent proteinuria is generally accepted as the main effect following long-term, low-level exposure to cadmium. Studies of workers show that proteinuria may develop after the first year of exposure or many years after the last exposure. Proteinuria and deterioration of renal function may continue even after cessation of exposure. The immediate health significance of low-level proteinuria is still under debate. However, there is evidence that long-term renal tubular dysfunction may lead to abnormalities of calcium metabolism and osteomalacia. The few autopsy and cross-sectional studies of workers do not permit conclusions to be drawn regarding the relationship between cadmium exposure and emphysema. Retrospective and historical-prospective studies are needed to settle this important question. No conclusive evidence has been published regarding cadmium-induced cancer in humans. However, there is sufficient evidence to regard cadmium as a suspect renal and prostate carcinogen. Because of equivocal results and the absence of dose-response relationships, the studies reviewed should be used with caution in making regulatory decisions and low-dose risk assessments.

  11. Communication: electronic band gaps of semiconducting zig-zag carbon nanotubes from many-body perturbation theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umari, P; Petrenko, O; Taioli, S; De Souza, M M

    2012-05-14

    Electronic band gaps for optically allowed transitions are calculated for a series of semiconducting single-walled zig-zag carbon nanotubes of increasing diameter within the many-body perturbation theory GW method. The dependence of the evaluated gaps with respect to tube diameters is then compared with those found from previous experimental data for optical gaps combined with theoretical estimations of exciton binding energies. We find that our GW gaps confirm the behavior inferred from experiment. The relationship between the electronic gap and the diameter extrapolated from the GW values is also in excellent agreement with a direct measurement recently performed through scanning tunneling spectroscopy.

  12. Testing the assumption of normality in body sway area calculations during unipedal stance tests with an inertial sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoung Jae Kim; Lucarevic, Jennifer; Bennett, Christopher; Gaunaurd, Ignacio; Gailey, Robert; Agrawal, Vibhor

    2016-08-01

    The quantification of postural sway during the unipedal stance test is one of the essentials of posturography. A shift of center of pressure (CoP) is an indirect measure of postural sway and also a measure of a person's ability to maintain balance. A widely used method in laboratory settings to calculate the sway of body center of mass (CoM) is through an ellipse that encloses 95% of CoP trajectory. The 95% ellipse can be computed under the assumption that the spatial distribution of the CoP points recorded from force platforms is normal. However, to date, this assumption of normality has not been demonstrated for sway measurements recorded from a sacral inertial measurement unit (IMU). This work provides evidence for non-normality of sway trajectories calculated at a sacral IMU with injured subjects as well as healthy subjects.

  13. Matrix elements and few-body calculations within the unitary correlation operator method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, R.; Hergert, H.; Papakonstantinou, P.

    2005-01-01

    We employ the unitary correlation operator method (UCOM) to construct correlated, low-momentum matrix elements of realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions. The dominant short-range central and tensor correlations induced by the interaction are included explicitly by an unitary transformation. Using correlated momentum-space matrix elements of the Argonne V18 potential, we show that the unitary transformation eliminates the strong off-diagonal contributions caused by the short-range repulsion and the tensor interaction and leaves a correlated interaction dominated by low-momentum contributions. We use correlated harmonic oscillator matrix elements as input for no-core shell model calculations for few-nucleon systems. Compared to the bare interaction, the convergence properties are dramatically improved. The bulk of the binding energy can already be obtained in very small model spaces or even with a single Slater determinant. Residual long-range correlations, not treated explicitly by the unitary transformation, can easily be described in model spaces of moderate size allowing for fast convergence. By varying the range of the tensor correlator we are able to map out the Tjon line and can in turn constrain the optimal correlator ranges. (orig.)

  14. Matrix elements and few-body calculations within the unitary correlation operator method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, R.; Hergert, H.; Papakonstantinou, P.; Neff, T.; Feldmeier, H.

    2005-01-01

    We employ the unitary correlation operator method (UCOM) to construct correlated, low-momentum matrix elements of realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions. The dominant short-range central and tensor correlations induced by the interaction are included explicitly by an unitary transformation. Using correlated momentum-space matrix elements of the Argonne V18 potential, we show that the unitary transformation eliminates the strong off-diagonal contributions caused by the short-range repulsion and the tensor interaction and leaves a correlated interaction dominated by low-momentum contributions. We use correlated harmonic oscillator matrix elements as input for no-core shell model calculations for few-nucleon systems. Compared to the bare interaction, the convergence properties are dramatically improved. The bulk of the binding energy can already be obtained in very small model spaces or even with a single Slater determinant. Residual long-range correlations, not treated explicitly by the unitary transformation, can easily be described in model spaces of moderate size allowing for fast convergence. By varying the range of the tensor correlator we are able to map out the Tjon line and can in turn constrain the optimal correlator ranges

  15. Calculation of Flows Over Underwater Bodies with Hull, Sail and Appendages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoab, M.; Ayub, M.; Bilal, S.; Zahir, S.; Khan, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    A comprehensive study has been made for the hydrodynamic analysis of the submarine DARPA 2. The analysis was first performed for hull, then hull with sail on top and then for the complete submarine including hull, sail and appendages. A comparison of tangential velocity and pressure distribution for hull is accomplished using CFD flow solvers and published data. Further, the pressure distribution over the hull with sail is also analyzed. Finally, pressure distribution, forces and moments were calculated over the complete submarine including hull, sail and appendages. Comparison 01 pressure distribution and tangential velocity for the hull show a good agreement with published data. Pressure coefficient comparison for the hull with sail shows the good CFD-CFD agreement. Comparison of Normal force and pitching moment of complete submarine having hull, sail and appendages shows a reasonable agreement with the experimental results of DARPA 2. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of the complete submarine estimates the required design force and moment at different angles of attack and also demonstrate the flow visualization. (author)

  16. Many-body calculations of molecular electric polarizabilities in asymptotically complete basis sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monten, Ruben; Hajgató, Balázs; Deleuze, Michael S.

    2011-10-01

    The static dipole polarizabilities of Ne, CO, N2, F2, HF, H2O, HCN, and C2H2 (acetylene) have been determined close to the Full-CI limit along with an asymptotically complete basis set (CBS), according to the principles of a Focal Point Analysis. For this purpose the results of Finite Field calculations up to the level of Coupled Cluster theory including Single, Double, Triple, Quadruple and perturbative Pentuple excitations [CCSDTQ(P)] were used, in conjunction with suited extrapolations of energies obtained using augmented and doubly-augmented Dunning's correlation consistent polarized valence basis sets of improving quality. The polarizability characteristics of C2H4 (ethylene) and C2H6 (ethane) have been determined on the same grounds at the CCSDTQ level in the CBS limit. Comparison is made with results obtained using lower levels in electronic correlation, or taking into account the relaxation of the molecular structure due to an adiabatic polarization process. Vibrational corrections to electronic polarizabilities have been empirically estimated according to Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamical simulations employing Density Functional Theory. Confrontation with experiment ultimately indicates relative accuracies of the order of 1 to 2%.

  17. Cadmium in milk and mammary gland in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersson Grawe, K.; Oskarsson, A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the uptake of cadmium in mammary tissue, effects on milk secretion and composition, and lactational transport of cadmium to the sucklings. Cadmium exposure during lactation resulted in retention of cadmium in the mammary tissue in mice and rats. The uptake of cadmium in the mammary tissue was rapid, as shown in lactating mice by whole-body autoradiography 4 h after an intravenous injection of a tracer dose of 109 CdCl 2 . Retention of cadmium in kidneys of suckling pups was observed in the autoradiograms at 7 days after exposure of the dams. Lactating rats were intravenously infused with 109 CdCl 2 in 0.9% saline via osmotic minipumps from day 3 to day 16 after parturition. The cadmium dose given was 0, 8.8, 62 and 300 μg Cd/kg body wt. per day. Plasma and milk were collected at day 10 and 16 after parturition. Plasma cadmium levels in dams increased from day 10 to day 16. Cadmium levels were higher in milk than in plasma, with milk/plasma ratios varying from 2 to 6. Zinc levels in milk were positively correlated to cadmium levels in milk (r 2 =0.26; P=0.03). In milk, 109 Cd was distributed in fat (46-52%), casein fraction (40-46%), and whey fraction (6-8%). There was a high correlation between cadmium concentrations in pups' kidney and cadmium concentrations in dam's milk (r 2 =0.98; P 109 Cd was bound to metallothionein in mammary tissue. The fraction of radiolabelled cadmium bound to metallothionein increased in a dose-dependent manner in both the liver (88-98%) and mammary tissue (57-80%). The present results indicate a low transfer of cadmium to the suckling pup, which might be due to binding of cadmium to metallothionein in the mammary tissue. However, during the susceptible developmental period even a low cadmium exposure may be of concern. (orig.)

  18. Electronic structure and metallization of cubic GdH{sub 3} under pressure: Ab initio many-body GW calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Bo, E-mail: kong79@yeah.net, E-mail: yachao.zhang@pku.edu.cn [School of Physics and Electronic Sciences, Guizhou Education University, Guiyang 550018 (China); Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Computational Nano-Material Science, Guizhou Education University, Guiyang 550018 (China); Zhang, Yachao, E-mail: kong79@yeah.net, E-mail: yachao.zhang@pku.edu.cn [Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Computational Nano-Material Science, Guizhou Education University, Guiyang 550018 (China)

    2016-07-07

    The electronic structures of the cubic GdH{sub 3} are extensively investigated using the ab initio many-body GW calculations treating the Gd 4f electrons either in the core (4f-core) or in the valence states (4f-val). Different degrees of quasiparticle (QP) self-consistent calculations with the different starting points are used to correct the failures of the GGA/GGA + U/HSE03 calculations. In the 4f-core case, GGA + G{sub 0}W{sub 0} calculations give a fundamental band gap of 1.72 eV, while GGA+ GW{sub 0} or GGA + GW calculations present a larger band gap. In the 4f-val case, the nonlocal exchange-correlation (xc) functional HSE03 can account much better for the strong localization of the 4f states than the semilocal or Hubbard U corrected xc functional in the Kohn–Sham equation. We show that the fundamental gap of the antiferromagnetic (AFM) or ferromagnetic (FM) GdH{sub 3} can be opened up by solving the QP equation with improved starting point of eigenvalues and wave functions given by HSE03. The HSE03 + G{sub 0}W{sub 0} calculations present a fundamental band gap of 2.73 eV in the AFM configuration, and the results of the corresponding GW{sub 0} and GW calculations are 2.89 and 3.03 eV, respectively. In general, for the cubic structure, the fundamental gap from G{sub 0}W{sub 0} calculations in the 4f-core case is the closest to the real result. By G{sub 0}W{sub 0} calculations in the 4f-core case, we find that H or Gd defects can strongly affect the band structure, especially the H defects. We explain the mechanism in terms of the possible electron correlation on the hydrogen site. Under compression, the insulator-to-metal transition in the cubic GdH{sub 3} occurs around 40 GPa, which might be a satisfied prediction.

  19. Mathematical model of a phantom developed for use in calculations of radiation dose to the body and major internal organs of a Japanese adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Hwang, J.M.; Jones, R.M.

    1976-05-01

    A mathematical model of a phantom simulating the body and major internal organs of a Japanese adult has been developed for use in computer calculations of radiation dose. The total body height of the mathematical phantom is 162 cm, and the total body mass is 55 kg based on densities of 0.3, 1.4, and 1.0 g/cm 3 for the lung, skeleton, and bulk tissues of the body, respectively

  20. A translationally invariant RPA-calculation for 16O on the basis of an algebraic solution of the many-body oscillator problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwesinger, B.

    1978-01-01

    The solution of the many-body oscillator problem is used as a basis for a RPA-calculation of 16 O. The calculation is performed in a LS-coupling scheme with an interaction containing central, spin-orbit and tensor forces. The main differences with conventional RPA-calculations occur for the transition probabilities. (orig.) [de

  1. Calculations of the flow past bluff bodies, including tilt-rotor wing sections at alpha = 90 deg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, V.; Mccroskey, W. J.; Baeder, J. D.; Van Dalsem, W. R.

    1990-01-01

    An attempt was made to model in two dimensions the effects of rotor downwash on the wing of the tilt-rotor aircraft and to compute the drag force on airfoils at - 90 deg angle of attack, using a well-established Navier-Stokes code. However, neither laminar nor turbulent calculations agreed well with drag and base-pressure measurements at high Reynolds numbers. Therefore, further efforts were concentrated on bluff-body flows past various shapes at low Reynolds numbers, where a strong vortex shedding is observed. Good results were obtained for a circular cylinder, but the calculated drag of a slender ellipse at right angles to the freestream was significantly higher than experimental values reported in the literature for flat plates. Similar anomalous results were obtained on the tilt-rotor airfoils, although the qualitative effects of flap deflection agreed with the wind tunnel data. The ensemble of results suggest that there may be fundamental differences in the vortical wakes of circular cylinders and noncircular bluff bodies.

  2. A general procedure to evaluate many-body spin operator amplitudes from periodic calculations: application to cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Iberio de P R [Departament de Quimica Fisica and Institut de Quimica Teorica i Computacional (IQTCUB), Universitat de Barcelona and Parc CientIfic de Barcelona, C/ MartI i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Calzado, Carmen J [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Sevilla, C/ Prof. GarcIa Gonzalez s/n, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain); Malrieu, Jean-Paul [IRSAMC, Laboratoire de Physique Quantique, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse-Cedex (France); Illas, Francesc [Departament de Quimica Fisica and Institut de Quimica Teorica i Computacional (IQTCUB), Universitat de Barcelona and Parc CientIfic de Barcelona, C/ MartI i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    A general procedure is presented which permits the form of an extended spin Hamiltonian to be established for a given magnetic solid and the magnitude of its terms to be evaluated from spin polarized, Hartree-Fock or density functional calculations carried out for periodic models. The computational strategy makes use of a general mapping between the energy of pertinent broken-symmetry solutions and the diagonal terms of the spin Hamiltonian in a local representation. From this mapping it is possible to determine not only the amplitude of the well-known two-body magnetic coupling constants between near-neighbor sites, but also the amplitudes of four-body cyclic exchange terms. A scrutiny of the on-site spin densities provides additional information and control of the many broken-symmetry solutions which can be found. The procedure is applied to the La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}, Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 2}F{sub 2}, Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and Ca{sub 2}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} square lattices and the SrCu{sub 2}O{sub 3} ladder compound. It is shown that a proper description of the magnetic structure of these compounds requires that two- and four-body terms are explicitly included in the spin Hamiltonian. The implications for the interpretation of recent experiments are discussed.

  3. Factors of influence on body lead and cadmium levels in regions of Saxony Anhalt with different pollution levels, with special consideration to heavy metal uptake via household dust; Einflussfaktoren auf die innere Blei- und Cadmiumbelastung in unterschiedlich belasteten Regionen Sachsen-Anhalts unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Schwermetallaufnahme ueber den Hausstaub

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, I.

    2002-07-01

    The present study is based on data from an environmental medicine study aimed at identifying possible health impairments in the population of Hettstedt, a metallurgical industry site, as compared with those of the industrial region of Bitterfeld and Zerbst as control region. The present study was designed as a six-year longitudinal study and based on three regional cross-sectional studies performed in school years 1992/93, 1995/96 and 1998/99. In all three of these surveys the study population was recruited from children just entering school (5 to 7 years), 3rd form (8 to 10 years) and 6th form school children. The study population of the first survey also included women aged 50 to 59. The goal of the present study was to identify predictors of lead and cadmium deposition in households of children from Hettstedt and women from Hettstedt, Bitterfeld and Zerbst. Furthermore, the extent to which body lead and cadmium levels are influenced by the deposition of these heavy metals in household dust and the possibility of a change in children's lead and cadmium body levels between 1992/93 and 1998/99 were explored. Body lead levels were measured in terms of blood lead levels, which reflect the exposure over the past few weeks. The most significant determinants of lead deposition in household dust was the proximity of the home to the metallurgical plants and factors reflecting the deposition of lead-containing dust in the home. Likewise, the main determinants of body lead levels were the proximity of the home to emitters and, in the case of children, the lead content of household dust associated with this and the whirling up of dust by pets. Boys were found to have markedly higher levels than girls. Whereas drinking lead-containing water and being in the garden had no demonstrable effect on body lead levels in children, in women these factors were found to play a significant role, along with smoking and the release of lead from the bones after the menopause. Body lead

  4. Bioremoval of cadmium by lemna minor in different aquatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uysal, Yagmur [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras (Turkey); Taner, Fadime [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    This study was undertaken to determine the cadmium removal efficiency of Lemna minor when it was used for treatment of wastewater having different characteristics, i. e., pH, temperature and cadmium concentration. Plants were cultivated in different pH solutions (4.5-8.0) and temperatures (15-35 C) in the presence of cadmium (0.1-10.0 mg/L) for 168 h. The amount of biomass obtained in the study period, the concentrations of cadmium in the tissues and in the media and net uptake of cadmium by Lemna have been determined for each condition. The percentages of cadmium uptake (PMU) and bioconcentration factors (BCF) were also calculated. The highest accumulation was obtained for the highest cadmium concentration of 10.0 mg Cd/L as 11.668 mg Cd/g at pH 6.0, and as 38.650 mg Cd/g at 35 C and pH 5.0. The cadmium accumulation gradually increased with initial concentration of the medium, but the opposite trend was observed for the PMU. However, the maximum PMU was obtained as 52.2% in the solution with the lowest concentration of 0.1 mg Cd/L. A mathematical model was used to describe the cadmium uptake and the equation obtained was seen to fit the experimental data very well. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Multi-body simulation of a canine hind limb: model development, experimental validation and calculation of ground reaction forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wefstaedt Patrick

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among other causes the long-term result of hip prostheses in dogs is determined by aseptic loosening. A prevention of prosthesis complications can be achieved by an optimization of the tribological system which finally results in improved implant duration. In this context a computerized model for the calculation of hip joint loadings during different motions would be of benefit. In a first step in the development of such an inverse dynamic multi-body simulation (MBS- model we here present the setup of a canine hind limb model applicable for the calculation of ground reaction forces. Methods The anatomical geometries of the MBS-model have been established using computer tomography- (CT- and magnetic resonance imaging- (MRI- data. The CT-data were collected from the pelvis, femora, tibiae and pads of a mixed-breed adult dog. Geometric information about 22 muscles of the pelvic extremity of 4 mixed-breed adult dogs was determined using MRI. Kinematic and kinetic data obtained by motion analysis of a clinically healthy dog during a gait cycle (1 m/s on an instrumented treadmill were used to drive the model in the multi-body simulation. Results and Discussion As a result the vertical ground reaction forces (z-direction calculated by the MBS-system show a maximum deviation of 1.75%BW for the left and 4.65%BW for the right hind limb from the treadmill measurements. The calculated peak ground reaction forces in z- and y-direction were found to be comparable to the treadmill measurements, whereas the curve characteristics of the forces in y-direction were not in complete alignment. Conclusion In conclusion, it could be demonstrated that the developed MBS-model is suitable for simulating ground reaction forces of dogs during walking. In forthcoming investigations the model will be developed further for the calculation of forces and moments acting on the hip joint during different movements, which can be of help in context with the in

  6. Ionization of atoms or ions by electron or proton impact; calculations with the classical three-body theory. ch. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesten, L.G.J.

    1978-01-01

    Calculations on the threshold ionization of H, He + and Li 2+ by electrons have been performed to study the so-called 'post-collision interaction' (P.C.I.) effects which appear to affect the threshold ionization process significantly. These effects are caused by the long range Coulomb interactions between the two electrons as they move away from the nucleus. The long range interactions are fully taken into account in the classical three-body collision theory. In quantum mechanical theories, however, it is difficult to account for these interactions. This theory has been used to study the ionization of He + -ions by electron impact up to much higher energies (up till ten times the threshold energy). The results are compared with experimental results of Dolder et al. (1961) and with results of quantum mechanical calculations. Results are given for ionization of helium atoms by electron or proton impact. This collision process, in which four particles are involved, can under certain circumstances be treated as a collision process in which only three particles are involved. Calculations are performed concerning: a) cross sections for ionization of metastable helium atoms by electron impact, b) cross sections for ionization of ground-state helium atoms by fast proton impact (energy and angular distributions of ejected electrons), c) generalized oscillator strengths for ionization of helium by fast proton impact

  7. Zinc and cadmium monosalicylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharitonov, Yu.Ya.; Tujebakhova, Z.K.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc and cadmium monosalicylates of the composition MSal, where M-Zn or Cd, Sal - twice deprotonated residue of salicylic acid O-HOC 6 H 4 COOH (H 2 Sal), are singled out and characterized. When studying thermograms, thermogravigrams, IR absorption spectra, roentgenograms of cadmium salicylate compounds (Cd(OC 6 H 4 COO) and products of their thepmal transformations, the processes of thermal decomposition of the compounds have been characterized. The process of cadmium monosalicylate decomposition takes place in one stage. Complete loss of salicylate acido group occurs in the range of 320-460 deg. At this decomposition stage cadmium oxide is formed. A supposition is made that cadmium complex has tetrahedral configuration, at that, each salicylate group plays the role of tetradentate-bridge ligand. The compound evidently has a polymer structure

  8. Automatic 2D scintillation camera and computed tomography whole-body image registration to perform dosimetric calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cismondi, F.; Mosconi, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In this work a software tool that has been developed to allow automatic registrations of 2D Scintillation Camera (SC) and Computed Tomography (CT) images is presented. This tool, used with a dosimetric software with Integrated Activity or Residence Time as input data, allows the user to assess physicians about effects of radiodiagnostic or radiotherapeutic practices that involves nuclear medicine 'open sources'. Images are registered locally and globally, maximizing Mutual Information coefficient between regions been registered. In the regional case whole-body images are segmented into five regions: head, thorax, pelvis, left and right legs. Each region has its own registration parameters, which are optimized through Powell-Brent minimization method that 'maximizes' Mutual Information coefficient. This software tool allows the user to draw ROIs, input isotope characteristics and finally calculate Integrated Activity or Residence Time in one or many specific organ. These last values can be introduced in many dosimetric software to finally obtain Absorbed Dose values. (author)

  9. Effect of pregnancy on cadmium-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizama, Y. (Akita Univ. School of Medicine, Japan); Nakamura, I.; Kurayama, R.; Hirasawa, F.; Kawai, K.

    1982-01-01

    It is well known that itai-itai disease with the osteopathy is broken out among multiparas, 40 years of age and up Japanese residents. In this paper we described an experimental study of effect of pregnancy on cadmium treated rats. Female mature rats were administered drinking water containing 50 and 200 ppm cadmium as CdCl/sub 2/. During 180 days of the experiment, three times of pregnancy were succesful, though slight depression of body weight gain was noticed in the 200 ppm group. The cadmium was accumulated in the kidneys, liver and bone proportionally to the amount of cadmium administered. No significant change was recognized in serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels after 180 days. Though cadmium 200 ppm treated rats showed slight histological lesions in the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney, there appeared to be no osteomalacia including excess formation of osteoid tissue.

  10. TIMED: a computer program for calculating cumulated activity of a radionuclide in the organs of the human body at a given time, t, after deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, S.B.; Snyder, W.S.; Ford, M.R.

    1976-12-01

    TIMED is a computer program designed to calculate cumulated radioactivity in the various source organs at various times after radionuclide deposition. TIMED embodies a system of differential equations which describes activity transfer in the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and other organs of the body. This system accounts for delay of transfer of activity between compartments of the body and radioactive daughters

  11. Configuration-interaction relativistic-many-body-perturbation-theory calculations of photoionization cross sections from quasicontinuum oscillator strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savukov, I. M.; Filin, D. V.

    2014-01-01

    Many applications are in need of accurate photoionization cross sections, especially in the case of complex atoms. Configuration-interaction relativistic-many-body-perturbation theory (CI-RMBPT) has been successful in predicting atomic energies, matrix elements between discrete states, and other properties, which is quite promising, but it has not been applied to photoionization problems owing to extra complications arising from continuum states. In this paper a method that will allow the conversion of discrete CI-(R)MPBT oscillator strengths (OS) to photoionization cross sections with minimal modifications of the codes is introduced and CI-RMBPT cross sections of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe are calculated. A consistent agreement with experiment is found. RMBPT corrections are particularly significant for Ar, Kr, and Xe and improve agreement with experimental results compared to the particle-hole CI method. As a result, the demonstrated conversion method can be applied to CI-RMBPT photoionization calculations for a large number of multivalence atoms and ions

  12. Correlations of urinary cadmium with hypertension and diabetes in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak (Thailand)

    2010-08-15

    Risk for hypertension and diabetes has not been conclusively found to be a result of cadmium exposure. A population-based study was conducted in 2009 to examine the correlations of urinary cadmium, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, with hypertension and diabetes in persons aged 35 years and older who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated rural villages in northwestern Thailand. A total of 5273 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium, hypertension, and diabetes. The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium for women (2.4{+-}2.3 {mu}g/g creatinine) was significantly greater than that for men (2.0{+-}2.2 {mu}g/g creatinine). Hypertension was presented in 29.8% of the study population and diabetes was detected in 6.6%. The prevalence of hypertension significantly increased from 25.0% among persons in the lowest tertile of urinary cadmium to 35.0% in the highest tertile. In women, the rate of hypertension significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both ever and never smokers, after adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and diabetes. In men, such association was less significantly found in never smokers. The study revealed no significant association between urinary cadmium and diabetes in either gender. Our study supports the hypothesis that environmental exposure to cadmium may increase the risk of hypertension. Risk for diabetes in relation to cadmium exposure remains uncertain in this exposed population.

  13. Correlations of urinary cadmium with hypertension and diabetes in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot

    2010-01-01

    Risk for hypertension and diabetes has not been conclusively found to be a result of cadmium exposure. A population-based study was conducted in 2009 to examine the correlations of urinary cadmium, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, with hypertension and diabetes in persons aged 35 years and older who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated rural villages in northwestern Thailand. A total of 5273 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium, hypertension, and diabetes. The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium for women (2.4±2.3 μg/g creatinine) was significantly greater than that for men (2.0±2.2 μg/g creatinine). Hypertension was presented in 29.8% of the study population and diabetes was detected in 6.6%. The prevalence of hypertension significantly increased from 25.0% among persons in the lowest tertile of urinary cadmium to 35.0% in the highest tertile. In women, the rate of hypertension significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both ever and never smokers, after adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and diabetes. In men, such association was less significantly found in never smokers. The study revealed no significant association between urinary cadmium and diabetes in either gender. Our study supports the hypothesis that environmental exposure to cadmium may increase the risk of hypertension. Risk for diabetes in relation to cadmium exposure remains uncertain in this exposed population.

  14. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Korin, Eli

    2007-01-01

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems

  15. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Korin, Eli [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2007-07-15

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems.

  16. Calcium enhances cadmium tolerance and decreases cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... concentrations alleviated the toxic effect of cadmium on the growth and water status of lettuce plants. The three lettuce varieties ... electroplating, in batteries, in electrical conductors, in the manufacture of alloys ..... Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, Third edition, Salt Lake City, UT: Acad. Press. Österås ...

  17. Cadmium inhibits neurogenesis in zebrafish embryonic brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Elly Suk Hen [Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, 1200 California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hui, Michelle Nga Yu; Lin Chunchi [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Cheng Shukhan [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: bhcheng@cityu.edu.hk

    2008-05-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal found abundantly in the environment. Children of women exposed to cadmium during pregnancy display lower motor and perceptual abilities. High cadmium body burden in children is also related to impaired intelligence and lowered school achievement. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular basis of developmental neurotoxicity in the sensitive early life stages of animals. In this study, we explore neurological deficits caused by cadmium during early embryonic stages in zebrafish by examining regionalization of the neural tube, pattern formation and cell fate determination, commitment of proneural genes and induction of neurogenesis. We show that cadmium-treated embryos developed a smaller head with unclear boundaries between the brain subdivisions, particularly in the mid-hindbrain region. Embryos display normal anterior to posterior regionalization; however, the commitment of neural progenitor cells was affected by cadmium. We observe prominent reductions in the expression of several proneuronal genes including ngn1 in cell clusters, zash1a in the developing optic tectum, and zash1b in the telencephalon and tectum. Cadmium-treated embryos also have fewer differentiated neurons and glia in the facial sensory ganglia as indicated by decreased zn-12 expression. Also, a lower transcription level of neurogenic genes, ngn1 and neuroD, is observed in neurons. Our data suggest that cadmium-induced neurotoxicity can be caused by impaired neurogenesis, resulting in markedly reduced neuronal differentiation and axonogenesis.

  18. Cadmium inhibits neurogenesis in zebrafish embryonic brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, Elly Suk Hen; Hui, Michelle Nga Yu; Lin Chunchi; Cheng Shukhan

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal found abundantly in the environment. Children of women exposed to cadmium during pregnancy display lower motor and perceptual abilities. High cadmium body burden in children is also related to impaired intelligence and lowered school achievement. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular basis of developmental neurotoxicity in the sensitive early life stages of animals. In this study, we explore neurological deficits caused by cadmium during early embryonic stages in zebrafish by examining regionalization of the neural tube, pattern formation and cell fate determination, commitment of proneural genes and induction of neurogenesis. We show that cadmium-treated embryos developed a smaller head with unclear boundaries between the brain subdivisions, particularly in the mid-hindbrain region. Embryos display normal anterior to posterior regionalization; however, the commitment of neural progenitor cells was affected by cadmium. We observe prominent reductions in the expression of several proneuronal genes including ngn1 in cell clusters, zash1a in the developing optic tectum, and zash1b in the telencephalon and tectum. Cadmium-treated embryos also have fewer differentiated neurons and glia in the facial sensory ganglia as indicated by decreased zn-12 expression. Also, a lower transcription level of neurogenic genes, ngn1 and neuroD, is observed in neurons. Our data suggest that cadmium-induced neurotoxicity can be caused by impaired neurogenesis, resulting in markedly reduced neuronal differentiation and axonogenesis

  19. Dissolution ad uptake of cadmium from dental gold solder alloy implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, B.; Bergman, M.; Soeremark, R.

    1977-01-01

    Pure metallic cadmium was irradiated by means of thermal neutrons. The irradiated cadmium ( 115 Cd) was placed in bags of gold foil and the bags were implanted subcutaneously in the neck region of mice. Two and 3 d respectively after implantation the mice were killed, the bags removed and the animals subjected to whole-body autoradiography. The autoradiograms revealed an uptake of 115 Cd in liver and kidney. In another experiment specimens of a cadmium-containing dental gold solder alloy, a cadmium-free dental casting gold alloy and soldered assemblies made of these two alloys were implanted subcutaneously in the neck region of mice. The animals were killed after 6 months; cadmium analysis showed significant increases in the cadmium concentration in liver and kidney of those mice which had been given implants of gold solder alloy. The study clearly shows that due to electrochemical corrosion cadmium can be released from implants and accumulated in the kidneys and the liver. (author)

  20. Simultaneous determination of oxygen and cadmium in cadmium and cadmium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaeda, K.; Kuriki, T.; Ohsawa, K.; Ishii, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Cadmium and its compounds were analysed for oxygen and cadmium by a modification of the Schutze-Unterzaucher method. Oxygen in some compounds such as cadmium oxide, nitrate and sulphate could not be determined by the usual method. The method of adding carbon was employed for the determination of total oxygen. Total oxygen could be determined by the addition of 5 mg of carbon to a sample boat and heating at 950 0 . The determination was also carried out by addition of naphthalene (2 mg). It was found that the cadmium powder and cadmium flake used contained ca. 1 and 0.15% oxygen, respectively. Oxygen and cadmium in cadmium and its compounds were simultaneously determined by the addition of 2 mg of naphthalene. Cadmium was determined colorimetrically by use of glyoxal-bis-(2-hydroxyanil). Oxygen and cadmium in the samples could be determined simultaneously with an average error of -0.02 and -0.22%, respectively. (author)

  1. A Numerical Method for Calculating the Wave Drag of a Configuration from the Second Derivative of the Area Distribution of a Series of Equivalent Bodies of Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Lionel L., Jr.; Yoshikawa, Kenneth K.

    1959-01-01

    A method based on linearized and slender-body theories, which is easily adapted to electronic-machine computing equipment, is developed for calculating the zero-lift wave drag of single- and multiple-component configurations from a knowledge of the second derivative of the area distribution of a series of equivalent bodies of revolution. The accuracy and computational time required of the method to calculate zero-lift wave drag is evaluated relative to another numerical method which employs the Tchebichef form of harmonic analysis of the area distribution of a series of equivalent bodies of revolution. The results of the evaluation indicate that the total zero-lift wave drag of a multiple-component configuration can generally be calculated most accurately as the sum of the zero-lift wave drag of each component alone plus the zero-lift interference wave drag between all pairs of components. The accuracy and computational time required of both methods to calculate total zero-lift wave drag at supersonic Mach numbers is comparable for airplane-type configurations. For systems of bodies of revolution both methods yield similar results with comparable accuracy; however, the present method only requires up to 60 percent of the computing time required of the harmonic-analysis method for two bodies of revolution and less time for a larger number of bodies.

  2. An Assessment of Dietary Exposure to Cadmium in Residents of Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Liu, Yungang; Liu, Yufei; Liang, Boheng; Zhou, Hongwei; Li, Yingyue; Zhang, Yuhua; Huang, Jie; Yu, Chao; Chen, Kuncai

    2018-03-20

    Cadmium and its compounds are human carcinogens with severe organ toxicity, and their contamination of agricultural soil in China has been frequently reported; however, the dietary exposure to cadmium in residents and the relevant health risk have seldom been reported. In this study, the concentration of cadmium in various types of food collected from 2013 to 2015 were analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and the dietary exposure to cadmium assessed based on a dietary survey in 2976 Guangzhou residents. In total, 3074 out of 4039 food samples had cadmium levels above the limit of detection. The mean ± standard deviation (50th, 95th percentile) cadmium content in all samples was 159.0 ± 112.7 (8.6, 392.4) μg/kg, with levels ranging from 1.0 to 7830 μg/kg. Using the mean cadmium concentrations, the average monthly dietary exposure of Guangzhou residents to cadmium was 14.4 (μg/kg body weight (BW), accounting for 57.6% of the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI). Rice, laver, vegetables, and live aquatic products were the main sources of cadmium intake, on average accounting for 89% of the total value. The dietary cadmium exposure in high consumers (95th percentile food consumption) was 41.0 μg/kg·BW/month, accounting for 163% of the PTMI. Additionally, dietary cadmium exposure at mean consumption but high cadmium food concentration (95th percentile) was 32.3 μg/kg·BW/month, corresponding to 129% of the PTMI. The level of dietary exposure to cadmium in most Guangzhou residents was within the safety limit, thus increased health risk from dietary cadmium exposure is low at present. However, continued efforts by local governments to monitor the levels of cadmium in the four main food categories contributing to exposure are necessary.

  3. An Assessment of Dietary Exposure to Cadmium in Residents of Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium and its compounds are human carcinogens with severe organ toxicity, and their contamination of agricultural soil in China has been frequently reported; however, the dietary exposure to cadmium in residents and the relevant health risk have seldom been reported. In this study, the concentration of cadmium in various types of food collected from 2013 to 2015 were analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and the dietary exposure to cadmium assessed based on a dietary survey in 2976 Guangzhou residents. In total, 3074 out of 4039 food samples had cadmium levels above the limit of detection. The mean ± standard deviation (50th, 95th percentile cadmium content in all samples was 159.0 ± 112.7 (8.6, 392.4 μg/kg, with levels ranging from 1.0 to 7830 μg/kg. Using the mean cadmium concentrations, the average monthly dietary exposure of Guangzhou residents to cadmium was 14.4 (μg/kg body weight (BW, accounting for 57.6% of the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI. Rice, laver, vegetables, and live aquatic products were the main sources of cadmium intake, on average accounting for 89% of the total value. The dietary cadmium exposure in high consumers (95th percentile food consumption was 41.0 μg/kg·BW/month, accounting for 163% of the PTMI. Additionally, dietary cadmium exposure at mean consumption but high cadmium food concentration (95th percentile was 32.3 μg/kg·BW/month, corresponding to 129% of the PTMI. The level of dietary exposure to cadmium in most Guangzhou residents was within the safety limit, thus increased health risk from dietary cadmium exposure is low at present. However, continued efforts by local governments to monitor the levels of cadmium in the four main food categories contributing to exposure are necessary.

  4. Blood Cadmium Is Associated with Osteoporosis in Obese Males but Not in Non-Obese Males: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Jun Choi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis in males is becoming an important health concern in an aging society. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between cadmium exposure and osteoporosis by considering the effect of obesity in aged males using a representative sample of the Korean population. Using the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 1098 males over 50 years of age were analyzed. The blood cadmium concentration was measured. The bone mineral density in the total hip, femur neck, and lumbar spine was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. T-scores to determine the presence of osteoporosis were calculated using a Korean reference. Subjects were stratified into two groups according to obesity status (body mass index <25 kg/m2 and ≥25 kg/m2. In comparison with obese subjects with blood cadmium <1.00 μg/L, those with blood cadmium >1.50 μg/L had odds ratios of 4.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49–14.01 and 5.71 (95% CI 1.99–16.38 at the femur neck and any site, respectively, after adjusting for potential confounders such as age, serum creatinine, vitamin D deficiency, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity level. However, this association was not significant in non-obese males. In conclusion, the effect of cadmium on osteoporosis was different by obesity status in aged males.

  5. Direct examination of cadmium bonding in rat tissues dosed with mine wastes and cadmium-containing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diacomanolis, V.; Ng, J. C.; Sadler, R.; Harris, H. H.; Nomura, M.; Noller, B. N.

    2010-01-01

    Direct examination by XANES and EXAFS of metal bonding in tissue can be demonstrated by examining cadmium uptake and bonding in animal tissue maintained at cryogenic temperatures. XANES at the K-edge of cadmium were collected at the Photon Factory Advanced Ring (PF-AR), NW10A beam line at KEK-Tsukuba-Japan. Rats fed with 1g mine waste containing 8-400 mg/kg cadmium per 200g body weight (b.w.) or dosed by oral gavage with either cadmium chloride solution alone (at 6 mg/kg b.w.) or in combination with other salts (As, Cu or Zn), 5 days/week for 6 weeks, had 0.1-7.5 and 8-86 mg/kg cadmium in the liver or kidney, respectively. Rats given intraperitoneally (ip) or intravenously (iv) 1-4 times with 1 mg/kg b.w. cadmium solution had 30-120 mg/kg cadmium in the liver or kidney. Tissues from rats were kept and transferred at cryogenic temperature and XANES were recorded at 20 K. The spectra for rat liver samples suggested conjugation of cadmium with glutathione or association with the sulfide bond (Cd-S) of proteins and peptides. EXAFS of rat liver fed by Cd and Zn solutions showed that Cd was clearly bound to S ligands with an inter-atomic distance of 2.54 A ring for Cd-S that was similar to cadmium sulfide with an inter-atomic distance of 2.52 A ring for Cd-S. Liver or kidney of rats fed with mine wastes did not give an edge in the XANES spectra indicating little uptake of cadmium by the animals. Longer and higher dosing regimen may be required in order to observe the same Cd-S bond in the rat tissue from mine wastes, including confirmation by EXAFS.

  6. Arsenic and cadmium exposure in children living near a smelter complex in San Luis Potosi, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Barriga, F.; Santos, M.A.; Mejia, J.J.; Batres, L.; Yanez, L.; Carrizales, L.; Vera, E.; del Razo, L.M.; Cebrian, M.E. (Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico))

    1993-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess environmental contamination by arsenic and cadmium in a smelter community (San Luis Potosi City, Mexico) and its possible contribution to an increased body burden of these elements in children. Arsenic and cadmium were found in the environment (air, soil, and household dust, and tap water) as well as in the urine and hair from children. The study was undertaken in three zones: Morales, an urban area close to the smelter complex; Graciano, an urban area 7 km away from the complex; and Mexquitic, a small rural town 25 km away. The environmental study showed that Morales is the most contaminated of the zones studied. The range of arsenic levels in soil (117-1396 ppm), dust (515-2625 ppm), and air (0.13-1.45 micrograms/m3) in the exposed area (Morales) was higher than those in the control areas. Cadmium concentrations were also higher in Morales. Estimates of the arsenic ingestion rate in Morales (1.0-19.8 micrograms/kg/day) were equal to or higher than the reference dose of 1 microgram/kg/day calculated by the Environmental Protection Agency. The range of arsenic levels in urine (69-594 micrograms/g creatinine) and hair (1.4-57.3 micrograms/g) and that of cadmium in hair (0.25-3.5 micrograms/g) indicated that environmental exposure has resulted in an increased body burden of these elements in children, suggesting that children living in Morales are at high risk of suffering adverse health effects if exposure continues.

  7. Effect of cadmium chloride on sex-steroidogenesis in the pigeon, Columba livia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, A.K.; Mukherji, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    A single subcutaneous injection of 0.5 mg of cadmium chloride per 100 g body weight was followed by a significant decrease in the level of progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, and estriol in the gonadal tissues two days after treatment. In the adrenals cadmium chloride was not so effective as in the gonads. The concentration of sex-steroids and cholesterol returned to normal within ten days after treatment. It is supposed that cadmium chloride temporarily inhibits the 3-..beta..dehydrogenase system.

  8. Clinical applicability of biologically effective dose calculation for spinal cord in fractionated spine stereotactic body radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Heon; Lee, Kyu Chan; Choi, Jinho; Ahn, So Hyun; Lee, Seok Ho; Sung, Ki Hoon; Kil, Se Hee

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether biologically effective dose (BED) based on linear-quadratic model can be used to estimate spinal cord tolerance dose in spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) delivered in 4 or more fractions. Sixty-three metastatic spinal lesions in 47 patients were retrospectively evaluated. The most frequently prescribed dose was 36 Gy in 4 fractions. In planning, we tried to limit the maximum dose to the spinal cord or cauda equina less than 50% of prescription or 45 Gy 2/2 . BED was calculated using maximum point dose of spinal cord. Maximum spinal cord dose per fraction ranged from 2.6 to 6.0 Gy (median 4.3 Gy). Except 4 patients with 52.7, 56.4, 62.4, and 67.9 Gy 2/2 , equivalent total dose in 2-Gy fraction of the patients was not more than 50 Gy 2/2 (12.1–67.9, median 32.0). The ratio of maximum spinal cord dose to prescription dose increased up to 82.2% of prescription dose as epidural spinal cord compression grade increased. No patient developed grade 2 or higher radiation-induced spinal cord toxicity during follow-up period of 0.5 to 53.9 months. In fractionated spine SBRT, BED can be used to estimate spinal cord tolerance dose, provided that the dose per fraction to the spinal cord is moderate, e.g. < 6.0 Gy. It appears that a maximum dose of up to 45–50 Gy 2/2 to the spinal cord is tolerable in 4 or more fractionation regimen

  9. Flux of Cadmium through Euphausiids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benayoun, G.; Fowler, S.W.; Oregioni, B.

    1976-01-01

    Flux of the heavy metal cadmium through the euphausiid Meganyctiphanes norvegica was examined. Radiotracer experiments showed that cadmium can be accumulated either directly from water or through the food chain. When comparing equilibrium cadmium concentration factors based on stable element measurements with those obtained from radiotracer experiments, it is evident that exchange between cadmium in the water and that in euphausiid tissue is a relatively slow process, indicating that, in the long term, ingestion of cadmium will probably be the more important route for the accumulation of this metal. Approximately 10% of cadmium ingested by euphausiids was incorporated into internal tissues when the food source was radioactive Artemia. After 1 month cadmium, accumulated directly from water, was found to be most concentrated in the viscera with lesser amounts in eyes, exoskeleton and muscle, respectively. Use of a simple model, based on the assumption that cadmium taken in by the organism must equal cadmium released plus that accumulated in tissue, allowed assessment of the relative importance of various metabolic parameters in controlling the cadmium flux through euphausiids. Fecal pellets, due to their relatively high rate of production and high cadmium content, accounted for 84% of the total cadmium flux through M. norvegica. Comparisons of stable cadmium concentrations in natural euphausiid food and the organism's resultant fecal pellets indicate that the cadmium concentration in ingested material was increased nearly 5-fold during its passage through the euphausiid. From comparisons of all routes by which cadmium can be released from M. norvegica to the water column, it is concluded that fecal pellet deposition represents the principal mechanism effecting the downward vertical transport of cadmium by this species. (author)

  10. FDTD calculation of whole-body average SAR in adult and child models for frequencies from 30 MHz to 3 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianqing; Fujiwara, Osamu; Kodera, Sachiko; Watanabe, Soichi

    2006-01-01

    Due to the difficulty of the specific absorption rate (SAR) measurement in an actual human body for electromagnetic radio-frequency (RF) exposure, in various compliance assessment procedures the incident electric field or power density is being used as a reference level, which should never yield a larger whole-body average SAR than the basic safety limit. The relationship between the reference level and the whole-body average SAR, however, was established mainly based on numerical calculations for highly simplified human modelling dozens of years ago. Its validity is being questioned by the latest calculation results. In verifying the validity of the reference level with respect to the basic SAR limit for RF exposure, it is essential to have a high accuracy of human modelling and numerical code. In this study, we made a detailed error analysis in the whole-body average SAR calculation for the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method in conjunction with the perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundaries. We derived a basic rule for the PML employment based on a dielectric sphere and the Mie theory solution. We then attempted to clarify to what extent the whole-body average SAR may reach using an anatomically based Japanese adult model and a scaled child model. The results show that the whole-body average SAR under the ICNIRP reference level exceeds the basic safety limit nearly 30% for the child model both in the resonance frequency and 2 GHz band

  11. FDTD calculation of whole-body average SAR in adult and child models for frequencies from 30 MHz to 3 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jianqing [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Fujiwara, Osamu [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kodera, Sachiko [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Watanabe, Soichi [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Nukui-kitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan)

    2006-09-07

    Due to the difficulty of the specific absorption rate (SAR) measurement in an actual human body for electromagnetic radio-frequency (RF) exposure, in various compliance assessment procedures the incident electric field or power density is being used as a reference level, which should never yield a larger whole-body average SAR than the basic safety limit. The relationship between the reference level and the whole-body average SAR, however, was established mainly based on numerical calculations for highly simplified human modelling dozens of years ago. Its validity is being questioned by the latest calculation results. In verifying the validity of the reference level with respect to the basic SAR limit for RF exposure, it is essential to have a high accuracy of human modelling and numerical code. In this study, we made a detailed error analysis in the whole-body average SAR calculation for the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method in conjunction with the perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundaries. We derived a basic rule for the PML employment based on a dielectric sphere and the Mie theory solution. We then attempted to clarify to what extent the whole-body average SAR may reach using an anatomically based Japanese adult model and a scaled child model. The results show that the whole-body average SAR under the ICNIRP reference level exceeds the basic safety limit nearly 30% for the child model both in the resonance frequency and 2 GHz band.

  12. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kisok [Department of Public Health, Keimyung University, 1000 Shindang-dong, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  13. Metallothionein in brook trout (Salvenlinus fontinalis) as a biological indicator of cadmium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, S.J.; Mehrle, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    A cadmium-saturation technique for quantifying metallothionein in mammalian tissues was evaluated for use in fish tissue. Metallothionein characteristically binds 7 gram-atoms of a metal such as cadmium per mole of protein so saturating MT with respect to one metal and then quantifying that metal would thus result in the indirect quantification of MT. The authors administered 3 mg 109 cadmium/kg body weight by intraperitoneal injection over a 5-day period to adult brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis to induce MT in liver and kidney tissues. Homogenates were centrifuged and the supernatant was used to quantitate cadmium in three fractions: 100,000 g supernatant, cadmium-saturated MT, and unsaturated MT. The cadmium-saturated MT method involved the following steps: saturation of MT in an aliquot of 100,000 g supernatant with excess cadmium; removal of excess cadmium by addition of 2% hemoglobin; denaturation of hemoglobin by heating at 100 0 C followed by rapid cooling on ice; centrifugation at 10,000 g; digestion of an aliquot of supernatant in concentrated nitric acid for 16 hours at 70 0 C, and quantification of cadmium by atomic absorption and graphite furnace techniques or radiometric measurement with a scintillation counter. The cadmium saturation technique was modified in two ways so the amount of cadmium bound to unsaturated MT could be measured; first, the binding sites on MT were not saturated with excess cadmium, and second, the concentration of hemoglobin added to remove free cadmium and aid in coagulating low-molecular-weight proteins was 1% instead of 2%. The method gave precise measurements of MT concentrations when aliquots of liver homogenate which were analyzed separately were quantified by atomic absorption or radiometric measurements. Two to four times more cadmium and MT concentrated in the liver of treated fish than in the kidney

  14. Chlorination leaching of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lach, E.; Pajak, I.; Bojanowska, A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of the investigations on chlorination leaching of cadmium from dust coming from dry dust collector of sinter belt, that is leaching with water saturated with gaseous chlorine and leaching with solutions of ammonium chloride and sodium chloride were given. The optimum conditions for these processes were established. It was found, that the method of leaching in the presence of gaseous chlorine is more effective, as it allows to report into the solution over 90% cadmium contained in dust. Owing to technical difficulties, environmental protection and safety conditions more advantageous seems to be the use as leaching agent of the ammonium chloride solutions. When applying 20% NH 4 Cl and temperature of 60 0 C, the time of 2 hours and the ratio of solid to liquid of 1:5, 70% cadmium contained in the dust can be reported into the solution. (auth.)

  15. Mobility, bioavailability, and toxic effects of cadmium in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokop, Z.; Cupr, P.; Zlevorova-Zlamalikova V.; Komarek, J.; Dusek, L.; Holoubek, I.

    2003-01-01

    Total concentration is not a reliable indicator of metal mobility or bioavailability in soils. The physicochemical form determines the behavior of metals in soils and hence the toxicity toward terrestrial biota. The main objectives of this study were the application and comparison of three approaches for the evaluation of cadmium behavior in soil samples. The mobility and bioavailability of cadmium in five selected soil samples were evaluated using equilibrium speciation (Windermere humic aqueous mode (WHAM)), extraction procedures (Milli-Q water, DMSO, and DTPA), and a number of bioassays (Microtox, growth inhibition test, contact toxicity test, and respiration). The mobility, represented by the water-extractable fraction corresponded well with the amount of cadmium in the soil solution, calculate using the WHAM (r 2 =0.96, P<0.001). The results of the ecotoxicologica evaluation, which represent the bioavailable fraction of cadmium, correlated well with DTPA extractability and also with the concentration of free cadmium ion, which is recognized as the most bioavailable metal form. The results of the WHAM as well as the results of extraction experiments showed a strong binding of cadmium to organic matter and a weak sorption of cadmium to clay minerals

  16. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of the European population to cadmium from food is high compared with the tolerable weekly intake of 2.5 μg/kg bodyweight set by EFSA in 2009. Only few studies on the bioavailability of cadmium from different food sources has been performed but this information in very important...... for the food authorities in order to give correct advises to the population. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of cadmium from whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and cadmium chloride in rats. An experiment where 40 rats were divided into 4 groups and a control group and dosed...... be measured in the kidney compared to the calculated total intake was as follows: Control 2.0 %, Crushed linseed 0.9 %, whole linseed, 1.5 %, cocoa 0.7 % and CdCl2 4.6 %. Based on this study it could not be concluded that the bioavailability in rats form whole linseed is lower that for crushed linseed...

  17. FDTD calculations of specific energy absorption rate in a seated voxel model of the human body from 10 MHz to 3 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, R P; Dimbylow, P J [Health Protection Agency, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-07

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations have been performed to investigate the frequency dependence of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in a seated voxel model of the human body. The seated model was derived from NORMAN (NORmalized MAN), an anatomically realistic voxel phantom in the standing posture with arms to the side. Exposure conditions included both vertically and horizontally polarized plane wave electric fields between 10 MHz and 3 GHz. The resolution of the voxel model was 4 mm for frequencies up to 360 MHz and 2 mm for calculations in the higher frequency range. The reduction in voxel size permitted the calculation of SAR at these higher frequencies using the FDTD method. SAR values have been calculated for the seated adult phantom and scaled versions representing 10-, 5- and 1-year-old children under isolated and grounded conditions. These scaled models do not exactly reproduce the dimensions and anatomy of children, but represent good geometric information for a seated child. Results show that, when the field is vertically polarized, the sitting position causes a second, smaller resonance condition not seen in resonance curves for the phantom in the standing posture. This occurs at {approx}130 MHz for the adult model when grounded. Partial-body SAR calculations indicate that the upper and lower regions of the body have their own resonant frequency at {approx}120 MHz and {approx}160 MHz, respectively, when the grounded adult model is orientated in the sitting position. These combine to produce this second resonance peak in the whole-body averaged SAR values calculated. Two resonance peaks also occur for the sitting posture when the incident electric field is horizontally polarized. For the adult model, the peaks in the whole-body averaged SAR occur at {approx}180 and {approx}600 MHz. These peaks are due to resonance in the arms and feet, respectively. Layer absorption plots and colour images of SAR in individual voxels show the

  18. FDTD calculations of specific energy absorption rate in a seated voxel model of the human body from 10 MHz to 3 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, R P; Dimbylow, P J

    2006-01-01

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations have been performed to investigate the frequency dependence of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in a seated voxel model of the human body. The seated model was derived from NORMAN (NORmalized MAN), an anatomically realistic voxel phantom in the standing posture with arms to the side. Exposure conditions included both vertically and horizontally polarized plane wave electric fields between 10 MHz and 3 GHz. The resolution of the voxel model was 4 mm for frequencies up to 360 MHz and 2 mm for calculations in the higher frequency range. The reduction in voxel size permitted the calculation of SAR at these higher frequencies using the FDTD method. SAR values have been calculated for the seated adult phantom and scaled versions representing 10-, 5- and 1-year-old children under isolated and grounded conditions. These scaled models do not exactly reproduce the dimensions and anatomy of children, but represent good geometric information for a seated child. Results show that, when the field is vertically polarized, the sitting position causes a second, smaller resonance condition not seen in resonance curves for the phantom in the standing posture. This occurs at ∼130 MHz for the adult model when grounded. Partial-body SAR calculations indicate that the upper and lower regions of the body have their own resonant frequency at ∼120 MHz and ∼160 MHz, respectively, when the grounded adult model is orientated in the sitting position. These combine to produce this second resonance peak in the whole-body averaged SAR values calculated. Two resonance peaks also occur for the sitting posture when the incident electric field is horizontally polarized. For the adult model, the peaks in the whole-body averaged SAR occur at ∼180 and ∼600 MHz. These peaks are due to resonance in the arms and feet, respectively. Layer absorption plots and colour images of SAR in individual voxels show the specific regions in which the

  19. Cadmium plating replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, M.J.; Groshart, E.C.

    1995-03-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  20. Cadmium: The deformed metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbs, R L [Cadmium Association, London (UK)

    1979-03-01

    The paper, which is a somewhat abridged version of the introductory paper of the 2nd International Cadmium Conference in Cannes on February 6 to 8, 1979, outlines the present trends in production, reserves, consumption, world trade, prices, and cost. Due to the lack of statistics on the USSR and other socialist countries, the review is limited to the non-socialist world.

  1. zinc, chromium, cadmium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... Cadmium also causes destruction of the immune system, thus, predisposes the consumer to infectious diseases like tuberculosis (Khan et al., 2008). ... years, sputum specimens positive for acid-fast bacilli by microscopy and clinical and radiographic abnormalities consistent with pulmonary tuberculosis.

  2. Accounting for many-body correlation effects in the calculation of the valence band photoelectron emission spectra of ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minar, J.; Chadov, S.; Ebert, H.; Chioncel, L.; Lichtenstein, A.; De Nadai, C.; Brookes, N.B.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of dynamical correlation effects on the valence band photoelectron emission of ferromagnetic Fe, Co and Ni has been investigated. Angle-resolved as well as angle-integrated valence band photoelectron emission spectra were calculated on the basis of the one-particle Green's function, which was obtained by using the fully relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method. The correlation effects have been included in terms of the electronic self-energy which was calculated self-consistently within Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (DMFT). In addition a theoretical approach to calculate high-energy angle-resolved valence band photoelectron emission spectra is presented

  3. Molecular basis of cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, R; Prasad, R; Palinal, V K; Chopra, R K

    1984-01-01

    Cadmium has been shown to manifest its toxicity in human and animals by mainly accumulating in almost all of the organs. The kidney is the main target organ where it is concentrated mainly in the cortex. Environmental exposure of cadmium occurs via food, occupational industries, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem. At molecular level, cadmium interferes with the utilization of essential metals e.g. Ca, Zn, Se, Cr and Fe and deficiencies of these essential metals including protein and vitamins, exaggerate cadmium toxicity, due to its increased absorption through the gut and greater retention in different organs as metallothionein (Cd-Mt). Cadmium transport, across the intestinal and renal brush border membrane vesicles, is carrier mediated and it competes with zinc and calcium. It has been postulated that cadmium shares the same transport system. Cadmium inhibits protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and drug metabolizing enzymes in liver of animals. Chronic environmental exposure of cadmium produces hypertension in experimental animals. Functional changes accompanying cadmium nephropathy include low molecular weight proteinuria which is of tubular origin associated with excess excretion of proteins such as beta 2 microglobulin, metallothionein and high molecular weight proteinuria of glomerular origin (excretion of proteins such as albumin IgG, transferrin etc.). Recent data has shown that metallothionein is more nephrotoxic to animals. Cadmium is also toxic to central nervous system. It causes an alterations of cellular functions in lungs. Cadmium affects both humoral and cell mediated immune response in animals. Cadmium induces metallothionein in liver and kidney but under certain nutritional deficiencies like protein-calorie malnutrition and calcium deficiency, enhanced induction and greater accumulation of cadmium metallothionein has been observed.

  4. On the calculation of dynamic and heat loads on a three-dimensional body in a hypersonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocharov, A. N.; Bityurin, V. A.; Evstigneev, N. M.; Fortov, V. E.; Golovin, N. N.; Petrovskiy, V. P.; Ryabkov, O. I.; Teplyakov, I. O.; Shustov, A. A.; Solomonov, Yu S.

    2018-01-01

    We consider a three-dimensional body in a hypersonic flow at zero angle of attack. Our aim is to estimate heat and aerodynamic loads on specific body elements. We are considering a previously developed code to solve coupled heat- and mass-transfer problem. The change of the surface shape is taken into account by formation of the iterative process for the wall material ablation. The solution is conducted on the multi-graphics-processing-unit (multi-GPU) cluster. Five Mach number points are considered, namely for M = 20-28. For each point we estimate body shape after surface ablation, heat loads on the surface and aerodynamic loads on the whole body and its elements. The latter is done using Gauss-type quadrature on the surface of the body. The comparison of the results for different Mach numbers is performed. We also estimate the efficiency of the Navier-Stokes code on multi-GPU and central processing unit architecture for the coupled heat and mass transfer problem.

  5. An approach to calculating childhood body burdens of dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans which accounts for age-dependent biological half lives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paustenbach, D. [ChemRisk, San Francisco, CA (United States); Leung, H.W. [Leung, H.W. Private Consultant, Danbury, CT (United States); Scott, P. [ChemRisk, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kerger, B. [HSRI, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to apply an age-dependent half life model to examine the range of child (ages 0-7) body burdens that correspond to selected exposure scenarios involving background dietary and environmental doses of dioxins. The scenarios examined include breast-fed and nonbreast- fed infants feeding for 6 months, other dioxin uptake from foods through age 7, and exposures to urban residential soils at 1 ppb TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ). These body burden estimates in children are then compared to the adult body burden estimates corresponding to the range of tolerable daily intakes (1 to 4 pg TEQ/kg-day) proposed by some U.S. and international regulatory/advisory groups.

  6. Potentiometric stripping analysis of Cadmium and Lead in superficial waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, Juan Miguel; Marciales Castiblanco, Clara

    2003-01-01

    This paper contains the implementation and validation of an analytical method for determining cadmium and lead in surface waters. This is a valuable tool for the description of actual conditions and qualitative and quantitative control of dangerous heavy metals discharge in water bodies. Test were run for selecting stripping potentiometry conditions that as indicated by results were: sample oxidant concentration 36.4 μg/L Hg 2+ stirring frequency 2400 rpm, electrolysis time 80 s., electrolysis potential -950 mV and pH of 2.0. Interference of Cu 2+ and Fe 2+ showed that copper concentrations larger than 150 μg/L and 500 μg/L negatively influence the analytical response for Cadmium and lead respectively; [Fe 3+ ] larger than 60 μg/L and 400 μg/L cause variations in cadmium and lead read content respectively. Linear concentration range for cadmium lies between 5 and 250 μg/L; for lead range goes from 10 to 250 μg/L. Precision expressed as repeatability for both system and method, exhibit good reproducibility with variation coefficients below 6%. Accuracy, assessed from recuperation, is strongly influenced by concentration level therefore standard addition is recommended for lead and cadmium quantification. Analysis performed on surface waters from Colombian Magdalena and Cauca rivers pointed lead and cadmium contents below detection limits

  7. Relativistic multireference many-body perturbation theory calculations on F-, Ne-, Na-, Mg-, Al-, Si- and P-like xenon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilkas, Marius J; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Traebert, Elmar

    2006-01-01

    Many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) has been employed to calculate with high wavelength accuracy the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra of F-like to P-like Xe ions. We discuss the reliability of the new calculations using the example of EUV beam-foil spectra of Xe, in which n = 3, Δn = 0 transitions of Na-, Mg-, Al- and Si-like ions have been found to dominate. A further comparison is made with spectra from an electron beam ion trap, that is, from a device with a very different (low density) excitation balance

  8. Simultaneous description of conductance and thermopower in single-molecule junctions from many-body ab initio calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Chengjun; Markussen, Troels; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the electronic conductance and thermopower of a single-molecule junction consisting of bis-(4-aminophenyl) acetylene (B4APA) connected to gold electrodes. We use nonequilibrium Green's function methods in combination with density-functional theory (DFT) and the many-body GW...

  9. Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkman, H; Iverfeldt, Aa [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. (Sweden); Borg, H; Lithner, G [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Applied Environmental Research

    1998-03-01

    This report aims at assessing possible effects of cadmium in the Swedish environment. Swedish soils and soft freshwater systems are, due to a generally poor buffering capacity, severely affected by acidification. In addition, the low salinity in the Baltic Sea imply a naturally poor organism structure, with some important organisms living close to their limit of physiological tolerance. Cadmium in soils is mobilized at low pH, and the availability and toxicity of cadmium in marine systems are enhanced at low salinity. The Swedish environment is therefore extra vulnerable to cadmium pollution. The average concentrations of cadmium in the forest mor layers, agricultural soils, and fresh-waters in Sweden are enhanced compared to `back-ground concentrations`, with a general increasing trend from the north to the south-west, indicating strong impact of atmospheric deposition of cadmium originating from the central parts of Europe. In Swedish sea water, total cadmium concentrations, and the fraction of bio-available `free` cadmium, generally increases with decreasing salinity. Decreased emissions of cadmium to the environment have led to decreasing atmospheric deposition during the last decade. The net accumulation of cadmium in the forest mor layer has stopped, and even started to decrease. In northern Sweden, this is due to the decreased deposition, but in southern Sweden the main reason is increased leakage of cadmium from the topsoil as a consequence of acidification. As a result, cadmium in the Swedish environments is undergoing an extended redistribution between different soil compartments, and from the soils to the aquatic systems. 90 refs, 23 figs, 2 tabs. With 3 page summary in Swedish

  10. Vibrational spectra of halide-water dimers: Insights on ion hydration from full-dimensional quantum calculations on many-body potential energy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Pushp; Wang, Xiao-Gang; Carrington, Tucker; Paesani, Francesco

    2018-03-01

    Full-dimensional vibrational spectra are calculated for both X-(H2O) and X-(D2O) dimers (X = F, Cl, Br, I) at the quantum-mechanical level. The calculations are carried out on two sets of recently developed potential energy functions (PEFs), namely, Thole-type model energy (TTM-nrg) and many-body energy (MB-nrg), using the symmetry-adapted Lanczos algorithm with a product basis set including all six vibrational coordinates. Although both TTM-nrg and MB-nrg PEFs are derived from coupled-cluster single double triple-F12 data obtained in the complete basis set limit, they differ in how many-body effects are represented at short range. Specifically, while both models describe long-range interactions through the combination of two-body dispersion and many-body classical electrostatics, the relatively simple Born-Mayer functions employed in the TTM-nrg PEFs to represent short-range interactions are replaced in the MB-nrg PEFs by permutationally invariant polynomials to achieve chemical accuracy. For all dimers, the MB-nrg vibrational spectra are in close agreement with the available experimental data, correctly reproducing anharmonic and nuclear quantum effects. In contrast, the vibrational frequencies calculated with the TTM-nrg PEFs exhibit significant deviations from the experimental values. The comparison between the TTM-nrg and MB-nrg results thus reinforces the notion that an accurate representation of both short-range interactions associated with electron density overlap and long-range many-body electrostatic interactions is necessary for a correct description of hydration phenomena at the molecular level.

  11. Nuclear structure calculations with a sum of Sussex interaction and 3-body delta force: binding energies of closed-shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.

    1978-01-01

    The Sussex matrix elements lack saturation property because of the missing short-range strong repulsion. It is demonstrated that the 3-body repulsive delta force may be used to simulate the effect of the short-range repulsion. When the delta force is added to the Sussex interaction the results are almost identical with those obtained earlier by first calculating a G-matrix from the hard core and then adding this to the old Sussex matrix elements. (author)

  12. Cadmium: The deformed metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbs, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The paper, which is a somewhat abridged version of the introductory paper of the 2nd International Cadmium Conference in Cannes on February 6 to 8, 1979, outlines the present trends in production, reserves, consumption, world trade, prices, and cost. Due to the lack of statistics on the USSR and other socialist countries, the review is limited to the non-socialist world. (orig./IHOE) [de

  13. A method of self-pursued boundary value on a body and the Magnus effect calculated with this method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Fumio; Hayashi, Tatsuo; Waka, Ryoji

    1991-03-01

    A computational method, designated 'SPB', is proposed for the automatic determination of the stream function Phi on an arbitrarily profiled body without recourse to empirical factors. The method is applied to the case of a rotating, circular cross-section cylinder in a uniform shear flow, and the results obtained are compared with those of both the method in which the value of Phi is fixed on a body and the conventional empirical method; it is in view of this established that the SPB method is very efficient and applicable to both steady and unsteady flows. The SPB method, in addition to yielding the aerodynamic forces acting on a cylinder, shows that the Magnus effect lift force decreases as the velocity gradient of the shear flow increases while the cylinder's rotational speed is kept constant.

  14. Electron correlation in molecules: concurrent computation Many-Body Perturbation Theory (ccMBPT) calculations using macrotasking on the NEC SX-3/44 computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncrieff, D.; Wilson, S.

    1992-06-01

    The ab initio determination of the electronic structure of molecules is a many-fermion problem involving the approximate description of the motion of the electrons in the field of fixed nuclei. It is an area of research which demands considerable computational resources but having enormous potential in fields as diverse as interstellar chemistry and drug design, catalysis and solid state chemistry, molecular biology and environmental chemistry. Electronic structure calculations almost invariably divide into two main stages: the approximate solution of an independent electron model, in which each electron moves in the average field created by the other electrons in the system, and then, the more computationally demanding determination of a series of corrections to this model, the electron correlation effects. The many-body perturbation theory expansion affords a systematic description of correlation effects, which leads directly to algorithms which are suitable for concurrent computation. We term this concurrent computation Many-Body Perturbation Theory (ccMBPT). The use of a dynamic load balancing technique on the NEC SX-3/44 computer in electron correlation calculations is investigated for the calculation of the most demanding energy component in the most accurate of contemporary ab initio studies. An application to the ground state of the nitrogen molecule is described. We also briefly discuss the extent to which the calculation of the dominant corrections to such studies can be rendered computationally tractable by exploiting both the vector processing and parallel processor capabilities of the NEC SX-3/44 computer. (author)

  15. Striking association between urinary cadmium level and albuminuria among Torres Strait Islander people with diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haswell-Elkins, Melissa; Satarug, Soisungwan; O'Rourke, Peter; Moore, Michael; Ng, Jack; McGrath, Victor; Walmby, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Indigenous people of the Torres Strait (Australia) have greater potential for cadmium exposure and renal damage than other Australians due to high cadmium in some traditional seafood and a high prevalence of Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and obesity. This study explored associations between albuminuria and an index of cadmium exposure (urinary cadmium excretion) in the presence and absence of Type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods: Two population-based, cross-sectional studies were undertaken in the Torres Strait to obtain data on body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, chronic disease, smoking, urinary cadmium, and albumin creatinine ratio (ACR). Results: Age- and BMI-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were significantly higher (p<0.01) among people with diabetes and albuminuria (n=22, geometric mean (GM) 1.91 μg Cd/g creatinine) compared to those with diabetes and normal ACR (n=21, GM 0.74 μg Cd/g creatinine). Urinary cadmium was also strongly associated (p<0.001) with ACR among people with diabetes in regression models and remained significant after controlling for age, sex, BMI, smoking status, and hypertension (or continuous systolic and diastolic measurements). Conclusions: While the study has methodological limitations and the nature of the association is unclear, the striking dose-dependent links between markers of cadmium exposure and of Type 2 diabetic nephropathy highlight the need for further definitive research on the health effects of cadmium in the presence of diabetes

  16. An experimental study of the retention of zinc, zinc-cadmium mixture and zinc-65 in the presence of cadmium in Anguilla anguilla (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pally, Monique; Foulquier, Luc

    1976-07-01

    Zinc uptake was studied in eels in fresh water, using stable zinc, a zinc-cadmium mixture, and zinc 65 in the presence of small amounts of cadmium. The zinc content in the eel began to increase after 45 days only, and reached approximately 85 ppm after 76 days in water initially containing 5ppm of zinc. At the conclusion of the experiment (76 days), the body organs could be classified in decreasing order in zinc content (in ppm): kidneys (152), skeleton (133), skin (129), muscles (89), head (80), gills (78), digestive tract (77), liver (63) spleen-heart-air bladder (32), and mucus (15). A comparison of experimental results obtained with the zinc-cadmium mixture and cadmium alone showed that zinc decreased the cadmium content of all organs except the gills. The presence of cadmium in water did not inhibit zinc uptake. As cadmium content in water increased, then zinc content in the digestive tract and the kidneys decreased and in all cases remained lower than when zinc alone was present. In the presence of cadmium the percentage of zinc in the kidneys was always lower than the value obtained for zinc alone, and that of the digestive tract did not increase. Contamination of eels treated with 18 and 50ppb of cadmium for 29 days, then contaminated by zinc-65 (5μCi/l) while maintaining the same low cadmium content, showed no significant difference in zinc 65 uptake in the two groups. The same applied to the body organs, and particularly the digestive tract and kidneys, where the highest activity levels were observed. By weight, muscles represented approximately 30% of the total contamination after 45 days [fr

  17. Blood Cadmium Is Associated with Osteoporosis in Obese Males but Not in Non-Obese Males: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Jun; Han, Sang-Hwan

    2015-09-28

    Osteoporosis in males is becoming an important health concern in an aging society. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between cadmium exposure and osteoporosis by considering the effect of obesity in aged males using a representative sample of the Korean population. Using the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 1098 males over 50 years of age were analyzed. The blood cadmium concentration was measured. The bone mineral density in the total hip, femur neck, and lumbar spine was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. T-scores to determine the presence of osteoporosis were calculated using a Korean reference. Subjects were stratified into two groups according to obesity status (body mass index obese subjects with blood cadmium 1.50 μg/L had odds ratios of 4.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-14.01) and 5.71 (95% CI 1.99-16.38) at the femur neck and any site, respectively, after adjusting for potential confounders such as age, serum creatinine, vitamin D deficiency, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity level. However, this association was not significant in non-obese males. In conclusion, the effect of cadmium on osteoporosis was different by obesity status in aged males.

  18. Blood Cadmium Is Associated with Osteoporosis in Obese Males but Not in Non-Obese Males: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Jun; Han, Sang-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis in males is becoming an important health concern in an aging society. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between cadmium exposure and osteoporosis by considering the effect of obesity in aged males using a representative sample of the Korean population. Using the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 1089 males over 50 years of age were analyzed. The blood cadmium concentration was measured. The bone mineral density in the total hip, femur neck, and lumbar spine was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. T-scores to determine the presence of osteoporosis were calculated using a Korean reference. Subjects were stratified into two groups according to obesity status (body mass index obese subjects with blood cadmium 1.50 μg/L had odds ratios of 4.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49–14.01) and 5.71 (95% CI 1.99–16.38) at the femur neck and any site, respectively, after adjusting for potential confounders such as age, serum creatinine, vitamin D deficiency, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity level. However, this association was not significant in non-obese males. In conclusion, the effect of cadmium on osteoporosis was different by obesity status in aged males. PMID:26426028

  19. Associations of urinary cadmium with circulating sex hormone levels in pre- and postmenopausal Japanese women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Chisato; Konishi, Kie; Goto, Yuko; Tamura, Takashi; Wada, Keiko; Hayashi, Makoto; Takeda, Noriyuki; Yasuda, Keigo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposure to cadmium has been suspected as a risk factor for breast cancer. The present study examined the associations between urinary cadmium levels and circulating sex hormone levels that are linked to breast cancer risk in healthy women. Methods: The study subjects were 396 premenopausal Japanese women who had regular menstrual cycles less than 40 days long and 207 postmenopausal Japanese women. Urinary cadmium was measured using spot urine samples. Plasma estradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were measured. Additionally, the follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured for premenopausal women. Results: In premenopausal women, the urinary cadmium level either expressed in μg per liter or per g of urine creatinine was significantly inversely associated with total and free testosterone levels after controlling for age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, and the phase of the menstrual cycle. Total and free testosterone levels were 14.6% and 15.0% lower, respectively, in women in the highest quartile of urinary cadmium per g creatinine in those in the lowest quartile. In postmenopausal women, the urinary cadmium in μg per liter as well as per g creatinine was significantly inversely associated with the estradiol level after controlling for covariates. The estradiol level was 25.8% lower in women in the highest tertile of urinary cadmium per g creatinine than in those in the lowest tertile. Conclusions: The data suggest inverse associations between urinary cadmium and the plasma estradiol or testosterone level in Japanese women. - Highlights: • Exposure to cadmium has been suspected as a risk factor for breast cancer. • Urinary cadmium and plasma sex-hormone levels were measured in Japanese women. • Urinary cadmium was inversely associated with testosterone in premenopausal women. • Urinary cadmium was inversely associated with estradiol in postmenopausal

  20. Associations of urinary cadmium with circulating sex hormone levels in pre- and postmenopausal Japanese women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Chisato, E-mail: chisato@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Epidemiology & Preventive Medicine, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Konishi, Kie; Goto, Yuko; Tamura, Takashi; Wada, Keiko [Department of Epidemiology & Preventive Medicine, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Hayashi, Makoto [Department of Internal Medicine, Matsunami General Hospital, Gifu (Japan); Takeda, Noriyuki [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Murakami Memorial Hospital, Asahi University, Gifu (Japan); Yasuda, Keigo [Department of Internal Medicine, Matsunami General Hospital, Gifu (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    Background: Exposure to cadmium has been suspected as a risk factor for breast cancer. The present study examined the associations between urinary cadmium levels and circulating sex hormone levels that are linked to breast cancer risk in healthy women. Methods: The study subjects were 396 premenopausal Japanese women who had regular menstrual cycles less than 40 days long and 207 postmenopausal Japanese women. Urinary cadmium was measured using spot urine samples. Plasma estradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were measured. Additionally, the follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured for premenopausal women. Results: In premenopausal women, the urinary cadmium level either expressed in μg per liter or per g of urine creatinine was significantly inversely associated with total and free testosterone levels after controlling for age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, and the phase of the menstrual cycle. Total and free testosterone levels were 14.6% and 15.0% lower, respectively, in women in the highest quartile of urinary cadmium per g creatinine in those in the lowest quartile. In postmenopausal women, the urinary cadmium in μg per liter as well as per g creatinine was significantly inversely associated with the estradiol level after controlling for covariates. The estradiol level was 25.8% lower in women in the highest tertile of urinary cadmium per g creatinine than in those in the lowest tertile. Conclusions: The data suggest inverse associations between urinary cadmium and the plasma estradiol or testosterone level in Japanese women. - Highlights: • Exposure to cadmium has been suspected as a risk factor for breast cancer. • Urinary cadmium and plasma sex-hormone levels were measured in Japanese women. • Urinary cadmium was inversely associated with testosterone in premenopausal women. • Urinary cadmium was inversely associated with estradiol in postmenopausal

  1. Effects of Nano-zinc on Biochemical Parameters in Cadmium-Exposed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazy, Marzie; Koohi, Mohammad Kazem

    2017-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic environmental and occupational pollutant with reported toxic effects on the kidneys, liver, lungs, bones, and the immunity system. Based on its physicochemical similarity to cadmium, zinc (Zn) shows protective effects against cadmium toxicity and cadmium accumulation in the body. Nano-zinc and nano-zinc oxide (ZnO), recently used in foods and pharmaceutical products, can release a great amount of Zn 2+ in their environment. This research was carried out to investigate the more potent properties of the metal zinc among sub-acute cadmium intoxicated rats. Seventy-five male Wistar rats were caged in 15 groups. Cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) was used in drinking water to induce cadmium toxicity. Different sizes (15, 20, and 30 nm) and doses of nano-zinc particles (3, 10, 100 mg/kg body weight [bw]) were administered solely and simultaneously with CdCl 2 (2-5 mg/kg bw) for 28 days. The experimental animals were decapitated, and the biochemical biomarkers (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) were determined in their serum after oral exposure to nano-zinc and cadmium. Statistical analysis was carried out with a one-way ANOVA and t test. P zinc-treated rats. AST, ALT, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, and free fatty acids increased significantly in the cadmium- and nano-zinc-treated rats compared with the controls. However, albumin, total protein, and HDLc significantly decreased in the cadmium- and nano-zinc-treated rats compared with the controls (P zinc, the smaller sizes with low doses and the larger sizes with high doses are more toxic than metallic zinc. In a few cases, an inverse dose-dependent relationship was seen as well. This research showed that in spite of larger sizes of zinc, smaller sizes of nano-zinc particles are not suitable for protection against cadmium intoxication.

  2. Relativistic many-body calculation of energies, transition rates, lifetimes, and multipole polarizabilities in Cs-like La iii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronova, U. I.; Safronova, M. S.

    2014-05-01

    Excitation energies of the [Xe]nd (n =5-9), [Xe]ns (n =6-10), [Xe]np (n =6-9), [Xe]nf (n =4-8), and [Xe]ng (n =5-8) states in La iii, where [Xe] = 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s25p6, are evaluated. Electric dipole matrix elements for the allowed transitions between the low-lying [Xe]nd, [Xe]ns, [Xe]np, [Xe]nf, and [Xe]ng states in the La iii ion are calculated using the high-precision relativistic all-order method where all single, double, and partial triple excitations of the Dirac-Fock wave functions are included to all orders of perturbation theory. Recommended values are provided for a large number of electric dipole matrix elements, oscillator strengths, transition rates, and lifetimes. Scalar and tensor polarizabilities of the states listed above are evaluated. The uncertainties of the recommended values are estimated. Electric quadrupole and magnetic dipole matrix elements are calculated to determine lifetimes of the 5d5/2 and 6s metastable levels. The ground-state E1, E2, and E3 static polarizabilities are calculated. This work provides recommended values critically evaluated for their accuracy for a number of La iii atomic properties for use in planning and analysis of various experiments as well as theoretical modeling.

  3. Whole body MR-PET: a new internal dosimetry method for radiation transport calculation from biokinetic model data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Ana; Alves, Francisco; Patrício, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    In order to ensure the safe usage of new radiopharmaceuticals in Positron Emission Tomography (PET), it is necessary to quantify the doses delivered to the organs and tissues within the patients’ bodies. A framework that allows estimating the dose delivered by PET has been established by the MIRD Committee [1, 2] and ICRP []. Although this covers the most important terms and concepts in Internal Radiation Dosimetry (IRD), it does not provide a detailed guide to assist in the development of a full dosimetric study. We discuss the development, implementation, assessment and validation of an accurate method for IRD studies of PET radiotracers.

  4. Plant science: the key to preventing slow cadmium poisoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clemens, S.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Thomine, S.; Verbruggen, N.

    2013-01-01

    Practically all human populations are environmentally exposed to cadmium (Cd), mostly through plant-derived food. A growing body of epidemiological evidence suggests that there is no margin of safety between current Cd exposure levels and the threshold for adverse health effects and, hence, there is

  5. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eum, Ki-Do; Lee, Mi-Sun; Paek, Domyung

    2008-01-01

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 μg/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 μg/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population

  6. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eum, Ki-Do; Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Domyung [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: paekdm@snu.ac.kr

    2008-12-15

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 {mu}g/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 {mu}g/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population.

  7. Model calculations of doubly closed shell nuclei in the integral-differential equation approach describing the two body correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizzi, R.; Fabre de la Ripelle, M.; Lassaut, M.

    1999-01-01

    The binding energies and root mean square radii obtained from the Integro-Differential Equation Approach (IDEA) and from the Weight Function Approximation (WFA) of the IDEA for an even number of bosons and for 12 C, 16 O and 40 Ca are compared to those recently obtained by the Variational Monte Carlo, Fermi Hypernetted Chain and Coupled Cluster expansion method with model potentials. The IDEA provides numbers very similar to those obtained by other methods although it takes only two-body correlations into account. The analytical expression of the wave function for the WFA is given for bosons in ground state when the interaction pair is outside the potential range. Due to its simple structure, the equations of the IDEA can easily be extended to realistic interaction for nuclei like it has already been done for the tri-nucleon and the 4 He. (authors)

  8. Soil ecotoxicity assessment using cadmium sensitive plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Youn-Joo

    2004-01-01

    The crop plants, sorghum and cucumber, can be used as indicator species to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by cadmium. - Four crop plant species (sweet corn, Zea may; wheat, Triticum aestivum; cucumber, Cucumis sativus; and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) were tested to assess an ecotoxicity in cadmium-amended soils. The measurement endpoints used were seed germination and seedling growth (shoot and root). The presence of cadmium decreased the seedling growth. The medium effective concentration values (EC50) for shoot or root growth were calculated by the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method. Due to the greater accumulation of Cd to the roots, root growth was a more sensitive endpoint than shoot growth. Bioavailability and transport of Cd within plant were related to concentration and species. The ratio of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in the shoots to the roots indicated high immobilization of Cd in the roots. Seed germination was insensitive to Cd toxicity, and is not recommended for a suitable assay. Among the test plants and test endpoints, root growth of sorghum and cucumber appears to be a good protocol to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by Cd.

  9. Soil ecotoxicity assessment using cadmium sensitive plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Youn-Joo

    2004-01-01

    The crop plants, sorghum and cucumber, can be used as indicator species to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by cadmium. - Four crop plant species (sweet corn, Zea may; wheat, Triticum aestivum; cucumber, Cucumis sativus; and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) were tested to assess an ecotoxicity in cadmium-amended soils. The measurement endpoints used were seed germination and seedling growth (shoot and root). The presence of cadmium decreased the seedling growth. The medium effective concentration values (EC50) for shoot or root growth were calculated by the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method. Due to the greater accumulation of Cd to the roots, root growth was a more sensitive endpoint than shoot growth. Bioavailability and transport of Cd within plant were related to concentration and species. The ratio of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in the shoots to the roots indicated high immobilization of Cd in the roots. Seed germination was insensitive to Cd toxicity, and is not recommended for a suitable assay. Among the test plants and test endpoints, root growth of sorghum and cucumber appears to be a good protocol to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by Cd

  10. Substrate Screening Effects in ab initio Many-body Green's Function Calculations of Doped Graphene on SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil-Fowler, Derek; Lischner, Johannes; Louie, Steven

    2013-03-01

    Understanding many-electron interaction effects and the influence of the substrate in graphene-on-substrate systems is of great theoretical and practical interest. Thus far, both model Hamiltonian and ab initio GW calculations for the quasiparticle properties of such systems have employed crude models for the effect of the substrate, often approximating the complicated substrate dielectric matrix by a single constant. We develop a method in which the spatially-dependent dielectric matrix of the substrate (e.g., SiC) is incorporated into that of doped graphene to obtain an accurate total dielectric matrix. We present ab initio GW + cumulant expansion calculations, showing that both the cumulant expansion (to include higher-order electron correlations) and a proper account of the substrate screening are needed to achieve agreement with features seen in ARPES. We discuss how this methodology could be used in other systems. This work was supported by NSF Grant No. DMR10-1006184 and U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Computational resources have been provided by the NERSC and NICS. D.V-F. acknowledges funding from the DOD's NDSEG fellowship.

  11. The Calculation of Single-Nucleon Energies of Nuclei by Considering Two-Body Effective Interaction, n(k,ρ, and a Hartree-Fock Inspired Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mariji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nucleon single-particle energies (SPEs of the selected nuclei, that is, O16, Ca40, and Ni56, are obtained by using the diagonal matrix elements of two-body effective interaction, which generated through the lowest-order constrained variational (LOCV calculations for the symmetric nuclear matter with the Aυ18 phenomenological nucleon-nucleon potential. The SPEs at the major levels of nuclei are calculated by employing a Hartree-Fock inspired scheme in the spherical harmonic oscillator basis. In the scheme, the correlation influences are taken into account by imposing the nucleon effective mass factor on the radial wave functions of the major levels. Replacing the density-dependent one-body momentum distribution functions of nucleons, n(k,ρ, with the Heaviside functions, the role of n(k,ρ in the nucleon SPEs at the major levels of the selected closed shell nuclei is investigated. The best fit of spin-orbit splitting is taken into account when correcting the major levels of the nuclei by using the parameterized Wood-Saxon potential and the Aυ18 density-dependent mean field potential which is constructed by the LOCV method. Considering the point-like protons in the spherical Coulomb potential well, the single-proton energies are corrected. The results show the importance of including n(k,ρ, instead of the Heaviside functions, in the calculation of nucleon SPEs at the different levels, particularly the valence levels, of the closed shell nuclei.

  12. SU-F-T-545: Dosimetric and Radiobiological Evaluation of Dose Calculation Algorithms On Prostate Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Using Conventional Flattened and Flattening-Filter-Free Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S; Suh, T; Chung, J; Eom, K; Lee, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dosimetric and radiobiological impact of Acuros XB (AXB) and Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm (AAA) dose calculation algorithms on prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy plans with both conventional flattened (FF) and flattening-filter free (FFF) modes. Methods: For thirteen patients with prostate cancer, SBRT planning was performed using 10-MV photon beam with FF and FFF modes. The total dose prescribed to the PTV was 42.7 Gy in 7 fractions. All plans were initially calculated using AAA algorithm in Eclipse treatment planning system (11.0.34), and then were re-calculated using AXB with the same MUs and MLC files. The four types of plans for different algorithms and beam energies were compared in terms of homogeneity and conformity. To evaluate the radiobiological impact, the tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) calculations were performed. Results: For PTV, both calculation algorithms and beam modes lead to comparable homogeneity and conformity. However, the averaged TCP values in AXB plans were always lower than in AAA plans with an average difference of 5.3% and 6.1% for 10-MV FFF and FF beam, respectively. In addition, the averaged NTCP values for organs at risk (OARs) were comparable. Conclusion: This study showed that prostate SBRT plan were comparable dosimetric results with different dose calculation algorithms as well as delivery beam modes. For biological results, even though NTCP values for both calculation algorithms and beam modes were similar, AXB plans produced slightly lower TCP compared to the AAA plans.

  13. SU-F-T-545: Dosimetric and Radiobiological Evaluation of Dose Calculation Algorithms On Prostate Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Using Conventional Flattened and Flattening-Filter-Free Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, S; Suh, T [The catholic university of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, J; Eom, K [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J [Konkuk University Medical Center (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dosimetric and radiobiological impact of Acuros XB (AXB) and Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm (AAA) dose calculation algorithms on prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy plans with both conventional flattened (FF) and flattening-filter free (FFF) modes. Methods: For thirteen patients with prostate cancer, SBRT planning was performed using 10-MV photon beam with FF and FFF modes. The total dose prescribed to the PTV was 42.7 Gy in 7 fractions. All plans were initially calculated using AAA algorithm in Eclipse treatment planning system (11.0.34), and then were re-calculated using AXB with the same MUs and MLC files. The four types of plans for different algorithms and beam energies were compared in terms of homogeneity and conformity. To evaluate the radiobiological impact, the tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) calculations were performed. Results: For PTV, both calculation algorithms and beam modes lead to comparable homogeneity and conformity. However, the averaged TCP values in AXB plans were always lower than in AAA plans with an average difference of 5.3% and 6.1% for 10-MV FFF and FF beam, respectively. In addition, the averaged NTCP values for organs at risk (OARs) were comparable. Conclusion: This study showed that prostate SBRT plan were comparable dosimetric results with different dose calculation algorithms as well as delivery beam modes. For biological results, even though NTCP values for both calculation algorithms and beam modes were similar, AXB plans produced slightly lower TCP compared to the AAA plans.

  14. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  15. Cadmium and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safaya, N.M.; McLean, J.E.; Halverson, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Cadmium and zinc are naturally occurring trace metals that are often considered together because of their close geochemical association and similarities in chemical reactivity. The loss of two electrons from an atom of Cd or Zn imparts to each an electron configuration with completely filled d orbitals; this results in a highly stable 2/sup +/ oxidation state. But Cd and Zn differ greatly in their significance to biological systems. Whereas Zn is an essential nutrient for plants, animals, and humans, Cd is best known for its toxicity to plants and as a causative agent of several disease syndromes in animals and humans

  16. In vivo monitoring of heavy metals in man: cadmium and mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Cohn, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Direct in vivo measurements of selected heavy metals is possible by nuclear analytical techniques. In particular, cadmium and mercury are retained in the body in sufficient quantities for their detection by neutron activation analysis. Autopsy data on cadmium of adult male non-smokers living in the US indicates an average body burden of 30 mg by age 50. The distribution of cadmium in the body, however, is nonuniform, approximately 50% being located in the kidneys and liver. The increased concentration of cadmium within these organs has made possible the direct in vivo measurements of this metal by prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA). At present, in vivo determinations of mercury have been performed on phantoms only. These in vivo techniques provide a unique method of obtaining accurate organ burden data in humans that can be related to the toxicological effects of these metals

  17. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kisok

    2012-01-01

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07–1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  18. Interaction of chelating agents with cadmium in mice and rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eybl, V.; Sykora, J.; Koutensky, J.; Caisova, D.; Schwartz, A.; Mertl, F.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of several chelating agents (CaDTPA, ZnDTPA, CaEDTA, ZnEDTA, DMSA, D-penicillamine and DMPS, DMP and DDC) on the acute toxicity of CdCl 2 and on the whole body retention and tissue distribution of cadmium after the IV application of /sup 115mCdCl 2 was compared in mice. The chelating agents were applied immediately after the application of cadmium. CaDTPA, ZnDTPA and DMSA appeared to be the most effective antidotes. However, DMSA increased the amount of cadmium retained in kidneys. The treatement of cadmium-poisoned mice with the combination of DMSA (IP) and ZnDTPA (SC) (all the compounds were injected in equimolar dose) decreased the toxicity of cadmium more than treatment with one chelating agents (given in a 2:1 dose). However, by studying the effect of these chelating agents and their combination application of the antidotes showed little or no improvement over the results obtained with the most effective of the individual components. In the urine of rats injected with CdCl 2 and treated with the chelating agents (CaDTPA, ZnDTPA, DMSA), the presence of cadmium complexes was demonstrated. The formation of mixed ligand chelates in vivo was not proved. Experiments in mice given a single injection of /sup 115m/Cd-labeled Cd complexes of DMPS, DMSA and DTPA showed a high retention of cadmium in the organisms after the IV application of CdDMPS and CdDMSA complexes

  19. Interaction of chelating agents with cadmium in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eybl, V; Sýkora, J; Koutenský, J; Caisová, D; Schwartz, A; Mertl, F

    1984-01-01

    The influence of several chelating agents (CaDTPA, ZnDTPA, CaEDTA, ZnEDTA, DMSA, D-penicillamine and DMPS, DMP and DDC) on the acute toxicity of CdCl2 and on the whole body retention and tissue distribution of cadmium after the IV application of 115mCdCl2 was compared in mice. The chelating agents were applied immediately after the application of cadmium. CaDTPA, ZnDTPA and DMSA appeared to be the most effective antidotes. However, DMSA increased the amount of cadmium retained in kidneys. The treatment of cadmium-poisoned mice with the combination of DMSA (IP) and ZnDTPA (SC) (all the compounds were injected in equimolar dose) decreased the toxicity of cadmium more than treatment with one chelating agents (given in a 2:1 dose). However, by studying the effect of these chelating agents and their combination of the retention and distribution of Cd in mice, it was demonstrated that the combined application of the antidotes showed little or no improvement over the results obtained with the most effective of the individual components. In the urine of rats injected with CdCl2 and treated with the chelating agents (CaDTPA, ZnDTPA, DMSA), the presence of cadmium complexes was demonstrated. The formation of mixed ligand chelates in vivo was not proved. Experiments in mice given a single injection of 115mCd-labeled Cd complexes of DMPS, DMSA and DTPA showed a high retention of cadmium in the organisms after the IV application of CdDMPS and CdDMSA complexes. PMID:6734561

  20. Accurate alpha sticking fractions from improved three-body calculations relevant for muon catalyzed fusion. Progress report, September 1, 1985-August 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szalewicz, K.; Monkhorst, H.J.

    1986-04-01

    A solution of the Coulomb three-body problem is the beginning point for calculations of sticking fractions in muon catalyzed fusion. The basis set is constructed from the following functions xi/sup r/n/sup s/e/sup - αxi - β n/R/sup -3 /2//H/sub eta/(x)exp(-x 2 /2), where xi and eta are elliptic coordinates of muon, R is the internuclear distance, H/sub eta/ is the nth Hermite polynomial, and x = γ (R-R/sub e/). The nonlinear parameters α, β, γ, and R/sub e/ are to be optimized. 21 refs., 1 tab

  1. Uptake of cadmium from a dietary and soluble source by the crustacean Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, G.C.; Shore, P.; Chandra, H.

    1986-01-01

    Daphnia were exposed to radioactively labeled cadmium in solution and in the presence of Chlorella which had been preloaded with the metal to varying extents. Illuminated algal cells retained the cadmium and greatly reduced its availability to the daphnids. Autoradiographic evidence was obtained which implicated the exoskeleton as a major sink for the cadmium taken up from solution. Cadmium in solution at a concentration close to the 48 hr LC 50 level did not affect respiration during the first 6 hr of exposure. Retention patterns were similar, regardless of the source of cadmium, but ecdysis resulted in a considerable loss of body burden provided that this had been acquired via a predominantly soluble route

  2. Bio-prospectus of cadmium bioadsorption by lactic acid bacteria to mitigate health and environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narendra; Kumari, Vandna; Ram, Chand; Thakur, Kiran; Tomar, Sudhir Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Foodstuffs and water are the key sources of cadmium biomagnifiaction. The available strategies to mitigate this problem are unproductive and expensive for practical large-scale use. Biological decontamination of metals through environmental microbes has been known since long time, whereas lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have not been extensively studied for this purpose. The LAB are known for maintaining homeostasis and suppression of pathogens in humans and animals. They also play a vital role in bioremediation of certain heavy metals. Recently in-vivo research findings strongly complement the in-vitro results in relation to decreased total body cadmium burden in animal model. This review summarizes the currently available information on impact of toxic metal (Cd) on human and animal health as well as cadmium sequestration through microbes placed broadly, whereas preeminent attention grabbed on LAB-cadmium interaction to explore their possible role in bioremediation of cadmium from foods and environment to safeguard human as well as environment health.

  3. Optical characterisation of thin film cadmium oxide prepared by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The optical transmission spectra of transparent conducting cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films deposited by a modified reactive evaporation process onto glass substrates have been measured. The interference fringes were used to calculate the refractive index, thickness variation, average thickness and absorption coefficient ...

  4. First-principles calculations of (Y, Ti, O) cluster formation in body centred cubic iron-chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claisse, Antoine; Olsson, Pär

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, the ab initio parametrization necessary for a Monte Carlo study of the (Y, Ti, O) clusters in a FeCr matrix is done. The cohesive, binding and migration energies of all the solutes have been calculated in the dilute limit in the framework of density functional theory. The special case of the strong interaction between an Y atom and a vacancy has been considered. In the dilute limit, Cr is transparent with respect to Y, Ti, O or vacancies. On the contrary, Y binds O strongly in 2NN configuration while not in 1NN. Ti binds O in 1NN and 2NN configurations. A vacancy binds strongly with Y and O in 1NN position which is resulting in a low diffusion coefficient for Y. The peculiar case of the binding attraction between two interstitial oxygen atoms has been studied and is believed to be the main reason for the planar (2D) symmetry of the cluster nuclei. A preferential cluster shape is determined for the early nucleation stage, up to 12 atoms

  5. Cadmium immobilization by hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smičiklas Ivana D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of air, soil and water by cadmium is a great environmental problem. If cadmium occurs in nature in ionic form, soluble in water, it easily enters into the food chain. Hydroxyapatite (HAP, Ca-o(POAe(OH2 is a sparingly soluble salt and an excellent matrix for the removal of heavy metals from solutions. Considerable research attention has been paid to the bond between Cc/2+ ions and synthetic hydroxyapatite of known composition. The sorption mechanism is complex. The dominant process is ion exchange, but surface adsorption, surface complexation and coprecipitation can also contribute to the overall mechanism. The sorption capacity depends on the characteristics of hydroxyapatite itself and on the experimental conditions. Under optimum conditions a maximum capacity of 0.8 mol Cd2+/mol HAP can be achieved. HAP is a potential sorbent for the remediation of contaminated water and soil, for industrial waste treatment, and it is also referenced as a material that can be used as a barrier around waste depositories.

  6. Cadmium colours: composition and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, J.; Knuutinen, U.

    2004-01-01

    The composition and the properties of cadmium aquarelle colours are discussed. The examined colours were 24 different aquarelle cadmium colours from six different manufacturers. The colours ranged from light, bright yellows to dark, deep-red tones. The aim of this research was to find out if the pigments contain cadmium salts: sulphides and/or selenides. This information will help in choosing watercolours in conservation processes. Today, aquarelle colours not containing cadmium pigments are being sold as cadmium colours; thus their properties might be different from actual cadmium colours. The aim of the research was to verify that the colour samples contained cadmium pigments and to estimate their compositions and ageing properties. Element analyses were performed from colour samples using micro-chemical tests and X-ray fluorescence measurements. Thin-layer chromatography was used for analysing gum Arabic as a possible binding medium in the chosen colour samples. Through ageing tests, the resistance of the colour samples to the exposure to light, heat and humidity was studied. Visible-light spectroscopy was used in determining the hues and hue changes of the aquarelle colour samples. The spectrophotometer used the CIE L * a * b * tone colour measuring system. From the colour measurements the changes in the lightness/darkness, the redness, the yellowness and the saturation of the samples were examined. (orig.)

  7. Valence electron momentum distributions in cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, L.; Weigold, E.; Mitroy, J.

    1982-08-01

    The valence 5s and 4d electron momentum distributions in cadmium have been measured using noncoplanar symmetric (e, 2e) electron coincidence spectroscopy at a total energy of 1200eV. They are in close agreement with Hartree-Fock momentum distributions both in shape and relative magnitudes. Some satellite lines of very low intensity have been detected. A CI calculation of the Cd ground state and several Cd + ion states has been carried out to predict cross reactions for the ground state and various satellite transitions. The predictions are in agreement with the data

  8. Reactivity of the cadmium ion in concentrated phosphoric acid solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gyves, J; Gonzales, J; Louis, C; Bessiere, J

    1989-07-01

    The solvation transfer coefficients which characterize the changes of ion reactivity with phosphoric acid concentration have been calculated for cadmium from the constants of the successive chloride complexes, and for silver and diethyldithiophosphate from potentiometric measurements. They evidence the strong desolvation of the cadmium species in concentrated phosphoric acid media, causing a remarkable increase of its reactivity. They allow the results of liquid-liquid extraction, precipitation and flotation reactions to be correctly interpreted and their changes to be foreseen when the reagents are modified.

  9. Research kinetic of motion of milling bodies in ball mill, outfit heat-exchange unit and calculation of its energy performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovich, A. A.; Romanovich, M. A.; Apukhtina, I. V.

    2018-03-01

    The article considers topical issues of energy saving in cement production with the use of a technological grinding complex, which includes a press roller grinder and a ball mill. Rational conditions of grinding are proposed for pre-shredded material through the installation of blade energy exchange devices (BEED) in the mill drum. The loading level in the first chamber varies periodically depending on the drum rotation angle, equipped with BEED. In the zone of BEED’s active action, there is a “scooping” of a part of grinding bodies together with crushed material, raising them to a height and giving them a longitudinally transverse movement, which is different from movement created in the mill without BEED. At the same time, additional work that consumes engine power is being done. A technique is proposed for calculating the additional engine power consumption of a mill, equipped with a BEED. This power is spent on creating a longitudinal-transverse motion of grinding bodies and its first and second chambers in areas of active influence of the BEED. Comparative analysis of results obtained experimentally and calculations of proposed equations show a high convergence of results. These analytical dependencies may be interest to Russian and foreign organizations that carry out their activities in the field of design and manufacture of cement equipment, as well as to cement producers.

  10. Associations between cadmium levels in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension among Canadian adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, Rochelle E., E-mail: rochelle.garner@canada.ca [Health Analysis Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Levallois, Patrick [Direction de la santé environnementale et de la toxicologie, Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec, Québec City, Québec (Canada); Axe santé des populations et pratiques optimales en santé, Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Québec City, Québec (Canada)

    2017-05-15

    Background: Cadmium has been inconsistently related to blood pressure and hypertension. The present study seeks to clarify the relationship between cadmium levels found in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension in a large sample of adults. Methods: The study sample included participants ages 20 through 79 from multiple cycles of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007 through 2013) with measured blood cadmium (n=10,099) and urinary cadmium (n=6988). Linear regression models examined the association between natural logarithm transformed cadmium levels and blood pressure (separate models for systolic and diastolic blood pressure) after controlling for known covariates. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between cadmium and hypertension. Models were run separately by sex, smoking status, and body mass index category. Results: Men had higher mean systolic (114.8 vs. 110.8 mmHg, p<0.01) and diastolic (74.0 vs. 69.6 mmHg, p<0.01) blood pressure compared to women. Although, geometric mean blood (0.46 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) and creatinine-adjusted standardized urinary cadmium levels (0.48 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) were higher among those with hypertension, these differences were no longer significant after adjustment for age, sex and smoking status. In overall regression models, increases in blood cadmium were associated with increased systolic (0.70 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.25–1.16, p<0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (0.74 mmHg, 95% CI=0.30–1.19, p<0.01). The associations between urinary cadmium, blood pressure and hypertension were not significant in overall models. Model stratification revealed significant and negative associations between urinary cadmium and hypertension among current smokers (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.44–0.85, p<0.01), particularly female current smokers (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.32–0.85, p=0.01). Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a significant association between cadmium levels, blood pressure

  11. Associations between cadmium levels in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension among Canadian adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, Rochelle E.; Levallois, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cadmium has been inconsistently related to blood pressure and hypertension. The present study seeks to clarify the relationship between cadmium levels found in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension in a large sample of adults. Methods: The study sample included participants ages 20 through 79 from multiple cycles of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007 through 2013) with measured blood cadmium (n=10,099) and urinary cadmium (n=6988). Linear regression models examined the association between natural logarithm transformed cadmium levels and blood pressure (separate models for systolic and diastolic blood pressure) after controlling for known covariates. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between cadmium and hypertension. Models were run separately by sex, smoking status, and body mass index category. Results: Men had higher mean systolic (114.8 vs. 110.8 mmHg, p<0.01) and diastolic (74.0 vs. 69.6 mmHg, p<0.01) blood pressure compared to women. Although, geometric mean blood (0.46 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) and creatinine-adjusted standardized urinary cadmium levels (0.48 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) were higher among those with hypertension, these differences were no longer significant after adjustment for age, sex and smoking status. In overall regression models, increases in blood cadmium were associated with increased systolic (0.70 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.25–1.16, p<0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (0.74 mmHg, 95% CI=0.30–1.19, p<0.01). The associations between urinary cadmium, blood pressure and hypertension were not significant in overall models. Model stratification revealed significant and negative associations between urinary cadmium and hypertension among current smokers (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.44–0.85, p<0.01), particularly female current smokers (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.32–0.85, p=0.01). Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a significant association between cadmium levels, blood pressure

  12. Kinetic parameters and TL mechanism in cadmium tetra borate phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annalakshmi, O.; Jose, M.T.; Sridevi, J.; Venkatraman, B.; Amarendra, G.; Mandal, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline powder samples of cadmium tetra borate were synthesized by a simple solid state sintering technique and gamma irradiated sample showed a simple Thermoluminescence (TL) glow peak around 460 K. The TL kinetic parameters of gamma irradiated phosphor were determined by initial rise (IR), isothermal decay (ID), peak shape (PS), variable heating rate (VHR) and glow curve de-convolution method. The kinetic parameters such as activation energy (E), frequency factor (s) and order of kinetics (b) were calculated by IR, ID, PS and VHR methods are in the order of ∼1.05 eV, 10 9 –10 12 s −1 and 1.58, respectively. From the results of TL and PL emission studies carried out on the phosphor revealed that the defect centers related to TL is different from that for PL. EPR measurements were carried out to identify the defect centers formed in cadmium tetra borate phosphor on gamma irradiation. Based on EPR studies the mechanism for TL process in cadmium tetra borate is proposed in this paper -- Highlights: • Polycrystalline powder samples of undoped cadmium tetra borate synthesized. • Cadmium tetra borate phosphor exhibits a dosimetric peak at 458 K. • Kinetic parameters of the trap responsible for TL evaluated. • TL mechanism is proposed from TL to EPR correlation studies

  13. Kinetic parameters and TL mechanism in cadmium tetra borate phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annalakshmi, O. [Radiological Safety Division, Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India); Jose, M.T., E-mail: mtj@igcar.gov.in [Radiological Safety Division, Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India); Sridevi, J. [Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Chennai 600 020, Tamilnadhu (India); Venkatraman, B. [Radiological Safety Division, Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India); Amarendra, G. [Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India); Mandal, A.B. [Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Chennai 600 020, Tamilnadhu (India)

    2014-03-15

    Polycrystalline powder samples of cadmium tetra borate were synthesized by a simple solid state sintering technique and gamma irradiated sample showed a simple Thermoluminescence (TL) glow peak around 460 K. The TL kinetic parameters of gamma irradiated phosphor were determined by initial rise (IR), isothermal decay (ID), peak shape (PS), variable heating rate (VHR) and glow curve de-convolution method. The kinetic parameters such as activation energy (E), frequency factor (s) and order of kinetics (b) were calculated by IR, ID, PS and VHR methods are in the order of ∼1.05 eV, 10{sup 9}–10{sup 12} s{sup −1} and 1.58, respectively. From the results of TL and PL emission studies carried out on the phosphor revealed that the defect centers related to TL is different from that for PL. EPR measurements were carried out to identify the defect centers formed in cadmium tetra borate phosphor on gamma irradiation. Based on EPR studies the mechanism for TL process in cadmium tetra borate is proposed in this paper -- Highlights: • Polycrystalline powder samples of undoped cadmium tetra borate synthesized. • Cadmium tetra borate phosphor exhibits a dosimetric peak at 458 K. • Kinetic parameters of the trap responsible for TL evaluated. • TL mechanism is proposed from TL to EPR correlation studies.

  14. Hepatic arterial phase and portal venous phase computed tomography for dose calculation of stereotactic body radiation therapy plans in liver cancer: a dosimetric comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Jianghong; Li, Yan; Jiang, Qingfeng; Sun, Lan; Henderson Jr, Fraser; Wang, Yongsheng; Jiang, Xiaoqin; Li, Guangjun; Chen, Nianyong

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of computed tomography (CT) using hepatic arterial phase (HAP) and portal venous phase (PVP) contrast on dose calculation of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for liver cancer. Twenty-one patients with liver cancer were studied. HAP, PVP and non-enhanced CTs were performed on subjects scanned in identical positions under active breathing control (ABC). SBRT plans were generated using seven-field three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (7 F-3D-CRT), seven-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (7 F-IMRT) and single-arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) based on the PVP CT. Plans were copied to the HAP and non-enhanced CTs. Radiation doses calculated from the three phases of CTs were compared with respect to the planning target volume (PTV) and the organs at risk (OAR) using the Friedman test and the Wilcoxon signed ranks test. SBRT plans calculated from either PVP or HAP CT, including 3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT plans, demonstrated significantly lower (p <0.05) minimum absorbed doses covering 98%, 95%, 50% and 2% of PTV (D98%, D95%, D50% and D2%) than those calculated from non-enhanced CT. The mean differences between PVP or HAP CT and non-enhanced CT were less than 2% and 1% respectively. All mean dose differences between the three phases of CTs for OARs were less than 2%. Our data indicate that though the differences in dose calculation between contrast phases are not clinically relevant, dose underestimation (IE, delivery of higher-than-intended doses) resulting from CT using PVP contrast is larger than that resulting from CT using HAP contrast when compared against doses based upon non-contrast CT in SBRT treatment of liver cancer using VMAT, IMRT or 3D-CRT

  15. Fine structure of dielectric function of cadmium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalugin, A.I.; Sobolev, V.V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : The electric structure of solids has been extensively investigated for several decades within the density functional theory. However many problems are appeared. One of them, the problem of correct calculation of the transition matrix elements, is very important to calculate the optical properties of crystals. In many papers the results are obtained without taking into account the probabilities of transitions. The goal of this work is the calculation of spectrum with and without taking into account the matrix elements influence of matrix elements on the optical properties of cadmium fluoride. Also localizations of transitions in Brillouin Zone (BZ) were calculated. This work contains interesting information about the electronic structure of cadmium fluoride

  16. Cadmium-containing waste and recycling possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, V.; Rauhut, A.

    1981-01-01

    To begin with, the processes of cadmium production from zinc ores in smelting plants or from intermediates of other metal works are described. A considerable amount of the cadmium is obtained in the recycling process in zinc, lead, and copper works. The way of the cadmium-containing intermediaries, processing, enrichment, and disposal of cadmium waste are described. Uses of cadmium and its compounds are mentioned, and cadmium consumption in the years 1973-1977 in West Germany is presented in a table. Further chapters discuss the production and the way of waste during production and processing of cadmium-containing products, the problem of cadmium in household refuse and waste incineration plants, and the problem of cadmium emissions. (IHOE) [de

  17. Discovery of the cadmium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, S.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  18. Calculation of the nuclear vertex constant for the virtual decay 6LI→α + d in the three- body model and its astrophysical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhintsev, L.D.; Igamov, S.B.; Nishonov, MM; Yarmukhamedov, R; Kamimura, M.

    2003-01-01

    The d(α, γ) 6 Li reaction is one of the sources of 6 Li production in the Big-Bang nuclear synthesis. At present extremely large uncertainties exist on this prediction mainly due to the absence of reliable directly measured cross section (or astrophysical S-factor, S(E)) at astrophysical relevant energies E, including E=0. As far theoretical calculation of the S(E) that have rather large spread. On the other hand, the d(α, γ) 6 Li reaction is predominantly of peripheral character at extremely low energies. Therefore the calculated S(E) at extremely low energies is mainly determined by the nuclear vertex constant (NVC) (or respective asymptotic normalization constant (ANC)) for the virtual decay 6 Li→α + d. Taking into account this circumstance we develop a method of calculation of the NVC for the virtual decay 6 Li→α + d for the subsequent application of the calculated one to the direct radiative capture d(α, γ) 6 Li cross - section (or astrophysical S-factor) calculation at extremely low energies E, including E=0. The developed method is based on the three-body Faddeev approach which is applied for the α-d scattering by using different forms of the NN- and αN-potentials. As a result the values of NVC and respective ANC for 6 Li→α + d virtual decay are obtained using two forms both for NN- and for αN-potential. They are the separable potentials with Yamaguchi type form factor and Paris potential with PEST 16 form factor for the NN- potential and Yamaguchi type form factor and Sack-Biedenharn-Breit potential for the αN- potential. A noticeable sensitivity to used forms of the NN- and αN- potential occurs both for the calculated NVC (or ANC) and astrophysical S- factor S(E) of the direct radiative capture d(α, γ) 6 Li reaction at extremely low energies E (≤100 keV), including the value E=0. The calculated S(E) have been obtained using the information about the NVC values. The obtained values of NVC and S(E) are compared with those of obtained

  19. The use of vegetables in the biomonitoring of cadmium and lead pollution in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczygłowska, Marzena; Bodnar, Małgorzata; Namieśnik, Jacek; Konieczka, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Lead and cadmium emitted from various anthropogenic sources have the ability to accumulate in tissues of living organisms. The phenomenon of accumulation of metals in the body is harmful and undesirable. The ability of plants to accumulate heavy metals from the individual elements of the environment has been used in biomonitoring of pollution. Leaves and roots of vegetables have particular predisposition for accumulating toxic metals such as lead and cadmium and therefore can be used for biomonitoring of the environment, mainly as a tool for assessing the extent of soil contamination. The article discusses information in the literature on entry paths of lead and cadmium into the body, toxic effects of lead and cadmium on the human organism, and the use of vegetables as a tool in the biomonitoring of heavy metals in different elements of the environment.

  20. Biological indicators of cadmium exposure and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, Z A; Smith, L M

    1986-01-01

    The increasing environmental and occupational exposure of populations to cadmium creates the need for biological indicators of cadmium exposure and toxicity. The advantages and disadvantages of monitoring blood cadmium, urinary, fecal, hair, and tissue cadmium, serum creatine, beta 2-microglobulin, alpha 1-anti-trypsin and other proteins, and urinary amino acids, enzymes, total proteins, glucose, beta 2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein, lysozyme, and metallothionein are discussed. It is concluded that urinary cadmium, metallothionein and beta 2-microglubulin may be used together to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. 66 references.

  1. Postlactational changes in cadmium retention in mice orally exposed to cadmium during pregnancy and lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Sellers, D.A.; Peterson, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    Mice were continuously exposed to 109Cd in drinking water (0.03 microCi/ml; 0.11 ppb total cadmium) during pregnancy and lactation. After cessation of exposure, 109 Cd retention and distribution were examined during a 4-week postlactational period. At the start of the postlactational period (0 time), the fraction of oral 109 Cd retained by the dams was 2.4 times greater than that retained by similarly exposed nonpregnant mice. 109 Cd concentrations at 0 time were greater in the dams than in the nonpregnant mice in kidney (5-fold), liver (2.6-fold), mammary tissue (greater than 28-fold), and duodenum (13-fold). No changes in 109 Cd content of the whole body (minus gastrointestinal tract) occurred during the 4 weeks after cessation of exposure in either the dams or the nonpregnant mice; i.e., pregnancy-dependent increases in 109 Cd contents of individual organs were maintained during the 4 weeks of observation. An indication of translocation of 109 Cd from liver to kidney was observed in the dams but not in the nonpregnant mice. 109 Cd concentrations in the mammary tissue of the dams increased 2-fold during the postlactational period concomitant with a 3-fold decrease in mammary tissue mass. 109 Cd in the duodenum of the pregnant/lactating mice decreased, with a half-life of 14 days. Results indicate that multiparous women exposed to environmental levels of cadmium may takeup and retain in their kidneys, livers, and mammary tissue a greater fraction of their dietary cadmium than women with few or no children. Such results may bear on the etiology of Itai-Itai disease, a disease of the skeleton potentially related to oral cadmium exposure, with an incidence predominantly among postmenopausal women with a history of multiple childbirths

  2. Urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A & B in workers exposed to cadmium at cadmium plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan BK

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The present study was carried out to determine the effect of cadmium exposure on Urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B in workers exposed at cadmium plating. Methods 50 subjects using cadmium during cadmium plating formed the study group. An equal number of age-sex matched subjects working in administrative section formed the control group. Urinary cadmium levels were determined by using a flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B were determined by using spectrophotmetric method. Results A significant increase of urinary total N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B profiles were noted in study as compared to controls. The levels of urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B profiles were positively and significantly correlated with cadmium levels in urine. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the effect of urinary cadmium or life style confounding factors (age, BMI, smoking and alcohol consumption on urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B. The analysis showed that the study subjects who had urine cadmium levels greater than 5 μg/g of creatinine, work duration >15 years, smoking and body mass index variables were significantly associated with urinary total N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase but not on isoenzymes A&B. Conclusion The results presented in this study shows that the increased levels of urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase observed in cadmium-exposed workers could be used as biomarkers for suggesting preventive measure.

  3. Study on the Construction of a High-definition Whole-body Voxel Model based on Cadaver's Color Photographic Anatomical Slice Images and Monte Carlo Dose Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sang Hyoun

    2007-08-01

    Ajou University School of Medicine made the serially sectioned anatomical images from the Visible Korean Human (VKH) Project in Korea. The VKH images, which are the high-resolution color photographic images, show the organs and tissues in the human body very clearly at 0.2 mm intervals. In this study, we constructed a high-quality voxel model (VKH-Man) with a total of 30 organs and tissues by manual and automatic segmentation method using the serially sectioned anatomical image data from the Visible Korean Human (VKH) project in Korea. The height and weight of VKH-Man voxel model is 164 cm and 57.6 kg, respectively, and the voxel resolution is 1.875 x 1.875 x 2 mm 3 . However, this voxel phantom can be used to calculate the organ and tissue doses of only one person. Therefore, in this study, we adjusted the voxel phantom to the 'Reference Korean' data to construct the voxel phantom that represents the radiation workers in Korea. The height and weight of the voxel model (HDRK-Man) that is finally developed are 171 cm and 68 kg, respectively, and the voxel resolution is 1.981 x 1.981 x 2.0854 mm 3 . VKH-Man and HDRK-Man voxel model were implemented in a Monte Carlo particle transport simulation code for calculation of the organ and tissue doses in various irradiation geometries. The calculated values were compared with each other to see the effect of the adjustment and also compared with other computational models (KTMAN-2, ICRP-74 and VIP-Man). According to the results, the adjustment of the voxel model was found hardly affect the dose calculations and most of the organ and tissue equivalent doses showed some differences among the models. These results shows that the difference in figure, and organ topology affects the organ doses more than the organ size. The calculated values of the effective dose from VKH-Man and HDRK-Man according to the ICRP-60 and upcoming ICRP recommendation were compared. For the other radiation geometries (AP, LLAT, RLAT) except for PA

  4. Removal of cadmium by Lactobacillus kefir as a protective tool against toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbino, Esteban; Carasi, Paula; Tymczyszyn, E Elizabeth; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the capacity of Lactobacillus kefir strains to remove cadmium cations and protect eukaryotic cells from cadmium toxicity. Lb. kefir CIDCA 8348 and JCM 5818 were grown in a 1/2 dilution of MRS broth supplemented with Cd(NO3)2 ranging 0 to 1 mM. Growth kinetics were followed during 76 h at 30 °C by registering optical density at 600 nm every 4-10 h. The accumulated concentration of cadmium was determined on cultures in the stationary phase by atomic absorption. The viability of a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) upon exposure to (a) free cadmium and (b) cadmium previously incubated with Lb. kefir strains was evaluated by determining the mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. Lb. kefir strains were able to grow and tolerate concentrations of cadmium cations up to 1 mM. The addition of cadmium to the culture medium increased the lag time in all the concentrations used. However, a decrease of the total biomass (maximum Absorbance) was observed only at concentrations above 0.0012 and 0.0011 mM for strains CIDCA 8348 and JCM 5818, respectively. Shorter and rounder lactobacilli were observed in both strains upon microscopic observations. Moreover, dark precipitates compatible with intracellular precipitation of cadmium were observed in the cytoplasm of both strains. The ability of Lb. kefir to protect eukaryotic cells cultures from cadmium toxicity was analysed using HepG2 cells lines. Concentrations of cadmium greater than 3×10(-3) mM strongly decreased the viability of HepG2 cells. However, when the eukaryotic cells were exposed to cadmium pre-incubated 1 h with Lb. kefir the toxicity of cadmium was considerably lower, Lb. kefir JCM 5818 being more efficient. The high tolerance and binding capacity of Lb. kefir strains to cadmium concentrations largely exceeding the tolerated weekly intake (TWI) of cadmium for food (2.5 μg per kg of body weight) and water (3 μg/l) addressed to human consumption, is an important added value when

  5. Anthropometric, environmental, and dietary predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels in Ukrainian children: Ukraine ELSPAC group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Lee S.; Lukyanova, Elena M.; Kundiev, Yuri I.; Shkiryak-Nizhnyk, Zoreslava A.; Chislovska, Nataliya V.; Mucha, Amy; Zvinchuk, Alexander V.; Oliynyk, Irene; Hryhorczuk, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    No comprehensive data on sources or risk factors of cadmium exposure in Ukrainian children are available. In this we measured the blood levels of cadmium among 80 Ukrainian children and evaluated sources of exposure. A nested case-control study from a prospective cohort of Ukrainian 3-year-old children was conducted. We evaluated predictors of elevated blood cadmium using a multivariable logistic regression model. The model included socioeconomic data, parent occupation, environmental tobacco smoke, hygiene, body-mass index, and diet. Dietary habits were evaluated using the 1992 Block-NCI-HHHQ Dietary Food Frequency survey. Elevated cadmium was defined as blood levels in the upper quartile (>=0.25μg/L). The mean age for all 80 children was 36.6 months. Geometric mean cadmium level was 0.21μg/L (range=0.11-0.42μg/L; SD=0.05). Blood cadmium levels were higher among children taking zinc supplements (0.25 vs 0.21μg/L; P=0.032), children who ate sausage more than once per week (0.23 vs 0.20; P=0.007) and children whose fathers worked in a by-product coking industry (0.25 vs 0.21; P=0.056). In the multivariable model, predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels included zinc supplementation (adjusted OR=14.16; P<0.01), father working in a by-product coking industry (adjusted OR=8.50; P=0.03), and low body mass index (<14.5; adjusted OR=5.67; P=0.03). This is the first study to indicate a strong association between elevated blood cadmium levels and zinc supplementation in young children. Whole-blood cadmium levels observed in this group of Ukrainian children appear to be similar to those reported in other Eastern European countries

  6. A method for calculating the gas volume proportions and inhalation temperature of inert gas mixtures allowing reaching normothermic or hypothermic target body temperature in the awake rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques H Abraini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The noble gases xenon (Xe and helium (He are known to possess neuroprotective properties. Xe is considered the golden standard neuroprotective gas. However, Xe has a higher molecular weight and lower thermal conductivity and specific heat than those of nitrogen, the main diluent of oxygen (O2 in air, conditions that could impair or at least reduce the intrinsic neuroprotective properties of Xe by increasing the critical care patient's respiratory workload and body temperature. In contrast, He has a lower molecular weight and higher thermal conductivity and specific heat than those of nitrogen, but is unfortunately far less potent than Xe at providing neuroprotection. Therefore, combining Xe with He could allow obtaining, depending on the gas inhalation temperature and composition, gas mixtures with neutral or hypothermic properties, the latter being advantageous in term of neuroprotection. However, calculating the thermal properties of a mixture, whatever the substances – gases, metals, rubbers, etc. – is not trivial. To answer this question, we provide a graphical method to assess the volume proportions of Xe, He and O2 that a gas mixture should contain, and the inhalation temperature to which it should be administered to allow a clinician to maintain the patient at a target body temperature.

  7. Calculation of optimal gestation weight gain in pre-pregnancy underweight women due to body mass index change in relation to mother's height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meštrović, Zoran; Roje, Damir; Vulić, Marko; Zec, Mirela

    2017-01-01

    Optimal gestational weight gain has not yet been clearly defined and remains one of the most controversial issues in modern perinatology. The role of optimal weight gain during pregnancy is critical, as it has a strong effect on perinatal outcomes. In this study, gestational body mass index (BMI) change, accounting for maternal height, was investigated as a new criterion for gestational weight gain determination, in the context of fetal growth assessment. We had focused on underweight women only, and aimed to assess whether the Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines could be considered acceptable or additional corrections are required in this subgroup of women. The study included 1205 pre-pregnancy underweight mothers and their neonates. Only mothers with singleton term pregnancies (37th-42nd week of gestation) with pre-gestational BMI gestational age (SGA) infants in the study population was 16.2 %. Our results showed the minimal recommended gestational weight gain of 12-14 kg and BMI change of 4-5 kg/m 2 to be associated with a lower prevalence of SGA newborns. Based on our results, the recommended upper limit of gestational mass change could definitely be substantially higher. Optimal weight gain in underweight women could be estimated in the very beginning of pregnancy as recommended BMI change, but recalculated in kilograms according to body height, which modulates the numerical calculation of BMI. Our proposal presents a further step forward towards individualized approach for each pregnant woman.

  8. Therapeutic Effects of Cassia angustifolia in a Cadmium Induced Hepatotoxicity Assay Conducted in Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir Haidry

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of Senna plant (Cassia angustifolia L. in a cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity assay by evaluating the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total protein (TP in the albino rats’ serum. A total of 30 white albino rats were taken and divided into three groups; each group comprising ten rats. The group A was taken as a control group; group B was given cadmium chloride concentration of 5 mg/kg (body weight for 42 days; and group C was given cadmium chloride 5 mg/kg body weight for first 21 days and then extract of C. angustifolia 100 mg/kg (body weight was given for remaining 21 days. The analysis were performed twice i.e., on 21stst day and 42nd day. Results illustrated that the concentration of cadmium was significantly elevated (P<0.05 at the levels of serum biochemical markers namely ALT, AST, ALP which lowered the protein levels in albino rats. Moreover, treatment with the standard extracts of C. angustifolia observed to reverse the effects of the cadmium significantly (P<0.05. It is concluded that the C. angustifolia had hepatoprotective effects and therapeutic potential against the cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats.

  9. Experimental study, in rat wistar, of cadmium distribution and elimination as a function of administration route. Cadmium 109 maximum permissible concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, Marc.

    1979-01-01

    The absorption and the elimination of cadmium have been investigated in rats wistar after oral administration or after inhalation. Before studying gastro-intestinal absorption, it appeared necessary to precise acute toxicity of orally administred cadmium. The distribution of cadmium within organes was determined following a single or multiple oral doses, and we specially studied retention of a Cd dose ingested after several weeks of treatment with Cd-Acetate. Pulmonary and gastro-intestinal absorption of cadmium after ihalation of Cd-microparticles were studied. Data obtained from these studies on rats and extrapolated to man were used to calculate mximum permissible concentration (M.P.C.) of Cd-109 in water and in air [fr

  10. Uptake and distribution of cadmium in corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peel, J.W.; Vetter, R.J.; Christian, J.E.; Kessler, W.V.; McFee, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    The uptake and distribution of cadmium in corn (Zea mays) treated at various time intervals after planting and sampled at various times after treatment were measured. Cadmium was found to accumulate in all parts sampled. As shown in field studies, stems and leaves generally concentrated more cadmium than did husks, cobs, kernels, silks, or tassels. Samples of stems and leaves from corn treated 23 days after planting and sampled 5 days later exhibited higher concentrations of cadmium than samples taken 25, 45, 65, or 85 days after treatment. Concentrations generally decreased with time. Greenhouse studies showed that corn exposed to cadmium for the longest period of time accumulated the greatest total cadmium. The highest cadmium concentrations were found in the base or lowest leaves sampled 45 days after planting; this suggests a useful technique for quick screening corn crops for cadmium pollution

  11. Zinc-induced protection against cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J.L.; Schnell, R.C.

    1978-02-01

    Pretreatment of male rats with cadmium acetate potentiates the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic microsomal drug metabolism. Pretreatment of rats with zinc acetate protects against these alterations in drug action elicited by cadmium.

  12. Cadmium determination in Lentinus edodes mushroom species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Akiko Maihara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have drawn attention to the occurrence and concentration of toxic elements found in the fruiting body of mushrooms. Some edible mushroom species are known to accumulate high levels of inorganic contaminants, mainly cadmium, mercury, and lead. There are about 2,000 known edible mushroom species, but only 25 of them are cultivated and used as food. In Brazil, the most marketed and consumed mushroom species are Agaricus bisporus, known as Paris champignon, Lentinus edodes, or Shitake and Pleurotus sp, also called Shimeji or Hiratake. In this study, the concentration of cadmium was determined in Lentinus edodes mushrooms from different cities in São Paulo state and some samples imported from Japan and China. The analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after HNO3-H2O2 digestion. The results showed a lower concentration of Cd in the mushrooms cultivated in São Paulo (0.0079 to 0.023 mg.kg-1 in natura than that of the mushrooms cultivated abroad (0.125 to 0.212 mg.kg-1 in natura. Although there is no tolerance limit for Cd in mushrooms in Brazil, the results show that Lentinus edodes mushrooms can be safely consumed.

  13. In vivo neutron activation analysis in a study of cadmium and hypertension in South Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, W.D.; Cummins, P.E.; Elwood, P.C.; Evans, C.J.; Dutton, J.; Sivyer, A.

    1980-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence concerning the influence of cadmium on the incidence of essential hypertension. Blood and urine are not very good indicators of body burden, and furthermore, the importance in such studies of matching for age and smoking habit has often been overlooked. In this respect, the technique for cadmium measurements in vivo by neutron capture prompt gamma analysis has many advantages. Fast neutron irradiation of a subject generates a thermal neutron flux at depths within the body such that capture reactions may occur. These will take place predominantly with hydrogen but also with cadmium and other body elements depending upon their cross-section and tissue abundance. The characteristic 559 keV prompt gamma rays from cadmium are detected using a 21% efficient Ge(Li) detector which is shielded against neutron and gamma radiation emerging both from the source and shield and from the subject. A detection limit (2 s.d. of the background) of 3.2 mg cadmium in the kidney is achieved for an organ dose of 0.3 rem delivered in 33 min. A study of 30 hypertensive subjects and 30 controls, matched for age, sex and smoking habit, has shown a mean kidney cadmium content of 3.3 +- 2.3 mg in the hypertensives which is not significantly different from the 4.4 +- 2.7 mg in the controls. However, in 13 pairs of non-smokers within the study, the mean value of 2.4 +- 2.5 mg in the hypertensives was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than the 3.9 +- 1.2 mg observed in the controls. Since the hypertensive patients had been treated for several years this raises the question of whether such therapy has reduced the level of renal cadmium below that which might be found in untreated hypertensives. Finally, the study confirmed the previously reported association between cigarette smoking and cadmium burden

  14. Cadmium uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghiri, F.

    1973-01-01

    Absorption of /sup 115m/Cd by soybean (Gylcine max l.) plants via foliar and root systems and translocation into the seed was determined. The uptake of /sup 115m/Cd by soybeans via the root system was more efficient than that of the foliar placement. Growth and Cd concentrations of soybean and wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) tops were influenced by soil-applied Cd. In both crops, the Cd concentration of plant tops increased while yield decreased with increasing levels of applied Cd. Cadmium toxicitiy began to occur in both crops at the lowest level of soil applied Cd (2.5 ppM). With soybean plants, Cd toxicity symptoms resembled fe chlorosis. For wheat plants there were no visual symptoms other than the studied growth. The relative concentration of Cd found in several vegetable crops varied depending on the plant species. The relative Cd concentration in descending order for various vegetables was lettuce (Lactuca sativa l.) > radish top (Raphanus sativus l.) > celery stalk (Apium graveolens l.) > celery leaves greater than or equal to green pepper (Capsicum frutescens l.) > radish roots.

  15. Physiological and behavioural responses of Gammarus pulex (Crustacea: Amphipoda) exposed to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felten, V.; Charmantier, G.; Mons, R.; Geffard, A.; Rousselle, P.; Coquery, M.; Garric, J.; Geffard, O.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cadmium on physiological and behavioural responses in Gammarus pulex. In a first experiment, cadmium LC50s for different times were evaluated in 264 h experiment under continuous mode of exposure (LC50 96h = 82.1 μg L -1 , LC50 120h = 37.1 μg L -1 , LC50 168h = 21.6 μg L -1 , LC50 264h = 10.5 μg L -1 ). In a second experiment, the physiological and behavioural responses of the amphipod exposed to cadmium (0, 7.5 and 15 μg L -1 ) were investigated under laboratory conditions. The mortality and the whole body cadmium concentration of organisms exposed to cadmium were significantly higher than in controls. Concerning physiological responses, cadmium exposure exerted a significant decrease on osmolality and haemolymph Ca 2+ concentration, but not on haemolymph Na + and Cl - concentrations, whereas the Na + /K + -ATPase activity was significantly increased. Behavioural responses, such as feeding rate, locomotor and ventilatory activities, were significantly reduced in Cd exposed organisms. Mechanism of cadmium action and consequent energetic reallocation in favour of maintenance functions (i.e., osmoregulation) are discussed. The results of this study indicate that osmolality and locomotor activity in G. pulex could be effective ecophysiological/behavioural markers to monitor freshwater ecosystem and to assess the health of organisms

  16. Dissolution and uptake of cadmium from dental gold solder alloy implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, B; Bergman, M; Soeremark, R [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden); Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1977-01-01

    Pure metallic cadmium was irradiated by means of thermal neutrons. The irradiated cadmium (/sup 115/Cd) was placed in bags of gold foil and the bags were implanted subcutaneously in the neck region of mice. Two and 3 d respectively after implantation the mice were killed, the bags removed and the animals subjected to whole-body autoradiography. The autoradiograms revealed an uptake of /sup 115/Cd in liver and kidney. In another experiment specimens of a cadmium-containing dental gold solder alloy, a cadmium-free dental casting gold alloy and soldered assemblies made of these two alloys were implanted subcutaneously in the neck region of mice. The animals were killed after 6 months; cadmium analysis showed significant increases in the cadmium concentration in liver and kidney of those mice which had been given implants of gold solder alloy. The study clearly shows that due to electrochemical corrosion cadmium can be released from implants and accumulated in the kidneys and the liver.

  17. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    In Denmark and EU the exposure of cadmium from food is at a level that is relatively close to the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI). This report describes an investigation of the bioavailability of cadmium in selected food items known to contain high levels of cadmium. The purpose was to provide data...

  18. Sublethal effects of cadmium ingestion on mallard ducks. [Anas platyrhynchos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Giulio, R T; Scanlon, P F

    1984-11-01

    Juvenile mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) drakes were fed diets containing 0, 50, 150, or 450 ppM cadmium for 42 +/- 1 days in order to assess the impacts of cadmium ingestion on energy metabolism and tissue metal concentrations in this species. Most significant effects on energy metabolism were observed only in the 450 ppM group which displayed reduced body and liver weights, increased kidney weights, reduced liver aldolase activity, increased plasma concentrations of uric acid, decreased plasma triiodothyronine concentrations, and elevated adrenal weights and adrenal corticosterone concentrations. Ducks in the 150 ppM group displayed increased adrenal and kidney weights and elevated plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations. Among all treatments, increased cadmium and zinc concentrations in both livers and kidneys were dose-related; a similar trend was observed for copper concentrations in kidneys but not livers. Cadmium interference with carbohydrate metabolism in similar studies with mammals was more severe than that observed in mallards in the present study. 52 references, 6 tables.

  19. Vacuum distillation for the separation of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and cadmium in pyro process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S. W.; Park, K. M.; Lee, S. J.; Park, S. B.; Woo, M. S.; Kim, K. R.; Kim, J. G.; Ahn, D. H.; Lee, H. S.

    2010-10-01

    Electrorefining is a key step in pyro processing. Electrorefining process is generally composed of two recovery steps- a deposit of uranium onto a solid cathode (electrorefining) and then the recovery of the remaining uranium and Tru (Transuranic) elements simultaneously by a liquid cadmium cathode (electrowinning). In this study, distillation experiments of a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and cadmium metal were carried out to examine the distillation behaviors for the development of the electrorefining and the electrowinning processes. The experimental set-up was composed of a distillation tower with an evaporator and a condenser, vacuum pump, control unit, and an off gas treatment system. The solid-liquid separation prior to distillation of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt was proposed and found to be feasible for the reduction of the burden of the distillation process. The LiCl-KCl eutectic salt was successfully distilled after the liquid salt separation. Distillation experiments for cadmium metal were also carried out. The apparent evaporation rates of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and cadmium increased with an increasing temperature. The evaporation behaviors of cadmium metal and cadmium-cerium alloy were compared. Cadmium in the alloy was successfully distilled and separated from cerium. The evaporation rate of cadmium in the alloy was lower than that of cadmium metal. The low evaporation rate of the alloy was probably caused by the formation of an intermetallic compound and the residual salt during the preparation of the alloy. Therefore, the distillation temperature for the distillation of the liquid cathode should be higher than the distillation of cadmium metal. The measured evaporation rates of the eutectic salt and cadmium were compared with the values calculated by a relation based on the kinetics of gases. The theoretical values of the evaporation rate calculated by the Hertz-Langmuir relation were higher than the experimental values. The deviations were compensated for

  20. Accumulation of heavy metals (cadmium, zinc, and copper) from smelter in forest ecosystems and their uptakes by Shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes (Berk) Sing. ) and Nameko mushroom (Pholiota glutinosa Kawamura) through polluted bed logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimoto, T.; Fujita, K.; Furukawa, H.; Yoshimoto, M.

    1977-12-01

    Mushrooms cultivated on sawdust medium which had been innoculated with heavy metals accumulated the metals increasingly in stems, pileus, gill and spores, in that order. There were strain differences, in accumulation, and highest concentration was found in the first-born fruit body. At 2 ppm, cadmium did not affect yield of the fruiting body. At 20 ppm, however, yield was seriously reduced. Species differences in absorption capacity for heavy metals were noted. Seasonal variations in cadmium and copper accumulation were noted, along with zinc. Cadmium concentration in fruiting bodies increased with increase of cadmium concentration in the growth substrate. 23 figures, 16 tables.

  1. Coprecipitation of cadmium with calcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, Osamu; Kumagai, Tetsu; Shigematsu, Tsunenobu; Matsui, Masakazu

    1976-01-01

    The distribution of cadmium between precipitates of calcite and saturated aqueous solution was measured at 25 0 C to understand the distribution of cadmium in the bivalves. Calcite was precipitated from calcium bicarbonate solution by the gradual release of carbon dioxide. The cadmium ions were coprecipitated in calcite, obeying the logarithmic distribution law. The apparent distribution coefficient was decreased as α, α'-dipyridyl increased, but the true distribution coefficient was found to be an almost constant value, 560. This value is fairly close to the ratio of solubility product constants K sub(calcite)/K sub(CdCO 3 ), 890. This suggests that the deviation of the present solid solution from ideality is not very large. (auth.)

  2. Accumulation of dietary and aqueous cadmium into the epidermal mucus of the discus fish Symphysodon sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maunder, Richard J.; Buckley, Jonathan; Val, Adalberto L.; Sloman, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    The discus fish Symphysodon sp. is an Amazonian cichlid with a unusual form of parental care where fry obligately feed from parental mucus for the first few weeks of life. Here, we investigated the possible impact of environmental cadmium on this species, particularly with respect to mucus contamination. We exposed groups of fish to cadmium either through their food (400 mg kg -1 ) or through the water (3 μg l -1 ) for 4 weeks, and measured tissue concentrations and ATPase activities at weekly intervals. Cadmium significantly accumulated in all tissues (except for muscle) after 7 days, and tissue concentrations increased until the end of the experiment. Significant alterations in ATPase activities of intestine and kidney were observed at day 7 and 14, but no alterations in gill ATPase activities occurred. The epidermal mucus showed a high accumulation of cadmium from both exposures, but particularly from the diet, indicating that dietary cadmium can be transferred from gut to mucus. Combining this data with approximations of fry bite volumes and bite frequencies, we constructed daily estimates of the cadmium that could potentially be consumed by newly hatched fry feeding on this mucus. These calculations suggest that feeding fry might consume up to 11 μg g -1 day -1 , and hence indicate that this species' dependency on parental mucus feeding of fry could make them particularly susceptible to cadmium contamination of their native habitat.

  3. Accumulation of dietary and aqueous cadmium into the epidermal mucus of the discus fish Symphysodon sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maunder, Richard J., E-mail: richard.maunder@astrazeneca.com [School of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Buckley, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.buckley@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Val, Adalberto L., E-mail: dalval@inpa.gov.br [Department of Ecology, Laboratory of Ecophysiology and Molecular Evolution, INPA, Manaus (Brazil); Sloman, Katherine A., E-mail: katherine.sloman@uws.ac.uk [School of Science, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, PA1 2BE, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    The discus fish Symphysodon sp. is an Amazonian cichlid with a unusual form of parental care where fry obligately feed from parental mucus for the first few weeks of life. Here, we investigated the possible impact of environmental cadmium on this species, particularly with respect to mucus contamination. We exposed groups of fish to cadmium either through their food (400 mg kg{sup -1}) or through the water (3 {mu}g l{sup -1}) for 4 weeks, and measured tissue concentrations and ATPase activities at weekly intervals. Cadmium significantly accumulated in all tissues (except for muscle) after 7 days, and tissue concentrations increased until the end of the experiment. Significant alterations in ATPase activities of intestine and kidney were observed at day 7 and 14, but no alterations in gill ATPase activities occurred. The epidermal mucus showed a high accumulation of cadmium from both exposures, but particularly from the diet, indicating that dietary cadmium can be transferred from gut to mucus. Combining this data with approximations of fry bite volumes and bite frequencies, we constructed daily estimates of the cadmium that could potentially be consumed by newly hatched fry feeding on this mucus. These calculations suggest that feeding fry might consume up to 11 {mu}g g{sup -1} day{sup -1}, and hence indicate that this species' dependency on parental mucus feeding of fry could make them particularly susceptible to cadmium contamination of their native habitat.

  4. Acute Toxicity of a Heavy Metal Cadmium to an Anuran, the Indian Skipper Frog Rana cyanophlyctis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai Kumar Srivastav

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been increasing awareness throughout the world regarding the remarkable decrease in amphibian population. For such amphibian population decline several causes have been given. Cadmium, a heavy metal is released both from natural sources (leaching of cadmium rich soils and anthropogenic activities to the aquatic and terrestrial environments. This study evaluated the toxicity of heavy metal cadmium to Indian skipper frog Rana cyanophlyctis. Methods: For the determination of LC50 values for cadmium, four-day static renewal acute toxicity test was used. Five replicates each containing ten frogs were subjected to each concentration of cadmium chloride (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 mg/L. At different exposure periods (24, 48, 72 and 96 h, the mortality of the frog was subjected to Probit analysis with the POLO-PC software (LeOra Software to calculate the LC50 and 95% confidence level. Results: The LC50 values of cadmium chloride for the frog R. cyanophlyctis at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h are 32.586, 29.994, 27.219 and 23.048 mg/L, respectively. The results have been discussed with the toxicity reported for other aquatic vertebrate --fish. Conclusion: Cadmium caused mortality to the frog and this could be one of the reasons for population decline of frogs which inhabit water contaminated with heavy metals.

  5. Analysis of the swimming velocity of cadmium-stressed Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillieul, M.; Blust, R.

    1999-01-01

    The swimming velocity of the waterflea Daphnia magna is dependent on its body size. Therefore, environmental factors like toxic stress that influence growth also influence swimming velocity. An experiment was set up to test whether exposure to cadmium would reduce only growth, with a concomitant decrease in velocity, or whether it would reduce velocity below the swimming velocity of similarly-sized control animals. Daphnids were exposed for 10 days to free cadmium ion concentrations ranging from 1x10 -8 to 1x10 -7 M Cd 2+ , and body size and swimming velocity were measured every 2 days. The results showed that cadmium decreased both growth and velocity, i.e. exposed daphnids swam slower than similarly-sized control daphnids. Swimming velocity provided no indication of successful acclimation in any cadmium treatment. Food consumption and assimilation were reduced by exposure to cadmium. This reduced food intake may have, at least partially, caused the decreased growth rates. However, since reduced food intake does not affect swimming velocity, the reduced swimming velocity must be attributed to toxic effects of cadmium, other than those on food intake. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. Behaviour of biological indicators of cadmium in relation to occupational exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghezzi, I; Toffoletto, F; Sesana, G; Fagioli, M G; Micheli, A; Di Silvestro, P; Zocchetti, C; Alessio, L

    1985-01-01

    Cadmium in blood (CdB), cadmium in urine (CdU) and beta 2-microglobulins (beta 2MU) were determined in 83 male workers exposed to cadmium fumes. The behaviour of the biological indicators of cadmium was assessed in relation to degree of current exposure, length of exposure and cumulative exposure (computed as concentration of cadmium at the workplace multiplied by duration of exposure). CdB values were significantly higher in the subgroups of subjects with higher current cadmium exposure and in the subgroups of subjects with greater cumulative exposure, but the test levels were not influenced by duration of exposure. CdU levels were significantly higher in the subgroup of subjects with greater cumulative exposure, but were less influenced by current exposure or duration of exposure. Considering the entire population, a rather close correlation was observed between CdB and CdU. When the population was divided according to level of current exposure, a close relationship was observed between the two indicators in all subgroups; nevertheless, for identical CdU values, the CdB values were higher in the subjects with heavier current exposure. The data confirm that CdU is prevalently influenced by the body burden of metal, but they also suggest that the CdB levels are not influenced solely by the intensity of current exposure but also depend to a considerable degree on the body burden.

  7. Interactions of cadmium with copper, zinc, and iron in different organs and tissues of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julshamn, K.; Utne, F.; Brackkan, O.R.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of cadmium on tissue concentrations of iron, zinc and copper was studied in male rats. Two littermate groups were fed a stock diet with or without a supplement of 100 ..mu..g cadmium per g. Every three weeks ten animals from each group were sampled and the liver, kidneys, heart, lungs, spleen, testes, muscle, fur, feces and urine were individually analyzed. Except for the fur, all the other organs showed highly significantly increased levels of cadmium when compared with the control group. The iron levels were significantly depressed in all organs. As the content in the feces remained unchanged and the urinary excretion showed an increase, it could be concluded that the cadmium supplementation resulted in a depletion of the body stores of iron. The zinc levels showed a significant increase in the liver and testes and a correspondingly significant decrease in the spleen. The levels of copper generally showed no significant changes.

  8. Effects of oral, subchronic cadmium administration on fertility prenatal and postnatal progeny development in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranski, B.; Stetkiewicz, I.; Sitarek, K.; Szymczak, W.

    1983-12-01

    Cadmium chloride was administered by gavage to female rats 5 days a week for 5 weeks, then during mating and gestation periods at doses of 0.04, 0.4, and 4 mg Cd/kg/day. Treatment with cadmium neither affected the survival and fertility of females, nor produced overt fetotoxic effects. Fetal cadmium concentration was not related to the level of exposure. Litter size, body weight gain and viability of offspring during 2 months after parturition were similar in all groups. The exploratory locomotor activity of 2-month-old males and females born to rats given 0.4 and 4 mg Cd/kg/day was significantly reduced. The progeny of cadmium-treated females showed decreased performance in the rotarod test. In general, the degree of behavioral impairment was dose-related.

  9. CADMIUM IN OCTOPUS VULGARIS: AN INPUT TO ASSESS HUMAN HEALTH RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ceci

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium concentrations has been evaluated in Octopus vulgaris sampled from two sites of Apulian coast (South Italy and compared with import cephalopods to estimate if maximum levels of cadmium established for these organisms by the European Commission were exceed. In all local samples mean cadmium concentrations were higher in hepatopancreas than in flesh, this is an important evaluation if consider the traditional and unusual consumption in certain population of Mediterranean region of raw and whole cephalopods. The cadmium estimated weekly intake for whole cephalopods between 2,25 and 2,84 g Kg -1 of body weight underlines the necessity to determine the real risk and implications for public health through a correct assessment of contribution made by this specie among certain consumers group to the TWI set by the EFSA. A particular attention from competent authorities to prevent human toxicity is required.

  10. Associations of lead and cadmium with sex hormones in adult males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kresovich, Jacob K., E-mail: jkreso2@uic.edu; Argos, Maria; Turyk, Mary E.

    2015-10-15

    Heavy metal exposures are ubiquitous in the environment and their relation to sex hormones is not well understood. This paper investigates the associations between selected heavy metals (lead and cadmium) and sex hormones (testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, free estradiol) as well as other major molecules in the steroid biosynthesis pathway (androstanedione glucuronide and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG)). Blood lead and cadmium were selected as biomarkers of exposure, and tested for associations in males using National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999–2004. After adjustment for age, race, body mass index, smoking status, diabetes and alcohol intake, blood lead was positively associated with testosterone and SHBG while blood cadmium was positively associated with SHBG. After controlling for additional heavy metal exposure, the associations between lead and testosterone as well as cadmium and SHBG remained significant. Furthermore, the association between blood lead and testosterone was modified by smoking status (P for interaction=0.011), diabetes (P for interaction=0.021) and blood cadmium (P for interaction=0.029). The association between blood cadmium and SHBG levels was modified by blood lead (P for interaction=0.004). This study is the most comprehensive investigation to date regarding the association between heavy metals and sex hormones in males. - Highlights: • We used a nationally representative dataset (NHANES) and employed sample weighting. • We examined associations between lead and cadmium with sex-hormone levels. • Blood lead level was positively associated with serum testosterone and SHBG levels. • Blood cadmium level was positively associated with SHBG levels, modified by lead. • Diabetes, smoking and cadmium modified lead and testosterone association.

  11. Associations of lead and cadmium with sex hormones in adult males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresovich, Jacob K.; Argos, Maria; Turyk, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal exposures are ubiquitous in the environment and their relation to sex hormones is not well understood. This paper investigates the associations between selected heavy metals (lead and cadmium) and sex hormones (testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, free estradiol) as well as other major molecules in the steroid biosynthesis pathway (androstanedione glucuronide and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG)). Blood lead and cadmium were selected as biomarkers of exposure, and tested for associations in males using National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999–2004. After adjustment for age, race, body mass index, smoking status, diabetes and alcohol intake, blood lead was positively associated with testosterone and SHBG while blood cadmium was positively associated with SHBG. After controlling for additional heavy metal exposure, the associations between lead and testosterone as well as cadmium and SHBG remained significant. Furthermore, the association between blood lead and testosterone was modified by smoking status (P for interaction=0.011), diabetes (P for interaction=0.021) and blood cadmium (P for interaction=0.029). The association between blood cadmium and SHBG levels was modified by blood lead (P for interaction=0.004). This study is the most comprehensive investigation to date regarding the association between heavy metals and sex hormones in males. - Highlights: • We used a nationally representative dataset (NHANES) and employed sample weighting. • We examined associations between lead and cadmium with sex-hormone levels. • Blood lead level was positively associated with serum testosterone and SHBG levels. • Blood cadmium level was positively associated with SHBG levels, modified by lead. • Diabetes, smoking and cadmium modified lead and testosterone association.

  12. Health hazards of environmental cadmium pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, G F

    1974-01-01

    Cadmium, a metal widely used in industrial processes, has been recognized to be a highly toxic and dangerous environmental pollutant. In this study the author describes the sources and occurrence of cadmium, and the intake by human beings. He states that present standards for daily intake do not allow sufficient safety margins. The fate and known effects of cadmium in human beings are summarized; some effects associated with cadmium are renal (kidney) damage, anemia, hypertension, and liver damage. Cadmium was identified as the main cause of the Itai-Itai disease in Japan, and epidemiological studies from various areas of Japan are presented. 64 references, 9 figures, 5 tables.

  13. Crystal structures and DFT calculations of mixed chloride-azide zinc(II) and chloride-isocyanate cadmium(II) complexes with the condensation product of 2-quinolinecarboxaldehyde and Girard's T reagent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anđelković, Katarina; Pevec, Andrej; Grubišić, Sonja; Turel, Iztok; Čobeljić, Božidar; Milenković, Milica R.; Keškić, Tanja; Radanović, Dušanka

    2018-06-01

    The mixed chloride-azide [ZnL(N3)1.65Cl0.35] (1) and chloride-isocyanate [CdL(NCO)1.64Cl0.36] (2) complexes with the condensation product of 2-quinolinecarboxaldehyde and trimethylammonium acetohydrazide chloride (Girard's T reagent) (HLCl) have been prepared and characterized by X-ray crystallography. In complexes 1 and 2, Zn1 and Cd1 ions, respectively, are five-coordinated in a distorted square based pyramidal geometry with NNO set of donor atoms of deprotonated hydrazone ligand and two monodentate ligands N3- and/or N3- and Cl- in the case of 1 and OCN- and/or OCN- and Cl- in the case of 2. The structural parameters of 1 and 2 have been discussed in relation to those of previously reported M(II) complexes with the same hydrazone ligand. Density functional theory calculations have been employed to study the interaction between the Zn2+ and Cd2+ ions and ligands. High affinity of ligands towards the Zn2+ and Cd2+ ions are predicted for both complexes.

  14. Predictive performance of the 'Minto' remifentanil pharmacokinetic parameter set in morbidly obese patients ensuing from a new method for calculating lean body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Colla, Luca; Albertin, Andrea; La Colla, Giorgio; Porta, Andrea; Aldegheri, Giorgio; Di Candia, Domenico; Gigli, Fausto

    2010-01-01

    In a previous article, we showed that the pharmacokinetic set of remifentanil used for target-controlled infusion (TCI) might be biased in obese patients because it incorporates flawed equations for the calculation of lean body mass (LBM), which is a covariate of several pharmacokinetic parameters in this set. The objectives of this study were to determine the predictive performance of the original pharmacokinetic set, which incorporates the James equation for LBM calculation, and to determine the predictive performance of the pharmacokinetic set when a new method to calculate LBM was used (the Janmahasatian equations). This was an observational study with intraoperative observations and no follow-up. Fifteen morbidly obese inpatients scheduled for bariatric surgery were included in the study. The intervention included manually controlled continuous infusion of remifentanil during the surgery and analysis of arterial blood samples to determine the arterial remifentanil concentration, to be compared with concentrations predicted by either the unadjusted or the adjusted pharmacokinetic set. The statistical analysis included parametric and non-parametric tests on continuous variables and determination of the median performance error (MDPE), median absolute performance error (MDAPE), divergence and wobble. The median values (interquartile ranges) of the MDPE, MDAPE, divergence and wobble for the James equations during maintenance were -53.4% (-58.7% to -49.2%), 53.4% (49.0-58.7%), 3.3% (2.9-4.7%) and 1.4% h(-1) (1.1-2.5% h(-1)), respectively. The respective values for the Janmahasatian equations were -18.9% (-24.2% to -10.4%), 20.5% (13.3-24.8%), 2.6% (-0.7% to 4.5%) and 1.9% h(-1) (1.4-3.0% h(-1)). The performance (in terms of the MDPE and MDAPE) of the corrected pharmacokinetic set was better than that of the uncorrected one. The predictive performance of the original pharmacokinetic set is not clinically acceptable. Use of a corrected LBM value in morbidly obese

  15. Calculation of subLAMBDA sup 9 Be in an alpha-alpha-LAMBDA three-body model using the Faddeev equations

    CERN Document Server

    Oryu, S; Yamashita, H; Nakazawa, M; Kamada, H

    2000-01-01

    The hypernucleus subLAMBDA sup 9 Be is investigated in an alpha-alpha-LAMBDA three-body model using the Faddeev formalism. We use an alpha-alpha interaction in which the Pauli-forbidden states are correctly taken into account and we employ some phenomenological potentials between the alpha and LAMBDA particles. We obtained two bound states for J suppi = 1/2 sup + and 3/2 sup + , and three resonance states of (3/2) sub 1 sup - , (3/2) sub 2 sup - , (3/2) sub 3 sup -. We studied the properties of these states by calculating the components and the expectation values of the potential for each partial wave. It is found that a few channels dominate in the 1/2 sup + and 3/2 sup + states, so that the alpha-clusters or the sup 8 Be core are still alive in the nucleus. In a case were the two alpha particles are fixed on an axis the contour plots of the distribution of the LAMBDA particle are shown. With the assistence of these plots one can visually understand that some of them are shell-model-like states while others ...

  16. Protective effects of synbiotic diets of Bacillus coagulans, Lactobacillus plantarum and inulin against acute cadmium toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarpour, Dornoush; Shekarforoush, Seyed Shahram; Ghaisari, Hamid Reza; Nazifi, Saeed; Sajedianfard, Javad; Eskandari, Mohammad Hadi

    2017-06-05

    Cadmium is a heavy metal that causes oxidative stress and has toxic effects in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of two probiotics along with a prebiotic in preventing the toxic effects of cadmium in rats. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups namely control, cadmium only, cadmium along with Lactobacillus plantarum (1 × 109 CFU/day) and inulin (5% of feedstuff) and cadmium along with Bacillus coagulans (1 × 109 spore/day) and inulin (5% of feedstuff). Cadmium treated groups received 200 μg/rat/day CdCl2 administered by gavage. During the 42-day experimental period, they were weighed weekly. For evaluation of changes in oxidative stress, the levels of some biochemicals and enzymes of serum including SOD, GPX, MDA, AST, ALT, total bilirubin, BUN and creatinine, and also SOD level of livers were measured at day 21 and 42 of treatment. The cadmium content of kidney and liver was determined by using atomic absorption mass spectrophotometry. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan's post hoc test. Treatment of cadmium induced rats with synbiotic diets significantly improved the liver enzymes and biochemical parameters that decreased AST, ALT, total bilirubin, BUN and metal accumulation in the liver and kidney and increased body weight, serum and liver SOD values in comparison with the cadmium-treated group. No significant differences were observed with MDA and GP X values between all groups (p > 0.05). This study showed that synbiotic diets containing probiotics (L. plantarum and B. coagulans) in combination with the prebiotic (inulin) can reduce the level of cadmium in the liver and kidney, preventing their damage and recover antioxidant enzymes in acute cadmium poisoning in rat.

  17. Effects of Multiple Routes of Cadmium Exposure on the Hibernation Success of the American Toad (Bufo americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S.M.; Little, E.E.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of multiple routes of cadmium exposure on juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) were evaluated using environmentally relevant concentrations. During or after exposure, toads were individually hibernated for 172 days at approximately 4??C. The following experiments were conducted: (1) dermal exposure (hibernation in soil contaminated with up to 120 ??g Cd/ g (dry weight)); (2) injection exposure (single injection with cadmium to achieve a maximum whole-body nominal concentration of 3 ??g Cd/g (wet weight) 12 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil); and, (3) oral exposure (feeding with mealworms containing ???16 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) for 50 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil)., We hypothesized that sublethal levels of cadmium would become lethal during hibernation because of combined chemical and cold stress. No prehibernation mortality occurred in the injection and oral exposure studies. There was a significant treatment effect on whole-body cadmium concentration in toads orally or dermally exposed and on percent of cadmium retention in toads orally exposed. There was also a trend of increased time-to-burrowing and more toads partially buried with greater cadmium concentration in the dermal study, which indicated avoidance. In all 3 experiments, no significant differences were found among cadmium treatments in hibernation survival, percent of mass loss, or locomotor performance. However, toads fed mealworms averaging 4.7 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) had only 56% survival compared with 100% survival for controls. Although our results suggest that environmentally relevant levels of cadmium do not pose a great risk to American toads, factors such as soil type or prey species may increase cadmium bioavailability, and other amphibian species may be more sensitive to cadmium than B. americanus.

  18. Interaction between lactose and cadmium chloride in aqueous solutions as seen by diffusion coefficients measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verissimo, Luis M.P.; Gomes, Joselaine C.S.; Romero, Carmen; Esteso, Miguel A.; Sobral, Abilio J.F.N.; Ribeiro, Ana C.F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Diffusion coefficients of aqueous systems containing lactose and cadmium chloride. ► Influence of the lactose on the diffusion of cadmium chloride. ► Interactions between Cd 2+ and lactose. -- Abstract: Diffusion coefficients of an aqueous system containing cadmium chloride 0.100 mol · dm −3 and lactose at different concentrations at 25 °C have been measured, using a conductimetric cell and an automatic apparatus to follow diffusion. The cell relies on an open-ended capillary method and a conductimetric technique is used to follow the diffusion process by measuring the resistance of a solution inside the capillaries, at recorded times. From these results and by ab initio calculations, it was possible to obtain a better understanding of the effect of lactose on transport of cadmium chloride in aqueous solutions

  19. Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipic, Metka, E-mail: metka.filipic@nib.si [National Institute of Biology, Department for Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-05-01

    Cadmium is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant that represents hazard to humans and wildlife. It is found in the air, soil and water and, due to its extremely long half-life, accumulates in plants and animals. The main source of cadmium exposure for non-smoking human population is food. Cadmium is primarily toxic to the kidney, but has been also classified as carcinogenic to humans by several regulatory agencies. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Cadmium dose not induce direct DNA damage, however it induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which in turn induce DNA damage and can also interfere with cell signalling. More important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis as well as with epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression control. Cadmium mediated inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and apoptosis leads to accumulation of cells with unrepaired DNA damage, which in turn increases the mutation rate and thus genomic instability. This increases the probability of developing not only cancer but also other diseases associated with genomic instability. In the in vitro experiments cadmium induced effects leading to genomic instability have been observed at low concentrations that were comparable to those observed in target organs and tissues of humans that were non-occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, further studies aiming to clarify the relevance of these observations for human health risks due to cadmium exposure are needed.

  20. Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipič, Metka

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant that represents hazard to humans and wildlife. It is found in the air, soil and water and, due to its extremely long half-life, accumulates in plants and animals. The main source of cadmium exposure for non-smoking human population is food. Cadmium is primarily toxic to the kidney, but has been also classified as carcinogenic to humans by several regulatory agencies. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Cadmium dose not induce direct DNA damage, however it induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which in turn induce DNA damage and can also interfere with cell signalling. More important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis as well as with epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression control. Cadmium mediated inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and apoptosis leads to accumulation of cells with unrepaired DNA damage, which in turn increases the mutation rate and thus genomic instability. This increases the probability of developing not only cancer but also other diseases associated with genomic instability. In the in vitro experiments cadmium induced effects leading to genomic instability have been observed at low concentrations that were comparable to those observed in target organs and tissues of humans that were non-occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, further studies aiming to clarify the relevance of these observations for human health risks due to cadmium exposure are needed.

  1. Cadmium resistance in Drosophila: a small cadmium binding substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, K.B.; Williams, M.W.; Richter, L.J.; Holt, S.E.; Hook, G.J.; Knoop, S.M.; Sloop, F.V.; Faust, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    A small cadmium-binding substance (CdBS) has been observed in adult Drosophila melanogaster that were raised for their entire growth cycle on a diet that contained 0.15 mM CdCl 2 . Induction of CdBS was observed in strains that differed widely in their sensitivity of CdCl 2 . This report describes the induction of CdBS and some of its characteristics. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. Highly accurate bound state calculations of the two-center molecular ions by using the universal variational expansion for three-body systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Alexei M.

    2018-03-01

    The universal variational expansion for the non-relativistic three-body systems is explicitly constructed. This universal expansion can be used to perform highly accurate numerical computations of the bound state spectra in various three-body systems, including Coulomb three-body systems with arbitrary particle masses and electric charges. Our main interest is related to the adiabatic three-body systems which contain one bound electron and two heavy nuclei of hydrogen isotopes: the protium p, deuterium d and tritium t. We also consider the analogous (model) hydrogen ion ∞H2+ with the two infinitely heavy nuclei.

  3. Cadmium exposure in association with history of stroke and heart failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Junenette L., E-mail: jpeters@hsph.harvard.edu [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Landmark Center, P.O. Box 15697, 401 Park Drive, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Perlstein, Todd S. [Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Perry, Melissa J.; McNeely, Eileen [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Landmark Center, P.O. Box 15697, 401 Park Drive, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Weuve, Jennifer [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Landmark Center, P.O. Box 15697, 401 Park Drive, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Rush Institute for Healthy Aging, Rush University, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Background: It is unclear whether environmental cadmium exposure is associated with cardiovascular disease, although recent data suggest associations with myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of measured cadmium exposure with stroke and heart failure (HF) in the general population. Methods: We analyzed data from 12,049 participants, aged 30 years and older, in the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for whom information was available on body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and socio-demographic characteristics. Results: At their interviews, 492 persons reported a history of stroke, and 471 a history of HF. After adjusting for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors, a 50% increase in blood cadmium corresponded to a 35% increased odds of prevalent stroke [OR: 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12-1.65] and a 50% increase in urinary cadmium corresponded to a 9% increase in prevalent stroke [OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.00-1.19]. This association was higher among women [OR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.11-1.72] than men [OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 0.93-1.79] (p-value for interaction=0.05). A 50% increase in blood cadmium corresponded to a 48% increased odds of prevalent HF [OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.17-1.87] and a 50% increase in urinary cadmium corresponded to a 12% increase in prevalent HF [OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03-1.20], with no difference in sex-specific associations. Conclusions: Environmental exposure to cadmium was associated with significantly increased stroke and heart failure prevalence. Cadmium exposure may increase these important manifestations of cardiovascular disease.

  4. Elastic positron-cadmium scattering at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromley, M. W. J.; Mitroy, J.

    2010-01-01

    The elastic and annihilation cross sections for positron-cadmium scattering are reported up to the positronium-formation threshold (at 2.2 eV). The low-energy phase shifts for the elastic scattering of positrons from cadmium were derived from the bound and pseudostate energies of a very large basis configuration-interaction calculation of the e + -Cd system. The s-wave binding energy is estimated to be 126±42 meV, with a scattering length of A scat =(14.2±2.1)a 0 , while the threshold annihilation parameter, Z eff , was 93.9±26.5. The p-wave phase shift exhibits a weak shape resonance that results in a peak Z eff of 91±17 at a collision energy of about 490±50 meV.

  5. Cadmium content of commercial and contaminated rice, Oryza sativa, in Thailand and potential health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, R; Promsawad, A; Zwicker, B M; Laoharojanaphand, S

    2010-03-01

    Thailand is the number one global exporter and among the top five producers of rice in the world. A significant increase in anthropogenic contamination in agricultural soils over the past few decades has lead to concerns with cadmium and its uptake in rice. The cadmium levels in Thai rice from different sources/areas were determined and used to estimate the potential health risks to consumers. The cadmium concentration in the commercial rice samples ranged from below the detection limit to 0.016 mg/kg. The cadmium concentrations in the contaminated rice samples ranged from a low of 0.007 mg/kg to a high of 0.579 mg/kg. Five of the calculated values exceed the proposed PTWI, with one value almost three times higher and two values almost double. The three highly elevated values are certainly a concern from a health standpoint. Ultimately, action is required to address the health implications resulting from the cadmium contamination in agricultural soils used for rice production in a few select areas of Thailand. Overall, this study indicates that the vast majority of rice produced, consumed and exported by Thailand is safe pertaining to cadmium content.

  6. Distribution of cadmium between calcium carbonate and solution, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, Yasushi; Kanamori, Nobuko; Fujiyoshi, Ryoko

    1978-01-01

    The distribution coefficient of cadmium between calcite and solution has been measured in the calcium bicarbonate solution containing cadmium and chloride ions, which forms complexes with cadmium ions. It has been confirmed experimentally that cadmium carbonate is present as a solid solution between calcitic calcium carbonate and cadmium carbonate in the carbonate precipitate formed in the solution system. However, the constant value of the thermodynamic distribution coefficient of cadmium between calcite and solution has not been obtained experimentally in the calcium bicarbonate solution containing cadmium and chloride ions. It may have been caused by the very specific behavior of cadmium ions, but the exact reason remains unsolved and must be studied. (Kobatake, H.)

  7. Cadmium analysis in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, R.

    1980-12-01

    The report describes the development of a method for in vivo Cd-analysis. The method is based on the analysis of the prompt gamma radiation which is emitted by neutron capture of the isotope Cd113. Different parts of the body can be analysed selectively by neutrons in the interval of 1 to 100 KeV. The results show that the level of Cd in Kidneys can be measured without exceeding the dose of 40 mrad and that only 20% uncertainty is introduced when analysing Cd. The development has been made at the R2 reactor in Studsvik using 25 KeV neutrons. (G.B.)

  8. A numerical calculation method for flow discretisation in complex geometry with body-fitted grids; Rechenverfahren zur Diskretisierung von Stroemungen in komplexer Geometrie mittels koerperangepasster Gitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, X.

    2001-04-01

    A numerical calculation method basing on body fitted grids is developed in this work for computational fluid dynamics in complex geometry. The method solves the conservation equations in a general nonorthogonal coordinate system which matches the curvilinear boundary. The nonorthogonal, patched grid is generated by a grid generator which solves algebraic equations. By means of an interface its geometrical data can be used by this method. The conservation equations are transformed from the Cartesian system to a general curvilinear system keeping the physical Cartesian velocity components as dependent variables. Using a staggered arrangement of variables, the three Cartesian velocity components are defined on every cell surface. Thus the coupling between pressure and velocity is ensured, and numerical oscillations are avoided. The contravariant velocity for calculating mass flux on one cell surface is resulting from dependent Cartesian velocity components. After the discretisation and linear interpolation, a three dimensional 19-point pressure equation is found. Using the explicit treatment for cross-derivative terms, it reduces to the usual 7-point equation. Under the same data and process structure, this method is compatible with the code FLUTAN using Cartesian coordinates. In order to verify this method, several laminar flows are simulated in orthogonal grids at tilted space directions and in nonorthogonal grids with variations of cell angles. The simulated flow types are considered like various duct flows, transient heat conduction, natural convection in a chimney and natural convection in cavities. Their results achieve very good agreement with analytical solutions or empirical data. Convergence for highly nonorthogonal grids is obtained. After the successful validation of this method, it is applied for a reactor safety case. A transient natural convection flow for an optional sump cooling concept SUCO is simulated. The numerical result is comparable with the

  9. Historical perspectives on cadmium toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordberg, Gunnar F.

    2009-01-01

    The first health effects of cadmium (Cd) were reported already in 1858. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms occurred among persons using Cd-containing polishing agent. The first experimental toxicological studies are from 1919. Bone effects and proteinuria in humans were reported in the 1940's. After World War II, a bone disease with fractures and severe pain, the itai-itai disease, a form of Cd-induced renal osteomalacia, was identified in Japan. Subsequently, the toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of Cd were described including its binding to the protein metallothionein. International warnings of health risks from Cd-pollution were issued in the 1970's. Reproductive and carcinogenic effects were studied at an early stage, but a quantitative assessment of these effects in humans is still subject to considerable uncertainty. The World Health Organization in its International Program on Chemical Safety, WHO/IPCS (1992) (Cadmium. Environmental Health Criteria Document 134, IPCS. WHO, Geneva, 1-280.) identified renal dysfunction as the critical effect and a crude quantitative evaluation was presented. In the 1990's and 2000 several epidemiological studies have reported adverse health effects, sometimes at low environmental exposures to Cd, in population groups in Japan, China, Europe and USA (reviewed in other contributions to the present volume). The early identification of an important role of metallothionein in cadmium toxicology formed the basis for recent studies using biomarkers of susceptibility to development of Cd-related renal dysfunction such as gene expression of metallothionein in peripheral lymphocytes and autoantibodies against metallothionein in blood plasma. Findings in these studies indicate that very low exposure levels to cadmium may give rise to renal dysfunction among sensitive subgroups of human populations such as persons with diabetes.

  10. Lead and cadmium in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliesmann, S.; Kruse, H.; Kriews, M.; Mangels, H.

    1992-08-01

    The amounts of lead and cadmium produced and processed in these days are considerable. As a result, our environment is increasingly polluted by heavy metals and industrial installations, motor vehicles or incinerating plants appear to be among the main culprits here. Air and water are the media permitting the entry of heavy metals into our natural environment where they accumulate in the soil and then gradually migrate into the plants. Their further transport in the food constitutes the third step in the environmental spread of heavy metals. The consumption of muscle and organ meats, of vegetables, fruits, canned food and drinking water is unavoidably associated with some ingestion of lead and cadmium. The degree to which they are taken up and stored in different tissues is determined by absorption properties and the nutritional state of the organism. Cadmium tends to accumulate in the kidneys, lead is mainly stored in the bones. A continuously increasing uptake finally results in health injuries that range from unspecific complaints to damaged kidneys or bones and disorders of liver function. Children and elderly people are at a particular risk here. The level of food contamination is such that screening for heavy metals must be rigorously carried out once appropriate legal thresholds have been set, which ought to be based on proven detrimental effects of lead and cadmium on our health and also take account of infants and children or any other risk groups, where particular caution must be exercised. It should be pointed out that such thresholds have so far not been determined. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergbaeck, B; Jonsson, Arne [Kalmar Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Natural Science

    1998-03-01

    The total amount of Cd used in Sweden since 1940 is approximately 5000 tonnes, including alloys, fertilizers and impurities in zinc. The stock of Cd in goods in the Swedish anthroposphere is dominated by NiCd-batteries. However, when one considers the degree of exposure to corrosion, Cd stabilizers are dominant. Emissions of Cd from industrial plants and other point sources have been historically important. However, these point source emissions must be seen in relation to the increasingly significant fugitive `consumption emissions`, from the use and/or end-use of various goods. In this study, methods of reconstructing the flows of cadmium (Cd) and estimating the emissions over time are discussed. This is done through studies of the development of production, technology, trade and the longevity of metals in Swedish society. This last part in the chain will form the `consumption emissions` calculated from emission factors giving the proportion of the cadmium content in goods that eventually will reach the environment. The main accumulation of metals in the anthroposphere occurs in urban areas where the influx of metals is greatest. Urban areas probably represent `hot spots` as far as this type of environmental impact is concerned. Extreme Cd concentrations in surface sediments in central Stockholm indicate an ongoing release of Cd from the anthroposphere. The sources are so far unknown, i.e. this Cd flow to the biosphere cannot be explained in terms of deposition or emissions from point sources. Approximately 40 tonnes of Cd in goods are exposed to corrosion in varying degrees. This stock is dominated by Cd in stabilizers and pigments, and as impurities in Zn 15 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  12. Cadmium accumulation by Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P. Beauv and Cyperus rotundas Linn growing in cadmium solution and cadmium-zinc contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Paitip Thiravetyan; Vibol Sao; Woranan Nakbanpote

    2007-01-01

    This research investigated the phyto-remediation potentials of Cyperus rotundas Linn (Nutgrass) and Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P. Beauv (Carpetgrass) for cadmium removal from cadmium solution andcadmium-zinc contaminated soil. Plants growth in the solution showed that cadmium decreased the relative growth rate of both grasses. However, the amount of cadmium accumulated in shoot and root was increasedwith the increase in cadmium concentration and exposure time. Growth in fertile soil mixed with...

  13. Improvement of cadmium phytoremediation after soil inoculation with a cadmium-resistant Micrococcus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangthong, Chirawee; Setkit, Kunchaya; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium-resistant Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221, a plant growth-promoting bacterium, has stimulatory effects on the root lengths of Zea mays L. seedlings under toxic cadmium conditions compared to uninoculated seedlings. The performance of Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 on promoting growth and cadmium accumulation in Z. mays L. was investigated in a pot experiment. The results indicated that Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221significantly promoted the root length, shoot length, and dry biomass of Z. mays L. transplanted in both uncontaminated and cadmium-contaminated soils. Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 significantly increased cadmium accumulation in the roots and shoots of Z. mays L. compared to uninoculated plants. At the beginning of the planting period, cadmium accumulated mainly in the shoots. With a prolonged duration of cultivation, cadmium content increased in the roots. As expected, little cadmium was found in maize grains. Soil cadmium was significantly reduced with time, and the highest percentage of cadmium removal was found in the bacterial-inoculated Z. mays L. after transplantation for 6 weeks. We conclude that Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 is a potent bioaugmenting agent, facilitating cadmium phytoextraction in Z. mays L.

  14. Effect of ionising radiation and salt of cadmium on the activity enzymes in serum of chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafka, I.; Danova, D.; Kalenicova, Z.; Toropila, M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated changes of activities alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the serum of broiler chickens exposed to single of whole-body dose of 3 Gy gamma rays and concentration of cadmium 6 mg · kg -1 live weight. Samples of our experiment was analyse on the 7, 14. and 21 day after irradiation. (authors)

  15. The properties of human body phantoms used in calculations of electromagnetic fields exposure by wireless communication handsets or hand-operated industrial devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zradziński, Patryk

    2013-06-01

    According to international guidelines, the assessment of biophysical effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) generated by hand-operated sources needs the evaluation of induced electric field (E(in)) or specific energy absorption rate (SAR) caused by EMF inside a worker's body and is usually done by the numerical simulations with different protocols applied to these two exposure cases. The crucial element of these simulations is the numerical phantom of the human body. Procedures of E(in) and SAR evaluation due to compliance analysis with exposure limits have been defined in Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers standards and International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines, but a detailed specification of human body phantoms has not been described. An analysis of the properties of over 30 human body numerical phantoms was performed which has been used in recently published investigations related to the assessment of EMF exposure by various sources. The differences in applicability of these phantoms in the evaluation of E(in) and SAR while operating industrial devices and SAR while using mobile communication handsets are discussed. The whole human body numerical phantom dimensions, posture, spatial resolution and electric contact with the ground constitute the key parameters in modeling the exposure related to industrial devices, while modeling the exposure from mobile communication handsets, which needs only to represent the exposed part of the human body nearest to the handset, mainly depends on spatial resolution of the phantom. The specification and standardization of these parameters of numerical human body phantoms are key requirements to achieve comparable and reliable results from numerical simulations carried out for compliance analysis against exposure limits or within the exposure assessment in EMF-related epidemiological studies.

  16. Cadmium stress in wheat seedlings: growth, cadmium accumulation and photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ci, Dunwei; Jiang, Dong; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    parameters were generally depressed by Cd stress, especially under the high Cd concentrations. Cd concentration and accumulation in both shoots and roots increased with increasing external Cd concentrations. Relationships between corrected parameters of growth, photosynthesis and fluorescence and corrected......Seedlings of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Jing 411, Jinmai 30 and Yangmai 10 were exposed to 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 or 50 μM of CdCl2 in a solution culture experiment. The effects of cadmium (Cd) stress on wheat growth, leaf photon energy conversion, gas exchange, and Cd accumulation in wheat...

  17. Cadmium in the bioenergy system - a synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlfont, K.

    1997-12-01

    Cadmium is a toxic metal without any known positive biological effects. Both emissions and atmospheric deposition of cadmium have decreased radically in Sweden during recent years. In Sweden, about 150 tonnes of cadmium was supplied to the technosphere in 1990, mostly originating from NiCd batteries. More than 100 tonnes of cadmium accumulated in the technosphere. Mankind takes up cadmium from water, food and particulate atmospheric pollution. Even small amounts may be injurious in the long-term since the half-life in the kidneys is 30 years. Cadmium in biofuel and ashes are generally a cause of discussion. Ashes from biofuel constitute a nutrient resource that should be returned to the soil. A possible risk with spreading ashes is the spreading of heavy metals, and then foremost cadmium, which is among the heavy metals that forest soils are considered to tolerate the least. Several studies on cadmium in the bioenergy system have been made, both within the Research Programme for Recycling of Wood-ash, and within Vattenfall's Bioenergy Project. The present report is intended to provide a picture of the current state of knowledge and to review plans for the future With a 3 page summary in English. 51 refs, 1 fig, 3 tabs

  18. 29 CFR 1926.1127 - Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... occupational exposure to cadmium as follows: (1) Reassess the employee's work practices and personal hygiene... employee's work practices and personal hygiene; the employee's respirator use, if any; the employee's...; assuring that all employees exposed to air cadmium levels above the PEL wear appropriate personal...

  19. Immunochromatographic assay of cadmium levels in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Kosuke; Kim, In-Hae; Itai, Takaaki; Sugahara, Takuya; Takeyama, Haruko; Ohkawa, Hideo

    2012-08-15

    Oysters are one of foodstuffs containing a relatively high amount of cadmium. Here we report on establishment of an immunochromatographic assay (ICA) method of cadmium levels in oysters. Cadmium was extracted with 0.l mol L(-1) HCl from oysters and cleaned up from other metals by the use of an anion-exchange column. The behavior of five metals Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd was monitored at each step of extraction and clean-up procedure for the ICA method in an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. The results revealed that a simple extraction method with the HCl solution was efficient enough to extract almost all of cadmium from oysters. Clean-up with an anion-exchange column presented almost no loss of cadmium adsorbed on the column and an efficient removal of metals other than cadmium. When a spiked recovery test was performed in the ICA method, the recovery ranged from 98% to 112% with relative standard deviations between 5.9% and 9.2%. The measured values of cadmium in various oyster samples in the ICA method were favorably correlated with those in ICP-MS analysis (r(2)=0.97). Overall results indicate that the ICA method established in the present study is an adequate and reliable detection method for cadmium levels in oysters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Association of urinary cadmium and myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, Charles J.; Frithsen, Ivar L.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of individuals 45-79 years old in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994) (NHANES III). Myocardial infarction was determined by electrocardiogram (ECG). Our sample included 4912 participants, which when weighted represented 52,234,055 Americans. We performed adjusted logistic regressions with the Framingham risk score, pack-years of smoking, race-ethnicity, and family history of heart attack, and diabetes as covariates. Urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.86 (95% CI 1.26-2.75) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine. This result supports the hypothesis that cadmium is associated with coronary heart disease. When logistic regressions were done by gender, women, but not men, showed a significant association of urinary cadmium with myocardial infarction. Women with urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.80 (95% CI 1.06-3.04) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine. When the analysis was restricted to never smokers (N=2187) urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.85 (95% CI 1.10-3.14) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine

  1. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect...

  2. Electro-spark machining of cadmium antimonide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanovskij, V.N.; Stepakhina, K.A.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental data on electrical erosion of the semiconductor material (cadmium antimonide) alloyed with tellurium are given. The potentialisies and expediency of using the electric-spark method of cutting cadmium antimonide ingots with the resistivity of 1 ohm is discussed. Cutting has been carried out in distilled water and in the air

  3. Effect of Physalis peruviana L. on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Mohamed S; Nada, Ahmed; Zaki, Hassan S; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2014-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species and causes tissue damage. We investigated here the protective effect of Physalis peruviana L. (family Solanaceae) against cadmium-induced testes toxicity in rats. Twenty-eight Wistar albino rats were used. They were divided into four groups (n=7). Group 1 was used as control. Group 2 was intraperitoneally injected with 6.5 mg/kg body weight (bwt) of cadmium chloride for 5 days. Group 3 was orally treated with 200 mg/kg bwt of methanolic extract of physalis (MEPh). Group 4 was pretreated with MEPh before cadmium for 5 days. Changes in body and testes weights were determined. Oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes, and testosterone level were measured. Histopathological changes of testes were examined, and the immunohistochemical staining for the proapoptotic (caspase-3) protein was performed. The injection of cadmium caused a significant decrease in body weight, while a significant increase in testes weight and testes weight index was observed. Pretreatment with MEPh was associated with significant reduction in the toxic effects of Cd as shown by reduced testicular levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and caspase-3 expression and increased glutathione content, and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and testosterone were also increased. Testicular histopathology showed that Cd produced an extensive germ cell apoptosis, and the pretreatment of MEPh in Cd-treated rats significantly reduced Cd-induced testicular damage. On the basis of the above results, it can be hypothesized that P. peruviana L. has a protective effect against cadmium-induced testicular oxidative stress and apoptosis in the rat.

  4. Reduction kinetics of zinc and cadmium sulfides with hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turgenev, I.S.; Kabisov, I.Kh.; Zviadadze, G.N.; Vasil'eva, O.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    Kinetics of reduction processes of zinc sulfide in the temperature range 800-1100 deg C and of cadmium sulfide 600-900 deg C has been stodied. Activation energies and reaction order in terms of hydrogen are calculated. Thermodynamic processes of reduction depend on aggregate state of the metal formed. For vaporous zinc in the temperature range 1050-950 deq C activation energy constitutes 174 kJ/mol, for liquid in the range 900-850 deg - 151 kJ/mol and reaction order in terms of hydrogen is 1.0. For vaporous cadmium in the temperature range 900-700 deg C activation energy constitutes 144 kJ/mol and reaction order in terms of hydrogen is 0.86, for liquid in the range 675-600 deg C 127 kJ/mol and 0.8 respectively. The processes of zinc and cadmium sulfide reduction proceed in kinetic regime and are limited by the rate of chemical reaction

  5. Biomonitoring of lead and cadmium in women from industrial regions of eastern Germany; Biomonitoring von Blei und Cadmium bei Frauen aus industriellen Regionen Sachsen-Anhalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, I.; Wichmann, H.E. [Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Epidemiologie; GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Epidemiologie; Becker, K.; Lippold, U.; Meyer, E. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany); Heinrich, J. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Epidemiologie

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this analysis was to detemine the body burden of lead and cadmium in women aged 50 to 59 years from a mining and smelter area (Hettstedt) and two control areas (Bitterfeld, Zerbst) in eastern Germany. In the years 1992-93 1405 women aged 50 to 59 participated in a cross-sectional survey (response rate: 41.6%). 1188 women provided blood and urine samples and in 411 of these samples blood lead levels and cadmium levels in urine (standardised by creatinine) were determined. The geometric mean of blood lead levels among the 50 to 59 year-old woman was 41.5 {mu}g/l with a 95% confidence interval (C.I.) of 39.6-43.6. The geometric mean of cadmium in urine was 0.417 {mu}g/g Cr (95% C.I. 0.390-0.447). Thus the body burden of lead and cadmium differed only slightly, if at all, from the body burden of the general population. The measured body burden did not pose a risk to the evaluated population. Compared to women from the control regions Bitterfeld and Zerbst, women from Hettstedt did not have elevated blood lead levels. Blood lead levels, which reflect mostly the current exposure to lead, were positively influenced by individual behaviours such as smoking and by the distance of the residential area of Hettstedt from the former smelters. Besides this, elevated lead concentrations in tap water and the release of lead from bone after menopause resulted in increased blood lead levels. Compared to women from the control regions women from Hettstedt had significantly increased cadmium excretion in urine. Cadmium levels in urine reflect mainly the cumulative, lifetime exposure to cadmium. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Untersuchung hatte zum Ziel, die innere Belastung von Frauen mit Blei und Cadmium in den Regionen Hettstedt (Huettenstandort), Bitterfeld und Zerbst zu untersuchen. 1992/93 nahmen 1405 50- bis 59-jaehrige Frauen an einer Querschnittsuntersuchung teil (Teilnahmerate: 41,6%). In 411 Blut- bzw. Urin-Proben wurden die Bleikonzentration im Blut und die

  6. Novel Cadmium Resistance Determinant in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Cameron; Lee, Sangmi; Jayeola, Victor; Kathariou, Sophia

    2017-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause severe disease (listeriosis) in susceptible individuals. It is ubiquitous in the environment and often exhibits resistance to heavy metals. One of the determinants that enables Listeria to tolerate exposure to cadmium is the cadAC efflux system, with CadA being a P-type ATPase. Three different cadA genes (designated cadA1 to cadA3 ) were previously characterized in L. monocytogenes A novel putative cadmium resistance gene ( cadA4 ) was recently identified through whole-genome sequencing, but experimental confirmation for its involvement in cadmium resistance is lacking. In this study, we characterized cadA4 in L. monocytogenes strain F8027, a cadmium-resistant strain of serotype 4b. By screening a mariner-based transposon library of this strain, we identified a mutant with reduced tolerance to cadmium and that harbored a single transposon insertion in cadA4 The tolerance to cadmium was restored by genetic complementation with the cadmium resistance cassette ( cadA4C ), and enhanced cadmium tolerance was conferred to two unrelated cadmium-sensitive strains via heterologous complementation with cadA4C Cadmium exposure induced cadA4 expression, even at noninhibitory levels. Virulence assessments in the Galleria mellonella model suggested that a functional cadA4 suppressed virulence, potentially promoting commensal colonization of the insect larvae. Biofilm assays suggested that cadA4 inactivation reduced biofilm formation. These data not only confirm cadA4 as a novel cadmium resistance determinant in L. monocytogenes but also provide evidence for roles in virulence and biofilm formation. IMPORTANCE Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular foodborne pathogen causing the disease listeriosis, which is responsible for numerous hospitalizations and deaths every year. Among the adaptations that enable the survival of Listeria in the environment are the abilities to persist in biofilms, grow in the cold, and

  7. Fate, toxicity and bioconcentration of cadmium on Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Lemna minor in mid-term single tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Bernard; Lamonica, Dominique

    2018-03-01

    In the frame of a project which consists in modeling a laboratory microcosm under cadmium pressure, we initiated this study on the fate and effects of cadmium in the presence of either the microalga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata or the duckweed Lemna minor, two organisms of the microcosm. For each organism, growth inhibition tests on a duration of 2-3 weeks were carried out with the objective of linking effects with total dissolved, ionic and internalized forms of cadmium. Numbers of organisms (algal cells or duckweed fronds) in 2-L beakers filled with synthetic nutritive medium containing EDTA were counted during the course of assays, while cadmium concentrations in the water and in the organisms were measured. Free cadmium fraction was calculated using PHREEQC, a computer program for chemical speciation. Results showed that cadmium toxicity to microalgae could be correlated to the free divalent fraction of this metal, limited by the presence of EDTA, and to its concentration in the organisms. Bioconcentration factors for our medium were suggested for P. subcapitata (111,000 on the basis of free cadmium concentration) and L. minor (17,812 on the basis of total dissolved concentration). No effect concentrations were roughly estimated around 400 µg/g for Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and 200-300 µg/g for Lemna minor. This study is a first step towards a fate model based on chemical speciation for a better understanding of microcosm results.

  8. Metabolic deposition of selenium and cadmium into the hair and other tissues of the guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatt, A.; Holzbecher, J.; Katz, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    To better understand the significance of hair trace-element measurements and their relationships with the trace-element levels in body organs and fluids, a series of controlled animal experiments were conducted in which several trace elements were periodically measured (neutron activation and AA) during a 90-day chronic exposure to selenium and cadmium. Chronic selenium exposure appeared to be reflected by elevated selenium levels in the hair, kidneys, and liver. Chronic cadmium exposure, although reflected by kidney and liver elevation, appeared not to be reflected by corresponding increases in its concentration in the hair

  9. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waisberg, Michael; Joseph, Pius; Hale, Beverley; Beyersmann, Detmar

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal, which is widely used in industry, affecting human health through occupational and environmental exposure. In mammals, it exerts multiple toxic effects and has been classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Cadmium affects cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and other cellular activities. Cd 2+ does not catalyze Fenton-type reactions because it does not accept or donate electrons under physiological conditions, and it is only weakly genotoxic. Hence, indirect mechanisms are implicated in the carcinogenicity of cadmium. In this review multiple mechanisms are discussed, such as modulation of gene expression and signal transduction, interference with enzymes of the cellular antioxidant system and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibition of DNA repair and DNA methylation, role in apoptosis and disruption of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Cadmium affects both gene transcription and translation. The major mechanisms of gene induction by cadmium known so far are modulation of cellular signal transduction pathways by enhancement of protein phosphorylation and activation of transcription and translation factors. Cadmium interferes with antioxidant defense mechanisms and stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species, which may act as signaling molecules in the induction of gene expression and apoptosis. The inhibition of DNA repair processes by cadmium represents a mechanism by which cadmium enhances the genotoxicity of other agents and may contribute to the tumor initiation by this metal. The disruption of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion by cadmium probably further stimulates the development of tumors. It becomes clear that there exist multiple mechanisms which contribute to the carcinogenicity of cadmium, although the relative weights of these contributions are difficult to estimate

  10. Association of cadmium and arsenic exposure with salivary telomere length in adolescents in Terai, Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillman, Toki; Shimizu-Furusawa, Hana; Ng, Chris Fook Sheng; Parajuli, Rajendra Prasad; Watanabe, Chiho

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cadmium and arsenic are ubiquitous metals commonly found in the environment which can harm human health. A growing body of research shows telomere length as a potential biomarker of future disease risk. Few studies have examined the effects of metals on telomere length and none have focused on adolescents. Objectives: In this study, the impact of cadmium and arsenic on salivary telomere length was studied in adolescents in Terai, Nepal. Methods: Adolescents aged 12–16 years old (n=351)were recruited where questionnaire interviews and both saliva and urine collection took place. Telomere length was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction using DNA extracted from saliva. Urinary cadmium and arsenic concentration were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine associations between urinary metals and salivary telomere length. Results: The geometric means and standard deviations of cadmium and arsenic were 0.33±0.33 μg/g creatinine and 196.0±301.1 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Urinary cadmium concentration was negatively associated with salivary telomere length after adjustment for confounders (β=−0.24, 95% CI −0.42,−0.07). Arsenic showed positive associations with telomere length but did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that cadmium may shorten adolescent telomeres, even at exposure levels that may be considered low. These results agree with prior experimental and adult epidemiological studies, and also help identify the mechanism of DNA damage by cadmium. This study expanded current evidence on the harmful effects of cadmium exposure on telomere length even to adolescents. - Highlights: • This is the first study examining metal exposure on telomere length in adolescents. • Urinary cadmium levels were similar to non-industrially polluted levels in Asia. • Urinary arsenic levels were as high as groundwater

  11. Association of cadmium and arsenic exposure with salivary telomere length in adolescents in Terai, Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillman, Toki, E-mail: tokif@humeco.m.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Shimizu-Furusawa, Hana, E-mail: hana-shimizu@umin.ac.jp [Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Ng, Chris Fook Sheng, E-mail: chrisng-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki (Japan); Parajuli, Rajendra Prasad, E-mail: rp.parajuli@mcgill.ca [Basu Laboratory, CINE Building, Macdonald Campus, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Watanabe, Chiho, E-mail: chiho@humeco.m.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    Background: Cadmium and arsenic are ubiquitous metals commonly found in the environment which can harm human health. A growing body of research shows telomere length as a potential biomarker of future disease risk. Few studies have examined the effects of metals on telomere length and none have focused on adolescents. Objectives: In this study, the impact of cadmium and arsenic on salivary telomere length was studied in adolescents in Terai, Nepal. Methods: Adolescents aged 12–16 years old (n=351)were recruited where questionnaire interviews and both saliva and urine collection took place. Telomere length was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction using DNA extracted from saliva. Urinary cadmium and arsenic concentration were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine associations between urinary metals and salivary telomere length. Results: The geometric means and standard deviations of cadmium and arsenic were 0.33±0.33 μg/g creatinine and 196.0±301.1 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Urinary cadmium concentration was negatively associated with salivary telomere length after adjustment for confounders (β=−0.24, 95% CI −0.42,−0.07). Arsenic showed positive associations with telomere length but did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that cadmium may shorten adolescent telomeres, even at exposure levels that may be considered low. These results agree with prior experimental and adult epidemiological studies, and also help identify the mechanism of DNA damage by cadmium. This study expanded current evidence on the harmful effects of cadmium exposure on telomere length even to adolescents. - Highlights: • This is the first study examining metal exposure on telomere length in adolescents. • Urinary cadmium levels were similar to non-industrially polluted levels in Asia. • Urinary arsenic levels were as high as groundwater

  12. Cadmium dietary intake in the Canary Islands, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, C.; Hardisson, A.; Reguera, J.I.; Revert, C.; Lafuente, M.A.; Gonzalez-Iglesias, T.

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) in the human diet constitutes a potential chronic hazard to health. In the nonsmoking general population, diet is the major source of cadmium exposure; therefore, it is important to monitor the dietary intake of this heavy metal to quantify and improve the understanding of Cd accumulation in the human body. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of Cd in a range of food and drink commonly consumed in the Canary Islands. Food samples (420) were analyzed for Cd by atomic absorption spectrometry. The most recent nutritional survey conducted for the Canarian population was used to define the food and drink groups analyzed. The measured Cd concentrations combined with the food consumption data resulted in a total Cd intake in the Canary Islands of 0.16 μg/kg of body weight/day, which is well below the respective provisional tolerable weekly intake of Cd of 1 μg/kg of body weight per day determined by the FAO/WHO. The results are also compared with values reported for other national and international communities

  13. CADMIUM EXCRETION IN FECES OF RATS AT EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Zemlianyi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies demonstrated that the excretions per 1 gof rat weight inthe experimental group usually prevails over the  control group, especially in the second part of the experiment. The increase in the amount of feces in animals of the experimental group was also registered. Such processes may indicate the intense excretory processes and  increase the output of harmful  pollutants from the rats  together with overall stimulation of rat digestive activity. The higher correlations between Cd and other pollutants, namely toxic Ni and Pb (r = 0.84 and 0.91, respectively were calculated for rat feces of experimental group compared to the control. The concentration of Cd and Pb in the excretion of experimental group was maximal in the first day of the experiment, suggesting definite reaction towards rapid output of maximum amount of toxicants from rat body. Subsequently, a decrease in concentration of other pollutants demonstrated their incorporation in metabolic processes and significant accumulation in rat body (kidney and liver, or involvement of other mechanisms for neutralization and removal of intoxicants. Given the increasing amount of excretions  in the second half of the experiment, this may be a solution to this issue. The Cd output per 1 g of rat weight was maximal in the first day, followed by a rapid decline and partial restoration in second half of the experiment. Obviously, it confirms the theory of substitution mechanisms in excretion of significant amount of hazardous toxicants and shifting towards less concentrated excretions in greater amount. Thus, the correlation index between the percentage of excreted pollutant and its concentration in the excretion was 0.75. When we considered only the first 7 days this increased to 0.91 and proved that during the first stage of experiment the percentage of pollutants excretion was dependent upon its concentration in feces. Correlation between Cd output rate and excretion volumes was

  14. Cadmium safety rod thermal tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.K.; Iyer, N.C.; Peacock, H.B.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal testing of cadmium safety rods was conducted as part of a program to define the response of Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactor core components to a hypothetical LOCA leading to a drained reactor tank. The safety rods are present in the reactor core only during shutdown and are not used as a control mechanism during operation; thus, their response to the conditions predicted for the LOCA is only of interest to the extent that it could impact the progression of the accident. This document provides a description of this testing

  15. Testing Cadmium-Free Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    Secretary of Defense Directive • “Approve the use of alternatives [to hexavalent chromium (Cr6+)] where they can perform adequately for the intended...Effect of corrosion on breakaway torque 12 OPSEC approved for public release Fastener Finish Study FINISH POST-TREATMENT LUBRICANT Cadmium Hexavalent ...Past Testing Electrical Connectors Coatings Al / TCP ZnNi / TCP ZnNi / Non- Chrome Passivation (NCP) Ni-PTFE 1 Ni-PTFE 2 Note: SnZn tested on flat

  16. Cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Park, Sung Kyun; Hu, Howard; Lee, Sundong

    2011-01-01

    Background: Limited epidemiologic data are available concerning the cardiovascular effects of cadmium exposure, although recent studies suggest associations with myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. We examined the associations of cadmium exposure with cardiovascular disease in nationally representative general Korean adults. Methods: We used cross-sectional data on blood cadmium and self-reported diagnoses of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and hypertension in a sub-sample of 1908 adults, aged 20 years and older, who participated in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We used survey logistic regression models accounting for the complex sampling design to estimate the odds ratios (OR), adjusting for age, education, income, alcohol, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, family history of hypertension, blood pressure, and blood lead. Results: The geometric mean of blood cadmium was 1.53 μg/L. After adjusting for potential confounders, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in blood cadmium (0.91 μg/L) was found to be associated with an increased risk for IHD (OR 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.4). An IQR increase in blood cadmium was found to be associated with an elevated risk for hypertension only among men (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8) but not among women. No association was observed with stroke in both genders. Conclusions: These findings suggest that cadmium in blood may be associated with an increased risk for IHD and hypertension in the general Korean adult population.

  17. Cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Park, Sung Kyun; Hu, Howard [Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lee, Sundong, E-mail: sdlee@sangji.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Oriental Medicine, Sangji University, Wonju, Kangwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Background: Limited epidemiologic data are available concerning the cardiovascular effects of cadmium exposure, although recent studies suggest associations with myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. We examined the associations of cadmium exposure with cardiovascular disease in nationally representative general Korean adults. Methods: We used cross-sectional data on blood cadmium and self-reported diagnoses of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and hypertension in a sub-sample of 1908 adults, aged 20 years and older, who participated in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We used survey logistic regression models accounting for the complex sampling design to estimate the odds ratios (OR), adjusting for age, education, income, alcohol, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, family history of hypertension, blood pressure, and blood lead. Results: The geometric mean of blood cadmium was 1.53 {mu}g/L. After adjusting for potential confounders, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in blood cadmium (0.91 {mu}g/L) was found to be associated with an increased risk for IHD (OR 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.4). An IQR increase in blood cadmium was found to be associated with an elevated risk for hypertension only among men (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8) but not among women. No association was observed with stroke in both genders. Conclusions: These findings suggest that cadmium in blood may be associated with an increased risk for IHD and hypertension in the general Korean adult population.

  18. The association between serum vitamin D levels and renal tubular dysfunction in a general population exposed to cadmium in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Dai, Yan; Wang, Zhongqiu; Zhu, Guoying; Ding, Xiaoqiang; Jin, Taiyi

    2018-01-01

    Cadmium exposure can cause renal tubular dysfunction. Recent studies show that vitamin D can play multiple roles in the body. However, the association between serum vitamin D levels and renal tubular dysfunction in a general population exposed to cadmium has not been clarified. We performed study to assess the effects of cadmium on serum 25(OH) D levels and the association between serum 25(OH) D levels and renal tubular dysfunction in a population environmentally exposed to cadmium. A total of 133 subjects living in control area and two cadmium polluted areas were included in the present study. Cadmium in urine (UCd) and blood (BCd), urinary β2Microglobulin (UBMG), urinary retinol binding protein (URBP) and serum 25 (OH) D were determined. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between 25 (OH) D and prevalence of renal tubular dysfunction. No significant differences were observed in serum 25(OH) D levels among the four quartile of UCd and BCd after adjusting with cofounders. After adjusted with the confounders, the odds ratio (OR) of subjects with 25(OH) D ≥ 40 ng/ml were 0.20 (95%CI: 0.1-0.8) if UBMG was chosen as indicators of renal dysfunction and 0.28 (95%CI: 0.1-1.1) if URBP was chosen as indicators of renal dysfunction, compared with those with 25(OH) D < 30 ng/ml, respectively. Similar results were observed in those subjects living in cadmium polluted areas or with high level of UCd or BCd. Our data indicated that cadmium exposure did not affect serum 25(OH) D level and high 25 (OH) D levels were associated with a decreased risk of renal tubular dysfunction induced by cadmium.

  19. Optical to ultraviolet spectra of sandwiches of benzene and transition metal atoms: Time dependent density functional theory and many-body calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jose Ignacio; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Lopez, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    The optical spectra of sandwich clusters formed by transition metal atoms (titanium, vanadium, and chromium) intercalated between parallel benzene molecules have been studied by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and many-body perturbation theory. Sandwiches with different number...

  20. Modeling Human Body Using Four-Pole Debye Model in Piecewise Linear Recursive Convolution FDTD Method for the SAR Calculation in the Case of Vehicular Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Guellab

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an efficient finite difference time domain (FDTD method based on the piecewise linear recursive convolution (PLRC technique to evaluate the human body exposure to electromagnetic (EM radiation. The source of radiation considered in this study is a high-power antenna, mounted on a military vehicle, covering a broad band of frequency (100 MHz–3 GHz. The simulation is carried out using a nonhomogeneous human body model which takes into consideration most of the internal body tissues. The human tissues are modeled by a four-pole Debye model which is derived from experimental data by using particle swarm optimization (PSO. The human exposure to EM radiation is evaluated by computing the local and whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR for each occupant. The higher in-tissue electric field intensity points are localized, and the SAR values are compared with the crew safety standard recommendations. The accuracy of the proposed PLRC-FDTD approach and the matching of the Debye model with the experimental data are verified in this study.

  1. Calculations of B1 Distribution, Specific Energy Absorption Rate, and Intrinsic Signal-to-Noise Ratio for a Body-Size Birdcage Coil Loaded with Different Human Subjects at 64 and 128 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W; Collins, C M; Smith, M B

    2005-03-01

    A numerical model of a female body is developed to study the effects of different body types with different coil drive methods on radio-frequency magnetic ( B 1 ) field distribution, specific energy absorption rate (SAR), and intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio (ISNR) for a body-size birdcage coil at 64 and 128 MHz. The coil is loaded with either a larger, more muscular male body model (subject 1) or a newly developed female body model (subject 2), and driven with two-port (quadrature), four-port, or many (ideal) sources. Loading the coil with subject 1 results in significantly less homogeneous B 1 field, higher SAR, and lower ISNR than those for subject 2 at both frequencies. This dependence of MR performance and safety measures on body type indicates a need for a variety of numerical models representative of a diverse population for future calculations. The different drive methods result in similar B 1 field patterns, SAR, and ISNR in all cases.

  2. Removal of cadmium(II) from aqueous solutions by steam-activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Removal of cadmium(II) from aqueous solutions by steam-activated sulphurised carbon prepared from sugar-cane bagasse pith: kinetics and equilibrium studies. ... the maximum adsorption capacity of SA-S-C calculated by the Langmuir isotherm is 149.93 mg/g at 30°C. Acid regeneration was tried for several cycles with a ...

  3. Assessment of air quality for arsenic, cadmium, mercury and nickel in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsman E; LLO

    The presence of arsenic, cadmium, mercury and nickel in air in the Netherlands has been investigated. Using measurement data, a limited supplemental monitoring effort and the results of modelling calculations, it has been possible to obtain a realistic picture of air quality in the Netherlands with

  4. Combined protective effect of vitamins C and E on cadmium induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uwerhiavwe

    cadmium toxicity also causes an oxidative stress through lipid peroxidation ... lines for Animal Care and approved by the Ethics Committee of our. Institution. ... enzyme activity was calculated by using an extinction coefficient of. 0.043 mM -1 cm ...

  5. Critical loads and excess loads of cadmium, copper and lead for European forest soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinds, G.J.; Bril, J.; Vries, de W.; Groenenberg, J.E.; Breeuwsma, A.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, concern has arisen about the impact of the dispersion of heavy metals in Europe. Therefore, a study (ESQUAD) was initiated to assess critical loads and steady-state concentrations of cadmium, copper and lead for European forest soils. The calculation methods used strongly resemble those

  6. Theoretical Investigation of Spectral-Interferences of Cadmium Isotopes in ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashad, A.M.; Rashad, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal properties of polyatomic ions which can interfere with cadmium during the analysis process using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer ICP-MS are studied. Ionization energies and heats of formation, of the selected species at 0 K and 298 K of the expected reactions to occur under the effect of plasma conditions in ICP-MS, are calculated using Gaussian 03

  7. The toxicokinetics of cadmium in carp under normoxic and hypoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattink, Jasper; Boeck, Gudrun De; Blust, Ronny

    2005-01-01

    Temporal depletion of oxygen, i.e. hypoxic events, frequently occurs in natural waters. It has been suggested that accumulation of micro-pollutants increases in aquatic animals as a result of an increased ventilation rate during such occasions. The observed increased toxicity under hypoxia of micro-pollutants may support this hypothesis, but for heavy metals the available uptake studies are contradictory. The present study tests whether accumulation of cadmium in common carp, Cyprinus carpio (L.) is increased under hypoxia and if the toxicokinetics are altered. A cadmium toxicity study was performed in which the cadmium uptake rates were determined using the radiotracer 109 Cd under hypoxia and normoxia. The cadmium toxicokinetics were studied with radiotracer experiments at 100% air saturation, 50%, and 25% saturation from 6.5 nmol/L Cd at 25 deg C. We could confirm the higher sensitivity of carp to cadmium under hypoxia. Hypoxic conditions did not influence the uptake rates or the accumulation dynamics. Therefore, the increased sensitivity of carp for Cd under hypoxia cannot be explained by a higher Cd body burden, initiated by a higher uptake rate or lower elimination rate under hypoxia. Additional, possible indirect effects, such as internal anoxia due to gill damage, could play a role in Cd toxicity under hypoxia

  8. Comparison of arsenate and cadmium toxicity in a freshwater amphipod (Gammarus pulex)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vellinger, Céline; Parant, Marc; Rousselle, Philippe; Immel, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is largely documented on freshwater organisms while arsenic, especially arsenate, is rarely studied. The kinetic of the LC50s values for both metals was realized on Gammarus pulex. Physiological [i.e. metal concentration in body tissues, bioconcentration factor (BCF)] effects and behavioural responses (via pleopods beats) were investigated after 240-h exposure. Arsenate LC50 value was 100 fold higher than Cd-LC50 value after 240-h exposure, while concentrations in gammarids were similar for both metals at their respective LC50s. BCF decreased with increasing cadmium concentration while BCF remained stable with increasing arsenate concentration. Moreover, BCF was between 148 and 344 times lower for arsenate than cadmium. A significant hypoventilation was observed for cadmium concentrations exceeding or close to the 240h-LC50 Cd , while gammarids hyperventilated for the lowest arsenate concentrations and hypoventilated for the highest arsenate concentrations. We discussed the relationships between potential action mechanisms of these two metals and observed results. - Highlights: ► First study of arsenate toxicity in a Crustacean gammarid. ► Specific toxicological and behavioural responses to AsV and Cd contamination. ► Each metal led to specific-action mechanisms. ► Different energetic reallocation could explain specific behavioural responses. - This study brings to light the potential relationship between toxicological effects and behavioural responses of G. pulex exposed at both Cadmium and Arsenate.

  9. The toxicokinetics of cadmium in carp under normoxic and hypoxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattink, Jasper [University of Antwerp, Department of Biology, Laboratory of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry, and Toxicology, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: jasper.hattink@ua.ac.be; Boeck, Gudrun De [University of Antwerp, Department of Biology, Laboratory of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry, and Toxicology, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, Ronny [University of Antwerp, Department of Biology, Laboratory of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry, and Toxicology, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2005-10-05

    Temporal depletion of oxygen, i.e. hypoxic events, frequently occurs in natural waters. It has been suggested that accumulation of micro-pollutants increases in aquatic animals as a result of an increased ventilation rate during such occasions. The observed increased toxicity under hypoxia of micro-pollutants may support this hypothesis, but for heavy metals the available uptake studies are contradictory. The present study tests whether accumulation of cadmium in common carp, Cyprinus carpio (L.) is increased under hypoxia and if the toxicokinetics are altered. A cadmium toxicity study was performed in which the cadmium uptake rates were determined using the radiotracer {sup 109}Cd under hypoxia and normoxia. The cadmium toxicokinetics were studied with radiotracer experiments at 100% air saturation, 50%, and 25% saturation from 6.5 nmol/L Cd at 25 deg C. We could confirm the higher sensitivity of carp to cadmium under hypoxia. Hypoxic conditions did not influence the uptake rates or the accumulation dynamics. Therefore, the increased sensitivity of carp for Cd under hypoxia cannot be explained by a higher Cd body burden, initiated by a higher uptake rate or lower elimination rate under hypoxia. Additional, possible indirect effects, such as internal anoxia due to gill damage, could play a role in Cd toxicity under hypoxia.

  10. Radiochemical separation of cadmium-109

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egamediev, S.; Mukhtarov, A.; Nurbaeva, D.; Rakhmanov, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Cadmium-109 has a half-life of 461.9 days and decays by electron capture to 109 Ag with the emission of 88 keV γ-ray (3.79%) along with the characteristic X-ray from the K level of Ag, with energy of 22.5 keV. This radionuclide has found widespread use as a photon source in x-ray fluorescence analysis devices employed in industry for numerous applications such as the direct determination of gold in ores, the analysis of metals and identification of steels. Other applications range from its use as an electron source for measurement of densities of air-pollution samples, to tracer studies in mushrooms and mice and rats. In the nuclear medicine field there is growing interest in employing 109 Cd in a 109 Cd/ 109mA g generator, as an alternative to other biomedical generators of ultra short-lived gamma emitters. There are several methods for the production of 109 Cd in literature: 1. Bombardment of silver cyclotron target via 109 Ag(d,2n) 109 Cd reaction with 16 MeV deuterons. 2. Bombardment of natural silver target via 109 Ag(p,n) 109 Cd reaction with 14 MeV protons. 3. Proton bombardment of natural indium target with 96 MeV protons. 4. Irradiation of enriched 107 Ag target in high-flux nuclear reactor at neutron flux 2x10 15 n·cm -2 ·s -1 via 107 Ag(n,γ) 108 Ag → 108 Cd (n,γ) 109 Cd reaction. 5. Irradiation of enriched 108 Cd target in nuclear reactor at neutron flux 1x10 14 n·cm -2 ·s -1 via 108 Cd (n,γ) 109 Cd reaction. The production of 109 Cd with proton beam via 109 Ag(p,n) 109 Cd reaction is ideal for the cyclotron U-150, since it is not required the change of the regime for the machine functioning. Because of its relatively long half-life the time required for separation is also not an important factor, but its use as an X-ray source requires a very high radiochemical purity. In the present work we studied two methods for separation of 109 Cd from model solution of silver targets. First method is based on precipitation of silver as

  11. Evaluation of the effect of alternative measurements of body weight gain and dry matter intake for the calculation of residual feed intake in growing purebred Charolais and Red Angus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, W; Glaze, J B; Welch, C M; Kerley, M; Hill, R A

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of alternative-measurements of body weight and DMI used to evaluate residual feed intake (RFI). Weaning weight (WW), ADG, and DMI were recorded on 970 growing purebred Charolais bulls (n = 519) and heifers (n = 451) and 153 Red Angus growing steers (n = 69) and heifers (n = 84) using a GrowSafe (GrowSafe, Airdrie, Alberta, Canada) system. Averages of individual DMI were calculated in 10-d increments and compared to the overall DMI to identify the magnitude of the errors associated with measuring DMI. These incremental measurements were also used in calculation of RFI, computed from the linear regression of DMI on ADG and midtest body weight0.75 (MMWT). RFI_Regress was calculated using ADG_Regress (ADG calculated as the response of BW gain and DOF) and MMWT_PWG (metabolic midweight calculated throughout the postweaning gain test), considered the control in Red Angus. A similar calculation served as control for Charolais; RFI was calculated using 2-d consecutive start and finish weights (RFI_Calc). The RFI weaning weight (RFI_WW) was calculated using ADG_WW (ADG from weaning till the final out weight of the postweaning gain test) and MMWT_WW, calculated similarly. Overall average estimated DMI was highly correlated to the measurements derived over shorter periods, with 10 d being the least correlated and 60 d being the most correlated. The ADG_Calc (calculated using 2-d consecutive start and finish weight/DOF) and ADG_WW were highly correlated in Charolais. The ADG_Regress and ADG_Calc were highly correlated, and ADG_Regress and ADG_WW were moderately correlated in Red Angus. The control measures of RFI were highly correlated with the RFI_WW in Charolais and Red Angus. The outcomes of including abbreviated period DMI in the model with the weaning weight gain measurements showed that the model using 10 d of intake (RFI WW_10) was the least correlated with the control measures. The model with 60 d of intake had

  12. Cadmium action in synapses in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Akira; Takeda, Atsushi; Nishibaba, Daisuke; Tekefuta, Sachiyo; Oku, Naoto [Department of Radiobiochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium causes central nervous system disorders, e.g., olfactory dysfunction. To clarify cadmium toxicity in synaptic neurotransmission in the brain, the movement and action of cadmium in the synapses was examined using in vivo microdialysis. One and 24 h after injection of {sup 109}CdCl{sub 2} into the amygdala of rats, {sup 109}Cd release into the extracellular space was facilitated by stimulation with high K{sup +}, suggesting that cadmium taken up in amygdalar neurons is released into the synaptic clefts in a calcium- and impulse-dependent manner. To examine the action of cadmium in the synapses, the amygdala was perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing 10-30 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}. The release of excitatory neurotransmitters, i.e., glutamate and aspartate, into the extracellular space was decreased during perfusion with cadmium, while the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters, i.e., glycine and {gamma}-amino butyric acid (GABA), into the extracellular space was increased during the period. These results suggest that cadmium released from the amygdalar neuron terminals affects the degree and balance of excitation-inhibition in synaptic neurotransmission. (author)

  13. Cadmium action in synapses in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Akira; Takeda, Atsushi; Nishibaba, Daisuke; Tekefuta, Sachiyo; Oku, Naoto

    2001-01-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium causes central nervous system disorders, e.g., olfactory dysfunction. To clarify cadmium toxicity in synaptic neurotransmission in the brain, the movement and action of cadmium in the synapses was examined using in vivo microdialysis. One and 24 h after injection of 109 CdCl 2 into the amygdala of rats, 109 Cd release into the extracellular space was facilitated by stimulation with high K + , suggesting that cadmium taken up in amygdalar neurons is released into the synaptic clefts in a calcium- and impulse-dependent manner. To examine the action of cadmium in the synapses, the amygdala was perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing 10-30 μM CdCl 2 . The release of excitatory neurotransmitters, i.e., glutamate and aspartate, into the extracellular space was decreased during perfusion with cadmium, while the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters, i.e., glycine and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA), into the extracellular space was increased during the period. These results suggest that cadmium released from the amygdalar neuron terminals affects the degree and balance of excitation-inhibition in synaptic neurotransmission. (author)

  14. Cadmium - a case of mistaken identity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D

    1984-05-01

    New evidence is presented which describes the impact of cadmium in the environment. Cadmium is a persistent material, although its compounds may undergo a range of chemical changes in the environment. In soluble form cadmium and its compounds are toxic at relatively low concentrations to aquatic animals although their bioconcentrations in such animals is in general low, and there is no evidence of biomagnification. In insoluble form cadmium and its compounds are relatively non-toxic to aquatic animals and are unlikely to be bioconcentrated. As such, cadmium is similar to most other heavy metals. Recent studies indicate that cadmium is not implicated in Itai-Itai disease and does not appear to cause hypertension or cancer. In addition, the accepted critical level in the kidney may have been underestimated. Thus, the hazard to man appears to be considerably less than the original estimates. In view of these data, there seems little justification in treating cadmium in any way differently from the other metals and hence no reason for retaining it on the Black List of the international conventions. 19 references.

  15. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C.; Rosa, Carlos Augusto

    2009-01-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K + and Na + ) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  16. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: luamatu@uol.com.br; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica], e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br; Rosa, Carlos Augusto [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: carlrosa@icb.ufmg

    2009-07-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K{sup +} and Na{sup +}) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  17. Epidemiological approach to cadmium pollution in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigematsu, I.

    1984-04-01

    The study of health problems due to cadmium pollution in Japan originated from an endemic episode of Itai-itai disease in a rural area in north-central Japan after World War II. The disease was defined as osteomalacia with tubular changes in the kidney and considered to be associated with excess intake of cadmium. This episode motivated the Japanese Government to conduct health examinations on the general population in cadmium-polluted and non-polluted areas throughout the country since 1969. Although Itai-itai disease-like bone changes were rarely found, these studies revealed a higher prevalence of renal tubular dysfunction among elderly people in the cadmium-polluted areas. No significant difference was noted in cancer mortality, but mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes tended to be lower in cadmium-polluted areas. Clinical and pathological studies in man as well as experiments on primates have recently been made to elucidate the pathogenesis of Itai-itai disease and the health effects of cadmium. The lack of knowledge on the ecological and biological complex of cadmium resulted in the impediment of studies on this problem. The lesson from this experience is that basic research is essential for promoting the study of pollutants such as heavy metals, though pollution problems usually require urgent solutions.

  18. Polarographic investigation of complexing kinetics of polyacrylate anions with cadmium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avlyanov, Zh.K.; Kabanov, N.M.; Zezin, A.B.; Askarov, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    The processes which occur during the reduction of cadmium ions from polymer-metallic complexes (PMC) are studied for the purposes of polarographic investigation of complexing kinetics of polyacrylate anions (PAA) of different molecular masses with cadmium ions in KCl aqueous solutions. An expression is derived for establishing semiwave potential. PMC formation and dissociation reduction rate constants are calculated. It is shown that intramolecular reorderings required for the formation of a two-coordinate complex proceed much slower as compared to the diffusion of free ions

  19. Effect of growth parameters on spatial pattern formation of cadmium hydroxide in agar gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palaniandavar, N.; Gnanam, F.D.; Ramasamy, P.

    1986-01-01

    The interrelated effects of growth parameters on spatial pattern formation of cadmium hydroxide in agar gel medium have been investigated. The main parameters are concentration of electrolytes, pH of the medium, density of the gel, the concentration of parasitic electrolyte and the concentration of additives. The pattern formation is explained on the basis of electrical double layer theory coupled with diffusion. Using Shinohara's revised coagulation concept, the flocculation value is calculated. With suitable combinations of parameter values, dendritic growth and spherulitic growth of cadmium hydroxide crystals have been observed. (author)

  20. Bioremediation of the Soils Contaminated with Cadmium and Chromium, by the Earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Aseman- Bashiz1

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important environmental problems in the world is the soils contamination by heavy metals in the industrial areas, and especially the contamination of the agricultural lands. The use of earthworms to bioremediate the soils results in reducing the pollutants concentration through a bioaccumulation mechanism on the contaminants in the earthworm's body. Hence, the present study aimed to prove the biological effectiveness of Eisenia fetida earthworms in bioremediation the soils contaminated with chromium and cadmium. Concentration of chromium and cadmium pollution in soil was determined to be 0.04 mg/g and 0.08 mg/g respectively. 30 worms were added to 500 g soil samples. Chromium and cadmium concentration in soil and in the body of worms was measured at two time periods of 21 and 42 days. To measure the concentration of chromium and cadmium we used ICP spectrometry. Software in usage was SPSS version 17. There was a significant correlation between the reduction of chromium and cadmium metals in the soils and the accumulation of chromium and cadmium metals in the worm’s body. A significant decline of chromium levels of the soil was observed in the days 21 and 42 during the study compared to initial amount of 0.1 mg/g. on the other hand chromium concentration of the soil decreased from 0.14 mg/g to 0.1 mg/g after 42 days. Comparison of mortality in two different time periods showed that by passing the time and by increase in soil chromium and cadmium concentrations the death toll of worms rises. The increased mortality of worms in the soil at a concentration of 0.08 mg/g of chromium, say that using the worms for bioremediation is not recommended at such concentration of chromium but using the worms for the removal of cadmium at concentrations of 0.04 mg/g and 0.08 mg/g in the soil is recommended.

  1. Cadmium decontamination using in-house resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Sangita; Thalor, K.L; Prabhakar, S.; Srivastava, V.K.; Goswami, J.L.; Tewari, P.K.; Dhanpal, Pranav; Goswami, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    A selective and strong in-house chelator has been studied w.r.t. basic parameters like concentration, time, and elution. De-contamination of cadmium, mercury, chromium, lead etc by using high uptake values fro cadmium ions proves its selectivity with high elution ratio ensures further decontamination of run-off water during natural calamities. In three step cascade use the concentration of original cadmium solution (500 ppm) decocted to safe disposable attribute. This polymeric ligand exchanger displayed outlet effluent concentration to 1 ppm and less than 200 ppb when treated for inlet feed concentration of 50 ppm and 500 ppm respectively. (author)

  2. Lead and cadmium content of spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielig, H J; Dreyer, H; Askar, A

    1977-02-02

    The lead and cadmium content of various spices was determined by flameless atomic absorption (AAS). With the exception of one sample, the lead content was lower than 5 ppm, averaging a value of 2,2 ppm Pb. Thus, the maximum permissible level of 5 ppm Pb as recommended by different DIN standards, is not exceeded. The cadmium content was - except for one sample - lower than 0,5 ppm averaging a value of 0,23 ppm Cd. It can be assumed, that by spicing our dishes, the ingestion of lead and cadmium stays at a low level.

  3. VIP-Man: An image-based whole-body adult male model constructed from color photographs of the visible human project for multi-particle Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X.G.; Chao, T.C.; Bozkurt, A.

    2000-01-01

    Human anatomical models have been indispensable to radiation protection dosimetry using Monte Carlo calculations. Existing MIRD-based mathematical models are easy to compute and standardize, but they are simplified and crude compared to human anatomy. This article describes the development of an image-based whole-body model, called VIP-Man, using transversal color photographic images obtained from the National Library of Medicine's Visible Human Project for Monte Carlo organ dose calculations involving photons, electron, neutrons, and protons. As the first of a series of papers on dose calculations based on VIP-Man, this article provides detailed information about how to construct an image-based model, as well as how to adopt it into well-tested Monte Carlo codes, EGS4, MCNP4B, and MCNPX

  4. Collinear laser spectroscopy of atomic cadmium

    CERN Document Server

    Frömmgen, Nadja; Bissell, Mark L.; Bieroń, Jacek; Blaum, Klaus; Cheal, Bradley; Flanagan, Kieran; Fritzsche, Stephan; Geppert, Christopher; Hammen, Michael; Kowalska, Magdalena; Kreim, Kim; Krieger, Andreas; Neugart, Rainer; Neyens, Gerda; Rajabali, Mustafa M.; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried; Papuga, Jasna; Yordanov, Deyan T.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperfine structure $A$ and $B$ factors of the atomic $5s\\,5p\\,\\; ^3\\rm{P}_2 \\rightarrow 5s\\,6s\\,\\; ^3\\rm{S}_1$ transition are determined from collinear laser spectroscopy data of $^{107-123}$Cd and $^{111m-123m}$Cd. Nuclear magnetic moments and electric quadrupole moments are extracted using reference dipole moments and calculated electric field gradients, respectively. The hyperfine structure anomaly for isotopes with $s_{1/2}$ and $d_{5/2}$ nuclear ground states and isomeric $h_{11/2}$ states is evaluated and a linear relationship is observed for all nuclear states except $s_{1/2}$. This corresponds to the Moskowitz-Lombardi rule that was established in the mercury region of the nuclear chart but in the case of cadmium the slope is distinctively smaller than for mercury. In total four atomic and ionic levels were analyzed and all of them exhibit a similar behaviour. The electric field gradient for the atomic $5s\\,5p\\,\\; ^3\\mathrm{P}_2$ level is derived from multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculatio...

  5. Cadmium removal from aqueous solutions by pumice and nano-pumice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khorzughy, Sara Haddadi; Eslamkish, Teymur [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ardejani, Faramarz Doulati [University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Heydartaemeh, Mohammad Reza [Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Use of low-cost minerals to eliminate mining and industrial pollutants is the main goal of this study. We investigated the ability of pumice and nano-pumice to remove cadmium from a synthetic aqueous solution. Batch experiments were performed to investigate adsorption characteristic; therefore, the effective factors influencing the adsorption process including solution pH, contact time and initial concentration have been considered. Equilibrium data were attempted by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models to realize the interaction between adsorbent and adsorbate. The results show that cadmium adsorption on Pumice follows the Langmuir isotherm model with a R{sup 2} of 0.9996 and shows a homogeneous and mono-layer adsorption. Whereas, cadmium adsorption on nano-Pumice follows a Freundlich model (R{sup 2}=0.9939) and exhibits a multi-layer adsorption. The maximum mono-layer capacity (q{sub max}) of cadmium for pumice and nano-pumice was calculated 26 and 200mg/g, respectively. Two different kinetics models including pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order were studied to evaluate the rate and mechanism of cadmium adsorption by pumice and nano-pumice. The kinetics data indicate that a pseudo second-order model provides the best correlation of the experimental data.

  6. Experimental observations on electrorefining spent nuclear fuel in molten LiCl-KCl/liquid cadmium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T. A.; Laug, D. V.; Li, S. X.; Sofu, T.

    1999-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is currently performing a demonstration program for the Department of Energy (DOE) which processes spent nuclear fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II). One of the key steps in this demonstration program is electrorefining of the spent fuel in a molten LiCl-KCl/liquid cadmium system using a pilot scale electrorefiner (Mk-IV ER). This article summarizes experimental observations and engineering aspects for electrorefining spent fuel in the molten LiCl-KCl/liquid cadmium system. It was found that the liquid cadmium pool acted as an intermediate electrode during the electrorefining process in the ER. The cadmium level was gradually decreased due to its high vapor pressure and vaporization rate at the ER operational temperature. The low cadmium level caused the anode assembly momentarily to touch the ER vessel hardware, which generated a periodic current change at the salt/cathode interface and improved uranium recovery efficiency for the process. The primary current distributions calculated by numerical simulations were used in interpreting the experimental results

  7. Evaluation of estimated daily intake (EDI) of cadmium and lead for rice (Oryza sativa L.) in calcareous soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamannejadian, Ali; Sayyad, Gholamabbas; Moezzi, Abdolamir; Jahangiri, Alireza

    2013-04-08

    The excessive amounts of cadmium and lead in food chain can cause health problems for humans and ecosystem. Rice is an important food in human diet. Therefore this study was conducted in order to investigate cadmium and Lead concentrations in seed rice (Oryza saliva) of paddy fields in southwest of Iran. A total of 70 rice seed samples were collected from paddy fields in five regions of Khuzestan province, Southwest Iran, during harvesting time. In the samples cadmium and Lead concentrations were measured. To assess the daily intake of Cadmium and Lead by rice, daily consumption of rice was calculated. The results showed that average concentrations of Cadmium and Lead in rice seeds were 273.6 and 121.8 μg/kg, respectively. Less than 72% of rice seed samples had Cadmium concentrations above 200 μg/kg (i.e. Guide value for cadmium); and less than 3% had Lead concentrations above 150 μg/kg (i.e. Guide value for Lead). The estimated daily intakes of cadmium by the local population was calculated to 0.59 μg/day kg bw, which corresponds to 59% of the tolerable daily intakes (i.e. 1 μg/day kg bw). Eleven out of 70 samples (15.71%) exceed the tolerable daily intakes. The dietary intakes for Lead in the local population ranged from 0.22 to 0.47 μg/day kg bw. Tolerable daily intakes for Lead is 3.6 μg/day kg bw. As a whole, long term consumption of the local rice may bear high risk of heavy metal exposure to the consumer in the study region.

  8. Multiphonon states in even-even spherical nuclei. Pt. 2. Calculation of the matrix elements of one and two body operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepenbring, R.; Protasov, K.V.; Silvestre-Brac, B.

    1995-01-01

    Matrix elements of one and two body operators, which appear in a general hamiltonian and in electromagnetic transitions are derived in a subspace spanned by multiphonon states. The method is illustrated for a single j-shell, where phonons built with one type of particles are introduced. The eigenvalues obtained within the space spanned by the phonons of lowest angular momentum are compared to those of the full space. In such a method, the Pauli principle is fully and properly taken into account. ((orig.))

  9. Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury in Sweat: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E. Sears

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury exposures are ubiquitous. These toxic elements have no physiological benefits, engendering interest in minimizing body burden. The physiological process of sweating has long been regarded as “cleansing” and of low risk. Reports of toxicant levels in sweat were sought in Medline, Embase, Toxline, Biosis, and AMED as well as reference lists and grey literature, from inception to March 22, 2011. Of 122 records identified, 24 were included in evidence synthesis. Populations, and sweat collection methods and concentrations varied widely. In individuals with higher exposure or body burden, sweat generally exceeded plasma or urine concentrations, and dermal could match or surpass urinary daily excretion. Arsenic dermal excretion was severalfold higher in arsenic-exposed individuals than in unexposed controls. Cadmium was more concentrated in sweat than in blood plasma. Sweat lead was associated with high-molecular-weight molecules, and in an interventional study, levels were higher with endurance compared with intensive exercise. Mercury levels normalized with repeated saunas in a case report. Sweating deserves consideration for toxic element detoxification. Research including appropriately sized trials is needed to establish safe, effective therapeutic protocols.

  10. Complexation study of cadmium with a schiff base vanillin trisbuffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, T.; Patel, M.S.; Vyas, D.N.

    1978-01-01

    Polarographic study of complexation of cadmium with a Schiff base derived from vanillin and trisbuffer was carried out in DMF-water media of three different compositions (viz. 0%, 30% and 50% v/v of DMF). 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 complex species are present in the solution. Overall stability constants were calculated using DeFord and Hume treatment at three different temperatures (viz. 30 0 , 40 0 and 50 0 ). Free energy change ΔG, enthalpy change ΔH and entropy change ΔS were also calculated for all the three media. A new, methamatical model, recently developed by Mihailov, to calculate stability constants from nbar values was used to check the data obtained from DeFord and Hume method. (author)

  11. Association of lead and cadmium exposure with frailty in US older adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Esquinas, Esther, E-mail: esthergge@gmail.com [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/ IdiPAZ, Madrid (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Navas-Acien, Ana [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz [CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Environmental Epidemiology and Cancer Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); Artalejo, Fernando Rodríguez [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/ IdiPAZ, Madrid (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Background: Environmental lead and cadmium exposure is associated with higher risk of several age-related chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis. These diseases may lead to frailty, a geriatric syndrome characterized by diminished physiologic reserve in multiple systems with decreased ability to cope with acute stressors. However, no previous study has evaluated the association between lead or cadmium exposure and frailty. Methods: Cross-sectional study among individuals aged ≥60 years who participated in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had either blood lead (N=5272) or urine cadmium (N=4887) determinations. Frailty was ascertained with a slight modification of the Fried criteria, so that individuals meeting ≥3 of 5 pre-defined criteria (exhaustion, low body weight, low physical activity, weakness and slow walking speed), were considered as frail. The association between lead and cadmium with frailty was evaluated using logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results: Median (intertertile range) concentrations of blood lead and urine cadmium were 3.9 µg/dl (2.9–4.9) and 0.62 µg/l (0.41–0.91), respectively. The prevalence of frailty was 7.1%. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of frailty comparing the second and third to the lowest tertile of blood lead were, respectively, 1.40 (0.96–2.04) and 1.75 (1.33–2.31). Lead concentrations were also associated with the frequency of exhaustion, weakness and slowness. The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for cadmium were, respectively, 0.97 (0.68–1.39) and 1.55 (1.03–2.32), but this association did not hold after excluding participants with reduced glomerular filtration rate: 0.70 (0.43–1.14) and 1.09 (0.56–2.11), respectively. Conclusions: In the US older adult population, blood lead but not urine cadmium concentrations showed a direct dose

  12. Association of lead and cadmium exposure with frailty in US older adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Esquinas, Esther; Navas-Acien, Ana; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Artalejo, Fernando Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Environmental lead and cadmium exposure is associated with higher risk of several age-related chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis. These diseases may lead to frailty, a geriatric syndrome characterized by diminished physiologic reserve in multiple systems with decreased ability to cope with acute stressors. However, no previous study has evaluated the association between lead or cadmium exposure and frailty. Methods: Cross-sectional study among individuals aged ≥60 years who participated in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had either blood lead (N=5272) or urine cadmium (N=4887) determinations. Frailty was ascertained with a slight modification of the Fried criteria, so that individuals meeting ≥3 of 5 pre-defined criteria (exhaustion, low body weight, low physical activity, weakness and slow walking speed), were considered as frail. The association between lead and cadmium with frailty was evaluated using logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results: Median (intertertile range) concentrations of blood lead and urine cadmium were 3.9 µg/dl (2.9–4.9) and 0.62 µg/l (0.41–0.91), respectively. The prevalence of frailty was 7.1%. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of frailty comparing the second and third to the lowest tertile of blood lead were, respectively, 1.40 (0.96–2.04) and 1.75 (1.33–2.31). Lead concentrations were also associated with the frequency of exhaustion, weakness and slowness. The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for cadmium were, respectively, 0.97 (0.68–1.39) and 1.55 (1.03–2.32), but this association did not hold after excluding participants with reduced glomerular filtration rate: 0.70 (0.43–1.14) and 1.09 (0.56–2.11), respectively. Conclusions: In the US older adult population, blood lead but not urine cadmium concentrations showed a direct dose

  13. Rising environmental cadmium levels in developing countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Cadmium (Cd) is a non essential heavy metal belonging to group ... Cd from a contaminated environment leads to various pathological ..... interact with genes that are involved in human ..... Tolonen, M. (1990) Vitamins and minerals in Health.

  14. Large silver-cadmium technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlip, S.; Lerner, S.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of varying cell design on operation factors on the electrochemical performance of sealed, silver-cadmium cells were determined. A factorial experiment was conducted for all test cells constructed with organic separators. Three operating factors were evaluated: temperature, depth of discharge, and charge rate. The six construction factors considered were separator, absorber, electrolyte quantity, cadmium electrode type, cadmium-to-silver ratio, and auxiliary electrode. Test cells of 4 ampere-hour capacity were fabricated and cycled. The best performing cells, on a 94 minute orbit, at 40% depth of discharge, were those containing silver-treated fibrous sausage casings as the separator, and Teflon-ated, pressed cadmium electrodes. Cycling data of cells with inorganic separators (Astroset) are given. Best performance was shown by cells with nonwoven nylon absorbers. Rigid inorganic separators provided the best barrier to silver migration.

  15. Ecological, morphological, and histological studies on Blaps polycresta (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as biomonitors of cadmium soil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Wafaa; El-Samad, Lamia M; Mokhamer, El-Hassan; El-Touhamy, Aya; Shonouda, Mourad

    2015-09-01

    Soil pollution in Egypt became far more serious than before due to either the heavy usage of different toxic pesticides or aerosol deposition of industrial pollutants. The present mentioned ground beetle, Blaps polycresta Tschinkel 1975 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), showed ecological, morphological, and histological alterations in adult insects as biomonitors. Two cultivated sites (reference and polluted) were chosen for sampling the insects. The results indicated a significant increase in soil cadmium concentration of the polluted site leading to sex-specific difference in cadmium accumulation in gonads and alimentary canal of insects that being higher in males than females. The cadmium pollution leads significantly to a decrease in population density, a reduction in body weight, an increase in mortality rate, and an increase in sex ratio of the insects. The results also revealed a striking decrease in body length of the polluted insects with a marked increase in the percentage of deformed gonads and alimentary canal of both sexes. Some histopathological alterations were also recorded in testis, ovary, and midgut of the polluted insects. Our results confirmed that beetles are a good bioindicator for soil pollution, and the different studied parameters could be easily employed as sensitive monitors for cadmium soil pollution.

  16. Altered Levels of Serum Zinc and Cadmium in Patients with Chronic Vesiculobullous Hand and Feet Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swastika Suvirya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrients serve many important functions in our body and altered levels of heavy and trace metals are associated with cutaneous and systemic disorders. Vesicular palmoplantar eczema is an entity whose etiopathogenesis is a mystery. In this prospective case-noncase study blood levels of Zinc and Cadmium in 37 patients of chronic vesiculobullous hand dermatitis were estimated and compared with 40 noncases with similar age and gender distributions. Low serum Zinc levels were found in patients as compared to noncases. The mean difference of serum Zinc between the case and noncase groups was 27.26; the mean value of serum Zinc between the two groups was statistically significant (p<0.0001. However, elevated Cadmium levels were detected in only 5 patients and in none of the noncases. The mean concentration of serum Cadmium was 2.32±0.38 μg/dL, with a range of 1.90–2.80 μg/dL for the five cases in whom Cadmium was detected. Various toxic and trace metals can interact by influencing each other’s absorption, retention, distribution, and bioavailability in the body. The clinical significance of this finding lies in the possible beneficial role of Zinc supplementation in the therapy of chronic vesiculobullous hand dermatitis.

  17. Synergetic effect of cadmium and ionizing radiation on P53 over expression and antioxidant enzymes in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Maghraby, T.

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important environmental and occupational metallic toxicants is cadmium. It causes generic irregularity of proto-oncogenes that leads to carcinogenicity and cytotoxicity in male reproductive tissues. Both ionizing radiation and cadmium generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). When the balance between ROS and antioxidant system is lost, oxidative stress is produced, so, the present investigation was carried out to study the effect of cadmium and ionizing radiation on the expression of tumor suppressor gene P53 and antioxidant enzymes in testis, prostate and liver in vivo rats related to histopathological changes. The results revealed that the ionizing radiation caused increase in the level of P53 expression, activities of superoxide dismutases (SOD) and catalase (CAT) especially at 24 hours, while there is negative dose dependent relationship between cadmium and P53 expression in testis reverse to prostate. However, in liver, further induction of P53 gene expression by cadmium was not observed. These results revealed the dangerous effects of cadmium and ionizing radiation on human body, especially in male reproductive tissues

  18. Low-salinity stress in the American lobster, Homarus americanus, after chronic sublethal exposure to cadmium: Biochemical effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, E

    1980-01-01

    Lobsters (Homarus americanus) were exposed to cadmium (6 ..mu..g 1sup(-1), 30 days) in flowing seawater, then held for 7 days in aerated 'clean' seawater at either ambient (27 per mill) or low (17 per mill) salinity. Cadmium exposure alone (ambient salinity) induced a general elevation of enzyme activity (heart, antennal gland, and muscle MDH; heart LDH and GPI), despite the probability of some clearance of cadmium from body tissues during the 'clean' seawater holding period. Low-salinity alone (non-exposed lobsters) caused a decrease of enzyme activity (AAT, LDH, GPI, PK) in most tissues examined, except for tail muscle IDH, the activity of which was increased, and MDH, which was significantly elevated above ambient controls in all tissues except heart. Most low-salinity effects were observed in tail muscle, and most cadmium effects, in heart; low-salinity effects outnumbered cadmium stress by nine to four. In heart and tail muscle of cadmium-exposed lobsters held at low salinity, each of the two stresses apparently operated to nullify the other's effects. The most prominent single biochemical response to these sublethal stresses was the elevation of MDH activity. The ratio MDH:LDH gave the clearest indication of overall relative stress.

  19. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijal, Renee S., E-mail: rmijal@epi.msu.edu; Holzman, Claudia B. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, B601 W. Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  20. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijal, Renee S.; Holzman, Claudia B.

    2010-01-01

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  1. Biological monitoring results for cadmium exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDiarmid, M A; Freeman, C S; Grossman, E A; Martonik, J

    1996-11-01

    As part of a settlement agreement with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) involving exposure to cadmium (Cd), a battery production facility provided medical surveillance data to OSHA for review. Measurements of cadmium in blood, cadmium in urine, and beta 2-microglobulin in urine were obtained for more than 100 workers over an 18-month period. Some airborne Cd exposure data were also made available. Two subpopulations of this cohort were of primary interest in evaluating compliance with the medical surveillance provisions of the Cadmium Standard. These were a group of 16 workers medically removed from cadmium exposure due to elevations in some biological parameter, and a group of platemakers. Platemaking had presented a particularly high exposure opportunity and had recently undergone engineering interventions to minimize exposure. The effect on three biological monitoring parameters of medical removal protection in the first group and engineering controls in platemakers is reported. Results reveal that both medical removal from cadmium exposures and exposure abatement through the use of engineering and work practice controls generally result in declines in biological monitoring parameters of exposed workers. Implications for the success of interventions are discussed.

  2. Cadmium affects retinogenesis during zebrafish embryonic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hen Chow, Elly Suk; Yu Hui, Michelle Nga; Cheng, Chi Wa; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2009-01-01

    Ocular malformations are commonly observed in embryos of aquatic species after exposure to toxicants. Using zebrafish embryos as the model organism, we showed that cadmium exposure from sphere stage (4 hpf) to end of segmentation stage (24 hpf) induced microphthalmia in cadmium-treated embryos. Embryos with eye defects were then assessed for visual abilities. Cadmium-exposed embryos were behaviorally blind, showing hyperpigmentation and loss of camouflage response to light. We investigated the cellular basis of the formation of the small eyes phenotype and the induction of blindness by studying retina development and retinotectal projections. Retinal progenitors were found in cadmium-treated embryos albeit in smaller numbers. The number of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), the first class of retinal cells to differentiate during retinogenesis, was reduced, while photoreceptor cells, the last batch of retinal neurons to differentiate, were absent. Cadmium also affected the propagation of neurons in neurogenic waves. The neurons remained in the ventronasal area and failed to spread across the retina. Drastically reduced RGC axons and disrupted optic stalk showed that the optic nerves did not extend from the retina beyond the chiasm into the tectum. Our data suggested that impairment in neuronal differentiation of the retina, disruption in RGC axon formation and absence of cone photoreceptors were the causes of microphthalmia and visual impairment in cadmium-treated embryos

  3. Cadmium-induced immune abnormality is a key pathogenic event in human and rat models of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Huang, Yinping; Zhang, Keke; Huang, Yanjun; Yan, Yan; Wang, Fan; Wu, Jie; Wang, Xiao; Xu, Zhangye; Chen, Yongtao; Cheng, Xue; Li, Yong; Jiao, Jinyu; Ye, Duyun

    2016-11-01

    With increased industrial development, cadmium is an increasingly important environmental pollutant. Studies have identified various adverse effects of cadmium on human beings. However, the relationships between cadmium pollution and the pathogenesis of preeclampsia remain elusive. The objective of this study is to explore the effects of cadmium on immune system among preeclamptic patients and rats. The results showed that the cadmium levels in the peripheral blood of preeclamptic patients were significantly higher than those observed in normal pregnancy. Based on it, a novel rat model of preeclampsia was established by the intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) (0.125 mg of Cd/kg body weight) on gestational days 9-14. Key features of preeclampsia, including hypertension, proteinuria, placental abnormalities and small foetal size, appeared in pregnant rats after the administration of low-dose of CdCl2. Cadmium increased immunoglobulin production, mainly angiotensin II type 1-receptor-agonistic autoantibodies (AT1-AA), by increasing the expression of activation-induced cytosine deaminase (AID) in B cells. AID is critical for the maturation of antibody and autoantibody responses. In addition, angiotensin II type 1-receptor-agonistic autoantibody, which emerged recently as a potential pathogenic contributor to PE, was responsible for the deposition of complement component 5 (C5) in kidneys of pregnant rats via angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) activation. C5a is a fragment of C5 that is released during C5 activation. Selectively interfering with C5a signalling by a complement C5a receptor-specific antagonist significantly attenuated hypertension and proteinuria in Cd-injected pregnant rats. Our results suggest that cadmium induces immune abnormalities that may be a key pathogenic contributor to preeclampsia and provide new insights into treatment strategies of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impedance spectroscopy studies of Silver Doped Cadmium Sulphide Nanocrystallites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanand, R.; Chellammal, S.; Manivannan, S.

    2018-02-01

    Using co-precipitation method, cadmium sulphide (CdS) and silver doped cadmium sulphide (CdS;Ag) was prepared. By using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyse the structural characterization of the prepared samples. The energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) measurement is used to confirm, the presence of elements in prepared samples. There is no peaks of other impurity were detected. The average size of nanoparticles was calculated by scherrer formula. SEM photographs indicate that the nanopowders consist of well dispersed agglomerates of grains with a narrow size distribution, whereas the sizes of the individual particles are between 5 and 12 nm. The synthesized samples have been structurally analysed by X-ray diffraction method. The peaks in the XRD pattern are in good matches with the standard values of JCPDS file and other impurity peaks of crystalline phases were not detected. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurement is used for the morphological studies. Electrical conductivity studies are analysed by Impedance spectroscopy measurement and also calculate the activation energies at low and high temperature for prepared samples.

  5. SU-F-T-560: Measurement of Dose Blurring Effect Due to Respiratory Motion for Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) Using Monte Carlo Based Calculation Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badkul, R; Pokhrel, D; Jiang, H; Lominska, C; Wang, F; Ramanjappa, T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Intra-fractional tumor motion due to respiration may potentially compromise dose delivery for SBRT of lung tumors. Even sufficient margins are used to ensure there is no geometric miss of target volume, there is potential dose blurring effect may present due to motion and could impact the tumor coverage if motions are larger. In this study we investigated dose blurring effect of open fields as well as Lung SBRT patients planned using 2 non-coplanar dynamic conformal arcs(NCDCA) and few conformal beams(CB) calculated with Monte Carlo (MC) based algorithm utilizing phantom with 2D-diode array(MapCheck) and ion-chamber. Methods: SBRT lung patients were planned on Brainlab-iPlan system using 4D-CT scan and ITV were contoured on MIP image set and verified on all breathing phase image sets to account for breathing motion and then 5mm margin was applied to generate PTV. Plans were created using two NCDCA and 4-5 CB 6MV photon calculated using XVMC MC-algorithm. 3 SBRT patients plans were transferred to phantom with MapCheck and 0.125cc ion-chamber inserted in the middle of phantom to calculate dose. Also open field 3×3, 5×5 and 10×10 were calculated on this phantom. Phantom was placed on motion platform with varying motion from 5, 10, 20 and 30 mm with duty cycle of 4 second. Measurements were carried out for open fields as well 3 patients plans at static and various degree of motions. MapCheck planar dose and ion-chamber reading were collected and compared with static measurements and computed values to evaluate the dosimetric effect on tumor coverage due to motion. Results: To eliminate complexity of patients plan 3 simple open fields were also measured to see the dose blurring effect with the introduction of motion. All motion measured ionchamber values were normalized to corresponding static value. For open fields 5×5 and 10×10 normalized central axis ion-chamber values were 1.00 for all motions but for 3×3 they were 1 up to 10mm motion and 0.97 and 0

  6. Multi-generation cadmium acclimation and tolerance in Daphnia magna Straus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muyssen, Brita T.A.; Janssen, Colin R.

    2004-01-01

    The cladoceran Daphnia magna was acclimated for seven generations to cadmium concentrations ranging from 0 (control) to 250 μg/l Cd (corresponding to a free ion activity of 4.60 nM Cd 2+ ). Acute and chronic cadmium tolerance as well as cadmium accumulation were monitored as a function of acclimation time. After two to three generations of acclimation to concentrations ranging from 0.23 to 1.11 nM Cd 2+ increases in acute tolerance were maximal (factor 7.2) and significant. Acclimation for seven generations to the same acclimation concentrations did result in an increased chronic cadmium tolerance (21 days EC 50 values increased). Organisms acclimated to 1.93 nM Cd 2+ were equally or more sensitive than non-acclimated daphnids in acute and chronic toxicity tests. Cadmium contents in D. magna increased significantly as a function of the acclimation concentration. Maximum body burdens of 236±30 μg Cd/g dry weight were measured in organisms exposed to 4.60 nM Cd 2+ , but detoxification mechanisms were only successful up to 82±20 μg Cd/g dry weight as this concentration did not cause major decreases in survival and reproduction in chronic toxicity tests. As the potential positive effect of acclimation on cadmium tolerance disappeared with successive acclimation generations and increasing acclimation concentrations, it is concluded that multi-generation acclimation studies are important for the evaluation of the long-term effects of environmental toxicants. - Multi-generation acclimation studies are important for evaluating long-term effects of aquatic pollutants

  7. Separation of Cadmium in Printing Industrial Liquid Waste by Electromagnetic Plating System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayitno

    2007-01-01

    To prevent incidence of environmental contamination and its effect to society health and other mortal, poisonous and dangerous substance waste have to be managed peculiarly by minimizing or eliminating the nature of its danger. Various processing have been developed to degrade the waste rate for example sorption, flotation, flocculation, etc., but the yield of the degradation of metal rate can not fulfill permanent standard quality of liquid waste. Because of the reason explained before, its important to make a new breakthrough as one of final phase processing alternative named reductant electromagnetic plating. Waste to be degraded in this research is cadmium. In fact cadmium represent the foregain metal for human and is not require at all in human body for metabolism process. Though plenty of cadmium exploited, but during for centuries it caused the food poisoned because this metal insoluble in organic acid. Separation of cadmium rate with electromagnetic plating influenced by time process, concentration, current strength, and type of electrode plate. Result of research indicate that the optimum time processing if using plate of copper electrode is during 30 minute and using plate of aluminium electrode is during 20 minute. Optimum of strong current that used in process of electromagnetic plating is only 0.8 Ampere and concentration effective is 5 mg / L. The most effective type of electrode plate for reducing cadmium from waste by using electromagnetic plating is aluminium. Appliance of electromagnetic plating system is very compatible used for the reduction of cadmium and others metal for feed concentration (1 - 5) mg/L .at the price efficiency of reduction is (95 - 98) %, standard quality of liquid waste is (0.05 - 1) mg/L. (author)

  8. Lead, mercury, and cadmium in breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Toxic heavy metals are the major source of environmental pollution in this new millennium. Lead, mercury, and cadmium are the most common toxic heavy metals in the environment. There is no known function of these toxic heavy metals in the human body. In females, toxic heavy metals can be accumulated in maternal body before pregnancy and may be transferred to fetus through placenta and later, via breast milk. Lead previously accumulated in maternal bones can be mobilized along with calcium in order to meet increased calcium needs of the fetus in pregnant women and for the calcium needs in human milk during lactation. Human fetus and infants are susceptible to heavy metal toxicity passing through placenta and breastmilk due to rapid growth and development of organs and tissues, especially central nervous system. However most of the damage is already done by the time the infant is born. Intrauterine lead exposure can cause growth retardation, cognitive dysfunction, low IQ scores on ability tests, and low performance in school. Biological samples, such as umbilical cord blood and breast milk, and less commonly infant hair, are used for biomonitoring of intra-uterine exposure to these toxic chemicals. Although toxic metals and other pollutants may be excreted into breast milk, their effects are unknown and this topic is subject of a growing body of research. Despite the possibility of harm from environmental contaminants in breast milk, breastfeeding is still recommended as the best infant feeding method. In fact, the species-specific components present in breast milk protect infants against infections; promote immune and neurologic system development; and may decrease the risk of disease, including allergies, obesity, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel disease, and sudden infant death syndrome. Breastfeeding also facilitates maternal-infant attachment. The potential risk of environmental contaminants that can be transferred from

  9. Effects of cadmium on hypoxia-induced expression of hemoglobin and erythropoietin in larval sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dangre, A.J.; Manning, S. [Department of Coastal Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, 703 East Beach Drive, Ocean Springs, MS 39564 (United States); Brouwer, M., E-mail: marius.brouwer@usm.edu [Department of Coastal Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, 703 East Beach Drive, Ocean Springs, MS 39564 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Hypoxia and toxic metals are two common stressors found in the estuarine environment. To date little information is available on the combined effects of these stressors on early larval development in fish. We investigated the effect of cadmium and hypoxia exposure alone as well in combination on larval Cyprinodon variegatus. The LC{sub 10} for cadmium was determined to be 0.3 ppm in a 96 h acute exposure. This concentration was used in all studies. Cadmium in larvae increased significantly with exposure time (1, 3, 5 and 7 days post-hatch). The increase was proportional to body weight and not affected by hypoxia. Cadmium responsive genes were identified by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) in Cyprinodonvariegatus larvae after exposure to cadmium for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days. We obtained over 700 sequences from the cadmium cDNA library. Blast search of ESTs suggested that cadmium modulates multiple physiological processes. Pertinent to this study, cadmium was found to down-regulate both embryonic {alpha} and {beta} globin, which are expressed in erythrocytes generated during the first, or primitive, wave of erythropoiesis in teleosts. Hemoglobin (Hb) and erythropoietin (Epo) (the hormone that promotes red blood cell production) are known hypoxia-inducible genes. To explore the possibility that cadmium might offset the hypoxia-induced expression of Hb and Epo, we investigated the expression of both genes following hypoxia, cadmium and combined exposures for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days post-hatch. Since Epo had not yet been identified in C. variegatus we first successfully cloned a partial coding sequence of the C. variegatus hormone. Subsequent studies revealed that expression levels of Hb and Epo remained unchanged in the normoxic controls during the time course of the study. Hypoxia increased Epo expression relative to normoxic controls, on days 3, 5 and 7, while cadmium in hypoxia inhibited the increase. Only the changes on days 5 and 7 were statistically significant

  10. Radiation Doses to Members of the U.S. Population from Ubiquitous Radionuclides in the Body: Part 2, Methods and Dose Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, David J.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is part two of a three-part series investigating annual effective doses to residents of the United States from intakes of ubiquitous radionuclides, including radionuclides occurring naturally, radionuclides whose concentrations are technologically enhanced, and anthropogenic radionuclides. This series of papers explicitly excludes intakes from inhaling 222Rn, 220Rn, and their short-lived decay products; it also excludes intakes of radionuclides in occupational and medical settings. Part one reviewed, summarized, characterized, and grouped all published and some unpublished data for U.S. residents on ubiquitous radionuclide concentrations in tissues and organs. Assumptions about equilibrium with long-lived parents are made for the 28 other radionuclides in these series lacking data. This paper describes the methods developed to group the collected data into source regions described in the Radiation Dose Assessment Resource (RADAR) dosimetric methodology. Methods for converting the various units of data published over 50 years into a standard form are developed and described. Often, meaningful values of uncertainty of measurements were not published so that variability in data sets is confounded with measurement uncertainty. A description of the methods developed to estimate variability is included in this paper. The data described in part one are grouped by gender and age to match the RADAR dosimetric phantoms. Within these phantoms, concentration values are grouped into source tissue regions by radionuclide, and they are imputed for source regions lacking tissue data. Radionuclide concentrations are then imputed for other phantoms source regions with missing concentration values, and the uncertainties of the imputed values are increased. The content concentrations of hollow organs are calculated, and activities are apportioned to the bone source regions using assumptions about each radionuclide's bone-seeking behavior. The data sets are then ready to be

  11. Cadmium removal by Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Devaleena; Majumder, Arunabha; Misra, Amal K; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the ability of two genus of duckweed (Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza) to phytoremediate cadmium from aqueous solution. Duckweed was exposed to six different cadmium concentrations, such as, 0.5,1.0,1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mg/L and the experiment was continued for 22 days. Water samples were collected periodically for estimation of residual cadmium content in aqueous solution. At the end of treatment period plant samples were collected and accumulated cadmium content was measured. Cadmium toxicity was observed through relative growth factor and changes in chlorophyll content Experimental results showed that Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza were capable of removing 42-78% and 52-75% cadmium from media depending upon initial cadmium concentrations. Cadmium was removed following pseudo second order kinetic model Maximum cadmium accumulation in Lemna minor was 4734.56 mg/kg at 2 mg/L initial cadmium concentration and 7711.00 mg/kg in Spirodela polyrhiza at 3 mg/L initial cadmium concentration at the end of treatment period. Conversely in both cases maximum bioconcentration factor obtained at lowest initial cadmium concentrations, i.e., 0.5 mg/L, were 3295.61 and 4752.00 for Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza respectively. The present study revealed that both Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza was potential cadmium accumulator.

  12. Ab initio calculations of scattering cross sections of the three-body system (p ¯,e+,e- ) between the e-+H ¯(n =2 ) and e-+H ¯(n =3 ) thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Mateo; Dufour, Marianne; Lazauskas, Rimantas; Hervieux, Paul-Antoine

    2018-01-01

    The ab initio method based on the Faddeev-Merkuriev equations is used to calculate cross sections involving the (p ¯,e+,e-) three-body system, with an emphasis on antihydrogen formation (H ¯) via antiproton (p ¯) scattering on positronium. This system is studied in the energy range between the e-+H ¯(n =2 ) and the e-+H ¯(n =3 ) thresholds, where precisely calculated cross sections can be useful for future experiments (GBAR, AEGIS, etc.) aiming to produce antihydrogen atoms. A special treatment is developed to take into account the long-range charge-dipole interaction effect on the wave function. Emphasis is placed on the impact of Feshbach resonances and Gailitis-Damburg oscillations appearing in the vicinity of the p ¯+Ps (n =2 ) threshold.

  13. Cadmium Concentration in Human Autopsy Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Teresa; Sadlik, Józefa K

    2017-10-01

    The concentration of cadmium in human tissues obtained on the basis of autopsies of non-poisoned Polish people (n = 150), aged from 1 to 80 years, examined between 1990 and 2010, is presented. The following values were found in wet digested samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) (mean ± SD, median, and range, μg/g of wet weight): brain 0.020 ± 0.031, 0.084, 0-0.120 (n = 41); stomach 0.148 ± 0.195, 0.084, 0-1.25 (n = 89); small intestine 0.227 ± 0.231, 0.130, 0-0.830 (n = 39); liver 1.54 ± 1.55, 1.01, 0.015-9.65 (n = 99); kidney 16.0 ± 13.2, 14.0, 0.62-61.3 (n = 91); lung 0.304 ± 0.414, 0.130, 0-1.90 (n = 25); and heart 0.137 ± 0.107, 0.140, 0.017-0.250 (n = 4). Additionally, results (n = 13 people, aged from 2 to 83 years, 63 samples) obtained by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) between 2010 and 2015 are given. The obtained data on Cd concentration in the human body can be used to estimate the amounts occurring in "healthy" people and those occurring in cases of chronic or acute poisonings with Cd compounds, which are examined for forensic purposes or to assess environmental exposure levels.

  14. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  15. Cadmium risks to freshwater life: derivation and validation of low-effect criteria values using laboratory and field studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, Christopher A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released updated aquatic life criteria for cadmium. Since then, additional data on the effects of cadmium to aquatic life have become available from studies supported by the EPA, Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (IDEQ), and the U.S. Geological Survey, among other sources. Updated data on the effects of cadmium to aquatic life were compiled and reviewed and low-effect concentrations were estimated. Low-effect values were calculated using EPA's guidelines for deriving numerical national water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. Data on the short-term (acute) effects of cadmium on North American freshwater species that were suitable for criteria derivation were located for 69 species representing 57 genera and 33 families. For longer-term (chronic) effects of cadmium on North American freshwater species, suitable data were located for 28 species representing 21 genera and 17 families. Both the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium were dependent on the hardness of the test water. Hardness-toxicity regressions were developed for both acute and chronic datasets so that effects data from different tests could be adjusted to a common water hardness. Hardness-adjusted effects values were pooled to obtain species and genus mean acute and chronic values, which then were ranked by their sensitivity to cadmium. The four most sensitive genera to acute exposures were, in order of increasing cadmium resistance, Oncorhynchus (Pacific trout and salmon), Salvelinus ('char' trout), Salmo (Atlantic trout and salmon), and Cottus (sculpin). The four most sensitive genera to chronic exposures were Hyalella (amphipod), Cottus, Gammarus (amphipod), and Salvelinus. Using the updated datasets, hardness dependent criteria equations were calculated for acute and chronic exposures to cadmium. At a hardness of 50 mg/L as calcium carbonate, the criterion maximum concentration (CMC, or 'acute

  16. Shell-model-based deformation analysis of light cadmium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T.; Heyde, K. L. G.; Blazhev, A.; Jolie, J.

    2017-07-01

    Large-scale shell-model calculations for the even-even cadmium isotopes 98Cd-108Cd have been performed with the antoine code in the π (2 p1 /2;1 g9 /2) ν (2 d5 /2;3 s1 /2;2 d3 /2;1 g7 /2;1 h11 /2) model space without further truncation. Known experimental energy levels and B (E 2 ) values could be well reproduced. Taking these calculations as a starting ground we analyze the deformation parameters predicted for the Cd isotopes as a function of neutron number N and spin J using the methods of model independent invariants introduced by Kumar [Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 249 (1972), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.28.249] and Cline [Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 36, 683 (1986), 10.1146/annurev.ns.36.120186.003343].

  17. Uptake of cadmium from hydroponic solutions by willows ( Salix spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salix integra 'Weishanhu') and Yizhibi (S. integra 'Yizhibi') were chosen as model plants to evaluate their potential for uptake of cadmium from hydroponic culture and relative uptake mechanism. Cadmium uptake showed a linear increase in the ...

  18. SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study evaluated the zinc chloride electroplating process as a substitute for cadmium cyanide electroplating in the manufacture of industrial connectors and fittings at Aeroquip Corporation. The process substitution eliminates certain wastes, specifically cadmium and cyanide, ...

  19. Study of Cadmium adsorption of Nickel and Zinc on a natural bentonite and homo ionic of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Giraldo, German Dario; Pinzon Bello, Jorge Alejo

    1999-01-01

    It was studied the adsorption of cadmium, nickel and zinc in aqueous solution at 25oC over a bentonite from the Cauca Valley, in its native state as well as in its sodium homo ionic form. The Langmuir isotherm adequately describes the adsorption of these metal ions over both bentonites, and the thermodynamic distribution coefficient, Kdm, which allow quantifying the degree of adsorption, can be calculated. Baeyens-bradbury model correlates well the adsorption of the metal ions over both bentonites but Kdm cannot be calculated from it. The adsorption data do not adjust to freundlich isotherm or B.E.T. As well as they do to the previously mentioned models. The sodium homo ionic bentonite adsorbs nickel and zinc better than the native bentonite, whereas there are not significant differences in cadmium adsorption. The order of adsorption over both bentonites, Cadmium > Zinc > Nickel, follow the HSAB principle

  20. An assessment of the effects of a cadmium discharge ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, J.H.; Schultz, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    The problem facing the MMSD was high levels of cadmium in Milorganite fertilizer. The cause was determined to be discharges from industry, primarily electroplaters. The solution was the cooperative development of an ordinance to limit the discharge of cadmium. Because the dischargers acted responsibly to comply with the ordinance, the ordinance succeeded in achieving its objective of significantly reducing the cadmium loading to the municipal sewerage system and subsequently reducing the cadmium concentration in Milorganite fertilizer

  1. Effect of ionising radiation and sal of cadmium on the changes of concentrations glucose and cholesterol in serum of chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafka, I.; Danova, D.; Kalenicova, Z.; Striskova, K.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated changes of concentrations glucose and cholesterol in the serum of broiler chickens exposed to single of whole-body dose of 3 Gy gamma rays and concentration of cadmium 6 mg · kg -1 live weight. Samples of our experiment was analyse on the 7, 14 and 21 day after irradiation. (authors)

  2. Cadmium exposure and health risks: Recent findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elinder, C.G. [Huddinge Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Renal Medicine; Jaerup, L. [Stockholm City Council (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Health

    1996-08-01

    Environmental and/or occupational exposure to cadmium give rise to a tubular kidney dysfunction which may proceed to more generalized renal damage and bone disease if exposure has been high and prolonged. Recent scientific work shows that early renal effects develop at lower levels of exposure than previously anticipated. Previous risk assessments for cadmium were mainly based on studies on healthy male workers. The general population, however, also include particularly susceptible groups such as elderly and individuals with illnesses (e.g. diabetes) that may predispose to cadmium-induced health effects. A significant proportion of the general population displays early signs of toxicity already at urinary cadmium concentrations around 3 nmol mmol{sup -1} creatinine. In addition to early tubular effects, cadmium may exert direct or indirect effects on mineral metabolism and the mineralization of the skeleton at relatively low levels of exposure. This may have important health implications, as poor and easily fractured bone is a major problem among the elderly in all industrialized countries. 41 refs, 4 figs

  3. Dosimetric comparison of lung stereotactic body radiotherapy treatment plans using averaged computed tomography and end-exhalation computed tomography images: Evaluation of the effect of different dose-calculation algorithms and prescription methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsuyoshi, Takamasa; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro, E-mail: m_nkmr@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Matsuo, Yukinori; Ueki, Nami; Nakamura, Akira; Iizuka, Yusuke; Mampuya, Wambaka Ange; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to quantitatively evaluate differences in dose distributions calculated using various computed tomography (CT) datasets, dose-calculation algorithms, and prescription methods in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with early-stage lung cancer. Data on 29 patients with early-stage lung cancer treated with SBRT were retrospectively analyzed. Averaged CT (Ave-CT) and expiratory CT (Ex-CT) images were reconstructed for each patient using 4-dimensional CT data. Dose distributions were initially calculated using the Ave-CT images and recalculated (in the same monitor units [MUs]) by employing Ex-CT images with the same beam arrangements. The dose-volume parameters, including D{sub 95}, D{sub 90}, D{sub 50}, and D{sub 2} of the planning target volume (PTV), were compared between the 2 image sets. To explore the influence of dose-calculation algorithms and prescription methods on the differences in dose distributions evident between Ave-CT and Ex-CT images, we calculated dose distributions using the following 3 different algorithms: x-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC), Acuros XB (AXB), and the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA). We also used 2 different dose-prescription methods; the isocenter prescription and the PTV periphery prescription methods. All differences in PTV dose-volume parameters calculated using Ave-CT and Ex-CT data were within 3 percentage points (%pts) employing the isocenter prescription method, and within 1.5%pts using the PTV periphery prescription method, irrespective of which of the 3 algorithms (XVMC, AXB, and AAA) was employed. The frequencies of dose-volume parameters differing by >1%pt when the XVMC and AXB were used were greater than those associated with the use of the AAA, regardless of the dose-prescription method employed. All differences in PTV dose-volume parameters calculated using Ave-CT and Ex-CT data on patients who underwent lung SBRT were within 3%pts, regardless of the dose-calculation

  4. Dosimetric comparison of lung stereotactic body radiotherapy treatment plans using averaged computed tomography and end-exhalation computed tomography images: Evaluation of the effect of different dose-calculation algorithms and prescription methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuyoshi, Takamasa; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Matsuo, Yukinori; Ueki, Nami; Nakamura, Akira; Iizuka, Yusuke; Mampuya, Wambaka Ange; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to quantitatively evaluate differences in dose distributions calculated using various computed tomography (CT) datasets, dose-calculation algorithms, and prescription methods in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with early-stage lung cancer. Data on 29 patients with early-stage lung cancer treated with SBRT were retrospectively analyzed. Averaged CT (Ave-CT) and expiratory CT (Ex-CT) images were reconstructed for each patient using 4-dimensional CT data. Dose distributions were initially calculated using the Ave-CT images and recalculated (in the same monitor units [MUs]) by employing Ex-CT images with the same beam arrangements. The dose-volume parameters, including D 95 , D 90 , D 50 , and D 2 of the planning target volume (PTV), were compared between the 2 image sets. To explore the influence of dose-calculation algorithms and prescription methods on the differences in dose distributions evident between Ave-CT and Ex-CT images, we calculated dose distributions using the following 3 different algorithms: x-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC), Acuros XB (AXB), and the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA). We also used 2 different dose-prescription methods; the isocenter prescription and the PTV periphery prescription methods. All differences in PTV dose-volume parameters calculated using Ave-CT and Ex-CT data were within 3 percentage points (%pts) employing the isocenter prescription method, and within 1.5%pts using the PTV periphery prescription method, irrespective of which of the 3 algorithms (XVMC, AXB, and AAA) was employed. The frequencies of dose-volume parameters differing by >1%pt when the XVMC and AXB were used were greater than those associated with the use of the AAA, regardless of the dose-prescription method employed. All differences in PTV dose-volume parameters calculated using Ave-CT and Ex-CT data on patients who underwent lung SBRT were within 3%pts, regardless of the dose-calculation algorithm or the

  5. Uptake of cadmium from hydroponic solutions by willows (Salix spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... which indicated that cadmium uptake across the plasma membrane was ... to cadmium pollution in water-soil-plant systems because .... plants were separated into roots and shoots, blotted dry with paper tissue .... Analysis of the kinetic constants for cadmium uptake ..... proteins (Welch and Norvell, 1999).

  6. Cadmium affects the social behaviour of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloman, Katherine A.; Scott, Graham R.; Diao Zhongyu; Rouleau, Claude; Wood, Chris M.; McDonald, D. Gord

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated both the effects of cadmium on the social interactions of rainbow trout and the differential accumulation of waterborne cadmium among social ranks of fish. Fish exposed to waterborne cadmium concentrations of 2 μg l -1 for 24 h, followed by a 1, 2 or 3 day depuration period in clean water, had a decreased ability to compete with non-exposed fish. However, the competitive ability of exposed fish given a 5 day depuration period was not significantly impaired. Cadmium accumulated in the olfactory apparatus of fish exposed to waterborne cadmium for 24 h and decreased significantly only after 5 days depuration in clean water. Among groups of ten fish held in stream tanks, where all fish were exposed to cadmium, there were significant effects on social behaviour and growth rate. Dominance hierarchies formed faster among fish exposed to cadmium than among control fish, and overall growth rates were higher in the cadmium treatment. In groups of ten fish, social status also affected tissue accumulation of cadmium during waterborne exposure, with dominant fish accumulating more cadmium at the gill. In conclusion, exposure to low levels of cadmium, affects the social behaviour of fish, in part due to accumulation in the olfactory apparatus, and dominant fish accumulate more gill cadmium than subordinates during chronic waterborne exposure

  7. Modeling cadmium in the feed chain and cattle organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Franz, E.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate cadmium contamination levels in different scenarios related to soil characteristics and assumptions regarding cadmium accumulation in the animal tissues, using quantitative supply chain modeling. The model takes into account soil cadmium levels, soil pH,

  8. Cadmium induces cadmium-tolerant gene expression in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, Santa O; Puglisi, Ivana; Faedda, Roberto; Sanzaro, Vincenzo; Pane, Antonella; Lo Piero, Angela R; Evoli, Maria; Petrone, Goffredo

    2015-11-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum, strain IMI 393899, was able to grow in the presence of the heavy metals cadmium and mercury. The main objective of this research was to study the molecular mechanisms underlying the tolerance of the fungus T. harzianum to cadmium. The suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method was used for the characterization of the genes of T. harzianum implicated in cadmium tolerance compared with those expressed in the response to the stress induced by mercury. Finally, the effects of cadmium exposure were also validated by measuring the expression levels of the putative genes coding for a glucose transporter, a plasma membrane ATPase, a Cd(2+)/Zn(2+) transporter protein and a two-component system sensor histidine kinase YcbA, by real-time-PCR. By using the aforementioned SSH strategy, it was possible to identify 108 differentially expressed genes of the strain IMI 393899 of T. harzianum grown in a mineral substrate with the addition of cadmium. The expressed sequence tags identified by SSH technique were encoding different genes that may be involved in different biological processes, including those associated to primary and secondary metabolism, intracellular transport, transcription factors, cell defence, signal transduction, DNA metabolism, cell growth and protein synthesis. Finally, the results show that in the mechanism of tolerance to cadmium a possible signal transduction pathway could activate a Cd(2+)/Zn(2+) transporter protein and/or a plasma membrane ATPase that could be involved in the compartmentalization of cadmium inside the cell.

  9. DNA damage in haemocytes and midgut gland cells of Steatoda grossa (Theridiidae) spiders exposed to food contaminated with cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalmach, Monika; Wilczek, Grażyna; Wilczek, Piotr; Skowronek, Magdalena; Mędrzak, Monika

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic effects of Cd on haemocytes and midgut gland cells of web-building spiders, Steatoda grossa (Theridiidae), exposed to the metal under laboratory conditions. Analyzes were conducted on adult females and males, fed for four weeks with cadmium-contaminated Drosophila hydei flies, grown on a medium suplemented with 0.25 mM CdCl2. The comet assay, providing a quantitative measure of DNA strand breaks, was used to evaluate the DNA damage caused by the metal. Cadmium content was measured in whole spider bodies by the AAS method. Metal body burden was significantly lower in females (0.25 µgg(-1) dry weight) than in males (3.03 µgg(-1) dry weight), suggesting that females may have more effective mechanisms controlling the uptake of metal, via the digestive tract, or its elimination from the body. Irrespectively of sex, spiders fed prey contaminated with cadmium showed significantly higher values of comet parameters: tail DNA (TDNA), tail length (TL) and olive tail moment (OTM), in comparison with the control. In midgut gland cells, the level of DNA damage was higher for males than females, while in haemocytes the genotoxic effect of cadmium was greater in females. The obtained results indicate that in spiders cadmium displays strong genotoxic effects and may cause DNA damage even at low concentrations, however the severity of damage seems to be sex- and internal organ-dependent. The comet assay can be considered a sensitive tool for measuring the deleterious effect of cadmium on DNA integrity in spiders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection efficiency of low levels of boron and cadmium with a LaBr{sub 3}:Ce scintillation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A., E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Anezi, M.S. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Kalakada, Zameer [Department of Civil Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Isab, A.A. [Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Raashid, M.; Al Matouq, Faris Ahmed; Khateeb-ur-Rehman; Khiari, F.Z.; Garwan, M.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Amoudi, O.S.B. [Department of Civil Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Maslehuddin, M. [Center for Engineering Research, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-02-11

    The response of a cylindrical 3 in. Multiplication-Sign 3 in. (height Multiplication-Sign diameter) LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector was measured for low energy prompt gamma-rays from boron and cadmium contaminated water samples using a newly designed portable neutron generator-based Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setup. Prompt gamma-rays were measured from water samples contaminated with 0.031, 0.125, 0.250 and 0.5 wt% boron and 0.0625, 0.125, 0.250 and 0.500 wt% cadmium. The experimental yield of boron and cadmium prompt gamma-rays measured with the LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector based PGNAA setup were compared with the results of Monte Carlo calculations. An excellent agreement between the experimental and calculated yields of 478 keV gamma-ray from boron and 558 keV gamma-rays from cadmium from boron and cadmium contaminated water samples, indicate an excellent response of the LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector for the low energy prompt gamma-rays.

  11. Total arsenic, mercury, lead, and cadmium contents in edible dried seaweed in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Y O; Park, S G; Park, G Y; Choi, S M; Kim, M Y

    2010-01-01

    Total arsenic, mercury, lead, and cadmium contents were determined in 426 samples of seaweed sold in Korea in 2007-08. The average concentrations, expressed in mg kg(-1), dry weight, were: total arsenic 17.4 (less than the limit of detection [LOD] to 88.8), Hg 0.01 (from 0.001 to 0.050), lead 0.7 (less than the LOD to 2.7), and cadmium 0.50 (less than the LOD to 2.9). There were differences in mercury, cadmium, and arsenic content in seaweed between different kinds of products and between coastal areas. The intakes of total mercury, lead, and cadmium for Korean people from seaweed were estimated to be 0.11, 0.65, and 0.45 µg kg(-1) body weight week(-1), respectively. With respect to food safety, consumption of 8.5 g day(-1) of the samples analysed could represent up to 0.2-6.7% of the respective provisional tolerable weekly intakes established by the World Health Organization (WHO). Therefore, even if Korean people have a high consumption of seaweed, this study confirms the low probability of health risks from these metals via seaweed consumption.

  12. Assessment of Lead and Cadmium Levels in Frequently Used Cosmetic Products in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourmoradi, H.; Foroghi, M.; Farhadkhani, M.; Vahid Dastjerdi, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the content of lead and cadmium in most frequently used brands of cosmetic products (lipstick and eye shadow) in Iran. Fifty samples of lipstick (5 colors in 7 brands) and eye shadow (3 colors in 5 brands) were selected taken from large cosmetic stores in Isfahan (Iran) and lead and cadmium of them were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of lead and cadmium in the lipsticks was within the range of 0.08–5.2 µg/g and 4.08–60.20 µg/g, respectively. The eye shadow samples had a lead level of 0.85–6.90 µg/g and a cadmium level of 1.54–55.59 µg/g. The content range of the heavy metals in the eye shadows was higher than that of the lipsticks. There was significant difference between the average of the lead content in the different brands of the lipsticks and eye shadows. Thus, the continuous use of these cosmetics can increase the absorption of heavy metals, especially Cd and Pb, in the body when swallowing lipsticks or through dermal cosmetic absorption. The effects of heavy metals such as lead can be harmful, especially for pregnant women and children. Therefore, effort must be made to inform the users and the general public about the harmful consequences of cosmetics. PMID:24174937

  13. Metamorphosis of two amphibian species after chronic cadmium exposure in outdoor aquatic mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S.M.; Little, E.E.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    Amphibian larvae at contaminated sites may experience an alteration of metamorphic traits and survival compared to amphibians in uncontaminated conditions. Effects of chronic cadmium (Cd) exposure on the metamorphosis of American toads (Bufo americanus) and southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) were determined. The two species were reared separately from shortly after hatching through metamorphosis in outdoor mesocosms (1,325-L polyethylene cattle tanks) that simulated natural ponds and enhanced environmental realism relative to the laboratory. Both species exhibited a decrease in survival with increasing initial nominal aqueous Cd concentration. Cadmium treatment did not influence mass at metamorphosis for either species when survival was included as a covariate, but increased the age at metamorphosis for the American toads. The whole body Cd content of metamorphs increased with aqueous Cd treatment level for both species, and the American toads tended to possess more elevated residues. Cadmium quickly partitioned out of the water column and accumulated in and altered the abundance of the tadpoles' diet. Cadmium-contaminated sites may produce fewer metamorphs, and those that survive will metamorphose later and contain Cd. Interspecific differences in the response variables illustrate the importance of testing multiple species when assessing risk.

  14. Cadmium and lead contents in drinking milk from selected regions of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Pietrzak-Fiećko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cadmium and lead are classified as toxic metals. Toxicity is attributed to the adverse effect on the human body, and therefore the content of these elements is analyzed in the environment and in food products. Studies conducted by many researchers indicate that more of cadmium and lead accumulate in products of plant origin, however, food products of animal origin are also not free from these compounds. The aim of this study was to determine the content of cadmium and lead in drinking milk originating from four selected milk producers from two different regions. Methods. A total of 28 milk samples were tested. The tested material was mineralized dry. To determine the content of the analyzed elements the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry method was used. There were no significant differences in the content of heavy metals in the analyzed samples of milk. Results. None of the samples revealed the exceedance of the highest permissible level of these elements. Conclusions. Cadmium and lead content in tested drinking milk does not pose a threat to human health

  15. Environmental cadmium and lead exposures and age-related macular degeneration in U.S. adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Erin W.; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Park, Sung Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease resulting from the interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures, and has been linked to oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms. Lead and cadmium can accumulate in human retinal tissues and may damage the retina through oxidative stress, and may thereby play a role in the development of AMD. We examined associations between blood lead, blood cadmium, and urinary cadmium concentrations and the presence of AMD in 5390 participants aged 40 years and older with blood lead and blood cadmium measures and a subsample of 1548 with urinary cadmium measures in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. AMD was identified by grading retinal photographs with a modification of the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. The weighted prevalence of AMD was 6.6% (n=426). Controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education and body mass index, adults in the highest blood cadmium quartile had higher odds of AMD compared to the lowest quartile (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% CI, 1.02–2.40), with a significant trend across quartiles (p-trend=0.02). After further adjustment for pack-years of cigarette smoking, estimates were somewhat attenuated (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.91–2.27; p-trend=0.08). Similar associations were found with urinary cadmium. The association between urinary cadmium and AMD was stronger in non-Hispanic whites (NHW) than in non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.37–8.01 for levels above versus below the median among NHW; OR,1.45; 95% CI, 0.40–5.32 for levels above versus below the median among NHB; p-interaction=0.03). We found no association between blood lead levels and AMD. Higher cadmium body burden may increase risk of AMD, particularly among non-Hispanic white individuals; however, additional studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. - Highlights: • We examined the association of cadmium and lead with age

  16. Environmental cadmium and lead exposures and age-related macular degeneration in U.S. adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Erin W. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Schaumberg, Debra A. [Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School and Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Center for Translational Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Park, Sung Kyun, E-mail: sungkyun@umich.edu [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease resulting from the interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures, and has been linked to oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms. Lead and cadmium can accumulate in human retinal tissues and may damage the retina through oxidative stress, and may thereby play a role in the development of AMD. We examined associations between blood lead, blood cadmium, and urinary cadmium concentrations and the presence of AMD in 5390 participants aged 40 years and older with blood lead and blood cadmium measures and a subsample of 1548 with urinary cadmium measures in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. AMD was identified by grading retinal photographs with a modification of the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. The weighted prevalence of AMD was 6.6% (n=426). Controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education and body mass index, adults in the highest blood cadmium quartile had higher odds of AMD compared to the lowest quartile (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% CI, 1.02–2.40), with a significant trend across quartiles (p-trend=0.02). After further adjustment for pack-years of cigarette smoking, estimates were somewhat attenuated (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.91–2.27; p-trend=0.08). Similar associations were found with urinary cadmium. The association between urinary cadmium and AMD was stronger in non-Hispanic whites (NHW) than in non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.37–8.01 for levels above versus below the median among NHW; OR,1.45; 95% CI, 0.40–5.32 for levels above versus below the median among NHB; p-interaction=0.03). We found no association between blood lead levels and AMD. Higher cadmium body burden may increase risk of AMD, particularly among non-Hispanic white individuals; however, additional studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. - Highlights: • We examined the association of cadmium and lead with age

  17. Levels of lead, cadmium and zinc in vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, G.; Haegglund, J.; Jorhem, L.

    1976-01-01

    The concentrations of lead, cadmium and zinc have been determined in 455 samples of fresh fruit, vegetables and mushrooms by dry ashing and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The lead content in all samples was in the range < 0.001-0.288 mg/kg, the mean being 0.02 mg/kg. Leaf vegetables (lettuce and spinach) showed higher values, mean 0.04 mg/kg. The mean values of the cadmium content in fruit, green vegetables, potatoes and root vegetables were 0.003, 0.013, 0.016 and 0.038 mg/kg respectively. The zinc contents were in the ppm range. The ratio Zn/Cd was also determined in some samples. All values concern edible parts and are calculated on wet weight basis. The fruit and vegetables were estimated to constitute about 2 percent and 8 percent respectively of the provisional tolerable weekly intake of these metals recommended by an FAO/WHO Expert Committee.

  18. Theoretical study of bismuth-doped cadmium telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez-Proupin, E.; Rios-Gonzalez, J. A.; Pena, J. L.

    Cadmium telluride heavily doped with bismuth has been proposed as an absorber with an intermediate band for solar cells. Increase in the photocurrent has been shown recently, although the overall cell efficiency has not improved. In this work, we study the electronic structure and the formation energies of the defects associated to bismuth impurities. We have performed electronic structure calculations within generalized density functional theory, using the exchange-correlation functional HSE(w) , where the range-separation parameter w has been tuned to reproduce the CdTe bandgap. Improving upon previous reports, we have included the spin-orbit interaction, which modifies the structure of the valence band and the energy levels of bismuth. We have found that interstitial Bi (Bii) tends to occupy Cd vacancies, cadmium substitution (BiCd) creates single donor level, while tellurium substitution (BiTe) is a shallow single acceptor. We investigate the interaction between these point defects and how can they be combined to create a partially filled intermediate band. Supported by FONDECYT Grant 1130437, CONACYT-SENER SUSTENTABILIDAD ENERGETICA/project CeMIE-Sol PY-207450/25 and PY-207450/26. JARG acknowledges CONACYT fellowship for research visit. Powered@NLHPC (ECM-02).

  19. Declination Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Declination is calculated using the current International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model. Declination is calculated using the current World Magnetic Model...

  20. Analysis of cadmium in high alpha solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Overman, L.A.; Hodgens, H.F.

    1977-07-01

    Cadmium nitrate is occasionally used as a neutron poison for convenience in the separation of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium. As the classical methods of analysis for cadmium are very time-consuming, a method to isolate it in solution using solvent extraction of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium with TBP in an n-paraffin hydrocarbon was investigated. After removal of the radionuclides, the cadmium is determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Precision of the method at the 95 percent confidence level is +-2.4 percent. Alpha content of the solutions was typically reduced from 1-10 x 10 11 dis/(min ml) 238 Pu to 1-15 x 10 4 dis/(min ml). Analysis time was typically reduced from approximately 24 hours per sample to less than 1 hour

  1. Bireactor Electronuclear Systems with Liquid Cadmium Valve

    CERN Document Server

    Bznuni, S A; Zhamkochyan, V M; ASosnin, A N; Polanski, A; Khudaverdyan, A H

    2002-01-01

    Three main types of bireactor electronuclear systems are discussed. From the point of view of assuring high level of functional characteristics and safety bireactor electronuclear systems with booster using enriched uranium (20 %) and with a liquid cadmium valve appears to be the most effective. It is shown by means of Monte-Carlo modeling that such operation conditions can be achieved which lead to the destruction of the intermediate cadmium layer making the systems supercritical (k_{eff}>1). One can avoid the problem by using a special design of the liquid cadmium valve. In comparison with other nuclear systems (critical reactors, one-reactor electronuclear systems) cascade electronuclear systems have essential advantages allowing the decrease of the proton beam current by one order of magnitude and providing at same time the necessary level of power generation and neutron flux. Availability of both the thermal and fast cones allows one to transmute not only transuranics but also the fission products - cesi...

  2. Cadmium accumulation by Axonopus compressus (Sw. P. Beauv and Cyperus rotundas Linn growing in cadmium solution and cadmium-zinc contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paitip Thiravetyan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the phyto-remediation potentials of Cyperus rotundas Linn (Nutgrass and Axonopus compressus (Sw. P. Beauv (Carpetgrass for cadmium removal from cadmium solution andcadmium-zinc contaminated soil. Plants growth in the solution showed that cadmium decreased the relative growth rate of both grasses. However, the amount of cadmium accumulated in shoot and root was increasedwith the increase in cadmium concentration and exposure time. Growth in fertile soil mixed with Cd-contaminated zinc silicate residue (65% Si, 19% Ca, 2% Zn, 1% Mg and 0.03% Cd at the ratio of 50:50 (w/wfor 30 days showed that C. rotundas Linn accumulated cadmium in root and shoot to 2,178 and 1,144 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. A. compressus (Sw. P. Beauv accumulated cadmium in root and shoot to 1,965and 669 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. Scanning electron microscope connected to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy suggested that the mechanism of cadmium accumulation by both grasses involved thecadmium precipitation in the stable form of cadmium silicate, which indicated that C. rotundas Linn and A. compressus (Sw. P. Beauv could be grown to prevent soil erosion and to remediate cadmium-contaminatedsoil.

  3. Characteristic Determination Of Self Shielding Factor And Cadmium Ratio Of Cylindrical Probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzah, Amir; Budi R, Ita; Pinem, Suriam

    1996-01-01

    Determination of thermal, epithermal and total self shielding factor and cadmium ratio of cylindrical probe has been done by measurement and calculation. Self shielding factor can be determined by dividing probe activity to Al-alloy probe activity. Due to the lack of cylindrical probe made of Al-alloy, self shielding factor can be determined by parabolic extrapolation of measured activities to 0 cm radius to divide those activities. Theoretically, self shielding factor can be determined by making numerical solution of two dimensional integral equations using Romberg method. To simplify, the calculation is based on single collision theory with the assumption of monoenergetic neutron and isotropic distribution. For gold cylindrical probe, the calculation results are quite close to the measurement one with the relative discrepancy for activities, cadmium ratio and self shielding factor of bare probe are less then 11.5%, 3,5% and 1.5% respectively. The program can be used for the calculation of other kinds of cylindrical probes. Due to dependency to radius, cylindrical probe made of copper has the best characteristic of self shielding factor and cadmium ratio

  4. Reduction of Cadmium Uptake of Rice Plants Using Soil Amendments in High Cadmium Contaminated Soil: A Pot Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Siswanto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of agricultural residues on reducing cadmium uptake in rice plants. The rice plants growing on no cadmium/free cadmium soils (N, Cd soils (Cds, and Cd soils each amended with 1% w/w of coir pith (CP, coir pith modified with sodium hydroxide (CPm and corncob (CC under high cadmium contaminated soil with an average 145 mg Cd kg-1 soil were investigated. The results showed that the cumulative transpiration of rice grown in various treatments under high cadmium contaminated soil followed the order: Cds > CPm ≥ CP ≥ CC. These transpirations directly influenced cadmium accumulation in shoots and husks of rice plants. The CC and CP seemed to work to reduce the cadmium uptake by rice plants indicated by accumulated cadmium in the husk that were 2.47 and 7.38 mg Cd kg-1 dry weight, respectively. Overall, transpiration tended to drive cadmium accumulation in plants for rice grown in high cadmium contaminated soil. The more that plants uptake cadmium, the lower cadmium that remains in the soil.

  5. Effects of cadmium and mycorrhizal fungi on growth, fitness, and cadmium accumulation in flax (Linum usitatissimum; Linaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Laura M S; Ernst, Charlotte L; Charneskie, Rebecca; Ruane, Lauren G

    2012-09-01

    Agricultural soils have become contaminated with a variety of heavy metals, including cadmium. The degree to which soil contaminants affect plants may depend on symbiotic relationships between plant roots and soil microorganisms. We examined (1) whether mycorrhizal fungi counteract the potentially negative effects of cadmium on the growth and fitness of flax (Linum usitatissimum) and (2) whether mycorrhizal fungi affect the accumulation of cadmium within plant parts. Two flax cultivars (Linott and Omega) were grown in three soil cadmium environments (0, 5, and 15 ppm). Within each cadmium environment, plants were grown in either the presence or absence of mycorrhizal fungi. Upon senescence, we measured growth and fitness and quantified the concentration of cadmium within plants. Soil cadmium significantly decreased plant fitness, but did not affect plant growth. Mycorrhizal fungi, which were able to colonize roots of plants growing in all cadmium levels, significantly increased plant growth and fitness. Although mycorrhizal fungi counteracted the negative effects of cadmium on fruit and seed production, they also enhanced the concentration of cadmium within roots, fruits, and seeds. The degree to which soil cadmium affects plant fitness and the accumulation of cadmium within plants depended on the ability of plants to form symbiotic relationships with mycorrhizal fungi. The use of mycorrhizal fungi in contaminated agricultural soils may offset the negative effects of metals on the quantity of seeds produced, but exacerbate the accumulation of these metals in our food supply.

  6. Solvent extraction studies on cadmium Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alian, A.; El-Kot, A.

    1976-01-01

    An extraction study was performed on various concentrations of cadmium, zinc and cobalt halides in the presence of sulphuric acid. A long chain amine (Amberlite LA-2) and an organophosphorus solvent (TBP) were used. In most cases the value of the distribution ratio decreases with the increase of metal concentration in the aqueous phase. The various possibilities of chemical and radiochemical separations of cadmium from accompanying metal species are reported: separation of (sup109m)Ag from irradiated Cd targets, separation of (sup115m)In using HDEHP, separation of Cd and Zn from their mixtures. (T.G.)

  7. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high...

  8. A case-control study of the association between urinary cadmium concentration and endometriosis in infertile Japanese women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hiroaki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Endo, Yoko; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Tadao; Yang, Bin; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium may act like an estrogen and be a potential risk factor for estrogen-related diseases such as breast cancer and endometriosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that higher cadmium exposure is associated with endometriosis among infertile Japanese women in a hospital-based case-control study. We recruited consecutive female patients aged 20-45 years who had complained of infertility and presented to a university hospital in Tokyo. The subjects were interviewed and provided a urine sample prior to a laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis between January 2000 and December 2001. The severity of endometriosis was then dichotomized into controls (stage 0 and I) and cases (stage II-IV). We finally measured urinary total cadmium concentration in 54 cases and 74 controls as a biomarker of long-term cumulative exposure. Odds ratios were adjusted for average menstrual cycle length, body-mass index and smoking status using unconditional logistic regression. Results showed no association between endometriosis and urinary cadmium concentration. Medians (interquartile ranges) of urinary cadmium concentration in cases and controls were 0.53 (0.40-0.73) and 0.54 (0.34-0.76) μg/g creatinine, respectively (P for difference = 0.88). Adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the highest versus lowest tertile of urinary creatinine-adjusted cadmium concentration was 0.86 (0.30 to 2.49, P for trend = 0.79). Our results do not support the hypothesis that higher urinary cadmium concentration is associated with the risk of endometriosis

  9. Mitigation by Aloe Vera of cadmium chloride and radiation induced biochemical changes in the brain of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrawarti, Aruna; Kanwar, Om; Nayak, Kamal Kumar; Ranga, Deepti; Jangir, Ashok; Ram, Purkha

    2013-01-01

    Whole body exposure to ionizing radiation provokes oxidative damage, organ dysfunction and metabolic disturbance. Herbal drugs offer an alternative to the synthetic radioprotective compounds which are either non-toxic or less toxic. Aloe vera rich in polyphenolic compound is known to possess antioxidant properties. In the context, the present study, effect of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced changes in the brain of Swiss albino mice. For the purpose, six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were selected and divided into seven groups:- Group I (Sham-irradiated), Group II (treated with cadmium chloride 20 ppm), Group III (Irradiated with 7.0 Gy gamma rays), Group IV (Both irradiated and treated with cadmium chloride solution), Group V (Cadmium and Aloe vera treated), Group VI (radiation and Aloe vera treated), Group VII (radiation, and cadmium chloride and Aloe vera treated). The animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at each post-treatment intervals of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. The brain (cerebral cortex) was taken out and quantitatively analyzed for different biochemical parameters such as total proteins, glycogen, cholesterol, acid phosphatase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, DNA and RNA. The value of cholesterol, glycogen, RNA, acid phosphatase activity, and alkaline phosphatase activity increased up to day-14 in non drug-treated groups and day-7 in Aloe vera treated groups and thereafter decreased up to day-28. The value of total proteins and DNA decreased up to day-14 in non drug-treated groups and day-7 in the drug treated groups then increased in all groups. In only cadmium chloride (Without and with drug) treated animals (Groups II and V) the value of cholesterol decreased during early intervals (days-14 and 7 respectively) and increased thereafter. Severe changes were observed after combined exposure to radiation and cadmium chloride showing synergistic effect. Aloe vera reduced the severity of damage and made the

  10. A case-control study of the association between urinary cadmium concentration and endometriosis in infertile Japanese women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Hiroaki [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Iwasaki, Motoki [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)], E-mail: moiwasak@gan2.res.ncc.go.jp; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Endo, Yoko [Research Center for Occupational Poisoning, Tokyo Rosai Hospital, Japan Labour Health and Welfare Organization, 4-13-21 Omoriminami, Ohta-ku, Tokyo 143-0013 (Japan); Hanaoka, Tomoyuki [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Sasaki, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Tadao; Yang, Bin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jikei University School of Medicine 3-25-8, Nishi-Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-8461 (Japan); Tsugane, Shoichiro [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)

    2008-09-01

    Cadmium may act like an estrogen and be a potential risk factor for estrogen-related diseases such as breast cancer and endometriosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that higher cadmium exposure is associated with endometriosis among infertile Japanese women in a hospital-based case-control study. We recruited consecutive female patients aged 20-45 years who had complained of infertility and presented to a university hospital in Tokyo. The subjects were interviewed and provided a urine sample prior to a laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis between January 2000 and December 2001. The severity of endometriosis was then dichotomized into controls (stage 0 and I) and cases (stage II-IV). We finally measured urinary total cadmium concentration in 54 cases and 74 controls as a biomarker of long-term cumulative exposure. Odds ratios were adjusted for average menstrual cycle length, body-mass index and smoking status using unconditional logistic regression. Results showed no association between endometriosis and urinary cadmium concentration. Medians (interquartile ranges) of urinary cadmium concentration in cases and controls were 0.53 (0.40-0.73) and 0.54 (0.34-0.76) {mu}g/g creatinine, respectively (P for difference = 0.88). Adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the highest versus lowest tertile of urinary creatinine-adjusted cadmium concentration was 0.86 (0.30 to 2.49, P for trend = 0.79). Our results do not support the hypothesis that higher urinary cadmium concentration is associated with the risk of endometriosis.

  11. Fuel conditioning facility electrorefiner cadmium vapor trap operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaden, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    Processing sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel at the Fuel Conditioning Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West involves an electrometallurgical process employing a molten LiCl-KCl salt covering a pool of molten cadmium. Previous research has shown that the cadmium dissolves in the salt as a gas, diffuses through the salt layer and vaporizes at the salt surface. This cadmium vapor condenses on cool surfaces, causing equipment operation and handling problems. Using a cadmium vapor trap to condense the cadmium vapors and reflux them back to the electrorefiner has mitigated equipment problems and improved electrorefiner operations

  12. Effect of cadmium on myocardial contractility and calcium fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilati, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of cadmium on myocardial mechanical performance and calcium fluxes was studied in kitten isometric papillary muscles and in isovolumic Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts. Therefore, it is concluded that cadmium-induced decreases in contractility are not primarily the result of cadmium interference with ATP metabolic processes. Furthermore, these results imply that cadmium causes no structural alterations of the contractile proteins. These data suggest that cadmium may be competing with the calcium needed for excitation-contraction coupling. During experiments using radioisotopic calcium, a statistically significant cellular influx of calcium was observed following the onset of 100 μM Cd ++ perfusion of isolated, Langendorff-prepared rabbit hearts

  13. Preconcentration system for cadmium and lead determination in environmental samples using polyurethane foam/Me-BTANC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira Gama, Ednilton; Silva Lima, Adriana da; Azevedo Lemos, Valfredo

    2006-01-01

    In this work, polyurethane foam (PUF) loaded with 2-(6'-methyl-2'-benzothiazolylazo)chromotropic acid (Me-BTANC) was packed in a minicolumn and it was used in an on-line preconcentration system for cadmium and lead determination. Optimum hydrodynamic and chemical conditions for metal sorption were investigated. The effects of several foreign substances on the adsorption of cadmium and lead were also reported. The enrichment factor obtained was 37 (Cd and Pb) for 180 s preconcentration time. The proposed procedures allowed the determination of metals with detection limits (3σ) of 0.80 and 3.75 μg L -1 (0.10 and 0.47 μg g -1 of solid sample) for cadmium and lead, respectively. The precision of the procedures was also calculated: 3.1 (Cd 10 μg L -1 ) and 4.4% (Pb 100 μg L -1 ). The accuracy of the procedure was checked by analysis of the certified reference materials Spinach Leaves and Fish Tissue. Cadmium and lead contents in environmental samples (black tea, spinach leaves, natural and tap water) were determined by applying the proposed procedure

  14. Cadmium toxicity in cultured tomato cells - Role of ethylene, proteases and oxidative stress in cell death signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakimova, E.T.; Woltering, E.J.; Kapchina-Toteva, V.M.; Harren, F.J.M.; Cristescu, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the ability of cadmium to induce programmed cell death in tomato suspension cells and to determine the involvement of proteolysis, oxidative stress and ethylene. Tomato suspension cells were exposed to treatments with CdSO4 and cell death was calculated after fluorescein

  15. Effects of cadmium electrode properties on nickel-cadmium cell performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    Tests have been conducted on a number of nickel-cadmium cells that have exhibited a variety of performance problems, ranging from high voltages and pressures during overcharge to low capacity. The performance problems that have been specifically linked to the cadmium electrode are primarily related to two areas, poor sinter and the buildup of excessive pressure during overcharge. A number of specific nickel-cadmium cell and cadmium electrode characterists have been studied in this work to determine what the effects of poor sinter are, and to determine what factors are important in causing excessive pressures during overcharge in cells that otherwise appear normal. Several of the tests appear suitable for screening cells and electrodes for such problems

  16. Effects of Different Dietary Cadmium Levels on Growth and Tissue Cadmium Content in Juvenile Parrotfish,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okorie E. Okorie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of different dietary cadmium levels on growth and tissue cadmium content in juvenile parrotfish, Oplegnathus fasciatus, using cadmium chloride (CdCl2 as the cadmium source. Fifteen fish averaging 5.5±0.06 g (mean±SD were randomly distributed into each of twenty one rectangular fiber tanks of 30 L capacity. Each tank was then randomly assigned to one of three replicates of seven diets containing 0.30 (C0, 21.0 (C21, 40.7 (C41, 83.5 (C83, 162 (C162, 1,387 (C1,387 and 2,743 (C2,743 mg cadmium/kg diet. At the end of sixteen weeks of feeding trial, weight gain (WG, specific growth rate (SGR and feed efficiency (FE of fish fed C21 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C83, C162, C1,387 and C2,743 (p<0.05. Weight gain, SGR and FE of fish fed C0, C21 and C41 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C162, C1,387 and C2,743. Protein efficiency ratio of fish fed C0, C21 and C41 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C1,387 and C2,743. Average survival of fish fed C0, C21, C41 and C162 were significantly higher than that of fish fed C2,743. Tissue cadmium concentrations increased with cadmium content of diets. Cadmium accumulated the most in liver, followed by gill and then muscle. Muscle, gill and liver cadmium concentrations of fish fed C0, C21, C41 and C83 were significantly lower than those of fish fed C162, C1,387 and C2,743. Based on the ANOVA results of growth performance and tissue cadmium concentrations the safe dietary cadmium level could be lower than 40.7 mg Cd/kg diet while the toxic level could be higher than 162 mg Cd/kg diet.

  17. Investigation into dimethyl cadmium decomposition proceeding in form of deflagration combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikheev, V.S.; Orlov, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Results of measuring the maximum explosion pressure of dimethyl cadmium CdMet 2 at 0.1 MPa initial pressure and ∼378 K temperature are presented. The investigation was conducted using the method of constant volume bomb-reactor with central ignition. Experimental value of the pressure increase, equalling to 0.46 MPa, agrees with evaluation, based on reaction adiabatic temperature thrmodynamic calculation. The normal burning rate, determined by the pressure increase, equals to 25±8 cm/s

  18. Remediation of cadmium by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) from cadmium contaminated soil: a phytoextraction study

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeev Kumar Bhadkariya; VK Jain; GPS Chak; SK Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium is a toxic metal for living organisms and an environmental contaminant. Soils in many parts of the world are slightly too moderately contaminated by Cd due to long term use and disposal of Cd-contaminated wastes. Cost effective technologies are needed to remove cadmium from the contaminated sites. Soil phytoextraction is engineering based, low cost and socially accepted developing technology that uses plants to clean up contaminants in soils. This technology can be adopted as a remedi...

  19. Cadmium in Salix. A study to show the capacity of Salix to remove cadmium from farmland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestman, G.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this report has been to show the ability of Salix to take up cadmium and how the uptake varies between different types of soil. The information that the results are based on has been obtained from analyses of soil and Salix. The samples were taken at five sites in the district around Lake Maelaren. Two or three stands were taken at each place. The factors studied were the pH, the organic matter content, and the concentration of cadmium in the soil. Salix has a good ability, relative to other crops, to remove cadmium from arable land. The cadmium uptake is 35 times higher with Salix than with straw or energy grass. Salix uptake of cadmium varies between 3 and 14% of the cadmium content in the soil that is accessible to plants. The present annual increase of cadmium in arable land is 1 g/ha, whereas the removal in a Salix plantation is 21 g Cd/ha, yr at an annual growth of 10 tonnes DM. If the Cd uptake is the same each year, then a total of 420 g Cd/ha is removed when Salix is grown over a 20-year period. This is a very large part of the topsoil's total cadmium content, which is 550 g/ha on average in Sweden. The investigation reveals no clear relationship between the Cd concentration in Salix and the concentration of Cd in the soil, the organic matter content or the pH. 22 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Murine strain differences and the effects of zinc on cadmium concentrations in tissues after acute cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.M. [ARS USDA, Germplasm and Gamete Physiology Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States); Anderson, M.B. [Dept. of Anatomy, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Sikka, S.C. [Dept. of Urology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); George, W.J. [Dept. of Pharmacology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The role of strain differences in cadmium tissue distribution was studied using sensitive (129/J) and resistant (A/J) mice. These murine strains have previously been shown to differ in their susceptibility to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Cadmium concentration was measured in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, liver, and kidney at 24 h after cadmium chloride exposure (4, 10, and 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2}). The 129/J mice exhibited a significant increase in cadmium concentration in testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle at all cadmium doses used, compared to A/J mice. However, cadmium concentrations in liver and kidney were not different between the strains, at any dose, indicating that cadmium uptake is similar in these organs at 24 h. These murine strains demonstrate similar hepatic and renal cadmium uptake but significantly different cadmium accumulation in the reproductive organs at 24 h. The mechanism of the protective effect of zinc on cadmium toxicity was studied by assessing the impact of zinc acetate (ZnAc) treatment on cadmium concentrations in 129/J mice after 24 h. Zinc pretreatment (250 {mu}mol/kg ZnAc), given 24 h prior to 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2} administration, significantly decreased the amount of cadmium in the testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle of 129/J mice, and significantly increased the cadmium content of the liver after 24 h. Cadmium levels in the kidney were unaffected at this time. Zinc pretreatment also prevented the cadmium-induced decrease in testicular sperm concentration and epididymal sperm motility seen in 129/J mice. These findings suggest that the differences in the two murine strains may be attributed partly to the differential accumulation of cadmium in murine gonads. This may be caused by strain differences in the specificity of cadmium transport mechanisms. The protective role of zinc in cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in the sensitive strain may be due to an interference in the cadmium uptake by susceptible

  1. Acute cadmium intoxication induces alpha-class glutathione S-transferase protein synthesis and enzyme activity in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casalino, Elisabetta; Sblano, Cesare; Calzaretti, Giovanna; Landriscina, Clemente

    2006-01-01

    Acute cadmium intoxication affects glutathione S-transferase (GST) in rat liver. It has been found that 24 h after i.p. cadmium administration to rats, at a dose of 2.5 mg CdCl 2 kg -1 body weight, the activity of this enzyme in liver cytosol increased by 40%. A less stimulatory effect persisted till 48 h and thereafter the enzyme activity normalized. Since, GST isoenzymes belong to different classes in mammalian tissues, we used quantitative immunoassays to verify which family of GST isoenzymes is influenced by this intoxication. Only alpha-class glutathione S-transferase (α-GST) proteins were detected in rat liver cytosol and their level increased by about 25%, 24 h after cadmium treatment. No pi-GST isoforms were found in liver cytosol from either normal or cadmium-treated rats. Co-administration of actinomycin D with cadmium normalized both the protein level and the activity of α-GST, suggesting that some effect occurs on enzyme transcription of these isoenzymes by this metal. On the other hand, it seems unlikely that the stimulatory effect is due to the high level of peroxides caused by lipid peroxidation, since Vitamin E administration strongly reduced the TBARS level, but did not cause any GST activity decrease

  2. Lead and cadmium exposures from canned and non-canned beverages in Nigeria: A public health concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maduabuchi, J.-M.U. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Nzegwu, C.N. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Adigba, E.O. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Aloke, R.U. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Ezomike, C.N. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Okocha, C.E. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Obi, E. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Orisakwe, O.E. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria)]. E-mail: eorish@aol.com

    2006-08-01

    The lead and cadmium levels of canned and non-canned foods purchased in Nigeria were studied. Fifty samples of these beverages were digested in nitric acid and were analyzed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The cadmium levels ranged from 0.003-0.081 mg/L for the canned and 0.006-0.071 mg/L for non-canned beverages. About 85.71% of the canned beverages had cadmium levels that exceeded the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 0.005 mg/L set by US EPA while 82.7% non-canned beverages had cadmium levels exceeding the MCL. The mean and median levels of cadmium exceeded the MCL in both the canned and non-canned beverages. Whereas only 79.3% of the non-canned beverages showed lead levels that exceeded the US EPA's MCL of 0.015 mg/L, 100% of the canned beverages had lead levels that were greater than the MCL. The range of the lead in the canned beverages was 0.002-0.0073 and 0.001-0.092 mg/L for the non-canned beverages. The mean and median values of lead exceeded the MCL in both the canned and non-canned beverages. The calculated amount of lead and cadmium in three beverages were 0.204 mg (204 {mu}g) and 0.177 mg (177 {mu}g), respectively. These represent the estimated intake of a consumer who takes three of the products selected randomly in a week; assuming an average volume of one liter (1 L) for each product. Taken together 86% and 84% of the 50 beverages (canned and non-canned) studied in March, 2005 in Nigeria failed to meet the US EPA criteria for acceptable lead and cadmium levels in consumer products.

  3. Lead and cadmium exposures from canned and non-canned beverages in Nigeria: A public health concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maduabuchi, J.-M.U.; Nzegwu, C.N.; Adigba, E.O.; Aloke, R.U.; Ezomike, C.N.; Okocha, C.E.; Obi, E.; Orisakwe, O.E.

    2006-01-01

    The lead and cadmium levels of canned and non-canned foods purchased in Nigeria were studied. Fifty samples of these beverages were digested in nitric acid and were analyzed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The cadmium levels ranged from 0.003-0.081 mg/L for the canned and 0.006-0.071 mg/L for non-canned beverages. About 85.71% of the canned beverages had cadmium levels that exceeded the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 0.005 mg/L set by US EPA while 82.7% non-canned beverages had cadmium levels exceeding the MCL. The mean and median levels of cadmium exceeded the MCL in both the canned and non-canned beverages. Whereas only 79.3% of the non-canned beverages showed lead levels that exceeded the US EPA's MCL of 0.015 mg/L, 100% of the canned beverages had lead levels that were greater than the MCL. The range of the lead in the canned beverages was 0.002-0.0073 and 0.001-0.092 mg/L for the non-canned beverages. The mean and median values of lead exceeded the MCL in both the canned and non-canned beverages. The calculated amount of lead and cadmium in three beverages were 0.204 mg (204 μg) and 0.177 mg (177 μg), respectively. These represent the estimated intake of a consumer who takes three of the products selected randomly in a week; assuming an average volume of one liter (1 L) for each product. Taken together 86% and 84% of the 50 beverages (canned and non-canned) studied in March, 2005 in Nigeria failed to meet the US EPA criteria for acceptable lead and cadmium levels in consumer products

  4. Remediation of cadmium by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. from cadmium contaminated soil: a phytoextraction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Bhadkariya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a toxic metal for living organisms and an environmental contaminant. Soils in many parts of the world are slightly too moderately contaminated by Cd due to long term use and disposal of Cd-contaminated wastes. Cost effective technologies are needed to remove cadmium from the contaminated sites. Soil phytoextraction is engineering based, low cost and socially accepted developing technology that uses plants to clean up contaminants in soils. This technology can be adopted as a remediation of cadmium from Cd-contaminated soils with the help of Brassica juncea plant. The objective of this work was to evaluate the cadmium (Cd accumulate and the tolerance of Brassica juncea. The Cd accumulates in all parts of plants (roots, stems and leaves. It was found that accumulating efficiency increased with the increase in the concentration of applied cadmium metal solution. Maximum accumulation of cadmium was found in roots than stem and leaves. Phytoextraction coefficient and translocation factor were highest to show the validity of the Brassica juncea species for hyperaccumulation of the Cd metal. These results suggested that Brassica juncea has a high ability to tolerate and accumulate Cd, so it might be a promising plant to be used for phytoextraction of Cd contaminated soil. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10533 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 229-237

  5. Study on complexed lead and cadmium ions removal from aqueous solutions by means of ion exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudzinska, M.

    1992-01-01

    The possibility of simultaneous removal of heavy metal ions and organic chelates from waste water has been studied. The experimental work has been preceded by extensive theoretical considerations and calculations of physico-chemical parameters of the process for model and real waste water systems. The negative influence of the presence of sulfate anions on cadmium and lead complexes removal in ion exchange process has been experimentally proved. In the systems free of sulfate anions or when their concentrations were low, the purification process conducted on Amberlite IRA-68 was very effective for cadmium and lead complexes removal. 112 refs, 78 figs, 15 tabs

  6. Residues of lead, cadmium, and arsenic in livers of Mexican free-tailed bats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thies, M.; Gregory, D. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater (United States))

    1994-05-01

    Since 1936, the size of the summer population of Mexican free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensisat Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, declined from an estimated 8.7 million to 700,000 in 1991. This decline has been attributed primarily to human disturbance and the heavy agricultural use of organochlorine pesticides. Members of this species forage extensively over heavily agricultural areas, feeding on insects potentially contaminated with high levels of insecticides and trace metals. However, contamination from elements such as lead, cadmium, and arsenic have not been examined. The accumulation of these elements in wild vertebrates is often a primary reflection of contamination of the food supply. The presence of elemental contaminants in body tissues of bats is poorly documented. The objectives of this study were to examine and compare lead, cadmium, and arsenic contamination in livers of adult T. Brasiliensis from Carlsbad Caverns and Vickery Cave, a maternity colony in northwestern Oklahoma. Lead, cadmium, and arsenic were specifically selected because of their documented toxic and/or reproductive effects and their potential availability to this species. Large quantities of tetraethyl lead have been released into the environment and other lead compounds continue to be released by industrial manufacturing and petroleum refinement processes. Cadmium is used in a number of industrial processes such as metal plating and fabrication of alloys and is released from phosphate fertilizers and combusted coals. Teratogenicity appears to be greater for cadmium than for other elements. Arsenical compounds have been commonly used as herbicides and defoliants. These compounds have been demonstrated to cause abnormal embryonic development, degenerative tissue changes, cancer, chromosomal damage, and death in domestic animals.

  7. Cadmium-Induced Toxicity and the Hepatoprotective Potentials of Aqueous Extract of Jessiaea Nervosa Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ama Udu Ibiam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Hepatoprotective potentials of Jussiaea nervosa leaf extract against Cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity were investigated. Methods: Forty albino rats were randomly assigned into groups A-G with 4 rats in each of the groups A-F. Group A served as control and were given feed only while rats in groups B-F were orally exposed to varying concentrations of cadmium for six weeks. Effects of cadmium were most significant at 12 mg/Kg body weight (BW, and this dose was used for subsequent test involving oral administration of Jussiaea nervosa leaf extracts. In this segment, group G (n= 16 was sub-divided into four: G1-G4, with each sub-group containing four rats. Rats in sub-group G1 were given cadmium and feed only and served as positive control. Rats in sub-groups G2, G3, and G4 were given cadmium and 20, 50 and 100g/kg BW of Jussiaea nervosa extract, respectively, for six weeks. Blood and liver were analysed using standard laboratory techniques and methods. Results: Liver function parameters (ALT, AST, ALP, bilirubin were significantly (p<0.05 elevated in exposed rats in comparison to the controls, except for total protein and albumin, which were significantly decreased. Histopathological assessment reveals renal pathology in exposed rats in sharp contrast with the controls. Jussiaea nervosa extract however lowered the values of liver function parameters with 100mg/Kg BW dose producing the highest ameliorative effects. Similarly, the serum albumin and total protein significantly (p<0.05 improved with normal liver architecture. Conclusion: The results show the hepatoprotective potentials of Jussiaea nervosa extract against Cd toxicity.

  8. Biochemical and Physiological Responses in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Following Dietary Exposure to Copper and Cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundebye, A.-K.; Berntssen, M.H.G.; Bonga, S.E.Wendelaar; Maage, A.

    1999-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted with Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to assess the effects of dietary exposure to copper and cadmium. The results presented here provide an overview, details of each experiment will be published in full elsewhere. In the first experiment, salmon parr exposed for four weeks to 35 and 700 mg Cu kg -1 diet had significantly elevated intestinal copper concentrations, cell proliferation (PCNA) and apoptosis rates compared to control fish. No differences were observed in gill or plasma copper concentrations among the groups. In contrast to the controls, the Cu exposed groups did not grow significantly during the exposure period. The second experiment (three months exposure) was conducted to assess the effects of dietary copper (control, 35, 500, 700, 900 or 1750 mg Cu kg -1 diet) on growth and feed utilization in salmon fingerlings. Growth was significantly reduced after three months exposure to dietary Cu concentrations above 500 mg kg -1 . Similarly, copper body burdens were significantly higher in fish exposed to elevated dietary copper concentrations (above 35 mg Cu kg -1 diet). In the third experiment, salmon parr were exposed to one of six dietary cadmium concentrations (0, 0.5, 5, 25, 125 or 250 mg Cd kg -1 diet) for four months. Cadmium accumulated in the liver>intestine>gills of exposed fish. Rates of apoptosis and cell proliferation in the intestine increased following exposure to dietary cadmium. Exposure to elevated concentrations of dietary cadmium had no effect on growth in salmon parr. Results from these studies indicate that cellular biomarkers have potential as early warning signs of negative effects on the overall fitness of an organism

  9. Dietary intake of cadmium from Bangladeshi foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rmalli, S W; Jenkins, R O; Haris, P I

    2012-01-01

    Human exposure to cadmium (Cd) is associated with various diseases and high levels of Cd have been detected in Bangladeshi population warranting further research to identify the source of this exposure. In this study, Cd levels in 327 and 94 samples of Bangladeshi food and non-food samples, respectively, were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This is the largest number of Bangladeshi food and nonfood samples investigated for their Cd content. High Cd levels were detected in leafy vegetables (mean 31 [SD 29]μg/kg). Of these vegetables, lal shak (Amaranthus tricolor) contained the highest Cd level (303 μg/kg [wet weight]; mean 100.5 [SD 95]μg/kg). Bangladeshi rice also showed significant concentration of Cd (mean 37.2 [SD 30]μg/kg). Of particular concern is the very high level of Cd detected in some puffed rice, which we attribute to the illegal practice of using urea for whitening the puffed rice. Tobacco leaves, which are commonly consumed during betel quid chewing by Bangladeshis, contain significant levels of Cd (mean 95 [SD 87]μg/kg). The total daily intake (TDI) of Cd from foods for Bangladeshis was estimated to be 34.55 μg/d. This is rather high when compared to the TDI of Cd for other populations. Our analysis reveals that this is mainly due to the very high intake of rice and vegetables, and lower consumption of animal products (which are low in Cd), by the Bangladeshis. We also determined the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake and target hazard quotients values for Cd. Clearly a more balanced diet is necessary to reduce the Cd intake in the Bangladeshi population, especially by reducing the very high intake of rice and certain leafy vegetables. Food manufacturing and agricultural practices needs to be altered to reduce the entry of Cd into the food chain. Exposure to high levels of Cd can be harmful to human health and this study provides a comprehensive analysis of Cd levels in a variety of food items from

  10. Subcellular localization of cadmium in hyperaccumulator Populus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, subcellular localization of cadmium in hyperaccumulator grey poplar (Populus × canescens) was investigated by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) method. Young Populus × canescens were grown and hydroponic experiments were conducted under four Cd2+ concentrations (10, 30, 50, and 70 μM) ...

  11. Rise time spectroscopy in cadmium telluride detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharager, Claude; Siffert, Paul; Carnet, Bernard; Le Meur, Roger.

    1980-11-01

    By a simultaneous analysis of rise time and pulse amplitude distributions of the signals issued from various cadmium telluride detectors, it is possible to obtain informations about surface and bulk trapping, field distribution within the detectors, as well as charge collection and transport properties. These investigations have been performed on both pure and chlorine doped and materials for various surfaces preparation conditions [fr

  12. Cadmium versus phosphate in the world ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, Hein J.W. de; Saager, Paul M.; Nolting, Rob F.; Meer, Jaap van der

    1994-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the best studied trace metals in seawater and at individual stations exhibits a more or less linear relation with phosphate. The compilation of all data from all oceans taken from over 30 different published sources into one global dataset yields only a broad scatterplot of Cd

  13. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF CADMIUM MOBILITY IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. Cadmium is a toxic metal often found with a strong enrichment factor in coastal sediments. ... into the food chain, which could result in a wide variety of adverse effects in animals and ... Sampling scheme and sample conservation ..... of Cd with Fe and Mn oxides has also been reported in others studies [38, 39].

  14. Combustion synthesis of cadmium sulphide nanomaterials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anion-doped cadmium sulphide nanomaterials have been synthesized by using combustionmethod at normal atmospheric conditions. Oxidant/fuel ratios have been optimized in order to obtain CdS with best characteristics. Formation of CdS and size of crystallite were identified by X-ray diffraction and confirmed by ...

  15. Phytochelatin and cadmium accumulation in wheat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolt, J.P.; Sneller, F.E.C.; Bryngelson, T.; Lundborg, T.; Schat, H.

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential heavy metal that can be harmful at low concentrations in organisms. Therefore, it is necessary to decrease Cd accumulation in the grains of wheats aimed for human consumption. In response to Cd, higher plants synthesize sulphur-rich peptides, phytochelatins (PCs).

  16. New process to discharge negative cadmium electrodes for Ni/Cd batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiker, B.; Vignaud, R.

    1984-01-01

    The new process relates to the chemical oxidation (whether partial or total) of cadmium metal negative electrodes, as used in alkaline nickel-cadmium or silver-cadmium batteries. This process concerns all cadmium electrodes but more particularly the electrodeposited cadmium electrode developed by the company LES PILES WONDER and described in this publication

  17. Temperature dependence of long-term cadmium toxicity in the zebrafish is not explained by liver oxidative stress: Evidence from transcript expression to physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergauwen, Lucia; Hagenaars, An; Blust, Ronny; Knapen, Dries

    2013-01-01

    Standard ecotoxicity tests are performed at species’ specific standard temperatures, but temperature is known to affect chemical toxicity. A temperature increase has been shown to increase cadmium toxicity in several aquatic species but information in fish is scarce. Based on literature we hypothesize that with increasing temperature, cadmium accumulation and oxidative stress increase, resulting in increased toxicity. In this study zebrafish acclimated to 12, 18, 26 (standard temperature) or 34 °C for one month, were exposed to 5 μM cadmium for 4 or 28 days at the respective acclimation temperature. Cadmium toxicity (mortality) increased with increasing temperature. PCA showed that the high mortality at 34 °C was closely correlated to an increasing tissue cadmium accumulation with increasing temperature, but not to liver oxidative damage under the form of protein carbonyl content or lipid peroxidation (measured as malondialdehyde levels) or liver antioxidative potential. Instead, acclimation to 12 °C induced the highest oxidative damage to liver proteins and lipids, and transcript levels of glucose-6P-dehydrogenase, 6P-gluconate-dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase were particularly good markers of cold-induced oxidative stress. At this low temperature there was no interaction with cadmium exposure and there was no sign of cadmium sensitivity. Contrastingly, the combined effect of high temperature and cadmium exposure on mortality proved synergistic. Therefore we conclude that interactions between temperature and cadmium toxicity increased with increasing temperature and that this probably played part in increasing cadmium sensitivity. Increased cadmium compartmentalization and protein carbonyl content in liver of zebrafish acclimated to the standard temperature of 26 °C probably played part in increased sensitivity towards the same cadmium body burden compared to lower temperatures. On the one hand we recognize and this study even confirms the

  18. Cadmium phytoextraction potential of different Alyssum species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzanti, R.; Colzi, I.; Arnetoli, M.; Gallo, A.; Pignattelli, S.; Gabbrielli, R.; Gonnelli, C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The possibility of using serpentine plants for phytoextraction of Cd was investigated. ► Variation in Cd tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes were found. ► Alyssum montanum showed higher Cd tolerance and accumulation than the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum bertolonii. ► As for the kinetic parameters of the Cd uptake system, A. montanum presented a low apparent K m value. ► The V max values were not significantly different among the plants. - Abstract: This work was planned for providing useful information about the possibility of using serpentine adapted plants for phytoextraction of cadmium, element scarcely represented in such metalliferous environment. To this aim, we investigated variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes: Alyssum bertolonii, that is a serpentine endemic nickel hyperaccumulator, and two populations of Alyssum montanum, one adapted and one not adapted to serpentine soils. Plants were hydroponically cultivated in presence of increasing concentrations of CdSO 4 for two weeks. For the metal concentration used in the experiments, the three different Alyssum populations showed variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and content. The serpentine adapted population of A. montanum showed statistically higher cadmium tolerance and accumulation than A. bertolonii and the population of A. montanum not adapted to serpentine soil thus deserving to be investigated for phytoextraction purposes. Furthermore, as for the kinetic parameters of the cadmium uptake system, A. montanum serpentine population presented a low apparent K m value, suggesting a high affinity for this metal of its uptake system, whereas the V max values were not significantly different among the plants. Present data revealed metallicolous plants are also suitable for the phytoremediation of metals underrepresented in the environment of their

  19. Cadmium phytoextraction potential of different Alyssum species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzanti, R., E-mail: rbarzanti@supereva.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Colzi, I., E-mail: ilariacolzi@hotmail.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Arnetoli, M., E-mail: miluscia@gmail.com [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Gallo, A., E-mail: galloalessia@hotmail.com [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Pignattelli, S., E-mail: sara.pignattelli@gmail.com [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Gabbrielli, R., E-mail: gabbrielli@unifi.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Gonnelli, C., E-mail: cristina.gonnelli@unifi.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The possibility of using serpentine plants for phytoextraction of Cd was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variation in Cd tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes were found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alyssum montanum showed higher Cd tolerance and accumulation than the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum bertolonii. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As for the kinetic parameters of the Cd uptake system, A. montanum presented a low apparent K{sub m} value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The V{sub max} values were not significantly different among the plants. - Abstract: This work was planned for providing useful information about the possibility of using serpentine adapted plants for phytoextraction of cadmium, element scarcely represented in such metalliferous environment. To this aim, we investigated variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes: Alyssum bertolonii, that is a serpentine endemic nickel hyperaccumulator, and two populations of Alyssum montanum, one adapted and one not adapted to serpentine soils. Plants were hydroponically cultivated in presence of increasing concentrations of CdSO{sub 4} for two weeks. For the metal concentration used in the experiments, the three different Alyssum populations showed variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and content. The serpentine adapted population of A. montanum showed statistically higher cadmium tolerance and accumulation than A. bertolonii and the population of A. montanum not adapted to serpentine soil thus deserving to be investigated for phytoextraction purposes. Furthermore, as for the kinetic parameters of the cadmium uptake system, A. montanum serpentine population presented a low apparent K{sub m} value, suggesting a high affinity for this metal of its uptake system, whereas the V{sub max} values were not significantly different among the

  20. Copper and cadmium adsorption on pellets made from fired coal fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papandreou, A.; Stournaras, C.J.; Panias, D.

    2007-01-01

    Studies on the utilization of low cost adsorbents for removal of heavy metals from wastewaters are gaining attention. Fired coal fly ash, a solid by-product that is produced in power plants worldwide in million of tonnes, has attracted researchers' interest. In this work, fly ash was shaped into pellets that have diameter in-between 3-8 mm, high relative porosity and very good mechanical strength. The pellets were used in adsorption experiments for the removal of copper and cadmium ions from aqueous solutions. The effect of agitation rate, equilibration time, pH of solution and initial metal concentration were studied. The adsorption of both cations follows pseudo-second order kinetics reaching equilibrium after an equilibration time of 72 h. The experimental results for copper and cadmium adsorption fit well to a Langmuirian type isotherm. The calculated adsorption capacities of pellets for copper and cadmium were 20.92 and 18.98 mg/g, respectively. Desorption experiments were performed in several extraction media. The results showed that both metals were desorbed substantially from pellets under acidic solutions. For this reason, metal saturated pellets were encapsulated in concrete blocks synthesized from cement and raw pulverized fly ash in order to avoid metal desorption. The heavy metals immobilization after encapsulation in concrete blocks was tested through desorption tests in several aqueous media. The results showed that after 2 months in acidic media with pH 2.88 and 4.98 neither copper nor cadmium were desorbed thus indicating excellent stabilization of heavy metals in the concrete matrix. As a conclusion, the results showed that fly ash shaped into pellets could be considered as a potential adsorbent for the removal of copper and cadmium from wastewaters. Moreover, the paper proposes an efficient and simple stabilization process of the utilized adsorbents thus guarantying their safe disposal in industrial landfills and eliminating the risk of pollution

  1. Cadmium-induced fetal toxicity in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    Cadmium, a heavy metal environment contaminant, induces fetal death and placental necrosis in the Wistar rat. This study investigated fetal, maternal, and placental responses to cadmium intoxication. Subcutaneous injection of CdCl 2 to dams on day 18 of pregnancy produced a high incidence of fetal death (75%) and placental necrosis. Death in the fetus was produced despite limited fetal accumulations of cadmium. Distribution studies using 109 Cd-labeled CdCl 2 demonstrated that less than 0.1% of the injected dose was associated with the fetus. To determine if fetuses were sensitive to these low levels of cadmium, direct injections of CdCl 2 into fetuses were performed in utero. Direct injections produced fetal accumulations 8-fold greater than those following maternal injections. The 8-fold greater fetal accumulations following direct injection were associated with only a 12% fetal mortality compared to the 75% mortality following maternal injections. The data indicated that the fetal toxicity of cadmium following maternal injections was not the result of direct effects of cadmium on the fetus. In conclusion, cadmium-induced fetal death was not the result of direct effects of cadmium on the fetus but may have been induced by placental cellular injury resulting from high accumulations of cadmium in the placenta. A vascular response to placental injury, leading to decreased utero-placental bood flow and cadmium-induced alterations in trophoblastic function, resulted in fetal death

  2. Accumulation of cadmium in livers and kidneys in Greenlanders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Poul; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Hansen, Jens C.; Riget, Frank

    2006-01-01

    In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a very high intake of cadmium because it is highly concentrated in the liver and kidneys of commonly eaten marine mammals. In one study in Greenland, the cadmium intake was estimated to 182 μg/day/person in the fall and 346 in the spring. To determine whether the cadmium is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver and kidneys from 95 ethnic Greenlanders (aged 19-89) who died from a wide range of causes. The cadmium concentration in liver (overall mean 1.97 μg/g wet wt) appeared to be unrelated to any particular age group, whereas the concentrations in the kidneys peaked in Greenlanders between 40 and 50 years of age (peak concentration 22.3 μg/g wet wt). Despite the high cadmium levels in the typical Greenlander diet, we found that the cadmium concentrations in livers and kidneys were comparable to those reported from Denmark, Sweden, Australia and Great Britain. Furthermore, even though the mean cadmium intake from the diet was estimated to be 13-25 times higher in Greenlanders than in Danes, we found similar cadmium levels in the kidneys of both. Seal livers and kidneys are the main source of cadmium in the diet of Greenlanders, but these tissues are not eaten in Denmark. Thus, our results suggest that the accumulation of cadmium from Greenlander's marine diet is very low

  3. Accumulation of cadmium in livers and kidneys in Greenlanders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Poul [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)]. E-mail: poj@dmu.dk; Mulvad, Gert [Primary Health Care Center, DK-3900 Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Centre for Arctic Environmental Medicine, University of Aarhus, Universitetsparken, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Pedersen, Henning Sloth [Primary Health Care Center, DK-3900 Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Centre for Arctic Environmental Medicine, University of Aarhus, Universitetsparken, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Hansen, Jens C. [Centre for Arctic Environmental Medicine, University of Aarhus, Universitetsparken, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Riget, Frank [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2006-12-15

    In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a very high intake of cadmium because it is highly concentrated in the liver and kidneys of commonly eaten marine mammals. In one study in Greenland, the cadmium intake was estimated to 182 {mu}g/day/person in the fall and 346 in the spring. To determine whether the cadmium is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver and kidneys from 95 ethnic Greenlanders (aged 19-89) who died from a wide range of causes. The cadmium concentration in liver (overall mean 1.97 {mu}g/g wet wt) appeared to be unrelated to any particular age group, whereas the concentrations in the kidneys peaked in Greenlanders between 40 and 50 years of age (peak concentration 22.3 {mu}g/g wet wt). Despite the high cadmium levels in the typical Greenlander diet, we found that the cadmium concentrations in livers and kidneys were comparable to those reported from Denmark, Sweden, Australia and Great Britain. Furthermore, even though the mean cadmium intake from the diet was estimated to be 13-25 times higher in Greenlanders than in Danes, we found similar cadmium levels in the kidneys of both. Seal livers and kidneys are the main source of cadmium in the diet of Greenlanders, but these tissues are not eaten in Denmark. Thus, our results suggest that the accumulation of cadmium from Greenlander's marine diet is very low.

  4. Effects of iron deficiency on the absorption and distribution of lead and cadmium in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of iron deficiency on the absorption of pollutant metals, an iron-deficient diet was fed to young rats until their tissue-iron stores were depleted. Prior to the development of anemia, the iron-deficient rats and littermate controls were administered an intragastric gavage of lead-210 or cadmium-109 and were killed 48 hr later. The body burden of lead was approximately 6 times greater, and that of cadmium approximately 7 times greater, in iron-deficient rats than in the controls. No consistent effects were observed on concentrations of serum total lipids or serum proteins nor on protein electrophoretic patterns in rats with a deficit in iron stores

  5. A theoretical and experimental study of calcium, iron, zinc, cadmium, and sodium ions absorption by aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnam, Karim; Raisi, Fatame

    2017-03-01

    Aspartame (L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) is a sweet dipeptide used in some foods and beverages. Experimental studies show that aspartame causes osteoporosis and some illnesses, which are similar to those of copper and calcium deficiency. This raises the issue that aspartame in food may interact with cations and excrete them from the body. This study aimed to study aspartame interaction with calcium, zinc, iron, sodium, and cadmium ions via molecular dynamics simulation (MD) and spectroscopy. Following a 480-ns molecular dynamics simulation, it became clear that the aspartame is able to sequester Fe 2+ , Ca 2+ , Cd 2+ , and Zn 2+ ions for a long time. Complexation led to increasing UV-Vis absorption spectra and emission spectra of the complexes. This study suggests a potential risk of cationic absorption of aspartame. This study suggests that purification of cadmium-polluted water by aspartame needs a more general risk assessment.

  6. CONTAIN calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtyssek, W.

    1995-01-01

    In the first phase of a benchmark comparison, the CONTAIN code was used to calculate an assumed EPR accident 'medium-sized leak in the cold leg', especially for the first two days after initiation of the accident. The results for global characteristics compare well with those of FIPLOC, MELCOR and WAVCO calculations, if the same materials data are used as input. However, significant differences show up for local quantities such as flows through leakages. (orig.)

  7. Heavy Metals (Mercury, Lead and Cadmium Determination in 17 Species of Fish Marketed in Khorramabad City, West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mortazavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals entrance to fish body tissues and transferring to human body systems after their consuming makes numerous undesirable effects and health problems. The aim of this study was to determine some heavy metals (lead, cadmium and mercury in fresh fishes marketed in Khorramabad City, west of Iran. In this descriptive study, five samples of 17 fish species with high consumption were purchased randomly in 2014. Measurement of mercury, lead and cadmium was performed using atomic absorption spectrometry. All measurements were performed three times for each sample. Lead mean levels in fish samples was in the range 0.736 -1.005 ppm, cadmium range was from 0.196 to 0.015 ppm and mean content of mercury was  0.431 - 0.107 ppm. At present mean concentration of lead, mercury and cadmium in supplied fishes muscle is lower than maximum recommended levels according to WHO, EC and FDA guidelines. Based on the obtained results of this study and the importance of heavy metals in foods and their impacts on human health, continuous monitoring of heavy metals levels in foods is necessary.

  8. Separation of cadmium from solutions containing high concentration of zinc ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, K.D.; Bhutani, A.K.; Parvathisem, P.

    1984-01-01

    In hydrometallurgical process of extracting cadmium as a byproduct, zinc dust is added for separation of cadmium as cadimum sponge. High amounts of zinc are quite often noticed in the cadmium electrolyte subjected for electrowinning of the metal. This leads to poor quality of cadmium deposit and lower current efficiencies. Study of cadmium sponge cementation process revealed that zinc dust may be added to an acidic cadmium solution for precipitation of cadmium sponge without neutralization of the free acidity present in the system. This fact is utilized for obtaining a high cadmium sponge with 75-80 per cent cadmium and 5-10 per cent zinc with 98 per cent recovery of cadmium from the solution as sponge. The suggested process is confirmed in a cadmium production plant producing 11.0 MT of cadmium per month. (author)

  9. Cadmium uptake in oyster isognomon alatus under laboratory condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayon Saed; Ahmad Ismail; Missri Kusnan; Hishamuddin Omar

    1999-01-01

    The uptake of cadmium in Flat tree oyster Isognomon alatus was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions for two weeks. Oysters were exposed to 100 μg 1'-1 cadmium and the accumulation of cadmium in the tissues was measured for every two days. Soft tissues of oyster were digested in concentrated acid and cadmium concentrations were determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The accumulation of cadmium in the soft tissues of oysters was increased during the first six days from 0.73 μg g- 1 to 10.77 μg g'-1, and remaining constant for four days at average level of 10.96 μg g'-1. The Cl concentrations was increased to 32.70 μg g'-1 until the end of experiment. There was no sign of cadmium accumulation approaching saturation for the period of exposure. (author)

  10. Assessment and management of risk to wildlife from cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium, a nonessential heavy metal that comes from natural and anthropogenic sources, is a teratogen, carcinogen, and a possible mutagen. Assessment of potential risk from cadmium requires understanding environmental exposure, mainly from ingestion, although there is some local exposure through inhalation. Chronic exposure is more problematic than acute exposure for wildlife. There is evidence for bioaccumulation, particularly in freshwater organisms, but evidence for biomagnification up the food chain is inconsistent; in some bird studies, cadmium levels were higher in species that are higher on the food chain than those that are lower. Some freshwater and marine invertebrates are more adversely affected by cadmium exposure than are birds and mammals. There is very little experimental laboratory research on the effects of cadmium in amphibians, birds and reptiles, and almost no data from studies of wildlife in nature. Managing the risk from cadmium to wildlife involves assessment (including ecological risk assessment), biomonitoring, setting benchmarks of effects, regulations and enforcement, and source reduction

  11. Assessment and management of risk to wildlife from cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey, 08854-8082 (United States)], E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu

    2008-01-15

    Cadmium, a nonessential heavy metal that comes from natural and anthropogenic sources, is a teratogen, carcinogen, and a possible mutagen. Assessment of potential risk from cadmium requires understanding environmental exposure, mainly from ingestion, although there is some local exposure through inhalation. Chronic exposure is more problematic than acute exposure for wildlife. There is evidence for bioaccumulation, particularly in freshwater organisms, but evidence for biomagnification up the food chain is inconsistent; in some bird studies, cadmium levels were higher in species that are higher on the food chain than those that are lower. Some freshwater and marine invertebrates are more adversely affected by cadmium exposure than are birds and mammals. There is very little experimental laboratory research on the effects of cadmium in amphibians, birds and reptiles, and almost no data from studies of wildlife in nature. Managing the risk from cadmium to wildlife involves assessment (including ecological risk assessment), biomonitoring, setting benchmarks of effects, regulations and enforcement, and source reduction.

  12. Distribution and excretion of /sup 115m/cadmium and its transfer to egg and bone in laying female and estrogenized male Japanese quail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, M; Sakuta, M; Okamoto, K; Urakawa, N

    1974-01-01

    The distribution of /sup 115m/cadmium and its transfer to the egg were investigated in laying Japanese quail. Furthermore, the influence of estrogens on the tissue uptake of /sup 115m/cadmium was analyzed in adult male quail. Whole-body sections of a laying quail were prepared. Autoradiograms were made in birds killed 1, 24, 48, 96, 192 and 384 hours after a single injection of /sup 115m/cadmium chloride. During the first 48 hours following the injection, high concentrations of /sup 115m/cadmium were detected in the liver, kidneys, pancreas, proventriculus, uterus and small intestine. In eggs laid, /sup 115m/cadmium was detected only in the yolk. Its amount in the yolk was the highest in the second egg and decreased afterwards in the increasing order of oviposition sequence. The amount of the second egg was 0.21 percent of the given. In the male quail after estrogenization, the concentration of /sup 115m/cadmium increased in the femur and decreased in the liver, whole blood, and blood corpuscle, but was not affected at all in the kidney or blood plasma. These effects were dependent on the dose of estradiol benzoate. The cumulative contents of /sup 115m/cadmium in feces and urine for 192 hours were 28.42 +/- 0.73 (mean +/- standard error) percent of the dose given in laying quail, 25.83 +/- 0.91 percent in untreated males, and 27.81 +/- 0.63 percent in estrogenized males. It appeared that the increased uptake of cadmium in the femur by the estrogenization was roughly parallel with the formation of intramedullary bone. 22 references, 8 figures.

  13. Growth of cadmium oxide whiskers on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as growth activator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koparanova, N.; Simov, S. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. po Fizika na Tvyrdoto Tyalo); Genchev, D. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika); Metchenov, G. (Research Inst. of Criminalistics and Criminology, Sofia (Bulgaria))

    1985-02-01

    Some results on the growth and morphology of cadmium oxide whiskers, obtained on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as a growth activator, are presented in this work. Cadmium oxide whiskers have been obtained on brace 112-bar0 brace faces of cadmium sulphide plates with a copper layer deposited in advance. The whiskers grew during the annealing of the plates in a weak stream of technically pure argon at temperatures 670 to 730 deg C for 15 min to 3.5 h. Details about the procedure have been given elsewhere. The composition and morphology of the whiskers have been studied by an X-ray microanalyser JEOL 35 DDS and a scanning electron microscope JEOL, JSM 35. The optical microscopic observations have shown that after annealing, a gray-black granular layer is formed on the cadmium sulphide single crystals and this layer can easily be separated from the crystal substrate. Under the granular layer the crystal is heavily damaged. The whiskers grow on the granular layer and they are coloured yellow-brown or red-brown. The maximum whisker length attains several hundreds of micrometres and in some cases up to 1 mm or more.

  14. Growth of cadmium oxide whiskers on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as growth activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koparanova, N.; Simov, S.

    1985-01-01

    Some results on the growth and morphology of cadmium oxide whiskers, obtained on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as a growth activator, are presented in this work. Cadmium oxide whiskers have been obtained on brace 112-bar0 brace faces of cadmium sulphide plates with a copper layer deposited in advance. The whiskers grew during the annealing of the plates in a weak stream of technically pure argon at temperatures 670 to 730 deg C for 15 min to 3.5 h. Details about the procedure have been given elsewhere. The composition and morphology of the whiskers have been studied by an X-ray microanalyser JEOL 35 DDS and a scanning electron microscope JEOL, JSM 35. The optical microscopic observations have shown that after annealing, a gray-black granular layer is formed on the cadmium sulphide single crystals and this layer can easily be separated from the crystal substrate. Under the granular layer the crystal is heavily damaged. The whiskers grow on the granular layer and they are coloured yellow-brown or red-brown. The maximum whisker length attains several hundreds of micrometres and in some cases up to 1 mm or more. (author)

  15. Modeling cadmium in the feed chain and cattle organs

    OpenAIRE

    Fels-Klerx, van der, H.J.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Franz, E.; Raamsdonk, van, L.W.D.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate cadmium contamination levels in different scenarios related to soil characteristics and assumptions regarding cadmium accumulation in the animal tissues, using quantitative supply chain modeling. The model takes into account soil cadmium levels, soil pH, soil-to-plant transfer, animal consumption patterns, and transfer into animal organs (liver and kidneys). The model was applied to cattle up to the age of six years which were fed roughage (maize ...

  16. The Protective Roles of Zinc and Magnesium in Cadmium-Induced Renal Toxicity in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Babaknejad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium (Cd is a heavy metal that has widespread use. It enters the food chain in different ways, including soil and water. Cadmium can cause dysfunction of different body organs. Zinc (Zn and magnesium (Mg supplementation can have protective effects against cadmium toxicity due to their antagonistic and antioxidants properties. This study examines the influence of supplemental Zn and Mg on Cd renal toxicity. Methods: Young male Wistar rats were divided into six groups of five. The Cd group received 1 mg Cd/kg and the control group received 0.5 mg/kg normal saline (i.p.. The other four groups were administered 1 mg/kg Cd+0.5 mg/kg Zn, 1 mg/kg Cd+1.5 mg/kg Zn, 1 mg/kg Cd+ 0.5 mg/kg Mg, and 1 mg/kg Cd+ 1.5 mg/kg Mg (i.p. for 21 days. Then, serum sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine, and protein levels were measured. Results: The results indicated that creatinine and protein levels decreased while urea, sodium, and potassium levels increased as a result of Cd exposure. Co-administered Cd and Zn and Mg decreased urea and increased sodium serum level in comparison to the cadmium group. Treatment by Mg, contrary to co-administered Cd and Zn, reduced serum protein level compared to the cadmium group. Compared to the cadmium treated group, Zn and Mg treatment enhanced serum creatinine level and reduced serum potassium level. Conclusion: The findings seem to suggest that zinc and magnesium compounds, due to their antagonistic and antioxidant activities, can protect Cd renal toxic effects in a dose-dependent manner.

  17. Cadmium Adsorption on HDTMA Modified Montmorillionite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Elmuntasir I. Ahmed

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the possibility of cadmium removal from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto modified montmorillonite clay is investigated. Batch adsorption experiments performed revealed an enhanced removal of cadmium using HDTMA modified montmorillonite to 100% of its exchange capacity. Modified montmorillonite adsorption capacity increases at higher pHs suggesting adsorption occurs as a result of surface precipitation and HDTMA complex formation due to the fact that the original negatively charged montmorillonite is now covered by a cationic layer of HDTMA. Adsorption isotherms generated followed a Langmuir isotherm equation possibly indicating a monolayer coverage. Adsorption capacities of up to 49 mg/g and removals greater than 90% were achieved. Anionic selectivity of the HDTMA modified monmorillonite is particularly advantageous in water treatment applications where high concentrations of less adsorbable species are present, and the lack of organoclay affinity for these species may allow the available capacity to be utilized selectively by the targeted species.

  18. Phytoremediation of cadmium contaminated soils by tuberose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramana, S.; Biswas, A.K.; Singh, A.B.; Ajay; Ahirwar, N.K.; Behera, S.K.; Subba Rao, A.; Naveen Kumar, P.

    2012-01-01

    The potential of three varieties of tuberose (Prajwal, Shringar and Mexican single) for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium was evaluated by subjecting the plants to five levels of Cd (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg kg -1 soil). Applied Cd did not produce any toxic symptoms in all the three varieties of tuberose except marginal reduction in the photosynthesis rate and total dry weight beyond 50 mg Cd kg -1 soil. The study showed that tuberose possessed the typical ability of Cd hyper accumulator characterized by (1) accumulation of Cd in the shoots of the plant exceeding the critical judging standard i.e., 100 μg g -1 DW and (2) ratio of Cd in the shoots to bulbs >1. It was concluded that tuberose may be an effective accumulator plant for phytoremediation of cadmium polluted soils. (author)

  19. Determination of low cadmium concentrations in wine by on-line preconcentration in a knotted reactor coupled to an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer with ultrasonic nebulization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, R.F. [Inst. de Investigaciones Mineras, Universidad Nacional de San Juan (Argentina); Wuilloud, R.G.; Salonia, J.A. [Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, National University of San Luis (Argentina); Olsina, R.A.; Martinez, L.D. [Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, National University of San Luis (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina)

    2001-12-01

    An on-line cadmium preconcentration and determination system implemented with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) associated to flow injection (FI) with ultrasonic nebulization system (USN) was studied. The cadmium was retained as the cadmium-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol, Cd-(5-Br-PADAP), complex, at pH 9.5. The cadmium complex was removed from the knotted reactor (KR) with 3.0 mol/L nitric acid. A total enhancement factor of 216 was obtained with respect to ICP-OES using pneumatic nebulization (12 for USN and 18 for KR) with a preconcentration time of 60 s. The value of the detection limit for the preconcentration of 5 mL of sample solution was 5 ng/L. The precision for 10 replicate determinations at the 5 {mu}g/L Cd level was 2.9% relative standard deviation (RSD), calculated from the peak heights obtained. The calibration graph using the preconcentration system for cadmium was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998 at levels near the detection limits up to at least 1000 {mu}g/L. The method was successfully applied to the determination of cadmium in wine samples. (orig.)

  20. Cadmium elemination from phosphoric acid by ionic flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brikci-Nigassa, Mounir; Hamouche, Hafida

    1995-11-01

    The ion flotation process for the recovery of cadmium from wet phosphoric acid (30%P2O5) has been studied. This technique combines a chemical recation between the collector and the cadmium to form a precipitate (sublate) which is carried to the surface of the solution by air bubbles. the resulting foam containing the cadmium may then separated from solution. The influence of parameters such as collector and cadmium concentration as well as iron content have been investigated for the case a synthetic acid (30% P2O5). The result have been applied to the industrial phosphoric acid produced from Djebel Onk's phosphates (Algeria)

  1. Cadmium accumulation by the marine red alga Porphyra umbilicalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, M.W.; Williamson, F.B.

    1977-01-01

    The characteristics of cadmium accumulation by the marine red alga Porphyra umbilicalis L. in culture are reported. The time course of uptake under various light conditions shows that cadmium is concentrated as the result of an on-going anabolic process and not as a consequence of a pH gradient as provided by photosynthesis. The effect of cycloheximide is in agreement with de novo protein synthesis being a prerequisite for cadmium accumulation. Autoradiography suggests a specific intracellular location for bound cadmium--apparently the nucleus.

  2. Cadmium incorporation by the marine copepod Pseudodiaptomus coronatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sick, L.V.; Baptist, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    Pseudodiaptomus coronatus, after exposure to phytoplankton and cadmium in concentrations like those in temperate, coastal environments, incorporated 109 Cd at higher rates from ambient water than from phytoplankton food. When ambient stable cadmium concentrations were increased from 0.03 to 1.00 μg.liter -1 , cadmium concentration by phytoplankton cells increased and the rate of cell ingestion by P. coronatus decreased. This inverse relation between the accumulation of cadmium in phytoplankton cells and the animal's ingestion rate resulted in relatively small net increases in the cadmium accumulated from phytoplankton by copepods. Rates of stable cadmium ingestion for P. coronatus ranged from 0.18 to 0.38 ng.mg animal dry wt -1 .h -1 , depending on the initial algal cell density and the ambient cadmium concentration. For cadmium concentrations of 0.03 to 1.00 μg.liter -1 , percentage assimilation efficiencies ranged from 13.20 to 68.40. Both rates of cadmium ingestion and assimilation efficiencies were higher than published values for carnivorous zooplankton

  3. Stabilization of cadmium electrode properties when introducing surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseeva, M.E.; Mansurov, F.Kh.; Nikol'skij, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    The results of tests of both separate cadmium electrodes and silver-cadmium accumulators, depending on introduction of surfactants (polyethylene oxide - PO - and its derivatives), have been considered. The influence of PO on the course of electrochemical reaction on cadmium is pronounced in facilitation of anodic process. In case of PO introduction in the amount of 1 % instead of sodium lignosulfonate (2 %) into accumulators with silver-cadmium electrodes, the electrode potential is stabilized, while the accumulator capacity increases. The time period of the accumulation maintenance in the charged state increases 2-3 fold (1-1,5 years). 5 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  4. Modification of cadmium pigments for colouring of polyolefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinskaya, T.V.; Livshits, I.M.

    1976-01-01

    Modification conditions are studied of cadmium pigments, obtained by different methods, aliphatic acids(C 5 , C 8 and C 17 ). It is found, that cadmium pigments can adsorb acids with the number of atoms of carbon not less than 8. Stearic acid adsorption on lemon cadmium pigment taken as an example has shown the efficiency of pigment modification influence on its dispersancy in non-polar medium. Modification of yellow cadmium pigments of stearic acid makes possible to obtain pigment output forms ensuring a good particle distribution during polyolefine colouring

  5. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION STUDY FOR CADMIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    OpenAIRE

    P. Bala Ramudu; R. P. Tiwari; R. K. Srivastava

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental research undertaken to evaluate different purging solutions to enhance the removal of cadmium from spiked contaminated field soil by electrokinetic remediation. Three experiments were conducted when soil was saturated with deionised water and subsequently deionised water, ammonium citrate and sodium citrate were used as purging solutions at anode end. One experiment was conducted when the soil was saturated with ammonium citrate and itself wa...

  6. Genetic variability and cadmium metabolism and toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Rentschler, Gerda

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is ubiquitous in the environment. Human exposure in non-smokers occurs mainly via intake of healthy food like vegetables, cereals, and shellfish. Adverse health effects on kidney and bone at low-level environmental Cd exposure are well-documented in adults. There is considerable inter-individual variation in both metabolism (toxicokinetics) and toxicity (toxicodynamics) of Cd. This may be due to genetic factors. The aim of this thesis was to identify genetic fact...

  7. Mercury Cadmium Selenide for Infrared Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    were grown using elemental mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and selenium (Se) sources. The beam equiva- lent pressure ( BEP ) emanating from all sources was...flux), the BEP measured for the cracker source was found to vary with the cracking zone temperature, tracking with the data found in Ref. 7. This sug...The Se BEP measured for the typical cracking zone temperature of 800 C was found to be close to a factor of two lower than at the typical effusion cell

  8. Silver-indium-cadmium control rod behavior and aerosol formation in severe reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petti, D.A.

    1987-04-01

    Silver-indium-cadmium (Ag-In-Cd) control rod behavior and aerosol formation in severe reactor accidents are examined in an attempt to improve the methodology used to estimate reactor accident source terms. Control rod behavior in both in-pile and out-of-pile experiments is reviewed. A mechanistic model named VAPOR is developed that calculates the downward relocation and simultaneous vaporization behavior of the Ag-In-Cd alloy expected after control rod failure in a severe reactor accident. VAPOR is used to predict the release of silver, indium, and cadmium vapors expected in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) Severe Fuel Damage (SFD) 1-4 experiment. In addition, a sensitivity study is performed. Although cadmium is found to be the most volatile constituent of the alloy, all of the calculations predict that the rapid relocation of the alloy down to cooler portions of the core results in a small release for all three control rod alloy vapors. Potential aerosol formation mechanisms in a severe reactor accident are reviewed. Specifically, models for homogeneous, ion-induced, and heterogeneous nucleation are investigated. These models are applied to silver, cadmium, and CsI to examine the nucleation behavior of these three potential aerosol sources in a severe reactor accident and to illustrate the competition among these mechanisms for vapor depletion. The results indicate that aerosol formation in a severe reactor accident occurs in three stages. In the first stage, ion-induced nucleation causes aerosol generation. During the second stage, ion-induced and heterogeneous nucleation operates as competing pathways for gas-to-particle conversion until sufficient aerosol surface area is generated. In the third stage, ion-induced nucleation ceases; and heterogeneous nucleation becomes the dominant mechanism of gas-to-particle conversion until equilibrium is reached

  9. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury and selenium in common eider ducks in the eastern Canadian arctic: Influence of reproductive stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayland, Mark; Gilchrist, H. Grant; Neugebauer, Ewa